UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Industrial zoning in Vancouver Holmes, Robert J 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1979_A8 H64.pdf [ 6.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094762.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094762-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094762-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094762-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094762-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094762-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094762-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094762-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094762.ris

Full Text

INDUSTRIAL  ZONING  IN  VANCOUVER  by ROBERT B.A., M.S.W.,  THESIS THE  J .  HOLMES  Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , U n i v e r s i t y ' o f Calgary,  SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L FOR  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  OF  THE  1967 1969  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  ARTS  in THE School  We  FACULTY  of  THE  Community  a c c e p t to  OF  t h i s  the  GRADUATE and  UNIVERSITY  R e g i o n a l  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  OF  A p r i l ,  STUDIES  as  P l a n n i n g  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1979  ^ R o b e r t J . Holmes, 1979  In  p r e s e n t i n g  r e q u i r e m e n t s B r i t i s h f r e e l y t h a t  t h i s f o r  an  Columbia, a v a i l a b l e  p e r m i s s i o n  t h e s i s  agree  f o r  study.  I  by  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  or  p u b l i c a t i o n  be  a l l o w e d  The  2075  of  U n i v e r s i t y Wesbrook  Vancouver, V 6 T 1W5 A p r i l ,  g r a n t e d I t  t h i s  t h e s i s  my  w r i t t e n  and  B r i t i s h  P l a c e  Canada  1979.  be  Community of  i t  and  c o p y i n g  i s f o r  by  f u r t h e r  t h i s  t h e s i s  the  Head  of  f i n a n c i a l  t h a t g a i n  p e r m i s s i o n .  Columbia  make  of  understood  R e g i o n a l  the of  r e f e r e n c e e x t e n s i v e  of  U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l  or  Department  the  L i b r a r y  may  w i t h o u t  a t  the  purposes  of  degree  f u l f i l m e n t  t h a t  s c h o l a r l y h i s  p a r t i a l  advanced  I  f o r  i n  P l a n n i n g .  my  agree f o r Department  c o p y i n g s h a l l  not  ABSTRACT  Reports of  b o t h  the  p u b l i s h e d C i t y  of  R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t  i n d u s t r y  and  b o t h  C i t y  the  expressed  the  In and  of  major  development  on are  the  has  of  focus  E a r l y  i n d u s t r y .  a l l o w s a r e a s .  a  from  p l a n n i n g  t h i s  and  The  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  use  the  t o o l  a  p o l i c y  Vancouver  f o r  has  of  p o l i c y  of  i n f l u e n c e impact  f a v o u r i n g  urban  l e s s  of  l e g i s l a t i o n  p l a n n i n g . and  has  i n d u s t r i a l i n  The  r e s i d e n t i a l i n  the  been  expressed  l a n d .  Vancouver  i n d u s t r i a l  s u p p l y  p l a n n i n g  a t t e n t i o n  i n t e r e s t  on  the  of  P l a n n i n g  l e g i s l a t i o n  and  l a n d  e s t a b l i s h e d  areas  as  of i n  from i n  i n d u s t r y  c o n t r o l i t  commercial  impact  which  l a n d ,  were  toward  r e s t r i c t i v e  o f f i c e  adopted  l e g i s l a t i o n  l e g i s l a t i o n  of  use  The i t s  i n  impact  the  c i t y  t h e s i s .  commercial  p o l i c y  l a n d  of  C i t y .  zoning  by-laws  P l a n n i n g  r e f l e c t e d ranged  of  Vancouver  consequences  c o n s i d e r a b l e  l o c a t i o n  zoning  r e s i d e n t i a l  and  Departments  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  C i t y  n e g a t i v e  l e g i s l a t i o n  and  the  The  p l a n n i n g  i n d u s t r i a l  P l a n n i n g G r e a t e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  r e c e i v e d  of  the  to  f a c t o r s  i n d u s t r i a l  the  i n d u s t r i a l  the  S i g n i f i c a n t l y  supply  the  i n  the  between  impact  e v o l u t i o n  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e . the  an  i n d u s t r y  w a r r a n t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n  of  and  Region.  about  c o n s i d e r i n g  l o c a t i o n  the  f o r  the  by  r e f e r r e d  development  l e g i s l a t i o n i s  need  concern  i n d u s t r i a l  Vancouver  have  and  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  r e c e n t l y  a p p l i e s  uses  t h i s  to  to  be  p r a c t i c e  Vancouver  i s  the  more i n  to  encroachment  r e c e n t  urban  i n d u s t r i a l  the  of has  t h a t  has  V a n c o u v e r ' s  developed on  times  areas  n e g l e c t . to  p r o t e c t  i n  areas i n d u s t r i a l  p a t t e r n  examined.  of  Data Records t i o n s  from  was  f o r  c i t y ' s  o f f i c e  i n n e r  was  zoning  use.  f e a t u r e  the  of  c i t y The  p o l i c y  the  examined. the  make  l a n d  are  i n  f a v o u r  of  of  i n d u s t r y  t h a t  The  p r o v i d e  a l s o  consequences  f o r  e s t a b l i s h e d  of  r e s e a r c h i n t o  f o r  s u c c e s s i o n  p o l i c i e s  f o r  i n  the  the the  from  the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n c i t y ' s time  of  found  l a n d  of  examined  l a n d  be  of to  i n d u s t r i a l  use  s u c c e s s i o n  developed  t h i s be  use  i n d u s t r i a l  V a n c o u v e r ' s  to  impact  o f f i c e  c i t y  c i t y  data  c i t y ' s of  s e r i e s  i n n e r  t h a t  l a n d  inner  f o r  p e r m i s s i v e  i n  The  arguments  focused urban  s e r v i c e r e t a i l  f i n d i n g s  zoning on  the  c i t y ' s  f o r  p u b l i c  growing  economy  and  n a t u r e .  e x p l o r i n g  new the  and  s m a l l e r  study  e f f o r t the  of  c i t y ' s  i s  term  to  more  areas  need  to  which arguments  p r o t e c t i v e unique  p l a y  suggest  be  r o l e  i n  p r o v i d i n g  t h a t  undertaken  economic  Vancouver  of  i n d u s t r i a l  a  and  areas  should  changes  p l a n n i n g  a  to  s o c i a l  process  a r e a s .  i n d u s t r i a l to  the  were  i n d u s t r i e s .  s t r o n g l y  needs  l o n g  C i t y  by  i n d u s t r i a l  the  The  examined c i t y  of  importance  f u n c t i o n s  t h a t  by  f a v o u r  r e g u l a t i o n s  the  r e l a t e d i n  i n  l e g i s l a t i o n  c i t y ' s  f o l l o w e d  Data  s t u d y ' s  the  and  i n n e r  i n s i g h t  the  of  a d o p t i n g  space  the  The  i n d u s t r i a l  f o r  o f f i c e  f i n d i n g s  s i g n i f i c a n t  use  s e c t o r  Vancouver's  " i n c u b a t o r "  of  arguments  were  i n  areas.  e x i s t i n g  a v a i l a b l e  developments  process  was  d i s c u s s e d .  These  t y p i c a l l y  a  p r i n c i p a l  l e g i s l a t i o n  s e r v i c e  supply  i n d u s t r i a l  The  then  a p p l i c a -  of  c o n c l u s i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  were  the  p e r m i t t e d  i m p l i c a t i o n s  r e t a i n i n g  of  a  a l l o w i n g  commercial  the  P e r m i t  of  a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  supported  by  i n  Development  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  areas.  e x a m i n a t i o n  t h a t  r e g u l a t i o n s  occur  i n n e r  An  d e c l i n i n g  a  confirmed  b u i l d i n g s  showed  t h e r e f o r e ,  showed  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  a l s o  areas.  i n f o r m a t i o n  Vancouver's  i n d u s t r i a l  r e c o r d s  i n d u s t r i a l  to  c i t y  of  and  and  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  l a n d  C i t y  o b t a i n e d  assessment and  the  of  l a n d  P l a n n i n g then  be  l e g i s l a t i o n .  i v  TABLE  CHAPTER  II  -  The  C o n t e x t  -  The  Study  -  The  S i g n i f i c a n c e  THE AN  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  I  CHAPTER  OF  III  IV  STATUS  OF  INDUSTRY  HISTORICAL  The E v o l u t i o n N o r t h A m e r i c a  -  I n d u s t r y  ANALYSIS  ZONING  and  of  I n d u s t r i a l  V a n c o u v e r ' s  OF  Zoning  Zoning  i n  By-Laws  ij4  RESULTS  -  O f f i c e and O f f i c e / R e t a i l I n d u s t r i a l l y Zoned Areas i n  11  37  Development P e r m i t s J u n e 1, 1978  Trends  -  METHODOLOGY  -  -  BY-LAWS  PERSPECTIVE  -  RESEARCH  IN  Land  Use  J a n u a r y  i n  1,  1971  -  Developments 1978  I n d u s t r i a l  i n  Areas  1969 - 1976 -  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  V  VI  Rezoning  of  I n d u s t r i a l  IMPLICATIONS  FOR  THE  PROCESS  PLANNING  SUMMARY  AND  PUBLIC  CONCLUSIONS  Land  POLICY  1969  AND  -  1978  62  87  BIBLIOGRAPHY  90  APPENDICES  95  V  LIST  TABLE  I  Development and  IA  II  A r e a s .  January  P e r m i t  A r e a s .  Summary New  A p p l i c a t i o n s  1,  -  1971  A p p l i c a t i o n s  of  January  1,  Development  C o n s t r u c t i o n  and  P e r m i t  O f f i c e I n d u s t r i a l l y  June  f o r i n  -  1971  f o r i n  O f f i c e / R e t a i l Developments  Zoned TABLE  P e r m i t  Development and  TABLES  O f f i c e / R e t a i l Developments  Zoned TABLE  OF  1,  1978.  O f f i c e I n d u s t r i a l l y  June  1,  1978.  A p p l i c a t i o n s  C o n v e r s i o n  of  by  E x i s t i n g  B u i l d i n g s . TABLE  III  I n c i d e n c e i n  TABLE  TABLE  TABLE  IV  V  VI  of  O f f i c e  I n d u s t r i a l l y  and  Zoned  O f f i c e / R e t a i l  Areas  B u i l d i n g s  1978.  Net  Land  A r e a  Inner  C i t y  I n d u s t r i a l  Areas  19^9«  Net  Land  A r e a  Inner  C i t y  I n d u s t r i a l  Areas  1976.  Supply  of  Land  i n  Inner  C i t y  I n d u s t r i a l  Areas  1978. TABLE  VII  L o c a t i o n G r e a t e r  TABLE  V I I I  R e n t a l  of  Vancouver  Ranges  Vancouver Burnaby  P l a n t s  f o r  Inner  and  by  S i z e  and  Time  Zone.  1965-  I n d u s t r i a l  C i t y ,  Richmond.  P r o p e r t y  Vancouver  i n  Suburban,  LIST OF MAPS L o c a t i o n of Vancouver's I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s 1971. Approximate L o c a t i o n of Development P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s i n I n d u s t r i a l Areas. 1969 and 1978 Zoning B o u n d a r i e s f o r I n d u s t r i a l Areas.  v i i  A cknowle  My  i n t e r e s t  i n  p l a n n i n g  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  t o o l  Mr.  F a c u l t y  B i l l  Lane,  R e g i o n a l t h i s  P l a n n i n g .  t h e s i s  O f f i c e  of  Mr.  of Len  who  made  the  study.  the of  w i t h  Tennant  by  School B r i t i s h  I  am  member,  S c h o o l  the  P l a n n i n g  of  by  t h a t  a v a i l a b l e  to  Brahm and  Community  the  Wiesman  of  R e g i o n a l  a d v i c e  and  C r a i g  P l a n n i n g ,  Columbia.  R . J .  Holmes  Vancouver, A p r i l ,  B.C.  1979.  by  I the  p a r t i c u l a r  p r o v i d e d  sources  of  Manager,  d i s c u s s s v a r i o u s f o r  m a t t e r  p r o v i d e d i n  by  and  Vancouver.  and  who  other  i n f l u e n c e d  s u b j e c t  of  Department  and  an  Fancy,  a s s i s t a n c e  g r a t e f u l  Community  of  S i d  C i t y  as  was  the  department  r e c o r d s  a l s o  i n  Mr.  Development,  P r o f e s s o r s of  p l a n n i n g  i n t e r e s t  thanks  p e r m i t  h i m s e l f  My  l e g i s l a t i o n  urban  i n f l u e n c e d  Vancouver  development  p r o v i d e d  was  Economic  acknowledge C i t y  f o r  dgements  access data  a s p e c t s and  to and of  a s s i s t a n c e  Davis  of  U n i v e r s i t y  1  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  The  Context In  a  mixed  p u b l i c - p r i v a t e  e n t e r p r i s e  p l a n n i n g  l e g i s l a t i o n  c o n t r o l l i n g  of  l a n d  c o n s i d e r e d  urban  e s t a b l i s h i n g and  the  be  " r u l e s  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  market  and  p a t t e r n  must,  market. a  be  means  law,  p l a n  and/or an  the  of  some  an  i m p o r t a n t  uses  and  urban to  l a n d  l i f e  l a n d  impact  of  i n  development  a  the of  p r o v i d e  i n d u s t r i a l  view  i s  s t i l l  t h a t  l e g i s l a t i o n  of  p l a y  urban  p a t t e r n .  space  f o r  a c t i v i t i e s  ( i . e .  r e s i d e n t i a l ,  The a  on  concern  on  l e s s  l e g i s l a t i o n  to  uses  and  s o c i a l  changing  a t t e n t i o n  l a n d .  the  the commercial  and  p a t t e r n  urban  of  p l a n n i n g .  has  been  the  development  i n t e r e s t on  the  l a n d  Since  uses  l e g i s l a t i o n  of  s p a t i a l  l a n d  areas.  much  the  urban  e f f e c t  p r o p e r t y  r a t i o n a l l y  r e g u l a t i o n s ,  t h a t  can,  urban  of  major  use  l e g i s l a t i o n  p a t t e r n  the  l a n d  the  remains  the  w i t h i n  S i g n i f i c a n t l y impact  f o r t h i s  f a c t  i n d i v i d u a l s  l e g i s l a t i o n i n  of  p r o p e r t y  urban  such  s u b d i v i s i o n  t h e r e f o r e  p l a n n i n g  l a n d .  While  p a t t e r n  urban i s  p o l i c i e s  the  occur  l i t e r a t u r e  r e s i d e n t i a l expressed  of  of  s p e c i f i c  have  urban  the  t h a t  f u n c t i o n  which  p r e d e t e r m i n e d  d e t e r m i n i n g  t h a t  f o r  uses  p l a n n i n g  i n  o v e r a l l  l a n d  a  i s  a r e a .  b u i l d i n g s  i n d u s t r i a l )  urban  the  and the  of  economic  In  r o l e  the  P l a n n i n g  v i e w  and  i n  system,  development  the  w i t h i n  i n t e r v e n t i o n  debate,  by-laws  changes  occur,  supply and  zoning  urban  and  having  i n f l u e n c e  an  set  use  game"  o p e r a t e .  implementing  of  as  the  as  a c t i v e  contemporary  development  such  are  c o n s i d e r e d  of  s u b j e c t  of  a c t i v i t i e s  by  The  conceived  who  whose  t h e r e f o r e ,  i s  can  the  urban  g i v e n  has supply  to of  been and  2  H i s t o r i c a l l y , areas t o  has  r e s t r i c t i v e  G r e a t e r i n  ranged  V a r i o u s  the  need  f o r  the  the f o r  an  i t s  f o r  concern renewed of  n e g l e c t  d e s p i t e  the  urban  because  i t s  i t s  of  employment In  the  areas  the  of  to  s i n c e  impact  of  This  s t a n d i n g  by  Indeed  t h e s i s  examining  zoning  p r o v i s i o n s  By-Law  and  use  the  i n  the  i n  i n  impact  s t r a t e g y C o u n c i l  because of  the  i s  s t i l l  i n  demand  d i v e r s i f i e d 2  b e l i e f  i m p o r t a n t  tax  s e v e r a l  s e r v i c e  but  s e c t o r not  a l s o  base  of  i n d u s t r y .  f o l l o w s  fundamental of  and  only  because  and  a  d i v e r s i t y  l a n d  an  i n  the  f a c t o r s  use  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i s  the  seeks the  to  the  use  c o n t r i b u t e  V a n c o u v e r ' s these  of  l a n d  of  urban  of  c r i t i c a l  t o o l such  of an  p u b l i c under-  i n d u s t r i a l  and  p r o v i s i o n s  r o l e  i s  to  the  Zoning  i n  w a r r a n t s  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  e v o l u t i o n  determine  development  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  of  and  t h a t  on  Development i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  c i t y .  H i s t o r i c a l l y uses  a  p l a n n i n g  l e g i s l a t i o n  p o l i c y .  s t i l l  understand  l e g i s l a t i o n  such  a  p o l i c y  importance  are  O f f i c e  of  areas  C i t y  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . p l a n n i n g  Development  from  years.  development  Vancouver  1977  i n d u s t r y  to  i n d u s t r i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  a r i s e s  t h r e e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  s e e k i n g  p a t t e r n  V a n c o u v e r ' s  the  i n t e r e s t  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  growing  c o n t r i b u t i o n  renewed  the  economy,  of  a  and  to  f o r  p r o d u c t s  been  Vancouver  r e f e r r e d  apparent  and  the  has  of  n e g l e c t ,  p a s t  J u l y ,  concern  G i t y  urban  the  I n d u s t r i a l the  the  t o  i n  i n  of  In  i n d u s t r y  p o l i c y  o v e r a l l  r e g i o n . an  of  have  In  toward  encouragement,  t h e r e  use  n a t u r e  e s t a b l i s h e d  t h a t  a r e a  l a n d  p o l i c y  a c t i v e  c o n t r o l .  r e p o r t s  i n d u s t r y ,  years  from  Vancouver  i n d u s t r i a l  This  p u b l i c  zoning  i n d u s t r i a l l y  by-laws  zoned  a r e a s .  have In  p e r m i t t e d the  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  language  of  the  3  zoning the  p l a n n e r  p r i n c i p l e  E s s e n t i a l l y of  uses  f o r  u s u a l l y  a l l o w  i n d u s t r i a l  the  " h i g h e s t " ( i . e .  use  t h i s  areas  and  the  are  on  by  by-laws because  other have  i n  use  l e s s  of  were  amalgamation  of  P o i n t  be  i n f l u e n c e 357  e a s i l y  both  d r a f t i n g  an  and the  economic  r a t h e r , of  or  c o n s i d e r e d  c o n t e x t  terms sense  t h e y  r e f e r  p r o t e c t i n g uses.  been  purpose  and  a  the  No.  of  b e i n g  or  f a m i l y  the  The  d r a f t e d  was  p r e s t i g e  to  i n  p r o t e c t  commercial  i n d u s t r y .  by  T h e i r  m u l t i p l e  d e s i r a b l e  d i s t r i c t s  and  " l o w e s t "  but  passed  By-Law  a l s o  used  o r i g i n a l  p r i n c i p l e s  b y - l a w  t h i s  v e r y  c u m u l a t i v e  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  t h e i r  encroachment  as  the  i s  d i s t r i c t s  method  In  the  number  i n c l u d i n g  uses  investment) of  the  uses  uses  and  d i s t r i c t s  i n  w i t h  d i s t r i c t s .  d i s t r i c t s  d e s c r i b e d  not  importance  zoning  the  can  of This  m i d d l e .  r e s i d e n t i a l  Vancouver.  major  C i t y  of  Grey,  i n f l u e n c e  on  Vancouver  i n  South  on  the  c u r r e n t  5 >w h i c h  was  f i r s t  the 1930  Vancouver Zoning  p a s s e d  and i n  r e c o g n i z e d .  Study The  the  i n  r e t u r n  i s  zoning  1956,  range  i n d u s t r i a l  " l o w e s t "  the  Development.  The  uses,  range  i n d u s t r i a l  r e s i d e n t i a l  f a m i l y  f o l l o w i n g  The  w i t h  most  These  p e r m i s s i v e  broadest  encroachment  from  f i r s t  more  d w e l l i n g  zoning  and  why  f a m i l y  the  accordance  zoning  zoning  been  uses  manner  s i n g l e  s i n g l e  b y - l a w ' s  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l .  presumed  from  reason  the  i s  a l s o  h i g h e s t  the  i n  means  has  " h i g h e s t "  i n  t h a t  the  by-laws  commercial  d r a f t e d  t h i s  d i s t r i c t s .  and  h i e r a r c h i a l  are  i n c l u s i v e  p r o g r e s s i v e l y  commercial  zoning  by-laws  p r o g r e s s i v e l y  p e r m i t t e d  becomes  to  of  what  r e s t r i c t i v e  and  such  e v o l u t i o n  impact  supply  of  of  the  of  i n d u s t r i a l  c u r r e n t  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  zoning  l e g i s l a t i o n are  the  on  focus  i n  Vancouver  the of  l o c a t i o n  t h i s  and and  t h e s i s .  P r o v i n c i a l Vancouver P l a n  f o r  There  p l a n n i n g to  the  i s  a t  or  f o r  a r e a  p l a n n i n g  to  the  In  p r e p a r e  and  c i t y  a  any  of  search  i n  and the  between  i n d u s t r i a l  o f f i c e uses  By-Law,  of  l a n d ,  Chapter  a  II  uses  Chapter Data and i n  o f f i c e the  p e r i o d  d e t a i l  compiled P e r m i t  from  r e c o r d s .  a r e a  and  data  showed  i n  the  of  i n n e r  a n a l y s e d  t r e n d s .  f o r  i n  d i s t r i c t  i n d u s t r i a l  b i d d i n g  p r o c e s s  t o  on  f o r i n  p l a n n i n g  o u t b i d  h i s t o r i c a l  i s  p e r m i t t e d .  s i x t y  the  l e g i s l a t i v e and  of  approach  p a s t  years  i s  by  p r o v i s i o n s  r e f l e c t  1,  the  the  was  l a n d  areas i n  the  June  use a  1968  of  1978  o f f i c e  was  by  i n d u s t r i a l  development s u c c e s s i o n  and are  i d e n t i f i e s  areas  Development  comparison  r e s u l t s V  1,  t a b u l a t e d the  used.  i n d u s t r i a l  Department's  Since  of  Chapter  development  to  1971  l a n d  methodology  V a n c o u v e r ' s  maps.  IV  to  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  Chapter  uses  development  r e s e a r c h  P l a n n i n g  i n d u s t r i a l In  of  the  i n d u s t r i a l  u n d e r t a k e n .  t u r n s  day.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  i n n e r - c i t y c i t y  the  January  This  one  s u c c e s s i o n  j u r i s d i c t i o n s  b u i l d i n g s  i l l u s t r a t e d a  Many  other  C i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  s u b j e c t  the  An  over  a p p l i c a t i o n s  the  use  Vancouver.  p r e s e n t s  from  C i t y ' s  l o c a l  i n d u s t r i a l  u s u a l l y  i n  r e t a i l  a  uses  examines  III  c o n c e r n i n g  p e r m i t s  l a n d  of  The  the  a c t i v e  p o l i c y  commercial  of  wisdom  the  use  By-Law.  process  from  An  f o r  a b l e  e v o l u t i o n .  c o n v e n t i o n a l  l a n d  p l a n  a r e  developed  i m p o r t e d  i n  a r e a s .  Since  z o n i n g  were  sub  a p p l i c a t i o n s .  used  of  not  of  development  i n  p r o c e s s  i t s  a r e a s .  c o m m e r c i a l  z o n i n g  a  but  t h e r e f o r e , and  of  C i t y  Development  development  p e r m i t  i n d u s t r i a l s i n c e  any  i n d u s t r i a l  i n d i v i d u a l  commercial  f o r  e x i s t s  the  O f f i c i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  b y - l a w  The  a p p r o v a l  or  Development  a r e a s .  empowers an  o v e r a l l  i t s  of  adopt  whole  no  program  Zoning  schedules  as  p r e s e n t  c i t y  a r e a s .  l e g i s l a t i o n  1976  of was  p e r m i t a c t i v i t y  the a l s o  documented and  supply  and  d i s c u s s e s  5  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s  of  the  f i n d i n g s  p r o f e s s i o n a l  p l a n n i n g  p r a c t i c e .  concerning  a  p o s s i b l e  i n c u b a t o r  inner  i n d u s t r i a l  c i t y  c o n t a i n s The  a  summary  and  l o c a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l i n d u s t r y  l a n d  i n  widespread  p u b l i c  p a r t i c u l a r  f u n c t i o n  p o l i c y  the  p r o v i d e d  examined.  The  and  evidence by  Vancouver's  f i n a l  Chapter  c o n c l u s i o n s .  and  has  r a t e  many  Vancouver. and  r e d u c t i o n  i n  w e l l  the  c o n t i n u a t i o n  f o r  Vancouver's  and  o b j e c t i v e s  t h i s  has  -Regional and  i n d u s t r i a l  replacement  jobs  of  the  c e n t r a l  of  the  Regional  the  t h e s i s  extent  to  c i t y  i s ,  i s  which  implementing  p u b l i c  a  i n  has  f o r m a l l y  both  the  achievement  found  of  i n  p o l i c y  base".3 of  both  w i t h the  the  The  the commercial  uses  o b j e c t i v e s  s i g n i f i c a n c e  a n a l y s i s  of  L e g i s l a t i o n  w i t h  i n  Consequently,  i t s  Zoning  g o a l s  o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l  keeping P a r t  t a x  d i r e c t i n g  w i t h  c o n t i n u i n g  s t a t e d  balance  areas.  i s  consequences  f o r  of  of  Vancouver.  C i t y ' s  Government.  Vancouver's  be  the  i n  t h e r e f o r e ,  f u t u r e  i n  l a n d  not  l a n d  a f f e c t i n g  process  w i l l  h e a l t h y  suburban  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  "a  o b j e c t i v e  to  there  the  the  t h e r e f o r e ,  and  i m p l i c a t i o n s  Government's  i f  implement  encourage  s u c c e s s i o n f o r  i n d u s t r i a l  to  t r e n d  a l s o  example,  t r e n d  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  use  i m p l i c a t i o n s  of  a b i l i t y to  l a n d  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  supply  of  of  For  employment  i n  i s  In  both  S i g n i f i c a n c e The  A  areas  f o r  r e s p e c t  to  i s  of  the s u c c e s s f u l  i n d u s t r y  and  employment. A i s  d e t a i l e d  beyond  p a r t  of  the  the  a n a l y s i s  scope  of  of  t h i s  the  b a s i s  study.  For  " c o n v e n t i o n a l  wisdom"  economists,  and  p o l i t i c i a n s  of  i n d u s t r y  i n  to  a  and  strong  m u n i c i p a l the  urban  economy  d i v e r s i f i e d  tax  f o r  of  as base  these  years  urban  a  to  i t  c o n s i d e r  to  has  p l a n n e r s ,  necessary and  p o l i c i e s  the  been urban presence  p r e r e q u i s i t e  continued  6  economic growth and conventional use  simply  adopts  the  a p r o c e s s of land  from i n d u s t r i a l to commercial use must be  w i t h alarm and  policy intervention. more  I f one  wisdom without q u e s t i o n ,  succession  greeted  stability.  form the  justification for public  However, the  i s s u e s are  clearly  complicated. B i r c h (1970) has  metropolitan  suggested t h a t c e n t r a l c i t i e s  areas evolve  i n t o an  of  " e l i t e service center"  -  Thus i t can be assumed from the a v a i l a b l e evidence t h a t , i n aggregate, c e n t r a l c i t i e s w i l l experience s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n the white c o l l a r , s e r v i c e type job c a t e g o r i e s . As manufacturers, w h o l e s a l e r s and r e t a i l e r s s e t t l e elsewhere the e f f e c t of the growth i n s e r v i c e s w i l l be to a l t e r the mix of a c t i v i t i e s going on i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s , which, i n t u r n w i l l q u i t e p r o b a b l y have an i n f l u e n c e on the kinds of people l i v i n g t h e r e . 5 I f the C i t y of Vancouver i s s h i f t i n g toward an urban economy which i s s p e c i a l i z e d i n the  s e r v i c e s e c t o r there w i l l  s i g n i f i c a n t long term economic and both the c i t y and  the r e g i o n .  be  s o c i a l impacts f o r  There i s some evidence to  suggest t h a t s h i f t s i n Vancouver's employment  opportunities  and  For  r e s i d e n t i a l population  a n a l y s i s of the 1976  are t a k i n g p l a c e .  census has  shown t h a t not  Vancouver's r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n there has  been a s h i f t  example  only  has  d e c l i n e d s i n c e 1971  i n the composition of the  hut  population  h i g h l i g h t e d by a d e c l i n e i n the number of c h i l d r e n and increase 6  5  .  i n the number of persons between 25 and  an  and  over  6  The  fundamental q u e s t i o n  i s whether the a n t i c i p a t e d  impacts of a t r a n s i t i o n from d i v e r s i t y to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n are p o s i t i v e or negative of view. neglect  from an economic and  s o c i a l point  A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s an  alarming  of t h e o r e t i c a l or e m p i r i c a l a t t e n t i o n to the  of l o n g term impacts.  question  In commenting on Netzer's study of  d i f f e r e n c e s c i t y  and  i n  the  suburbs  The c d i s p e p o p u l c i t y , must subur N e t z e r ' s  p r o p e r t y  i n  tax  American  base  c i t i e s  m e t r o p o l i t a n  were  area  and  s e n s i t i v e d e n s i t i e s  to i n  the  H e i l b r u n  a s u a l observer may s u p p o s e r s a l of i n d u s t r y and middl a t i o n to the suburbs, the w i t h i t s t o w e r i n g C B . D . have a stronger p r o p e r t y t bs. In f a c t , such is not  f i n d i n g s  between  c e n t r a l  notes  -  t h a t d e s p i t e the e and upper income t y p i c a l c e n t r a l and dense development ax base than the the case.7 the  the  age  of  the  c e n t r a l  c i t y  and  suburbs. Bahl i n  and  Greytak,  employment  r e p o r t e d  i n  s t r u c t u r e  f i n d i n g s  a  on  study  of  the  m u n i c i p a l  s p e c i f i c  to  New  impact  revenues,  York  C i t y  of  changes  have  -  What these r e s u l t s would appear to i n d i c a t e i s the changing r o l e of the core c i t y - to a s e r v o r i e n t a t i o n and away from a m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r i e i n and of i t s e l f does not have an u n f a v o r a b l e on c i t y r e v e n u e s . A t l e a s t t h i s i s the case f New Y o r k C i t y .  t h a t i c e n t a t i o n e f f e c t o r  8  In toward the  a d d i t i o n economic  composition  w i l l  have  decrease  m u n i c i p a l P u b l i c the  i n  to  be  r e s u l t i n g  i n  the on  of  to  a  m u n i c i p a l i n  w i l l  would  of  the  c o s t s .  For  costs,  the  cost  r i s e .  A d d i t i o n a l  expected  of  not  be  s o c i a l i f  reasonably p a r t  of  income  the  the  c i t y i f  the  accompanied  by  c a p i t a l o f  costs  Depending s e r v i c e  such  as  because on  costs  c e n t r a l  the  continue  accommodation  who  of  would  c i t y  r e s i d e n t i a l  people  i n  example,  per  p r i c e d  s h i f t  change  i n c u r r e d  development.  example  lower  to  a  a  c e n t r a l  is  suburbs, of  of  p o p u l a t i o n  p o p u l a t i o n For  supply the  be  form  the  composed  s e r v i c e s .  p o p u l a t i o n  m u n i c i p a l  i n c u r r e d .  compared be  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  d e n s i t y  p r o v i d e  w i l l  revenues,  s e r v i c e s  composition a l s o  m u n i c i p a l  of  impacts  decrease  T r a n s i t  h i g h  on  impacts  a n t i c i p a t e d a  to  J  p o p u l a t i o n  r e q u i r e  p u b l i c  8  In Vancouver's context  Tennant (1976) has  argued t h a t  i n d u s t r y p l a y s a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n Vancouver's economy by p r o v i d i n g a broader range of employment  opportunities,  by c o n t r i b u t i n g to the c i v i c tax base, and the stimulus  by  providing  to f u r t h e r economic development.  arguments provide  Tennant's  a p r o m i s i n g l i n e of thought i n  f o r the l o n g term impacts of l a n d use i n d u s t r i a l to commercial use.  succession  from  I t can be argued, f o r  example, t h a t i f i n d u s t r i a l land i s converted to commercial use,  searching  office/  the l o n g term impact w i l l e i t h e r be unemploy-  ment f o r those workers who  possess "blue  collar"  s k i l l s or a  s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n or commuting patterns  as i n d u s t r i a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t  i n the suburbs are sought by c e n t r a l c i t y r e s i d e n t s . argumerit r e g a r d i n g  The  i n d u s t r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the tax base  r e q u i r e s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n c e the assessed value commercial s t r u c t u r e s i s f r e q u e n t l y higher  of  office/  than t h a t  the i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s t h a t are d i s p l a c e d .  of  Likewise  economic growth argument must be q u a l i f i e d s i n c e  the  the  C i t y of Vancouver, w h i l e a p o l i t i c a l l y separate e n t i t y i s i n f a c t p a r t of a l a r g e r r e g i o n a l economy. i n d u s t r y from the c e n t r a l c i t y does not, automatically  have a negative  i n the c e n t r a l c i t y .  Displacement of  therefore,  impact on economic growth  I t could however, be argued t h a t  piecemeal displacement of i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i a l  firms  d i s t u r b s the i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n  therefore,  has  of l i n k a g e s and,  secondary a f f e c t s on i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s which remain.  If  the r e g i o n a l economy i s a f f e c t e d by i n d u s t r i a l r e l o c a t i o n , the economic consequences are more s i g n i f i c a n t .  