UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Industrial zoning in Vancouver Holmes, Robert J 1979

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I N D U S T R I A L Z O N I N G I N V A N C O U V E R b y R O B E R T J . H O L M E S B . A . , Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1967 M . S . W . , U n i v e r s i t y ' o f C a l g a r y , 1 9 6 9 T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S M A S T E R P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F F O R T H E D E G R E E O F O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1979 ^ R o b e r t J . Holmes, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 A p r i l , 1979. A B S T R A C T R e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y b y t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s o f b o t h t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t h a v e r e f e r r e d t o t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y a n d t h e n e e d f o r a n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y f o r b o t h t h e C i t y a n d t h e R e g i o n . T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y a n d a d o p t e d a p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C i t y . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e s u p p l y a n d l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , t h e i m p a c t o f p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w a r r a n t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e m a j o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o o l o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n a n d r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i m p a c t o f l e g i s l a t i o n o n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . T h e e v o l u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r a n d i t s i m p a c t o n t h e s u p p l y a n d l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e c i t y a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s . E a r l y z o n i n g b y - l a w s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o t e c t r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s f r o m t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . P l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s h a s r e f l e c t e d a p o l i c y t o w a r d i n d u s t r y i n u r b a n a r e a s t h a t h a s r a n g e d f r o m r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l t o n e g l e c t . V a n c o u v e r ' s p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n a s i t a p p l i e s t o i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a l l o w s o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l u s e s t o b e d e v e l o p e d i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e i m p a c t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e o n t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e i n V a n c o u v e r i s e x a m i n e d . D a t a f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t R e c o r d s w a s o b t a i n e d a n d s h o w e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a p p l i c a -t i o n s f o r o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e c i t y ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . D a t a f r o m t h e c i t y ' s a s s e s s m e n t r e c o r d s a l s o c o n f i r m e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s i n t h e c i t y ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t i m e s e r i e s l a n d u s e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o w e d t h a t t h e s u p p l y o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w a s d e c l i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e d a t a e x a m i n e d t h e r e f o r e , s u p p o r t e d a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t V a n c o u v e r ' s i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t t e d a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n t o o c c u r b y a l l o w i n g i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o b e d e v e l o p e d f o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e . T h e p r i n c i p a l i m p a c t o f t h i s p e r m i s s i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w a s f o u n d t o b e i n t h e c i t y ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y w e r e t h e n d i s c u s s e d . T h e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f r e t a i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e e x a m i n e d . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s f o c u s e d o n t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r o f t h e u r b a n e c o n o m y a n d t h e n e e d t o m a k e l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r s e r v i c e r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s w h i c h t y p i c a l l y a r e o f f i c e a n d r e t a i l i n n a t u r e . T h e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f a d o p t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t i s m o r e p r o t e c t i v e o f i n d u s t r y w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d b y e x p l o r i n g t h e u n i q u e r o l e t h a t V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s p l a y i n p r o v i d i n g " i n c u b a t o r " s p a c e f o r n e w a n d s m a l l e r i n d u s t r i e s . T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t n e e d s t o b e u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e l o n g t e r m e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r o f a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . P l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s f o r t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s s h o u l d t h e n b e e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w e d b y c h a n g e s t o p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N - T h e C o n t e x t - T h e S t u d y - T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e C H A P T E R I I T H E S T A T U S O F I N D U S T R Y I N Z O N I N G B Y - L A W S -A N H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E - T h e E v o l u t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a - I n d u s t r y a n d V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g B y - L a w s 11 C H A P T E R I I I R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y 37 C H A P T E R I V A N A L Y S I S O F R E S U L T S - D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t s J a n u a r y 1, 1971 -J u n e 1, 1978 - O f f i c e a n d O f f i c e / R e t a i l D e v e l o p m e n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l l y Z o n e d A r e a s 1978 - T r e n d s i n L a n d U s e i n I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s 1969 - 1976 - R e z o n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L a n d 1969 - 1978 ij4 C H A P T E R V I M P L I C A T I O N S F O R P U B L I C P O L I C Y A N D T H E P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S 62 C H A P T E R V I S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 87 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 90 A P P E N D I C E S 95 V L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E I T A B L E I A T A B L E I I T A B L E I I I T A B L E I V T A B L E V T A B L E V I T A B L E V I I T A B L E V I I I D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r O f f i c e a n d O f f i c e / R e t a i l D e v e l o p m e n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l l y Z o n e d A r e a s . J a n u a r y 1, 1971 - J u n e 1, 1978. D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r O f f i c e a n d O f f i c e / R e t a i l D e v e l o p m e n t s i n I n d u s t r i a l l y Z o n e d A r e a s . J a n u a r y 1, 1971 - J u n e 1, 1978. S u m m a r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s b y N e w C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d C o n v e r s i o n o f E x i s t i n g B u i l d i n g s . I n c i d e n c e o f O f f i c e a n d O f f i c e / R e t a i l B u i l d i n g s i n I n d u s t r i a l l y Z o n e d A r e a s 1978. N e t L a n d A r e a I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s 19^9« N e t L a n d A r e a I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s 1976. S u p p l y o f L a n d i n I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s 1978. L o c a t i o n o f P l a n t s b y S i z e a n d T i m e Z o n e . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r 1965-R e n t a l R a n g e s f o r I n d u s t r i a l P r o p e r t y i n V a n c o u v e r I n n e r C i t y , V a n c o u v e r S u b u r b a n , B u r n a b y a n d R i c h m o n d . LIST OF MAPS Loc a t i o n of Vancouver's I n d u s t r i a l Areas 1971. Approximate L o c a t i o n of Development Permit A p p l i c a t i o n s i n I n d u s t r i a l Areas. 1969 and 1978 Zoning Boundaries f o r I n d u s t r i a l Areas. v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s M y i n t e r e s t i n p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n a s a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o o l f o r u r b a n p l a n n i n g w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y M r . B i l l L a n e , F a c u l t y m e m b e r , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . M y i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y M r . S i d F a n c y , M a n a g e r , O f f i c e o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . I a c k n o w l e d g e w i t h t h a n k s t h e a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d b y t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r M r . L e n T e n n a n t o f t h a t d e p a r t m e n t w h o p r o v i d e d a c c e s s t o d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t r e c o r d s a n d o t h e r s o u r c e s o f d a t a a n d w h o m a d e h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e t o d i s c u s s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y . I a m a l s o g r a t e f u l f o r t h e a d v i c e a n d a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d b y P r o f e s s o r s B r a h m W i e s m a n a n d C r a i g D a v i s o f t h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R . J . H o l m e s V a n c o u v e r , B . C . A p r i l , 1 9 7 9 . 1 C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e C o n t e x t I n a m i x e d p u b l i c - p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e u r b a n s y s t e m , p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n l a n d c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e " r u l e s o f t h e g a m e " w i t h i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h o a r e a c t i v e i n t h e u r b a n p r o p e r t y m a r k e t a n d w h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e t h e u r b a n l a n d u s e p a t t e r n m u s t , b y l a w , o p e r a t e . P l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c a n , t h e r e f o r e , b e c o n s i d e r e d a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e u r b a n p r o p e r t y m a r k e t . T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w i s t h a t s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n i s a m e a n s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d r a t i o n a l l y c o n c e i v e d p l a n a n d / o r s e t o f p o l i c i e s f o r t h e s p a t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n u r b a n a r e a . W h i l e t h i s v i e w i s s t i l l t h e s u b j e c t o f s o m e d e b a t e , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n s u c h a s z o n i n g b y - l a w s a n d s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f u r b a n l a n d u s e s a n d c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r w i t h i n t h a t p a t t e r n . S i n c e u r b a n l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g s p r o v i d e t h e s p a c e f o r a c t i v i t i e s t o o c c u r , t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f u r b a n l a n d u s e s a n d t h e s u p p l y o f l a n d f o r s p e c i f i c u s e s ( i . e . r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l ) h a v e a m a j o r e f f e c t o n t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i f e o f u r b a n a r e a s . T h e c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n o f u r b a n l a n d u s e s i s t h e r e f o r e a c o n c e r n t o u r b a n p l a n n i n g . I n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e m u c h a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e i m p a c t o f p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i m p a c t o f l e g i s l a t i o n o n t h e s u p p l y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . 2 H i s t o r i c a l l y , p u b l i c p o l i c y t o w a r d i n d u s t r y i n u r b a n a r e a s h a s r a n g e d f r o m a c t i v e e n c o u r a g e m e n t , t o n e g l e c t , t o r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l . I n t h e G i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a t h e r e h a s b e e n a r e n e w e d i n t e r e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y i n t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . V a r i o u s r e p o r t s h a v e r e f e r r e d t o t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , t h e n a t u r e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a n d t h e n e e d f o r a n o v e r a l l i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y f o r t h e r e g i o n . I n J u l y , 1977 V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a n I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n c e r n f o r t h e a p p a r e n t s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . T h i s r e n e w e d c o n c e r n f o r i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y f o l l o w s s e v e r a l y e a r s o f n e g l e c t a n d a r i s e s f r o m a f u n d a m e n t a l b e l i e f t h a t d e s p i t e t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r o f t h e u r b a n e c o n o m y , i n d u s t r y i s s t i l l i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t s p r o d u c t s a r e s t i l l i n d e m a n d b u t a l s o b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a d i v e r s i f i e d t a x b a s e a n d a d i v e r s i t y 2 o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n s e e k i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t t e r n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n u r b a n a r e a s t h e i m p a c t o f p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w a r r a n t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n d e e d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e i s c r i t i c a l s i n c e s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o o l o f p u b l i c p o l i c y . T h i s t h e s i s s e e k s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c h a n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g b y e x a m i n i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w a n d t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s o n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e i n t h e c i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y z o n i n g b y - l a w s h a v e p e r m i t t e d n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s . I n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e 3 z o n i n g p l a n n e r s u c h b y - l a w s a r e d r a f t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c l u s i v e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s . E s s e n t i a l l y w h a t t h i s m e a n s i s t h a t t h e r a n g e a n d n u m b e r o f u s e s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e b y - l a w ' s z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s i s v e r y r e s t r i c t i v e f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g d i s t r i c t s a n d b e c o m e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o r e p e r m i s s i v e i n t h e m u l t i p l e f a m i l y a n d c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s u s u a l l y a l l o w t h e b r o a d e s t r a n g e o f u s e s i n c l u d i n g b o t h i n d u s t r i a l a n d n o n - i n d u s t r i a l . T h i s m e t h o d o f d r a f t i n g z o n i n g b y - l a w s h a s a l s o b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s c u m u l a t i v e o r h i e r a r c h i a l z o n i n g w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e " h i g h e s t " u s e s , i n d u s t r i a l u s e s t h e " l o w e s t " a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n t h e m i d d l e . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e t e r m s " h i g h e s t " a n d " l o w e s t " a r e n o t u s e d i n a n e c o n o m i c s e n s e ( i . e . h i g h e s t r e t u r n o n i n v e s t m e n t ) b u t r a t h e r , t h e y r e f e r t o t h e p r e s u m e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e u s e o r o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e u s e f r o m e n c r o a c h m e n t b y o t h e r l e s s d e s i r a b l e u s e s . T h e r e a s o n w h y m o s t b y - l a w s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n d r a f t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r i s b e c a u s e t h e i r o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e w a s t o p r o t e c t s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s a n d p r e s t i g e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s f r o m t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . T h e s e z o n i n g p r i n c i p l e s w e r e a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f i r s t z o n i n g b y - l a w p a s s e d b y t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i n 1930 f o l l o w i n g t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f P o i n t G r e y , S o u t h V a n c o u v e r a n d V a n c o u v e r . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e c u r r e n t Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . B y - L a w N o . 357 5 > w h i c h w a s f i r s t p a s s e d i n 1956, c a n a l s o b e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d . T h e S t u d y T h e e v o l u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e i m p a c t o f t h e c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n o n t h e l o c a t i o n a n d s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s . P r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n e m p o w e r s t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o p r e p a r e a n d a d o p t a n O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n f o r t h e c i t y a s a w h o l e o r a n y o f i t s s u b a r e a s . T h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t n o o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e c i t y o r f o r a n y o f i t s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . A n a c t i v e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m e x i s t s b u t n o t i n t h e C i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . I n s e a r c h o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y o n e t u r n s t o t h e Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w . T h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s c h e d u l e s i n t h e b y - l a w p e r m i t c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e B y - L a w , t h e r e f o r e , p e r m i t s a b i d d i n g p r o c e s s b e t w e e n i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s s u b j e c t t o p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l o f i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s . S i n c e o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l u s e s a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o o u t b i d i n d u s t r i a l u s e s f o r l a n d , a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i s p e r m i t t e d . C h a p t e r I I e x a m i n e s i n d e t a i l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . A n h i s t o r i c a l a p p r o a c h i s u s e d s i n c e z o n i n g d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e p a s t s i x t y y e a r s b y a p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n . M a n y o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s w e r e i m p o r t e d f r o m o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s a n d r e f l e c t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m o f t h e d a y . C h a p t e r I I I p r e s e n t s t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d . D a t a c o n c e r n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m J a n u a r y 1, 1971 t o J u n e 1, 1978 w a s c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ' s D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t r e c o r d s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s t a b u l a t e d b y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a a n d i l l u s t r a t e d o n m a p s . S i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t d a t a s h o w e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n a c t i v i t y i n t h e i n n e r - c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s u p p l y o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n 1968 a n d 1976 w a s a l s o u n d e r t a k e n . I n C h a p t e r I V t h e r e s u l t s a r e d o c u m e n t e d a n d a n a l y s e d f o r t r e n d s . C h a p t e r V i d e n t i f i e s a n d d i s c u s s e s 5 t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s f o r b o t h p u b l i c p o l i c y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g a p o s s i b l e i n c u b a t o r f u n c t i o n p r o v i d e d b y V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i s e x a m i n e d . T h e f i n a l C h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a s u m m a r y a n d c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e T h e l o c a t i o n a n d r a t e o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n a f f e c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l l a n d h a s m a n y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f i n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e p r o c e s s i s w i d e s p r e a d a n d w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e w i l l b e a c o n t i n u i n g r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n V a n c o u v e r . A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s t r e n d t h e r e f o r e , h a s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s a b i l i t y t o i m p l e m e n t f o r m a l l y s t a t e d g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t o e n c o u r a g e " a h e a l t h y b a l a n c e b o t h i n e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d i n t h e C i t y ' s t a x b a s e " . 3 T h e t r e n d a l s o h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e - R e g i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t ' s o b j e c t i v e o f d i r e c t i n g b o t h c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l j o b s t o s u b u r b a n a r e a s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e p l a c e m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w i t h o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y i s n o t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e R e g i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t . P a r t o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t h e s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , f o u n d i n i t s a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p l e m e n t i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r y a n d e m p l o y m e n t . A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s e p o l i c i e s i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . F o r y e a r s i t h a s b e e n p a r t o f t h e " c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m " o f u r b a n p l a n n e r s , u r b a n e c o n o m i s t s , a n d m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e u r b a n e c o n o m y a s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a s t r o n g a n d d i v e r s i f i e d t a x b a s e a n d t o c o n t i n u e d 6 economic growth and s t a b i l i t y . If one simply adopts the conventional wisdom without question, a process of land use succession from i n d u s t r i a l to commercial use must be greeted with alarm and form the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for public p o l i c y intervention. However, the issues are c l e a r l y more complicated. Birch (1970) has suggested that central c i t i e s of metropolitan areas evolve into an " e l i t e service center" -Thus i t can be assumed from the available evidence that, i n aggregate, central c i t i e s w i l l experience substantial growth i n the white c o l l a r , service type job categories. As manufacturers, wholesalers and r e t a i l e r s s e t t l e elsewhere the e f f e c t of the growth i n services w i l l be to a l t e r the mix of a c t i v i t i e s going on i n central c i t i e s , which, i n turn w i l l quite probably have an influence on the kinds of people l i v i n g there.5 If the City of Vancouver i s s h i f t i n g toward an urban economy which i s s p e c i a l i z e d i n the service sector there w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t long term economic and s o c i a l impacts for both the c i t y and the region. There i s some evidence to suggest that s h i f t s i n Vancouver's employment opportunities and r e s i d e n t i a l population are taking place. For example analysis of the 1976 census has shown that not only has Vancouver's r e s i d e n t i a l population declined since 1971 hut there has been a s h i f t i n the composition of the population highlighted by a decline i n the number of children and an increase i n the number of persons between 25 and and over 6 5 . 6 The fundamental question i s whether the anticipated impacts of a t r a n s i t i o n from d i v e r s i t y to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n are p o s i t i v e or negative from an economic and s o c i a l point of view. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals an alarming neglect of t h e o r e t i c a l or empirical attention to the question of long term impacts. In commenting on Netzer's study of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e b e t w e e n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a n d s u b u r b s i n A m e r i c a n c i t i e s H e i l b r u n n o t e s -T h e c a s u a l o b s e r v e r m a y s u p p o s e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e d i s p e r s a l o f i n d u s t r y a n d m i d d l e a n d u p p e r i n c o m e p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e s u b u r b s , t h e t y p i c a l c e n t r a l c i t y , w i t h i t s t o w e r i n g C B . D . a n d d e n s e d e v e l o p m e n t m u s t h a v e a s t r o n g e r p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e t h a n t h e s u b u r b s . I n f a c t , s u c h i s n o t t h e c a s e . 7 N e t z e r ' s f i n d i n g s w e r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a g e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a n d d e n s i t i e s i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a n d s u b u r b s . B a h l a n d G r e y t a k , i n a s t u d y o f t h e i m p a c t o f c h a n g e s i n e m p l o y m e n t s t r u c t u r e o n m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s , h a v e r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s s p e c i f i c t o N e w Y o r k C i t y -W h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s w o u l d a p p e a r t o i n d i c a t e i s t h a t t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e c o r e c i t y - t o a s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a w a y f r o m a m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n i n a n d o f i t s e l f d o e s n o t h a v e a n u n f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t o n c i t y r e v e n u e s . A t l e a s t t h i s i s t h e c a s e f o r N e w Y o r k C i t y . 8 I n a d d i t i o n t o i m p a c t s o n m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s , a s h i f t t o w a r d e c o n o m i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n a c h a n g e i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y w i l l h a v e i m p a c t s o n m u n i c i p a l c o s t s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e a n t i c i p a t e d d e c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n i s n o t a c c o m p a n i e d b y a d e c r e a s e i n m u n i c i p a l c o s t s , t h e c o s t p e r c a p i t a l o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l r i s e . A d d i t i o n a l c o s t s s u c h a s P u b l i c T r a n s i t w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o b e i n c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h d e n s i t y f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t . D e p e n d i n g o n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o c i a l s e r v i c e c o s t s w o u l d a l s o b e i n c u r r e d . F o r e x a m p l e i f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e a s u p p l y o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d a c c o m m o d a t i o n J c o m p a r e d t o t h e s u b u r b s , p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n w i l l b e c o m p o s e d o f l o w e r i n c o m e p e o p l e w h o r e q u i r e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . 8 In Vancouver's context Tennant (1976) has argued that industry plays a p o s i t i v e role i n Vancouver's economy by providing a broader range of employment opportunities, by contributing to the c i v i c tax base, and by providing the stimulus to further economic development. Tennant's arguments provide a promising l i n e of thought i n searching for the long term impacts of land use succession from i n d u s t r i a l to commercial use. It can be argued, for example, that i f i n d u s t r i a l land i s converted to o f f i c e / commercial use, the long term impact w i l l either be unemploy-ment for those workers who possess "blue c o l l a r " s k i l l s or a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n or commuting patterns as i n d u s t r i a l employment opportunities that exist i n the suburbs are sought by central c i t y residents. The argumerit regarding industry's contribution to the tax base requires q u a l i f i c a t i o n since the assessed value of o f f i c e / commercial structures i s frequently higher than that of the i n d u s t r i a l buildings that are displaced. Likewise the economic growth argument must be q u a l i f i e d since the City of Vancouver, while a p o l i t i c a l l y separate entity i s i n f a c t part of a larger regional economy. Displacement of industry from the central c i t y does not, therefore, automatically have a negative impact on economic growth i n the central c i t y . It could however, be argued that piecemeal displacement of i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i a l firms disturbs the i n t r i c a t e pattern of linkages and, therefore, has secondary a f f e c t s on i n d u s t r i a l firms which remain. If the regional economy i s affected by i n d u s t r i a l relocation, the economic consequences are more s i g n i f i c a n t . One must honestly conclude that the long term economic and s o c i a l consequences of a conversion of i n d u s t r i a l land to commercial use i n Vancouver are dependent on many variables and therefore uncertain. The l i m i t e d evidence from previous research suggests that the consequences for the c i v i c tax base, municipal revenues and municipal costs are dependent upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each central c i t y . Tennant's arguments i n favour of r e t a i n i n g industry i n Vancouver are s i g n i f i c a n t but need further development. This study contributes to the larger debate by documenting the history and evolution of planning l e g i s l a t i o n -as i t applies to industry i n urban areas. As presently structured the composition of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n favours a conversion of i n d u s t r i a l land to commercial use. The study also provides s p e c i f i c data on the l o c a t i o n and extent of land use succession i n i n d u s t r i a l areas. It also provides insight into the urban planning process i n Vancouver and i t s impact on i n d u s t r i a l land. F i n a l l y , the discussion about the significance of the study's findings c l e a r l y demonstrates the need for additional research regarding the economic and s o c i a l consequences of urban economic d i v e r s i t y and economic s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the service sector. 