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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Blending voluntary and governmental organizations for community development planning Lau, Amy Yee-Mei 1978

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BL ENDING VOLUNTARY AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING by AMY YEE-MEI\JLAU B.S.Sc., Chinese U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOE THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n the School o f Community and Regional Planning i e accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF J u l y , BRITISH COLUMBIA 1978 © Amy Yee-mei Lau, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date July 19, 1978 i i ABSTBAC.T The t e r m * community d e v e l o p m e n t 1 u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a p p l i e s t o an urba n n e i g h b o r h o o d . I n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i d e o l o g y o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o community p l a n n i n g would make community p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l . , Community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i m p l i e s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f human p o t e n t i a l ; t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e s t r e n g t h s o f d i f f e r e n t community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s w e l l as t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d human r e s o u r c e s f o r a b a l a n c e d s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , The NIP/LAP { n e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Program / L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g ) program of t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i s c h o s e n a s an example t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c o n c e p t . The p u r p o s e o f NIP/LAP, as v i e w e d f r o m a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , would be t o h e l p l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i d e n t i f y t h e i r n e e d s , m o b i l i z e them f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e v e l o p l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p f o r f u t u r e l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i n n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n i n g . When NIP f u n d i n g i s e x h a u s t e d , community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s c a n l e a v e b e h i n d a team o f o r g a n i z e d and m o b i l i z e d l o c a l l e a d e r s c a p a b l e o f making f u t u r e i n i t i a t i o n s f o r community b e t t e r m e n t . The f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s i s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a 1 p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . V o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c an complement e a c h o t h e r t o b r i n g a b o u t t h i s k i n d of d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i n l o c a l a r e a s . T h i s t h e s i s l o o k s i n t o why and how t h e y o u g h t t o be b l e n d e d . The R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and t h e K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . Two r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a r e c o n d u c t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n i q u e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f e a c h t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r o l e o f l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k . The s e c o n d r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a d o p t e d i n a c h i e v i n g l o c a l l y - i n i t i a t e d g o a l s and p l a n s . Two b l e n d i n g m o d e l s , s t a t i c and d y n a m i c , a r e recommended a t t h e end o f t h e t h e s i s f o r g u i d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i n u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAST ONE. BACKGROUND . . . . . 2 CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 S t a t e m e n t Of P u r p o s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 5 S t a t e m e n t Of M e t h o d o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n Of The T h e s i s 7 CHAPTER I I . INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPM ENT ........ . ...........,'v...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . / 9 The R o o t s Of Community Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The E d u c a t i o n Root .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The S o c i a l flork Root ................................14 The D e f i n i t i o n s And G o a l s Of Community Development ...... 16 Community Development And Community P l a n n i n g ........... 23 C o n c l u s i o n : Towards "Community D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g " . 2 9 V CH&PTEB I I I . VOLUNTARY AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING . . 31 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The T h e o r y Of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 A n a l y s i s Of I n t e r p e r s o n a l C ommunication Networks ..,.,39 A. F o r m a l Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 B. I n f o r m a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n ...........................,42 The D i f f e r e n t N a t u r e Of V o l u n t a r y And G o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 CHAPTER IV. LAP/NIP AND NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE; TSO EXAMPLES OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING ORGANIZATIONS 63 The LAP/NIP: A G o v e r n m e n t a l Agency F o r Community D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . » « • , * , . . . . . . . . . • 66 The L e g i s l a t i v e E v o l u t i o n O f NIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 LAP/NIP I n V a n c o u v e r 69 R i l e y P a r k NIP C i t i z e n Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 The N e i g h b o r h o o d House: A V o l u n t a r y Agency F o r Community D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ......74 The D i f f u s i o n Of S e t t l e m e n t Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 N e i g h b o r h o o d Houses I n V a n c o u v e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 C o n c l u s i o n : R e a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s Vs I d e a l - t y p e O r g a n i z a t i o n s ,.. 82 v i PABT TWO. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 CHAPTER V. HYPOTHESES: THE ROLE OF LOCAL MOBILIZATION 86 H y p o t h e s e s .............................................88 O p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n 95 CHAPTER V I . METHODOLOGY: THE SOLE OF LOCAL MOBILIZATION ... 98 S a m p l i n g Methods 99 Data C o l l e c t i o n 101 Methods Of S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s And I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 107 C o n c l u s i o n Of The " R o l e Of L o c a l M o b i l i z a t i o n " R e s e a r c h 124 CHAPTER V I I . HYPOTHESES: THE HOLE OF CITIZ E N PA BTICIP ATX ON • • • • * * • * • • « • • « • • • * * * * • »-v • • • • • • • * • # * » 125 T h e o r i e s Of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 T a c t i c s Of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 H y p o t h e s e s ........... 135 v i i CHAPTER V I I I . METHODOLOGY: THE ROLE OF C I T I Z E N P A RTICIP AT 10 N . « . . . . . . • . . . . . * . . * • . . . . . . .. . . 136 R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s And I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .........138 C o n c l u s i o n Of The " T a c t i c s Of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " R e s e a r c h ........ 117 C o n c l u s i o n : D i f f e r e n t R o l e s Of Both A g e n c i e s J n Community D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g .......................148 PAST THREE. CONCLUSION , 150 CHAPTER IX. TWO BLENDING MODELS FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ..... • . 151 The P u r p o s e s Of B l e n d i n g G o v e r n m e n t a l And V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s .. •-. *.... .*-«-«............. .... ......... .... « 154 Recommendations On B l e n d i n g Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 C o n c l u s i o n . ................................. • ... ........ 163 A r e a s Of F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h ..............................164 - \ * • •••. • LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... .............. 165 v i i i APPENDICES ............. .... ............... ..... ....... .... 174 Appendix A ..................................•..... .....175 Appendix B ............................. .... * .......•.••176 Appendix C 178 A ppendix D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 9 Appendix E .................................. ....... .... 180 Appendix F ...... .....•.......................... ....•..182 Appendix G ........................ .......... ...........183 Appendix H ............................. ..... . .... •.... • 184 Appendix I ............................................. 185 Appendix J ...... .........................................186 Appendix K ......................... .... 187 Appendix L .188 Appendix H ........... .............. .... ..... ...,.......189 Appendix N ........................................ ..... 190 Appendix O ................................•..«.... * ....191 Appendix P 192 Appendix Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 3 Appendix S ................................... .......... 195 Appendix S ....................... .............•*....*...196 Appendix T .............................................197 Appendix 0 ......................... ............ ... * •• • • 1 " • Appendix V ............................................. 199 Appendix W ............................................. 200 i x LIST OF TAjBJ.ES TABLE 1. RATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS . , . . ........ .... ... ... .............. 28 TABLE 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENTAL AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS .......................................... 57 TABLE 3. SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE FRACTION .....101 TABLE 4. SELECTION OF MEASURES ....................... f....107 X L I S T OF I1GUE1S FIGURE 1. THE MEANS AND OBJECTIVES OF NIP & LAP ...........71 FIGURE 2. THE MEANS AND OBJECTIVES OF A NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 80 FIGURE 3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTIPLEXITY & MOBILIZATION . . ..... 89 FIGURE 4, DYNAMIC BLENDING MODEL (A) ......................160 FIGURE 5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF STATIC BLENDING MODEL (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... .... . 161 FIGURE 6. OPERATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF STATIC BLENDING MODEL <B) .... . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 x i A C K NOWLEDG E H E N T S I would l i k e to express my thanks to Dr. Henry Hightower, P r o f e s s o r of the S c h c o l of Community and Regional Planning, f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and advice i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s t h e s i s t o completion. My thanks are extended to Dr..George Gray of the Sociology Department f o r h i s guidance i n conducting the r e s e a r c h study. I wish to express my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n to my f r i e n d , Joy, who smoothed my w r i t i n g s k i l l s and gave me moral support i n the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r my planning c a r e e r throughout the past two years. F i n a l l y , I am indebted to my parents who supported me f i n a n c i a l l y i n making my p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s come t r u e . 1 BLENDING VOLUNTARY AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS 1 2 1 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING 2 PART ONE BACKGROUND J , . : , : , j P a r t one i s t h e t h e o r y and b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e J I e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h o f t h e t h e s i s . , I t a n a l y z e s J J d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r community \ | d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . The h i s t o r i c a l | | b a c k g r o u n d and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e two c a s e s , t h e J j R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and t h e K i t s i l a n o | | N e i g h b o r h o o d House, a r e i n t r o d u c e d f o r l a t e r J | e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . I I 3 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION \ This chapter explains the purpose of thi s thesis | | and the values embedded i n t h i s purpose. .The J j o v e r a l l methodology adopted i n accomplishing | | t h i s purpose i s also stated. J i .. ' - . . „ . - J 4 P l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s which c a n never be removed, f r o m t h e r e a l m o f v a l u e s . A l t h o u g h p l a n n e r s s u p p o r t t h e i r own arguments w i t h • s c i e n t i f i c 1 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d as a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e . The p l a n n e r ' s c h o i c e o f i s s u e s which r e q u i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and o b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h , and h i s s e l e c t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s o f measurement, a r e e x a m p l e s o f v a l u e l a d e n a c t i v i t i e s . The t o t a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s o f c h o i c e s . The s e l e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i s a g u i d e d a c t i o n t o w a r d s g o a l s t h a t a r e s e t a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g of t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e . A l l t h r e e c h o i c e s , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e s e t t i n g o f c r i t e r i a and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s , a r e p r o d u c t s o f v a l u e - j u d g e m e n t s . I n b r i e f , v a l u e - f r e e p l a n n e r s do n o t e x i s t i n r e a l i t y . I n o r d e r t o make d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e n o t hampered by t h e i r own v a l u e s , p l a n n e r s must be made aware o f t h e i r own w o r l d - v i e w s and p r e j u d i c e s , and c o n s t a n t l y s e e k f a c t s t o a d j u s t t h e i r v a l u e s y s t e m s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a v a l u e l a d e n e f f o r t . The s e l e c t i o n o f a t o p i c and t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r s u b s t a n t i a t i n g a t o p i c i n v o l v e v a l u e commitment. T h i s i s why t h e p u r p o s e u n d e r l y i n g t h i s e n t i r e e f f o r t s h o u l d be f i r s t made e x p l i c i t . 5 ST1TJJJNT OF PURPOSE T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o g e n e r a t e some u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s s o as t o g u i d e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g n o t j u s t i n c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s , b u t a l s o i n c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The main p u r p o s e i s t o examine how v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can complement g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n making community p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l . Some p r i n c i p l e s o f com p l e m e n t a r y mix between v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e recommended and two models a r e b u i l t on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . , To a c c o m p l i s h t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h e t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s on f o u r s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s : 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e u s e o f t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t i n community p l a n n i n g . 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s as an e n v i r o n m e n t f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . 7 3. I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s t r e n g t h s o f v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 4. Recommendation o f some models t o b l e n d v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . , The main p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a c t u a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e a u t h o r . , I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t a t e t h e s e p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , a s t h e y a r e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e t h e s i s . I t i s assumed t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s o c i a l and d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s , e n couragement o f community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , m o b i l i z a t i o n o f human r e s o u r c e s , and t h e i d e a of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n b r i n g i n g a s y s t e m t o c o m p l e t e n e s s s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d i n t h i s e r a . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e above v a l u e s w i l l f o r m t h e framework of t h e r e s t o f t h e c h a p t e r s . 6 STATEMENT OF METHODOLOGY The w h o l e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t h e s i s b e g i n s w i t h an a b s t r a c t and c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l o f i d e o l o g y . The p u r p o s e i s t o s e l e c t some r e l e v e n t i n d i c a t o r s f r o m ' t h e o r i e s * and ' i d e a l t y p o l o g i e s * t o f o r m h y p o t h e s e s f o r f a l s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s b r i n g s t h e whole t h e s i s d o w n - t o - e a r t h . E m p i r i c a l d a t a a r e t h e n c o l l e c t e d so as t o f a l s i f y t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . S i n c e t h e main p u r p o s e o f t h e t h e s i s i s t o examine how v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n be b l e n d e d w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s , t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t n e i t h e r a v o l u n t a r y , nor a g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . The t h e s i s f i n i s h e s o f f by c l i m b i n g up t h e l a d d e r back t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l . V e r i f i e d h y p o t h e s e s become w o r k a b l e p r i n c i p l e s f o r b u i l d i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g models. F i n a l l y , two b l e n d i n g models w h i c h e m p h a s i z e c o o r d i n a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t i t i o n a r e recommended f o r p r a c t i s i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . 7 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS The t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s . P a r t One i s t h e t h e o r y and b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y o f t h e t h e s i s . I t i n t r o d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t of community de v e l o p m e n t and a r g u e s t h e r e l e v a n c y o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g •community development* i n t o 'community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g * . I t has a c h a p t e r on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , i n w h i c h t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e two d i v e r g e n t e l e m e n t s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l and t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e examined. The h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f two e x a m p l e s , t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and t h e K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House, i s p r o v i d e d f o r a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f two d i f f e r e n t community d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . T hese two c a s e s a r e a l s o c h o s e n f o r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . P a r t Two i s composed o f two e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , t h e ' r o l e o f l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n * and t h e * t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n * w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e R i l e y Park NIP Committee and K i t s House. I t a t t e m p t s t o d e r i v e some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s a n d s t r e n g t h s o f t h e v o l u n t a r y and t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . P a r t T h r e e makes use o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s t o t a k e a s t e p f u r t h e r by recommending some models f o r b l e n d i n g v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s t o c o n v e r g e t h e two d i v e r g e n t e l e m e n t s . Two models a r e recommended f o r t h e young and t h e mature c o m m u n i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . As community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g h e l p s t o b r i n g a community t o i t s m a t u r i t y , t h e r e i s a n i m p l i e d s h i f t from t h e f i r s t t o t h e s e c o n d i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e b l e n d i n g m o d e l s . At t h e v e r y end o f t h i s t h e s i s , some areas of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are suggested. 9 CHAPTER I I INTRODOCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Th i s chapter d e f i n e s the concept and i l l u s t r a t e s the g o a l s of community development. The education and s o c i a l work r o o t s of community development are t r a c e d . Two types o f go a l s , t a s k and process goals, are i d e n t i f i e d . I t i s o f t e n the p r a c t i c e o f community development to s t r e s s the process goals f a r above the task g o a l s . And the dominant theme of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the o p e r a t i o n s of the process g o a l s . At the end of t h i s chapter, community development i s compared t o community p l a n n i n g . The purpose i s to argue t h a t community development should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s so as to guide r e p l i c a b l e growth i n urban l o c a l areas. , 10 The c o n c e p t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t new. I t d a t e s b a c k t o t h e e a r l y e f f o r t s o f men t o work t o g e t h e r f o r a common good. Many o t h e r t e r m s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s o c i a l work and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e s , h a v e been used f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t . These i n c l u d e s u c h t e r m s a s 'community o r g a n i z a t i o n ' , 'community work*, 'community i m p r o v e m e n t s ' , 'mass e d u c a t i o n ' , ' f u n d a m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n * , 'community s e l f - h e l p 1 and t h e l i k e ( W i l e d o n , 1970:78; M i l s o n , 1974:13). More r e c e n t g o v e r n m e n t a l e f f o r t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have added s u c h t e r m s as ' r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t * , • l o c a l a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t * and ' l o c a l a r e a r e d e v e l o p m e n t ' ( W i l e d o n , 1970:78). But no m a t t e r what t e r m s a r e used i n t h o s e l i t e r a t u r e s , t h e y a l l s h a r e some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t l y , e a c h i s i n harmony w i t h t h e d e m o c r a t i c p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t l o c a l p e o p l e , w o r k i n g i n t h e i r l o c a l community, have b o t h t h e p r i v i l e g e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s e t t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s and t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r a b l e t h a t l o c a l c i t i z e n s , e q u i p p e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t k nowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r l o c a l n e e d s , make a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . S e c o n d l y , e a c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m p r o v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e community. T h i s i m p l i e s n o t j u s t i m p r o v i n g p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , b u t c h a n g i n g p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s y s t e m s a s w e l l . Community d e v e l o p m e n t i s b a s e d on t h e 11 a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a n d gro u p v a l u e s c a n be c h a n g e d , and t h a t ' i t i s n o t u n t i l t h e c i t i z e n s a g r e e on a change t h a t t h e change c a n be r e g a r d e d as an i m p r o v e m e n t 1 ( L e c h e l e r , 1962)., E a c h c o n t e n d s t h a t p r o g r e s s c a n be a c h i e v e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h e d e v elopment o f l o c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and l o c a l s e l f - h e l p , w i t h a s b r o a d l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f mass e d u c a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p t o p a r t i c i p a t e and make d e c i s i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s s t r e s s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , e a c h o f t h e t e r m s e m p h a s i z e s a b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l l r e s o u r c e s , b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d human, i n t h e • t o t a l community*. P o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e p o o l e d t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i m p r o v i n g t h e community. The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h a r e d by t h e s e t e r m s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r e s o u r c e s f r o m o u t s i d e , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e , a r e t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l o c a l community. T h e s e o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s f r o m r e g i o n a l , m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . 12 THE BOOTS OF COMMUNITY P M E L O P J ENT Community d e v e l o p m e n t h a s a l o n g h i s t o r y and many f o r e r u n n e r s . But t h e r o o t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d most t o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f i t s p r o c e s s and p h i l o s o p h y a r e ' e d u c a t i o n * and * s o c i a l work*. The E d u c a t i o n Root The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o r e r u n n e r s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e f o r m e r U n i t e d Kingdom d e p e n d e n t t e r r i t o r i e s , where: t h e c o n c e p t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r a program t o compensate f o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l s y s t e m , and t o e n a b l e e d u c a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1956b:13). I n B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e , t h e te r m •community d e v e l o p m e n t * was d e f i n e d and a d o p t e d i n 1948 ( B r o k e n s h a , 1969:26) t o r e p l a c e t h e e a r l i e r t e r m 'mass e d u c a t i o n ' , which i s u s e d i n t h e r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Canada. I n t h e C o l o n i a l d a y s o f B r i t i a n , community d e v e l o p m e n t was u s e d t o e d u c a t e c o l o n i a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o a deeper a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f p r o b l e m s p r e v e n t i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t . , T h i s l e d t o t h e e f f e c t o f e x t e n d i n g e d u c a t i o n f a r beyond t h e s p h e r e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l s y s t e m and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t ' d e t e r m i n e d t h e e m p h a s i s which has been p l a c e d on community d e v e l o p m e n t a s e s s e n t i a l l y a s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ' ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1954:3). The aim o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i s , t h e n , t o d e v e l o p c a p a b l e , t r u s t w o r t h y , p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d l e a d e r s o f t h e p e o p l e who w i l l t u r n t o t h e i r own community and r a c e f o r l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - h e l p and 13 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A n o t h e r way o f v i e w i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t a s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s c a n be s e e n i n J . D. Mezirow* s "Community Development as an E d u c a t i o n a l P r o c e s s " . Mezirow t h o u g h t community d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d e q u i p p e o p l e w i t h t h e s k i l l s and knowledge r e g u i r e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g . To him, community d e v e l o p m e n t i s : . . . a p l a n n e d and o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c q u i r e a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s and c o n c e p t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n o f a s wide a s p o s s i b l e o f community p r o b l e m s i n an o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g i e v e l of competence (Mezirow, 1960:137-8). M e z i r o w ' s view was a d o p t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . E d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , became t h e r o o t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was d e v e l o p e d a s a f o r m o f e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e r u r a l a r e a s . I n l a t e r y e a r s , when community de v e l o p m e n t programs i n v a d e d u r b a n a r e a s , A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s d e v e l o p e d e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n programs g e a r e d t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . L i k e t h e i r r u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e s e u n i v e r s i t y c o n t i n u i n q e d u c a t i o n proqrams a t t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l o f l o c a l p e o p l e and t o p r o v i d e them w i t h s k i l l s f o r i m p r o v i n q u r b a n l i v i n g . 14 The S o c i a l Work Boot S o c i a l work i s a n o t h e r r o o t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . Community d e v e l o p m e n t has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs and i n s t i t u t i o n s and has been known a s »community o r g a n i z a t i o n * . A f t e r W orld War I I , t h e r e was an i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l work's p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . Two o u t s t a n d i n g p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d i n 1947 d i d much t o i n f l u e n c e t h i s t h i n k i n g . The f i r s t p a p e r , by W i l b e r I . N e w s t e t t e r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , p r e s e n t e d t h e 'The S o c i a l I n t e r g r o u p Work P r o c e s s * ( N e w s t e t t e r , 1948:205-217) a s t h e c o r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e i n community d e v e l o p m e n t . S e c o n d l y , K e n n e t h P r a y , o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, e m p h a s i z e d community d e v e l o p m e n t a s one a s p e c t o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l v a l u e s y s t e m ( P r a y , 1948:194-204)., B o t h p a p e r s d e f i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t a s a s o c i a l work p r o c e s s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Kramer and S p e c h t , 1969:16) a n d e x p r e s s e d , e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n worker as an ' e n a b l e r * o f g r o u p s s e e k i n g t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l w e l f a r e o b j e c t i v e s . L a t e r , i n 1956, V i o l e t H. S i e d e r a t t h e New Y o r k S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work r e v i e w e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and s u c c e s s i v e emphases o f t h e c o n c e p t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . She e m p h a s i z e d t h e p l a c e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n s o c i a l work a s a ' d i r e c t s e r v i c e * . She s a i d , Community o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes a d i r e c t s e r v i c e when t h e community, a s a dynamic l i v i n g o r g a n i s m , becomes t h e c l i e n t n e e d i n g h e l p w i t h s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and s e e k i n g s e r v i c e from t h e w o r k e r ( S i e d e r , 1956). 15 T h e s e f o r e r u n n e r s i n s o c i a l work d e t e r m i n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n - f i f t i e s . Community d e v e l o p m e n t a s a p a r t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e grew i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o u t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e v o l v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e f e l t n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e and t o p r o mote c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s o c i a l work r o o t c f community d e v e l o p m e n t e m p h a s i z e s i n d i v i d u a l and community b e h a v i o u r m o t i v a t e d by c h a n g e d a t t i t u d e s and t h e c a p a c i t y o f a community t o d e v e l o p i t s p o t e n t i a l . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o h e l p p e o p l e l e a r n how t o work t o g e t h e r , t o s o l v e community p r o b l e m s , t o a r r a n g e t h e i r n e e d s i n a s c a l e o f i m p o r t a n c e , t o o r g a n i z e and t a k e s t o c k o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s as a community and t o g e t t h i n g s done t o meet t h e i r n e e d s . A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f ad hoc c o m m i t t e e s and t h e d i f f u s i o n c f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r l o c a l d i s c u s s i o n and s o c i a l a c t i o n a r e f o r m u l a t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d g o a l s . 16 H I DEFINITION AND GOALS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT •community d e v e l o p m e n t * c a n be v i e w e d a s b o t h • e d u c a t i o n * and ' a c t i o n 1 . The p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r e p a r e l o c a l c i t i z e n s f o r i n t e l l i g e n t a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e r e i s no c o n s e n s u s on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t , s e v e r a l commonly r e c o g n i z e d and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , l i s t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y f o r c o m p a r i s o n and s y n t h e s i s , a r e s u g g e s t e d below. At t h e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n , some b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s a r e summarized t o p r o v i d e a more c o m p l e t e and c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t was g i v e n a t t h e U n i t e d Kingdom's C o l o n i a l C o n f e r e n c e a t C a m b r i d g e i n 1948 and was p r e s e n t e d by W i l f r e d H. C h u i n o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i n a p a p e r o u t l i n e d 'Community Development i n U n i t e d Kingdom O v e r s e a s T e r r i t o r i e s * , a s f o l l o w s : I t i s a movement d e s i g n e d t o promote b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r t h e whole community w i t h t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and, i f p o s s i b l e , on t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e community, b u t i f t h i s i n i t i a t i v e i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y , t h e n by t h e use o f t e c h n i q u e s f o r a r o u s i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g i t i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e a c t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e t o t h e movement...{Community d e v e l o p m e n t ) embraces a l l f o r m s o f b e t t e r m e n t . I t i n c l u d e s t h e whole r a n g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t whether t h e s e a r e u n d e r t a k e n by government o r u n o f f i c i a l b o d i e s . . . ( C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ) must make u s e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e movement and must be put i n t o e f f e c t i n t h e c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l o c a l government b o d i e s ( U n i t e d Kingdom C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1958:2). 17 The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g a v e community d e v e l o p m e n t a n o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n i n 1956: 'Community d e v e l o p m e n t ' i s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n i n which t h e p e o p l e o f a community o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s f o r p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n , d e f i n e t h e i r common and i n d i v i d u a l p l a n s t o meet t h e i r n e e d s and s o l v e t h e i r p r o b l e m s , e x e c u t e t h e s e p l a n s w i t h a maximum r e l i a n c e upon community r e s o u r c e s ; and s u p p l e m e n t t h e s e r e s o u r c e s when n e c e s s a r y w i t h s e r v i c e s and m a t e r i a l f r o m government and n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e t h e community (U.S.: The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; 1956:3}. I n t h e same y e a r , t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s s t a t e d an o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n w h i c h i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by many n a t i o n s . , The te r m •community d e v e l o p m e n t ' has come i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l u s a g e t o d e n o t e : , . . . t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s a r e u n i t e d w i t h t h o s e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o i m p r o v e t h e e c o n o m i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t i e s , t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o t h e l i f e o f t h e n a t i o n , and t o e n a b l e them t o c o n t r i b u t e f u l l y t o a n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s ; 1956a:20). T h i s complex o f p r o c e s s e s i s t h e n made up o f two e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s : F i r s t , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s i n e f f o r t s t o i m p r o v e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a s much r e l i a n c e a s p o s s i b l e on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . S e c o n d , g o v e r n m e n t a l s u p p o r t i n ways which e n c o u r a g e i n i t i a t i v e , v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p and s e l f - h e l p t o make t h e s e more e f f e c t i v e . I n r e l a t i o n t o p e o p l e , community d e v e l o p m e n t i s e s s e n t i a l l y b o t h an e d u c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n 18 p r o c e s s { U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1971). I t i s e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e i t h e l p s p e o p l e t o d e v e l o p v a l u e s and s k i l l s w h i c h a r e c o n d u c i v e t o s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c i m p r o v e m e n t s . And i t i s a l s o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e c a u s e i t r e g u i r e s t h e c r e a t i o n o r r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t o make s e l f - h e l p more e f f e c t i v e and t o p r o v i d e c h a n n e l s f o r g o v e r n m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e . Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1958, R i c h a r d B. P o s t o n , t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f Community Development o f t h e N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , d e f i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t a s : ...an o r g a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s w hich d e a l s c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e community i n i t s e n t i r e l y , and w i t h a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f community l i f e as i n t e g r a t e d p a r t s o f t h e whole. Thus t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o h e l p e v o l v e t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z e d s t u d y , p l a n n i n g a n d a c t i o n . a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e maximum g r o w t h , d e v e l o p m e n t and h a p p i n e s s of human b e i n g s a s i n d i v i d u a l s and as p r o d u c t i v e members o f t h e i r s o c i e t y ( P o s t o n , 1958:20). I n t h e same y e a r t h a t P o s t o n s t a t e d h i s view o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , a n o t h e r s c h o l a r p e r c e i v e d community d e v e l o p m e n t a s a s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o c e s s . C u r t i s H. H i a l , who d e f i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t as a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l p r o c e s s whereby c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t , n o t e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s p u t s t h e e m p h a s i s on 'manner o f p r o c e e d i n g s ' . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f o l l o w an o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m e x p l o r a t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n t h r o u g h s t u d y and d i s c u s s i o n t o a c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . I t p u t s the e m p h a s i s , t o o , on t h e l o c a l g r o u p , on l o c a l i n t i a t i v e , on l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t p u t s t h e 19 e m p h a s i s on f u l l r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a c t i o n by a l l t h e p e o p l e ~ a f f e c t e d ( M i a l , 1958:277-282). In t h e e a r l y 1960's, F r a n k H, S e h n e r t , a f t e r a n a l y z i n g many d e f i n i t i o n s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , d e c i d e d t o view i t : .. . a s a p r o c e s s f o r c h a n g i n g c o m m u n i t i e s t o w a r d s d i r e c t e d g o a l s . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s a r e s t u d y , t r a i n i n g , e d u c a t i o n , p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g and a c t i o n t h a t b r i n g s a b o u t t h e c o g n i t i v e p u r p o s e f u l change t o w a r d s t h e community g o a l s ( S e h n e r t , 1961:21). I n 1962, L a k s h m i r Bharadwaj made a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e c o n c e p t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t from t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w . He s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l a c t i o n and s u g g e s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g ' w o r k a b l e d e f i n i t i o n ' of.community d e v e l o p m e n t : P r o c e s s of s o c i a l a c t i o n by w h i c h v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s o f t h e p e o p l e a r e combined w i t h t h o s e o f government t o w a r d s an o v e r a l l improvement - i n c o n d i t i o n s o f community l i v i n g w i t h i n a n a c c e p t e d n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s ( B h a radwaj, 1962:80). F i n a l l y , a f o r m e r P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f Canada e x p l a i n e d what community d e v e l o p m e n t was i n Canada i n 1966: ...As a p h i l o s o p h y and a method, community d e v e l o p m e n t o f f e r s a way o f i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e more f u l l y i n t h e l i f e o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . I t g e n e r a t e s s c o p e and i n i t i a t i v e s and c u l t u r a l l i f e o f a n a t i o n . I t p r o v i d e s , above a l l , a b a s i s f o r a more p r o f o u n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g and more e f f e c t i v e use of d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . T h e s e a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s of Ca n a d a ' s s o c i a l p o l i c y ( P e a r s o n , 1966:52). P e a r s o n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d community d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e most r e c e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . However, t h e 1956 U n i t e d N a t i o n s ' d e f i n i t i o n was and i s s t i l l w i d e l y used i n most o f t h e 20 d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t p r o v i d e s an example f o r many n a t i o n s t o f o l l o w . S i x b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f * community development* c a n be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : 1. I t i s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e p e o p l e and t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . 2. I t i s a p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h e g u i p s l o c a l p e o p l e w i t h t h e s k i l l s and v a l u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 3. The b a s i c g o a l s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t used i n u r b a n a r e a s a r e t o i m p r o v e t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of c o m m u n i t i e s , and t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l g o a l s i n a w i d e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t . 4. S e l f - h e l p which e m p h a s i z e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a t i c manner i s t h e b a s i s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e g o a l s . 5. T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s made a v a i l a b l e f r o m p u b l i c and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . , 6. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d o r o r i e n t e d t o b r i n g a b o u t l o c a l s e l f - h e l p i n an o r g a n i z e d manner. T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f community d e v e l o p m e n t programs which may n o t p o s s e s s a l l t h e above i n g r e d i e n t s , and t h u s a r e s p e c i a l t y p e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f programs do i n c l u d e a l l t h e s e p u r p o s e a c t i v i t e s f o r c h a n g i n g and b e t t e r i n g t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . However, what t h e s e programs have i n common i s t h a t t h e y d e v e l o p p e o p l e w h i l e t h e y d e v e l o p c o m m u n i t i e s ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1955; R o s s , 1955). The a t t i t u d i n a l change o f p e o p l e t o w a r d s new i d e a s i s r e g a r d e d a s f a r more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e a d o p t i o n o f a s i n g l e i d e a f o r improving: t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n o t h e r words, what makes community d e v e l o p m e n t u n i g u e i s i t s s e l f rijel£ £ £ 2 £ ® s s f o r a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r community. I t e m p h a s i z e s t h e means employed r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o l u t i o n i t s e l f . 