One must h o n e s t l y conclude that the l o n g term economic and s o c i a l consequences of a c o n v e r s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l l a n d to commercial use i n Vancouver are dependent  on many v a r i a b l e s and t h e r e f o r e u n c e r t a i n .  The l i m i t e d evidence from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h suggests that the consequences f o r the c i v i c tax base, m u n i c i p a l revenues and m u n i c i p a l c o s t s are dependent upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c e n t r a l c i t y .  Tennant's  arguments i n favour of r e t a i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n Vancouver are s i g n i f i c a n t but need f u r t h e r development.  T h i s study  c o n t r i b u t e s to the l a r g e r debate by documenting the h i s t o r y and e v o l u t i o n of p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n -as i t a p p l i e s to i n d u s t r y i n urban a r e a s .  As p r e s e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d the  composition of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n f a v o u r s a c o n v e r s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l l a n d to commercial use.  The study a l s o p r o v i d e s  s p e c i f i c data on the l o c a t i o n and extent of l a n d use succession i n i n d u s t r i a l areas.  I t also provides  insight  i n t o the urban p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n Vancouver and i t s impact on i n d u s t r i a l l a n d .  Finally,  the d i s c u s s i o n about the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study's f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y  demonstrates  the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the economic and s o c i a l consequences of urban economic economic  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the s e r v i c e  d i v e r s i t y and sector.  10  F o o t n o t e s  f o r  Chapter  I  i P h i l P a u l s o n , I n d u s t r i a l the I n d u s t r i a l Community R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , May,  I s s u e s of Vancouver  Len C i t y  of  Tennant,  Vancouver  I n d u s t r y  P l a n n i n g  Development: (Vancouver:  1976).  i n  Vancouver  Department,  I n d u s t r y  and  the  L i v a b l e  I n d u s t r y  and  the  L i v a b l e  Views and G r e a t e r  (Vancouver:  1977)'  J u l y ,  Region  (Vancouver,  October,  1977).  •^Manager's r e p o r t t o Goals and O b j e c t i v e s - O f f i c e (Vancouver, J u l y , 1978).  k  I n d u s t r y  and  Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . of Economic Development,  .  the  Region.  L i v a b l e  .  Region.  •^David C. B i r c h , The E c o n o m i c F u t u r e of C i t y and Suburb (New Y o r k : Committee f o r Economic Development: Supplementary Paper No. 30, 1970). P h i l Mondor, " V a n c o u v e r ' s Changing Age Q u a r t e r l y Review, (Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, Department, V o l . 5 No. 2, A p r i l , 1978).  7  'James  (New  York:  St.  H e i l b r u n , M a r t i n ' s  Urban P r e s s ,  .  Economics  197^).  and  p.  C o m p o s i t i o n " P l a n n i n g  .  P u b l i c  336.  .  P o l i c y ,  Q  Roy  W.  B a h l  and  C i t y  Government  Revenues  Land  Economics.  ( V o l .  52,  David t o  Greytak,  Changes  November,  i n  "The  Response  Employment  1976).  p.  of  S t r u c t u r e "  ^2?.  11  CHAPTER  THE  STATUS  OF  INDUSTRY  AN  In o n l y  the  two  p e r i o d  major  zoning  By-Law  passed  By-Law  passed  i n  the i n  day  w i t h  order  to  from to  the  p r o v i d e  N o r t h  The  A m e r i c a  of  the  f r e q u e n t l y  w i t h  a  dilemma.  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , been  supported  by  i n d u s t r i a l n e c e s s a r y In  order  o f f e r e d p h y s i c a l of  c r e a t e d need  f o r  I n d u s t r y ' s m u n i c i p a l  a t t r a c t  i n c e n t i v e s  some  such  l a n d .  more  of  p l a n n e r  and  t h e o r y  and  economic  as  Hason  the  p u b l i c  urban  these i t  By-Laws  i s  n e c e s s a r y  wisdom  and  uses  p o l i t i c i a n  employment economic and  A  s t r o n g  c o n s i d e r e d  to  be  w r i t e  has  l a n d  and  urban  have  suggested  of  the  t h a t  of p r i c e o v e r l y  of  c o n d i t i o n s  t h a t  r e s u l t e d  i n  of  l a n d .  the  use  the  growth.  o c c a s i o n a l l y  p r o v i s i o n downs  a  t u r n  over  i n  A m e r i c a .  the  c o n t r o l  a t  of  Thus,  r e s e a r c h .  s t a b i l i t y  c a p i t a l  i n c e n t i v e s  of  c o n t r o l .  p o l i t i c i a n s  concessions,  (1977)  wisdom  c i t y ' s  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  t a x  and  to  the  m u n i c i p a l  i n d u s t r y ,  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  m u n i c i p a l  to  the  Development  uses,  North  t r a d i t i o n a l l y been  p r e r e q u i s i t e  and  i n d u s t r i a l  urban  by  had  By-Laws,  c o n v e n t i o n a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n  p l a n n i n g  has  i n  of  revenues  acknowledged  base  t o  the  has  zoning.  Zoning  r e g u l a t i o n  use  l a n d  changing  i n d u s t r i a l  p r e s e n t e d  urban  i n d u s t r i a l  generous  and  these  content  overview  I n d u s t r i a l  of  Vancouver  Zoning  and  i n d u s t r i a l  of  of  l a n d  of  l o c a t i o n  has  of  form  BY-LAWS  c o n v e n t i o n a l  v i e w  have  base  the  the  the  methods  r e g a r d i n g  E v o l u t i o n •The  t o  understand  an  and  1930  C i t y Both  r e f l e c t  195&,  of  the  1930  ZONING  PERSPECTIVE  By-Laws. i n  r e s p e c t  p o i n t  VANCOUVER"S  HISTORICAL  s i n c e  Zoning  IN  II  urban  c e n t u r y the  12  C o n c e n t r a t i o n and congestion were the i n e s c a p a b l e outgrowths of p o l i c i e s undertaken by m u n i c i p a l governments i n i n d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s to l o c a t e w i t h i n c i t i e s d u r i n g the p r e c e e d i n g decades. C i t i e s o f f e r e d . l a v i s h t a x concessions, and encouraged the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r a i l r o a d s which r e s u l t e d i n dramatic r e d u c t i o n of f r e i g h t c o s t s . R a i l r o a d t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s and manoeuvering yards s a t u r a t e d downtown l o c a t i o n s which made them a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r i n d u s t r i a l uses as w e l l as f o r warehousing, wholesale, and a l l i e d a c t i v i t i e s . For the great number of workers who f o l l o w e d the i n d u s t r i e s i n t o the c i t i e s ^ the problem of h o u s i n g was " s o l v e d " by b u i l d i n g s h a n t i e s and by c o n v e r t i n g e x i s t i n g c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t o rooming houses, h o t e l s and tenement houses which r a p i d l y formed the slum s e c t i o n s surrounding the i n d u s t r i a l core.2 H a s o n ' s i n  both  the  The  comments U.S.  other  the  e a r l y  was  to  the  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  and view of  consider  p l a n n i n g urban  days  and  l a n d  t h i s  were  p r o t e c t e d  to  view  of  co  It was towns i n d u s t h e a l t h r e c r u i became c o n s i d  have  to  the  North  America,  had  o r i g i n s  of  the  l a n d  uses  as  a  the  day,  the  and  f o r  a  i n d u s t r y  p u b l i c i n  c i t i e s  the  c e n t u r y  absence  s e p a r a t i o n  areas  p o l i c i e s  which  emerged  zoning  commercial  areas  had  c o n s i d e r a b l e  from  by-laws from  the  i n c o m p a t i b l e  urban  e a r l y  urban  of  of  w e l l , Given  of  i n a b i l i t y  i n  as  nuisance.  i n  the  and  i t s  t u r n  of  of  which  p u b l i c been  p o l i c i e s  t r a c e d  to  c o n t r o l l i n g  Germany  N a p o l e o n who f i r s t imposed a s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t dangerous r i e s be segregated as a t o o l c o n d i t i o n s among"city d w e l l t s i n t o the German army. E v I m p e r i a l German Law and t h e e r a b l y . 3  P r i o r  to  t h i s  which  the  i n d u s t r y .  e a r l i e s t  i n d u s t r y  degrees  the  p r o v i d e  r e s i d e n t i a l  of  a t  c o n t r o l s ,  i n c o r p o r a t e d  encroachment The  use  The  v a r y i n g  i n d u s t r y ,  processes  j u s t i f i c a t i o n . v i e w  of  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  i n  Canada.  zoning  market  uses,  a p p l y  emergence the  of  p r i v a t e  l a n d  use  c i t i z e n  the  l o c a t i o n  on conquered German and u n h e a l t h y f o r a m e l i o r a t i n g e r s and e s p e c i a l l y e n t u a l l y the system r e a f t e r improved  c o n t r o l c o u l d  l e g i s l a t i o n  seek  r e l i e f  i n  from  the  impact  of  o f f e n s i v e  n u i s a n c e .  W i t h  p r o t e c t i o n  was  r e s p e c t i n g  l a n d  Under  t e c h n i q u e  t h i s  h i b i t i n g  l a n d  b a k e r i e s  and  w i t h i n  i t s  c o n t a i n e d However,  c l e a r l y use  uses  New  by  1969).  r e s u l t  of  the  r e t a i l  garment the  a f f e c t i n g  h e i g h t  and  d i s t r i c t use  and  out  t h a t  when  of  i n c o m p a t i b l e areas. these -  an  the  l o c a t i o n  r e s i d e n t i a l  u n r e s t r i c t e d which  f o r  A  zoning  commercial  l a n d  uses  uses  were  f o r  the  a l l o w e d .  the  l a n d  p o i n t e d a f f e c t e d  encroach  i n t o a t t e m p t e d  1916  l a n d  use d i s t r i c t  e s t a b l i s h e d  were  uses  the  d e p r i v i n g  was  of  map  were  t h e r e f o r e ,  l i n k a g e s )  was  to  uses  was,  concerns.  d i s t r i c t s .  i n d u s t r i a l  a  f a s h i o n a b l e  commercial  these  as  Secondly,  t h r e e  a  n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l  d i s t r i c t  i n d u s t r i a l  c r e a t i n g  1966.  two  a l s o  Ordinance  d i s t r i c t ,  and  were  York  d i s t r i c t .  comprehensive  p a r t l y  of  i t  New  boundaries  commercial  when  a l l o w e d  d i s t r i c t ,  i s  1916  Support  were  by  a l s o  b u i l d i n g s .  of  v a l u e s .  v a l u e s  d i s t r i c t s  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  uses  r e s i d e n t i a l  d i s t r i c t  had  b u i l d i n g s  spread  p r o -  f a c t o r i e s ,  c i t y ' s  (because  1977)•  p r o p e r t y  problems  and  o f f i c e  glue  f i r s t  the  garment  p r o p e r t y  c o n t r o l s  The  u n r e s t r i c t e d  r e s i d e n t i a l the  a  the  laws  of  passed i n  p o l i c i e s  d i s t r i c t i n g .  (Babcock,  merchants  (Hason,  l a n d  was  d i s t r i c t  nearby  r e s i d e n t i a l  r e s o l v e  of  and  s u n l i g h t .  and  but  of  development  d i s t r i c t s  In  b u s i n e s s  the  A m e r i c a . ^  The  r e t a i l  be  of  ordinances  h e i g h t  merchants  d i s t r i c t .  of  pass  Ordinance  to  p u b l i c  p r a c t i c e  houses,  law  such  d e s i g n a t e d  the  ordinance of  f i r s t  d i s t r i c t i n g  Zoning  North  concerns  mass  r e s i d e n t i a l to  c e r t a i n  common  areas  would  from  h i s t o r i a n s  This  the  the  s l a u g h t e r  encroachment  i n t o  The  as  Some  the  urban  m u n i c i p a l i t y  C i t y  i n  under of  w i t h  r e g a r d i n g  York  zoning  Delafons,  was  a  such  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n d u s t r y  growth  emerged  r e g u l a t i o n s  uses  inadequate.  l a u n d r i e s  the  F i r s t l y  r a p i d  j u r i s d i c t i o n .  c o n s i d e r e d zoning  the  l a n d  the  p r o h i b i t e d .  were  a l l o w e d . only  In  p r o h i b i t e d The  d i s t r i c t  However,  i n  because  t h e r e as  were  no  w e l l .  the  use  Subsequent  u n r e s t r i c t e d  However,  b o t h  d i s t r i c t  i n  the The  were  w i t h  d e a l t  These  c o n c e r n i n g p a r t  of  zoning The  two  the  ordinances  a d o p t i o n  Department  of  of  e s t a b l i s h e d the  from  an  zoning  i n  New  Ordinance.  By  192^4-  S t a t e  Zoning  s t a t e s  t h a t  zoning  o r d i n a n c e s .  wished  E n a b l i n g  A c t  of  urban  p l a n n i n g  78  American  the  f i g u r e  the  was  a l s o i n  c i t i e s had  r i s e n  This  p r o l i f e r a t i o n  f a c t  t h a t  c i t y  t o  another  and,  t e x t  to  r e f l e c t  l o c a l  passed  zoning  i n t o  e a r l y  i n  c i t i e s  the  on  The c o n t r o l  was  formed  r e g u l a t i o n s  an  i n t e g r a l  was  a i d e d  by  the  U.S.  i t s  B a s s e t t t h a t  A c t  t h e i r  1322  which  c i t i e s  Standard to  w i t h  ordinances i n c l u d i n g  r e a c t i o n  to  overwhelmingly,  the  but  the  and  to  In  1921,  Canadian as  By  due  to  a  19371  the  from  one  map  and  p o l i t i c a l  a l s o  pass  1969)•  zoning  toward  was  not  used  development  " e x p o r t e d "  to  zoning  by  (Delafons,  be  a t t i t u d e  be  P l a n n i n g  l e g i s l a t i o n • w a s  t o p o g r a p h i c a l  a  o r d i n a n c e s .  c i t i e s .  two  York.  power  C i t y  on  d r a f t e d  z o n i n g .  zoning  changes  the  c o u l d the  the  New  had  encourage  c o u l d  S i t t i n g  the  Committee  of  Hoover  had. c h a i r e d  produced  A d v i s o r y  spread  H e r b e r t  Zoning.  who  had  a  r a p i d  S e c r e t a r y  Committee.on  adopted  c o n t i n e n t  i n i t i a l  have  and  ordinances  a f t e r  the  r e f l e c t e d  r e s t r i c t i o n s  U.S.  o r d i n a n c e s  Thus  b u i l d i n g  the  zoning  law.  the  b u i l d i n g s  i n  c o n j u n c t i o n  of  on  of  towns  p r e p a r e d  to  h e i g h t s  and  1926  had  c a t c h a l l ,  c i t i e s  g i v e  In  the  " l a s t "  the  E n a b l i n g  to  the  saw  when  York  b e i n g  19^0  to  Edward  commissions  d i s t r i c t s .  t i m e .  A d v i s o r y was  use  r e p l a c e d  t h a t  other  Commerce  committee  Standard  s i n c e  1916  to  of  the  a l l o w e d  ordinance  r e g u l a t i o n s -  were  t h e r e f o r e ,  development  by-laws  p e r i o d  t h i s  f a c t  r e g a r d i n g  components of  uses  i n d u s t r i a l  the  and,  imposing  form  to  w i t h  and  h i e r a r c h y concerns  zoning  The  stigma  by  other  amendments  d i s t r i c t s  the  remained.  form.  r e s t r i c t i o n s  r e a l i t i e s ,  i n d u s t r y e x p o r t e d  as to  other  c i t i e s .  means  unanimously,  of  l a n d  use  p o s i t i v e .  15  (19&9)  Delafons f o l l o w s  d e s c r i b e s  the  a t t r a c t i o n  of  zoning  as  -  The p r i n c i p l e of c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d use by d i s t r i c t s was found t o be a c o n v e n i e n t way of p r o t e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h o u t the troublesome and expensive l i t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f a g a i n s t nuisances.-5 However, the  New  he  a l s o  York  i d e n t i f i e s  Ordinance  as  one  of  f o l l o w s  Perhaps the most serious d e f match the e x c l u s i o n of i n d u s w i t h e x c l u s i o n of r e s i d e n c e s areas. The one s u b s t a n t i a l system - p r e v e n t i n g confused development - was t h u s s e v e r Babcock e a r l y  (1966)  ordinances A l l d i s t d i s t f a m i and the  being  on  i t  not  the the  as  the  d i d  and  C e n t r a l l a n d  u s e r s .  The  expansion 3.  Land  zoned  f r e q u e n t l y  as  r e s i d e n t i a l  i n d u s t r i a l There  and  l a n d  the  are  s e v e r a l  because  i t  l a n d  uses  The  commercial  u s e r s  areas  d i d  was  a  not  reasons  v a l u e s  not  i n c o m p a t i b l e  r e s u l t  d i d  of  i n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t r e s u l t  r e s u l t  the  of  unplanned,  was  of to  areas  experienced b i d d i n g f o r c e  c l o s e an  from  i n c r e a s e more  i n d u s t r y  to  out  the i n  i n t e n s i v e or  make  c o s t l y . f o r  -  i n d u s t r y  c o n t i n u a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  why  i n  prevent  w i t h  areas  development.  l o c a t e d  a  of  ordinances  p r o p e r t y  B u s i n e s s  v a l u e s  zoning  p r o t e c t  l a n d  nature  " h i g h e s t " s i n g l e - f a m i l y n the other t h r e e the "second", m u l t i p l e m i t t e d i n the b u s i n e s s i n d u s t r i a l zone became i n c l u d i n g residences.7  e a r l y  c o n g e s t i o n  S t r a t e g i c a l l y  cumulative  to  r e s i d e n c e s . chaos  of  zoning..  of  of  e c t was the f a i l u r e to t r y from r e s i d e n t i a l areas from b u s i n e s s or i n d u s t r i a l advantage of the zoning and i n c o m p a t i b l e e l y compromised."  the  the  t h a t  i n d u s t r i a l  weaknesses  -  e d i n the e r m i t t e d i m i t t e d i n e a l s o p e r u n t i l the a l l uses,  of  n o t h i n g  u n c o n t r o l l e d 2.  r m i t t l s o p s p e r , wer zones i l f o r  support  encroachment e.g.  e a e t  emphasis  of  major  -  p r e s e r v a t i o n  Zoning some  w e l l  s u r p r i s i n g  immediately 1.  c r i t i c a l  the uses p r i c t were r i c t s . Us l y d i s t r i c i n d u s t r i a l garbage p a  With  i s  i s  the  i n d u s t r y  l o c a t e d  on  or  the  u n r e s t r i c t e d p e r i p h e r y  of  use urban  was areas,  16  was  of poor q u a l i t y , and u n s e r v i c e d .  imposed s i t e and  These f e a t u r e s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s on i n d u s t r i e s  f o r c e d to r e l o c a t e .  Furthermore, there  i s evidence  (Ref. Babcock, I b i d ) t h a t many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s engaged i n the p r a c t i c e of overzoning i n d u s t r i a l use  undeveloped l a n d f o r  i n the i n t e r e s t s of i n c r e a s i n g p r o p e r t y  v a l u e s and m u n i c i p a l  tax revenue.  Because of  the  s t r u c t u r e of zoning by-laws the e x c e s s i v e  supply  i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d was  developed  allowed  to be  of  i n a piecemeal, haphazard f a s h i o n by n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses. was,  The  e f f i c i e n c y of the area f o r i n d u s t r i a l  therefore,  use  compromised.  Notwithstanding the l a c k of enthusiasm on the p a r t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d users, use  c o n t r o l device  World War  II.  i n North America, by the beginning  To those with  market zoning was  land of  i n t e r e s t s i n the urban l a n d  viewed as a means of s t a b i l i z i n g  preserving land values. had  zoning had become the p r i n c i p a l  of  Others, i n c l u d i n g urban  and  planners  o r i g i n a l l y been a t t r a c t e d by i t s p o t e n t i a l as a means  of implementing comprehensive l a n d use p l a n n i n g For the p l a n n e r s ordinance was, process  p r e p a r a t i o n and  approval  of a  t h e r e f o r e , the f i n a l step i n a  which a l s o i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n  proposals. zoning  planning  of a comprehen-  s i v e l a n d use p l a n f o r the c i t y to r e s o l v e e x i s t i n g problems and accommodate f u t u r e growth i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . tendency of many c i t i e s to import and  adopt a zoning  with no concern f o r a comprehensive land use p l a n , t h e r e f o r e , cause f o r some d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and evidence of the prevalence  The ordinance  was  further  of the p r o p e r t y v a l u e  theory  of  zoning. In the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g World War  II s i g n i f i c a n t zoning  changes  i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l  wisdom concerning  took p l a c e .  Economic growth and  i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n the post-war p e r i o d  17  l e d  to  an  i n c r e a s e  and  r a i s e d  i n  concerns  the  r a t e  about  urban  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d .  These  i n d u s t r i a l  zoning  t e c h n i q u e s .  of  the  be  pre-war  The to  l a n d  concerns  up  of  i n d u s t r i a l  shortages  had  a  Three  -  profound  system  as  i t  a f f e c t e d  h i e r a r c h i a l  nature  of  zoning  l a n d  p a r t i c u l a r l y impact  fundamental  zoning  p l a c e  i n d u s t r y  r e s i d e n t i a l land  uses  were  commercial  f o r  l a n d  The  2.  on the  was  A  a  on  c r i t i c i s m s  i n d u s t r y ,  c o u l d  impacts  No  the  l i s t  the l a n d  on  based  on  (Blumenfeld  1962,  0'Harrow  the  the  f i r s t a  s i x  a c t i o n s  foreword of  n a t i o n a l  N a t i o n a l  pamphlet  s p e c i f i c  o f  t h i s  t h i s  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d  on  t h a t  of  other  i n  and new  would  of  emerge  the  uses  the It  was  came  1959).  t o g e t h e r  to  others  to One  prepare  I n d u s t r i a l  to  was  r e q u i r e d .  Committee.8  was  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and  Zoning.  disenchantment  compared  was  t h a t  Guttenberg  Zoning  of  of  zoning.  impacts  1951,  name  l a n d  means  P r i n c i p l e s  uses  n e g a t i v e  a n t i c i p a t e  the  committee  pamphlet  f a c t o r s  p r o h i b i t e d  too  could  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  I n d u s t r i a l  e n t i t l e d of  a c t u a l  Both  were  be  p o i n t  use  1950  more  use  i n d u s t r y  change.  based  whole  o u t b i d  l a n d .  processes  of  l a n d  to  t e c h n o l o g i c a l system  i n d u s t r i e s ,  market.-  t h a t  c o n s i d e r e d  A  e s t a b l i s h  status  of  missed of  uses  to  R e s i d e n t i a l  many  i n d u s t r i a l  important.  In  the  of  uses.  w i t h  continued  r e l a t i v e  s u c c e s s f u l l y  i n d u s t r i a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n use  l a n d  p r o p e r t y  l i s t i n g  was  ordinances  disadvantage  uses  urban  of  or  r e s u l t  land  i s s u e  l a n d  i n c o m p l e t e .  b u s i n e s s e s as  a  i n c o m p a t i b l e  supply  d i s t r i c t a l s o  a t  commercial  the  p r a c t i c e  each  3.  and  and  a f f e c t e d  In  take  i d e n t i f i e d . 1.  of  of  i s  w i t h  the  r e f l e c t e d -  " . . . . i n the z e a l of c i t i z e n s and t e c h n i c i a n s to extend .. ' p r o t e c t i o n ' t o s o m e t y p e s of l a n d use, other types of l a n d use have sometimes s u f f e r e d , even to the.  p o i n t of d e s t r o y i n g p a r t of the b i r t h r i g h t of community - i t s b a s i s f o r making a l i v i n g . " The to  twelve g i v e  p r i n c i p l e s  i n d u s t r y  an  o u t l i n e d  equal  i n  the  s t a t u s  i n  pamphlet  l a n d  use  a  were  and  designed  zoning  p l a n s . The  Twelve  P r i n c i p l e of  P r i n c i p l e s One:  i n d u s t r i a l  P r i n c i p l e  Zoning  of  i n t o  f a c i l i t i e s  communities  development  Two:  r e s e r v a t i o n l o c a t i o n  Most  Were:  space a  and  to  are  i n d u s t r y ,  d e s i r a b l e areas  produce  c o n t r o l s  f o r  r e q u i r e  f o r  c e r t a i n  sound  b a s i c  and  i n  of  the  i n d u s t r i a l  p r o v i s i o n  c o n v e n i e n t  amount  economy.  t o o l s  guidance  p a t t e r n ,  needed  a  a  and  of  r e l a t e d  b a l a n c e d  economy. P r i n c i p l e  Three:  p o s s e s s i n g use  i n t e g r i t y  e s t a b l i s h e d  a g a i n s t  P r i n c i p l e  P r i n c i p l e i n d u s t r y  areas  i s t o  and  There  based  on  p o l i c y  d e s i r a b i l i t y  r e c o g n i z e d  a  l e g i t i m a t e  other  i s  l a n d  c l a s s e s  e n t i t l e d  t o  of  use l a n d  p r o t e c t i o n  i n  should  hand  s t r e e t  P r i n c i p l e  of  need  p l a n t  i n  areas  the  a  i n  i n  grow  and  most  f u t u r e .  r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s  c o n s t r u c t i o n  to  and  a  so  g i v e n  as  to  and  of the  determine  a r e a .  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  lands  should  b e a r i n g  be  p r o c e s s . zoning  and  highway  p l a n n i n g  hand. S p e c i a l  l a y o u t  to  f o r  i n c l u s i o n  z o n i n g  i n d u s t r i a l  c o n t i n u e  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  I n d u s t r i a l  Nine:  Ten:  w i l l  I n d u s t r i a l  the  E i g h t :  P r i n c i p l e  i s  zoning,  neighbours.  l a r g e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  P r i n c i p l e go  good  modern  f o r  Seven:  f a v o r a b l e  be  r e q u i r e  S i x :  P r i n c i p l e  can  p r o p e r  I n d u s t r y  w i l l  p r e v a i l i n g  than  zoning  Through  F i v e :  i n d u s t r i e s  the  comparable  under  Four:  r e s i d e n t i a l  a  use  encroachment.  P r i n c i p l e  the  I n d u s t r i a l  i n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  Zoning  should  be  g i v e n  a r e a s .  o r d i n a n c e s  should  be  p e r m i s s i v e  p r o h i b i t i v e .  P r i n c i p l e  E l e v e n :  s u f f i c i e n t l y  A  d e f i n i t e  good to  Zoning convey  to  o r d i n a n c e to  a  should  landowner  a  be c l e a r  r a t h e r  19  concept of what he can do with h i s l a n d . Principle  Twelves  when considered The place  Industrial  zoning  i n planning  and  effective  basis.9  on a m e t r o p o l i t a n  "cause" of g i v i n g  can be most  i n d u s t r i a l land use an  equal  zoning r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r support i n a  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t undertaken by Dorothy Muncy and by both the Urban Land I n s t i t u t e 10 Review. Muncy's survey of 220  and  published  the Harvard Business  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s showed  t h a t the amount of l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r i n d u s t r y was because of a) the t r e n d to s i n g l e more l a n d s c a p i n g  and  storey construction  open space on the s i t e , b)  f a c i l i t i e s f o r employees such as p a r k i n g , l o a d i n g f o r t r u c k and  r a i l and,  increasing  e)  with  increased  off-street  d) more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  p l a n t s . Muncy concluded t h a t The u n d e r l y i n g cause of i n d u s t r i a l s i t e shortage i s the l a c k of c i v i c understanding of i n d u s t r y ' s operations. This r e s u l t s i n zoning codes and l a n d use p o l i c y h o s t i l e to the growth of manufacture. ....not only i s i n d u s t r i a l l a n d g i v e n no p r o t e c t i o n from r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment, but u n r e l a t e d commercial s t r u c t u r e s , and even junkyards have been allowed to pre-empt the dwindling supply of i n d u s t r i a l l a n d near the centre of the urban r e g i o n . H As a r e s u l t p r i o r to the war,  of growing c r i t i c i s m , which had about the approval  i n d u s t r i a l areas t h i s p e r m i s s i v e ordinances was 1950's.  of r e s i d e n t i a l , uses i n  f e a t u r e of  zoning  g r a d u a l l y removed before and  during  S i g n i f i c a n t l y the major argument a g a i n s t  r e s i d e n t i a l uses i n i n d u s t r i a l areas was  that  areas were u n s u i t a b l e as p l a c e s to l i v e . efficiency  begun  of i n d u s t r i a l areas was  permitting  industrial  Concern f o r the  s t i l l not  Furthermore, the l a t t e r p a r t of the zoning  the  widespread.  "hierarchy"  s t i l l remained, i . e . commercial uses were s t i l l allowed industrial  areas.  in  20  The  concerns  r e s u l t e d i n  each  z o n i n g  i n of  the  about  the  p r a c t i c e  the  zoning  l e g i s l a t i o n  inadequacy  of  i d e n t i f y i n g  d i s t r i c t s .  more  of  d e f i n i t e ,  p r o h i b i t e d  the  l i s t s  p e r m i t t e d  Such  l i s t s  made  more  p o s i t i v e  uses  the  and  more  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n system of  used  i n  z o n i n g  performance  c a t i o n  i n  i n d u s t r y The  other  l a n d  uses.  c o u l d  developed  smoke,  heat,  f i r e  t r a f f i c , t h a t  odour,  be  and  w e l l  g i v e n  not  to  of  more  of  of  performance  z o n i n g . use  on  uses,  standards impacts:  noxious  gases,  g l a r e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f e c t s .  standards  l a t i t u d e  i n  l a n d  e l e v e n  wastes,  the  l a n d  i n d u s t r i a l  d i r t ,  c l a s s i f i -  performance  name  the  development  use  c r i t e r i a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a g a i n s t  l a n d  the  f o l l o w i n g and  the  advocates  e f f e c t  i n d u s t r i a l  a e s t h e t i c s  of  i m p o r t a n t  t h a t  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  b e h i n d  b a s i s  was  r e s p e c t  dust  was  The  the  for. the  hazards,  c o u l d  the  suggested  " p e r f o r m e d "  areas  the  i t  was  W i t h  (1951)  n o i s e ,  be  issue  0*Harrow be  as  t h a t  should  fundamental  i n d u s t r i a l  o r d i n a n c e s .  m a i n t a i n e d t h a t  the  ordinances  standards  zoning  standards  w i t h  i n  i n  and  I n d u s t r i e s  these  t h e i r  and  impact  l o c a t i o n  under  1 a  zoning  The  i n i t i a l  i a s t i c . laws  and  r e a c t i o n  i n  the  and  1960's  ordinance  i n d u s t r i a l  were  d r a f t e d  Chicago  Chicago  t h a t  r a t h e r  than or  to  to  accordance  performance  New  York  The  both  i n c o r p o r a t e  s t i l l  p e r m i t t e d  i n d u s t r y ' s  i n d u s t r y  1972).  was  i n  Three  develop  compliance  a  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  a  "heavy"  i n d u s t r y .  standards r e w r o t e  standards.  was  as  zoning  standards.  to was  (Babcock  made  1957  new  d i s t r i c t s  which  i n d u s t r y  The  by-  b u s i n e s s  d i s t r i c t on  performance  the  enthus-  t h e i r  r e s i d e n t i a l ,  i n  w i t h  t h a t  these  i n d u s t r i a l  d i s t i n c t i o n to  w i t h  such  m a i n t a i n e d  c a t e g o r i e s .  e s t a b l i s h e d .  i n d u s t r y of  b y - l a w  the  an  b a s i s  standards was i  a n  " l i g h t "  Andrews  21  The  r e l a t i v e  standards  was  and  a r e a s "  "grey  e r r o r  w i t h  name.  a t t r a c t i v e  t h e  t h a t  a l l o w i n g  t h e  c o n s t r u c t e d . always  f i r s t  t h e  should,  d e c i s i o n  be  w e l l  a f f e c t  t i o n  of  l e f t  a r e a  t o  " e x p e r t s "  h i g h .  of  l i m i t e d  e x t e n t  m e t r o p o l i t a n or  a b l e  t o  standard  l a t e  as  t h e i r t r e n d  In  l a t e  l a t e s t  and  U s u a l l y  had  many  l o c a t e d sometimes  t h e  t h e  of  on  l a n d  tenuous  c o n g e s t i o n  f o r  n a t u r e  o f  costs  i n  were t o  be  of  used  t o  t h e  a  l a r g e r  w i l l i n g a  of  performance e x c l u s i v e  n o t i c e a b l e  i n d u s t r i a l  a d j a c e n t  by  use  t o  major  and  t o  a  t h e  emerged  and  l a n d  a r t e r i a l  c o m p e t i t i o n areas  i n d u s t r y .  i n d u s t r y . t h e  park  l a n d  i n d u s t r i a l  a t t r a c t i v e  zoned  a d m i n i s t r a -  1957).  i n d u s t r i a l  i n n e r - c i t y  f e a t u r e s  was  v e r y  t e c h n i c a l  o n l y  c r e a t i o n  planned  i n  a r e  t h i s  may  of  and  c i t i e s  t h e  t h e  t h e r e f o r e  ordinances  Bentz  l o c a t e d  from  a l l  what  t h e  implemented  d i s t r i c t s  1956,  i n n o v a t i o n  away  n o t  toward  1950's  would  problems  been  zoning  commercial  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  parks  the  and  c o n t r o l .  l a n d  a  W h i l e  (A.S.P.O.  highway  were  areas.  