10 F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r I i P h i l P a u l s o n , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : V i e w s a n d  I s s u e s o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o m m u n i t y ( V a n c o u v e r : G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , M a y , 1976). L e n T e n n a n t , I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , J u l y , 1977)' I n d u s t r y a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n ( V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r , 1977). I n d u s t r y a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n . • ^ M a n a g e r ' s r e p o r t t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l . G o a l s a n d O b j e c t i v e s - O f f i c e o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , ( V a n c o u v e r , J u l y , 1978). k . . I n d u s t r y a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n . • ^ D a v i d C . B i r c h , T h e E c o n o m i c F u t u r e o f C i t y a n d  S u b u r b ( N e w Y o r k : C o m m i t t e e f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t : S u p p l e m e n t a r y P a p e r N o . 30, 1970). P h i l M o n d o r , " V a n c o u v e r ' s C h a n g i n g A g e C o m p o s i t i o n " Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V o l . 5 N o . 2, A p r i l , 1978). 7 . . . ' J a m e s H e i l b r u n , U r b a n E c o n o m i c s a n d P u b l i c P o l i c y , ( N e w Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 197^). p . 336. Q R o y W . B a h l a n d D a v i d G r e y t a k , " T h e R e s p o n s e o f C i t y G o v e r n m e n t R e v e n u e s t o C h a n g e s i n E m p l o y m e n t S t r u c t u r e " L a n d E c o n o m i c s . ( V o l . 52, N o v e m b e r , 1976). p . ^2?. 11 C H A P T E R I I T H E S T A T U S O F I N D U S T R Y I N V A N C O U V E R " S Z O N I N G B Y - L A W S A N H I S T O R I C A L P E R S P E C T I V E I n t h e p e r i o d s i n c e 1930 t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a s h a d o n l y t w o m a j o r z o n i n g B y - L a w s . B o t h o f t h e s e B y - L a w s , t h e Z o n i n g B y - L a w p a s s e d i n 1930 a n d t h e Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w p a s s e d i n 195&, r e f l e c t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m o f t h e d a y w i t h r e s p e c t t o m e t h o d s o f l a n d u s e c o n t r o l . T h u s , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f o r m a n d c o n t e n t o f t h e s e B y - L a w s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e c h a n g i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m i n N o r t h A m e r i c a r e g a r d i n g i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g . T h e E v o l u t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . • T h e l o c a t i o n a n d r e g u l a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s h a v e f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d t h e u r b a n p l a n n e r a n d p o l i t i c i a n w i t h a d i l e m m a . I n d u s t r y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s a n d t h e c i t y ' s e c o n o m i c b a s e h a s b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d b y m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s a n d s u p p o r t e d b y u r b a n p l a n n i n g t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h . A s t r o n g i n d u s t r i a l b a s e h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y a n d u r b a n g r o w t h . I n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e o c c a s i o n a l l y o f f e r e d i n c e n t i v e s s u c h a s t a x c o n c e s s i o n s , p r o v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d c a p i t a l w r i t e d o w n s o f t h e p r i c e o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . H a s o n (1977) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t o v e r l y g e n e r o u s m u n i c i p a l i n c e n t i v e s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y c r e a t e d s o m e o f t h e u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n t h e n e e d f o r m o r e p u b l i c c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u s e o f u r b a n l a n d . 12 C o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d c o n g e s t i o n w e r e t h e i n e s c a p a b l e o u t g r o w t h s o f p o l i c i e s u n d e r t a k e n b y m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n i n d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s t o l o c a t e w i t h i n c i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p r e c e e d i n g d e c a d e s . C i t i e s o f f e r e d . l a v i s h t a x c o n c e s s i o n s , a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r a i l r o a d s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n d r a m a t i c r e d u c t i o n o f f r e i g h t c o s t s . R a i l r o a d t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s a n d m a n o e u v e r i n g y a r d s s a t u r a t e d d o w n t o w n l o c a t i o n s w h i c h m a d e t h e m a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e s a s w e l l a s f o r w a r e h o u s i n g , w h o l e s a l e , a n d a l l i e d a c t i v i t i e s . F o r t h e g r e a t n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w h o f o l l o w e d t h e i n d u s t r i e s i n t o t h e c i t i e s ^ t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g w a s " s o l v e d " b y b u i l d i n g s h a n t i e s a n d b y c o n v e r t i n g e x i s t i n g c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t o r o o m i n g h o u s e s , h o t e l s a n d t e n e m e n t h o u s e s w h i c h r a p i d l y f o r m e d t h e s l u m s e c t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l c o r e . 2 H a s o n ' s c o m m e n t s a p p l y i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s t o c i t i e s i n b o t h t h e U . S . a n d C a n a d a . T h e o t h e r v i e w o f i n d u s t r y , w h i c h h a d i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f z o n i n g a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y a s w e l l , w a s t o c o n s i d e r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s a s a n u i s a n c e . G i v e n t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e d a y , t h e a b s e n c e o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d l a n d u s e c o n t r o l s , a n d t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t t o p r o v i d e f o r a s e p a r a t i o n o f i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e s , t h i s v i e w o f i n d u s t r y i n u r b a n a r e a s h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n . T h e p u b l i c p o l i c i e s w h i c h e m e r g e d f r o m t h i s v i e w w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e e a r l y z o n i n g b y - l a w s w h i c h p r o t e c t e d r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s f r o m t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . T h e e a r l i e s t p u b l i c p o l i c i e s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y h a v e b e e n t r a c e d t o G e r m a n y -I t w a s N a p o l e o n w h o f i r s t i m p o s e d o n c o n q u e r e d G e r m a n t o w n s a s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t d a n g e r o u s a n d u n h e a l t h y i n d u s t r i e s b e s e g r e g a t e d a s a t o o l f o r a m e l i o r a t i n g h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s a m o n g " c i t y d w e l l e r s a n d e s p e c i a l l y r e c r u i t s i n t o t h e G e r m a n a r m y . E v e n t u a l l y t h e s y s t e m b e c a m e I m p e r i a l G e r m a n L a w a n d t h e r e a f t e r i m p r o v e d c o c o n s i d e r a b l y . 3 P r i o r t o t h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n d u s e c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n c o u l d s e e k r e l i e f f r o m t h e i m p a c t o f o f f e n s i v e l a n d u s e s u n d e r t h e c o m m o n l a w o f n u i s a n c e . W i t h t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f u r b a n a r e a s s u c h p r o t e c t i o n w a s c l e a r l y i n a d e q u a t e . T h e f i r s t p u b l i c p o l i c i e s r e s p e c t i n g l a n d u s e e m e r g e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f d i s t r i c t i n g . U n d e r t h i s t e c h n i q u e a m u n i c i p a l i t y w o u l d p a s s l a w s p r o -h i b i t i n g l a n d u s e s s u c h a s s l a u g h t e r h o u s e s , g l u e f a c t o r i e s , b a k e r i e s a n d l a u n d r i e s f r o m c e r t a i n d e s i g n a t e d d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . S o m e d i s t r i c t i n g o r d i n a n c e s a l s o c o n t a i n e d r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e h e i g h t o f b u i l d i n g s . H o w e v e r , t h e N e w Y o r k C i t y Z o n i n g O r d i n a n c e o f 1916 i s c o n s i d e r e d b y z o n i n g h i s t o r i a n s t o b e t h e f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . ^ ( B a b c o c k , 1966. D e l a f o n s , 1969). T h i s o r d i n a n c e w a s p a s s e d p a r t l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f m e r c h a n t s i n t h e c i t y ' s f a s h i o n a b l e r e t a i l g a r m e n t d i s t r i c t . T h e m e r c h a n t s h a d t w o c o n c e r n s . F i r s t l y t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f t h e g a r m e n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y i n t o t h e r e t a i l d i s t r i c t ( b e c a u s e o f l i n k a g e s ) w a s a f f e c t i n g b u s i n e s s a n d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e h e i g h t a n d m a s s o f n e a r b y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s w a s d e p r i v i n g t h e d i s t r i c t o f s u n l i g h t . ( H a s o n , 1977)• S u p p o r t f o r l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s s p r e a d w h e n i t w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y v a l u e s w e r e a l s o a f f e c t e d w h e n i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e s w e r e a l l o w e d t o e n c r o a c h i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h e N e w Y o r k O r d i n a n c e o f 1916 a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e t h e s e p r o b l e m s b y c r e a t i n g t h r e e l a n d u s e d i s t r i c t s - a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , a c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t a n d a n u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t . A z o n i n g m a p e s t a b l i s h e d t h e l o c a t i o n a n d b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e s e d i s t r i c t s . I n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s w e r e p r o h i b i t e d . I n t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t , i n d u s t r i a l u s e s w e r e p r o h i b i t e d b u t r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s w e r e a l l o w e d . T h e u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e o n l y d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s w e r e a l l o w e d . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e n o u s e r e s t r i c t i o n s o t h e r u s e s w e r e a l l o w e d a s w e l l . S u b s e q u e n t a m e n d m e n t s t o t h i s o r d i n a n c e r e p l a c e d t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . H o w e v e r , b o t h t h e s t i g m a a n d t h e f a c t o f b e i n g t h e " l a s t " d i s t r i c t i n t h e h i e r a r c h y a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e c a t c h a l l , r e m a i n e d . T h e c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g t h e h e i g h t s o f b u i l d i n g s w e r e d e a l t w i t h b y i m p o s i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o n t h e b u i l d i n g f o r m . T h e s e t w o c o m p o n e n t s - u s e r e s t r i c t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e f o r m e d a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f z o n i n g b y - l a w s s i n c e t h a t t i m e . T h e p e r i o d f r o m 1916 t o 19^0 s a w t h e r a p i d s p r e a d o f z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s t o o t h e r c i t i e s a n d t o w n s i n t h e U . S . T h e a d o p t i o n o f z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s w a s a i d e d b y t h e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e w h e n i t s S e c r e t a r y H e r b e r t H o o v e r e s t a b l i s h e d a n A d v i s o r y Committee.on Z o n i n g . S i t t i n g o n t h e c o m m i t t e e w a s E d w a r d B a s s e t t w h o h a d . c h a i r e d t h e t w o c o m m i s s i o n s i n N e w Y o r k t h a t h a d p r o d u c e d t h e N e w Y o r k . O r d i n a n c e . B y 192^ 4- t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e h a d d r a f t e d a S t a n d a r d S t a t e Z o n i n g E n a b l i n g A c t w h i c h c o u l d b e u s e d b y s t a t e s t h a t w i s h e d t o g i v e t h e i r c i t i e s t h e p o w e r t o p a s s z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . I n 1926 a S t a n d a r d C i t y P l a n n i n g E n a b l i n g A c t w a s a l s o p r e p a r e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h z o n i n g . I n 1921, 78 A m e r i c a n c i t i e s h a d a d o p t e d z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . B y 19371 t h e f i g u r e h a d r i s e n t o 1322 c i t i e s . ( D e l a f o n s , 1969)• T h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n • w a s d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s c o u l d b e " e x p o r t e d " f r o m o n e c i t y t o a n o t h e r a n d , a f t e r c h a n g e s t o t h e z o n i n g m a p a n d t e x t t o r e f l e c t l o c a l t o p o g r a p h i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s , p a s s e d i n t o l a w . T h u s t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d i n d u s t r y a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e a r l y o r d i n a n c e s w a s a l s o e x p o r t e d t o o t h e r c i t i e s o n t h e c o n t i n e n t i n c l u d i n g C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . T h e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n t o z o n i n g a s a m e a n s o f l a n d u s e c o n t r o l w a s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y , b u t n o t u n a n i m o u s l y , p o s i t i v e . 15 D e l a f o n s (19&9) d e s c r i b e s t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f z o n i n g a s f o l l o w s -T h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d u s e b y d i s t r i c t s w a s f o u n d t o b e a c o n v e n i e n t w a y o f p r o t e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h o u t t h e t r o u b l e s o m e a n d e x p e n s i v e l i t i g a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n i n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f a g a i n s t n u i s a n c e s . - 5 H o w e v e r , h e a l s o i d e n t i f i e s o n e o f t h e m a j o r w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e N e w Y o r k O r d i n a n c e a s f o l l o w s -P e r h a p s t h e m o s t s e r i o u s d e f e c t w a s t h e f a i l u r e t o m a t c h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f i n d u s t r y f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i t h e x c l u s i o n o f r e s i d e n c e s f r o m b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e o n e s u b s t a n t i a l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e z o n i n g s y s t e m - p r e v e n t i n g c o n f u s e d a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t - w a s t h u s s e v e r e l y c o m p r o m i s e d . " B a b c o c k (1966) i s c r i t i c a l o f t h e c u m u l a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e e a r l y o r d i n a n c e s a s w e l l -A l l t h e u s e s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e " h i g h e s t " s i n g l e - f a m i l y d i s t r i c t w e r e a l s o p e r m i t t e d i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e d i s t r i c t s . U s e s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e " s e c o n d " , m u l t i p l e -f a m i l y d i s t r i c t , w e r e a l s o p e r m i t t e d i n t h e b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r i a l z o n e s u n t i l t h e i n d u s t r i a l z o n e b e c a m e t h e g a r b a g e p a i l f o r a l l u s e s , i n c l u d i n g r e s i d e n c e s . 7 W i t h t h e e m p h a s i s o f t h e e a r l y z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s b e i n g o n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e r s d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y s u p p o r t z o n i n g . . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s w h y -1. Z o n i n g d i d n o t h i n g t o p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n s o m e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s b e c a u s e i t d i d n o t p r e v e n t t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f l a n d u s e s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i n d u s t r y e . g . r e s i d e n c e s . T h e r e s u l t w a s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e c h a o s a n d c o n g e s t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f u n p l a n n e d , u n c o n t r o l l e d l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . S t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s c l o s e t o t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c e d a n i n c r e a s e i n l a n d v a l u e s a s a r e s u l t o f b i d d i n g f r o m m o r e i n t e n s i v e u s e r s . T h e r e s u l t w a s t o f o r c e i n d u s t r y o u t o r m a k e e x p a n s i o n c o s t l y . 3. L a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r y o r u n r e s t r i c t e d u s e w a s f r e q u e n t l y l o c a t e d o n t h e p e r i p h e r y o f u r b a n a r e a s , 16 was of poor quality, and unserviced. These features imposed s i t e and transportation costs on industries forced to relocate. Furthermore, there i s evidence (Ref. Babcock, Ibid) that many municipalities engaged i n the practice of overzoning undeveloped land for i n d u s t r i a l use i n the interests of increasing property values and municipal tax revenue. Because of the structure of zoning by-laws the excessive supply of i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned land was allowed to be developed i n a piecemeal, haphazard fashion by non-industrial uses. The e f f i c i e n c y of the area f o r i n d u s t r i a l use was, therefore, compromised. Notwithstanding the lack of enthusiasm on the part of i n d u s t r i a l land users, zoning had become the p r i n c i p a l land use control device i n North America, by the beginning of World War I I . To those with interests i n the urban land market zoning was viewed as a means of s t a b i l i z i n g and preserving land values. Others, including urban planners had o r i g i n a l l y been attracted by i t s p o t e n t i a l as a means of implementing comprehensive land use planning proposals. For the planners preparation and approval of a zoning ordinance was, therefore, the f i n a l step i n a planning process which also included the preparation of a comprehen-sive land use plan for the c i t y to resolve existing problems and accommodate future growth i n an orderly fashion. The tendency of many c i t i e s to import and adopt a zoning ordinance with no concern for a comprehensive land use plan, was therefore, cause for some disillusionment and further evidence of the prevalence of the property value theory of zoning. In the period following World War II s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the conventional wisdom concerning zoning took place. Economic growth and i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n the post-war period 17 l e d t o a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f t a k e u p o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a n d r a i s e d c o n c e r n s a b o u t u r b a n l a n d s h o r t a g e s - p a r t i c u l a r l y -i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . T h e s e c o n c e r n s h a d a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t o n i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . T h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p r e - w a r z o n i n g s y s t e m a s i t a f f e c t e d i n d u s t r y , c o u l d b e i d e n t i f i e d . 1. T h e h i e r a r c h i a l n a t u r e o f z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s c o n t i n u e d t o p l a c e i n d u s t r y a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e r e l a t i v e t o r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s . R e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e s w e r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m a n y i n d u s t r i e s , a n d c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s s u c c e s s f u l l y o u t b i d i n d u s t r y f o r l a n d o n t h e u r b a n p r o p e r t y m a r k e t . - B o t h f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d t h e s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . 2. T h e p r a c t i c e o f l i s t i n g u s e s t h a t w e r e p r o h i b i t e d i n e a c h d i s t r i c t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t o o n e g a t i v e a n d w a s a l s o i n c o m p l e t e . N o l i s t c o u l d a n t i c i p a t e n e w b u s i n e s s e s o r i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t w o u l d e m e r g e a s a r e s u l t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . 3. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m b a s e d o n t h e n a m e o f t h e l a n d u s e m i s s e d t h e w h o l e p o i n t o f z o n i n g . I t w a s t h e i m p a c t s o f t h e l a n d u s e o n o t h e r l a n d u s e s t h a t w a s i m p o r t a n t . A m o r e s p e c i f i c m e a n s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d u s e b a s e d o n a c t u a l i m p a c t s w a s r e q u i r e d . ( B l u m e n f e l d 1962, 0 ' H a r r o w 1951, G u t t e n b e r g 1959). I n 1950 s i x n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a m e t o g e t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g C o m m i t t e e . 8 O n e o f t h e f i r s t a c t i o n s o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e w a s t o p r e p a r e a n d i s s u e a p a m p h l e t e n t i t l e d P r i n c i p l e s o f I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g . I n t h e f o r e w o r d o f t h i s p a m p h l e t t h e d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t u s o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r s i s r e f l e c t e d -" . . . . i n t h e z e a l o f c i t i z e n s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s t o e x t e n d .. ' p r o t e c t i o n ' t o s o m e t y p e s o f l a n d u s e , o t h e r t y p e s o f l a n d u s e h a v e s o m e t i m e s s u f f e r e d , e v e n t o t h e . p o i n t o f d e s t r o y i n g p a r t o f t h e b i r t h r i g h t o f a c o m m u n i t y - i t s b a s i s f o r m a k i n g a l i v i n g . " T h e t w e l v e p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p a m p h l e t w e r e d e s i g n e d t o g i v e i n d u s t r y a n e q u a l s t a t u s i n l a n d u s e a n d z o n i n g p l a n s . T h e T w e l v e P r i n c i p l e s W e r e : P r i n c i p l e O n e : M o s t c o m m u n i t i e s r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o p r o d u c e a s o u n d e c o n o m y . P r i n c i p l e T w o : Z o n i n g c o n t r o l s a r e b a s i c t o o l s i n t h e r e s e r v a t i o n o f s p a c e f o r i n d u s t r y , g u i d a n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i n t o a d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n , a n d p r o v i s i o n o f r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s a n d a r e a s n e e d e d f o r c o n v e n i e n t a n d b a l a n c e d e c o n o m y . P r i n c i p l e T h r e e : I n d u s t r i a l u s e i s a l e g i t i m a t e l a n d u s e p o s s e s s i n g i n t e g r i t y c o m p a r a b l e t o o t h e r c l a s s e s o f l a n d u s e e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r z o n i n g a n d i s e n t i t l e d t o p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e n c r o a c h m e n t . P r i n c i p l e F o u r : T h r o u g h p r o p e r z o n i n g , i n d u s t r i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s c a n b e g o o d n e i g h b o u r s . P r i n c i p l e F i v e : I n d u s t r y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g r o w a n d m o s t i n d u s t r i e s w i l l r e q u i r e l a r g e r a r e a s i n t h e f u t u r e . P r i n c i p l e S i x : T h e r e i s n e e d f o r a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y b a s e d o n m o d e r n m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e p r e v a i l i n g p o l i c y o f p l a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s o a s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a g i v e n a r e a . P r i n c i p l e S e v e n : I n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f l a n d s b e a r i n g a f a v o r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . P r i n c i p l e E i g h t : I n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g a n d h i g h w a y p l a n n i n g s h o u l d g o h a n d i n h a n d . P r i n c i p l e N i n e : S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e s t r e e t l a y o u t i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . P r i n c i p l e T e n : Z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s s h o u l d b e p e r m i s s i v e r a t h e r t h a n p r o h i b i t i v e . P r i n c i p l e E l e v e n : A g o o d Z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s h o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e t o c o n v e y t o a l a n d o w n e r a c l e a r 19 concept of what he can do with his land. P r i n c i p l e Twelves In d u s t r i a l zoning can be most e f f e c t i v e when considered on a metropolitan basis.9 The "cause" of giving i n d u s t r i a l land use an equal place i n planning and zoning received further support i n a research project undertaken by Dorothy Muncy and published by both the Urban Land Inst i t u t e and the Harvard Business 10 Review. Muncy's survey of 220 i n d u s t r i a l plants showed that the amount of land required for industry was increasing because of a) the trend to single storey construction with more landscaping and open space on the s i t e , b) increased f a c i l i t i e s for employees such as parking, e) o f f - s t r e e t loading for truck and r a i l and, d) more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t plants. Muncy concluded that The underlying cause of i n d u s t r i a l s i t e shortage i s the lack of c i v i c understanding of industry's operations. This r e s u l t s i n zoning codes and land use p o l i c y h o s t i l e to the growth of manufacture. ....not only i s i n d u s t r i a l land given no protection from r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment, but unrelated commercial structures, and even junkyards have been allowed to pre-empt the dwindling supply of i n d u s t r i a l land near the centre of the urban region.H As a r e s u l t of growing c r i t i c i s m , which had begun p r i o r to the war, about the approval of residential, uses i n i n d u s t r i a l areas t h i s permissive feature of zoning ordinances was gradually removed before and during the 1950's. S i g n i f i c a n t l y the major argument against permitting r e s i d e n t i a l uses i n i n d u s t r i a l areas was that i n d u s t r i a l areas were unsuitable as places to l i v e . Concern for the e f f i c i e n c y of i n d u s t r i a l areas was s t i l l not widespread. Furthermore, the l a t t e r part of the zoning "hierarchy" s t i l l remained, i . e . commercial uses were s t i l l allowed i n i n d u s t r i a l areas. 20 T h e c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f p r o h i b i t e d l i s t s r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e p e r m i t t e d u s e s i n e a c h o f t h e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s . S u c h l i s t s m a d e t h e z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n m o r e d e f i n i t e , m o r e p o s i t i v e a n d m o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m u s e d i n z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s w a s b e h i n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s a s t h e b a s i s o f l a n d u s e c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n i n z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . T h e a d v o c a t e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t w a s n o t t h e n a m e o f t h e i n d u s t r y t h a t s h o u l d b e t h e i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a i n z o n i n g . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e w a s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l a n d u s e o n o t h e r l a n d u s e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s , 0 * H a r r o w (1951) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s c o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d f o r . t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e v e n i m p a c t s : n o i s e , s m o k e , o d o u r , d u s t a n d d i r t , n o x i o u s g a s e s , g l a r e a n d h e a t , f i r e h a z a r d s , i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d t r a f f i c , a e s t h e t i c s a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . I n d u s t r i e s t h a t " p e r f o r m e d " w e l l a g a i n s t s t a n d a r d s i n t h e s e i m p a c t a r e a s c o u l d b e g i v e n m o r e l a t i t u d e i n t h e i r l o c a t i o n u n d e r 1 a z o n i n g b y - l a w d r a f t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e s t a n d a r d s . T h e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n t o p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w a s e n t h u s -i a s t i c . C h i c a g o a n d N e w Y o r k b o t h r e w r o t e t h e i r z o n i n g b y -l a w s i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s t o i n c o r p o r a t e s u c h s t a n d a r d s . T h e n e w C h i c a g o o r d i n a n c e s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l , b u s i n e s s a n d i n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s . T h r e e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n a s t o w h i c h d i s t r i c t a n i n d u s t r y w a s p e r m i t t e d t o d e v e l o p i n w a s m a d e o n t h e b a s i s o f t h a t i n d u s t r y ' s c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s r a t h e r t h a n a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t t h e i n d u s t r y w a s a " l i g h t " i n d u s t r y o r a " h e a v y " i n d u s t r y . ( B a b c o c k 1957 i n A n d r e w s 1972). 21 T h e r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f m e a s u r a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w a s a t t r a c t i v e w h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s a n d " g r e y a r e a s " t h a t h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d b y t r i a l a n d e r r o r w i t h t h e o l d e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m b y i n d u s t r i a l n a m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h s t a n d a r d s n o t o n l y a l l o w e d f o r b u t a n t i c i p a t e d t h e c h a n g e s i n i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y t h a t w e r e a l l o w i n g q u i e t e r l e s s o f f e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d . H o w e v e r , t w o s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m a r e a s h a v e a l w a y s p r e v e n t e d t h e m o r e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f s u c h s t a n d a r d s . T h e f i r s t p r o b l e m a r e a i s t h a t o f d e c i d i n g o n w h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s s h o u l d , b e i n e a c h i m p a c t a r e a . S h o u l d t h i s d e c i s i o n b e l e f t t o " e x p e r t s " w h e n t h e i m p a c t s m a y v e r y w e l l a f f e c t e v e r y o n e d i f f e r e n t l y ? S e c o n d l y , t h e a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f s u c h s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e s a g o o d d e a l o f t e c h n i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t c o s t s w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e h i g h . B e c a u s e o f t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s a n d c o s t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s a r e o n l y u s e d t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t o r h a v e o n l y b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . W h i l e n o t a l l c i t i e s w e r e w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o c o n v e r t t h e i r z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s t o a p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d b a s i s , a t r e n d t o w a r d t h e c r e a t i o n o f e x c l u s i v e i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w a s n o t i c e a b l e b y t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s ( A . S . P . O . 