21 T h i s s e l f - h e l p p r o c e s s p r o v i d e s t h e l o c a l p e o p l e w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e needed t o d e a l c o m p e t e n t l y w i t h f u t u r e community p r o b l e m s . , Summing up t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , two g o a l s a r e made e x p l i c i t . The g o a l s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as t a s k gjaals and £ £ o c e s s g o a l s . " T ask g o a l s ' i n v o l v e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s p e c i f i c outcomes s o u g h t by t h e 'community a c t i o n s y s t e m ' ( N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , 1962) composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n p l a n n e d c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n (Kramer and S p e c h t , 1969). • P r o c e s s ' o r • i n t e r a c t i o n a l ' g o a l s , on t h e o t h e r hand, d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e p e o p l e who c o n s t i t u t e t h e ' a c t i o n s y s t e m * . These g o a l s r e f e r to t h e enhancement and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e competence o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . . P r o c e s s g o a l s c a n be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two l e v e l s of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e whole a c t i o n s y s t e m . The p r i m a r y l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and l o c a l g r o u p s . The s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h i s l e v e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n e n a b l e s i n d i v i d u a l s t o t a k e a c t i o n on s o c i a l i s s u e s w h i c h a f f e c t them. S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s under t h i s l e v e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n a r e : ( 1 ) t o s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l bonds between r e s i d e n t s , ( 2 ) t o e n a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s t o assume l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s , and ( 3 ) t o i n c r e a s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s y s t e m s . A h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n t e r a c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e community w i t h e x t r a - c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i a l s y s t e m s . T h i s l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n aims a t b r i n g i n g a b o u t c h a n g e s i n t h e 22 p o l i c i e s and t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e c i t y b u r e a u c r a t s . S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : ( 1 ) t o d e v e l o p i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and p l a n n i n g s y s t e m s , ( 2 ) t o e n c o u r a g e t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , a n d ( 3 ) t o d e v e l o p mechanisms f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y - f o r m u l a t i o n . As s u g g e s t e d b e f o r e , i t i s o f t e n t h e p r a c t i c e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t t o s t r e s s t h e p r o c e s s g o a l s f a r above t h e t a s k g o a l s . I n o r d e r t o h e l p l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o become more aware o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and means o f s e l f - h e l p , t h e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g and d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s becomes t h e most e s s e n t i a l g o a l i n community d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d ominant theme o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b l e ways o f imjarovincj i n t e r a c t i o n , b o t h amonei l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a n d between °£23Sizationsj, o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s . T h rough t h e s e two l e v e l s o f i n t e r a c t i o n embodied i n t h e p r o c e s s g o a l s , community d e v e l o p m e n t p r a c t i s e s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g by which t r u s t w o r t h y l o c a l l e a d e r s a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r i n i t i a t i v e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 23 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY PLANNING Though community d e v e l o p m e n t i s u s e d i n b o t h r u r a l and u r b a n c o n t e x t s , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s upon community d e v e l o p m e n t i n urban l o c a l a r e a s . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t community de v e l o p m e n t c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o community p l a n n i n g so t h a t p l a n n e r s c a n p l a n p r o g r e s s i v e c h a n g e s i n u r b a n l o c a l c o n t e x t s . T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s an i d e a how t h e y a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and c a n be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o * community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g * . , The C i t y P l a n n i n g Movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s began w i t h t h e C o l u m b i a n E x p o s i t i o n i n C h i c a g o (Kahn, 1969b:23). At t h a t t i m e , t h e ' C i t y B e a u t i f u l * was meant a s a b e t t e r p l a c e t o l i v e and grow. Not u n t i l t h e d a y s o f t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e was an emergence o f s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on C i t y P l a n n i n g . The theme t h a t 'a c i t y i s t h e p e o p l e * , and n o t j u s t t e r r i t o r y , has s t e a d i l y g a i n e d g r o u n d . A new f i e l d , ' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ' , w h i c h l e d t o a c hange i n t h e methods and t o o l s o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g g r a d u a l l y emerged. P o l i c y a n a l y s i s , programming and b u d g e t i n g , and a d v o c a c y o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p s become t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h i s 'new' u r b a n p l a n n i n g (Kaufmann, 1974:115-6; Webber, 1968) . However, ' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ' i s an e l u s i v e t e r m (Qadeer, 1977:86). A s u b s t a n t i a l body o f l i t e r a t u r e has emerged t h r o u g h m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s t o d e f i n e and e x p l a i n t h e s c o p e and f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ( Q a d e e r , 1977; Kahn, 1969b). Two s t r e a m s o f t h o u g h t s c a n be s ummarized. One l i n e of r e a s o n i n g r e g a r d s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as a g e n e r i c a p p r o a c h w h i c h i s s e n s i t i v e t o human needs and which c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h any f u n c t i o n a l c o n c e r n , be i t e c o n o m i c , p h y s i c a l o r s o c i o l o g i c a l . The e m p h a s i s 24 i s on t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h , and n o t t h e c o n t e n t . To r e s t a t e t h i s i n Kramer and S p e c h t ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e p r o c e s s g o a l s a r e more e m p h a s i z e d t h a n t h e t a s k g o a l s . A n o t h e r s t r e a m o f t h o u g h t f o c u s e s on t h e c o n t e n t and t a s k g o a l s . , To t h e s e t h e o r i s t s , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s a f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l t y w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e programming and d e l i v e r y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . , Kahn•s d e f i n i t i o n (1969b:15) o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g l e a n s t o w a r d s t h e f i r s t t h o u g h t ; Dyckman (1970:27) i n c l u d e s b o t h l e v e l s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ; and B r o o k s (1970:4) i n c l i n e s t o t h e l a t t e r i d e o l o g y o f s e r v i c i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i n a s o c i e t y . Qadeer c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e q u i r e t h e p r e s e n c e o f f o u r e l e m e n t s . They a r e : ( 1 ) f o c u s on t h e *human» d i m e n s i o n which i s *non-market» t o Kahn (1969b:3-4) and 'non-p h y s i c a l * t o Cans ( 1 9 6 8 ) , ( 2 ) c l i e n t c e n t e r e d n e s s and p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , ( 3 ) c o n c e r n w i t h ' e q u i t y * and ' j u s t i c e * i n g e n e r a l and f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i n p a r t i c u l a r , and ( 4 ) e m p h a s i s on a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n a p p r o a c h and p o l i c y a n a l y s i s s u c h a s Program P l a n n i n g and B u d g e t i n g System d e c i s i o n t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s . Community developmemt, as d e f i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o t h e s e f o u r e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Community d e v e l o p m e n t a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e o v e r a l l community l i v i n g by e m p h a s i z i n g a b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l l r e s o u r c e s p h y s i c a l and human. P h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e community a r e v i e w e d a s an i n t e g r a t e d whole. F u r t h e r m o r e , a community o r g a n i z e r may a l s o o r g a n i z e l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o h e l p them a c h i e v e c o n t r o l o v e r a g i v e n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o r i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (Popenoe, 1967:259-65). 25 Community d e v e l o p m e n t l o o k s i n t o t h e 'human' d i m e n s i o n o f t h e community. The p r i m a r y f o c u s i s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f human n e e d s and a s p i r a t i o n s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p s , m o b i l i z e s and e q u i p s p e o p l e f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s a c t u a l l y r o o t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . I t s s p e c i a l commitment l i e s i n p r o m o t i n g a p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g and e x p r e s s i n g a community's n e e d s and norms (Qadeer, 1 977:88). I t a l s o h e l p s c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . T h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e v a l u e s o f democracy and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a r e enha n c e d . Mannheim s t a t e d t h a t e x t e n s i v e l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y c h o i c e , programming and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i s t h e 0 i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e f o r c o m b i n i n g p l a n n i n g and t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f democracy (Mannheim, 1951:29). And a c c o r d i n g t o Kahn, d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n becomes an a s s e t i f i t i s u t i l i z e d t o make t h e 'consumer' a l s o a p o l i c y p a r t i c i p a n t , an i n i t i a t o r , an e v a l u a t o r and a c o o p e r a t o r i n programs whether t h e consumer i s o p e r a t i n g on h i s own, i n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , o r i n o f f i c i a l b o d i e s (Kahn, 1969b:54). A c c o r d i n g t o Qadeer (1977:88), "a m o b i l i z e d and o r g a n i z e d community i s an o u t p u t of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " . T h i s o u t p u t c a n be b r o u g h t about by t h e p r a c t i c e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . As f a r as t h e c o n c e r n f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i s c o n s i d e r e d , community d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r a c t i s e d i n many slu m s and g h e t t o s o f t h e A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . One c a n a r g u e t h a t community o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y rundown n e i g h b o r h o o d s . However, t h e y u s u a l l y d e l i v e r a n d p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i n p a r t i c u l a r . F o r example 26 t h e s e t t l e m e n t movement, wh i c h r e l o c a t e d p h i l a n t h r o p i c u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d s o f B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e needs and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e n e g l e c t e d g r o u p s o f t h e s o c i e t y . F i n a l l y , community d e v e l o p m e n t i s i t s e l f a r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s r a t i o n a l ' s y s t e m a p p r o a c h ' o f d e c i s i o n -making t r e a t s p l a n n i n g as a dynamic o r c y c l i c p r o c e s s (de N e u f v i l l e , 1971)., I t b e g i n s by , s c a n n i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r m u l a t i n g g o a l s , d e t e r m i n i n g p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n s , e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and p u t t i n g t h e s e i n t o a c t i o n . A f e e d b a c k mechanism e v a l u a t e s new e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and r e t u r n s t o t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f s c a n n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s c y c l e p r o c e s s was a n a l y z e d by M c L o u g h l i n (1969) i n t o s i x s t e p s o f s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s . They a r e : (1) p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (2) g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n (3) p l a n s f o r m u l a t i o n (4) p l a n s e l e c t i o n (5) p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (6) e v a l u a t i o n and r e o r i e n t a t i o n The r e a s o n t h a t community d e v e l o p m e n t ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h has b een c l a r i f i e d by T a y l o r and S e h n e r t . C C . T a y l o r (1956:34-42) s u g g e s t e d f o u r b a s i c s t e p s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t and F.H. S e h n e r t (1961) expanded them i n t o f o u r t e e n e l e m e n t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t which a l l c a n be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s s t a t e d by M c L o u g h l i n . A c c o r d i n g t o T a y l o r , t h e f i r s t s t e p c f community d e v e l o p m e n t i n v o l v e s t h e s y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n o f commonly f e l t needs by members o f a community., T h e s e f e l t n e eds c a n be i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r a g e n t s o r s p o n t a n e o u s l y r e a l i z e d . The s e c o n d s t e p i s t o c a r r y o u t t h e i n i t i a l s e l f - h e l p 27 p r o j e c t s e l e c t e d by t h e community. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s .stage i s t o m o b i l i z e l o c a l r e s o u r c e s and t o promote l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . , T h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e , t h e l o c a l g r o u p s a r e a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , s e l f - h e l p and l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e . The t h i r d s t e p i n t h e s e g u e n c e i s t o e n c o u r a g e the c o m p l e t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f l o c a l community g r o u p s . The f i n a l s t e p r e s u l t s from t h e s e l f - m o t i v a t e d and s e l f - h e l p e x p e r i e n c e . The community and i t s g r o u p s d e v e l o p s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and competence, l e a d i n g them t o seek and i n i t i a t e new i s s u e s t o t a c k l e . T h r o u g h t h e whole p r o c e s s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e community has l e a r n t how t o i n i t i a t e and c o n t r o l p l a n n e d c h a n g e s . Community d e v e l o p m e n t becomes an e d u c a t i o n - f o r - a c t i o n p r o c e s s . I t h e l p s p e o p l e t o d e f i n e a p r o b l e m , i n i t i a t e a p l a n and s e l e c t and f o l l o w a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n l e a d i n g t o g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . A f t e r a n a l y z i n g t w e n t y - s i x d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , F r a n k H. S e h n e r t (1961) s y n t h e s i z e d t h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o a p r o c e d u r a l framework and d i v i d e d i n t o seven p e r i o d s o f t i m e . H i t h i n t h e s e v e n p e r i o d s , f o u r t e e n s t e p s a r e d e f i n e d . The s e v e n p e r i o d s a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o u r t e e n e l e m e n t s ( s t e p s ) c a n be compared t o M c L o u g h l i n » s model o f s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i s summarized on t h e n e x t page. 28 i — r -| PLANNING PROCESSJ i i COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS •i. i I r | Sy s t e m s A p p r o a c h j Time P e r i o d s i E l e m e n t s •i i 1. I d e n t i f y ] 1 P r o b l e m | 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n I 1. 1 2. 1 3. I n i t i a t e i d e a s I n v o l v e o t h e r s L e g i t i m a t e I d e a s ] j 2. P r e l i m i n a r y 1 4. I 5. F o r m u l a t e g r o u p s t o i n i t i a t e CD p r o c e s s P r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f s i t u a t i o n A I 2. F o r m u l a t e | i G o a l J 3. P l a n n i n g 1 6. E s t a b l i s h g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s i i j j 4. O r g a n i z a t i o n 1 7. Form o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i 1 j 5. T r a i n i n g 1 8. T r a i n l e a d e r s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s J 3. F o r m u l a t e | i P l a n | 1 4. S e l e c t P l a n | I 5, Implement | ] P l a n i t _ _._,, „„ ,..,„_.,._ _... i . 6. O p e r a t i o n a l | 9 . „ A d m i n i s t e r r e s e a r c h , | o p e r a t e p r o j e c t | c o m m i t t e e | 1 0 . C o n c l u d e r e s e a r c h S J p u b l i c i z e r e s u l t s r 1 | 6. E v a l u a t e | i _ _ ... .„_ - i 7. , C o n t i n u a t i o n \ 1 1 . E v a l u a t e CD p r o g r e s s | 1 2 .Expand p r o c e s s i n J community I 1 3 . C o n s u l t f i n a l l y w i t h J p r o f e s s i o n a l I a d v i s o r s J 1 4 . F o l l o w up _ j , _ _„ ., ._ , _ i TABLE 1 M l l O J l i f PLANNING P R O C E S J i THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLANNING PROCESS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTPROCESS S o u r c e : P a r t i a l l y A d o p t e d From Barcham 11965) 29 C0HC1USICN: TOW1BDS ^COMMUNITY DEV ELOPM ENTAL PL,&Ji|l I NGI! Community development i s s t i l l a new concept with r e s p e c t t o a developmental p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . Planning, at e i t h e r r e g i o n a l or community l e v e l , attempts to c r e a t e a good environment f o r man to l i v e and grow i n through i n f l u e n c i n g the use and development o f l a n d . Community development, on the ether hand, attempts t o achieve the same goals by emphasizing the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the f e l t - n e e d s o f the people i n the community. Furthermore, although they have i d e n t i c a l g o a l s , community development supplements community planning i n two ways. F i r s t l y , i t i s geared t o i n t e g r a t i n g a l l f a c e t s o f community planning; and secondly, i t emphasizes the n e c e s s i t y of c i t i z e n involvement i n planning and implementing community plans. Planning i n a developmental p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i e s planning r e p l i c a b l e growth (Friedmann and Douglass, 1976) through p r o g r e s s i v e changes, as well as r e a l i z i n g human p o t e n t i a l i n a c e r t a i n area (Friedmann and Douglass, 1976)., To apply developmental planning i n urban communities i s t o move toward the improvement of human welfar e as an end i n i t s e l f , and as a means t o the r e a l i z a t i o n o f human r e s o u r c e s and human r i g h t s i n the l o c a l community. Community development provides urban planning with methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g p h y s i c a l l a n d use planning with s o c i a l planning and making use of s e l f - h e l p programs f o r developing human resources o f the community. ; To conclude, community development paves a path f o r community planning to move toward a kind of r e p l i c a b l e growth planning i n l o c a l areas, and the term •community developmental p l a n n i n g 1 i s a p p l i e d to d e s c r i b e t h i s kind of developmental planning i n urban 30 n e i g h b o r h o o d s o r l o c a l a r e a s as o p p o s e d t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g used i n homogeneous, n o d a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s , CHAPTER I I I VOLUNTARY AND GOV EBNMENTAL ORG AN12 ATIO NS z TWO AGENCIES FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PIANNIJG T h i s chapter provides a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . , The purpose i s to recogn i z e and analyze the ' o r g a n i z a t i o n * as the environment of community developmental p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t p art of t h i s chapter p o i n t s out the importance of i n t e r p e r s o n a l , both formal and i n f o r m a l , network-analysis i n l o o k i n g a t community development o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The second part i s a t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s between governmental and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Because t h i s a n a l y s i s i s based on t h e o r i e s or i d e a l - t y p o l o g i e s , many of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s are being dichotomized i n a c l e a r cut manner. Though one may not expect t o f i n d a • r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n * of e i t h e r type p o s s e s s i n g extreme c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s own type, t h i s chapter i s of g r e a t value i n p u l l i n g out some s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r s f o r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . 3 2 The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the use o f t h e c o n c e p t o f 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' i n a p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . B e f o r e moving on t o t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r , which w i l l f o c u s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o summarize t h e c h i e f g o a l o f community d e v e l o p m e n t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r . I n b r i e f , community d e v e l o p m e n t aims t o o r g a n i z e members o f t h e community w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o i m p r o v e t h e c o n d i t i o n o f communitY l i v i n g ( B h a r a d w a j , 1 9 6 2 ) . Here t h e f u n c t i o n o f community d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t s i m p l y t o i m p r o v e t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e community. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c i t i z e n s and t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s become i m p o r t a n t ends i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s f octis d i f f e r e n t i a t e s community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g f r o m c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , which i s more o r l e s s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e t a s k o f f o r m u l a t i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a community p l a n , whereas t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g t h a t p l a n i n an o r q a n i z a t i o n a 1 c o n t e x t and a t t a i n i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n among o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d , a f o c u s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g complements d e f i c i e n c i e s o f e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s t h e o n l y c o n c e r n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . I n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r v a i l t h e p r e s e n t p l a n n i n g s t e r e o t y p e s , however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f 33 community d e v e l o p m e n t . I n a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l o f community d e v e l o p m e n t , two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ; ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f l o c a l p e o p l e 1 , and ' g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s ' . T h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h a r e t h e common p u r p o s e s o f h e l p i n g t h e community t o i d e n t i f y i t s n e e d s , t o m o b i l i z e i t s r e s o u r c e s and t o f o r m u l a t e p l a n s f o r i m p r o v i n g l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' , t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c o o r d i n a t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e s e common p u r p o s e s . B e f o r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e n a t u r e s o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , an a t t e m p t i s made t o d i s c u s s t h e t h e o r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s f r o m a s o c i o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s i d e a l t y p o l o g i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t doe s n o t a t t e m p t t o deduce some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s from r e a l i t y , , I d e a l m odels assume t o t a l r a t i o n a l i t y and a r e b a s e d on t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l s y s t e m s , a l t h o u g h i d e a l t y p o l o g i e s t e n d t o e x p r e s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms o f d i c h o t o m i z i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e y p r o v i d e the community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r w i t h a v a l u a b l e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s and a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o seek c o m p a r a b l e i n d i c a t o r s . 34 ORG A N IZATIQ N AL ANALYSIS The T h e o r y o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p e r s o n n e l f o r f a c i l i t i a t i n g t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f some a g r e e d p u r p o s e s t h r o u g h t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Gans, 1936:66). Or d e f i n e d more g e n e r a l l y , f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a • s y s t e m o f c o n s c i o u s l y c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f two o r more p e r s o n s ' ( B a r n a r d , 1 9 3 8 : 7 3 ) . Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e s t r u c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f r a t i o n a l a c t i o n . S e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be d e s c r i b e d . One o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e f o r m a l s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t i o n i s • s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s • . T h i s a n a l y s i s p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e b a s i c need o f a l l e m p i r i c a l s y s t e m s i s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i n t e g r i t y and c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f . S t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s r e l a t e s c o n t e m p o r a r y and v a r i a b l e b e h a v i o u r t o a p r e s u m a b l y s t a b l e s y s t e m o f needs and mechanisms ( S e l z n i c k , 1948:29). T h i s means t h a t a g i v e n e m p i r i c a l s y s t e m i s deemed t o have b a s i c needs, e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e . The s y s t e m d e v e l o p s r e p e t i t i v e means o f s e l f - d e f e n s e , and d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t y i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f i t s r o l e i n m a i n t e n a n c e and d e f e n c e of t h e s y s t e m . The g e n e r i c needs ( f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s ) o f a f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1, The o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole must be s e c u r e d a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s o r t h r e a t s from s o c i a l f o r c e s i n i t s e n v i r o n m e n t , and from t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . The f u n c t i o n o f f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e l o w e r h i e r a r c h i a l l e v e l i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d as an i m p o r t a n t way o f f o r e s t a l l i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f 35 e n c r o a c h m e n t from t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I f t h e r e i s no i n - h o u s e d e p a r t m e n t o f o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t i o n a l f e e d b a c k has t o r e l y on t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s a b o u t what nee d s t o be done and how i t c a n be done ( K a t z and Kahn, 1966:245, 248-50). 2. The l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n must r e m a i n s t a b l e : The p e r s i s t e n t r e f e r e n c e - p o i n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n i s t h e c o n t i n u e d a b i l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p t o c o n t r o l and t o have a c c e s s t o t h e p e r s o n n e l . I n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e f o r c h a n n e l i n g commands down t h e h i e r a r c h y a n d / o r f e e d b a c k s up t h e h i e r a r c h y . I n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n h e l p s t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be i n t e g r a t i v e , and a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t o keep t h e o p e r a t i o n on an e v e n k e e l . A l t h o u g h t h e h u m a n - r e l a t i o n s s c h o o l a r g u e s t h a t l a t e r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s u s e f u l i n b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s (Perrow, 1970:19), on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s c i e n t i f i c management s c h o o l a r g u e s t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h o u l d be v e r t i c a l i n o r d e r t o keep l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c l e a r (Perrow, 1970: 1 9 ) ; t h e s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l s c h o o l i d e n t i f i e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b o t h l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e i n t e g r a t e d and c o o r d i n a t e d s y s t e m s w i t h i n t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3. The s t a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n : T i e s o f e m o t i o n and s e l f - i n t e r e s t a r e e v o l v e d a s u n a c k n o w l e d g e d but e f f e c t i v e mechanisms o f a d j u s t m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l and s u b g r o u p s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r a l -f u n c t i o n a l s c h o o l , l i k e t h e human r e l a t i o n s s c h o o l , a r g u e s t h a t t h e s e t i e s cement r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o h e l p s u s t a i n t h e f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y i n d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s and i n c r e a s e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a t t e m p t s - t o • u p s e t * t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l n o r m a l l y r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e and i n c r e a s e d t e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . , 4. A h o m o g e n e i t y o f o u t l o o k w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e meaning and r o l e o f common 36 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . When t h i s agreement i s d i s t u r b e d , as i n s i t u a t i o n s o f i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e n d a n g e r e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, a s t a b l e and h e a l t h y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a b l e t o o r i e n t and s o c i a l i z e i t s members and s l o u g h o f f t h o s e who c a n n o t be c o n f o r m e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 5. The c o n t i n u i t y o f p o l i c y and a c h i e v e m e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s : F o r e a c h l e v e l w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole, t h e r e i s a s e n s e t h a t a c t i o n t a k e n i n t h e l i g h t o f a g i v e n p o l i c y w i l l be o r i e n t e d i n a t t a i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s , a t t h e same t i m e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l seek s t a b l e r o o t s (or f i r m s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y o r p o p u l a r mandate) s o t h a t a s e n s e o f t h e s t a b i l i t y and t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f i t s a c t s w i l l be a c h i e v e d . a c c o r d i n g t o T a l c o t t P a r s o n s (1960), one o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l s c h o o l , t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s c h ange o v e r t i m e . They a r e n o t ' s t a t i c * and t h e r e a r e i n t e r a c t i o n s between them. An o r g a n i z a t i o n may f o c u s upon m e e t i n g t h e n e e d s o f ' p a t t e r n m a i n t e n a n c e ' i n one s t a g e and * a d a p t i n g e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t ' i n t h e o t h e r . K a t z and Kahn (196 6) e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s i d e a by c a l l i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f p e o p l e f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y t h e ' m a i n t e n a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' ; t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s , p e o p l e and s u b s y s t e m s t h e ' p o l i t i c a l ' o r ' m a n a g e r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n * ; and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s t h e ' a d a p t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' . T h i s r e f l e c t s a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f t r a d e - o f f between d i f f e r e n t emphases o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s i n d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The above f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s a r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i d e a l - t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . A more i n - d e p t h 37 p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e f u n c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t p r a c t i s e s community d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s . S i e d e r ' s work i s an example t o s e r v e t h i s s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e . S i e d e r (1962) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h r e e f u n c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s encompass 'community work*. The t e r m 'community work* i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work was u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s 'community p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t * i n t h e 1960*s. I n 1969, P r o f e s s o r Thcmason used t h e t e r m t o c o v e r b o t h community o r g a n i z a t i o n and community d e v e l o p m e n t (Thomason, 1969) . H e l e n H a r r i s p e r l m a n c h o s e t o use 'community work* " f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s i m p l i c i t y (as) an e m b r a c i n g name and one t h a t t i e s i n most r e a d i l y w i t h c a s e work and group work" ( P e r l m a n , 1965). T h e r e f o r e , S i e d e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f 'community work* i s a c t u a l l y a s o c i a l work j a r g o n f o r * community d e v e l o p m e n t * . The major c o n c e r n s o f community work a r e d i r e c t s e r v i c i n g and d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e f f e c t i n g change i n community s e r v i c e s . The t h r e e f u n c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h S i e d e r (1962) d e s c r i b e s a r e : (1) i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g r e f e r r a l s , i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e and j o i n t a g ency a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f i t s c l i e n t s ; (2) m o b i l i z a t i o n o f community s u p p o r t f o r t h e agency, i t s program, f i n a n c i n g a n d i d e o l o g y ; and (3) c h a n g e of community r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g i n i t i a t i o n , r e v i s i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s needed on b e h a l f o f t h e a g e n c y * s c l i e n t s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n by f i e l d s and w i t h i n f i e l d s o f p r a c t i c e has r e s u l t e d i n a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f u n i q u e and autonomous a g e n c i e s o p e r a t e d u nder b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y a u s p i c e s . , T h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a network o f w e l l - d e f i n e d and l i n k e d 38 s e r v i c e s , i f each o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y without gaps or d u p l i c a t i o n . I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l exchange b r i n g s i n t o play t o p - l e v e l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . Planners engaged i n community work must r e c o g n i z e t h e need to e s t a b l i s h or l o d i f y r e l a t i o n s h i p s with key personnel i n other a g e n c i e s with which s e r v i c e s or plans are exchanged or shared. A c l i m a t e of c o o p e r a t i o n imparted through planners' a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s i s as e s s e n t i a l as formal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s t o maximizing each agency's s e r v i c e s . An agency's a b i l i t y t o m o b i l i z e community support depends on at l e a s t t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s : (1) the e x i s t e n c e of l i n k s with groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n f l u e n t i a l i n the community's p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l l i f e ; (2) a comprehensive, focused two-way communication network which reaches the p o l i c y decision-makers, the c l i e n t s ( a c t i v e and p o t e n t i a l ) , and the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who mold p u b l i c o p i n i o n ; and (3) a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process through which the community, or s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s o f i t , w i l l come to accept the n e c e s s i t y f o r , and value o f , a program's goals and s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r a c t i s i n g community development must i d e n t i f y unmet needs and b r i n g about changes i n community resources. The change i n community reso u r c e s i s needed because of the inadequacies i n the v a r i e t y , q u a n t i t y , g u a l i t y and a v a i l a b l i t y of s e r v i c e s , as well as the changing nature of the community. S h i f t s i n a community's p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , economy, p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and s o c i a l values may c r e a t e new problems which demand corresponding adjustments i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n and community s e r v i c e s . Thus, 39 community programs must not be conceived as ' s t a t i c givens*, but f l e x i b l e projects that can change to meet new conditions. The older d e f i n i t i o n of community organization as *a balance between needs and resources* must be altered to include the concept of community programs as a system i n moving equilibrium, in which the place and weight of the parts must s h i f t in r e l a t i o n to one another as well as move forward together (Sieder, 1962). Analysis Of Interpersonal Communication - Networks Chester Barnard stated the importance of communications. In an exhausive theory of organization, communication would occupy a central place, because the structure, extensiveness and scope of the organization are almost e n t i r e l y determined by communication techniques (Barnard, 1938:91). Interpersonal communication networks e x i s t in both formal organizations and informal groups. Power, leadership and decision-making r e l y upon the communication process either e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y . A communication network i s usually used to channel information or commands down or up the hierarchy or across the same l e v e l of the hierarchy. Modern organization i t s e l f i s a system f o r processing information, s e t t i n g goals, making plans and decisions, implementing actions and evaluating r e s u l t s (Bormann et a l . , 1969:1). Formal and informal information flows are channelled by the interpersonal communication network. Around the formal structure i s an ever-changing and complicated network of informal communication channels. The str u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l approach to analyzing 40 o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e , whereas t h e human r e l a t i o n s a p p r o a c h h i g h l i g h t s t h e f u n c t i o n o f i n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h r o u g h t h e s e c h a n n e l s f l o w s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may a c h i e v e a community o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e s , d i v i d e work, d e v e l o p m o r a l e , e v a l u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e , and m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The b e t t e r t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f messages and t h e l e v e l o f m u tual u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n p e r f o r m community d e v e l o p m e n t . A. F o r m a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n S i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a major r o l e o f f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s to keep t h e o p e r a t i o n i n e q u i l i b r i u m . However, ' e q u i l i b r i u m * i s s e l d o m m a i n t a i n e d f o r v e r y l o n g . A c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n p r e s s u r e , a l w a y s d i s r u p t s t h e o p e r a t i o n . L e a d e r s must d e v o t e some o f t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o c h a n g i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s o f p e r s o n n e l i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h ey must communicate downward w i t h p e o p l e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y a r e l e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i l l i n g l y w i t h change i n t h e i r r o u t i n e . On t h e o t h e r h and, two k i n d s c f upward f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w can be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ; D i r e c t f e e d b a c k i s c h a n n e l l e d upwards t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s f e e d b a c k i s l a r g e l y t h e r e s p o n s e t o i d e a s from t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . A n o t h e r k i n d o f upward c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n c e r t a i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n can be f o u n d . P e o p l e i n t h e b o t t o m l e v e l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o c h a n n e l upward t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h i s 41 c a s e , p e o p l e i n t h e b o t t o m l e v e l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y a l s o become i n i t i a t o r s f o r change. K a t z and Kahn (1966:245) i n d i c a t e d t h a t one k i n d o f upward c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t o c h a n n e l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e k i n d s o f n e e d s t h a t ought t o be met and t h e ways t h i s c a n be done. H a l l c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n * s e n v i r o n m e n t i s m o n i t o r e d f o r market o r t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n by a c c e p t i n g i n i t i a t i v e s f o r c h a n g e from t h e bottom l e v e l would be most a p p r o p r i a t e . I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s s t a b l e and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n s u l a t e d f r o m change, c e n t r a l i z a t i o n would be more w o r k a b l e ( H a l l , 1977:188). T h e r e f o r e , t h e bottom h i e r a r c h y o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s which k e e p s r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h i t s c l i e n t s i s more aware o f market c h a n g e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n f l o w s p r o v i d e t h e f l e x i b i l i t y f o r more i n n o v a t i v e c h a n g e s . T h r o u g h t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i and a d j u s t i n g d i s e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l s c h o o l s u g g e s t s t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n can f i n a l l y r e a c h a ' r e - e q u i l i b r i u m * s t a t e w h i c h r e s t o r e s e q u i l i b r i u m t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . To summarize, t h e s u c c e s s o f f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h e e q u i l i b r i u m o f t h e whole o r q a n i z a t i o n . 