c o s t s  have  standards.  Should  d e a l  be  areas  impacts  good  standards  only  on  b u t  were  t o  such  Secondly,  a  t e c h n i c a l  have  1950's  t h e  use  t h e  or  t h e  d i f f e r e n t l y ? r e q u i r e s  of  f o r  t h a t  p l a n t s  problem  a r e a .  when  i n d u s t r i a l  t e c h n o l o g y  use  and  a l l o w e d  d e c i d i n g  impact  performance  b a s i s ,  t h e  each  i m p e r f e c t i o n s  t r i a l  by  i n d u s t r i a l  of  enforcement  c o n v e r t  i n d u s t r i a l  t h a t  by  only  s i g n i f i c a n t  i n  and  n o t  widespread  i s  t h e  system  i n d u s t r i a l  be  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  i n  performance  w i t h  d i s c o v e r e d  standards  two  standards  Because  been  more  everyone  such  compared  o f f e n s i v e  However,  problem  standards  such  l e s s  p r e v e n t e d  measurable  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  changes  q u i e t e r  of  when  had  o l d e r  Furthermore,  a n t i c i p a t e d  The  s i m p l i c i t y  these  The  However,  i n d u s t r i a l  f o r  parks s u p p o r t i n g  zoning  were  22  a d d i t i o n a l these  p r i v a t e  p a r k s .  l e a s e h o l d  If  the  tenure  i n c o r p o r a t e d  a d d i t i o n a l  If  a  development  t i t l e the  the  was  l a n d  use  c o n t r o l  to  t h i s  use one  over  was  from  by  use  one  covenant of  l a n d  d e v e l o p -  owner  ( u s u a l l y  f o r  t h a t  s a l e , r a n  and  were  encroachment  l e a s e s  and  p u b l i c  tenants  i n  w i t h  the  a v a i l a b l e  c o m b i n a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  the  ownership  l a n d  developed and  of  occupants,  r e s t r i c t i v e  p r o t e c t i o n  i s  i r o n i c  " r e d  t a p e "  p u b l i c  l a n d  use  s t i l l l i s t  are of  q u i t e  p r i v a t e  t h a t , and  r e s t r i c t i o n s  fumes  b u i l d i n g  and  r i g h t - o f - w a y b i l l b o a r d s  the  w i t h  p r i v a t e  o f f e r e d  by  i n c o m p a t i b l e  A l t h o u g h h i g h e r many  than  s i g n s ,  p r i c e other  i n d u s t r i e s c o n t r o l s  p a r k s  i n  compared t h e r e  U n i t e d  l o a d i n g  were  l a n d  other  over  almost  and  of  w a l l s ,  l a n d to  s e c u r i t y  i n d u s t r i a l i n  the  of  the  covenants: l a n d s c a p i n g ,  power  m i n e r a l  the  on  f a c i l i t i e s ,  p a r k s  a v a i l a b l e pay  and  s t r i n g e n t  some  i n d i v i d u a l  i n d u s t r i a l  the  500  i n c r e a s i n g  were  more  design,  p a r k i n g  i n d u s t r i a l l y  1000  f a r  r e s t r i c t i v e  and  i n  f o r  w i t h  u s e r s  l i s t e d  1957  i n  p r e p a r e d  r e t u r n  and  i n  e r e c t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  w i t h  were  States  of  a  o p p o s i t i o n  A . S . P . O . Z p u b l i c a t i o n  docks,  fences  i n c r e a s i n g  l a n d  to  c o n s t r u c t i o n  easements,  the  An  of  a s s o c i a t e d  submit  i n c l u d e d  odour,  and  to  d i s t r i c t s  setbacks,  time  i n d u s t r i a l  c o n t r o l s .  t y p i c a l  a  r e s t r i c t i o n s  p r e p a r e d  i n d u s t r i a l  use,  d u r i n g  c o n t r o l s ,  p l a n n e d  1971  the  c o n t r o l s been  a  under  to  company)  the  the  the  was  the  uses. It  to  had  Through  c o n s i d e r a b l e l a n d  l a n d  s u b j e c t  l a n d .  l a n d  over  a v a i l a b l e  ment. l a n d  c o n t r o l s  p l a n t s ,  r e s e r v a t i o n s . tended  to  be  on  the  market,  p r i c e  and  a c c e p t  of  tenure  zoned  p a r k s U n i t e d  i n  l a n d .  In  o p e r a t i n g Kingdom  these  i n  the  (Smith  1971). One zoning as  a  i s  of  the  the  p e r m i t t e d  most  recent- developments  i n c l u s i o n use  i n  of  some  i n d u s t r y of  the  i n  i n d u s t r i a l  ( u s u a l l y  newer  mixed  l i g h t use  i n d u s t r y ) zoning  23  c a t e g o r i e s . c o n t r o l  Examples  d i s t r i c t  development a l l o w  s p e c i f i c  are  of  not  ment i n and  a p p l i c a b l e .  l i s t  i s  of  I n d u s t r y  l a n d  and  The  of  documented t h a t  s c a l e  zoning  i n c l u d e d ,  t o  urban  i n  law  c a t e g o r i e s  Comprehensive i n d u s t r y  to  c r e a t e d  i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  However,  Zoning  l a n d  has  t h r e e  These  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Creek  l i t t l e  was  e s t a b l i s h e d and  L i g h t  d i r e c t  comprehensive  l a r g e  t r a d i t i o n a l  a l s o  than  l e a s t  s t a t u s  s c a l e  uses.  V a n c o u v e r ' s  r e s e a r c h  be  the  i s  s i n c e  the  Develop-  i n c l u d e d r e s i d e n t i a l  Comprehensive  encourage  or  p r o t e c t  uses.  e v o l u t i o n  w e l l  to  the  does  c a t e g o r y  unique,  F a l s e  p e r m i t t e d  D i s t r i c t  i n d u s t r i a l  of  are  the  zoning  example.  uses  Vancouver  s i t e s  The  an  are  f o r  development,  commercial  l e s s  s p e c i f i c  c a t e g o r i e s  i n  This  Because  the  Development  the  on  D i s t r i c t  the  and  r e g u l a t i o n s  e n f o r c e d .  n a t u r e  such  (D.C.)  d i s t r i c t .  developments and  of  use i n  been  i n d u s t r y  c o n t r o l s  the  of  the  h e l p f u l  i n  l a n d  up  to  use  In  U n i t e d  u n d e r t a k e n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  By-Laws Canada  has  S t a t e s .  has  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  r e v e a l e d  Canadian  a t  e x p e r i e n c e .  i n ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g  c o n t r o l  been  the  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n  Canada. In  the  h e a v i l y of the i n  on  p e r i o d the  p u b l i c  l a n d  c e n t u r y the  A m e r i c a n  U.S.  use  World model  c o n t r o l  many  of  the  a l s o  e x i s t e d  War were  i n  urban  the  n a t i o n a l  p l a n n i n g  h e l d  i n  the  U.S.  p r o b a b l y  one  l e g i s l a t i o n . p l a n n i n g  v e h i c l e s  Another  c o n s u l t a n t s .  p r e v a l e n t  A t  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  In  the  most  c o n d i t i o n s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of  by-laws  the  Canadian  a n n u a l l y  zoning  1957)•  ( L e v i n  same  II  v e h i c l e  f o r was  t u r n  as  e a s t e r n  1909  " i m p o r t i n g " use  of  of  Canada. on  onward the  form  e x i s t e d  c o n f e r e n c e s  from  the  the  b o r r o w i n g  C i t y  was  American  A m e r i c a n  24  The i t  second  tended  the  t o  w i t h  envy  zoning i n  l a g  Americans  ordinances  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  were  to a t  "behind  the  p r o c e s s  c o n t r o l  the  l o c a t i o n  the  p r o g r e s s  same  i n  way  made  Canada as  the  An  the  I n s t i t u t e  t h a t  P l a n n i n g  w h i l e  A m e r i c a n  the  accomplishments. Town  Canadian  i n  l e g i s l a t i o n  much  the  of  and  Germany. upon  of  Canada  c i t i e s  i n  the  i n i n  the  When  they  l o o k e d  Proponents U.S.  viewed  a p p e a r i n g  t h a t  zoning  i n d u s t r y ,  Americans  a r t i c l e  towns  900  d e v e l o p i n g  of  l o o k e d  was  developments.  of  i n  zoning  e x p e r i e n c e  German  the  J o u r n a l  of  e s t i m a t e d  1931  U.S.  of  and  B r i t a i n  13 had  been  zoned,  The  t h i r d  c o n t r o l s of  i n  p e r i o d  p l a n n e r s C i t y  development from of  the  the  was  of  World  were  The  e s t a b l i s h e d  amalgamated  w i t h  and  South  Vancouver.  P r i o r  the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  and  development.  a p p o i n t e d  H a r l a n d  M i s s o u r i ,  i n  P l a n  f o r  the  contiguous the  or  f o l l o w i n g  p a s s e d of  of  to  1926  became  f o r  l a n d  use  system  apparent i n  w i t h  i n  the number  not  p r e s e n t  v a r y  of  t h i s a  the  t o  Vancouver and  and  of  a  c i t y  of  l a n d  Bartholomew's  use  Commission St.  L o u i s ,  "Comprehensive' R e g i o n a l  Grey  each  P l a n n i n g of  of  P o i n t  c o n t r o l  A s s o c i a t e s a  boundaries  o l d  amalgamation  b y - l a w  and  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  p o l i t i c a l  when  1929  z o n i n g  t e r r i t o r y " . H a r d w i c k  e x p l a n a t i o n  ^  of  s i g n i f i c a n t  does  p r e p a r e  Vancouver  a d j a c e n t  a  dozen.  B r i t i s h  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  to  Bartholomew  August C i t y  i n  the  C i t y  the  e x p e r i e n c e  p a t t e r n .  a  Canada.  l e g i s l a t i o n  Vancouver  of  Vancouver,  when  to  than  e v o l u t i o n  i n f l u e n c e  II  V a n c o u v e r ' s  The  the  i n c l u d i n g  War  had  l e s s  i n f l u e n c e  emigrated  Canadian  were  of  This  c i t i e s ,  c o n t r o l  c i t y  the  c o n t r o l .  f o l l o w i n g  The  t h e r e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Canadian  B r i t i s h  Canada  Canada  development  c e r t a i n  m  P l a n  Town  of  (1974)  appointment  the g i v e s -  Prompted by the b u s i n e s s f l u c t u a t i o n s , some members of the b u s i n e s s community, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h major downtown investments, became concerned  about t h e main they j o i n e d w i r o o t e d i n t h e c i v i c p l a n n i n g growth of t h e were aware t h a m i n i n g t h e i r a i n t u r n , t h e i r The i n  t h e  asked out  concern  f a c t t o  t h e  zoning  t o  s i n g l e  or  b y - l a w  was  of  a  f i r s t  zoning  However,' t h e  p r e p a r e d  as  and  t o  Under  a  one  and  two  d i s t r i c t s  u n r e s t r i c t e d  a l s o  r e f l e c t e d  t h e  c o n s u l t a n t s  . The  c o n s u l t a n t s  temporary of  p l a n  apartment  a r e a s " ,  an  C o u n c i l ,  and  became  by-law, t h r e e  f a m i l y  " I n  l a w  was  d i s t r i c t s  d i s t r i c t s .  i n zoning  P l a n n i n g  which  d i s t r i c t s ,  a  " a n d  i n t e r i m  Town  -  p o i n t e d  houses  t h e  t h e  were  p r i o r ' t o  s o l u t i o n  by  only  1928,  was  comprehensive  approved  e s t a b l i s h e d : and  a  r e s i d e n t i a l  1927. 17,  step,  i n t r u s i o n  recommended  December  v a l u e s  b y - l a w .  p r e p a r i n g  t w o - f a m i l y  February,  u n t i l  a  p r e v e n t  Commission, 5th  as  prepare  b y - l a w .  l a r g e l y  for" p r o p e r t y  t h a t ,  v a l u e  tenance of l a n d v a l u e s . I n t h e 1920's t h t h e " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " advocates P o i n t Grey m u n i c i p a l i t y t o promote as a means of g u i d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l c i t y . These l o n g term p r o p e r t y owners t t h e boom a n d b u s t c y c l e s were underb i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and, p e r s o n a l and c o r p o r a t e wealth.15  on  i n  f o r c e  were  apartment t h e  u n r e s t r i c t e d  16 d i s t r i c t s As  w i t h  from  no  t h e  a l l b u t A  more  Vancouver  r e g u l a t i o n s New Y o r k t h e  the  new  b y - l a w  the  c o n s u l t a n t s  any  Ordinance,  u n r e s t r i c t e d  comprehensive  C i t y  of  C o u n c i l was  on  k i n d  i n d u s t r y  p r e s c r i b e d " . was  p r o h i b i t e d  d i s t r i c t s .  zoning  b y - l a w  December  e x p l a i n e d  were  i n  t h e  was  17, 1928.. preamble  approved The  by  scope  suggested  of by  -  "A B y - L a w t o r e g u l a t e and r use of b u i l d i n g s and t h e us of Vancouver; t o l i m i t t h e to p r e s c r i b e t h e s i z e of y a and t h e maximum d e n s i t y of purposes t o d i v i d e t h e c i t y Whereas, a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the Vancouver Town P l a n n i n g  e s t r i c t t h e l o c a t i o n and e of -land w i t h i n t h e C i t y h e i g h t and b u l k of b u i l d i n g s r d s and other open spaces' p o p u l a t i o n and f o r these i n t o d i s t r i c t s . t h e recommendations o f Commission, i t appears  26  a d v i s a b l e and expedient t o make r e g u l a t i o n s and the c i t y i n t o d i s t r i c t s as h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d , t o t h e Town P l a n n i n g A c t , having due r e g a r d t o : (a)  The  promotion  convenience (b)  (c)  The  (d)  v a l u e and  minor  and  the  l i g h t  l i s t  l a n d  to  p l a n s  was  of  the  and  the  n a t u r e  b y - l a w  w i t h  f o r  p a s s e d  Vancouver  f i r s t  r e f l e c t e d  r e s p e c t and  Heavy  zoning  and  names  A l l  P o i n t  Grey  of  i t s  C i t y  the  on  June  6,  1930  b y - l a w  of  the  C o u n c i l  other  of  and, c u r r e n t . of  p r i n c i p l e s .  It  h i e r a r c h i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  s t o r e y  L i g h t  D i s t r i c t .  a l l  d i s t r i c t s  heavy  i n d u s t r i a l  was  was to  p e r m i t t e d uses  l i g h t  made  by  uses  were,  D i s t r i c t i n  the  p e r m i t t e d  p l u s  i n d u s t r i e s  s i n g l e  d i s t r i c t s  I n d u s t r i a l  Uses  i n c l u d e d  i n d u s t r y  s o - c a l l e d  South  wisdom  Two  l i g h t  changes  c o n v e n t i o n a l  d i s t r i c t s . s i x  the  and  "  p r o t e c t i o n  a  and 17  and  by  most  commercial  of  the  zoning  d i s t r i c t  of  r e g u l a t i o n s  the  I n d u s t r i a l  d e f i n i t i o n  p r o h i b i t e d .  to  p r o v i d e d  i n d u s t r i a l  the  "  r e s i d e n t i a l  of  zoning  C i t y  became  r e s i d e n t i a l The  the  f o r  occupancy.  b y - l a w  e s t a b l i s h e d : a  access.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s  t h i s  s t r u c t u r e  were  p r o v i s i o n s  Vancouver.  This  f a m i l y  of  adequate reasonable  The c o n s e r v a t i o n of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s d i r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g development.  amalgamated  day  of  and  (f)  t h e r e f o r e ,  i n  The  of  The c h a r a c t e r of each d i s t r i c t , the c h a r a c t e r of the b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d and the p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses.  Vancouver,  the  a i r  use  i n c o r p o r a t e  of  s a f e t y ,  (e)  W i t h  C i t y  h e a l t h ,  d i s t r i c t s .  s e c u r i n g  l i g h t ,  the  p u b l i c w e l f a r e .  The p r e v e n t i o n of the overcrowding of l a n d and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the amenity r e s i d e n t i a l  to  of  and  d i v i d e pursuant  i n  i n d u s t r y .  p r o v i d i n g which  were  t h e r e f o r e ,  a  a u t o m a t i c a l l y  p e r m i t t e d .  t h e r e  use  were  r e q u i r e d b y - l a w l i s t  the  the  heavy  s i t e  i t s  l i f e ,  to  the  change  b y - l a w  In  d w e l l i n g  u n i t s  to  to  a p p l y  the  l i g h t  p r o v i s i o n s  u n t i l  heavy  a  change  new  the  s p e c i a l  of  the  f u r t h e r  i n d u s t r i e s "  Thus,  a p a r t  d w e l l i n g  u n i t s  i n  r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  minor  amendments  zoning  During e i t h e r  d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e d  d i s t r i c t s Other  i n d u s t r y  and  u n i t s  zoned  areas.  Zoning  a  or  a p p r o v a l  i n d u s t r i a l  to  s e c t i o n  a l l o w e d  to  d i s t r i c t  d w e l l i n g  p r o v i d e d  f o r  b y - l a w  s u b j e c t  r e s p e c t  A  C o u n c i l .  r e q u i r e d  i n d u s t r i a l  w i t h  when  1956  "the  1951 i n  or  t h a t  t r a d e s  i n d u s t r i a l l y  was  i n d u s t r i a l  C o u n c i l .  C i t y  the  i n  r e g u l a t i o n s  boundaries.  by  areas,  uses  except  C o n d i t i o n s "  a p p r o v a l  i n d u s t r i a l  commercial  C i t y  heavy  u n d e r t a k i n g s ,  a p p r o v a l  s p e c i a l  and  of  " S p e c i a l  " b u s i n e s s e s ,  r e q u i r i n g  the  r e s t r i c t i o n s  a p p r o v a l  e n t i t l e d  of  from  no  In  was  than  extended t h i s  remained  Development  f o r  change  as  d r a f t e d  By-Law  was  passed. Before i t  i s  the of  w e l l  p r o c e e d i n g to  document  Bartholomew was  1930  P l a n  i n t e n d e d  t r a n s m i t t a l  w i t h  an  a n a l y s i s  some  of  the  f o r  Vancouver  of  the  p r i n c i p a l  f e a t u r e s  s i n c e  Zoning.  the  to  implement  i t .  In  Bartholomew-  d e s c r i b e d  the  time  the  l a n d  zoned  l o c a t e d , f i r s t  to  f o r  the  the  p r a c t i c e  i n d u s t r y  l o c a t i o n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n " .  was  of A  the  i n  of  many  poor  other  q u a l i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  g e n e r a l  study  of  as  f o l l o w s  r e growth of been a n t i c i p a t e d a new and s m a l l e r p l a n r e x p e d i e n t . f f i c u l t f o r  c i t i e s and  the  where  p o o r l y  d i s t r i c t s of  of By-Law  l e t t e r  frame  In the p l a n s u b m i t t e d h e r e w i t h , a f u t u a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m i l l i o n p e r s o n s has When t h a t p o p u l a t i o n has been reached, l a r g e r p l a n w i l l become n e c e s s a r y . A w o u l d be u n w o r t h y , and, at b e s t , a poo A l a r g e r p l a n would be more or l e s s d i p r e s e n t a d o p t i o n and r e a l i z a t i o n . 1°  C o n t r a r y  By-Law,  195&  was  Region  "of  28  i d e n t i f i e d the  b a s i s  t a k i n g the by  areas of  i n t o  the  C l a r k  a r e a ,  These from  1930  as  r e s u l t  a  The  and  t h e  Creek  t h e  south  e x -  Creek  G r a n v i l l e  of  D r i v e  i n d u s t r i a l changes  Road  and  a r e a . zoned  began  l a n d  t o  occur  of  t h e  i n  Bartholomew  and  t h e  passage  f o r e f r o n t  summarizes  p l a n  of  of  t h e  a t  cost  zoning  p l a n n i n g  Bartholomew's  a  of  b y - l a w  p r o g r e s s  p l a n  as  i n  f o l l o w s -  artholomew's p l a n was f o r a c o r e - o r i e n t e d , e c t o r a l l y segregated, r a d i a l l y o r g a n i z e d c i t y . u i l t n a t u r a l l y on t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s i n ancouver, and was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e main cademic and p r o f e s s i o n a l views of t h a t time.19  p l a n  and  ;  F l a t s ) ,  Highway/Boundary  Marine  s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e  (False  s i d e ,  t h e  supply  t o  i n  designated  W a t e r f r o n t ,  a d j a c e n t  south  a n d  expected  d i s t r i c t s  I n l e t  F a l s e  and  d o l l a r s )  Hardwick  t h e  By-Law  Commission  which  guided  t h e  were  a d m i n i s t e r e d  growth  of  t h e  by  c i t y  This  a  Town  u n t i l  1950's. The  1952  may be  on  r e z o n i n g .  Vancouver  P l a n n i n g  i n  of  t h a t  Grandview  12th,  as  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  of  development  r a i l  B u r r a r d  t h e  when  1970  (1929  Canada. B s b V a  and  c o m p l e t i o n  $40,000. p l a c e d  east  n o r t h  served  t o  a n d  changes  The  a r e a ,  Arbutus  i n d u s t r i a l  i m m e d i a t e l y  a r e a  Creek  areas  " t h e  p r i n c i p a l  a r e a  Drive  f o r  water  were:  t h e  F a l s e  B u r r a r d ,  the  The  S t r e e t t o  t o  account  Bartholomew  t e n d i n g  The  access  f u t u r e " .  P o w e l l  s u i t a b l e  decade  p l a n n i n g a  and  p l a n n i n g  of  t h e  zoning  1950's  saw  two  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  department  was  s i g n i f i c a n t i n  changes  Vancouver.  e s t a b l i s h e d  as  p a r t  In of  t h e  20 m u n i c i p a l assumed  government  o r g a n i z a t i o n .  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  Commission s i g n i f i c a n t  whose  r o l e  change  was  p r e v i o u s l y  was t h e  This h e l d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e p a r a t i o n  b y  department t h e  Town  a d j u s t e d . and  a p p r o v a l  P l a n n i n g  The of  o t h e r a  29  new  Zoning  p r e p a r e d the  and  Development  because  zoning  "the  b y - l a w  By-Law.  l e g a l  ( s t i l l  i n  The  new  By-Law  was  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  framework  i t s  was  form)  1930  of  t o t a l l y  21 inadequate  to  cope  w i t h  b y - l a w  i n c o r p o r a t e d  a t  t i m e " .  the  W r i t i n g  i n  was  approved,  new  Development  the  b y - l a w -  i n  to  p l a n  not  b y - l a w  w i t h  In  the'  t o  and  i n t e n d e d p e r m i t s p e r m i t  was  approved. a p p r o v a l  the  l i s t i n g  p o s i t i v e seek  the  new  new  i n t e n d e d  known  b y - l a w  e x p l a i n e d  was  a  t h a t to  a  accompany  development For  development  of  uses the  of  f o r  others)  p e r m i t t e d  and  a  system  most  f o r  complied  be  i s s u e d .  over  of  of  d e v e l o p the  development a  p e r m i t  a p p l i c a t i o n  development c o u l d  r e q u i r e d  be the  a u t h o r i t y . was  ( f o r  w i t h  uses  i t  c o n t r o l  b u i l d i n g  b y - l a w  uses  b y - l a w  c o u l d  developments  p e r m i t  the  of  development  p e r m i t  p l a n n i n g  p e r m i t t e d ( f o r  a p p r o v a l  c o n t r o l  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  most a  the o l d  and  p l a n ,  b e f o r e  d e s i g n a t e d f e a t u r e  w i t h  Development"  the  f l e x i b i l i t y  a s s i s t  . 1956) to r e v i s e s of the c i t y . s i o n of the p r e p a r a t i o n of n i s s t i l l . f o r so many he p r e s e n t i o r t o 1930.22  to  Under  use  . e c t v i r l a s t p r  "and  approach  b u i l d i n g  The a  words  one.  proposed  more to  the  p l a n n i n g  r e q u i r e d  l i s t s  a l l  order  added  now  of  p r o h i b i t e d  c i t y  The  techniques  a f t e r  Department  the  i n t r o d u c e d .  Another of  years  n e g a t i v e  by-law,  year  20  a  the  o b t a i n  i n  was  had  to  If  zoning  order  ment,  a  necessary  developments. w i t h  f o r  modern  made a t t h a t t i m e ( i of the zoning d i s t r i a t a comprehensive r e uld o n l y be done a f t e lopment p l a n . This p i s one of the reason o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s at t i o n not u n l i k e t h a t  r e p l a c e  development was  seven  the  c i t y " .  -  new  order  of  P l a n n i n g  No a t t e m p t was the boundaries It was f e l t t h z o n i n g map sho a 20 year deve incomplete and i n d i v i d u a l r e z time - a s i t u a The  changing  "most  19^3»  the  a  a  the  some  replacement  d i s t r i c t s )  c o n s i s t e n t each  and  approach  d i s t r i c t .  This  of  30  f e a t u r e The A  was  l i s t s  l i s t  i n  the  or  uses  i f  the  s u b j e c t  l i t t l e  D i s t r i c t ( l i g h t now  has  of  of  former  renamed w h i l e  w i t h  of  i n d u s t r i a l However,  a  the  the  " o f f i c e  s i x the  f o r o l d  a u t o m a t i c a l l y  the  r e g u l a t i o n s  t h i s  d i s t r i c t  uses  l i s t  were  s u b j e c t  to  I n d u s t r i a l  By-Law  to  the  uses  and  D i s t r i c t  had  In  are  the  t h e r e  i s  e x c l u s i v e  n o t - p e r m i t t e d .  p e r m i t t e d  " r e t a i l  been  d i s t r i c t s of  i s  i n d u s t r y ) .  1930.  c r e a t i o n  c o n d i t i o n a l l y  b u i l d i n g s "  of  r e s p e c t  D i s t r i c t  (heavy  d i s t r i c t s  been  I n d u s t r i a l  Heavy  D i s t r i c t  has  w i t h  L i g h t  has  1956  p r i n c i p a l  There  I n d u s t r i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  the  M-l  R e s i d e n t i a l of  s t i l l '  s t o r e y  these  i n  i s  passed  p r o v i s i o n s  Zoning  committment  l i s t  c a t e g o r i e s .  c o n d i t i o n a l  On  By-Law  the  the  uses  zones.  were  w i t h  Vancouver.  I n d u s t r i a l  p e r m i t t e d  evidence  both  The  M-2  a  but  i n i n  1956  the. b o u n d a r i e s  e s t a b l i s h e d l i s t s  Development  s i n c e  the  l i s t  a p p r o v a l .  two  ^  c o n t r o l  been  t h i s  i n  i n t o  Development  c o n t a i n e d  a c c e p t e d 2 3  i n c o r p o r a t e d .  f i r s t .  complied  amendments  i n d u s t r y ) ,  c a l l e d  Most  s p e c i a l  and  i n d u s t r y . ^  on  l i s t  use  change  uses  second  numerous  o f - l a n d  came  A  be  d i v i d e d  uses  use  might  t e c h n i q u e s "  were  proposed  to  Zoning  undergone  uses  f o r  safeguards".  The  "modern  d i s t r i c t  by-law.  s p e c i a l  to  the  p e r m i t t e d  main  "which  means  of  a p p l i c a t i o n s  approved  uses  of  of  p e r m i t  one  s t o r e ,  uses  i n c l u d e s  b u s i n e s s  or  u n d e r t a k i n g " . The has i s  not t h a t  wisdom  reason been of  had  p e r m i t t e d the  why  documented.  the  zoning  r e s u l t e d uses  remainder  these  i n of  two  commercial  The  most  h i e r a r c h y .  i n  the  the  obvious Changing  removal  i n d u s t r i a l  areas.  h i e r a r c h y  was  uses  of  were  e x p l a n a t i o n c o n v e n t i o n a l  r e s i d e n t i a l Having  l e f t  i n c l u d e d  uses  accomplished  i n t a c t .  as t h a t ,  S u p p o r t i n g  31  this  c o n c l u s i o n i s the f a c t  i n d u s t r i a l u s e s were n o t may  a l s o be  to approve  t h a t , u n d e r t h e new  allowed  t h a t the a r c h i t e c t s only those  office  i n commercial a r e a s . o f t h e new  and  retail  by-law  the nearby  industries.  as  i n Chapter  k will  data presented  o f t h e b y - l a w has  It  intended  commercial  t h a t were l i n k e d w i t h the  by-law  uses  However,  show, t h i s  g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d a much  section  broader  interpretation. The  r e g u l a t i o n s i n the  Industrial  d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n i n d u s t r i a l and In both  buildings space  i s not  ratio  distinction and  and M - 2  the M-l  Districts,  i s not  i n these  two  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses are  district  imposed.  schedules  accessory uses.  the h e i g h t l i m i t  feet.  The The  g r e a t e r than  12 f e e t  i n height.  offices  on t h e  s u b j e c t to the additional  10% of the An  site  a c c e s s o r y use  same s i t e  b y - l a w makes  result  as an  two  block  Kitsilano  approval  c o n d i t i o n s and  i s not  and  community.  (which  district  of  regula-  The  new  1st  over  includes i s not  total  to  gross  site. M-1A  was  district  established. district  arose  in Kitsilano.  zone i n t h e n o r t h e a s t  (bounded by B u r r a r d ,  occupy t o be  industrial  area planning a c t i v i t y  industrial  i s not  o n e - t h i r d of the  industrial  to  i n d u s t r i a l use)  i s d e s c r i b e d as a l i g h t  of l o c a l  no  these  special  f l o o r .area o f a l l t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e  in a residential  floor  There a r e a l s o r e g u l a t i o n s i n both  o c c u p y an a r e a g r e a t e r t h a n  district  on  permitted  However, b e c a u s e  v  accessory building  an a r e a  The  uses.  c o n c e r n i n g a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s and  An  I n 1 9 7 6 a new  not  r e g u l a t i o n s between o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s  the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , be  do  non-industrial  5.00.  to exceed  industrial buildings.  t i o n s may  100  t o exceed  Districts  Ave.,  corner  Cypress  as  a The  of and  Cornwall)  32  i s  the  only  a r e a  schedule  imposes  use  than  i s  are  c o n d i t i o n a l  c o n d i t i o n s P l a n n i n g and  the  and  w i t h  c h o i c e  i s  100 w i t h  most  and  these  s p e c i f i c ,  i n d u s t r y  a  of are  the  major  development as  no  o f f i c i a l  a r e a s .  N e i t h e r  w e l l  to  these be  a  use.  (e.g.  have the  p l a n s  i s  o f f i c i a l  an  l i g h t  are  are  much  a n t i c i p a t e  uses  mixed f o r  e i t h e r uses. other  However,  any  of  more  a p p r o v i n g  f o r  f o r  of  been  p r o v i d e  d r a f t e d  -  d e l i b e r a t e l y  have  not  or  the  both  are  the do  The  (FCCDD).  i n  which  End).  development t h e r e  a r e a  p l a n s  to  been  West  f l o o r  b y - l a w  uses  p l a n s  They  than  d i s t r i c t s - .  D i s t r i c t  p l a n s ,  commercial  p l a n s  r a t h e r  r e g u l a t i o n s  However,  guide  a d j o i n i n g  The  l a n d  development  and  or  of  c h a r a c t e r  d i s t r i c t s .  p e r m i t t e d  development  r e s i d e n t i a l  c i t y  terms  of  a r e a  l a n d  the  other  (D.D.).  l i s t s  a r e a  to  Development  D i s t r i c t  areas  i n  to  yards.  i n d u s t r i a l  of  design,  f e e t  60  uses  s p e c i a l  s t r i n g e n t  changes  i n  the  l a n d  A l l  D i r e c t o r  r e l a t i o n  r e a r  other  these  i n t e n d e d  The  O f f i c i a l  of  the  b o t h  a u t h o r i t y .  e x c l u s i v e  i n  and  the  the  and  of  more  p e r m i t t e d  because  are  as  are  r e c e n t  are  d i s t r i c t s  f o r  of  by  i n  l i m i t  s i d e  as  5'00  Downtown  d r a f t e d  t h e r e  i n d u s t r i a l  s u b j e c t ' t o  imposed  h e i g h t  on  d i s t r i c t  M-1A  d i s t r i c t s .  M-2  l a n d s c a p i n g  Comprehensive  g e n e r a l  and  m a t e r i a l  f r o n t ,  uses  Creek  the  v e r y  to  s i g n i f i c a n t  F a l s e  A  and  r e s u l t  i n d u s t r i a l  M-l  to  The  M-1A.  r e s t r i c t i o n s  t h e r e f o r e  b u i l d i n g  r a t i o m i s a  and  i n  zoned  r e g u l a t i o n s  imposed  As  case  l a n d .  r e s p e c t  space  t i g h t e r  r e g a r d  of  r e s i d e n t i a l  p r e s e n t l y  the  development  areas  t h e r e i n d u s t r i a l  p l a n  f o r  27 the  City, of The  Vancouver  f i r s t  changing  n a t u r e  p r a c t i c e  i n  p a r t of  g e n e r a l  as  of  a  t h i s  whole. Chapter  c o n v e n t i o n a l and  has  wisdom  i n d u s t r i a l  documented w i t h  zoning  i n  r e s p e c t  the t o  zoning  p a r t i c u l a r .  It  was  the  c o n t e n t i o n  the  v e h i c l e  the  c i t y .  must  be  enjoy  a  any  d e f i n i t i o n  added  the  caveat  The  c o n v e n t i o n a l By-Law  By-Law  of  behind  the  Zoning  of  1930  i s  1956  p r a c t i c e s .  The  t h a t  zoning  r a t i o n a l  l a n d  use  of  r a t i o n a l i t y  r e s i d e n t i a l  the the  i t s i n  i n d u s t r y C i t y  day  l a n d  uses  would  had  c o n t r o l ,  the  l a t t e r  Chapter  the  e f f e c t s  an  i n f e r i o r  Vancouver  imported i t s  Development  schedules  By-Law  f o r c o n t e x t  p r e p a r i n g  i n f l u e n c e d  p l a n  t h i s  had  and  was  i n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  was  1956  of  i n  Zoning  d i s t r i c t  By-Law  1930  development  and  h e l p f u l  i n d u s t r i a l  The  of  p l a n n e r s  w h i l e  t h a t  wisdom  a  t h a t  p o s i t i o n  knowledge  Zoning  and  implementing  p r e f e r r e d  By-Law.  urban  To  s t a t u s . the  f o r  of  the  i n by  r a t i o n a l e  the  c u r r e n t  American  elements  of  zoning  o r i g i n a t i n g  i n  Great  B r i t a i n . In  the  and  the  and  supply  n e x t  p l a n n i n g of  d e c i s i o n s  i n d u s t r i a l  of  accompanying  l a n d  i n  the  t h i s i t ,  c i t y  l e g i s l a t i o n , on  are  the  l o c a t i o n  e x p l o r e d .  34  Footnotes  f o r  Chapter  II  1 Each By-Law o c c a s s i o n s . However, the l a n d use c o n t r o l Rather they i n t r o d u c e a d d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s p l a n s , or a d m i n i s t r a t  has been amende these amending t e c h n i q u e o u t l i n d zoning d i s t r i c chedules and o f f i v e changes.  