1956, B e n t z 1957). I n t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s t h e p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l p a r k e m e r g e d a s t h e l a t e s t i n n o v a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e a n d l a n d u s e c o n t r o l . U s u a l l y l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o a m a j o r a r t e r i a l h i g h w a y a n d a w a y f r o m t h e c o n g e s t i o n a n d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n n e r - c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t h e s e p a r k s h a d m a n y f e a t u r e s a t t r a c t i v e t o i n d u s t r y . T h e p a r k s w e r e l o c a t e d o n l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r y . H o w e v e r , s u p p o r t i n g t h e s o m e t i m e s t e n u o u s n a t u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g w e r e 2 2 a d d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e c o n t r o l s o v e r t h e u s e o f t h e l a n d i n t h e s e p a r k s . I f t h e l a n d w a s u n d e r o n e o w n e r s h i p w i t h l e a s e h o l d t e n u r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e o c c u p a n t s , t h e l e a s e s i n c o r p o r a t e d a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l s o v e r l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p -m e n t . I f t h e l a n d h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d b y o n e o w n e r ( u s u a l l y a l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p a n y ) a n d w a s a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e , t h e t i t l e w a s s u b j e c t t o a r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t t h a t r a n w i t h t h e l a n d . T h r o u g h t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e l a n d u s e c o n t r o l t h e i n d u s t r i a l t e n a n t s w e r e o f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o t e c t i o n f r o m e n c r o a c h m e n t b y i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e s . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t , d u r i n g a t i m e o f i n c r e a s i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e " r e d t a p e " a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c l a n d u s e c o n t r o l s , i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e r s w e r e a n d s t i l l a r e q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o s u b m i t t o a f a r m o r e s t r i n g e n t l i s t o f p r i v a t e c o n t r o l s . A n A . S . P . O . Z p u b l i c a t i o n o n p l a n n e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n 1957 l i s t e d s o m e o f t h e t y p i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t s : u s e , f u m e s a n d o d o u r , c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d d e s i g n , l a n d s c a p i n g , b u i l d i n g s e t b a c k s , l o a d i n g d o c k s , p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , r i g h t - o f - w a y e a s e m e n t s , e r e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p o w e r p l a n t s , b i l l b o a r d s a n d s i g n s , f e n c e s a n d w a l l s , m i n e r a l r e s e r v a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r i c e o f l a n d i n i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s t e n d e d t o b e h i g h e r t h a n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a v a i l a b l e o n t h e m a r k e t , m a n y i n d u s t r i e s w e r e p r e p a r e d t o p a y t h e p r i c e a n d a c c e p t t h e c o n t r o l s i n r e t u r n f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e i n t h e s e p a r k s c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d . I n 1971 t h e r e w e r e o v e r 1000 i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d a l m o s t 500 i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m ( S m i t h 1971). O n e o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t - d e v e l o p m e n t s i n i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f i n d u s t r y ( u s u a l l y l i g h t i n d u s t r y ) a s a p e r m i t t e d u s e i n s o m e o f t h e n e w e r m i x e d u s e z o n i n g 23 c a t e g o r i e s . E x a m p l e s o f s u c h c a t e g o r i e s a r e t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l d i s t r i c t ( D . C . ) a n d i n V a n c o u v e r t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t d i s t r i c t . T h i s z o n i n g c a t e g o r y w a s c r e a t e d t o a l l o w s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s f o r u n i q u e , l a r g e s c a l e u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t s o n s p e c i f i c s i t e s t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d i n l a w a n d e n f o r c e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e s c a l e a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , t r a d i t i o n a l z o n i n g c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e . T h e F a l s e C r e e k C o m p r e h e n s i v e D e v e l o p -m e n t D i s t r i c t i s a n e x a m p l e . L i g h t i n d u s t r y i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d , t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e D e v e l o p m e n t D i s t r i c t d o e s l i t t l e t o e n c o u r a g e o r p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s . I n d u s t r y a n d V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g B y - L a w s T h e e v o l u t i o n o f l a n d u s e c o n t r o l s I n C a n a d a h a s b e e n l e s s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d t h a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e s e a r c h t h a t h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n h a s r e v e a l e d a t l e a s t t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e h e l p f u l i n ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s t a t u s o f i n d u s t r y i n l a n d u s e c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n C a n a d a . I n t h e p e r i o d u p t o W o r l d W a r I I z o n i n g b y - l a w s b o r r o w i n g h e a v i l y o n t h e A m e r i c a n m o d e l w e r e t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t f o r m o f p u b l i c l a n d u s e c o n t r o l ( L e v i n 1957)• A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y m a n y o f t h e s a m e u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s a s e x i s t e d i n t h e U . S . a l s o e x i s t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d e a s t e r n C a n a d a . C a n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n t h e n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s o n C i t y p l a n n i n g h e l d a n n u a l l y i n t h e U . S . f r o m 1909 o n w a r d w a s p r o b a b l y o n e o f t h e v e h i c l e s f o r " i m p o r t i n g " t h e A m e r i c a n l e g i s l a t i o n . A n o t h e r v e h i c l e w a s t h e u s e o f A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s . 24 T h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C a n a d i a n z o n i n g w a s t h a t i t t e n d e d t o l a g " b e h i n d t h e A m e r i c a n d e v e l o p m e n t s . W h e n t h e A m e r i c a n s w e r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s t o c o n t r o l t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , t h e y l o o k e d w i t h e n v y a t t h e p r o g r e s s m a d e i n G e r m a n y . P r o p o n e n t s o f z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n C a n a d a l o o k e d u p o n t h e U . S . e x p e r i e n c e i n m u c h t h e s a m e w a y a s t h e A m e r i c a n s v i e w e d G e r m a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . A n a r t i c l e a p p e a r i n g i n t h e J o u r n a l o f t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f C a n a d a i n 1931 e s t i m a t e d t h a t w h i l e 900 t o w n s a n d c i t i e s i n t h e U . S . a n d B r i t a i n 13 h a d b e e n z o n e d , m C a n a d a t h e r e w e r e l e s s t h a n a d o z e n . ^ T h e t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l a n d u s e c o n t r o l s i n C a n a d a w a s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h s y s t e m o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l . T h i s i n f l u e n c e b e c a m e a p p a r e n t i n c e r t a i n C a n a d i a n c i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g V a n c o u v e r , i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g W o r l d W a r I I w h e n a s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r o f B r i t i s h p l a n n e r s e m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a . T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h z o n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n d o e s n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n p a t t e r n . T h e p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c i t y w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1929 w h e n t h e o l d c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f P o i n t G r e y a n d S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . P r i o r t o t h i s a m a l g a m a t i o n e a c h o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a d p a s s e d a b y - l a w t o c o n t r o l l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n a p p o i n t e d H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w a n d A s s o c i a t e s o f S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , i n A u g u s t 1926 t o p r e p a r e a " C o m p r e h e n s i v e ' T o w n P l a n f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d a R e g i o n a l P l a n o f t h e c o n t i g u o u s o r a d j a c e n t t e r r i t o r y " . H a r d w i c k (1974) g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r B a r t h o l o m e w ' s a p p o i n t m e n t -P r o m p t e d b y t h e b u s i n e s s f l u c t u a t i o n s , s o m e m e m b e r s o f t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h m a j o r d o w n t o w n i n v e s t m e n t s , b e c a m e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f l a n d v a l u e s . I n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s t h e y j o i n e d w i t h t h e " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " a d v o c a t e s r o o t e d i n t h e P o i n t G r e y m u n i c i p a l i t y t o p r o m o t e c i v i c p l a n n i n g a s a m e a n s o f g u i d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l g r o w t h o f t h e c i t y . T h e s e l o n g t e r m p r o p e r t y o w n e r s w e r e a w a r e t h a t t h e b o o m a n d b u s t c y c l e s w e r e u n d e r -m i n i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a n d , i n t u r n , t h e i r p e r s o n a l a n d c o r p o r a t e w e a l t h . 1 5 T h e c o n c e r n f o r " p r o p e r t y v a l u e s w a s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t , a s a f i r s t s t e p , t h e c o n s u l t a n t s w e r e -a s k e d t o p r e p a r e a z o n i n g b y - l a w . . T h e c o n s u l t a n t s p o i n t e d o u t t h e v a l u e o f p r e p a r i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n p r i o r ' t o a z o n i n g b y - l a w . H o w e v e r , ' a s a t e m p o r a r y s o l u t i o n " a n d l a r g e l y t o p r e v e n t t h e i n t r u s i o n o f a p a r t m e n t h o u s e s i n s i n g l e o r t w o - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s " , a n i n t e r i m z o n i n g b y - l a w w a s p r e p a r e d a n d a p p r o v e d b y t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , r e c o m m e n d e d t o C o u n c i l , a n d b e c a m e l a w o n 5th F e b r u a r y , 1927. U n d e r t h e b y - l a w , w h i c h w a s i n f o r c e u n t i l D e c e m b e r 17, 1928, o n l y t h r e e d i s t r i c t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d : o n e a n d t w o f a m i l y d i s t r i c t s , a p a r t m e n t d i s t r i c t s a n d u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t s . " I n t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d 16 d i s t r i c t s n o r e g u l a t i o n s o f a n y k i n d w e r e p r e s c r i b e d " . A s w i t h t h e N e w Y o r k O r d i n a n c e , i n d u s t r y w a s p r o h i b i t e d f r o m a l l b u t t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i c t s . A m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e z o n i n g b y - l a w w a s a p p r o v e d b y V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l o n D e c e m b e r 17, 1928.. T h e s c o p e o f t h e n e w b y - l a w w a s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e p r e a m b l e s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c o n s u l t a n t s -" A B y - L a w t o r e g u l a t e a n d r e s t r i c t t h e l o c a t i o n a n d u s e o f b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e u s e o f - l a n d w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ; t o l i m i t t h e h e i g h t a n d b u l k o f b u i l d i n g s t o p r e s c r i b e t h e s i z e o f y a r d s a n d o t h e r o p e n s p a c e s ' a n d t h e m a x i m u m d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n a n d f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s t o d i v i d e t h e c i t y i n t o d i s t r i c t s . W h e r e a s , a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , i t a p p e a r s 26 a d v i s a b l e a n d e x p e d i e n t t o m a k e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d d i v i d e t h e c i t y i n t o d i s t r i c t s a s h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d , p u r s u a n t t o t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g A c t , h a v i n g d u e r e g a r d t o : ( a ) T h e p r o m o t i o n o f p u b l i c h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e a n d w e l f a r e . ( b ) T h e p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g o f l a n d a n d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e a m e n i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . ( c ) T h e s e c u r i n g o f a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r l i g h t , a i r a n d r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s . ( d ) T h e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d a n d t h e n a t u r e o f i t s u s e a n d o c c u p a n c y . ( e ) T h e c h a r a c t e r o f e a c h d i s t r i c t , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d a n d t h e p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e d i s t r i c t f o r p a r t i c u l a r u s e s . ( f ) T h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . 17 W i t h m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d c h a n g e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e z o n i n g p l a n s f o r P o i n t G r e y a n d S o u t h V a n c o u v e r , t h i s b y - l a w w a s p a s s e d b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e a m a l g a m a t e d C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r o n J u n e 6, 1930 a n d , t h e r e f o r e , b e c a m e t h e f i r s t z o n i n g b y - l a w o f t h e c u r r e n t C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . " " . T h i s b y - l a w r e f l e c t e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m o f t h e d a y w i t h r e s p e c t t o z o n i n g p r i n c i p l e s . I t w a s h i e r a r c h i a l i n s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o v i d e d t h e m o s t p r o t e c t i o n t o s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . T w o i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d : a s i x s t o r e y L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t a n d a H e a v y I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t . U s e s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n c l u d e d a l l u s e s p e r m i t t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s p l u s l i g h t i n d u s t r y . T h e d e f i n i t i o n o f l i g h t i n d u s t r y w a s m a d e b y p r o v i d i n g a l i s t o f n a m e s o f s o - c a l l e d h e a v y i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h w e r e p r o h i b i t e d . A l l o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l u s e s w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , a u t o m a t i c a l l y p e r m i t t e d . I n t h e h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t t h e r e w e r e n o u s e r e s t r i c t i o n s e x c e p t t h a t d w e l l i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d t h e a p p r o v a l o f C i t y C o u n c i l . A s e c t i o n o f t h e b y - l a w e n t i t l e d " S p e c i a l C o n d i t i o n s " p r o v i d e d a f u r t h e r l i s t o f " b u s i n e s s e s , u n d e r t a k i n g s , t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s " r e q u i r i n g s i t e a p p r o v a l b y C i t y C o u n c i l . T h u s , a p a r t f r o m t h e s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l r e q u i r e d f o r d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e b y - l a w a l l o w e d r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s . D u r i n g i t s l i f e , t h e b y - l a w w a s s u b j e c t t o m i n o r a m e n d m e n t s e i t h e r t o c h a n g e r e g u l a t i o n s o r c h a n g e t h e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . I n 1951 " t h e s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l r e q u i r e d f o r d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n h e a v y i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w a s e x t e n d e d t o a p p l y t o l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . O t h e r t h a n t h i s c h a n g e t h e p r o v i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r y r e m a i n e d a s d r a f t e d u n t i l 1956 w h e n a n e w Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w w a s p a s s e d . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e 195& B y - L a w , i t i s w e l l t o d o c u m e n t s o m e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e B a r t h o l o m e w P l a n f o r V a n c o u v e r s i n c e t h e Z o n i n g . B y - L a w o f 1930 w a s i n t e n d e d t o i m p l e m e n t i t . I n t h e l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l B a r t h o l o m e w - d e s c r i b e d t h e t i m e f r a m e a s f o l l o w s I n t h e p l a n s u b m i t t e d h e r e w i t h , a f u t u r e g r o w t h o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e m i l l i o n p e r s o n s h a s b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d W h e n t h a t p o p u l a t i o n h a s b e e n r e a c h e d , a n e w a n d l a r g e r p l a n w i l l b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y . A s m a l l e r p l a n w o u l d b e u n w o r t h y , a n d , a t b e s t , a p o o r e x p e d i e n t . A l a r g e r p l a n w o u l d b e m o r e o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t f o r p r e s e n t a d o p t i o n a n d r e a l i z a t i o n . 1° C o n t r a r y t o t h e p r a c t i c e i n m a n y o t h e r c i t i e s w h e r e l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r y w a s o f p o o r q u a l i t y a n d p o o r l y l o c a t e d , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w a s " o f f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . A g e n e r a l s t u d y o f t h e R e g i o n 28 i d e n t i f i e d a r e a s s u i t a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o n t h e b a s i s o f a c c e s s t o w a t e r a n d r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t " t h e c h a n g e s t h a t m a y b e e x p e c t e d i n t h e f u t u r e " . T h e p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s d e s i g n a t e d b y B a r t h o l o m e w w e r e : T h e B u r r a r d I n l e t W a t e r f r o n t , t h e P o w e l l S t r e e t a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e s o u t h e x - ; t e n d i n g t o t h e a r e a e a s t o f F a l s e C r e e k ( F a l s e C r e e k F l a t s ) , t h e C l a r k D r i v e a r e a , t h e G r a n d v i e w H i g h w a y / B o u n d a r y R o a d a r e a , F a l s e C r e e k n o r t h a n d s o u t h s i d e , G r a n v i l l e a n d B u r r a r d , A r b u t u s a n d 12th, a n d t h e M a r i n e D r i v e a r e a . T h e s e a r e a s s e r v e d a s t h e s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n e d l a n d f r o m 1930 t o 1970 w h e n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s b e g a n t o o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f r e z o n i n g . T h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e B a r t h o l o m e w p l a n a t a c o s t o f $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 . (1929 d o l l a r s ) a n d p a s s a g e o f t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w p l a c e d V a n c o u v e r i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f p l a n n i n g p r o g r e s s i n C a n a d a . H a r d w i c k s u m m a r i z e s B a r t h o l o m e w ' s p l a n a s f o l l o w s -B a r t h o l o m e w ' s p l a n w a s f o r a c o r e - o r i e n t e d , s e c t o r a l l y s e g r e g a t e d , r a d i a l l y o r g a n i z e d c i t y . T h i s b u i l t n a t u r a l l y o n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s i n V a n c o u v e r , a n d w a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m a i n a c a d e m i c a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l v i e w s o f t h a t t i m e . 1 9 T h e p l a n a n d t h e B y - L a w w h i c h w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n g u i d e d t h e g r o w t h o f t h e c i t y u n t i l t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . T h e d e c a d e o f t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s s a w t w o s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n p l a n n i n g a n d z o n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r . I n 1952 a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a s p a r t o f t h e 20 m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s d e p a r t m e n t a s s u m e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p r e v i o u s l y h e l d b y t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n w h o s e r o l e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a d j u s t e d . T h e o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e w a s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d a p p r o v a l o f a 29 n e w Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w . T h e n e w B y - L a w w a s p r e p a r e d b e c a u s e " t h e l e g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w ( s t i l l i n i t s 1930 f o r m ) w a s t o t a l l y 21 i n a d e q u a t e t o c o p e w i t h a c h a n g i n g c i t y " . T h e n e w b y - l a w i n c o r p o r a t e d " m o s t o f t h e m o d e r n t e c h n i q u e s k n o w n a t t h e t i m e " . W r i t i n g i n 19^3» s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e n e w b y - l a w w a s a p p r o v e d , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t e x p l a i n e d t h a t a n e w D e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e c i t y w a s i n t e n d e d t o a c c o m p a n y t h e b y - l a w - -N o a t t e m p t w a s m a d e a t t h a t t i m e ( i . e . 1956) t o r e v i s e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s o f t h e c i t y . I t w a s f e l t t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i s i o n o f t h e z o n i n g m a p s h o u l d o n l y b e d o n e a f t e r p r e p a r a t i o n o f a 20 y e a r d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . T h i s p l a n i s s t i l l . i n c o m p l e t e a n d i s o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r s o m a n y i n d i v i d u a l r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e - a s i t u a t i o n n o t u n l i k e t h a t p r i o r t o 1930.22 T h e n e w b y - l a w h a d a d d e d t h e w o r d s " a n d D e v e l o p m e n t " i n o r d e r t o r e p l a c e a n e g a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e c o n t r o l o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h a p o s i t i v e o n e . U n d e r t h e o l d b y - l a w i t w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o s e e k p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l f o r m o s t d e v e l o p m e n t s . I f t h e p r o p o s e d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e ' z o n i n g b y - l a w , a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t c o u l d b e i s s u e d . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n m o r e f l e x i b i l i t y a n d c o n t r o l o v e r d e v e l o p -m e n t , a n d i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n d e d 20 y e a r d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , a s y s t e m o f d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s w a s i n t r o d u c e d . F o r m o s t d e v e l o p m e n t s a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t w a s n o w r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t c o u l d b e a p p r o v e d . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h e a p p r o v a l o f a d e s i g n a t e d p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e b y - l a w w a s t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e l i s t s o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s ( f o r s o m e d i s t r i c t s ) a n d p r o h i b i t e d u s e s ( f o r o t h e r s ) w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t a p p r o a c h o f l i s t i n g a l l t h e p e r m i t t e d u s e s f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t . T h i s 30 f e a t u r e w a s o n e o f t h e " m o d e r n t e c h n i q u e s " i n c o r p o r a t e d . T h e l i s t s o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i e s . A l i s t o f m a i n d i s t r i c t u s e s c a m e f i r s t . D e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r u s e s o n t h i s l i s t w e r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a p p r o v e d i f t h e p r o p o s e d u s e c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e b y - l a w . A s e c o n d l i s t c o n t a i n e d c o n d i t i o n a l u s e s o r u s e s s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l . O n t h i s l i s t w e r e u s e s " w h i c h m i g h t b e a c c e p t e d i n a d i s t r i c t s u b j e c t t o 2 3 s p e c i a l s a f e g u a r d s " . ^ T h e Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w p a s s e d i n 1956 h a s u n d e r g o n e n u m e r o u s a m e n d m e n t s b u t i s s t i l l ' t h e p r i n c i p a l m e a n s o f - l a n d u s e c o n t r o l i n V a n c o u v e r . T h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e c h a n g e s i n c e 1956 i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r y . ^ T h e f o r m e r s i x s t o r e y L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t h a s b e e n r e n a m e d t h e M - l I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t ( l i g h t i n d u s t r y ) , w h i l e t h e H e a v y I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t i s n o w c a l l e d t h e M - 2 I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t ( h e a v y i n d u s t r y ) . M o s t o f t h e . b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e s e d i s t r i c t s h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e o l d Z o n i n g B y - L a w o f 1930. I n t h e l i s t s o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a c o m m i t t m e n t t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f e x c l u s i v e i n d u s t r i a l z o n e s . R e s i d e n t i a l u s e s a r e n o t - p e r m i t t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e l i s t o f c o n d i t i o n a l l y p e r m i t t e d u s e s i n c l u d e s b o t h " o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s " a n d " r e t a i l s t o r e , b u s i n e s s o r u n d e r t a k i n g " . T h e r e a s o n w h y t h e s e t w o c o m m e r c i a l u s e s w e r e i n c l u d e d h a s n o t b e e n d o c u m e n t e d . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e z o n i n g h i e r a r c h y . C h a n g i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m h a d r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e m o v a l o f r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s a s p e r m i t t e d u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a t , t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w a s l e f t i n t a c t . S u p p o r t i n g 31 t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t , under the new by-law i n d u s t r i a l uses were not allowed i n commercial a r e a s . I t may a l s o be t h a t the a r c h i t e c t s of the new by-law intended to approve only those o f f i c e and r e t a i l commercial uses t h a t were l i n k e d w i t h the nearby i n d u s t r i e s . However, as the data presented i n Chapter k w i l l show, t h i s s e c t i o n of the by-law has g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d a much broader i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The r e g u l a t i o n s i n the I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s do not d i s c r i m i n a t e between i n d u s t r i a l and n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses. In both the M-l and M -2 D i s t r i c t s , the h e i g h t l i m i t on b u i l d i n g s i s not to exceed 1 0 0 f e e t . The p e r m i t t e d f l o o r space r a t i o i s not to exceed 5.00. The by-law makes no d i s t i n c t i o n i n these two r e g u l a t i o n s between o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s . v However, because these n o n - i n d u s t r i a l uses are s u b j e c t to the s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l of the D i r e c t o r of Planning, a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and r e g u l a -t i o n s may be imposed. There are a l s o r e g u l a t i o n s i n both d i s t r i c t schedules concerning a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s and a c c e s s o r y uses. An a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g i s not to occupy an area g r e a t e r than 1 0 % of the s i t e and i s not to be over 12 f e e t i n h e i g h t . An a c c e s s o r y use (which i n c l u d e s o f f i c e s on the same s i t e as an i n d u s t r i a l use) i s not to occupy an area g r e a t e r than o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l gross f l o o r .area of a l l the b u i l d i n g s on the s i t e . In 1 9 7 6 a new i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t M-1A was e s t a b l i s h e d . The d i s t r i c t i s d e s c r i b e d as a l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t i n a r e s i d e n t i a l community. The new d i s t r i c t arose as a r e s u l t of l o c a l area p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y i n K i t s i l a n o . The two b l o c k i n d u s t r i a l zone i n the n o r t h e a s t corner of K i t s i l a n o (bounded by Burrard, 1 s t Ave., Cypress and Cornwall) 32 i s t h e o n l y a r e a p r e s e n t l y z o n e d M-1A. T h e M-1A d i s t r i c t s c h e d u l e i m p o s e s t i g h t e r r e s t r i c t i o n s o n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e t h a n i s t h e c a s e i n M - l a n d M-2 d i s t r i c t s . A l l u s e s a r e c o n d i t i o n a l a n d t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t ' t o t h e s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s i m p o s e d b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o l a n d s c a p i n g a n d t h e d e s i g n , c h a r a c t e r a n d c h o i c e o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l i n r e l a t i o n t o a d j o i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . A h e i g h t l i m i t o f 60 f e e t r a t h e r t h a n 100 i s i m p o s e d a n d t h e r e a r e m o r e s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f r o n t , s i d e a n d r e a r y a r d s . T h e f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o m i s 5 ' 0 0 a s i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s - . A s a r e s u l t o f r e c e n t c h a n g e s t o t h e b y - l a w l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l u s e s a r e p e r m i t t e d i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e i n t e r m s o f l a n d a r e a a r e t h e -F a l s e C r e e k C o m p r e h e n s i v e D e v e l o p m e n t D i s t r i c t ( F C C D D ) . a n d t h e D o w n t o w n D i s t r i c t ( D . D . ) . H o w e v e r , i n b o t h o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s t h e l i s t s o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y v e r y g e n e r a l b e c a u s e a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s h a v e b e e n d r a f t e d f o r b o t h a r e a s a n d t h e s e p l a n s , w h i c h a r e m u c h m o r e s p e c i f i c , a r e i n t e n d e d t o b e a g u i d e t o t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y . T h e a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s d o n o t a n t i c i p a t e i n d u s t r y a s a m a j o r l a n d u s e . T h e y p r o v i d e f o r e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l o r c o m m e r c i a l u s e s o r m i x e d u s e s . O f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s h a v e b e e n d r a f t e d f o r o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c i t y a s w e l l ( e . g . t h e W e s t E n d ) . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e n o o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r a n y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . N e i t h e r i s t h e r e a n o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r 27 t h e C i t y , o f V a n c o u v e r a s a w h o l e . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s C h a p t e r h a s d o c u m e n t e d t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m w i t h r e s p e c t t o z o n i n g p r a c t i c e i n g e n e r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t w a s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f u r b a n p l a n n e r s t h a t z o n i n g w a s t h e v e h i c l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a r a t i o n a l l a n d u s e p l a n f o r t h e c i t y . T o a n y d e f i n i t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y i n t h i s c o n t e x t m u s t b e a d d e d t h e c a v e a t t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e s w o u l d e n j o y a p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n w h i l e i n d u s t r y h a d a n i n f e r i o r s t a t u s . T h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i m p o r t e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m o f t h e d a y i n p r e p a r i n g i t s Z o n i n g B y - L a w o f 1930 a n d i t s Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w o f 1956 i s h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s c h e d u l e s i n t h e c u r r e n t B y - L a w . T h e 1930 B y - L a w w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y A m e r i c a n Z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s . T h e 1956 B y - L a w h a d e l e m e n t s o f z o n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l , t h e l a t t e r o r i g i n a t i n g i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n t h e n e x t C h a p t e r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d t h e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a c c o m p a n y i n g i t , o n t h e l o c a t i o n a n d s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e c i t y a r e e x p l o r e d . 34 F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r I I 1 E a c h B y - L a w h a s b e e n a m e n d e d o n n u m e r o u s o c c a s s i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e a m e n d i n g B y - L a w s d i d n o t c h a n g e t h e l a n d u s e c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e o u t l i n e d i n t h e m a i n B y - L a w . R a t h e r t h e y i n t r o d u c e d z o n i n g d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r y c h a n g e s , a d d i t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s c h e d u l e s a n d o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s , o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n g e s . 2 N i n o H a s o n , " T h e E m e r g e n c e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f Z o n i n g C o n t r o l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s " . P a p e r s o n P l a n n i n g a n d D e s i g n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , D e p a r t m e n t o f U r b a n a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1977) • p . 2 1 . 3 I b i d . p . 7. 4 C o m p r e h e n s i v e m t h e s e n s e t h a t i t c o v e r e d t h e e n t i r e c i t y . -5John D e l a f o n s , L a n d U s e C o n t r o l s i n t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s , 2nd E d i t i o n , ( C a m b r i d g e M a s s a c h u s e t t s : M . I . T . P r e s s , 1969). p . 20. 6 I b i d . p . 2 3 . " ^ R i c h a r d B a b c o c k , T h e Z o n i n g G a m e . ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 19&6). p . 127. Q T h e a g e n c i e s w e r e t h e A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n i n g , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t a t e P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c i e s , t h e A m e r i c a n R a i l w a y D e v e l o p m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l a n d t h e S o c i e t y o f I n d u s t r i a l R e a l t o r s . A . S . P . O . l a t e r r e p l a c e d t h e A . S . P . D . o n t h e C o m m i t t e e . 9 ^ P r i n c i p l e s o f I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g ( N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 5 0 ) . 10 S p a c e f o r I n d u s t r y - A n A n a l y s i s o f S i t e a n d L o c a t i o n  R e q u i r e m e n t s ( U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o . 231 1954) D o r o t h y A . M u n c y , " L a n d f o r I n d u s t r y - A N e g l e c t e d P r o b l e m " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w . V o l . 3 2 . N o . 2. ( M a r c h -A p r i l , 1954). 35 11 x " L a n d f o r I n d u s t r y - A N e g l e c t e d P r o b l e m " H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w . I b i d . 12 T h e t e r m p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d i s b o r r o w e d f r o m b u i l d i n g c o d e t e r m i n o l o g y . I n t h a t c o n t e x t i t r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f a c e r t a i n b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l o r m e t h o d t o w i t h s t a n d o r m e a s u r e u p t o c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a . 13 - " ' W a y T h r o u g h f o r C a n a d i a n P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f  t h e T o w n P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f C a n a d a . ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 1 ) ' Q u o t e d i n H a s o n , P a p e r s o n P l a n n i n g a n d D e s i g n . H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w a n d A s s o c i a t e s , A P l a n f o r  t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c l u d i n g P o i n t G r e y  a n d S o u t h V a n c o u v e r a n d a G e n e r a l P l a n o f t h e R e g i o n 1 9 2 9 . ( V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 2 9 ) ' p . 1 0 . " ' " - ' W a l t e r G . H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r , ( C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n : C a n a d a L t d . , 197^). p . 26. 1 6 B a r t h o l o m e w , A C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n , p . 2 1 1 . 1 7 I b i d . p . 2 2 0 . l 8 I b i d . p . 1 0 . 19 y H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r . p . 27. T h e m a i n a c a d e m i c v i e w o f t h e d a y w i t h r e s p e c t t o c i t y g r o w t h a n d l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s w a s P a r k a n d B u r g e s s * t h e o r y o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . T h i s t h e o r y w a s f i r s t p u b -l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 5 i n a n a r t i c l e b y E . W . B u r g e s s e n t i t l e d " T h e G r o w t h o f t h e C i t y " w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e b o o k T h e C i t y e d i t e d b y R . E . P a r k , E . W . B u r g e s s a n d R . D . M a c K e n z i e ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ) . 20 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t h a s b e e n r e c o m m e n d e d i n a s t u d y p r e p a r e d b y P r o f e s s o r s B l a n d a n d S p e n c e ^ S a l e s o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , G e n e r a l  E x p l a n a t o r y M e m o r a n d u m . Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w N o . 3575. ( V a n c o u v e r , N o v e m b e r , 1963). P - 2. 36 2 2 I b i d . p. 2. 2 ^ C i t y of Vancouver, Town Planning Commission, Proposed New Zoning and Development By-Law, (Vaneouver, March, 1955). p. i i . Oil The i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t schedules have been reproduced as Appendix A. 2 5 C i t y of Vancouver, Planning Department, Zoning  and Development By-Law No. 3575. (Vancouver, 1956.) p. 248 Sections E & F, p. 262 Sections E & F. 2 6 I b i d . p. 47 Sec. 1 A (65), p. 261 Sec. 1 A (77). 'The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g enabling l e g i s l a t i o n , the Vancouver Charter (S.B.C, Ch. 55. 1953) gives the c i t y a u t h o r i t y to prepare and approve such plans f o r the e n t i r e c i t y or c e r t a i n areas but t h i s i s not a mandatory requirement. C H A P T E R I I I R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y T h i s C h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n c l u d i n g s o u r c e s o f d a t a , m e t h o d s o f c o l l e c t i o n a n d t h e p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f a r e g u l a t o r y d e v i c e ( i . e . t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w ) o n t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e i n t h e C i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e B y - L a w a n d d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d u s e i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w e r e c o l l e c t e d . T h e d a t a c a m e f r o m o r i g i n a l a n d s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g a n a n a l y s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d r e p o r t s . T h e p r i n c i p a l d a t a s o u r c e s , t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r u s e a n d t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e n o w o u t l i n e d . T h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t r e c o r d s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f C h a p t e r I I a l l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r m u s t b e p r e c e d e d b y s u c c e s s f u l 1 a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n p o r t i o n o f t h e p e r m i t i n c l u d e s t h e z o n i n g o f t h e s u b j e c t p r o p e r t y , t h e l o c a t i o n b y m u n i c i p a l a d d r e s s a n d a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d o n t h e a p p r o v a l o r r e f u s a l p o r t i o n o f t h e p e r m i t c o n f i r m s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d o r t h e r e a s o n s f o r r e f u s a l . T h u s b y r e v i e w i n g t h e p e r m i t s i t w a s p o s s i b l e , t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t w e r e f o r n e w o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s o r o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s o r c o n v e r s i o n o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s t o o f f i c e / r e t a i l u s e o n l a n d t h a t i s z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . D e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s f i l e d i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m J a n u a r y 1, 1971 t o J u n e 1, 1978 w e r e c h o s e n f o r r e v i e w . A s n o t e d l a t e r i n t h i s C h a p t e r i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d u s e i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s f o r 19^9 w a s a v a i l a b l e i n 2 a p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d r e p o r t . W h i l e 1970 w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g d a t e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t h e y e a r h a p p e n e d t o b e o n e i n w h i c h a m a j o r c o n s t r u c t i o n s t r i k e o c c u r r e d t h e r e b y a b n o r m a l l y a f f e c t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a r t i n g d a t e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e a s t h o s e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s f i l e d o n o r a f t e r J a n u a r y 1, 1971. I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n i n g 7z y e a r s t o J u n e 1, 1978 p r o v i d e d a s u f f i c i e n t l y b r o a d t i m e f r a m e t o i d e n t i f y t r e n d s a n d d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s . I n t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25.000 d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s w e r e f i l e d . E a c h a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g o r c o m b i n e d o f f i c e / r e t a i l u s e i n a n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a w a s n o t e d a n d a r e c o r d m a d e o f t h e z o n i n g , m u n i c i p a l a d d r e s s , p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e d a t e o f a p p r o v a l o r r e f u s a l . W h i l e t h i s d a t a i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e r e l i a b l e , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n a r i s i n g f r o m i n c o n s i s t e n c y a n d v a g u e n e s s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d u s e . W h i l e m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n s l e f t n o d o u b t a s t o t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t ( e . g . " t o c o n s t r u c t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g " o r " t o c o n s t r u c t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h r e t a i l o n t h e m a i n f l o o r " ) o t h e r s r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d m a y h a v e b e e n m i s s e d . A n e x a m p l e w o u l d b e a n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a w a r e h o u s e w i t h o f f i c e s . S o m e o f t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r s c r u t i n y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e o f f i c e s a r e a n c i l l a r y t o t h e w a r e h o u s e ( a s r e q u i r e d i n t h e 39 b y - l a w ) o r w h e t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f o f f i c e a n d w a r e h o u s e , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n w a s r e a l l y f o r a c o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h s o m e w a r e h o u s e s p a c e . I t w a s p o s s i b l e t o r e s o l v e s o m e q u e s t i o n a b l e c a s e s b y d i s c u s s i o n w i t h P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s t a f f . O t h e r c a s e s w e r e r e c o r d e d o n t h e p e r m i t a s r e f u s a l s b e c a u s e o f t h e e x c e s s i v e s q u a r e f o o t a g e f o r o f f i c e u s e . I t s h o u l d a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t t h e i s s u a n c e o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t w i l l p r o c e e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , o r t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , o n c e c o n s t r u c t e d , w i l l l e g a l l y ' r e m a i n i n e x a c t l y t h e u s e f o r w h i c h i t w a s b u i l t . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t d a t a ' s p r i n c i p a l p u r p o s e i s t o i n d i c a t e t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e r e g u l a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t o p o i n t o u t t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o o f f i c e a n d r e t a i l c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p e r s . W h i l e i t a l s o h a s v a l u e i n i n d i c a t i n g l a n d u s e t r e n d s , o t h e r d a t a h a s b e e n c o l l e c t e d t h a t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d t o d o c u m e n t t h e l a n d u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t d a t a i s i l l u s t r a t e d o n M a p I I a n d l i s t e d b y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a i n T a b l e I . S i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t d a t a i s o n l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a t r e n d a n d i s l i m i t e d i n t i m e f r a m e s , f u r t h e r s u b s t a n -t i a t i o n o f t h e i n c i d e n c e o f o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l d e v e l o p -m e n t s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w a s o b t a i n e d b y m a k i n g u s e o f d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x r o l l . A n a n a l y s i s f r o m t h e p r o p e r t y t a x r o l l o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s i n t h e c i t y b y m u n i c i p a l a d d r e s s w a s m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w r i t e r . A s e r i e s o f c o d e s i d e n t i f i e d t h e a c t u a l u s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a s r e c o r d e d o n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x f i l e . S i n c e a c o d e w a s u s e d f o r " o f f i c e b u i l d i n g ( p r i m a r y u s e ) " a n d " s t o r e ( s ) a n d o f f i c e s " , a n d t h e z o n i n g o f t h e l a n d w a s a l s o g i v e n , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e b u i l d i n g s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y w h i c h w e r e l o c a t e d o n l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e m o s t p a r t t o b e r e l i a b l e a n d c u r r e n t s i n c e i t u s e s c u r r e n t a s s e s s m e n t r e c o r d s a n d 1978 z o n i n g b o u n d a r i e s . H o w e v e r , i t i s s u b j e c t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e a s s e s s o r . T h e d a t a h a s b e e n p a r t i a l l y a g g r e g a t e d b y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a a n d i s l i s t e d o n T a b l e I I I . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t r e c o r d s a n d t h e p r o p e r t y t a x f i l e s s h o w s t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a t A r b u t u s a n d 12th A v e n u e , G r a n v i l l e a n d B u r r a r d S t r e e t s , C a m b i e a n d 2nd A v e n u e , a n d P o w e l l S t r e e t . H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e s e a r e a s , a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o c o m p a r e l a n d u s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n t h e m o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r k n o w l e d g e o n t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e c h a n g e . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s a c o m p a r i s o n w a s m a d e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t w o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n l a n d u s e i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . I n 1969 a s p a r t o f t h e b r o a d e r V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e n e w a l  S t u d y , a T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t c o n c e r n i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s w a s p r e p a r e d . W h i l e t h i s r e p o r t f o c u s e d o n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s , i t a l s o c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n b y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a o n t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d i n v a r i o u s u s e s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e t o u s e t h e r e p o r t t o o b t a i n d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s t h a t i s i n n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e . T h e l i m i t a t i o n o n t h e d a t a i s t h a t " o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l " a n d " o f f i c e / r e t a i l " w e r e n o t s p e c i f i c l a n d u s e c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n t h e r e p o r t . R a t h e r , t h e t e r m s " R e t a i l T r a d e " a n d " S e r v i c e " w e r e u s e d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e m a i n i n g l a n d u s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l u s e s , p a r k i n g , r e s i d e n t i a l , v a c a n t a n d o t h e r . T h e a u t h o r o f t h e r e p o r t h a s c o n f i r m e d t h a t a n y o f f i c e o r o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d w i t h R e t a i l o r S e r v i c e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o n o n -i n d u s t r i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t h e r e p o r t n o t e s -A s m a l l b u t d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n r e t a i l a n d o t h e r n o n - i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l d i s -t r i c t s w a s n o t e d . . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e l o w e r l a n d c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s o v e r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h i s t r e n d . A c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h i s t r e n d i s e x p e c t e d . ^ T h e d a t a f r o m t h e 1969 r e p o r t r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I V . I n J u l y 1977 t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t c o m p l e t e d a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . W h i l e t h i s w a s a " P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t f o r D i s c u s s i o n " a n d w a s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e n d e d a s a d e f i n i t i v e p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n d o c u m e n t , i t d o e s c o n t a i n s o m e u p d a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n l a n d u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s a s o f J u n e 1976. T h e c o m m e r c i a l c a t e g o r i e s u s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t a r e m o r e d i s a g g r e g a t e d t h a n t h e 1969 s t u d y - t h e y i n c l u d e : " o f f i c e s e r v i c e s " a n d " r e t a i l / p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e s e r v i c e ( m i x e d ) " . T h e r e p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s v e r y u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n o n o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s d a t a r e l a t e t o t h e i n c o m p a t -i b i l i t y o f b o u n d a r i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d d i s t r i c t s b e t w e e n t h i s s t u d y a n d t h e 1969 s t u d y . T h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f b o u n d a r i e s i s d u e t o t h e r e z o n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g s e v e n y e a r s . R e z o n i n g h a s a f f e c t e d s o m e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s m o r e t h a n o t h e r s s o t h a t f o r s o m e a r e a s c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1976 l a n d u s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n r e l i a b l y b e m a d e w h i l e i n o t h e r c a s e s ( w h e r e m o r e b o u n d a r y p r o b l e m s o c c u r ) t h e d a t a c a n o n l y b e u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t r e n d s . T h e 1976 l a n d u s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s d a t a w i t h t h e 1969 r e p o r t a c c o m p a n i e s t h i s T a b l e . S i n c e r e z o n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e h a s a l s o h a d a m a j o r i m p a c t o n t h e s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n t h e c i t y , i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e 1976 r e p o r t c o n c e r n -i n g t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e h a s b e e n u p d a t e d t o J u n e 1, 1978. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e 19&9 r e p o r t i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e b o t h g r a p h i c a l l y a n d i n t a b u l a r f o r m , t r e n d s i n t h e s u p p l y o f l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r y . 4 3 Footnotes f o r Chapter I I I The term "development" i s not defined i n the Zoning and Development By-Law, hut i s defined i n the p r o v i n c i a l enabling l e g i s l a t i o n , the Vancouver Charter, as f o l l o w s -"Development" means a change i n the use of any land or b u i l d i n g i n c l u d i n g the c a r r y i n g out of any c o n s t r u c t i o n , engineering or other operations i n , on, over or under land or land covered by water". 2 C i t y of Vancouver, Planning Department, Vancouver  Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report No. 4 , I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . (Vancouver, August, 1969). 3 . . . . . ^Data c o l l e c t i o n was p a r t i a l l y s i m p l i f i e d because a l i s t of a l l development permit a p p l i c a t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l areas covering approximately 4 of the 7h years had been p r e v i o u s l y prepared. By reviewing t h i s l i s t i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the a p p l i c a t i o n s of concern to t h i s study during that 4 year p e r i o d . 4 • v C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, Vancouver  Urban Renewal Study, p. 13-CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Development Permits January 1, 1971 - June 1, 1978 In the period from January 1, 1971 to June 1, 1978 a t o t a l of 61 development permit applications were f i l e d for new o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l buildings or conversion of exis t i n g buildings to o f f i c e use in i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas. By including both applications approved and applications refused, i t i s possible to gain a better understanding of the i n d u s t r i a l areas that are apparently a t t r a c t i v e locations for o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments. A l i s t of the subject properties by municipal address and i n d u s t r i a l area i s presented in Appendix B. Table I i s a summary of t h i s l i s t by i n d u s t r i a l area: TABLE I DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OFFICE AND OFFICE/RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIALLY ZONES AREAS January 1, 1971 - June 1, 1978 Industrial Area Approved Refused Total Granville & Burrard 13 7 20 Cambie & 2nd 3 11 14 Arbutus & 12th 6 0 6 Marine Drive 6 3 9 Powell Street 3 4 7 Fairview Slopes 1 2 3 Other 2 0 2 27 61 45 Map I i l l u s t r a t e s the location of the c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l areas. Map II shows the approximate location of the deve-lopment permit applications. The most s i g n i f i c a n t observation from t h i s data i s the concentration of applications in three of the inner-city i n d u s t r i a l areas (Granville and Burrard, Cambie and 2nd Avenue, and Powell Street) and in the Arbutus and 12th Avenue i n d u s t r i a l area. During the study period these areas ac-counted for only 17% of the supply of i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned land in the c i t y but received 77% of the development permit applications for o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments in i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas. The apparent significance of the Marine Drive area i s moderated by the fact that i t i s the largest i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned area in the c i t y whereas Granville and Burrard, Cambie and 2nd Avenue and Arbutus and 12th Avenue are among the smallest. Several parcels of land were subject to multiple ap-p l i c a t i o n s during the study period, or appeal of a refusal to the Board of Variance r e s u l t i n g in approval. If the data i s adjusted to eliminate t h i s apparent double-counting the results do not change the concentration s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Table IA shows the number of d i f f e r e n t parcels subject to at least one development permit application during the study period. Map 2. Location of Industrial Areas and Approximate Location of Development Permit Applications TABLE IA DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OFFICE AND OFFICE/RETAIL DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIALLY ZONED AREAS January 1, 1971 - June 1, 1978 Industrial Area .Total Granville & Burrard 19 Cambie & 2nd 11 Arbutus & 12th 5 Marine Dr. 7 Fairview Slopes 3 Powell St. 5 Other 2 Total 52 From the date i t was also possible to ascertain which of the applications was for a new o f f i c e building (usually 2 or 3 stories ) and which was for conversion of an ex i s t i n g building to o f f i c e or o f f i c e / r e t a i l use. This data was compiled as further evidence of land use succession. Table II summarizes the results by i n d u s t r i a l area. 4 9 TABLE II SUMMARY OF DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS BY NEW CONSTRUCTION AND CONVERSION OF EXISTING BUILDING Industrial New Conversion of Area Building E x i s t i n g Total Burrard & Granville 14 6 20 Cambie & 2nd 5 9 14 Arbutus & 12th 3 3 6 Marine Dr. 5 4 9 Powell St. 1 6 7 Fairview 2 1 3 Other 2 2 Total 30 31 61 Apart from the concentration of new construction in the Burrard and Granville area the data shows a blance between new construction and conversion of e x i s t i n g buildings (usually warehouses) to o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l use. Also from the development permit records the reasons for r e f u s a l were documented as they appeared on the permit application. The reasons are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t as between i n d u s t r i a l areas and are, therefore, not docu-mented in tabular form. They either state that the a p p l i -cation i s "unsuitable in this M-l area" or "unsuitable at th i s location in M-l". There i s also reference on some applications to the fact that the proposed development i s more s i t a b l e in a commercially zoned area or that there are s u f f i c i e n t commercially zoned s i t e s in the v i c i n i t y . Some 50 warehouse/office applications were also refused because the proposed development had an excess of 33% of fl o o r space for o f f i c e use contrary to the provisions of the By-law. In these cases there was evidence that the o f f i c e space was to be leased separately rather than used for an a n c i l l a r y space for the warehouse. Apart from the requirements of the by-law there appears to be no trend in the applications refused and approved that can be related to the proposed developments themselves. However, when the approvals and refusals are noted with respect to location (see Table I) i t i s observed that 100% of the applications in the Arbutus and 12th area were approved, 65% of the applications in the Granville and Burrard area were approved while 21% of the applications in the Cambie and 2nd area were approved. These d i f f e r i n g ap-proval percentages provide some evidence of the existence of a guideline or undocumented policy favouring o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments in some i n d u s t r i a l areas more than others. Information concerning the occupancy of those buildings receiving development permit approval was, in some cases, available on the development permit f i l e . Further information was collected during s i t e v i s i t s . This information i s po-t n t i a l l y valuable in helping to determine whether o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l buildings were being constructed in i n -d u s t r i a l areas because of linkages between the occupants and the nearby i n d u s t r i a l enterprises. The information does not substantiate the conclusion that linkages with industry are the reason for such buildings. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true in the inner c i t y areas where linkages among business o f f i c e s and with the nearby central business d i s t r i c t would appear to be a stronger influence. In the Marine Drive area one application was for an o f f i c e b u i lding to be occupied by a nearby construction firm. Another was for a municipal government department with a . works yard nearby. However, in the Arbutus and 1 2 t h area three of the applications were for o f f i c e buildings occupied by various branches of the regional government (G.V.R.D.). A fourth o f f i c e b u i lding i s occupied by the Vancouver o f f i c e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Human Resources. Office buildings in the Granville and Burrard area are occupied by firms whose linkages are much broader than the nearby i n d u s t r i a l area. Examples include architects, l i f e insurance companies, management consulting firms, and business systems consultants. In the Powell Street area two of the applications i n -cluded r e t a i l space while a t h i r d was to be occupied by a department of the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Cambie and 2 n d Avenue area applications included a commercial o f f i c e b u i l ding and a large service centre for the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. From the development permit data i t i s possible to con-clude that the inner c i t y i n d u s t r i a l areas are of more :'. interest to o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments than are other indus-t r i a l locations. Offices locating in these areas have a broader network of linkages than the immediate i n d u s t r i a l area in which they are located. A balance of new building construction and conversion of i n d u s t r i a l buildings to o f f i c e use was noted in a l l inner c i t y i n d u s t r i a l areas with the exception of the Granville and Burrard area where new o f f i c e buildings were predominant. The evidence also suggests that the location of the proposed development was more important in determining i t s approval or refusal than the d e t a i l s of th< development. Office and O f f i c e / R e t a i l Developments in I n d u s t r i a l l y  Zoned Areas 1978 Information obtained from the 1978 property tax records of the City of Vancouver substantiates the concentration of o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l buildings in the four i n d u s t r i a l areas i d e n t i f i e d in the development permit data. Since the information was made available in confidence i t i s not possible to i d e n t i f y the properties by municipal address. Therefore, Table III presents a s t a t i s t i c a l summary of the data by i n d u s t r i a l area. TABLE III INCIDENCE OF OFFICE AND OFFICE/RETAIL BUILDINGS IN INDUSTRIALLY ZONED AREAS 1978 Industrial Area Granville & Burrard Cambie &. 