42 B. I n f o r m a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n B e s i d e s t h e f o r m a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k , which c h a n n e l s work commands and f e e d b a c k , t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l network g e n e r a t e d b o t h w i t h i n and by t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be exa m i n e d . The term 'network* i s use d by B a r n e s (1954) i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way t o d e n o t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s : E a ch p e r s o n i s , a s i t were, i n t o u c h w i t h a number o f o t h e r p e o p l e , some o f whom a r e d i r e c t l y i n t o u c h w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and some o f whom a r e n o t . S i m i l a r l y , e a c h p e r s o n h a s a number o f f r i e n d s , and t h e s e f r i e n d s h a v e t h e i r own f r i e n d s ; some o f anyone p e r s o n ' s f r i e n d s know e a c h o t h e r , o t h e r s do n o t . I f i n d i t c o n v e n i e n t t o t a l k o f a s o c i a l f i e l d o f t h i s k i n d a s a network. The image I have i s o f a s e t o f p o i n t s some o f which a r e j o i n e d by l i n e s . The p o i n t s o f t h e image a r e p e o p l e , or sometimes g r o u p s , and t h e l i n e s i n d i c a t e w h i c h p e o p l e i n t e r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r ( B a r n e s , 1954:43) . Of c o u r s e , a l l s o c i a l l i f e g e n e r a t e s n e t w o r k s o f t h i s k i n d . F o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , however, t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l network t h a t r e m a i n s when t h e g r o u p i n g s and c h a i n s o f t h e network which b e l o n g s t o t h e f o r m a l v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l command and a d v i c e s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e removed w i l l be d e f i n e d as t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l n e t w o r k . I n o t h e r words, t h e s e s o c i a l n e t w o r k s a r e formed a r o u n d i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w hich a r e n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y w o r k - o r i e n t e d . T h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f t h e i n f o r m a l network i s i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f the f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most o f o u r m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e among f r i e n d s i n o u r d a i l y l i f e i s n o t g a i n e d f r o m f o r m a l n e t w o r k s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n f o r m a l n e t w o r k s , however, i n e v i t a b l y p l a y a r o l e i n m o b i l i z i n g community r e s o u r c e s . S o c i a l network c o n c e p t s a r e u s e f u l i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e y d e s c r i b e some o f t h e more c o m p l e x i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which t e n d t o d e v e l o p between r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e d , homogeneous g r o u p s and t h e w i d e r s o c i a l s e t t i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e y promote an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e complex n a t u r e o f f o r c e s g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n any s i n g l e u n i t o f b e h a v i o u r o r g r o u p w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s ( E i s e n s t a d t , 1965: 9 8 ) . S o c i a l network c o n c e p t s a l s o h a v e a p o t e n t i a l f o r becoming a new a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . T h e y c l e a r l y show t h e e x i s t e n c e o f some d i f f e r e n t i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e who a r e n o t o r g a n i z e d i n c o r p o r a t e g r o u p s . T h i s may h e l p t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s , who a c t i n an i n f o r m a l network, have i n t e r m s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s o c i a l r o l e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k s . By summing up the n e c e s s i t y o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l n e twork w i t h i n and g e n e r a t e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s , two a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k a n a l y s i s a r e b r o u g h t f o r t h . T h e f i r s t argument i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n c a n be u n d e r s t o o d by l o o k i n g a t t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k w i t h i n t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Host o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d by S e l z n i c k (19 48) r e l y on t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n network w i t h i n a f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i n t e r n a l ( b o t h v e r t i c a l and l a t e r a l ) c o m m u n i c a t i o n makes the s t a b i l i t y o f b o t h l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y and work commands p o s s i b l e . The g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n be c h a n n e l l e d down t h e h i e r a r c h y , and p e r s o n n e l i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e s o c i a l i z e d and i n t e g r a t e d 4 4 t h r o u g h i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . F o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n can be c o m p l e m e n t i n g e a c h o t h e r a t one t i m e and c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h each o t h e r a t a n o t h e r . I n f o r m a l n etwork t e n d s t o b y p a s s o r e v e n weaken t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f a u t h o r i t y and command r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Hence, t h e human r e l a t i o n s s c h o o l e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a l n e t w o r k i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . A t a n y r a t e , work p a t t e r n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a l u e s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d by means o f b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l i n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e c o n c e p t o f community d e v e l o p m e n t e m p h a s i z e s t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n by t h e c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r l o c a l community, community o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e upward c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n d e a l i n g w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t engage i n community d e v e l o p m e n t , i t i s o f t e n t r u e t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e bottom l e v e l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o c h a n g e s i n community r e s o u r c e s and l o c a l n e e d s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y g i v e n t o t h e bottom h i e r a r c h y f o r s y s t e m a t i c f e e d b a c k e n s u r e s the s e c u r i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o b o t h t h o s e s o c i a l f o r c e s m e n t i o n e d by S e l z n i c k (1948) and t h e a d j u s t m e n t s t o c h a n g e s i n community r e s o u r c e s which S i e d e r had i n d i c a t e d ( 1 9 6 2 ) . By t r a c i n g t h e l i n e s and c o n t e n t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , one can d i s c o v e r who o r i g i n a l l y i n i t i a t e s t h e p l a n s and who a d o p t s them. An o r g a n i z a t i o n which aims t o d e v e l o p community r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d n o t s i m p l y i n i t i a t e p l a n s from t h e t o p and t h e n c h a n n e l t h e s e p l a n s down the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y f o r o t h e r p e r s o n n e l t o a d o p t . An e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t e n c o u r a g e s two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d by b o t h t h e t o p and t h e 45 b o t t o m . The s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r l o o k i n g a t t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l n etwork g e n e r a t e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n * s p a r t i c i p a n t s i s t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s become t h e ' o p i n i o n l e a d e r s * o f t h e i r community. The t e r m • o p i n i o n l e a d e r * was f i r s t u s e d by K a t z a n d L a z a r s f e l d t o d e n o t e t h o s e c o s m o p o l i t a n s who f i r s t a d o p t i d e a s f r o m mass media and p a s s t h e i d e a s t o t h e l e s s a c t i v e s e c t o r o f t h e l o c a l c i t i z e n s by means o f an i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l n e t w o r k . T h i s network i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e * g i v e - a n d - t a k e ' o f e v e r y d a y p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e p o t e n t i a l n e t w o r k s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , an • o p i n i o n l e a d e r * can b e s t be t h o u g h t o f a s a g r o u p member who p l a y s a key c o m m u n i c a t o r r o l e ( K a t z and L a z a r s f e l d , 1955:33). O t h e r s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a have d e m o n s t r a t e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e i n o p i n i o n f o r m u l a t i o n and d e c i s i o n making i n t h e l o c a l community ( L a z a r s f e l d e t a l . , 1948; M e r t o n , 1948:180-219; B e r e l s o n e t a l . , 1954; L a r s e n and H i l l , 1954; Ka t z and L a z a r s f e l d , 1955; M e n z e l and K a t z , 1955; C o l e m a n , K a t z and L a z a r s f e l d , 1955; M e n z e l and K a t z , 1955; Coleman e t a l . , 1957; D e F l e u r and L a r s e n , 1959; and B a u e r , 1960). I n a d d i t i o n t o p a s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m mass media t o t h e p a s s i v e s , o p i n i o n l e a d e r s a c t b o t h as p o s i t i v e p e r s u a d e r s a n d a s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s t o t h e p a s s i v e masses. B o o t h and N i c h o l a s (196 9) p r o v e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e i s a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w h ich i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e membership i n f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s who d e m o n s t r a t e p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l n e twork i n t h e 46 l o c a l community, a l t h o u g h t h e s e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s might n o t be i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e who a r e e x p o s e d o n l y t o t h e mass media, t h e y a l s o p o s s e s s e g u i v a l e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as an a w a r e n e s s o f community needs and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o i n i t i a t e i d e a s among t h e l e s s a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e community. I n a d d i t i o n t o i n i t i a t i n g i d e a s i n t h e l o c a l community, t h e s e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s m o b i l i z e l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e and p e r s u a s i o n . S i e d e r (1962) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l r e s o u r c e s depends on i n d i v i d u a l s who mold p u b l i c o p i n i o n and on a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h r o u g h which t h e community w i l l come t o a c c e p t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a l u e s o r a program*s g o a l s . The f u n c t i o n o f o p i n i o n l e a d e r s i n m o b i l i z i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s i s i m p l i e d i n S i e d e r * s argument. T h e s e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s o f t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a s s t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a l u e s a s t h e y r e a c h o u t t o t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The s e n s e o f n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e l e s s a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r d a i l y i n t e r p e r s o n a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . O t h e r t h a n t h o s e i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e i n t r a - c o m m u n i t y n e t w o r k , and t h e r e f o r e must r e l y on o t h e r means o f m o b i l i z a t i o n ( s u c h a s mass m e d i a ) , l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n g e n e r a l a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r c o h e s i v e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l a f f a i r s t h r o u g h t h e b r i d g i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e s e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l n e t w o r k s g e n e r a t e d by t h e o p i n i o n l e a d e r s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a l o c a l community., 47 THE DIFFERENT NATURE OF VOLUNTARY AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS I n community d e v e l o p m e n t , b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s u a l l y s e r v e b o t h a s t h e o b j e c t s and the i n i t i a t o r s o f p l a n n e d c h a n g e . As an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f a community, g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d modes t h a t d e a l w i t h v a r i o u s p r o b l e m a t i c s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . E f f o r t s t o c h a n g e t h e a t t i t u d e s , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f c i t y p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s , w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s , h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , s c h o o l s and o t h e r r e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s a r e among t h e most r e c u r r e n t t a s k s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o manage o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change e f f e c t i v e l y , community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s r e q u i r e good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s y s t e m o f w h i c h t h e agency i s a p a r t and c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be i n f l u e n c e d . Some b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e g u i r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e a g e n c y and i t s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p o l i c y - i m p l e m e n t i n g s y s t e m s , i n c l u d i n g i t s f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l l i n k a g e s t o o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g community. E l e m e n t s s u c h a s a c c e s s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n d u c e m e n t s t o c h a n g e , and a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s f o r i n f l u e n c e s s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s t r a t e g i c j udgements. The o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y d i s c u s s e d e a r l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r and r o l e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c i e s , and o f f e r s t y p o l o g i e s a n d h y p o t h e s e s t o h e l p e x p l a i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s t h e o r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r a t i o n a l and f o r m a l a s p e c t s 48 o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t o i t s n o n - r a t i o n a l and i n f o r m a l d i m e n s i o n s . S t u d i e s o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y r e v e a l t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f b o t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . Both t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l , w i t h w h i c h any community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r h a s t o d e a l a r e b u r e a u c r a c i e s . However, t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s i d e n t i c a l n a t u r e s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r d e g r e e s o f r a t i o n a l i t y i n management, s i n c e t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e ' b u r e a u c r a c y model*. I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e t o s t a r t w i t h a b r i e f i n d i c a t i o n o f what i s u s u a l l y meant by a ' b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n ' . One b r o a d l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n , b a s e d on Max Weber's famous i d e a l -t y p e a n a l y s i s o f b u r e a u c r a c y (Weber, 1 9 2 2 ) , p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e m ajor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a b u r e a c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e : 1. The r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e g u i r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n a f i x e d way a s o f f i c i a l d u t i e s . • , 2. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e s f o l l o w s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h i e r a r c h y ; t h a t i s , e a c h l o w e r o f f i c e i s u nder t h e c o n t r o l and s u p e r v i s i o n o f a h i g h e r one... 3. O p e r a t i o n s a r e g o v e r n e d by a c o n s i s t e n t s y s t e m o f a b s t r a c t r u l e s . . . (and) c o n s i s t o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e r u l e s t o p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s . . . 4. The i d e a l o f f i c i a l c o n d u c t s h i s o f f i c e . . . ( i n ) a s p i r i t o f f o r m a l i s t i c i m p e r s o n a l i t y , " S i n e i r a e t s t u d i o " , w i t h o u t h a t r e d or p a s s i o n , and h e n c e w i t h o u t a f f e c t i o n o r e n t h u s i a s m . . . 5. Employment i n t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b a s e d on t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n and i s p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t a r b i t r a r y d i s m i s s a l . I t c o n s t i t u t e s a c a r e e r . T h e r e i s a s y s t e m o f • p r o m o t i o n s ' a c c o r d i n g t o s e n i o r i t y o r t o a c h i e v e m e n t , o r b o t h ( B l a u , 1956:28-3 4 ) . 49 B u r e a u c r a c y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r a t i o n a l method o f management. I t o p e r a t e s on an i n s t r u m e n t a l b a s i s , s t r e s s e s i m p e r s o n a l i t y , s p e c i f i c i t y , t h e u s e o f r u l e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e . Any b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l s y s t e m . I t s i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s d e t e r m i n e d n o t o n l y by i t s t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s of g o a l - a c h i e v e m e n t b u t a l s o by i t s o t h e r n e e d s . T h e r e e x i s t w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e c i a l r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s g e a r e d t o p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e s e n e e d s . One c a n h a r d l y f i n d a p u r e l y ' r a t i o n a l 1 b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , f r e e f r o m p e r s o n a l o r p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s , and some s u c h e l e m e n t s a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The above e x p l a n a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f i m p e r s o n a l i t y and r a t i o n a l i t y . One method o f c l a s s i f y i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d by L i t w a k ( L i t w a k e t a l . , 1966). H i s c o n c e p t u a l scheme i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b u r e a u c r a c i e s so a s to r e d u c e t h e a p p a r e n t g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a l i m i t e d number o f t y p e s ( L i t w a k e t a l . , 1966). He p o i n t s out t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t a r e r e l a t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g o a l s and t o i t s t a s k s i n p u r s u i t o f t h e g o a l s . Where g o a l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y d e f i n i t e , c r i t e r i a f o r g o a l r e a l i z a t i o n r e l a t i v e l y d e t e r m i n a t e and t a s k s r e l a t i v e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d and r e p e t i t i v e , t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y d e s c r i b e d b y Max Weber a p p e a r s t o become e f f i c i e n t . L i t w a k (1966) d e s c r i b e d t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c model a b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i m p e r s o n a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , d e t a i l e d r u l e s g o v e r n i n g most a c t i o n s , s t r i c t h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y , j o b 50 s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , n arrow d e l i n e a t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d u t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s and e v a l u a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t ( s u c h a s knowledge, t r a i n i n g and s u c c e s s on t h e j o b ) . T h i s t y p e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by government b u r e a u c r a c i e s which f o l l o w d e t a i l e d l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n s . I n c o n t r a s t , where g o a l s a r e ambiguous, c r i t e r i a f o r a c h i e v i n g g o a l s a r e u n c e r t a i n and t a s k s a r e d i v e r s e and l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e c h n i q u e s , a 'human r e l a t i o n s * f o r m o f b u r e a u c r a c y i s more l i k e l y t o a p p e a r and t o r e p r e s e n t t h e more e f f i c i e n t s t r u c t u r e . The human r e l a t i o n s model e x h i b i t s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s r a t h e r t h a n d e t a i l e d r u l e s , c o l l e a g i a l r a t h e r t h a n h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e , b r o a d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g o a l s , and e v a l u a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t . E x c e p t f o r e v a l u a t i o n , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e employment, pay and p r o m o t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f m e r i t , t h e human r e l a t i o n s model p o s s e s s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e o f t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c model. A s m a l l s o c i a l work a g e n c y s u c h as t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e i s an example o f t h i s model. When o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s and c r i t i e r i a a r e m i x e d , t a s k s b o t h s t a n d a r d i z e d and n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d , t e c h n i q u e s b o t h i m p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l , a t h i r d b u r e a u c r a t i c t y p e c o m b i n i n g b o t h r a t i o n a l i s t i c and human r e l a t i o n s e l e m e n t s seems t o emerge a s t h e most e f f i c i e n t f o r m . T h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h i s known a s t h e * p r o f e s s i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y ' , d e v e l o p s i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s ( s u c h as p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e s o f a u t h o r i t y and s e g r e g a t e d d e p a r t m e n t s ) t o complement c o n t r a d i c t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s ( B l a u and S c o t t , 1962:60-74; Solomon, 1957 and K o r n h a u s e r , 1962). Examples o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l 51 b u r e a u c r a c i e s i n c l u d e s c h o o l s y s t e m s , h o s p i t a l s , and r e s e a r c h -o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o and u n l i k e t h e above t h r e e f o r m s , t h e r e i s a ' n o n - m e r i t model' c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t r u s i o n o f b a s e s o t h e r t h a n m e r i t f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l and p e r f o r m a n c e ; c o n s e g u e n t l y c r i t e r i a i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . Dependence on n e p o t i s m , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f r a c e , r e l i g i o n o r s o c i a l c l a s s , and extreme emphasis on p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r t h a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s i l l u s t r a t e n o n - m e r i t b a s e s o f e v a l u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s may a p p e a r , d e l i b e r a t e l y o r n o n d e l i b e r a t e l y , i n o t h e r t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , when t h e y p r e d o m i n a t e t h e y i d e n t i f y a d i s t i n c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m . S i n c e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t o r e l y on s p e c i f i c r u l e s and m e r i t s y s t e m f o r managing p e r s o n n e l e f f i c i e n t l y , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e f o r l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a d o p t t h e n o n - m e r i t model. I n s t e a d , s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l and i n d e p e n d e n t b u s i n e s s e s , t e n d t o a p p r o a c h t h i s model. From t h e above a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e a r s t o r e s e m b l e t h e ' r a t i o n a l i s t i c model' w h i c h i s g o v e r n e d by l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n s and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h a v e r t i c a l h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r e . Most d e c i s i o n s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e made by t h e t o p l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . F e e d b a c k s and o p i n i o n s from s u b o r d i n a t e s a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y e n c o u r a g e d . F i n a l d e c i s i o n s , however, a r e made by t h e t o p o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y . 52 I n c o n t r a s t , most o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s and p r i v a t e s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s f o l l o w t h e •human r e l a t i o n s 1 model. They a r e l e s s f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d and s t r e s s t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among c o l l e a g u e s r a t h e r t h a n between s u p e r v i s o r s and s u b o r d i n a t e s . P a t t e r n s o f d e c i s i o n -making a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h o s e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e c i s i o n s a r e made by i n c o r p o r a t i n g i d e a s f r o m t h e f i e l d s t a f f . P e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e i s more e a s i l y a c c e p t e d among i n c u m b e n t s i n t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m p l y t h a t g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e i n c a r r y i n g o u t r o u t i n i z e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d work whereas t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c r e m e n t a l and c h a n g e - o r i e n t e d p l a n n i n g . B e s i d e s t h e d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f r a t i o n a l i t y i n g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s a l s o d i s s i m i l a r . T h r e e p r i n c i p l e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m r a t i o n a l i s t i c b u r e a u c r a c y t o h u m a n i s t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e s e mechanisms w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d p u r p o s i v e , t h a t i s , i n t e n d e d t o i n f l u e n c e . The f i r s t i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n i t i a t i v e . I d e a l - t y p e b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e r m i t i n i t i a t i v e o n l y a t t h e t o p o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . The d i f f e r e n c e i n r o l e s o f s u p e r o r d i n a t e s who i n i t i a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e s who obey i s w e l l - d e f i n e d . B u t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e i n t h e human r e l a t i o n s model. The r o l e o f an i n i t i a t o r i s e n c o u r a g e d n o t o n l y i n t o p l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b u t 53 a l s o i n t h e l o w e r l e v e l p e r s o n n e l . The c o l l e a g i a l r a t h e r t h a n h i e r a r c h i a l p a t t e r n a l l o w s t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f i d e a s from a l l i n c u m b e n t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r e t i c a l l y f i t s t h e human r e l a t i o n s model o f b u r e a u c r a c y , i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n t e n d s t o be more r e a d y t o i n i t i a t e p l a n s f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . The s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e n s i t y . The more p r e - e x i s t i n g i n f l u e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t t i e two p e r s o n s i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e more f r e q u e n t l y t h e y come i n c o n t a c t , t h e h i g h e r t h e i n t e n s i t y o f r e l a t i o n s between two members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e t o i n t r o d u c e two c o n c e p t s , • s i n g l e * and * m u l t i - s t r a n d e d * r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e n s i t y . I n t e n s i t y i s u s u a l l y u s e d t o measure t h e ' c o n t e n t * o f t h e f l o w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e n e t w o r k . H e r e , • c o n t e n t * r e f e r s t o t h e n o r m a t i v e c o n t e x t i n which i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , s u c h as k i n s h i p , f r i e n d s h i p , common r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , e c o n o m i c o b l i g a t i o n e t c . ( M i t c h e l l , 1969:22). The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f s e v e r a l c o n t e n t s i n one network l i n k h a s b e en r e c o g n i z e d by r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s ( M i t c h e l l , 1969; Gluckman, 1955). Network l i n k s w h i c h c o n t a i n o n l y one f o c u s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a r e c a l l e d * s i n g l e - s t r a n d e d * r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r s i m p l y • u n i p l e x t . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g more t h a n one c o n t e n t a r e c a l l e d ' m u l t i - s t r a n d e d * r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r s i m p l y ' m u l t i p l e x * by Gluckman (1955:19; 1962:27). From K a p f e r e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , i t c a n be s a f e l y assumed t h a t t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s which have a m u l t i p l e x e xchange a r e s t r o n g e r and more i n t e n s e t h a n t h o s e which a r e s i n g l e - s t r a n d e d ( K a p f e r e r , 54 1969:213). S i n c e r e c r u i t m e n t i n most g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s b a s e d on a r a t i o n a l i s t i c model o f m e r i t - e v a l u a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t i n g among i n c u m b e n t s a r e u s u a l l y s i n g l e -s t r a n d e d . In c o n t r a s t , t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n t e n d s t o depend upon n e p o t i s m and p r e - e x i s t i n g p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p i n r e c r u i t m e n t o f s t a f f and members. T h i s b r i n g s a b o u t an i n t e n s e and m u l t i - s t r a n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p among s t a f f , v o l u n t e e r s and members o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h u s , u n l i k e t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e i s r e i n f o r c e d under t h i s s i t u a t i o n o f p r e - e x i s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s i n most o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , t h e f o r c e s of m o b i l i z a t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n o f a g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e i n f e r i o r t o t h o s e o f a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . - B e s i d e s t h e m e r i t b a s e s o f r e c r u i t m e n t , t h e c o n c e p t o f * a c t i o n - s e t * c a n be b o r r o w e d f r o m Mayer (1966:122) f o r a n a l y s i s . , M a y e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e n a t u r e o f an ' a c t i o n - s e t * f r o m an ' i n f o r m a t i o n - n e t w o r k ' . . I n May e r ' s paper (1966), he a n a l y z e d t h e u s e t h a t p e o p l e make o f network l i n k a g e s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t d e s i r e d e n d s . Mayer c a l l e d t h e t y p e o f network, l i n k a g e s t h a t a r e u s e d f o r t h e f l o w o f goods and s e r v i c e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s an ' a c t i o n - s e t ' . H i s c o n c e p t i o n o f an ' a c t i o n s e t ' may be c o n s i d e r e d a s p e c i a l k i n d o f i n s t r u m e n t a l l y a c t i v a t e d p e r s o n a l n e t w o r k . H a r r i s - J o n e s (1969:301) d i s c u s s e d M ayer's c o n c e p t o f ' a c t i o n - s e t ' a s a s e r i e s o f l i n k s w i t h i n a p e r s o n a l n e t w o r k w h i c h d e s c r i b e s e g o's c o m m u n i c a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . An ' a c t i o n - s e t ' , t h e r e f o r e , i s d e l i n e a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e s p e c i f i c t r a n s a c t i o n t h a t b r i n g s i t i n t o b e i n g . A p e r s o n a l n e t work, on t h e o t h e r hand, d e n o t e s a s e t o f l i n k a g e s which 55 e x i s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on t h e b a s i s o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s and which p e r s i s t beyond t h e d u r a t i o n of any p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s a c t i o n . An a c t i o n - s e t may be l o o k e d upon as an a s p e c t o f a p e r s o n a l network i s o l a t e d i n t e r m s o f a s p e c i f i c s h o r t - t e r m i n s t r u m e n t a l l y -d e f i n e d i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o n t e n t ( M i t c h e l l , 1969:40). I n t h i s c a s e , r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c u m b e n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t , s u c h as t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Program, would most o f t e n be a t r a n s i e n t * a c t i o n - s e t * t h a t emerges i n s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t s f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s . The l a s t p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f maximum c o v e r a g e . I n t h e o r y , t h e more e f f e c t i v e an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o v e r a g e , t h e l a r g e r t h e number o f p e o p l e and i n d i v i d u a l s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d a r e c o n t a c t e d . The p r i n c i p l e o f maximum c o v e r a g e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n c e p t o f ' r a n g e ' a s d e f i n e d by Hheeldon ( 1 9 6 9 ) . *Bange* i s d e f i n e d a s t h e number o f p e o p l e i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a g e n c y l e a d e r s combined w i t h t h e s o c i a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d . T h i s c o n c e p t p r o v i d e s some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r e a c h i t s own c l i e n t s i n a community. And •range* i s a v a r i a b l e used f o r m e a s u r i n g • r e a c h a b i l i t y * . Onder n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e w i t h a g i v e n t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i n a community and w i t h t h e same r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e l a r g e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e b e t t e r i t s c o v e r a g e s h o u l d be. However, *range* m o d i f i e s t h e above r e l a t i o n s h i p by a c t i n g a s an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e . A s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n may be a s e f f e c t i v e i n i t s c o v e r a g e as a l a r g e one i f t h e s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s more r a n g e t h a n t h e l a r g e one. The v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e , c a n r e a c h more p e o p l e b e c a u s e a s t a f f 56 c a n d e a l w i t h more g r o u p s i n a g i v e n day t h a n a p r o f e s s i o n a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r , who has t o d e v o t e p a r t o f h i s r e s o u r c e s t o d e a l i n g w i t h s u p e r i o r s i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c y . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e 'range* o f c o n t a c t o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d n o t j u s t a s an ' a c t i o n - s e t * i n a c h i e v i n g a s p e c i a l c o n t e x t and a s p e c i a l t a s k t e m p o r a r i l y , b u t i s u s u a l l y m u l t i - p u r p o s e s i n n a t u r e . T h i s , a g a i n , r e s u l t s i n a w i d e r r a n g e o f s o c i a l l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s c o n t a c t and h i g h e r r e a c h a b i l i t y i n a community. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a summary by c o m p a r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s o f v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The f i r s t s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shows t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of b u r e a u c r a t i c model, whereas t h e s e c o n d s e t i n c l u d e s p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n network w i t h i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n . P r i n c i p l e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r models o f b u r e a u c r a c y . The d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t s t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l - t y p e of g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t h a s t o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n r e a l i t y many e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s c a n be f o u n d . However, t h i s d i c h o t o m y s h e d s l i g h t on the t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 57 i I ORGANIZATION y j — | CHARACTERISTICS |GOVERNMENTAL JVOLUNTARY , +. I llMe§ Of Bureaucracy l r a t i o n a l i s t i c |human r e l a t i o n s | d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s J f i x e d d u t i e s | experimental | o r g a n i z a t i o n of o f f i c e |more h i e r a r c h i a l J l e s s h i e r a r c h i a l J systems of r u l e s |formal I i n f o r m a l ] recruitment b a s i s |merit based |nepotism I I I J Communication Aspects | j | i n i t i a t i v e Itop-down Jtwo-way | i n t e n s i t y I s i n g l e - s t r a n d e d | m u l t i - s t r a n d e d I coverage jlow r e a c h a b i l i t y |high r e a c h a b i l i t y u 1 i J TABLE 2 DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENTAL AND VOLUNTARY. ORG AN IZ ATI ON S In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t natures, v o l u n t a r y and governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s play t h e i r r o l e s d i f f e r e n t l y i n the s o c i e t y . The r o l e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n has been emphasized t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n the s o c i a l theory as the maintainer of a s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l democracy. Thus, De T o c g u e v i l l e observed t h a t the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i n America i s a l e g a l means f o r c o u n t e r i n g the •moral power of the m a j o r i t y 1 and persuading o t h e r s to a s p e c i f i c o p i n i o n (De T o c g u e v i l l e , 1954,:203). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e and f u n c t i o n of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n remains an important focus f o r theory and r e s e a r c h . Another s o c i o l o g i s t , A rnold Rose, i n proposing *a theory, of the f u n c t i o n s o f voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the contemporary s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ' , s t a t e d t h a t they 'play a major r o l e i n America democracy'. He went on to s p e c i f y three major f u n c t i o n s : v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s prevent a c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power ( i n most governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ; they help i n d i v i d u a l s to understand 58 how p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e ; and t h e y a r e mechanisms f o r s o c i a l c h ange (Hose, 1954:50) . T h e s e , o f c o u r s e , a r e summary s t a t e m e n t s . , From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a more s p e c i f i c l i s t o f p o l i t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t f u n c t i o n s o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be d e r i v e d . / The f i r s t f u n c t i o n i s t o promote c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s . By u n i t i n g i n a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , t h o s e w i t h common i n t e r e s t s s t r e n g t h e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e enhancement and p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . A s s o c i a t i o n members a r e more e a s i l y made aware of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and t h e y f o r m u l a t e a p p r o p r i a t e o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s t h e y f a c e . S i n c e t h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t need f o r membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r d e r f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r e m a i n v i a b l e , most a n a l y s e s e m p h a s i z e t h e d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e n s u r i n g c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , J o h n C r a i g and Edward G r o s s s u g g e s t t h a t i n a d d i t i o n v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s must r e m a i n p e r m e a b l e t o new i d e a s and i n t e r e s t s i f democracy i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d ( C r a i g and G r o s s , 1 9 70). T h i s p e r m e a b i l i t y a s s u r e s c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i a t i o n by m a i n t a i n i n g membership i n t e r e s t i n i s s u e s t h a t a r e new and a r o u n d which power c a n c l u s t e r , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s o l i g a r c h y . New o p i n i o n s and i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o r m u l a t e d by t h e s t a f f and t h e t o p l e v e l d e c i s i o n -makers, b u t can come f r o m e a c h o f t h e members. Once t h e s e o p i n i o n s have been c r y s t a l l i z e d , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s t h e s p r e a d o f o p i n i o n s o a s t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s . V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p as means o f f u l f i l l i n g i n t e r e s t s and a r e l i k e l y t o be f o r m e d when p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e a s i m i l a r o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y i n t e r e s t w h i c h i s e n d u r i n g enough and d i s t i n c t 59 enough t o *be c a p a b l e c f more e f f e c t i v e p r o m o t i o n t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . . , * (Rose, 1954:50). I n most c a s e s , t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes a f o r c e a f f e c t i n g t h e l i v e s and b e h a v i o u r s o f i t s members. P e o p l e b e l o n g t o a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e i n what t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a n d s f o r and would l i k e t o see i t promoted. The v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , i n o t h e r words, i s a way o f i n v o l v i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e s o c i e t y . Hence, a s an a s s o c i a t i o n member t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f e x p o s u r e t o and c o n t a c t w i t h what i s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , may be s a i d t o have e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e . I t p r o v i d e s f a c t u a l knowledge o f e v e n t s , t e n d s t o promote i n s i g h t i n t o and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e v e n t s , and a knowledge o f t h e m e c h a n i c s o f government and s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . As t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s of t h e s o c i e t y , i t may a l s o t r a i n f u t u r e community l e a d e r s and s e r v e as a c h a n n e l f o r t h e i r emergence i n t o t h e community. F u r t h e r , t i e s w i t h s o c i e t y ' s p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s e n a b l e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o be mechanisms f o r s o c i a l change. Such d e l i n e a t e d f u n c t i o n s , however, a r e l i m i t e d t o o n l y one t y p e o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u m e n t a l v o l u n t a r y a s s o i c a t i o n (Edwards and B o o t h , 1973:4). A n o t h e r e m p h a s i s i s on t h e f u n c t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n m e e t i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s as s o c i a l p e r s o n s . The v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n b r i n g s t h o s e i s o l a t e d f r o m human t i e s back i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r human 60 b e i n g s . The s a t i s f a c t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs by a s s o c i a t i o n has p o l i t i c a l r e l e v a n c e . I f t h e s e needs a r e met by a s s o c i a t i o n membership, ' t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n would t e n d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e m o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r o f a s o c i e t y ... ( f o r ) v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e and d i v e r s i f y power and i n f l u e n c e * (Rose, 1954:59). The l a s t two i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t o m e d i a t e between s m a l l and l a r g e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and t o f a c i l i t i a t e t h e f l o w o f o f i n f o r m a t i o n b etween s e p a r a t e d s o c i a l u n i t s . S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s a i d t o * . . , m e d i a t e between t h e i s o l a t e d , hence p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r l e s s i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e m a s s i v e s t a t e ' ( N e a l and Seeman, 1964:216; N i s b e t , 1953). T h i s l i n k a g e e n a b l e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y t o have g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r non-human ( b u r e a u c r a t i c ) e n v i r o n m e n t . , N e a l a n d Seeman f o u n d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g * . . . t h e n o t i o n t h a t p o w e r l e s s n e s s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l a c k o f m e d i a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t i e s * ( N e a l and Seeman, 1964:226). T h e c o l l e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e s a f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e o u t o f which i n d i v i d u a l s *....