UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The alpine vegetation ecology and remote sensing of Teresa Island, British Columbia 1978

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1978_A1 B98.pdf [ 32.05MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0094758.json
JSON-LD: 1.0094758+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0094758.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0094758+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0094758+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0094758+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0094758.ris

Full Text

THE ALPINE VEGETATION ECOLOGY AMD REMOTE SENSING OF TERESA ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA by. STEVEN COLBY BUTTRICK B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f New Hampshire, 1971 M.Sc., The Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY  OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Botany We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1978 ( c ) Steven Colby B u t t r i c k , 1978 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook. Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date fr t<t?f ABSTRACT The a l p i n e zone, encompassing a considerable p o r t i o n of the land s u r - face o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i s one of our major natural resources p r o v i d i n g e x t e n s i v e areas f o r r e c r e a t i o n , mineral r e s o u r c e s , and needed h a b i t a t f o r many w i l d l i f e species i n c l u d i n g c a r i b o u , g r i z z l y bear, mountain goat and mountain sheep. Such an e x t e n s i v e and important natural resource warrants c a r e f u l research to prov ide a s o l i d base f o r proper management and planning d e c i s i o n s . The aims o f t h i s study are: 1) To d e f i n e and describe the v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s o f an a l p i n e area in northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia; 2) To r e l a t e these u n i t s to the major environmental f a c t o r s acting i n the a l p i n e zone; 3) To f u r t h e r r e f i n e a c u r r e n t l y used h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r the m u l t i - s c a l e cartographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a l p i n e and f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n ; 4) To show the value of remotely sensed data f o r m u l t i - s c a l e v e g e t a t i o n mapping; and 5) To produce m u l t i - s c a l e maps o f the a l p i n e study area, s u i t a b l e f o r the requirements o f today's land planners and managers. The a l p i n e zone o f Teresa I s l a n d , w i t h i n A t l i n P r o v i n c i a l Park, was chosen as the study area f o r i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . One hundred f i f t y - o n e s i t e s , s e l e c t e d on the basis o f species homo- g e n e i t y , uniform appearance and uniform e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , were sampled during the summers o f 1974, 1975 and 1976. On the basis o f dominant s p e c i e s , physiognomic s i m i l a r i t y and s i m i l a r environmental c o n d i t i o n s , s i x t e e n community types are descr ibed: 1) U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d ; 2) C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d ; 3) C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d ; 4) Carex microchaeta meadow; 5) Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow; 6) Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow; 7) Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d ; 8) Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath; 9) Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyllodoce empetriformis snowbed; 10) S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed; 11) A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata snowbed; 12) Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed; 13) S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f ; 14) Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f ; 15) Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f ; and 16) Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f . Observations and the r e s u l t s of f o u r t r a n s e c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these communities i s p r i m a r i l y c o n t r o l l e d by topography, snow d u r a t i o n and m o i s t u r e . Four h a b i t a t types are recognized as a r e s u l t o f major combinations o f these f a c t o r s . These are: 1) F e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s , which occur on the most exposed areas o f the mountain where snow i s blown o f f during the w i n t e r , and the v e g e t a t i o n i s exposed to severe winds and temperatures and x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s y e a r - r o u n d ; 2) Snowbeds, which p r o t e c t v e g e t a t i o n from extreme w i n t e r temperatures b u t , at the same t ime, r e s t r i c t species occurrence by reducing the length o f the growing season; 3) Runoff s i t e s , which include s p r i n g - l i n e s , stream edges, pond margins, b o g - l i k e areas and other w a t e r - s a t u r a t e d s i t e s ; and 4) Meadows and shrub- f i e l d s which encompass the mesic areas of the mountain where drainage i s good and snow cover moderate. The sixteen.community types are d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the f o u r h a b i t a t types and r e f l e c t the environmental v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n each. The communities, a l l of which appear to be i n e q u i l i b r i u m with t h e i r environment, are compared w i t h other a l p i n e communities described from B r i t i s h Columbia, southern Yukon and southeastern Alaska. Remote sensing is. a v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r the cartographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p l a n t communities. An e c o l o g i c a l l y based h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i i i and legend system, designed to be used w i t h remote sensing data, was expanded to i n c o r p o r a t e the a l p i n e communities o f Teresa I s l a n d . Using s a t e l l i t e imagery, b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e , c o l o r , and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs, the a l p i n e zone of Teresa Is land was mapped at four s c a l e s : 1:180,000; 1:80,000; 1:29,000; and l a r g e - s c a l e (greater than 1:20,000). The h i e r a r c h i c a l e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was shown to be e f f e c t i v e at a l l s c a l e s , and to i n c o r p o r a t e a l l features v i s i b l e on the image. The h i e r a r c h i c a l nature of the system allows maps to be as general or as d e t a i l e d as i n f o r - mation and scale a l l o w w i t h o u t changing the l o g i c o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C o l o r - i n f r a r e d transparencies are s u p e r i o r t o conventional b lack-and- white and c o l o r photos f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s . The range o f magenta tones associated w i t h f o l i a g e i s g r e a t e r than the normal ly dark shades o f green, t h e r e f o r e , changes in the v e g e t a t i o n are more e a s i l y detected. Conifers can r e a d i l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from hardwoods. I n f r a r e d f i l m is capable o f detect ing i s o l a t e d patches o f vegetat ion t h a t tend to blend i n t o the background i n black-and-white and c o l o r f i l m s . S m a l l - s c a l e s a t e l l i t e imagery i s v a l u a b l e f o r g e n e r a l i z e d mapping o f large a r e a s , and i s able to detect the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones occurr ing i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s concluded t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s f e a s i b l e and should be c a r r i e d out as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r any land management program so t h a t we may o b t a i n the maximum and l a s t i n g b e n e f i t o f our a l p i n e resources. TABLE OF CONTENTS Pase ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x v i A, INTRODUCTION 1 A . l General I n t r o d u c t i o n "1 A.2 Physiography  and Geology 4 A.3 G l a c i a l H i s t o r y and Geomorphology 5 A.4 P e r i g l a c i a l Features 11 A.5 S o i l s 17 A.6 Cl imate. . . 20 A. 7 Vegetation 23 B. VEGETATION ECOLOGY 28 A . l I n t r o d u c t i o n 28 B.2 Methods 30 B.2.1 Approach 30 B.2.2 L o g i s t i c s 33 B.2.3 F l o r a 33 B.2.4 Vegetation 34 B.2.5 Transects 36 B.3 Results 38 B.3.1 Community types 38 B.3.1.1 U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 40 B.3.1.2 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosum f e l l - f i e l d 42 B.3.1.3 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d 47 ,B.3.1.4 Carex microchaeta meadow. . . 49 B.3.1.5 Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow. . . . 54 B.3.1.6 Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow 57 B.3.1.7 Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d 61 B . 3 . 1 . 8 Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. . 65 B.3.1.9 Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed . . . . 69 B.3.1.10 S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed 73 B.3.1.11 A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata 1 ate snowbed 75 B.3.1.12 Carex p.yrenaica - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed. . . 80 B.3.1.13 S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 82 B.3.1.14 Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f 88 B.3.1.15 Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - Sal i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f . . . 90 B.3.1.16 Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f B.3.2 Transects B.3.2.1 Transect 1: North Knoll T r a n s e c t . . B.3.2.2 Transect 2: 1676 m Snowbed Transect B.3.2.3 Transect 3: 1615 m Snowbed Transect B.3.2.4 Transect 4: Saddle Snowbed Transect 95 99 100 103 107 111 B.4 Discussion 115 B.4.1 General v e g e t a t i o n - environment r e l a t i o n s 115 B.4.1.1 Environmental f a c t o r s 115 B.4.1.2 Habitat types 119 B.4.1.2.1 F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 120 B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 2 Snowbed h a b i t a t type . . 124 B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 3 Runoff h a b i t a t type 127 B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 4 Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type . 129 B.4.2 Community type - environment r e l a t i o n s 130 B.5 Climax and Succession 149 B.6 Community Synonomy 154 C. REMOTE SENSING AND MAPPING 160 C . l I n t r o d u c t i o n 160 C.2 O b j e c t i v e s 160 C.3 Remote Sensor Data 161 C.3.1 Black and white photographs 161 C.3.2 Col o r - i n f r a r e d and conventional c o l o r photographs 161 C.3.3 S a t e l l i t e imagery 165 C.4 Methods 168 C.4.1 F i e l d work . 168 C.4.2 L a b o r a t o r y work 168 C.5 Discussion and Results 169 C.5.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and legend . 169 C.5.2 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n vs. s y n t h e s i s 174 C.5.3 Mapping. . . 180 v i i C.5.3.1 Level IV mapping on c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl iques 181 C . 5 . 3 . 2 Level I I I mapping o f B+W a e r i a l photographs 194 C . 5 . 3 . 3 Level I I mapping o f B+W a e r i a l photographs. 200 C . 5 . 3 . 4 Level I mapping o f Landsat imagery 203 C.6 Conclusions 206 D. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 207 LITERATURE CITED 214 APPENDIX A ( C h e c k l i s t o f the v a s c u l a r and cryptogamic f l o r a occurr ing i n the a l p i n e zone of Teresa I s l a n d ) 223 APPENDIX B (Symbolic and technical legend classes) 231 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page I Comparison o f 1974 temperature data c o l l e c t e d at the standard 1.2 m height and at ground l e v e l at weather s t a t i o n #2 ( e l . 1556 m) 21 I I Birch M t . , Teresa I s l a n d , m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data f o r 1974, 1975 and 1976 24 I I I Nine class m o d i f i e d Domin Scale used i n t h i s study f o r est imating percent cover of taxa. 35 IV Summary f l o r i s t i c t a b l e showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species combinations f o r the s i x t e e n community types 39 V F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d showing species composition and cover 41 VI F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d showing species composition and cover . 44 V I I F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d showing species composition and cover 48 V I I I F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Carex microchaeta meadow showing species composition and cover 51 IX F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow showing species composition and cover . . 55 X F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow showing species composition and cover. . 58 XI F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d showing species composition and cover 62 X I I F o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Cassiope tetraqona - Cladina m i t i s heath community and the Cassiope tetraqona - S o l o r i n a crocea subcommunity showing species composition and cover. . 66 X I I I F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed showing species composition and c o v e r . . . . ' . . • 70 XIV F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Pol.ytrichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed snowing species composition and c o v e r . . . 74 Table Page XV F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata snowbed showing species composition and c o v e r . . . . 77 XVI F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed showing species composition and cover 81 X V I I F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community and the Cassiope tetraqona - Empetrum nigrum subcommunity showing species composition and cover 84 X V I I I F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomm'um rostratu m r u n o f f showing species composition and cover 89 XIX F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - CI aytorn'a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f showing species composition and cover 92 XX F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f showing species composition and cover 96 XXI 23 x 23 cm B+W photographs used f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n on Teresa Is land 170 X X I I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f t e r Anderson et al_. (1976) 172 X X I I I H i e r a r c h i c a l legend system and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used f o r mapping a l p i n e vegetat ion o f Teresa I s l a n d 175 XXIV Imagery and scales used f o r the mapping o f a l p i n e vegetat ion on Teresa I s l a n d 181 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Location and map o f study area in northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia 3 2 Teresa I s l a n d showing physical features and place names used i n t h i s study 6 3 Summary diagram o f the l a t e Wisconsin and Holocene g l a c i o - botanical chronology in the A t l i n D i s t r i c t 8 4 1:50,000 scale topographic map of Birch Mt 22 5 Cover r e l a t i o n s in U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d community type . . 40 6 C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph o f U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 43 7 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosum f e l l f i e l d community type 45 8 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d looking down the north slope 46 9 Cover r e l a t i o n s in C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d community type 49 10 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d looking northeast toward summit 50 11 Carex microchaeta meadow 53 12 Cover r e l a t i o n s in Carex microchaeta meadow community type . 54 13 Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow occupying a shal low depression i n a C e t r a r i a n i v a l is - Vaccinium ul iqinosum community 56 14 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow community type 57 15 Photograph o f Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow looking east across the Northeast Plateau toward Cairn Peak 60 16 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow community type 59 17 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d community type 63 18 The Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d looking west down the west slope o f the North Knoll 64 19 The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath on the north slope 67 20 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath community type 68 21 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community type 71 22 Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Ph.yllodoce empetriformi s snowbed community beside r u n o f f stream from the East Plateau Pond near Camp #2 72 23 Cover r e l a t i o n s in S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community type . . 75 24 The S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community looking northeast to A t l i n Lake 76 25 A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed looking west across the north slope 78 26 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed community type 79 27 Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed community type 80 28 Col o r - i n f r a r e d photograph o f Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed on East Plateau. . . . 83 29 Cover r e l a t i o n s in S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community type 85 30 S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f on the north slope looking northeast toward A t l i n Lake 86 31 Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f on the north slope 91 32 Cover r e l a t i o n s in Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f community type 90 33 Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f on the north slope 93 34 Cover r e l a t i o n s in Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community type 95 35 Photograph of the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxi f raga nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f community on the East Plateau . . . 98 36 Cover r e l a t i o n s in Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxi f raga nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f community type 97 37 Results o f the North Knoll Transect showing changes in species composition and cover 101 38 Ponding and l a t e snow d u r a t i o n at lower end o f T r a n s e c t #2 . 105 39 S o l i f l u c t i o n lobe f r o n t and base crossed by T r a n s e c t #2, looking south up the north slope 105 40 Results o f 1676 m Snowbed Transect showing changes in species composition and cover 106 41 Results o f the 1615 m Snowbed Transect showing changes in species composition and cover 108 42 C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph o f Transect #3 looking north across snowbed to s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe 110 43 Results o f the Saddle Snowbed Transect showing changes in species composition and cover in r e l a t i o n to snow d u r a t i o n . 112 44 C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph looking north across Saddle Snowbed up the North Knoll 113 45 R e l a t i o n s h i p s between topography and environmental f a c t o r s . 118 46 Diagram o f the f o u r h a b i t a t types i n r e l a t i o n to snow d u r a t i o n , moisture and topographic gradients 121 47 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the F e l l f i e l d and B l o c k f i e l d H a b i t a t Type w i t h regard to time and e l e v a t i o n . . 133 48 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Snowbed Habitat Type w i t h regard to seepage, snow durat ion and e l e v a t i o n 135 49 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Runoff Habitat Type with regard to e l e v a t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n and drainage . . . . 1 3 8 50 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Meadow and S h r u b f i e l d Habitat Type w i t h regard to e l e v a t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n and moisture 139 51 E l e v a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among community types 142 52 Snow d u r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s among community types 143 53 Moisture r e l a t i o n s h i p s among community types 144 54 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing low a l p i n e zone communities along a mesotopographic gradient 146 55 D i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing m i d - a l p i n e zone communities along a mesotopographic g r a d i e n t 147 56 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing high a l p i n e zone communities along a mesotopographic gradient 148 57 Hypothesized successional patterns r e s u l t i n g from an extended warming trend 153 58 General s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e curve o f a green l e a f i n c l u d i n g spectral ranges f o r c o l o r - i n f r a r e d and conventional c o l o r f i l m 163 59 Normal c o l o r and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl ique photographs o f the East Plateau Pond and Camp #2 164 60 Conventional c o l o r and col o r - i n f r a r e d photographs showing value o f the i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r detect ing v e g e t a t i o n , and f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between hardwoods and c o n i f e r s 166 61 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n legend format modif ied from Legge et a l . (1974) 173 62 Hypothetical g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from decrease i n scale when mapping the e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s . . . 178 63 Hypothetical g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from decrease in scale when mapping h a b i t a t type u n i t s 179 64 Location o f map areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on 1:50,000 scale topographic map 182 65 Conventional c o l o r photograph and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph of Festuca meadows and f e l l f i e l d s 183 66 C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph showing two white markers on the East Plateau 184 67 Normal c o l o r and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs o f map area 2. . 186 68 Map Area 1. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl ique photograph looking west across the north slope of Birch Mountain 188 69 Map Area 2. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph looking west across the East Plateau . . . 191 70 Map Area 3. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph looking west across the Northeast Plateau 193 71 Map Area 4. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph encompassing most o f the South Ridge 195 72 Map Area 5. 1:29,000 scale B+W a e r i a l photograph o f Birch Mountain 197 73 Map Area 5. 1:29,000 scale B+W a e r i a l photograph o f Birch Mountain 199 74 1:80,000 scale B+W a e r i a l photograph of Birch Mountain and much o f Teresa I s l a n d 202 75 1:180,000 scale LANDSAT image o f Teresa I s l a n d , southern A t l i n Lake and surroundings 205 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author expresses s incere thanks to t h e s i s committee members Dr. Roy L. T a y l o r , D i r e c t o r o f The Botanical Garden, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r his support and assistance throughout the s t u d y ; Dr. Robert C. Brooke, Department of B i o l o g y , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , f o r h is assistance and a d v i c e ; Dr. Peter A. Murtha, F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y and Department of S o i l Science, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r his assistance and advice on remote sensing; Dr. W i l f r e d B. S c h o f i e l d , Department o f Botany, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r his advice and help w i t h bryophyte i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; and Dr. Glenn E. Rouse, Department o f Botany, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r his constant encourage- ment throughout the study. Special thanks go to Mr. A l l e n Banner, Mr. David Galloway and Ms. Corinne S e l b y , f o r t h e i r assistance and companionship in the f i e l d ; Dr. Maynard M. M i l l e r and The Foundation f o r G l a c i e r and Environmental Research, f o r l o g i s t i c support; and Mr. Edward K. Watson, f o r his 2 valuable assistance w i t h the I S Color A d d i t i v e Viewer. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my w i f e , Susan, f o r her patience and help during the production o f t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s work was supported by The Botanical Garden o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and by the f o l l o w i n g grants made to Dr. Roy L. T a y l o r : NRCC operating grant No. A5705; NRCC special grant No. 0008, F l o r a of B r i t i s h Columbia Program; Univ. B r i t i s h Columbia Committee on A r c t i c and A l p i n e Research No. 65-0439; and Univ. B r i t i s h Columbia Committee on Research g r a n t - i n - a i d No. 21-9616. T h i s t h e s i s i s dedicated to the memory o f my f a t h e r Rodney Colby B u t t r i c k A. INTRODUCTION A . l General I n t r o d u c t i o n The a l p i n e zone encompasses a considerable p o r t i o n o f the land surface o f B r i t i s h Columbia. According to K r a j i n a (1973), the a l p i n e zone seems to cover over o n e - h a l f o f the land area of northwestern B. C. As a natural resource the a l p i n e areas are i n v a l u a b l e as w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , and much o f the research on a l p i n e areas has r e v o l v e d around large mammals such as c a r i b o u , mountain goat, mountain sheep and g r i z z l y bear. Hunter and guide o u t f i t t i n g and f u r trapping are the most common and t r a d i - t i o n a l resource a c t i v i t i e s . "However, regardless of the vastness o f the area i n v o l v e d , the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the t e r r a i n and i t s inherent low p r o d u c t i v i t y of food and cover impose c o n s t r a i n t s on animal populations not encountered in southern regions and thus demand careful manage- ment" (Young and A l l e y , i n p r e s s ) . Recreation i s another major resource a c t i v i t y . R e c e n t l y , wi lderness areas have seen an increasing number of v i s i t o r s . Backpacking i s r a p i d l y becoming a major pastime. Many of the a l p i n e areas are r i c h i n m i n e r a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g o l d , and have a l r e a d y experienced disturbance from mining. Such an e x t e n s i v e area and important natural resource warrants careful research to p r o v i d e a s o l i d base f o r proper management and planning d e c i s i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f poor planning and lack o f e c o l o g i c a l information can be v e r y damaging. Hikers in the Black Tusk Meadows in G a r i b a l d i P r o v i n c i a l Park can see such r e s u l t s , and r e v e g e t a t i o n e f f o r t s are c u r r e n t l y underway to r e s t o r e the natural v e g e t a t i o n . W i l l a r d and Marr (1970) discuss the adverse e f f e c t s of human a c t i v i t i e s i n the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and the time i n v o l v e d in natural r e c o v e r y o f these areas (1971). T h e i r study i n d i c a t e s t h a t some s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d s i t e s would r e q u i r e from 100 to 1000 years f o r f u l l r e c o v e r y .  H a r t l e y (1973) studied the e f f e c t s o f man on a l p i n e vegetat ion in G l a c i e r National Park, Montana. A study o f the vegetat ion o f an area is a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r knowledgeable land use planning and management. With the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e c o l o g i c a l l y based v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , systematic i n v e n t o r i e s can be conducted. Vegetation u n i t s important f o r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t s can be i d e n t i f i e d and mapped, and questions concerning c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and popu- l a t i o n control answered more r e a d i l y . Unique v e g e t a t i o n and v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to human impact can be i d e n t i f i e d , a i d i n g in t r a i l and w i l d e r n e s s camp planning. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n also forms a base f o r f u r t h e r research p r o j e c t s in many d i s c i p l i n e s . Map- ping o f the u n i t s i s , o r should be, a rnajor r e s u l t of the v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n f o r from t h i s , t h e user can r e a d i l y locate u n i t s in the f i e l d and become p e r s o n a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the v e g e t a t i o n . Vegetation cartography has been f a c i l i t a t e d r e c e n t l y by remote sensing techniques and the increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y o f products other than the conventional b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e photographs. The aims of the present study are: (1) To d e f i n e and descr ibe the vegetation u n i t s of an a l p i n e area on Teresa Is land i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia; (2) to r e l a t e these u n i t s to the major environmental f a c t o r s acting in the a l p i n e zone; (3) to f u r t h e r r e f i n e a c u r r e n t l y used h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r the m u l t i - s c a l e cartographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l p i n e and f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n ; (4) to show the value o f remotely sensed data f o r m u l t i - s c a l e vegetat ion mapping; and (5) to produce m u l t i - s c a l e maps of the a l p i n e study area s u i t a b l e f o r the requirements of land planners and managers. The study area, Teresa I s l a n d , i s located in the southern end of A t l i n Lake i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia at approximately  59° 25' N l a t i t u d e and 133° 45' W longitude (Figure 1). Birch Mountain ( e l e v a t i o n Figure 1: Location and map of study area in northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. Work was r e s t r i c t e d to e l e v a t i o n s above 1500 m on Teresa I s l a n d . 2061 m) has an e x t e n s i v e a l p i n e zone occupyinn over 51 km o f t h i s 25-km-long, 11-km-wide i s l a n d . A l l work was r e s t r i c t e d to the a l p i n e zone which i s de- f i n e d here as the area above the e l e v a t i o n a l l i m i t of t r e e s . Teresa I s l a n d was chosen as the study area f o r a number of reasons. A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The town of A t l i n i s e a s i l y reached by road from the Alaska Highway and Teresa I s l a n d can then be reached by boat o r h e l i c o p t e r . L o g i s t i c s were handled p r i m a r i l y through the Foundation f o r G l a c i e r and Environmental Research based i n A t l i n . By having the mountain, i s o l a t e d on an i s l a n d , the study area was well def ined. Teresa I s l a n d i s included i n the l a r g e , r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d A t l i n P r o v i n c i a l Park; hence, the study could wel l prov ide base and d e t a i l e d information t h a t can be e x t r a p o l a t e d e a s i l y to other a l p i n e areas w i t h i n the park, and used by the B. C. Parks Branch as a base f o r park planning and manage- ment p o l i c i e s . A.2 Physiography  and Geology Teresa Is land and the e n t i r e south end o f A t l i n Lake l i e w i t h i n the Tagish Highland physiographic u n i t o f Holland (1964). The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Tagish Highland i s taken p r i m a r i l y from Holland's p u b l i c a t i o n . The Tagish Highland and the T a k t l a n Highland to the south form a mountainous b e l t t r a n s i t i o n a l between the 1524 m upland surfaces o f the Yukon and S t i k i n e Plateaus to the east and high g r a n i t i c Alaska- Canada Boundary Range to the west. In the Tagish Highland, the T e r t i a r y e r o s i o n s u r f a c e , which makes up the upland p l a t e a u s , has been warped upward to the west. D i s s e c t i o n of t h i s surface has r e s u l t e d 'in r e l a t i v e l y smooth, g e n t l y r o l l i n g upland surfaces l y i n g , i n g e n e r a l , at e l e v a t i o n s between 1524 and 2134 meters. Rivers and g l a c i e r s have i n c i s e d the area to an e l e v a t i o n o f about 671 m. The e l e v a t i o n of A t l i n Lake, part o f the Yukon R i v e r drainage system, i s 644 m. V a l l e y s w i t h i n the Tagish Highland are U-shaped and often occupied by lakes. R e l i e f ranges from about 1067 m to 1524 m. The Tagish Highland i s u n d e r l a i n l a r g e l y by fo lded and f a u l t e d s e d i - mentary and v o l c a n i c rocks o f Palaeozoic and Mesozoic age (Hol land, 1964). The geology o f the A t l i n area has been described in d e t a i l by Aitken (1959). Most of the southern end of Teresa I s l a n d , i n c l u d i n g the steep south slopes o f Birch M t . , i s composed of sedimentary rocks o f the J u r a s s i c Laberge Group. Volcanic greywackes  are dominant in t h i s group, with l e s s e r amounts of s i l t - stone, mudstone, s h a l e , conglomerate, and sandy l imestone. The more gentle and e x t e n s i v e northern slopes o f Birch Mt. are composed of quartz monzonite, p o s s i b l y T e r t i a r y in o r i g i n ( A i t k e n , 1959). The shore o f the i s l a n d c o n s i s t s of recent g l a c i a l d r i f t and a l l u v i u m , containing pockets o f p e r i d o t i t e and rocks o f the Carboniferous-Permian Cache Creek Group, i n c l u d i n g c h e r t , a r g i l ! i t e , greenstone, v o l c a n i c greywacke  and l imestone. A.3 G l a c i a l H i s t o r y and Geomorphology Topography has been modif ied p r i m a r i l y by the c o n t i n e n t a l and a l p i n e g l a c i a t i o n s of the area. Many o f the physical features described in t h i s s e c t i o n , and place names used throughout t h i s t h e s i s , are shown in Figure 2, a 1:80,000 scale map o f Birch Mt. and much o f Teresa Is land made from an a e r i a l photograph, c f . Figure 74. According to Anderson (1970), most o f the g l a c i a l ac t ion r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g the e x i s t i n g landforms in the A t l i n area took place during the Wisconsin and e a r l y Holocene. The g l a c i a l h i s t o r y during t h i s i n t e r v a l f o r the Boundary Range - A t l i n region has been described by M i l l e r and Anderson (1974a, b ) , who a t t r i b u t e c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a - t i o n s and r e s u l t a n t g l a c i a l movements to s h i f t s in the p o s i t i o n of storm tracks o f the A r c t i c Front back and f o r t h across the Canada-Alaska Boundary Figure 2: Teresa Is land showing physical features and place names used in t h i s study. Scale is 1:80,000. C = c i r q u e ; T = t a r n ; RG = rock g l a c i e r . Range. The A r c t i c Front i s the "l ine o f demarcation between the high p r e s - sure a n t i - c y c l o n i c c o n t i n e n t a l weather c o n d i t i o n s and the low pressure c y c l o n i c maritime c o n d i t i o n s on the coast" ( M i l l e r and Anderson, 1974a). When the storm paths are more c o n t i n e n t a l , i . e . , to the east o f the Boundary Range, f r e e z i n g l e v e l s i n the A t l i n v a l l e y are l o w e r , storms and p r e c i p i t a - t i o n decrease, and low neve g l a c i e r s advance. I f the storm paths are centered to the west o f the Boundary Range, f r e e z i n g l e v e l s in the A t l i n area are h i g h e r , storm and p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e , and low n€ve g l a c i e r s recede. At the present time t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . A f u l l d i s c u s - sion o f the g l a c i a l h i s t o r y of the area can be found i n M i l l e r and Anderson (1974b). A summary diagram of the l a t e Wisconsin - Holocene g l a c i o b o t a n i c a l chronology i n the A t l i n area is given i n Figure 3. The A t l i n lake channel was probably formed during Time I n t e r v a l IX (Figure 3) or a l i t t l e e a r l i e r ( M i l l e r , 1964). Also at t h i s t ime, the A t l i n v a l l e y g l a c i e r e s t a b l i s h e d i t s outermost moraine complex at the northern end of what i s now L i t t l e A t l i n Lake i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Since the end of Time I n t e r v a l IX (10,500 B . P . ) , there has been a general down- wastage and r e t r e a t o f the A t l i n v a l l e y g l a c i e r with occasional readvances. The A t l i n v a l l e y g l a c i e r is now s o l e l y represented by the Wilson and large L l e w e l l y n g l a c i e r s , o r i g i n a t i n g in the Boundary Range, w i t h t h e i r termini at the south end o f A t l i n Lake. Aitken (1959) b e l i e v e s t h a t no peak w i t h i n the A t l i n area escaped g l a c i a t i o n during the maximum l a t e Wisconsin G l a c i a t i o n set at about 18,000 years ago ( F l i n t , 1971). Holland (1964) states t h a t the maximum e l e v a t i o n o f i c e i n the Tagish Highlands during the Wisconsin g l a c i a t i o n was probably 1829 to 1981 m. I t i s v e r y probable, however, that the summit o f Birch Mt. ( e l . 2016 m) was above the g l a c i a l ice at Time I n t e r v a l IX and has remained above s i n c e . Whether o v e r r i d e n or n o t , the higher e l e v a t i o n s of the mountain ATLIN DISTRICT B O U N D A R Y R A N G E Y E A R S B . P . X 1 , 0 0 0 T I M E I N T . M A J O R V E G E T A T I O N A T L O W E R E L E V A T I O N S M E A N J U L Y T E M P , r n n so ' < C L I M A T I C C H A R A C T E R I Z A T I O N D O M I N A N T G L A C I A L A C T I V I T Y ' 2 - 3 - 4 - 1 0 - 11 IV 6 - VI VII VIII S P R U C E F O R E S T W I T H P I N E M I N O R C HA H O E S IN 8 0 G S WH ITE S P R U C E F O R E S T W I T H P tNE S P R U C E F O R E S T W I T H F IR S P R U C E F O R E S T W I T H A L O E R WHITE S P R U C E F O R E S T OOM1MAMT S P R U C E W O O O t A M O S H R U B T U N O R A ( H E R B A C E O U S T U N O R A IN N O R T H ) S P R U C E W O O O U t N O S H R U 3 T U N O R A S C O O L D R Y D E C R E A S E D S T O R M I N E S S RETREAT NEOQLAC1AL G R O W T H A N O A O V A M C E 5 W A R M W E T W A R M E R W E T T E R fl I N C R E A S E D S T O R M I N E S S B E G I N N I N G OF R E O L A C I A T I O N G E N E R A L O O W N - W A S T A G E A N O R E T R E A T C O O L O R Y D E C R E A S E D S T O R M I N E S S I N T E R M I T T E N T R E T R E A T ST I LLSTANO W I T H R E A O V A N C E RETREAT STILLSTANO ' ANO ADVANCES Figure 3: Summary diagram of the l a t e Wisconsin and Holocene g l a c t o - botanical chronology i n the A t l i n D i s t r i c t . (From M i l l e r and Anderson, 1974b) could probably not have supported v a s c u l a r vegetat ion due to severe f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g at t h i s e l e v a t i o n . A l p i n e g l a c i e r s occurred on Birch Mountain and many other peaks in the area. These a l p i n e g l a c i e r s developed in o l d p r e - or e a r l y - W i s c o n s i n cirques (Anderson, 1970; H o l l a n d , 1969) and probably reached t h e i r maximum extent during Time I n t e r v a l s VI and V I I (Figure 3). A l p i n e g l a c i e r s probably d i s - appeared e n t i r e l y during the Thermal Maximum, but w i t h the advent o f c o o l e r and w e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s in Time I n t e r v a l I I o f the N e o g l a c i a l , perennial snow patches and small g l a c i e r e t s redeveloped (Anderson, 1970). Alpine g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y on Teresa I s l a n d was r e s t r i c t e d to the north and east sides o f the mountain. Most peaks in the area have cirques o n l y on t h e i r northern or eastern sides (Hol land, 1964). T h i s pattern can be accounted f o r by the p r e v a i l i n g s o u t h - s o u t h w e s t e r l y winds which d e p o s i t much of the w i n t e r snow on the northern and eastern lee s l o p e s . The e f f e c t o f t h i s i s compounded by the lower incidence o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n on the northern s lopes. The a l p i n e g l a c i e r s are no longer p r e s e n t , but large permanent snowbeds occupy the o l d cirques and form e x t e n s i v e bands across the north slope (Figure 2). Approximately  f o u r cirques occupy the north and northeast slopes of Birch Mountain. Two o f these occur above 1829 m w i t h t h e i r upper edges reaching 1940 m. The o t h e r two occur between 1676 m and 1829 m. The g l a c i e r f low from these cirques formed two hanging g l a c i a l troughs or v a l - l e y s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by steep w a l l s , r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t courses and by the same U-shape o f t h e i r t r a n s v e r s e p r o f i l e s . The l i p s of these hanging v a l l e y s are at 1372 m. A r u n o f f stream flows down each v a l l e y and drops r a p i d l y from the l i p to the lake through a V-shaped notch. The l a r g e r of the two v a l l e y s runs d i r e c t l y north and empties i n t o T o r r e s Channel. The smaller v a l l e y runs ENE, emptying i n t o the main body of the lake. T h i s v a l l e y holds three ponds o r t a r n s ; one at the base o f the lowest cirque (ca. 1676 m), one at the v a l l e y l i p (ca_. 1372 m), and one between the others (Figure 2). Two abandoned c i r q u e s , one at the head of each v a l l e y , have given r i s e to tongues o f blocks which have been i n t e r p r e t e d as p o s s i b l e rock g l a c i e r s by Dr. w. H. Mathews (personal communication*). Morainal material i s d i f f i - c u l t to i d e n t i f y o r i n t e r p r e t and should be studied more f u l l y by a geomor- p h o l o g i s t . Most o f the g l a c i a l v a l l e y f l o o r s are covered w i t h rock r u b b l e . Rubble near the v a l l e y w a l l s i s not l i c h e n - c o v e r e d and thus is i n t e r p r e t e d as f r e s h . T h i s mater ial can probably be considered t a l u s . Other rubble w i t h i n the v a l l e y i s l i c h e n - c o v e r e d which i n d i c a t e s s t a b i l i t y . I n t e r s p e r s e d among the rocks are areas r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of l i c h e n s , i n d i c a t i n g long snow d u r a t i o n . T h i s s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l w i t h i n the v a l l e y s could be morainal or may be the r e s u l t o f c o l l a p s e d rock g l a c i e r s (Dr. W. H. Mathews, personal communication). No c l a s s i c a l moraine complexes were observed on the i s l a n d . The present topography of Teresa I s l a n d , and e s p e c i a l l y Birch M t . , i s r e l a t e d to the bedrock p a t t e r n . The r e s i s t a n t quartz monzonite erodes s l o w l y , r e s u l t - ing i n an e x t e n s i v e ,  g e n t l y s loping north slope system. The quartz monzonite s l o w l y weathers to sand deposits which occur at the base of l a r g e permanent snowbeds where n i v a t i o n tends to increase the rock e r o s i o n . On the southern s ide o f the mountain, the sedimentary rocks of the Laberge Group are more r e a d i l y eroded. T h i s e r o s i o n may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the steep, 30° slopes and steep V-shaped v a l l e y s leading south and west (W. H. Mathews, personal communication). These v a l l e y s do not o r i g i n a t e as cirques and are formed by water e r o s i o n . The sedimentary rocks o f the Laberge Group erode q u i c k l y to large angular blocks which form t a l u s p i l e s along the w a l l s of the s o u t h e m v a l l e y s . The l e s s s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n o f t h i s •Department o f Geology, Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . , Canada. 10 bedrock i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by a massive l a n d s l i d e which almost reaches the shore o f the i s l a n d (Figure 2). Because of the nature o f the bedrock and the steepness o f t e r r a i n , the south side of the mountain i s much less a c c e s s i - ble than the northern s lopes. A.4 P e r i g l a c i a l Features The f r o s t a c t i o n in a p e r i g l a c i a l environment has also been instrumental in shaping the a l p i n e area o f Teresa I s l a n d . " P e r i g l a c i a l " has long been a confusing term (Washburn, 1973). O r i g i n a l l y , i t was used to descr ibe the cl imate and c l i m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d features adjacent to the P l e i s t o c e n e ice sheets ( L o z i n s k i , 1909), but a more accepted d e f i n i t i o n today i s "the environment of cold regions i n which f r o s t act ion i s important; the features r e s u l t i n g from f r o s t action" (Brown and Kupsch, 1974). Frost act ion i s an a c t i v e process on the high e l e v a t i o n s o f the i s l a n d at the present t ime, but there i s evidence o f a per iod of much g r e a t e r f r o s t act ion and t h u s , of a more severe p e r i g l a c i a l environment i n the past. A l l o f the peaks on Birch Mt. and most of the r idges above 1676 m e x h i b i t f r o s t wedging. T h i s process, a l s o c a l l e d f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g , f r o s t s p l i t t i n g and c o n g e l i f r a c t i o n , i s the p r y i n g apart of m a t e r i a l s , u s u a l l y r o c k , by the f r e e z i n g and expansion of water (Washburn, 1973). Frost wedging played a major r o l e in the s c u l p t u r i n g o f the mountain, and bedrock is o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i b l e . Wedging c o n t r i b u t e s to the d i f f e r e n t i a l e r o s i o n o f the north and south sides o f the mountain, probably because sedimentary r o c k s , such as those o f the Laberge Group, are much more s u s c e p t i - ble to wedging than igneous rocks (Washburn, 1973). A c t i v e f r o s t wedging probably occurred during the l a t e Wisconsin and e a r l y Holocene, and may have become more a c t i v e again during Holocene Time I n t e r v a l I I . At p r e s e n t , however, the heavy blanket o f l ichens such as U m b i l i c a r i a , A l e c t o r i a and C o r n i c u l a r i a on the f r o s t r i v e n rocks of the peaks and high r idges suggest c u r r e n t s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a much decreased i n - cidence o f s h a t t e r i n g . E x t e n s i v e f r o s t a c t i v i t y depends on an abundance o f s h o r t - t e r m f r e e z e - thaw c y c l e s , e s p e c i a l l y in the spring when melting snow provides the neces- sary moisture. C l i m a t i c data f o r the i s l a n d are u n a v a i l a b l e except f o r J u l y and August, so the number o f f r e e z e - t h a w cycles i s not known. I t i s important to remember, however, t h a t f reeze-thaw temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s of the a i r do not n e c e s s a r i l y represent f reeze-thaw cycles w i t h i n rock (Washburn, 1973). Washburn (1973) b e l i e v e s t h a t f r o s t wedging occurs i n response to an annual f reeze-thaw c y c l e as wel l as to s h o r t - t e r m c y c l e s . Accumulations of rock on the snow at the bases of steep, n o r t h - f a c i n g c l i f f s and cirques where the snow i s permanent o r l i e s long i n t o the summer, i n d i c a t e s t h a t some a c t i v e f r o s t wedging probably does occur. I t i s a lso l i k e l y that t a l u s slopes at the bottom o f the g l a c i a l troughs and south v a l l e y s are p a r t i a l l y d e r i v e d through f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g , although t a l u s formation i s by no means a s t r i c t l y p e r i g l a c i a l phenomenon. R e l i c t and a c t i v e patterned ground features occur in the a l p i n e and high subalpine areas o f Teresa I s l a n d . Brown and Kupsch (1974) descr ibe patterned ground as "a general term f o r any ground surface o f s u r f i c i a l s o i l m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t i n g a d i s c e r n i b l e , more or l e s s ordered and symmetri- c a l , m i c r o - p h y s i o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n . " D e t a i l e d discussions o f these f e a t u r e s , t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and p o s s i b l e o r i g i n s are given by Davies (1969), Pr ice (1972a) and Washburn (1956, 1973). The f o l l o w i n g i s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the patterned ground features occurr ing in the a l p i n e areas of Teresa I s l a n d . The most e x t e n s i v e and a c t i v e p e r i g l a c i a l process on the mountain i s s o l i f l u c t i o n , "the process of s low, g r a v i t a t i o n a l , downslope movement o f s a t u r a t e d , n o n - f r o z e n earth material behaving apparently as a viscous mass over a surface o f f r o z e n material" (Brown and Kupsch, 1974). A c t u a l l y , a "surface o f f r o z e n material" i s not necessary. Shallow bedrock or other subsurfaces t h a t impede the downward f low of water , can produce the same r e s u l t s (Davies, 1969; Washburn, 1973). The primary p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s o l i - f l u c t i o n i s a constant supply o f water throughout the summer (Washburn, 1973). T h i s p r e r e q u i s i t e i s met on the g e n t l e north slope of Birch Mt. where r u n o f f from a permanent snowbed keeps downslope subsurfaces saturated throughout the summer season. S o l i f l u c t i o n benches r e s u l t from the d i f f e r e n t i a l h o r i - zontal f l o w o f the surface m a t e r i a l . These benches are s t e p - l i k e features w i t h almost h o r i z o n t a l tops ( l ° - 2 ° ) , and at t i m e s , n e a r l y v e r t i c a l f r o n t s which can be over two meters high. D i f f e r e n t i a l v e r t i c a l f low r e s u l t s i n the organic surface being overrun by the advancing bench f r o n t . A c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n a l s o occurs to a l e s s e r extent on the southern side o f the East Plateau. Here the ground remains saturated by r u n o f f from the southern r i d g e s . S o l i f l u c t i o n benches t h a t appear to be i n a c t i v e occur on the central and northern parts o f the East Plateau. Here snowmelt i s r a p i d , and the o n l y added moisture i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Large snowbeds commonly form at the base o f bench f r o n t s . Well developed s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes occur at e l e v a t i o n s as low as 1372 m on the north slope o f the mountain. As i s shown l a t e r , s o l i f l u c t i o n t e r r a i n i s important i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n on these s lopes. Other patterned ground features common in p e r i g l a c i a l environments, and found i n the a l p i n e areas o f Teresa I s l a n d , include stone n e t s , s o r t e d and nonsorted c i r c l e s , and rock s t r i p e s . These features are a l l produced by f r o s t act ion but the exact method i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Washburn (1956) considers f r o s t act ion a complex of processes and f e e l s t h a t the o r i g i n of f r o s t features i s p o l y g e n e t i c . Stone nets are patterned ground intermediate in o u t l i n e between p o l y - gons and c i r c l e s , and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by rims o f c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , rocky material and centers o f f i n e - g r a i n e d s o i l s . Most of the stone nets on the mountain are r e l i c t s of a more severe cl imate o f the past. T h e i r e a r l i e r o r i g i n i s evidenced by the complete covering of l i c h e n s on the rock r i m s , and u s u a l l y a dense cover of v a s c u l a r plants and the l i c h e n , C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s , in the c e n t e r s . These nets occur on h o r i z o n t a l , r a i s e d , w e l l - drained s i t e s . What appear to be a c t i v e stone nets or polygons occur beneath the surface o f the East Plateau Pond. These are v i s i b l e in Figure 72 w i t h the aid o f a 10X hand l e n s . On some of the d r y , w e l l - d r a i n e d s l o p e s , the stone nets are elongated to form r e l i c t stone s t r i p e s , o r i e n t e d downslope. These are also wel l covered w i t h l i c h e n s . Both the stone nets and the s t r i p e s j u s t described are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f e l l f i e l d s u s u a l l y over 1676 m i n e l e v a t i o n . Rock s t r i p e s also occur beneath some snowbeds where the snow remains u n t i l e a r l y or m i d - J u l y . These s t r i p e s c o n s i s t of narrow (ca. 1 m) s t r i p e s of rocks o r i e n t e d downslope which often disappear upslope i n t o the snowbed. The stone s t r i p e s are t r i a n g u l a r i n cross s e c t i o n w i t h large 10-to-12 cm diameter rocks above, tapering below to small pebbles. They probably o r i g i n a t e d by f r o s t act ion but since they occur o n l y at the base of snowbeds, they might be maintained by r u n o f f . Water can u s u a l l y be heard running through the s t r i p e s . Between the s t r i p e s are s o i l patches o f v a r y i n g w i d t h . Due to the long snow d u r a t i o n , these s o i l s t r i p e s are p o o r l y vegetated. C i r c l e s , both sorted and nonsorted, are common and a c t i v e at the present t ime. A nonsorted c i r c l e i s a barren c i r c u l a r area o f f i n e mater ial w i t h a border o f v e g e t a t i o n , A sorted c i r c l e i s u s u a l l y a barren area o f f i n e mater ial w i t h a border o f stones. However, the few sorted c i r c l e s encountered on the mountain had a central core o f stones surrounded by a r i n g o f f i n e , sandy material bordered by v e g e t a t i o n . The barren centers o f these c i r c l e s are a c t i v e l y maintained by seasonal f r o s t - h e a v i n g which prevents plant establishment (Johnson and B i l l i n g s , 1962; P r i c e , 1972a). I n a c t i v e c i r c l e s are i d e n t i f i e d by the amount o f v e g e t a t i o n i n the c e n t e r s , and by l i c h e n - c o v e r e d stones in the case of sorted c i r c l e s (Washburn, 1973). These c i r c l e s have developed on h o r i z o n t a l surfaces. Where the surface i s s l i g h t l y s l o p i n g , s o l i f l u c t i o n w i t h i n the c i r c l e s occurs r e s u l t i n g in a step formation. T h i s phenomenon has been wel l documented (Bryant and Scheinberg, 1970; Johnson and B i l l i n g s , 1962; Washburn, 1973). C i r c l e s have developed p r i m a r i l y on f l a t surfaces o f Tee s l o p e s , such as the tops o f s o l i f l u c t i o n benches, where moisture is a v a i l a b l e from snowbeds above. Often in l a t e June, the c i r c l e s w i l l be covered by a f i l m o f water. The w a t e r - h o l d i n g capacity must be high f o r even in e a r l y August the barren centers o f the c i r c l e s w i l l be m o i s t . A c t i v i t y o f these c i r c l e s due to f r o s t act ion r e q u i r e s a supply o f moisture and subsurface f r e e z e - t h a w c y c l e s . From J u l y 10 to August 17, 1974, continual temperature measurements were taken at a depth o f 5 cm i n two nonsorted c i r c l e s at câ . 