d By e d t i c  on numerous -Laws d i d not change i n the main By-Law. boundary changes, i a l development  2 Nino Hason, "T Zoning C o n t r o l s i n N o r t h A n a l y s i s " . Papers on P l a Toronto, Department of Ur p. 21. 3  I b i d .  p.  he Emergence and Development of A m e r i c a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : A C r i t i c a l n n i n g and D e s i g n ( U n i v e r s i t y of ban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1977) •  7.  4 e n t i r e  Comprehensive c i t y . -5John  S t a t e s ,  1969).  Delafons,  E d i t i o n ,  2nd  p . 20. 6  I b i d .  p.  "^Richard W i s c o n s i n :  m  the  Land  sense  Use  (Cambridge  t h a t  i t  C o n t r o l s  covered  i n  the  Massachusetts:  the  U n i t e d  M.I.T.  P r e s s ,  23.  Babcock,  U n i v e r s i t y  of  The  Zoning  W i s c o n s i n  Game.  (Madison,  19&6).  Press,  p.  127.  Q The a g e n c i e s were the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of C i v i l Engineers, the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n i n g , the A s s o c i a t i o n of S t a t e P l a n n i n g and Development Agencies, the A m e r i c a n R a i l w a y Development A s s o c i a t i o n , the A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r i a l Development C o u n c i l and the S o c i e t y of I n d u s t r i a l R e a l t o r s . A.S.P.O. l a t e r r e p l a c e d the A.S.P.D. on t h e Committee.  9 ^ P r i n c i p l e s I n d u s t r i a l  Zoning  of  I n d u s t r i a l  Committee,  Zoning  ( N a t i o n a l  1950).  10 Space Requirements P r o b l e m " , A p r i l ,  f o r  (Urban  I n d u s t r y Land  Dorothy  A.  Harvard  B u s i n e s s  1954).  -  An  I n s t i t u t e  Muncy,  "Land Review.  A n a l y s i s  of  T e c h n i c a l f o r  S i t e  I n d u s t r y  V o l .  32.  and  B u l l e t i n -  No.  A 2.  L o c a t i o n No.  231  N e g l e c t e d (March-  1954)  35  11  "Land  x  Harvard  f o r  B u s i n e s s  I n d u s t r y  Review.  -  A  N e g l e c t e d  P r o b l e m "  I b i d .  12 The t e r m p b u i l d i n g code t e r m i n o the a b i l i t y of a c e r t w i t h s t a n d or measure  erformance standard i s borrowed from l o g y . In t h a t c o n t e x t i t r e f e r s to a i n b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l or method to up t o c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a .  13 -"'Way the  Town  Quoted  Through  P l a n n i n g  i n  Hason,  f o r  Canadian  I n s t i t u t e Papers  on  of  P l a n n i n g " ,  Canada.  P l a n n i n g  J o u r n a l  (February,  and  of  1931)'  Design.  H a r l a n d Bartholomew and A s s o c i a t e s , A P l a n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d i n g P o i n t Grey and South Vancouver and a G e n e r a l P l a n of the Region 1929. (Vancouver: Vancouver Town P l a n n i n g Commission, 1929)' p.10. "'"-'Walter  Canada  G.  L t d . , 197^).  Hardwick,  p.  Vancouver,  ( C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n :  26.  16 Bartholomew,  1  7  I b i d .  l  8  I b i d .  p.  A  Comprehensive  P l a n ,  p.  211.  220.  p.10.  19 Hardwick, Vancouver. p. 27. The m a i n a c a d e m i c v i e w of t h e to c i t y growth and l a n d use p a t t e r n s was t h e o r y of c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . This t h e o r l i s h e d i n 1925 i n an a r t i c l e b y E.W. Burg "The Growth of the C i t y " which appeared i The C i t y e d i t e d b y R.E. Park, E.W. Burges (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ) . y  da Pa y es n s  y w i t h r e s p e c t rk and Burgess* was f i r s t pubs e n t i t l e d the book and R.D. MacKenzie  20 E s t a b l i s h m e n t recommended Spence^Sales  i n of C i t y  E x p l a n a t o r y No.  3575.  a  study M c G i l l of  of  (Vancouver,  Department by  has  P r o f e s s o r s  been Bland  and  U n i v e r s i t y .  Vancouver,  Memorandum.  the  p r e p a r e d  P l a n n i n g  Zoning November,  and  Department,  Development  1963).  P-  2.  G e n e r a l  By-Law  36  2 2  Ibid.  p. 2.  ^ C i t y of Vancouver, Town P l a n n i n g Commission, Proposed New Z o n i n g and Development By-Law, (Vaneouver, March, 1955). p. i i . 2  Oil The i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s c h e d u l e s have been reproduced as Appendix A. 25 C i t y o f Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department, Z o n i n g and Development By-Law No. 3575. (Vancouver, 1956.) p. 248 S e c t i o n s E & F, p. 262 S e c t i o n s E & F. 2 6  Ibid.  p. 47 Sec. 1 A (65), p. 261 Sec. 1 A ( 7 7 ) .  'The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , the Vancouver C h a r t e r ( S . B . C , Ch. 55. 1953) g i v e s t h e c i t y a u t h o r i t y t o p r e p a r e and approve such p l a n s f o r t h e e n t i r e c i t y or c e r t a i n a r e a s but t h i s i s n o t a mandatory r e q u i r e m e n t .  CHAPTER  RESEARCH  III  METHODOLOGY  This  Chapter  o u t l i n e s  the  i n c l u d i n g  sources  of  methods  p o s s i b l e  t h i s  r e g u l a t o r y  study  device  Development  i s  ( i . e .  By-Law)  on  i n d u s t r i a l  areas,  of  By-Law  data  i n d u s t r i a l o r i g i n a l  areas  and  i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n t a i n e d  p r i n c i p a l  and  t h e i r  C i t y  the of  data  c o l l e c t i o n  used  and  w i t h  r e s p e c t  now  r e c o r d s  l a t t e r  The  Vancouver  impact  the  use  to  l a n d data  a  i n  the  use  the  o p e r a t i o n  i n  came  an  of  Zoning  l a n d  the  from  a n a l y s i s  p r e p a r e d  r a t i o n a l e  of  r e p o r t s .  f o r  t h e i r  use  o u t l i n e d . data  of  p a r t  to  i n c l u d i n g  the  of  of  r e s p e c t  p r e v i o u s l y  are  the  Vancouver's  p a t t e r n  sources i n  w i t h  of  c o l l e c t e d .  source  p e r m i t  i n  the  sources,  p r i n c i p a l  mentioned the  data  l i m i t a t i o n s  development  i n  were  C i t y  w i t h  secondary  The  The  and  concerned the  C i t y ' s the  of  methodology  l i m i t a t i o n s .  Since  and  data,  r e s e a r c h  the of  must  f o r  t h i s  C i t y  of  Chapter  be  study  was  the  Vancouver.  As  II  a l l  preceded  by  development s u c c e s s f u l  1 a p p l i c a t i o n c o n t a i n e d the  zoning  m u n i c i p a l  f o r  on  the  of  which by  s u b j e c t  a p p l i c a t i o n s  and  The  been  r e v i e w i n g  r e t a i l  a p p l i c a t i o n  address  p o r t i o n  has  development  the  development. r e f u s a l  a  a  b u i l d i n g s  p r o p e r t y ,  g e n e r a l  the  p e r m i t  approved  t h a t  p o r t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  the  p e r m i t .  or  p e r m i t s were or  i t  f o r  the  the  d e s c r i p t i o n on the  reasons  f o r  p o s s i b l e , o f f i c e of  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r m i t  l o c a t i o n  c o n f i r m s  was  c o n v e r s i o n  of  c o n t a i n e d  the  new  The  to  of the  by  the  proposed  a p p r o v a l  or  development r e f u s a l . i d e n t i f y  b u i l d i n g s  e x i s t i n g  i n c l u d e s  or  b u i l d i n g s  Thus those o f f i c e / to  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  use  Development from  January  As  noted  to  l a n d  l a n d  p e r m i t  1,  t o  1971  l a t e r use  on  i n  i n  t h i s  t h a t  i s  zoned  f o r  a p p l i c a t i o n s  f i l e d  June  were  1,  1978  Chapter  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  f o r  use.  p e r i o d f o r  w i t h  was  19^9  the  chosen  i n f o r m a t i o n  areas  i n d u s t r i a l  r e v i e w .  r e s p e c t  a v a i l a b l e  i n  2 a  p r e v i o u s l y  the  l o g i c a l  p r e p a r e d s t a r t i n g  happened  to  o c c u r r e d  t h e r e b y  T h e r e f o r e , as  those  January  June  be  one  the  i n  i s  1,  1978  and  a p p r o x i m a t e l y  were  f i l e d .  Each  o f f i c e / r e t a i l and  a  i n c o n s i s t e n c y  t h e r e  and  use.  the  main  and  may  f o r  a  or  o f f i c e s  f i l e d  been  year s t r i k e a c t i v i t y .  c o l l e c t i o n  was  on  have  i n  a  most  w i t h  e s t a b l i s h e  or  a f t e r  a n c i l l a r y  to  o f f i c e  data  o f f i c e  the  Some order  of t o  warehouse  the  or a r e a  date  no  of c o n s i d e r e d  a r i s i n g of  w i t h  from  the  doubt  c o n s t r u c t  as  o f f i c e r e t a i l  on  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  would  be  these  an  a p p l i c a t i o n  a p p l i c a t i o n s  determine (as  of  g e n e r a l l y  b u i l d i n g  example  p e r i o d  m u n i c i p a l  l e f t  f u r t h e r  t o  zoned  d e s c r i p t i o n  " t o  frame  b u i l d i n g  and i s  t o  a p p l i c a t i o n s  l i m i t a t i o n  the  (e.g.  i n  t h i s  p e r m i t  a p p l i c a t i o n s  An  time  zoning,  p o s s i b l e i n  y e a r s  i n d u s t r i a l l y  t h i s  o f f i c e s .  s c r u t i n y  an  the  r e q u i r e d  missed.  In  development  While i s  an  of  the  others  been  f u r t h e r are  of  f o r  7z  broad  development  c o n s t r u c t  f l o o r " )  i n t e r v e n i n g  c o n c l u s i o n s .  development  " t o  warehouse  r e q u i r e d  the  development  data  s u f f i c i e n t l y  vagueness  W h i l e  proposed  b u i l d i n g "  have  c o n s t r u c t i o n  a p p l i c a t i o n s  made  r e f u s a l .  r e l i a b l e ,  the  f o r  the  use  r e c o r d  or  proposed  c o l l e c t i o n  major  a p p l i c a t i o n  a p p r o v a l  t o  a  25.000  p a r t i c u l a r s  be  t h a t  draw  address,  t o  date  would  1970  a f f e c t i n g  p e r m i t  p r o v i d e d  time  noted  data  a  a b n o r m a l l y  c o n s i d e r e d  trends  combined  f o r  which  s t a r t i n g  While  1971.  It  i d e n t i f y  was  date  development 1,  r e p o r t .  whether  r e q u i r e d  i n  the the  39  by-law) of  or  o f f i c e  whether and  commercial was w i t h on  warehouse,  o f f i c e  p o s s i b l e  t o  P l a n n i n g  the  f o r  issuance  of  a  the  development, the  use  f o r  d a t a ' s  of  r e g u l a t o r y  p r i n c i p a l  to  W h i l e  i t  a l s o  has  v a l u e  has  been  c o l l e c t e d  p e r m i t area  of  data  i n  a  o f f i c e  uses  t h a t i n  the  i n c i d e n c e  l i m i t e d  i n d u s t r i a l  a v a i l a b l e  i n  i n  time  p o i n t  t h a t  the  t h a t  or  t h a t  out  l a n d  use  the  a c t i v i t y  the  i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p e r s .  t r e n d s ,  other  i n t e n d e d  a r e a s . and  i n  development  commercial  The  l i s t e d  o f f i c e  was  t a x  a l l  the  c i t y  by  m u n i c i p a l  the  b u i l d i n g  as  was  f o r  used  s e r i e s  r e c o r d e d " o f f i c e  " s t o r e ( s )  and  o f f i c e s " ,  g i v e n ,  was  p o s s i b l e which  of  and to  were  and  o b t a i n e d  p r o p e r t y  i s  to  development by  i n d u s t r i a l  codes  by  of  i d e n t i f y l o c a t e d  making An  and  on  those l a n d  made  the tax  (primary of  from  commercial was  p r o p e r t y  use  a n a l y s i s  i d e n t i f i e d  zoning  s u b s t a n d e v e l o p -  address  b u i l d i n g the  f u r t h e r  r o l l .  the  i n d i c a t i v e  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  i n d u s t r i a l  on  only  frames,  of  of  study  The  data  r o l l  A  t h i s  II  square  l e g a l l y ' r e m a i n  s p e c i f i c a l l y  Map  r e c o r d e d  guarantee  i n d i c a t e  r e t a i l  t a x  w r i t e r .  i t  to  p e r m i t  of  areas  the  the  code  on  noted  It  I.  i s  i n  to  i n d u s t r i a l  and  p r o p e r t y  w i l l  a  d i s c u s s i o n  were  development,  i s  i s  be  b u i l t .  and  by  e x c e s s i v e  not  i n d i c a t i n g  i l l u s t r a t e d  to  to  i n  t r e n d  i n  does  was  and  the  f o r  space.  cases  cases  a l s o  the  purpose  development  of  w i t h  i t  the  b u i l d i n g s  a  p e r m i t  Since  ments  the  i s  Table  t i a t i o n  data  l a n d  of  f o o t a g e  r e a l l y  warehouse  Other  should  square  was  q u e s t i o n a b l e  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n t e r e s t  the  It  which  of  document  some  c o n s t r u c t e d ,  areas  data  r e l a t i v e  because  proceed  once  p e r m i t the  use.  w i l l  w i t h  s t a f f .  development  a p p l i c a n t  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  some  r e f u s a l s  o f f i c e  the  e x a c t l y  b u i l d i n g  r e s o l v e  as  of  the  Department  p e r m i t  f o o t a g e  because  the  a v a i l a b l e  a c t u a l f i l e .  u s e ) " l a n d  use Since  and was  a l s o  b u i l d i n g s  of  zoned  i n d u s t r i a l  f o r  i n t e r e s t  use. be  T h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n  r e l i a b l e  r e c o r d s  and  s u b j e c t  t o  the  and  c u r r e n t  1978  zoning  the  The  a r e a  the  o f f i c e  P o w e l l  was  made a  to  of  p r e v i o u s In  was of  l a n d  b u i l d i n g s  i n The  i n  of  r e p o r t  to  l i m i t a t i o n  by  uses.  o b t a i n  i n d u s t r i a l l y  zoned on  the  i n  Rather,  " S e r v i c e "  were  c a t e g o r i e s  are  vacant  other.  and  not  used. v a r i o u s The  zoned  i s , w i t h  data  i s  t h a t  terms  However,  on  of  the  on  the t h i s  Urban  two  c o n d i t i o n c o n t a i n s  amount  p o s s i b l e the  Renewal  d i s t r i c t s  a l s o  the  of  to  amount  use of  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l c o m m e r c i a l "  use  c a t e g o r i e s Trade"  r e m a i n i n g uses,  them  w i t h i n  the  i t  " R e t a i l  the  i n d u s t r i a l author  on  to  attempt  areas.  " o f f i c e l a n d  an  w i t h i n  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  Avenue,  2nd  a c c o m p l i s h  areas,  i s  12th  areas,  Vancouver  i s  and  and  c o n t a i n e d  a r e a  of  areas  knowledge  to  r e s p e c t  t h a t  r e c o r d s  l o c a t i o n  these  t h e r e f o r e ,  s p e c i f i c the  p e r m i t  Arbutus  focused  i n d u s t r i a l  areas  were  r e p o r t .  broader  r e p o r t  data  by  i n d u s t r i a l  c o n c e r n i n g  It  " o f f i c e / r e t a i l " the  i n  i n d u s t r i a l l y  i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i o u s  use  t h i s  aggregated  Cambie  order  i n f o r m a t i o n  Report  a t  f u r t h e r  In  the  of  i n d u s t r i a l  S t r e e t s ,  o b t a i n  of  p a r t  areas  i s  III.  the  i n  t o  judgement  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  change.  l a n d  t h a t  i t  the  development  i d e n t i f i e d  use  to  on  from  p a r t  assessment  However,  b u i l d i n g s  l a n d  most  c u r r e n t  Table  shows  Having  While i n  from  the  p a r t i a l l y  on  B u r r a r d  made  T e c h n i c a l  p r e p a r e d .  l a n d  and  use  was  as  1969 a  l i s t e d  f i l e s  time  s t u d i e s  v a l u a b l e  the  of  been  i n d u s t r i a l  compare  comparison  Study,  the  S t r e e t .  p e r i o d  p a t t e r n a  i n  G r a n v i l l e  and  over  tax  uses  a r i s i n g  has  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  c o n c e n t r a t e d Avenue,  i s  i t  f o r  boundaries.  o b t a i n e d  p r o p e r t y and  s i n c e  data  and  I n f o r m a t i o n and  c o n s i d e r e d  l i m i t a t i o n s  a s s e s s o r .  i n d u s t r i a l  i s  l a n d  p a r k i n g ,  r e p o r t  has  l a n d use. and  used  and use r e s i d e n t i a l , c o n f i r m e d  t h a t  any  o f f i c e  i n c l u d e d  w i t h  i n d u s t r i a l A n t a c A The  R e t a i l  uses  i n  from  the  i n  Table  p r e s e n t e d In  J u l y  completed was  a a  or  i n d u s t r i a l  document, i n  r e p o r t  r e p o r t  C i t y  does  as  a  i n  s e r v i c e s "  " r e t a i l / p e r s o n a l r e p o r t ,  a r e a s .  The  l i m i t a t i o n s  i b i l i t y  of  between  t h i s  t h a t  has  Rezoning so  t h a t  l a n d  use  cases  study  t a k e n has f o r  of  to  i s  p r e s e n t e d  r e p o r t  they  p l a c e  i n  the  i n t e r v e n i n g  areas  some  comparisons can  boundary  VI.  accompanies  r e l i a b l y  The A  1976  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  use  than  others  and  1969  l a n d  l a n d  years.  more  made  of  incompat-  d i s t r i c t s  the  Table.  i n d u s t r i a l the  occur)  comparison t h i s  to  s e r v i c e  u s e f u l  i n  seven  areas  be  " o f f i c e  i n d u s t r i a l  between  problems  t r e n d s .  Table  of  i n d u s t r i a l  more  zoned The  l a n d  The  v e r y  uses  study.  not,  on  o f f i c e  r e l a t e  i n d u s t r i a l l y 1969  was  1976.  i n c l u d e :  p r o v i d e s  data  and  are  and  r e z o n i n g  i n d i c a t e i n  t h i s  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  used  r e p o r t -  While  recommendation  June  the  a f f e c t e d  Vancouver.  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  f o r  and  of  to  more  i s  Department  i n f o r m a t i o n  due  some  (where  1969  and  boundaries  be  the  o f f i c e  i s  -  study  P l a n n i n g  i n  s e r v i c e  t h e r e f o r e ,  on  boundaries  t h i s  p o l i c y  as  study  1969  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  non-  notes  D i s c u s s i o n "  t h i s  than  The  to  updated  areas  disaggregated  (mixed)".  f o r  some  used  the  I n d u s t r y  d e f i n i t i v e  zoned  c a t e g o r i e s  and  to  r e p o r t  Vancouver  Report  c o n t a i n  i n d u s t r i a l l y  commercial  be  n r e t a i l and other n the i n d u s t r i a l d i s the lower l a n d c o s t s r i c t s over unt f o r t h i s t r e n d . e x p e c t e d . ^  r e l e v a n t  of  e n t i t l e d  i n t e n d e d i t  r e s p e c t  the  a s e i w i t h i bly, d i s t acco d i s  would  IV. the  1977  With  areas  n i t e i n c r e c t i v i t i e s . . Presuma i n d u s t r i a l i c t s would t h i s t r e n  1969  b u i l d i n g s  S e r v i c e .  " P r e l i m i n a r y  t h e r e f o r e ,  uses  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  s m a l l but d e f i o n - i n d u s t r i a l a r i c t s was n o t e d s s o c i a t e d w i t h ommercial d i s t r continuance of  data  t h i s  or  w h i l e  t h i s  data  1976 i n can  other o n l y  i n f o r m a t i o n data  w i t h  Since use l a n d i n g  has i n the  updated compared  a l s o the  had  to  of  June  w i t h  zoned  a  c i t y ,  amount  g r a p h i c a l l y l a n d  r e z o n i n g  the  and f o r  1,  i n  of  i n d u s t r i a l  major  impact  i n f o r m a t i o n l a n d  zoned  19&9  r e p o r t  t a b u l a r  i n d u s t r y .  to  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  on  the  supply  from  the  1976  f o r  This  1978.  l a n d  i n  form,  order trends  to i n  i n d u s t r i a l  r e p o r t  i n d u s t r i a l  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  use i s  has  been  then  i n d i c a t e the  c o n c e r n -  both  supply  of  4  F o o t n o t e s f o r Chapter I I I The term "development" i s n o t d e f i n e d i n t h e Z o n i n g and Development By-Law, h u t i s d e f i n e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , the Vancouver C h a r t e r , as f o l l o w s "Development" means a change i n t h e use o f any l a n d or b u i l d i n g i n c l u d i n g t h e c a r r y i n g out of any c o n s t r u c t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g or o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s i n , on, over or under l a n d or l a n d covered by w a t e r " . 2  C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Urban Renewal Study, T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t No. 4 , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . (Vancouver, August, 1969). 3  .  .  .  .  .  ^Data c o l l e c t i o n was p a r t i a l l y s i m p l i f i e d because a l i s t of a l l development p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s c o v e r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 of t h e 7h y e a r s had been p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d . By r e v i e w i n g t h i s l i s t i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s of c o n c e r n t o t h i s s t u d y during that 4 year p e r i o d . 4 •vCity  of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Urban Renewal Study, p. 13-  3  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Development Permits January In  1, 1971  the p e r i o d from January  - June 1,  1, 1971  1978  to June 1, 1978  a  t o t a l of 61 development permit a p p l i c a t i o n s were f i l e d f o r new  o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s or c o n v e r s i o n of  e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s to o f f i c e use i n i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas. By i n c l u d i n g both a p p l i c a t i o n s approved  and  applications  r e f u s e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to gain a b e t t e r understanding of the i n d u s t r i a l areas that are apparently a t t r a c t i v e for  o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments.  A list  locations of the  s u b j e c t p r o p e r t i e s by m u n i c i p a l address and i n d u s t r i a l i s presented i n Appendix B. list  area  Table I i s a summary of t h i s  by i n d u s t r i a l area: TABLE I DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR  OFFICE  AND  OFFICE/RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIALLY ZONES AREAS January  Industrial  Area  1, 1971  - June 1,  1978  Approved  Refused  13  7  20  Cambie & 2nd  3  11  14  Arbutus & 12th  6  0  6  Marine D r i v e  6  3  9  Powell S t r e e t  3  4  7  F a i r v i e w Slopes  1  2  3  Other  2  0  2  27  61  G r a n v i l l e & Burrard  Total  45  Map areas.  I i l l u s t r a t e s the l o c a t i o n of the c i t y ' s Map  II shows the approximate  lopment permit  industrial  l o c a t i o n of the deve-  applications.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n from t h i s data i s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s i n three of the  inner-city  i n d u s t r i a l areas ( G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d , Cambie and Avenue, and Powell S t r e e t ) and i n the Arbutus i n d u s t r i a l area. counted  2nd  and 12th Avenue  During the study p e r i o d these areas ac-  f o r only 17% of the supply of i n d u s t r i a l l y  zoned  land i n the c i t y but r e c e i v e d 77% of the development permit a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments i n i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas.  The  apparent  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  Marine D r i v e area i s moderated by the f a c t that i t i s the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned area i n the c i t y whereas G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d , Cambie and 2nd Avenue and Arbutus  and  12th  Avenue are among the s m a l l e s t . S e v e r a l p a r c e l s of land were s u b j e c t to m u l t i p l e app l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g the study p e r i o d , or appeal of a r e f u s a l to the Board of Variance r e s u l t i n g i n a p p r o v a l . i s a d j u s t e d to e l i m i n a t e t h i s apparent  I f the data  double-counting the  r e s u l t s do not change the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  Table  IA shows the number of d i f f e r e n t p a r c e l s s u b j e c t to at l e a s t one development permit a p p l i c a t i o n d u r i n g the study p e r i o d .  Map 2. Location of Industrial Areas and Approximate Location of Development Permit Applications  TABLE IA DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS  FOR OFFICE AND  OFFICE/RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIALLY  ZONED AREAS  January 1, 1971 - June 1, 1978  I n d u s t r i a l Area  .Total  G r a n v i l l e & Burrard  19  Cambie & 2nd  11  Arbutus & 12th  5  Marine Dr.  7  F a i r v i e w Slopes  3  Powell S t .  5  Other  2  Total  52  From the date i t was a l s o p o s s i b l e  to a s c e r t a i n which  of the a p p l i c a t i o n s was f o r a new o f f i c e b u i l d i n g  (usually  2 or 3 s t o r i e s ) and which was f o r conversion of an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g to o f f i c e o r o f f i c e / r e t a i l use. T h i s  data was  compiled as f u r t h e r evidence of land use s u c c e s s i o n . II summarizes the r e s u l t s by i n d u s t r i a l  area.  Table  49  TABLE II SUMMARY OF DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS BY NEW  CONSTRUCTION AND  Industrial Area  CONVERSION OF EXISTING BUILDING  New Building  Conversion of Existing  Total  Burrard & Granville  14  6  20  Cambie & 2nd  5  9  14  Arbutus & 12th  3  3  6  Marine Dr.  5  4  9  Powell St.  1  6  7  Fairview  2  1  3  2  2  31  61  Other Total  30  Apart from the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of new  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the  B u r r a r d and G r a n v i l l e area the data shows a blance between new  c o n s t r u c t i o n and conversion of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s  ( u s u a l l y warehouses) to o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l  use.  A l s o from the development permit r e c o r d s the f o r r e f u s a l were documented as they appeared application.  reasons  on the permit  The reasons are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  as between i n d u s t r i a l areas and are, t h e r e f o r e , not documented i n t a b u l a r form.  They e i t h e r s t a t e that the  appli-  c a t i o n i s " u n s u i t a b l e i n t h i s M-l area" or " u n s u i t a b l e at t h i s l o c a t i o n i n M-l".  There  i s a l s o r e f e r e n c e on some  a p p l i c a t i o n s to the f a c t that the proposed s i t a b l e i n a commercially sufficient  commercially  development i s more  zoned area or that there are  zoned s i t e s i n the v i c i n i t y .  Some  50  warehouse/office  a p p l i c a t i o n s were a l s o r e f u s e d because the  proposed development had an excess of 33% of f l o o r space f o r o f f i c e use c o n t r a r y to the p r o v i s i o n s of the By-law. these be  cases  there was evidence  that the o f f i c e space was to  l e a s e d s e p a r a t e l y r a t h e r than used f o r an a n c i l l a r y  f o r the warehouse.  Apart  In  space  from the requirements of the by-law  there appears to be no t r e n d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d and approved that can be r e l a t e d to the proposed developments themselves.  However, when the approvals  and r e f u s a l s are  noted with r e s p e c t t o l o c a t i o n (see Table  I) i t i s observed  that 100% of the a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Arbutus and 12th area were approved, 65% of the a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d area were approved w h i l e 21% of the a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Cambie and 2nd area were approved.  These d i f f e r i n g ap-  p r o v a l percentages p r o v i d e some evidence a guideline  of the e x i s t e n c e of  o r undocumented p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g o f f i c e and  o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments i n some i n d u s t r i a l areas more than others. Information  concerning  r e c e i v i n g development permit  the occupancy o f those b u i l d i n g s approval was, i n some cases,  a v a i l a b l e on the development permit was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g s i t e v i s i t s .  file.  Further  information  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s po-  t n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g t o determine whether o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s were b e i n g  constructed i n i n -  d u s t r i a l areas because of l i n k a g e s between the occupants and the nearby i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n  not s u b s t a n t i a t e the c o n c l u s i o n that l i n k a g e s with are the reason  f o r such b u i l d i n g s .  industry  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the i n n e r c i t y areas where l i n k a g e s among business and with the nearby c e n t r a l business be a s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e .  does true  offices  d i s t r i c t would appear t o  In the Marine D r i v e area one  a p p l i c a t i o n was  f o r an  o f f i c e b u i l d i n g to be occupied by a nearby c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r m . Another was  f o r a m u n i c i p a l government department w i t h a  works yard nearby.  .  1 2 t h area  However, i n the Arbutus and  three of the a p p l i c a t i o n s were f o r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s occupied by v a r i o u s branches of the r e g i o n a l government (G.V.R.D.). A f o u r t h o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i s occupied by the Vancouver o f f i c e s of  the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Human  Resources.  O f f i c e b u i l d i n g s i n the G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d area are occupied by f i r m s whose l i n k a g e s are much broader nearby i n d u s t r i a l area.  than  Examples i n c l u d e a r c h i t e c t s ,  the life  insurance companies, management c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s , and business systems c o n s u l t a n t s . In the Powell S t r e e t area two  of the a p p l i c a t i o n s i n -  cluded r e t a i l space while a t h i r d was  to be occupied by a  department of the p r o v i n c i a l government. 2nd  The Cambie  Avenue area a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a commercial  and  office  b u i l d i n g and a l a r g e s e r v i c e centre f o r the Canadian I m p e r i a l Bank of Commerce. From the development permit  data i t i s p o s s i b l e to con-  clude that the i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l areas are of more :'. i n t e r e s t to o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments than are other trial  locations.  broader  indus-  O f f i c e s l o c a t i n g i n these areas have a  network of l i n k a g e s than the immediate  area i n which they are l o c a t e d .  industrial  A balance of new  building  c o n s t r u c t i o n and conversion of i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s to o f f i c e use was  noted  i n a l l i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l areas w i t h  exception of the G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d area where new b u i l d i n g s were predominant.  The  evidence  determining  development.  office  a l s o suggests  the l o c a t i o n of the proposed development was in  the  more  that  important  i t s approval or r e f u s a l than the d e t a i l s of th<  O f f i c e and O f f i c e / R e t a i l Developments i n I n d u s t r i a l l y Zoned Areas  1978  Information o b t a i n e d from the 1978  p r o p e r t y tax records  of the C i t y of Vancouver s u b s t a n t i a t e s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s i n the f o u r i n d u s t r i a l areas i d e n t i f i e d i n the development permit i n f o r m a t i o n was  data.  Since  the  made a v a i l a b l e i n confidence i t i s not  p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the p r o p e r t i e s by m u n i c i p a l  address.  T h e r e f o r e , Table I I I p r e s e n t s a s t a t i s t i c a l summary of the data by i n d u s t r i a l  area. TABLE I I I  INCIDENCE OF OFFICE AND  Industrial  IN INDUSTRIALLY ZONED AREAS  1978  Area  Store(s) & Offices  Office Building Primary Use  Granville & Burrard Cambie &. 2nd  Ave.  