>can make s e n s e o u t o f t h e i r own a c t i v i t y and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t * (Young and L a r s e n , 1965:186). H a u s k n e c h t (1962) made u s e o f some s e c o n d a r y d a t a , t o v e r i f y t h e r e l e v a n c e and f u n c t i o n s o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e 1960*s o f t h e A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . H i s d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s do, i n f a c t , c o n t r i b u t e t o f a c t u a l knowledge and i n s i g h t . The s p r e a d o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , however, h a s d i m i n i s h e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h i s 61 c o n t e x t — t h e g r e a t e r t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n t h e s m a l l e r t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between members and non-members ( H a u s k n e c h t , 1962:111). F o r t h e h i g h l y - e d u c a t e d , knowledge, i n s i g h t and a w a r e n e s s o f 'how t h i n g s a r e done' a r e n o t dependent upon membership. F o r example, membership may n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y mean t h e l e a r n i n g o f how s o c i a l mechanisms o p e r a t e , b u t i t i s h a r d t o deny t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n member has a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n o r t o s u p p l e m e n t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h i n g s a r e done t h a n t h e non-member. The argument t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o i c a t i o n s may be d i m i n i s h i n g s h o u l d b e s e e n i n i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The s k e p t i c i s m a b o u t how much v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o d a y t o t h e growth o f an ' i n f o r m e d c i t i z e n r y ' s h o u l d n o t b l i n d us t o c e r t a i n c o n t i n u i n g u t i l i t y o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s end. H a u s k n e c h t c o n c l u d e d t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n may s t i l l p l a y a r o l e i n t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f o p i n i o n s . P o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n i s s p r e a d most p e r v a s i v e l y and p e r s u a s i v e l y t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t ( L a r a s f e l d , B e r e l s o n and G a u d e t , 1948:150). T h e r e f o r e , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e c o n t e x t f o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n may s e r v e as c h a n n e l s f o r s p r e a d o f o p i n i o n s . A l t h o u g h n o t a l l ' o p i n i o n s ' a r e o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members, seme may o r i g i n a t e f r o m some g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s o r d e r i v e f r o m a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mass media. The v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , however, c a n be p e r c e i v e d as a c h a n n e l f o r t h e s p r e a d o f o p i n i o n t o b o t h i t s members and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e l o c a l community. H a u s k n e c h t t e n d s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r o l e s o f v o l u n t a r y 6 2 o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e d u c a t i n g c i t i z e n s h i p and c r y s t a l l i z i n g o p i n i o n s have d i m i n i s h e d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y . However, h i s c o n c l u s i o n s s h o u l d n o t s i m p l y be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . The a c t u a l r o l e o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y w i l l be examined by means o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n P a r t Two o f t h i s t h e s i s . By c o m p a r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s and t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a y e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l and t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l i g h t may be s h e d on whether t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s n e e d t o be c o o r d i n a t e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n e d u c a t i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p and c r y s t a l l i z i n g o p i n i o n s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t . . 63 CHAPTER IV AREA PLANNING/NEIGHBORHOOD IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM *-hMQ ' NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE' : TSO EXAMPLES OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING AGENCIES I This chapter discusses the h i s t o r i c a l J | development of two types of community 1 | development agencies, ' l o c a l area planning with 1 I neighborhood improvement program* and | I * neighborhood houses*, The former represents the [ 1 governmental agency, whereas the l a t t e r | | represents the voluntary agency. The Riley Park | j NIP Committee and the Ki t s i l a n o House are chosen 1 I for empirical case studies. They are both r e a l | | organizations in the community. Their d i f f e r e n t \ I degrees of bureaucratic behaviour and roles of { i community developmental planning are | | investigated i n the next chapter. | L '. J 64 Due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e s and r o l e s o f t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s b o t h t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l o c a l p e o p l e and t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l e q i s l a t e d a u t h o r i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e improvement o f community l i v i n g . A l o c a l ( V a n c o u v e r ) example o f e a c h o f t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x a m i n i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t and l a t e n t f u n c t i o n s . , Some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r . The V a n c o u v e r C i t y model o f L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Program i s one example c h o s e n f o r a n a l y s i s . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g (LAP) a l o n g w i t h N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement P r o g r a m (NIP) i s an a t t e m p t t o worx w i t h a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e q u a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l n e i g h b o r h o o d ' s e n v i r o n m e n t ( V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1973: 1). I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e LAP and NIP i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r b e c a u s e , i n t h e p a s t , LAP had u s u a l l y come i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s d e s i g n a t e d f o r NIP and R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e P rogram (RRAP) f u n d i n g . A l t h o u g h NIP and RRAP d e a l t o n l y w i t h s t a b l e , p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e n t i a l , n e i g h b o r h o o d s , w h i l e t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h some LAP s i t e o f f i c e s i n u n s t a b l e ( i n t e r m s 65 o f l a n d use) n e i g h b o r h o o d s , most o f t h e LAP o f f i c e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n NIP a r e a s . F o r t h e sake o f c o n v e n i e n c e , LAP and NIP can be assumed t o be an i n t e g r a t e d g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y f o r i m p r o v i n g l o c a l a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e many so c a l l e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r *community d e v e l o p m e n t * . They a r e e i t h e r s m a l l s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s o r some t y p e o f r e s i d e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, t h e r e a r e n o t many f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e i n t e g r a t e d needs o f a c o m m u n i t y . , T h e r e f o r e , t h e • n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e ' was f i n a l l y c h o s e n a s an example o f a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d S e r v i c e s A s s c i a t i o n (N.S.A.) o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , d e c l a r e s i t s e l f a s a 'community d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y ' . . . A n e i g h b o r h o o d house i s t h e o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t o f p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n and c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and improvement o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d and i t s r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e c i t y o f which i t i s a p a r t . . . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c o n t i n u i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d house { N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and N e i g h b o r h o o d C e n t e r s , 1973). The B a j o r g o a l o f t h e N.S.A. i s t o ' i m p r o v e t h e g u a l i t y o f f a m i l y and n e i g h b o r h o o d l i f e * (N.S.A., A n n u a l R e p o r t 1976-77). T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e o r i g i n , g o a l s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s e two community d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , LAP w i t h NIP, and n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e . 66 MI 1 1 2 H NI£i A GOVERNMENTAL AGJNGX FOR CO MM ON 1 D E V E L O P M E N T A L PLANNING l i § l e g i s l a t i v e E v o l u t i o n Qf NIP Tne N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Program (NIP) and t h e R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program (REAP) a r e r e c e n t p r o g r a m s , b u t t h e i r r o o t s go deep i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g p o l i c y . B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s u n d e r t h e s e r e c e n t F e d e r a l programs e m p h a s i z e s p r o j e c t s i n w h i c h a c t i v i t y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e r t a i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s t o which b o t h NIP and REAP f u n d s a r e a p p l i e d . T h i s , t h e n , would i n c l u d e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f not o n l y t h e p h y s i c a l h o u s i n g s t o c k b u t a l s o i m p r o v e m e n t s t o m u n i c i p a l and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and c o u l d i n c l u d e c o - o p s o r non-p r o f i t g r o u p s where t h e i r e f f e c t s encompass a w e l l - d e f i n e d n e i g h b o r h o o d ( P e t e r B a r n a r d A s s o c i a t i o n , 1973:1), NIP i s u l t i m a t e l y a program f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t which u p g r a d e s b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f a community. , NIP was r o o t e d d e e p l y i n t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t (N.fi.A.) Urban Renewal P o l i c i e s . Urban r e n e w a l p o l i c i e s i n t h e 1940 *s f o c u s e d on t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b l i g h t e d a r e a s and r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h s o c i a l h o u s i n g . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h o u s i n g c l e a r a n c e . , I t was n o t u n t i l t h e 1960 's t h a t ' r e d e v e l o p m e n t * became t h e new i n t e n t i o n o f u r b a n r e n e w a l programs. As C r o s s and C o l l i e r (1967:1) had s t a t e d : The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e newly f o r m u l a t e d •urban r e n e w a l * program was t o g u i d e t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o c e s s o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t o f s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s a g r e e d 67 on by t h e community, as opposed t o m e r e l y a l l o w i n g t h e market t o t a k e i t s c o u r s e . T h i s change o f a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s u r b a n r e n e w a l became c l e a r e r i n t h e 1 9 7 0 » s ( H e l l y e r , 1969). L i t h w i c k {1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t : I f t h e aim o f a d e c e n t home f o r e v e r y C a n a d i a n i s t o be r e a l i z e d , h o u s i n g p o l i c y must p l a c e f a r g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on c o n s e r v i n g and r e c y c l i n g o u r e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e s . , T h i s gave r i s e t o t h e amendment t o t h e NHA i n J u n e , 1973, which a u t h o r i z e d t h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program, NIP and HEAP, t o a s s i s t t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r low and moderate income f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s , T h i s a l l o w e d t h e f e d e r a l government t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f an e n t i r e n e i g h b o r h o o d r a t h e r t h a n a mere few b l o c k s d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e n e w a l . The C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) makes c o n t r i b u t i o n s and l o a n s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f i m p r o v i n g t h e a m e n i t i e s o f o l d e r rundown n e i g h b o r h o o d s and t h e h o u s i n g a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s (CMHC, 1974:21), N e i g h b o r h o o d s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r NIP on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g and i n a d e q u a t e s o c i a l and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h NIP a t one time' a l l o c a t e d some f u n d s t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r low c o s t accommodation. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h o u s i n g i m p r o v e m e n t i s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h BBAP. The combined o b j e c t i v e s o f NIP and BBAP a r e t o r e v i t a l i z e and s t a b i l i z e l o w e r i n c o m e n e i g h b o r h o o d s by e n c o u r a g i n g community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s r u p t i n g t h e c y c l e o f e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n and r e d e v e l o p m e n t ( C o l l , 1973), The i d e a l s of community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g a r e 68 c a r r i e d out. t h r o u g h t h e s e programs by u p g r a d i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d c o n d i t i o n s and s e r v i c e s as w e l l a s e n c o u r a g i n g c i t i z e n i n p u t i n t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . S i n c e f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h as been underway, many comments and c r i t i c i s m s have been f o r w a r d e d by p l a n n e r s . The c h i e f m e r i t o f t h e program i s i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y by m i n i m i z i n g t h e r a t e o f r e s i d e n t i a l t u r n o v e r . I n a d d i t i o n , p l a n n e r s have a p p l a u d e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t a f f o r d e d by t h e program ( G a u t h i e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . However, many c r i t i c i s m s have been made r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e program. Major c o n c e r n s i n c l u d e d e l a y s i n p r o c e s s i n g t h e NIP a p p l i c a t i o n s ( C i t y o f T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1974), an o v e r e m p h a s i s on p h y s i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g (Chan, 1975), t h e v a g u e n e s s o f p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e g i t i m a t e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a nd t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f RRfiP f u n d s on a n e i g h b o r h o o d b a s i s . Many s u g g e s t e d t h a t NIP s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d i n p o o r e r n e i g h b o r h o o d s whereas RR&P s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d on a b r o a d e r b a s i s a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ( D e n n i s and F i s h , 1972:304). 69 L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g With NIP In V a n c o u v e r As t h e f e d e r a l government r e c o n s i d e r e d i t s u r b a n r e n e w a l p o l i c i e s i n t h e e a r l y 1970's, t h e Vanco u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department came up w i t h a d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h known as ' L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g ' (LAP). I t was b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t p l a n n i n g and some s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d more e f f e c t i v e l y a t a l o c a l l e v e l t h a n a t t h e c i t y s c a l e . The program a f f o r d s a v e r y c l o s e l o o k a t t h e c o m m u n i t i e s ' p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s , w h i l e l o c a l i z e d c o n c e r n s a r e examined w i t h i n t h e c i t y -wide c o n t e x t ( V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1973:1). The r e a s o n s f o r LAP a r e summarized a s : 1. P l a n n i n g would become more e f f e c t i v e , p r o v i d e d t h a t a s t r o n g c o n c e p t u a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e f u t u r e f o r m o f t h e c i t y i s a d h e r e d t o . More e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g would r e s u l t b e c a u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e would be i m p r o v e d t h r o u g h LAP and t h e c o n c e p t u a l p l a n o f t h e c i t y would be l o c a l i z e d t o f i t i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o f t h e c i t y . 2. LAP w o u l d b r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c l o s e r t o t h e p e o p l e . I t might i n s t i l l c o n f i d e n c e i n a r e a r e s i d e n t s , i n t h a t t h e y would be a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i r community; e s t a b l i s h two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n between r e s i d e n t s and c i t y h a l l ; t e n d t o humanize c i v i c b u r e a u c r a c y ; and a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e e x i s t i n g i m b a l a n c e s among n e i g h b o r h o o d s . 3. LAP might l e a d t o more c o o p e r a t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r e a r e s i d e n t s and c i t y h a l l i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s ( V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1977). 70 One t y p e o f LAP w h i c h i s b e i n g h i g h l i g h t e d a s a g o v e r n m e n t - i n i t i a t e d program f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e g u a l i t y o f community l i v i n g i s NIP and RRAP e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 27.1, 27.2 and 27.5 o f NHA. Wi t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e NIP and RRAP f u n d s , t h e LAP i s a b l e t o i m p r o v e t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s . The f i r s t y e a r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g and f i n a n c i n g LAP o f f i c e s i s u s u a l l y u n d e r t a k e n by t h e C i t y i t s e l f . The s e l e c t i o n o f LAP l o c a t i o n i s b a s e d more o r l e s s on t h e community need s f o r NIP. S u b s e g u e n t y e a r s o f f u n d i n g w i l l depend upon t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s f r o m NIP and RRAP. T h i s s y s t e m o f o p e r a t i n g LAP seems t o be w o r k i n g w e l l i n th e C i t y q f V a n c o u v e r , N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Pro g r a m s t o d a t e i n c l u d e K i t s i l a n o ( 1 9 7 4 ) , C e d a r Cottage ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Downtown E a s t s i d e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , f i t . P l e a s a n t (1976), R i l e y p a r k ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Grandview Woodland ( 1 9 7 6 ) , K e n s i n g t o n (1977) and K i w a s s a ( 1 5 7 7 ) , The NIP p r o j e c t now underway i n R i l e y P a r k h a s been c h o s e n as a c a s e s t u d y f o r f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s . NIP / LAP p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n t i e s as a means ISSUE PARTICIPATION ~>| ISSUE IDENTIFICATION NEIGHBORHOOD PLANNING o b j e c t i v e s achievement through o p p o r t u n t i e s UPGRADE NEIGHBORHOOD CONDITIONS FOSTER NEIGHBORHOOD BELONGINGNESS CHANNEL GOVERNMENTAL ASSISTANCE u l t i m a t e purpose COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING FIGURE 1 A MODEL SHOWING THE MEANS M i l OBJECTIVES OF NIP S LAP NIP g i t i z e n Committee B i l e y P a r k i s an u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , I t i s a w o r k i n g c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d w i t h a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c g r o u p s . I n May, 1976, NIP was announced f o r t h e B i l e y P a r k N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement A r e a ; t h e r e c t a n g l e b o r d e r e d by O n t a r i o and F r a s e r S t r e e t s and 16th and 37th Avenues, The f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o g e t h e r a l l o c a t e d 1,9 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , s u p p l e m e n t e d by BBAP, t o be s p e n t on p u b l i c p h y s i c a l i m provements. The f i r s t p u b l i c h e a r i n g was h e l d on D e e p , 1976, t o i n f o r m l o c a l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e d e s i g n a t i o n and the p u r p o s e s o f NIP and BBAP. At t h e end o f th e m e e t i n g , v o l u n t e e r s were c a l l e d f o r t o form a " B i l e y P a r k C i t i z e n ' s N.I.P. P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e " (N.I.P. C o m m i t t e e ) , The p u r p o s e s o f t h e NIP Committee a r e : 1, To p l a n and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o C i t y C o u n c i l f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of NIP f u n d s a l l o c a t e d t o B i l e y P a r k ; and 2, To make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o C i t y C o u n c i l on o t h e r m a t t e r s o f c o n c e r n t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g z o n i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s , s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l mix, h o u s i n g p o l i c y t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e and s i m i l a r i s s u e s . ( M i n u t e s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k C i t i z e n ' s NIP P l a n n i n g Committee M e e t i n g , J a n 4, 1976) The r o l e o f the NIP Committee s t a t e d i n t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e i s : 1. The NIP Committee s h o u l d be e n d o r s e d b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v i e w s o f R i l e y P a r k r e s i d e n t s on p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s . The NIP Committee w i l l a d v i s e t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . C i t y C o u n c i l h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . 2. I t w i l l be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e NIP Committee t o a s c e r t a i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e and t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t o p u b l i c i z e i t s d e c i s i o n s and 73 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community. 3. I t s h o u l d n o t be o n l y t h e m a j o r i t y v i e w i s made known on any i s s u e b u t a l s o a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o t h e r v i e w p o i n t s o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t may be s u g g e s t e d by r e s i d e n t s . 4. I n m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g B i l e y P a r k , the HIP Committee w i l l r e l a y i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o w h a t e v e r b o d i e s a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m a t t e r . 5. The NIP Committee w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n i t i a t e a n d/or r e v i e w and make re c o m m e n d a t i o n s on r e q u e s t s f o r NIP f u n d s u n t i l t h e program i s c o m p l e t e d o r u n t i l NIP f u n d s a r e expended., ( M i n u t e s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k C i t i z e n * s NIP P l a n n i n g Committee M e e t i n g , J a n 4 , 1976) The s t a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e NIP Committee t o C i t y H a l l i n t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d e : 1. The P l a n n i n g Department and B i l e y P a r k P l a n n e r w i l l a c t a s a r e s o u r c e f o r t h e l o c a l community by p r o v i d i n g g e n e r a l a s s i s t a n c e and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . 2. The B i l e y Park P l a n n e r and P l a n n i n g S t a f f w i l l be f u l l y e n t i t l e d t o f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l v i e w p o i n t s . , ' 3. A l l d i v e r g e n t v i e w p o i n t s between t h e P l a n n e r s o r C i t y S t a f f and t h e NIP Committee c a n be e x p r e s s e d b e f o r e t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . 4. C i t y C o u n c i l may d e s i g n a t e an a l d e r m a n t o l i a s e w i t h t h e NIP Committee. ( M i n u t e s o f t h e R i l e y P a r k C i t i z e n * s NIP P l a n n i n g Committee M e e t i n g , J a n 4 , 1976) Membership o f t h e NIP Committee i s open t o p e o p l e r e s i d i n g o r w o r k i n g i n t h e NIP a r e a , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f major community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a l s o t o t h o s e who l i v e o u t s i d e t h e NIP a r e a b u t have a c l e a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e f u t u r e o f R i l e y P a r k . Any p e r s o n o f e i t h e r c a t e g o r y c a n become a member i f he / s h e d e c l a r e s h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t i n j o i n i n g t h e Committee and a t t e n d s t h r e e o u t o f f i v e m e e t i n g s . And any member can l o s e h i s / h e r membership by m i s s i n g t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s w i t h o u t good r e a s o n o r by m i s s i n g f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e m e e t i n g s o v e r a s i x 74 month p e r i o d . The NIP Committee was s t a r t e d with about twenty members, but a t the present time, there are a t o t a l of f o r t y -t h r e e members. E i g h t y - f i v e percent of the present members belong t o the f i r s t c a t e g o r y , t h a t i s , they r e s i d e or work i n the E i l e y Park NIP area. These f o r t y - t h r e e members were chosen f o r e m p i r i c a l study as the 'core decision-making group" of a governmental community development agency. THE NEIGHBORHOOD HOBSE; A VOLUNTARY AGENCY FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING T h e • D i f f u s i o n Of The Settlement Movement The terms 'settlement house' and 'neighborhood house* are o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Sometimes neighborhood s e r v i n g agencies have c a l l e d themselves s o c i a l c e n t r e s , s o c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s , u n i v e r s i t y s e t t l e m e n t s or m u l t i - s e r v i c e c e n t r e s . The c o n f u s i o n among these terms i s r o o t e d deep i n the d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n s of the s e t t l e m e n t movement i n B r i t a i n and i n America. The term 'settlement' o r i g i n a t e d i n England when Samuel A. Barnett used i t t o d e s c r i b e a group o f people who ' s e t t l e d * i n a working-class neighborhood, i n order to b e t t e r understand and t o improve p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The term 'neighborhood house* became popular i n America with the spread o f a c t i v i t y and m u l t i -s e r v i c e c e n t r e s which d i d not emphasize t o t a l l y the b a s i c philosophy of ' s e t t l i n g i n a working c l a s s neighborhood* of the e a r l i e r C h r i s t i a n - r o o t e d s e t t l e m e n t movement. .However, i n a l l the settlements today, the neighborhood {or the ' l o c a l a r e a ' as 75 d e f i n e d by t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department) i s a c c e p t e d as t h e b a s e o f o p e r a t i o n . The s e t t l e m e n t was o r i g i n a t e d i n E n g l a n d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A f t e r t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , t h e " r i c h were g r o w i n g r i c h e r and t h e p o o r were g r o w i n g p o o r e r " . A r n o l d Toynbee i n t r o d u c e d t h i s new movement i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s by o r g a n i z i n g e d u c a t e d p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e c r owded w o r k i n g - c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d s i n an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d and e d u c a t e t h e i l l i t e r a t e . . A l t h o u g h he d i e d a t an e a r l y age, t h e f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t c e n t r e , named Toynbee H a l l , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1884 i n remembrance o f him. The s e t t l e m e n t s s p r e a d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g a i d o f a l l k i n d s t o t h e poor i m m i g r a n t s . J a n e Addams v i s i t e d Toynbee H a l l i n 1886 i n s e a r c h o f a s o l u t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s p r e v a l e n t i n t h o s e d a y s . B e t u r n i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s h e e s t a b l i s h e d one o f t h e most famous s o c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s i n A m e r i c a , t h e H u l l House o f H a l s t e d S t r e e t i n C h i c a g o (Addams, 1910,1930). By 1900, t h e s e t t l e m e n t movement had become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1911, t h e * N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and N e i g h b o r h o o d C e n t e r s ' was e s t a b l i s h e d so t h a t n e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t r e s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d s h a r e e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r on l o c a l , s t a t e , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . To c o n c l u d e , t h e g o l d e n d a y s o f t h e A m e r i c a n s e t t l e m e n t were h e l d i n h i g h esteem by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n (Handasyde, 1949:21). A h i g h d e g r e e o f c o o d i n a t i o n c a n be f o u n d among i n d i v i d u a l s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s . 76 The s e t t l e m e n t movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n s i s t s o f t h e c o m b i n e d a c t i v i t i e s o f two h u n d r e d and f i v e s e t t l e m e n t s and n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s , t e n c i t y f e d e r a t i o n s o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s and t h e N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and N e i g h b o r h o o d C e n t r e s . S i x t y - o n e a d d i t i o n a l n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s m a i n t a i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l membership; and a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y a r e many o t h e r c e n t r e s which have f e l t t h e i m p e t u s o f t h e movement. a c S o u l e , 1947:463) N e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s i n Canada have u n d e r g o n e many s u p e r f i c i a l c h a n g e s w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l p h i l o s o p h y . They c o n t i n u e t o work f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f n e i g h b o r h o o d s by j o i n i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n u r g i n g c i t y - w i d e i mprovements s u c h a s b e t t e r h o u s i n g , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . N e i g h b o r h o o d Houses I n V a n c o u v e r ' As t h e s e t t l e m e n t movement s p r e a d t o w e s t e r n Canada, n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n A l b e r t a and B.C. These n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s were marked b y t h e s e c u l a r s o c i a l work p h i l o s o p h y p r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e west. At p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e s i x n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r s e r v i c i n g t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . They a r e F r o g H o l l o w N e i g h b o r h o o d House, c e d a r C o t t a g e N e i g h b o r h o o d House, K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House, Mt., P l e a s a n t N e i g h b o r h o o d House, S o u t h V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o r h o o d House and t h e Gordon House. These n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s s e r v e t h e l o c a l a r e a s o f H a s t i n g - S u n r i s e , K e n s i n g t o n - C e d a r C o t t a g e , K i t s i l a n o , Mt. P l e a s a n t , V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w and t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d B e s t End r e s p e c t i v e l y . A n o t h e r non-NSA n e i g h b o r h o o d house s e r v i n g K i w a s s a i s t h e K i w a s s a N e i g h b o r h o o d House. The R i l e y P a r k 77 community i s a t p r e s e n t a c t i v e l y u n d e r t a k i n g a f u n d - r a i s i n g p r o j e c t f o r s e t t i n g up a new n e i g h b o r h o o d house. Most o f t h e s e l o c a l a r e a s s e r v e d by n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s a r e w o r k i n g c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l e r i c a l - l a b o u r w o r k e r s . The 1971 a v e r a g e a n n u a l i n c o m e s o f t h e i r p o p u l a c e r a n g e s f r o m $7,0 00 t o $9,999. The r e s i d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y p o o r l y e d u c a t e d and t h e unemployment r a t e o f t h e s e n e i g h b o r h o o d s i s a b o v e t h e c i t y a v e r a g e (1971 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r C e n s u s R e p o r t ) . The n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s have r e s p o n d e d t o Canada's m u l t i - e t h n i c i t y by p r o v i d i n g many i m m i g r a n t s ' programs s e r v i n g c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n e s e , I t a l i a n , I n d o - P a k i s t a n i e s and G r e e k s . S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s o f V a n c o u v e r a r e t a i l o r e d t o t h e needs o f t h e l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d s . S e r v i c e s c a n be c a t e g o r i z e d g e n e r a l l y i n t o f o u r major t y p e s : 1. S o c i a l s e r v i c e s s u c h as l e g a l a i d , f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g and w e l f a r e a i d ; programs s u c h as s e n i o r d r o p - i n s , y o u t h g r o u p s and c h i l d c a r e a r e a l l d e s i g n e d f o r a l o w e r - m i d d l e c l a s s n e i g h b o r h o o d . 2. J o b t r a i n i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f employment i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e unemployed and t e e n s . Most o f t h e f u n d s f o r t r a i n i n g t e e n s a r e g r a n t e d by t h e F e d e r a l Young Canada Works Program, 3. M u l t i - e t h n i c s e r v i c e s s u c h a s i n c o r p o r a t i n g programs o f t h e ' M u l t i -L i n g u a l O r i e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Immigrant c o m m u n i t i e s * . E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and c u l t u r a l programs s u c h a s f o l k f e s t i v a l s , s p e c i a l e v e n t s f o r f o s t e r i n g i n t e r - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n and t o h e l p new i m m i g r a n t s t o s e t t l e i n t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , 4. R e n t a l a i d s and r e f e r r a l s a r e s e t up f o r t h e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n and s e l f - h e l p programs a r e o r g a n i z e d a s a means t o promote n e i g h b o r h o o d a w a r e n e s s . 78 Six neighborhood houses of Vancouver are members of the •Neighborhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n of Greater Vancouver*. T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s a number of c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l members. , These i n c l u d e c e n t r a l i z e d accounting, p r o f e s s i o n a l resource help and o v e r a l l community-wide planning and development s e r v i c e s . Each i n d i v i d u a l neighborhood house i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r developing and o p e r a t i n g i t s own programs t o meet the needs of the l o c a l a reas i n which i t i s l o c a t e d . The major goal o f the A s s o c i a t i o n i s " t o improve the q u a l i t y of f a m i l y and neighborhood l i f e " (Neighborhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n of Greater Vancouver, 1977). T h i s g o a l i s s t r i v e n f o r through the p r o v i s i o n of a broad range of community and metropolitan-wide s e r v i c e s and the s t i m u l a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p groups. I t s purpose i s to i n i t i a t e a c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r -governmental e f f o r t t o peel the resources and knowledge of the c i t y , province and f e d e r a l agencies i n a s s i s t i n g neighborhoods. Each neighborhood house r e f l e c t s the needs and d e s i r e s of i t s neighbors, t h e r e are no d e f i n i t e and s i m i l a r immediate g o a l s among the v a r i o u s neighborhood houses i n Vancouver. However, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s f o r community development i s a c o n t i n u i n g f u n c t i o n of the neighborhood house. I t i n c r e a s e s l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e s ; e x e r t s pressure on governmental agencies to b r i n g needed r e s o u r c e s i n t o the community and enhances through p a r t i c i p a t i o n the competence of l o c a l people i n community problem-solving. The neiqhborhood house o f f e r s not a s p e c i f i c s e t of s e r v i c e s , but an approach t o neighborhood planning. ,This approach i n c l u d e s d i a g n o s i s of what i s wrong, r e a c h i n g out to the n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p , and m o b i l i z i n g 79 technical assistance and f i n a n c i a l resources to help residents find solutions i n terms which are meaningful to them. The neighborhood house uses both d i r e c t services and s o c i a l action to achieve these goals i n community developmental planning. ,  80 p r o v i d i n g oppor-t u n i t i e s as means NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s as means PARTICIPATION IN NEIGHBORHOOD -AFFARIS AND PLANNING X I' s : c I I I INFO & REFERRAL LEGAL AID SOCIAL ACTIVITIES EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM CULTURAL PROGRAM o b j e c t i v e s achievement t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s s e r v i c e s NEIGHBORHOOD AWARENESS LOCAL RIGHT ATTAINMENT CHANNEL GOVERNMENTAL ASSISTANCE IF ii 'I IA It I* I I I J _ UPGRADE QUALITY OF LIFE FOSTER INTERACTION SELF-RELIANCE SELF-HEEP u l t i m a t e purpose COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING u l t i m a t e purpose IIGfiSI 2 A MODEL SHOWING THE MEANS AND OBJECTIVES OF A NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 81 IfeS K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House K i t s House has been c h o s e n f o r e m p i r i c a l s t u d y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . The s e l e c t i o n o f K i t s House was b a s e d on i t s • p r e v e n t i v e and n o r m a l i z e d ' a p p r o a c h t o community s e r v i c e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h s t r e s s e s p o s i t i v e l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l s k i l l s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and i s s i m i l a r t o t h e p u r p o s e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s a new a p p r o a c h i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d house movement , when compared t o t h e ' d i r e c t s e r v i c i n g r e m e d i a l a p p r o a c h * w h i c h i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n o t h e r n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s o f V a n c o u v e r . The o b j e c t i v e s o f K i t s House o u t l i n e d i n i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a r e : 1) t o p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e t o p e r s o n s o r g r o u p s n e e d i n g i t 2) t o p r o v i d e s t i m u l a t i n g programs as a s o c i a l i z a t i o n o u t l e t and f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t 3) t o h e l p t h e community t o d e v e l o p i t s own s u p p o r t s y s t e m ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l e t c ) 4) t o c o n n e c t w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s t o know a b o u t t h e community*s ne e d s and t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h them t o meet t h e s e n e e d s 5) t o o r g a n i z e p e o p l e and r e s o u r c e s on b e h a l f o f t h e K i t s community 6) t o commit i t s p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and s t a f f t o w a r d c o n s t a n t a s s i s t a n c e and a d v o c a c y f o r i t s p e o p l e (U.S.A.., A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1976-77) Programs o f t h e K i t s House i n c l u d e : 1) f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s : i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g s and p a r e n t s - a n d - t o t s 2) c h i l d r e n ' s and y o u t h p r o g r a m s : a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l , o u t - o f - s c h o o l day c a r e and c h i l d c a r e w o r k e r s p r o j e c t 3) a d u l t p r o g r a m s : s e n i o r s d r o p - i n and t a l e n t n i g h t s 4) m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m s : E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r New C a n a d i a n s , o t h e r l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s and Greek f a m i l y n i g h t 5) s e r v i c e s : i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e , l e g a l 82 a d v i c e c l i n i c and c o u n s e l l i n g (N.S. A. A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1976-77) The s t r u c t u r e o f K i t s House c o n s i s t s of a B o a r d o f Management and a team o f s t a f f w o r k e r s . The B o a r d o f Management i s made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , f o r m e r c l i e n t s , b u s i n e s s m e n and l a w y e r s . T h i s B o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h on community needs , t r e n d s and i s s u e s , and f o r p o l i c y - m a k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f K i t s House. F u l l - t i m e s t a f f w o r k e r s who a r e m a i n l y s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g o u t p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g programs a d d r e s s i n g t h e n e e d s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e B o a r d . A t o t a l o f t h i r t y -s e v e n B o a r d members and {both f u l l and p a r t - t i m e ) s t a f f o f K i t s House were c h o s e n as t h e ' c o r e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g r o u p ' o f a v o l u n t a r y community d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y f o r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . £QNCIDSIjON_: Mkh ORGANIZATIONS V S IDE A i - T I P E ORG A M Z AT 10 N S -To c o n c l u d e , a l t h o u g h t h e NIP/LAP p r o g r a m and t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e a r e b o t h community d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s , t h e y have d i f f e r e n t means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t . NIP/LAP p r o v i d e s c h a n n e l s f o r c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h some l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s . C i t i z e n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t h e means t h r o u g h which n e i g h b o r h o o d i d e n t i t y i s f o s t e r e d and t h e community i s i m p r o v e d . Some community d e v e l o p m e n t s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u d i n g n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l s a r e p i c k e d up by t h e community t h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s . The n e i g h b o r h o o d house ( f o r e x a m p l e . K i t s House) p r o v i d e s b o t h d i r e c t s e r v i c e s s u c h a s c o u n s e l l i n g , j o b t r a i n i n g and day c a r e . 83 and o p p o r t u n i t i e s such as the K i t s i l a n o Community Forum and the Board of Management f o r c i t i z e n s to p l a n f o r the k i n d s of s e r v i c e s and development they want t o have i n t h e i r own neighborhood. Most neighborhood houses aim t o educate l o c a l r e s i d e n t s to become s o p h i s t i c a t e d and m o b i l i z i n g community l e a d e r s i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g . As t h i s t h e s i s moves from i d e a l - t y p o l o g i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s to e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some a l t e r a t i o n s from t h e o r e t i c a l v a r i a b l e s have to be po in ted c u t . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d any governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s p u r e l y r a t i o n a l i s t i c and based on t e c h n i c a l competence f o r r e c r u i t m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , there are very few p u r e l y human r e l a t i o n s and n o n - m e r i t - b a s e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , a l though the R i l e y Park NIP Committee was chosen f o r e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , one cannot expect i t to be t o t a l l y r a t i o n a l i s t i c . On the other hand, s t e r e o t y p i n g K i t s House as complete ly n o n - b u r e a u c r a t i c i s a l s o not c o r r e c t . Al though the R i l e y Park NIP Committee and K i t s House represent two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they are r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the s o c i e t y and t h e r e f o r e each may possess c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o t h e r . Cons ider the R i l e y Park NIP Committee as an example. Although there i s a s t r o n g b u r e a u c r a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the C i t y H a l l , the l o c a l area p lanners regard themselves as c o l l e a g u e s of the NIP committee r a t h e r than t e c h n o c r a t s s u p e r v i s i n g the Committee. In o ther words, the LAP/NIP approach to c i t y p l a n n i n g i s an attempt to break through the p r a c t i c e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c p l a n n i n g . Hence, even though i t i s a governmental 84 agency, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 'human re l a t i o n s ' model can also be found inside LAP/HIP. Kits House i s a voluntary organization. There are very personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and non-merit based recruitment between s t a f f workers and members. But i f Kits House i s viewed as members of the NSA and the United Hay, one has to admit that there i s a certain degree of bureaucratic r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a f f of NSA and United Say. The a l t e r a t i o n from t h e o r e t i c a l models i s also true i n a voluntary organization l i k e K i t s House. To conclude, i n choosing these two examples for empirical studies, i t was recognized that they are real organizations of the society. Their d i f f e r e n t degrees of bureaucratic behaviour and their roles i n the community are investigated i n the following chapter. 