1698 m e l e v a t i o n with a Tempscribe temperature recording d e v i c e . Results showed a t o t a l of 12 f reeze-thaw cycles at each c i r c l e during the 38 days o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s , combined w i t h the f a c t t h a t most o f them are devoid o f rooted v e g e t a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s a c t i v e f r o s t a c t i o n . A c t i v i t y i s probably at i t s maximum during May and June when f r e e z e - t h a w cycles are more common and there i s a ready supply of moisture from melt ing snow. Some nonsorted c i r c l e s occur at lower e l e v a t i o n s (1524 m - 1615 m) i n f e l l f i e l d s and dwarf b i r c h and w i l l o w dominated areas. Because o f the exposed p o s i t i o n o f the f e l l f i e l d s , there i s v e r y l i t t l e snow to p r o v i d e the moisture f o r the f r o s t heaving. However, a lack of snow with i t s i n s u l a t i n g e f f e c t s could r e s u l t in g r e a t e r f r e e z i n g f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the s p r i n g . Most e x t e n s i v e development occurs i n the shrub dominated s i t e s on west and northwest facing slopes ( c f . Figure 68). On s loping s u r f a c e s , these c i r c l e s elongate to form steps as described in Washburn (1973). These f r o s t features can be found i n a l l stages o f r e v e g e t a t i o n , and thus appear to form c y c l i c - a l l y . Where they occur snow cover i s continuous but probably t h i n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t in w i n t e r s o f low s n o w f a l l , high spots are exposed and then eroded by the blowing snow. The bare s o i l thus exposed would be v e r y suscep- t i b l e to f r o s t a c t i o n . Bare c i r c l e s are often c o l o n i z e d f i r s t by Sedum rose a, whose r o o t system seems best able to withstand the constant s t r a i n s associated w i t h f r o s t heaving. S a l i x p o l a r i s , T r i s e t u m spicatum and Hierochloe a l p i n a are a l s o e a r l y c o l o n i z e r s . As the s o i l becomes s t a b i l i z e d by these p l a n t s , Festuca a l t a i c a invades the c i r c l e s and e v e n t u a l l y forms a t h i c k t u r f a l lowing the reestabl ishment o f Betula glandulos a and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a . On the steep, b o u l d e r - c o v e r e d slopes o f the high south r i d g e and peaks, there are debr is i s l a n d s . According to Washburn (1973), debr is i s l a n d s are "sorted c i r c l e s amid blocks or boulders." They are commonly on slopes as steep as 30°. "Such slope forms tend to have c e n t r a l areas t h a t are con- s i d e r a b l y l e s s steep than the general g r a d i e n t but can be as high as 25°" (Washburn, 1973). Most d e b r i s i s l a n d s on Birch Mt. are i n a c t i v e . A general statement can be made t h a t f r o s t features on r idges and summits o f Birch Mt. are c u r r e n t l y i n a c t i v e w h i l e features occurr ing on lee slopes are a c t i v e . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n was encountered by Johnson and B i l l i n g s (.1963) on the Beartooth Plateau. T h i s i s probably because of the lack o f an adequate supply o f moisture on the r idges and summits, and a c o n s i s t e n t l y c o l d e r temperature with fewer subsurface f r e e z e - t h a w f l u c t u a - t i o n s . A.5 S o i l s There are f i v e f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the development of s o i l : (1) parent m a t e r i a l ; (2) c l i m a t e ; (3) l i v i n g organisms; (4) topography; and (5) time ( J e n n y , 1951). The a c t i o n o f these f a c t o r s on s o i l development in a l p i n e areas o f western United States has been discussed by Retzer (1965, 1974), who makes a number of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s concerning the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l p i n e s o i l s and the processes o f s o i l development i n a l p i n e areas. The parent m a t e r i a l s common i n a l p i n e areas are low i n basic compounds and p r o - duce v e r y a c i d i c s o i l s . Chemical weathering o f the parent material is low p r i m a r i l y because of the low temperatures at these high e l e v a t i o n s , and the f r e q u e n t l y low p r e c i p i t a t i o n . For the most p a r t , a l p i n e s o i l s have low inherent f e r t i l i t y . They are medium-to-coarse t e x t u r e d w i t h large amounts o f stone, cobble and g r a v e l . The coarse s o i l s and steep topography r e s u l t in excessive drainage. There tends to be a slow net accumulation of organic matter i n the t o p s o i l . T h i s i s probably a r e s u l t o f the low temperatures and short per iod of s o i l thaw, r e s u l t i n g in low m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y ( F l o a t e , 1965). The organic matter input o f the v e g e t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e x t e n s i v e r o o t systems, r e s u l t s in a t h i c k t u r f l a y e r i n many a l p i n e s o i l s t h a t i s important in the c o n t r o l o f erosion (Nimlos and McConnell, 1962; R e t z e r , 1956). The s o i l s o f a l p i n e areas i n western North America are immature. In f a c t , many s o i l s have not y e t reached a s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n (K. W. G. V a l e n t i n e , personal communication*). The major f a c t o r preventing the development o f mature s o i l p r o f i l e s i s f r o s t a c t i o n such as the mixing o f h o r i z o n s and p r o f i l e s by c r y o t u r b a - t i o n and s o l i f l u c t i o n , and the s h a t t e r i n g o f p a r t i c l e s by f r o s t . In the *Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver, B. C . , Canada. a l p i n e environment, these physical processes appear to overshadow the chemi- cal and b i o l o g i c a l processes which are slowed down due to the low tempera- tures (K. W. G. V a l e n t i n e , personal communication). S o l i f l u c t i o n often r e s u l t s i n buried A horizons and w i t h c r y o t u r b a t i o n also causes mixing of the A h o r i z o n w i t h the parent material to form an AC h o r i z o n (Young and A l l e y , in p r e s s ) . Very few s o i l s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out in the a l p i n e areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and p r a c t i c a l l y no published information i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the e x t e n s i v e a l p i n e areas of northern B. C. (K. W. G. V a l e n t i n e , personal communication). A l p i n e s o i l s described i n B. C. are u s u a l l y r e g o s o l s , b r u n i s o l s , g l e y s o l s and occasional podzols* (Lord and Green, 1974; Lord and Luckhurst , 1974; Sneddon et a l . , 1972a + b; V a l e n t i n e , personal communi- c a t i o n ; van Ryswyk,  1969; Young and A l l e y , in p r e s s ) . Podzols are most common i n the subalpine and i n a l p i n e areas with accumulated v o l c a n i c ash (K. W. G. V a l e n t i n e , personal communication). V a l e n t i n e considers the general pattern o f a l p i n e s o i l s in northern B. C. to c o n s i s t o f v a r i o u s forms of b r u n i s o l s i n the mid- and l o w - a l p i n e areas, and t u r b i c and c r y i c regosols in the high a l p i n e tundra zone where low temperatures, slow chemi- cal weathering, and f r o s t act ion d i s r u p t the s o i l . Young and A l l e y ( i n press) describe al'pine s o i l s in northern B. C. as p r i m a r i l y regosols and b r u n i s o l s . Regosols are at high e l e v a t i o n s where c r y o t u r b a t i o n i s a c t i v e . "Regosols w i t h d i s r u p t e d hor izons are the most common s o i l s r e s u l t i n g from t h i s strong p e r i g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y " (Young and A l l e y , in p r e s s ) . Regosols a l s o commonly occur in snowbeds and n i v a t i o n hollows w i t h a poor v e g e t a t i o n cover. Melanic, e u t r i c and d y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s are common i n the meadows and s o l i f l u c t i o n s lopes. *Soil nomenclature f o l l o w s The System o f S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada, P u b l i c a t i o n 1455, Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1974. A survey o f the a l p i n e s o i l s of Teresa I s l a n d was not attempted as part of the present study. A few s o i l p i t s were excavated in t y p i c a l a l p i n e h a b i t a t s such as snowbeds, meadows and f e l l f i e l d s , and were v i s u a l l y described in the f i e l d . From these s o i l p i t s , a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made, but f o r b e t t e r understanding of the ecology in t h i s a l p i n e area and f o r b e t t e r management, a d e t a i l e d survey should be conducted to supplement t h i s v e g e t a t i o n study. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o i l s on Birch Mt. seems to f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h a t described by Young and A l l e y ( i n press) above. Very l i t t l e s o i l development occurs in the areas blown f r e e of snow during the w i n t e r . Organic matter production i s low in these s i t e s and l i t t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y blown away. T h i s , combined w i t h the severe temperatures and f r o s t a c t i o n , r e s u l t s i n coarse, w e l l - d r a i n e d regosols w i t h A and C hor izons o r no n o t i c e a b l e hor izons at a l l . Regosols blanket the k n o l l s , peaks and r idges o f Birch Mt. but are not r e s t r i c t e d to these areas. In snowbeds where vegetat ion i s p o o r l y developed s i m i l a r s o i l s occur. In the meadows and on vegetated s o l i f l u c t i o n t e r r a i n , B horizons are f a i r l y d i s t i n c t and s o i l s are probably b r u n i s o l s . pH readings in these s o i l s average about 5.0. The geological d e s c r i p t i o n o f the area by Aitken (.1959) i n d i c a t e s the p o s s i b l e occurrence of small pockets o f more basic parent m a t e r i a l s , and the s c a t t e r e d occurrence o f species such as C e t r a r i a t e l i s i i , Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a , Saxifraga  o p p o s i t i f o l i a and S_. cespitosa on the south s ide of the mountain seems to i n d i c a t e more basic s o i l s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t s o i l s developing on these rocks were not sampled f o r the highest pH reading was 5.6. In p o o r l y drained areas, g l e y i n g f r e q u e n t l y occurs r e s u l t i n g i n gleyed b r u n i s o l s or g l e y s o l s . Water tables as c lose to the surface as 30 cm were detected in August. The peaty t o p s o i l w i t h i t s i n s u l a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s , and the perched water t a b l e , i n d i c a t e the probable presence o f permafrost. Permafrost also might be present under the l a t e r melt ing snowbeds. A.6 Climate A t l i n l i e s in the Southwest C l i m a t i c D i v i s i o n of Kendrew and Kerr (1955), making i t c l i m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r to T e s l i n , Carcross and Whitehorse in the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Lying i n the r a i n shadow of the Northern Boundary Range, the A t l i n area receives between 280 and 300 mm o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n per y e a r and can be considered semi a r i d . Coastal mountains on the western side o f the Boundary Range r e c e i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n in excess of 2540 mm per y e a r . At the southern end o f A t l i n Lake where Teresa I s l a n d i s l o c a t e d , maritime inf luences from the southwest r e s u l t in a moderation of the temperature extremes common i n the Yukon and the i n t e r i o r of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f T r a n s p o r t records show t h a t in A t l i n , June i s the warmest month o f the y e a r w i t h an average temperature o f 10°C and J a n u a r y , the c o l d e s t , averaging -17°C. Mean annual temperature i s 0°C. According to the Thornthwaite system, the cl imate of the A t l i n v a l l e y i s C^C'^db1^, a c o l d , microthermal, subhumid cl imate w i t h l i t t l e or no water surplus (Sanderson, 1948). In terms o f m o i s t u r e , the A t l i n v a l l e y can also be com- pared w i t h the Mackenzie V a l l e y and Canadian p r a i r i e s (Anderson, 1970). The tundra areas are somewhat more humid w i t h seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p r e c i p i - t a t i o n and temperature p a r a l l e l to those of the v a l l e y (Anderson, 1970). Throughout the y e a r , wind comes p r i m a r i l y from the south and southeast (Anderson, 1970). M i c r o c l i m a t i c data were c o l l e c t e d from Birch Mountain, Teresa I s l a n d , during J u l y and August, 1974, 1975 and 1976. Four weather s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d during t h i s time p e r i o d . Weather s t a t i o n #1 was located at 1280 m on a n o r t h e a s t - f a c i n g slope below Camp #1 i n the subalpine zone where the v e g e t a t i o n i s dominated by Abies l a s i o c a r p a krummholz. S t a t i o n #2 was located in the a l p i n e zone at 1540 m at Camp #1 on the north s lope. S t a t i o n #3 was at approximately  1829 m on the north s l o p e . Weather s t a t i o n #4 was s i t u a t e d at Camp #2 on the East Plateau at 1540 m. Locations o f weather s t a t i o n s and camps are shown in Figure 4. At each s t a t i o n , a Stevenson s h e l t e r enclosing a Fuess hygrothermograph  and T a y l o r Sixe maximum-minimum thermometer was placed d i r e c t l y on the ground. P r e c i p i t a - t i o n data were c o l l e c t e d w i t h simple c o l l e c t i n g - t y p e Canadian p a t t e r n r a i n gauges (diameter 8.4 cm. c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area 65 cm 2 ). Microclimate v a r i e s g r e a t l y in areas o f such strong r e l i e f . The data c o l l e c t e d from these weather s t a t i o n s o n l y serve to show the general a l p i n e p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature patterns and how they are a f f e c t e d by an increase in e l e v a t i o n . Measurements were made at ground l e v e l since t h i s is the environment i n which the plants l i v e . Temperatures change w i t h distance from the ground surface. To document t h i s temperature d i f f e r e n c e , two Stevenson s h e l t e r s were set up at weather s t a t i o n #2 during 1974, one at ground l e v e l and one at 1.2 m. Results are shown in Table 1. Although temperature d i f f e r e n c e s were not great between the two s h e l t e r s , the number of f r e e z e - t h a w cycles was much g r e a t e r at ground l e v e l than at 1.2 m. Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e s u l t s f o r a l l f o u r weather s t a t i o n s TABLE 1. Comparison o f 1974 temperature data c o l l e c t e d at the standard 1.2m height and at ground l e v e l at weather s t a t i o n #2 ( e l . 1556m). Weather Temperature,°C S t a t i o n #2 1556m August Avg. Max. Min. Freeze- Avg. Max. Min. F r e e z e - (abso- (abso- Thaw (abso- (abso- Thaw l u t e ) l u t e ) Cycles l u t e ) l u t e ) Cycles Standard 4.6 12.4 - . 6 5 7.4 15.4 1.1 2 (1.2m) (16) ( - . 6 ) (18.3) (0) Ground 5.0 13.3 - . 6 6 7.1 15.4 - . 2 5.5 (16.1) ( - . 6 ) ( 1 7 . 2 ) ( - 1 . 1 ) Fiqure 4: 1:50,000 scale topographic map of Birch Mt. WS1=Weather Stat ion 1; WS2=Weather S t a t i o n 2; WS3=Weather S t a t i o n 3; WS4=Weather S t a t i o n 4; Cl=Camp 1; C2=Camp 2; N.K.=North K n o l l ; C.P.=Cairn Peak; S=Summit; P l a t . = P l a t e a u . Contour i n t e r v a l approximately 30.5 m. are given i n Table I I . Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n data from A t l i n ( e l . 659 m) are given f o r comparison. Three g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made: (1) Temperature decreases g r e a t l y with an increase in e l e v a t i o n , up to 8°C in t h i s case. (2) With an increase i n e l e v a t i o n the number o f f reeze-thaw cycles increases. (3) P r e c i p i t a t i o n increases w i t h increased e l e v a t i o n . Of i n t e r e s t i s the temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e between the north slope (weather s t a t i o n #2) and the East Plateau on the southeastern side of the mountain (weather s t a t i o n #4). Temperatures on the East Plateau are con- s i s t e n t l y higher than on the north s lope. The East Plateau i s more perpen- d i c u l a r to the sun's rays and thus receives more r a d i a t i o n than the north s lope. P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s a lso g r e a t e r on the East Plateau. The p r e v a i l i n g s o u t h e r l y wind br ings storms from that d i r e c t i o n which reach the East Plateau f i r s t . The d i f f e r e n c e in p r e c i p i t a t i o n could be the r e s u l t o f a r a i n shadow e f f e c t o f Birch Mt. i t s e l f . A.7 Vegetation On his map of the biogeoclimate zones o f B r i t i s h Columbia, K r a j i n a (1973) shows three zones occurr ing in the A t l i n area. According to the c u r r e n t zonal nomenclature (Beil et_ aj_., 1976), these three zones are the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone, the Spruce - Wil low - Birch Zone and the A l p i n e Tundra Zone. These three zones are c l i m a t i c a l l y defined ( p r i m a r i l y on the basis o f temperature) and thus occur i n an e l e v a t i o n a l sequence. The Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone, more common in the northeastern part of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s r e s t r i c t e d to the bottoms o f the g l a c i a l v a l l e y s in the northwest. A b r i e f c l i m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s zone i s given as f o l l o w s by Biel et al_. (.1976); "The mean annual temperature i s - 3 to 3°C. The average temperature i s below 0°C f o r 5 to 7 months o f the y e a r , and above 10° f o r o n l y 3 to 4 months (but is q u i t e high during the peak o f the TABLE I I : Birch Mt., Teresa I s l a n d , m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data f o r 1974, 1975 and 1976. A l l data c o l l e c t e d at ground l e v e l . Temperature, °C P r e c i p i t a t i o n , mm Weather S t a t i o n J u l y August J u l y August # E l e v a t i o n , m Avg. Max. (absolute) Avg. Freeze- Min. Thaw (absolute) Cycles Avg. Max. (absolute) Avg. F r e e z e - Min. Thaw (absolute) Cycles Avg. Avg. T o t a l Pcpt. 1 1280 8.9 18.1 (24.4) .9 (0) 1.5 9.1 16.2 (21.6) 1.9 (0) .5 40.2 28.6 68.4 2 1540 6 14.6 (23) - . 7 ( - 2 . 8 ) 6.5 6 15.1 (16) 1.1 ( - 1 . 7 ) 2 48 32 80 3 1829 4 12.2 (18) -1.5 ( - 3 . 8 ) 13 5.2 13.6 (16.7) .8 ( - 2 . 2 ) 9 50.8 32.4 84.3 4 1540 6.9 16.6 (21.6) 1.0 ( - 2 . 8 ) 6 7.9 17.4 (23.3) 1.8 ( - 1 . 1 ) 1 62.1 36 98 A t l i n * 659 12 - 12 I 1 ) - 30 23 53 *Data f o r 1905-1946 from Anderson (1970). summer)." Absolute minimum temperatures have been recorded between -59 to -42°C and absolute maximum between 30 to 41°C. The number o f f r o s t - f r e e days i s 20 to 150 (Biel et al_., 1976). In the A t l i n v a l l e y and on Teresa I s l a n d , the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone appears to occur at e l e v a t i o n s up to 800 to 900 m. Where t h i s zone occurs in the A t l i n v a l l e y , the dominant trees are Picea glauca? Pinus c o n t o r t a , and Populus t r e m u l o i d e s . No black spruce (Picea mariana) has been found in t h i s area (Anderson, 1970). An e x t e n s i v e survey of the v e g e t a t i o n o f the A t l i n v a l l e y was c a r r i e d out by Anderson (1970) i n conjunction w i t h a p a l y n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A mixed f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n , a white spruce a s s o c i a t i o n , an aspen a s s o c i a t i o n and a lodgepole pine a s s o c i a t i o n were the major v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s . The boreal f o r e s t has a t y p i c a l low species d i v e r s i t y . Common species include S a l i x glauc a, Shepherdia canadensis, Rosa a c i c u l a r i s , Linnaea boreal i s , Hedysarum alpinum, Mertensia p a n i c u l a t a , Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a and Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m . The Spruce - Wil low - Birch Zone i s a subalpine zone and develops between the upper l i m i t s of the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone and the lower l i m i t s o f the A l p i n e Tundra Zone ( K r a j i n a , 1975). In the A t l i n area and on Teresa I s l a n d i t ranges from 800 - 900 m to 1400 - 1500 m. T h i s zone has not been w e l l studied and i t s c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n comes from o n l y one s t a t i o n . Bei l j?t _al_. (.1976) r e p o r t t h a t the mean monthly temperature i s below 0°C f o r seven months o f the y e a r and above 10°C f o r o n l y one. The average number o f f r o s t - f r e e days i s 100. On Teresa I s l a n d the dominant species i n t h i s zone are Abies l a s i o c a r p a , Betula g l a n d u l o s a , S a l i x spp. and Alnus spp. Two subzones can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The lower one i s a subalpine f o r e s t dominated, on Teresa I s l a n d , by Abie s. The upper subzone i s an open parkland dominated by Abies l a s i o c a r p a krummholz, Betula glandulos a and a number o f S a l i x s p e c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y S_. pi an i f o l i a and S. a r c t i c a . Heath v e g e t a t i o n dominates between the clumps of krummholz and t a l l shrubs. The most common species here are Cassiope mertensian a, Ĉ s t e l l e r i a n a , Empetrum nigrum and Vaccinium ul iginosu m. As i n coastal sub- a l p i n e areas (Brooke et/al_., 1970; A r c h e r , 1963), the d i s t r u b u t i o n o f heath vegetat ion and high shrub and krummholz v e g e t a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by snow p e r s i s t e n c e . Heaths are u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to basins and depressions w i t h long snow d u r a t i o n . The A l p i n e Tundra Zone develops above the subalpine zones at e l e v a t i o n s above 900 m to 2250 m depending on the l o c a t i o n of the mountain w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The growing season i s v e r y s h o r t i n t h i s zone, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by harsh c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . Bei l e t aj_. (1976) r e p o r t t h a t the mean annual temperature i s between - . 4 and - 1 . 5 ° C and the mean monthly temperature i s below 0° C f o r seven t o eleven months of the y e a r . No month has an average temperature over 10° C and f r o s t or snow can occur at any time of the y e a r . On Teresa I s l a n d the a l p i n e zone begins between 900 m and 1500 m, depending on the slope angle and exposure, and extends to the summit. Because a c l i m a t i c d e f i n i t i o n of a l p i n e tundra i s , in p r a c t i c e , d i f f i c u l t to use, I am using here the commonly accepted convention of d e f i n i n g a l p i n e as the area above the c l i m a t i c l i m i t o f t r e e s , i n c l u d i n g the common occurrence o f krummholz (Love, 1970). The v e g e t a t i o n i s composed almost e n t i r e l y o f herbs, b r y o p h y t e s , l i c h e n s and dwarf shrubs. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n on Teresa I s l a n d and the A t l i n area suggests the d i v i s i o n of the a l p i n e zone i n t o three subzones. The low a l p i n e subzone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by dwarf shrubs, p a r t i c u l a r l y Betula glandulos a, S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a and species o f Cassiope, and extends from the upper l i m i t o f the subalpine zone to approximately 1575 m. The m i d - a l p i n e subzone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more herbaceous meadow v e g e t a t i o n dominated by graminoids, e s p e c i a l l y species of Festuc a, Poa and 26 Carex. T h i s subzone extends to approximately  1700 m. High winds and r e s u l t a n t discontinuous snow cover r e s u l t i n a decrease in v a s c u l a r vegeta- t i o n i n the high a l p i n e subzone. Species here are most ly l i c h e n s . The a l p i n e vegetat ion i s discussed in great d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . B.l I n t r o d u c t i o n The many e c o l o g i c a l studies t h a t have been made i n a l p i n e areas o f the United States and Europe provide an e x c e l l e n t base f o r the p r i n c i p l e s o f a l p i n e ecology. Since they have been e x t e n s i v e l y  reviewed many times in other p u b l i c a t i o n s , these studies are not reviewed h e r e , but are c i t e d , where a p p r o p r i a t e , throughout the t e x t . A good l i t e r a t u r e review i s a v a i l - able i n Eady (1971) and e x c e l l e n t review papers have been w r i t t e n by B i l l i n g s (1974), B i l l i n g s and Mooney (1968), and B l i s s (1971). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there is a general lack o f information on the natural v e g e t a t i o n o f a l p i n e areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s i s indeed a paradox since much o f the land surface of B r i t i s h Columbia i s above t r e e l i n e ( K r a j i n a , 1973). In 1965, Dr. V. J . K r a j i n a c l a s s i f i e d the land area of the province i n t o eleven b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones, defined by c l i m a t e , s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n . The A l p i n e Biogeocl imatic Zone (AT) was e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by K r a j i n a (1965 and 1969) although v e r y few c l i m a t i c data were a v a i l a b l e . Except f o r the c o l d temperatures (no months have a mean temperature above 10°C and seven to nine months have mean temperatures below 0°C), the c l i m a t i c data are v a r i a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n which tends to decrease from west to east. On the basis o f t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e , K r a j i n a (1965 and 1969) subdiv ided the A l p i n e Zone i n t o two subzones: a Coastal subzone (ATa), c h a r - a c t e r i z e d by a heavy snow cover o f long d u r a t i o n and thus good water a v a i l - a b i l i t y and s h o r t v e g e t a t i v e season, and an I n t e r i o r subzone (ATb), w i t h a l i g h t e r and more b r i e f cover of snow w i t h p o s s i b l e water shortage and longer growing season. The climax v e g e t a t i o n was thought to be dominated by Phyllodoce empetriformi s and Cassiope mertensiana i n the south and Cassiope tetragon a i n the n o r t h . The f i r s t i n t e n s i v e a l p i n e vegetat ion study i n B r i t i s h Columbia was c a r - r i e d out by Archer (1963) in G a r i b a l d i Park i n the southwestern corner o f the p r o v i n c e . Here, Archer described the Phyl lodocet o - Cassiopetum mertensianae a s s o c i a t i o n as the zonal or c l i m a t i c climax v e g e t a t i o n , a n d stated that the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n in t h i s high snowfall a l p i n e area i s inf luenced by snow cover and i t s d u r a t i o n . However, many o f his p l o t s were not located in the a l p i n e but i n r e c e n t l y deglaciated subalpine a r e a s , and his r e s u l t s should be considered i n t h i s c o n t e x t . In 1971 Eady described the a l p i n e and t i m b e r l i n e v e g e t a t i o n of Big White Mountain i n the Okanagan Highland of southern B r i t i s h Columbia. In t h i s s t u d y , s o i l moisture was considered to be the most important e n v i r o n - mental f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g community p a t t e r n s . The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h i s low p r e c i p i t a t i o n area g r e a t l y d i f f e r e d from the Coastal Mountains but no zonal v e g e t a t i o n was hypothesised. Eady concluded t h a t the a l p i n e vegetat ion was not wel l developed here and much more a l p i n e work needed to be done. The a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n of the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve and s u r - rounding S p a t s i z i Plateau Wilderness Park i n north c e n t r a l B. C. was s t u d i e d by P o j a r (1977). Fourteen p l a n t communities were d e s c r i b e d , almost a l l o f which were d i f f e r e n t from those described by Archer (1963) and Eady (1971). The mosaic o f communities was due, in l a r g e p a r t , to snow d u r a t i o n . Most o f the fourteen communities were considered cl imax. Luckhurst (1973), and Lord and Luckhurst (1974), described the a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n of Nevis Mountain and v i c i n i t y in northeastern B. C. i n r e l a t i o n to stone sheep h a b i t a t . Other vegetat ion s t u d i e s of a l p i n e areas outside the p r o v i n c e , but near the A t l i n Lake study s i t e , were done in conjunction w i t h the I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t o f the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America at Kluane National Park (southwestern Yukon T e r r i t o r y )  and v i c i n i t y . An e x t e n s i v e v e g e t a t i o n study was done o f Sheep Mountain i n r e l a t i o n t o Dal l sheep h a b i t a t 29 (Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a , 1975). T h i s mountain, because of i t s calcareous s o i l s and low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , supports v e g e t a t i o n v e r y d i f f e r e n t , at l e a s t in f l o r i s t i c composit ion, from a l p i n e areas studied in B r i t i s h Columbia. Further a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n studies were done in southwestern Yukon T e r r i - t o r y in the Ruby Range by P r i c e (1972b), near the K l u t l a n G l a c i e r in the. St. E l i a s Mountains by Birks (1977), and i n the southeast Wrangell Mountains o f Alaska by Scott (1974a, b, c) and Detwyler (1974). As can be seen, our knowledge o f the e x t e n s i v e a l p i n e regions o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s poor. The work which has been done shows a remarkable vegetat ion d i v e r s i t y c o r r e l a t e d with geographical l o c a t i o n , s u b s t r a t e and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The importance o f the a l p i n e zone i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and i t s d i v e r s i t y warrants much f u r t h e r study. T h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s seeks to expand our knowledge o f the a l p i n e vegetat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia. O b j e c t i v e s are: (1) to detect and def ine a l p i n e vegetat ion u n i t s on Teresa I s l a n d ; (2) to r e l a t e these u n i t s t o the major environmental f a c t o r s acting i n the a l p i n e zone; and (3) to form a foundation f o r the m u l t i - s c a l e mappable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o be developed in the next s e c t i o n . I f vegetat ion u n i t s can be r e l a t e d to environmental f a c t o r s each can be used to p r e d i c t the o t h e r . As a r e s u l t , v e g e t a t i o n changes can be p r e d i c t e d when the environment i s d i s t u r b e d or manipulated. B.2 Methods B.2.1 Approach Environment i s a major f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f taxa. A s p e c i f i c assemblage o f species i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t , with s i m i l a r h a b i t a t s supporting s i m i l a r species assemblages or u n i t s o f v e g e t a t i o n . On the ground these v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s form a mosaic c o i n c i d i n g w i t h a mosaic o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y def ined h a b i t a t s . Between these r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous u n i t s are areas of t r a n s i t i o n , the s i z e of which are c o n t r o l l e d by those environmental gradients i n f l u e n c i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f taxa. I f the environmental gradient i s steep, the t r a n s i t i o n a l zone i s s m a l l , and the vegetat ion appears d i s c o n t i n u o u s . I f , on the other hand, the g r a d i e n t i s g e n t l e , the s h i f t i n species composition i s gradual and the v e g e t a t i o n appears to represent a continuum. The d e l i n e a t i o n o f u n i t s then becomes a question o f the r e l a t i v e magnitude o f the environmental gradients ( B l i s s , 1969). Gradients i n mountainous regions are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y steep and u s u a l l y s i m p l i f y the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e l i n e a t i o n o f the u n i t s . Units which are s i m i l a r according to predetermined c r i t e r i a such as presence or absence of d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s , dominance, or physiognomy can be j o i n e d i n t o higher a b s t r a c t u n i t s o r noda (sensu Poore, 1955, 1956, and 1964). Throughout the t h e s i s , I s h a l l c a l l the basic u n i t s " s i t e s " , and s i m i l a r s i t e s w i l l be combined i n t o communities or community t y p e s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these community types are d e r i v e d from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e s which make them up. S i t e s were s u b j e c t i v e l y chosen f o r sampling, and were chosen on the basis o f : (1) uniform appearance, inf luenced mainly by the uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the dominant s p e c i e s ; (2) uniform environmental c o n d i t i o n s such as moisture and snow d u r a t i o n ; and (3) homogeneity, o r the uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n o f species w i t h i n the s i t e s . The random or systematic l o c a t i n g of s i t e s r e q u i r e s a great number of sample s i t e s in order to adequately represent a l l the communities. The actual l o c a t i n g o f sample s i t e s can prove a problem and g r e a t l y increase sampling time. S u b j e c t i v e s i t e s e l e c t i o n adequately covers a l l communities, even the i n f r e q u e n t ones, and the speed permits a much l a r g e r area to be sampled i n much less time. T h i s i s v e r y important, e s p e c i a l l y in an area o f d i f f i c u l t a c c e s s i b i l i t y and s h o r t growing season. At the same t i m e , s u b j e c - t i v e s i t e s e l e c t i o n allows the above s i t e c r i t e r i a to be maintained, and thus emphasizes the vegetat ion u n i t s r a t h e r than the t r a n s i t i o n a l areas. T h i s provides a c l e a r l y defined e c o l o g i c a l framework of p l a n t communities w i t h i n which t r a n s i t i o n a l areas can be placed. The c r i t e r i a f o r combining s i t e s i n t o communities i s i n f l u e n c e d by the purpose and u l t i m a t e use of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Since the aim here i s to produce a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which can be detected by remote sensing devices and mapped, the major c r i t e r i o n o f a community i s t h a t i t must be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a d i s t a n c e . Because the dominant species o r group of species g ives a s i t e i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c appearance or physiognomy, dominance i s considered here to be important in combining s i t e s i n t o communities. T o t a l f l o r i s t i c composition and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species combinations are also important. In regions of low species d i v e r s i t y , such as boreal and a l p i n e , species are seldom r e s t r i c t e d in d i s t r i b u t i o n to one community, and thus f i d e l i t y (sensu Braun-Blanquet, 1964) i s of l i t t l e or no importance in c h a r a c t e r i z i n g communities. Of g r e a t e r importance i s species constancy and cover w i t h i n a community, and the t o t a l f l o r i s t i c complement or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combination of species. Poore (T955) and Dahl (1956) have s i m i l a r l y recommended the use o f these c r i t e r i a , e s p e c i a l l y dominance, to c h a r a c t e r i z e communities in areas of low species d i v e r s i t y . To strengthen the e c o l o g i c a l base, communities should be composed o f s i t e s w i t h s i m i l a r environmental parameters. Many of the environmental f a c t o r s discussed i n conjunction w i t h the communities have been assessed by c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n and i n f e r r e d from topographic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a study such as t h i s , i t i s impract ical and indeed o f t e n impossible to measure and q u a n t i f y the complex of f a c t o r s making up the environment. The f a c t o r s most often a f f e c t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n are those which are e a s i l y observed or i n f e r r e d such as snow d u r a t i o n , moisture and slope. B.2.2 L o g i s t i c s The f i e l d w o r k extended through three summers; 1974, 1975 and 1976. The f i e l d seasons extended from l a t e June u n t i l l a t e August, and were spent camped above t r e e l i n e on Teresa I s l a n d . In 1974, one camp was e s t a b l i s h e d at an e l e v a t i o n o f approximately  1540 m on the north s l o p e . In 1975 and 1976, an a d d i t i o n a l camp was e s t a b l i s h e d on the East Plateau which g r e a t l y increased the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s a l p i n e area (Figure 4). The i n i t i a l s e t - u p and f i n a l break-down o f camps each y e a r was accomplished by a h e l i c o p t e r based in A t l i n . Other l o g i s t i c support such as lodging when i n A t l i n , boat t r a n s p o r t to Teresa I s l a n d , and d a i l y r a d i o communica- t i o n was provided by the Foundation f o r G l a c i e r and Environmental Research based i n A t l i n . B.2.3 F l o r a During the three f i e l d seasons, e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s o f v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , bryophytes and macrolichens from above t r e e l i n e were made ( B u t t r i c k , 1977). I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a s c u l a r species was f a c i l i t a t e d by reference to Welsh (1974), HuTtSn (1968), Viereck and L i t t l e (1972), Hubbard (1969) and Brayshaw (1976). Nomenclature o f v a s c u l a r taxa i s according to T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977). Assistance i n i d e n t i f y i n g mosses and hepatics was given by Dr. W. S c h o f i e l d , Mr. A. Banner and Dr. J . Godfrey. Lichen c o l l e c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the assistance o f Hale (1969), Thomson (1967), and Dahl and Krog (1973). Lichen i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were checked, and d i f f i c u l t specimens i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. J . Thomson, Ms. W. Noble and Mr. G. O t t o . A l l species i d e n t i f i e d are l i s t e d in Appendix A . A t o t a l o f 151 s i t e s were sampled in the course o f the three f i e l d seasons. Seventeen o f these s i t e s were sampled in 1974 using f i f t e e n randomly placed .5 x .2 m quadrats f o r a t o t a l sample area of 1.5 n r . T h i s quadrat s i z e has p r e v i o u s l y proven s a t i s f a c t o r y ( B l i s s , 1963; B i l l i n g s and B l i s s , 1959; Johnson and B i l l i n g s , 1962; and P r i c e , 1973), but the method proved to be too time-consuming consider ing the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e and extent of area to be covered. Since mapping was a major o b j e c t i v e in the s t u d y , i t was r e a l i z e d that a more r a p i d reconnaissance-type technique was needed, thus the sampling scheme was modif ied in 1975. The remainder o f 2 the s i t e s were sampled in 1975 and 1976 using two 1 m quadrats: t h i s not o n l y decreased sampling t ime, but also increased the sample area. An attempt was made to randomize quadrat p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the s i t e by t o s s i n g 2 the 1 m frame i n . Obvious disturbances w i t h i n a s i t e were avoided. Within each quadrat a l l i d e n t i f i a b l e species o f v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , bryophytes and macrolichens were recorded. Unknown i n d i v i d u a l s were c o l - l e c t e d . I f species could not be i d e n t i f i e d , as in the case o f some grasses and sedges in t h e i r v e g e t a t i v e s t a t e , they were recorded by genus. Crus- tose l i c h e n s were recorded by c o l o r and s u b s t r a t e . Average cover was estimated f o r each taxon using a simple n i n e - class cover scale which i s a v e r y s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the Domin scale (Shimwell, 1972). Both scales are shown i n Table I I I . T o t a l cover was also c a l c u l a t e d f o r shrub, herb, l i c h e n and bryophyte s t r a t a . Cover estimates were made f o r w a t e r , r o c k , bare ground, and l i t t e r . Due to the frequent d i f f i c u l t y i n a l p i n e areas of determining what c o n s t i t u t e s an i n d i v i d u a l , d e n s i t y data was not c o l l e c t e d . For each s i t e , q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e data were obtained on the physiographic f a c t o r s o f slope angle, exposure, e l e v a t i o n , and topographic p o s i t i o n . Domin Scale + - a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l 1 - 1-2 i n d i v i d u a l s 2 - less than 1% cover 3 - 1-4% 4 - 5-10% 5 - 11-25% 6 - 26-33% 7 - 34-50% 8 - 51-75% 9 - 76-90% 10 - 91-100% Cover Scale Used In T h i s Study Class Range Class m i d - p o i n t + <1% .5 1 1-5% 3 2 6-10% 8 3 11-25% 18 4 26-33% 29.5 5 34-50% 42 6 51-75% 63 7 76-90% 83 8 91-100% 95.5 TABLE I I I : Nine class modified Domin Scale used i n t h i s study f o r est imating percent cover o f taxa. Domin cover/abundance scale i s included f o r comparison. Cover values from the p a i r s of quadrats were averaged and entered onto a f l o r i s t i c t a b l e . Using a t a b u l a r comparison s y n t h e s i s method s i m i l a r to the process o f successive approximation described by Poore (1962), the s i t e s were c a r e f u l l y compared to each other to detect f l o r i s t i c and e n v i r o n - mental s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s according to the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d on page 31. S i t e s which were shown to be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y and f l o r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r were grouped t o g e t h e r in the t a b l e and formed the basis f o r the community c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The communities thus formed were named according to dominant (high constancy and cover) and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species. Con- stancy i s the percentage of s i t e s of a p a r t i c u l a r community in which a species o c c u r s , and thus i s an expression o f presence. The constancy p e r - centages were expressed on the f o l l o w i n g f i v e - c l a s s s c a l e . Class Percentage I 0 - 2 0 I I 21 - 40 I I I 41 - 60 IV 61 - 80 V 81 - 100 Separate t a b l e s were made f o r each community. Average cover f o r each taxa was c a l c u l a t e d using cover class midpoints. Constancy was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each taxa except when the number of quadrats was fewer than f i v e . In these cases a simple presence v a l u e , the number of quadrats i n which a taxa occurred over the t o t a l number of s i t e s sampled, was used i n d e f i n i n g the community t y p e . B.2.5 Transects Three l i n e t ransects and one b e l t t r a n s e c t were sampled during the f i e l d program to document changes i n species d i s t r i b u t i o n along 36 environmental g r a d i e n t s . Transect #1 was set up and sampled i n 1974. A base l i n e 78 m long was made from the edge of a snowbed to a f e l l f i e l d on top o f the North K n o l l . T o t a l e l e v a t i o n gain along the t r a n s e c t i s approximately  15 m. The v e g e t a t i o n was sampled in .5 x .2 m quadrats l a i d p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the base l i n e . Two quadrats were sampled and averaged at two-meter i n t e r v a l s . Transect #2 was set up and sampled in 1976. A 46 m long base l i n e was p o s i t i o n e d so t h a t i t crossed a s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe and r u n o f f area on the north s l o p e . The sampling scheme was the same as in Transect #1 except t h a t 1 x .5 m quadrats were used. T r a n s e c t #3 was e s t a b l i s h e d and sampled in 1975. A permanent 59 m long base l i n e was l a i d across a s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe and snowbed on the north s lope. The sampling scheme was the same as in Transect #2 but p o s i - t i o n of quadrats was marked f o r r e l o c a t i o n in 1976. During the 1976 f i e l d season, the snowmelt pattern o f t h i s snowbed was recorded. Each week the upper and lower edges o f the snowbed were marked w i t h p a i n t . Transect #4 was a b e l t t r a n s e c t e s t a b l i s h e d in 1975 which crossed a snowbed and was designed to document v e g e t a t i o n change w i t h increase i n d u r a t i o n o f snow. The snowmelt was recorded by o u t l i n i n g the upper and lower snowbed edges each week with p a i n t . Each week, three 1 x .5 m permanent quadrats were set up and sampled along the upper and lower edges o f the snowbed. Cover was estimated using the n i n e - c l a s s cover scale and tabulated by averaging a l l three quadrats. One quadrat from each t i m e - l i n e was resampled each week to examine the increase in cover o f a species over the summer. B.3.1 Community types Careful f l o r i s t i c and environmental comparison o f the s i t e s i n d i - cate the presence of s i x t e e n community t y p e s . A summary o f these community types showing t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species i s given i n Table I V . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the communities. For each community, an a b b r e v i a t i o n o f the name i s also given. These a b b r e v i a t i o n s w i l l be used in l a t e r t a b l e s and f i g u r e s . I . U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d (U bf) 2- C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosum f e l l f i e l d (Cn-Vu f f ) 3- C e t r a r i a n i v a 1 i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d (Cn-Cm f f ) 4. Carex microchaeta meadow (Cm m) 5. Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow (Fa-C dm) 6. Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow (Fa-Pd rm) 7. Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d (Bg-Cc sf) Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath (Ct-Cm h) 9. Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Ph.yllodoce empetr i formi s snowbed (Cs-Pe sb) 10. S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed (Sp-Pp sb) I I . A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed ( A j - L a sb) 12. Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed ( C p - L p - J d sb) 13. S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f (Sp-En-S ro) 14. Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratum r u n o f f (Cc-Pr ro) TABLE IV: Summary f l o r i s t i c t a b l e showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species combinations f o r the s i x t e e n community t y p e s . Values represent average cover c lass and constancy o r presence. Values are recorded o n l y when a species occurs i n 40% o r more o f the s i t e s making up the community t y p e . C O to C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s A l e c t o r i a m i n i s c u l a U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca C e t r a r i a commixta Vaccinium uliginosum Dryas octopetala Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a Saxifraga  b r o n c h i a l i s Carex microchaeta D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a P o t e n t i l l a hyparct ica P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i P t i l i d i u m c i l i a r e T r i tomaria quinquedentata Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Cladina arbuscula Festuca a l t a i c a P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Hylocomium alaskanum Acqniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u r o Betula glandulosa Empetrum nigrum C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Cassiope tetragona Cladina m i t i s S o l o r i n a crocea Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a Phyllodoce empetriformis S i b b a l d i a procumbens Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m Brachythecium albicans Luzula arcuata A n t h e l i a juratzkana Carex pyrenaica Luetkea pect inata Juncus drummondii Cn- Cn- Vu Cm U bf f f f f 2-3/3 4V 5V 2-3/3 2V IV 3-3/3 IV IV 2-2/3 IV IV 1-3/3 1IV 1IV 3V 2V 1 I I I IV Fa- Bg- C t - Cs- Sp- A j - Cp- Sp- Fa-C Pd dm rm Cc s f Cm h Pe sb Pp sb La L p - En-S sb Jd sb ro RNV~L|2V | 1III +III M 1IV +-2/3 1 I I I m i IV 3 V 3V |1V | 1IV L.V n i r 1IV +III +IV +III +III m i 2V +III 3V 5V IV m i , m i IDEE] + i n m i +III m i 2111 2111 m i 4V IV 1IV 1IV m i m i +III m i 2IV 5V 3IV IV 3V IV m i 1IV 11 vi 4V 1IV IV m i m i m i m i IV [1V_J11-4/4] 2V 1IV m i i v m i m i i v 2V m i Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Sphagnum sp. S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Calamagrostis canadensis PIagiomnium rostratum CIaytonia sarmentosa Senecio yukonensis B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a Saxifraga  nelsonfana Carex podocarpa 2IV 1 I I I 2-3/4 2-4/4 4-4/4 3-3/4 1-3/4 3IV m i +III +III m i m i m i 3IV m i +-3/4 +-2/4 3V 2111 5V m i 1IV +III Cc-Pr ro Ap- Sp- Cs- Cm ro R-Cp- Sn ro [3V~1 m i +III +-2/3 +III 2-2/3 1-2/3 1-2/3 m i n v j m i +II I 1-3/3 3V 3IV 2111 6-3/3 2-3/3 1-2/3 1IV + I I I IV + IV m i m i 2111 15. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex r u n o f f 16. Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f p o l a r i s - microchaeta (Ap-Sp-Cs-Cm ro) - Saxifraga (R-Cp-Sn ro) B.3.1.1 U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d ( T a b l e V ) The U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d community type i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a substratum composed e n t i r e l y o f angular blocks ranging from .1 to wel l over 1 meter in diameter. The blocks in t u r n have a complete cover o f black l i c h e n s dominated by U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea (Figure 5). The rocks w i t h t h e i r uniform cover o f black l i c h e n s make t h i s community the e a s i e s t to recognize i n the f i e l d . 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 • * i . . . . . L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water < i i i — i i i Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 5: Cover r e l a t i o n s in U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d community t y p e . T h i s community type a t t a i n s i t s best development at e l e v a t i o n s above 1676 m where i t covers the r i d g e s , peaks, and steep southern s l o p e s , thus forming the l a r g e s t continuous community type on Birch Mt. Large patches o f U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d also occur as low as 1372 m in the g l a c i a l v a l l e y s . The l i c h e n - c o v e r e d rocky s u b s t r a t e w i t h i n the g l a c i a l v a l l e y s is d e r i v e d from morainal and t a l u s m a t e r i a l , and p o s s i b l y from c o l l a p s e d rock g l a c i e r s . At higher e l e v a t i o n s , the substrate has been d e r i v e d from f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g during c o l d e r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . The complete l i c h e n TABLE V : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d showing species composition and cover. Community Type: U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d S i t e Number 113 92 145 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1676 1 829 1615 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f ^ r\ \ \ Slope (O) 0-2 25 5 Exposure M SE NW Hygrotope^ 1 1 1 Avg. Presence Cover Cover Classes /3 % . Rocks 8 8 8 95 \ LICHENS • Crustose rock 3 4 5 3/3 30 U m b i l i c a r i a hyperborea 3 6 2 3/3 30 U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea 4 1 4 3/3 21 A l e c t o r i a m i n i s c u l a 2 3 1 3/3 10 Rhizocarpon geographicum 2 1 3 3/3 10 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 3 1 + 3/3 7 C e t r a r i a commixta 1 1 2 3/3 5 A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca 1 1 2/3 2 D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a 1 + 2/3 1 Parmelia st.ygia 3 1/3 6 Hypogymnia o r o a r c t i c a 1 1/3 1 Parmelia c e n t r i f u q a 1 1/3 1 Stereocaulon botryosum 1 1/3 1 BRYOPHYTES Rhacomitrium lanuqinosum + + 2/3 + * T o t a l Shrubs + + T o t a l Herbs 1 + T o t a l Lichens 8 8 7 91 T o t a l Bryophytes + + 1 1 Other species occurr ing in o n l y one s i t e w i t h t h e i r average cover: Dryas o c t o p e t a l a +, Carex microchaeta +, Luzula arcuata +, Saxifraga  bronchial i s + , C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a +, Cladonia graci 1 i s +, C.. r a n g i f e r i n a 1, Cladonia sp. +, Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s 1, Andreaea r u p e s t r i s 1, Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a +. #/—r h o r i z o n t a l ; \ = s l o p e ; /-N=knoll o r r idge;\_/=basin or d e p r e s s i o n ; " ^ c o n v e x i t y  on s l o p e ; \»_=concavity  on s l o p e ; ~~=hutnmocky. <£/ l = x e r i c ; 2=submesic; 3=mesic; 4=hygr ic; 5=hydric. */ +=Less than ~\% cover. cover on the rocks i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s f r o s t act ion i s no longer of great importance. The vegetat ion here i s composed almost e n t i r e l y of l i c h e n s . In a d d i t i o n to U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea, other common macro-l ichens are: A l e c t o r i a minuscula, A l e c t o r i a ochroleuc a, C e t r a r i a commixt a, and Parmelia s t y g i a . A l l of these species are attached to the rocks and are black i n c o l o r , g i v i n g the community i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c appearance (Figure 6). Other l i c h e n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d include Stereocaulon botryosu m and Hypogymnia o r o a r c t i c a , both attached to r o c k s , and C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s , Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s and D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a which are commonly found loose between the rocks and are thus protected from the wind. S o i l development i s poor, r e s u l t i n g in regosols w i t h l i t t l e o r no h o r i z o n a t i o n . Few v a s c u l a r p l a n t species occur in t h i s community t y p e . The l i t t l e s o i l t h a t does accumulate supports i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f Luzula arcuat a, Carex microchaeta, Dryas octopetala and Saxi f raga bronchial i s . The l a t t e r species a t t a i n s the highest e l e v a t i o n , ca. 2050 m, of any v a s c u l a r p l a n t on the mountain. The r e l a t i v e l y recent cessation o f e x t e n s i v e f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g , and the v e r y exposed nature o f the s i t e s , which r e s u l t s i n discontinuous w i n t e r snow cover and the blowing away o f organic m a t e r i a l , probably account f o r the lack of s o i l development. Steep slopes aggravate the s i t u a t i o n . Without f i n e s to r e t a i n m o i s t u r e , t h i s community represents the most x e r i c h a b i t a t on the mountain. B.3.1.2 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d (Table VI) The C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d community type i s a common u n i t found on r a i s e d convex t e r r a i n w i t h slopes Figure 6: F a l s e - c o l o r i n f r a r e d photograph of U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . Note black Umbil icari a covered rocks and small t u f t s of vascular vegetation (pink). TABLE V I : F l o r i s t i c table f o r the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l 1 f i e l d showing species composition and cover. Community Type: C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d S i t e Number 121 135 147 114 43 8 41 31 80 74 47 46 27 18 1 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1570 1554 1600 1554 1859 1631 1753 1585 1783 1570 1600 1722 1707 1591 1594 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f O r\ O ^ Slope (O) 5 0 2 2 7 8 0 0 4 8 13 1 4 26 0 Exposure SSW ENE ENE WNW S NNW S E N WNW NE W N ENE N Hygrotope 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L i t t e r Ground Rocks SHRUBS Vaccinium uliginosum Dryas octopetala S a l i x p o l a r i s Empetrum. nigrum Betula glandulosa S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a HERBS Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a S t e l l a r i a longipes Carex sp. Festuca a l t a i c a Carex microchaeta Festuca brach.yph.ylla Tr isetum spicatum Antennaria monocephala P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Lupinus a r c t i c u s Artemi si a a r c t i ca Saxifraga  bronchial i s Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Luzula s p i c a t a Hierochloe a l p i n a Draba n i v a l i s LICHENS C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s A l e c t o r i a minuscula Crustose - rock A l e c t o r i a n i g r i c a n s U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoides Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s Rhizocarpon geographicum Stereocaulon tomentosum A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca U m b i l i c a r i a h.yperborea C e t r a r i a commixta Cladina arbuscula C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a P e r t u s a r i a d a c t y l i n a C o r n i c u l a r i a muricata Parmelia s t y g i a Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Cladonia g r a c i l i s D a c t y l i n a ramulosa CIadonia amourocraea Cladonia sp. BRYOPHYTES Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m Dicranum elongatum Dicranum sp. Bryum sp. Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs Total Lichens Total Bryophytes 1 6 1 1 + 3 1 Cover Classes 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 + + 6 5 1 + 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Avg. Con- Cover stancy % • 4 3 24 4 3 4 5 2 2 3 3 1 5 3 3 1 4 3 V 20 2 1 1 4 1 3 2 3 1 1 3 3 2 V 10 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 IV 2 2 + + + 1 I I + 1 1 + 1 I I + 1 1 1 1 I I + + 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 V 2 1 + + + + + + + j + + + + + V + + + + + 1 + 3 I I I 2 1 1 + 1 + + 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 + I I I 1 + + + + + + 1 + I I I + + + + + + + + + I I I + 1 1 + + + + + I I I + 1 + + 1 + + + I I I + 1 + 2 2 1 I I 2 1 + + + + + I I + 1 1 + + + I I + + + + + + I I + 1 + + 1 I I + + + + + I I + + + + I + 1 4 3 4 3 5 5 3 5 3 6 3 5 1 3 V 27 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 3 V 8 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 V 4 1 + 1 + 2 • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 V 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 V 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 2 V 3 1 1 3 + + + 1 1 1 1 IV 3 1 + 1 + • + 1 1 1 1 1 1 + IV 2 1 + 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 + 1 IV 2 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 IV 2 1 1 + 1 1 1 2 1 + I I I 2 1 2 + 1 1 + + 1 I I I 1 1 1 + + + + + 1 I I I + 1 1 1 2 1 I I 1 1 1 2 + 1 I I 1 1 1 1 + + 1 I I + 1 1 + 1 + 1 I I . + + + 1 + + + I I + + + 1 + I I + 1 1 + 1 1 I I + 1 1 1 + 1 I I 1 1 1 1 2 I I 1 1 1 1 2 I I 1 1 + 1 1 + + I I + 1 1 1 1 I I + 4 5 5 5 5 3 5 3 4 5 4 6 3 5 3 35 1 3 2 1 3 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 3 2 1 9 6 6 6 7 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 6 6 3 6 65 Other species occurr ing i n less than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average cover: Cassiope tetragon a + , Dr.yas i n t e g r i f o l i a +, Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Antennaria a l p i n a +, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a +, Carex b i p a r t i t a +, C. nardina +, Lupinus kuschei +, M.yosotis a l p e s t r i s + , Ox.ytropis  huddelsoni i + , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i +, P e d i c u l a r i s sp. +, Poa a r c t i ca +, P.. leptocoma +, Poa sp. +, P o t e n t i l l a h.yparctic a + , Sedum lanceolatum +, S i l e n e acaul is +, C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a +, C. hepatozon +, C. t e l i s i i +, Cladina m i t i s +, Cladonia c o c c i f e r a +, C_. f imbri ata +, C. gonecha + , C. poci l lum +, C.. pyx i data +, C. v e r t i c i l l a t a +, Crustose-Ground-black 1, Crustose- Ground-gray 2, D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a +, Dermatocarpon r i v u l o r u m +, Hypogymnia o r o a r c t i c a + , Nephroma expall idu m + , Parmel i a c e n t r i f u g a +, P e l t i g e r a canina +, U m b i l i c a r i a deusta +, Anastroph.yllum minuturn +, Aulacomnium turgidu m +. B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. +, Bartramia ith.yph.yll a +, Desmatodon l a t i f o l i u m +, Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a +, Encal.yptra rhabdocarpa +, Polytr ichum alpinum +, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum +. between 0° and 10° on a l l aspects, and a t t a i n s best development on northern and eastern exposures. The r a i s e d topography,along w i t h the c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d , p o o r l y developed s o i l s ( r e g o s o l s ) , r e s u l t in strong drainage and x e r i c - t o - subxeric c o n d i t i o n s . Snow cover i s probably l i g h t and discontinuous on the more exposed s i t e s . Best development o f the community occurs between 1555 and 1700 m, but on southern slopes i t can extend up to 1800 m. At h igher e l e v a t i o n s , the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d i s r e - placed by the C e t r a r i a n i v a l is - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d . A l l s i t e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x t e n s i v e bare ground and exposed rock (25-33%), a high l i c h e n cover (up to 75%), and a dwarf shrub cover (50-90%) (Figure 7). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dwarf shrub species are Vaccinium ul iginosu m and Dryas o c t o p e t a l a . The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c herb i s Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a which occurs i n 90% o f the s i t e s . O x y t r o p i s h u d d e l s o n i i , a r e l a t i v e l y uncommon species in B r i t i s h Columbia ( B u t t r i c k , 1977), i s r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s community type and found o n l y on the North Knoll where i t i s common. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 7: Cover r e l a t i o n s in C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosum f e l l f i e l d community t y p e . The community type i s easy to i d e n t i f y even at a distance by i t s d i s t i n c t i v e y e l l o w and black c o l o r . The y e l l o w c o l o r comes from C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a and the black tones are from U m b i l i - car ias and A l e c t o r i a s (Figure 8). Figure 8. C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d looking northwest down the North Slope. Yellow is mostly C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s , l i g h t green areas are Dryas octopetala and Vaccinium uliginosu m. Dark green patches in center r i g h t are Empetrum nigrum. Note black Umbil icaria covered rocks. On slopes between 5° and.10° r e l i c t stone s t r i p e s occur. Where the slope approaches 0°, o l d stone c i r c l e s can be found as wel l as a c t i v e nonsorted c i r c l e s . Although moisture i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n these s i t e s , the l i g h t , discontinuous snow cover would r e s u l t i n deep f r e e z i n g o f the s o i l s . M i c r o - p a t t e r n i n g o f v e g e t a t i o n i s obvious in these s i t e s . These patterns are often the r e s u l t of f r o s t a c t i v i t y which, by a l t e r i n g the surface microtopography, r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t i a l snow accumu- l a t i o n and other microenvironmental f a c t o r s . The e f f e c t of f r o s t a c t i v i t y on the m i c r o - p a t t e r n i n g of f e l l f i e l d v e g e t a t i o n has been described by Bryant and Scheinberg (1970). Betula glandulos a and S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a are common in small snow pocket depressions w i t h i n the f e l l f i e l d . Festuca a l t a i c a , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of the mesic a l p i n e meadows, also i s in these depressions. B . 3 . 1 . 3 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d (Table V I T ] On peaks, r idges and w e l l - d r a i n e d slopes and plateaus above 1676 m, the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d g ives way to the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d community t y p e . At these e l e v a t i o n s , Dryas octopetala decreases i n abundance, Vaccinium uliginosu m completely d isappears, the cover of S a l i x p o l a r i s i n c r e a s e s , Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a i s replaced by S_. bronchial i s and Carex microchaeta g r e a t l y increases i n prominence. T h i s f e l l f i e l d , as i n the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d , has a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c black and y e l l o w appearance. The amount of bare ground and rock increases w i t h e l e v a t i o n w i t h an accom- panying increase i n l i c h e n cover (ca_. 80%) (Figure 9). The concurrent decrease i n v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n emphasizes the black and y e l l o w c o l o r TABLE V I I : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the C e t r a r i a ni v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d showing species composit ion and cover. Community T y p e : C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d S i t e Number 10 67 72 73 89 109 112 134 133 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1905 1890 1859 1890 1859 1859 1676 1798 1798 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f /—N ^ ^ Slope (O) 0 0-10 0-5 5-10 1-10 0-3 5 15 10 Exposure - 0 SSE WSW S SSE N W SE SE Ave Hygrotope 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Cove Cover Classes Constancy % L i t t e r 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 2 Ground 1 + 6 / Rocks 2 6 1 5 1 1 1 5 3 21 SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 V b Dryas o c t o p e t a l a 1 + 3 1 + I I I 3 HERBS Carex microchaeta 2 + 3 1 2 2 2 1 2 V / S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s + + 1 1 1 + 1 + + V 2 Antennaria monocephala 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 V 2 S a x i f r a g a  b r o n c h i a l i s + 1 1 1 + + + 1 V 2 Campanula l a s i o c a r p a + + + 1 1 + + IV + L u z u l a arcuata 1 + 1 1 I I I 1 Sile/ie a c a u l i s + 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 P o t e n t i l l a h.yparctica 1 1 1 + 1 I I I 1 P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i + 1 1 + + I I I + Poa sp. + 1 1 + + I I I + H i e r o c h l o e a l p i n a 1 + 1 + I I I + Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a + + 1 + + I I I + Lupinus a r c t i c u s 1 1 11 > 1 Festuca a l t a i c a 1 1 1 I I 1 Draba n i v a l i s + + + I I + L u z u l a s p i c a t a 1 1 I I + A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a 1 + I I + B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a 1 + I I + S a x i f r a g a  t r i c u s p i d a t a + + I I + LICHENS C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 5 5 6 6 5 6 5 6 1 V 47 Crustose rock 3 3 + 3 1 1 1 3 3 V 11 Rhizocarpon geographicum 1 2 + 1 1 1 + 2 1 V 4 A l e c t o r i a minuscula 1 1 1 3 1 + 1 1 V 4 Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 2 + V 3 A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + V 3 A l e c t o r i a n i g r i c a n s 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 V 3 U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea 3 1 3 + 1 + IV 5 U m b i l i c a r i a h.yperborea 3 1 1 + 2 1 IV 4 C e t r a r i a commixta 2 1 + + + 1 IV 2 D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a 1 1 + 1 + + IV 1 Stereocaulon tomentosum + + + 1 1 1 IV 1 C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a 1 1 3 3 3 I I I P e r t u s a r i a dact.yl ina 1 + 1 1 1 I I I 1 C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1 1 + 1 1 I I I 1 Cladonia sp. 1 1 1 1 + I I I 1 Cladonia amaurocraea + + + 1 I I I Crustose Ground-gray 1 1 1 I I 1 Cladina a r b u s c u l a 1 1 r Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a 1 + i I I + Cladonia g r a c i l i s 1 + i + D a c t y l i n a ramulosa 1 + + I I + P e l t i g e r a aphthosa 1 i I I + Crustose Ground-black + 1 I I + Cladonia c o c c i f e r a 1 + I I + BRYOPHYTES P o l y t r i c h u m pi l i f e r u m 2 1 5 + I I I 6 Dicranum elongatum 1 1 3 I I 3 Rhacomitrium lanuginosum 1 + 2 I I 1 Dicranum sp. 1 1 1 I I 1 Bryum sp. 1 + I I + D i c r a n o w e i s i a c r i s p u l a 1 + I I + Desmatodon l a t i f o l i u s + + I I + T o t a l Shrubs 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 8 T o t a l Herbs 3 1 5 3 3 3 3 2 3 18 T o t a l L ichens 7 8 7 7 7 8 8 7 5 82 T o t a l Bryophytes 3 1 2 2 3 6 5 2 1 19 O t h e r species o c c u r r i n g i n l e s s than 20%  o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Cassiope tetraqon a +, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a +, S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a + , Vaccinium u l i g i n o s u m + , Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a +, Cerastium beeringianu m + , Draba i n c e r t a +, Pediculari'S c a p i t a t a + , P e d i c u l a r i s sp. +, Poa a r c t i c a +, S a x i f r a g a  nelsoni-ana + , T r i s e t u m spicatum + , C e t r a r i a t e l i s i i :+, Cladonia p o c i l l u m +, C o r n i c u l a r i a muricat a + , Parmeli a'St.yg ia +, Anastroph.yllum niinj^turii- +, B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. + , Grimmia sp. + , P o h l i a sp. + , P o l y t r i c h u m a l p e s t r e + , P.. alpinum +. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 9: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d community t y p e . (Figure 10). The increase in herb cover i s a t t r i b u t e d mostly to the i n - crease i n Carex microchaeta, but s i g n i f i c a n t increases a l s o occur in Luzula arcuat a, P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a and S i l e n e a c a u l i s . The C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d i s t r u l y intermediate between the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d and the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d in both f l o r i s t i c composition and e l e v a t i o n . T h i s community type occurs on a l l aspects, but reaches i t s best development on the r e g o s o l i c s o i l s o f the southern slopes and r idges above the g l a c i a l c i r q u e s . T h i s v e g e t a t i o n , which i s quick to c o l o n i z e debr is i s l a n d s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y develop on the boulder slopes o f the southern r idges and peaks, w i l l , g iven t i m e , probably form the climax community at these high e l e v a - t i o n s . B.3.1.4 Carex microchaeta meadow ( T a b l e V I I I ) The Carex microchaeta meadow community type i s best developed on north and south slopes from 1676 m to over 1890 m. At the lower e l e v a - t i o n end of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n - , t h i s type occurs on h o r i z o n t a l to g e n t l y s loping (10°) t e r r a i n , and i s the major vegetat ion of the upper surface o f s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes on the north s lope. At high e l e v a t i o n s , 1829 - 1890 m, the Carex microchaeta meadow i s confined to shallow depressional areas where Figure 10; C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d , looking northeast toward summit. Black tones on steep southwestern slope of summit and s c a t - tered black patches in foreground represent U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . TABLE V!ll: F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Carex microchaeta meadow showing species composition and cover. Community T y p e : Carex microchaeta meadow S i t e Number 12 16 17 70 71 90 108 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1890 1713 1713 1890 1890 1859 1691 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f —- •V. V V . Slope (O) 1 2 2 5 5 5 0-2 Exposure S NNE NNE SSE SSE SSE NE Hygrotope 2/3 3/4 3 3 3 3/4 3/4 Avg. Cover Cover Classes Constancy % L i t t e r 2 3 3 2 1 3 1 11 Ground 1 + + Rocks 1 1 1 + 1 SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s 2 3 3 1 3 + 1 V 10 S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a + 7 I I 12 HERBS Carex microchaeta 3 2 3 4 6 3 3 V 25 Antennaria monocephala 1 1 + 1 1 + V 2 Poa sp. 1 + 1 1 1 + V 2 S t e l l a r i a longipes + + + + + 1 + V + Artemisia a r c t i c a + 2 1 1 + IV 2 P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a + + 1 1 1 IV 1 P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i + + 1 1 + IV 1 L u z u l a arcuata + 2 + I I I 1 C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa 1 1 + I I I + B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a + + 1 I I I + Taraxacum lyratum + + + I I I + L u z u l a s p i c a t a + + + I I I + Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a 1 + I I + T r i s e t u m spicatum + 1 I I + Festuca a l t a i c a + + I I + Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i + + I I + Gentiana glauca + + I I + LICHENS C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 3 D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a 1 + 1 1 1 1 V 2 Stereocaulon tomentosum 3 1 3 1 IV 7 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 1 + 1 1 + IV 1 Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a 1 + 3 1 I I I 4 Cladonia g r a c i l i s 2 1 1 1 I I I 2 Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s 1 1 1 1 I I I 2 C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a 1 1 1 I I I 1 Rhizocarpon geographicum 1 1 1 I I I 1 P e l t i g e r a canina 1 1 1 I I I 1 P e l t i g e r a aphthosa + 1 1 I I I + Cladina arbuscula + 1 1 I I I + Cladonia p y x i d a t a + 1 + I I I + U m b i l i c a r i a hyperborea 1 1 I I + Crustose rock 1 1 I I + Cladina m i t i s 1 1 I I + P e r t u s a r i a d a c t y l i n a 1 + I I + Cladonia amourocraea + 1 I I + Crustose Ground-gray 1 + I I + Cladonia v e r t i c i l l a t a + 1 I I + BRYOPHYTES Dicranum sp. 1 + 3 5 3 IV 12 Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 3 3 • 3 1 1 IV 9 Hylocomium alaskanum 1 1 3 3 I I I 6 B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. 1 1 + + I I I 1 T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata 1 1 + + I I I 1 P t i l i d i u m c i l i a r e 1 + 1 + I I I 1 Drepanocladus uncinatus + 1 1 ^ I I I + Anastrophyllum minutum + 1 1 I I I + P o l y t r i c h u m a l p e s t r e 2 I I 2 Dicranum elongatum 1 2 I I 2 Aulacomnium turgidum 1 2 I I 2 Sphagnum sp. 2 1 I I 2 Bartramia i t h . y p h y l l a 1 1 I I + A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a + 1 I I + Bryum sp. 1 + I I + Lophozia sp. 1 + I I + Blepharostoma trichoph.yl lum + + I I + T o t a l Shrubs 2 3 3 1 3 + 7 21 T o t a l Herbs 3 4 3 6 6 3 3 33 T o t a l Lichens 6 2 4 5 3 2 1 25 T o t a l Bryophytes 4 ' 6 5 2 6 6 5 44 Other species o c c u r r i n g i n l e s s than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average cover: Dryas octopetala +, Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a +, Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m +, Campanula l a s i o c a r p a +, Carex b i p a r t i t a +, Draba i n c e r t a +, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s + , Eriophorum scheuchzeri +, Festuca brach.yph.y1 l a +, Luzula sp. +, P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a +, Ranunculus n i v a l i s + , Saxifraga  b r o n c h i a l i s + , Senecio .yukonensis + , Si lene a c a u l i s + , C e t r a r i a d e l i s e i + , Cladonia cenotea +, £.. CQCr.ifpea. +, C. ecmocvna +, C. p o c i l l u m +, Cladonia sp. +, C o r n i c u l a r i a muricata +, Crustose Ground-black +, Dactyl ina ramulosa + , Sol o r i na crocea '+, Umbi 1 i cari a cyl i ndr i ca + , Andreaea r u p e s t r i s + , Brach.ythecium sp. + , Cephalozia sp. +, O r t h o c a u l i s f l o e r k i i + , Paraleucobr.yum i n e r v e + . Polytr ichum alpinum +, Rhacomitrium canescens +, Tomenth.ypum n i t e n s +. snow cover probably p e r s i s t s throughout the w i n t e r . On the north s l o p e s , t h i s community i s inf luenced by seepage from upper snowbeds. Drainage i s imperfect because of impermeable d i s c o n - tinuous permafrost l a y e r s which occur here. The water t a b l e i n the m o i s t e r s i t e s i s as shal low as 55 cm in e a r l y August. Hygrotope i s mesic to h y g r i c . Of a l l the meadow communities, t h i s is the most moist and occurs at the highest e l e v a t i o n s . S o i l hor izons are b e t t e r developed than in the previous communities, and b r u n i s o l s probably predominate. Gleying occurs i n the w e t t e r areas. Seepage, h o r i z o n t a l surfaces w i t h imperfect drainage, and the presence of permafrost have p o s s i b l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a r g e number of nonsorted and sorted c i r c l e s that occur in t h i s community t y p e . The v e g e t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high herb cover (50%) dominated by Carex microchaeta (Figure 11), and an e q u a l l y high bryophyte cover dominated by Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e , Drepanocladus uncinatus and Dicranum sp. The f i r s t two are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h y g r i c s i t e s . The moist nature of the t e r r a i n i s a lso demonstrated by the s c a t t e r e d occurrence of C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa and Senecio y u k o n e n s i s , both u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g in mossy r u n o f f areas. Other herbs c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Carex microchaeta meadow are P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a , P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i and Luzula arcuat a, the l a t t e r a l s o being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of snowbeds. The l i v e r w o r t s , T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata and PtiT-idium c i l i a r e , have t h e i r highest o c c u r - rence here. The l i c h e n stratum i s not as wel l developed as i n the f e l l f i e l d s but i s s t i l l wel l represented by C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s , c u c u l l a t a , Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s and D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a . The 25% shrub cover i s composed e n t i r e l y of S a l i x p o l a r i s (Figure 12). Figure 11: Carex microchaeta meadow. Note low growth form of the Carex. S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a shrubs can be seen in the distance." - 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 i < • • • L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water i i Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 12: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Carex microchaeta meadow community t y p e . B.3.1.5 Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow (Table IX) The Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow community type is found on h o r i z o n t a l , s l i g h t l y convex to g e n t l y s loping (10°) s i t e s on a l l exposures between 1494 m and 1753 m, but reaches i t s best development at e l e v a t i o n s above 1615 m. T h i s subxeric to mesic community probably has a l i g h t , continuous w i n t e r snow cover and i s f ree of snow at l e a s t by e a r l y June. The d r y meadow occupies s l i g h t l y b e t t e r protected areas than the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d with which i t f r e q u e n t l y merges. Small patches o f t h i s community often occupy shallow depressions w i t h i n f e l l f i e l d s (Figure 13). The v e g e t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a 50% herb cover dominated by the clump fescue, Festuca a l t a i c a , and by a high (50%) cover o f l i c h e n s . Important l i c h e n species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s community are Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a and arbuscula. C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s are s t i l l important s p e c i e s , and show the close r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f e l l - f i e l d community t y p e s . Shrub cover in these s i t e s i s low and can be a t t r i - buted to S a l i x p o l a r i s (Figure 14). The Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow f r e q u e n t l y occurs i n mosaics w i t h the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow, the Cassiope tetragon a meadow and the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosum 54 TABLE IX: F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow showing species composition and cover. Community Type: Festuca a l t a f c a - Cladina dry meadow on S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure , Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s HERBS Festuca a l t a i c a A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a Antennaria monocephala - S t e l l a r i a longipes Carex sp. Hierochloe a l p i n a Bi s t o r t a v i v i p a r a Luzula arcuata S i l e n e a c a u l i s Luzula spicata Carex microchaeta P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a LICHENS Cladina arbuscula CIadina r a n g i f e r i n a C e t r a r i a n i v a l l s D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Cladonia g r a c i l i s Thamnol ia v e r m i c u l a r i s Stereocaulon tomentosum Crustose rock Rhizocarpon geographicum U m b i l i c a r i a hyperborea Cladonia amourocraea U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidia Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Cladonia pocil lum BRYOPHYTES Dicranum sp. Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e H.yl ocomium alaskanum T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 42 50 35 61 40 81 45 150 62 24 1707 1600 1631 1600 1585 1707 1707 1494 1608 1753 \ \ — /-"A N ^ "N 0-4 0-4 0-4 0 0-6 0-4 2 1 5 8 E NE w NNW E S -SW SSW WNW N Avg. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Con- Cover Cover Classes stancy % 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 2 3 9 + + 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 + 1 5 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 2 V 7 5 4 3 3 3 3 5 4 6 3 V 30 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 V 8 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 IV 2 + + + + 1 1 + + IV + 1 2 1 1 1 2 III 3 + 1 1 1 II + + + + + II + + + + + II + 1 1 1 II + 1 + 1 II + 1 + 1 II + 1 + + II + 1 + 1 1 3 1 3 4 1 V 8 1 1 + + + 2 1 3 3 2 V 6 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 V 5 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 V 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 V 3 + 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 V 2 + 1 1 + + 1 + + + V 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 IV 9 1 1 1 2 1 1 III 2 + 1 1 1 1 1 III 2 1 1 1 1 1 III 2 + 1 1 1 1 III 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 + 1 1 II + 1 1 1 1 3 3 III 5 1 1 1 1 1 r n 2 2 + 1 3 II 3 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 10 6 6 3 5 4 5 6 5 6 5 47 3 6 6 6 4 6 4 6 5 5 48 3 2 + 1 3 1 1 3 3 4 12 Other species occurr ing in less than 20% o f the si;tes w i t h t h e f r average cover: Cassiope tetragon a + , Dryas octopetala + , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a + , S_. r e t i c u l a t a + , Vaccinium uliginosu m + , Aconitum del phi ni f o l i u m +, Carex C. nardina +, Campanula l a s i o c a r p a +, Gentiana glauca +, Luzula confusa +, Minuartia obtusilobc P. l a n g s d o r f i i + y,Poa a r c t i c a + , P. leptocoma +, Poa sp. +, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a h S. t r i c u s p i d a t a +, Senecio yukonensis +, C e t r a r i a commixta +, C. c u c u l l a t a 2, Cladina b i p a r t i t a +, P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Saxifraga  b r o n c h i a l i s + A. ochroleuca C. v e r t i c i l l a t a +, Cladonia sp _ + , A l e c t o r i a minuscula mi t i s + . A. n i g r i c a n s +, CIadonilTmacrophyl1 a +, C. u n c i a l i s P e r t u s a r i a d a c t y l i na + B a r b i l o p h o z i a s p . , Brachytheciu m sp. + Polytr ichum alpinum +, P_. p i l i feru m +, 2, Crustose Ground-gray 5, Dactyl i na ramul os a P e l t i g e r a apthos a +, P.. can ina S o l o r i n a crocea +, Anastrophyllum minutum + , Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e + , A. turgidu m +, +, Drepanocladus exannulatu s +, D. uncinatus +, Lophozia sp. c i l i a r e +. " Br yum sp. P t i l i d i u m Figure 13: Festuca a l t a i c a - CIadina dry meadow occupying a shallow depression in a C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m community. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 i • i i i i L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 _i i i i i — i i Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 14: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow community t y p e . f e l l f i e l d . S o i l s grade between the regosols o f the f e l l f i e l d s and the w e l l developed b r u n i s o l s of the r i c h meadows. B.3.1.6 Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow (Table X ) The Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow community type forms the zonal v e g e t a t i o n at e l e v a t i o n s below 1737 m. I t develops on shallow d e p r e s s i o n a l , h o r i z o n t a l o r s loping topography on a l l aspects w i t h best development on the southern slopes above the East V a l l e y (see Figure 72). On t h i s southern exposure, i t can occur on slopes as steep as 30° w h i l e on northern aspects slopes t h i s steep c o l l e c t snow and develop snowbed v e g e t a t i o n . Winter snow cover i s probably moderate and continuous. On south slopes the snow probably melts out i n May w h i l e on h o r i z o n t a l and north slopes i t can remain u n t i l l a t e June. The s i t e s are mesic to sub- h y g r i c as compared to the subxeric s i t e s of the d r y Festuca meadow p r e - v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , and are o c c a s i o n a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by seepage which p r e - vents them from d r y i n g out. Some of the south slope s i t e s above the East V a l l e y are the r i c h e s t and most p r o d u c t i v e s i t e s on the mountain. Here the snow melts e a r l y . The steep, almost 30° slopes have good drainage, but constant seepage through J u l y . The g r e a t e r cover o f herbs and decreased TABLE x : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Festuca a l t a i c a : ^ " P o t e n t i 1 1 a d i v e r $ i f o l i a r i c h meadow showing species composition and coyer. Community Type: Festuca al t a i c a » Potenti;! 1 a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow on CO S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s HERBS Festuca a l t a i c a A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a •Potenti l la d i v e r s i f o l i a S t e l l a r i a longipes Antennaria roonocephala Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Gentiana, glauca Carex microchaeta Myosotis a l p e s t r i s Carex podocarpa Festuca brach.yphylla Luzula s p i c a t a B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a Sedum rosea Carex c a p i t a t a Carex sp. Poa sp. Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a Hierochloe a l p i n a S i l e n e a c a u l i s 32 5 107 130 82 38 56 21 137 125 76 116 44 1585 1615 1676 1600 1737 1615 1676 1570 1539 1585 1554 1585 1539 \ — \ L N /N/VN L /\AA ' /W \ 1 3 2 4 20 3 2 13 2 2 2 2 30 NNE NW NE ESE S E SE W ENE ESE SE SE S 3 3 2-3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2-3 3 4 3-4 1 + + + 4 + + Cover Classes 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 + 1 i — r i i Constancy 1 1 1 + + 1 1 + + + + + + 1 + 1 + 1 1 + 1 2 1 + IV Avg. Cover % 9 + 1 5 3 4 6 3 4 6 4 6 3 2 5 3 V 29 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 V 17 + 1 + 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 + 1 V 5 + + + 1 + + + + + + + V + 1 + 1 2 1 1 . + + 1 + IV 2 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 IV 2 + 1 + + 1 1 1 1 IV 1 1 + 1 1 + + - I I I + 2 1 1 1 2 I I 2 1 1 + + + + + + + + + + LICHENS C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Stereocaulon tomentosum D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a Cladonia g r a c i l i s Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Cladina arbuscula C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s P e l t i g e r a aphthosa CIadina m i t i s Crustose rock Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a CIadonia ecmocyna Rhizocarpon geographicum Cladonia sp. Cladonia v e r t i c i l l a t a Umbi1icaria hyperborea Cladonia amaurocraea BRYOPHYTES H.yl ocomi um alaskanum Dicranum sp. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. Bryum sp. Drepanocladus uncinatus Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m Tomenthypnum nitens T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs Total Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 1 1 + 1 + 1 3 6 3 5 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 V 2 + 1 3 + + 2 1 1 1 IV 3 1 1 1 1 + + 1 1 + IV 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 2 + 1 + 1 2 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 + 1 I I I 1 1 1 + + 1 1 I I I 1 1 + + + 1 I I I + 2 i 1 2 I I 1 1 1 + 1 1 I I + + 1 + + 1 I I + + 1 1 1 I I + + + 1 1 I I + + 1 + 1 I I + 1 1 1 —i 3 3 1 IV 4 + 1 1 + 1 1 1 IV 1 1 2 1 1 3 I I I 5 1 2 1 1 1 1 I I I 2 + + + 1 + + I I I + + + + 3 I I 2 + + 2 2 I I 1 + 1 1 I I + + 1 + I I + 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 5 6 7 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 6 66 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 4 3 + 1 14 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 15 + + + Other species occurr ing i n less than 20% o f ' t h e s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average cover: Cassiope tetragona nigrum +, Phyl lodoce empetriformi s +, S a l i x a r c t i c a +, S_. p i a n i f o l i a +, S. r e t i c u l a t a + , Vaccinium +, Empetrum v i t i s - i d a e a +, Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i +, Antennaria a l p i n a +, Arnica l a t i f o l i a + + C. phaeocephala +, Casti 11eja unalaskensis _ D_.- i n c e r t a ' +, Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l iurn + , Equi setum p a l u s t r e + _ +, Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a +, O x y r i a  dygin a +, P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a a r c t i c a + s Calamagrostis canadensis 3, C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa +, Draba c r a s s i f o l i a + Carex b i p a r t i t a Draba d e n s i f o l i a +, Geranium erlanthum +, L u z u l a l a n g s d o r f i i • + confusa +, Luzula sp. P-. P e d i c u l a r i s s p . ' + , Poa Polemonium pulcherrimum. *, Potenti 11a h y p a r c t i c a +, Pyrola g r a n d i f l o r a +, Sanguisorba "canadensis + , Saxi f rag a- b r o n c h i a l i s +, S. t r i c u s p i d a t a +, S e l a g i n e l l a s i b i r i c a +, Senecio lugens 1, S i b b a l d i a procumbens +, Tr isetum spicatum V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s +, Veronica wormsjkoldi i +, C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a +, C. r i c h a r d s o n i i +, Cladonia carneola C. f i m b r i a t a + , C. poci11um + , C. pyxidat a• + , C. u n c i a l i s Crustose ground-black +, Crustose ground-gray  1, +, Brachvtheci rostratum +, U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea + , Anastrophyllum minutum Desmatodoiv l a t i f o l i u s +, Grimmia sp. + , Lophozia sp. +, Plagiomnium Rhacomitrium canescens +, Sphagnum sp. +, T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata +. Nephroma expa11idum +, Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s + IB. sp. +. Ceohalozia so Polytr ichum alpinum + l i t t e r in the r i c h meadow i n d i c a t e b e t t e r n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g and production than in the d r y Festuca community. Species such as Arnica l a t i f o l i a , Valer iana s i t c h e n s i s , Polemonium pulcherrimum and Geranium erianthum are r e s t r i c t e d to these h a b i t a t s . the d r i e r Festuca -1ichen community, by Festuca a l t a i c a , which forms dense clumps and covers 50% o f the s i t e s . Although Festuca a l t a i c a is u b i q u i t o u s , occurr ing almost everywhere  on the mountain except i n the l a t e s t snowbeds and most exposed b l o c k f i e l d s , i t never a t t a i n s elsewhere the high cover i t does in the two Festuca community t y p e s . The Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow can be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow by i t s f l o r i s t i c makeup. The r i c h meadow i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence of P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a and by Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m (Figure 15). I t i s f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the d r y meadow by a 50% decrease in l i c h e n c o v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a , C_. arbuscul a, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s . A decrease i n rock cover c o n t r i b u t e s to t h i s decrease i n l i c h e n s as wel l as i n d i c a t i n g b e t t e r s o i l development (Figure 16). Figure 16: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow community t y p e . A r c t i c ground s q u i r r e l s (Spermophila p a r r y i i ) seem to p r e f e r t h i s community f o r t h e i r burrows. T h e i r presence c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r ichness and f l o r i s t i c d i v e r s i t y o f these s i t e s . The dense v e g e t a t i o n serves to The v e g e t a t i o n o f t h i s community type i s dominated, as i s 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 15: Photograph of a Festuca a l t a i c a - Potenti11a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow looking east across the Northeast Plateau toward Cairn Peak. Vege- t a t i o n on Cairn Peak is composed of C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosum f e l l f i e l d ( l i g h t green and gray tones) and Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a cucul lata s h r u b f i e l d (dark green). i n s u l a t e the s o i l from freeze-thaw c y c l e s . Consequently, these s i t e s do not r e f l e c t f r o s t a c t i o n . At e l e v a t i o n s around 1555 m, Festuca meadows are invaded by t a l l shrub communities which d i s p l a c e the Festuc a. In areas where snow p e r s i s t s a l i t t l e too long f o r shrub development ( l a t e J u n e ) , but not long enough to promote snowbed v e g e t a t i o n , Festuca dominates. B.3.1.7 Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d (Table x D The Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d com- munity type develops on mesic to subxer ic s i t e s where moderate and c o n t i n - uous w i n t e r snow cover remains no longer than mid-June. Best development i s between 1524 m and 1600 m, marking t h i s community as one o f the community types forming the lower l i m i t o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . T h i s vegeta- t i o n might be considered an a l p i n e extension o f the subalpine t a l l shrub communities where Betula glandulos a i s prominent on a c i d i c w e l l - d r a i n e d slopes. Pinus c o n t o r t a and Abies l a s i o c a r p a reach t h e i r a l t i t u d i n a l l i m i t s in the p r o t e c t i o n of the Betula community. The v e g e t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a scant herb cover con- s i s t i n g o f s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f Festuca a l t a i c a , Hierochloe a l p i n a , S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s , and Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l i u m . A l p i n e populations o f P e d i c u l a r i s l a b o r a d o r i c a are r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s community. Low herb cover i s a t t r i b u t e d to shading out by the dense shrub canopy. Lichens are common, the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species being C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a . C e t r a r i a r i c h a r d s o n i i , an uncommon species on the mountain, i s f r e q u e n t l y found around the North Knoll i n t h i s community t y p e . Cladonia g r a c i l i s , Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a , C_. arbuscul a, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s also c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the l i c h e n cover. Mosses dominated by Hylocomium alaskanum f r e q u e n t l y form spongy mats around the bases o f the 61 TABLE XI: F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Betula glandulos a1 - C e t r a r i a cucul1ata s h r u b f i e l d showing species composition and cover. Community Type; Betula glandulos a * C e t r a r i a ; c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d CTl S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks SHRUBS Betula glandulosa Empetrum nigrum S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Vaccinium uliginosum Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Ledum p a l u s t r e S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a S a l i x p o l a r i s 2 14 . 19 15 123 119 30 75 77 20 124 1570 1554 1570 1539 1585 T585 1600 1554 . 1570 1570 1554 — ^ — - \ — — . — - 3 12 13 11 1 18 7 1 6 0 0 SSW ENE W ENE NNW E ESE S SE W NNW 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 Cover Classes 3 1 1 1 2 1 + 1 6 2 Constancy HERBS Artemisia a r c t i c a S t e l l e r i a longipes Antennaria monocephala Festuca a l t a i c a Poa sp. Carex sp. LICHENS C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Cladonia g r a c i l i s Stereocaulon tomentosum D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a Cladina arbuscula Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s P e l t i g e r a aph'thosja Cladina m i t i s C e t r a r i a p i n a s t r i C e t r a r i a r i c h a r d s o n i i Avg. Cover % 8 7 9 4 3 5 7 5 7 7 7 1 1 V 43 + 3 3 5 1 7 1 IV 15 2 6 5 1 2 1 1 IV 12 + 1 1 2 1 1 2 IV 3 1 1 + 1 1 + III 1 3 + + II 2 + 1 1 II + + 1 + II + 1 3 1 1 + + 1 + IV 7 + + + + + + + IV + + + 1 + + + III + + + 1 1 1 III + + + + 1 II + + + + + ::II + 1 + 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 V 3 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 IV 4 + + 1 1 1 1 1 . 1 IV 2 2 1 3 3 + HI 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 IN 3 2 1 + 1 1 I N 2 1 1 1 1 + + HI 1 + + + + + . HI + 2 2 1 + II 2 2 1 1 II 1 + 1 1 1 II + 1 1 + 1 II + + 1 1 1 II + + + + 1 II + 1 1 1 II + 1 + 1 II + 1 + 1 II + + + + II + 2 + + 1 2 1 1 1 IV 3 1 1 1 + + IRR + 4 1 2 + II 4 2 4 1 II 4 3 3 + II 3 1 1 + II + + 1 + II + 4 7 8 7 6 7 7 7 7 3 2 65 3 3 2 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 2 7 5 2 3 3 3 4 3 6 3 1 2 22 2 5 1 3 6 1 1 2 + 1 14 Cladonia amaurocraea Cladonia sp. Crustose ground-gray Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Crustose rock Rhizocarpon geographicum BRYOPHYTES Dicranum sp. Bryum sp. Hylacomium alaskanum P o l y t r i c h u m ; a l p e s t r e Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. Lophozia sp. T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs Total Lichens Total Bryophytes Other species occurr ing i n less than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Cassi6pe ; . :tetrag6n aH, ^Dryas' > octopetala +, L o i s e l e u r i a procumbens +, Aconitum d e l p h i n i f o l l u m : +, A n t e n n a r i a : a l p i n a ' + , B i s t o r t a v iv ipar a•+, Carex microchaeta +, Cerastium beeringianum +, Festuca brachyphyl1 a• +, Gentiana glauca + , Hierochloe alpina• + Luzula spicata +, Minuart ia o b t u s i l o b a +, M. r u b e l l a +, P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a + , P . l a b o r a d o r i c a -t-, P o a : a r c t i c a + Potenti11a hyparctic a•+, Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a +, Sedum rosea +, minuscula +, Cladonia b e l l i d i f l o r a +, C. carneola +, C. ecmocy'na + , C. poci l lum + , C. uncial i s + , C. v e r t i c i l l a t a + , Crustose ground i  i  lapor a i  roa i t , •s Senecio lugens +; Tr isetum s p i c a t u m * , A l e c t o r i a + , C. f i m b r i a t a + , C. gonecha +, C. macrophylla "ound-black + , Nephroma a r c t i c a N. expall idu m +, U m b i l i c a r i a hyperbore a + , Aulacomnium turqidum +, Ceratodon purpureus alpinum +, P t i l i d i u m c i l i a r e +, Rhacomitrium canescens +, Sphagnum sp +, Drepanocladus uncinatus '+, Polytr ichum t a l l shrubs. Shrub species are in two s t r a t a and c o n t r i b u t e the g r e a t e s t cover to t h i s community (Figure 17). The upper stratum i s composed e n t i r e l y o f Betula glandulos a and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a . The former occurs i n homogeneous patches where the ground i s r a i s e d and w e l 1 - d r a i n e d . In shal low depressions where there is some seepage i n f l u e n c e from snowbeds, the Betula occurs mixed w i t h and often beneath S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a . The herbs tend to be concentrated i n these r i c h e r l o c a t i o n s , whereas the l i c h e n s are more conspicuous i n the d r i e r s i t e s . The low stratum shrubs are Empetrum nigru m, Vaccinium ul ig inosu m, and V_. v i t i s - i d a e a . Figure 17: Cover r e l a t i o n s in Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d community t y p e . Betula or S a l i x extending above the snow during the w i n t e r months are k i l l e d by snow abrasion and extreme c o l d . T h i s gives the community a v e r y f l a t - topped appearance during the snow-free months (Figure 18). Depending on the microtopography, Betula a t t a i n s heights of .08 to .3 m and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a , .3 to . 