Powell St. F a l s e Creek East End Arbutus & 12th Clark  Dr.  Marine Dr. Total  OFFICE/RETAIL BUILDINGS  Ave.  Total  13  6  19  16  2  15  15  1  5  4  0  4  0  3  3  2  1  3  51  32  83  18 x  X X  x  13 of the 15 are along Hastings and Powell S t r e e t s .  XX  A l l 5 are along Main S t r e e t .  30 6  As noted i n the Table, H a s t i n g s , Powell and Main S t r e e t s account  f o r many of the b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g r e t a i l  and having obvious retail/office  space  l o c a t i o n a l advantages f o r a combined  building.  In the i n t e r e s t of c l a r i t y  i t should be noted t h a t the  d i f f e r e n c e between the i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n Table I I I and the development permit data presented i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h i s Chapter 1.  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f o l l o w i n g :  The b u i l d i n g s l i s t e d on the p r o p e r t y tax f i l e may have r e c e i v e d development approval p r i o r t o January 1, 1971 the s t a r t i n g date f o r c o l l e c t i o n of development permit  2.  Rezoning  data.  of i n d u s t r i a l land to n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  between the time of development approval and 1978. 3.  I l l e g a l conversions of i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s to o f f i c e or o f f i c e / r e t a i l use.  4.  D i s c r e p a n c i e s between assessment records and development permit r e c o r d s .  ( i . e . not a l l approved  developments are c o n s t r u c t e d . ) Trends i n Land Use i n I n d u s t r i a l Areas  1969 - 1976  To t h i s p o i n t the study has documented only o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments that have been approved e x i s t i n the C i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas. number of n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses that e x i s t  and/or  The t o t a l  i n the C i t y ' s  i n d u s t r i a l areas i s , i n f a c t , much l a r g e r than the data presented to date might suggest.  In order to a p p r e c i a t e  the magnitude of the i s s u e i t i s necessary comprehensive land use i n f o r m a t i o n .  t o r e f e r to more  An attempt  has been made  to analyze and present t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n time s e r i e s by u s i n g data a v a i l a b l e i n two p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s . The  focus of the p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be on the f o u r i n n e r - c i t y  i n d u s t r i a l areas i d e n t i f i e d from development permit  records  and p r o p e r t y tax f i l e s as being of i n t e r e s t t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses.  The  1969  net supply  Vancouver Urban Renewal Study c a l c u l a t e d  (excluding streets,  lanes and  r a i l w a y s ) of i n -  d u s t r i a l l y zoned land i n the C i t y to be 2038.81 acres e x c l u d i n g the B u r r a r d  Inlet  the (net)  waterfront.  The major land uses i n the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were: manufacturing (765.12 net acres or 32.5%), wholesale retail  firms (421.39 net acres or 20.7%), storage  t r a n s p o r t f i r m s (313.55 net acres 15.4%), vacant net acres or 10.3%), r e s i d e n t i a l parking,,signs,  it  and (210.87  (126.56 net acres or 6.2%),  garages (55.98 net 2  (144.34 net acres or 7.1%).  acres, 2.7%), other uses  By a d j u s t i n g the  categories  i s found that 135.59 acres or 6% of the land was  used by the f o l l o w i n g n o n - i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s : trade, f i n a n c e r e a l e s t a t e and professional In 1969  and  insurance,  being retail  and b u s i n e s s  or  services. the net land area of the four inner c i t y i n -  d u s t r i a l areas of i n t e r e s t to t h i s study was  356.42 acres.  The p r i n c i p a l land uses i n the four areas were manufacturing ( i n c l u d i n g metal f a b r i c a t i o n ) , w h o l e s a l i n g , residential.  61.54  commercial use.  acres or 17% was  commercial  in r e t a i l  and  and  office/  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s summarized i n Table  IV.  55  TABLE NET.LAND  AREA  INDUSTRIAL  I n d u s t r i a l  G r a n v i l l e Cambie  &  Arbutus P o w e l l  AREAS,  Avenue  12th  Avenue  T o t a l  the  l a n d  use  cant  amount  taken i s  of  p l a c e .  As  t r i a l  f a c t use  p a t t e r n  of  r e s u l t ,  because  the  t h a t  some  uses  t h a t  49.30 143.90  3.93  27.47  21.75  135.75  61.54  356.42  and  was  1976  again  i n n e r  c i t y  to  from  between the  t r e n d s  r e p o r t a  emerged  Acres  on  s i g n i f i -  land  had  two  years  i n d u s t r i a l  areas  i s  the  a l s o  i n d u s t r i a l  undertaken had  a  c o m p i l e d ,  of  r e v e a l  when  i n d u s t r i a l  comparison  r e z o n i n g  s p e c i f i c a l l y  land  T o t a l Net Acres  .03  boundaries  Comparison  was  of  a  1969  areas  r e z o n i n g  changed.  the  between  i n d u s t r i a l  d i f f i c u l t  have by  p e r i o d  i n  1969  24  S t r e e t  In  CITY  11.83  B u r r a r d  2nd &  INNER  R e t a i l and O f f i c e Commercial  Area  &  IV  c o m p l i c a t e d  to  n o n - i n d u s -  to  r a t i o n a l i z e  the  as  a  p r e v i o u s  r e s u l t  of  a p p r o v a l s . In  1976  s t r e e t s , a c r e s , 19.6%  lanes 3  of  the  p r i m a r i l y  p r o c e s s i n g  i n  land t h i r d  the  i n d u s t r i a l l y was  r e p r e s e n t s  supply.  The  of  r a i l w a y s )  This  l a r g e s t  i n d u s t r y .  supply  and  ( n e t ) .  f a c t u r i n g , second  the  d e t e r m i n e d a  decrease  The  l a r g e s t  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n  use  i s  the  l a r g e s t  Marine  D r i v e  zoned  l a n d  uses  u n u t i l i z e d  area.  to of  be  The  ( e x c l u d i n g 1638.51  400.3  are  the  i n d u s t r i e s .  w h o l e s a l i n g  i s  l a n d  and land  f o u r t h  acres  or  manuThe  warehousing l o c a t e d l a r g e s t  i s  56  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s e r v i c e s .  l a r g e s t  u s e r s  7.9%  of  i n d u s t r i a l l y  In  the  to  t h i s  of  d i m i n i s h e d  and  o f f i c e  zoned  c i t y  the  had  d e s p i t e  i n d u s t r i a l  i n n e r  study  the  e f f e c t 4areas.  land  of  some  removing  LAND  I n d u s t r i a l  not  Area  the  commercial  AREA  Cambie Arbutus P o w e l l  &  &  B u r r a r d  2nd &  i s  Avenue  had  remained  of  of  uses  the  from  the  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  or  of  land  t i a l l y  by  r e z o n i n g  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  major  AREAS,  and  w i t h  1969  study)  T o t a l  (Acres)  (Acres) 60..83 118. .82 2 3 ..4 97..45  areas  to  i n  each  f o l l o w e d  use  c o n v e r s i o n higher  300..50  use  w h o l e s a l i n g  and  had  1976  O f f i c e  land  r e s i d e n t i a l  land  i n d u s t r i a l  1 5 ..84  1969  same  CITY  5 1 ..26 ,  i n  use  r e t a i l  i n d u s t r i a l  land  or  i n t e r e s t  i n d u s t r i a l  5.. 86  S t r e e t  amount  i n  f o r  f i f t h  use.  of  19..24  T o t a l s  As  areas  the  acres  commercial  10.. 32  Avenue  12th  130.65  percentage  INNER  Commercial G r a n v i l l e  were  V  co-terminous  R e t a i l  uses  zoned  r e z o n i n g  INDUSTRIAL (Boundaries  i n  zoned  but  TABLE  land 1976.  was  development  t h a t  NET  i n  land  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f a c t of  land  i n d u s t r i a l l y  amount  commercial  the  Commercial  has of  uses.  by  been  of  the  f o u r  c o m m e r c i a l . reduced  r e s i d e n t i a l  areas The  s u b s t a n -  p r o p e r t i e s  57  From  land  use  i n f o r m a t i o n  p r e s e n t e d  t h a t  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  and  w h o l e s a l i n g  were  uses  i n  study  the  the  in  inner  both  1969  t h a t  the  c i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  f o r  a l l  amount  of  Rezoning In  and  Chapter  5  summary  of  and  of  although  areas and  i s  In the  a  and  r a i l 1978  the  zoned  land  l i g h t e d . to  that  i s  i n t e r e s t i s  a l s o  use  i n  these  above  to  t h i s  e v i d e n t inner  the  average  1978 t h i s  Chapter  f o r  the to  a  s t u d y ' s  Again,  from the  p e r i n  f i n d i n g s , use  because  w a t e r f r o n t  on  more  d i s c u s s i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  excluded  of  the  on  land  the  a  between of  data  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y  c a l c u l a t i o n s  zoning  acres  M-2).  T h i s  amount  as  i n of  net  Map  3  which  The  was  zoned  l o c a t i o n  t o t a l  f o r  of  excludes  these s t r e e t s  3.  By  l o c a t i o n to  apparent uses  from f o r  i s  i n d u s t r i a l l y - z o n e d was  443.8  zoned Map  of  1969  land  the  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  2038.81  and  3.  i n d u s t r i a l It  land  yards.  was  boundaries from  or  shown  (M-l  zoned  i l l u s t r a t e d  zoning  i s  a r e d u c t i o n  of  of  I n l e t  been  Map  e x c l u s i o n s  i n d u s t r i a l l y  i n  c o m p i l e d .  t o t a l  use on  of  from  dominant  s e c t i o n .  net  land  r e p r e s e n t s  a l s o  has  -  background  B u r r a r d  t h i s  June  same  been  shown  lanes  the  e v i d e n t  areas.  1969  d a t a  of  i s  i t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  l o c a t i o n  1969  commercial  Land  rezoned  the  i t s  However,  i m p l i c a t i o n s  has  areas  i n d u s t r i a l  give  the  i n  i s  c i t y ' s  acres)  i n d u s t r i a l  1976.  land  areas  land  accompanies In  of  to  1978  gross  and  p r o v i d e  c o n s t r a i n t s , 795  i n d u s t r i a l  I n d u s t r i a l  order  s p e c t i v e  1969  the  of  c i t y  the  i t  1595  acres  or  21.7%  1969  to  1978.  i n d u s t r i a l comparing of  the  the  land  c o n c e n t r a t e d  the  use  in  has  the  amount l o c a t i o n  1978  1969  rezoned in  the  The  t h a t  u s i n g  T h i s  i n  use  land  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l that  a c r e s . ^  land  and  has been from  inner  i s 1978  been  r e -  h i g h i n d u s t r i a l c i t y .  Map 3. 1969 and 1978 Zoning Boundaries for Industrial Areas  59  The  s p a t i a l  c r i b e d  by  from  process  a  F i s h e r  urban  and  the  a c c o r d i n g  to  a b l e  l a n d to  use of  a  (or  use  1954,  b i d d i n g  occurs  any  a  If,  seen  i n  a c t i n g  i s ,  the  b i d d i n g  process  p a t t e r n .  For  example  a  ( r e s i d e n t i a l ,  of  each  commercial  and  i n d u s t r i a l )  the  each  category  l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t e s  a  In each  number  l a n d  O f f i c e  o u t b i d doing  by  than  so. to  commercial most i n  -  the  a  and  by  t h i s t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s l a n d  a  uses  t h e r e f o r e  p e r m i t t e d  i n d u s t r i a l  the  be  of  l a n d ,  to  are  because  uses, l a n d  the and  entered  of i n  I t  i n d u s t r i a l areas  c i t i e s  s u r r o u n d i n g  h i g h e r  a b l e  1964).  development.  Canadian  a  to  l e g i s l a t i o n  Shenkel  p r e v a l e n t  c o s t s .  produce  by  by  revenue  t h e r e f o r e  p r e v e n t e d  commercial  b i d  l e s s  a b l e  s u c c e s s i o n  t r a n s i t i o n  the  a n t i c i p a t e d  and  1966,  most  other  l a n d  are  use  G o o d a l l  most of  outcome  framework  map  and  l a n d  L i k e w i s e ,  of  f o r  the  p a r c e l  unless  t h a t  f o r  l i s t  urban  l a n d  uses  would  and  zone  of  other  expect  a t t r a c t i v e  f o r  developments  l a n d  use  a  to  the  of  major  i s  sub-markets.  use  any  the  category.  demand  determined  (Lean  Vancouver  c i t y  i s  the  other  l o g i c a l  the  c o m p e t i t i o n  use  each  c o n t a i n s  of  commercial  revenue  i n  i n f l u e n c e s  the  r e a l i z e d  supply  of  use  urban  and,  zoning  f o r  e s t a b l i s h e s zoning  c o m p o s i t i o n  l a n d  by  l a n d  l a n d  o v e r a l l  the  a l l o c a t i o n  new  t h e r e f o r e ,  i n f l u e n c e s  gross  1949.  among  The  l e g i s l a t i o n use  r e s u l t i n g  o p p o r t u n i t y  by  l a n d  as  o p e r a t i n g  a  e s t a b l i s h e d  the  The  des-  suggested  b i d d i n g  l a n d .  w i t h i n  l e g i s l a t i o n .  as  the  of  time  as  because  f o r  p a r c e l  p o i n t  process  use  been  ( R a t c l i f f  1967). i s  have  geographers  c o m p e t i t i v e  e x i s t i n g  redevelop)  and  market  of  growth  s u c c e s s i o n  s u c c e s s i o n an  urban  Bourne  l a n d  process  a t  of  economists  l a n d  urban  use  p a t t e r n a  of  o u t b i d  develop  l a n d  F i s h e r  R a t c l i f f ,  users,  a s p e c t s  i s  the  t o  are  such  the  i s  l a n d  t h a t  One  from  a r e a  inner  c o m m e r c i a l l y  6o  o r i e n t e d i z e d  by  C e n t r a l o l d e r  b u i l d i n g s ,  a l l o w e d The as  -  i s  The  of  data of  of  Vancouver's  i s  p e r m i t t e d  the  p a t t e r n  the  By-Law.  l a n d a  has  r e s u l t  areas  and  l a n d  use i n n e r  uses  i n  f o r  i n  c i t y some  areas  by  the  the  e a r l i e r  t h i s  e x t e n t  .of  and  of  of  of  f r e q u e n t l y  c o n f i r m s  197^). serves  t h a t  e s t a b l i s h e d This  t o  inner  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  i n  a some  process  c e r t a i n By-Law  p e r m i t s  between  c i t y  which  (Hardwick  Development  supply  inner  by-laws  areas.  development the  l o f t  uses.  d i r e c t e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  a p p r o v a l  w e l l  i n d u s t r i a l  Zoning  a p p r o v a l  r e z o n i n g  and  c h a r a c t e r -  i n c l u d i n g  areas  Chapter i s  i s  uses  zoning  i n d u s t r i a l  s u c c e s s i o n  to  the  other  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  Furthermore,  of  from  of  a r e a  f r e q u e n t l y  underdeveloped  and  d i m i n i s h e d  This  b u i l d i n g s , v a r i e t y  p r e s e n t e d  of  D i s t r i c t .  c a r r y o v e r  l a n d  i n d u s t r i a l  a  c o n s i d e r e d  supply  process  a  w i t h  r e s i d e n t i a l  a r e a a  i n d u s t r i a l  mixed  r e s i d e n t i a l  B u s i n e s s  a r i s i n g c i t y  1969 uses  i n d u s t r i a l  and i n  and from  i n d u s t r i a l 1976  as  i n d u s t r i a l  l a n d .  Chapter  IV  Footnotes  The B u r r a r d I n l e t W a t e r f r o n t I n d u s t r i a l Area was e x c l u d e d because a net l a n d a r e a f i g u r e was not given i n the study. 2 From C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Urban Renewal Study. T e c h n i c a l Report No. 4. I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s (Vancouver August 1969). 3 B u r r a r d  Len I n l e t  Tennant, i s again  I n d u s t r y i n e x c l u d e d .  Vancouver.  Pg.  10.  4 For example, space c o n s t r u c t e d i n t c e n t r a l Broadway area i n 1975. D e r e k W. H a y ( C i t y of Vancouver P l a  41, he i was es, n n i n  418 square f e e t or 28% of n d u s t r i a l areas b o r d e r i n g t r a n s f e r e d to commercial Employment Growth i n Vanc g Department, November 19  the o f f the zoning ouver. 75).  5 June 1976 approved.  Len Tennant, to June 1978  I n d u s t r y i n Vancouver. Updated from by r e v i e w i n g zoning a p p l i c a t i o n s  CHAPTER  POLICY  In of  Chapter  V a n c o u v e r ' s  supply  of  1969  been  i d e n t i f i e d  a  r e s u l t  of  i n c r e a s e d  i s  b e i n g  c a t i o n s  as  decrease  f o r  menting .the zoned  f o r  t a t i o n  amount  decrease  a  of  p r e s e n t  be  p r e s e n t e d  and  of  r e t a i n i n g  a  c e r t a i n  i n  the  F i n a l l y , p r a c t i c e  supply  w i l l  the be  of  c o n t r o l  as  developed  i n  t h a t  as  f o r  l a n d ,  a l s o  i m p l i -  s i g n i f i c a n t i s  s t i l l  begins c i t y  by  docu-  l a n d  Such  p r e s e n t  t h a t  of  and  mechanisms  w i l l  c i t y  w i l l  r e s e a r c h  a  i n  then f a v o r  a v a i l a b l e  then  i n  the  f u t u r e  of  argument  fo  the  o t h e r  t h e s i s  Reference  between  B r i t a i n  the  and  w i l l system  how  i t  f o r be of  has  i s  document  d i s c u s s i o n  i n n e r  space  be  p r e s e n t e d  m e t r o p o l i t a n  area.  d i s c u s s e d .  d i f f e r e n c e  the  t r u e  i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n d u s t r i e s  i m p l i c a t i o n s  the  and  use  t h a t  any f o r  land  a  use.  counter  i n  p r e v i o u s  Vancouver  to  Vancouver.  to  The  land  types  t i c u l a r  to  of  f o r  from  r e g u l a t o r y  e v a l u a t e d .  r e f e r e n c e  and  f i n d i n g s  of  are  i n n e r  to  have  commercial  Chapter of  p r e r e q u i s i t e  the  areas  This  and  a  p e r i o d  b i d d i n g  l a n d  i n d u s t r i a l  arguments  making  c i t y  f o r  The  i s  t h e r e  a v a i l a b l e  of  i t  a r i s i n g  use.  p u b l i c  by  c i t y ,  i n n e r  s t u d y ' s  by  While  amount  c o n t i n u a t i o n  process  c o m p e t i t i v e  I,  the  use  the  r e s i d e n t i a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s ' o f  f o r  to  the  p o l i c y .  as  p r a c t i c e s  i n  necessary  s e r v e d  zoning  the  Chapter  i n d u s t r i a l  and  i s  i n  some  i n d u s t r i a l  and  i n  have  t h a t  the  p o l i c y  b o t h  areas  show  d u r i n g  areas.  of  to  uses  c i t y  a v a i l a b l e  the  produced  c o n t r i b u t i n g  supply  noted  i n  a v a i l a b l e  as  i n n e r  made  was  i n d u s t r i a l  C e r t a i n  p u b l i c  an  c i t y  IMPLICATIONS  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  1978.  i n  PLANNING  e v i d e n c e  f o r  from  s u c c e s s i o n  IV  i n n e r  land to  AND  V  p l a n n i n g  made  i n  p a r -  development been  adapted  The dence,  d i s c u s s i o n  p r e s e n t e d  i n  V a n c o u v e r ' s  i n n e r  a f f e c t e d  c u r r e n t  the  by  o p e r a t i o n  t h e r e f o r e , of  the  p a c t s  of  a  commercial The  c i t y  Table  VI.  p l a n n i n g urban  of  t h a t ,  term  supply  ( e x c l u d i n g  INNER  the  of  I n d u s t r i a l  B u r r a r d  Area  P o w e l l C l a r k  &  Avenue  12th  Avenue  S t r e e t D r i v e  F a l s e  Creek  Eastend  F a l s e  Creek  F l a t s  T o t a l  the  are  e v i -  i t  i s  most  l e g i s l a t i o n  This  Chapter  c e r t a i n and  i s ,  aspects  s o c i a l  i n d u s t r i a l  and  i m -  land  to  OF  zoned i s  land  i n  documented  the i n  VI LAND  S t r e e t s  IN AREAS.  and  R a i l  B u r r a r d  2nd &  of  I n l e t )  2. 19  1  Lanes)  Yards  Right-of-Way  Arbutus  and  i n d u s t r i a l l y  CITY.INDUSTRIAL  ( E x c l u d i n g  &  t h a t  economic of  on  p r e s e n t ,  market.  c o n v e r s i o n  SUPPLY  Cambie  at  areas  d i s c u s s i o n  TABLE  G r a n v i l l e  based  processes  land  long  the  i s  use.  r e m a i n i n g  i n n e r  IV,  i n d u s t r i a l  d e t a i l e d  from  c h a p t e r  Chapter  the  i s s u e  a r i s i n g  t h i s  c i t y  more  l a r g e r  i n  &  (Acres)  Net  (Acres)  6 0 . 83 118. 82  -.  1. 24  23. 4  .8 2  97. 45  8. 93  81. 07  55. 30  1 1 3 . 34  163. 76  190. 92  232. 24  6 8 5 . 83  The F a l s e  Arbutus  Creek 2  study.  have  If  r e d u c t i o n 549.09  and been  these  of  21%  has  i n d u s t r i a l  been area  rezoned,  amount  the  reduced  assumed use,  a c t u a l l y By zoned  i n The  Chapter i n n e r  60.83  Acres t h a t the  i n  as  and  areas  c i t y  the  east  end  r e q u i r i n g  of  f u r t h e r  t h e r e  would  be  i n d u s t r i a l l y  zoned  land  the  IV  c i t y  land  amount  of  f o r i n  from  i s  of  no  a to  c i t y and  i n n e r  t h e r e  i n d u s t r i a l  land  arguments  i n  s u c c e s s i o n  to  c o n t i n u e .  The  i n d u s -  There of  has,  613.03  zoned  p r e s e n t e d  such  ;.  l a n d .  to  i n  c o n v e r t  uses.  more  land  i n d u s t r i a l l y  p r e s s u r e  a l l o w i n g  i t  Acres.  i n d u s t r i a l l y  of  If  zoned  r e d u c t i o n  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  r e m a i n i n g  f o r  A c r e s .  c o n t i n u e d  would  uses.  of 4  r e c o r d s  a t -  were  t h i s  441.07  amount  p e r m i t  f a v o u r  to  i s  1054.1  c i t y  Of  i t s  use  a v a i l a b l e  proposed  i s  area  t h i s  i n d u s t r i a l l y  t o t a l  was  If  commercial  use  B u r r a r d  of  i n d u s t r i a l  longer  the  and  because  Acres.  c i t y  development  t h a t  f o r  w i t h  i n n e r  a c t u a l  amount  uses.  488.16  up  1969  G r a n v i l l e  study 3  i n d u s t r i a l  i n n e r  an  the  zoned  to  taken land  shows  use  land  Acres  i s  the  d a t a  t h a t  f u r t h e r  t h i s  been  s e v e r a l  of  of  comparison,  l a n d  Acres  area  rezoned,  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  a v a i l a b l e  t h e r e f o r e ,  are  by  47.09  t r i a l  i n n e r  r e q u i r e s  to  i s  were  suggested  t r a c t i v e n e s s  land,  suggested  areas i n  Avenue  Acres.  It  be  12th  There  a  process  s i g n i f i c a n t  are: 1. i s  Growth p r o j e c t e d  t e r t i a r y of  the  o f f i c e  the  to  secondary  take 5  s e c t o r .  p l a c e  Without  t e r t i a r y  growth  space  i n  or  supply  of  adequate the  i n  f u t u r e ,  commercial encouraged.  the use  at  a  major  near  the  C.B.D.  land  f o r  these  the  i n n e r  the. r e g i o n a l  slower  p u b l i c  r e s u l t  of  of  much  w i l l  s u c c e s s i o n i n  s e c t o r  i n  demand  o r d e r  r e s p e c t i v e  i n d u s t r i a l  c i t y  should  than  i n t e r v e n t i o n  the  In  r a t e  land be  to  economy  f o r  i n  the  much more  p r o v i d e  an  a c t i v i t i e s  i n  to  o f f i c e /  approved  i f  not  65  2.  Research  t r e n d s Area i s  i n  i s  has  i n d u s t r i a l  the  to  c i t y  land  land  use  3.  Conversion  s u c c e s s i o n  the  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  of  use  of  i n  of  the  i n d u s t r i a l  i n  the  inner,  p r o p e r t y f o r  c i t y to  tax  a  i n d u s t r y  demands  p o l i c y  i s  f o r  i n n e r La.  f a v o u r i n g  j u s t i f i e d .  o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l  base  o f f i c e  M e t r o p o l i t a n  Since  are  use,  land  s i g n i f i c a n t  Vancouver 6  t h e r e  i n  r a t i n g  most  i n d u s t r y .  and  i n d u s t r i a l  the  because  b u i l d i n g s  of  use  the  compared  to  b u i l d i n g s .  Conversion  of  i n d u s t r i a l  employment  o f f i c e  one  suburbs  c i t y ' s  assessment  p r o v i d e s  land  the  c u r r e n t l y  strengthens  4.  t h a t  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  r e l o c a t i n g  h i g h e r  shown  b u i l d i n g s  land  o p p o r t u n i t i e s are  u s u a l l y  to  o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l  s i n c e  h i g h e r  employment than  i n  use  d e n s i t i e s  i n d u s t r i a l  b u i l d i n g s . As  noted  p r o f i t a b l y i s  i n  Chapter  serve  t h e r e f o r e  b a s i s  f o r  beyond  the  scope  of  p o s s i b l e  to  In i s  p o i n t use  the  measured  f a i l s  to  because  employment t h e r e f o r e s e c t o r s p e r i o d i n n e r uses  c i t y  out  the  by  i n  s h i f t s f o r  are  o f f i c e  of  study  argument.  l e s s  A  r a t e  f a c t and  than  each  It  engage  However, of  c o u l d  r e s e a r c h . to  t h a t  those  i t  as  a  i n  a  i s b a s i s  However,  t e r t i a r y  f o r  have  a c t i v i t i e s , h i g h e r  s e c t o r  Both  the  secondary  and  c o n t i n u a t i o n  of  a  of  o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l growth  l o c a t i o n  to  i n  the  c o n v e r t i n g and  suburban  requirements  and  t e r t i a r y  employment  p o l i c y  :.  argument  secondary  a c t u a l  a c t u a l  the  r a t e  the  i n  to  growth  s e c t o r  o r i e n t e d ,  i n c r e a s e  land  the  i n  f u t u r e - i n d u s t r i a l the  argument,  r e t a i l  l a n d .  to  i n d u s t r i a l  a l l o c a t e s  t h i s  employment.  the  e x p e c t e d 7  1986.  arguments  a d d i t i o n a l  l i m i t a t i o n s  growth  r e q u i r e  i r r e s p e c t i v e  each  d i f f e r i n g  d e n s i t i e s  are to  of  these  p o l i c y .  account they  of  the  e x a m i n a t i o n  land  each  as  d e t a i l e d  p u b l i c  I  of  r e s i d e n t i a l areas f i r m s .  The  argument  f a i l s  t o  among  s p e c i f i c  f i r m s , of  account  c o n c e r n i n g f o r  the  of  i n t r a m e t r a p o l i t a n  f i r m  and  among  s p e c i f i c  Goldberg  1969,  Steed  s p e c i f i c  w i t h  p u b l i c  p o l i c y  sound  The the  argument  p r o p e r t y  l e v e l  and  b u i l d i n g p r i s e ,  i n  the  the  p r e s e n t  not  c a t i o n s  to  impact  on  R e f u s a l  s i n c e  many  of  of  show  t a x the  t h i s  o r d e r  r e z o n i n g  If  or  i n n e r  even  c i t y  s i g n i f i c a n t  t r e n d , to  i s  r a t i o n a l i z e  a l l o w e d  i n  l o -  P r e d  1964,  to  be  trends  i f  s t o r e y  are  would new  shows  seek  The  l o s s a  d i f f i c u l t  i n  of  areas  l a n d  t a x  impact  to use  development  on  com-  v i t a l i t y areas  c o u l d  the  e s t i m a t e .  t h a t  have  rezone  to  If date  c o n t i n u e d .the  p a t t e r n . to  revenue i n  the  development  mount  i n d u s t r i a l  l o c a t i o n  to  l o -  m a r g i n a l . .  commercial  run  at  l o n g e r - t e r m  f i l t e r i n g ,  long  t h a t  a t t r a c t i v e  t h e r e f o r e  a  e n t e r -  h i g h e r .  a p p l i c a t i o n s  of  commercial  o f f i c e  u s u a l l y IV  on  p a r c e l  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  areas  i n  impact  i n d i v i d u a l 3  i s  e x i s t i n g  more  commercial  1960,  necessary  Chapter  would  The  the  or  i s ,  i n d u s t r i a l  p r e s s u r e  t h a t  i n d u s t r i a l  b e n e f i c i a l  s m a l l  r e s u l t  of  i n d u s t r i a l  S t u d i e s  l o c a t i o n  d e v e l o p e r s .  Because  values)  a l l  shown  the  i s  the  2  zoned  base  enhanced.  base  a  development  areas.  of  i t  the  taxes  p r e s e n t e d  developers  t h a t  (Vernon  at  or  p r o p e r t y  n e c e s s a r i l y  the  zoned  e x p e r i e n c e d  i n  not  to  c o r r e c t  tax  c r i t e r i a  have  i n d u s t r i a l  warehouse  i n  s i z e  i n d u s t r y  f o r m u l a t e d .  run.  p r o p e r t y  p r o p e r t y  p r o p e r t y  be  a l l . i n d u s t r i a l l y  s u s t a i n e d  each  short  commercial  would  be  the  l o c a t i o n  C l e a r l y to  of  d e c e n t r a l i z i n g .  the  r e s p e c t i s  evidence  the  areas  the  to  w i t h  assumes  i n d u s t r i e s .  o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l  of  c e r c i a l l y  i s  base  r e t u r n  w i t h  r e s p e c t  a  are  1973).  t a x  r e p l a c e s  However,  (and  v a r i e s  l o c a t i o n a l  a l s o  i n d u s t r i a l  c r i t e r i a  more  and  s i z e  c a t i o n a l  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  d i f f e r i n g  i n d u s t r i e s  i r r e s p e c t i v e  the  c o n t i n u e  areas If  the at  to  67  c u r r e n t  p e r m i s s i b l e  revenue  c o l l e c t e d  n i f i c a n t l y .  d e n s i t i e s  from  However,  against  i n c r e a s e d  d e n s i t y  form  of  such  p u b l i c  development  values  t h e r e f o r e  commercial urban  and  i n n e r  c i t y  t h i s  r e g i o n a l l a n d  c h a p t e r  areas  w i l l The i f  i t  i s  ever,  i t  i s  a l s o  s e c t o r a s o t h e r  In  c o n s i d e r e d ment  and  to  the  F i l i a l l y , r e g u l a t o r y  of  1977  a l s o  a  land  f o r  e x i s t i n g  impact  on  the  d e c l i n e  i n  L a t e r  i n  use.  i n n e r  h i g h  p r o p e r t y  from  c i t y  the  i n  no  t a b l e  r e s u l t  of  a  argument  range  by  i n d u s t r i a l  achievement emphasis  c o n t r a r y  i f  z o n i n g p l a n n i n g  accommodate  i n  to  t r e n d  f o r  on  at  to  b l u e 9  a l l .  process and  . .  of  the was  employ-  c o n t i n u e d i n  the  government  of  would  ..  p o l i c i e s  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . " ^ the  u l t i m a t e  the  :  to  i n  c o l l a r  employment  r e f l e c t  the  o b j e c t i v e  developments  which  i n  o b j e c t i v e  The  T h i s  oppor-  counter  t h i s  i t s  How-  jobs  o p p o r t u n i t i e s of  g e n e r a l l y  commercial  the  c o n t i n u a t i o n  taken  j o b s .  i s  r e g i o n a l of  of  the  i n d u s t r y " .  commercial  a l s o  employment  emphasized  employment  argument  of  i s  i n d u s t r i a l  jobs  T h i s  have  "an  number  s i n c e  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  mechanisms,  to  the  I.  which  o f f i c e  r e s u l t  map  of  t o t a l  narrow  Chapter  would  zoning  t h a t  technology  of i s  the  r e p l a c e d  r e q u i r e  h i g h  c i t y  c o n c e r n i n g  i n  October  c o n c e n t r a t i o n c e n t r a l  be  d i v e r s i t y  on  i n d u s t r i a l  aspects  to  to  . p o l i c i e s a  g  c i t y .  tend  noted  r e t a i n i n g  a f f e c t  c o n t i n u i n g  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  c l e a r  would  c i t y  f o r  p o s i t i v e  l i m i t e d  would  c i t y  the  s i g -  c o n s i d e r e d such  the  tax  r i s e  a d d i t i o n a l  i s  of  d i s c u s s e d .  sound  i n n e r  of  be  revenue  t h e r e  amount doubt  from  a d v e r s e l y  F i n a l l y  economy  employment  t u n i t i e s  a r i s i n g  t a x  no  must  C r e a t i n g  p r o p e r t y  a v a i l a b l e  the  be  costs  the  would  i n c r e a s e s  c o u l d  d i s t r i c t s .  f . s . r . )  areas  development.  commercial and  these  (5  be  s i m p l y urban  e x i s t i n g  c o n c l u s i o n , the  i n e v i -  a d j u s t e d l a n d  use  the \y..l  p a t t e r n land at  as  determined  market.  the  Land  minimum,  t e r n a l i t i e s  or  a  by  the  u n f e t t e r e d  economists zoning  and  p l a n  s p i l l o v e r  p l a n n e r s  should  e f f e c t s  i n  of  i n c o m p a t i b l e  uses.  mandate  i s  necessary  i n t e r v e n e  urban a  land  change  b y - l a w s h i n g  market.  i n  to  the  p u b l i c  Zoning,  p a t t e r n  r e g u l a t e  o t h e r  to  p u b l i c  use  p a t t e r n  the  o b j e c t i v e s  example, l i z i n g  a  p o l i c i e s  imposed  i n  p r e s s u r e s  f o r  However,  p l a n  which  has  areas  may  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  by  d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  c i a l  e f f e c t  on  the  t h i s  i s  a  In  c o n c l u s i o n ,  a l l o w i n g  land  areas  c o n t i n u e  to  use  volume of  the  are  areas  important  t h e r e f o r e trade f i c i a l  o f f s .  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . consequences o t h e r  the  on  the  of  the i n v o l v e s  the  zoning  a c c o m p l i -  p r a c t i c e of  i n  the  i n t e n d e d  to  a c c o m p l i s h .  the by  o b j e c t i v e  l i m i t i n g  very  w e l l i n  of  against For  d e c e n t r a -  c o n t r a r y  the  market  t h e r e  r e l a t e d  land  employment  be  employment  the  i n  r o l e  i n  the  of  l o c a t i o n f a c t  i s  a  to  the  p l a c e . b e n e f i -  commuting,  the  to  i n n e r  C i t y  of  c e r t a i n are  base  s u r e l y  p o l i c y  they  do  not  i n d u s t r i a l i n d u s t r i e s  s o c i a l  on  s u c c e s s i o n  and  and economic  the  bene-  employment would  p l a n n i n g  Vancouver.  