1 1 1 1 TWO EMPIRICAL RESEARCH The r o l e s of v o l u n t a r y and governemntal agencies are examined i n t h i s p a r t by means of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . The f i r s t p iece i n v e s t i g a t e s the r o l e of l o c a l the second l o o k s i n t o the c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e developmental pl a n n i n g . o f r e s e a r c h m o b i l i z a t i o n , and t a c t i c s used by i n community CHAPTEB V A ,HYJOIHMMl TIE BOLE OF LOCAL MOBILIZATISJ , , | Hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between I | the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l networks generated | | by, and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree of J | m o b i l i z a t i o n between v o l u n t a r y and governmental 1 | agencies are d e r i v e d from Chapter I I I . Concepts J I i n the hypotheses are a l s o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n | | t h i s chapter. I 87 O r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a t e s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s and l i n k e d t o t h e community which t h e y s e r v e . T h i s argument has a l r e a d y been p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , where t h e s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a n a l y z e d . C h a p t e r V and 71 w i l l s t u d y e m p i r i c a l l y t h e r o l e o f l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Two c a s e s a r e s e l e c t e d t o s e r v e t h i s p u r p o s e . The fiiley P ark NIP Committee and K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House a r e c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . , I n b r i e f , t h e r e s e a r c h on l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e s : ( 1 ) how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l ) i n i t i a t e p l a n s among t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l network w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and, (2) how l o c a l c i t i z e n s a r e m o b i l i z e d and p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a f f a i r s t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l n e twork g e n e r a t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s 88 HYPOTHESES T h e r e a r e t e n h y p o t h e s e s s t a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t o e x p l o r e and e x p l a i n t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e and r o l e s o f v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . The t h i r d c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s i m p l i e d a h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . By t h e o r y and d e f i n i t i o n , t h e v o l u n t a r y agency s h o u l d o r g a n i z e p e o p l e w i t h a h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e c r u i t members b a s e d on n e p o t i s m , and a d o p t a h u m a n i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l l t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u g g e s t more m u l t i p l e x i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s s t a t e d a s : THE MULTIPLEXITY OF FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS IN A SOCIAL NETWORK GENERATED BY AN 1 ORGANIZATION DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF ORGANIZATION WHICH GENERATES THE NETWORK OR; MORE MULTIPLEX RELATIONSHIPS ARE I A EFFECTED BY KITS HOUSE THAN BY THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE Many s o c i a l n e twork a n a l y s t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of m o b i l i z a t i o n i s dep e n d e n t upon t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s l i n k i n g members t o g e t h e r . M o b i l i z a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g c i t i z e n s , t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s o r o t h e r means, i n t o a s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l a c t i o n . The m u l t i p l e x i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e t e r m i n e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e , K a p f e r e r (1969:213) assumed t h a t t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s l i n k i n g p a i r s o f a c t o r s which a r e m u l t i p l e x a r e * s t r o n g e r ' t h a n t h o s e w h i c h a r e 89 u n i p l e x . By * s t r o n g e r ' , K a p f e r e r meant t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a b l e t o e x e r t g r e a t e r p u l l and i n f l u e n c e o y e r t h e p e r s o n s t o whom he has m u l t i p l e x l i n k s . H i g h i n t e n s i t y o f m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e would r e s u l t i n a w i l l i n g n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o i d e n t i f y l o c a l n e eds and t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s t o s u p p o r t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o h e l p members t o f o s t e r t h e i r s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i d e a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e y a r e a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s i n t h e community t o s h a r e t h e i r v a l u e s and have more a f f e c t f o r t h e i r own community. STR&NDS + FRE<aU£NCY i STRENGTH OF RELATIONSHIP INTENSITY OV MUTUAL IrtFUlENCg —I TO (PENTlFT* LOCAL NEEPS SENSE of B&i~oN6ti N$ MOTfVAT)OH TO PASS THE SENSE Of BSLOHifrtHG- TO OTHER LOCAL RESIDENTS TO PfltfTICJPOTt 4 CoNTfU&UXe AFFECT R>K tfetQHBORttObV \MI~L(N$NESS TO is pom OTHERS Of THE ISSUE THE RELATIONSHIP BETjJEBN MULTIPLEXITY AND MO^ILJ&AJ^ J I 9 0 T h e r e f o r e , a h y p o t h e s i s ( I I ) i s f o r m u l a t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e j o i n t o c c u r r e n c e o f m u l t i p l e x i t y and m o b i l i z a t i o n , THE HIGHER THE DEGREE OF MULTIPLEXITY OF FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS IN A SOCIAL NETWORK 3£ GENERATED BY AN ORGANIZATION, THE GREATER THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZING THE FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS TO PARTICIPATE IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING T h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n m u l t i p l e x i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The h i g h e r t h e d e g r e e o f m u l t i p l e x i t y , t h e g r e a t e r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . T h e s e l e a d t o a t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s : THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZATION OF THE FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS DEPENDS MAINLY ON THE TYPE OF THE ORGANIZATION TO WHICH THEY BELONG OR; AFTER CONTROLLING FOR THE EFFECTS OF SEX, EDUCATION AND OCCUPATION, THE J£A DEGREE OF MOBILIZATION AMONG FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS WILL BE HIGHER IN KITS HOUSE THAN IN THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE H y p o t h e s e s (I) and ( I I I ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e x i t y and m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s depend upon t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which g e n e r a t e s t h e network, s o i t c a n be f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : THE POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN _ MULTIPLEXITY AND MOBILIZATION I S STRONGER IN KITS HOUSE THAN IN THE S I L E Y PARK NIP COMMITTEE T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t e s t e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e measures a s s o c i a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s * m u l t i p l e x ^ y * and ' m o b i l i z a t i o n * d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . , o f i n 91 To g i v e a b r i e f summary b e f o r e g o i n g on t o t h e r e s t o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s , t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d f o u r h y p o t h e s e s have e x h i b i t e d two p o i n t s . F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t o f m u l t i p l e x s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n a r e d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s which g e n e r a t e them. S e c o n d l y , m u l t i p l e x i t y and m o b i l i z a t i o n a r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d . However, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c o n s e g u e n c e s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n a r e c a u s e d by t h e m u l t i p l e x i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e c o n t a c t s . In o t h e r words, t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made by K a p f e r e r (1969), N a d e l (1957) and o t h e r s o c i a l network a n a l y s t s had n o t been examined. T h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s l e a d t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s : AFTER CONTROLLING FOR THE TYPE OF ORGANIZATION (HYPOTHESIS I I I ) , THERE I S A PREDICTIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN * MULTIPLEXITY OF FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZATION OF THE FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS F i n a l l y , b a s e d on t h i s h y p o t h e s i s (V) and t h e p r e v i o u s l y made h y p o t h e s e s (I) and ( I I I ) , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n c l u d e w i t h a new h y p o t h e s i s : THE STRENGTH OF THE PREDICTIVE RELATIONSHIPS OF MULTIPLEXITY AND -y£ MOBILIZATION OF FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS (HYPOTHESIS V) WILL BE HIGHER IN KITS HOUSE THAN IN THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE A l l t h e above s i x h y p o t h e s e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n v o l v i n g t h e c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y -makers and t h e i r i m m e d i a t e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s . As f o r t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a t l a r g e , w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s e c o n d and s u b s e q u e n t o r d e r s o f c o n t a c t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , no c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be made. However, t h e s e s i x h y p o t h e s e s c a n be expanded s o a s t o t r a c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 92 m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community i f t h e r e a c h a b i l i t y and s o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o the whole community a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S i n c e t h e a c t u a l t r a c i n g o f s u b s e q u e n t o r d e r s o f c o n t a c t s i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s must r e l y on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e f i r s t o r d e r - c o n t a c t s who a r e m o b i l i z e d would keep on r e a c h i n g o u t t o t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s e c o n d , t h i r d and s u b s e q u e n t o r d e r s of c o n t a c t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e l a r g e r t h e number o f t h e f i r s t -o r d e r c o n t a c t s , t h e more e f f e c t i v e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community. The argument t h a t t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n r e a c h more p e o p l e b e c a u s e s t a f f c a n d e a l w i t h many g r o u p s i n a g i v e n day has a l r e a d y b e e n r a i s e d i n t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t o n l y o r g a n i z e d a s an • a c t i o n - s e t ' b u t i s ' m u l t i - p u r p o s e ' i n n a t u r e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s l i k e l y t o have a h i g h e r r e a c h a b i l i t y and a w i d e r r a n g e o f c o n t a c t s i n a community. To c o n c l u d e , one c a n h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t : KITS HOUSE CAN BEACH A LABGEB NUMBER OF -VTT FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS THAN THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE When t h e r a n g e o f c o n t a c t i s compared between o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Wheeldon (1969) s u g q e s t e d t h a t one h a s t o l o o k i n t o t h e s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e c o n t a c t s . S o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o t h e l o c a l community i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e a c h i n q o u t t o t h e community. P e o p l e u s u a l l y t e n d t o make f r i e n d s w i t h t h o s e who have a s i m i l a r s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d . Based on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s s o a s t o 93 e n s u r e a b e t t e r f i t o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t o r d e r s o f c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e community a s a whole. And i f t h e f i r s t o r d e r c o n t a c t s c h a n n e l i n f o r m a t i o n and f e e d b a c k from t h e community, t h e y c a n q a t h e r a b e t t e r imaqe o f t h e community a t l a r q e . T h e r e f o r e t h e s o c i a l network a n a l y s i s s h o u l d compare t h e r a n q e o f t h e n e t w o r k s i n t e r m s o f t h e s o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o t h e t o t a l community. The h i q h e r t h e d e q r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y , t h e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r e t h e i d e a s m o b i l i z e d on a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . With t h e ' m u l t i - p u r p o s e * c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r q a n i z a t i o n , h y p o t h e s i s ( V I I I ) c a n be f o r m u l a t e d : THE FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS OF KITS HOUSE - ^ r r - ARE SOCIALLY HO RE SIMILAR TO THE ^ L m - COMMUNITY WHICH I T SERVES THAN THE FIRST-ORDER CONTACTS OF THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE The p u r p o s e o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t o t e s t t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o t h e community. T h e r e i s no i n t e n t i o n t o a r g u e which community p o s s e s s e s a h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . T h e r e i s a commonly a c k n o w l e d g e d •myth' t h a t t h e h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a community h a s , t h e h i g h e r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i t s members i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , which c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s between m u l t i p l e x i t y and m o b i l i z a t i o n , h a s a l r e a d y been c o n t r o l l e d i n h y p o t h e s i s ( I I I ) . F i n a l l y , e f f i c i e n c i e s o f r e a c h i n g o u t t o and m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community do n o t m e r e l y depend on t h e r a n g e o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s , b u t a l s o on t h e f i r s t o r d e r c o n t a c t s 1 w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e a c h o u t t o o t h e r s and on t h e i r d e g r e e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . S i n c e h y p o t h e s e s ( I I I ) and ( V I I I ) have s u q q e s t e d 9 4 t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a h i g h e r r a n g e o f c o n t a c t s and t h e i r f i r s t o r d e r c o n t a c t s a r e more m o b i l i z e d , two f i n a l h y p o t h e s e s (IX) and (X) can be de d u c e d : THE SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT KITS HOUSE IS MORE LIKELY TO BE SOCIAL CONTACT, AND "XT THE EFFICIENCY OF REACHING OUT TO THE WHOLE COMMUNITY OF KITS HOUSE IS HIGHER THAN THAT OF THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE AND, I T I S MORE LIKELY THAT THE KITSILANO COMMUNITY HILL GIVE OPINIONS TO KITS HOUSE THAN THE RILEY PARK COMMUNITY WILL 32 GIVE OPINIONS TO THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE, AND THE EFFICIENCY I N MOBILIZING THE WHOLE COMMUNITY OF KITS HOUSE IS HIGHER THAN THAT OF THE RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE The d e f i n i t i o n of • e f f i c i e n c y * i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e number o f p e o p l e b e i n g r e a c h e d out t o o r m o b i l i z e d i n t h e community t o t h e number o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T hese e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o s a r e c a l c u l a t e d and compared a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . 95 0£ Efi AJJO NALIZ ATI 0 N Two key c o n c e p t s u s e d i n t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t e n h y p o t h e s e s a r e : Mult i £le x i t y . ^ M u l t i p l e x i t y d e n o t e s t h e • i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t e n t * o f t h e f l o w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e network. I t i s measured by two i n d i c a t o r s : (a) s t r a n d (STRAND): ' S t r a n d * i s d e f i n e d a s t h e number o f * n o r m a t i v e c o n t e n t ' o r • f o c u s o f i n t e r a c t i o n * o f t h e f l o w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( s u c h a s k i n s h i p , f r i e n d s h i p , n e i g h b o r i n g , common b e l i e f and i n t e r e s t ) . The number o f s t r a n d s t h a t b i n d t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t t o t h e Ego i s o b t a i n e d by a g u e s t i o n n a i r e i n w hich t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s c o n t a c t s a r e a s k e d o f t h e Ego. (b) f r e g u e n c y (FREQ) : • F r e g u e n c y * i s d e f i n e d as t h e f r e g u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e Ego and h i s c o n t a c t s meet. T h i s i n d i c a t o r i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n "How o f t e n do you meet?" i n t h e g u e s t i o n n a i r e . , M o b i l i z a t i o n ; M o b i l i z a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g c i t i z e n s i n t o a s t a t e o f r e a d i n e s s f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f m o b i l i z i n g t h e members o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n be o b s e r v e d t h r o u g h a s e t o f i n d i c a t o r s a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l members t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a s e l f -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i d e o l o g y and v a l u e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e two s e t s o f i n d i c a t o r s seem t o be v e r y i n t e r r e l a t e d , i n f a c t t h e y c a n b r i n g a b o u t d i f f e r e n t outcomes i n t e r m s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . The s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g u r g e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members t o r e a c h o u t t o o t h e r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o 96 j o i n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most o f t h e t i m e , t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a c h i n g o u t t o c i t i z e n s p r o m o t e s t h e d i f f u s i o n o f i s s u e s and i n f o r m a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a l u e s t o t h o s e who keep i n t o u c h w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n members. a p a r t f r o m m o b i l i z i n g members t o r e a c h o u t and p a s s t h i s s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o l o c a l c i t i z e n s , i n d i v i d u a l members a r e m o b i l i z e d t o i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s , and t o v o l u n t e e r f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o g r a m s . Once t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e a p a r t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y b e g i n t o s u p p o r t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n e m o t i o n a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y . A member who i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e v a l u e s and p u r p o s e s o f a community d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n h as an a f f e c t and f e e l i n g f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n which he i s r e s i d i n g . T h i s a f f e c t a l l o w s p a t i e n c e and n e i g h b o r l y c o n c e r n even when t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i s not p e r f e c t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , anyone who h a s n e g a t i v e a f f e c t f o r h i s n e i g h b o r h o o d would p r o b a b l y l e a v e t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d when i t began t o p h y s i c a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e o r became s o c i a l l y d e p r e s s i n g . T h e s e a r e v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s t o measure t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s c f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m o b i l i z e i t s own members o f a community. I n sum, t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f " e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s measured by t h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t i n d i c a t o r s t h r o u g h an i n t e r v i e w : (1) t h e d e g r e e o f a f f e c t f o r t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d when p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n c r e a s e s (DETEBJ) (2) t h e d e g r e e o f a f f e c t f o r t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d when v a n d a l i s m i n c r e a s e s (VANDAL) (3) t h e d e g r e e o f a f f e c t f o r t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d when z o n i n g b y - l a w c h a n g e s (ZONING) (4) t h e number o f community improvement s u g g e s t i o n s i n i t i a t e d t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s (INITIATE) 97 (5) t h e number o f p e o p l e r e a c h e d i n d i f f u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n (INDIOUTR) (6) t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o g i v e o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t agency (OPINION) (7) t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o v o l u n t e e r t o a s s i s t i n t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l programs (ASSIST) (8) t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n (SUPPORT) D e t a i l s o f r e s e a r c h methods f o r t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 98 CHAPTER VI. METHODOLOGY: THE ROLE OF LOCAL MOBILIZATION r 1 I T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s the r e s e a r c h methods used ) J to t e s t the t e n hypotheses of the prev i o u s f I chapter. F i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a re a l s o | | i n c l u d e d . j 99 Two c a s e s t u d i e s , K i t s i l a n o N e i g h b o r h o o d House and t h e R i l e y Park N e i g h b o r h o o d Improvement Program C i t i z e n s ' Committee, a r e c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g K i t s House i s i t s p r e v e n t a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o community work which i s c l o s e r t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f community d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n t h e r e m e d i a l a p p r o a c h e s o f o t h e r n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s i n V a n c o u v e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee i s c h o s e n s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t i s p r e s e n t l y i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e o f i t s program and t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s i n R i l e y P a r k have p u t g r e a t e f f o r t i n t o e n c o u r a g i n g c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . SAMPLING JE T HODS The c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y - m a k e r s o f e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d . The B o a r d of Management and t h e s t a f f o f K i t s House a r e r e g a r d e d as i t s p o l i c y - m a k e r s . T h i s c o r e group i s made up o f t h i r t e e n b o a r d members and t w e n t y - f o u r f u l l and p a r t t i m e s t a f f members, which make a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i r t y - s e v e n p o l i c y -makers o f K i t s House. The R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee i s made up o f f o r t y - t h r e e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . T h e s e c o r e g r o u p s f o r m e d t h e s a m p l i n g f r a m e s of t h e r e s e a r c h . A f i f t y p e r c e n t random s a m p l e was t a k e n f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s a m p l i n g f r a m e s , and t h e n e a c h s a m p l e d p e r s o n was a s k e d t o i n t r o d u c e some o f h i s / h e r 100 f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w . T h i s method o f c o l l e c t i n g s a m p l e s t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f r i e n d s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e s i s c a l l e d t h e ' s n o w b a l l s a m p l i n g method* by Trow (1957) and Coleman ( 1 9 6 4 : 4 4 4 ) . I n t h i s way, t h e s a m p l i n g p l a n f o l l o w s o u t t h e c h a i n s o f s o c i o m e t r i c r e l a t i o n s i n t h e community. A new s a m p l i n g l i s t o f t h i r t y - t w o f i r s t o r d e r -c o n t a c t s (n=32) was g i v e n by t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and a l i s t o f f i f t y - f o u r f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s (n=54) was g i v e n by t h e B o a r d members and s t a f f s o f K i t s House t h r o u g h t h e ' s n o w b a l l s a m p l i n g method*. B e c a u s e not a l l o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s were w i l l i n g t o i n t r o d u c e t h e i r c o n t a c t s names, o n l y t w e n t y o u t o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o (n=20) f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee members and t w e n t y - s i x o u t o f t h e f i f t y - f o u r (n=26) f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House were i n t e r v i e w e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e i r m u l t i p l e x i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e c o r e group p o l i c y - m a k e r s and on t h e d e g r e e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n i n t h e community. There i s a l i m i t a t i o n o f ' s e l f - s e l e c t i o n * embedded i n t h i s * s n o w b a l l s a m p l i n g method*. B e l u n c t a n c e t o g i v e i n f o r m a n t s * names may n o t r e s u l t s o l e l y f r o m a d e s i r e f o r c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , but p e r h a p s a l s o f r o m a f a i l u r e t o c o n t a c t o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s ' s e l f - s e l e c t i o n * o f s a m p l e s may l e a d t o an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . However, one c a n assume t h a t t h i s e f f e c t o f o v e r e s t i m a t i o n e x i s t s i n b o t h t h e B i l e y Park NIP Committee and K i t s i l a n o House, and hence d o e s n o t h i n d e r t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n of h y p o t h e s e s which a r e m a i n l y t h e c o m p a r i s o n s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s between t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s . , 101 i i SAMPLING METHODS " T J KITS HOUSE r I RILEY PARK •j I i 1 N o f c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y - m a k e r s | 37 (13 b o a r d | members + 24 | s t a f f ) T |43 NIP Commi-j t t e e members t 50% random sample f o r S n o w b a l l -s a m p l i n g ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) | 19 ! 22 q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s | 8 i 11 j i, q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n r a t e \ 8/19=42% i 11/22=50% T t i N o f 1 s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s by S n o w b a l l - s a m p l i n q | 54 ! 32 1 N o f 1 s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s i n t e r -v i ewed ( s e l f - s e l e c t e d ) I 26 ! 20 1 1 N o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d | 22 i 24 1 community p o p u l a t i o n base | 34000 T | 12000 J i . random s a m p l i n q f r a c t i o n | 0.065% -X _ _ 1 J . 0.2% _ J TABLE 3 SAMPLE S I Z E AND SAMPLE FRACTION-DATA COLLECTION The method o f c o l l e c t i n q s n o w b a l l s a m p l e s o f f i r s t o r d e r c o n t a c t s f r o m t h e c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y - m a k e r s i s t h r o u q h a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e t u r n r a t e f r o m t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee members and t h e K i t s House b o a r d members and s t a f f was 42% and 50% r e s p e c t i v e l y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a i n l y a s k s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o l i s t t h e r e l a t i v e s , n e i q h b o r s , workmates, f r i e n d s and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members t o whom t h e y had i n t r o d u c e d t h e NIP o r t h e K i t House p r o q r a m s . A sample o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n a p p e n d i x A., 102 I n t e r v i e w i n g was used t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e d e g r e e o f * m u l t i p l e x i t y * and t h e d e g r e e o f • m o b i l i z a t i o n ' of t h e f i r s t -o r d e r c o n t a c t s . , B o t h p e r s o n a l home i n t e r v i e w s and t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n J a n u a r y , 1978. The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y - m a k e r s o f t h e i r own a g e n c y , and a l s o t h e d e g r e e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e i r a f f e c t f o r t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d as h o u s e s d e t e r i o r a t e , v a n d a l i s m i n c r e a s e s and z o n i n g c h a n g e s ; t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e a c h o u t t o o t h e r s ; t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e n e i g h b o r h o o d improvement s u g g e s t i o n s ; t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s i s t i n i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o g r a m s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A sample o f t h e d e t a i l e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i s i n A p p e n d i x B. , I n o r d e r t o c o l l e c t d a t a on t h e number o f i n f o r m e d and m o b i l i z e d l o c a l c i t i z e n s i n t h e two s a m p l e s a r e a s , s a m p l e f r a c t i o n s o f 0.2% and 0.065% o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a and K i t s i l a n o r e s p e c t i v e l y were t a k e n r a n d o m l y from t h e t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y . T e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d t o a s k them whether t h e y had h e a r d o f K i t s House o r t h e NIP and w h e t h e r t h e y have e v e r p r e s e n t e d s u g g e s t i o n s o r o p i n i o n s t o K i t s House o r t h e R i l e y Park NIP C o m m i t t e e . Twenty-f o u r and twenty-two p e o p l e were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a and K i t s i l a n o r e s p e c t i v e l y . 103 i l T H O D S OP ST A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS To f i n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two n o m i n a l o r o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , one c a n make u s e o f t h e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s and a p p r o p r i a t e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n t o measure t h e e x t e n t t o which two v a r i a b l e s a r e ' r e l a t e d * t o one a n o t h e r o r t h e e x t e n t t o which one v a r i a b l e depends on a n o t h e r . C o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s which a r e made up o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d h y p o t h e s e s were c o n s t r u c t e d and a p p r o p r i a t e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d by t h e * S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s * (SPSS). The c h o i c e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f h y p o t h e s e s was c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . Goodman and K r u s k a l (1954) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d c h o o s e a measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n w hich i s c o n t e x t u a l l v m e a n i n g f u l a n d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h i s o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h : I f t h e use t o w h i c h a measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n were t o be put c o u l d be p r e c i s e l y s t a t e d , t h e r e would be l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e measure... The b a s i c theme o f t h i s p a p e r i s t h a t , e v e n t h o u g h a s i n g l e p r e c i s e g o a l f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a n n o t be s p e c i f i e d , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e t o c h o o s e a measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h has c o n t e x t u a l meaning, i n s t e a d o f u s i n g a s a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e one o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l measure... (Goodman and K r u s k a l , 1954:734-5) 104 T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a measure depends c h i e f l y on i t s a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e and n a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s and t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d a t a . T h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two t y p e s o f measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n b a s e d on two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . The f i r s t s c h o o l i s ba s e d on t h e n u l l - h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e ( TC*) . The measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s A and B i s t h o u q h t t o be t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r j o i n t o c c u r r e n c e and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t would h o l d t r u e i f A and B were i n d e p e n d e n t . T h a t i s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f two a t t r i b u t e s i s measured b y t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e o b s e r v e d t a b l e d i f f e r s f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d ( i n d e p e n d e n t ) t a b l e . , Examples o f t h i s t y p e o f measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n a r e t h e C r a m e r ' s V, T s c h u p r o w ' s T a n d P e a r s o n ' s C ( C o e f f i c i e n t o f C o n t i n g e n c y ) . The s e c o n d s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t c o n c e p t u a l i z e s a s s o c i a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f p r e d i c t i o n . I t c a l c u l a t e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e d u c t i o n o f e r r o r (PRE) i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e c a t e g o r y o f c a s e s on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i f one knows t h e c a t e g o r y on t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and has a t hand t h e t a b l e s h o wing how t h e y a r e a s s o c i a t e d . ' E r r o r ' s t a t i s t i c a l l y means t h e d i f f e r e n c e between sample s t a t i s t i c s (means, medians o r p r o p o r t i o n ) s u b j e c t t o s a m p l i n g f l u c t u a t i o n (HcNemar, 1962:79). • S t a n d a r d e r r o r * i s t h e r e f o r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f sample s t a t i s t i c s a r o u n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s ( L e w i s , 1963:215). When we have means f o r two s a m p l e s which have been drawn i n d e p e n d e n t l y , t h e r e w i l l be no way o f a s s o c i a t i n g them e x c e p t on a c h a n c e b a s i s and c h a n c e a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l p r o d u c e a 105 z e r o c o r r e l a t i o n (McNemar, 1962:83). But s t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h e r e d u c t i o n o f e r r o r c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o r d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l measurement (McNemar, 1962: 8 4 ) . B a s e d on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , t h e measure o f a s s o c i a t i o n c a n be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t e r m s o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f p r e d i c t i o n . E xamples o f PBE measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n a r e K r u s k a l ' s Tau and Lambda f o r n o m i n a l v a r i a b l e s and Gamma f o r o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s . A l l t h e s e measures r e p r e s e n t t h e d e g r e e t o w h ich e r r o r may be r e d u c e d by v i r t u e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between the, two v a r i a b l e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a r g u m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e c h o i c e o f measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n . C o s t n e r (1965) c r i t i c i z e d t h e f i r s t s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t ( lC~ ) a s measures r e f l e c t d e p a r t u r e f r o m a d e s i g n a t e d f o r m o f n o n - r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i . e . s t a t i s t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e ) r a t h e r t h a n r e f l e c t c l o s e n e s s t o a d e s i g n a t e d form•• o r shape o f r e l a t i o n s h i p — t h u s a PBE i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a n n o t be made w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e r u l e f o r e s t i m a t i n g one v a r i a b l e f r o m t h e knowledge o f a n o t h e r . T h i s c r i t e r i o n would make t h e shape o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p l i c i t . A n o t h e r f a c t w h i c h Goodman and K r u s k a l p o i n t e d o u t i s t h a t use o f c h i - s q u a r e f o r t h e t e s t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e d o e s n o t a t a l l mean t h a t c h i - s q u a r e i s an a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f d e g r e e o f a s s o c i a t i g n ^ F i n a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o A n d e r s o n and Z e l d i t c h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , t h e use o f t h e t e s t o f h y p o t h e s i s o f z e r o a s s o c i a t i o n which i s t h e b a s i s o f a l l t r a d i t i o n a l measures o f c h i - s q u a r e has t o depend on t h e k i n d o f p r o b l e m t h e r e s e a r c h i n t e n d s t o i n v e s t i q a t e . 106 "The t e s t i n g o f a t h e o r y ( w h i c h i m p l i e s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n ) t h r o u g h t h e use o f s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t h a n does t h e p r o b l e m o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n a g i v e n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T he n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i s o r d i n a r i l y t e s t e d , namely, t h a t two v a r i a b l e s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t , i s v e r y u s e f u l i n t h e l a t t e r k i n d o f r e s e a r c h b u t n o t i n t h e f o r m e r k i n d . I t i s more s e n s i b l e t o t e s t o t h e r t y p e s o f h y p o t h e s e s when e n g a g i n g i n t h e t e s t i n g o f a t h e o r y " . ( A n d e r s o n and Z e - l d i t c h , 1968:303) A l t h o u g h B l a l o c k (1972) had n o t made t h i s arguement e x p l i c i t , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e use o f o t h e r measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n which he r e f e r r e d t o as " p r o b a b l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , he i m p l i e d t h a t t h e s e measures e n a b l e one t o e x p l a i n t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s f o r some o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( B l a l o c k , 1972:301). The c h o i c e between t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c h i - s q u a r e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e PRE measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n d e p ends on t h e t y p e o f h y p o t h e s i s which t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n t e n d s t o v e r i f y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e u s e o f p h i - c o e f f i c i e n t (<P ) , P e a r s o n ' s C ( £ ) , C r a m e r ' s V and T s c h u p r o w ' s T a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e i n v e r i f y i n g t h e j o i n t o c c u r r e n c e o f two v a r i a b l e s , whereas t h e use o f PRE measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n s u c h as lambda { ^  ) , Gamma { f ) and Tau ( T ) a t t e m p t s t o pr o v e t h e ' d i r e c t i o n a l ' o c c u r r e n c e o f a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e c a u s e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . The PRE measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l t o t e s t a t h e o r y t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e c a u s e s o f phenomena whereas t h e z e r o -a s s o c i a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s e x p l o r e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among v a r i a b l e s , The s e l e c t i o n o f measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o 107 t h e p u r p o s e s o f h y p o t h e s e s a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : r-l • HYPOTHESES -1 — - — - — |MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION USED • , I i 1 1 1 i I , I I I , I V 1 |PRE measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n j (Gamma f o r o r d i n a l o r d i c h o t o m i z e d v a r i a b l e s ) 1 T 1 1 1 V, VI i ••• 1 •• J d i r e c t i o n a l m easures o f a s s o c i a t i o n | ( K e n d e l l ' s Tau B) 1 1 1 1 1 I I , V I I I i ( c h i - s q u a r e measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n | ( t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o n t i n g e n c y i s 1 n o m i n a l and o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s ) 1 .... ... .... — r ... • , u s e d f o r b o t h 1 I X , X ( •' | C h i - s q u a r e t e s t and F i s h e r ' s E x a c t I n . . . t e s t TABLE j[41 SELECTION OF MEASURES S1SEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION H y p o t h e s i s XJJL • M u l t i p l e x i t y 1 i s measured by two v a r i a b l e s ; t h e a b s o l u t e numbers o f s t r a n d s t h a t b i n d t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o t h e c o r e q r o u p p o l i c y - m a k e r s and t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h which t h e y meet f o r i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n q e p u r p o s e s . The f i n d i n q s ( A p p e n d i x C) show t h a t (1) t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e d u c t i o n o f e r r o r i n j p r e d i c t i n q t h e a b s o l u t e number o f s t r a n d s knowinq t h a t K i t s House i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s 58.6% (#* - 0.586), and (2) t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e d u c t i o n o f e r r o r i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t i f t h e t y p e o f o r q a n i z a t i o n i s g i v e n i s 67.2% ( Y =0.672). I t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y ( l e s s t h a n 0.05 s i q n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ) t h a t one w i l l f a i l t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t • t h e r e i s no a s s o c i a t i o n between " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " o r q a n i z a t i o n " i n t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m which 46 s a m p l e s were drawn*. I n o t h e r words, more m u l t i p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e 108 e f f e c t e d by. K i t s House t h a n by. t h e B i l e y Park NIP Committee. -; T h e r e a r e t h r e e f a c t o r s a c c o u n t i n g f o r a h i g h e r m u l t i p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p i n K i t s H o u s e . , F i r s t l y . K i t s House i s a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r community d e v e l o p m e n t . Members a r e r e c r u i t e d m o s t l y i n v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s on t h e b a s i s o f n e p o t i s m . Many r e l a t i v e s , workmates, f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s who have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e K i t s House p r o g r a m s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a h i g h e r o c c u r r e n c e o f m u l t i - s t r a n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e c o r e g r o u p p o l i c y -makers and t h e i r f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e phenomenon i s due t o t h e m u l t i - p u r p o s e n a t u r e o f K i t s House. K i t s House o f f e r s v a r i o u s k i n d s o f p r o g r a m s . Many o f t h o s e who b e l o n g t o one program b e l o n g t o a n o t h e r a s w e l l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a f f o f t h e K i t s House e s t a b l i s h m u l t i - s t r a n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s i n v a r i o u s programs., And f i n a l l y . K i t s House has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n K i t s i l a n o f o r more t h a n two d e c a d e s . Time i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t t h a t p r o d u c e s more m u l t i p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members and between s t a f f and members. T h e r e f o r e 53.9% o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House have more t h a n one s t r a n d when compared t o o n l y 25% i n t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee. The f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " f r e q u e n c y " and " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " i s s i m p l y t h e p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between " s t r a n d " and " f r e q u e n c y " ( X =0.919) (Appendix D). Once t h e r e i s a h i g h e r number o f s t r a n d s t h a t b i n d t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e c o r e g r o u p , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l have more f r e g u e n t f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s . 