6 m . Changes in surface topography can be detected from a distance by c o l o r d i f f e r e n c e s between b i r c h , which has a v e r y dark green appearance, and w i l l o w , w i t h a much l i g h t e r tone. These d i f f e r e n c e s are enhanced i n l a t e August when the b i r c h leaves t u r n red and the w i l l o w t u r n y e l l o w . The Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d i s u s u a l l y found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Festuca meadows and the C e t r a r i a 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Shrub height i s c o n t r o l l e d by snow depth. Any twigs o f Figure 18: The Betula glandulosa - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d looking west down the west slope of the North K n o l l . Shrub in the foreground is S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a and shrubs beyond are mostly Betula glandulos a. Note f l a t - t o p p e d appearance due to winter wind pruning. n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d , where i t occupies a p o s i t i o n intermediate in exposure between the two. Where the Festuca communities come in contact w i t h the b i r c h , the Festuca a l t a i c a is displaced to areas where snow l a s t s u n t i l l a t e June. T h i s snow d u r a t i o n i s too long f o r the establishment o f Betula and S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a ; however, Empetrum nigrum o f t e n extends i n t o these areas, forming mats and f u r t h e r d i s p l a c i n g the Festuc a. Small patches of the b i r c h community develop in c o n c a v i t i e s w i t h i n f e l l f i e l d s . T h i s i s best seen on the north side o f the North Knoll where Betula glandulos a forms bands across the slope in the lee o f shal low l o b e s , probably o f s o l i f l u c t i o n o r i g i n . In the lee o f these lobes and in shallow d e p r e s s i o n s , wind abrasion keeps the b i r c h trimmed down to the l e v e l of the surrounding topography. Very common features w i t h i n the Betula community are non- sorted c i r c l e s , s t r i p e s and pockets o f Festuca a l t a i c a . These seem to be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d and are discussed in the s e c t i o n on p e r i g l a c i a l f e a t u r e s . B r u n i s o l s probably predominate here. B.3.1.8 Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath ( T a b l e X I I ) The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath community type develops on gentle northern and eastern slopes where snow cover i s c o n t i n - uous, moderate and remains u n t i l e a r l y - t o - l a t e June. The s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y those on the north s l o p e , are i n f l u e n c e d by seepage and are mesic to sub- h y g r i c . Vascular v e g e t a t i o n does not form a continuous carpet and i s f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d by sorted and nonsorted c i r c l e s and s o l i f l u c t i o n steps. The concentrat ion of rocks at the s o i l surface could also i n d i c a t e strong f r o s t heaving (Figure 19). Vegetation has invaded most of the c i r c l e s and the rocks are l i c h e n - c o v e r e d , implying that f r o s t a c t i v i t y was probably more intense in the past. The c i r c l e s have a tendency to creep TABLE X I I : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath community and the Cassiope tetragona S o l o r i n a crocea subcommunity showing species composition and c o v e r v o CT1 Community Type: S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) - Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks Water SHRUBS Cassiope tetragona S a l i x p o l a r i s Empetrum nigrum Dryas octopetala HERBS A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a Antennaria monocephala Carex microchaeta Festuca a l t a i c a Saxifraga  bronchial is B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a S l l e n e acaul is S t e l l a r i a longipes Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a P e d i c u l a r i s capitata Gentiana glauca Campanula l a s i o c a r p a P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath Cassiope t e t r a g o n a - S o l o r i n a crocea subcommunity 36 1631 1 E 2 128 1631 4 ESE 2 129 1631 3 ESE 2 Cover Classes 2 3 3 1 + + 4 2 4 1570 4 W 3 1 3 2 + 2 3 + + 37 1615 3 E 3 1 + 3 4 1 55 1676 22 1585 5 10 SE NNW 3 3 Cover Classes 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 + 79 49 3 1768 1600 1554 4 5 5 N NE W 3 3 3 3 1 + 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 + + 2 3 4 + 1 1 + + + + + + 1 1 + 1 1 4- 1 + 1 1 + + + 1 + + 1 1 1 + + 1 + + 1 + 6 + + 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 + 3 + 2 1 1 3 1 1 + + + + + + + Con- s t a n c y V V I I I I Avg. Cover % 3 4 14 + 25 6 + + 4 3 2 7 2 1 1 + + + + + + + LICHENS Stereocaulon tomentosum C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Rhizocarpon geographicum Cladina m i t i s Crustose ground-gray Crustose rock C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s Cladonia g r a c i l i s Dacty l ina a r c t i c a Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Umbi1i cari a hyperbore a • Solor ina crocea D a c t y l i n a ramulosa CIadonia pyxidata Cladonia sp. Cladonia, ecmocyna Cladonia v e r t i c i l l a t a Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Cladonia poci l lum Pertusar ia d a c t y l i n a . P e l t i g e r a aphthosa BRYOPHYTES Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e A n t h e l i a juratzkana Dicranum sp. B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. Bryum sp. Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m T o t a l Shrubs Total Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 1 + + + 3 3 4 + 1 3 3 + 1 1 + 3 V 7 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 V 4 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 V 4 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 + V 2 1 4 5 3 3 2 IV 12 1 2 2 2 3 3 IV 7 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 IV 6 1 1 + 1 + 2 1 IV 2 + 1 + + 1 1 1 IV 2 1 1 + 1 1 1 IV 2 1 1 2 1 1 I I I 2 2 1 1 1 1 + I I I 2 1 1 + 1 + 1 I I I 1 3 1 1 I I 2 1 3 1 I I 2 1 1 1 + I I + + 1 + 1 I I + + + 1 I I + 1 1 I I + 1 + + I I + + + 1 I I + 1 1 1 1 1 2 IV 2 1 3 + 3 1 I I I 4 1 + 1 1 I I I 1 1 J + I I + 1 + + + I I + + 1 1 I I + 4 3 3 5 4 6 . 4 5 . 5 33 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 17 4 . 6 5 6 6 3 5 6 6 48 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 8 than 20% of the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average cover: Abies l a s i o c a r p a +, Betula • . • . . i • .i—• — Luzula arcuata + s Saxifraga Other species occurr ing i n le glandulos a +, Ledum p a l u s t r e +, S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a +, S. r e t i c u l a t a V a c c i n i u m ul iginosu m h Antennari a a l p i n a +, Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a + , Festuca brach.yphyll a + , Hierochlo e a l p i n a + , __ L.. spicata +, Lycopodium alpinum +, Ox.yri a dygina +, Poa a r c t i c a + , Poa sp. +, P.yrola q r a n d i f l o r a + , nelsoniana +, S_. r i v u l a r i s +, Sedum rosea +, Sibbladia procumbens +, Tr isetum spicatum + , A l e c t o r i a minuscula +, A. nigr ican s +, C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a +, C_. d e l i s e i +, C. r i c h a r d s o n i i +, Cladonia amaurocraea + , C. -carneol a + , C. macrophyll a + , C. uncial i s + , Cladina : a r b u s c u l a + , C o r n i c u l a r i a muricata + , Nephroma expall idum P e l t i g e r a eanina +, Thamnoli a vermi c u l a r i s +, Umbi1i c a r i a proboscoidea 2, Anastrophyl1um mi nutum +, Andreaea r u p e s t r i s' +, Dicranoweisea c r i s p u l a +, Drepanocladus uncinates Lophozia sp. Rhacomitrium canescens +. Figure 19: The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath on north s lope. Mote the clumped appearance of the Cassiope and the large number of exposed rocks. down the 2 - 5 s lope. Two s o i l p i t s , dug so as to b i s e c t the c i r c l e s , show a buried organic h o r i z o n , i l l u s t r a t i n g the o v e r r i d i n g e f f e c t of t h i s s o l i - f l u c t i o n a c t i o n . Shrubs, dominated by Cassiope t e t r a g o n a , are the dominant v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n (Figure 20). S a l i x p o l a r i s i s c o n s t a n t l y present i n these s i t e s . The Cassiope tends to be concentrated around the rocky p e r i - meters of the sorted c i r c l e s , imparting a clumped appearance from a distance and from the a i r (Figure 66). The most prominent herb i s Festuca a l t a i c a . Other common herbs are Carex microchaet a, Saxifraga  bronchial i s , and P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a . C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and Cladina m i t i s commonly form a major part o f the v e g e t a t i o n . Luzula arcuat a, S o l o r i n a crocea and A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a , a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c snowbed and l a t e snowbed s p e c i e s , are e a r l y c o l o n i z e r s of the barren f r o s t - f o r m e d c i r c l e s on the north s l o p e . 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -J 1 1 I_ L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water _ l I L_ Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 20: Cover r e l a t i o n s in Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath community t y p e . The Cassiope community i s f r e q u e n t l y associated w i t h the Festuca a l t a i c a meadows. Di f ferences can be a t t r i b u t e d mostly to snow dura- t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s in snow durat ion can be hypothesized by the phenology of the Cassiope. Where the heath and meadow communities occur on the same s l o p e , the Cassiope tetragon a w i t h i n the Cassiope community w i l l be, at any one time during the growing season, p h e n o l o g i c a l l y behind the s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f Cassiope occurr ing w i t h i n the Festuca meadows. Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a p r e f e r s w e l l - d r a i n e d s i t e s t h a t become f r e e o f snow e a r l i e r i n the growing season ( S c o t t , 1974). The replacement o f Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a by Cladina m i t i s i s a lso i n d i c a t i v e of the prolonged snow d u r a t i o n w i t h i n the Cassiope community. The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath community type i s a major v e g e t a t i o n type o f the East Plateau. The East Plateau l i e s in the lee of the high r idges and peaks on the south s ide o f the mountain r e s u l t i n g in a g r e a t e r accumulation of snow. At the same t i m e , t h i s plateau i s s l i g h t l y domed which hinders the development of l o n g - l y i n g snowbeds. A e r i a l photographs show these s i t e s to be snow-free by at l e a s t the f i r s t week in June. At a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s below 1600 m on depressional topography, a v a r i a n t of the Cassiope community occurs which I do not consider s u f f i - c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t to warrant community s t a t u s . T h i s v a r i a n t , which I have named the Cassiope tetragon a - S o l o r i n a crocea subcommunity, does not form l a r g e patches but i s confined to the outer lower edge of l a t e - l y i n g snowbeds where snowmelt occurs between l a t e June and e a r l y J u l y . The Cassiope sub- community i s u s u a l l y f lanked by a snowbed community type on one side and the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a meadow community on the o t h e r . B.3.1.9 Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformis snowbed (Table X I I I ) The Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community type occurs on eastern and northern slopes i n depressional t o p o - graphy and i n the lee o f s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes where snow tends to accumulate during the w i n t e r months. I t a t t a i n s i t s best development below 1676 m and extends wel l i n t o the subalpine zone. The sandy s o i l s are i r r i g a t e d throughout the growing season by seepage from upper snowbeds and r a r e l y d r y o u t . On the average, snow remains u n t i l the f i r s t week i n J u l y . S o i l s TABLE X I I I : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed showing species composition and cover. Community Type: Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformis snowbed S i t e Number 34 28 29 66 39 60 11 142 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1554 1570 1570 1585 1600 1600 1554 1570 P o s i t i o n / R e ! i e f w w Slope (°) 1 7 13 2 1 1 8 1 Exposure E ENE ENE E E NE NE NNE Hygrotope 3 3 3 3 3 3-4 3-4 4 Av< Cov< Cover Classes Constancy % L i t t e r 1 4 3 1 2 3 10 Ground + + + 1 + 1 1 Rocks + + 4 1 1 1 5 Water 1 + 1 + SHRUBS Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a 5 2 3 3 6 5 3 V 26 S a l i x p o l a r i s + 3 1 3 2 3 IV 8 Phyllodoce empetriformis 1 1 2 1 3 1 IV 5 Cassiope tetragona 1 1 + + 1 IV 1 HERBS S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1 1 + + 1 + 1 1 V 2 A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a + + 1 + 1 + 1 1 V 2 Antennaria monocephala + + + + + + + V + Carex sp. + + 2 + 1 1 IV 2 Gentiana glauca + + + + + 1 IV + Luetkea p e c t i n a t a 1 1 1 3 I I I 3 Antennaria a l p i n a 1 + 1 + I I I + B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a + 1 + 1 I I I + L.ycopodium alpinum 3 1 + I I 2 P e d i c u l a r i s sp. + + I I + Luzula arcuata 1 + I I + Epilobium a n a g a l 1 i d i f o l i u m + + I I + Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i . + + I I + Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s + + I I + Luzula sp. + + I I + Huperzia selago + + I I + LICHENS Rhizocarpon geographicum + + 3 1 1 IV 3 S o l o r i n a crocea 1 1 1 2 1 IV 3 Cladonia sp. 1 . 1 1 1 1 IV 2 C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a + 1 + 1 + 1 IV 1 Crustose ground-gray 1 1 3 2 I I I 4 Cladonia ecmocyna 1 1 + 1 1 I I I 1 Crustose rock 3 1 I I i P e l t i g e r a canina 1 2 I I 1 Stereocaulon tomentosum + + 1 I I + P e l t i g e r a aphthosa 1 1 I I + Cladonia c o c c i f e r a 1 + I I + BRYOPHYTES Dicranum sp. Lophozia sp. DrepanocTadus uncinatus Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a Polytr ichu m p i l i f e r u m Polytr ichum alpinuro Cephalozia sp. Sphagnum sp. Bartramia i t h y p h y l l a B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens Total Bryophytes 5 2 1 4 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 5 3 4 2 1 1 4 3 5 3 1 3 1 2 2 6 2 6 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 + 1 1 5 3 1 7 5 3 3 3 + + 38 14 13 28 Other species occurring i n l e s s than 20% of the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Abies l a s i o c a r p a +, S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a 1, S_. r e t i c u l a t a Kalmia microph.yll a +, Aeon i turn del phi n i f o l i um Casti 11 e j a una! askensi s + , Carex b i p a r t i t a +, Carex microchaeta +, C. pyrenaic a +, Festuca a l t a i c a + , Hierochloe a l p i n a + , Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a + , P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a + , P. l a n g s d o r f i i + , Petasites f r i g i d u s + , Poa sp. + , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a +, P y r o l a g r a n d i f l o r a + , Ranunculus n i v a l i s +, Sedum rosea +, Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i +, Cladina m i t i s +, Cladonia v e r t i c i l l a t a 1, Lobaria l i n i t a +, U m b i l i c a r i a hyperbore a + , Anastroph.yllum minutum 1, BIepharostoma tr ichophyl1um Brach.ythecium sp. 2, Hygrohypnum styr iacu m + , P a l u d e l l a squarros a +, Pleuroclada albescens +, Rhacomitnum canescens +, Tomenthypnum n i t e n s 1, T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata +. probably range from gleyed b r u n i s o l s to r e g o s o l s . These s i t e s are w e l l vegetated w i t h v e r y few bare areas and exposed rocks (Figure 21). The combination of snow d u r a t i o n and uniform v e g e t a t i v e mat tends to decrease the thaw rate o f the s o i l . On August 9, 1974 the s o i l at one s i t e was s t i l l f r o z e n at a depth of 55 cm i n d i c a t i n g the probable occurrence of permafrost. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 t • • i _ j i — L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 21: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community type. Dwarf shrubs, dominated by Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a , c o n t r i b u t e most o f the v e g e t a t i o n cover (Figure 22). Phyl lodoce empetriformi s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c associate whose prominence increases w i t h a decrease in e l e - v a t i o n and a t t a i n s a maximum cover in the subalpine. Cassiope mertensiana i s rare on Teresa I s l a n d above t r e e l i n e and reaches i t s highest e l e v a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s community type. The most prominent and constant herb i s S i b b a l d i a procumbens. Luetkea pect inata i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c herb whose prominence increases i n the subalpine. Important associates are Antennaria a l p i n a , Lycopodium alpinum and B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a . The Lycopodium a t t a i n s i t s best development in these s i t e s , e s p e c i a l l y in the low a l p i n e and subalpine. The s c a r c i t y o f macro!ichens helps to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s and a l l other snowbed communities. The most d i a g n o s t i c macrolichen here and in other snowbeds i s S o l o r i n a crocea. A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a , a l i v e r w o r t com- monly associated w i t h snowbeds, i s f r e q u e n t l y found in the Cassiope snowbed. Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyllodoce empetriformis snowbed community beside r u n o f f stream from the East Plateau Pond near Camp #2. Scene i s l o o k - ing north across East V a l l e y to the Northeast Plateau. Figure 22: Drepanocladus uncinatus and B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a are both promoted by the con- stant seepage through the s i t e . B.3.1.10 S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed (Table XIV) The S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community type develops in areas o f snow accumulation on northern and eastern slopes from 1707 m to below t r e e l i n e . T h i s community lacks seepage and i t s sandy, w e l l - d r a i n e d , p o o r l y developed s o i l s d r y out e a r l y i n the growing season. Within a l o n g - l a s t i n g snowbed, t h i s d r y community u s u a l l y occurs on the upper edge. The lower edges o f most snowbeds are c o n s t a n t l y i r r i g a t e d by the melt ing snow. In e a r l y melt ing snowbeds, which are not subject to much seepage from melt ing snow above them, the S i b b a l d i a community can occur on the top o r bottom and i f the e n t i r e snowbed melts out e a r l y i n J u l y , t h i s community can occur in the center. Vascular vegetat ion o n l y covers between 40 and 60% o f the s i t e s . The herb l a y e r i s the best developed, dominated by S i b b a l d i a procumbens. Important associates are Luzula arcuat a, Carex pyrenaic a and Carex microchaeta. The shrub l a y e r i s represented almost e n t i r e l y by S a l i x p o l a r i s . The dominant bryophyte i s Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m , a species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c not o f snowbeds, but o f x e r i c s i t e s . I t i s a l s o found f r e q u e n t l y in f e l l f i e l d s . Lichens form the major ground cover (Figure 23). Most o f the l i c h e n cover can be a t t r i b u t e d to crustose species which cover the rocks and large areas o f what would otherwise be bare ground. These crustose species g i v e the community a d i s t i n c t i v e w h i t i s h tone (Figure 24). The var ious species of crustose l i c h e n s were not i d e n t i f i e d . In the sampling they were grouped together according to c o l o r and s u b s t r a t e . TABLE XIV: F l o r i s t i c t a b l e composition and f o r the S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed showing species cover. Community Type: S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed S i t e Number 54 85 86 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1676 1707 1707 Position/Re! i e f ^ V • ' Slope (°) 3 5 1 Exposure SE NE NE Hygrotope 3 3 2 L i t t e r Ground Rocks SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s HERBS Artemisia a r c t i c a S i b b a l d i a procumbens Luzula arcuata Antennaria monocephala Tr isetum spicatum Carex microchaeta Carex sp. Carex pyrenaica Campanula lasiocarpa Poa sp. Saxifraga  bronchial i s Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a Luzula spicata Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a Festuca a l t a i c a Veronica wormskjoldi i S i l e n e a c a u l i s Cardamine b e ! l i d i f o l i a Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i LICHENS Crustose rock Rhizocarpon geographicum S o l o r i n a crocea Stereocaulon tomentosum Crustose ground-gray C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Cladonia c o c c i f e r a D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a Cladonia p o c i l i u m U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea U m b i l i c a r i a hyperborea Cladonia macrophylla Cladonia g r a c i l i s P e l t i g e r a canina Cladonia sp. BRYOPHYTES Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m Lophozia sp. Bryum sp. Brachythecium albicans B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e Polytr ichum alpinum Dicranum sp. Cephalozia sp. Drepanocladus uncinatus T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 63 1585 4 E 2 Cover Classes 48 127 146 1600 1783 1600 7 8 5 NE ESE ENE 2 2 2 Constancy Avg. Cover % Other species occurring nigrum +, S a l i x a r c t i c a Carex b i p a r t i t a Gentiana glauca in less +, S/ p l a n i f o l ia +, C_. phaeocephala +„ Draba Luetkea pectinata 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 3 + + 1 1 1 1 + 4 3 6 5 4 27 5 5 3 3 1 + 3 V 20 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 V 7 2 3 2 1 1 + 1 V 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 3 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 V 3 + 1 1 3 I I I 4 1 1 2 I I I 2 2 1 1 I I I 2 1 1 + 1 I I I 1 + 1 + 1 I I I 1 + + + 1 I I I + + 1 + I I I + + + + I I I + 2 + I I 1 + 1 I I + + 1 I I + 1 + I I + 1 + I I + + + I I + + + I I + + + 1 2 3 4 2 V 10 + + 1 1 3 2 1 V 5 + 1 1 1 1 1 V 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 V 2 + 3 6 5 3 IV 20 1 1 2 1 I I I 2 1 1 2 I I I 2 + 1 + I I I + 1 2 I I 2 1 1 I I + 1 1 I I + 1 1 I I + + 1 I I + 1 + I I + + 1 I I + 1 1 2 1 + IV 3 1 1 3 I I I 3 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 + I I I + 2 1 I I 2 1 1 I I + + 1 I I + 1 + I I + + + I I + 5 5 3 3 1 + 3 20 4 5 4 3 4 5 5 33 1 2 6 7 6 7 4 44 2 2 3 1 3 2 1 17 than 20% of the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Cassiope tetragona +, Empetrum Aeoni turn del p h i n i f o l i u m +, Antennaria a l p i n a +, Bi s t o r t a v i v i p a r a + , c r a s s i f o l i a +, Epilobium a n a g a d i l i f o l i u m +, E. l a t i f o l i u m 3, Lycopodium alpinum +, O x y r i a  digyn a '+, P e d i c u l a r i s sp. + , Poa a r c t i c a + , P.. leptocoma + , S a x i f r a g a  nelsoniana +, Sedum rosea + , Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a +, Taraxacum lyratu m +, A l e c t o r i a minuscula.+, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s +, Cladina m i t i s +, Cladonia ecmocyna +, C o r n i c u l a r i a muricata +, Lobaria l i n i t a +, Parmelia~stygi a +, P e l t i g e r a aphthosa +, Stereocaulon arcticum + , A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a +, Bartramia i t h y p h y l l a +, Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l a +, Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a +, Grimmia alaskanum +, Lophocolea m i n o r +, T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata +. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e sp. + , Hylocomium L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water $ 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 C 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 23: Cover r e l a t i o n s i n S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community t y p e . B.3.1.11 Anthe!ia j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata 1 ate snowbed (Table XV) The A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed com- munity type i s the most widespread snowbed community on the mountain, occurr ing at a l l a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s and down i n t o the upper subalpine. The community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a meagre (25%) cover of v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n and by a high rock c o v e r , u s u a l l y 75 to 95% (Figure 25). Lichens have a h i g h , 50%, cover and are represented almost e x c l u s i v e l y  by crustose species on the s o i l and rocks (Figure 26). These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a t e snow- bed community appear to develop because of three f a c t o r s which are c o n t r o l l e d or i n f l u e n c e d by snow. 1) The extended d u r a t i o n o f the snow r e s u l t s in a growing season which i s normally too s h o r t to al low v a s c u l a r taxa to com- p l e t e t h e i r l i f e c y c l e s . Establishment of v a s c u l a r plants in these long snow d u r a t i o n s i t e s probably occurred during a per iod of m i l d w i n t e r s and warm summers which lengthened the snow-free season. The c r i t i c a l per iod o f snow durat ion v a r i e s w i t h e l e v a t i o n . In the r e l a t i v e l y m i l d environment o f the s u b a l p i n e , many v a s c u l a r taxa can become e s t a b l i s h e d and reproduce ( u s u a l l y a s e x u a l l y )  in areas f r e e of snow as l a t e as mid-August. At e l e v a - t i o n s above 1830 m, snowmelt occurr ing as e a r l y as m i d - J u l y can e f f e c t i v e l y i n h i b i t p l a n t c o l o n i z a t i o n . 2) At mid- and h i g h - a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s , the Figure 24: The Sibbaldia procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community looking northeast to A t l i n Lake. Note the white l i c h e n - f r e e rocks i n d i c a - t i v e of prolonged snow duration. TABLE XV : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Anthe!ia juratzkan a- - L u z u l a ; a r c u a t a snowbed showing species composition and cover. Community Type: A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata snowbed S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks Water 53 65 110 138 140 131 132 83 139 122 126 91 68 69 88 1676 1585 1753 1631 1631 1615 1615 1722 1631 1707 1737 1859 1877 1877 1707 2 2 2 3 5 5 2 3 10 13 7 3 2 3 E ESE NNE NNE ENE ENE NNE NNE NNW NE NNW N-S S NE 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 Cover Classes 5 SE 3 1 2 6 1 3 6 1 1 1 1 4 4 1 1 4 2 1 6 + 1 7 2 6 + 2 6' 1 5 3 1 3 6 3 1 2 + Avg. Con- Cover stancy % 3 9 48 + SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s Cassiope tetragona HERBS Luzula arcuata Poa sp. S i b b a l d i a procumbens Antennaria monocephala S i l e n e a c a u l i s Carex pyrenaica Cardamine b e ! 1 i d i f o l i a Artemisia a r c t i c a Saxifraga  bronchi a l l s Antennaria alpina Carex microchaeta Oxyr i  a digyna Saxifraga  nelsoniana Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a 3 + 2 + 1 + + + + + + 1 1 + + 1 + + 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 + 2 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + + 1 + + + + 1 + + 1 1 + + 1 1 1 + IV I I V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 + 7 1 1 + + 1 + + + + + + + + LICHENS Crustose rock 3 Crustose ground-gray  3 Rhizocarpon geographicum 3 Stereocaulon tomentosum S o l o r i n a crocea 1 CIadonia sp. 1 C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1 U m b i l i c a r i a hyperbore a 1 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s Cladonia c o c c i f e r a 4 1 1 + 2 3 3 + 1 3 3 2 4 1 + 3 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 + 1 4 1 1 3 1 + 1 1 4 1 3 + 1 + 1 + 1 3 3 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 + + V IV IV IV IV I I I I I I I I I I I I 21 7 5 4 4 3 1 + + + BRY0PHYTES A n t h e l i a juratzkan a 1 Bryum sp. 1 Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e Polytr ichum alpinum Rhacomitrium sudeticum T o t a l Shrubs 1 T o t a l Herbs 3 Total Lichens 6 T o t a l Bryophytes 3 + 3 5 2 5 3 + + 3 5 6 1 2 6 3 1 + 1 3 6 3 5 1 1 1 1 3 4 5 3 + 1 1 1 2 6 3 2 1 + 1 5 3 1 1 1 + 1 3 5 2 + 1 5 1 1 1 6 3 3 5 3 1 3 3 2 + 1 + 2 3 . 1 + 1 3 1 3 1 6 V IV I I I I I I I 9 2 3 + + 2 13 38 22 Other species occurr ing in less than 20% o f the s i t e s . w i t h t h e i r average  c o v e r : Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a +, Empetrum nigrum + , Phyl lodoce empetriformis S a l i x a r c t i ca +, Campanula 1asi ocarpa + , Carex bi p a r t i t a +, C. c a p i t a t a + , Carex sp. +, Draba i n c e r t a +, Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m + , Festuca brachyph.yll a + , Luzula sp. +, Lycopodium alpinum +, Papaver kluanense +, P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a +, Ranunculus n i v a l i s +, R. p.ygmaeus + ; Saxifrag a cernua +, S. ' + T S 7 o p p o s i t i f o l i a +, S. r i v u l a r i s +, S. t r i c u s p i d a t a +, S t e l l e r i a longipe s +, Tr isetu m spicatum +, " •+. A. n i g r i c a n s +, C e t r a r i a commixta +, C. c u c u l l a t a + , C. d e l i s e i +, Cladonia carneola +, ferruginaea A l e c t o r i a miniscula C. g r a c i l i s +, C. l e p i d o t a + , C. .pocillum +, C. pyx idat a +, Crustose ground-black +, D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a +, P e l t i g e r a aphthosa +, P e r t u s a r i a d a c t y l i n a +, Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s + , U m b i l i c a r i a c y l i n d r i c a +, U. proboscoidea +, Andreaea r u p e s t r i s + , Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 1, B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. +, Brach.ythecium albicans +, Cephalozia sp. Ceratodon purpureus +, Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a 1, Dicranum sp. + , Drepanocladus uncinatus +, Grimmia sp. +, Lophozia sp. 1, Polytr ichum p i l i feru m +, Rhacomitrium canescens +, R.. lanuginosum +, Scapania sp. Figure 25: A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed looking west across the north s lope. A mat of A n t h e l i a can be seen in the lower l e f t - h a n d corner of the photograph. e f f e c t of snow d u r a t i o n i s often compounded by intense f r o s t act ion which hinders plant establishment by d i s r u p t i o n of the s o i l . Stone n e t s , sorted c i r c l e s and s t r i p e s are common features w i t h i n l a t e snowbed h a b i t a t s . The intense f r o s t act ion of l a t e snowbeds has been noted by Johnson and B i l l i n g s (1962) and Scott (1974). 3) Melt-water e r o s i o n from permanent snowbeds i s a f a c t o r on northern slopes of 10° and o v e r . T h i s commonly r e s u l t s i n l a t e snowbed s i t e s , below permanent snowbeds, w i t h l i t t l e or no s o i l p r e s e n t . Figure 26: Cover r e l a t i o n s in A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed community t y p e . S o i l development in a l l the s i t e s is weak and regosols are the most common s o i l t y p e s . Of a l l the v e g e t a t i o n , shrubs c o n t r i b u t e the l e a s t c o v e r . S a l i x p o l a r i s i s a constant s p e c i e s , Cassiope tetragon a is o c c a s i o n a l , occurr ing i n about 30% of the s i t e s , and Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a and Phyl lodoce empetriformi s are r a r e . The dominant herb i s Luzula arcuat a, which occurs i n a l l s i t e s . Important associates are Carex pyrenaic a, S i b b a l d i a procumbens and S i l e n e a c a u l i s . O x y r i a  d i g y n a , a common a r c t i c and a l p i n e s p e c i e s , has a r e s t r i c t e d occurrence on Teresa I s l a n d and i s most commonly found in the l a t e snowbed communities. Papaver kluanense and Saxifraga  o p p o s i t i f o l i a are r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s community type and are found o n l y on the high southern r i d g e s . (The s a x i f r a g e  is more i n d i c a t i v e o f pockets o f a l k a l i n e s o i l s than i t i s o f l a t e snowbeds.) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes A n t h e l i a juratzkan a i s an important d i a g n o s t i c b r y o p h y t e . I t occurs i n most s i t e s and a t t a i n s i t s best cover where the s o i l i s kept moist by seepage. Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a and Rhacomitrium sudeticum are important a s s o c i a t e s , but do not occur on a l l s i t e s . Lichens c o n t r i b u t e to the vegetat ion cover. There are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y few macro!ichens w i t h the exception o f S o l o r i n a crocea. Crustose species form the major cover and i n d r y s i t e s gray crustose l i c h e n s dominate over the s o i l . B . 3 . ! . 1 2 Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed (Table XVI) T h i s snowbed community type i s r e s t r i c t e d to the East Plateau where i t develops at e l e v a t i o n s between 1585 m and 1646 m in small snow accumulation pockets on gradual slopes o f a l l aspects except south. T h i s i s a v e r y i n f r e q u e n t community and as such was sampled o n l y f o u r t imes. Snowmelt occurs between e a r ! y and m i d - J u l y . L i g h t seepage throughout the summer r e s u l t s i n a mesic substrate w i t h a vegetat ion mat dominated by herbs (Figure 27). 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 _i i i i i L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 27: Cover r e l a t i o n s in Carex pyrenaic a - L u e t k e a pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed community t y p e . Carex pyrenaic a w i t h i t s narrow, wavy  l e a v e s , i s the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s , occurr ing in a l l four s i t e s and a t t a i n i n g an average cover o f 35%. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s Carex on the mountain i s r e s t r i c t e d to areas of snow accumulation. An important herb associate i s Luetkea pectinata w i t h an average cover of 25%. T h i s species has i t s major TABLE XVI : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Carex pyrenaic a•- Luetkea•pectihata - Juncus 'drummondii snowbed showing species composition and cover. Community Type: Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed S i t e Number 48 102 64 115 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1646 1600 1585 1585 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f — — Slope (°) 4 5 4 4 Exposure E SE E NNW Hygrotope 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-4 Avg. Presence Cover Cover Classes •74 % L i t t e r 3 2 1 2 9 Ground 1 + Rocks + .+ 3 1 6 SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s 3 + + 1 4/4 6 Phyllodoce empetriformis +• + + 3/4 + Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a + + 2/4 + HERBS Carex pyrenaica 3 5 3 5 4/4 30 Luzula arcuata 1 1 1 3 4/4 7 Sibbaldia procumbens + + 1 1 4/4 2 Artemisia a r c t i c a + + + + 4/4 + Luetkea pectinata 3 5 3 3/4 20 Juncus drummondii 2 1 1 3/4 4 Antennaria a l p i n a + + + 3/4 + Saxifraga  f e r r u g i n e a + 1 2/4 + Epilobium a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m + + 2/4 + Veronica wormskjoldi i + + 2/4 + LICHENS C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1 1 1 1 4/4 3 Crustose rock + + 1 1 4/4 2 Rhizocarpon geographicum + + 1 1 4/4 2 Solor ina crocea 1 3 2 3/4 7 Cladonia sp. 1 1 3 3/4 6 Crustose ground-gray 4 1 2/4 8 Cladonia b e l l i d i f o l i a 1 1 2/4 2 BRYOPHYTES Dicranum sp. 1 2 3 3/4 7 Lophozia sp. 3 1 2/4 5 Drepanocladus uncinatus 1 3 2/4 5 Polytr ichum alpinum 1 1 2/4 2 T o t a l Shrubs 3 1 + 1 6 T o t a l Herbs 6 7 3 6 57 T o t a l Lichens 1 1 6 5 28 Total Bryophytes 1 20 Other species occurr ing i n o n l y one s i t e w i t h t h e i r average cover: Cassiope'tetragon a +, Carex podocrapa +, Gentiana glauca +, Hieracium g r a c i l e +, Minuartia o b t u s i l o b a +, Poa sp. + , P.yrola g r a n d i f l o r a +, Cladonia carneola C. ecmocyna +, C. g r a c i l i s +, Stereocaulon tomentosum Bryum sp. +, Diplophyl lum t a x i f o l i u m + , K i a e r i a f a l c a t a +, O r t h o c a u l i s kunzeana +, Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m +, Scapania sp. +. d i s t r i b u t i o n in the subalpine and i t s presence in t h i s community r e f l e c t s the p r o t e c t i o n provided by the snowbed. Other important herb associates are Juncus drummondii, the t a l l e s t species w i t h i n t h i s community, Luzula arcuat a, Antennaria a l p i n a and Epilobium a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m , a l l promoted by an extended snow d u r a t i o n . S a l i x p o l a r i s c o n t r i b u t e s the most to the shrub cover. Phyllodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , Cassiope tetragon a and Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a are of scattered occurrence. Bryophyte cover i s dominated by A n t h e l i a juratzkan a w i t h Drepanocladus uncinatus and Polytr ichum alpinum as important a s s o c i a t e s . These l a s t two mosses are promoted by seepage. Gray crustose species form the l i c h e n cover but v e r y important i s the constant occurrence o f S o l o r i n a crocea. The s i t e s have a d i s t i n c t i v e , l i g h t brown c o l o r from a d i s - tance due to the Juncus and the dead attached leaves o f Carex pyrenaic a. T h i s community r e t a i n s i t s brown appearance even on i n f r a r e d f i l m (Figure 28). B.3.1.13 S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f (Table X V I I ) T h i s community type develops below 1676 m on snow accumulation s lopes. The snow p r o v i d e s a constant summer r u n o f f and a f f o r d s p r o t e c t i o n during the w i n t e r f o r the S a l i x . Snow probably melts by l a t e May or e a r l y June. T h i s community i s most e x t e n s i v e on the mountain i n the small basin below the East Plateau Pond and on the north slope above the North Knoll (see Figures 68 and 69). On the north s l o p e , these r u n o f f s i t e s occur f r e - quently on the upper surface of s o f i f l u c t i o n benches ( t r e a d s ) . The v e g e t a t i o n v a r i e s physiognomical ly  depending on slope and e l e v a t i o n . On w e l l - d r a i n e d r u n o f f slopes between 5 and 15° at a l p i n e Figure 28: C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph of Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed on East Plateau. Brown tones are Carex pyrenaica and Juncus drummondii; the reddish brown i n the foreground is Luetkea pectinata and the pink above the snowbed community is p r i m a r i l y Festuc a. TABLE X V I I : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community and the Cassiope tetragon a - Empetrum nigrum subcommunity showing species composition and cover. Community Type: S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks Water S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 93 33 23 7 5100 5100 5300 5450 1 2 5 2 E NE NNW NW 4 4-5 4 4 120 5200 Cover Classes 94 104 103 96 141 5100 5150 5200 5150 5100 ^ w — 6 8 4 2 2 E W W WSW ssw 4-5 4 4 4-5 4-5 2 + Cassiope tetragon a - Empetrum nigrum sub- community Cover Classes 3 1 + 3 1 Con- s t a n c y Avg. Cover % 6 + 4 1 SHRUBS S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Empetrum nigrum Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Cassiope tetragona Vaccinium uliginosum S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a " Betula glandulosa S a l i x p o l a r i s HERBS Artemisia- a r c t i c a S t e l ! a r i a longipes Aeoniturn del p h i n i f o l i u m B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Carex sp. Petasites f r i g i d u s Gentiana glauca Saxifraga  nelsoniana Poa sp. LICHENS P e l t i g e r a aphthosa Cladonia g r a c i l i s D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Crustose rock C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Cladina m i t i s .Cladina arbuscula C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Rhizocarpon geographicum Stereocaulon tomentosum Cladonia gonecha BRYOPHYTES Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Sphagnum sp. Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e Hylacomium alaskanum Dicranum sp. Bryum sp. Drepanocladus uncinatus Lophozia sp. Cephalozia sp. T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 3 4 1 1 1 + 1 + + + + 1 1 + + + + 6 6 1 + 2 + 1 1 1 1 + 5 4 6 8 8 7 + V 49 3 1 4 + 3 3 IV 18 1 1 + + + 1 IV 1 + 1 + 3 3 I I I 4 1 2 + 1 I I I 2 2 + 1 1 I I I 2 5 1 + 2 2 1 II II 5 1 1 + + t + + 2 + 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 + 3 1 2 2 5 2 3 3 2 2 4 1 1 2 + 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 8 5 7 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 + 2 1 6 2 3 6 7 2 1 1 + 1 + + 3 1 8 4 1 2 8 2 + 3 1 1 1 + + + + + + 2 2 1 7 3 1 5 1 1 1 + 1 + V IV HI- i i i i n H I II II II II 4 i i + + + 2 + + + 1 H I 2 1 1 I I I 1 + + III + 1 3 II 2 1 2 II 1 2 1 II 1 1 2 II 1 + 1 II + + + I I + 1 II + II + 1 1 II + 1 IT + + + 1 1 V N + •• I I I 6 2 2 I I I 6 1 I I I 3 1 3 I I I 3 1 I I I 2 II 2 1 II 1 1 I I + 5 5 72 2 3 13 3 6 12 42 Other species occurr ing in less than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Ledum p a l u s t r e Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i +, Antennaria monocephala + , Campanula l a s i o c a r p a +, Carex microchaeta + , Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m ~ " " Hierochlo e a l p i n a + , Luzula spicata +, Lycopodium " * " " • ~ P o t e n t i l l a Equisetum p a l u s t r e +, E. s c i r p o i d e s +, Festuca a l t a i c a + annotinum +, Mertensia paniculata 2, Pedi c u l a r i s 1angsdorfi i d i v e r s i f o l i a + +, P e d i c u l a r i s sp. +, Poa a r c t i c a +, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i +, Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a + S i b b a l d i a procumbens +, V e r o n i c a ; w o r m s k j o l d i i + , A l e c t o r i a minuscula Cladonla 'amourocraea +, C. cenotea +, C. f i m b r i a t a +, C_. p y x l d a t a " Parmelia s t y g i a + , Stereocaulon a r c t i cum + C. Sedum rosea + , Senecio sheldonensis +. A. n i g r i c a n s +, C e t r a r i a p i n a s t r i +• u n c l a l l s Cladonia sp. +, ground-gray Bartramia i thyphyl1 a rostratu m +, Polytr ichum alpinum 2, £_. _ Crustose Anastrophyllum minutum +, Aulacomnium turgidu m + , BI epharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m Brach.ythecium sp. +, Cal 1 i ergon strami neum +, PI agi omnium p i l i f e r u m +, T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata + , T . s c i t u l a +. e l e v a t i o n s 1555 m and extending i n t o the s u b a l p i n e , there i s a profuse growth of S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a , reaching over one meter in height and having a n e a r l y 100% cover (Figure 29). Water moves q u i c k l y through these s i t e s , at l e a s t during J u l y , and often deposits mud on the ground beneath the shrubs. T h i s d e p o s i t i o n and the intense shade produced by the high shrub l a y e r r e s u l t i n poor development of the vegetat ion o f lower s t r a t a . 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 i  1 1 L . L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water _i i Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 29: Cover r e l a t i o n s in S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community t y p e . As the slope decreases at higher e l e v a t i o n s , drainage becomes impeded and moss hummocks increase w h i l e shrub cover decreases p r o p o r t i o n - a t e l y . The hummocks are up to .4 meters high and composed p r i m a r i l y of mosses, e s p e c i a l l y Sphagnum s p . , Dicranum s p . , Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e and Hylocomium alaskanum. The troughs contain standing or s l o w l y moving water throughout the season (Figure 30). The water t a b l e i s v e r y s h a l l o w ; at one s i t e o n l y 35 cm by J u l y 29, 1974. T h i s poor drainage, combined w i t h the t h i c k moss c o v e r , seems to i n d i c a t e permafrost. Another p o s s i b l e i n d i - ca t ion o f permafrost i s the nonsorted, t u r f - e d g e d c i r c l e s which are common in t h i s community on the north s l o p e . The a c i d i c b o g - l i k e c o n d i t i o n of these mossy, s l o w l y drained s i t e s promotes the occurrence o f a c i d o p h i l e s such as Empetrum nigru m, which forms a major part o f the ground cover on the hummocks, and Ledum p a l u s t r e . In these p o o r l y drained a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s , S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a i s r e s t r i c t e d to the hummocks and grows to o n l y .3 meters. Other shrubs t h a t are Figure 30: S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f on the north slope looking northeast toward A t l i n Lake. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y found in t h i s community are Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a , Vaccinium uliginosu m and S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a . The s i t e s are f u r t h e r charac- t e r i z e d by the lack o f S a l i x p o l a r i s , so common in most o f the community t y p e s . Herb cover i s o n l y 25%. Aconitum del p h i n i f o l i u m i s common here as wel l as in the r i c h Festuca meadow. Other important associates are P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s and the ubiquitous A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a . Lichens p l a y a minor r o l e . Most o f the cover can be a t t r i - buted to Cladina s p . ; C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a ; and C e t r a r i a p i n a s t r i , which i s found growing on the S a l i x branches. A v a r i a n t o f the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a r u n o f f community, which I have c a l l e d the Cassiope tetragon a - Empetrum nigrum subcommunity, forms the v e g e t a t i o n on the northern and eastern sides o f the East Plateau Pond and i s r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s l o c a t i o n . The pond i s part o f the drainage system of the East Plateau and as such, has water c o n s t a n t l y moving through i t . T h i s v a r i a n t i s s i m i l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by moss hummocks covered w i t h dwarf shrubs and w a t e r - f i l l e d troughs. Although a l l the mosses described f o r the community type are present here, Polytr ichu m spp. and Dicranum spp. are dominant. S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a i s present in t h i s s i t e but is s c a t t e r e d . I t s place i s occupied by Cassiope tetragon a which i s co- dominant with Empetrum nigrum. Common herbs include B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a , Carex microchaet a, Gentiana glauc a, A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a , Hierochloe a l p i n a and P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a , but the t o t a l herb cover i s o n l y 10 to 15%. L i c h - ens are more important here than in the community type. The l i c h e n stratum i s composed p r i m a r i l y of Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a , Cladina arbuscul a, Cladina m i t i s , C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s , C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a and S o l o r i n a crocea. The f l o r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s s i t e and the r e s t of the community type might be the r e s u l t o f both a longer snow d u r a t i o n as evidenced by the S o l o r i n a crocea and Cassiope t e t r a g o n a , and water l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n . The moisture c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s subcommunity v a r y throughout the summer depending on water l e v e l o f the pond. From l a t e - J u n e u n t i l l a t e - J u l y , water is a dominant f e a t u r e in t h i s community, occupying a l l the troughs to depths o f over 30 cm. At t h i s time o f the y e a r , most s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g Cassiope t e t r a g o n a , are underwater. By l a t e - A u g u s t , the water l e v e l of the pond has dropped 30 to 50 cm and the troughs often d r y up. Upslope, the moss hummocks of t h i s pond-side v a r i a n t are s l o w l y replaced by Festuca a l t a i c a hummocks, and the v a r i a n t g r a d u a l l y grades i n t o the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow community t y p e . B.3.1.14 Calamagrostis canadensis - PIagiomnium rostratum r u n o f f (Table X V I I I ) The Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f community type i s not common on the mountain, but i s physiognomical ly  and f l o r i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t enough to warrant community-type s t a t u s . T h i s com- munity was found in o n l y three areas, each of which was sampled. Two of these s i t e s are on the East Plateau, one at the base o f the South Saddle and one at Camp #2 w i t h i n the stream d r a i n i n g the East Plateau Pond. The other s i t e i s on the east side of the north slope i n the major drainage channel o f the high snowbank. T o t a l e l e v a t i o n a l range of these three s i t e s i s between 1550 and 1675 m. S o i l s are probably b r u n i s o l s . These w e l l - d r a i n e d s i t e s a l l have r a p i d l y moving water throughout the e n t i r e summer. The v e g e t a t i o n develops large hummock i s l a n d s w i t h i n the meltwater channels. A l l v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n and l i c h e n s are r e s t r i c t e d to these hummocks. Snow cover is probably heavy during the w i n t e r , but when thawing begins i n the s p r i n g , and the r u n o f f channels become once 88 TABLE X V I I B F l o r i s t i c  t a b l e f o r the Calamagrostis canadensis rostratu m r u n o f f showing species composition and Plagiomnium cover. Community T y p e : Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Rocks Water 0 E 4 Cover Classes Presence 73 Avg. Cover % 8 1 1 HERBS Calamagrostis canadensis Festuca a l t a i c a Artemesia a r c t i c a S t e l l a r i a longipes ACQniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m Carex podocarpa LICHENS D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a BRYOPHYTES Plagiomnium rostratum Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Polytr ichum alpinum Hylocomium alaskanum Drepanocladus uncinatus T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 6 2 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 7 + 3 5 3 3 1 1 1 + 2 + + 1 7 1 3 3 + 1 7 4 3/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 3/3 3/3 2/3 2/3 2/3 63 9 6 2 2 1 7 4 2 1 + 1 83 1 22 Other species o c c u r r i n g i n o n l y one s i t e w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Cassiope tetragon a + , S a l i x p o l a r i s 1, S_. r e t i c u l a t a 1, B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a 1, P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a +, Petasites f r i g i d u s 1, Poa leptocoma 1, Poa sp. +, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 1, Sanguisorba canadensis 1, Saxifraga  f e r r u g i n e a +, Sedum rosea 1, Senecio sheldonensis +, C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a +, Crustose rock +, P e l t i g e r a aphthosa +, Rhizocarpon geographicu m +, Brachytheciu m sp. 1, Bryum sp. 1, Diplophyl lum t a x i f o l i u m +, P o h l i a sp. 1, Sphagnum sp. 1. again a c t i v e , snowmelt i s r a p i d . Herbs cover a l l the vegetated areas. Most o f the herb cover can be a t t r i b u t e d to the B l u e j o i n t Grass, Calamagrostis canadensis, whose purple hue gives t h i s community i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c appearance (Figure 31). The Calamagrosti s i s slow to develop. I t does not come up u n t i l mid- or l a t e J u l y and f lowers i n mid- or l a t e August. Important herb associates are Carex podocarpa, Festuca a l t a i c a , Aeoniturn del p h i n i f o l i u m , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f l o i a and P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s . Lichens and shrubs c o n t r i b u t e v e r y l i t t l e to the v e g e t a t i o n but mosses average a 33% cover (Figure 32). Plagiomnium rostratu m and Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e are constant species w i t h Polytr ichum alpinum, Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s , Tomnethypnum nitens and Sphagnum spp. f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing w i t h them. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 —i——i  i • • • Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 32: Cover r e l a t i o n s in Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f community t y p e . B.3.1.15 Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f (Table XIX) The community type i s found o n l y on the north slope where i t i s common. I t s occurrence seems to be r e s t r i c t e d to the g r a d u a l l y s l o p i n g tops o f the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes. The slow drainage through these s i t e s has r e s u l t e d in an accumulation o f mosses and the development o f moss hummocks, which g i v e these s i t e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c appearance (Figure 33). Figure 31: Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratum r u n o f f on the north slope. The purple t inged Calamagrosti s makes t h i s community e a s i l y recog- n i z a b l e from a distance. TABLE X I X : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - Cla.ytonia sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f showing species composition and cover. Community T y p e : Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - CI aytonia sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f S i t e Number E l e v a t i o n (m) P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f Slope (°) Exposure Hygrotope L i t t e r Ground Rocks Water SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a Cassiope tetragona HERBS Carex microchaeta A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa S t e l l e r i a longipes Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m Gentiana glauca Saxifraga  nelsoniana Antennaria monocephala Senecio yukonensis Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i Luzula arcuata Poa Poa sp. a r c t i c a P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a S i b b a l d i a procumbens P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i LICHENS Cladonia g r a c i l i s Cladonia amaurocraea D a c t y l i na a r c t i c a P e l t i g e r a aphthosa Cladonia c o c c i f e r a Cladina arbuscula C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Stereocaulon tomentosum Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Rhizocarpon geographicum P e l t i g e r a canina Cladonia sp. C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a BRYOPHYTES Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Sphagnum sp. Dicranum s p . - Lophozia sp. H.ylocomium alaskanum Bryum sp. T r i t o m a r i a quinquedentata Polytr ichum a l p i num Anastrophyllum miriutum Drepanocladus uncinatus Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e Brachytheciu m sp. Aulacomnium turgidura Hygrohypnum styrracum T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes 84 1722 4 1 6 4 3 6 51 1600 52 1600 78 1676 87 1707 5 1 7 3 1 7 7 1 6 5 3 7 5 1 5 2 1 7 1 3 2 10 2 4 NNW NE N N N N" N NE N 5 4-5 5 5 4-5 5 4-5 4-5 4-5 Ave Cove Cover Classes Constancy % 2 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 3 + + + + - + + 1 T 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 2 3 3 1 4 2 5 5 V 19 2 1 I I 1 + + I I + 1 + 3 1 6 3 3 3 2 V 17 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 2 V 9 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 + . V 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 IV 4 1 1 1 + 1 1 IV 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 IV 1 + + + + + + IV + 1 3 2 + I I I 3 + + 1 1 1 I I I 1 + + + + + I I I + + + 1 + I I I + + 1 1 I I + + 1 + I I + 1 1 I I + 1 1 I I + + - 1 I I + 1 + I I + + 1 I I + 1 1 1 + 1 I I I 1 1 + 1 + I I I + 1 + + + I I I + 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 + I I + 1 1 + I I + + + 1 I I + + 1 + I I + 1 1 I I + + 1 I I + 1 + I I + + 1 I I + + + I I + 3 5 2 2 3 1 5 3 6 V 24 3 2 2 5 + 6 2 IV 16 1 1 1 • + - 1 - - 2 IV 2 1 1 1 1 2 I I I 2 + 2 1 1 + n r 2 1 1 + + 1 - I l l 1 2 1 1 I I 2 1 3 I I 2 1 3 I I 2 + 3 I I 2 2 1 I I 1 + + I I + + 1 I I + 5 I 5 3 2 3 3 1 4 2 5 5 21 41 6 72 Other species occurr ing i n less than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average c o v e r : Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a +, Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a +, Empetrum nigrum +, Ledum p a l u s t r e + , S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a + , Vaccinium uliginosu m + , V. v i t i s - i d a e a + , Calamagrostis canadensis 2, Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a Carex b i p a r t a +, C. phaeocephala +, Hierochloe alpina +, Petasites f r i g i d u s +, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a + , S e d u m rosea +, Tr isetum spicatum +, A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca +, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s + , Cladonia cameo!a + , C. cenotea + , C. p o c i l l u m +, Crustose ground-gray  Crustose rock +, Dermatocarpon r i v u l o r u m +, Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m + , Brachythecium campestre + , C a l l i e r g o n stramineum +, Cephalozia sp. +, P a l u d e l l a squarros a + , Plagiomnium rostratu m + , P l e u r o c l a d a albescens + , P o h l i a sp. +, Tomenthypnum nitens +. Figure 33: Aulacomnium palustr e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f on the north slope. Ponding and semi-stagnant c o n d i t i o n s are common, e s p e c i a l l y in June and J u l y when snowmelt is at a maximum. Water can be heard running beneath the moss carpet in August so a c t i v e drainage does occur through these s i t e s during the e n t i r e snow-free season. S o i l s are peaty w i t h organic mater ial extending down to 15 cm o v e r l y i n g a sandy s u b s t r a t e . The water t a b l e in e a r l y August can be as high as 30 cm from the surface. T h i s mossy r u n o f f community can occur at e l e v a t i o n s between 1555 and 1768 m. Snow cover i s probably moderate to l i g h t , and continuous. S i t e s between 1646 and 1768 m are probably f r e e of snow by June. These s i t e s are often mixed w i t h C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d s and Carex microchaeta meadows, depending on drainage and topographic c o n d i t i o n s . Below 1646 m, r u n o f f areas f r e e of snow before June are u s u a l l y invaded by S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a and develop S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community type v e g e t a t i o n . The Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta s i t e s at these e l e v a t i o n s , then, are confined to areas of g r e a t e r snow d u r a t i o n ( p o s s i b l y u n t i l l a t e J u n e ) . These s i t e s are o f t e n f lanked downslope by the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a r u n o f f community and upslope by the snowbed v a r i a n t of the Cassiope tetragon a community or other snowbed community t y p e s . The moss stratum forms the most conspicuous v e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s community (Figure 34). Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e , w i t h an average cover o f 33%, i s the dominant moss of t h i s community in a l l m i c r o - h a b i t a t s except f o r the w e t t e s t . Sphagnum sp. are also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these r u n o f f communities and develop best in the troughs and on the sides o f the hummocks. Mosses f r e q u e n t l y found on the tops o f the hummocks are Dicranum s p p . , Bryum s p p . , Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e , P_. alpinum and Hylocomium alaskanum. Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s , Bryum s p p . , Hygrohypnum styr iacu m and P a l u d e l l a squarros a occur in the wet troughs. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Figure 34: Shrubs Herbs _ _ _ J Lichens . Bryophytes Cover r e l a t i o n s i n Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community t y p e . Shrub cover i s formed e n t i r e l y by the dwarf, procumbent S a l i x p o l a r i s . Herb cover averages 50%. Most of t h i s cover can be a t t r i b u t e d to Carex microchaeta and A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a . Herbs more d i a g n o s t i c of t h i s community are C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa and Senecio yukonensi s. Both of these species are r e s t r i c t e d to the north, slope o f the mountain. Lichens are a minor part of the v e g e t a t i o n . The s c a t t e r e d species are most ly Cladonias and Cladinas. Cladonia g r a c i l i s i s the most constant. B.3.1.16 Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga nelsoniana -moss r u n o f f (Table XX) The Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f community type i s the most heterogeneous community on the mountain. The i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s o f t h i s mixed forb community are united more on t h e i r physiognomic and environmental s i m i l a r i t i e s than on t h e i r f l o r i s t i c homogeneity. I n t e n s i v e sampling w i t h i n t h i s community type might r e s u l t in i t s being subdiv ided i n t o more f l o r i s t i c a l l y homogeneous u n i t s . I f t h i s were done, these u n i t s would be s m a l l , physiognomical ly  s i m i l a r , and form mosaics w i t h i n the community type described here. Since environmental d i f f e r e n c e s among these u n i t s would probably not be s i g n i f i c a n t in r e l a t i o n TABLE XX : F l o r i s t i c t a b l e f o r the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f showing species composition and cover. 10 on Community Type: Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f S i t e Number 101 95 59 117 136 57 6 144 143 111 151 106 58 99 E l e v a t i o n (m) 1631 1554 1600 1554 1539 1585 1615 1615 1570 1753 1494 1676 1585 1646 P o s i t i o n / R e l i e f — — <w\ /WN — - /WN — — — — - — — Slope (°) 1 2 1 0 0 1 5 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 Exposure SSE E E ENE ENE E NW N NE ESE SW N E SE Avg. Hygrotope 5 4-5 4-5 5 4-5 5 4-5 4-5 5 4-5 4-5 4-5 5 5 Cover Cover Classes Constancy % L i t t e r 1 + 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 + + 3 Ground + + + 2 + Rocks 3 + 1 2 1 + + 2 1 7 3 10 Water + 1 1 4 3 6 8 SHRUBS S a l i x p o l a r i s 6 + 3 1 5 4 3 2 4 3 3 4 2 V 20 HERBS A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a Carex podocarpa Carex microchaeta S i b b a l d i a procumbens Saxifraga  nelsoniana Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i Poa sp. S t e l l a r i a longipes Luzula arcuata Antennaria monocephala Sanguisorba canadensis Luetkea pectinata Carex sp. Poa a r c t i c a Epilobium a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m Sedum rosea Ranunculus n i v a l i s P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 + 1 3 5 IV 11 + + 1 1 + + + + + IV + 1 1 3 2 3 5 I I I 7 1 + 1 3 2 1 I I I — 3- 1 1 + 2 1 3 + I I I 3 2 1 1 1 1 + 1 I I I 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 + 1 1 + + 1 1 + I I I 1 + 1 + + + + I I I + + + + 1 + 1 1 I I I + 1 1 4 5 I I 6 3 1 + I I 2 + 3 1 I I 2 3 1 I I 2 1 3 1 1 I I 2 + 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + I I + + + 1 + + 1 1 + + + 1 + + + + + + 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 6 3 3 + 1 + + + + + + + + + + 9 2 3 + + + + Equisetum p a l u s t r e T r i s e t u m spicatum Juncus drummondii Aeoniturn d e l p h i n i f o l i u m Carex b i p a r t i t a Poa leptocoma Gentiana glauca Ranunculus pygmaeus LICHENS Crustose rock Stereocaulon tomentosum Rhizocarpon geographicum P e l t i g e r a aphthosa C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Cladonia g r a c i l i s U m b i l i c a r i a hyperborea BRYOPHYTES Bryum sp. Drepanocladus uncinatus Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Polytr ichum alpinum B a r b i l o p h o z i a sp. Brach.ythecium sp. Brachythecium albicans Dicranum sp. Sphagnum sp. Plagiomnium rostratum Lophozia sp. Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l a T o t a l Shrubs T o t a l Herbs T o t a l Lichens T o t a l Bryophytes Other species occurring i n l e s s than 20% o f the s i t e s w i t h t h e i r average cover: Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a + , Empetrum nigrum +, Phyllodoce empetriformi s +, S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a +, Vaccinium uliginosu m +, Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i +, Antennaria a l p i n a +, Caltha leptosepala +, Campanula l a s i o c a r p a +, Draba c r a s s i f o l i a +, Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m +, J E . l a t i f o l i u m 2, Festuca a l t a i c a +, Hierochloe a l p i n a +, Juncus biglumi s •+, O x y r i a  dygin a +, P e d i c u l a r i s capitata + , P_. l a n g s d o r f i i +, P e t a s i t e s ~f r l g i d u s +, Saxi fraga f e r r u g i n a e a +, S_. r i v u l a r i s +„ S. T y a l l i i +, Senecio sheldonensis +, C e t r a r i a d e l i s e i • + , C. n i v a l i s + , Cladina arbuscula +, C_. m i t i s +, r a n g i f e r i n a +, Cladonia b e ! 1 i d i f o l i a + , C. carneol a +, Cladonia sp. +, Crustose ground-gray  +, D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a + , Lobaria 1 i n i t a + , Nephroma a r c t i c a 1, P e l t i g e r a canina +, S o l o r i n a crocea +, U m b i l i c a r i a deusta +, Anastrophyllum minutum +, A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a +, Cephalozia sp. + , Ceratodon purpureus +, Cynodontium sp. +, Desmatodon l a t i f o l i u s + , Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a +, Drepanocladus exannulatu s +, Hylocomium alaskanum +, O r t h o c a u l i s kunzeanus +, Paraleuco- bryum i n e r v e + , P h i l o n o t i s fontana 3, Pleuroclada albescens + , P o h l i a sp. + , Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e 1. 5 3 1 3 3 + 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 V 9 1 3 1 1 1 2 + 1 2 1 IV 4 3 2 3 4 1 3 1 4 I I I 9 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 I I I 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 I I I 2 1 + 1 1 2 I I I 1 3 5 1 I I 5 + + 5 I I 3 2 1 1 I I 1 1 1 + 1 I I + 1 1 1 + I I + 1 + 1 I I + 6 + 4 1 5 5 3 2 4 3 3 4 2 22 5 6 7 6 6 6 4 6 3 3 7 7 + 3 49 + 2 1. 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 7 3 13 6 6 5 6 5 5 4 5 7 6 3 5 2 6 47 to the scale of t h i s s t u d y , and since these u n i t s would be too s i m i l a r to be i d e n t i f i e d from a e r i a l photography and too small to be mapped, a breakdown o f t h i s community type i n t o more f l o r i s t i c a l l y homogeneous u n i t s i s not warranted. The r u n o f f community occurs on a l l exposures at e l e v a t i o n s between 1402 m i n the eastern g l a c i a l v a l l e y to 1753 m. I t a t t a i n s i t s best development between 1554 and 1615 m on the East Plateau on the sides of slow gradient streams which are a c t i v e throughout the summer months. Winter snow cover i s heavy and these s i t e s are not f r e e o f snow u n t i l mid- June to l a t e J u l y . On the East Plateau i t covers large areas at the base o f the South Saddle and between Avalanche Peak and the East Plateau Pond. The p r o t e c t i o n provided by the snow d u r a t i o n combined w i t h the continuous i r r i g a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a v e r y d i v e r s e herb f l o r a dominated by f o r b s (Figure 35). Caltha l e p t o s e p a l a , Parnassia f i m b r i a t a and Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a a l l reach t h e i r highest e l e v a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s community t y p e . T h i s community d i f f e r s from the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y by the prolonged d u r a t i o n o f snow, the b e t t e r drainage and lack of s t a g n a t i o n . I t a l s o d i f f e r s in the general f l o r i s t i c composition and i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f moss cover to herb c o v e r . Here they both have almost 50% cover (Figure 36). Figure 36: Cover r e l a t i o n s in Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f community t y p e . 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I I I L L i t t e r Bare Ground Rock Water Shrubs Herbs Lichens Bryophytes Figure 35: Photograph of the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f community on the East Plateau taken on J u l y 11, 1975. Note the snow s t i l l p e r s i s t i n g in the center o f the p i c t u r e . The y e l l o w flowers are Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i and the clumps of grass in the foreground are Festuca a l t a i c a . Herbs which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s community type are Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i , Ranunculus n i v a l i s , Saxifraga  nelsoniana and Carex podocarpa. Other herbs which are f r e q u e n t l y encountered include Epilobium a n a g a l 1 i d i f o l i u m , Sedum r o s e a , Veronica w o r m s j k o l d i i , Sanguisorba canadensis, S i b b a l d i a procumbens, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Equisetum p a l u s t r e and B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a . Bryophytes a t t a i n a 50% cover. Dominant species are Br.yum s p p . , Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e , and Drepanocladus uncinatus. Other species f r e q u e n t l y found associated w i t h t h i s community are P h i l o n o t i s fontan a, Hygroh.ypnum s t y r i a c u m , P a l u d e l l a squarros a, Drepanocladus exannulatu s, Plagiomnium rostratu m, Sphagnum spp. and A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a . S a l i x p o l a r i s is the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t shrub and has an average cover of 25%. Lichen cover (12%) can be a t t r i b u t e d mainly to crustose species covering the numerous exposed rocks found in t h i s community. In some s i t e s on the East Plateau where the snow remains i n t o J u l y , the surface o f the ground i s covered w i t h rocks which form a f l a t pavement. Water i s c o n s t a n t l y moving around the rocks o r over the e n t i r e surface l i k e a sheet. Bryophytes form the dominant v e g e t a t i o n . These stone pavements might be the r e s u l t o f f r o s t a c t i o n . Stone pavements are described by Washburn (1973) and thought to be the combined r e s u l t o f "upfreezing o f stones, ground s a t u r a t i o n and removal o f f i n e s by m e l t - water , the r o t a t i o n and s h i f t i n g o f the stones in the saturated ground under t h e i r own weight and the weight of o v e r l y i n g snow" (Washburn, 1973). B.3.2 Transects Transect r e s u l t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 37, 40, 41 and 43. These f i g u r e s have been s i m p l i f i e d by e l i m i n a t i n g the u b i q u i t o u s species and those o f r a r e occurrence from the l i s t as they do not f o l l o w , and tend to v i s u a l l y confuse the general species p a t t e r n . Many species o f mosses and l i c h e n s were not i d e n t i f i a b l e because of i n s u f f i c i e n t mater ial and have been omitted. I t should be noted that the species l i s t e d in the t r a n s e c t f i g u r e s are in general those species d i a g n o s t i c o f the 16 communities j u s t described. In each f i g u r e a p r o f i l e o f the t r a n s e c t has been superimposed d i r e c t l y above the species l i s t s to show quadrat l o c a t i o n on the p r o f i l e . B.3.2.1 Transect 1: North Knoll Transect The North Knoll t r a n s e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d and sampled between August 10 and August 12, 1974. T h i s t r a n s e c t o r i g i n a t e s in the long snowbed (Saddle Snowbed) on the south side o f the North Knoll at the snow l i n e and runs north f o r 78 m up the south slope o f the North K n o l l . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t r a n s e c t are shown i n Figure 37 and i t s l o c a t i o n i s p l o t t e d in Figure 67. The North Knoll t r a n s e c t r e f l e c t s a snow d u r a t i o n and moisture g r a d i e n t , both c o n t r o l l e d by the slope or topography. By l a t e June snow s t i l l covers quadrats 1-14. At quadrat 1 snow remains u n t i l e a r l y t o mid- August. Snow d u r a t i o n data are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e s t o f the t r a n s e c t , but because o f the exposed p o s i t i o n o f the North Knoll and the nature o f i t s v e g e t a t i o n , i t can be p r e d i c t e d that snow cover i s minimal and disappears v e r y e a r l y i n the s p r i n g , p o s s i b l y in A p r i l . The moisture g r a d i e n t proceeds from subhygric near the edge o f the snow t o x e r i c near the top o f the North K n o l l . The slope i s between 2 and 10° and t o t a l e l e v a t i o n gain along the t r a n s e c t i s approximately  15 m. For the f i r s t 26 meters (quadrats 1-13) the ground surface i s dominated by rock s t r i p e s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h s o i l s t r i p e s . T h i s f r o s t f e a t u r e i s common in snowbed areas. These s t r i p e s did not run p a r a l l e l t o the t r a n s e c t but instead crossed i t in a number o f p laces. The change from Results o f the North Knoll Transect showing changes i n species composition and c o v e r . A p r o f i l e o f the t r a n s e c t has been superimposed d i r e c t l y above the species l i s t s to show quadrat l o c a t i o n on the p r o f i l e . Species values and values used i n the graphs are cover c l a s s e s . Vu-Cn f f = T r a n s i t i o n s V e r t i c a l scale = 8 meters snow A j - L a sb ..'.PLOT NO. A n t h e l i a .juratzkana O x y r i a  digyna Luzula arcuata Crustose ground-gray S a l i x p o l a r i s Cassiope tetragona Antennaria monocephala A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Festuca a l t a i c a Dacty l ina a r c t i c a Cladonia amaurocraea Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Betula glandulosa C e t r a r i a r i c h a r d s o n i i C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s / c u c u l l a t a Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s Vaccinium uliginosum Dryas octopetala A l e c t o r i a n i g r i c a n s A l e c t o r i a m i n i s c u l a A l e c t o r i a ochroleuca Qx.ytropis  huddlesonii Rocks Bare ground 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 + 3 1 3 3 2 1 + + 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 + 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 + 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 + + 3 2 1 + . + 1 + + 5 6 7 8 9 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 4 3 3 0 1 3 3 3 3 3 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 + 2 1 1 + 1 + + 2 2 + 1 + V + 1 + 1 + + + + + 3 2 1 3 + 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 + 2 1 1 + + 1 1 2 2 + 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 + + + 1 1 1 1 2 + 1 2 + T + + + + 1 + + + + 1 1 1 2 1 1 + 3 1 1 + + 1 + + + + 1 + 1 1 1 2 3 7 5 7 6 8 6 5 5 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 + 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 3 + + 1 + + + + + 1 + 1 1 + + 3 1 1 1 Lichens Bryophytes — Shrubs — Herbs PLOT NO. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 rock dominated s t r i p e t o bare ground dominated s t r i p e can be fo l lowed in the bottom graphs in Figure 37. Lichens and bryophytes form the dominant v e g e t a t i o n i n t h i s part of the t r a n s e c t . The high l i c h e n cover i n quadrats 6 and 7 r e f l e c t the numerous crustose species growing on rocks. These have been deleted from the f i g u r e as they tend to p a r a l l e l the d i s t r i b u t i o n of rocks. Most o f the l ichens i n the snowbed area are u n i d e n t i f i e d crustose species. The dominant bryophyte i s the chionophi lous hepatic A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a . Luzula arcuata i s the dominant herbaceous species w i t h s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f Antennaria monocephala, O x y r i a  digyn a and u n i d e n t i f i e d Carex species. As snow d u r a t i o n decreases shrub cover increases. T h i s increase is a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y to S a l i x p o l a r i s and Cassiope tetragon a. Where snow remains o n l y u n t i l l a t e June herbaceous species begin to increase in importance e s p e c i a l l y A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a . Herbs tend t o increase i n importance u n t i l quadrat 23. T h i s i s accompanied by a decrease i n shrubs. In quadrats 21-22 Festuca a l t a i c a and A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a dominate the physiognomy. These s i t e s are probably f r e e of snow by l a t e May. The physiognomy changes a f t e r quadrat 22 w i t h the appearance of Betula glandulosa . Shading r e s u l t s in a decrease in herbs and b r y o p h y t e s . C e t r a r i a r i c h a r d s o n i i i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y found beneath the b i r c h as i s Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a . Species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the more exposed x e r i c s i t e s appear w i t h the b i r c h . These include C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a , n i v a l i s and Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s . With the increase in shrub cover comes a decrease in herb cover. Herb cover continues to decrease along the remainder of the t r a n s e c t . At quadrat 33 an abrupt change takes place i n the v e g e t a t i o n . Most o f the species encountered along the t r a n s e c t up to t h i s quadrat are replaced by a x e r o p h y t i c  f l o r a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i c h e n s . The percentage o f rocks and bare ground which had been low a f t e r l e a v i n g the snowbed area once again increases-, Figure 37 shows c l e a r l y that species composition changes g r a d u a l l y along t h i s t r a n s e c t . Sharp d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are not detected except between quadrats 33 and 34. Although d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s are not common, var ious segments o f the t r a n s e c t , based on dominance and species composit ion, can be assigned to s p e c i f i c plant communities described e a r l i e r . The North Knoll t r a n s e c t appears to run through f i v e communities. Quadrats 1-13 can be assigned to the A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed community t y p e . Quadrats 14-18 belong to the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath, quadrats 18-23 to the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow, quadrats 24-33 to the Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d and quadrats 34-39 to the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d . Although some of the quadrats are t r a n s i t i o n a l they can be placed w i t h i n t h i s community framework. I f a map i s to be made, l i n e s must be drawn to separate the v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s . In Figures 37, 40, 41 and 43 dotted l i n e s crossing the p r o f i l e i n d i c a t e the l i m i t s of the v e g e t a t i o n u n i t . The h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s between communities i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a n s i t i o n a l areas do occur. B.3.2.2 Transect 2: 1676 m Snowbed Transect The 1676 m snowbed t r a n s e c t was sampled on August 12, 1976. The 46 m long t r a n s e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d so as to b i s e c t a wel l developed s o l i f l u c t i o r i lobe. The s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe was at 1676 m on the north slope and w i t h i n a major drainage pathway. Meltwater from upper snowbeds runs through the s i t e during the e n t i r e summer. The g r a d i e n t represented along the t r a n s e c t is p r i m a r i l y one of snow d u r a t i o n and m o i s t u r e . The tread o r upper part o f the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe (quadrats 1-11) i s f r e e o f snow by e a r l y June. Snow c o l l e c t s during the w i n t e r i n the lee of the lobe (quadrats 14-24) and remains l a t e i n t o the summer. Drainage is poor in t h i s part of the t r a n s e c t because of the l a t e snow m e l t , delayed thawing o f the s o i l and the h o r i z o n t a l ground s u r - face, and r e s u l t s in ponding (Figure 38). The h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n o f the tread and the development o f t h i c k moss hummocks here cause l o c a l ponding c o n d i t i o n s at the top of the lobe a l s o . Quadrats 12-14 represent the a c t i v e f r o n t of the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe. Runoff here i s subsurface u n t i l the base of the lobe where water appears above the ground again. The lobe f r o n t and base are shown in Figure 39. Snow d u r a t i o n on the f r o n t i s i n t e r m e d i a t e . T h i s t r a n s e c t then f o l l o w s a g r a d i e n t from an area of s h o r t snow d u r a t i o n (May) and moderate-to-poor drainage c o n d i t i o n s w i t h occasional ponding on the lobe tread (quadrats 1-10 or 11), to longer snow d u r a t i o n (June) and moderate-to-good drainage on the lobe f r o n t (quadrats 11-14),to an area of long snow d u r a t i o n (August),poor drainage and e x t e n s i v e ponding on the lobe base (quadrats 15-24). Figure 40 i l l u s t r a t e s how the p l a n t species segregate out along t h i s t r a n s e c t . Sharper d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s e x i s t along t h i s t r a n s e c t i than the previous one. Shrubs, p a r t i c u l a r l y S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a and S_. r e t i c u l a t a dominate the tread o f the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe up to the v e r y top of the f r o n t (quadrats 1-12). Figures 38 and 39 both show S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a at the edge of the lobe f r o n t . Sphagnum, Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e and A, turgidu m form hummocks on the tread and are codominants w i t h the w i l l o w s . On the a c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n f r o n t , shrub cover g r e a t l y decreases w i t h an increase in herb and bryophyte cover. Claytoriia sarmentosa, P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s and Saxifraga  nelsoniana are among the herbaceous taxa t h a t occur here. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e is s t i l l a major bryophyte species. Figure 38: Ponding and l a t e snow duration at lower end of Transect #2. The p i c t u r e was taken on J u l y 17, 1976, l o o k - ing over the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe f r o n t toward the east. L i g h t brown vegetation i s Carex pv renaica. Figure 39: S o l i f l u c t i o n lobe f r o n t and base crossed by Transect #2, looking south up the north slope. Yellow f lowers are Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i . White f lowers in center and lower r i g h t o f p i c t u r e are Caltha l e p t o s e p a l a . Note the moss development, p r i - m a r i l y Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e , in the foreground. Figure 40: R e s u l t s o f 1676 m Snowbed T r a n s e c t showing changes in species composition and c o v e r . Species values- and v a l u e s used in the graphs are cover c l a s s e s . o en « > = T r a n s i t i o n s V e r t i c a l scale = 2.5 meters ... .. PLOT NO. P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Sphagnum s-p. C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a P o l y t r i chum a l p e s t r e Aulacomnium turgidum S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Hylacomium alaskanum Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Hierochloe a l p i n a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a CI a y t o n i a sarmentosa Saxifraga  n e l s o n i a n a Saxi f raga  r i v u l a r i s P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a S a l i x p o l a r i s P o l y t r i c h u m alpinum Juncus drummondii Caltha leptosepaTa Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 1 1 Epi lobium a n a g a l 1 i d i f o l i u m Sedum rosea Carex pyrenaica S i b b a l d i a procumbens Antennaria a l p i n a Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a Drepanocladus uncinatus S o l o r i n a crocea Sp-En-S ro Lobe t r e a d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 6 2 2 1 2 1 2 + + 1 + + 1 1 + 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 + + 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 7 4 4 3 4 5 5 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 6 5 7 7 1 2 2 + + 1 1 3 3 2 4 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 + 1 + + 1 + + + + + 1 + + + + + + + 1 + + 1 + + "1 + + 2 4 2 3 3 2 1 + 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 + 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 2 1 2 1 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 + 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 4 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 + 1 + + 2 1 + + + + 1 + + + 1 + 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 5 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 + 1 + + + + + + + 1 3 4 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 + + 1 + 1 4 2 Rocks Water Lichens Bryophytes - S h r u b s - H e r b s PHOT, NO. ^ — i — i — i — i — ( — * y — < — i — ) — f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 With an increase in snow d u r a t i o n , a number o f chionophi lous species appear i n c l u d i n g S i b b a l d i a -procumbens, Carex p y r e n a i c a , Juncus drummondii and Caltha l e p t o s e p a l a . The f l o r a o f the base, then, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a mixture of chionophilous and hydrophi lous species. From the d i s t r i b u t i o n of dominant t a x a , t o t a l species comple- ment, and environmental f a c t o r s along the t r a n s e c t , three d i s t i n c t communi- t i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d . These are the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f community found on the l e v e l t r e a d of the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe (quadrats 1 - 1 2 ) ; the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community on the lobe f r o n t (quadrats 12-14); and the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f at the base of the lobe (quadrats 15-24). B.3.2.3 Transect 3: 1615 m Snowbed Transect The 1615 m snowbed t r a n s e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d across an a c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe at 1615 m on the north s lope. I t s l o c a t i o n i s shown in Figure 67. The lee o f the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe f r o n t acts as a snow accumula- t i o n area and r e t a i n s snow u n t i l l a t e J u l y or e a r l y August. The 59 m long t r a n s e c t was sampled on J u l y 28, 1975. At t h i s time there was no snow in the snowbed. The quadrats were marked f o r r e l o c a t i o n i n 1976. S t a r t i n g on J u l y 4, 1976, the weekly progression o f snowmelt was recorded. The snow did not disappear completely u n t i l August, showing t h a t snow d u r a t i o n does v a r y from year to y e a r although the general melt pattern remains the same. Figure 41 shows the r e s u l t s of the sampling i n 1975 i n r e l a t i o n t o the progression o f snow melt In 1976. T h i s t ransect represents a snow d u r a t i o n and moisture g r a d i e n t but u n l i k e the 1676 m snowbed, does not occur i n an a c t i v e r u n o f f area. Moisture comes p r i m a r i l y from the melting snow w i t h i n the s i t e and seepage Figure 41: Results of the 1615 id Snowbed T r a n s e c t showing changes i n species composition and cover i n r e l a t i o n to snow d u r a t i o n . Species v a l u e s and v a l u e s used i n the graphs are cover c l a s s e s . ,Fa- Pd = T r a n s i t i o n s = Snow V e r t i c a l scale = 2.5 m irm PLOT NO. Snowmelt dates 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Sphagnum sp. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Vaccinium ul iginosum Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Empetrum nigrum D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a Cladina sp. C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a Aeoniturn del p h i n i f o l i u m Festuca a l t a i c a Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i Epilobium a n a g a l 1 i d i f o l i u m Luetkea pect inata Antennaria a l p i n a S i b b a l d i a procumbens Juncus drummondii Phyl lodoce empetriformis Luzula arcuata S o l o r i n a crocea Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a Rhacomitrium sudeticum A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a Equisetum p a l u s t r e Drepanocladus uncinatus 2 + + + 1 + 1 1 + + + + 2 3 3 1 1 + 1 1 2 + 1 + 1 3 4 + + + + 2 3 1 3 2 + + + + + + + 1 + + + + + + + + + 1 + + + 3 3 3 2 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 1 + + 3 2 1 1 1 + 1 1 3 2 4 2 3 3 4 6 4 2 2 2 + + + + 1 1 2 + + + + + 2 2 3 2 + + 3 3 + 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 + + + + + 1 2 3 + + 1 1 + 2 1 3 + + 2 1 1 + 4 3 + 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 + 1 + 1 6 + 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 + 2 + 1 Rock Water Bare ground Lichens Bryophytes Shrubs Herbs PLOT NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 T 1 1 1 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 from a snowbed above. T h i s t r a n s e c t t y p i f i e s many of the snowbeds in the area. Figure 42 i s a c o l o r i n f r a r e d photograph taken on August 2, 1976, o f the 1615 m snowbed, looking upslope south to the f r o n t of the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe. Pink plants in the foreground and in the distance on top of the lobe are S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a . The center of the snowbed, quadrat 12, i s near the boulder in the center o f the p i c t u r e . Quadrats 1-3 are in an exposed p o s i t i o n at the top of the lobe and are probably f r e e of snow by June. These quadrats represent the x e r i c p o r t i o n of the t r a n s e c t . As summer thaw progresses, meltwater moves down- slope to the northern (lower) end of the t r a n s e c t . The graph o f water cover shows ponding at the bottom h a l f of the snowbed. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f species i s d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t e d by snow d u r a t i o n and moisture c o n d i t i o n s . The f i r s t two quadrats are x e r i c w i t h a high p r o p o r t i o n o f l i c h e n s and shrubs. Quadrats 3 and 4 are in areas s l i g h t l y s h e l t e r e d by the s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe f r o n t . T h i s increase i n p r o t e c - t i o n , moisture and snow d u r a t i o n has favored the development o f S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a . Between quadrats 4 and 5, the snow melts out during June, mesic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l and Festuca a l t a i c a becomes common along w i t h Campanula l a s i o c a r p a . The increased snow d u r a t i o n a f t e r quadrat 5, and mesic to subhygric c o n d i t i o n s o f the lobe front*promote chionophilous species such as Luetkea p e c t i n a t a , Phyl1odoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , S o l o r i n a crocea and Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a . The ground surface l e v e l s a f t e r quadrat 14 and becomes v e r y wet and rocky. Vascular species cover less than 10% o f the s u r f a c e . Most o f the v e g e t a t i v e cover i s o f bryophytes which can withstand the long snow d u r a t i o n and f l o o d i n g . These are p r i m a r i l y A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a , Drepanocladus uncinatus and Rhacomitrium sudeticum. Vascular cover assumes greater s i g n i f i c a n c e as snow d u r a t i o n decreases, e s p e c i a l l y the shrub l a y e r which becomes codominant with the bryophytes. Moisture c o n d i t i o n s at quadrat Figure 42: Color i n f r a r e d photograph of Transect #3 looking north across snowbed to s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe. T r a n - sect basel ine i s shown in black. 30 are mesic to s u b h y g r i c . The assignment of communities along t h i s t r a n s e c t i s more d i f f i c u l t than in the previous two. Quadrats 1-3 are intermediate between the C e t r a r i a n i v a l is - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d and the more mesic Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d . Probably because of b e t t e r moisture c o n d i t i o n s and some seepage, S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a has been sub- s t i t u t e d f o r the b i r c h . Quadrat 4 can be placed in the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow which q u i c k l y grades i n t o a Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community. T h i s community i s wel l developed here, and can be considered to extend from quadrat 6 to 13 w i t h best d e v e l o p - ment in quadrats 10 and 11. The increase i n w a t e r , decrease in shrubs and increase in bryophytes at the lower h a l f of the snowbed i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed. A p o o r l y developed S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f develops at the base o f the snowbed. Missing in t h i s snowbed but common in others is a band of Cassiope tetragon a between the A n t h e l i a community and the S a l i x r u n o f f . B.3.2.4 Transect 4: Saddle Snowbed Transect T h i s t r a n s e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d in 1975 across the long snowbed in the saddle between the North Knoll and the north s l o p e , v e r y near the o r i g i n of Transect 1 (see Figure 67). The purpose o f the saddle snowbed t r a n s e c t was to document species d i s t r i b u t i o n in r e l a t i o n t o snow d u r a t i o n . To do t h i s , the north and south edges o f the snowbed were marked e v e r y week from June 29 t o August 17 and the vegetat ion was then sampled between time l i n e s . The r e s u l t s are shown in Figure 43. Figure 44 i s a f a l s e c o l o r i n f r a r e d photograph taken on J u l y 28, 1975 looking north across the snowbed towards the North K n o l l . Figure 43: Results o f the Saddle Snowbed T r a n s e c t showing changes in species composition and cover i n r e l a t i o n to snow d u r a t i o n . Species values and values used i n the graphs are cover c l a s s e s . * * = T r a n s i t i o n s frr\ /in- rrr,  =  SnOW V e r t i c a l scale = 2 meters TIME LINE ... PLOT NO. Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Nephroma a r c t i c a T r i s e t u m spicatum Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i Festuca a l t a i c a D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a Campanula l a s i o c a r p a S a l i x p o l a r i s A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a Crustose ground-gray S o l o r i n a crocea L u z u l a arcuata S i b b a l d i a procumbens A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a Antennaria a l p i n a Phyl lodoce empetriformis Luetkea p e c t i n a t a Carex pyrenaica Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a O x y r i a  digyna Stereocaulon sp. Antennaria monocephala Cassiope tetragona C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a Vaccinium ul iginosum Empetrum nigrum Vaccinium v i t i s - i d a e a Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Dryas octopetala Cladina r a n g i f e r i n a Rock Bare ground Lichens Bryophytes Shrubs Herbs -40 meters- 1 1 + + 1 1 1 + 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 + 29/6/75 6/7/75 13/7/75 20/7/75 27/7/75 3/8/75, rTTmWO/8/75, 1 Fa- A j - L a sb let-Cm h . C * [ — * 1 dm 1 1 1 + 1 + + + + 1 + 1 + . + + 2 5 6 3 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 2 3 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 + 2 + + + 1 1 + + 1 1 1 1 + + + + 1 + + + 1 + 1 + } a—-f -t 1- 4 3 2 1 + •H TIME LINE PLOT NO. S S S S S S S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + + + + 1 3 2 + 1 1 1 1 + + 3 3 5 + 2 1 + + + + + + + + 1 1 1 + 3 5 2 2 1 1 + 1 + + 1 1 2 1 + + 2 + + 2 1 3 3 2 3 + + + + + + + + + 1 3 3 + + 1 + + A \ / \ \ / \ y 3 1 1 1 + + 1 + 1 + 1 - + A h 1 i — I — i — y f N N N  N N N N 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Figure 44: Color i n f r a r e d photograph, taken J u l y 28, 1975, of Transect #4, looking north across saddle snowbed up the North Knol1. Since the snowbed l i e s in a s a d d l e , drainage i s l a t e r a l (east and w e s t ) . The north and south edges o f the snowbed are on slopes which slope toward the snow and d i f f e r somewhat i n m o i s t u r e . No snowbeds develop on the North K n o l l , and t h u s , the northern h a l f o f the t r a n s e c t receives no seepage. The southern h a l f o f the t r a n s e c t , though, does r e c e i v e some seepage from melting snowbeds on the north s lope. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e in a v a i l - able moisture i n f l u e n c e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n . On the south edge at time l i n e 1, there i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c meadow v e g e t a t i o n w i t h Festuca a l t a i c a , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a and D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a . At time l i n e 2, where the snow remains u n t i l J u l y , chionophilous species begin to appear ( A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a , Antennaria a l p i n a , Phyl lodoce e m p e t r i f o r m i s , and Luetkea p e c t i n a t a ) o r become more prominent ( S o l o r i n a croce a, Luzula arcuat a). As the snow d u r a t i o n increases through the time l i n e s , v e g e t a t i v e cover decreases and rocks become more and more prominent, probably because o f n i v a t i o n processes occurr ing here. Where the snow remains u n t i l August (time l i n e s 6-8) shrubs have disappeared and herbs are of minor importance. The v e g e t a t i o n at time l i n e 1 on the north end o f the t r a n s - ect i s , as i t i s at the south end, dominated by Festuca a l t a i c a . The dryness o f time l i n e N I , because of lack o f seepage, is evidenced by the more d i v e r s e l i c h e n f l o r a w i t h some species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f e l l f i e l d s such as C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and Thamnolia y e r m i c u l a r i s . Vascular species found here which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of d r y s i t e s are Dryas octopetala and Vaccinium uliginosum . Where the snow melts out during the f i r s t two weeks i n J u l y , Cassiope tetragon a dominates and t y p i c a l l y chionophi lous species occur. Snowmelt l a t e r than t h i s r e s u l t s in a decrease in v a s c u l a r species. Vegeta- t i o n here is dominated by A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a , Luzula arcuat a, and crustose species o f l i c h e n s growing on the ground. 