of  i n d u s t r i a l  o v e r s t a t e  and  r e g i o n a l  a  c i t y  c i t y  arguments  c o n t i n u e d  of  However,  t h e r e  t a x  both  favour  i n n e r  f o r  t h a t  c i t y ' s  F i n a l l y ,  c o n t r a r y  p o l i c i e s  of  t h i s  weighed  s i g n i f i c a n t .  Furthermore,  impact  out  be  arguments  p o s i t i v e  ignore  of  the  must  work  s u c c e s s i o n  the  an  by  r e g u l a t e  use  e x -  e f f i c i e n c y .  acknowledge as  of  p l a c e  accepted  o c c u r r i n g  i f  t h a t ,  i n e f f i c i e n c y  p l a n  i s  agree  d e f i n i t i o n  The  an  urban  c a r r y  i n t e r e s t s  p o s s i b l e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s  c e r t a i n  measure  now  zoning  the  p l a n  employment  d e n s i t i e s  a  the  to  and by  uses.  i n i s  The  by  which  zoning  l a n d  uses  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  i n  the  n e g a t i v e  market  order  t h e r e f o r e ,  of  land  In  of  both  m i n i m i z e the  s e p a r a t i o n i t  a c t i o n  have  p o l i c i e s  and  Inner  C i t y Most  I n d u s t r i a l of  the  r e s e a r c h  i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n has  documented  As  a  r e s u l t ,  of  urban  cated c i t y  i n  urban have  t h i s  been  of  d u s t r i e s  which  In  w e l l 1959  r e v i e w  a l s o  s m a l l e r  a  f o r  w i t h i n  p o l i c y the  of  i n d u s t r y .  the  such  as  l i m i -  i s  i t  i s  In  the  necessary those  c e n t r a l  c i t y  f i n d  f a c t o r  ..  Vancouver  of  to  of  s u f f i c i e n t  assumption.  the  v i t a l  but  Vancouver  G r e a t e r  c o n t i n u e  not  use  f o r m a t i o n  t h e r e  t h i s  l o ^  i n n e r  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i f  wisdom  b e i n g  h i g h e r  cost.  f o r m a t i o n  which  i m p o r t a n t  a  the  o u t s i d e  years  i n  t o  i n and,  i n n e r t h e i r  b e i n g . and  of  1960  the  two  which the  i d e n t i f i e d of  c l o s e  p r o x i m i t y  i n n e r  c i t y  to  I n d u s t r i e s  upon  frequent  a  the  >;such  P l a n  had  f o r  been  tendency to  p u b l i s h e d the  New  were the  f a c e - t o - f a c e  f o r  of  some  composed garment  of  f o r  the  New  York  i n d u s t r i e s  i n d u s t r i e s at  from  m e t r o p o l i t a n  c e r t a i n  c l u s t e r e d  B u s i n e s s  a r i s i n g  York  undertaken  remain  C e n t r a l  as  were  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  o t h e r s  i n d u s t r i e s  1.  books  R e g i o n a l  study  p l a n t s  l o c a t i o n .  as  i n d u s t r i e s  documented  i s  or  r e l o c a t i n g  area but  i n e r t i a  In  of  25  occupying  of  b a s i s  past  e i t h e r  to  and  The  had  c o n v e r t e d  o u t s i d e  Area. "'" 1  as  f a c t ,  are  an  or  as  t o .  p u b l i c  the  on  c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n d u s t r y  r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n  those  the  r e f e r r e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y  l o c a t i o n s  of  parks  be  a  i n  c i t y  sound  more  c o n v e r s e l y ,  a  i n  View conducted  c e n t r a l  both  i d e n t i f y  the  p o l i c y  warrant  economic  c o u l d  been  l o c a t i o n  of  assumption  use  from  i n t e r e s t s  c i t y  t h i n k  relocate..because  land  to  t h a t  has  p a r t  i n d u s t r i a l  a l r e a d y  area  become  P o s i t i v e  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  suburban  of  evidence  has  to  to  to  t a t i o n s  t r e n d  A  t h a t  p l a n n i n g  l o c a t i o n s  unable  -  i n d u s t r i a l  the  i t  Areas  and  l o c a t i o n s  D i s t r i c t .  These  t h r e e  broad  groups.  i n d u s t r y  which  depend  communication  and  a n . a c c e s s i b l e  the i n  2.  I n d u s t r i e s  such  which  depended  quent  f a c e - t o - f a c e  because Vernon  of  upon  the  named  New  because  the  It  was  the  noted  l o c a t e d  i n  i n t e r n a l  the  i n d u s t r i e s  s m a l l  u n c e r t a i n t i e s  f i r m s  which  f i r m s  a s s o c i a t e d  both  t h e i r  c l i e n t s  f i r s t  i n d u s t r y  market. was  p r o d u c t .  F r e -  important  Hoover  and  sought  second  i n  the and  w i t h  i n d u s t r i a l s a l e s  and  i n n e r  a v a i l a b l e  surroundings  s m a l l e r i n  the  economies  l a r g e r  economies  i n  as  w i t h  t h e i r  p u b l i s h i n g  arid group  the  i n d u s t r i e s " .  e x t e r n a l  t h a t  The  of  and  C.B.D.  communication  suburban  business.  p r i n t i n g  nearby  o r i e n t e d  and/or of  the  v a r i a b i l i t y  "communication 3.  as  same were  t h e i r f i r m s  at  c i t y  l o c a t i o n s  such  l o c a t i o n s .  i n d u s t r y  were  b e n e f i t i n g s i z e  are  and  from  volume  exposed  to  of g r e a t e r  p r o d u c t i o n .  Small p l a n t s have done t h e i r best t o meet t h i s i n h e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e handicap by l o c a t i n g i n areas where sudden needs c o u l d be e a s i l y met from sources o u t s i d e the p l a n t . To a v o i d s t o c k p i l i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l s i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e amounts, they have clung c l o s e to the c e n t r e s of the urban c l u s t e r , where they can get m a t e r i a l s on s h o r t n o t i c e ; to meet the problems of l a b o r f o r c e v a r i a t i o n or machine breakdowns, they have chosen l o c a t i o n s where they can r e c r u i t workers f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s o r on s h o r t n o t i c e . They have chosen l o f t space, short run i n commitment and f l e x i b l e i n s i z e , i n p r e f e r e n c e to the separatee f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g away from the urban c e n t r e . In sum, the denser areas of t h e New Y o r k M e t r o p o l i t a n Region are a c t i n g as a common p o o l o f s p a c e , m a t e r i a l s , and l a b o r , meeting the i n h e r e n t u n c e r t a i n t i e s ^ ! the s m a l l p l a n t s which occupy those areas. 0  The ning  of  theory seek  work the  i s  of  Hoover  i n c u b a t o r  and  Vernon  theory.  The  that  s m a l l  i n d u s t r i a l  l o c a t i o n s  where  they  b u s i n e s s  by  t a k i n g  can  advantage  i n  b a s i c  York  i s  the  p r i n c i p l e  e n t e r p r i s e  i n c u b a t e of  New  or  reasonably  w i l l  of  the  i n i t i a l l y  e s t a b l i s h p r i c e d  b e g i n -  t h e i r  space  and  e x t e r n a l the  economies.  i n n e r  c i t y .  outgrow  i t s  where.  Thus  Such  Once  e x i s t i n g the  more  spacious  r o l e  p l a y e d  the  f i r m  space  the  of  c i t y  u s u a l l y  found  e s t a b l i s h e d  i n  i t  w i l l  seek  room  f o r  expansion  f i r m s  from  the  i n n e r  l o c a t i o n s  i n n e r  are  becomes  and  m i g r a t i o n  suburban  by  l o c a t i o n s  i s  i n  evidence  the  urban  of  or  e l s e -  c i t y  the  to  p o s i t i v e  m e t r o p o l i t a n  economy. Since w i t h  the  the  have  example  t h e r e  i n t e n t  However, t i o n  1962  of  r e c e i v e d  (1969)  was  i t  s i z e  able  of  a  "growing l o c a t i o n s data  His  the  a t t e n t i o n . of  the  h y p o t h e s i s  i n v e r s e  Pred  (1964)  t e s t  the  average  m e t r o p o l i t a n  to  sub  a r e a "  area  to  was  f o r  between  h y p o t h e s i s move  l o c a -  Goldberg  r e l a t i o n s h i p the  se.  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  p a t t e r n s .  of  per  i n d u s t r i a l  m e t r o p o l i t a n  d e n s i t y to  conducted  i n  which  t h a t  less  dense  handicapped  by  problems.  two  and  Struyk  number  of  new  outward  new  i n  conclude not  of  T h e i r  the upon  are  e a r l y  years  " t h e  areas,  However,  the the  of  i n c u b a t o r  a t t r a c t  i n  a  new  than  New  i n  York)  the  i n c u b a t o r  l i t e r a t u r e  they  areas  (which  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  c o n c e n t r a t e d s i m p l e  suggested move  a c t i v i t i e s .  l i t e r a t u r e  o t h e r  t h a t  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  d e n s i t y  t h e i r  theory  was  h y p o t h e s i s "  high  expand  the  areas  b i r t h s  as  to  the  h y p o t h e s i s "  "complex  of  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  m e t r o p o l i t a n 14 suggest'.'.  would  formed  r e v i e w  m e t r o p o l i t a n  that  " s i m p l e  T h e i r  which  a  d i v i d e d  l o c a t i o n s  f i r m s .  f i r m s  Based s t u d i e s  (1976)  hypotheses.  c e n t r a l i z e d  are  the  on  i n c u b a t o r  l o c a t i o n a l  "an  attempts  h i g h l y  that  and  tend  w i t h i n 13  Leone i n t o  v e r i f y  r e s e a r c h  m e t r o p o l i t a n  types  d i f f e r e n t  to  p l a n t s  i n t r a  seven  p l a n t  l o c a t e s " .  of  l i t t l e  the  i n c r e a s i n g  i d e n t i f i e d d i s t i n c t l y  been  v e r i f y i n g  dynamics  having  the  has  i n c l u d e s they  e n t e r p r i s e s core  of  h y p o t h e s i s  reviewed  d i d  would show  that  c e n t r a l  areas  a t t r a c t e d  m e t r o p o l i t a n  areas,  spect  complex  They dings  to  the  a  new  h y p o t h e s i s  they  some  number.  conclude  With  r e -  p l a n t s end up c o u n t i e s , es more  i d e n t i f y  of  as  the  p u b l i c  f o l l o w s  p o l i c y  i m p l i c a t i o n s  conducted  o t h e r  m e t r o p o l i t a n  the  major  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  of  Vancouver.  m e t r o p o l i t a n that  has  does  p r o v i d e  areas  i n  tages  f o r In  some  r e s u l t s  Guy of  a  c a t i o n a l 17  dynamics  area.  The  s p a t i a l i d e n t i f y  f o r  i n  p u b l i c the  the f o r  of  the  f i n -  Simon  c o n c e r n i n g  and  F r a s e r  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  c i t y  i n  advan-  p u b l i s h e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n  and  G r e a t e r " o u t l i n e  of  m a n u f a c t u r i n g  i n  G r e a t e r  r e l a t i v e the  c i t y  s m a l l e r / f i r m s .  to  c o n t r a s t  area  i n n e r  U n i v e r s i t y  the  the i n t r a -  l o c a t i o n a l  was  p a t t e r n ,  i n  as  i n d u s t r y  t h a t  the  generated  used  M e t r o p o l i t a n  of  processes  study  the  area  c o n c e r n i n g  c o n c l u s i o n  i n d u s t r i e s  be  d e c i s i o n s  i n n e r  important  study  d i s t r i b u t i o n  cannot  p o l i c y  and  of  d i s t r i b u t i o n  U.S.  r e s e a r c h  Steed  of  M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver  p r o v i d e  types  York  the  l o c a t i o n  a l s o  purpose  which  t h e i r  a t i n g i n decaying \y\, a source of growth y developed areas i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f urban renewal, and even f i s c a l  New  i n  However,  support  c e r t a i n  the  areas  conducted  Vancouver  1973  i n  i n d u s t r i a l  been  y  -  and  p l a n t  f o r  Almost c e r t a i n l y a l a r g e number of i n c u b a t i n g i n the c e n t r a l c i t y e v e n t u a l l i n the l e s s dense Inner, and Outer Ring but our evidence shows t h a t i t o f t e n tak t h a n one move t o get t h e r e .  Research  the  and,  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  If todays p l a n t s i n c u b areas of c e n t r a l c i t i e s are to l e s s dense, more r e c e n t l the f u t u r e , then t h e r e are p u b l i c p o l i c y i n the area o l o c a l economic development, p o l i c y . 1 6  C i t y  f i r m s  Vancouver the Vancouver,  changes  r e l a t i v e  l o -  i n  the  s p a t i a l  impact  of  these  s i x t i e s ,  then  f e a t u r e s  of  p o i n t s  of  The i n  time  zone 1965  K n i t t i n g  ( i n n e r  growing  t i n g  the  and a  and  of  the  land  market 18  m a n u f a c t u r i n g a  shown  whose c i t y  and  on  were  market  i n  C.B.D.  the  the  m i d -  l i g h t some  Table  s i z e  the  In  most  the  both  1955  h e a v i l y  c o n -  a  and  space  garment  p r o v i d e d  minute  C l o t h i n g  Cheap  time  0 - 1 0  VII.  were  and  p l u s  f i r m s  market  w h i l e  f o r  p r i n -  PLANTS  VANCOUVER  VII  BY  SIZE  1965.  0 - 1 0  10  AND  (From  TIME -  ZONE 15  TIME  Steed  ZONE 1973)  (Minutes) 15 20  20  -  25  1  -  9  312  101  91  90  .10  -  25  153  38  15  40  -.100  104  27  21  49  500  26  12  6  17  1  —  1  2  . 26 101  -  500  Steed were  due  to  m o r t a l i t y w i t h i n  suggested  the  t h r e e  of  t h a t  Region.  the  f a c t o r s :  e x i s t i n g  of  p u b l i s h i n g . TABLE  GREATER  by  i n  P u b l i s h i n g . a t t r a c t e d  OF  the  suggest  T e x t i l e s ,  supply  LOCATION  p l a n t s  p l a n t s  l a b o u r  f o r  i n  and  c o n c e n t r a t i o n  as  i n n e r  P r i n t i n g  changes  w i t h  i n t e r e s t " .  c i t y )  l i n k a g e s  EMPLOYEES  m i d - f i f t i e s  l o c a t i o n a l  p o l i c y  i n d u s t r i e s  i n  to  these  i n d i c a t e d  the  i n  i n d u s t r i a l  p u b l i c  c e n t r a t e d  the  the  1965  access  view  l o c a t i o n  zone  and  processes  the  p l a n t s  Using  changing e n t r y  and  d a t a  the  l o c a t i o n a l of  new  p l a n t s ,  m i g r a t i o n  p u b l i s h e d  dynamics  of  a n n u a l l y  the  p l a n t s by  the  then  74  Dominion e n t r y ,  Bureau  e x i t  p e r i o d s  of  and  1954  -  S t a t i s t i c s  m i g r a t i o n 57  and  of  1964  he  was  p l a n t s  -  able i n  to  the  determine  Region  i n  the the  67.  In a sample of 233 p l a n t s new t o G r e a t e r Vancouver i n 1964-67, i t was found t h a t 175 were e n t i r e l y new b o r n f i r m s , 25 r e p r e s e n t e d c h a n g e s o f name f o l l o w i n g p u r c h a s e from the p r e v i o u s owner, 4 i n v o l v e d name changes through merger of Canadian owned f i r m s , 27 were new branches of s u b s i d i a r i e s of American or Canadian parent f i r m s o u t s i d e B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 was a new b r a n c h of a B r i t i s h Columbia f i r m , and 1 i n v o l v e d a s h i f t i n S.I.C. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ^ 1  He  a l s o  i n d u s t r i e s  and  t h i s  was  The  p e r i o d s . p l a n t  of  the  of  from  w i t h i n  i n n e r  and  50%  major  61%  r e l o c a t i n g  reasons  f o r  the  d i s c o v e r e d a l l  i n n e r  that  i n d u s t r i a l  Furthermore, number  changed".  p e r i o d s  i n  h i s  c i t y  the  areas  f o r  over  new the  generated  1964-67 was  apprent  core  r a t i o  of  by  A  l a c k  i m  f o r  impor-  to  i n n e r  i n  the  i n n e r  i n d u s t r i a l the  the  m o r t a l i -  c i t y  p l a n t s  f o r  .  i n d i c a t o r s ,  m o r t a l i t y  t h a t  the  space  b i r t h  concluded  of  c o n f i r m e d  of  b i r t h s  the  time  s m a l l e r  p e r i o d  some  i n c l u d i n g  most  d e c l i n e  p l a n t  g i v e  the  study  core  p l a n t s  of  Steed  i n c l u -  w i t h i n  because  of  " b a r e l y  the  t o t a l  r e l o c a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  l o c a t i o n  r e s p e c t i v e l y .  the  e n t r i e s ,  i n d u s t r i a l  l o c a t i o n  the  i n  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g  many  p u b l i s h i n g  a c t i v i t y ,  i n n e r a  and  business.  c i t y  i n n e r  had  t h i s  t h a t  t h e i r  the  p l a n t s  t o t a l  the  Furthermore, -  of  h y p o t h e s i s to  p r i n t i n g  p l a n t s ,  Most  of  study  the  s m a l l  46%  of  5:4.  an  58%  tance  i n  c l o t h i n g ,  to  expansion.  t i e s  the  e s s e n t i a l  m i g r a t i o n s  survey that  to  c h o i c e  d i m i n i s h e d  many  o c c u r r e d  support  area  the  m i g r a t i o n s .  migrations,  l e n d i n g  t h a t  c o m p r i s i n g  m o r t a l i t i e s ding  found  was  r a t i o ,  two  core time  . . . . t h e concept of m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y through p l a n t o u t m i g r a t i o n from the i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l core was not v a l i d . By f a r the m a j o r i t y of p l a n t s app e a r i n g i n the suburban p e r i p h e r y were new p l a n t s , not migrants. Most m i g r a t i o n was i n short d i s t a n c e moves w i t h i n the i n n e r core, and the longer moves were m a i n l y to the south and east but s t i l l l a r g e l y w i t h i n the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r . ^0 He  a l s o  found  support  f o r  Even i n the h a l f of t h e new p i n d u s t r i a l ' core, T h i s p r o v i d e s an the c o r e ' s i n c u b a ing d e s i r e to o b t F i n a l l y , of  h i s  Steed  study  the  i n c u b a t o r  h y p o t h e s i s  —  m i d - s i x t i e s , however, n e a r l y one l a n t s were l o c a t e d w i t h i n the i n n e r d e s p i t e ' i t s h i g h e r land costs. i n d i c a t i o n of the s t r e n g t h of t i o n f u n c t i o n and the c o n t i n u a i n access to e x t e r n a l economies. 1  commented  on  the  p u b l i c  p o l i c y  i m p l i c a t i o n s  —  . . . . g i v e n the p a r t i c u l a r l y non-homogeneous nature of i n d u s t r i a l space i n t h i s m e t r o p o l i s , p l u s the Vancouver C t i y C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n to t r a n s f o r m the F a l s e Creek area out of i n d u s t r i a l use, i t may be important to m a i n t a i n , even r e i n f o r c e , the v i t a l i t y of the remaining i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l core, which p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c u b a t o r as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e . f u n c t i o n . 2 2 Ten data of  p e r i o d s  l a n d  C i t y The  years  of  has  e l a p s e d  (1967). f o r  Vancouver  o u t s i d e  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s Research  vides  and  f u r t h e r  d u s t r i a l  the  a v a i l a b l e  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  D i s t r i c t  In  such  new  as  C i t y  i n s i g h t  areas.  of  by  the has  the  the  time  area  t h e r e f o r e and  S t e e d ' s the  has  supply w i t h i n  the  d w i n d l e d .  c o n c e n t r a t e d  on  Burnaby.  G r e a t e r  r o l e  of  development  i n n e r  Vancouver  i n t o  second  i n t e r v e n i n g  Richmond  of  the  i n d u s t r i a l  p a t t e r n  conducted the  s i n c e  Vancouver  P l a n n i n g of  the  R e g i o n a l  Department i n n e r  c i t y  p r o i n -  The the  Vancouver  nature  lows  of  the  Urban i n n e r  c i t y  2  The  r e p o r t  c o n c l u s i o n  In of  1971 many  the  as  f o l -  Space  i n d u s t r i a l  were  study  was  to  e n t r y  of  newer,  f i r m s  to  relocate'.'.  the  f i v e  years of  near  the  or  f u t u r e . s t i l l  t h e r e  had  The  no  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  been  and  another  to  i n n e r  f i r m s .  survey  r e v e a l e d  l o c a t e d  were  25%  at from  6  and  r e l o c a t e " .  that t h a t 27  reached  s u r 25  areas.  purpose  of  of  th< a  f i r m s ,  e x i s t i n g  t h a t  to  m a i l  c i t y  o l d e r  over  40%  present 10  c i t y  f i r m s  s i t e s  years.  r e l o c a t i o n  " i n n e r many  a  The  t h e i r  c o n s i d e r i n g  concluded  expanding  i n  s t a b i l i t y  had  study  d e s i r e  1,300  the  The  f i r m s  a c t i v e l y  (1971)  conducted  l o c a t e d  " t h e  f i r m s and 26  sampled  Department  from  i n v e s t i g a t e  l e s s  I n d u s t r y  e of the i n n e r c i t y i s focus f o r s m a l l e r , more h can b e n e f i t from c e n t r a l s h i g h e r ground r e n t s . way o f c o n t r a s t , are  f i r m s  r e c e i v e d  respondents  f o r  4  P l a n n i n g  Responses  was  d i s t r i c t s  -  2  14%  i n d u s t r i a l  documented  f o r e s t a b l i s h e d f i r m s to r e l o c a t e ancouver i s c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d by a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n e x h i b i t e d by new l y s m a l l w h o l e s a l i n g f i r m s . These changing r o l e f o r c e n t r a l Vand i s t r i c t s , from areas f o r l a r g e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f i r m s to areas s m a l l e r i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , mainly i s t r i b u t o r s h i p s w i t h s e r v i c i n g  . . . . t h e i n d u s t r i a l r o l changing to t h a t of a s p e c i a l i z e d f i r m s whic l o c a t i o n and a f f o r d i t Larger i n d u s t r i e s , by d e c e n t r a l i z i n g .  of  (1969)  3  G . V . R . D . ' s  s i m i l a r  vey  Study  The tendency o u t s i d e c e n t r a l V s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r f i r m s , p a r t i c u l a r s h i f t s p o i n t to a couver i n d u s t r i a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g and for a v a r i e t y of w h o l e s a l e r s and d f a c i l i t i e s .  a  Renewal  Only i n  the  i n d u s t r y e x i s t i n g  In on  the  was  J u l y  1976  s o u t h e a s t e r n  undertaken.  a r e a  not  l o f t  b u i l d i n g s .  the to  of  w i t h  the been  Yaletown  18%  21%  r e l a t e d remain  f i r m s i n  at  t h e i r  i f  not 28  t i o n s  was  of  and  comprised the  102  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  c i t e d  nearby. present  of  l o c a t i o n .  w h o l e s a l e r s a r i s i n g  of  i n c l u d e d  some  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  on  the  p a r t  P a r t  of  the  a t t r a c t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l p r i c e d  of  l e a s e h o l d  8  to  of has  i n d u s t r i a l  the been  space.  to  on  i n n e r the  expand  l i m i t a respondents  n e v e r t h e c i t y  f i r m s . f o r  s m a l l e r  a v a i l a b i l i t y  Table  to  responding,  i n n e r  c i t y  V I I I  or  r e m a i n i n g  the  the  f o r  l o c a t i o n  s i m i l a r  r e s u l t s  need  e i t h e r  f u r t h e r  planned  Given  was  l o c a t e d  planned  t h a t  86%  a  manufacturers  the  the  at  p l a n n i n g  f a c t  f i r m s ,  c e r t a i n  f i r m s  r e f e r r e d  20%  were  had  they  the  i n  l o c a t i o n  A  f i r m s  under  f i r m s .  C.B.D.  w h i l e  the  of  why  respondents  the  from  evidence  l o c a t i o n s  the  presence  survey  elsewhere  responding.  d a t a  f u r t h e r  the  Those 7  the  Asked  com-  respondents  respondents  or  w i t h i n  s u b j e c t  a l l o w e d  teh  8.7%  l o c a t i o n  to  o l d e r  survey,  Yaletown  to  r e n t .  71%  the  of  come  n o t i c e a b l e  of  Gastown).  p r o x i m i t y  1976  the  Yaletown  (eg.  of  had  warehousing  l o c a t e d  i n  The  responses or  i n d u s t r i a l supply  i t  o f f i c e s  30%  w h o l e s a l i n g  i t s  area D i s t r i c t  t h e r e f o r e  the  b u s i n e s s  of  reasonably  uses.  showed  i n c l u d e d  newer  i n  and  t h i s  and  o l d e r  r e g u l a t i o n s  expanding  p r o v i d e  area  52%  34  an  survey  on  less  i s  l o c a t i o n .  p r e s e n t  the  area  Yaletown  B u s i n e s s  the  reasonable  t h e i r  the  C e n t r a l  S t r e e t  time  i n  of  C.B.D.  mentioned  and  49  only  the  Yaletown  r e s u l t s  respondents  to  the  group  p r e v i o u s l y  c l o s e  of  people  This  f i r m ' s  corner  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,  the  survey  the  1971  However  from  i n  to  p r o f e s s i o n a l  1976.  up  P o w e l l  At  the  r e z o n i n g .  of  the  zoning  c o n v e r s i o n  f o l l o w  The  u n l i k e  downtown  pared  a  shows  of the  r e n t a l c i t y  range  i n  p e r t y  f o r  1978  i n  compared  Burnaby  p o t e n t i a l l y i n n e r  i n d u s t r i a l  and  o f f e r  c i t y  w i t h  p r o p e r t y suburban  Richmond,  some  of  the  RENTAL  RANGES  FOR  VANCOUVER-INNER BURNABY  I n d u s t r i a l  two  and  communities  same  e x t e r n a l  INDUSTRIAL  CITY, AND  RICHMOND.  2  8  R e n t a l ($/sq,  c i t y  Range f t , )  $ 1 .. 7 5 - - 3 ..00  $2.. 0 0 - - 3 ..00  t a b l e  i s  t r a c t i v e n e s s  of  new  s c a l e  s m a l l  f u r t h e r  Zoning  and  uses  Vancouver  i s  economic  Chapter  I  i t  evidence  V a n c o u v e r ' s  to i s  i n n e r  i n d u s t r i a l  reasonably  l o c a t i o n s  f i c a n t  as  VANCOUVER-SUBURBAN  Richmond  commercial  might  IN  $ 1 . . 9 0 -- 3 . . 2 5  A  p r o -  t h a t  PROPERTY  Burnaby  l o c a t e d ,  a  V I I I  $ 1 . . 7 5 -- 3 .. 3 0  or  i n n e r  economies  Vancouver-suburban  This  i n  Vancouver  Area  V a n c o u v e r - i n n e r  of  Vancouver's  l o c a t i o n s .  TABLE  c i t y  i n  p r i c e d  compete not  a c t i v i t y must  f i r m s  w i t h  be  to i n  p r e p a r e d  c o n t i n u e d  i n d u s t r i a l f o r  a t -  areas  f o r  w e l l  space. t h a t  a l l o w s  i n d u s t r i a l of  c i t y to  uses  i n d u s t r y .  r e t a i n i n g the  the  l o o k i n g  B y - l a w  s u p p o r t i v e  committed  c i t y  r e n t a l  Development  of  the  p r o v i d e  f o r If  i n d u s t r y  f o r  o f f i c e  as  i n n e r  the  C i t y  a  s i g n i -  reasons a  supply  mentioned of  reasonably c i t y .  p r i c e d  Some  a t t r a c t i v e be  i n d u s t r i a l to  p r o t e c t e d  rezoned  to  d u s t r i a l l a t e d . use  of  expressed  f o r  V a n c o u v e r ' s i n  through  1956,  the  use  p l a n n i n g  Zoning  t r a d i t i o n The  uses  t h a t  i s  study  i n  Chapter and  and  Town  was  and  i n  the  country.  prepare  and  as  a  r e s u l t  a  c o n t r o l  was  used  d u r i n g  the  The  developers  to  c o n s t r u c t i n g to  the  seek a  f i r s t  p l e t i o n  of  a  was  scheme  was  used  p l a n n i n g  of  amended  i t s  land  of  these  f e a t u r e s  c i t y  i n d u s t r i a l 29 Toronto.  the  of  system  f o r  the  American  almost time  i n t e r i m  of  1932  every  r e q u i r e d type  consuming  p a s s i n g  p l a n n i n g  scheme,  and  i t s  p e r m i s s i o n  t h a t once  was  might  scheme.  a  i n t e r i m  Thus  measure  to  of  ap-  t o •a l l o w  p r o t e c t i o n be  a  a c t u a l  designed  o t h e r w i s e  completed.  an  as  of  development  the  and  to  Great  between  v o l u n t a r y  (•  approvals  n e c e s s i t y  i n  the  f i r s t  The  Act  were  of  By-law,  o r i g i n  P l a n n i n g  t h a t  p l a n n i n g  to  i t s  f a c t  time  as  i n r e g u -  i n  p e r m i t s .  schemes  p l a n n i n g  b u i l d i n g  p l a n n i n g  c o n t r o l  a  use,  and  i n n e r  to  system  p r e p a r e d  Such  p r e p a r e system  be  e i t h e r  f o r  Development  had  Country  land  p r o v a l .  schemes  II  c o n t r a r y  a c t u a l l y  p l a n n i n g  to  a  development  a p p r o v a l  be  s h o u l d  m i x t u r e  some  e x i s t  to  .  P r a c t i c e  that  r e s o l u t i o n  a l s o  as  i n n e r  i n d u s t r i a l a  r e c e n t l y  r e g a r d i n g  the  uses  p l a n n e d  i n c o r p o r a t e  Zoning  of  land  e x c l u s i v e  has  i n  l o c a t e d  w i t h i n  i n c o r p o r a t e d  o b t a i n  B r i t a i n .  f o r  concerns  made  so  f a l l  P l a n n i n g  was  i s  or  to  t h i s  e s p e c i a l l y  commercial  Toronto  the i n  Reference  passed  of  l e g i s l a t i o n  many  of  use  commercial  I m p l i c a t i o n s  C i t y  and  l a n d which  l e g i s l a t i o n  C i t y  c o n t r o l  l a n d  by  and  land  i n d u s t r y  commercial  The  because  i n d u s t r i a l  a g a i n s t  c o n t r a r y  development pending  com-  The  Town  and  Country  p l a n n i n g  p e r m i s s i o n  However,  the  Act  p r e p a r e d  f o r  every  The  i n t e n t  p l a n n i n g manner  be  a l s o  which  a u t h o r i t y  was  r e q u i r e d  the  o b j e c t i v e s  i n  o b t a i n e d  area  of  i n  given  was  c o n d i t i o n s ,  or  the  r e f u s i n g  a u t h o r i t y  development  i n t e n d e d  c o n s a p p l o b j e adeq and  of  the  the p l a n s  had  been  f a c t  t h e r e f o r e  h i g h l y  f i c u l t  keep  to  and  p l a n s  w i t h  a  c o u n t i e s  s p e c i f i c  was t r o l  new  p l a n s  e l a b o r a t i o n a  s t i l l of  between  focused to  a  p l a n  the  i n t e n d e d  The  to  new  d e s c r i b e d  by  as g d i c l t h ca r  i n  as  Dobry  the  and  of  the the  —  t i e her the the th t i o  s  have to approve p l a n n i n g y have no e m e r i t s n s . ^ t h a t ^ i h e  d e t a i l  the  and  they  were  were and  d i f 1971  development and  of  l o c a l  p l a n s .  p l a n n i n g  p o l i c y  were  s t r u c t u r e  a  more  p l a n  s t r u c t u r e  f o r  d e t a i l e d  a p p l i e d  and  guides  framework  and  1968  the  as  Act  a l l o c a t i o n s ,  p l a n s  (1975)  w i t h  p r o v i s i o n s  p l a n n i n g  i m p o r t a n t  p o l i c y  a p p r o v i n g  d e s c r i b e s  use  p l a n s  of  p l a n n i n g  a p p r o v a l  the  a u t h o r i n g whet e a r on e r w i s e n judge a p p l i c a  statement  the  the  f o l l o w s  land  l o c a l  i n c l u d i n g  i n  l e g i s l a t i o n  use  the  a p p r o v a l  r e p l a c e d  system  serve T h i s  f o r  c o n s i d e r a b l e  w r i t t e n  be  o u t l i n e  However  (1973)  s t r u c t u r e  p o l i c i e s The  the  Acts  p l a n s  l o c a l  g r a n t i n g  A c c o r d i n g l y  of  towns.  The  regard  land  date.  system  a r e a .  i s  on  t h a t  developments.  to  area  d i s c r e t i o n  broad  i n  P l a n n i n g  development.  p e r m i s s i o n  only  p r e p a r e d  were  and of  show  the  p l a n n i n g  i n  a l l  was  a p p l i c a t i o n .  development  up  Country  S t r u c t u r e f o r  f o r  C u l l i n g w o r t h  i n t e n t i o n  development  Town  p l a n s  o u t r i g h t ,  have  r e q u i r e d  development  used.  the  1947  c o u n t r y .  But though l o c a l . . p l a n n i n i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n d e c i i c a t i o n s they have to be c t i v e s f o r t h e i r areas, o uate b a s i s on w h i c h t h e y shortcomings of p a r t i c u l a  D e s p i t e  i n  to  to  p a i n .  r e l a t i o n s h i p  p r o v i s i o n s  the  of  almost  t h a t  c o n s i d e r a b l e  a p p l i c a t i o n s  the  f o r  p o l i c i e s  development  d i r e c t e d  Act  development  and  land  P l a n n i n g  l o c a l  f o r  the  p l a n n i n g  f o l l o w s  —  to p l a n s  c o n -  I n d i v made i n a f a i r , and made w i t h i framework ( i )  approv which handov which o l d s t formal d i c a t i s t i l l  ( i i )  ( i i i )  a p r p o l i l o c a p r o p s e r v  ( i v )  When and a  i d u a l p vacuum. above a n a c l e c o m p r i s  the  C i t y  Development  20  year  C h a r t e r ,  p l a n s  the  been  f o r On  any what  h e l d  S.  such  p r e p a r e d  f o r  of  561).  as  and of  Vancouver  c i t y a  O f f i c i a l  c i t y ' s then,  or  adopted  The  e n a b l i n g  c i t y  any  p a r t i c u l a r  no  i n d u s t r i a l  p l a n n i n g  p o l i c i e s  o b j e c t i v e s  g r a n t i n g  or  by the  The  of  p l a n n i n g  answers  i n  the  d i s c r e t i o n those  i n  l i e  1929,  e x e r c i s e d  and by  a p p l i c a t i o n s  t h a t  as  r e q u i r e  not  c e r t a i n have  been  i n  which  of h i s  or  w i t h -  areas?  guide  1930  p l a n  p r e p a r e d .  