109 H y p o t h e s i s l l l l i The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t t h e two v a r i a b l e s , " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " , a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r i n t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m which s a m p l e s a r e drawn. a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s f i r s t u s e d t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . I f a 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s c h o s e n , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s between a l l i n d i c a t o r s o f " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " , e x c e p t "FREQ & VANDAL", i s r e j e c t e d ( A p p e n d i x E) . The c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s s h owing t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i c a t o r s o f " m u l t i p l e x i t y " (STRAND & FREQ) and i n d i c a t o r s o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " (DETERI, VANDAL, ZONING, I N I T I A T E , INDIOUTR, SUPPORT, OPINION AND ASSIST) a r e shown i n App e n d i x E. The t o t a l w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e ' C between i n d i c a t o r s o f " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s 0.455. I f a 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s c h o s e n , t h e h u l l h y p o t h e s i s between a l l i n d i c a t o r s o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " and " m u l t i p l e x i t y " , e x c e p t "FREQ S VANDAL" and "FREQ & SUPPORT", i s r e j e c t e d . I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h e u n i v e r s e from which 46 s a m p l e s were drawn. The above two s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e d e g r e e o f m u l t i ] B l e x i t y o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s i n a s o c i a l network q e n e r a t e d by an o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z i n g t h e f i r - s t - o r . d e r - c o n t a c t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community d e v e l Q P g e n t a l £ l a n a i n g A 110 M i f i o t h e s i s J I I I L i I n o r d e r t o l e a r n whether o r not t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s s p u r i o u s ( t h a t i s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p depends on o r i s a f f e c t e d by a t h i r d v a r i a b l e ) . B a b b i e (1975:409) s u g g e s t e d t h e use o f t h e • e l a b o r a t i o n t e c h n i g u e * t o e x amine t h e o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " w h i l e h o l d i n g t h e t h i r d v a r i a b l e s (which a r e m a i n l y d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ) c o n s t a n t . I f t h e p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s d i f f e r f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " when t h e t h i r d v a r i a b l e i s i n t r o d u c e d , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a f f e c t e d by t h a t t h i r d ( c o n t r o l l i n g ) v a r i a b l e . F i v e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a r e u s e d as t h e c o n t r o l l i n g v a r i a b l e s t o t e s t t h e o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . They a r e : e t h n i c o r i g i n (ETHNIC), s e x (SEX), l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e (LENBES) , o c c u p a t i o n (OCC0P), and e d u c a t i o n (EDUC) o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s . The f i r s t d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l e d f o r i s " e t h n i c i t y " o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t (ETHNIC). The o v e r a l l p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n v a r i e s m i n i m a l l y ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.05) when one c o n t r o l s f o r " e t h n i c " (Appendix F ) . However, i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t e t h n i c i t y does have an e f f e c t on s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s , s u c h a s "DETEBI" and " I N I T I A T E " . P e o p l e o f b r i t i s h o r i g i n t e n d t o have a h i g h e r a s s o c i a t i o n between " I N I T I A T E 6 OfiG", w h i l e o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s t e n d t o h a v e a h i g h e r a s s o c i a t i o n between "DETEBI € OBG". At any r a t e , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f t h e s e two p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s r a t h e r 111 s m a l l (0.1 and 0.2) which i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t p r o b a b i l i t y o f s a m p l i n g e r r o r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between "DETERI S ORG" and " I N I T I A T E G ORG" s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p o r t a n t . T h e s e two i n d i c a t o r s do n o t a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l m i n i m a l v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s when "ETHNIC" i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e t h n i c g r i g i n has no. e f f e c t on t h e £3Jl§Sl r e l a t i o n s h i p between t j j g e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of m o b i l i z a t i o n s t i l l h o l d s t r u e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . The s e c o n d d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e which i s u s e d t o t e s t t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e " s e x of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s " ( S E X ) . Appendix G shows t h e p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f "ORG & MOBILIZATION" when "SEX" i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . The o v e r a l l w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e o f Y f o r f e m a l e s i s 0.329 h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e male r e s p o n d e n t s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s " I N I T I A T E £ ORG", where t h e v a l u e o f Y i s 0.45 h i g h e r among male r e s p o n d e n t s . S i n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " 'SEX» i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f * TYPE OF ORG *" i s r e j e c t e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t K i t s House would r e a c h o u t t o f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n o f 110RG £ MOBILIZATION" i s atfeeteg by. "SEX". The t h i r d d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e w h i c h i s u s e d t o t e s t t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e " l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e " (LENRES), The w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e o f t h e p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s more o r l e s s t h e same a s t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n (0.5) between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s ( A ppendix H). A l t h o u g h i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between "DETERI S ORG" has an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h v a l u e i f t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e s i d e s i n h i s n e i g h b o r h o o d f o r more t h a n 5 y e a r s . 112 t h i s f a c t does n o t have much e f f e c t on t h e o v e r a l l w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e . The r e a s o n f o r a h i g h p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e o f 1.0 between "DETERI & ORG" i f t h e "LENRES" i s above 5 y e a r s i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own h o u s e s may a l r e a d y have d e t e r i o r a t e d , and hence t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e more e a g e r t o see NIP o r K i t s House t a k e some p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . However, t h e s i m i l a r o v e r a l l p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e J!!e£3th o f r e s i d e n c e * 1 - has no e f f e c t on t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e I'type Q£ S i a a f i i z a t i o n ^ and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . The f o u r t h d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l e d f o r i s " o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s " (OCC0P). A p p e n d i x I shows t h e p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etween " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " a n d " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i f "OCC0P" i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r h i g h p r e s t i g e j o b s ( i n c l u d i n g m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e a c h i n g and m e d i c a l ) and low p r e s t i g e j o b s ( i n c l u d i n g c l e r i c a l , s e r v i c e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . Even when i n d i c a t o r s w i t h a low s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l Csuch as I N I T I A T E and OPINION) have been e x c l u d e d , t h e r e i s s t i l l a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y f o r r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h low p r e s t i g e j o b s t o have a h i g h a s s o c i a t i o n Y between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . The w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e " y " v a r i e s by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.2 when "OCCUP" i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . T h e r e f o r e , o c c u p a t i o n ' s t a t u s do es have an e f f e c t on t h e p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i f i between 2*ty.jp.e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n " . The l a s t d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e used t o t e s t t h e o r i g i n a l a s o c i a t i o n i s " y e a r s o f f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g " (EDDC), R e s p o n d e n t s ' y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n a r e b r o k e n down i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h 13 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n as t h e b o u n d a r y o f 113 d i v i s i o n . T h i s g r o u p boundary i s c h o s e n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h l e s s o r more t h a n h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h o s e who h a v e more t h a n 13 y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h i m p l i e s t h o s e who were e d u c a t e d i n a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l o r a u n i v e r s i t y , have a p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.1 h i g h e r t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . In a d d i t i o n , t h e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s e x h i b i t an o v e r a l l p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f 0.1 l e s s t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ( A p p e n d i x I ) . T h e r e f o r e , e d u c a t i o n has some e f f e c t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . A p p e n d i x I shows t h a t t h e r e - i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p / between e d u c a t i o n , m o b i l i z a t i o n and i l E e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . . :„ A l t h o u g h one c a n n o t p r o v e whether o r n o t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s s p u r i o u s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t b o t h t h e !lty.£e o f o r q a n i z a t i o n " and ye du c a t ion;.;,, as Hausk n e c h t (19621, Remonstrated, a c c o u n t s f o_r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f y g o f c i l i . z a t i o n ^ . The p a r t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p can be f u r t h e r b r o k e n down by s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t o r s o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . I n d i c a t o r s w i t h a s m a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l , a p p r o a c h i n g z e r o , can a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d from f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The r e m a i n i n g i n d i c a t o r s ( t h a t i s , DETERI, VANDAL and ZONING ) show a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n when c o n t r o l l i n g f o r "EDUC". Among t h e above t h r e e i n d i c a t o r s , t h e p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r "DETERI 6 ORG" and "ZONING £ ORG" a r e h i g h e r i f t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i s h i g h e r . But t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e v e r s e d f o r "VANDAL S ORG". T h i s shows t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a r e s p o n d e n t h a s , t h e more l i k e l y t h e r e s p o n d e n t would be t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y i f v a n d a l i s m were t o 114 i n c r e a s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e s p o n d e n t w o u l d l i k e l y be m o b i l i z e d t o t a k e some p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n were t o i n c r e a s e o r z o n i n g were t o change. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c r e a t e a h i g h e r p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n between " m o b i l i z a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n " . A r e v e r s e t r e n d a p p e a r s f o r c e r t a i n i n d i c a t o r s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n s u c h as "VANDAL" and "OPINION". I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . K i t s i l a n o i s w e l l known as a u n i v e r s i t y - s t u d e n t - c o m m u n i t y i n V a n c o u v e r . S i n c e K i t s House draws r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o i t s p r o g r a m s , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t i t draws a f a i r number of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e b o t h t h e r e i n f o r c i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n may be i n v o l v e d i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , f r om t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , one c a n i n f e r t h e age o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . . S o c i o l o g i s t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n o f c u r s o c i e t y i s u s u a l l y more e d u c a t e d t h a n t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n due t o t h e c u m u l a t i v e k nowledge i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y and t h e demand f o r e d u c a t i o n i n a s o c i a l l y m o b i l e s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e most o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s i n K i t s House a r e n o t o n l y h i g h l y e d u c a t e d , b u t t h e y a r e a l s o younger i n age, and h e n c e more a g g r e s s i v e and more m o b i l i z e d i n t a k i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n , . , The above a n a l y s e s show t h a t "SEX, OCCUPATION S EDUCATION" i n t e r v e n e t h e p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between " o r g a n i z a t i o n and m o b i l i z a t i o n " . One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s may a l s o be i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t can be assumed t h a t 115 "SEX" i s r e l a t e d t o "OCCUPATION" i n t h e s e n s e t h a t male r e s p o n d e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o p o s s e s s h i g h p r e s t i g e j o b s . T h e r e f o r e , b o t h "male" and " h i g h p r e s t i g e j o b " r e s p o n d e n t s show a r a t h e r low d e g r e e o f p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n between " o r g a n i z a t i o n and m o b i l i z a t i o n " . "EDUCATION" i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o "SEX". T h e r e a r e a number o f f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s o f K i t s House who a r e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and who r e p o r t e d a r a t h e r h i g h d e g r e e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d e p t h o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s beyond t h e s c o p e od t h i s t h e s i s . " O c c u p a t i o n " i s r e g a r d e d as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . I t l o w e r s t h e p a r t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s a s " o c c u p a t i o n " s t a t u s i n c r e a s e s . I n o t h e r words, " o c c u p a t i o n " must n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e t o " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . On t h e o t h e r hand, c o n t r o l l i n g f o r " e d u c a t i o n " a l s o shows t h a t c e r t a i n i n d i c a t o r s o f " e d u c a t i o n " have e f f e c t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f " o c c u p a t i o n " . I f " s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s " i s i n d i c a t e d by b o t h " e d u c a t i o n " and " o c c u p a t i o n " , t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t " e d u c a t i o n " i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d o n l y t o c e r t a i n d i m e n s i o n s ( o r i n d i c a t o r s ) o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " , a n d " o c c u p a t i o n " has a n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h " m o b i l i z a t i o n " . 116 H y p o t h e s i s ( I V ) : I n o r d e r t o v e r i f y whether t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s h i g h e r i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e above two v a r i a b l e s a r e b r o k e n down a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o n t i n g e n c y s h owing t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i n d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( K i t s House and R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee) a r e compared. S i n c e t h e w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e "C" between " s t r a n d " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s 0.214 h i g h e r i n K i t s House and i t s w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e "C" between " f r e q u e n c y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s 0.106 h i g h e r i n K i t s House (A p p e n d i x K ) , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u l t i p l e x i t y and m o b i l i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g e r i n K i t s House t h a n i n t h e R i l e y Park NIP Committee. The above c o m p a r i s o n o f "C" shows t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s h i g h e r i n K i t s House t h a n i n t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP C o m m i t t e e , b u t i t does n o t i n d i c a t e t h e s i z e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e . A n o t h e r method i s t o compute t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h i s p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n o f " m u l t i p l e x i t y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " between K i t s House and t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee ( A p p e n d i x L ) , , T h e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i s 30X h i g h e r i n K i t s House t h a n i n t h e R i l e y Park NIP Committee. I f a t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two p r o p o r t i o n s i s c o n d u c t e d (Appendix M), a l l t h e r e s u l t a n t Z-r a t i c s a r e l a r g e r t h a n t h e Z - r a t i o (1.65) r e g u i r e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e ven a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l . I t i s t h u s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h o s i s t h a t " t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f 117 p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n i n a m u l t i s t r a n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n K i t s House i s e q u a l t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n i n a m u l t i s t r a n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e E i l e y P a r k NIP Committee" may be r e j e c t e d . In o t h e r words, t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s (which t h e p r e v i o u s p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e t e s t p r o v e d t o be a s t r o n g e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p i n K i t s House) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " and " m u l t i p l e x i t y " , , H y p o t h e s i s jV).: The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s c f m o b i l i z a t i o n depends upon t h e d e g r e e o f m u l t i p l e x i t y i s p r o v e d by u s i n g t h e a s y m m e t r i c ( d i r e c t i o n a l ) measures o f a s s o c i a t i o n ( K e n d a l l ' s Tau B w i t h m o b i l i z a t i o n d e p e n d e n t ) . I f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " m u l t i p l e x i t y " i s u s e d t o p r e d i c t t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e " m o b i l i z a t i o n " , t h e r e i s 0,41 p a i r o f t h e p r o p e r o r d e r e x c e e d i n g i n number t h o s e i n t h e r e v e r s e o r d e r ( A p p e n d i x N). T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s a p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m u l t i p l e x i t y o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s and t h e - e f f e c t i y e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s . \ 118 H y p o t h e s i s J V I l i With " m o b i l i z a t i o n " as a dependent v a r i a b l e i n c o m p a r i n g t h e a s y m m e t r i c K e n d e l l * s Tau B o f " m o b i l i z a t i o n " and " m u l t i p l e x i t y " between t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( a p p e n d i x 0) , t h e w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e Tau between " s t r a n d " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s 20% h i g h e r i n K i t s House whereas t h e w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e Tau between " f r e g u e n c y " and " m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s 19% h i g h e r i n K i t s House. T h i s shows t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h Qf tfef c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f ; ; i u l t i E l g x i t y . ; ; and " m o b i l i z a t i | . p n " o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s i s fciSLb-fr i n K i t s House t h a n i n t h e R i l e y , Par.k NIP Committee, H y p o t h e s i s i V I I L i E l e v e n s e l f - s e l e c t e d members o f t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee were a s k e d t h e number o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t s t h e y have and named a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - t w o . The same q u e s t i o n was a s k e d o f e i g h t s e l f - e l e c t e d s t a f f and b o a r d members o f K i t s House and t h e y named f i f t y - f o u r f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s . The r a t i o o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t s f o r t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and K i t s House s t a f f and b o a r d members, a r e , t h e n , 11:32 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:3) and 8:54 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1:7) r e s p e c t i v e l y . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h o s e who do and t h o s e who do n o t have c o n t a c t s between t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s " i s r e j e c t e d a t 0.10 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( A p p e n d i x P ) . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h o s e who made f e w e r t h a n f o u r c o n t a c t s between t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s " i s a l s o r e j e c t e d a t 0.15 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( A ppendix P ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e c o r e group, d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s o f K i t s House c a n r e a c h a l a r g e r 119 number o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t h a n t h e R i l e y . P a r * J I £ Committee.. itZ£2fh€sis J V I I I l l To t e s t t h e s o c i a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e s a m p l e s t a k e n o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s (1971 C e n s u s D a t a ) , s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e compared by means o f t h e c h i - s g u a r e t e s t o f sig n i f i c a n c e . „ T h e s e s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e : (1) l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , (2) l a b o u r f o r c e by o c c u p a t i o n , (3) e t h n i c o r i g i n , (4) y e a r s o f f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g , (5) d w e l l i n g by t e n u r e , (6) d w e l l i n g by t y p e and (7) l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t " t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a m p l e s and t h e p o p u l a t i o n a s t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s " . F i r s t , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c h i - s g u a r e t e s t i s used t o t e s t t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . The s m a l l e r t h e computed c h i - s g u a r e , t h e l e s s l i k e l y i t i s t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be r e j e c t e d . I f t h e 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s c h o s e n , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d i n K i t s House ( A p p e n d i x Q ). T h a t i s , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o b s e r v e d sample and t h e e x p e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n among a l l s e v e n SES a t t r i b u t e s . , B u t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d i n t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s : " l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , " l a b o u r f o r c e by o c c u p a t i o n " and " y e a r s o f f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g " . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a p p e a r t o be some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee and t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B i l e y 120 P a r k . S i n c e t h e sample s i z e s o f K i t s House and t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee a r e n o t t h e same, some a d j u s t m e n t s have t o be made b e f o r e t h e y c a n be compared. When t h e c h i - s g u a r e s o f t h e K i t s House a r e a d j u s t e d so t h a t t h e y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s a m p l e s i z e o f t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP C o m m i t t e e , and a 0 . 0 2 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s c h o s e n , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t l i k e l y t o be r e j e c t e d i n K i t s House. But t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s a m p l e and t h e community w i t h r e s p e c t t o " l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , " o c c u p a t i o n " and " y e a r s o f f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g " i n t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee. The o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r n o t r e j e c t i n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee i s l o w e r t h a n o f K i t s House. I n o t h e r words, t h e - f i r s t - o r d e r * c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i t s ccmmunity, - A n o t h e r method t o t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p o p u l a t i o n and sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s t o compare t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f t h e "one sample d i f f e r e n c e o f p r o p o r t i o n t e s t " {Appendix R ) . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f n o t r e j e c t i n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s h i g h e r i n K i t s House t h a n i n t h e R i l e y Park NIP Committee. T h e r e f o r e , t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House a r e s o c i a l l y more s i a j l a r t o t h e community; which i t s e r v e s t h a n t he f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f tjhe R i l e y P ark NIP Committee. 121 H y p o t h e s i s ( I X ) : Samples o f t w e n t y - f o u r (0.2%) and t w e n t y - t w o (0.065%) l o c a l r e s i d e n t s were c h o s e n from t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP a r e a and t h e K i t s i l a n o l o c a l a r e a r e s p e c t i v e l y and r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d whether t h e y had h e a r d a b o u t NIP o r K i t s House (Appendix S ) . ..In R i l e y P a r k 37.5% : o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had h e a r d a b o u t NIP and 33.3% o f t h o s e i n f o r m e d r e s p o n d e n t s g o t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . I n o t h e r words, o n l y 12.5% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h e a r d o f NIP t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . R o u g h l y 1500 p e o p l e i n a community o f 12,000 r e s i d e n t s were i n f o r m e d o f NIP t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . S i n c e t h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f 32 f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee members, t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f o u t r e a c h i n g t o t h e whole community t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t r o r d e r c o n t a c t s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 47:1. The k i t s i l a n o s u r v e y showed t h a t 36.4% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had h e a r d a b o u t K i t s 1 House and 75% o f t h o s e i n f o r m e d r e s p o n d e n t s h e a r d a b o u t K i t s House t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . I n o t h e r words, 27.3% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h e a r d o f K i t s House t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . S i n c e t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f K i t s i l a n o was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 34,000, t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 300 p e o p l e i n K i t s i l a n o who were i n f o r m e d o f K i t s House t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . W i t h t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House members a t 54 p e r s o n s , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f r e a c h i n g o u t t o t h e whole community t h r o u g h t h e s e 54 p e r s o n s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 172:1. T h e r e f o r e , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f r e a c h i n g o u t t o t h e whole community o f K i t s House i s 3 . 7 t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e R i l e y P a r k NIP Committee. Such a h i g h e f f i c i e n c y can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1 2 2 o f t h e s o c i a l network a s w e l l a s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l o u t r e a c h (INDIOUTR) o f t h e f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s o f K i t s House. To compare t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between " t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " and "knowledge o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " t h e knowledge o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n " was t e s t e d . However, t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d a t t h e 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( Appendix T ) . , T h e r e f o r e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t knowledge o f t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n . } A t any r a t e , t h e i r s o u r c e s o f knowledge might n o t be t h e same. I t i s a c t u a l l y t h e s o u r c e o f knowledge which d e t e r m i n e s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n ( K a t z and l a z a r s f e l d , 1955). T h e r e f o r e , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " t h e s o u r c e o f knowledge i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " needs t o be t e s t e d ( A p p e n d i x U)• T h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d a t 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l u s i n g c h i - s g u a r e . I f t h e F i s h e r ' s E x a c t T e s t i s u s e d , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d a t 0.071. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f knowledge i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h a t i s * t h e s o u r c e o f knowledge o f K i t s House i s more 1 i k e ly, t o be s o c i a l c o n t a c t . 123 H y p o t h e s i s (X): 4.2% o f t h e R i l e y P a r k r e s p o n d e n t s ( e q u i v a l e n t t o 500 r e s i d e n t s ) have g i v e n o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e NIP a n d / o r l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g i s s u e s ( s u c h a s t h e c l o s u r e o f 2 3 r d Ave. and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e ) . The e f f i c i e n c y i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community i s , t h e n , e q u a l t o 16:1. I n K i t s i l a n o , 13.6% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4600 r e s i d e n t s ) have g i v e n o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e programs a n d / o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e programs o f K i t s House., The e f f i c i e n c y i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 86:1. The K i t s House's e f f i c i e n c y , i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e whole community, i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5^ 4 t i j e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e R j l e y Parjc NIP C o m m i t t e e ' s , The f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r s u c h a h i g h e f f i c i e n c y i s t h e h i g h e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n c a u s e d by t h e m u l t i p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p g e n e r a t e d by K i t s House. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " t h e g i v i n g o f o p i n i o n i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o which l o c a l r e s i d e n t s g i v e o p i n i o n " was a l s o t e s t e d . A p p e n d i x V shows t h a t i t was r e j e c t e d a t a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l above 0.202. 124 CONCIUSION Of THE ^BOLE OF LOCAL MOjBJLJ£Af ION?! 1JSEJ1£I I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t has been v e r i f i e d , t h r o u g h t e n h y p o t h e s e s , t h a t K i t s House i s f a r more e f f e c t i v e i n m o b i l i z i n g i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t h a n i s t h e B i l e y P a r k NIP Committee. T h e r e f o r e , i f o n l y t h e a s p e c t o f l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a y s a more e f f e c t i v e r o l e t h a n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, o t h e r a s p e c t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g , t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f p l a n s l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e t a c t i c s u s e d f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . The n e x t two c h a p t e r s w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e a s p e c t s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . CHAPTER VII. HYPOTHESES: THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION | Theories and hypotheses regarding the J | ideologies, goals and t a c t i c s adopted by | 1 voluntary and governmental agencies i n community | | developmental planning are stated i n t h i s | | chapter., i 126 The l a s t two c h a p t e r s examined t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r o l e o f m o b i l i z a t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e r o l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i l l be s t u d i e d i n C h a p t e r s V I I and V I I I . I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , a f u r t h e r s t e p w i l l be t a k e n by a s k i n g how t h e s e l o c a l l y - i n i t i a t e d p l a n s a r e p r o p o s e d t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . T h i s r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e s : (1) e a c h o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e p u r p o s e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (2) t h e methods and t a c t i c s used i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (3) t h e C i t y C o u n c i l ' s r a t i o n a l e i n a d o p t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g a c i t i z e n p r o p o s a l (4) t h e c i t y ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n r e c e n t u r b a n programs and i s one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t . . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a complex s u b j e c t t h a t t o u c h e s many a s p e c t s o f a community's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The e f f e c t s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e o f s p e c i a l c o n c e r n b e c a u s e e f f e c t i v e s t r u c t u r i n g o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t may i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f community l i f e as a whole t h r o u q h t h e a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n q and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n q mechanism. 127 IMM9MIM MP TYPOLOGIES OF C I T I Z E N PARTICIPATION The p r o p o n e n t s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n have been e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e i n g o a l s and methods. A r n s t e i n , Harmon, K a p l a n , and s e v e r a l o t h e r s p r o v i d e d i f f e r e n t methods o f c l a s s i f y i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e o r i e s . One common method, more o r l e s s s i m i l a r t o B u r k e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s ( E u r k e , 1968), i s t o c l a s s i f y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g o a l s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . On t h i s b a s i s , f o u r s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t c a n be i d e n t i f i e d : C o o p t a t i o n , C o n s u l t a t i o n , E d u c a t i o n / S o c i a l T h e r a p y , and Community Power. The s t r a t e g i e s i m p l i e d a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , so more t h a n one o f t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s c a n be u s e d by an i n d i v i d u a l program a t t h e same t i m e . T h e s e a p p r o a c h e s a r e g o a l - o r i e n t e d . I n a n o t h e r words, e a c h aims t o a c h i e v e a d i f f e r e n t end a s t h e r e s u l t o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e s e v a r i o u s g o a l s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t p r e s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g who s h a l l p a r t i c i p a t e and i n what manner. C o o p t a t i o n i s a s t r a t e g y b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f a g i v e n program. I t s o b j e c t i v e i s t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t a n t i c i p a t e d o b s t r u c t i o n i s m , and i t t h e r e f o r e v i e w s c i t i z e n s a s p o t e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f f r u s t r a t i o n . T h i s c o o p t a t i o n s t r a t e g y has b e e n d e f i n e d by P h i l i p S e l z n i c k a s : The p r o c e s s of a b s o r b i n g new e l e m e n t s i n t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o r p o l i c y -d e t e r m i n i n g s t r u c t u r e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a means o f a v e r t i n g t h r e a t s t o i t s s t a b i l i t y and e x i s t e n c e . ( S e l z n i c k , 1948:34) 128 S e l z i c k went on t o d i s t i n g u i s h two f o r m s o f c o o p t a t i o n i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l . The f o r m e r i m p l i e s a s h a r i n g o f power i n r e s p o n s e t o s p e c i f i c or p o t e n t i a l p r e s s u r e s . C e r t a i n community l e a d e r s who have s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e and who might v i t a l l y a f f e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e government p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t ) a r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l e v e l . The key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n f o r m a l c o o p t a t i o n i s " o f m e e t i n g t h e p r e s s u r e o f s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s o r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s which a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o e n f o r c e demands" ( S e l z n i c k , 1948:35). F o r m a l c o o p t a t i o n s e e k s p u b l i c acknowledgement o f t h e a g e n c y -c o n s t i t u e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s a d e v i c e f o r a b s o r b i n g e f f e c t i v e g r o u p s i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l e g i t i m a c y f r o m c i t i z e n r y a t l a r g e . T h i s s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e i m p a c t o f i n v o l v e m e n t upon t h e r e s i d e n t s o r i n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l government and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and p r o c e s s . R a t h e r , t h i s s t r a t e g y aims t o keep t h e p r o j e c t s f r o m b e i n g k i l l e d b e c a u s e o f o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e t a r g e t a r e a t h r o u g h b u i l d i n g a c o n s t i t u e n c y (US D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1971). Under t h i s t h e o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f r e a s o n t h a t c i t i z e n s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o make p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e programs, but w i l l o n l y l e n g t h e n t h e p r o c e s s . The c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and l i f e s t y l e s o f many p l a n n e r s and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o comprehend and i d e n t i f y t h e p r o b l e m s and need s o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e . Many l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s b e l i e v e i n t h e 129 c o n s u l t a t i o n s t r a t e g y o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e g a r d l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a s e x p e r t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g n e e d s o f t h e i r l o c a l a r e a s . Hence, c o n t r i b u t i o n s and o p i n i o n s from t h e a r e a r e s i d e n t s a r e r e g a r d e d as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a r e l e v a n t p l a n , and c o n s u l t a t i o n becomes a s t r a t e g y f o r c o m p r e h e n d i n g l o c a l n e eds. C o n s u l t a t i o n r e l i e s on t h r e e p r o c e s s e s : i n f o m i n g a r e a r e s i d e n t s a b o u t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s open to them, c o l l e c t i n g c i t i z e n o p i n i o n , and i n c o r p o r a t i n g o p i n i o n s i n t o a f i n a l p l a n . By i t s e l f , c o n s u l t a t i o n i n v o l v e s no r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l power and c i t i z e n s have t o r e l y on p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r n e e d s . Hence i t d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e b e n e f i t s t o t h e l o c a l p e o p l e a t a l l t i m e s . The u s e o f t h i s s t r a t e g y may o n l y r e s u l t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i z e n s who m e r e l y c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s l y p r o p o s e d p l a n s . The e d u c a t i o n / s o c i a l t h e r a p y a p p r o a c h t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e t a r g e t a r e a i n programs a f f e c t i n g them c a n t h e r e s i d e n t s a c t u a l l y g a i n t h e a b i l i t y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . A c c o m p l i s h i n g a s p e c i f i c t a s k i s s e c o n d a r y ; r a t h e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s become c l i e n t s who a r e t h e o b j e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t . One f o c u s o f t h i s s t r a t e g y i s e d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes a f o r m o f c i t i z e n t r a i n i n g , i n w h i c h c i t i z e n s work t o g e t h e r t o s o l v e community p r o b l e m s . T h r o u g h t h i s form o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l g o v ernment i s s t r e n g t h e n e d and a s e n s e of community i s c r e a t e d . A n o t h e r f o c u s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s s o c i a l t h e r a p y as a means f o r d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and t h e r e b y o v e r c o m i n g t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f many 130 low-income i n d i v i d u a l s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t r a t e g y does n o t n e c e s s a r y i n v o l v e f o r m a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e , and n o t goods and s e r v i c e s , i s t h e answer t o many p r o b l e m s . C o n s e g u e n t l y , t h i s s t r a t e g y has o f t e n been d e f i n e d a s an end i n i t s e l f . C o o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and s e l f - r e l i a n c e l e a r n t t h r o u g h t h e medium o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p r e l i m i n a r y t o p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g and a r e t h e means t o a t t a i n community g o a l s J C o u g h l i n , 1961). The community power t h e o r y o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l power i n o r d e r t o a l l o w l o c a l p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e and be i n f l u e n t i a l i n p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The p u r p o s e o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes t h e i n c l u s i o n o f n e g l e c t e d s o c i a l m i n o r i t i e s , by means o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n e f f o r t s , i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r l i v e s . W i t h i n t h i s s t r a t e g y , two b a s i c a p p r o a c h e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t a p p r o a c h a i m s t o make l o c a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s more r e s p o n s i v e and d e m o c r a t i c . T h i s a p p r o a c h i n c l u d e s c i t i z e n s i n p l a n n i n g b o a r d s . The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h aims t o e s t a b l i s h i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l power i n l o c a l a r e a s . The a p p r o a c h assumes t h a t o n l y by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e whole i n s t i t u t i o n c a n a community have a v o i c e i n a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d e p e n d e n t n e i g h b o r h o o d c o r p o r a t i o n s and c i t i z e n c o n t r o l i s i t s g o a l . The i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d house movement view c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as b o t h e d u c a t i o n and community power. E d u c a t i n g c i t i z e n s t o become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and t o a c q u i r e community d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e o n - g o i n g p u r p o s e o f 131 n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s . However, n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s c o n s c i o u s l y a t t e m p t t o r e d i s t r i b u t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power. Community power s t r a t e g y would be us e d and s o c i a l a c t i o n t a k e n whenever t h e r e i s an a p p a r e n t i s s u e t o t a c k l e . Some e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s which p r e v e n t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s f r o m a d o p t i n g t h e community power s t r a t e g y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e two h y p o t h e s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e o r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g o a l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , A r n s t e i n (1969) d i s t i n g u i s h e d between e i g h t t y p e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t c o n t r o l , r a n g i n g f r o m t h e h i g h e s t r u n g o f ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l ' t o t h e l o w e s t rung o f o u t r i g h t ' c i t i z e n m a n i p u l a t i o n ' . The r u n g s o f ' m a n i p u l a t i o n * and ' t h e r a p y ' t h e r e f o r e a r e c o n t r i v a n c e s o f non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e aim o f s u c h * p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' i s t o e d u c a t e o r c u r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ( B u rke, 1968:288-9). The r u n g s o f • i n f o r m a t i o n * , ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' and * p l a c a t i o n * f o r m a c a t e g o r y o f ' t o k e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' where t h e c i t i z e n s may be i n v o l v e d b u t c a n n o t e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l mean change and a c t i o n . The f o r m e r two a l l o w t h e ' h a v e - n o t s ' t o h e a r a n d t o have a v o i c e whereas t h e l a t t e r a l l o w t h e ' h a v e - n o t s * t o a d v i s e . The h i g h e s t r u n g s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n l a d d e r i n c l u d e ' p a r t n e r s h i p ' , ' d e l e g a t e d power' and ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l ' . B oth ' p a r t n e r s h i p ' and ' d e l e g a t e d power' a l l o w power t o be r e d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n between c i t i z e n s and p o w e r - h o l d e r s , and, i n most c a s e s , c i t i z e n s d o m i n a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g under ' d e l e g a t e d power*. The h i g h e s t r u n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l * , g u a r a n t e e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s g o v e r n a p l a n o r a pr o g r a m . At 132 t h e s e t h r e e h i g h e s t l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e c i t i z e n s a r e e i t h e r c o e g u a l o r dominant i n t h e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s ( B u r k e , 1968:292). To compare B u r k e ' s t y p o l o g y w i t h A r n s t e i n ' s , A r n s t e i n r e g a r d e d t h e c o o p t a t i o n a l o r t h e r a p e u t i c n a t u r e o f • p a r t i c i p a t i o n * a s » n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n *, and t h e c o n s u l t a t i v e p u r p o s e o f * p a r f i c i p a t i o n ' as • t o k e n i s m * . . O n l y t h e community power s t r a t e g y w h i c h p r o m i s e s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e c i s i o n -making t o c i t i z e n - c o n t r o l i s r e g a r d e d by A r n s t e i n as f r e a l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n * . The l a d d e r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o v i d e s a good a n a l y s i s o f B u r k e ' s t y p o l o g y by r a n k i n g s t r a t e g i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l e v e l s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t y p o l o g y o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e t a c t i c o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . 1 3 3 TACTICS AND METJOJDS OJ CITIZEN P M 2 1 £ I J P A T I O N K u r t z , Kahn e t . a l . (1977) have p r o p o s e d s i x t e e n t y p e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e s e s i x t e e n methods a r e r e g r o u p e d i n t o n i n e c a t e g o r i e s d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g a 'lew c i t i z e n c o n t r o l - h i g h c i t i z e n c o n t r o l * c o n t i n u u m . T h e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e n i n e c a t e g o r i e s a r e : 1. S u r v e y R e s e a r c h T e c h n i q u e s : T h r o u g h t h i s t e c h n i q u e , c i t i z e n s c a n have a m i n i m a l c h a n c e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body, and y e t , i t i s a v e r y p a s s i v e method o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C i t i z e n s have t h e l e a s t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p l a n s and p o l i c i e s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c f o r m s o f s u r v e y commonly • used i n p l a n n i n g : p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s and s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d g u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 2. P u b l i c H e a r i n g : P u b l i c h e a r i n g , o r c i t i z e n forum, i s a f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e f o r c i t i z e n i n p u t , f e e d b a c k and a p p r o v a l . To be e f f e c t i v e i t s h o u l d be used a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f p l a n n i n g where p l a n n e r s c a n g a t h e r p u b l i c o p i n i o n s and f e e d b a c k f o r t h e p r o p o s a l s a n d r e - e v a l u a t e t h e p r o p o s a l s by i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n s . However, ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n * r e m a i n s o n l y t h e e xchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n between p l a n n e r s and c i t i z e n s , and c i t i z e n s a r e s t i l l n o t a b l e t o p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n c h a n g i n g t h e p l a n n e r ' s p r o p o s a l s , 3 . A d v o c a c y P l a n n i n g : A d v o c a c y i n p l a n n i n g r e f e r s t o o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s t o a d v a n c e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l ' p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' . C i t i z e n s have t o r e l y on t h e a d v o c a t e p l a n n e r s t o p r o p o s e and d e f e n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o a c e n t r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body, 4. C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n C o o r d i n a t o r : T h i s r o l e i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h c i t i z e n s and f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s . S i n c e t h e c o o r d i n a t o r may o p e r a t e o u t s i d e o f government as an i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n t o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , c i t i z e n s may have a h i g h e r c o n t r o l t h a n i n a d v o c a c y p l a n n i n g , 5. B o a r d s and C o m m i t t e e s : P l a n n i n g b o a r d s and a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s a r e commonly u s e d t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s . B o th t e c h n i g u e s i n v o l v e s e l e c t e d community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o r k i n g w i t h a g e n c i e s i n t e c h n i c a l o r p o l i c y a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 6 . , D e c o n c e n t r a t i o n : Roger K a s p e r s o n {Kasperson e t a l , 1974) made a d i s t i n c t i o n between " d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n * S * d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n * . The f o r m e r i n v o l v e s o n l y a d i s p e r s i o n o f c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s t o s u b u n i t s i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . , I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e l a t t e r by n o t i n v o l v i n g t h e t r a n s f e r o f a c t u a l power from c e n t r a l g overnment t o s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s . Among t h e most w i d e s p r e a d f o r m s a r e c o m p l a i n t mechanisms, b r a n c h f a c i l i t i e s and l o c a l o u t p o s t s o f government. 7. D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n : D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f power from t h e c e n t r a l government t o a s p e c i a l i z e d t e r r i t o r i a l o r f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s . I t i n v o l v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l s h i f t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and d i s c r e t i o n a r y power. 8. N e i g h b o r h o o d Government: T h i s i s one f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g i n which o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s p l a n and a d v o c a t e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . N e i g h b o r h o o d government r e f e r s t o p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n s and s e r v i c e s a t a n e i g h b o r h o o d l e v e l . I t i n c l u d e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f b o t h d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a t a n e i g h b o r h o o d l e v e l , 9. P r o t e s t Model and S o c i a l A c t i o n : T h i s i s t h e most a g g r e s s i v e f o r m o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t r e f e r s t o a c t s o f o b j e c t i o n t o p o l i c i e s and c o n d i t i o n s and t o o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s t o g a i n power f o r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l change. I t s p a r t i c u l a r f o r m s r a n g e from a c t s o f r e s i s t a n c e t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m o b i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . 135 HYP02USJS I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e r o l e o f l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and h y p o t h e s i s v e r i f i c a t i o n w i l l be u s e d h e r e . T h e r e a r e no d e t a i l e d h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Two w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s a r e s t a t e d below. More d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s . THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN THE IDEOLOGIES, PURPOSES AND TACTICS OF C I T I Z E N 1 PARTICIPATION BETWEEN NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSES AND LAP/NIP C I T I Z E N COMMITTEES. THE ADOPTION OF PROPOSALS (OR PLANS) MADE BY DECENTRALIZED GOVERNMENTAL J l AGENCIES I S MORE LIKELY THAN THE ADOPTION OF PROPOSALS J3ADE BY VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS. 136 CHAPTER V I I 1 A HJTJODOLOGYi THE ROLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION \ R e s e a r c h methods f o r t e s t i n g t h e two h y p o t h e s e s | J i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a r e s t a t e d . J j D a t a , o r e m p i r i c a l , f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n | | a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . | « - J 137 Data and opinion related to the hypotheses stated at the end of the l a s t chapter were collected through intensive, semi-structured, personal interviews. Although an interview schedule was compliled beforehand (shown i n Appendix w), i t was used f l e x i b l y and modified throughout each interview. Five informants were chosen f o r interviews,, They represented the Vancouver City Planning Department (Local Area Planner), Vancouver So c i a l Planning Department (Social Planner), west Vancouver Planning Department (Director of Development), L i t t l e Mountain Community Resources Advisory Board (Board Member) and Kits House Board of Management (Director). Interviews were conducted in February, 1978, Most of these interviews were about one hour long. Opinions and data were collected from the perspectives of the C i t y , a l o c a l voluntary agency, and two informants who are concerned with the r o l e of voluntary groups i n implementing governmental programs. 138 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION Hypothesis j l j : There Are D i f f e r e n c e s I n The I d e o l o g i e s , Purposes And T a c t i c s Of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Between Neighborhood Houses And LAP/NIP C i t i z e n Committees. Those i n t e r v i e w e d h o l d very d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i e s on the goa ls of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The D i r e c t o r of the K i t s House was f i r s t asked about the neighborhood houses* i d e o l o g y towards c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can ensure t h a t the agency i s p r o v i d i n g re l e v a n t s e r v i c e s and deve loping human r e s o u r c e s . In other words, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a means f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a l needs and demands, and f o r p r o v i d i n g i n p u t s i n s o c i a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s an end i n educat ing l o c a l r e s i d e n t s to be more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and i n r e a l i z i n g t h e i r own r i g h t s and power. P u t t i n g these i d e o l o g i e s i n t o B u r k e ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , the goa ls o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n neighborhood houses are r e l a t e d to both * e d u c a t i o n ' and 'community power*. F i t t i n g these goa l s i n t o A r n s t e i n * s l a d d e r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the neighborhood houses s t r i v e f o r the h i g h e s t rung of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h a t i s , to have ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l * over the community. The r o l e of a neighborhood house i s not c o n f i n e d to d i r e c t s e r v i c i n g , as sometimes the s t r a t e g y of s o c i a l a c t i o n i s taken when an i s s u e i s apparent . There are t h r e e channels f o r c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n K i t s House. F i r s t , the Board of Management, which c o n s i s t s o f t h i r t e e n members, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y - m a k i n g . They are former c l i e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s and businessmen, and l o c a l 139 r e s i d e n t s . They c o l l e c t i n p u t f o r t h e i r p o l i c y - m a k i n g . S e c o n d , t h e s t a f f o f K i t s House i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s * and c l i e n t s * i d e a s , s u g g e s t i o n s and f e e d b a c k . T h i s f e e d b a c k and c o m p l a i n t mechanism i s b u i l t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s o f K i t s House. T h i r d , s u r v e y r e s e a r c h i s u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d a n n u a l l y t o g i v e an i d e a o f t h e community make-up, l o c a l demands and d e s i r e d p r o g r a m s . I n a d d i t i o n , K i t s House u s e s t h r e e t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e C i t y l e v e l . T h i s l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n aims t o i n f l u e n c e t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l b u r e a u c r a c y i n d e c i s i o n -making f o r i t s n e i g h b o r h o o d . The f i r s t t a c t i c i s t h r o u g h t h e K i t s i l a n o Community Forum, T h i s f o r u m , an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e a b o l i s h e d Community R e s o u r c e s a d v i s o r y B o a r d (C.R. A.B.) , n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s b u t a l s o s o l v e s s o c i a l i s s u e s o f t h e community. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and l e a d e r s o f v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r and a r e d i r e c t e d by K i t s House t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e d e l i v e r y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l i s s u e s . T h i s f orum a c t s as a c a t a l y s t t o h e l p p u b l i c a g e n c i e s and t h e C i t y C o u n c i l t o r e a l i z e and f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The s e c o n d t a c t i c i s n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h and a d v o c a c y t o t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t h r o u g h t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n . N e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s and a l l o t h e r v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s which have t o r e l y on m u n u c i p a l f u n d s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and programming, must a d v o c a t e t h e i r own programs by s t a t i n g t h e needs o f t h e l o c a l a r e a , t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y p r o v i d e , t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a , t h e i r c a s e l o a d c a p a c i t y , f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i r c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p u b l i c Nand p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . F i n a l l y , K i t s House e n g a g e s i n 140 s o c i a l a c t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d l e g i s l a t i v e ) i n t h e s o c i e t y . T h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f t h e t a c t i c s u s e d by K i t s House or o t h e r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s * r e l i a n c e on p u b l i c f u n d s and a d v o c a c y p r e v e n t s them from e x e r c i s i n g e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p u b l i c d e c i s i o n -making b o d i e s . But on t h e o t h e r hand, some i n f o r m a n t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a p p l i e s e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a more o b j e c t i v e l y t o v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a n t o o t h e r c i v i c d e p a r t m e n t s . They a r g u e t h a t i t i s a l w a y s d i f f i c u l t f o r someone t o e v a l u a t e h i s own e m p l o y e e s o b j e c t i v e l y . The e v a l u a t i o n may be e i t h e r t o o t i g h t o r t o o l o o s e . \ O n l y i f t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n p r o p o s e w o r k a b l e and e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m s i s i t l i k e l y t h a t t h e C i t y C o u n c i l w i l l g r a n t them n e c e s s a r y f u n d s s o t h a t t h e y can i m p l e m e n t t h e i r own programs t o b r i n g a b o u t a b e t t e r community. L o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s have a d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n LAP and NIP. When one o f t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s was a s k e d a b o u t t h e g o a l s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , he e x p l a i n e d t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a mechanism f o r p l a n n e r s t o l i s t e n t o c i t i z e n s * i d e a s and f o r c i t i z e n s t o l i s t e n t o p l a n n e r s * i d e a s . I n t h e p a s t , c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t has u s u a l l y o c c u r r e d when p l a n s were p r e s e n t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l by t h e s t a f f . Too o f t e n , t h e o n l y f o r m o f i n v o l v e m e n t was o p p o s i t i o n w i t h no p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o s i t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o c c u r r i n g . I n t h e p a s t , p e o p l e s i m p l y had no l e g i t i m a t e c h a n n e l t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s , b u t were u s u a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e 141 c i t y p l a n n e r s a n d t h e C i t y C o u n c i l i n t h e e a r l y 1970's s e t up a mechanism f o r c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a more p o s i t i v e way, i n o r d e r t o maximize c o o p e r a t i o n and t o m i n i m i z e c o n f l i c t , LAP embodies t h e i d e a o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g c i t y p l a n n i n g i n t o d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o r h o o d s and s e t t i n g up mechanisms f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g i n t h e l o c a l a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g t o B u r k e ' s t y p o l o g y , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h 1AP i s c l o s e r t o t h e p u r p o s e o f ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' and • c o o p t a t i o n ' . I t i s ' c o n s u l t a t i v e ' b e c a u s e p l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s t o be t e c h n o c r a t s who p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h as e n g i n e e r i n g s t a n d a r d s , h o u s i n g c o d e s , s t a t i s t i c s and a c i t y - w i d e p e r s p e c t i v e , whereas l o c a l r e s i d e n t s r e f l e c t p r o b l e m s and demands a t a l o c a l l e v e l . Hence, i n o r d e r t o make a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n s t o meet l o c a l n e e d s , p l a n n e r s have t o c o n s u l t t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s f o r t h e i r i d e a s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s a l s o ' c o o p t a t i v e ' b e c a u s e p l a n n e r s , by e x p e r i e n c e , know t h a t i n v o l v i n g c i t i z e n s may p r e v e n t a n t i c i p a t e d o b s t r u c t i o n i s m . I f t h e i d e a l o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n LAP i s measured a g a i n s t A r n s t e i n ' s l a d d e r , • d e l e g a t e d power* i s t h e c l o s e s t r u n g b e c a u s e t h e C i t y C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n t o n e i g h b o r h o o d s and meanwhile e n c o u r a g e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g them power, But t h e r e i s a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n V a n c o u v e r LAP. Some n e i g h b o r h o o d s , h a v i n g i n a c t i v e c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s o r p l a n n e r s who f a i l i n t h e e n a b l i n g r o l e , may l e a v e LAP i n a • d e g r e e o f t o k e n i s m ' s u c h a s ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' o r • i n f o r m i n g . But i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , LAP can p r a c t i s e t h e • d e l e g a t e d power' e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e r e i s a g r o w i n g d e s i r e among 142 l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s t o d a y t o s t i m u l a t e l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o a c t u a l i z e t h e i r d e l e g a t e d power more e f f e c t i v e l y . However, t o c l i m b up t h e l a d d e r t o t h e ' d e g r e e s o f t r u e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' r e g u i r e s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s k i l l s on t h e p a r t o f t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s a s w e l l a s t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t s . , The t a c t i c o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n u s e d by LAP i s • d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ' o f c i t y p l a n n i n g . C i t i z e n a d v i c e t h r o u g h a c o m m i t t e e ( o r a d v i s o r y b o a r d ) i s a s p e c i f i e d f o r m o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e V a n c o u v e r model o f LAP.,The u s u a l p r a c t i c e o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s i s t o e s t a b l i s h a v o l u n t a r y c i t i z e n c o m mittee a f t e r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . F o r example, H t . P l e a s a n t , C e d a r C o t t a g e , M a r p o l e , K i t s i l a n o , K i w a s s a , G r a n d v i e w Woodland and Downtown E a s t s i d e h a v e s e t up LAP (or NIP) c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s by t h i s method. L o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s p e r c e i v e t h e c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e as t h e f o c a l p o i n t f o r l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s uch a s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . T h i s f o c a l p o i n t i s sometimes s u p p l e m e n t e d by r e s e a r c h s u r v e y s t o c a p t u r e a l a r g e r community r e s p o n s e . To c o n c l u d e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n LAE/NIP, t h e r e a r e b o t h a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n d e l e g a t i n g power. The a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l e g i t i m a t e i n a s e n s e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l and hence a c c o m p a n i e d by power f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . But on t h e o t h e r hand, LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s have t o depend on t h e C i t y C o u n c i l t o d e l e g a t e them power on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The C i t y C o u n c i l c a n d e c i d e t o d e l e g a t e power o r n o t on d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i s s u e s . V o l u n t a r y 143 o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e , a t any r a t e , no d i r e c t and o f f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . They do n o t depend on t h e d e l e g a t i o n o f power i n t a k i n g a c t i o n s . T h e i r ' s o c i a l l e g i t i m a c y * f o r c a r r y i n g o u t any s o c i a l s e r v i c e s o r a c t i o n s i s d e f i n e d by t h e i r own community t h r o u g h m o r a l p e r s u a s i o n and community s u p p o r t . ' S o c i a l l e g i t i m a c y ' c a n t h u s be s e e n a s one a d v a n t a g e of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o v e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . Hence, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e -i d e o l o g i e s ^ p u r p o s e s and t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n between n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s and LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n t C o u n c i l members t e n d t o f u n d some r e l i a b l e and c r e d i b l e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s who wis h t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y have o n l y l i m i t e d c o n t r o l o v e r s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s have t o be t i e d c l o s e l y t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l and have t o depend on t h e C o u n c i l f o r d e l e g a t e d power on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . However, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a d v o c a t i n g t h e i r programs by l a y i n g o u t o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a and m o r a l p e r s u a s i o n whereas g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a d e q u a t e f u n d s and l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y f o r c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and a d v a n t a g e s o f v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n may h e l p community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s t o b l e n d - t . . . . o r c h o o s e a g e n c i e s p r o p e r l y i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c l o c a l p r o b l e m s . 14 4 My_£0thesis H i l l £ h e a d o p t i o n Of P.ro_po.sa.ls l o r P l a n s ? Made By D e c e n t r a l i z e d G o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s I s More L i k e l y Than The A d o p t i o n Of P r o p o s a l s Made By V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p r o p o s a l s made by v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s l e s s c r e d i b l e t h a n t h o s e made by g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s ? I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how p r o p o s a l s i n i t i a t e d by v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s and by LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c e n t r a l b u r e a u c r a c y m ight s h e d l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n . Becommendations from t h e LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e a r e pu t i n t o a " r e p o r t t o c o u n c i l " f o r m a t by l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s . The r o l e s o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n n e r s i n c l u d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g c i t i z e n p r o p o s a l s t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l and c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t o s u p p o r t c i t i z e n s " f i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h t h e s t a f f ' s r e s e a r c h i s u s u a l l y b eyond q u e s t i o n i n a t e c h n i c a l s e n s e , t h e C o u n c i l members do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a d o p t what t h e s t a f f recommends. I f o r g a n i z e d r e s i d e n t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a were t o r e j e c t t h e s t a f f ' s r e s e a r c h and c o m p l a i n t o t h e C o u n c i l , t h e s t a f f ' s p r o p o s a l would p r o b a b l y be t u r n e d down. The s e c o n d c r i t e r i a f o r c o n s i d e r i n g a LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e ' s p r o p o s a l i s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . I f t h e t i m i n g i s r i g h t and f i n a n c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e C o u n c i l i s v e r y l i k e l y t o a d o p t a p r o p o s a l . The t h i r d c r i t e r i a i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ' e q u i t y ' . A l t h o u g h NIP d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s have been n e g l e c t e d i n t h e p a s t and h e n c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i s g i v e n t o t h e i r p r o p o s a l s , t h i s does not mean t h a t t h e C i t y C o u n c i l w o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e needs o f o t h e r l o c a l a r e a s . The p r i o r i t y o f NIP d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s o v e r t h e o t h e r a r e a s i s o n l y m i n i m a l . The C i t y C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r s 'needs' f r o m a c i t y - w i d e p e r s p e c t i v e 1U5 and t r i e s t o be a s ' f a i r * and * j u s t * as p o s s i b l e t o a l l l o c a l a r e a s . The f o u r t h c r i t e r i a i s t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n i t s e l f . A r e t h e e s t i m a t e s o f f i n a n c e f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s r e a l i s t i c ? H i l l t h e NIP Committee be a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e p l a n g i v e n t h a t C i t y f u n d s a r e a v a i l a b l e ? How r e a l i s t i c i s t h e t i m i n g ? Does t h e p l a n r e f l e c t l i k e l y c h a n g e s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d ? Does t h e p l a n r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e c i t i z e n s ? A l l t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e examined c a r e f u l l y by t h e C o u n c i l b e f o r e a p r o p o s a l i s a d o p t e d . P r o p o s a l s f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s made by v o l u n t a r y a q e n c i e s have t o be s u b m i t t e d t o the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department f o r r e v i e w b e f o r e t h e y a r e r e v i e w e d by t h e C o u n c i l . H a r d and a n a l y t i c a l c r i t e r i a a r e used by t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department t o s c r e e n and s e l e c t p r o p o s a l s . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e s t a t e d g o a l s and n e e d s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d a g a i n s t t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s 1 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C i t y g o v e r n m e n t s p r i o r i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s w i l l r e l y on t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , which i s s o m e t i m e s r a t h e r s u b j e c t i v e , t o a s s e s s whether t h e p r o p o s e d program o r s e r v i c e c a n b o t h e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y a d d r e s s t h e d e f i n e d p r o b l e m o r meet t h e need i d e n t i f i e d by t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s *What r e s o u r c e s does the a g e n c y h a v e ? ' , *Uhat i s i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y ? * , 'What i s i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s ? * and * I s i t o v e r - s t a f f e d ? * a r e u s u a l l y a s k e d . F i n a l l y , t h e c i t y ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e program*s terms o f r e f e r e n c e and s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t s i s c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e i s o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f f u n d s p r o v i d e d by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l a n n u a l l y , s o v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s have t o compete 146 v e r y h a r d t o g e t t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and t h e C i t y C o u n c i l t o a d o p t and f u n d t h e i r p r o p o s a l s . I n o t h e r words, t h e r e a r e e v e r y y e a r many p r o p o s a l s made b y v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which t h e C i t y r e j e c t s . M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t e n e x i s t between v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c i t y p o l i t i c i a n s . The d i r e c t o r o f one o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s summed up t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s from a " o n e - s i d e d " p e r c e p t i o n ; G o v e r n m e n t a l b u r e a u c r a t s a r e p e o p l e who o p e r a t e by r u l e s . . The drawback o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s t h a t most o f t h e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s know n e i t h e r t h e p e o p l e n o r t h e r u l e s . a n o t h e r view f r o m w i t h i n t h e C i t y C o u n c i l i s t h a t t h e b u r e a u c r a t s do n o t know t h e r e c i p i e n t s of t h e f u n d s . T h i s e x p l a i n s why some v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e u n a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s t e m . Whether t h e p r o p o s a l i s made by a g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c y o r a v o l u n t a r y a g e n c y , t h e C o u n c i l a s s e s s e s i t w i t h a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e and measures i t w i t h an e q u i v a l e n t s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s . However, g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s do n o t have t o compete i n t e r n a l l y as h a r d a s v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s b e f o r e t h e i r p r o p o s a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . T h e r e f o r e , one c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p l a n s and p r o p o s a l s made by d e c e n t r a l i z e d - g o v e r n m e n t a l -a g e n c i e s a r e more l i k e l y t o be a d o p t e d by t h e C o u n c i l t h a n p r o p o s a l s made by v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n s made by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e as c r e d i b l e a s t h o s e made by t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , i t i s more s t r a t e g i c and e f f e c t i v e t o p r o p o s e c i t i z e n s ' i d e a s t h r o u g h a p u b l i c a g e n c y t h a n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h a v o l u n t a r y a g e n c y . 147 CONCLUSION OF THE ^TACTICS OF C I T I Z E N PARTICIPATION? RESEARCH D i s c u s s i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s (I) o f t h i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i e s and t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E x p l o r a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s (II) s u p p o r t e d t h e s t r a t e g i c use o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n p r o p o s i n g p l a n s and e f f e c t i n g s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s , However, t h e i d e a l s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g a r e s h a r e d o n l y by v o l u n t a r y , n o t by g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i d e a l s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n terms o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s a r e s u p e r i o r t o v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . But v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a k e on a r o l e o f e d u c a t i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , aim f o r c i t i z e n c o n t r o l and community power, and use t h e t a c t i c s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h e s e a r e p r a c t i s e d by v o l u n t a r y n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s but c a n n o t be done by g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s l i k e LAP/NIP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s . „ I n o t h e r words, t h e r o l e o f c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l become s i g n i f i c a n t when l o n g r a n g e and u n p o p u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s a r e needed t h r o u g h s o c i a l a c t i o n . , T h i s r e s e a r c h d o e s n o t l e a d t o c o n c l u s i o n s as t o which t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n s t e a d , i t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e f f e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f change t h r o u g h c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r t o u t i l i z e u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 148 CONCLUSION! THE DIFFERENT BOLES AND JfALUES QP BOTIJ AGJJJCIES IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING T h e r e i s no i n t e n t i o n t o a r g u e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f one t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r t h e o t h e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . I n s t e a d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e s and v a l u e s between v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g were e x h i b i t e d . Two a s p e c t s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t have been a n a l y z e d , t h e r o l e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n m o b i l i z i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , and t h e r o l e o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n i t i a t i n g c h a n g e . T h e s e two a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l b a c k b o n e s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . The f o r m e r r e v e a l s how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o f i t s l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , and t h e l a t t e r a s s e s s e s t h e a c t u a l i m p a c t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c i t y . T h e s e two can be summed up a s t h e • p r o c e s s g o a l s * o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . V o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s g e n e r a t e more m u l t i p l e x s o c i a l n e t w o r k s and t h u s more e f f e c t i v e l y m o b i l i z e l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . B e s i d e s l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s can a c c o m p l i s h t h e r o l e o f e d u c a t i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s by g i v i n g them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and v a r i o u s t a c t i c s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n community d e v e l o p m e n t . Community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p p e o p l e w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g p l a n s . S i n c e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y t i e d t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s h a v e a g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n c h o o s i n g among a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t a c t i c s , r a n g i n g from r e s e a r c h s u r v e y t o s o c i a l a c t i o n . Some o f t h e r a d i c a l t a c t i c s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o 149 g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s due t o t h e i r c o n t r o l by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . However, g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . U n l i k e t h e v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s who f a c e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g s c r e e n e d o u t by t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , a l l g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s c a n d i r e c t l y p r o p o s e p l a n s and e f f e c t change w i t h i n t h e i r d e l e g a t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e s and a d v a n t a g e s between v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s may s h e d l i g h t on t h e k i n d s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between a g e n c i e s t h a t may a c h i e v e a b e t t e r community. CONCLUSION » I P a r t t h r e e i s t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . I t | J p r o v i d e s a summary o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s and | | r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g community | | d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . \ CHAPTER IX. TWO MODELS OF THE BLENDING OF IOLUNTARY AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS-FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTAL PLANNING g , | As Part Two concluded that voluntary I I organizations have the advantage of mobilizing 1 | l o c a l residents more e f f e c t i v e l y whereas J J proposals made by governmental agencies are less 1 j l i k e l y to be rejected, the suggested blending of 1 | these two types of organizations becomes | j evident. This chapter recommends two models, 1 j s t a t i c and dynamic, for blending these | J organizations. These models may be used at J | di f f e r e n t stages i n community development. /| | Stages i n community development, J •i , , i 152 What i s community d e v e l o p m e n t ? How i s i t r e l a t e d t o community p l a n n i n g ? Can community p l a n n i n g be d e v e l o p m e n t a l ? How d i f f e r e n t a r e v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? What a r e t h e i r r o l e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ? How c a n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e n g t h s o f e a c h be w e l l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ? At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e need f o r i n t e g r a t i n g community d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o community p l a n n i n g was a r g u e d . Community d e v e l o p m e n t i s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n . I t o r g a n i z e s l o c a l p e o p l e i n t o community v o l u n t a r y b o d i e s and f a c i l i t a t e s c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s between t h e s e l o c a l p e o p l e and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . The p u r p o s e o f d o i n g t h i s i s t o i m p r o v e t h e o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e community. The t h i r d c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d some t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d on t h e k i n d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g must d e a l . The community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r i s n o t j u s t a t a s k a c c o m p l i s h e r who a t t e m p t s t o recommend p o l i c i e s f o r community b e t t e r m e n t , b u t must a l s o be an e n a b l e r , o r a c a t a l y s t , t o e n h a n c e t h e p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n network among l o c a l c i t i z e n s , t o m o b i l i z e l o c a l r e s o u r c e s and t o i n t e r a c t w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . Hence, c h a p t e r t h r e e a t t e m p t e d t o g i v e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and g e n e r a l i z e d a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l n e t w o r k s embedded i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e i d e a s o f t h e 153 e a r l i e r o n e s . C h a p t e r f o u r i n t r o d u c e d two k i n d s o f a g e n c i e s a s c a s e s t u d i e s f o r ' l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n * and ' c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n * r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . The B i l e y P a r k NIP c i t i z e n c o m mittee and K i t s House were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . LAP i s a n e i g h b o r h o o d - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g . I t was used w i t h NIP t o i m p r o v e b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f l o c a l a r e a s . NIP i s a f e d e r a l program r o o t e d i n t h e Urban 'Renewal Programs o f t h e 1960's, I t a t t e m p t s t o r e v i t a l i z e and r e d e v e l o p s t a b l e n e i g h b o r h o o d s by c o n c e n t r a t i n g f u n d i n g f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n i d e n t i f i e d n e i g h b o r h o o d s . The N e i g h b o r h o o d House Movement i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a c t u a l l y e v o l v e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h S e t t l e m e n t Movement i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . N e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s i n Canada a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o n e i g h b o r h o o d s , t o d e v e l o p l o c a l human r e s o u r c e s and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i a l a c t i o n s . B oth NIP/LAP c o m m i t t e e s and n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s a r e community d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . Two e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The p u r p o s e o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m o b i l i z a t i o n and s t r a t e g i e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a y e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h r e s u l t s c o n c l u d e d t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n g e n e r a t e more m u l t i p l e x s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , c a n m o b i l i z e l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community d e v e l o p m e n t more e f f e c t i v e l y , can e d u c a t e a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and can c h o o s e a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t a c t i c s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e s e two r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s showed t h a t 154 governmental agenc ies have the advantage of more d i r e c t access to the C i t y C o u n c i l . Community development programs l i k e LAP/NIP have an overwhelming p o s i t i o n i n the community, and hence can e f f e c t changes a f f e c t i n g every aspect o f community l i f e . These research s t u d i e s b a s i c a l l y p o i n t e d out t h a t v o l u n t a r y and governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t r o l e s t o p l a y i n community developmental p l a n n i n g . That i s why community developmental p lanning r e g u i r e s the v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s of the l o c a l people combined with those o f the government towards an o v e r a l l improvement i n c o n d i t i o n s of community l i v i n g (Bharadwaj,1962) . THE PUiPOSES OP BLENDING GOVERNMENTAL AND VOLUNTARY ORGANISATIONS I n Rothman's "Three Models of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e " (1974), he i d e n t i f i e d ' l o c a l i t y deve lopment ' , ' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ' and ' s o c i a l a c t i o n ' as three approaches to community development. Rothman went on to analyze e x i s t i n g v o l u n t a r y and governmental agencies a c c o r d i n g to twelve a t t r i b u t e s . He concluded t h a t v o l u n t a r y agencies such as neighborhood houses p r a c t i s e both l o c a l i t y development and s o c i a l a c t i o n , whereas governmental agenc ies such as NIP/LAP boards engage i n what he d e f i n e d as ' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g * . His c o n c l u s i o n s are a l s o supported by the r e s u l t s of the research on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n Chapters V I I and V I I I . Each approach has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . L o c a l i t y development pursues community change by i n v o l v i n g a wide spectrum of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n goa l d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a c t i o n . S o c i a l p lanning emphasizes the 155 t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s o f s o l v i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s h o u s i n g d e l i v e r y . R a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l l e d change have a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n t h i s a p p r o a c h . The l a s t a p p r o a c h , ' s o c i a l a c t i o n * , p r e s u p p o s e s a d i s a d v a n t a g e d segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t n e e d s t o be o r g a n i z e d t o make e f f e c t i v e demands on t h e l a r g e r community f o r i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h s e e k s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power, r e s o u r c e s , o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e community o r c h a n g e s i n b a s i c p o l i c i e s o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . When Rothman's c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s compared t o B u r k e ' s and a r n s t e i n ' s t y p o l o g i e s , i t c u t s a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e o t h e r two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . ,For example, s t r a t e g i e s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r ' l o c a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ' w i l l l i k e l y be • e d u c a t i o n * and ' s o c i a l t h e r a p y * ; s t r a t e g i e s f o r ' s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ' w i l l be ' d e l e g a t e d power', ' p a r t n e r s h i p ' and ' c o n s u l t a t i o n ' ; ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l * and •community power' a r e t h e p u r p o s e s o f ' s o c i a l a c t i o n ' . A t t h e end o f h i s p a p e r , Rothman s u g g e s t e d t h e need f o r b l e n d i n g t h e s e t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s ( t h a t i s , d i f f e r e n t t a c t i c s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) i n community p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n . H i s argument f o r b l e n d i n g i s t o make s t r a t e g i c use o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f e a c h a p p r o a c h i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e r e a r e - t h r e e g o a l s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ( M o r r i s and B i n s t o c k , 1966), F i r s t , i t a i m s a t a l t e r i n g human and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and s e l f -d e v e l o p m e n t . S e c o n d , i t a l t e r s s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s by c h a n g i n g p o l i c i e s o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i t a i m s a t e f f e c t i n g r e f o r m s i n m a j o r l e g a l and f u n c t i o n a l s y s t e m s o f a s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s must be more aware 1 5 6 o f t h e k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s w i t h which t h e y a r e w o r k i n g and t h e p h a s i n g c f community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s which t h e y a r e m a n i p u l a t i n g . D i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e g u i r e d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e above t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s . When t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o e n h a n c e l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and competence, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e s which t a k e p a r t i n l o c a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be u s e d . When l o n g r a n g e and u n p o p u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s a r e t h e g o a l s , a s o c i a l a c t i o n model i s r e g u i r e d . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l g r o u p s and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f s o c i a l b onds between l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e t o s e r v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s . As shown e m p i r i c a l l y (The B o l e o f L o c a l M o b i l i z a t i o n ) , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e more e f f e c t i v e i n m o b i l i z i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e B o l e o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n showed t h a t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n c h o o s e a s a t a c t i c o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a d i c a l s o c i a l a c t i o n w hich i s sometimes f o r b i d d e n t o g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . But when a community needs t o s o l v e s p e c i f i c s h o r t o r m i d d l e r a n g e s u b s t a n t i v e p r o b l e m s , a NIP/LAP model i s more a p p r o p r i a t e . As shown i n t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e R o l e o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n , p r o p o s a l s made by g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s a r e more c r e d i b l e and c a n be made d i r e c t l y t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l . P a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g becomes more d i r e c t and more e f f i c i e n t . T h e r e i s a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d v o c a t e t h e needs o f a community and d i s c u s s them w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a n s . The p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a c h i e v e d i f f e r e n t g o a l s i n v o l v e s a v o i d i n g t h e weaknesses o f c e r t a i n t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and making f u l l use o f t h e s t r e n g t h s o f 157 o t h e r s . Hhen t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l g o a l s i s e x p e c t e d , one m i g h t a p p l y a s y n t h e s i s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . , On t h e o t h e r hand, when t h e • p h a s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p • o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e b l e n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be i n d i c a t e d . A g i v e n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t may b e g i n w i t h one t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e n move i n t o a n o t h e r a t a l a t e r s t a g e . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d when t h e two models o f b l e n d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e recommended. To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e b l e n d i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a s t a t i c s e n s e means t o b u i l d a p r o j e c t on t h e s t r e n g t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mode and t o a v o i d t h e weakness o f a n o t h e r . To vie w t h e b l e n d i n g mechanism f r o m a dynamic p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i e s t h e use o f two o r more c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f a community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t . RECOMMENDATIONS ON BLENDING MODELS Two models o f t h e b l e n d i n g o f g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e recommended as a c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . The f i r s t model (A) i s a dynamic model i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f a community f r o m a y o u t h p h a s e t o m a t u r i t y . , The term " m a t u r i t y " r e f e r s t o t h e o r g a n i z e d s t a t e o f a community, i n w h i c h l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a r e r e a d y t o be m o b i l i z e d f o r a l l k i n d s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n and n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n i n g . I t i s t h e o b j e c t i v e o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g t o d e v e l o p a community f r o m an u n o r g a n i z e d p h a s e t o m a t u r i t y . , The s e c o n d model (B) g i v e s a 158 s t a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e b l e n d i n g o f v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a mature community. I f a community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r p l a n s and i m p l e m e n t s a p r o j e c t i n a mature community, he can e a s i l y a d o p t t h e s e c o n d model (fl) t o a c h i e v e h i s p u r p o s e . But i f he has t o g u i d e p l a n n e d c h a n g e s i n a young community, he must s i m u l a t e t h e f i r s t model (A) and a t t e m p t t o a s s i s t t h e community t o w a r d s i t s m a t u r i t y , Hhen i t s m a t u r i t y s t a g e i s r e a c h e d , t h e whole o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mode c a n move on t o t h e s e c o n d model, f h e f i r s t m odel i s made t o f i t a community w i t h a l m o s t no community o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x t a n t . A young community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n a c t i v e and u n o r g a n i z e d l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , and t h e l a c k of s o c i a l - s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and community d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e . H i l l i n g d o n H e i g h t s i n NB Burnaby i s an example o f a r a t h e r young community., I t i s a n e i g h b o r h o o d c u r r e n t l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r a NIP Program. NIP p l a n n e r s , however, f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d and a f e e l i n g o f m i s t r u s t o f t h e government among the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s model i s t o e d u c a t e and s o c i a l i z e i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s t o g a i n community d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e , and h e n c e t o n u r t u r e t h e community t o i t s m a t u r i t y . T h e r e a r e f i v e r o l e s which community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s must a d o p t i n o r d e r t o r u n t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s s u c c e s s f u l l y . The f i r s t i s t o o r g a n i z e g r a s s r o o t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by r e a c h i n g o u t t o i n d i v i d u a l s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . P l a n n e r s p l a y a d o m i n a n t r o l e i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e s o c i a l bonds i n t h e community. S e c o n d , p l a n n e r s have t o s e t up a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e , p r e p a r i n g c i t i z e n s t o t a k e up s e l f - h e l p and i n i t i a t i v e r o l e s i n t h e 159 community. T h i r d , p l a n n e r s have t o e d u c a t e t h e c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e t o t a k e up i t s own l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n i n g and t o a c g u i r e community d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h t r i a l - a n d -e r r o r c o n t a c t s w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s and o t h e r f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . F o u r t h , t h e y have t o p l a y a c o n s u l t a n t o r c o o r d i n a t o r r o l e a t t h e l a t e r p hase t o h e l p t h e c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s e t up v a r i o u s k i n d s o f n e i g h b o r h o o d teams and s e l f - h e l p teams f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g NIP o r o t h e r l o c a l l y - i n i t i a t e d p r o j e c t s . L a s t l y , a t t h e f i n a l s t a g e o f NIP, community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d a c t a s a d v i s o r s t o e i t h e r c o n s o l i d a t e v a r i o u s n e i g h b o r h o o d teams i n t o o r g a n i z e d f o r m a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r t o p o o l i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r i o u s n e i g h b o r h o o d teams and NIP c o m m i t t e e t o form an o n - g o i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d a d v i s o r y b o a r d i n c h a r g e o f l o c a l i s s u e s and a s e r v i c e s - d e l i v e r y s y s t e m . . I f p o s s i b l e a m u l t i s e r v i c e c e n t r e c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d o u t o f t h e l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e . 160 COMMUNITY PHASE NIP PHASE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION ROLE OF C D . PLANNER GOAL ACHIEVED youth (unorgan-i z e d ) e a r l y s t a g e o f i n i t i a t i o n p u b l i c h e a r i n g p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t dominant d e c i s i o n maker p l a n n i n g s t a g e NIP / LAP c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y board implemen-t a t i o n s t a g e m a t u r i t y ( o r g a n i z e d ) c o m p l e t i o n s t a g e e d u c a t o r organxze s e l f - h e l p teams t o implement NIP o r g a n i z e r , c o n s u l t a n t or c o - o r d i n a -t o r c o n s o l i - p o o l date i n t e r e s t e d s e l f - i n d i v i -h e l p d u a l s from teams NIP commi-i n t o t t e e and f o r m a l s e l f - h e l p v o l u n t a r y teams t o o r g a n i - form an z a t i o n s i n c o r p o r a -t e d board o f a m u l t i -s e r v i c e c e n t r e a d v i s o r (minor r o l e ) o r g a n i z e i n d i v i d u a l s i n a commi-t t e e i d e n t i f y i s s u e s f o r m u l a t e p l a n s ^ e v a l u a t e and 1 s e l e c t a l t e r n a - ' t i v e s • I I implement a l t e r n a t i v e s j! E ' p l 6 I c l form on-g o i n g c i t i z e n committee or r e s o u r c e board f o r e v a l u a - —• t i o n and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g FIGURE 4 IT o T TOTAL  local mobilization * + f ^ 2. VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATION (INFORMAL SUBSYSTEM) C needs resources 5 NIP / LAP CITIZEN ADVISORY BOARD 4 CITY PLANNING DEPARTMENT (FORMAL SUBSYSTEM) 161 SYSTEM FIGDBE 5 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF STATIC BLENDING MODEL (B) -INTERESTED INDIVIDUALS CITY PLANNING LAP AND CITY COUNCIL J. NIP / LAP COMMITTEE (ORG. REPRESENTATIVES) PTA SB NH CRAI CC n — i — r ( l o c a l a Q f r j l i g f l j t i p n ) CHURCHES ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS (organizational outreach) ± NEIGHBORS, FRIENDS AND TOTAL COMMUNITY I I G U R E 6 OPERATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF STATIC BLENDING MODEL JBJL 162 The s e c o n d model (fi) a p p l i e s o n l y t o a community w h i c h has a l r e a d y r e a c h e d o r i s c l o s e t o i t s m a t u r i t y s t a g e . I t shows i n more d e t a i l an o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s b l e n d e d t o g e t h e r . K i t s i l a n o and Downtown E a s t s i d e a r e e x a m p l e s o f r a t h e r mature c o m m u n i t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r which have a c q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f community d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p a s t . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s model i s t o make s t r a t e g i c use o f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l e g i t i m a t e s t a t u s o f NIP o r LAP t o p o o l e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f a community. The c o n c e p t u a l framework o f t h i s model i s t o s e t up a LAP/NIP C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Committee by b r i n g i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e x i s t i n g v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o t h i s c o m m i t t e e . T h e s e p e o p l e a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o l l e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t s , needs and r e s o u r c e s a s w e l l as m o b i l i z i n g t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s members t o t a k e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r o l e s i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t n e e d s , c o n c e r n s and r e s o u r c e s . The r o l e s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n e r s a r e , f i r s t , t o p o o l e x i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t o NIP/LAP c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e ; s e c o n d , t o e n c o u r a g e m o b i l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g v o l u n t a r y n e t w o r k s ; t h i r d , t o b l e n d p r o p o s a l s and c o n c e r n s o f v a r i o u s v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n ; and f o u r t h , t o make s t r a t e g i c use o f t h e NIP c o m m i t t e e t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e p o l i t i c i a n s . 163 CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s o f v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s i n community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . Two models b l e n d i n g v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s a r e recommended. , The u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e models i s t c c o o r d i n a t e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s s o as t o e f f e c t p l a n n e d changes i n l o c a l a r e a s . S i n c e t h i s t h e s i s e m p h a s i z e s a c o o r d i n a t i o n a p p r o a c h by r e c o g n i z i n g l i m i t a t i o n s and s t r e n g t h s o f e a c h t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , a model w h i c h i s b a s e d on c o m p e t i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n t e g r a t i o n i s beyond t h e p r e s e n t s c o p e . However, i f c o m p e t i t i o n between o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d , a t h i r d model i n which some v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t ( t h r o u g h t h e NIP/LAP committee) a c c e s s t o t h e C i t y C o u n c i l may be c a l l e d f o r . Any p l a n n e r who wants t o p r a c t i s e community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g must be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d o f community which he i s p l a n n i n g . S e c o n d , he has t o r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g p h a s e s . F i n a l l y , he has t o s e l e c t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e model of community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g recommended i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o work w i t h b o t h l o c a l g r o u p s and p o l i t i c i a n s . T h e s e s t e p s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e community d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . 164 AREAS OF FURTHER RESEARCH T h i s r e s e a r c h has i n v e s t i g a t e d two c a s e s , a NIP committee and a n e i g h b o r h o o d house. The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s e two c a s e s t u d i e s t o o t h e r v o l u n t a r y and g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s needs t o be f u r t h e r s t u d i e d . Many o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t b l e n d i n g a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f LAP/NIP and some d i r e c t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a g e n c i e s . The e x p l o r a t i o n o f community a g e n c i e s and t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f community d e v e l o p m e n t can v e r i f y t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s embedded i n t h i s t h e s i s . , A n o t h e r a r e a o f r e s e a r c h i s e x p l o r a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e s o t h e r t h a n ' l o c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n * and ' c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n * . A c o m p a r i s o n and i m p a c t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i o u s programs e x i s t i n g i n Canada would s e r v e t h i s p u r p o s e . L a t e n t i m p a c t s o f v a r i o u s programs on l o c a l community s h o u l d be made e x p l i c i t and a s s e s s e d i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y o t h e r r o l e s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s . 165 L I T E R A T U R E CIT.ED 166 Addams, J . ; 1910. Twenty Y e a r s At H u l l House^, N. 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P l e a s e g i v e t h e name, a d d r e s s a n d telephone number of each of your i n f o r -mants t o whom you had i n t r o d u c e d the K i t s House / or had i n f o r m e d o f the i s s u e s r a i s e d i n the NIP committee (such as the c l o s u r e of the 2 3 r d Ave. or the need f o r a neighborhood h o u s e ) . Thank you. RELATIONSHIPS NAME ADDRESS PHONE NO. FREQUENCY OF CONTACT F r i e n d s of the same community o r g a n i z a t i o n (such as church, community cen-t r e , e t c . ) 1 . 2 . 3 . h. 5 . 6. N e i g h b o u r s 1 . 2 . 3 . k. 5. 6. R e l a t i v e s 1 . 2 . 3 . k. 5 . 6. F r i e n d s o r 1 . workmates 2 . 3 . k. 5. 6. 176 APPEITOIX B INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR RESEARCH (I) Are you presently working? Yes No If 'yes', what do you do? Do you belong to any community organization (besides Kits House)? No Yes: Church or other r e l i g i o u s organizations Community centre, neighborhood house, YMCA/YWCA Fraternal or charitable organizations , Professional groups, labour union or trade union Ratepayers or tenants association What would you probably do i f some houses sta r t to deteriorate i n your neighborhood (e.g. t i l t e d porch, broken stairway...)? do nothing leave the neighborhood d i r e c t l y encourage and help neighbors with deteriorate houses to f i x the house (or to apply for RRAP i f available) propose ideas to NH/NIP hoping some action can be done in a corporative e f f o r t encourage neighbors to form s e l f - h e l p teams for maintenance discuss the issue with neighbors others: What would you probably do i f vandalism sta r t s to increase in your neighborhood (e.g. kids are breaking street lamps)? do nothing leave the neighborhood propose ideas to NH/NIP hoping some action can be taken i n a corporative e f f o r t encourage neighborhood watch complain to the police others: What would you probably do i f the c i t y h a l l proposed a zoning by-law that a f f e c t s the nature of your neighborhood (e.g. leg-a l i z i n g s u i t e s ) ? do nothing leave the neighborhood propose ideas to NH/NIP hoping some action can be taken i n a corporative e f f o r t encourage neighbors to protest against c i t y h a l l t a l k to your alderman or other p o l i t i c a l leaders write to editor or c a l l the hotline others: 6. Have you ever suggested a way of improving the community to: your neighbors your friends i n Ki t s House /NIP committee your alderman or p o l i t i c a l leaders the s t a f f of K i t s House / l o c a l area planners editors of the press/ hotline others: 7. How did you know about K i t s House /NIP and P.RAP i n Ril e y Park? From: s t a f f of Ki t s House / l o c a l area planners members of K i t s House /NIP committee members neighbors friends or r e l a t i v e s other community organizations, such as: mass media, pamphlets or posters drop i n accidentally l i v e close by other sources: 8. Have you introduced K i t s House /NIP & RRAP to: your family members or r e l a t i v e s your neighbors your friends l i v i n g i n the same neighborhood your workmates l i v i n g i n the same neighborhood others: *9» What other programs do you join i n Piits House besides *10. Besides j o i n i n g the program, have you ever f i n a n c i a l l y supported K i t s House? Yes No 11. Have you ever given any opinions to Kits House /NIP regarding the establishment of a neighborhood house closure of 2 3 r d Ave.? Yes No 12. Have you ever volunteered to a s s i s t i n carrying out some of the programs or projects? Yes No 13* How long have you been l i v i n g i n this area? yrs. mon l^f. Do you own or rent the house (apt.)? own rent apt house 15. How many years of full - t i m e schooling have you completed? yrs 16. What i s your ethnic origin? committee or the * Questions only applicable to Kits House par t i c i p a n t s or informant 178 (HYPOTHESIS II Ho : T h e r e i s no a s s o c i a t i o n between * m u l t i p l e x i t y ' a n d * o r g a n i z a t i o n ' i n . t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m w h i c h 46 s a m p l e s a r e drawn. pty: a s s i g n e d a t 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l % SV NQRG STRAN?N^ KH RP < 1 1 2 1 5 2 7 2 1 0 5 15 3 4 0 4 2 6 2 0 4 6 r = 0 . 5 8 6 P**> = 0 . 0 4 .*. H i s r e j e c t e d o FREQ KH RP 1 2 3 5 2 2 8 1 0 3 8 7 15 4 1 4 2 16 2 6 2 0 4 6 r = 0 . 6 7 2 p<*) = 0 . 0 0 2 4 r e j e c t e d RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LMhlilMMML AND 'ORGANIZATION' 179 APPENDIX D ^HYPOTHESIS II No : There i s no a s s o c i a t i o n between 'frequency* and ' s t r a n d ' i n the u n i v e r s e from which 46 samples are drawn, p(<*): assigned at 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l STRAND""" 1 2 3 4 1 5 10 9 3 27 2 0 0 6 9 15 3 .0 0 0 4 4 5 10 15 16 46 r - 0 . 9 1 9 p(<*) = 0 . 0 .'. H i s rejected o RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ^FREQUENCY! AND ISTRASfil FOR POOLED KITS HOUSE AND RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE SAMPLES pk) = 0 . 0 0 0 1 •*• H' i s rejected o d -^FREQ STRAND" 1 2 3 4 —.-FREQ STRAND""" 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 7 1 12 1 3 8 2 2 15 2 0 0 1 9 10 2 0 0 5 0 5 3 0 0 0 4 4 3 8 7 2 20 2 2 8 14 26 r = 0 . 6 9 2 p(*) = 0 . 0 5 H i s rejected o 1IM2I0NSHIP BETWEEN STRAND & FREQ FOR KITS HOUSE REpAT-IONS-HIP - BETWEEN-STRAND S FREQ FOR RILEY- PARK NIP COM. 180 APPENDIX E IHIPOTHESIS I I I H 0 : The two v a r i a b l e s , »multiplexity' and ' m o b i l i z a t i o n 1 , are independent o f each other i n the universe from which 46 samples are drawn. pC*): assigned at 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : (1). Chi-sguare t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e % * = 5.299 <tf = 2 . pW = 0 . 0 6 H i s r e j e c t e d The chi-sguare t e s t y i e l d s the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : INDICATORS OF 'MULTI' & 'MOBIL' TC* STRAND & DETERI 5.299 2 0.06 FREQ & DETERI 8.596 3 0.04 STRAND & VANDAL 8.68? 2 0.01 FREQ & VANDAL 5.^60 3 0.10 STRAND & ZONING 9.75*+ 2 0.01 FREQ & ZONING 11.363 3 0.01 STRAND & INITIATE 30.280 2 0 .00 FREQ & INITIATE 14.800 3 0.02 STRAND & INDIOUTR 13.880 2 0.03 FREQ & INDIOUTR 19.740 3 0.02 STRAND & OPINION 21.843 2 - 0.00 FREQ & OPINION 19.648 3 0.0002 STRAND & SUPPORT 18.652 2 0.0001 FREQ & SUPPORT 2.907 3 0.40 STRAND & ASSIST 9.185 2 0.01 FREQ & ASSIST 7.670 3 0.05 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN J.MULTILEXITil AND IMOBILIZATIONl FOR POOLED SAMPLES STRAND DETERI n e g a t i v e p o s i t i v e 11 2 16 13 27 15 0 4 13 .33 46 181 S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : ( 2 ) . C o e f f i c i e n t of Contingency Test of A s s o c i a t i o n ___J4ULTIPLEX IT Y STRAND FREQ MOBILIZATION c P f t ) t DETERI 4 6 o . o 6 0 . 3 4 6 0 . 0 4 0 . 4 VANDAL 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 6 0 . 1 0 0 . 3 ZONING 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 INITIATE 4 6 0 . 0 0 0 . 6 4 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 5 INDIOUTR 4 6 0 . 0 3 0 . 5 4 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 6 SUPPORT 2 6 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 . 6 2 6 0 . 4 0 0 . 3 ASSIST 4 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 4 OPINION 4 4 0 . 0 0 0 . 6 4 4 0 . 0 0 0 2 0 . 7 WEIGHTEDAVERAGE •C» BY SAMPLE 0 . 4 7 0 . 4 4 SIZE COEFFICIENT OF CONTINGENCY FOfi IIULTIPLEXITY! AND \ MOBILIZATION'-182 APPENDIX I IHYPOTHESIS I I I 1 P A R T I A L R E L A - E T H N I C Z E R O -•ORDER T I O N S H I P B R I T I S H O T H E R S B E T W E E N : rv pC<*) r rv h. r V A N D A L & ORG 2 7 0 . 6 0.4 1 9 0 . 9 0 . 2 46 0 . 5 0 . 3 D E T E R I & ORG 2 7 0.4 0 . 5 1 9 0 . 2 0 . 8 46 0 . 1 o.;6 Z O N I N G & ORG 2 7 0 . 9 0 . 1 1 9 0 . 9 0 . 3 46 0 . 8 0 . 2 I N I T I A T E & ORG 2 7 0 . 1 0 . 6 1 9 0 . 7 0 . 2 46 0 . 1 0 . 5 I N D I O U T R & ORG 2 7 0 . 1 0 . 6 1 9 0 . 3 0.4 46 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 6 O P I N I O N & - O E G 2 5 0 . 1 0 . 8 1 9 0 . 2 0 . 7 44 0 . 0 1 0 . 8 A S S I S T & ORG 2 6 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 1 1 . 0 .45 0 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 S U P P O R T & ORG 15 0 . 1 1 . 0 1 1 — — a " " " " " 2 6 0 . 2 1 . 0 W E I G H T E D 0 . 5 6 9 0 . 6 1 0 0 . 5 9 4 A V E R A G E »TT ' LEGEND: a — no R i l e y P a r k r e s p o n d e n t b e l o n g i n g t o t h e "OTHERS" e t h n i c g r o u p s u p p o r t s t h e NIP Committee and t h e NIP p r o j e c t s f i n a n c i a l l y PARTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN 1 M 0 B I L I Z . A T I 0 N 1 AND ^ORGANIZATION^ WJEN CONTROLLING FOR ^ETHNIC! 183 APPENDIX G 1HYPOTHESIS I I I 1 PARTIAL RELA- SEX ZERO-ORDER TIONSHIP -MALE FEMALE BETWEEN: p M ; r r n V DETERI & ORG 2 3 0 . 9 0 . 2 2 3 0 . 0 1 0 . 9 46 0 . 1 0 . 6 VANDAL & ORG 2 3 0 . 8 0 . 3 2 3 0 . 1 0 . 8 46 0 . 5 0 . 3 ZONING & ORG 2 ^ 0 . 7 0 . 0 5 2 3 0 . 4 0 . 5 46 0 . 8 0 . 2 INITIATE & ORG 2 3 0 . 1 0 . 7 2 3 0 . 3 0 . 4 46 o . l 0 . 5 INDIOUTR & ORG 2 3 0 . 6 0 . 2 2 3 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 9 46 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 6 OPINION & ORG 2 2 0 . 2 0 . 7 2 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 9 4 4 0 . 0 1 0 . 8 ASSIST & ORG 2 2 0 . 0 1 1 . 0 2 3 0 . 1 1 . 0 4 5 0 . 2 1 . 0 WEIGHTED 0 . 4 4 9 0 . 7 7 8 0 . 5 6 8 AVERAGE • y* • PARTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN 1MOBILIGATION.! AND 'ORGANIZATION* WHEN CONTROLLING FOR 'SEX* 184 APPENDIX H 1HYP0THESIS I I I l PARTIAL RELA-TIONSHIP BETWEEN: ZERO-ORDER DETERI & ORG VANDAL & ORG ZONING & ORG INITIATE & ORG INDIOUTR & ORG OPINION & ORG SUPPORT & ORG ASSIST & ORG WEIGHTED AVER-AGE • V*' 0.502 LEGEND: a — no R i l e y Park, r e s p o n d e n t who l i v e i n t h e i r community f o r l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s s u p p o r t s t h e NIP Committee and p r o j e c t s f i n a n c i a l l y b — no s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l g i v e n b e c a u s e t h e number o f c a s e s i s l e s s t h a n 10 PARTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN 1MOBILIZATION1 AND 'ORGANIZATION' WHEN CONTROLLING FOR 'LENGTH OF RESIDENCE' 185 M O I P i x i i S X E O T H E S I S PARTIAL RELA-TIONSHIP OCCUPATION ZERO-ORDER HIGH PRESTIGE LOW PRESTIGE BETWEEN: rv rv rv pCoi) DETERI & ORG 13 0.5 0.1 17 0.5 0.6 30 0.4 0.5 VANDAL & ORG 13 0.8 0.1 17 0.8 OA 30 1.0 0.1 ZONING & ORG 13 0.8 0.2 17 0.3 1.0 30 0.8 0.3 INITIATE & ORG 13 0.8 0.3 17 0.03 1.0 30 0.08 0.6 INDIOUTR & ORG 13 0.1 0.6 17 0.3 0.4 30 0.06 0.5 OPINION & ORG 12 1.0 o.4 17 0.01 1.0 29 0.1 0.7 ASSIST & ORG 13 0.1 1.0 17 0.06 1.0 30 0.003 1.0 WEIGHTED AVERAGE 0.386 0.771 0.528 PARTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN 1M0BILIZATIONJ. OB 10RGANIZ ATIONI WHEN CONTROLLING FOR ^OCCUPATION.: 186 APPENDIX J (HYPOTHESIS I I I 1 P A R T I A L R E L A - E D U C A T I O N Z E R O - O R D E R T I O N S H I P 13 Y R . 13 Y R . B E T W E E N : r pU) r >v pU) r C E T E R I & ORG 27 0.4 0.5 19 0.1 1.0 46 i 0.1 0.6 V A N D A L & ORG 27 0.5 0.4 19 0.7 0.0 46 0.5 0.3 Z O N I N G & ORG 27 0.8 0.0 19 0.8 o.5 46 0.8 0.2 I N I T I A T E & ORG 27 0.7 0.2 19 0.0 0.8 46 0.1 0.5 I N D I O U T R & ORG 27 0.3 0.3 19 0.0 1.0 46 0.003 0.6 O P I N I O N & ORG 25 0.0 0.9 19 0.6 0.5 44 0.01 0.8 A S S I S T & ORG 26 0.01 1.0 19 0.1 1.0 45 0.001 1.0 W E I G H T E D A V E R A G E 1 J » 0.464 0.686 0.569 PARTIAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN iMOBIilZATI-ON*.-AND « ORGANIZATION 1 WHEN CONTROLLING FOR-1 Y E A R S OF F^LJ.-TIME S G H 0 0 L I N G 1 187 iMPQTJESIS I£l STRAND KH RP POOLED SAMPLE MOBILIZATION rv p(W c IV c tv O DETERI 26 0.4 0.3 20 r 0.2 0.3 46 1 0.06 0.3 VANDAL 26 0.02 0.5 20 0.3 0.3 46 0.01 0.4. ZONING 26 0.003 0.5 20 0.4 0.2 46 0.01 0.4 INITIATE 26 0.001 0.7 20 0.08 0.4 46 0.0 0.6 INDIOUTR 26 0.2 0.5 20 0.2 0.4 46 0.03 0.5 SUPPORT 25 0.0001 0.6 1 a 26 0.0001 0.6 OPINION 24 0.004 0.6 20 0.08 0.5 44 0.0 0.6 ASSIST 25 0.2 0.4 20 b 45 0.01 0.4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE '6 • 0.512 0.298 0.47 FREQ KH RP POOLED SAMPLE MOBILIZATION rv rv »v O DETERI 26 0.3 0.4 20 r 0.2 0.4 46 o.o4 0.4 VANDAL 26 0.2 0.4 20 0.4 0.4 46 0.1 0.3 ZONING 26 0.1 0.6 20 0.5 0.3 46 0.01 0.4 INITIATE 26 0.12 0.5 20 0.02 0.6 46 0.02 0.5 INDIOUTR 26 0.003 0.7 20 0.9 0.4 46 0.02 0.6 SUPPORT 25 0.4 0.3 1 c 26 0.4 0.3 OPINION 24 0.007 0.6 20 0.2 0.5 44 0.0002 0.7 ASSIST 25 0.6 0.3 20 d 45 0.05 0.4 • • WEIGHTED AVERAGE • 6 » 0.475 0.369 0.44 LEGEND: a, c — 20 missing o b s e r v a t i o n s b, d — 1 missing o b s e r v a t i o n and none of the f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s of R i l e y Park NIP Committee i s w i l l i n g t o a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g out some NIP p r o j e c t s THE COEFFICIENT OF COJTINGENCY BETWEEN LMklLRkMlllL AND 1 MOBILIZATION' IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS 1 8 8 APPENDIX k 1SYP0TBESIS IH j-j0 : There i s no percentage d i f f e r e n c e of the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n of ' m u l t i p l e x i t y ' and ' m o b i l i z a t i o n 1 between two types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : to f i n d the percentage d i f f e r e n c e between R KH and R*p where R i s the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between two v a r i a b l e s KH PvP positive nega/tive 9 (34 . 6 % ) 3 ( 1 1.5) 7 (35%) 8 ( 4 0 ) 16 1 1 2+ positive negative 13 (50.0) l f ( 3 . 8 ) 4 ( 2 0 ) 1 ( 5) 1 7 2 2 0 2 0 4 6 £KH = (50.0 + 11.5) - ( 3 4 . 6 + 3.8) = 23.1% "RRP = ( 4 0.0 + 20.0) - (35.0 = 5.0) =.20.0% P e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e = ICKH "" RRP = +13.1% > 0 The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the percentage d i f f e r e n c e between & fci?p : \ I N D I C A T O R S O F » M U L T I » & ' M O B I L ' P E R C E N T A G E D I F F E R E N C E S T R A N D & D E T E R I +13.1% F R E Q & D E T E R I +33.8% S T R A N D & V A N D A L +23.9% . F R E Q & V A N D A L +11.1% S T R A N D & Z O N I N G +61.5% F R E Q & Z O N I N G + 4 l . 5 % S T R A N D & I N I T I A T E +41.5% F R E Q & I N I T I A T E + 8.5% S T R U N D & I N D I O U T R +16.2% F R E Q & I N D I O U T R +82.3% S T R A N D & O P I N I O N +15.0% F R E Q & O P I N I O N + 8.3% PERCENTAGE DIFFERENCE OF MULTIPLEXITY AND MOBILIZATION BETWEEN KITS HOUSE AND RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE 189 AJPEJwpix M 1HYPQTHESIS IVI H 0 : The proportion of positive e f f e c t s of mobilization in a multi-stranded rel a t i o n s h i p of Kits House i s equal to the proportion of posit i v e e f f e c t s of mobilization i n a multi-stranded relationship of Biley Park NIP Committee. fi+)z assigned at 0.05 sign i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l Manipulation: test of sig n i f i c a n c e of the difference between two proportions where: psi = p r o p o r t i o n ' i n sample 1 _ = p r o p o r t i o n i n sample 2 *7 — Ps< P s * p£ = weighed average of p r o p o r t i o n s f^tiL I NiN* fa> = ' - P* J r^T 4 Ni+Hx t^1' = s a m P l e s i z e 1 Nz = sample s i z e 2 - f s t a n d a r d s c o r e INDICATORS OF 'MULTI' & 'MOBIL' 2 STRAND & DETERI 2.08 0.019 FREQ & DETERI 3.38 0.00037 STRAND & VANDAL 1.98 0.024 FREQ & VANDAL 2.00 0.023 STRAND & ZONING 2.34 0.0096 FREQ & ZONING 2.02 0.022 STRAND & INITIATE 2.26 0.012 " FREQ & INITIATE 2.02 0.022 STRAND & INDIOUTR 2.72 0.0033 FREQ & INDIOUTR 4.66 0.0000034 STRAND & OPINION 2.55 0.0054 FREQ & OPINION 3.04 0.0012 TEST THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROPORTIONS OF POSITIVE MOBILTZATIO^ IN A MULTISTRANDEp--RELATIOJNSHIP OF TWO TYPES OF OR G A NI Z AT ION-S-190 - - APPENDIX . N . (HYPOTHESIS V i ^iTOLTIPLEXITY MOBILIZATION—— rv STRAND T FREQ pLd.) DETERI 46 0 . 0 3 0 . 3 46 0 . 0 2 0 . 3 VANDAL 46 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 46 0.02 0 . 3 ZONING 46 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 4 . 46 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 4 INITIATE 46 0 . 0 0 . 6 46 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 4 INDIOUTR 4 6 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 4 46 0 .002 0 . 4 SUPPORT 2 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 6 2 6 0.1 0 . 3 OPINION 4 4 0 . 0 0 . 6 4 4 . 0 . 0 0 . 6 ASSIST 45 0.006 0 . 4 . 4 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE' "V ' 0 . 4 3 0 . 3 9 THE ASYMMETRIC MEASURE -1 -jC I - BET-HEE*-l l f i E P E J D I I I VMULTIPLEXITY' AND DEPENDENT IMOflL-IZAflSiN-i--191 APPENDIX 0 1HYP0THESIS VII STRAND M O B I L I Z A T I O N " IV K H ft*) R P POOLED S A M P L E S i v D E T E R I VANDAL ZONING I N I T I A T E INDIOUTR O P I N I O N SUPPORT A S S I S T 26 0.3 0.5 26 0.02 0.4 26 0 . 0 0 4 0.6 26 0.008 0.6 26 0.01 0.5 24 0.005 0.6 25 0.1 0.6 25 o . l 0.4 20 0.5 0.3 20 0.6 0.2 20 0.8 0.2 20 0.2 0.4 20 0.2 0.3 20 0.03 0.6 1 a - — 20 b - — 4 6 o . 0 3 0 . 3 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 6 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 4 4 6 0 . 0 0 . 6 4 6 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 4 4 4 0 . 0 0 . 6 26 0 . 0 1 0 . 6 4 5 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 4 WEIGHTED-A V E R A G E • V ' ~ ^ R E Q ^ ^ M O B I L I Z A T I O N 0 . 5 3 K H 0 . 3 3 R P 0.43 POOLED S A M P L E S rv pfoQ ~V D E T E R I V A N D A L ZONING I N I T I A T E INDIOUTR O P I N I O N SUPPORT A S S I S T 26 0.3 0.3 26 0.1 0 . 4 26 0 . 0 0 4 0.6 26 0 . 0 4 0 . 4 26 0.01 0.5 2 4 0.002 0.7 25 0.18 0.3 25 0 . 4 0 . 4 20 20 20 20 20 20 1 20 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.05 0 . 4 0.9 0 . 0 4 0.05 0 . 4 4 6 0.02 0.3 4 6 0.02 0.3 4 6 0.005 0.4 4 6 0.002 0.4 4 6 0.002 0.4 44 0.0 0.6 26 0.2 0.3 45 0.01 0.4 WEIGHTED A V E R A G E ' * £ ' 0 . 4 8 0.29 0.39 LEGEND: a, c -- 20 missing obervations b, d — 1 missing observation and none of the f i r s t - o r d e r contacts of NIP Committee i s w i l l i n g to a s s i s t i n carrying some NIP projects COMPARING PREDICTIVE ili&2I0NSHIf 01 LMhlllhMMll ^MOBILIZATION! BETWEEN TWO-TYPES -0¥ ORGANIZATIONS 192 AJPPEJJDJX P 1HYP0THESIS V I I I H» : T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e ' t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ' and t h e 'number o f f i r s t - o r d e r c o n t a c t s r e a c h e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n * . : a s s i g n e d a t 0.15 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : C h i - s g u a r e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e " ^ ^ O R G " ^ v ^ Q R G C O N T A C T S ^ . KH R P # OF C O N T A C T S ^ KH R P yes 0 3 3 1 - 3 3 8 11 no 8 8 16 4+ 5 3 8 8 11 19 8 11 19 p(oo 2.73 1 0.1 ' . H q i s rejected TC*" = 2.27 <*f - i . p f o t ) = 0 . 1 4 , ' » H i s rejected o gEIATIONSHIP BETWEEN JJ.TYPE OF ORGANIZATION' AND I NOM BE R OF FJRST-QRDER CONTACTS £EACHED*_ 193 APPENDJX £ 1HIP0THESIS V i l l i Ho : There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the observed (sample) freguency and the expected (population) freguency of the s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . p O * ) : assigned a t 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n ; Chi-square t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e (one-sample) KH £ i * 0i (n = 26) employed 15.4 13 unemployed 10.6 13 = 0.917 *i = i p ( # = 0.4 •using 1971 Census Data The computed c h i - s g u a r e and p(si) f o r other SES a t t r i b u t e s are: SES ATTRIBUTES tv KH p ( « 0 r t RP P' 4f p k ) LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION 26 0.92 1 0.40 20 12.G i 0.001 LABOUR FORCE BY PCCUPATION 12 5.63 2 0.08 17 9.30 2 0.0.05 ETHNIC ORIGIN 26 0.04 1 0.85 20 1.47 1 0.250 DWELLING BY TENURE 26 1.47 . 1 0.25 14 3.67 1 0.080 DWELLING BY TYPE 26 O.87 1 0.40 14 3.83 1 0 . 0 . 8 0 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 26 4.29 4 0.40 19 6.81 4* 0.150 YEARS OF FULL-TIME SCHOOLING 26 5.97 4 0.25 20 71.6 4 0.005 l I l S f l M THE SOCIAL SI MIL ASIT Y OF-SAMPLES TO COMMUNITY POPULATION-194 B l a l o c k (1972:292-3) i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i f p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e c e l l r e m a i n unchanged, c h i - s q u a r e v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e number o f c a s e s . I f we d o u b l e t h e number o f c a s e s , we d o u b l e c h i - s q u a r e . Suppose t h e o r i g i n a l number o f c a s e s i s m u l t i p l i e d by ,k"., t h e new c h i - s q u a r e c a n t h u s be e x p r e s s e d a s : a a > ^ ( k f - k f T „ k * ( f 0 - f ) _ ( f " O , C % - ; - £ - \ { ' Z k ° e - k € - ^ -e e e T h e r e f o r e , t h e a d j u s t e d new c h i - s q u a r e f o r K i t s House (so a s t o compare w i t h R i l e y P a r k ' s sample s i z e ) a r e : SES ATTRIBUTES /V KH pfoO fU RP •P" LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION 26 0.71 0.70 20 12.6 0.001 LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION 13 7.36 0.02 17 9.30 0.005 ETHNIC ORIGIN 26 0.03 0.95 20 1.47 0.250 DWELLING BI TENURE 26 0.79 0.30 14 3.67 0.080 DWELLING BY TYPE 26 0.47 0.50 14 3.83 0.080 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 26 3.13 0.50 19 6.81 0.150 YEARS OF FULL-TIME SCHOOLING 26 4.59 0.30 20 71.6 0.005 COMPARING THE SIGNIFICANCE LEV EL O-F-REJECTING Ha. BETWEEN KITS HOUSE MP. RILEY PARK NIP COMMITTEE-195 APPENDIX fi (HYPOTHESIS V i l l i H o : The sample i s t a k e n r a n d o m l y from t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p o p u l a t i o n and sample p r o p o r t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : One-sample d i f f e r e n c e o f p r o p o r t i o n t e s t 2 =. P s ~ w h e r e : ps = p r o p o r t i o n o f s a m p l e = p r o p o r t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n ^ U . = { - pu. H = s t a n d a r d s c o r e s SES ATTRIBUTES H KH pu. 2 R P % >± pa. LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION 0.036 0.012 98.8 0.180 0.071 92.9 LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION 0 . 0 5 4 0.020 98.0 0.126 0 . 0 4 9 95.1 ETHNIC ORIGIN 0.008 0.002 99.8 0.058 0.023 97.7 DWELLING BY TENURE 0.053 0.021 97.9 0 . 1 3 7 0.055 9 4 . 5 DWELLING BY TYPE 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 1 4 98.6 0.139 0.056 94.4 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 0 . 0 4 2 0.016 98.4 0.069 0.028 97.2 YEARS OF FULL-TIME SCHOOLING 0.072 0.028 97.2 0.193 0.076 92.4 TESTING THE SOCI AL SIMILARITY BET HE-EN SAMPLE PROPORTIONS AND POPULATION PROPORTIONS 196 APPENDIX S-INTJSIIEI SCHEDULE FOR HYPOTHESES IX 6 X 1. Have you b e a r d a b o u t K i t s House /NIP i n R i l e y P a r k ? No I f ' y e s * , how d o you l e a r n a b o u t i f ? t h r o u g h mass media t h r o u g h p o s t e r / p a m p h l e t s t h r o u g h s o c i a l c o n t a c t t h r o u g h o t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h o t h e r s : 2. Have you e v e r g i v e n any s u g g e s t i o n s o r o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e programs o f K i t s House / i s s u e s o f NIP {such a s e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e i g h b o r h o o d house o r c l o s i n g 23rd Ave.}? No I f " y e s " * , how do you e x p r e s s y o u r o p i n i o n ? t h r o u g h l e t t e r to e d i t o r / h o t l i n e t h r o u g h t h o s e who i n f o r m you o f t h e i s s u e t h r o u g h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s o r a l d e r m a n t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h s u r v e y s t h r o u g h o t h e r s : 197 (HYPOTHESIS IXl H« : The 'knowledge o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n * i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f ^ t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n 1 . pC*): a s s i g n e d a t 0.1 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : C h i - s g u a r e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e KNOWLEDGE OF ORG^^ KH RP know of 9 9 18 don't know 13 15 28 22 2k k6 X* = 0.059 d f = i p (o i^ = o.8o »*. H i s unlikely to be rejected RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN * KNOWLEDGE OF ORGANIZATION-*-AND 'TYPE OF ORGANIZATION*-198 APPENDIX 0 (HYPOTHESIS IXI Ho : The 'source of knowledge' i s independent of the 'type of organization'. p(*) : assigned at 0.1 significance l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l Manipulation: (1) . chi-sguare test of significance ORG SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE KH RP social contact 7 3 10 other means 2 6 8 * 9 9 18 3 . 6 1. 0 . 0 8 H i s r e j e c t e d o S t a t i s t i c a l Manipulation: (2). Fisher's Exact Test (Blalock, 1972;288) o r i g i n a l 2x2 table: 7 3 10 2 6 8 9 9 1-8 If we assume that the marginals remain fixed, the three alternative outcomes w i l l be; 0 8 8 1 7 8 2 6 8 9 1 10 8 2 10 7 3 10 9 9 18 9 9 18 9 9 18 po = 2 . 0 6 x 10 h = 7 . 4 x 1 0 " 5 P 2 = 0 . 0 7 f t P . = 0 . 0 7 1 1=0 1 .'• H Q i s rejected exactly at 0 . 0 7 1 significance level RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ^SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE AND ITYPES OF ORGMIZATIOH 199 (HYPOTHESIS X) Ho: The * g i v i n g of o p i n i o n * i s independent of the * type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n * to which l o c a l r e s i d e n t s g ive o p i n i o n s . p(y): ass igned at 0.25 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : (1) . C h i - s g u a r e t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e • ORG GIVING OF OPINION KH R P y e s 3 1 4 no 19 23 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 6 yC = 1.32 df = i p(«*;= 0.25 ,". H Q i s r e j e c t e d S t a t i s t i c a l M a n i p u l a t i o n : (2 ) . F i s h e r ' s Exact Test o r i g i n a l 2x2 t a b l e : 1 3 4 23 19 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 6 the two a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e : 0 4 4 1 3 4 2 4 18 4 2 23 19 42 2 4 2 2 4 6 2 4 2 2 4 6 P = 0.04 P 1 = 0 . 2 0 2 O X k P . = 0 . 2 4 2 .'. H i s r e j e c t e d o ° RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ' GIVING OF O P I N I O ^ M i l H Y P E OF ORG AN IZ AT ION 1 2 0 0 APPENDIX W INIEBVIEW SCHEDULE FOR THE * HOLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION* RESEARCH 1. From a s t a f f * s / l o c a l area planner*s p o i n t o f view, what i s the neighborhood house's /NIP*s ideology toward the purpose c f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community decision-making? 2. How are c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n decision-making? 3. In c o n s i d e r i n g the forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , what kinds o f t a c t i c s are used by the K i t s House/ NIP Committee? 4. I s the present form p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t i a t e d by the C i t y \ Co u n c i l ? What i s i t s source o f l e g i t i m a c y ? 5. What are the C i t y C o u n c i l * s reasons f o r adopting or r e j e c t i n g a proposal? 6. What i s your o p i n i o n towards using v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r community development? v 7. I s there any need (how and i n what way) f o r c o o d i n a t i n g voluntary and governmental agencies? 8. What do you t h i n k i s the f u t u r e of voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? 

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