114 Changes in species- dominance and f l o r i s t i c composition are d i s t i n c t enough to a l l o w the r e c o g n i t i o n of f i v e community t y p e s . Time l i n e SI i s placed w i t h i n the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow. Time l i n e s S2-S4 and p o s s i b l y S5 w i t h t h e i r longer snow durat ion belong to the S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum pi 1iferu m snowbed. The remainder o f the southern h a l f o f the t r a n s e c t belongs to the A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed. T h i s community type continues on the other (north) side of the snowbed from the edge of snow to time l i n e N4. Time l i n e s N3 and N2 w i t h a s h o r t e r snow d u r a t i o n and g r e a t e r Cassiope cover belong to the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina miti's heath (Cassiope tetragon a - Solori.na crocea sub community). The l a s t time l i n e on the north side of the t ransect belongs to the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow. B.4 Discussion B.4.1 General v e g e t a t i o n - environment r e l a t i o n s B.4.1.1 Environmental f a c t o r s The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f natural v e g e t a t i o n i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Low temperature i s a dominant environmental f a c t o r in the a l p i n e zone, r e s t r i c t i n g the occurrence of plants to those which are s t r u c t u r a l l y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y  adapted t o s u r v i v a l in h e a t - d e f i c i e n t ecosystems c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s h o r t , cool summers and l o n g , cold w i n t e r s ( B i l l i n g s , 1973; B l i s s , 1971). E x c e l l e n t surveys and reviews on the adaptation o f v e g e t a t i o n to cold environments can be found in B l i s s (1971), B i l l i n g s (1974), B i l l i n g s and Mooney (.1968), and S a v i l e (1972). A l p i n e vegetat ion i s composed o f evergreen and deciduous p r o s t r a t e shrubs, s h o r t - stemmed herbaceous p e r e n n i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y r o s e t t e p l a n t s , cushion p l a n t s , / grasses and sedges, and bryophytes and l i c h e n s . Cold temperatures and short growing seasons i n h i b i t t r e e growth. Because of low growth forms, l i g h t i s not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r and the e r e c t h a b i t i s not needed. The erect growth form i s a c t u a l l y a disadvantage, f o r species s t i c k i n g above the snow in w i n t e r are subject to severe d e s i c c a t i o n and i c e - a b r a s i o n . Unl ike a f o r e s t community, the low growth form of a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n r e s u l t s in l i t t l e environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n and thus the physical environment i s v e r y pronounced ( B i l l i n g s , 1974). Topographic d i v e r s i t y modif ies other environmental f a c t o r s and r e s u l t s in a great d i v e r s i t y of h a b i t a t s w i t h i n a small area. The patchwork o f v e g e t a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g t h i s h a b i t a t d i v e r s i t y , can be most b e w i l d e r i n g to a person used to the more uniform nature of f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n . The physical environmental f a c t o r s most instrumental i n c o n t r o l l i n g the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n w i t h i n the a l p i n e zone are topography, snow d u r a t i o n , moisture ( i n c l u d i n g atmospheric moisture) and wind. Vegetation i s sorted out in r e l a t i o n to gradients o f these f a c t o r s . These physical environmental f a c t o r s are not s i m p l e , but complex, and thus form "complex gradients" (sensu W h i t t a k e r , 1956). The r e l a t i v e importance o f the environmental f a c t o r s depends on the geographic l o c a t i o n o f the a l p i n e area. In a l l cases, topography i s o f major importance. In the P r e s i d e n t i a l Range in New Hampshire, atmospheric moisture i s prominent along w i t h snow durat ion ( B l i s s , 1963). - In New Zealand, summer wind i s reported to be o f primary importance ( B i l l i n g s and Marks, 1961; B l i s s , 1969). Studies have shown that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of vegetat ion in the a l p i n e areas o f Western North America is i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by topography, snow d u r a t i o n and moisture o r water a v a i l a b i l i t y (Bamberg and Major, 1968; B i l l i n g s , 1973; B i l l i n g s and B l i s s , 1959; B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968; B l i s s , 1969, 1971; D e t w y l e r , 1974; Johnson and B i l l i n g s , 1972; Marr, 1961; S c o t t , 1974a, 1974b, 1974c). T h i s i s t r u e of the' a l p i n e area o f Teresa Is land ( B u t t r i c k , 1977), Topography,  snow d u r a t i o n and moisture are not independent of each other but are r a t h e r s t r o n g l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . Topographic gradients on the mountain, c a l l e d mesotopographic-gradients by B i l l i n g s (1973), i n t e r a c t with wind to modify snow accumulation which in turn e f f e c t s r u n o f f (Figure 45). In the A t l i n area the p r e v a i l i n g wind i s from the south. During the w i n t e r t h i s south wind removes much o r a l l of the snow from the summit, r idges and high plateaus and deposits i t on the northern lee slopes where large accumulations develop. The north s l o p e s , then, have a heavier snow cover than the south s lopes. During the summer, d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l r a d i a t i o n r e c e i p t between north and south slopes i s pronounced w i t h south slopes r e c e i v i n g up to f o u r times the amount of r a d i a t i o n received on the north slope (Barry and Van Wie, 1974; P r i c e , 1971). The low r a d i a t i o n r e c e i p t combined w i t h the snow accumulation on these lee slopes r e s u l t s in the development o f e x t e n s i v e snowbeds. Permanent snowbeds and annual snowbeds l a s t i n g through J u l y are a major feature on the northern and northeastern a l p i n e slopes o f Teresa I s l a n d . Snowbed development i s poor on the southern slopes which r e t a i n less snow and r e c e i v e more r a d i a t i o n . The small snowbeds that do develop here in general melt out by the end of June. T h i s g r a d i e n t o f snow d u r a t i o n has a major e f f e c t on species d i s t r i b u t i o n . The snowbed end o f the g r a d i e n t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by chionophi lous o r snow-loving species. Chionophobous, or s n o w - i n t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s , are found on the exposed r idges and k n o l l s where snow accumulation i s minimal. Habitats intermediate between the two occur on the southern slopes and slopes above and below snowbeds. Since there i s low p r e c i p i t a t i o n in the A t l i n area, the moisture regime on the mountain i s c o n t r o l l e d by snowmelt. Major r u n o f f channels and small ponds are r e s t r i c t e d to northern and eastern slopes where Radiation Receipt P r e v a i l i n g Wind South Slope CO Minimum Maximum Figure 45: R e l a t i o n s h i p s between topography and environmental f a c t o r s . See t e x t f o r d i s c u s s i o n . pceric mesic ri C - 5 CD Intermediate h y g r i c h y d r i c there is a constant supply of melt water from permanent snowbeds throughout the summer months. Ridges and k n o l l s w i t h coarse w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s and no added moisture from snowmelt represent the most x e r i c s i t e s on the mountain. Slopes above snowbeds and w e l l - d r a i n e d slopes below are more mesic. Hygric and h y d r i c s i t e s are found below snowbeds in p o o r l y drained h o r i z o n t a l topography, in basins and beside r u n o f f streams and ponds. Species segregate out along t h i s moisture g r a d i e n t according to t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l t o l e r a n c e s . I t can be seen, then, t h a t topography i s a major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f snow and a l s o m o i s t u r e . Exposure to the wind is another e f f e c t of topographic p o s i t i o n . The e f f e c t o f wind i s most pronounced on exposed r i d g e s , k n o l l s and high plateaus and has much less i n f l u e n c e in basins and on lee s lopes. B.4.1.2 Habitat types A meaningful way to g e n e r a l i z e the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Teresa I s l a n d ' s a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n i s i n terms o f the three major environmental f a c t o r s discussed above; topography, snow d u r a t i o n and m o i s t u r e . I have e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r environmental c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s defined p r i m a r i l y by these f a c t o r s which e f f e c t i v e l y  r e f l e c t both d i s t r i b u t i o n o f taxa and major patterns in the v e g e t a t i o n . These environmental u n i t s , here c a l l e d h a b i t a t t y p e s , are a e r i a l l y d i s t i n c t and can be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r topographic p o s i t i o n on the mountain and by the f l o r i s t i c and physiognomic c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s o f the associated v e g e t a t i o n . Habitat type i s used here i n a broader sense than t h a t used by Daubenmire (1952), who defines h a b i t a t type as "the c o l l e c t i v e area which one a s s o c i a t i o n occupies." Environmental v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t type r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t i a l l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the taxa. A h a b i t a t t y p e , then, can be composed of a number o f communities which have c e r t a i n environmental s i m i l a r i t i e s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , the usage of the term "habitat type" i s s i m i l a r to that of Whittaker (1962), who defines i t as "a grouping o f ecosystems or communities by resemblance of t h e i r h a b i t a t s or e n v i r o n m e n t s . . . " . S i m i l a r l y , Dansereau (1957) b e l i e v e s that such e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y defined u n i t s cannot be t i e d to a community but are d e f i n a b l e only i n terms o f s i t e f a c t o r s and t h a t a s i n g l e u n i t may contain one o r more communities. S i m i l a r u n i t s have a l s o been used by E l t o n and M i l l e r (1954) in the study o f animal communities. The four h a b i t a t types described i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n are: 1) f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s , 2) snowbeds, 3) r u n o f f s i t e s , and 4) meadows and s h r u b f i e l d s . Figure 46 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f these to the three environmental f a c t o r s . B.4.1.2.1 F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type F e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s represent the most e n v i r o n - mental ly severe h a b i t a t s on the mountain. T h i s h a b i t a t type occurs most f r e q u e n t l y on exposed s l o p e s , k n o l l s , peaks, r idges and other convex topography where wind i s a major f a c t o r . The exposed nature o f these s i t e s r e s u l t s in a v e r y l i g h t and discontinuous snowcover so t h a t the vegetat ion experiences the abrasive and d e s i c c a t i n g e f f e c t o f the wind throughout the w i n t e r . Moisture is l i m i t i n g in t h i s h a b i t a t t y p e . The lack of snow r e s u l t s i n a severe moisture d e f i c i t during the summer. Snowmelt occurs r a p i d l y in v e r y e a r l y spring and the large rocks o f the b l o c k f i e l d s and the sandy, g r a v e l l y  substrate of the f e l l f i e l d s r e s u l t in r a p i d drainage, making these s i t e s the most x e r i c on the mountain. MOISTURE F E L L F I E L D S AND B L O C K F I E L D S MEADOWS AND S H R U B F I E L D S TOPOGRAPHY RUNOFF S I T E S SNOWBEDS May August SNOW DURATION Figure 46: Diagram o f the f o u r h a b i t a t types in r e l a t i o n to snow d u r a t i o n , moisture and topographic g r a d i e n t s . Arrows i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s occurr ing between h a b i t a t t y p e s . B l o c k f i e l d s , often c a l l e d felsenmeer, are assemblages of angular rock fragments which completely mantle the surface of the summit and much o f the peaks and high r i d g e s . These b l o c k s , caused by f r o s t a c t i o n , are completely covered w i t h black f o l i o s e and crustose l i c h e n s . At lower e l e v a t i o n s (ca. 1900 m) where exposure to the wind is not as great and topography i s more g e n t l e , these b l o c k f i e l d s grade i n t o f e l l f i e l d s which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by fewer large blocks and more sand and gravel w i t h a concurrent increase in v a s c u l a r p l a n t species and a s l i g h t decrease in l i c h e n s . F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d v e g e t a t i o n i s dominated by macro!ichens. Mosses are common and v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f cushion p l a n t s , r o s e t t e plants and dwarf p r o s t r a t e shrubs, Black macro!ichens such as U m b i l i c a r i a proboscoidea, C e t r a r i a commixt a, A l e c t o r i a minuscula and Parmelia s t y g i a cover the rocks and the y e l l o w C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s and C_. c u c u l l a t a often carpet the ground or grow i n between the rocks. Lichens are wel l adapted to the r i g o r o u s environmental c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s h a b i t a t t y p e . They have the a b i l i t y to d r y out f o r extended periods o f time without i n j u r y and are able to make use of the meagre moisture a v a i l a b l e to them. The c e l l w a l l s are h y g r o s c o p i c , able to take up moisture from atmospheric water vapour ( S a v i l e , 1972). The low l i c h e n growth form allows them to make maximum use of meltwater at the r o c k - and s o i l - a i r i n t e r f a c e and any p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s trapped before i t enters the ground ( B i l l i n g s , 1974). Temperature changes on p o o r l y vegetated s o i l surfaces and on rock are extreme (Barry and Van Wie, 1974) and l i c h e n s are able to withstand extremes of heat and cold w i t h minimal i n j u r y ( S a v i l e , 1972). In f a c t , optimum temperatures f o r photosynthesis f o r many l i c h e n s are around 5° C and these l i c h e n s also can c a r r y out net p o s i t i v e photo- s y n t h e s i s at temperatures below 0° C ( B i l l i n g s , 1974). Many of these adaptations also p e r t a i n to mosses. The grey moss, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum, occurs almost e x c l u s i v e l y  i n t h i s h a b i t a t type and a t t a i n s higher e l e v a t i o n s on the mountain than any v a s c u l a r species. The same is t r u e w i t h i t s l a t i t u d i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n in the A r c t i c ( S a v i l e , 1972). In g e n e r a l , beyond the environmental l i m i t s of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , l i c h e n s and bryophytes can s t i l l be found. The most common vascular species occurr ing in the f e l l - f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type are dwarf, mat forming, p r o s t r a t e shrubs (Dryas octopetala and Vaccinium u l i g i n o s u m ) , cushions ( S i l e n e a c a u l i s ) , and r o s e t t e s (Saxifraga  t r l s c u s p i d a t a , S_. bronchial i s , and Draba n i v a l i s ) . In these p l a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the r o s e t t e s and cushion species, the s e n s i t i v e growing points are protected from wind abrasion by the l i v i n g and dead leaves o f previous y e a r s . The dense growth form o f these species reduces wind movement and thus warm a i r i s trapped w i t h i n the plants ( S a v i l e , 1972). Monocots growing in t h i s h a b i t a t type are g e n e r a l l y tussock-forming species such as Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and _F. a l t a i c a . By decreasing a i r movement, the dense growth form of the v a s c u l a r plants also decreases e v a p o r a t i o n a l loss o f water. Leaves are also often h e a v i l y c u t i n i z e d as shown in Saxifraga  t r i c u s p i d a t a and Dryas o c t o p e t a l a . Plants r a r e l y exceed f i v e centimeters in height except when occurr ing in shallow pockets and in the lee o f rocks. These features decrease the laminar f low of the wind. T h i s decrease in wind v e l o c i t y w i t h a p r o p o r t i o n a l decrease in i t s d e s i c c a t i n g and cool ing e f f e c t s (Wilson, 1959) cause f a v o r a b l e m i c r o s i t e s f o r the establishment o f l a r g e r species such as Betula glandulos a and S a l i x brachycarp a. The wind, cold temperatures and extreme x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s are the most important f a c t o r s r e s t r i c t i n g p l a n t l i f e in t h i s h a b i t a t type. With low p r o d u c t i v i t y and high winds, humus b u i l d - u p i s m i n i m a l , h o r i z o n development is weak and s o i l s are r e g o s o l s . Dryas octopetala and Lupinus a r c t i c u s are important species because of t h e i r n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g  a b i l i t y . The e x t e n s i v e temperature f l u c t u a t i o n o f the bare ground r e s u l t s in f r o s t heaving and the formation of nonsorted c i r c l e s which hinder c o l o n i z a t i o n . D i r e c t i o n a l succession, i f occurr ing at a l l , is extremely  slow and t h i s h a b i t a t type represents a common topoclimax i n the a l p i n e zone of Teresa I s l a n d . B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 2 Snowbed h a b i t a t type Snowbeds are here defined as areas where w i n t e r snow remains u n t i l e a r l y J u l y . Snowbed r e f e r s to both the ground area exposed by snowmelt during J u l y and August and the actual snow zones w i t h i n these areas. Snowbeds are a common f e a t u r e on the mountain and, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , are concentrated on northern and northeastern lee slopes where they are f r e q u e n t l y associated w i t h s o l i f l u c t i o n t e r r a i n . The lee o f s o l i f l u c t i o n benches provides a s i t e f o r snow accumulation. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the melt ing snow from these banks provides the necessary moisture to generate a c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n , thus these snowbeds are a c t u a l l y maintaining t h e i r own h a b i t a t . Most o f the snow w i t h i n the snowbeds on the i s l a n d melt out by mid-August, but some l a r g e permanent snowbeds do occur on the north s l o p e , in the g l a c i a l c irques and on the lee side o f the high southern r i d g e s . From a d i s t a n c e , snowbeds, even w i t h o u t snow, can be located e a s i l y by t h e i r topographic p o s i t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f the snowbed environment on a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n have been well documented ( B i l l i n g s and B l i s s , 1959; Dahl, 1956; D e t w y l e r , 1974; G j a e r e y o l l , 1956; Johnson and B i l l i n g s , 1962; and S c o t t , 1974). In the a l p i n e zone of Teresa I s l a n d there are i n general three e f f e c t s : 1. The long snow d u r a t i o n of a snowbed provides a protected environment f o r the u n d e r l y i n g v e g e t a t i o n . Species here are protected from the abrasive and desiccat ing e f f e c t s o f wind. Snowcover i n s u l a t e s the v e g e t a t i o n from the extreme temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s o f spring and the low temperatures o f w i n t e r . Temperatures beneath the snow remain at a constant -3° C during the w i n t e r months w h i l e a i r temperatures can f l u c t u a t e from lows o f -37° to -10° C (Zwinger and Wi. l lard, 1972). I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t some species can reach t h e i r highest e l e v a t i o n s under the p r o t e c t i o n o f snowbeds. On Teresa I s l a n d , Luetkea pectinata and Cassiope mertensian a, both common subalpine s p e c i e s , reach a high e l e v a t i o n o f about 1646 m in snowbed h a b i t a t s ( B u t t r i c k , 1977). The p r o t e c t i v e nature of the snowbed i s r e a l l y manifested o n l y where the snow melts out by l a t e J u l y and even then o n l y at e l e v a t i o n s below 1740 m. In these s i t e s the v e g e t a t i o n i s complete and forbs and dwarf shrubs dominate. 2. The d u r a t i o n o f snow g r e a t l y reduces the length o f the growing season. T h i s shortened growing season r e s t r i c t s species occurrence to chionophi lous and s n o w - t o l e r a n t taxa. The establishment and growth o f v a s c u l a r plants i s extremely  r e s t r i c t e d i n snowbeds above 1740 m and at lower e l e v a t i o n s i n snowbeds melt ing l a t e r than J u l y . Crustose l i c h e n s dominate these h a b i t a t s . The exposed s u b s t r a t e , moisture from the a b l a t i n g snowbed, and temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s at the snowbed f r o n t r e s u l t i n e x t e n s i v e f r o s t a c t i o n . T h i s f u r t h e r hinders the establishment o f v a s c u l a r p l a n t s . 3. Important to plants are the extreme m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s o f snowbed h a b i t a t s . E a r l y - m e l t i n g lower edges o f snowbeds and snowbeds which r e c e i v e constant seepage from other snowpatches above them are moist throughout the summer. F r e q u e n t l y , l a t e melt ing snowbed h a b i t a t s are extremely  d r y . T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due to the poor water holding c a p a c i t y o f the s o i l s . Because of the impoverished v e g e t a t i o n in s i t e s of l a t e snow r e l e a s e , v e r y l i t t l e humus i s added to the s o i l . The f i n e m a t e r i a l s t h a t do accumulate are often washed away 6y the melt water. Warren Wilson (1958) discussed the enrichment of snowbed s o i l s from the accumulation of d i r t on the melt ing snow, but t h i s phenomenon was not noted in the study area. Regosolic s o i l s seem to dominate. Thus, w h i l e the snowbed can p r o v i d e a p r o t e c t i v e environment f o r the v e g e t a t i o n , the environmental c o n d i t i o n s in areas f r e e of snow a f t e r J u l y and i n high e l e v a t i o n snowbeds can be as severe as those in the f e l l f i e l d s . Both face x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s ; however, instead of wind and cold temperatures, snowbed v e g e t a t i o n must contend w i t h short growing seasons. D i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the v e g e t a t i o n w i t h i n the snowbed h a b i t a t type i s due to the tolerances o f the species to shortness of growing season and drought. In g e n e r a l , v e g e t a t i o n grades from a complete cover of forbs and dwarf shrubs at the edge to a p a r t i a l cover o f crustose l i c h e n s and bryophytes in the center as shown by t r a n s e c t s 3 and 4. Vegeta- t i o n cover decreases p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h increase i n snowcover. In the snowbed environment a species' a b i l i t y to grow r a p i d l y i s more advantageous than i t s a b i l i t y to withstand c o l d . I t i s uncertain at the present time how species i n l a t e snowbeds are able to grow q u i c k l y ( B i l l i n g s , 1974; B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968). B i l l i n g s and B l i s s (1959) s t a t e t h a t species which are released l a t e r from the snow grow f a s t e r in a s h o r t e r time than those released e a r l i e r but they are small and produce less dry matter. The evergreen h a b i t i s o b v i o u s l y advantageous since the plants do not have to expend excess energy to produce new leaves y e a r l y and photosynthesis can s t a r t as soon as environmental c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w . There is evidence that some species can commence growth w h i l e s t i l l under snow ( S a v i l e , 1972). The growing season i s f r e q u e n t l y too short f o r species to complete t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e so v e g e t a t i v e reproduction i s a necessary adaptation. I' have noticed that v a s c u l a r plants become more deeply pigmented w i t h anthocyanins the longer the snow d u r a t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e in Luzula arcuata and Artemisia a r c t i c a . I t i s thought that anthocyanins in leaves and stems may absorb excess r a d i a t i o n w i t h a r e s u l t a n t increase in l e a f temperature ( B i l l i n g s , 1974; B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968). Chionophilous v a s c u l a r species i n d i c a t i v e o f snowbeds include S i b b a l d i a procumbens, Luzula arcuata and Antennaria a l p i n a . In some l a t e snowbeds the snow does not melt out e v e r y year and plants must be able to e x i s t under snow f o r over a y e a r . In the severe environment o f the high e l e v a t i o n s (over 1740 m) any prolonged snow durat ion i s detr imental to v a s c u l a r p l a n t s . In these h a b i t a t s the l a s t plants to be found are f r e q u e n t l y Luzula arcuata and S i l e n e a c a u l i s . T h i s l a t t e r species i s a lso common in f e l l f i e l d s . I t s appearance in both h a b i t a t types may be a r e s u l t o f lack o f competit ion. In more moderate environments other species q u i c k l y invade the cushion ( G r i g g s , 1956). A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i c h e n occurr ing i n a l l snowbeds is S o l o r i n a crocea. At the l i m i t o f v a s c u l a r s p e c i e s , crustose l i c h e n s dominate over the s o i l and exposed rocks. The l i v e r w o r t A n t h e l i a juratzkan a also blankets the bare ground i n these s i t e s and i s important in holding s o i l p a r t i c l e s together (Zwinger and M i l l a r d , 1972). Large f o l i o s e l i c h e n s such as U m b i l i c a r i a s are not able to grow in the snowbed environment, and the large l i g h t - c o l o r e d rocks o f l a t e snowbeds are e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the black, macrol ichen-covered rocks o f the b l o c k f i e l d s . B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 3 Runoff h a b i t a t type Runoff areas occur p r i m a r i l y on northern and eastern 127 slopes where snow accumulation r e s u l t s in a constant summer supply of m e l t - water. Water is the primary environmental g r a d i e n t a f f e c t i n g species d i s t r i b u t i o n . These water-dominated s i t e s include s p r i n g - l i n e s , stream- edges, pond margins and semi-stagnant b o g - l i k e areas, p r o v i d i n g a wide range o f h a b i t a t s f o r the hydro- and h y g r o p h i l i c species. Runoff s i t e s can occur beneath snowbeds and thus o v e r l a p w i t h the snowbed h a b i t a t t y p e . The v e g e t a t i o n o f r u n o f f h a b i t a t s i s dominated by b r y o p h y t e s , the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f which i s Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e . In basins and l e v e l topography below snowbeds, drainage i s poor and the moss l a y e r becomes t h i c k and forms hummocks which create semi-stagnant b o g - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s . Permafrost i s most common in t h i s h a b i t a t . The water- logged g l e y s o l s t h a t develop w i t h t h e i r t h i c k l a y e r of moss and peat are poor heat conductors. Because o f the s p e c i f i c heat of water , i t takes f i v e times as much heat to r a i s e the temperature o f wet s o i l as i t does an e q u i v a l e n t volume o f d r y s o i l (Zwinger and W i l l a r d , 1972). The a c i d i t y in these boggy s i t e s i s demonstrated by the abundance o f Sphagnum, Ledum p a l u s t r e and Empetrum nigru m. In r u n o f f h a b i t a t s where drainage is good and water moves more r a p i d l y , r i c h e r c o n d i t i o n s develop. The Runoff Habitat Type occurs at a l l a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s below 1768 m. In the low a l p i n e at e l e v a - t i o n s below 1555 m, the r i c h e r r u n o f f h a b i t a t s are dominated by a high shrub cover composed o f S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a . At higher e l e v a t i o n s these h a b i t a t s are dominated by mosses and f o r b s . Where the water i s v e r y f a s t moving, the forbs are replaced by graminoid s p e c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y Calamagrostis canadensis and Carex podocarpa. Runoff s i t e s which are covered w i t h snow through June have a v e g e t a t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t found along the subalpine streams. Char- a c t e r i s t i c species include Caltha p a l u s t r i s , Parnassia f i m b r i a t a and Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a which a t t a i n t h e i r h ighest e l e v a t i o n i n these s i t e s . To summarize, the Runoff Habitat Type i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s topographic p o s i t i o n , w a t e r - s a t u r a t e d s o i l s , u s u a l l y w i t h water v i s i b l e on the s u r f a c e , and physiognomy dominated by low forbs and mossy hummocks, with l o c a l occurrence of t a l l shrubs and graminoids. B . 4 . 1 . 2 . 4 Meadow and S h r u b f i e l d Habitat Type The meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type encompasses the mesic areas of the mountain. As such, many of the communities o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h i s h a b i t a t type are promoted by good-to-moderate drainage, and a moderate, continuous w i n t e r snowcover which remains u n t i l mid-May to l a t e June. These mesic s i t e s are common in s c a t t e r e d patches on the north slopes where snow accumulation often confines them to the upper surface of s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes and benches, and perimeters o f snowbeds. Good development i s more widespread on southern slopes because o f e a r l i e r snowmelt. The physiognomy o f the meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type changes w i t h e l e v a t i o n and snow d u r a t i o n . One to t w o - f o o t high deciduous shrubs (Betula glandulos a w i t h mixtures o f S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a and S a l i x brachycarp a) dominate the mesic s i t e s at a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s below 1600 m. T h i s i s the zonal vegetat ion o f the low a l p i n e and merges with subalpine below 1494 m. At e l e v a t i o n s above 1600 m meadows form most o f the zonal v e g e t a t i o n . The term meadow i s used here f o r mesic s i t e s domi- nated by graminoid species w i t h admixtures o f f o r b s . In the m i d - a l p i n e , between 1600 m and 1676 m, meadows are dominated by the clump fescue, Festuca a l t a i c a and at higher e l e v a t i o n s by Carex microchaeta. At e l e v a t i o n s above 1600 m where snow remains u n t i l m i d - t o - l a t e June, the vegetat ion i s dominated by the ericaceous heath Cassiope tetragon a. These s i t e s are t r a n s i t i o n a l between the meadow and s h r u b f i e l d and the snowbed h a b i t a t t y p e s . The meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type has a more d i v e r s e f l o r a than the other h a b i t a t t y p e s . The r i c h e s t s i t e s occur above the East V a l l e y on steep southern slopes i n f l u e n e d by seepage from snowbeds above. Species commonly occurr ing i n subalpine meadows such as Geranium erianthum, V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s and Polemonium pulcherrimum a t t a i n a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s i n these r i c h s i t e s . Except f o r the heath dominated s i t e s , cover by v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n i s complete. T h i s cover i n s u l a t e s the s o i l and modif ies the e f f e c t s of d i u r n a l temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s . T h i s f a c t combined w i t h the good drainage r e s u l t s i n a minimal amount o f f r o s t act ion and r e s u l t a n t mixing o f the s o i l . The high p r o d u c t i v i t y , good drainage and the l i m i t e d f r o s t act ion combine to promote s o i l development. The best developed s o i l s , probably A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s , occur i n t h i s h a b i t a t t y p e . Summer u t i l i z a t i o n by fauna i s highest i n the meadows and s h r u b f i e l d s . A number o f nests o f u n i d e n t i f i e d b i r d s were found on the ground. T h i s h a b i t a t i s h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d by A r c t i c Ground S q u i r r e l s , (Spermophila p a r y i i ) , who feed and burrow in the meadows below 1616 m. The good drainage probably prevents excessive f l o o d i n g o f the burrows. The m i x t u r e o f meadow and Betula shrubs provides ample food and s h e l t e r f o r ground s q u i r r e l s and other rodents. The meadows at a l l e l e v a t i o n s are also prime g r a z i n g area f o r Osborn Caribou, o f which there are about f i f t e e n on the mountain. B.4.2 Community Type - Environment Relat ions The s i x t e e n community types described in t h i s t h e s i s develop i n response to the same environmental f a c t o r s (moisture, snow d u r a t i o n and topography) which def ine the f o u r h a b i t a t t y p e s . Each community t h e n , depending on i t s environmental t o l e r a n c e s , can be assigned to a h a b i t a t t y p e . In other words, each h a b i t a t type can be subdiv ided i n t o i t s component parts o r communities which o u t l i n e the environmental v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the h a b i t a t t y p e . As w i l l be seen, community type and h a b i t a t type boundaries do not always c o i n c i d e . The U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d , C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d and C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d a l l develop w i t h i n , and are r e s t r i c t e d t o , the f e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t t y p e . These three communities o u t l i n e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s h a b i t a t type p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t i n g the e l e v a t i o n a l g r a d i e n t . T h i s g r a d i e n t r e f l e c t s the a m e l i o r a - t i o n of c l i m a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y wind and temperature, w i t h a decrease in e l e v a t i o n . Consequently, the exposed, x e r i c s i t e s necessary f o r the d e v e l - opment o f t h i s h a b i t a t type are o f r e s t r i c t e d occurrence i n the low a l p i n e (ca. 1500 m), become more f requent in the m i d - a l p i n e (1675 m), and dominate the landscape at e l e v a t i o n s above 1825 m. The C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d develops at lower e l e v a t i o n s where the less severe environmental c o n d i t i o n s promote the development of Vaccinium u l i g i n o s u m , Dryas o c t o p e t a l a , Saxifraga t r i c u s p i d a t a , P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a and T r i s e t u m spicatum. Above 1700 m these species decrease i n importance or d isappear, probably because o f the increasing wind, decreasing temperature and decrease i n w i n t e r snowcover. At these higher e l e v a t i o n s , Carex microchaeta, Saxifraga  bronchial i s and C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a become more abundant and the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m community i s replaced by the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d . In the most exposed s i t e s such as high r idges and peaks where s o i l has not developed, the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d occurs. T h i s community i s \ found at the highest e l e v a t i o n s on the mountain (2060 m). I f e e l t h a t s o i l has not formed i n t h i s community because o f the recentness o f severe f r o s t act ion and the v e r y steep slopes ( g r e a t e r than 30°) on which the community o f t e n occurs. With the c o l l e c t i o n of f i n e mater ial beneath the U m b i l i c a r i a and continued breakdown o f the r o c k s , a s o i l might e v e n t u a l l y develop. Indeed, the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d appears to be invading the b l o c k f i e l d i n a number o f places on the steep slopes and plateaus above 1800 m. The r e l a t i o n s h i p among the three communities in r e l a t i o n to the above f a c t o r s i s diagrammed in Figure 47. The A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed, S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed, Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea p e c t i n a t a - Juncus drummondii snowbed and Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community types a l l occur s o l e l y w i t h i n the snowbed h a b i t a t t y p e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these communities w i t h i n the h a b i t a t type r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s in snow d u r a t i o n , e l e v a t i o n and seepage. The A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata snowbed has the poorest v e g e t a t i o n development o f the f o u r communities because o f the d u r a t i o n o f the snow. At low a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s , snow d u r a t i o n must extend wel l i n t o August to e f f e c t i v e l y  impede p l a n t establ ishment and growth. At high a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s (1830 m), a snow d u r a t i o n as s h o r t as e a r l y J u l y and l a t e June can i n h i b i t v e g e t a t i o n development. T h i s community type o c c u r s , t h e n , i n the l a t e s t melt ing snowbeds at a l l e l e v a t i o n s but becomes more common at e l e v a t i o n s above 1650 m. I t develops r a t h e r independently o f seepage, except t h a t at any one e l e v a t i o n the A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata conmunity r e q u i r e s , in areas i n f l u e n c e d by seepage, a longer snow d u r a t i o n f o r good development than i n areas not so i n f l u e n c e d . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c l e a r l y shown in the r e s u l t s o f Transect #4: Saddle Snowbed t r a n s e c t TIME Umbilicaria b l o c k f i e l d Invasion 2000m Cetraria  nivalis  - Carex  microchaeta f e l I f i e l d Cetraria  nivalis  - Carex  microchaeta f e l I f i e l d <E > LxJ Cetraria  nivalis  - Vaccinium  uliginosum f e l I f i e l d 1700m 1500m Figure 47: R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the F e l I f i e l d and B l o c k f i e l d Habitat Type w i t h regard to time and e l e - v a t i o n . Arrows i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between communities. The other snowbed communities develop o n l y at lower e l e v a t i o n s . The S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed community reaches an e l e v a t i o n o f about 1700 m. The Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce e m p e t r i - formi s community i s most common at subalpine e l e v a t i o n s , where Cassiope mertensiana i s f r e q u e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r C. s t e l l e r i a n a , but o f t e n reaches 1600 m on the mountain. The Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii community i s r e s t r i c t e d to e l e v a t i o n s between 1550 - 1650 m on the East Plateau. As shown by the r e s u l t s o f Transect #3: 1615 m Snowbed t r a n s e c t (Figure 41), the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s community can t o l e r a t e a snowcover l a s t i n g i n t o August. T h i s community appears to be promoted by seepage and the g r e a t e r the seepage, the g r e a t e r the t o l e r a t i o n f o r prolonged snowcover. The S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m community a t t a i n s i t s best development in snowbeds where seepage i s minimal, and s o i l s u s u a l l y d r y out during the summer. I t develops in snowbeds inf luenced by seepage o n l y at e l e v a t i o n s above the l i m i t o f the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s community. Snow d u r a t i o n i n the S i b b a l d i a s i t e s i s between e a r l y and m i d - J u l y , but as w i t h the A n t h e l i a community, becomes less w i t h increased e l e v a t i o n . The l a s t snowbed community, Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii, i s promoted by moderate snow d u r a t i o n and seepage. The exact environmental d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s community and the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed i s not known and warrants f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Carex snowbed does, however, occur at higher e l e v a t i o n s on the East Plateau than the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a dominated community. The r e l a t i o n s h i p among the f o u r snowbed communities in r e l a t i o n to the above f a c t o r s i s diagrammed i n Figure 48. SNOW DURATION J u l y August Anthelia juratzkana  - Luzula arcuata , l a t e snowbed 1700m 1500m Sibbaldia  procumbens  - Polytrichum  piliferum snowbed Carex  pyrenaica  - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus  drummondii snowbed SEEPAGE Cassiope  stelleriana - Phyllodoce  empetriformis snowbed Figure 48: R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Snowbed Habitat Type w i t h regard to seepage, snow d u r a t i o n and e l e v a t i o n . Arrows i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between communities. Four community types occur w i t h i n the r u n o f f h a b i t a t type. These are the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum community, Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m community, Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss community and the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community. These communities o u t l i n e environmental v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the h a b i t a t type p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s in e l e v a - t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n , and drainage. The S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f develops o n l y at e l e v a t i o n s below 1676 m where snow remains no longer than June. Best development occurs where drainage i s poor and ponding occurs. These s i t e s are most f r e q u e n t l y found at the base o f snowbeds on s o l i f l u c t i o n t e r r a i n (Transect #3). With an increase i n snow d u r a t i o n , but no change i n drainage, the S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a dominated s i t e i s g r a d u a l l y replaced by the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta community. The Aulacomnium dominated r u n o f f s i t e s are found up to 1750 m on the north slope on stream-edges and s p r i n g - l i n e s f r e e o f snow by June w i t h moderate drainage. In i s o l a t e d s i t e s where r u n o f f i s v e r y f a s t and drainage good, the Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratum community i s promoted. When snow d u r a t i o n increases to mid- o r l a t e J u l y , the percentage o f forbs increases and the Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga nelsonianai community i s promoted. E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y , t h i s community i s s i m i l a r to the Aulacomnium dominated r u n o f f , the o n l y obvious d i f f e r e n c e being the snow d u r a t i o n . The long d u r a t i o n o f the snow r a i s e s the question o f whether t h i s community should be placed w i t h i n the snowbed h a b i t a t t y p e . In t h i s case, I feel t h a t the snow d u r a t i o n q u a l i f i e s the r u n o f f r a t h e r than the r e v e r s e , and i t s f l o r i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s l i e more w i t h the o t h e r r u n o f f communities than w i t h the snowbed communities. However, the r u n o f f charac- t e r i s t i c and long snow d u r a t i o n place t h i s community e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y between the two h a b i t a t types and i t can be considered t r a n s i t i o n a l . As r u n o f f or a c t i v e water movement decreases and i s replaced by more gradual seepage, the Ranunculus community merges w i t h the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - P h y l l o d o c e empetriformi s snowbed community. On the East Plateau, these two comnunities f r e q u e n t l y occur t o g e t h e r . The general r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the f o u r r u n o f f communities i n r e l a t i o n to e l e v a t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n and drainage are diagrammed i n Figure 49. The remaining f i v e communities are placed in the meadow and shrub- f i e l d h a b i t a t t y p e . These communities are the Carex microchaeta meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - CIadina dry meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow, Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d and Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. These represent the zonal vegetat ion and the v e g e t a t i o n intermediate between the meadow and shrub- f i e l d h a b i t a t type and the other h a b i t a t t y p e s . As w i t h most o f the o t h e r communities, these segregate out according to gradients o f snow d u r a t i o n , moisture and e l e v a t i o n . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are shown i n Figure 50. The three zonal communities, Carex microchaeta meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow and Betula glandulos a s h r u b - f i e l d , are intermediate in snow d u r a t i o n and m o i s t u r e . Segregation o f these communities i s along a complex e l e v a t i o n a l g r a d i e n t . The Betula glandulos a community a t t a i n s a maximum e l e v a t i o n of o n l y 1600 m and extends down to between 1400 and 1500 m where the occurrence of Abies l a s i o c a r p a krummholz i n d i c a t e s the beginning o f the subalpine. Above 1600 m, Betula occurs o n l y i n scattered l o c a t i o n s where i t i s s h e l t e r e d from the wind and, at the same t ime, i s not subjected to a long period o f snowcover extending Ranunculus  - Carex  podocarpa  - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f Calamagrostis  canadensis Plagiomnium  rostratum r u n o f f « > Aulacomnium  palustre  - Salix polaris - Claytonia  sarmentosa  - Carex  microchaeta r u n o f f 1400m Salix planifolia Empetrum  nigrum Sphagnum  r u n o f f SNOW DURATION DRAINAGE Figure 49: R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Runoff Habitat Type with regard to e l e v a t i o n , snow durat ion and drainage. Arrows i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between communities. June SNOW DURATION April Figure 50: R e l a t i o n s h i p o f communities w i t h i n the Meadow and S h r u b f i e l d Habitat Type w i t h regard to e l e v a t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n and moisture. Arrows i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s occurr ing between communities. i n t o the summer. The Festuca a l t a i c a dominated r i c h meadows are r e s t r i c t e d to snowbeds and seepage s i t e s at a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s below 1600 m, but as the Betula decreases w i t h the gain i n e l e v a t i o n , the Festuc a dominates the mesic s i t e s and the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o i l ' a r i c h meadow becomes the zonal community. T h i s Festuca dominated community occurs from 1750 m down to 1500 m, but has i t s best development between 1600 and 1700 m. The Carex microchaeta meadow forms the zonal v e g e t a t i o n above 1700 m. T h i s community i s wel l adapted physiognomical ly  to the severe winds c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these high e l e v a t i o n s . The w o o l l y l e a f e d , decumbent P o t e n t i l l a h y p a r c t i c a replaces the g l a b r o u s , e r e c t P_. d i v e r s i f o l i a . A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a , co-dominant i n the Festuca community, i s of decreased importance in the Carex community and the p r o s t r a t e leaves o f Carex microchaeta have a d i s t i n c t advantage over the erect Festuca h a b i t . Where i t forms the zonal v e g e t a t i o n , the Carex microchaeta meadow can occur under a wide v a r i e t y o f moisture c o n d i t i o n s . On the s o l i - f l u c t i o n lobe treads where i t dominates, i t grades f r e q u e n t l y i n t o the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e dominated r u n o f f community. While i n d r i e r s i t e s and higher e l e v a t i o n s (ca_. 1800 m), i t can grade i n t o the x e r i c C e t r a r i a - Carex f e l l f i e l d . At e l e v a t i o n s above 1830 m, the Carex community is r e a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to protected s i t e s and probably can not be considered the zonal v e g e t a t i o n . The c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s at these e l e v a t i o n s r e a l l y promote the development o f the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d . The Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow i s a community t r a n s i - t i o n a l between the Festuca r i c h meadow and the C e t r a r i a - Vaccinium f e l l f i e l d . T h i s d r y meadow i s f r e e of snow probably by e a r l y May, has no seepage and i s thus subxeric or submesic. The t o t a l lack o f seepage and high l i c h e n cover d i s t i n g u i s h i t from the r i c h Festuca meadow. Both Festuca meadows occur along Transect #4: Saddle Snowbed t r a n s e c t , the dry Festuca meadow on the north s ide below the f e l l f i e l d and s h r u b f i e l d , and the r i c h Festuca meadow on the south s i d e , inf luenced by s l i g h t seepage from upper snowbeds. The Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow has the same e l e v a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as the r i c h Festuca meadow but i s o f much more r e s t r i c t e d occurrence. The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath i s promoted by l o n g e r snow d u r a t i o n . As w i t h the snowbed communities, the length o f snow d u r a t i o n needed f o r good development of the Cassiope tetragon a heath decreases with increased e l e v a t i o n . At a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s below 1600 m, t h i s community develops i n areas f r e e o f snow between mid-June and e a r l y J u l y and forms the t r a n s i t i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n between the meadow and s h r u b f i e l d , and snowbed h a b i t a t t y p e s . At these e l e v a t i o n s , i t g e n e r a l l y grades i n t o a Festuca dominated community on the s ide away from the snowbed and one o f the snowbed communities ( A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed i n the case o f Transect #1) on the snowbed s i d e . At e l e v a t i o n s above 1600 m, e s p e c i a l l y on the East P l a t e a u , snow remains o n l y u n t i l e a r l y June i n t h i s community. Where the snow melts out in May, the Cassiope tetragon a community i s replaced by e i t h e r the r i c h o r d r y Festuca communities. E l e v a t i o n a l l y , the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath p a r a l l e l s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the two Festuca communities. E l e v a t i o n a l , snow d u r a t i o n and moisture r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l communities are summarized in Figures 51-53. Figures 54-56 show the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the communities i n r e l a t i o n to one another along the mesotopographic-gradient. These f i g u r e s are f o r three a l t i t u d i n a l bands representing three subzones w i t h i n the a l p i n e zone o f Teresa I s l a n d . T h i s s u b j e c t i v e d i v i s i o n o f the a l p i n e area i n t o low, mid- and high a l p i n e subzones i s supported by Figure 51. Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d . | Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed . | S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f I Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i feru m snowbed . . C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d _ .j-:-:-:-;-.-. j Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow L .-.•:•:•:•: — , . f . v . • Festuca a l t a i c a - Potenti 11 a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana r u n o f f .:.::::j::::.-. j Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f j Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed J Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - Sal i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - | j.-.-.-.,. Carex microchaeta r u n o f f — .̂••••••:•;•v. Carex microchaeta meadow . . C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l 1 f i e l d .•.•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•.•. A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . r. i 1 1 1 1 1 O o O o o o o O o o o o o o m ko  co  at  o - - CNI ELEVATION M Figure 51: E l e v a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among community types. Hor izontal l i n e represents e l e v a t i o n a l extent o f the community t y p e . Shaded area represents e l e v a t i o n s where community most commonly occurs. U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow Carex microchaeta meadow Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow -« Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - co Carex microchaeta r u n o f f Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana r u n o f f S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea p e c t i n a t a - Juncus drummondii snowbed A n t h e l i a juratzkan a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed DISCONTINUOUS APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER Figure 52: Snow d u r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s among community types. Horizontal l i n e s represent estimated snow d u r a t i o n w i t h i n each community. Umbi1icaria b l o c k f i e l d — C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum pi 1i ferum snowbed Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow Carex microchaeta meadow _. A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed - p > -p> Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyllodoce empetriformi s snowbed Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta runoff — Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana r u n o f f i 2 3 4 5 Hygrotope Figure 53: Moisture r e l a t i o n s among community t y p e s ; l = x e r i c , 2-submesic, 3=mesic, 4=hygric and 5=hydric. The low a l p i n e zone extends from the subalpine to approximately 1575 m. The communities occurr ing in t h i s e l e v a t i o n a l band have strong a f f i n i t i e s w i t h subalpine v e g e t a t i o n . Many species common in the subalpine such as Betula glandulos a, S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a , Empetrum nigru m, Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a and Phyl lodoce empetriformi s also form a major component of the low a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . The concentrat ion of shrubs make t h i s subzone physiognomical ly  d i s t i n c t from the other subzones. The lack o f krummholz formation v i s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from the subalpine. The communities g i v i n g the low a l p i n e subzone i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c appearance are p r i m a r i l y the Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d , S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f , Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed and Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these communities and the others that occur in t h i s subzone in r e l a t i o n to one another on the mesotopographic g r a d i e n t i s diagrammed i n Figure 54. The m i d - a l p i n e subzone extends from 1575 m t o approximately  1700 m. The high percentage o f shrubs c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Tow a l p i n e and subalpine g r e a t l y decreases and i s replaced by a more herbaceous meadow v e g e t a t i o n dominated by graminoid s p e c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y Festuca a l t a i c a . Communities most commonly found in t h i s subzone include the Festuca meadows, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosu m f e l l f i e l d , and A n t h e l i a and S i b b a l d i a dominated snowbeds (Figure 55). The high winds, cold temperatures and discontinuous snow d u r a t i o n encountered f r e q u e n t l y in s i t e s above 1700 m (high a l p i n e subzone) r e s u l t i n a marked decrease of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s . Lichens form the dominant v e g e t a - t i o n and U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d and C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d communities cover most o f the area. Moist meadows are dominated by Carex microchaeta. The r e l a t i o n o f these communities t o each other on Wind D i r e c t i o n *Community type a b b r e v i a t i o n s : r e f e r to page 38. Figure 54: D i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing low a l p i n e zone communities along a mesotopographic g r a d i e n t . Figure 55: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r e q u e n t l y occurring m i d - a l p i n e zone communities along a mesotopographic g r a d i e n t . Figure 56: D i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n t l y occurr ing high a l p i n e communities along a mesotopographic g r a d i e n t . the mesotopographic g r a d i e n t are shown in Figure 56. B.5 Climax and Succession A climax community i s considered to be in e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the p r e v a i l - ing environmental f a c t o r s o f the h a b i t a t whereby the member species are i n a dynamic balance w i t h one another. The community then i s s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g and does not appear to be undergoing any d i r e c t i o n a l change. The e n v i r o n - mental f a c t o r s in the a l p i n e zone o f Teresa I s l a n d include wind, temperature, moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y and snow d u r a t i o n . The communities are f l o r i s t i c a l l y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d i s t i n c t . Each i s composed o f species whose environmental to lerances are e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r . These communities segregate out along the environmental gradients and form mosaics across the landscape which r e f l e c t the environmental d i f f e r - ences (Figures 54, 55 and 56). The question remains as to whether these communities are successional or cl imax. Whether the species are reproducing themselves s e x u a l l y  w i t h i n the communities could not be ascertained because o f e x t e n s i v e v e g e t a t i v e reproduct ion and lack o f s e e d l i n g s . The area i s at present undisturbed by humans. Animal populations are low and g r a z i n g by caribou i s l i g h t . No disturbances by f i r e are recorded. These f a c t s , and the knowledge that each community has i t s own p o s i t i o n on the complex environmental g r a d i e n t , leads me to b e l i e v e t h a t i n g e n e r a l , the communities (assuming a s t a b l e cl imate) are adapted to t h e i r environment and thus in a climax s t a t e (.Churchill and Hanson, 1956). The landscape represents a polycl imax (Mueller-Dombois and E l l e n b e r g , 1974) where the climax i s c o n t r o l l e d not o n l y by c l i m a t e , but also by edaphic and topographic f a c t o r s . Two types o f climax communities e x i s t , the c l i m a t i c climax and the topoedaphic cl imax. The c l i m a t i c climax i s the community developed on mesic o r average s i t e s where macroclimate i s the major f a c t o r . On Birch Mt. three and maybe f o u r c l i m a t i c climaxes can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , separated by e l e v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . These are the Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d i n the low a l p i n e , the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow in the m i d - a l p i n e , the Carex microchaeta meadow in the high a l p i n e and p o s s i b l y the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d at the highest e l e v a t i o n s . The other communities d i s t i n g u i s h e d by x e r i c c o n d i t i o n s , exposure, excess moisture or prolonged snow d u r a t i o n are topoedaphic (sensu Daubenmire, 1952) climaxes perpetuated by these more extreme environmental f a c t o r s . The concept of succession and climax i s made complicated due to c r y o t u r b a t i o n and s o l i f l u c t i o n causing i n s t a b i l i t y o f s o i l and s u r f i c i a l topographic f e a t u r e s . A c t i v e c o n g e l i t u r b a t i o n r e s u l t s i n the formation o f sorted and nonsorted c i r c l e s as discussed i n Chapter A.4. These are e s - p e c i a l l y common and a c t i v e in wet meadows, s h r u b f i e l d s , and f e l l f i e l d s in the low and m i d - a l p i n e areas. Bryant and Scheinberg (1970) feel t h a t wel l e s t a b l i s h e d vegetat ion mats can be d i s r u p t e d by f r o s t a c t i o n and wind e r o s i o n . At any one t i m e , c i r c l e s i n a l l stages o f f o r m a t i o n , s t a b i l i z a - t i o n and r e v e g e t a t i o n can be found. Thus, w i t h i n a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d vege- t a t i o n u n i t , a number o f m i n i - s u c c e s s i o n a l sequences may be taking place. These cycles o f c i r c l e formation and r e v e g e t a t i o n are permanent f e a t u r e s w i t h i n many of the communities (given the present c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ) , and should be regarded as c y c l i c a l climaxes (Bryant and Scheinberg, 1970; C h u r c h i l l and Hanson, 1956) which f i t w i t h i n the general climax c r i t e r i a ( C h u r c h i l l and Hanson, 1956). Of the cryopedogenic processes, s o l i f l u c t i o n has the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on community p a t t e r n . The a c t i v e downslope movement o f s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes and benches is c o n s t a n t l y a l t e r i n g the topography and t h u s , the s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n o f the environmental g r a d i e n t s . T h i s does not negate the ex istence o f climax communities in the a l p i n e . As a r e s u l t of s o l i f l u c t i o n no h a b i - t a t s are l o s t , o n l y t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the landscape i s changed. S p a t i a l changes o f environmental gradients are simply fo l lowed by s p a t i a l a d j u s t - ments o f the communities. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the community w i t h the environmental g r a d i e n t does not change and the same community patterns w i l l occur. In 1956, C h u r c h i l l and Hanson prepared an e x t e n s i v e review and i n v e s t i - gat ion i n t o the concept of climax i n a l p i n e and a r c t i c v e g e t a t i o n . My ideas o f climax i n the a l p i n e are voiced by C h u r c h i l l and Hanson who w r i t e : "During a long p e r i o d o f time the actual s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s o f the environmental gradients may change. . . The same pattern of communities would p e r s i s t , even though the s p a t i a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f each would change." (p. 147). and: "The s t e a d y - s t a t e communities in a r c t i c and a l p i n e areas which make up the patterns corresponding t o the patterns o f environmental gradients are considered as cl imax. Such changes as do occur in these communities are con^ s i d e r e d as being w i t h i n the framework of the cl imax." (p. 181). I t should be pointed out that these climax communities are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e to the time per iod i n v o l v e d . Because o f macro- c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s , the communities are s l o w l y changing. I f long-term c l i m a t i c changes were taken i n t o account, these communities would a c t u a l l y represent p a r t o f what Mueller-Dombois and E l l e n b e r g (1974) consider an open-ended succession. C l i m a t i c change i n the A t l i n area w i t h i n the Holocene period is wel l documented ( M i l l e r and Anderson, 1974). As discussed in Chapter A . 3 , c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s have been common during t h i s p e r i o d . Figure 2 shows t h a t , at the present t ime, the A t l i n area i s undergoing a warming trend which began i n 750 B.P. The a l p i n e zone, being near the a l t i t u d i n a l l i m i t o f v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n and having no trees to b u f f e r i t , i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the changes i n c l i m a t e . There is evidence o f t h i s c l i m a t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n on the mountain. The apparent i n v a s i o n o f the high a l t i t u d e b l o c k f i e l d s by C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d v e g e t a t i o n i s one example. A decrease i n snowbed s i z e i s apparent on the north slope and i n the c i r q u e s . T h i s i s evidenced by the l a r g e patches o f r e l a t i v e l y l i c h e n - f r e e rocks which surround some o f the present snowbeds. However, snow d u r a t i o n i n these areas i s no longer long enough t o preclude development o f the l a r g e r f o l i o s e l i c h e n s . Lichens o f the f a m i l y Umbil icariaceae r e q u i r e several hundred years to acquire f u l l growth (Dahl, 1955). Successional patterns can be hypothesized f o r a continued warming trend which would r e s u l t i n l o s s o f h a b i t a t s . These are summarized i n Figure 57. Warmer temperatures could r e s u l t i n a slow i n v a s i o n o f the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d by Festuca a l t a i c a r e s u l t i n g i n the Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow. I f an increase i n organic matter and improved moisture r e t e n t i o n occurred, a Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow could develop^ S i m i l a r l y , at high a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s the Carex m i c r o - chaeta meadow could invade the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l - f i e l d , and at low a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s , the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d could be invaded by Betula glandulos a and develop i n t o Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d . A decrease i n snow d u r a t i o n would accompany an increase i n temperature. I f t h i s were to happen, the A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - L u z u l a arcuata snowbed, depending on drainage and e l e v a t i o n , would be taken over by e i t h e r the S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m community, Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s community or the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. With a f u r t h e r decrease i n snow d u r a t i o n , thickening o f the organic l a y e r and b e t t e r s o i l development, the more mesic Festuc a and Carex SHORTER SNOW DURATION LONGER SNOW DURATION DC -2Z LU O zn > — < CD I— *-* <C a: > LU cn co O I — ! I— ClZ < LU > 3 ; l u o _i C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d Festuca a l t a i c a - . Cladina d r y meadow C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosum f e l l f i e l d Carex microchaeta meadow Sibbaldia procumbens - Polytrichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed Festuca a l t a i c a - > P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a ^ r i c h meadow Cassiope tetragona Cladina m i t i s heath A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed Betula glandulosa - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyllodoce empetriformis snowbed Figure 57: Hypothesized successional patterns r e s u l t i n g from an extended warming t r e n d . communities could develop. The decrease i n snowbeds, which provides the constant summer-long r u n o f f , would most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n the decrease i n importance o f r u n o f f communities. I t should not be f o r g o t t e n that c l i m a t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n would cause an e l e v a t i o n a l increase in the subalpine zone as w e l l as the a l p i n e communities, but the present r e l a t i o n s h i p between communities and environment would not change. T h i s hypothesized succession i s a r e s u l t o f e l i m i n a t i o n of h a b i t a t s . B.6 Community Synonomy Many o f the community types o c c u r r i n g on Birch Mt. are comparable f l o r i s t i c a l l y and/or e c o l o g i c a l l y w i t h o t h e r a l p i n e communities described i n B r i t i s h Columbia, southern Yukon and southeastern Alaska. The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n is to p o i n t out some of the s i m i l a r i t i e s among the published communities and thus place Birch Mt. in proper p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h the o t h e r a l p i n e areas of P a c i f i c North America. The f o l l o w i n g areas have been used i n t h i s comparison: 1) Big White M t . , s o u t h - c e n t r a l B. C. (Eady, 1971); 2) the Coastal Mountain Hemlock Zone (Brooke, Peterson and K r a j i n a , 1970); 3) G a r i b a l d i Park, southwestern B. C. (Archer, 1963); 4) Nevis M t . , n o r t h - eastern B. C. (Lord and L u c k h o r s t , 1974); 5) S p a t s i z i P l a t e a u , n o r t h - c e n t r a l B. C. ( P o j a r , 1977); 6) Ruby Range, southwestern Yukon T e r r i t o r y  ( P r i c e , 1972); 7) Sheep M t . , southwestern Yukon T e r r i t o r y  (Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a , 1976); 8) K l u t l a n G l a c i e r , St. E l i a s M t s . , southwestern Yukon T e r r i t o r y ( B i r k s , 1977); and 9) southeastern Wrangell Mts. , southeastern Alaska ( S c o t t , 1974a + b). The U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d has v e r y few counterparts in the publ ished record. Since t h i s community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the almost complete lack of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , i t might not have been included i n the other v e g e t a t i o n s t u d i e s . The U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d probably attains- i t s best development i n the northern h a l f of the P r o v i n c e . I t i s mentioned by Scott (1974a+b) as being common i n the high a l p i n e (above 2215 m) in the southeastern Wrangell Mts. The A l p i n e F e l l f i e l d t e r r a i n u n i t o f Pojar (1977) i s in part e c o l o g i c - a l l y and f l o r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r . In depressions and protected areas w i t h i n P o j a r ' s Alpine F e l l f i e l d , vegetat ion s i m i l a r to the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta fel1 f i e l d occurs. T h i s f e l l f i e l d mosaic described by Pojar from the S p a t s i z i Plateau appears to be e q u i v a l e n t to the high a l p i n e areas o f Teresa I s l a n d where the C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d i s invading the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . The C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l 1 f i e l d was described from the Wrangell Mts. by Scott (1974a+b). Two o f his- communities can be included here, the Dryas octopetala - C e t r a r i a cucul1ata a s s o c i a t i o n and the Dryas octopetala - Vaccinium uliginosu m nodum. F l o r i s t i c and e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s a l s o e x i s t w i t h the Dryas - Rough Fescue community o f Lord and Luckhurst (1974). Both C e t r a r i a f e l l f i e l d communities share f l o r i s t i c and e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a - O x y t r o p i s  nigrescen s - S i l e n e a c a u l i s - l i c h e n community of Pojar (1977). One major d i f f e r e n c e i s a sub- s t i t u t i o n on the S p a t s i z i Plateau o f Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a f o r D_. o c t o p e t a l a . T h i s species replacement i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e in s u b s t r a t e phi. Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a (1975) s t a t e t h a t vegetat ion dominated by D. octopetala occurs on a c i d i c or neutral s u b s t r a t e s . The alcidity o f the s o i l would account f o r the dominance of Dryas octopetala on Birch Mt. w i t h s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s of jD. i n t e g r i f o l i a being r e s t r i c t e d to the southern s l o p e s . Both C e t r a r i a f e l l f i e l d communities occurr ing on Teresa I s l a n d also share f l o r i s t i c and e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the d r y v e g e t a t i o n u n i t o f P r i c e (.1972) developing on southwest and n o r t h - f a c i n g s lopes. The C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta and C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s ^ Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d s are e c o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the S a l i c o ( r e t i c u l a t a e ) - S i l e n o ( a c a u l i s ) - Carico ( s c i r p o i d e s ) - Dryadetum i n t e g r i g o l i a e and Oxytropo ( v i s c i d a e ) - A r t e m i s i o (hyperboreae) - Festuco (brachyphyl lae) - T r i s e t e t a l i a s p i c a t i described by Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a (1976) on the basic s o i l s o f Sheep Mt. The Carex microchaeta meadow appears to be the same as the S a l i x ( p o l a r i s , r e t i c u l a t a ) - Carex microchaeta - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s community described by Pojar (1977) which forms the zonal v e g e t a t i o n at medium-to-high e l e v a t i o n s in the S p a t s i z i area. As w i t h the Carex microchaeta meadow, P o j a r ' s community i s found on a l l aspects in mesic- t o - m o i s t c o n d i t i o n s on moderately s l o p i n g - t o - f l a t topography. E c o l o g i c a l and f l o r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s also e x i s t w i t h the tussock community o f P r i c e (1972) and the S a l i x r e t i c u l a t a - Carex podocarpa community o f the Wrangell Mts. described by Scott (1974a+b). The Festuca a l t a i c a d r y meadow has e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h o n l y the Elymus innovatu s - Festuca s c a b r e l l a community o f Lord and Luckhurst (1974). Communities s i m i l a r to the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow have been more commonly described. Pojar (1977) describes t h i s community which he names the Festuca a l t a i c a - A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m - Sterocaulon glareosum - C e t r a r i a ( c u c u l l a t a , n i v a l i s ) community, as occurr ing i n the S p a t s i z i area. E c o l o g i c a l and f l o r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s also occur with the A r t e m i s i o ( a r c t i c a e ) - S a l i c o ( r e t i c u l a t a e ) - Festucetum a l t a i c a e of Sheep Mt. and the Festuca a l t a i c a - A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a and Festuca a l t a f c a - Lupinus a r c t i c a noda o f Scott (1974a+b), the former forming mosaics w i t h Betula glandulos a dominated v e g e t a t i o n at low a l p i n e e l e v a t i o n s and the l a t t e r forming meadows in the m i d - a l p i n e regions of the southeast Wrangell Mts. Pojar (1977) describes a Betula glandulos a - A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a - cryptogam community which i s comparable i n e v e r y way to the Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d o f Birch Mt. S i m i l a r i t i e s also e x i s t w i t h S c o t t ' s (1974a+b) Betula glandulos a - Vaccinium ul iginosum a s s o c i a t i o n and Birks' (1977) Betula glandulos a shrub-tundra. Comparable to the Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath i s the Cassiope tetragon a - Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a - Sa1ix ( r e t i c u l a t a , p o l a r i s ) - D i s t i c h i u m capil laceum community which forms the zonal v e g e t a t i o n at e l e v a - t i o n s up to 1850 m on the S p a t s i z i Plateau ( P o j a r , 1977). Pojar states t h a t m o i s t - t o - m e s i c northern and eastern slopes w i t h a continuous moderate-to-deep l o n g - l a s t i n g snow cover promote the development of t h i s zonal community. These c o n d i t i o n s describe wel l the h a b i t a t o f the Cassiope heath community of Teresa I s l a n d . However, the A t l i n area r e c e i v e s o n l y h a l f as much p r e - c i p i t a t i o n as the S p a t s i z i , decreasing the t o t a l area o f optimum Cassiope h a b i t a t and f a v o r i n g the more chionophobous Festuca meadows as the zonal v e g e t a t i o n at e l e v a t i o n s up to 1800 m. The Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath i s a l s o somewhat s i m i l a r to the S a l i c o ( r e t i c u l a t a e ) - Cassiopo (tetragonae) - Dryadetum i n t e g r i f o l i a e of Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a 0975) and the C a s s i o p e : t e t r a g o n a - V a c c i n i u m uliginosu m nodum described by Scott (1974a+b). The Cassiope mertensiana - Luetkea pect inata - S i b b a l d i a procumbens - B a r b i l o p h o z i a hatcher i community from the S p a t s i z i Plateau i s e c o l o g i c a l l y and f l o r i s t i c a l l y comparable to the Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed community of Teresa I s l a n d , The major d i f f e r e n c e i s the lack of Cassi ope s t e l 1 e r i ana from the Spatsizi. community. In f a c t , C. s t e l l e r i a n a has not been recorded from the S p a t s i z i Plateau at a l l ( P o j a r , 1977; Welsh and Rigby, T97T). S i m i l a r snow-promoted heath communities are more e x t e n s i y e i n the Coastal Range o f B. C. where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s much h i g h e r . Archer's (1963) Phyl lodoceto - Cassiopetum mertensianae forms the zonal a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n of the G a r i b a l d i area, and forms a major component o f the Parkland Subzone o f the Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone (Brooke, Peterson and K r a j i n a , 1970). To my knowledge, s i m i l a r a l p i n e snowbed com- munit ies are not reported north o f the A t l i n area. The only community comparable to the S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum pi 1iferu m snowbed i s the Sibbaldietum procumbentis a s s o c i a t i o n described from G a r i b a l d i Park by Archer (1963). S i b b a l d i a procumbens, Antennaria a l p i n a and Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of both communities. Strong e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between the A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed and the Gymnmitrieto - P o l y t r i c h e t u m n o r v e g i c i a s s o c i a t i o n described by Archer (1963), the Saxi f rago  ( o p p o s i t i f o l i a e ) - O x y r i o  (digynae) - S a l i c i o n p o l a r i s o f Sheep Mt. and the K a i e r i a g l a c i a l i s - Grimmia a l p i c o l a nodum and Rhacomitrium canescens - Dicranoweisia c i r r a t a a s s o c i a t i o n from the Wrangell Mts. The S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f does not have any published c o u n t e r p a r t s . Some f l o r i s t i c and e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s are shared w i t h P o j a r ' s (1977) S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a - P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s - Tomemthypnum n i t e n s community. Neither the Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pect inata - Juncus drummondii snowbed nor the Calamagrostis canadensis ~ PIagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f communities (both of v e r y l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n on Teresa I s l a n d ) have pub- l i s h e d counterparts in the northwest. The Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f community i s comparable to the S a l i x "polari s - Ranunculus n i v a l is - Carex microchaeta - moss community o f Pojar (T977). His moss dominated community occurs i n h a b i t a t s above 1900 m. The two communities have many species in common i n c l u d i n g C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa. Further s i m i - l a r i t i e s between the Aulacomnium r u n o f f v e g e t a t i o n and other published communities are vague. At l e a s t e c o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s occur w i t h the S a l i x p o l a r i s - Hylocomium alaskanum and P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e a s s o c i a t i o n s of Scott (1974a+b). The Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f v e g e t a t i o n i s f l o r i s t i c a l l y and e c o l o g i c a l l y comparable to the S a l i x ( p o l a r i s , r e t i c u l a t a ) - Carex podocarpa - P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s - moss community o f P o j a r (1977) and somewhat l e s s f l o r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the Senecionae ( l u g e n t i s ) - Salicetum p o l a r i s - r e t i c u l a t a e o f Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a (1976). I t can be seen from the above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s do e x i s t among the a l p i n e p l a n t communities i n the B. C.-Yukon r e g i o n . Of the areas compared, the S p a t s i z i Plateau i s the most s i m i l a r f l o r i s t i c a l l y to the a l p i n e zone o f Teresa I s l a n d . E c o l o g i c a l and physiognomic s i m i l a r i t i e s are more common than f l o r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , and p o i n t out the advantages o f the h a b i t a t type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r v e g e t a t i o n a l comparisons o f a l p i n e areas. C. REMOTE SENSING AND MAPPING C . l I n t r o d u c t i o n The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n i s not an academic e x e r c i s e . Vegeta- t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s important not o n l y f o r communication but as basel ine data f o r f u t u r e research deal ing w i t h such t o p i c s as succession, n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g , p r o d u c t i v i t y , and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , and i s necessary f o r i n v e n t o r y and proper management o f our natural resources. To f a c i l i t a t e these u s e s , a n a l y s i s of v e g e t a t i o n should include not o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f the u n i t s but should also show how they can be c a r t o g r a p h i c a l l y described. A l l too often the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s cannot, or have n o t , been mapped and t h e i r value has not been f u l l y r e a l i z e d . In the p a s t , the deemphasis on mapping has been l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the lack o f , and poor q u a l i t y o f , a v a i l a b l e a e r i a l photographs, e s p e c i a l l y in remote a r c t i c and a l p i n e areas (Sigafoos, 1951). R e c e n t l y , remote sensing, "the d e t e c t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n , or e v a l u a t i o n o f o b j e c t s by means o f d i s t a n t sensing or recording devices" ( A v e r y ,  1968), has become a p o p u l a r . r e s e a r c h tool i n many o f the sciences. The develop- ment o f new techniques and increasing refinement and a v a i l a b i l i t y of remote sensing data p r o v i d e a new tool f o r the mapping of v e g e t a t i o n (Legge et a l . , 1974; P o u l t o n , 1972; Murtha, 1977; Watson, 1977). The value and use of remote sensing i n a l p i n e , boreal and a r c t i c regions have been discussed by the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America (1968), Benninghoff (1950), Brown 0 9 7 4 ) , Reed (1968), and Tarnocai (1972). C.2 O b j e c t i v e s The main purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s to use remotely sensed data in conjunction w i t h the v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s developed i;n the previous s e c t i o n to develop a h i e r a r c h i c a l e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and legend s u i t a b l e f o r the cartographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n at d i f f e r e n t scales and in w i d e l y separated geographical l o c a t i o n s , and to use t h i s system f o r the mapping o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n on Teresa I s l a n d . C.3 Remote sensor data Four types o f remote sensor data were used during the present s t u d y : c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs, s a t e l l i t e imagery and conventional c o l o r and black and white photographs. C.3.1 Black and white photographs Standard black and white ( B+W ) a e r i a l photographs have a number of advantages among which are a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o s t . B+W a e r i a l photos are a v a i l a b l e f o r the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e , and u s u a l l y at a number of s c a l e s . 9x9 p r i n t s are a v a i l a b l e from the National A i r Photo L i b r a r y i n Ottawa and the Map Production D i v i s i o n of the Surveys and Mining Branch o f the B.C. Lands S e r v i c e in V i c t o r i a . The r e s o l v i n g power o f the sensors i s v e r y good. My t e n t s at both camps could be detected at a photo scale of 1:80,000, and a small Stevenson Screen weather s h e l t e r at a scale of 1:29,000. A major advantage of t h i s e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e imagery i s t h a t stereo p a i r s can be obtained f o r stereoscopic v iewing. The loss o f information by the c o n v e r - sion of spectral r e f l e c t a n c e patterns to p o s i t i o n s on the gray scale i s the primary disadvantage i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B+W photographs. C.3.2 C o l o r - i n f r a r e d and conventional c o l o r photographs C o l o r - i n f r a r e d and conventional c o l o r photographs are not as a v a i l a b l e as B+W except f o r c e r t a i n s e l e c t e d areas and then they are more c o s t l y . The use o f c o l o r r a t h e r than gray scale r e s u l t s i n the presence of more i n f o r m a t i o n . The t y p i c a l r e f l e c t a n c e spectrum o f a green l e a f i s shown in Figure 58. The l e a f i s green because i t r e f l e c t s more green l i g h t than blue or red. Color f i l m reacts to v i s i b l e l i g h t . The c o l o r o f the scene i s c l o s e l y approximated on the photo i t s e l f . I t i s easy f o r the i n t e r p r e t e r to r e l a t e to the photo as i t r e f l e c t s the scene as he h i m s e l f sees i t . C o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m i s s e n s i t i v e to green, red and n e a r - i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n and thus extends beyond normal v i s i o n to .9 mu. The c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m i s c a l l e d " f a l s e - c o l o r " because the objects in the image scene are not the same c o l o r as i n the o r i g i n a l scene (Figure 58). The value o f i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n the f a c t t h a t plants r e f l e c t large amounts o f n e a r - i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n , more than they do green, and thus appear magenta on the photograph. Figure 59 shows two a e r i a l o b l i q u e photos o f the East Plateau Pond and Camp #2, one in c o l o r and one in c o l o r - i n f r a r e d . The v e g e t a t i o n along the r u n o f f stream i s much more v i s i b l e in the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo. The c o l o r range appears to be g r e a t e r in the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo and al lows more d e t a i l to be seen. The s e n s i t i v i t y and c o l o r balance o f the i n f r a r e d f i l m serves to "enhance and a m p l i f y c o l o r d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t on conventional c o l o r photo- graphy may be quest ionable or overlooked" ( K n i p l i n g , 1969). The range of red tones associated w i t h f o l i a g e i s g r e a t e r than the normally dark shades o f green so changes in the v e g e t a t i o n are more e a s i l y detected. One reason f o r t h i s i s the e f f e c t of f o l i a g e o v e r l a p on i n f r a r e d r e f l e c t i o n . Unl ike the green wavelengths, much o f the i n c i d e n t i n f r a r e d energy t h a t is t r a n s m i t t e d through the upper leaves i s r e f l e c t e d by the lower leaves and r e t r a n s m i t t e d through the upper, thus enhancing the canopy r e f l e c t i v i t y . I n f r a r e d r e f l e c t i v i t y ,  then, increases w i t h an increase in f o l i a g e d e n s i t y ( C o l w e l l , 1974; Gausman, 1977; K n i p l i n g , 1969; National Academy o f Sciences, 1971). Spectral range o f conven- t i o n a l c o l o r f i l m and c o r - responding c o l o r s produced .45 Blue .55 Green Blue .65 .75 Wavelength (^m) Red Green .85 Red Spectral range o f colcr- i n f r a r e d f i l m and c o r - responding c o l o r s produced Figure 58: General s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e curve of a green l e a f including spectral ranges f o r c o l o r - i n f r a r e d and conventional c o l o r f i l m . Modified from Murtha 1972, and American Society of Photogrammetry 1975. Figure 59: Two a e r i a l obl ique photographs of the East Plateau Pond and Camp #2; the upper in normal c o l o r and the lower i n c o l o r - i n f r a r e d . The c o l o r range appears to be greater in the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo, and allows more d e t a i l to be seen. Both photographs were taken at the same time. Another advantage of c o l o r - i n f r a r e d over conventional c o l o r i s i n the ease o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o n i f e r s from hardwoods. Conifers appear a v e r y dark magenta compared to the b r i g h t magenta of hardwoods (Figure 60). T h i s i s due p r i m a r i l y to the large number of contained shadows i n the c o n i f e r crowns caused by the many narrow needles (Murtha, 1972), and p a r t l y to the s l i g h t l y lower r e f l e c t a n c e across the spectrum of the c o n i f e r s . Another advantage o f i n f r a r e d f i l m , e s p e c i a l l y in a l p i n e , a r c t i c and other p o o r l y vegetated areas, i s i t s a b i l i t y to detect vegetat ion (Howarth, 1972). I s o l a t e d patches of v e g e t a t i o n tend to blend i n w i t h the background in B+W and c o l o r photographs but stand out as pink or red areas on c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photos (Figure 60). For these reasons and others many studies have shown i n f r a r e d f i l m to be s u p e r i o r to B+W and c o l o r f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , and i t i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y popular tool f o r v e g e t a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a - t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n (Brown, 1974; Forest Management I n s t i t u t e , 1974; Komarov, 1968; L a v k u l i c h , 1973; Meier, 1966; Murtha, 1972; Stephens, 1976; T a r n o c a i , 1972; T h i e , 1972). C.3.3 S a t e l l i t e imagery Since the J u l y 1972 launching by NASA o f the Earth Resource Technology S a t e l l i t e (ERTS-1), now c a l l e d Landsat-1, f o l l o w e d by the more recent launching of Landsat-2, s a t e l l i t e imagery has become a major tool i n v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s , land-use a n a l y s i s and environmental impact assess- ment. Landsat o r b i t s the earth at an a l t i t u d e of approximately  910 km on an eighteen day c y c l e , thus most o f the earth's surface i s imaged every eighteen days. Each image produced covers about 185 km x 198 km and has an average r e s o l u t i o n between 70 and 100 m ( p i x e l r e s o l u t i o n i s 79 x 79 m). In areas of high c o n t r a s t the r e s o l u t i o n i s g r e a t l y improved. The small Figure 60: Conventional color and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs show- ing value of the i n f r a r e d f i l m f o r detecting v e g e t a t i o n , and f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between hardwoods and c o n i f e r s . Note also the greater haze penetration of the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m . V = v e g e t a t i o n ; H = hardwoods; and C = c o n i f e r s . East Plateau Pond (see Figure 59) i s r e c o g n i z a b l e on the s a t e l l i t e imagery (Figure 75). The small two-lane gravel road connecting the town of A t l i n to the Alaska Highway can also be i d e n t i f i e d . Landsat contains a m u l t i - s p e c t r a l scanner (MMS) which detects l i g h t energy between .5 and 1.1 mu in f o u r spectral bands (bands 4, 5, 6, and 7). Band 4 detects energy i n the green range of the spectrum, .5 to .5 mu. Although r e s o l u t i o n is poor in t h i s band due to s c a t t e r i n g , there i s e x c e l l e n t shadow p e n e t r a t i o n , an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n in areas o f strong r e l i e f . Band 5 detects energy in the red region o f the spectrum, .6 to .7 mu. Vegetation has a low r e f l e c t a n c e i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the spectrum (Figure 58) and appears dark w h i l e man-made o b j e c t s such as towns and roads have a high r e f l e c t i o n . T h i s band shows high v e g e t a t i o n - s o i l c o n t r a s t and has good r e s o l u t i o n . Bands 6 and 7 are both i n the n e a r - i n f r a r e d region o f the spectrum, .7 to .8 mu and .8 to 1.1 mu r e s p e c t i v e l y . Vegetation has i t s highest r e f l e c t i o n in these wavelengths. These are also good bands f o r detect ing water as i t has almost complete absorption of near- i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n . Landsat imagery can be obtained in many formats such as computer compatible tapes, black and white transparencies (one f o r each band) and whole scene c o l o r composites and at v a r i o u s stock scales from 1:3,369,000 to 1:250,000. Since Landsat imagery i s i n e x p e n s i v e ,  a v a i l a b l e on a real time b a s i s , covers l a r g e remote areas and does so on a r e g u l a r , repeatable b a s i s , i t i s being i n c r e a s i n g l y used f o r environmental studies and v e g e t a t i o n mapping (Klemas et al_., 1974; Murtha, 1977; Murtha and Watson, 1976; Oswald, 1976; Watson, 1977). T h i s increased use has brought about refinements i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e imagery and new i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n technology consequently increasing the value o f the Landsat imagery. C.4 Methods C.4.1 F i e l d work During the three f i e l d seasons e x t e n s i v e photographic coverage of the a l p i n e area was made. T h i s coverage included photographic records o f a l l sample s i t e s and t r a n s e c t s , and weekly records of snow melt pro- gression and phenological changes. Photographs from topographic highs such as peaks, k n o l l s and r idges gave a v e r y good o v e r - v i e w  o f the area. L a r g e - scale a e r i a l o b l i q u e photographs were taken from a small chartered plane on August 2, 1976. A l l ground and a e r i a l obl ique photography was done with two 35 mm cameras using conventional c o l o r f i l m (Kodak Ektachrome 64) and c o l o r - i n f r a - red f i l m (Kodak I n f r a r e d Ektachrome). Since a l l dye l a y e r s on the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m are s e n s i t i v e to blue l i g h t , a minus-blue f i l t e r (Wratten #12) was used as recommended by the manufacturer. F r i t z (.1977) and Worsfold (1976) recommend the use o f c o l o r compensating f i l t e r s to obtain optimum c o l o r balance and increase in o p t i c a l d e n s i t y i n i n f r a r e d f i l m . A cc20m f i l t e r , considered to be the best f o r v e g e t a t i o n studies (Murtha, personal communication, 1975h was used in combination w i t h the Wratten #12. On s i t e sketch-mapping of selected areas was done in conjunct ion with the photographic coverage. White 76 x 102 cm cardboard markers covered w i t h p l a s t i c were set out on the ground to r e l o c a t e on the a e r i a l photography sample s i t e s and ground mapped areas which were not located near prominent physical f e a t u r e s . C.4.2 Laboratory work A l l p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was done in the l a b o r a t o r y . 35 mm c o l o r * Faculty of F o r e s t r y ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d transparencies were i n t e r p r e t e d on a l i g h t t a b l e using a lOx lens. 7.5 x 12.5 cm and 20.5 x 25.5 cm c o l o r p r i n t s were made from many of the t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . Conventional 23 x 23 cm B+W a e r i a l photos were obtained from V i c t o r i a and Ottawa. B+W photos used f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are l i s t e d i n Table XXI. Although r e s o l u t i o n was poor in the 1948 photographs, the extent o f snow cover f o r l a t e May and e a r l y June could be observed. A l l B+W p r i n t s were viewed and i n t e r p r e t e d using a Cassella/London 2x pocket s t e r e o - scope and H.M. Sutherland, B.C. Government Design m i r r o r stereoscope. To aid in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , contour l i n e s were superimposed (approximated) on the photos using a Kail R e f l e c t i n g P r o j e c t o r . S a t e l l i t e imagery was obtained from Integrated S a t e l l i t e Informa- t i o n Serv ices L t d . in Prince A l b e r t , Saskatchewan f o r two dates, February 6, 1973 (#E 1198-19374) and September 6, 1974 (#E 1775-19324), in 18 x 18 cm p o s i t i v e transparency format (scale 1:1,000,000). 70 mm chips were cut from p these transparencies and viewed through an I S Color A d d i t i v e Viewer. The scale o f the image on the v iewer screen i s 1:150,000. T h i s image was photographed using Kodak 35 mm High Speed Ektachrome f i l m . 17.5 x 25.5 cm cibachrome p r i n t s were made from selected transparencies and used f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Scale of image on cibachrome p r i n t s was 1:180,000. C.5 Discussion and r e s u l t s C.5.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and legend There are two f a c t o r s which determine the development o f a cartographical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. These are: 1, the scale and r e s o l u t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e imagery, and 2, the u l t i m a t e purpose o f the map (KLichler, 1951 , 1967, 1973; Legge et al_., 1974). The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f remote sensor data from l a r g e - s c a l e , l o w - l e v e l a e r i a l photography to s m a l l - s c a l e s a t e l l i t e TABLE XXI: 23 x 23 cm B+W photographs used f o r i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n on Teresa I s l a n d . Scale 1:29,000 Numbers Dates 1:80,000 Agency A l l 390 332-334 + 339 29 May-11 June 1948 Federal A l l 392 40 + 42 12 June 1948 II A l l 521 103-106 2 June 1948 II BC5676 110-112 13 August 1975 P r o v i n c i a l 212-216 ii n n 108-109 it M M 268-270 II ii II A24219 171-173 August 1975 Federal imagery has f a c i l i t a t e d the mapping o f v e g e t a t i o n at many scales. These data v a r y g r e a t l y in t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s , combined w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s set by scale r e s u l t in image merging or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of information w i t h a decrease in scale. Anderson et_ al_. (1976) defined f o u r l e v e l s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and data a c q u i s i t i o n ( T a b l e X X I I ) .  The amount of information portrayed on a map depends on i t s u l t i m a t e use. Resource managers r e q u i r e high l e v e l s o f d e t a i l w h i l e national and regional planning r e q u i r e s broader l e v e l s of information g e n e r a l i z a t i o n (Legge et al_., 19.74; P o u l t o n , 1972). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have often been developed f o r p a r t i c u l a r purposes, to s o l v e p a r t i c u l a r problems (Forest Management I n s t i t u t e , 1974; Hoefs, Cowan and K r a j i n a , 1975; Kiichler, 1951; Lord and Luckhurst , 1974; P o u l t o n , 1972). Maps so c o n s t r u c t e d , w h i l e useful in themselves, have no common ground and are d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to each o t h e r . There i s a need f o r an e c o l o g i c a l l y based c l a s s i f i c a t i o n designed to serve the m u l t i p l e needs o f users. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must also be s u i t a b l y f l e x i b l e to match the r e s o l u t i o n and information content needed at any s p e c i f i e d scale (Legge et̂ a l . , 1974; Poulton, 1972). The most promising c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system to date was developed by Poulton (1972) and expanded by Legge et al_. (1974). T h i s system i s eco- systematic and, f o r a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y , can i n c o r p o r a t e s o i l , geologic and physiognomic information i n t o i t s legend. T h i s part of the system, though, has not been thoroughly worked o u t , and w h i l e the value o f such an input i s r e c o g n i z e d , o n l y the v e g e t a t i o n part of the system is used here. T h i s system, which has been developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use w i t h remote sensor data, i s h i e r a r c h i c a l and incorporates the use o f physiognomic and s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at l e v e l s of broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and e c o l o g i c a l and f l o r i s t i c at intermediate and r e f i n e d l e v e l s . The c l a s s i f i - ca t ion l e v e l s and legend numbering system are diagrammed in Figure 61. TABLE X X I I : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f t e r Anderson et_ a l . (1976). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Level T y p i c a l Data C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I S a t e l l i t e (Landsat) data (scales 1:150,000 o r smaller) I I H i g h - a l t i t u d e data taken at 12,000 m or above (scales 1:50,000 t o 1:150,000) I I I Medium-altitude data taken at 3,100 to 12,000 m (scales 1:20,000 to 1:50,000) IV L o w - a l t i t u d e data taken below 3,100 m (scales l a r g e r than 1:20,000) (Primary) Gross Resource and Primary Land Use Classes (Secondary and T e r t i a r y ) (Quaternary and Below) Physiognomic Type S p e c i f i c Ecosystem o r or Secondary Land Use Plant Community o r Classes D e t a i l e d Land Use Classes T J I T . '00~0S Figure 61: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n legend format modif ied from Legge et_ al_. (1974). The legend system has been s u c c e s s f u l y used r e c e n t l y by Legge et a l . [1974) f o r mapping the Kananaskis, A l b e r t a , remote sensing t e s t c o r r i d o r which includes a l p i n e tundra and subalpine f o r e s t s , and by Watson (1977) f o r mapping the Lac-du-Bois range!ands i n Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia. The e n t i r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and legend system as expanded by Legge et al_. (1974) i s reproduced in Appendix B. The p r i m a r y , secondary and t e r t i a r y classes have widespread a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Poulton (1972) suggests that classes representing s p e c i f i c p l a n t communities o r ecosystems (quaternary and q u i n a r y classes) should be r e g i o n a l i z e d f o r maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Thus, beyond the t e r t i a r y l e v e l , legends w i l l d i f f e r among areas. However, an attempt should be made to standardize u n i t s as much as p o s s i b l e among s i m i l a r r e g i o n s , at l e a s t in the quaternary (000.1) c l a s s . The legend, as I have expanded i t , i s to be used o n l y f o r a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . H o p e f u l l y t h i s legend can be f u r t h e r expanded to include a l l a l p i n e vege- t a t i o n in B.C. The e n t i r e legend system used in the mapping o f Teresa I s l a n d ' s v e g e t a t i o n i s produced i n Table X X I I I . C.5.2 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n vs s y n t h e s i s Due to the rugged t e r r a i n of the a l p i n e zone and r e s u l t a n t steep g r a d i e n t s , p l a n t communities found here are numerous and small . Zwinger and W i l l a r d (1972) described the s i t u a t i o n well when they w r o t e , "In the a l p i n e r e g i o n , one can s i t in a gopher garden, r e s t one's f e e t in a f e l l f i e l d and put a hand in a sedge meadow." T h i s s i t u a t i o n presents s e r i o u s problems to the v e g e t a t i o n mapper. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are necessary when mapping a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n even at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l IV (Table X X I I ) . At c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l I I I the problem becomes more acute. At l e v e l s above the community l e v e l the question becomes one o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n or s y n t h e s i s . The r e s u l t i s dependent on the physiognomic TABLE X X I I I : H i e r a r c h i c a l legend system and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used f o r mapping a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n of Teresa I s l a n d . Primary Classes Secondary Classes T e r t i a r y Classes Quaternary Classes Quinary Classes 100 - Barren Land 130 - Rocklands 131 - Bedrock outcrops 133 - G r a v e l s , stones, cobbles and boulders 134 - Scarps, t a l u s and/or c o l l u v i u m (system o f outcropping s t r a t a ) 200 - Water Resources 210 - Ponds, lakes and r e s e r v o i r s 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 220 - Water courses 221 - Natural water courses 280 - Snow and ice 281 - Seasonal snow cover 282 - Permanent snowfields and g l a c i e r s 300 - Natural Vegetation 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - L i c h e n , cryptogam and r e l a t e d communities 311.1 - Lichen dominated f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s 311.11 - U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 311.12 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta fel1 - f i e l d 311.13 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium ul iginosum f e l l f i e l d 311.2 - Lichen and bryophyte dominated snowbeds 311.21 - A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed 311.3 - Bryophyte dominated f l u s h e s and streambanks 311.31 - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f 313 - Forb types 313.1 Forb dominated snowbeds 313.11 - S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed 313.2 Forb dominated f l u s h e s and streambanks 313.21 - Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f 315 - Meadow 315.1 - Fescue dominated meadows 315.11 - Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow 315.12 - Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow 315.2 - Carex dominated meadows and snowbeds 315.21 - Carex microchaeta meadow 315.22 - Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea pectinata - Juncus drummondii snowbed TABLE X X I I I ( d o n ' t . ) 315.3 - Reed grass dominated meadows and streambanks 315.31 - C a l a m a g r o s t i s canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f 320 - Shrub/Scrub 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.1 - Wil low predominant v e g e t a t i o n 327.11 - S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f - 327.2 - Birch predominant v e g e t a t i o n 327.21 - Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.1 - S p r u c e - f i r krummholz type 328.2 - Mountain heath types 328.21 - Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath 328.22 - Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetr i formi s snowbed 340 - Forest and Woodland types 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 341.5 - Spruce/Fir 343 - C o n i f e r - b r o a d l e a f mixed f o r e s t s and woodlands 900 - Obscured Land 910 - Clouds and fog 950 - Shadows nature of the v e g e t a t i o n and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used. The c l a s s - i f i c a t i o n j u s t described has i t s higher u n i t s physiognomical ly  d e f i n e d . I f communities next to each other on the ground are physiognomical ly  s i m i l a r then they can be combined i n t o one physiognomic c lass as the mapping scale decreases. T h i s is an example o f s y n t h e s i s . In the a l p i n e vegetat ion of Teresa I s l a n d t h i s i s not the case. The mosaic of communities on the ground o f t e n r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r mosaic of physiognomies. As the scale decreases, s i t e s w i l l be averaged t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s an example of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . In the f i r s t case, information loss i s minimized, w h i l e in the second case much information i s l o s t . For example, i f a moss dominated r u n o f f s i t e i s bordered by two w i l l o w dominated r u n o f f s i t e s , a decrease in scale w i l l probably r e s u l t in these three s i t e s being averaged together and mapped as one w i l l o w or shrub dominated s i t e . Information concerning the moss dominated s i t e i s gone. T h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system due to i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l nature. However, because o f the v a l u e o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r m u l t i l e v e l mapping, use w i t h remotely sensed data and wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y , i t should not be o v e r l y c r i t i c i z e d . A h y p o t h e t i c a l example o f how g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s might occur from l e v e l IV ( large scale mapping l e v e l ) to l e v e l I ( s a t e l l i t e l e v e l ) in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n using the h i e r a r c h i c a l legend system is shown in Figure 62. I f t h i s l o s t information is v e r y important to the u s e r , who might wish to use the map f o r i n v e n t o r y purposes, then i t can be p a r t i a l l y r e c t i f i e d by using the h a b i t a t type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n described i n s e c t i o n B of t h i s t h e s i s . In t h i s case, communities mapped at l e v e l IV could be s y n t h e s i z e d at l e v e l I I I i n t o h a b i t a t t y p e s . A h y p o t h e t i c a l example of t h i s using the same community sequence as in Figure 62 i s given in Figure 63. The e c o l o g i c a l information inherent in the h a b i t a t type could a l s o be important to the user. At l e v e l s I I and I the h a b i t a t type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u f f e r s Level I 311/315 I I 311.1 H I 311.1 311.2/313.1 Plant com- munitd.es along a mesotopogra- phic gradient -Q to T 3 r— i l o (O i— u- co o. i oO co co 327.1 JD to (O CVI _J • Cx CO 315.1/311.1 328.2 o s- CJ 1 .o i i— 1 to n toco tn . 