granted  a  p l a n  D i r e c t o r  has  been  p e r m i s s i o n  i n  (Vancouver  development  i n d u s t r i a l  the  development  Downtown  a p p r o v a l  Zoning  the  f o r  has  Zoning  p r e p a r i n g  c i t y  o f f i c i a l  approved  of  area  p l a n s  serve  i t s  p r e p a r e  End,  C i t y ' s  w i t h h o l d i n g  Bartholomew  s i d e r i n g  the  s e s t n e  l e g i s l a t i o n ,  whole  areas  development i n  areas?  the  West  a p p l i c a t i o n s and  to  development the  1956  i n t e n t i o n  However,  i s  i n  the  f o r  n s  ent of i t s l o c a l t r i c t C o u n c i l ; g u i d e l i n e s such as a p a r t i c u l a r c o n r a r e g i o n a l a i r p o r t . 3 1  the  p l a n  Creek,  adopted.  b a s i s  had 32  p l a n .  Such  F a l s e  the  i t  empowers  whole  p r e p a r e d .  areas  o v i s i o n a l statem c i e s by each D i s l or p a r t i c u l a r o s a l s a f f e c t i n g a t i o n area or f o  By-law,  Vancouver  c h a r t e r  ed s t r u c t u r e p l a n s and l o c a l p l a are k e p t up t o d a t e or, er s t a t e m e n t s , t h a t i s statement set out s t r a t e g i c p o l i c i e s and t y l e development plans and any i n n o n - s t a t u t o r y p l a n s i n f o r c e , i n g to what e x t e n t these p l a n s ar to be a p p l i e d ;  development  f o r  l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d not be If d e c i s i o n s are to be c o r r e c t , l l , c o n s i s t e n t , they must be a r and c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d i n g : -  to  What the  i n d u s t r i a l was  t o g e t h e r P l a n n i n g s p e c i f i c  p r e p a r e d w i t h i n  c o n -  a p p r o v a l .  The  p o l i c i e s ,  a u t h o r i t y P l a n n i n g w i t h has  r e f e r s f o r  each  time,  be  l i t t l e an  b y - l a w ,  ning  the  and  f o r  the been  areas  a  case  each  be  area.  has,  of on  p e r i o d  i t  i s  able  to  p l a n n i n g the  a  the to  p r a c t i c e  to  (c)  under seen  of  consequences  of  i n c o n s i s t e n t  and  f u t u r e  unless  p o l i c y .  a r i s i n g of  to  i n d u s -  precedent  some  consequences  r e f e r e n c e  may  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  and  d i f f i c u l t ,  r e f e r  t h e r e  a  term  i n  p e r i o d  n e i g h b o r i n g  time  long  a  p e r m i t t e d  l a n d ,  of  the  (a)  the  study  over  f o r  evolves  Thus  from  t h i s  p r o c e e d i n g  p r e d e t e r m i n e d  w i t h  p l a n -  o b j e c t i v e s . s t r u c t u r e s  p e r m i s s i o n  p o s i t i v e l o c a l i n  i n  a  the  f o r  was  are  land  a  use  and  C i t y  of  f o r of  i n  i s  the  The  managers  c i t i z e n s  and  i t  i s  remaining would  appear  p l a n n i n g than  areas.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of  by  Vancouver  d i f f e r e n t  r e s i d e n t i a l  c i t i z e n  guided  i n d u s t r y ,  l o c a l  that  B r i t a i n  d e v e l o p i n g  approaching  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . owners  be  There  underway to  to  about  each  i n  p r e p a r e d .  manner  commitment  the  p o l i c y f o r  be  f o r  If  s e r i o u s  p l a n s  c i t y  p l a n n i n g  i n t e n d e d  p o l i c i e s .  area the  areas  s i g n i f i c a n t would  i s  i n t o  p l a n n i n g . a c t i v i t y  l a t t e r  p a r c e l  This,  example,  i s  a p p l i c a t i o n s  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  use  a p p r o v a l  documented.  approved.  For  the  t h e r e f o r e ,  a p p l i c a t i o n  Once  which  been  p l a n n i n g  the  a  to  areas,  impact  government  areas  l i t t l e  l o c a l  i n  a  t h a t  i n d u s t r i a l be  f o r  p l a n n i n g  r e g i o n a l  implementing  to  over  w i t h o u t  p l a n n i n g  important  i f  s m a l l  i n s t i t u t i o n a l  that  an  foreseen  i n s i g h t  p r e d e t e r m i n e d and  a  a u t h o r i t y  p o l i c i e s  show  area  s i m i l a r  approvals  The  l e v e l  i n j u r i o u s  are  r e f u s e  i t s  p l a n n i n g  i n d u s t r i a l  r e f u s e  i m p l i c a t i o n  i s  g e n e r a l l y  e s t a b l i s h e d .  p l a n n i n g  study  not  a p p l i c a t i o n  However,  i s  to  major  to  no  o b j e c t i v e s  consequences.  f o r  p r a c t i c e  u n f a i r  a  or  uses.  approvals  the  l e v e l  (b)  and  micro  i n d u s t r i a l  l i t t l e  a  c i t y ' s  reason  the  such  have  such  macro  i n  t r i a l  the  that  use  have  to  development  shown  of  g u i d e l i n e s  i n  i n d u s t r i a l  the In has  i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  p e r m i s s i o n  i s  but  one  a r i s i n g  from  t h i s  dilemma  c o n f r o n t i n g  i n d u s t r y .  In  a  f o r  tendency  assumptions  about  and  sented  evidence  and  are  w i t h  study. the  urban  i t s  The  f o r  study  urban w i t h  t h i s to  has  make  t h a t  l o c a t i o n  v a r i a b l e  both  w i t h  r e s p e c t  the  s i z e  of  to  of  f i r m s  the f o r  has  been  s i m p l i s t i c  i n d u s t r y  and to  p r a c t i c e  t h e r e  The  p l a n n i n g  probed  o v e r l y  r e q u i r e m e n t s .  show  and  p l a n n i n g  dilemma  to  r e s p e c t  a l s o  i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  l o c a t i o n  p o l i c y  p l a n n i n g  p l a n n e r  p l a n n i n g  the  p l a n n i n g  i m p l i c a t i o n  s t r u g g l i n g  heavy)  ments  between  study land  ( l i g h t has  use  c e r t a i n  w i t h i n , the  and  p r e r e q u i r e -  i n d u s t r i e s same  i n d u s t r y . In has  the  been  devoted  i n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h t r i a l  f i f t e e n to  l o c a t i o n .  are  l a n d  p l a n n i n g .  past  not  use  years  v a r i o u s Y e t ,  r e f l e c t e d  p o l i c i e s  or  c o n s i d e r a b l e  aspects  of  i t  seems  i n  c u r r e n t  the  r e s e a r c h  e f f o r t  i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  t h a t  the  zoning  knowledge  base  r e s u l t s  of  b y - l a w s , of  urban  t h i s i n d u s -  Footnotes  f o r  Chapter  V  "'"Len T e n n a n t , to i n c l u d e r e z o n i n g of use. (1976 1978).  Industry i n Vancouver. A d j u s t e d I n d u s t r i a l l a n d to N o n - i n d u s t r i a l  2 and  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l L i v a b l e Region (1977)  the  D i s t r i c t ,  Industry  3 P l a n n i n g Department Report to Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l on I n d u s t r y and the L i v a b l e Region. (Vancouver June 1978). 4 C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Urban Renewal Study.  Vancouver  Department,  5 G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , A Summary, (Vancouver 1976).  Economy:  The  R e g i o n a l  6 Issues  of  P h i l  P a u l s o n ,  the  I n d u s t r i a l  I n d u s t r i a l  Development:  Views  and  Community.  7 the  G r e a t e r Vancouver L i v a b l e Region.  R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t ,  Industry  and  g I n d u s t r i a l 25, 1977. 9  Managers Report to Vancouver C i t y Development O f f i c e . Approved by  Re: October  I b i d .  •^Greater Region  C o u n c i l C o u n c i l  Program  Vancouver  1976/86.  R e g i o n a l  (Vancouver  D i s t r i c t ,  The  L i v a b l e  1975)  Raymond Vernon and Edgar M. H o o v e r , Anatomy of a M e t r o p o l i s . (Cambridge Mass.Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press 1959). Raymond Vernon, M e t r o p o l i s 1985.[< (Cambridge Mass., H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press 1960) 1  1  12 Pg.  48  Vernon  and  Hoover,  Anatomy  of  a  M e t r o p o l i s  Footnotes  f o r  Chapter  V  (Continued)  13 M i c h a e l A. Goldberg, " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l Some E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s " . Annals of R e g i o n a l ( V o l . 3 1969) Pg. 220, 221.  L o c a t i o n : S c i e n c e . 14  Robert A. Leone and Raymond Struyk, "The Incubator H y p o t h e s i s : Evidence from F i v e SMSA's". Urban S t u d i e s . ( V o l . 13 O c t o b e r 1 9 7 6 ) Pg. 330. 1  5  I b i d .  Pg.  329.  1  6  I b i d .  Pg.  330.  17 Guy P. F. Steed, " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n M a n u f a c t u r i n g : S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and L o c a t i o n a l Dynamics i n G r e a t e r Vancouver". The Canadian Geographer. ( V o l . XVII No. 3 1973) 1  8  I b i d .  Pg.  237.  1  9  I b i d .  Pg.  241.  I b i d .  Pg.  251.  I b i d .  Pg.  255.  I b i d .  Pg.  257.  90  2  1  99 23  C i t y Urban  Renewal  of  Vancouver  Study.  Pg.  P l a n n i n g  Department.  Vancouver  17.  24 Denis  0'Gorman,  Space  Report.  ( V a n c o u v e r . G r e a t e r  P l a n n i n g  Department  1971)  f o r  I n d u s t r y .  Vancouver Pg.  R e g i o n a l  Summary D i s t r i c t  14.  25 Len Tennant, " I n n e r - C i t y I n d u s t r y " , I n t e r - I n d u s t r y Commodity L i n k s : A Study of S e l e c t e d I n d u s t r i a l S e c t o r s . ( C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department 1974).  96 97  I b i d .  Pg.  24.  I b i d .  Pg.  24  Footnotes  f o r  Chapter  V  (Continued)  2 8 Trends  Real E s t a t e Board of G r e a t e r Vancouver, R e a l M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. (Vancouver 1978)  i n  E s t a t e  29 C i t y of Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, I n d u s t r i a l F i n a l Recommendations. (Toronto, February  Summary.  Zoning 1978).  30 J . B r i t a i n . Pg.  B.  4th  C u l l i n g w o r t h ,  ed.  (London:  Town  and  George  Country  A l l e n  and  P l a n n i n g Unwin  i n  L t d .  73. 31 George  System. Pg.  (London:  Dobry, Her  Review  of  M a j e s t y ' s  the  Development  S t a t i o n a r y  C o n t r o l  O f f i c e ,  1975)  17. 32 C i t y  E x p l a n a t o r y 3575.  of  Vancouver  Memorandum,  (November  1963).  P l a n n i n g  Zoning  and  Department,  Development  G e n e r a l  B y - l a w  No.  1972)  CHAPTER  SUMMARY  This zoning  i n  c u r r e n t the  t h e s i s  Vancouver  urban  changing  areas.  i n d u s t r y . a  ranged  granted  from  i n  under  any  comprehensive  f o r  the  c i t y ' s  p r a c t i c e  on  Data r e c o r d s  showed  June  1978.  1,  space  i n  approved,  from  1978  Land use  i n  l a n d  C i t y  t h a t  i n  of the  use  areas  the  assessment  i n f o r m a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l l y  or  guided  impact  Vancouver  o f f i c e  be  p o l i c i e s  of  t h i s  was  and  by  examined.  1,  P e r m i t to  1971  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  made.  T h i r t y - f o u r  were  The  a p p l i c a t i o n s  were  i n n e r  i n d u s t r i a l  i n d i c a t e d i n  a g a i n  found  showing  the  areas  to  a p p r o v a l s  p l a n n i n g  from  f o r  e x i s t e d  zoned  uses  January  r e c o r d s  was  been  has  Vancouver's  p e r i o d  r e f u s e d .  b u i l d i n g s  n e g l e c t .  not  of  t h a t  Development  were  C i t y ' s  times  areas  p l a n n i n g  The i n  r e c e n t  Vancouver's  a p p l i c a t i o n s  6l  c o n c e n t r a t i o n use  p l a n s  twenty-seven  o f f i c e / r e t a i l The  development  the  i n  The  p r o t e c t  encroachment  urban  to  and  i n d u s t r i a l to  commercial  have  i n d u s t r i a l  c o n c e n t r a t e d  c o n t r o l  areas.  the  between  p r a c t i c e s  Vancouver's  i n  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  zoning  more  o f f i c e  i n d u s t r i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p  from i n  areas.  of  e s t a b l i s h e d  i n d u s t r y  a l l o w s  i n d u s t r i a l  from  areas  r e s t r i c t i v e  the  i n  were  l e g i s l a t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  the  use  by-laws  l e g i s l a t i o n  developed  l a n d  toward  e v o l u t i o n  i n d u s t r i a l  commercial  p o l i c y  the  examined and  of  zoning  P l a n n i n g  r e f l e c t e d  p l a n n i n g  and  p a t t e r n  and  CONCLUSIONS  documented  p l a n n i n g  E a r l y  r e s i d e n t i a l  has  has  AND  VI  t h a t  areas. 83  i n d u s t r i a l l y to  be  i n  the  amount  of  l a n d  a l s o  c o n f i r m e d  Data  o f f i c e zoned i n n e r i n the  and a r e a s . c i t y .  commercial c o n c e n t r a t i  i n  the  i n n e r  rezoned of  t o  i n n e r  i n n e r  c i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  w i t h  Vancouver  has  development  i n  a t t e m p t i n g  to  i n d u s t r i a l  and  Vancouver's a  the  l a n d  C i t y  implement  l a n d  showed  was  a and a  of  t h a t  the  t h a t  of  the  the  the  the  supply  supply  t h e s i s  C o u n c i l  f a v o u r i n g  of  of  of  were the  C i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  government  i s  d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  employment  both  o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  l e g i s l a t i o n  i s  use  t h a t  changes  i n  l a n d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  r e g i o n a l  p o l i c y  i n d u s t r i a l  trends  d e c l i n i n g  p o l i c y  commercial  of  a l l  i m p l i c a t i o n s  adopted  the  a n a l y s i s and  l a n d  knowledge  p l a n n i n g  p a t t e r n  an  use  i n d u s t r i a l  p u b l i c . p o l i c y  d i s c u s s e d  to  F i n a l l y  n o n - i n d u s t r i a l  c i t y  The  of  c i t y .  t h e r e f o r e does  c o n t r i b u t i n g  not  support  these  p o l i c i e s . The the  e x i s t i n g  e f f e c t which The  t h e s i s  of  i n d u s t r i a l  p r o v i d i n g  n o r m a l l y  arguments  o v e r e s t i m a t e  were the  was  s i g n i f i c a n t . o f f s  w i t h As  c e n t r a l growth l i f e  areas  to  c y c l e  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t  s u g g e s t i n g a  pass  t h e r e f o r e  of of  I,  c l e a r  a c t i v i t i e s areas.  the  Vancouver's r o l e new  t h a t  i n  the  and  to n e g a t i v e i n n e r  c i t y  and  s m a l l  was  t h e r e  the  tended  n e g l e c t  evidence  (1970)  B i r c h a  l i f e  c y c l e  to  s t a b i l i z a t i o n  by  economic  i n d u s t r y the  f o r  have  r e t a i l but  r e t a i n i n g  a l s o are  t r a d e -  a l t e r n a t i v e .  through  d r i v e n  and  p o s i t i v e  This  Chapter  and  t h a t  examined.  i n  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  be  impacts  of  s e c t o r  o f f i c e s  p l a y e d  p o l i c y  which  i n  a l s o i s ,  favour  s e r v i c e  space  s a t u r a t i o n i s  to  f o r  i n c u b a t o r  It  c i t i e s  l a n d  i n  p r o v i s i o n s  as  e i t h e r  noted  found  arguments  zoning  b e n e f i c i a l  economy  i n d u s t r i e s  the  space  Evidence  i n d u s t r i a l  r e g i o n a l  more  occupy  consequences. c i t y  examined  and  c e n t r a l i t y  to  f o r c e s  has of  the  changes  d e c l i n e . l e a d i n g  p o p u l a t i o n as  suggested  and  s e r v i c e  to  t h a t  from This the  economic c e n t r e  f o r  89  the  m e t r o p o l i t a n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  i n  importance. p r o c e s s are  of  a r e a .  If  r e f e r e n c e the  t r e n d  e v o l u t i o n ,  unknown,  one i s  of  p l a n n e r ,  urban  a n a l y s i n g p l a n n i n g t h e s i s  a p p r o v a l  suggests  C i t y  of  l a n d  use  of  upon  The c y c l e  other  economic  and  Vancouver t h a t  are  as  p u b l i c  t h a t  o b j e c t i v e s d i r e c t i o n s .  of  which  i s  the  p u b l i c  are  the  c l e a r  one  as  p o l i c y  f a r  make  p l a n n i n g i n  " r e f e r e e "  through i n of  has  t h i s the  however, i n  the  l i f e  a n a l y s e such  i t s  as  i n t e r v e n t i o n s i s the  p o l i c y ,  the f o r m u l a t i o n once  l e g i s l a t i o n  c o n c e r t  the  i n d u s t r i a l  the  This to  r o l e  C r e e k ) .  to  p o l i c y  t r e n d .  The  as  F a l s e  of  which  d i r e c t i o n s  p u b l i c  can  of  p o s i t i o n  c i t i e s  and  n a t u r a l  p r e s e n t e d  f o r  of  a  of  b y - l a w  v a l i d i t y ,  the  c o n s i d e r a b l e  f u t i l e .  Department  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n use  of  acknowledge  p l a n n i n g  the  or  (e.g.  to  of  p o l i c y  c u r r e n t  The  some  the  p a r t  p l a n n i n g  consequences  Department  m o d i f y  The  i n v o l v e s  as  evidence  consequences  urban  p o l i c y .  f o r m u l a t e d ,  i s  h a v i n g  to  i s  becomes  a m b i t i o u s  i d e n t i f y  a v a i l a b l e  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  to  The  development  s o c i a l  and  t h i s  a l t e r n a t i v e  h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t  t h e r e f o r e ,  more  r e s i d e n t i a l  " t r e n d "  term  concerned.  much  by  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  P l a n n i n g  i s  taken  viewed  a d m i n i s t e r i n g  t h a t  p o l i c y  t h i s  l o n g  p r o c e s s .  Vancouver  embarked a r e a  and  to  argue  e i t h e r  t r e n d s  p o s i t i o n  i s  the  c o u l d  i n t e r v e n t i o n the  The  w i t h  the  p o l i c y  90  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Andrews,  R i c h a r d  B.  C e n t r a l  C i t y .  London: A r c h e r ,  (ed).  Urban  New  Land  York:  Use  The  C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n ,  R.W. Urban Planning, f o r a course of l e c t P o l i c y . U n i v e r s i t y by M e t r o p o l i t a n Rese A u s t r a l i a . 1971c i e t y of P l a n n i n g r v i c e . E x c l u s i v e icago, I l l i n o i s . tober, 1956.  P o l i c y ;  Free  The  P r e s s ;  1972.  and the P r o p e r t y Market. (Notes u r e s on U r b a n Land E c o n o m i c s and Coilege-, London) . R e p r i n t i s s u e d arch T r u s t ; Canberra C i t y ,  American  S o S e Ch Oc  O f f i c i a l s , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial Zoning. I n f o r m a t i o n R e p o r t No. 91•  American  S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e . I n d u s t r i a l Zoning Standards. Chicago, I l l i n o i s . I n f o r m a t i o n Report No. 78. September,  1955-  Babcock,  R i c h a r d . The U n i v e r s i t y of  B a h l ,  W.; and David Greytak. "The Response of C i t y Government Revenues to Changes i n Employment S t r u c t u r e " .  Roy  Land  Zoning Game. Madison, W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n P r e s s . 1966.  Economics.  V o l .  Bartholomew, H a r l a n d ; and A s s o c Vancouver. B r i t i s h Col South Vancouver and a Vancouver: Vancouver  November,  52,  i a t e s . umbia i n G e n e r a l Town P l a  1976.  A P l a n f o r ^ t h e C i t y of c l u d i n g P o i n t Grey and P l a n of the Region 1929. n n i n g Commission, 1929«  Bentz,  D o n a l d R. New Y o r k  B i r c h ,  D a v i d L. The Economic F u t u r e of C i t y and Suburb. New Y o r k : Committee f o r Economic Development; Supplementary Paper No. 30, 1970.  B l u m e n f e l d ,  " I n d u s t r i a l Zoning t o E x c l u d e U n i v e r s i t y Law Review. V o l .  Hans.  P a u l  D.  "The  M o n t r e a l : Bourne,  L a r r y Study  S. i n  Harvest "Land  L a r r y  S.  Use  S t r u c t u r e  A s s o c i a t i o n Bourne,  C o n c e p t u a l  S p r e i r e g e n  of  The  House,  1967«  and  of  Modern  S u c c e s s i o n  A m e r i c a n  P r i v a t e  Framework  (ed).  i n  Change".  U s e s " .  1957•  Land  Use".  M e t r o p o l i s .  Urban  A r e a s :  P r o c e e d i n g s  Geographers.  Redevelopment  Higher  32,  of  the  V o l .  A of  the  T~,  C e n t r a l  1969•  C i t y .  Chicago, I l l i n o i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research; Paper No. 112, 1967.  91  C i t y  of  Toronto,  P l a n n i n g  P r o p o s a l s . C i t y  of  Toronto, C i t y ' s No.  C i t y  of  C i t y  of  Toronto,  of  of  A  f o r  Toronto,  A p r i l ,  P l a n n i n g  Board.  P l a n n i n g  P l a c e  f o r  Vancouver,  P l a c e  f o r  I n d u s t r y  I n d u s t r y .  The  2.  Assumption  I n d u s t r i a l  I n d u s t r y Toronto,  Work  Study  Vancouver,  Summary.  1978•  Group.  June,  Department. J u l y ,  Zoning  February,  1974.  " Y a l e t o w n  Survey  ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) .  1976,  Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. Vancouver Renewal Study. T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t N o . 4. D i s t r i c t s .  D i s t r i c t  '.  Toronto,  Board.  Vancouver,  I n d u s t r i a l  1976.  1976.  I n d u s t r y .  P l a n n i n g  R e s u l t s " . C i t y  Board.  Recommendations.  Toronto, A  C i t y  P l a n n i n g  C e n t r a l  March,  A t t r a c t i v e n e s s  2.  F i n a l  Board.  Toronto.  August,  Urban I n d u s t r i a l  1969.  C i t y  of  Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. G e n e r a l E x p l a n a t o r y Memorandum. Zoning and Development By-Law No. 3575' Vancouver, November, 1963-  C i t y  of  Vancouver, V a r i o u s  C i t y  C i t y  of  of  of  Vancouver,  Q u a r t e r l y  Otto  J . B .  A.  Land Delafons,  ( c o n s o l i d a t e d 1955'  1,  Commission. By-Law.  Proposed  Vancouver,  f o r  New  March,  Department. "An O u t l i n e of Vancouver". ( D r a f t ) .  John.  Land  George.  M.;  York:  Her and  Country  Use  of  i n  V o l .  No.  39,  C o n t r o l s Mass.  the  F i s h e r , H o l t  i n  A l l e n  4,  1963.  the  U n i t e d  M.I.T.  S t a t i o n e r y Robert and  i n  1955-  P l a n Vancouver,  M.  Co.,  B r i t a i n .  and  M u n i c i p a l  Development  M a j e s t y ' s  Henry  P l a n n i n g  George  Elements  Cambridge  Review  London:  and  London:.  "Economic  E d i t i o n .  New  Town  Economics.  E r n e s t  Review.  1975-79•  1964.  E d i t i o n .  4th  F i s h e r ,  P l a n n i n g  Development  Vancouver, P l a n n i n g f o r the Inner A r e a  C u l l i n g w o r t h ,  Dobry,  Town  and  June,  Davis,  Department.  Vancouver,  Vancouver. Zoning By-Law No. 2516. c o n v e n i e n c e ) . Vancouver, January  Zoning C i t y  P l a n n i n g  Issues,  Unwin Zoning  C o n t r o l  Urban  2nd  1969. System.  O f f i c e , R e a l  1972.  D e c i s i o n s " .  S t a t e s .  P r e s s ,  .1954.  L t d . ,  1975E s t a t e .  92  Goldberg,  M i c h a e l Some  3,  V o l . G r e a t e r  A.  R e g i o n a l  I n d u s t r y  and  Vancouver A  Guttenberg, A l b e r t System".  Hardwick,  Hardwick,  the  XXV  W a l t e r  D i s t r i c t ,  of  D i s t r i c t .  L o c a t i o n :  R e g i o n a l  P l a n n i n g  Region.  Vancouver,  S c i e n c e .  Department.  1977•  Vancouver,  The  R e g i o n a l  Economy:  1976.  Z. "A M u l t i p l e L a n d U s e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n J o u r n a l of the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . No.  August,  3,  W a l t e r G. "Van Urban P a t t e r n " . Problems. E d i t e Scarborough: P r G.  1974.  I n d u s t r i a l  Annals  L i v a b l e  R e g i o n a l  Summary.  V o l .  F i n d i n g s " .  1969.  Vancouver  G r e a t e r  " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  E m p i r i c a l  1959.  couver: The Emergence of a " C o r e - R i n g " .G e o g r a p h i c a l Approaches t o Canadian d b y R. L o u i s G e n t i l c o r e . e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada, L t d . , 1971«  Vancouver.  C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n :  CanadaLtd.  Hason,  Nino. "The Emergence and Development of Zoning i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : A C r i t i c a l Papers on P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n . U n i v e r s i t y of Department of Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g .  Hayes,  D e r e k W. Employment Growth i n Vancouver. C i t y of. Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department. November 1975'  H e i l b r u n ,  James. St.  Hoover,  E d g a r M. M e t r o p o l i Lowden' Wi f o r the F Hopkins P  K i n n a r d ,  Lean,  Urban  M a r t i n ' s  W.j  W i l l i a m Real E s t S o c i e t y A s s o c i a t and  W i l l i a m .  he E v o l v i n . E d i t e d o J r . I s s u r e Inc. s s , 1968.  G o o d a l l , The  B.  P u b l i c  P o l i c y .  New  York:  g Form and O r g a n i z a t i o n of the b y H a r v e y S. P e r l o f f and u e s i n Urban Economics. Resources B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d : The Johns  A s p e c t s  E s t a t e s  Economics  R e g i o n a l . L e i g h ,  and  197^.  N. J r . ; and Messner, S t e p h e n D. I n d u s t r i a l a t e . (2nd E d i t i o n ) . Washington, D . C of I n d u s t r i a l R e a l t o r s of the N a t i o n a l i o n of R e a l E s t a t e Boards, 1971•  London: Lean,  "T s " ng u t r e  Economics  P r e s s ,  C o n t r o l s A n a l y s i s " . Toronto, 1977'  of  London:  of  G a z e t t e Land The  Use  Land L t d . ,  Economics. 1966.  P l a n n i n g :  E s t a t e s  G a z e t t e  Urban L t d . ,  and 1969.  Roger. " A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the L o c a t i o n I n d u s t r y W i t h i n C i t i e s " . Canadian Geographer. V o l . X I I I , 1969.  of  Leone,  Robert  A.;  and  Struyk,  H y p o t h e s i s : S t u d i e s . L e v i n ,  E.A.  Evidence  V o l .  " Z o n i n g  M a r c e l l e ,  Muncy,  F i v e  Are  No.  A.  "Land  H a r v a r d  f o r  B u s i n e s s  A p r i l ,  We  2.,  I n d u s t r y  Review.  -  N e g l e c t e d No.  32  on  P r o b l e m " .  March-  2.  Zoning Committee. Zoning. 1950-  P r i n c i p l e s  of  Summary R e p o r t . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ,  Department,  Dennis. Z o n i n g " . American  "Performance Standards i n I n d u s t r i a l P l a n n i n g 1951. Chicago, I l l i n o i s . S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1951.  Robert  E.;  Burgess,  C i t y .  1971.  E r n e s t  U n i v e r s i t y  W.;  of  and  McKenzie,  Chicago  R o d e r i c k  D.  1925«  P r e s s ,  P h i l . I n d u s t r i a l Development: Views and I s s u e s of the I n d u s t r i a l Community. Vancouver: G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g Department, May, 1976.  A l l a n  R.  "The  I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  M a n u f a c t u r i n g " . American R a t c l i f f ,  R i c h a r d London.  E s t a t e i n  V.  Urban  of  G r e a t e r  L o c a t i o n  the  5^«  No.  Economics.  Book  Co.  2. New  Inc.,  Vancouver.  Vancouver.  of  A m e r i c a n  A s s o c i a t i o n  R e a l  V a r i o u s  of  June, York,  196^-. Toronto  19^9. E s t a t e Annual  Trends I s s u e s .  1978.  Uwe  A.  Zoning  A  Case  Study.  of  of V o l .  Land  M c G r a w - H i l l  Board  -  A n n a l s  Geographers.  M e t r o p o l i t a n  1970 Rossen,  a  P l a n n i n g  P l a n n i n g  The  R e a l  Toward  195^.  Denis. Space f o r I n d u s t r y . Vancouver: G r e a t e r Vancouver  Pred,  A  V o l .  0'Gorman,  P a u l s o n ,  Urban  1957.  I n d u s t r i a l I n d u s t r i a l  Park,  Moving  Community  N a t i o n a l  O'Harrow,  SMSA'S".  1976.  System".  VII  Incubator  D e l . " E f f e c t s of D e f i c i e n t Zoning Ordinances I n d u s t r i a l Development". A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r i a l Development C o u n c i l J o u r n a l . V o l . VI, No. 1., January-, 1971.  Dorothy  F  Canada:  P e r m i t  V o l .  From  "The  October,  13,  i n  Development Review.  Raymond.  B r i t i s h  P l a n n i n g ,  f o r  Comprehensively  U n p u b l i s h e d  Columbia, May,  1969.  School  P l a n n e d  M.A.  T h e s i s .  of  Community  Developments. U n i v e r s i t y and  R e g i o n a l  94  Shenkel,  W i l l i a m the  M.  " I n d u s t r i a l  Demand  J o u r n a l . Shenkel,  Smith,  M.  John  Solesbury,  The  and  A p p r a i s a l  Consequences of V o l . 40, 1964.  L o c a t i o n .  Sons  " I n n e r May,  C i t y  Inc.  New  York,  I n d u s t r i a l  Toronto.  1971'  I n d u s t r i a l  D i s t r i c t s " .  Urban  1971.  W i l l i a m .  P r e s s ,  P o l i c y  i n  Urban  P l a n n i n g .  Pergamon  197^-  Guy P.F. " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n M a n u f a c t u r i n g : S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and L o c a t i o n Dynamics i n G r e a t e r Vancouver". Canadian Geographer. V o l . 17-18. 1973-74.  Tennant,  Len. f o r  I n d u s t r y  Tennant,  I n s t i t u t e .  S i t e No. Land  Vancouver. C i t y  of  A  P r e l i m i n a r y  Vancouver  P l a n n i n g  Report Department,  1977.  Len. " I n n e r C i I n t e r - I n d u s t r y I n d u s t r i a l S e c t Department. Ja  Land  Vernon,  i n  D i s c u s s i o n .  J u l y ,  Urban  and  R e g u l a t i o n s ,  Space".  1956.  I n d u s t r i a l  Land.  Urban  January,  W i l e y  L e l a n d .  Steed,  Zoning  I n d u s t r i a l  W i l l i a m . M . "The Economic Z o n i n g " . Land Economics.  David  Smith,  f o r  and  23.  Space  L o c a t i o n  f o r  I n d u s t r y  Requirements.  -  An  A n a l y s i s  T e c h n i c a l  of  B u l l e t i n  195^.  I n s t i t u t e .  Raymond;  t y I n d u s t r y - The P r e l i m i n a r y Survey". Commodity L i n k s A Study of S e l e c t e d o r s . C i t y of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g nuary, 1974.  and  Cambridge,  I n d u s t r i a l — D e v e l o p m e n t Hoover,  Edgar  M a s s a c h u s e t t s :  M."  Anatomy  H a r v a r d  Handbook. of  a  1975-  M e t r o p o l i s .  U n i v e r s i t y  P r e s s ,  1959. Vernon,  Raymond. C e n t r a l of  Vernon,  the  Raymond. Harvard  The C i t y .  Changing New  Committee  f o r  M e t r o p o l i s U n i v e r s i t y  Economic  York:  A r e a  Economic 1985.  P r e s s ,  F u n c t i o n  of  Development Development,  Cambridge,  I960.  the Committee 1959.  Massachusetts:  25  M-1 (M-1)  Industrial District Schedule  (Light)  1.  Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: Subject to all the provisions of this By-law on any site w i t h i n any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an ( M - l ) District the only uses permitted, and the only uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Sections 1 and 2 hereof, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set f o r t h in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1/63 — No. 4032) A.  Uses (8/10/74 - No. 4811)  (D  REPEALED  (2)  A n i m a l hospital.  (3)  REPEALED  (4)  A u t o m o t i v e repair shop.  (5)  A u t o m o b i l e and parts salesroom.  (6)  REPEALED  (7)  Bag and sack cleaning.  (8)  Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, confectionary)  (9)  Battery manufacturing or rebuilding.  00  Boat b u i l d i n g (boats not to exceed 80 feet in length).  (11  Book bindery.  (12  Brewery and distillery.  (i3;  B r o o m and brush manufacturing.  (14  Candy manufacturing.  (15  Cannery (fruit and vegetables only).  (16  Cigarette and cigar manufacturing.  (17  C l o t h i n g and garment manufacturing.  (18  C o l d storage plant.  (19  Cosmetics manufacturing.  (17/11/59 - No. 3812)  ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - No. 3812)  245  M-1  96-  (20)  Dairy products manufacturing.  (21)  Electric equipment manufacturing.  (22)  Electro-plating.  (23)  Excelsior manufacturing or storage.  (24)  Feed and seed storage.  (25)  F o o d products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery).  (26)  Frozen f o o d lockers.  (27)  Parking garage (public).  (28)  Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions of Section 11.10 . ( 2 2 / 4 / 6 9 - N o . 4423)  (29)  Hemp and jute products manufacturing.  (30)  Ice manufacturing.  (31)  Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or p h i l o z o i c character.  (32)  Jewellery manufacturing.  (33)  Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding o f dogs or cats.  (34)  Laboratory.  (35)  L a u n d r y , cleaning and dyeing establishment.  (36)  Lithographing.  (37)  Mattress manufacturing.  (38)  M o t i o n picture and television studio.  (39)  Musical instrument manufacturing.  (40)  Novelty and toy manufacturing.  (30/12/57 - No. 3671)  (40A) Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing.  M-1  (12/3/57 - No. 3622)  (41)  Parking area (public).  (42)  Poultry (dressed) wholesale and storage.  (43)  Public utility on a site not less than 2 0 0 feet f r o m any R District.  (44)  Publishing plant.  (45)  R a d i o and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial).  (46)  Radio broadcasting and receiving station f o r motor-vehicles, trains, watercraft and aircraft.  (47)  Restaurant.  246  97  (48  Sausage manufacturing.  (49  School (business or commercial).  (50  School (trade).  (51  Shoe or boot manufacturing.  (52  Sign manufacturing.  (53  Stamp shop (rubber or metal).  (54  Taxidermy.  (55  Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing.  (56  Textile manufacturing.  (57  Tires retreading or rebuilding.  (58  Tool (machine) manufacturing.  (59  Toy and novelty manufacturing.  (60  REPEALED  (61  Warehouse (general).  (62  Wax products manufacturing (for derivation of products, see processing of fats, bones, animal products).  (63  Window shade manufacturing.  (64  Wholesale business.  (65  A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-2) district, provided that:  ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - N o . 3812) ( 3 1 / 7 / 6 2 - N o . 4007)  (a) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than 10 percent of the area of the site, and are not tiver 12 feet in height. (b) All accessory uses shall occupy an area of not greater than one-third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the_site.  B  Front Yard:  1  No front yard shall be required. C. Side Yard: No side yard shall be required, provided, however, that where an (M-1) Industrial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane, the following side yards shall be provided: (1)  Three feet in the case of an RA, RS, or RT District.  (2)  Five feet in the case of an RM District.  If a side yard in an (M-1) District be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width.  247  M-1  98 D.  Rear Y a r d : A rear yard shall be provided the m i n i m u m depth o f which shall be not less than 10 feet except as provided hereunder:  E.  (T)  Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the m i n i m u m depth of the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line o f the site.  (2)  Where a site is sufficiently large and is located w i t h i n an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not likely to be required, the Director o f Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement. (21/11/67 - No. 4 3 2 8 )  Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 100 feet. The Director, o f Planning, in the exercise o f his discretion, may increase the height set forth herein, provided that the said building complies in all other respects with the regulations contained in this section. (21/11/67 - No. 4328)  F.  F l o o r Space R a t i o : The.floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. F o r the purposes of this schedule, in c o m p u t i n g the f l o o r space ratio the f l o o r area of the b u i l d i n g shall include the total area of all the floors o f all the b u i l d ings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer limits of the building), except for areas o f floors used for parking purposes and areas o f cellars or basements which are not used as habitable a c c o m m o d a t i o n or access to habitable a c c o m m o d a t i o n . I n ' a d d i t i o n , balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances which, in the o p i n i o n of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded f r o m f l o o r area measurement, provided that the total f l o o r area o f all such exx l u d e d items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f l o o r area. (30/8/66 - No. 4260)  G. Gff-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. • H. Off-street L o a d i n g Spaces: L o a d i n g and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. J.  V e r t i c a l Light Angles f o r O f f i c e Buildings: In the case o f an office building of more than three storeys or 4 0 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 4 0 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles f r o m : (1)  M-1  A l l points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in f r o n t of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the h o r i z o n t a l ;  2 4 8  99 (2)  A l ! points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the h o r i z o n t a l ;  (3)  A l l points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle o f 70 degrees to the h o r i z o n t a l ;  (4)  In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a flanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal;  Provided however that any part of a b u i l d i n g shall be exempt from the appropriate vertical angle c o n t r o l above, if the e x e m p t part o f the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 6 0 feet or less, measured parallel to the street, lane or boundary of the site, as the case may be, f r o m which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) o f this proviso. (24/8/76 - No. 4997) 2.  Uses w h i c h may be permitted subject to special approval by the Director of Planning: With the approval of the Director of Planning development permits may be issued f o r the f o l l o w i n g uses. If the development permit is granted it shall be subject to such c o n d i t i o n s and regulations as the D i r e c t o r o f Planning may decide, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set f o r t h in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1 / 6 3 - N o . 4032) A.  Uses (Group A ) : (1)  A m b u l a n c e headquarters.  ( 1 2 / 3 / 5 7 - N o . 3622)  (1 A)  A u c t i o n room (sale and storage).  (1B)  A r c h e r y range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open). ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - N o . 3812)  (2)  A u t o m o t i v e manufacture and body building.  (2A)  Aviaries.  (3)  Billiard and pool hall.  (4)  B o t t l i n g plant (milk or carbonated beverages).  (5)  B o w l i n g alley.  (17/11 / 5 9 - N o . 3812)  (6)  REPEALED  (7)  Buildings or runs for the hatching and raising of live p o u l t r y , f o w l , rabbits, frogs, fish, or worms.  ( 2 2 / 3 / 6 6 - N o . 4234)  (8)  B u i l d i n g or use required by a public authority.  (9)  Cannery (meat, poultry and pickles only).  2 4 9  M-1  100  (10)  Car sales lot.  (11)  Chemicals, manufacturing and mixing.  (12)  Church.  (13)  Clay and clay products manufacturing, e x c l u d i n g brick and tile.  (14)  Cleaning and dyeing shop.  (15)  C l u b , or lodge (fraternal).  (16)  C o m m u n i t y centre.  (16A) C o m m u n i t y Residential Facility, provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director of Planning be notified. (15/3/77 - No. 5061) (17)  Concrete m i x i n g operations or concrete products manufacturing.  (18)  Cooperage works.  (19)  Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land.  (20)  F i l m exchange.  (21)  Fish market (wholesale).  (22)  F l o u r mill.  (23)  Furniture manufacturing and storage..  (24)  G y p s u m products manufacturing.  (25)  Hall.  (26)  Home craft or occupation.  (27)  REPEALED  (28)  Machine shop or blacksmith shop.  ( 5 / 5 / 6 0 - N o . 3840)  (28A) Marina (excluding boat building and major repairs to and overhaul of boats). ( 3 1 / 7 / 7 3 - N o . 4713)  M-1  (29)  M o n u m e n t or stone works.  (30)  O f f i c e building.  (31)  Paint, oil shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacturing, m i x i n g or storage.  (32)  Park or playground.  (33)  Pet shop.  (34)  Plastic products manufacturing.  (35)  Poultry (live) sales and distribution.  (36)  Poultry slaughtering market.  (37)  Public utility other than as provided for in Section 1 o f this schedule.  250  101  (38)  Radio and television broadcasting and receiving station (commercial).  (39)  Retail store, business or undertaking.  (40)  Sash and door manufacturing.  (41)  S c h o o l (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery.  (42)  Sheet metal works.  (43)  Stable, barn or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, boarding of horses, cattle, goats and sheep.  (44)  Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, similar place of assembly.  (45)  Steam baths.  (4.6)  Storage yard provided it is enclosed by a suitable fence which is painted and neatly maintained at all times.  (47)  S w i m m i n g pool (commercial).  (48)  Theatre (excluding a drive-in).  (49)  T r u c k terminal.  or  ( 4 9 A ) T r u c k garden, field crop, nursery, berry or bush crops, orchard or pasture land. ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - N o . 3812) (50)  U n d e r t a k i n g establishment.  (51)  REPEALED  (52)  Welding shop.  (53)  Wiping rags and c o t t o n waste (bulk storage).  (54)  A dwelling unit for a caretaker or watchman or other persons similarly e m p l o y e d if such dwelling unit is considered to be essential to the operation o f the business or the undertaking.  (31 / 7 / 6 2 - N o . 4 0 0 7 ) .  (54A) T e m p o r a r y parking area (public). (55)  ( 1 0 / 1 1 / 6 4 - N o . 4139)  A n y other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit f o r such b u i l d i n g or use the Director o f Planning shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule. ( 1 2 / 3 / 5 7 — N o . 3622)  (55A) A b u i l d i n g which has been altered or used f o r a d w e l l i n g u n i t , housekeeping or sleeping unit, boarding or rooming house, prior to June 18th, 1956, w i t h or w i t h o u t one or more of the required C i t y permits. (56)  A n y b u i l d i n g or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 o f this schedule, other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such Section.  251  M-1  102  B. Uses (Group B) which may only be granted by the Director of Planning:  M-1  (1)  Aircraft landing place.  (2)  Building or use customarily accessory to the above uses.  252  103  1A (M-1A) Industrial District Schedule (Light—Residential Community)  1.  ( 1 6 / 3 / 7 6 - N o . 4951)  Uses P e r m i t t e d , C o n d i t i o n s and Regulations: Subject to all the provisions of this By-law on any site w i t h i n any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an (M-1 A ) District, the o n l y uses permitted and the only uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Section 2 hereof, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. A.  Front Yards: N o f r o n t yard shall be required, except where an (M-1 A ) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the f r o n t yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction o f the Director of Planning.  B.  Side Y a r d : N o side yard shall be required, except where an (M-1 A ) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the side yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction o f the Director of Planning. i f a side yard in an (M-1 A) District be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width.  C.  Rear Y a r d : A rear yard shall be provided the m i n i m u m depth of which shall be not less than 10 feet except as provided hereunder: (1)  Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the m i n i m u m depth o f the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance f r o m the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site.  (2)  Where a site is sufficiently large and is located w i t h i n an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not likely to be required, the Director of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement.  (3)  Where an (M-1 A) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the rear yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction of the Director of Planning.  253  M-1A  104 D.  Height:  ,  The height o f a building shall not exceed 60 feet. E.  F l o o r Space R a t i o : T h e f l o o r space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. F o r the purpose of this schedule, in c o m p u t i n g the f l o o r space ratio the f l o o r area o f the b u i l d i n g shall include the total area of all the floors of all the buildings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer limits of the building), except for areas of floors used f o r parking purposes and areas of cellars or basements which are not used as habitable a c c o m o d a t i o n or access to habitable accomodation. In a d d i t i o n , balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances w h i c h , in the o p i n i o n of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded f r o m f l o o r area measurement, provided that the total f l o o r area o f all such e x c l u d e d items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f l o o r area.  F.  Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by and in accordance w i t h the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law.  G. Off-street L o a d i n g Spaces: L o a d i n g and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 o f this By-law. 2.  Uses w h i c h may be permitted subject to approval by the Director o f Planning: With the approval o f the Director of Planning, development permits may be issued f o r the f o l l o w i n g uses. If the development permit is granted, it shall be subject to such c o n d i t i o n s and regulations as the Director o f Planning may decide, w i t h due regard to the f o l l o w i n g : (1) Provision o f appropriate landscaping; (2) Design, character and choice of building material in relation t o adjoining R zoned land. (3) Development o f any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in S e c t i o n 11.3 to this By-law. A.  M-1A  Uses ( G r o u p A ) : (1)  A n i m a l hospital  (2)  A u t o m o t i v e repair shop  (3)  A u t o m o b i l e and parts salesroom  (4)  Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies and c o n f e c t i o n e r y )  (5)  Boat b u i l d i n g (boats not to exceed 80 feet in length)  (6)  B o o k bindery  254  105  7)  Brewery and distillery  8)  B r o o m and brush manufacturing  9)  C a n d y manufacturing  10)  Cannery (fruit and vegetables only)  11)  Cigarette and cigar manufacturing  12)  C l o t h i n g and garment manufacturing  13)  C o l d storage plant  1 3 A ) C o m m u n i t y Residential F a c i l i t y , provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director o f Planning be notified. (15/3/77 - N o . 5061) 14)  Cosmetics manufacturing  15)  Dairy products manufacturing  16)  Electric equipment manufacturing  17)  Electro-plating  18)  Excelsior manufacturing or storage  19)  Feed and seed storage  20)  F o o d products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery)  21)  F r o z e n f o o d lockers  22)  Parking garage (public)  23)  Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions o f  24)  Hemp and jute products manufacturing  25)  Ice m a n u f a c t u r i n g  26)  Institution o f a religious, philanthropic, charitable or p h i l o z o i c character.  27)  Jewellery manufacturing  28)  Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats  29)  Laboratory  30)  L a u n d r y , cleaning and dyeing establishment  31)  Lithographing  32)  Mattress manufacturing  33)  M o t i o n picture and television studio  34)  Musical instrument manufacturing  35)  Novelty and toy manufacturing  255  Section 11.10  M-1A  106  M-1A  (36)  Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing.  (37)  Parking area (public)  (38)  Poultry (dressed) wholesale and storage  (39)  Public u t i l i t y on a site not less than 200 feet f r o m any R District  (40)  Publishing plant  (41)  R a d i o and television broadcasting and {commercial)  (42)  Radio broadcasting and receiving station for m o t o r vehicles, trains, watercraft and aircraft  (43)  Restaurant  (44)  Sausage m a n u f a c t u r i n g  (45)  School (business or commercial)  (46)  S c h o o l (trade)  (47)  Shoe or b o o t manufacturing  (48)  Sign manufacturing  (49)  Stamp shop (rubber or metal)  (50)  Taxidermy  (51)  Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing  (52)  T e x t i l e manufacturing  (53)  Tires retreading or rebuilding  (54)  T o o l (machine) manufacturing  (55)  T o y and novelty manufacturing  (56)  Warehouse (general)  (57)  Wax products manufacturing (for derivation of products, see processing of fats, bones, animal products)  (58)  W i n d o w shade manufacturing  (59)  Wholesale business  (60)  A m b u l a n c e headquarters  (61)  A u c t i o n room (sale and storage)  (62)  A r c h e r y range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open)  (63)  A u t o m o t i v e manufacture and body building  (64)  Billiard and pool hall  (65)  B o t t l i n g plant (milk or carbonated beverages)  256  receiving masts and  antennae  107 B o w l i n g alley B u i l d i n g or use required by a public authority Cannery (meat, p o u l t r y and pickles only) Car sales l o t Chemicals, manufacturing and m i x i n g Church Clay and clay products manufacturing, e x c l u d i n g brick and tile Cleaning and dyeing shop C l u b or Lodge (fraternal) C o m m u n i t y Centre Concrete m i x i n g operations or concrete products manufacturing Cooperage works Deposit or extraction o f material so as to alter the configuration of the land F i l m exchange F l o u r mill F u r n i t u r e manufacturing and storage G y p s u m products manufacturing Hall  (84  H o m e craft or o c c u p a t i o n Machine shop or blacksmith shop  (86  M o n u m e n t or stone works  257  M-1A  M (M-2)  Industrial District  108  Schedule  (Heavy)  1.  Uses p e r m i t t e d , conditions and regulations: Subject to all the provisions o f this By-law on any site w i t h i n any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an (M-2) District the o n l y uses permitted and the o n l y uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Sections 1 and 2 hereof, provided, however, that development o f any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1/63 — No. 4032) A.  /  Uses: ( 8 / 1 0 / 7 4 - N o . 4811)  1)  REPEALED  2)  A n i m a l hospital.  3)  REPEALED  4)  A u t o m o t i v e repair shop.  5)  A u t o m o b i l e and parts showroom.  6)  A u t o m o t i v e manufacturing and b o d y building.  7)  REPEALED  8)  Bag and sack cleaning.  9)  Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies and confectionary)  10)  Battery manufacturing or rebuilding.  11)  Boat building.  12)  B o o k bindery.  13)  B o t t l i n g plant (milk or carbonated beverages).  14)  Brewery or distillery.  15)  B r o o m and brush manufacturing.  16)  C a n d y manufacturing.  17)  Cannery (fruit and vegetables only).  18)  Cigarette and cigar manufacturing.  19)  C l o t h i n g and garment manufacturing.  ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - No. 3812)  ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - No. 3812)  259  M-2  10,9  (20)  C o l d storage plant.  (21)  Cooperage works.  (22)  Cosmetics manufacturing.  (23)  Dairy products manufacturing.  (24)  Electric equipment manufacturing.  (25)  Electro-plating.  (26)  Excelsior manufacturing or storage.  (27)  Feed and seed storage.  (28)  Fish market (wholesale).  (29)  Flour mill.  (30)  F o o d products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery).  (31)  Frozen food lockers.  (32)  Furniture manufacturing and storage.  (33)  Parking garage (public).  (34)  Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions o f  (35)  G y p s u m products manufacturing.  (36)  Hemp and jute products manufacturing.  (37)  Ice manufacturing.  (38)  Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or p h i l o z o i c character.  (39)  Jewellery manufacturing.  (40)  Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, or boarding o f dogs or cats.  (41)  Laboratory.  (42)  Laundry, cleaning and dyeing establishment.  (43)  Lithographing.  (44)  Machine shop or blacksmith shop.  (45)  Mattress manufacturing.  (46)  M o n u m e n t or stone works.  (47)  M o t i o n picture and television studio.  (48)  Musical instrument manufacturing.  (49)  Novelty and toy manufacturing.  (30/1 2/57 - N o . 3671)  (49A) Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing.  M-2  260  Section 1 1 . 1 0 . (22/4/69 - No. 4 4 2 3 )  (12/3/57 — No. 3622)  110  Parking area (public). Plastic products manufacturing. Poultry (dressed), wholesale and storage. Public utility on a site not less than 200 feet from any R District. Publishing plant. Radio broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor-vehicles, trains, watercraft and aircraft. Restaurant. Sausage manufacturing. School (trade). Sheet metal works. Shipbuilding. Shoe or boot manufacturing. Sign manufacturing. Stamp shop ( rubber and metal). Taxidermy. Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing. T e x t i l e manufacturing. Tires, retreading or rebuilding. T o o l (machine) manufacturing. T o y and novelty manufacturing. REPEALED  (17/11/59 - No. 3812)  Warehouse (general). Wax products manufacturing; (for derivation of products see processing of fat, bones, animal products). Wholesale business. W i n d o w shade manufacturing. Wiping rags and c o t t o n waste (bulk storage). A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-2) District with the consent of the Director of Planning, provided that: (a) A l l accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than 10 percent of the area of the site, and are not over 12 feet in height.  261  M-2  Ill (b) A l l accessory uses shall occupy an area of not greater than one-third the total gross f l o o r area of all the buildings on the site. B.  Front Yard: N o front yard shall be required.  C.  Side Y a r d : N o side yard shall be required, provided, however, that where an (M-2) Industrial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane, the f o l l o w i n g side yards shall be provided: (1)  Three feet in the case of an R A , RS, or R T District.  (2)  Five feet in the case o f an R M District.  If a side yard in an (M-2) District be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in w i d t h . D.  Rear Y a r d : A rear yard shall be provided the m i n i m u m depth of which shall be not less than ten feet except as provided hereunder:  E.  (1)  Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the m i n i m u m depth of the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site.  (2)  Where a site is sufficiently large and is located w i t h i n an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not likely to be required, the Director of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement. (21/11/67 - No. 4328)  Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 100 feet. The Director of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may increase the height set f o r t h herein, provided that the said building complies in all other respects with the regulations contained in this section. (21/11/67 - No. 4328)  F.  F l o o r Space R a t i o : The f l o o r space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. F o r the purposes of this schedule, in c o m p u t i n g the f l o o r space ratio the f l o o r area of the building shall include the total area of all the floors of all the buildings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer limits of the building), except for areas of floors used for parking purposes and areas of cellars or basements which are not used as habitable a c c o m m o d a t i o n or access to habitable a c c o m m o d a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances w h i c h , in the opinion of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded from floor area measurement, provided that the total f l o o r area of all such excluded items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f l o o r area. (30/8/66 - No. 4260)  M-2  262  112  G. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. H. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions cf Section 13 of this By-law. J.  Vertical Light Angles for Office Buildings: In the case of an office building of more than three storeys or 40 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 40 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles from: (1)  All points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in front of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal;  (2)  All points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal;  (3)  All points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle of 70 degrees to the horizontal;  (4)  In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a flanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal;  Provided however that any part of a building shall be exempt from the appropriate vertical angle control above, if the exempt part of the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 60 feet or less, measured parallel to the street, lane or boundary of the site, as the case may be, from which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) of this proviso. (24/8/76 - No. 4997) 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Director of Planning: With the approval of the Director of Planning development permits may be issued for the following uses. If the development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations as the Director of Planning may decide, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. ( 2 / 1 / 6 3 - N o . 4032) A. Uses (Group A ) : (1)  Abbatoir or slaughter house.  (IA)  Ambulance headquarters.  (IB)  Archery range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open). (17/11/59-No. 3812)  (12/3/57-No. 3622)  263  M-2  113 (2)  A u t o m o b i l e wrecking.  (2A)  Aviaries.  (3)  Blast furnace operation.  (4)  REPEALED  (5)  Buildings or runs for the hatching and raising of live p o u l t r y , f o w l , rabbits, frogs, fish, or worms.  (6)  B u i l d i n g or use required by a public authority.  (7)  Cannery (fish, meat, poultry, pickles).  (8)  Car sales lot.  (9)  Chemicals, manufacturing and mixing.  (10)  Church.  (11)  Clay and clay products manufacturing.  (12)  C l u b , or lodge (fraternal).  (13)  Coal distillation.  ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - N o . 3812)  ( 2 2 / 3 / 6 6 - N o . 4234)  (13A) C o m m u n i t y Residential Facility, provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director of Planning be notified. (15/3/77 - No. 5061)  M-2  (14)  Concrete m i x i n g operations or concrete products manufacturing.  (15)  Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land.  (16)  Explosives manufacturing or storage.  (17)  Fertilizer manufacturing or storage.  (18)  Fish (smoking, canning, curing, cleaning, packing).  (19)  Fish oil or meal manufacturing or storage.  (20)  Foundry.  (21)  Gas (compressed), manufacturing or storage.  (22)  Gelatine manufacturing.  (23)  Grain elevator.  (24)  Hall.  (25)  H o m e craft or occupation.  (26)  Incinerator.  (27)  L i m e manufacturing or storage.  (28)  L i n o l e u m and oilcloth manufacturing.  (29)  REPEALED  ( 3 1 / 7 / 6 2 - N o . 4007)  2 6 4  114  (29A) Marina (excluding boat building and major repairs to and overhaul of boats). (31/7/73-No.4713) (30  Matches manufacturing or storage.  (31  Metal smelting, refining, reduction.  (32  Office  (33  Paint, oil shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacturing, m i x i n g or storage.  (34  Park or playground.  (35  Petroleum, bitumen, tar products or derivatives, refining, m i x i n g or bulk storage.  (36  Poultry (live), sales and distribution.  (37  Poultry slaughtering market.  (38  Processing of fat, bones, fish, hides, skins, offal and animal products of a like nature.  (39  Public utility other than as provided for in Section 1 o f this schedule.  (40  Pulp manufacturing.  (41  Rags, baling and storage.  (42  Retail store, business or undertaking.  (43  R o l l i n g mill.  (44  Rubber manufacturing or treatment.  (45  Sash and door manufacturing.  (46  Sawmill.  (47  School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery.  (48  Size manufacturing.  (49  Smelter or refinery.  (50  Stable, barn, or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, boarding of horses, cattle, goats or sheep.  (51)  Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium or similar place of assembly.  (52)  Stockyard.  (53)  Storage yard, provided it is enclosed by a suitable fence which is painted and neatly maintained at all times.  building  (53A) Temporary parking area (public). (54)  ( 1 0 / 1 1 / 6 4 - N o . 4139)  Truck terminal.  265  M-2  115 i  ( 5 4 A ) T r u c k garden, field c r o p , nursery, berry o r bush crops, o r c h a r d or pasture land.  (17/11/59-No.  3812)  (55)  U n d e r t a k i n g establishment.  (56)  V e g e t a b l e o i l o r fat r e f i n i n g and storage.  (57)  Welding shop.  (58)  A dwelling unit for a caretaker or watchman or other persons similarly e m p l o y e d i f s u c h d w e l l i n g u n i t is c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the business o r u n d e r t a k i n g .  (59)  A n y o t h e r b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t e d i n a n y s c h e d u l e o f t h i s B y - l a w a n d w h i c h is s i m i l a r t o the f o r e g o i n g b u i l d i n g s o r uses; b e f o r e g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r s u c h b u i l d i n g o r use t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g s h a l l have regard t o t h e t y p e s o f b u i l d i n g s a n d uses w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y m a y be p e r m i t t e d in t h i s s c h e d u l e . (12/3/57—No. 3622)  ( 5 9 A ) A b u i l d i n g w h i c h has b e e n a l t e r e d o r used f o r a d w e l l i n g u n i t , h o u s e k e e p i n g or sleeping unit, boarding or r o o m i n g house, p r i o r to J u n e 1 8 t h , 1956, w i t h or w i t h o u t one or m o r e o f the required C i t y p e r m i t s . (60)  B.  M-2  A n y b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d as a c c e s s o r y t o t h e a b o v e uses a n d t o t h e uses l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 1 o f t h i s s c h e d u l e , o t h e r t h a n t h o s e a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s o r uses f o r w h i c h p r o v i s i o n is m a d e i n s u c h s e c t i o n .  U s e s ( G r o u p B) which may only be g r a n t e d by the Director of Planning: (1)  A i r c r a f t landing place.  (2)  B u i l d i n g o r use c u s t o m a r i l y a c c e s s o r y t o t h e a b o v e uses.  266  APPENDIX  DEVELOPMENT IN  PERMITS  INDUSTRIAL  FOR  AREAS  OFFICE  AND  JANUARY  GRANVILLE  B  1,  AND  1737 1523 1525 1555 1632 1635 1555  l e Ave. A A A A  v v v v  e e e e  . . . .  Ave. Ave. Ave.  (X  2)  & 2305  1,  w. w. w. w. W. W. w.  2nd 3rd 8th 6th 6th 7th 8th  Ave. Ave. A A A A A  v v v v v  e e e e e  . . . . .  Ave. Ave. AND  12th  A V E . REFUSED  APPROVED W.  JUNE  Hemlock  ARBUTUS  2184  -  1971  BUILDINGS  BURRARD REFUSED  APPROVED  2301 G r a n v i l 1525 W. 8 t h 1770 B u r r a r d 1645 W. 7 t h 1555 W. 8 t h 1 4 0 1 W. 8 t h 1663 W. 7 t h 1701 W. 4 t h 1 4 1 2 W. 7 t h 1524 W. 6 t h 1575 W. 7 t h 1774 W. 5 t h  OFFICE/RETAIL  Broadway  2215 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2006 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2256 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2034-2050 W . 12th A v e .  NIL  ( X 2)  CAMBIE  AND  APPROVED  201 W . 6 t h 2425 Q u e b e c 111 E . 5 t h  REFUSED  5 W. 7th A v e . l 4 l E . . 7 t h A v e . ( X 3) 399 W . 6 t h A v e . 291 E . 2nd A v e . 106 E . 3 r d A v e . 225 W . 2nd A v e . 106 E . 7 t h A v e . 305-311 W . 8 t h A v e . 2425 Q u e b e c .  Ave. Ave.  POWELL  STREET  APPROVED 195 A l e x a n d e r 2019 Dundas & 2012-2018 310-316 V i c t o r i a  AVE.  2nd  REFUSED  W a l l  195 1603  490 316  A l e x a n d e r F r a n k l i n Commercial V i c t o r i a  1978.  APPROVED 1091 W. 8 t h Ave.  FAIRVIEW SLOPES REFUSED 1015 W. 7 t h Ave. 1125 W. 8 t h Ave. MARINE DRIVE  APPROVED 1300-1326 W. 73rd Ave. 8188/94 M a n i t o b a 8400 M a i n (X 2) 8955 Shaughnessy 780 S.W. M a r i n e Dr.  REFUSED 8560 F r a s e r 8400 M a i n 8836 S e l k i r k  OTHER* APPROVED REFUSED 2780 E. Broadway 1685 Boundary Road * INCLUDES FALSE CREEK FLATS AND FALSE CREEK AND EAST END, CLARK DRIVE, LOUGHEED AND BOUNDARY, JOYCE ROAD. N  I  L  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094762/manifest

Comment

Related Items