2nd Ave. Powell St. False Creek -East End Arbutus & 12th Ave. Clark Dr. Marine Dr. Total Office Building Primary Use 13 16 15 1 4 0 2 51 Store(s) & Total Offices 6 19 2 18 15 x 30 5 X X 6 0 4 3 3 1 3 32 83 x X X 13 of the 15 are along Hastings and Powell Streets. A l l 5 are along Main Street. As noted in the Table, Hastings, Powell and Main Streets account for many of the buildings containing r e t a i l space and having obvious l o c a t i o n a l advantages for a combined r e t a i l / o f f i c e building. In the interest of c l a r i t y i t should be noted that the difference between the information contained in Table III and the development permit data presented i n the previous section of t h i s Chapter i s attributable to the following: 1. The buildings l i s t e d on the property tax f i l e may have received development approval p r i o r to January 1, 1971 the s t a r t i n g date for c o l l e c t i o n of develop-ment permit data. 2. Rezoning of i n d u s t r i a l land to non-industrial between the time of development approval and 1978. 3. I l l e g a l conversions of i n d u s t r i a l buildings to o f f i c e or o f f i c e / r e t a i l use. 4. Discrepancies between assessment records and deve-lopment permit records. ( i . e . not a l l approved developments are constructed.) Trends in Land Use in Industrial Areas 1969 - 1976 To th i s point the study has documented only o f f i c e and o f f i c e / r e t a i l developments that have been approved and/or exist in the City's i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned areas. The t o t a l number of non-industrial uses that exist in the City's i n d u s t r i a l areas i s , in fact, much larger than the data presented to date might suggest. In order to appreciate the magnitude of the issue i t i s necessary to refer to more comprehensive land use information. An attempt has been made to analyze and present t h i s information i n time series by using data available in two previously published reports. The focus of the presentation w i l l be on the four in n e r - c i t y i n d u s t r i a l areas i d e n t i f i e d from development permit records and property tax f i l e s as being of interest to non-industrial uses. The 1969 Vancouver Urban Renewal Study calculated the net supply (excluding streets, lanes and railways) of i n -d u s t r i a l l y zoned land in the City to be 2038.81 acres (net) excluding the Burrard Inlet waterfront. The major land uses in the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s were: manufacturing (765.12 net acres or 32.5%), wholesale and r e t a i l firms (421.39 net acres or 20.7%), storage and transport firms (313.55 net acres 15.4%), vacant (210.87 net acres or 10.3%), r e s i d e n t i a l (126.56 net acres or 6.2%), parking,,signs, garages (55.98 net acres, 2.7%), other uses 2 (144.34 net acres or 7.1%). By adjusting the categories i t i s found that 135.59 acres or 6% of the land was being used by the following non-industrial a c t i v i t i e s : r e t a i l trade, finance re a l estate and insurance, and business or professional services. In 1969 the net land area of the four inner c i t y i n -d u s t r i a l areas of interest to t h i s study was 356.42 acres. The p r i n c i p a l land uses in the four areas were manufacturing (including metal f a b r i c a t i o n ) , wholesaling, commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l . 61.54 acres or 17% was in r e t a i l and o f f i c e / commercial use. This information i s summarized in Table IV. 55 T A B L E I V N E T . L A N D A R E A I N N E R C I T Y I N D U S T R I A L A R E A S , 1 9 6 9 I n d u s t r i a l A r e a R e t a i l a n d O f f i c e C o m m e r c i a l T o t a l N e t A c r e s G r a n v i l l e & B u r r a r d 1 1 . 8 3 4 9 . 3 0 C a m b i e & 2 n d A v e n u e 2 4 . 0 3 1 4 3 . 9 0 A r b u t u s & 1 2 t h A v e n u e 3 . 9 3 2 7 . 4 7 P o w e l l S t r e e t 2 1 . 7 5 1 3 5 . 7 5 T o t a l 6 1 . 5 4 3 5 6 . 4 2 A c r e s I n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 7 6 w h e n a r e p o r t o n l a n d u s e i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w a s a g a i n c o m p i l e d , a s i g n i f i -c a n t a m o u n t o f r e z o n i n g o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d h a d t a k e n p l a c e . A s a r e s u l t , c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o y e a r s i s d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s h a v e c h a n g e d . C o m p a r i s o n t o r e v e a l t r e n d s i s a l s o c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e r e z o n i n g f r o m i n d u s t r i a l t o n o n - i n d u s -t r i a l u s e w a s s p e c i f i c a l l y u n d e r t a k e n t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e s t h a t h a d e m e r g e d a s a r e s u l t o f p r e v i o u s a p p r o v a l s . I n 1 9 7 6 t h e s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d ( e x c l u d i n g s t r e e t s , l a n e s a n d r a i l w a y s ) w a s d e t e r m i n e d t o b e 1 6 3 8 . 5 1 3 a c r e s , ( n e t ) . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a d e c r e a s e o f 4 0 0 . 3 a c r e s o r 1 9 . 6 % o f t h e s u p p l y . T h e l a r g e s t l a n d u s e s a r e t h e m a n u -f a c t u r i n g , p r o c e s s i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s . T h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t l a n d u s e i s t h e w h o l e s a l i n g a n d w a r e h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y . T h e t h i r d l a r g e s t i s u n u t i l i z e d l a n d l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e M a r i n e D r i v e a r e a . T h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t i s 56 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . C o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s w e r e t h e f i f t h l a r g e s t u s e r s o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n 1 9 7 6 . 1 3 0 . 6 5 a c r e s o r 7 . 9 % o f i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d w a s i n c o m m e r c i a l u s e . I n t h e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e h a d d i m i n i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b u t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t a i l a n d o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a d r e m a i n e d t h e s a m e d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e r e z o n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d h a d t h e e f f e c t o f r e m o v i n g c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s f r o m i n d u s t r i a l 4-a r e a s . T A B L E V N E T L A N D A R E A I N N E R C I T Y I N D U S T R I A L A R E A S , 1 9 7 6 ( B o u n d a r i e s n o t c o - t e r m i n o u s w i t h 1 9 6 9 s t u d y ) I n d u s t r i a l A r e a R e t a i l a n d O f f i c e T o t a l C o m m e r c i a l ( A c r e s ) ( A c r e s ) G r a n v i l l e & B u r r a r d 1 0 . . 3 2 6 0 . . 8 3 C a m b i e & 2 n d A v e n u e 1 9 . . 2 4 1 1 8 . . 8 2 A r b u t u s & 1 2 t h A v e n u e 5 . . 8 6 2 3 . . 4 P o w e l l S t r e e t 1 5 . . 8 4 9 7 . . 4 5 T o t a l s 5 1 . . 2 6 , 3 0 0 . . 5 0 A s i n 1 9 6 9 t h e m a j o r l a n d u s e i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r a r e a s i s m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r w h o l e s a l i n g f o l l o w e d b y c o m m e r c i a l . T h e a m o u n t o f l a n d i n r e s i d e n t i a l u s e h a s b e e n r e d u c e d s u b s t a n -t i a l l y b y r e z o n i n g a n d c o n v e r s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t o h i g h e r u s e s . 57 F r o m t h e l a n d u s e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d w h o l e s a l i n g w e r e t h e d o m i n a n t l a n d u s e s i n t h e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i n b o t h 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 7 6 . H o w e v e r , i t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d i n c o m m e r c i a l u s e i n t h e s e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e f o r a l l o f t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . R e z o n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l L a n d 1 9 6 9 - 1 9 7 8 I n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e d a t a i n t h i s C h a p t e r m o r e p e r -s p e c t i v e a n d p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r a d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r 5 o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s , a s u m m a r y o f l a n d r e z o n e d f r o m o r t o i n d u s t r i a l u s e b e t w e e n 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 7 8 h a s b e e n c o m p i l e d . A g a i n , b e c a u s e o f d a t a c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t w a t e r f r o n t l a n d ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 9 5 g r o s s a c r e s ) h a s b e e n e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a l t h o u g h i t s l o c a t i o n i s s h o w n o n t h e z o n i n g M a p 3 w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s t h i s s e c t i o n . I n 1 9 6 9 a n e t t o t a l o f 2 0 3 8 . 8 1 a c r e s w a s z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e ( M - l a n d M - 2 ) . T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s i s s h o w n o n M a p 3 . T h i s n e t t o t a l e x c l u d e s s t r e e t s a n d l a n e s a n d r a i l y a r d s . I n J u n e 1 9 7 8 t h e a m o u n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l y - z o n e d l a n d u s i n g t h e s a m e e x c l u s i o n s a s i n 1 9 6 9 w a s 1 5 9 5 a c r e s . ^ T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a r e d u c t i o n o f 4 4 3 . 8 a c r e s o r 2 1 . 7 % i n t h e a m o u n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d f r o m 1 9 6 9 t o 1 9 7 8 . T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e l a n d t h a t w a s z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e i n 1 9 7 8 i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d o n M a p 3 . B y c o m p a r i n g t h e 1 9 6 9 a n d 1 9 7 8 z o n i n g b o u n d a r i e s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e l a n d t h a t h a s b e e n r e -z o n e d f r o m i n d u s t r i a l t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e h a s b e e n h i g h -l i g h t e d . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e l a n d r e z o n e d f r o m i n d u s t r i a l t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . Map 3. 1969 and 1978 Zoning Boundaries for Industrial Areas 59 T h e s p a t i a l a s p e c t s o f u r b a n g r o w t h h a v e b e e n d e s -c r i b e d b y u r b a n l a n d e c o n o m i s t s a n d g e o g r a p h e r s a s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n ( R a t c l i f f 1949. F i s h e r a n d F i s h e r 1954, B o u r n e 1967). I f , a s s u g g e s t e d b y R a t c l i f f , t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t i s s e e n a s o p e r a t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a p r o c e s s o f c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g a m o n g l a n d u s e r s , l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e a n e w l a n d u s e i s a b l e t o o u t b i d a n e x i s t i n g u s e f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p ( o r r e d e v e l o p ) a p a r c e l o f l a n d . T h e u r b a n l a n d u s e p a t t e r n a t a n y p o i n t i n t i m e i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e o u t c o m e o f a b i d d i n g p r o c e s s a c t i n g w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k e s t a b l i s h e d b y l e g i s l a t i o n . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s t h e b i d d i n g p r o c e s s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n . F o r e x a m p l e a z o n i n g m a p p r o v i d e s a g r o s s a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d f o r e a c h o f t h e m a j o r l a n d u s e s ( r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l ) a n d t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s u p p l y i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . L i k e w i s e , b e c a u s e e a c h z o n i n g c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f p e r m i t t e d u s e s , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s t h e d e m a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a n d a n d c r e a t e s a n u m b e r o f s u b - m a r k e t s . I n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r u r b a n l a n d t h e b i d e n t e r e d b y e a c h l a n d u s e i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e v e n u e r e a l i z e d b y t h e u s e o f a p a r c e l o f l a n d , l e s s c o s t s . O f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e a b l e t o p r o d u c e a h i g h e r r e v e n u e t h a n a n y o t h e r l a n d u s e a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o o u t b i d o t h e r l a n d u s e s u n l e s s p r e v e n t e d b y l e g i s l a t i o n f r o m d o i n g s o . ( L e a n a n d G o o d a l l 1966, S h e n k e l 1964). I t i s l o g i c a l t o e x p e c t t h a t t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o c o m m e r c i a l u s e w o u l d b e m o s t p r e v a l e n t i n a r e a s t h a t a r e m o s t a t t r a c t i v e f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . O n e s u c h a r e a i n V a n c o u v e r a n d m o s t o t h e r C a n a d i a n c i t i e s i s t h e i n n e r c i t y - t h e z o n e o f t r a n s i t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l l y 6o o r i e n t e d C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . T h i s a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d b y o l d e r i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s , f r e q u e n t l y l o f t b u i l d i n g s , m i x e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r u s e s i n c l u d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l - a c a r r y o v e r f r o m e a r l i e r z o n i n g b y - l a w s w h i c h a l l o w e d r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s ( H a r d w i c k 1 9 7 ^ ) . T h e a r e a i s c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r d e v e l o p e d a n d f r e q u e n t l y s e r v e s a s a s u p p l y o f l a n d f o r n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . T h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s C h a p t e r c o n f i r m s t h a t a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n s o m e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s p e r m i t t e d a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t d i r e c t e d t o c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s b y t h e Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w a n d t h e p a t t e r n o f a p p r o v a l . o f d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e B y - L a w . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s u p p l y o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d h a s d i m i n i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n 1969 a n d 1976 a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a p p r o v a l o f n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a n d t h e r e z o n i n g o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d . C h a p t e r I V F o o t n o t e s T h e B u r r a r d I n l e t W a t e r f r o n t I n d u s t r i a l A r e a w a s e x c l u d e d b e c a u s e a n e t l a n d a r e a f i g u r e w a s n o t g i v e n i n t h e s t u d y . 2 F r o m C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t N o . 4 . I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s ( V a n c o u v e r A u g u s t 1 9 6 9 ) . 3 L e n T e n n a n t , I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . P g . 1 0 . B u r r a r d I n l e t i s a g a i n e x c l u d e d . 4 F o r e x a m p l e , 4 1 , 4 1 8 s q u a r e f e e t o r 2 8 % o f t h e o f f s p a c e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s b o r d e r i n g t h e c e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a r e a w a s t r a n s f e r e d t o c o m m e r c i a l z o n i n g i n 1 9 7 5 . D e r e k W . H a y e s , E m p l o y m e n t G r o w t h i n V a n c o u v e r . ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 5 ) . 5 L e n T e n n a n t , I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . U p d a t e d f r o m J u n e 1 9 7 6 t o J u n e 1 9 7 8 b y r e v i e w i n g z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a p p r o v e d . C H A P T E R V P O L I C Y A N D P L A N N I N G I M P L I C A T I O N S I n C h a p t e r I V e v i d e n c e w a s p r o d u c e d t o s h o w t h a t s o m e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s h a v e s e r v e d a s a s u p p l y o f l a n d f o r n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 6 9 t o 1 9 7 8 . C e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i n i n n e r c i t y a r e a s . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f p u b l i c p o l i c y a n d c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g f o r l a n d , a n i n c r e a s e d s u p p l y o f b o t h r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e i s b e i n g m a d e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c i t y , t h e r e a r e a l s o i m p l i -c a t i o n s a s n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I , a r i s i n g f r o m a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n t h e a m o u n t o f i n n e r c i t y l a n d t h a t i s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . T h i s C h a p t e r b e g i n s b y d o c u -m e n t i n g . t h e d e c r e a s e i n t h e a m o u n t o f i n n e r c i t y l a n d t h a t i s z o n e d f o r a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . S u c h d o c u m e n t t a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s ' o f t h e s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s f o r p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e p u b l i c p o l i c y . T h e a r g u m e n t s f o r a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t r e g u l a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s w i l l t h e n b e p r e s e n t e d a n d e v a l u a t e d . T h e c o u n t e r a r g u m e n t i n f a v o r o f r e t a i n i n g a s u p p l y o f l a n d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e b y c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n d u s t r i e s w i l l t h e n b e p r e s e n t e d b y m a k i n g r e f e r e n c e t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a n d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . F i n a l l y , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o t h e t h e s i s f o r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d . R e f e r e n c e w i l l b e m a d e i n p a r -t i c u l a r t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s y s t e m o f d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l a s d e v e l o p e d i n B r i t a i n a n d h o w i t h a s b e e n a d a p t e d t o V a n c o u v e r . T h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s b a s e d o n t h e e v i -d e n c e , p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V , t h a t , a t p r e s e n t , i t i s V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t h a t a r e m o s t a f f e c t e d b y c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t . T h i s C h a p t e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , a m o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e l a r g e r i s s u e o f l o n g t e r m e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l i m -p a c t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o c o m m e r c i a l u s e . T h e r e m a i n i n g s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y ( e x c l u d i n g t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t ) i s d o c u m e n t e d i n T a b l e V I . T A B L E V I S U P P L Y O F L A N D I N I N N E R C I T Y . I N D U S T R I A L A R E A S . 1 ( E x c l u d i n g S t r e e t s a n d L a n e s ) I n d u s t r i a l A r e a R a i l Y a r d s & R i g h t - o f - W a y ( A c r e s ) N e t ( A c r e s ) G r a n v i l l e & B u r r a r d 2 . 1 9 6 0 . 8 3 C a m b i e & 2 n d A v e n u e -. 1 1 8 . 8 2 A r b u t u s & 1 2 t h A v e n u e 1 . 2 4 2 3 . 4 P o w e l l S t r e e t . 8 2 9 7 . 4 5 C l a r k D r i v e 8 . 9 3 8 1 . 0 7 F a l s e C r e e k E a s t e n d 5 5 . 3 0 1 1 3 . 3 4 F a l s e C r e e k F l a t s 1 6 3 . 7 6 1 9 0 . 9 2 T o t a l 2 3 2 . 2 4 6 8 5 . 8 3 T h e A r b u t u s a n d 1 2 t h A v e n u e a r e a a n d t h e e a s t e n d o f F a l s e C r e e k h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s a r e a s r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r 2 s t u d y . I f t h e s e a r e a s w e r e r e z o n e d , t h e r e w o u l d b e a r e d u c t i o n o f 2 1 % i n i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d t o 5 4 9 . 0 9 A c r e s . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e G r a n v i l l e a n d B u r r a r d i n d u s t r i a l a r e a r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r s t u d y b e c a u s e o f i t s a t -3 t r a c t i v e n e s s t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . I f t h i s a r e a w e r e r e z o n e d , t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d z o n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e w o u l d b e r e d u c e d b y 6 0 . 8 3 A c r e s t o 4 8 8 . 1 6 A c r e s . O f t h i s r e m a i n i n g l a n d , 4 7 . 0 9 A c r e s i s t a k e n u p w i t h c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . I f i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h i s l a n d i s n o l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s -t r i a l u s e , t h e a m o u n t o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e i s 4 4 1 . 0 7 A c r e s . B y c o m p a r i s o n , i n 1 9 6 9 t h e t o t a l a m o u n t o f i n d u s t r i a l l y 4 z o n e d l a n d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y w a s 1 0 5 4 . 1 A c r e s . T h e r e h a s , t h e r e f o r e , b e e n a n a c t u a l a n d p r o p o s e d r e d u c t i o n o f 6 1 3 . 0 3 ;. A c r e s i n t h e a m o u n t o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d l a n d . T h e d a t a f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t r e c o r d s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V s h o w s t h a t t h e r e i s c o n t i n u e d p r e s s u r e t o c o n v e r t i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f a l l o w i n g s u c h a p r o c e s s o f l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n t o c o n t i n u e . T h e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t a r e : 1 . G r o w t h i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s e c t o r o f t h e . r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y i s p r o j e c t e d t o t a k e p l a c e a t a m u c h s l o w e r r a t e t h a n i n t h e 5 t e r t i a r y s e c t o r . W i t h o u t m a j o r p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n m u c h o f t h e t e r t i a r y g r o w t h w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e d e m a n d f o r m o r e o f f i c e s p a c e i n o r n e a r t h e C . B . D . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f l a n d f o r t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e f u t u r e , t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l u s e i n t h e i n n e r c i t y s h o u l d b e a p p r o v e d i f n o t e n c o u r a g e d . 65 2 . R e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n t h a t o n e o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s i n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r M e t r o p o l i t a n 6 A r e a i s t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . S i n c e i n d u s t r y i s r e l o c a t i n g t o t h e s u b u r b s a n d t h e r e a r e d e m a n d s f o r i n n e r c i t y l a n d c u r r e n t l y i n i n d u s t r i a l u s e , a p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g La. l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e i n n e r , c i t y i s j u s t i f i e d . 3 . C o n v e r s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l u s e s t r e n g t h e n s t h e c i t y ' s p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h e r a s s e s s m e n t r a t i n g f o r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s c o m p a r e d t o i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s . 4 . C o n v e r s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l u s e p r o v i d e s e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s s i n c e e m p l o y m e n t d e n s i t i e s i n o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s a r e u s u a l l y h i g h e r t h a n i n i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s . A s n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I e a c h o f t h e s e a r g u m e n t s c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y s e r v e a s t h e b a s i s f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . I t i s t h e r e f o r e b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y t o e n g a g e i n a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f e a c h a r g u m e n t . H o w e v e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p o i n t o u t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f e a c h a s a b a s i s f o r p u b l i c l a n d u s e p o l i c y . I n t h e d i f f e r i n g g r o w t h r a t e a r g u m e n t , t h e g r o w t h r a t e :. i s m e a s u r e d b y s h i f t s i n e m p l o y m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e a r g u m e n t f a i l s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t e r t i a r y s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f f i c e a n d r e t a i l o r i e n t e d , h a v e h i g h e r e m p l o y m e n t d e n s i t i e s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s e c t o r a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e l e s s l a n d . B o t h t h e s e c o n d a r y a n d t e r t i a r y s e c t o r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n a c t u a l e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e 7 p e r i o d t o 1 9 8 6 . A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f a p o l i c y o f c o n v e r t i n g i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s a l l o c a t e s f u t u r e - i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h t o s u b u r b a n a r e a s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f f i r m s . T h e a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y f a i l s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r i n g l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a a m o n g s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s a n d a l s o a s s u m e s t h a t a l l i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s i z e a r e d e c e n t r a l i z i n g . S t u d i e s o f i n t r a m e t r a p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n h a v e s h o w n t h a t l o -c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a v a r i e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l f i r m a n d a m o n g s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s . ( V e r n o n 1 9 6 0 , P r e d 1 9 6 4 , G o l d b e r g 1 9 6 9 , S t e e d 1 9 7 3 ) . C l e a r l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e m o r e s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n t r e n d s i f s o u n d p u b l i c p o l i c y i s t o b e f o r m u l a t e d . T h e a r g u m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b e n e f i c i a l i m p a c t o n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e i s c o r r e c t a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l l e v e l a n d i n t h e s h o r t r u n . I f a 2 o r 3 s t o r e y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g r e p l a c e s a w a r e h o u s e o r s m a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g e n t e r -p r i s e , t h e r e t u r n i n p r o p e r t y t a x e s i s u s u a l l y h i g h e r . H o w e v e r , t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I V s h o w s t h a t a t p r e s e n t n o t a l l . i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s a r e a t t r a c t i v e l o -c a t i o n s t o o f f i c e / c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p e r s . T h e l o n g e r - t e r m i m p a c t o n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e i s , t h e r e f o r e m a r g i n a l . . R e f u s a l o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f t a x r e v e n u e s i n c e m a n y o f t h e d e v e l o p e r s w o u l d s e e k a l o c a t i o n i n c o m -c e r c i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s . B e c a u s e o f f i l t e r i n g , t h e v i t a l i t y ( a n d t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ) o f e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s c o u l d b e s u s t a i n e d o r e n h a n c e d . T h e l o n g r u n i m p a c t o n t h e p r o p e r t y t a x b a s e i s e v e n m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e . I f e a c h o f t h e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t h a t h a v e t o d a t e e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t i n u e d t o s h o w t h i s t r e n d , p r e s s u r e w o u l d m o u n t t o r e z o n e . t h e a r e a s i n o r d e r t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h e n e w l a n d u s e p a t t e r n . I f t h e r e z o n i n g a l l o w e d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o c o n t i n u e a t 67 c u r r e n t p e r m i s s i b l e d e n s i t i e s ( 5 f . s . r . ) t h e a m o u n t o f t a x r e v e n u e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s e a r e a s w o u l d n o d o u b t r i s e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y . H o w e v e r , s u c h i n c r e a s e s m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n s t i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c c o s t s a r i s i n g f r o m s u c h a h i g h d e n s i t y f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t . C r e a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l l a n d f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a n d t h e r e f o r e p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e f r o m e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . F i n a l l y t h e r e i s t h e i m p a c t o n t h e u r b a n a n d r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e i n i n n e r c i t y l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e . L a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d . T h e e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r g u m e n t i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y s o u n d i f i t i s l i m i t e d t o t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f j o b s . H o w -e v e r , i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e r a n g e o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r -t u n i t i e s w o u l d t e n d t o n a r r o w s i n c e i n d u s t r i a l j o b s i n t h e i n n e r c i t y w o u l d b e r e p l a c e d b y j o b s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l : . . s e c t o r a s n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I . T h i s t r e n d i s c o u n t e r t o o t h e r c i t y . p o l i c i e s w h i c h h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f r e t a i n i n g a d i v e r s i t y o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e g c i t y . I n O c t o b e r 1 9 7 7 a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o r e q u i r e " a n e m p h a s i s o n b l u e c o l l a r e m p l o y -9 m e n t a n d o n h i g h t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y " . T h e c o n t i n u e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e .. c e n t r a l c i t y i s a l s o c o n t r a r y t o r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . " ^ F i l i a l l y , t h e a r g u m e n t f o r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s , i f t a k e n t o i t s u l t i m a t e c o n c l u s i o n , w o u l d r e s u l t i n n o z o n i n g a t a l l . T h i s w o u l d b e t h e i n e v i -t a b l e r e s u l t o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h s i m p l y a d j u s t e d t h e z o n i n g m a p t o a c c o m m o d a t e a n d r e f l e c t t h e u r b a n l a n d u s e \y..l p a t t e r n a s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e u n f e t t e r e d a c t i o n o f t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t . L a n d e c o n o m i s t s a n d p l a n n e r s b o t h a g r e e t h a t , a t t h e m i n i m u m , a z o n i n g p l a n s h o u l d m i n i m i z e n e g a t i v e e x -t e r n a l i t i e s o r s p i l l o v e r e f f e c t s i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e b y t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f i n c o m p a t i b l e u s e s . I n o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t t h i s m a n d a t e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r v e n e i n a n d r e g u l a t e t h e u r b a n l a n d m a r k e t . Z o n i n g , t h e r e f o r e , b y d e f i n i t i o n i n v o l v e s a c h a n g e i n t h e p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e s . T h e u s e o f t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w t o r e g u l a t e l a n d u s e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a c c o m p l i -s h i n g o t h e r p u b l i c p o l i c i e s i s n o w a n a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e p o s s i b l e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n i m p o s e d b y a z o n i n g p l a n m u s t b e w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h t h e p l a n i s i n t e n d e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . F o r e x a m p l e , a z o n i n g p l a n w h i c h h a s t h e o b j e c t i v e o f d e c e n t r a -l i z i n g e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s b y l i m i t i n g e m p l o y m e n t d e n s i t i e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s m a y v e r y w e l l b e c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r e s s u r e s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . H o w e v e r , i f b y d e c e n t r a l i z i n g e m p l o y m e n t t h e r e i s a b e n e f i -c i a l e f f e c t o n t h e v o l u m e o f w o r k r e l a t e d c o m m u t i n g , s u r e l y t h i s i s a m e a s u r e o f e f f i c i e n c y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f a p o l i c y o f a l l o w i n g l a n d u s e s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s t o c o n t i n u e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . H o w e v e r , t h e y d o n o t a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p o s i t i v e r o l e o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s a s a n i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n f o r c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s a n d t h e r e f o r e i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c t r a d e o f f s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a r g u m e n t s o v e r s t a t e t h e b e n e -f i c i a l i m p a c t o n t h e c i t y ' s t a x b a s e a n d o n e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . F i n a l l y , c o n t i n u e d s u c c e s s i o n w o u l d h a v e c o n s e q u e n c e s c o n t r a r y t o b o t h r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s a n d o t h e r p o l i c i e s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r i a l A r e a s - A P o s i t i v e V i e w M o s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h t h a t h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d o n i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e p a s t 2 5 y e a r s h a s d o c u m e n t e d t h e t r e n d t o s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . A s a r e s u l t , i t h a s b e c o m e p a r t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g t o t h i n k o f i n d u s t r y a s e i t h e r b e i n g l o ^ c a t e d i n s u b u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s o r a s o c c u p y i n g i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d b e c o n v e r t e d t o a h i g h e r u s e b u t u n a b l e t o r e l o c a t e . . b e c a u s e o f i n e r t i a o r c o s t . T h e l i m i -t a t i o n s o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n a s a b a s i s f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f u r b a n l a n d u s e p o l i c y i n a c e n t r a l c i t y s u c h a s V a n c o u v e r .. h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n r e f e r r e d t o . I n f a c t , t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e f r o m b o t h o u t s i d e a n d w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a t o w a r r a n t a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . I n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s o u n d p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h o s e i n -d u s t r i e s w h i c h a r e r e l o c a t i n g o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a n d , c o n v e r s e l y , t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h c o n t i n u e t o f i n d i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s a n i m p o r t a n t i f n o t v i t a l f a c t o r i n t h e i r e c o n o m i c w e l l b e i n g . I n 1 9 5 9 a n d 1 9 6 0 t w o b o o k s w e r e p u b l i s h e d a r i s i n g f r o m t h e r e v i e w o f t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r t h e N e w Y o r k m e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . 1 " ' " T h e s t u d y w h i c h h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e N e w Y o r k a r e a h a d d o c u m e n t e d t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s b u t i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d a t e n d e n c y f o r s o m e i n d u s t r i e s a n d t h e s m a l l e r p l a n t s o f o t h e r s t o r e m a i n c l u s t e r e d a t l o c a t i o n s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . T h e s e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i e s w e r e c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e b r o a d g r o u p s . 1 . I n d u s t r i e s > ; such a s t h e g a r m e n t i n d u s t r y w h i c h d e p e n d u p o n f r e q u e n t f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d a n . a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n . 2 . I n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s t h e p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y w h i c h d e p e n d e d u p o n t h e n e a r b y C . B . D . a s t h e i r m a r k e t . F r e -q u e n t f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h c l i e n t s w a s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e i r p r o d u c t . H o o v e r a r i d V e r n o n n a m e d t h e i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d g r o u p t h e " c o m m u n i c a t i o n o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s " . 3 . N e w a n d / o r s m a l l f i r m s w h i c h s o u g h t i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f t h e e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a v a i l a b l e a t s u c h l o c a t i o n s . I t w a s n o t e d t h a t l a r g e r f i r m s i n t h e s a m e i n d u s t r y w e r e l o c a t e d i n s u b u r b a n s u r r o u n d i n g s a n d w e r e b e n e f i t i n g f r o m i n t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r s i z e a n d v o l u m e o f b u s i n e s s . T h e s m a l l e r i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s a r e e x p o s e d t o g r e a t e r u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n b o t h s a l e s a n d p r o d u c t i o n . S m a l l p l a n t s h a v e d o n e t h e i r b e s t t o m e e t t h i s i n h e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e h a n d i c a p b y l o c a t i n g i n a r e a s w h e r e s u d d e n n e e d s c o u l d b e e a s i l y m e t f r o m s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e p l a n t . T o a v o i d s t o c k p i l i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l s i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e a m o u n t s , t h e y h a v e c l u n g c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e s o f t h e u r b a n c l u s t e r , w h e r e t h e y c a n g e t m a t e r i a l s o n s h o r t n o t i c e ; t o m e e t t h e p r o b l e m s o f l a b o r f o r c e v a r i a t i o n o r m a c h i n e b r e a k d o w n s , t h e y h a v e c h o s e n l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e y c a n r e c r u i t w o r k e r s f o r b r i e f p e r i o d s o r o n s h o r t n o t i c e . T h e y h a v e c h o s e n l o f t s p a c e , s h o r t r u n i n c o m m i t m e n t a n d f l e x i b l e i n s i z e , i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e p a r a t e e f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g a w a y f r o m t h e u r b a n c e n t r e . I n s u m , t h e d e n s e r a r e a s o f t h e N e w Y o r k M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n a r e a c t i n g a s a c o m m o n p o o l o f s p a c e , m a t e r i a l s , a n d l a b o r , m e e t i n g t h e i n h e r e n t u n c e r t a i n t i e s ^ 0 ! t h e s m a l l p l a n t s w h i c h o c c u p y t h o s e a r e a s . T h e w o r k o f H o o v e r a n d V e r n o n i n N e w Y o r k i s t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e i n c u b a t o r t h e o r y . T h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t s m a l l i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e w i l l i n i t i a l l y s e e k l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e y c a n i n c u b a t e o r e s t a b l i s h t h e i r b u s i n e s s b y t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d s p a c e a n d e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s . S u c h l o c a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . O n c e t h e f i r m b e c o m e s e s t a b l i s h e d i t w i l l o u t g r o w i t s e x i s t i n g s p a c e a n d s e e k r o o m f o r e x p a n s i o n e l s e -w h e r e . T h u s t h e m i g r a t i o n o f f i r m s f r o m t h e i n n e r c i t y t o m o r e s p a c i o u s s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e p o s i t i v e r o l e p l a y e d b y t h e i n n e r c i t y i n t h e u r b a n o r m e t r o p o l i t a n e c o n o m y . S i n c e 1 9 6 2 t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f v e r i f y i n g t h e i n c u b a t o r h y p o t h e s i s p e r s e . H o w e v e r , t h e d y n a m i c s o f i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a -t i o n h a v e r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n . P r e d ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o r e x a m p l e i d e n t i f i e d s e v e n t y p e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g h a v i n g d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 6 9 ) w a s a b l e t o v e r i f y " a n i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s i z e o f a p l a n t a n d t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e s u b a r e a i n w h i c h i t l o c a t e s " . H i s a t t e m p t s t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " g r o w i n g p l a n t s t e n d o n t h e a v e r a g e t o m o v e t o l e s s d e n s e l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a " w a s h a n d i c a p p e d b y 1 3 d a t a p r o b l e m s . L e o n e a n d S t r u y k ( 1 9 7 6 ) d i v i d e d t h e i n c u b a t o r t h e o r y i n t o t w o h y p o t h e s e s . T h e i r " s i m p l e h y p o t h e s i s " w a s t h a t h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n s w o u l d a t t r a c t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e n u m b e r o f n e w f i r m s . T h e i r " c o m p l e x h y p o t h e s i s " s u g g e s t e d t h a t n e w f i r m s w h i c h a r e f o r m e d i n h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s m o v e o u t w a r d i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s t o e x p a n d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . B a s e d u p o n a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o t h e r t h a n N e w Y o r k ) t h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t " t h e b i r t h s o f n e w m a n u f a c t u r i n g e n t e r p r i s e s a r e n o t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e c o r e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , a s t h e s i m p l e i n c u b a t o r h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d 1 4 s u g g e s t ' . ' . H o w e v e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e y r e v i e w e d d i d s h o w t h a t c e n t r a l a r e a s a t t r a c t e d n e w f i r m s a n d , f o r s o m e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e n u m b e r . W i t h r e -s p e c t t o t h e c o m p l e x h y p o t h e s i s t h e y c o n c l u d e -A l m o s t c e r t a i n l y a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p l a n t s i n c u b a t i n g i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y e v e n t u a l l y e n d u p i n t h e l e s s d e n s e I n n e r , a n d O u t e r R i n g c o u n t i e s , b u t o u r e v i d e n c e s h o w s t h a t i t o f t e n t a k e s m o r e t h a n o n e m o v e t o g e t t h e r e . T h e y i d e n t i f y t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r f i n -d i n g s a s f o l l o w s -I f t o d a y s p l a n t s i n c u b a t i n g i n d e c a y i n g \ y \ , a r e a s o f c e n t r a l c i t i e s a r e a s o u r c e o f g r o w t h t o l e s s d e n s e , m o r e r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d a r e a s i n t h e f u t u r e , t h e n t h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y i n t h e a r e a o f u r b a n r e n e w a l , l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d e v e n f i s c a l p o l i c y . 1 6 R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n t h e N e w Y o r k M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a n d o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n t h e U . S . c a n n o t b e u s e d a s t h e m a j o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g i n t r a -m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n a n d i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r y t h a t h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a d o e s p r o v i d e s o m e s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n n e r c i t y a r e a s i n V a n c o u v e r a l s o p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n -t a g e s f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n d u s t r i e s a n d s m a l l e r / f i r m s . I n 1 9 7 3 G u y S t e e d o f S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y p u b l i s h e d t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d l o -c a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r 1 7 a r e a . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o " o u t l i n e t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , i d e n t i f y w h i c h p r o c e s s e s g e n e r a t e d r e l a t i v e c h a n g e s i n t h e p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n , c o n t r a s t t h e r e l a t i v e s p a t i a l i m p a c t o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e m i d - f i f t i e s w i t h t h e m i d -s i x t i e s , t h e n v i e w t h e s e l o c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s i n t h e l i g h t o f f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d m a r k e t a n d s u g g e s t s o m e 1 8 p o i n t s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y i n t e r e s t " . T h e l o c a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s b y s i z e a n d t i m e z o n e i n 1 9 6 5 i n d i c a t e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e 0 - 1 0 m i n u t e t i m e z o n e ( i n n e r c i t y ) a s s h o w n o n T a b l e V I I . I n b o t h 1 9 5 5 a n d 1 9 6 5 t h e i n d u s t r i e s w h o s e p l a n t s w e r e m o s t h e a v i l y c o n -c e n t r a t e d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y w e r e T e x t i l e s , C l o t h i n g a n d K n i t t i n g a n d P r i n t i n g a n d P u b l i s h i n g . C h e a p s p a c e p l u s a c c e s s t o a l a b o u r s u p p l y a t t r a c t e d t h e g a r m e n t f i r m s w h i l e t h e g r o w i n g m a r k e t i n t h e C . B . D . p r o v i d e d a m a r k e t f o r p r i n -t i n g a n d l i n k a g e s f o r p u b l i s h i n g . T A B L E V I I L O C A T I O N O F P L A N T S B Y S I Z E A N D T I M E Z O N E G R E A T E R V A N C O U V E R 1 9 6 5 . ( F r o m S t e e d 1 9 7 3 ) E M P L O Y E E S 0 - 1 0 T I M E Z O N E 1 0 - 1 5 ( M i n u t e s ) 1 5 - 2 0 2 0 - 2 5 1 - 9 3 1 2 1 0 1 9 1 9 0 . 1 0 - 2 5 1 5 3 3 8 1 5 4 0 . 2 6 - . 1 0 0 1 0 4 2 7 2 1 4 9 1 0 1 - 5 0 0 2 6 1 2 6 1 7 5 0 0 1 — 1 2 S t e e d s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c h a n g i n g l o c a t i o n a l d y n a m i c s w e r e d u e t o t h r e e f a c t o r s : t h e e n t r y o f n e w p l a n t s , t h e m o r t a l i t y o f e x i s t i n g p l a n t s a n d t h e m i g r a t i o n o f p l a n t s w i t h i n t h e R e g i o n . U s i n g d a t a p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y b y t h e t h e n 74 D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s h e w a s a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e n t r y , e x i t a n d m i g r a t i o n o f p l a n t s i n t h e R e g i o n i n t h e p e r i o d s 1 9 5 4 - 5 7 a n d 1 9 6 4 - 6 7 . I n a s a m p l e o f 2 3 3 p l a n t s n e w t o G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r i n 1 9 6 4 - 6 7 , i t w a s f o u n d t h a t 1 7 5 w e r e e n t i r e l y n e w b o r n f i r m s , 2 5 r e p r e s e n t e d c h a n g e s o f n a m e f o l l o w i n g p u r c h a s e f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s o w n e r , 4 i n v o l v e d n a m e c h a n g e s t h r o u g h m e r g e r o f C a n a d i a n o w n e d f i r m s , 2 7 w e r e n e w b r a n c h e s o f s u b s i d i a r i e s o f A m e r i c a n o r C a n a d i a n p a r e n t f i r m s o u t s i d e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 w a s a n e w b r a n c h o f a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i r m , a n d 1 i n v o l v e d a s h i f t i n S . I . C . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1 ^ H e a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e c l o t h i n g , p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s c o m p r i s i n g m a n y s m a l l p l a n t s , h a d m a n y e n t r i e s , m o r t a l i t i e s a n d m i g r a t i o n s . M o s t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , i n c l u -d i n g m i g r a t i o n s , o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l c o r e l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s a r e a w a s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s . T h e c h o i c e o f a n i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n f o r n e w p l a n t s d i m i n i s h e d f r o m 5 8 % t o 4 6 % o f t h e t o t a l o v e r t h e g i v e t i m e p e r i o d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n n e r c i t y g e n e r a t e d m o s t o f t h e p l a n t m i g r a t i o n s - 6 1 % a n d 5 0 % r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s m a l l e r . s u r v e y o f p l a n t s r e l o c a t i n g i n t h e 1 9 6 4 - 6 7 p e r i o d c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r r e l o c a t i o n w a s l a c k o f s p a c e f o r e x p a n s i o n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e a p p r e n t d e c l i n e i m i m p o r -t a n c e o f t h e i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l c o r e b y s o m e i n d i c a t o r s , t h e s t u d y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r a t i o o f p l a n t b i r t h s t o m o r t a l i -t i e s i n a l l i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n n e r c i t y w a s 5 : 4 . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e o f t h e b i r t h m o r t a l i t y r a t i o , t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p l a n t s i n t h e i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l c o r e " b a r e l y c h a n g e d " . S t e e d c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r t h e t w o t i m e p e r i o d s i n h i s s t u d y . . . . t h e c o n c e p t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s u b u r -b a n i z a t i o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h r o u g h p l a n t o u t m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l c o r e w a s n o t v a l i d . B y f a r t h e m a j o r i t y o f p l a n t s a p -p e a r i n g i n t h e s u b u r b a n p e r i p h e r y w e r e n e w p l a n t s , n o t m i g r a n t s . M o s t m i g r a t i o n w a s i n s h o r t d i s t a n c e m o v e s w i t h i n t h e i n n e r c o r e , a n d t h e l o n g e r m o v e s w e r e m a i n l y t o t h e s o u t h a n d e a s t b u t s t i l l l a r g e l y w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . ^ 0 H e a l s o f o u n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n c u b a t o r h y p o t h e s i s — E v e n i n t h e m i d - s i x t i e s , h o w e v e r , n e a r l y o n e h a l f o f t h e n e w p l a n t s w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l ' c o r e , d e s p i t e ' i t s h i g h e r l a n d c o s t s . T h i s p r o v i d e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c o r e ' s i n c u b a t i o n f u n c t i o n a n d t h e c o n t i n u -i n g d e s i r e t o o b t a i n a c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s . 1 F i n a l l y , S t e e d c o m m e n t e d o n t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s s t u d y — . . . . g i v e n t h e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o n - h o m o g e n e o u s n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l s p a c e i n t h i s m e t r o p o l i s , p l u s t h e V a n c o u v e r C t i y C o u n c i l ' s d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s f o r m t h e F a l s e C r e e k a r e a o u t o f i n d u s t r i a l u s e , i t m a y b e i m p o r t a n t t o m a i n t a i n , e v e n r e i n f o r c e , t h e v i t a l i t y o f t h e r e m a i n i n g i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l c o r e , w h i c h p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c u b a t o r a s w e l l a s i n d u s -t r i a l s e r v i c e . f u n c t i o n . 2 2 T e n y e a r s h a s e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e s e c o n d o f S t e e d ' s d a t a p e r i o d s ( 1 9 6 7 ) . I n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g t i m e t h e s u p p l y o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r n e w i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r o u t s i d e o f t h e i n n e r a r e a h a s d w i n d l e d . T h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n p a t t e r n h a s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e d o n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s u c h a s R i c h m o n d a n d B u r n a b y . R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b y t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a n d t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t p r o -v i d e s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e i n n e r c i t y i n -d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y ( 1 9 6 9 ) d o c u m e n t e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s a s f o l -l o w s -T h e t e n d e n c y f o r e s t a b l i s h e d f i r m s t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e c e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r i s c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d b y a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n e x h i b i t e d b y n e w f i r m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l w h o l e s a l i n g f i r m s . T h e s e s h i f t s p o i n t t o a c h a n g i n g r o l e f o r c e n t r a l V a n -c o u v e r i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , f r o m a r e a s f o r l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f i r m s t o a r e a s f o r a v a r i e t y o f s m a l l e r i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , m a i n l y w h o l e s a l e r s a n d d i s t r i b u t o r s h i p s w i t h s e r v i c i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 2 3 T h e G . V . R . D . ' s r e p o r t S p a c e f o r I n d u s t r y ( 1 9 7 1 ) r e a c h e d a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n -. . . . t h e i n d u s t r i a l r o l e o f t h e i n n e r c i t y i s c h a n g i n g t o t h a t o f a f o c u s f o r s m a l l e r , m o r e s p e c i a l i z e d f i r m s w h i c h c a n b e n e f i t f r o m c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n a n d a f f o r d i t s h i g h e r g r o u n d r e n t s . L a r g e r i n d u s t r i e s , b y w a y o f c o n t r a s t , a r e d e c e n t r a l i z i n g . 2 4 I n 1 9 7 1 t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t c o n d u c t e d a m a i l s u r -2 5 v e y o f m a n y i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s l o c a t e d i n i n n e r c i t y a r e a s . R e s p o n s e s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m 1 , 3 0 0 f i r m s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h < s t u d y w a s t o i n v e s t i g a t e " t h e s t a b i l i t y o f o l d e r f i r m s , a e n t r y o f n e w e r , f i r m s a n d t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g 2 6 f i r m s t o r e l o c a t e ' . ' . T h e s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t o v e r 4 0 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h a d b e e n l o c a t e d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t e s f i v e y e a r s o r l e s s a n d a n o t h e r 2 5 % f r o m 6 t o 1 0 y e a r s . O n l y 1 4 % o f t h e s a m p l e d f i r m s w e r e c o n s i d e r i n g r e l o c a t i o n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . T h e s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t " i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r y w a s s t i l l a c t i v e l y e x p a n d i n g a n d t h a t m a n y f i r m s e x i s t i n g 2 7 t h e r e h a d n o d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e " . I n J u l y 1 9 7 6 a f o l l o w u p s u r v e y i n t h e Y a l e t o w n a r e a o n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t w a s u n d e r t a k e n . T h e Y a l e t o w n a r e a i s a n o l d e r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a n o t u n l i k e t h e P o w e l l S t r e e t a r e a i n i t s s u p p l y o f o l d e r l o f t b u i l d i n g s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y i t h a d c o m e w i t h i n t h e d o w n t o w n z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a n d w a s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o c o n v e r s i o n t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . T h e 1 9 7 6 s u r v e y , c o m -p a r e d w i t h t h e 1 9 7 1 r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h e n o t i c e a b l e p r e s e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e a n d b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s a l l o w e d u n d e r t h e r e z o n i n g . T h i s g r o u p c o m p r i s e d 3 0 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n 1 9 7 6 . H o w e v e r 4 9 o f t h e 1 0 2 r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y w e r e f r o m m a n u f a c t u r i n g , w h o l e s a l i n g o r w a r e h o u s i n g f i r m s . 8 6 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e Y a l e t o w n l o c a t i o n w a s t h e f i r m ' s o n l y l o c a t i o n . 5 2 % o f t e h r e s p o n d e n t s h a d e i t h e r b e e n p r e v i o u s l y l o c a t e d i n Y a l e t o w n o r e l s e w h e r e a t a l o c a t i o n c l o s e t o t h e C . B . D . ( e g . G a s t o w n ) . A s k e d w h y t h e y l o c a t e d i n Y a l e t o w n 2 1 % c i t e d p r o x i m i t y t o t h e C . B . D . A f u r t h e r 1 8 % m e n t i o n e d r e a s o n a b l e r e n t . 8 . 7 % r e f e r r e d t o s i m i l a r o r r e l a t e d f i r m s n e a r b y . 7 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p l a n n e d t o r e m a i n i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n w h i l e 2 0 % p l a n n e d t o e x p a n d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . T h o s e f i r m s p l a n n i n g o n r e m a i n i n g i f n o t e x p a n d i n g i n c l u d e d 7 o f t h e 8 m a n u f a c t u r e r s r e s p o n d i n g , a n d 2 8 o f t h e 3 4 w h o l e s a l e r s r e s p o n d i n g . G i v e n t h e l i m i t a -t i o n s o n t h i s d a t a a r i s i n g f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n c l u d e d s o m e n o n - i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , t h e r e s u l t s n e v e r t h e -l e s s p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e n e e d f o r i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s o n t h e p a r t o f c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s . P a r t o f t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e i n n e r c i t y f o r s m a l l e r a n d n e w e r i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s h a s b e e n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d l e a s e h o l d s p a c e . T a b l e V I I I s h o w s t h e r e n t a l r a n g e f o r i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y i n V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n 1 9 7 8 c o m p a r e d w i t h s u b u r b a n V a n c o u v e r a n d a p r o -p e r t y i n B u r n a b y a n d R i c h m o n d , t w o c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t m i g h t p o t e n t i a l l y o f f e r s o m e o f t h e s a m e e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a s i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s . T A B L E V I I I R E N T A L R A N G E S F O R I N D U S T R I A L P R O P E R T Y I N V A N C O U V E R - I N N E R C I T Y , V A N C O U V E R - S U B U R B A N B U R N A B Y A N D R I C H M O N D . 2 8 I n d u s t r i a l A r e a R e n t a l R a n g e ( $ / s q , f t , ) V a n c o u v e r - i n n e r c i t y $ 1 . . 7 5 - - 3 . . 0 0 V a n c o u v e r - s u b u r b a n $ 1 . . 7 5 -- 3 . . 3 0 B u r n a b y $ 1 . . 9 0 -- 3 . . 2 5 R i c h m o n d $ 2 . . 0 0 - - 3 . . 0 0 T h i s t a b l e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o n t i n u e d a t -t r a c t i v e n e s s o f V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s f o r n e w o r s m a l l s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s l o o k i n g f o r w e l l l o c a t e d , r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d r e n t a l s p a c e . A Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - l a w t h a t a l l o w s o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l u s e s t o c o m p e t e w i t h i n d u s t r i a l u s e s f o r i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s i s n o t s u p p o r t i v e o f i n d u s t r y . I f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i s c o m m i t t e d t o r e t a i n i n g i n d u s t r y a s a s i g n i -f i c a n t e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e c i t y f o r t h e r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r I i t m u s t b e p r e p a r e d t o p r o v i d e a s u p p l y o f r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i n n e r . c i t y . S o m e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w h i c h i s s o l o c a t e d a s t o b e a t t r a c t i v e t o i n d u s t r y a n d c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s s h o u l d e i t h e r b e p r o t e c t e d b y l e g i s l a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i v e i n d u s t r i a l u s e , r e z o n e d t o c o m m e r c i a l u s e o r f a l l w i t h i n a m i x t u r e o f i n -d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l u s e s t h a t i s p l a n n e d f o r a n d r e g u -l a t e d . T h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o h a s r e c e n t l y a m e n d e d i t s l a n d u s e c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t e s o m e o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s b e c a u s e m a n y o f t h e c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l 2 9 l a n d e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a l s o e x i s t i n T o r o n t o . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g P r a c t i c e R e f e r e n c e w a s m a d e i n C h a p t e r I I t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e (• C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - l a w , f i r s t p a s s e d i n 1 9 5 6 , i n c o r p o r a t e d a s y s t e m o f p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s . T h e n e c e s s i t y t o o b t a i n p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l w a s c o n t r a r y t o t h e A m e r i c a n Z o n i n g t r a d i t i o n a n d a c t u a l l y h a d i t s o r i g i n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . T h e T o w n a n d C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g A c t o f 1 9 3 2 r e q u i r e d t h a t p l a n n i n g s c h e m e s b e p r e p a r e d f o r a l m o s t e v e r y t y p e o f l a n d i n t h e c o u n t r y . S u c h s c h e m e s w e r e t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o p r e p a r e a n d a s a r e s u l t a s y s t e m o f i n t e r i m d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l w a s u s e d d u r i n g t h e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e p a s s i n g o f a r e s o l u t i o n t o p r e p a r e a p l a n n i n g s c h e m e , a n d i t s a c t u a l a p -p r o v a l . T h e s y s t e m w a s v o l u n t a r y a n d w a s d e s i g n e d t o • a l l o w d e v e l o p e r s t o s e e k p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n a s a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t c o n s t r u c t i n g a b u i l d i n g t h a t m i g h t o t h e r w i s e b e c o n t r a r y t o t h e p l a n n i n g s c h e m e o n c e c o m p l e t e d . T h u s d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l f i r s t w a s u s e d a s a n i n t e r i m m e a s u r e p e n d i n g c o m -p l e t i o n o f a p l a n n i n g s c h e m e . T h e T o w n a n d C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g A c t o f 1 9 4 7 r e q u i r e d t h a t p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n b e o b t a i n e d f o r a l m o s t a l l d e v e l o p m e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h e A c t a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s b e p r e p a r e d f o r e v e r y a r e a i n t h e c o u n t r y . T h e i n t e n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s w a s t o o u t l i n e t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s f o r t h e a r e a i n c l u d i n g t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h l a n d w a s t o u s e d . T h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y w a s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e t i o n i n a p p r o v i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s o u t r i g h t , g r a n t i n g a p p r o v a l w i t h c o n d i t i o n s , o r r e f u s i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r t h e A c t d i r e c t e d t h e a u t h o r i t y t o h a v e r e g a r d f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p a i n . C u l l i n g w o r t h ( 1 9 7 3 ) d e s c r i b e s t h e i n t e n d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n a s f o l l o w s — B u t t h o u g h l o c a l . . p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t o a p p r o v e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e y h a v e t o b e c l e a r o n t h e p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e i r a r e a s , o t h e r w i s e t h e y h a v e n o a d e q u a t e b a s i s o n w h i c h t h e y c a n j u d g e t h e m e r i t s a n d s h o r t c o m i n g s o f p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s . ^ D e s p i t e t h e i n t e n t i o n i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t ^ i h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s s h o w o n l y b r o a d l a n d u s e a l l o c a t i o n s , t h e y h a d i n f a c t b e e n p r e p a r e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l a n d w e r e t h e r e f o r e h i g h l y f o c u s e d o n l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g a n d w e r e d i f -f i c u l t t o k e e p u p t o d a t e . A c c o r d i n g l y t h e 1 9 6 8 a n d 1 9 7 1 T o w n a n d C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g A c t s r e p l a c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s w i t h a n e w s y s t e m o f s t r u c t u r e p l a n s a n d l o c a l p l a n s . S t r u c t u r e p l a n s w e r e a w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t o f p l a n n i n g p o l i c y f o r c o u n t i e s a n d t o w n s . T h e l o c a l p l a n s w e r e a m o r e d e t a i l e d e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e p l a n a p p l i e d t o a s p e c i f i c a r e a . T h e n e w s y s t e m o f s t r u c t u r e a n d l o c a l p l a n s w a s s t i l l i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e a s i m p o r t a n t g u i d e s f o r t h e c o n -t r o l o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s p o l i c y f r a m e w o r k f o r p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n i s d e s c r i b e d b y D o b r y ( 1 9 7 5 ) a s f o l l o w s — I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d n o t b e m a d e i n a v a c u u m . I f d e c i s i o n s a r e t o b e c o r r e c t , f a i r , a n d a b o v e a l l , c o n s i s t e n t , t h e y m u s t b e m a d e w i t h i n a c l e a r a n d c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d f r a m e w o r k c o m p r i s i n g : -( i ) a p p r o v e d s t r u c t u r e p l a n s a n d l o c a l p l a n s w h i c h a r e k e p t u p t o d a t e o r , ( i i ) h a n d o v e r s t a t e m e n t s , t h a t i s s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h s e t o u t s t r a t e g i c p o l i c i e s a n d t e s t o l d s t y l e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a n d a n y i n -f o r m a l n o n - s t a t u t o r y p l a n s i n f o r c e , i n -d i c a t i n g t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e s e p l a n s a r e s t i l l t o b e a p p l i e d ; ( i i i ) a p r o v i s i o n a l s t a t e m e n t o f i t s l o c a l p o l i c i e s b y e a c h D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l ; ( i v ) l o c a l o r p a r t i c u l a r g u i d e l i n e s s u c h a s p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c o n -s e r v a t i o n a r e a o r f o r a r e g i o n a l a i r p o r t . 3 1 W h e n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a d o p t e d i n 1 9 5 6 i t s Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - l a w , i t h a d t h e i n t e n t i o n o f p r e p a r i n g 3 2 a 2 0 y e a r d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . T h e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r , e m p o w e r s t h e c i t y t o p r e p a r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r t h e w h o l e c i t y o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r a r e a ( V a n c o u v e r c h a r t e r S . 5 6 1 ) . S u c h a p l a n f o r t h e w h o l e c i t y h a s n o t b e e n p r e p a r e d . O f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r c e r t a i n a r e a s s u c h a s F a l s e C r e e k , t h e W e s t E n d , D o w n t o w n h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d a n d a d o p t e d . H o w e v e r , n o o f f i c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r a n y o f t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d . O n w h a t b a s i s t h e n , i s d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l g r a n t e d o r w i t h -h e l d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e C i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s ? W h a t p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s a n d o b j e c t i v e s s e r v e a s a g u i d e t o t h e g r a n t i n g o r w i t h h o l d i n g o f p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s ? T h e a n s w e r s l i e i n t h e Z o n i n g p l a n w h i c h w a s p r e p a r e d b y B a r t h o l o m e w i n 1 9 2 9 , a n d a p p r o v e d i n 1 9 3 0 t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d i s c r e t i o n e x e r c i s e d b y t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g i n c o n -s i d e r i n g t h o s e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e h i s s p e c i f i c a p p r o v a l . T h e p o l i c i e s , g u i d e l i n e s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t o w h i c h t h e a p p r o v a l a u t h o r i t y r e f e r s t o h a v e n o t g e n e r a l l y b e e n d o c u m e n t e d . P l a n n i n g f o r t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e r e f o r e , e v o l v e s w i t h e a c h d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n a p p r o v e d . T h i s , s t u d y h a s s h o w n t h a t s u c h m i c r o l e v e l p l a n n i n g h a s , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , m a c r o l e v e l c o n s e q u e n c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e m a y b e l i t t l e r e a s o n t o r e f u s e a n a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e i n a n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a i f t h e u s e i s ( a ) p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e b y - l a w , ( b ) f o r a s m a l l p a r c e l o f l a n d , a n d ( c ) s e e n t o h a v e l i t t l e o r n o i n j u r i o u s i m p a c t o n t h e n e i g h b o r i n g i n d u s -t r i a l u s e s . H o w e v e r , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e a p r e c e d e n t o f a p p r o v a l s i s e s t a b l i s h e d . O n c e t h e l o n g t e r m c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h a p r a c t i c e a r e f o r e s e e n i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i n c o n s i s t e n t a n d u n f a i r t o r e f u s e s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e u n l e s s t h e p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y i s a b l e t o r e f e r t o s o m e p o l i c y . T h u s a m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e a r i s i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y i s i t s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d p l a n -n i n g p o l i c i e s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r p l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n s h o w t h a t p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e g u i d e d b y p r e d e t e r m i n e d p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . I f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t a r e s e r i o u s a b o u t d e v e l o p i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a p o s i t i v e l a n d u s e p o l i c y f o r i n d u s t r y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t l o c a l a r e a p l a n s f o r e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i n t h e c i t y b e p r e p a r e d . T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a p p r o a c h i n g l o c a l p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i n a m a n n e r t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e l o c a l p l a n n i n g . a c t i v i t y u n d e r w a y i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e a c o m m i t m e n t t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h e c i t i z e n s i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w o u l d b e t h e o w n e r s a n d m a n a g e r s o f i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s i n e a c h a r e a . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p l a n n i n g p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g p e r m i s s i o n i s b u t o n e i m p l i c a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e a r i s i n g f r o m t h i s s t u d y . T h e s t u d y h a s a l s o p r o b e d t h e d i l e m m a c o n f r o n t i n g t h e u r b a n p l a n n e r i n p l a n n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y . I n s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h i s d i l e m m a t h e r e h a s b e e n a t e n d e n c y f o r u r b a n p l a n n i n g t o m a k e o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d u s t r y ( l i g h t a n d h e a v y ) a n d i t s l o c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s t u d y h a s p r e -s e n t e d e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t l o c a t i o n a n d l a n d u s e r e q u i r e -m e n t s a r e v a r i a b l e b o t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s a n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s i z e o f f i r m s w i t h i n , t h e s a m e i n d u s t r y . I n t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t h a s b e e n d e v o t e d t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . Y e t , i t s e e m s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e n o t r e f l e c t e d i n c u r r e n t z o n i n g b y - l a w s , i n d u s -t r i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c i e s o r t h e k n o w l e d g e b a s e o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g . F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r V " ' " L e n T e n n a n t , I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . A d j u s t e d t o i n c l u d e r e z o n i n g o f I n d u s t r i a l l a n d t o N o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e . ( 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 2 G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , I n d u s t r y  a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) 3 P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t R e p o r t t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l o n I n d u s t r y a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r J u n e 1 9 7 8 ) . 4 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y . 5 G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , T h e R e g i o n a l  E c o n o m y : A S u m m a r y , ( V a n c o u v e r 1 9 7 6 ) . 6 P h i l P a u l s o n , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : V i e w s a n d  I s s u e s o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o m m u n i t y . 7 G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , I n d u s t r y a n d  t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n . g M a n a g e r s R e p o r t t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l R e : I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e . A p p r o v e d b y C o u n c i l O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 7 7 . 9 I b i d . • ^ G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , T h e L i v a b l e  R e g i o n P r o g r a m 1 9 7 6 / 8 6 . ( V a n c o u v e r 1 9 7 5 ) 1 1 R a y m o n d V e r n o n a n d E d g a r M . H o o v e r , A n a t o m y o f a  M e t r o p o l i s . ( C a m b r i d g e M a s s . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1 9 5 9 ) . R a y m o n d V e r n o n , M e t r o p o l i s 1 9 8 5 . [ < ( C a m b r i d g e M a s s . , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1 9 6 0 ) P g . 4 8 1 2 V e r n o n a n d H o o v e r , A n a t o m y o f a M e t r o p o l i s F o o t n o t e s f o r C h a p t e r V ( C o n t i n u e d ) 1 3 M i c h a e l A . G o l d b e r g , " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : S o m e E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s " . A n n a l s o f R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e . ( V o l . 3 1 9 6 9 ) P g . 2 2 0 , 2 2 1 . 1 4 R o b e r t A . L e o n e a n d R a y m o n d S t r u y k , " T h e I n c u b a t o r H y p o t h e s i s : E v i d e n c e f r o m F i v e S M S A ' s " . U r b a n S t u d i e s . ( V o l . 1 3 O c t o b e r 1 9 7 6 ) P g . 3 3 0 . 1 5 I b i d . P g . 3 2 9 . 1 6 I b i d . P g . 3 3 0 . 1 7 G u y P . F . S t e e d , " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n M a n u f a c t u r i n g : S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d L o c a t i o n a l D y n a m i c s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r " . T h e C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r . ( V o l . X V I I N o . 3 1 9 7 3 ) 1 8 I b i d . P g . 2 3 7 . 1 9 I b i d . P g . 2 4 1 . 9 0 I b i d . P g . 2 5 1 . 2 1 I b i d . P g . 2 5 5 . 9 9 I b i d . P g . 2 5 7 . 2 3 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . V a n c o u v e r  U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y . P g . 1 7 . 2 4 D e n i s 0 ' G o r m a n , S p a c e f o r I n d u s t r y . S u m m a r y R e p o r t . ( V a n c o u v e r . 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C H A P T E R V I S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S T h i s t h e s i s h a s d o c u m e n t e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r a n d e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u r r e n t u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s a n d t h e c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e i n V a n c o u v e r ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . E a r l y z o n i n g b y - l a w s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o t e c t r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s f r o m t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f i n d u s t r y . P l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s h a s r e f l e c t e d a p o l i c y t o w a r d i n d u s t r y i n u r b a n a r e a s t h a t h a s r a n g e d f r o m r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l t o n e g l e c t . V a n c o u v e r ' s p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w s o f f i c e c o m m e r c i a l u s e s t o b e d e v e l o p e d i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l s g r a n t e d u n d e r t h e l e g i s l a t i o n h a v e n o t b e e n g u i d e d b y a n y c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s o r p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s f o r t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . T h e i m p a c t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e o n i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e i n V a n c o u v e r w a s e x a m i n e d . D a t a f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t r e c o r d s s h o w e d t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m J a n u a r y 1, 1971 t o J u n e 1, 1978. 6l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l s p a c e i n i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s w e r e m a d e . T h i r t y - f o u r w e r e a p p r o v e d , t w e n t y - s e v e n r e f u s e d . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e C i t y ' s i n n e r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . D a t a f r o m 1978 a s s e s s m e n t r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 8 3 o f f i c e a n d o f f i c e / r e t a i l b u i l d i n g s e x i s t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s . T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n w a s a g a i n f o u n d t o b e i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . L a n d u s e i n f o r m a t i o n s h o w i n g t h e a m o u n t o f l a n d i n c o m m e r c i a l u s e i n i n d u s t r i a l l y z o n e d a r e a s a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h e c o n c e n t r a t i i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . F i n a l l y a n a n a l y s i s o f i n d u s t r i a l l a n d r e z o n e d t o n o n - i n d u s t r i a l u s e a n d a l l t r e n d s i n t h e s u p p l y o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s h o w e d t h a t t h e s u p p l y o f i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l a n d w a s d e c l i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e p u b l i c . p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e t h e s i s w e r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a s a d o p t e d a p o l i c y f a v o u r i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C i t y a n d t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t i s a t t e m p t i n g t o i m p l e m e n t a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z i n g b o t h i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . V a n c o u v e r ' s p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e c h a n g e s t h a t d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e s e p o l i c i e s . T h e t h e s i s e x a m i n e d t h e a r g u m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f r e t a i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h h a v e t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i d i n g m o r e l a n d f o r s e r v i c e s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h n o r m a l l y o c c u p y s p a c e i n o f f i c e s a n d r e t a i l a r e a s . T h e a r g u m e n t s w e r e f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t b u t t e n d e d t o o v e r e s t i m a t e t h e b e n e f i c i a l i m p a c t s a n d n e g l e c t t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r c i t y i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s p l a y e d a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n t h e c i t y a n d r e g i o n a l e c o n o m y a s i n c u b a t o r s p a c e f o r n e w a n d s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s w a s a l s o e x a m i n e d . T h i s e v i d e n c e w a s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e t r a d e -o f f s w i t h e i t h e r p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e . A s n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I , B i r c h (1970) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c e n t r a l c i t i e s p a s s t h r o u g h a l i f e c y c l e o f c h a n g e s f r o m g r o w t h t o s a t u r a t i o n t o s t a b i l i z a t i o n t o d e c l i n e . T h i s l i f e c y c l e i s d r i v e n b y e c o n o m i c f o r c e s l e a d i n g t o t h e s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y a n d p o p u l a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l i t y a s t h e s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r 89 t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s " t r e n d " i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . I f t h e t r e n d i s v i e w e d a s p a r t o f a n a t u r a l p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n , t h e l o n g t e r m c o n s e q u e n c e s o f w h i c h a r e u n k n o w n , o n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t p u b l i c p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s e i t h e r i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r f u t i l e . T h e r o l e o f t h e u r b a n p l a n n e r , t h e r e f o r e , b e c o m e s o n e o f " r e f e r e e " a n a l y s i n g t r e n d s a n d a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e b y - l a w t h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . T h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t h e c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a s f a r a s i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y i s c o n c e r n e d . T h e D e p a r t m e n t h a s h o w e v e r , e m b a r k e d u p o n m u c h m o r e a m b i t i o u s p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( e . g . F a l s e C r e e k ) . 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U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h ; P a p e r N o . 112, 1967. 91 C i t y o f T o r o n t o , P l a n n i n g B o a r d . C e n t r a l I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t  P r o p o s a l s . T o r o n t o . M a r c h , 1976. '. C i t y o f T o r o n t o , P l a n n i n g B o a r d . A P l a c e f o r I n d u s t r y 2. T h e  C i t y ' s A t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r I n d u s t r y . A s s u m p t i o n S t u d y N o . 2. T o r o n t o , A p r i l , 1976. C i t y o f T o r o n t o , P l a n n i n g B o a r d . I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g S u m m a r y . F i n a l R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T o r o n t o , F e b r u a r y , 1978• C i t y o f T o r o n t o , P l a n n i n g B o a r d . I n d u s t r y W o r k G r o u p . A P l a c e f o r I n d u s t r y . T o r o n t o , J u n e , 1974. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . " Y a l e t o w n S u r v e y R e s u l t s " . V a n c o u v e r , J u l y , 1976, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . V a n c o u v e r U r b a n R e n e w a l S t u d y . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t N o . 4. I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s . V a n c o u v e r , A u g u s t , 1969. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . G e n e r a l E x p l a n a t o r y  M e m o r a n d u m . Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w N o . 3575' V a n c o u v e r , N o v e m b e r , 1963-C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w . V a r i o u s I s s u e s , V a n c o u v e r , 1975-79• C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . Z o n i n g B y - L a w N o . 2516. ( c o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e ) . V a n c o u v e r , J a n u a r y 1, 1955' C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . P r o p o s e d N e w Z o n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t B y - L a w . V a n c o u v e r , M a r c h , 1955-C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . " A n O u t l i n e P l a n f o r t h e I n n e r A r e a o f V a n c o u v e r " . ( D r a f t ) . V a n c o u v e r , J u n e , 1964. C u l l i n g w o r t h , J . B . T o w n a n d C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g i n B r i t a i n . 4th E d i t i o n . L o n d o n : . G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1972. D a v i s , O t t o A . " E c o n o m i c E l e m e n t s i n M u n i c i p a l Z o n i n g D e c i s i o n s " . L a n d E c o n o m i c s . V o l . 39, N o . 4, 1963. D e l a f o n s , J o h n . L a n d U s e C o n t r o l s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 2nd E d i t i o n . C a m b r i d g e M a s s . M . I . T . P r e s s , 1969. D o b r y , G e o r g e . R e v i e w o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t C o n t r o l S y s t e m . L o n d o n : H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1975-F i s h e r , E r n e s t M . ; a n d F i s h e r , R o b e r t M . U r b a n R e a l E s t a t e . N e w Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t a n d C o . , .1954. 92 G o l d b e r g , M i c h a e l A . " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : S o m e E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s " . A n n a l s o f R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e . V o l . 3, 1969. G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . I n d u s t r y a n d t h e L i v a b l e R e g i o n . V a n c o u v e r , 1977• G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h e R e g i o n a l E c o n o m y :  A S u m m a r y . V a n c o u v e r , 1976. G u t t e n b e r g , A l b e r t Z . " A M u l t i p l e L a n d U s e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m " . J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . V o l . X X V N o . 3, A u g u s t , 1959. H a r d w i c k , W a l t e r G . " V a n c o u v e r : T h e E m e r g e n c e o f a " C o r e - R i n g " U r b a n P a t t e r n " . . G e o g r a p h i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o C a n a d i a n  P r o b l e m s . E d i t e d b y R . L o u i s G e n t i l c o r e . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f C a n a d a , L t d . , 1971« H a r d w i c k , W a l t e r G . V a n c o u v e r . C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n : C a n a d a L t d . 1974. H a s o n , N i n o . " T h e E m e r g e n c e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f Z o n i n g C o n t r o l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s " . P a p e r s o n P l a n n i n g a n d D e s i g n . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , D e p a r t m e n t o f U r b a n a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . 1977' H a y e s , D e r e k W . E m p l o y m e n t G r o w t h i n V a n c o u v e r . C i t y o f . V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . N o v e m b e r 1975' H e i l b r u n , J a m e s . U r b a n E c o n o m i c s a n d P u b l i c P o l i c y . N e w Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 197^. H o o v e r , E d g a r M . " T h e E v o l v i n g F o r m a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e M e t r o p o l i s " . E d i t e d b y H a r v e y S . P e r l o f f a n d L o w d e n ' W i n g o J r . I s s u e s i n U r b a n E c o n o m i c s . R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e I n c . B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d : T h e J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1968. K i n n a r d , W i l l i a m N . J r . ; a n d M e s s n e r , S t e p h e n D . I n d u s t r i a l  R e a l E s t a t e . (2nd E d i t i o n ) . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C S o c i e t y o f I n d u s t r i a l R e a l t o r s o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d s , 1971• L e a n , W . j a n d G o o d a l l , B . A s p e c t s o f L a n d E c o n o m i c s . L o n d o n : T h e E s t a t e s G a z e t t e L t d . , 1966. L e a n , W i l l i a m . E c o n o m i c s o f L a n d U s e P l a n n i n g : U r b a n a n d R e g i o n a l . L o n d o n : T h e E s t a t e s G a z e t t e L t d . , 1969. L e i g h , R o g e r . " A n a l y s i s o f F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g t h e L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y W i t h i n C i t i e s " . C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r . V o l . X I I I , 1969. L e o n e , R o b e r t A . ; a n d S t r u y k , R a y m o n d . " T h e I n c u b a t o r H y p o t h e s i s : E v i d e n c e F r o m F i v e S M S A ' S " . U r b a n  S t u d i e s . V o l . 13 , O c t o b e r , 1976. L e v i n , E . A . " Z o n i n g i n C a n a d a : A r e W e M o v i n g T o w a r d a D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t S y s t e m " . C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g  R e v i e w . V o l . V I I N o . 2 . , 1957. M a r c e l l e , D e l . " E f f e c t s o f D e f i c i e n t Z o n i n g O r d i n a n c e s o n I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t " . A m e r i c a n I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l J o u r n a l . V o l . V I , N o . 1 . , J a n u a r y - , 1 9 7 1 . M u n c y , D o r o t h y A . " L a n d f o r I n d u s t r y - A N e g l e c t e d P r o b l e m " . F H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w . V o l . 32 N o . 2 . M a r c h -A p r i l , 195^. N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g C o m m i t t e e . P r i n c i p l e s o f  I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g . 1950-0 ' G o r m a n , D e n i s . S p a c e f o r I n d u s t r y . S u m m a r y R e p o r t . V a n c o u v e r : G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 7 1 . O ' H a r r o w , D e n n i s . " P e r f o r m a n c e S t a n d a r d s i n I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g " . P l a n n i n g 1951. C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1951. P a r k , R o b e r t E . ; B u r g e s s , E r n e s t W . ; a n d M c K e n z i e , R o d e r i c k D . T h e C i t y . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1925« P a u l s o n , P h i l . I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t : V i e w s a n d I s s u e s  o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l C o m m u n i t y . V a n c o u v e r : G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , M a y , 1 9 7 6 . P r e d , A l l a n R . " T h e I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n L o c a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n M a n u f a c t u r i n g " . A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f  A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s . V o l . 5^« N o . 2 . J u n e , 196^-. R a t c l i f f , R i c h a r d V . U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s . N e w Y o r k , T o r o n t o L o n d o n . M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o . I n c . , 19^9. R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . R e a l E s t a t e T r e n d s  i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . V a r i o u s A n n u a l I s s u e s . 1970 - 1 9 7 8 . R o s s e n , U w e A . Z o n i n g f o r C o m p r e h e n s i v e l y P l a n n e d D e v e l o p m e n t s . A C a s e S t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , M a y , 1 9 6 9 . 94 S h e n k e l , W i l l i a m M . " I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g R e g u l a t i o n s , a n d t h e D e m a n d f o r I n d u s t r i a l S p a c e " . T h e A p p r a i s a l  J o u r n a l . J a n u a r y , 1956. S h e n k e l , W i l l i a m . M . " T h e E c o n o m i c C o n s e q u e n c e s o f I n d u s t r i a l Z o n i n g " . L a n d E c o n o m i c s . V o l . 40, 1964. S m i t h , D a v i d M . I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n . N e w Y o r k , T o r o n t o . J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s I n c . 1971' S m i t h , L e l a n d . " I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s " . U r b a n  L a n d . M a y , 1971. S o l e s b u r y , W i l l i a m . P o l i c y i n U r b a n P l a n n i n g . P e r g a m o n P r e s s , 197^-S t e e d , G u y P . F . " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n M a n u f a c t u r i n g : S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d L o c a t i o n D y n a m i c s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r " . C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r . V o l . 17-18. 1973-74. T e n n a n t , L e n . I n d u s t r y i n V a n c o u v e r . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t f o r D i s c u s s i o n . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , J u l y , 1977. T e n n a n t , L e n . " I n n e r C i t y I n d u s t r y - T h e P r e l i m i n a r y S u r v e y " . I n t e r - I n d u s t r y C o m m o d i t y L i n k s A S t u d y o f S e l e c t e d  I n d u s t r i a l S e c t o r s . C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . J a n u a r y , 1974. U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e . S p a c e f o r I n d u s t r y - A n A n a l y s i s o f S i t e a n d L o c a t i o n R e q u i r e m e n t s . T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o . 2 3 . 195^. U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e . I n d u s t r i a l — D e v e l o p m e n t H a n d b o o k . 1975-V e r n o n , R a y m o n d ; a n d H o o v e r , E d g a r M . " A n a t o m y o f a M e t r o p o l i s . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. V e r n o n , R a y m o n d . T h e C h a n g i n g E c o n o m i c F u n c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l C i t y . N e w Y o r k : A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e f o r E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , 1959. V e r n o n , R a y m o n d . M e t r o p o l i s 1985. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. 25 M-1 (M-1) Industrial District Schedule (Light) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: Subject to all the provisions of this By-law on any site within any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an (M- l ) District the only uses permitted, and the only uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Sections 1 and 2 hereof, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1/63 — No. 4032) A. Uses ( D (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 00 (11 (12 ( i3 ; (14 (15 (16 (17 (18 (19 R E P E A L E D Animal hospital. R E P E A L E D Automot ive repair shop. Automobi le and parts salesroom. R E P E A L E D Bag and sack cleaning. Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, confectionary) Battery manufacturing or rebuilding. Boat building (boats not to exceed 80 feet in length). Book bindery. Brewery and distil lery. Broom and brush manufacturing. Candy manufacturing. Cannery (fruit and vegetables only). Cigarette and cigar manufacturing. C loth ing and garment manufacturing. Cold storage plant. Cosmetics manufacturing. (8/10/74 - No. 4811) (17/11/59 - No. 3812) ( 17/11/59 - No. 3812) 245 M-1 96-(20) Dairy products manufacturing. (21) Electric equipment manufacturing. (22) Electro-plating. (23) Excelsior manufacturing or storage. (24) Feed and seed storage. (25) Food products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery). (26) Frozen food lockers. (27) Parking garage (public). (30/12/57 - No. 3671) (28) Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions of Section 11.10 . ( 2 2 / 4 / 6 9 - N o . 4423) (29) Hemp and jute products manufacturing. (30) Ice manufacturing. (31) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or phi lozoic character. (32) Jewellery manufacturing. (33) Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats. (34) Laboratory. (35) Laundry, cleaning and dyeing establishment. (36) Lithographing. (37) Mattress manufacturing. (38) Mot ion picture and television studio. (39) Musical instrument manufacturing. (40) Novelty and toy manufacturing. (40A) Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing. (12/3/57 - No. 3622) (41) Parking area (public). (42) Poultry (dressed) wholesale and storage. (43) Public ut i l i ty on a site not less than 200 feet from any R District. (44) Publishing plant. (45) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (com-mercial). (46) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor-vehicles, trains, water-craft and aircraft. (47) Restaurant. M-1 246 97 B (48 (49 (50 (51 (52 (53 (54 (55 (56 (57 (58 (59 (60 (61 (62 (63 (64 (65 Sausage manufacturing. School (business or commercial). School (trade). Shoe or boot manufacturing. Sign manufacturing. Stamp shop (rubber or metal). Taxidermy. Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing. Textile manufacturing. Tires retreading or rebuilding. Tool (machine) manufacturing. Toy and novelty manufacturing. REPEALED Warehouse (general). (17/11/59-No. 3812) (31/7/62-No. 4007) Wax products manufacturing (for derivation of products, see processing of fats, bones, animal products). Window shade manufacturing. Wholesale business. A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses except for a building or use which is only listed as a prin-cipal use in the (M-2) district, provided that: (a) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than 10 per-cent of the area of the site, and are not tiver 12 feet in height. (b) All accessory uses shall occupy an area of not greater than one-third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the_site. Front Yard: 1 No front yard shall be required. C. Side Yard: No side yard shall be required, provided, however, that where an (M-1) Industrial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane, the following side yards shall be provided: (1) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS, or RT District. (2) Five feet in the case of an RM District. If a side yard in an (M-1) District be provided where not required by the pro-visions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. 247 M-1 98 D. Rear Ya rd : A rear yard shall be provided the min imum depth of which shall be not less than 10 feet except as provided hereunder: (T) Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the min imum depth of the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. (2) Where a site is sufficiently large and is located within an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not l ikely to be required, the Direc-tor of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement. (21/11/67 - No. 4328) E. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 100 feet. The Director, of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may increase the height set forth herein, provided that the said building complies in all other respects with the regulations contained in this section. (21/11/67 - No. 4328) F. F loor Space Rat io: The.floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. For the purposes of this schedule, in computing the f loor space ratio the f loor area of the bui lding shall include the total area of all the floors of all the bui ld-ings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer l imits of the building), except for areas of floors used for parking purposes and areas of cellars or basements which are not used as habitable accommodation or access to habitable accommodation. In 'addit ion, balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances which, in the opinion of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded from f loor area measurement, provided that the total f loor area of all such ex-x luded items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f loor area. (30/8/66 - No. 4260) G. Gff-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. • H. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. J. Vert ical Light Angles for Off ice Buildings: In the case of an office building of more than three storeys or 40 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 40 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles f rom: (1) A l l points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in front of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the hor izontal ; M -1 2 4 8 99 (2) A l ! points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (3) A l l points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle of 70 degrees to the hor izontal; (4) In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a f lanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the hor izontal ; Provided however that any part of a bui lding shall be exempt from the appro-priate vertical angle control above, if the exempt part of the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 60 feet or less, measured parallel to the street, lane or boundary of the site, as the case may be, from which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) of this proviso. (24/8/76 - No. 4997) 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Director of Planning: With the approval of the Director of Planning development permits may be issued for the fo l lowing uses. If the development permit is granted it shall be subject to such condit ions and regulations as the Director of Planning may decide, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1 / 6 3 - N o . 4032) A. Uses (Group A ) : (1) Ambulance headquarters. ( 12/3/57 -No . 3622) (1 A) Auct ion room (sale and storage). (1B) Archery range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open). ( 17/11/59 -No . 3812) (2) Automot ive manufacture and body building. (2A) Aviaries. (17/11 / 5 9 - N o . 3812) (3) Bil l iard and pool hall. (4) Bott l ing plant (milk or carbonated beverages). (5) Bowl ing alley. (6) R E P E A L E D ( 22/3/66 -No . 4234) (7) Buildings or runs for the hatching and raising of live poultry, fowl , rabbits, frogs, fish, or worms. (8) Bui ld ing or use required by a public authority. (9) Cannery (meat, poultry and pickles only). 2 4 9 M-1 1 0 0 (10) Car sales lot. (11) Chemicals, manufacturing and mixing. (12) Church. (13) Clay and clay products manufacturing, excluding brick and tile. (14) Cleaning and dyeing shop. (15) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (16) Community centre. (16A) Communi ty Residential Faci l i ty, provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director of Planning be notif ied. (15/3/77 - No. 5061) (17) Concrete mixing operations or concrete products manufacturing. (18) Cooperage works. (19) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land. (20) F i lm exchange. (21) Fish market (wholesale). (22) F lour mi l l . (23) Furniture manufacturing and storage.. (24) Gypsum products manufacturing. (25) Hall. (26) Home craft or occupation. (27) R E P E A L E D ( 5 /5/60 -No . 3840) (28) Machine shop or blacksmith shop. (28A) Marina (excluding boat building and major repairs to and overhaul of boats). ( 3 1/7/73 -No . 4713) (29) Monument or stone works. (30) Off ice building. (31) Paint, oil shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacturing, mix ing or storage. (32) Park or playground. (33) Pet shop. (34) Plastic products manufacturing. (35) Poultry (live) sales and distr ibution. (36) Poultry slaughtering market. (37) Public uti l ity other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. M -1 250 1 0 1 (38) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving station (commercial). (39) Retail store, business or undertaking. (40) Sash and door manufacturing. (41) School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery. (42) Sheet metal works. (43) Stable, barn or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, boarding of horses, cattle, goats and sheep. (44) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, or similar place of assembly. (45) Steam baths. (4.6) Storage yard provided it is enclosed by a suitable fence which is painted and neatly maintained at all times. (47) Swimming pool (commercial). (48) Theatre (excluding a drive-in). (49) Truck terminal. (49A) Truck garden, field crop, nursery, berry or bush crops, orchard or pasture land. ( 17/11/59 -No . 3812) (50) Undertaking establishment. (51) R E P E A L E D (31 / 7 / 6 2 - N o . 4007) . (52) Welding shop. (53) Wiping rags and cotton waste (bulk storage). (54) A dwell ing unit for a caretaker or watchman or other persons similarly employed if such dwelling unit is considered to be essential to the operation of the business or the undertaking. (54A) Temporary parking area (public). ( 10/11/64 -No . 4139) (55) A n y other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit for such bui lding or use the Director of Planning shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule. (12/3/57—No. 3622) (55A) A bui lding which has been altered or used fo radwe l l i ngun i t , housekeeping or sleeping unit, boarding or rooming house, prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required C i t y permits. (56) A n y bui lding or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 of this schedule, other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such Section. 251 M -1 1 0 2 B. Uses (Group B) which may only be granted by the Director of Planning: (1) Aircraft landing place. (2) Building or use customarily accessory to the above uses. M-1 2 5 2 103 1 A (M-1A) Industrial District Schedule 1. Uses Permitted, Condit ions and Regulations: Subject to all the provisions of this By-law on any site within any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an (M-1 A) District, the only uses permitted and the only uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Section 2 hereof, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. A. Front Yards: No front yard shall be required, except where an (M-1 A) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the front yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction of the Director of Planning. B. Side Ya rd : No side yard shall be required, except where an (M-1 A) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the side yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction of the Director of Planning. i f a side yard in an (M-1 A) District be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. C. Rear Ya rd : A rear yard shall be provided the minimum depth of which shall be not less than 10 feet except as provided hereunder: (1) Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the min imum depth of the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. (2) Where a site is sufficiently large and is located within an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not l ikely to be required, the Director of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement. (3) Where an (M-1 A) Industrial District adjoins any R District, the rear yard shall be 10 feet, with landscaping provided to the satisfaction of the Director of Planning. (Light—Residential Communi ty ) ( 1 6/3/76 -No . 4951) 253 M - 1 A 104 D. Height: , The height of a building shall not exceed 60 feet. E. F l oo r Space Rat io : The f loor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. For the purpose of this schedule, in computing the f loor space ratio the f loor area of the bui lding shall include the total area of all the floors of all the buildings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer l imits of the building), except for areas of floors used for parking purposes and areas of cellars or basements which are not used as habitable accomodation or access to habitable accomodation. In addit ion, balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances which, in the opin ion of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded f rom f loor area measurement, provided that the total f loor area of all such excluded items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f loor area. F. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. G. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to approval by the Director of Planning: With the approval of the Director of Planning, development permits may be issued for the fo l lowing uses. If the development permit is granted, it shall be subject to such condit ions and regulations as the Director of Planning may decide, with due regard to the fo l lowing: (1) Provision of appropriate landscaping; (2) Design, character and choice of building material in relation to adjoining R zoned land. (3) Development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. A. Uses (Group A ) : (1) An ima l hospital (2) Automot ive repair shop (3) Automob i le and parts salesroom (4) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies and confectionery) (5) Boat bui lding (boats not to exceed 80 feet in length) (6) Book bindery M - 1 A 2 5 4 105 7) Brewery and distil lery 8) Broom and brush manufacturing 9) Candy manufacturing 10) Cannery (fruit and vegetables only) 11) Cigarette and cigar manufacturing 12) C loth ing and garment manufacturing 13) Co ld storage plant 13A) Commun i ty Residential Faci l i ty, provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director of Planning be notif ied. (15/3/77 - No. 5061) 14) Cosmetics manufacturing 15) Dairy products manufacturing 16) Electric equipment manufacturing 17) Electro-plating 18) Excelsior manufacturing or storage 19) Feed and seed storage 20) Food products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery) 21) Frozen food lockers 22) Parking garage (public) 23) Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions of Section 11.10 24) Hemp and jute products manufacturing 25) Ice manufacturing 26) Institution o f a religious, philanthropic, charitable or phi lozoic character. 27) Jewellery manufacturing 28) Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats 29) Laboratory 30) Laundry, cleaning and dyeing establishment 31) Lithographing 32) Mattress manufacturing 33) Mot ion picture and television studio 34) Musical instrument manufacturing 35) Novelty and toy manufacturing 2 5 5 M-1A 106 (36) Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing. (37) Parking area (public) (38) Poultry (dressed) wholesale and storage (39) Public ut i l i ty on a site not less than 200 feet from any R District (40) Publishing plant (41) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae {commercial) (42) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor vehicles, trains, water-craft and aircraft (43) Restaurant (44) Sausage manufacturing (45) School (business or commercial) (46) School (trade) (47) Shoe or boot manufacturing (48) Sign manufacturing (49) Stamp shop (rubber or metal) (50) Taxidermy (51) Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing (52) Texti le manufacturing (53) Tires retreading or rebuilding (54) Tool (machine) manufacturing (55) Toy and novelty manufacturing (56) Warehouse (general) (57) Wax products manufacturing (for derivation of products, see processing of fats, bones, animal products) (58) Window shade manufacturing (59) Wholesale business (60) Ambulance headquarters (61) Auct ion room (sale and storage) (62) Archery range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open) (63) Automot ive manufacture and body building (64) Bil l iard and pool hall (65) Bott l ing plant (milk or carbonated beverages) M - 1 A 2 5 6 107 Bowl ing alley Bui ld ing or use required by a public authority Cannery (meat, poultry and pickles only) Car sales lot Chemicals, manufacturing and mix ing Church Clay and clay products manufacturing, excluding brick and tile Cleaning and dyeing shop Club or Lodge (fraternal) Commun i ty Centre Concrete mix ing operations or concrete products manufacturing Cooperage works Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land F i lm exchange Flour mil l Furniture manufacturing and storage Gypsum products manufacturing Hall (86 (84 Home craft or occupation Machine shop or blacksmith shop Monument or stone works 2 5 7 M-1A 108 M (M-2) Industrial District Schedule (Heavy) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: Subject to all the provisions of this By-law on any site within any district defined, designated or described in this By-law as an (M-2) District the only uses permitted and the only uses for which development permits may be issued are those contained in Sections 1 and 2 hereof, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1/63 — No. 4032) 8) Bag and sack cleaning. 9) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies and confectionary) 10) Battery manufacturing or rebuilding. 11) Boat building. 12) Book bindery. 13) Bott l ing plant (milk or carbonated beverages). 14) Brewery or distil lery. 15) Broom and brush manufacturing. 16) Candy manufacturing. 17) Cannery (fruit and vegetables only). 18) Cigarette and cigar manufacturing. 19) C loth ing and garment manufacturing. A. Uses: 1) R E P E A L E D 2) An imal hospital. 3) R E P E A L E D 4) Automot ive repair shop. 5) Automobi le and parts showroom. 6) Automot ive manufacturing and body building. 7) R E P E A L E D ( 8 / 1 0 / 7 4 - N o . 4811) ( 17/11/59 - No. 3812) ( 17/11/59 - No. 3812) / 2 5 9 M-2 10 ,9 (20) Cold storage plant. (21) Cooperage works. (22) Cosmetics manufacturing. (23) Dairy products manufacturing. (24) Electric equipment manufacturing. (25) Electro-plating. (26) Excelsior manufacturing or storage. (27) Feed and seed storage. (28) Fish market (wholesale). (29) Flour mi l l . (30) Food products manufacturing, processing and packaging (excluding fish and a cannery). (31) Frozen food lockers. (32) Furniture manufacturing and storage. (33) Parking garage (public). (30/1 2/57 - No. 3671) (34) Gasoline service station, subject to the provisions of Section 11.10. (22/4/69 - No. 4423) (35) Gypsum products manufacturing. (36) Hemp and jute products manufacturing. (37) Ice manufacturing. (38) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or phi lozoic character. (39) Jewellery manufacturing. (40) Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, or boarding of dogs or cats. (41) Laboratory. (42) Laundry, cleaning and dyeing establishment. (43) Lithographing. (44) Machine shop or blacksmith shop. (45) Mattress manufacturing. (46) Monument or stone works. (47) Mot ion picture and television studio. (48) Musical instrument manufacturing. (49) Novelty and toy manufacturing. (49A) Paper box and cardboard products manufacturing. (12/3/57 — No. 3622) M-2 260 1 1 0 Parking area (public). Plastic products manufacturing. Poultry (dressed), wholesale and storage. Public ut i l i ty on a site not less than 200 feet from any R District. Publishing plant. Radio broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor-vehicles, trains, water-craft and aircraft. Restaurant. Sausage manufacturing. School (trade). Sheet metal works. Shipbuilding. Shoe or boot manufacturing. Sign manufacturing. Stamp shop ( rubber and metal). Taxidermy. Tent and awning and allied products manufacturing. Texti le manufacturing. Tires, retreading or rebuilding. Too l (machine) manufacturing. Toy and novelty manufacturing. R E P E A L E D (17/11/59 - No. 3812) Warehouse (general). Wax products manufacturing; (for derivation of products see processing of fat, bones, animal products). Wholesale business. Window shade manufacturing. Wiping rags and cotton waste (bulk storage). A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses except for a building or use which is only listed as a prin-cipal use in the (M-2) District with the consent of the Director of Planning, provided that: (a) A l l accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than 10 per-cent of the area of the site, and are not over 12 feet in height. 261 M-2 I l l (b) A l l accessory uses shall occupy an area of not greater than one-third the total gross f loor area of all the buildings on the site. B. Front Ya rd : No front yard shall be required. C. Side Ya rd : No side yard shall be required, provided, however, that where an (M-2) Industrial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane, the fo l lowing side yards shall be provided: (1) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS, or RT District. (2) Five feet in the case of an R M District. If a side yard in an (M-2) District be provided where not required by the pro-visions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. D. Rear Ya rd : A rear yard shall be provided the min imum depth of which shall be not less than ten feet except as provided hereunder: (1) Where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the min imum depth of the rear yard may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. (2) Where a site is sufficiently large and is located within an area where rear access to the site and adjacent sites is not l ikely to be required, the Direc-tor of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may waive the rear yard requirement. (21/11/67 - No. 4328) E. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 100 feet. The Director of Planning, in the exercise of his discretion, may increase the height set forth herein, provided that the said building complies in all other respects with the regulations con-tained in this section. (21/11/67 - No. 4328) F. F loor Space Rat io : The f loor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00. For the purposes of this schedule, in computing the f loor space ratio the f loor area of the building shall include the total area of all the floors of all the buildings on the site, including accessory buildings (measured to the extreme outer limits of the building), except for areas of floors used for parking purposes and areas of cellars or basements which are not used as habitable accommodation or access to habitable accommodation. In addit ion, balconies, canopies, sundecks and other appurtenances which, in the opinion of the Director of Planning, are similar to the foregoing, may be excluded from floor area measurement, provided that the total f loor area of all such ex-cluded items does not exceed eight percent of the permitted f loor area. (30/8/66 - No. 4260) M-2 262 1 1 2 G. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. H. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions cf Section 13 of this By-law. J. Vertical Light Angles for Office Buildings: In the case of an office building of more than three storeys or 40 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 40 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles from: (1) All points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in front of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (2) All points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (3) All points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle of 70 degrees to the horizontal; (4) In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a flanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; Provided however that any part of a building shall be exempt from the appro-priate vertical angle control above, if the exempt part of the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 60 feet or less, measured parallel to the street, lane or boundary of the site, as the case may be, from which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) of this proviso. (24/8/76 - No. 4997) 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Director of Planning: With the approval of the Director of Planning development permits may be issued for the following uses. If the development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations as the Director of Planning may decide, provided, however, that development of any land abutting the streets set forth in Schedule " C " to this By-law shall be subject to the additional special regulations contained in Section 11.3 to this By-law. (2/1/63-No. 4032) A. Uses (Group A ) : (1) Abbatoir or slaughter house. (IA) Ambulance headquarters. (12/3/57-No. 3622) (IB) Archery range, golf driving range and miniature rifle range (in the open). (17/11/59-No. 3812) 2 6 3 M-2 113 (2) Automobi le wrecking. (2A) Aviaries. ( 17/11/59 -No . 3812) (3) Blast furnace operation. (4) R E P E A L E D ( 22/3/66 -No . 4234) (5) Buildings or runs for the hatching and raising of live poultry, fowl, rabbits, frogs, fish, or worms. (6) Bui ld ing or use required by a public authority. (7) Cannery (fish, meat, poultry, pickles). (8) Car sales lot. (9) Chemicals, manufacturing and mixing. (10) Church. (11) Clay and clay products manufacturing. (12) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (13) Coal dist i l lation. (13A) Commun i ty Residential Faci l ity, provided that such adjacent property owners as may be deemed necessary by the Director of Planning be notif ied. (15/3/77 - No. 5061) (14) Concrete mixing operations or concrete products manufacturing. (15) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land. (16) Explosives manufacturing or storage. (17) Ferti l izer manufacturing or storage. (18) Fish (smoking, canning, curing, cleaning, packing). (19) Fish oil or meal manufacturing or storage. (20) Foundry. (21) Gas (compressed), manufacturing or storage. (22) Gelatine manufacturing. (23) Grain elevator. (24) Hall. (25) Home craft or occupation. (26) Incinerator. (27) Lime manufacturing or storage. (28) L inoleum and oilcloth manufacturing. (29) R E P E A L E D ( 31/7/62 -No . 4007) M-2 2 6 4 114 (29A) Marina (excluding boat building and major repairs to and overhaul of boats). ( 31/7/73 -No .4713 ) (30 (31 (32 (33 (34 (35 (36 (37 (38 (39 (40 (41 (42 (43 (44 (45 (46 (47 (48 (49 (50 Matches manufacturing or storage. Metal smelting, refining, reduction. Off ice building Paint, oil shellac, turpentine or varnish manufacturing, mix ing or storage. Park or playground. Petroleum, bitumen, tar products or derivatives, refining, mixing or bulk storage. Poultry (live), sales and distribution. Poultry slaughtering market. Processing of fat, bones, fish, hides, skins, offal and animal products of a like nature. Public uti l ity other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. Pulp manufacturing. Rags, baling and storage. Retail store, business or undertaking. Rol l ing mi l l . Rubber manufacturing or treatment. Sash and door manufacturing. Sawmil l . School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery. Size manufacturing. Smelter or refinery. Stable, barn, or the keeping, breeding, raising, training, boarding of horses, cattle, goats or sheep. (51) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium or similar place of assembly. (52) S t o c k ya rd . (53) Storage yard, provided it is enclosed by a suitable fence which is painted and neatly maintained at all times. (53A) Temporary parking area (public). ( 10/11/64 -No . 4139) (54) Truck terminal. 2 6 5 M-2 115 i ( 5 4 A ) T r u c k ga rden, f i e l d c r o p , nursery, ber ry o r bush c rop s , o r c h a r d o r pasture l and . ( 1 7 / 1 1 / 5 9 - N o . 3 8 1 2 ) (55) U n d e r t a k i n g e s tab l i shment . (56) V e g e t a b l e o i l o r fat r e f i n i n g and storage. (57) W e l d i n g shop. (58) A d w e l l i n g un i t f o r a ca re take r o r w a t c h m a n o r o t h e r pe r sons s i m i l a r l y e m p l o y e d i f such d w e l l i n g un i t is c on s i de r ed to be e s sent ia l t o the o p e r a t i o n o f the business o r unde r t a k i n g . (59) A n y o t h e r b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is no t s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s ted i n any s chedu le o f th i s B y - l aw and w h i c h is s im i l a r t o the f o r e g o i n g b u i l d i n g s o r uses; be f o r e g ran t i ng a d e v e l o p m e n t pe rm i t f o r such b u i l d i n g o r use the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g shal l have regard to the types o f bu i l d i n g s and uses w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y m a y be p e r m i t t e d in this s chedu le . ( 1 2 / 3 / 5 7 — N o . 3 6 2 2 ) ( 5 9 A ) A b u i l d i n g w h i c h has been a l tered o r used f o r a d w e l l i n g u n i t , h o u s e k e e p i n g o r s l eep ing un i t , b o a r d i n g or r o o m i n g house, p r i o r t o J u n e 1 8 t h , 1 956 , w i t h or w i t h o u t one or mo re o f the requ i red C i t y pe rm i t s . (60) A n y b u i l d i n g or use w h i c h can be con s i de red as acces so ry t o the above uses and t o the uses l i s ted in S e c t i o n 1 o f th i s s chedu le , o t h e r t han tho se accessory bu i l d i ng s o r uses f o r w h i c h p r o v i s i o n is m a d e in such s e c t i o n . B. Uses ( G r o u p B) which may only be g ranted by the Director of Planning: (1) A i r c r a f t l a n d i n g p lace. (2) B u i l d i n g or use c u s t o m a r i l y accessory t o the above uses. M-2 266 A P P E N D I X B D E V E L O P M E N T P E R M I T S F O R O F F I C E A N D O F F I C E / R E T A I L B U I L D I N G S I N I N D U S T R I A L A R E A S J A N U A R Y 1, 1971 - J U N E 1, 1978. G R A N V I L L E A N D B U R R A R D A P P R O V E D R E F U S E D 2301 G r a n v i l l e 1737 w . 2nd A v e . 1525 W. 8 t h A v e . 1523 w . 3 r d A v e . 1770 B u r r a r d 1525 w . 8 t h A v e . 1645 W. 7 t h A v e . ( X 2) 1555 w . 6 t h A v e . 1555 W. 8 t h A v e . 1632 W. 6 t h A v e . 1 4 0 1 W. 8 t h A v e . 1635 W. 7 t h A v e . 1663 W. 7 t h A v e . 1555 w . 8 t h A v e . 1701 W. 4 t h A v e . 1 4 1 2 W. 7 t h A v e . & 2305 H e m l o c k 1524 W. 6 t h A v e . 1575 W. 7 t h A v e . 1774 W. 5 t h A v e . A R B U T U S A N D 1 2 t h A V E . A P P R O V E D 2184 W . B r o a d w a y 2215 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2006 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2256 W . 1 0 t h A v e . 2 0 3 4 - 2 0 5 0 W . 1 2 t h A v e . ( X 2) C A M B I E A N D 2nd A V E . A P P R O V E D R E F U S E D 201 W . 6 t h A v e . 5 W . 7 t h A v e . 2425 Q u e b e c l 4 l E.. 7 t h A v e . ( X 3) 111 E . 5 t h A v e . 399 W . 6 t h A v e . 291 E . 2nd A v e . 106 E . 3 r d A v e . 225 W . 2nd A v e . 106 E . 7 t h A v e . 305-311 W . 8 t h A v e . 2425 Q u e b e c . R E F U S E D N I L P O W E L L S T R E E T A P P R O V E D R E F U S E D 195 A l e x a n d e r 195 A l e x a n d e r 2 0 1 9 D u n d a s & 2 0 1 2 - 2 0 1 8 W a l l 1603 F r a n k l i n 310-316 V i c t o r i a 490 C o m m e r c i a l 316 V i c t o r i a FAIRVIEW SLOPES APPROVED REFUSED 1091 W. 8th Ave. 1015 W. 7th Ave. 1125 W. 8th Ave. MARINE DRIVE APPROVED REFUSED 1300-1326 W. 73rd Ave. 8560 Fraser 8188/94 Manitoba 8400 Main 8400 Main (X 2) 8836 S e l k i r k 8955 Shaughnessy 780 S.W. Marine Dr. OTHER* APPROVED REFUSED 2780 E. Broadway N I L 1685 Boundary Road * INCLUDES FALSE CREEK FLATS AND FALSE CREEK AND EAST END, CLARK DRIVE, LOUGHEED AND BOUNDARY, JOYCE ROAD. 

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