1— i i— o • i O-i— C i— 1 1— C CO a. • _u . DJ— LU CO 1 CO 1 0c coco i Q - i — O-Cv 1 Q- O oo co yi cr c x o <C i - OO i - 327.2 328 cvl" OJ CM 1 o Q- . CL $_ 1 CO O 1 10 CM 1 c. c_> to CO a: oo Figure 62: Hypothetical g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from decrease in scale when mapping ecological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s . Plant com- munities along mesotopogra- phic gradient Sp- Pp sb A j - (2) La sb (2) Sp-Pp Sp- sb En- (2) S ro (3) Figure 63: Hypothetical when mapping g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g h a b i t a t type u n i t s . r Sp- Fa- Cn-Vu En- C f f S dm (1) ro (4) (3) * l = F e l l f i e l d h . t . 2=Snowbed h . t . 3=Runoff h . t . 4=Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h . t . Cs-Pe R- Bg- sb Cp- Cc (2) Sn s f decrease in scale ro (3) from the same problems o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as the physiognomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The h a b i t a t type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l a l p i n e a r e a s , at l e a s t in North America and Europe, and i s more e a s i l y compared to e x i s t i n g a l p i n e vegetat ion studies-, however, i t does not have the wide range, depth of d e t a i l and p o t e n t i a l as the physiognomical ly  based c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For comparative purposes both c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are used on the f o l l o w i n g v e g e t a t i o n maps. C.5.3 Mapping The a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n o f Teresa I s l a n d was mapped at f o u r d i f f e r e n t scales to show: 1, that a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n can be mapped, and 2, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and legend system f o r m u l t i - scale mapping. The f o u r scales r e f l e c t the imagery a v a i l a b l e f o r the area and c o i n c i d e w i t h the f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s of Anderson et. al_. (1976). The f o u r scales and associated imagery are l i s t e d in Table XXIV. Since the v e g e t a t i o n study ( s e c t i o n B) was accomplished and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and legend system decided on p r i o r to mapping, the approach was â  p r i o r i . Predefined and predescribed v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s had to be detected on the imagery. An a l t e r n a t i v e approach would be to map homo- geneous u n i t s f i r s t and then develop a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to circumscribe these u n i t s . Kuchler (.1951) has compared t h i s a p o s t e r i o r i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n approach to the a p r i o r i approaches and f e e l s t h a t the l a t t e r has the d i s t i n c t i v e advantage f o r "they are world-wide in scope and more or l e s s s y s t e m a t i c , _i._e., they are based on one or more defined ideas which are then a p p l i e d throughout the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to the e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r ideas." C o n v e r s e l y , the a p o s t e r i o r i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are s u i t a b l e f o r l o c a l i z e d studies and r e s u l t i n a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f unrelated c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . With the help o f the e x t e n s i v e photographic coverage on the XXIV:  Imagery and scales used f o r the mapping o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n on Teresa I s l a n d . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Level Scale Imagery I 1:180,000 Landsat c o l o r composite I I 1:80,000 B+W a e r i a l I I I 1:29,000 B+W a e r i a l IV >1:20,000 c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl iques ground and s e l e c t i v e l y placed white cardboard markers, a l l sample s i t e s were located on the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl iques and 1:29,000 scale B+W a e r i a l photographs. Mapping could then be done by e x t r a p o l a t i o n from these known areas. C.5.3.1 Level IV mapping on c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl iques Three a e r i a l obl ique photographs were mapped i n t e n s e l y . The l o c a t i o n of these photographs on a 1:50,000 scale topographic map i s shown in Figure 64. Prominent hues could be obtained f o r communities or i n d i v i d u a l species by comparing conventional c o l o r and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d images o f the same o b j e c t o r scene. Figure 65 shows two p i c t u r e s taken almost in the same spot on the East Plateau looking north toward Camp #2 and across the East V a l l e y . In both cases a backpack i s s i t t i n g i n a Festuca a l t a i c a dominated area (1). In c o l o r - i n f r a r e d the Festuca becomes a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p ink. The f e l l f i e l d i n the distance (2) goes from y e l l o w i n the conventional c o l o r photo to white i n the i n f r a r e d . Between the two areas i s another patch o f Festuca (.3) which i s not contrasted n o t i c e a b l y w i t h surrounding types in the conventional c o l o r p i c t u r e . Figure 66 i s a c o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl ique showing the p o s i t i o n of two of the white cardboard markers. The upper one (1) can r e a d i l y be i d e n t i f i e d as l y i n g in a Festuca meadow. The 181 Figure 64: Location of map areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on 1:50,000 scale topographic map. Figure 65: Conventional c o l o r photograph (top) and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph (bottom). Pink tone i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Festuca meadows (1), and can be detected e a s i l y from a distance (3). Detection is more d i f f i c u l t on the con- ventional c o l o r photograph. F e l l f i e l d s (2) appear y e l l o w on c o l o r photographs and white on i n f r a r e d . Figure 66: C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph showing two white markers on the East Plateau. 1 = white marker in Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow. 2 = white marker i n Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. 3 = Cassiope area blending i n t o f e l l f i e l d . 4 = Cassiope area blending i n t o Festuca meadow. lower marker (2) i s located in a Cassiope tetragon a heath. The Cassiope i s evergreen, r e t a i n i n g i t s c l o s e l y imbricated leaves e v e r y y e a r . Only the new y e a r ' s growth, however, a c t u a l l y looks green and on c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m the Cassiope appears brown. J u s t to the l e f t of the marker the Cassiope heath grades i n t o f e l l f i e l d (3) and to the r i g h t i t s l o w l y grades i n t o Festuca (4). On c o l o r - i n f r a r e d the tonal s i g n a t u r e o f the var ious species and communities are o f t e n remarkably d i s t i n c t . Color separation is b e t t e r on the 35 mm transparencies so most i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was done from these and t r a n s f e r e d to the p r i n t s . Tonal changes and loss o f r e s o l u t i o n were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l c o l o r paper p r i n t s . Map area 1 and a l l the f o l l o w i n g map areas were mapped twice f o r comparative purposes; once using the h i e r a r c h i c a l v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n and once using the h a b i t a t type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For the l a r g e - s c a l e obl iques the h a b i t a t type map was made simply by combining vegetat ion u n i t s of the v e g e t a t i o n map. Map area 1 (Figures 67 and 68] i s located on the north slope on the saddle behind the North Knoll near Camp #1 (Figure 64). T h i s area was chosen because i t contains three o f the f o u r t r a n s e c t s discussed in sect ion B . 3 . 2 , i s t y p i c a l o f the s o l i f l u c t i o n t e r r a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the north s l o p e , and contains the tents o f Camp #1 f o r a reference scale (Figure 67). Comparison can be made in Figure 67 between the r e s u l t s of a normal c o l o r photograph and a c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo. The v a r i a t i o n in hues and tones and thus the amount o f e x t r a c t a b l e information i s much g r e a t e r in the i n f r a r e d photo. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c y e l l o w appearance o f C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s dominated f e l l f i e l d s found in the normal c o l o r photo i s , however, l o s t i n the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo. In c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m y e l l o w o b j e c t s which a l s o r e f l e c t n e a r - i n f r a r e d appear w h i t e . Thus, w h i l e i n f r a r e d f i l m i s e x c e l l e n t f o r detect ing v a s c u l a r v e g e t a t i o n i n areas o f sparse v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r , i t i s Figure 67: Normal c o l o r (top) and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d (bottom) photographs of map area 1. Four white markers are c i r c l e d . Markers 1 and 4 are in Festuca a l t a i c a dominated s i t e s ; marker 2 i s in a Cassiope tetraqona dominated s i t e ; and marker 3 i s in a S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a runoff community. T = the tents at Camp #1. T - l , T-3 and T-4 represent the l o c a t i o n s o f transects #1, #3 and #4. Map Area 1. Col o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph l o o k - ing west across the north slope o f Birch Mountain. The two t e n t s o f Camp #1 can be seen in the upper l e f t corner o f the photograph. The large east-west l y i n g snowbed i s the Saddle Snowbed. O v e r l a y 1: Vegetation Map Legend 133 - G r a v e l s , stones, cobbles, and boulders 281 - Seasonal snow cover 282 - Permanent snowfields and g l a c i e r s 311.13 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d 311.21 - A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata 1 ate snowbed 311.31 - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f 313.11 - S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed 315.11 - Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow 315.12 - Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.11 - S a l i x p i a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 327.21 - Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.21 - Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath 328.22 - Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed ® - Sample s i t e -fr - A i r marker T - Tent O v e r l a y 2: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type Snowbed h a b i t a t type Runoff h a b i t a t type Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type Sample s i t e number and l o c a t i o n OVERLAY  1 I ;S v ' ' B&r <M I * j ! « ; JfJft £ r « ;v* r * •Jr poor f o r detect ing y e l l o w l i c h e n s which tend to blend in w i t h the rocks. A general statement can be made here that c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m i s b e t t e r f o r v e g e t a t i o n studies than conventional c o l o r f i l m , but the use o f both f i l m types together i s b e t t e r than the use o f c o l o r - i n f r a r e d f i l m alone. Four white cardboard markers are v i s i b l e in Figure 67. Markers 1 and 4 are in Festuca a l t a i c a dominated s i t e s . Marker 2 i s i n a t y p i c a l Cassiope tetragon a heath and marker 3 i s in a S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a r u n o f f s i t e at the base o f t r a n s e c t #3. By l o c a t i n g a l l sample s i t e s on the c o l o r - i n f r a r e d and normal c o l o r photos (Figure 68 - Overlays 1 and 2) and e x t r a p o l a t i n g , the e n t i r e area could be mapped. Map area 2 (Figure 69) i s located on the East Plateau (Figure 64) and includes most o f the East Plateau Pond, stream and Camp #2. T h i s area shows the t y p i c a l d i v e r s i t y of low a l p i n e communities, and contains a good example of r u n o f f v e g e t a t i o n , f e l l f i e l d and snowbanks. Many sample s i t e s were located i n t h i s area (Overlays 3 and 4). The ground slopes from the upper l e f t corner to the lower r i g h t c o r n e r . In the center o f the area there i s a small but sharp drop i n e l e v a t i o n . T h i s i s evidenced by the two snowbeds which have developed i n the lee of the drop and the white water of the stream in between. Map area 3 (Figure 70) represents the south f a c i n g , g e n t l y s loping Northeast Plateau and the steep slope o f the East V a l l e y which is out of the p i c t u r e on the l e f t (Figure 64). Where they are not eroded, the south slopes are covered m o s t l y w i t h meadow v e g e t a t i o n (Overlay 6). Abies l a s i o c a r p a krummholtz appears at the lower l e f t corner (Figure 70 - O v e r l a y 5) and represents the ecotone between the subalpine v e g e t a t i o n o f the v a l l e y f l o o r and the low a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n o f the upper slopes of the v a l l e y . The low a l p i n e , represented by the mats o f Betula and S a l i x , s l o w l y grades i n t o Map Area 2. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph looking west across the East Plateau. The East Plateau Pond and tent at Camp #2 are v i s i b l e in the upper l e f t corner o f the photo- graph. O v e r l a y 3: Vegetation Map Legend 133 - G r a v e l s , s t o n e s , cobbles, and boulders 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 221 - Natural water courses 280 - Snow and ice 281 - Seasonal snow cover 311.11 - U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 311.13 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d 311.21 - A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed 313.11 - S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed 313.21 - Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f 315.11 - Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow 315.12 - Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow 327.4 - S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 328.21 - Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath 328.22 - Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed ® - Sample s i t e T - Tent O v e r l a y 4: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend 1 - F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 2 - Snowbed h a b i t a t type 3 - Runoff h a b i t a t type 4 - Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type T ] - Sample s i t e number and l o c a t i o n OVERLAY  3  Map Area 3. Col o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l o b l i q u e photograph looking west across the Northeast Plateau. The t e r r a i n i s s l o p i n g south ( l e f t ) i n t o the East V a l l e y (out o f photograph on l e f t ) . The g e n t l y s loping north slope runs along the upper edge o f the photograph. O v e r l a y 5: Vegetation Map 133 134 280 311.11 311.13 311.21 311.31 313.11 315.1 315.11 315.12 327.21 328.1 328.21 Legend - G r a v e l s , s t o n e s , cobbles, and boulders - Scarps, t a l u s and/or c o l l u v i u m (system o f outcropping s t r a t a ) - Snow and i c e - U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d - Anthe!ia j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f - S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed - Fescue dominated meadows - Festuca a l t a i c a ..- P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow - Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina d r y meadow C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d Betula glandulosa S p r u c e - f i r krummholz Cassiope tetragon a - Sample s i t e type Cladina m i t i s heath O v e r l a y 6: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type Snowbed h a b i t a t type Runoff h a b i t a t type Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type Sample s i t e number and l o c a t i o n OVERLAY  5 !  m i d - a l p i n e (upper center of p i c t u r e ) c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more Festuca and l e s s Betula. The high a l p i n e areas near the summit are represented by one c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photograph (Figure 71) (map area 4 on Figure 64). Most of t h i s photo i s covered by two community t y p e s . The black areas are l i c h e n covered rocks and boulders o f the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . The p i n k i s h white areas are C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d s . Due to exposure and processing i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , prominent hues could not be e x t r a p o l a t e d from one c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photo to another. C.5.3.2 Level H I mapping o f B+W a e r i a l photographs Two 1:29,000 scale B+W a e r i a l photographs were mapped. Together these p r i n t s cover p r a c t i c a l l y the e n t i r e a l p i n e zone. Map area 5 (Figure 72 - Overlays 7 and 8) encompasses the southern sect ion (see Figure 64) and includes the steep south s l o p e s , high r idges and peaks, the East Plateau and Camp #2 (tent i s v i s i b l e ) , the East V a l l e y and a l l the c i r q u e s . Map area 6 (Figure 73 - Overlays 9 and 10) covers the gentle north slope w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o l i f l u c t i o n f e a t u r e s , the North Knoll and Camp #1 and the North V a l l e y . With the aid of a lOx hand lens and stereoscope much information could be e x t r a c t e d from these p r i n t s . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are more d i f f i c u l t on the B+W p r i n t s because the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o l o r s o f the communities have been reduced to gray tones, some o f which are v e r y s i m i l a r . More important f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of B+W p r i n t s are topographic p o s i t i o n and t e x t u r e o f the v e g e t a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l community types can often be detected but are much too small to be mapped. Watson (1977) gives two general r u l e s which should be f o l l o w e d when mapping at any p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e : 1, map u n i t s should not be smaller then the symbols used to represent them and 2, a Figure 71: Map Area 4. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l obl ique photo- graph encompassing most of the South Ridge. Pink tones are C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d and black tones represent U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d . Map Area 5, 1:29,000 scale B & W a e r i a l photograph o f Birch Mountain. The. photograph encompasses- the North "Valley, East V a l l e y , Northeast Plateau, East Plateau, the south s l o p e s , r i d g e s , a l l the cirques and the summit. O v e r l a y 7: Vegetation Map Legend 133 - G r a v e l s , s t o n e s , cobbles, and boulders 134 - Scarps, t a l u s and/or c o l l u v i u m (system of outcropping s t r a t a ) 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 280 - Snow and ice 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - L i c h e n , cryptogam and r e l a t e d communities 311.1 - Lichen dominated f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s 311.11 - U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 311.12 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d 311.13 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d 311.2 - Lichen and bryophyte dominated snowbeds 311.21 - A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed 311.3 - Bryophyte dominated f l u s h e s and streambanks 313 - Forb types 313.1 - Forb dominated snowbeds 313.2 - Forb dominated f lushes and streambanks 313.21 - Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f 315 - Meadow 315.1 - Fescue dominated meadows 315.2 - Carex dominated meadows and snowbeds 320 - Shrub/Scrub 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.11 - S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 327.2 - Birch predominant v e g e t a t i o n 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.1 - S p r u c e - f i r krummholz type 328.2 - Mountain heath types ^ - Summit o f Birch Mountain O v e r l a y 8: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend 1 - F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 2 - Snowbed h a b i t a t type 3 - Runoff h a b i t a t type 4 - Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type *>3 ) 31 t as sun 'f 3ll.ll 11 ito, 31? 7,. I2t0 . ilU I 311-11 9it 3ii.il 9I1IZ 7 /an I 3 f 7, 321  Map Area 6, 1;29,000 scale B & W'aerial photograph o f Birch Mountain. The photograph encompasses the North V a l l e y , north s l o p e , North Knoll and northern slopes o f Teresa I s l a n d . O v e r l a y 9: Vegetation Map Legend 131 - Bedrock outcrops 133 - G r a v e l s , stones, cobbles, and boulders 134 - Scarps, t a l u s and/or c o l l u v i u m ("system o f outcropping s t r a t a ) 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 280 - Snow and i c e 282 - Permanent snowfields and g l a c i e r s 311 - L i c h e n , cryptogam and r e l a t e d communities 311.1 - Lichen dominated f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s 311.11 - U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d 311.13 - C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d 311.2 - Lichen and bryophyte dominated snowbeds 311.21 - A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed 311.31 - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f 313.2 - Forb dominated f l u s h e s and streambanks 315 - Meadow 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.11 - S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.1 - S p r u c e - f i r krummholz type 328.2 - Mountain heath types 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 950 - Shadows O v e r l a y 10: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend 1 - F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 2 - Snowbed h a b i t a t type 3 - Runoff h a b i t a t type 4 - Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type OVERLAY 9.  symbol should by placed w i t h i n i t s u n i t whenever p o s s i b l e . The presence of two legend symbols w i t h i n a map u n i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n u n i t s are mixed and they both cover e q u a l l y l a r g e areas. T h i s once again is the problem o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The problem o f mapping a l p i n e vegetat ion i s one o f mapping r e s o l u t i o n , not photographic r e s o l u t i o n . The amount o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that has occurred between c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s IV and I I I i s e v i d e n t i f map area 1 is compared to i t s l o c a t i o n on map area 6 and map areas 2, 3 and 4 to t h e i r l o c a t i o n on map area 5. C.5.3.3 Level I I mapping of B+W a e r i a l photographs (Figure 74 - Overlays 11 and 12) Even though the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s photograph i s so good that the tents at camps #1 and #2 can s t i l l be seen, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f information i s extreme due to the v e r y small scale of 1:80,000. I f the e n t i r e image i s to be mapped, then a decrease in photographic scale coincides w i t h an increase in area mapped. In t h i s case much o f Teresa I s l a n d i s now v i s i b l e . The value o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n at t h i s scale becomes e v i d e n t . Since t h i s v e g e t a t i o n study was r e s t r i c t e d to the a l p i n e zone, the q u a n t i - t a t i v e species make-up of the subalpine and boreal areas o f the mountain is not known and at a scale o f 1:80,000 species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s cannot be made. The physiognomy o f the v e g e t a t i o n i s v i s i b l e at t h i s scale and since the p r i m a r y , secondary, and t e r t i a r y classes of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system are based on physiognomy a l l the vegetat ion can be mapped whether species composition i s known or not. Vegetation studies and l a r g e - s c a l e mapping of the subalpine and boreal zones can be done in the f u t u r e w i t h o u t having to change the l o g i c o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The legend i s s imply expanded to add more i n f o r m a t i o n . 1:80,00.0 scale B & W a e r i a l photograph o f Birch Mountain and much of Teresa I s l a n d , O v e r l a y 11: Vegetation Map Legend 133 - G r a v e l s , stones, cobbles and boulders 134 - Scarps, t a l u s and/or colluviurn (system o f outcropping s t r a t a ) 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 280 - Snow and ice 282 - Permanent snowfields and g l a c i e r s 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - Lichen, cryptogam and r e l a t e d communities 311. 1 - Lichen dominated f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s 311. 21 - A n t h e l i a juratzkana - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed 313 - Forb types 315 - Meadow 320 - Shrub/Scrub 327 - Macrophyllous scrub 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.1 - S p r u c e - f i r krummholz type 328. 2 - Mountain heath types 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 343 - C o n i f e r - b r o a d l e a f mixed f o r e s t s and woodlands 950 - Shadows O v e r l a y 12: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend 1 - F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 2 - Snowbed h a b i t a t type 3 - Runoff h a b i t a t type 4 - Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type OVERLAY  11  C . 5 . 3 . 4 Level I mapping from Landsat imagery (Figure 75 - Overlays 13 and 14) A c o l o r composite o f the September 6, 1974 Landsat imagery was produced on the I^S Color A d d i t i v e Viewer using bands 4, 5, 6, and 7. The Color A d d i t i v e Viewer adds c o l o r ( w h i t e , b l u e , green o r red) t o each of the bands and o p t i c a l l y superimposes them on the screen. The best c o l o r combination f o r bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 f o r v e g e t a t i o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was found to be green, b l u e , red and red r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o l o r o f the image produced using t h i s combination resembles that o f c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs and thus aids the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s a t e l l i t e image. T h i s composite was photographed o f f the viewer screen and reproduced on a Cibachrome p r i n t with a r e s u l t i n g scale o f 1:180,000 (Figure 75). I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Landsat image i s based on c o l o r and e l e v a t i o n . I t can be seen that the vegetat ion forms bands c o i n c i d i n g with e l e v a t i o n . The dense coniferous f o r e s t w i t h i t s low r e f l e c t i v i t y  forms a brownish - magenta band around the edge of the i s l a n d . T h i s probably c o r r e l a t e s to K r a j i n a ' s Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone (Beil et a l . , 1976). With an increase in e l e v a t i o n there i s an increase in r e f l e c t i v i t y probably because of the presence of more deciduous hardwood v e g e t a t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e on t h e . s o u t h e r n h a l f o f the i s l a n d . As r e f l e c t i v i t y  continues to increase w i t h e l e v a t i o n , red begins to disappear. T h i s i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the o v e r a l l decrease in v e g e t a t i o n w i t h e l e v a t i o n and the increased c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s o i l and rock to the t o t a l r e f l e c t i v i t y . A l p i n e meadows appear w h i t i s h - y e l l o w . The subalpine zone, the Spruce - Wil low - Birch Zone (Bei l et a l . , 1976; K r a j i n a , 1975), grades from reddish - y e l l o w to red. Bare rock appears gray. 1; 180,00.0 scale LANDSAT image of Teresa I s l a n d , southern A t l i n Lake and surroundings. O v e r l a y 13: Vegetat ion Map Legend 130 - Rocklands 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 280 - Snow and i c e 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - L i c h e n , cryptogam and r e l a t e d communities 315 - Meadow 320 - Shrub/Scrub 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 343 - C o n i f e r - b r o a d l e a f mixed f o r e s t s and woodlands 910 - Clouds and fog 950 - Shadows A - A t l i n Over lay 14: Habitat Type Map (back pocket) Legend 1 - F e l l f i e l d and b l o c k f i e l d h a b i t a t type 2 - Snowbed h a b i t a t type 4 - Meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t type A - A t l i n OVERLAY  13 \  C.6 Conclusions The preceding maps demonstrate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the h i e r a r c h i c a l e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r mapping a l p i n e vegetat ion and i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to v a r y i n g scales and a v a i l a b l e remote sensing data. C o l o r - i n f r a r e d photos are s u p e r i o r f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e l i n e a t i o n of p l a n t communities and in many cases i n d i v i d u a l species. Maximum information i s obtained when c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photos are supplemented w i t h normal c o l o r photographs. B+W a e r i a l photos are useful f o r mapping but plant conmunity d i s c r i m i n a t i o n is reduced. A l l mapping should be f i e l d checked f o r accuracy of boundaries and u n i t s . S a t e l l i t e imagery i s v a l u a b l e f o r s m a l l - s c a l e mapping o f major physiognomical ly  c h a r a c t e r i z e d v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s . The b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones occurr ing i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia can be d i s c r i m i n a t e d on l a t e - summer s a t e l l i t e imagery. D. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In summary: (1) The a l p i n e vegetation o f Teresa I s l a n d , A t l i n Lake, in n o r t h - western B r i t i s h Columbia was s t u d i e d during the summers of 1974, 1975 and 1976. (2) The bedrock o f t h i s a l p i n e area i s p r i m a r i l y composed o f quartz monzonite w i t h small pockets o f s i l t s t o n e , mudstone and sandy l imestone. (3) These rocks have given r i s e to p o o r l y developed a c i d i c s o i l s . S o i l development is poor because o f f a i r l y recent d e g l a c i a t i o n , poor p r o - d u c t i v i t y and m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y i n h e r e n t in most a l p i n e environments, low temperatures, wind, and e x t e n s i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n , c r y o t u r b a t i o n and f r o s t s h a t t e r i n g . (4) These p e r i g l a c i a l phenomena have been a c t i v e in the past and r e - main a c t i v e today. Common f r o s t features occurr ing on the mountain include e x t e n s i v e f r o s t - f o r m e d boulder f i e l d s on the summits and high r i d g e s , a c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes and benches ( e s p e c i a l l y on the north s l o p e ) , s o r t e d s t r i p e s , stone n e t s , debris i s l a n d s , and sorted and nonsorted c i r c l e s . Presence o f these features i n d i c a t e s a constant supply o f water and a p e r i g l a c i a l c l imate c h a r a c t e r i z e d by frequent subsurface f reeze-thaw c y c l e s . (5) Four weather s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d during the study p e r i o d , three on the north slope at 1280, 1540 and 1829 m, and one on the East Plateau at 1540 m. From p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature data c o l l e c t e d at each s t a t i o n , i t was found t h a t temperature g r e a t l y decreases with an increase in e l e v a t i o n ; p r e c i p i t a t i o n increases with e l e v a t i o n ; and tempera- ture and p r e c i p i t a t i o n are c o n s i s t e n t l y g r e a t e r on the East Plateau, i , e . , south s ide o f the mountain, than on the north s l o p e . (6) One hundred f i f t y - o n e (151) s i t e s , chosen on the basis o f uniform appearance (dominant s p e c i e s ) , uniform e c o l o g i c a l condit ions and species homogeneity, were sampled during the study p e r i o d . (7) These s i t e s were combined i n t o s i x t e e n community types on the basis o f dominant s p e c i e s , physiognomic s i m i l a r i t y and s i m i l a r environmental c o n d i t i o n s . (8) The s i x t e e n community types i d e n t i f i e d were: 1) Umbi1icaria b l o c k f i e l d ; 2) C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d ; 3) C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d ; 4) Carex microchaeta meadow; 5) Festuca a l t a i c a - Potenti11a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow; 6) Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow; 7) Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d ; 8) Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath; 9) Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyl lodoce empetriformi s snowbed; 10) S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum p i l i f e r u m snowbed; 11) A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata snowbed; 12) Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea p e c t i n a t a - Juncus drummondii snowbed; 13) S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum r u n o f f ; 14) Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratu m r u n o f f ; 15) Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta r u n o f f ; and 16) Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss r u n o f f . (9) Four t ransects were sampled to document changes i n species d i s t r i - butions along environmental g r a d i e n t s . (10) Observations and t r a n s e c t r e s u l t s show that the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n - mental f a c t o r s most instrumental i n c o n t r o l l i n g the local d i s t r i b u t i o n o f vegetation w i t h i n the a l p i n e zone are topography, snow d u r a t i o n and moisture. (11) Four h a b i t a t t y p e s , defined p r i m a r i l y by these three environmental f a c t o r s , were e s t a b l i s h e d which e f f e c t i v e l y  r e f l e c t both d i s t r i b u t i o n o f taxa and major patterns i n the v e g e t a t i o n . These h a b i t a t types are: 1) f e l l - f i e l d s and b l o c k s ; 2) snowbeds; 3) r u n o f f s i t e s , and 4) meadows and s h r u b f i e l d s . (12) F e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s occur on the most exposed areas o f the mountain where snow i s blown o f f during the w i n t e r and the v e g e t a t i o n i s exposed to severe winds and temperatures y e a r - r o u n d . G r a v e l l y regosols which are w e l l - d r a i n e d r e s u l t in x e r i c condit ions f o l l o w i n g snow melt . Three community types occur in t h i s h a b i t a t type which o u t l i n e v a r i a t i o n due p r i m a r i l y to the e l e v a t i o n a l g r a d i e n t s . These communities are the U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d , C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Vaccinium uliginosu m f e l l f i e l d , and C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s - Carex microchaeta f e l l f i e l d . (13) Snowbeds occur where snow remains u n t i l at l e a s t e a r l y J u l y , and are most common on the north s ide o f the mountain. Snowbeds p r o t e c t underly ing v e g e t a t i o n from extreme w i n t e r temperatures, but at the same time r e s t r i c t species occurrence by reducing the length o f the growing season. D i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the vegetat ion w i t h i n the snowbed h a b i t a t types i s caused by the tolerances o f the species to shortness o f growing season and drought. Four community types occur i n t h i s h a b i t a t type which p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n these two f a c t o r s . The f o u r communities are the A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a - Luzula arcuata l a t e snowbed, S i b b a l d i a procumbens - Polytr ichum pi 1iferu m snowbed, Carex pyrenaic a - Luetkea p e c t i n a t a - Juncus drummondii snowbed, and Cassiope s t e l l e r i a n a - Phyllodoce empetriformi s snowbed. (14) The r u n o f f h a b i t a t type is composed o f w a t e r - s a t u r a t e d s i t e s i n c l u d i n g s p r i n g - l i n e s , stream edges, pond margins and b o g - l i k e areas. Four community types occur w i t h i n t h i s h a b i t a t type which o u t l i n e environmen- tal v a r i a t i o n p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s in e l e v a t i o n , snow d u r a t i o n and drainage. These communities are the S a l i x p l a n i f o l i a - Empetrum nigrum - Sphagnum community, Calamagrostis canadensis - Plagiomnium rostratum community, Ranunculus - Carex podocarpa - Saxifraga  nelsoniana - moss community and the Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e - S a l i x p o l a r i s - C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa - Carex microchaeta community. (15) Meadows and s h r u b f i e l d s encompass the mesic areas o f the mountain where drainage i s good and snow cover moderate. P r o d u c t i v i t y is h ighest i n t h i s h a b i t a t type and s o i l s a t t a i n t h e i r best development. Five com- munity types occur here which r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n snow d u r a t i o n , mois- ture and e l e v a t i o n . These communities are the Carex microchaeta meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - Cladina dry meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a r i c h meadow, Betula glandulos a - C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a s h r u b f i e l d , and Cassiope tetragon a - Cladina m i t i s heath. (16) The a l p i n e zone o f Teresa Is land can be d i v i d e d i n t o three sub- zones based on e l e v a t i o n and f l o r i s t i c makeup. The low a l p i n e subzone occurs from the subalpine to approximately  1575 m, and i s dominated by macro- and microphyl lous shrubs. The m i d - a l p i n e subzone extends to about 1700 m, and i s dominated by graminoid species w h i l e the high a l p i n e subzone is dominated by l i c h e n s . (17) Many o f the community types occurr ing on Birch Mt. are comparable f l o r i s t i c a l l y and/or e c o l o g i c a l l y w i t h other a l p i n e areas described i n B. C . , southern Yukon and southeastern Alaska. Of the areas compared, the S p a t s i z i Plateau i s the most s i m i l a r f l o r i s t i c a l l y to the a l p i n e zone o f Teresa I s l a n d . (18) The a l p i n e communities appear to be i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t , but are not f i x e d i n space since p e r i g l a c i a l phenomena such as s o l i f l u c t i o n and c r y o t u r b a t i o n c o n s t a n t l y change the s p a t i a l p o s i - t ions o f the h a b i t a t s . (19) The recent increase o f remote sensing techniques and a v a i l a b i l i t y of data has provided a new tool f o r the mapping of v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s . Four types o f remote sensing data are discussed: b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e ; c o l o r ; and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photographs and s a t e l l i t e images. (20) A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system is developed which can u t i l i z e remotely sensed data. This system i s h i e r a r c h i c a l and incorporates the use o f physiognomic and s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at l e v e l s o f broad g e n e r a l i z a - t i o n , and e c o l o g i c a l and f l o r i s t i c at intermediate and r e f i n e d l e v e l s . This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and accompanying legend have been developed to meet the m u l t i - s c a l e needs o f the var ious users and, at the same t ime, maintain a c o n s i s t e n t l o g i c . (21) Three l a r g e - s c a l e , c o l o r - i n f r a r e d , a e r i a l - o b l i q u e photographs were mapped. Two B&W, 1:29,000 scale a e r i a l photographs encompassing almost a l l o f the mountain were mapped. One 1:80,000 scale a e r i a l photo- graph encompassing almost a l l o f the i s l a n d was mapped as was a 1:180,000 scale s a t e l l i t e image encompassing the e n t i r e i s l a n d and surrounding lake shore. (22) A l l photos were mapped t w i c e , once using the h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n and once using the h a b i t a t type u n i t s . (23) The mapping o f h a b i t a t types i s considered to be o f l i m i t e d use as i t is confined s o l e l y to the a l p i n e and does not i n c o r p o r a t e a l l a l p i n e features such as t a l u s slopes and ponds. Habitat type mapping i s most useful at the intermediate scales o f 1:29,000 and 1:80,000. (24) The h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e at a l l scales and can i n c o r p o r a t e a l l features v i s i b l e on the image. Since the p r i m a r y , secondary and t e r t i a r y classes o f t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and legend system are based on physiognomy, a l l the v e g e t a t i o n can be mapped through photo- i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , whether species composition i s known or n o t . The system works, then, f o r tundra, parkland and f o r e s t . Maps can be as general or d e t a i l e d as information and scale al low w i t h o u t changing the l o g i c o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . (25) C o l o r - i n f r a r e d transparencies are s u p e r i o r to conventional B&W and c o l o r photos f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g vegetat ion t y p e s . The range o f red tones associated with f o l i a g e is g r e a t e r than the normally dark shades o f green so changes in the v e g e t a t i o n are more e a s i l y detected. Conifers can e a s i l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from hardwoods. I n f r a r e d f i l m i s able to detect i s o l a t e d patches o f vegetat ion that tend to blend i n t o the background in B&W and c o l o r fi1ms. (26) S a t e l l i t e imagery is v a l u a b l e f o r g e n e r a l i z e d mapping o f l a r g e areas. (27) The best c o l o r combination f o r bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 f o r vegetat ion i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are green, b l u e , red and r e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . (28) Color changes on the s a t e l l i t e image p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t vegetat ion d e n s i t y and shadow. The l o c a t i o n o f the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone, Spruce - Wil low - Birch Zone, and A l p i n e Tundra Zone could be approximated. In g e n e r a l , snow, rock, shrubs and herb-dominated areas could be d i s t i n g u i s h - ed in the a l p i n e zone. (29) I t i s concluded that the d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l p i n e vegetat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s f e a s i b l e and should be c a r r i e d out as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r any management programs. Using the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e v e l - oped here, i t i s p o s s i b l e to map a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n at any scale to f i t a v a i l a b l e imagery and the needs o f the u s e r . W i l l a r d and Marr (1970) des- c r i b e d the type o f a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n most s u s c e p t i b l e to human d i s t u r b a n c e . Graminoid v e g e t a t i o n was l e a s t d i s t u r b e d and wet areas and snowbeds maxi- mal ly d i s t u r b e d . Information of t h i s s o r t , combined with the e c o l o g i c a l information and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n developed i n t h i s t h e s i s , can prov ide the base data f o r park p l a n n i n g . The information presented here can be used with data on w i l d l i f e forage needs and h a b i t a t u t i l i z a t i o n to prov ide the base f o r w i l d l i f e management p o l i c i e s . I t is hoped t h a t research w i l l be continued in the f u t u r e , and a v a i l a b l e data u t i l i z e d so that we may., obtai the maximum and l a s t i n g b e n e f i t o f our a l p i n e resources. LITERATURE CITED A i t k e n , J . D. 1959. A t l i n map area. Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 307. American S o c i e t y o f Photogrammetry. 1975.' Manual o f Remote Sensing. F a l l s Church, V i r g i n i a . 2 V o l . Anderson, J . H. 1970. A geobotanical study i n the A t l i n region i n n o r t h - western B r i t i s h Columbia and south central Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Unpub- l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s . Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , Ann Arbor. Anderson, J . R . , E. E. Hardy, J . T . Roach, and R. E. Witmer. 1976. A land use and land cover c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r use w i t h remote sensor data. U. S. Geol. Sur. P r o f . Paper 964. A r c h e r , A. C. 1963. Some s y n e c o l o g i c a l problems in the A l p i n e Zone in G a r i b a l d i Park. Unpublished M.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America. 1968. Symposium on remote sensing in the p o l a r r e g i o n s . Easton, Maryland. A v e r y ,  T . E. 1968. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a e r i a l photographs. 2nd E d . , Burgess P u b l i s h i n g Company, Minneapolis. Bamberg, S. A. and J . Major. 1968. Ecology o f the v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s associated w i t h culcareous parent m a t e r i a l s in three a l p i n e regions o f Montana. Ecol . Monogr. 38(2): 127-169. B a r r y , R. G. and C. C. Van Wie. 1974. Topo- and m i c r o c l i m a t o l o g y i n a l p i n e areas, p. 73-83. I n _ J . D. Ives and R. G. Barry (eds.) A r c t i c and a l p i n e environments. Methuen, London. B e i l , C. E . , R. L. T a y l o r and G. A. Guppy. 1976. The b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Davidsonia. 7(4): 45-55. Benninghoff, W. S. 1950. Use of a e r i a l photographs i n mapping v e g e t a t i o n and s u r f i c i a l geology in s u b a r c t i c r e g i o n s . Photogr. Engr. 16: 428-429. B i l l i n g s , W. D. 1973. A r c t i c and a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n s : s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s , and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s t u r b a n c e . Bioscience. 23(12): 697-704. . . 1974. A r c t i c and a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n : plant adaptations to c o l d summer c l i m a t e s , p. 403-443. In_ J . D. Ives and R. G. Barry (eds.) A r c t i c and a l p i n e environments. Methuen, London. ' and L. C. B l i s s . 1959. An a l p i n e snowbank environment and i t s e f f e c t s on v e g e t a t i o n , p l a n t development and p r o d u c t i v i t y . Ecology. 40: 388-397. and A. F. Mark. 1961. I n t e r a c t i o n s between a l p i n e tundra v e g e t a t i o n and patterned ground in the mountains o f southern New Zealand. Ecology. 42: 18-31. B i l l i n g s , W. D. and H. A. Mooney. 1968. The ecology o f a r c t i c and a l p i n e p l a n t s . B i o l . Rev. 43: 481-529. B i r k s , H. J . B. 1977. Modern p o l l e n r a i n and v e g e t a t i o n of the S t . El 1 as Mountains, Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Can. J . Bot. 55: 2367-2382. B l i s s . L. C. 1963. A l p i n e p l a n t communities o f the P r e s i d e n t i a l Range, New Hampshire. Ecology. 44(4): 678-697. . 1969. A l p i n e community patterns i n r e l a t i o n to environmental parameters, p. 167-184. In_ K. N. H. Greenridge (ed.) Essays i n p l a n t geography and ecology. Nova S c o t i a Museum, H a l i f a x , N. S. . 1971. A r c t i c and a l p i n e p l a n t l i f e c y c l e s . Annual Review o f Ecology and Systematics. 2: 405-438. Braun-Blanquet, J . 1964. P f l a n z e n s o z i o l o g i e . S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g .  New York. Brayshaw, T . C. 1976. Catkin bearing plants o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. No. 18 Occasional Papers S e r i e s . Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . Brooke, R. C . , E. B. Peterson and V. J . K r a j i n a . 1970. The Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone. Ecology of Western North America. 2(2): 147-349. Brown, R. J . E. 1974. Some aspects o f a i r p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f permafrost i n Canada. National Research Council o f Canada, D i v . o f B u i l d i n g Research, Ottawa, O n t a r i o . Tech. Pap. 409. and W. 0. Kupsch. 1974. Permafrost t e r m i n o l o g y . Technical Memorandum No. 111. Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, National Research Council o f Canada. B r y a n t , J . P. and E. Scheinberg. 1970. Vegetation and f r o s t a c t i v i t y i n an a l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on the summit o f Plateau Mountain, A l b e r t a . Can. J . Bot. 48: 751-771. B u t t r i c k , S. C. 1977. The a l p i n e f l o r a of Teresa I s l a n d , A t l i n Lake, B. C . , w i t h notes on i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . Can. J . Bot. 55(10): 1399- 1409. Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 1974. The system o f s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. P u b l i c a t i o n 1455. C h u r c h i l l , E. D. and H. C. Hanson. 1956. The concept o f climax i n a r c t i c and a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . Bot. Rev. 24: 127-191. C o l w e l l , J . E. 1974. Vegetation canopy r e f l e c t a n c e . Remote Sensing o f Environment. 3: 175-183. Dahl, E. 1955. Biogeographic and geologic i n d i c a t i o n s o f unglaciated areas i n Scandinavia during the g l a c i a l ages. B u l l . Geol. Soc. Amer. 66: 1499-1519. Dahl, E. 1956. Rondane: mountain vegetat ion in south Norway and i t s r e l a t i o n to the environment. Noske Videnskaps-Akad., Ser. 1, Matematisk- N a t u r v i d . K1., Skr. 3. and H. Krog. 1973. Macrolichens. Scandinavian U n i v e r s i t y Books. Universi t e t s f o r l a g e t . Dansereau, P. 1957. Biogeography,  an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The Ronald P r e s s , New York. Daubenmire, R. F. 1952. Forest vegetat ion o f northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and i t s bearing on concepts o f vegetat ion c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Ecol . Monogr. 22:301-330. Davies, J . L. 1969. Landforms o f cold c l i m a t e s . MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Massachusetts. Detwyler , T . R. 1974. Vegetation-snow cover r e l a t i o n s in an a l p i n e pass, Alaska, p. 355-360. In. V. C. Bushnell and R. H. Ragle (eds.) I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t , S c i e n t i f i c R e s u l t s . V o l . 4. American Geo- graphical S o c i e t y , N. Y. and A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America, Montreal. Eady, K. 1971. The ecology o f the a l p i n e and t i m b e r l i n e vegetat ion o f Big White Mountain, B. C. Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. E l t o n , C. S. and R. S. M i l l e r . 1954. The e c o l o g i c a l survey o f animal communities; with a p r a c t i c a l system o f c l a s s i f y i n g habitats by s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . J . Ecol . 42: 460-496. F l i n t , R. F. 1971. G l a c i a l and Quarternary geology. John Wiley and Sons. New York. F l o a t e , M. J . S. 1965. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f organic matter and phosphorous f r a c t i o n s i n a topographic sequence o f s o i l s i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Can. J . S o i l S c i . 45: 323-329. Forest Management I n s t i t u t e . 1974. Vegetation types o f the MacKenzie C o r r i d o r . Canadian F o r e s t r y  S e r v i c e , Environment Canada. Environmental- Social Committee, Northern P i p e l i n e s , Task Force on Northern O i l Development. Rep. No. 73-46. F r i t z , N. L. 1977. F i l t e r s : an a i d c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photography. Photogram- metr ic Engineering and Remote Sensing. 43(1): 61-72. Gausman, H. W. 1977. Reflectance o f l e a f components. Remote Sensing of Environment 6: 1-9. G j a e r v o l l , 0. 1956. The p l a n t communities o f the Scandinavian a l p i n e snow-beds. Kongel. Norske Videnskab. Selskabs, Skr. 1956, No. 1. G r i g g s , R. F. 1956. Competition and succession on a Rocky Mountain f e l l - f i e l d . Ecology. 37: 8-20. Hale, M. E. 1969. How to know the l i c h e n s . W. C. Brown. Dubuque. H a r t l e y , E. 1973. Man's e f f e c t s on the s t a b i l i t y o f a l p i n e and subalpine vegetat ion in G l a c i e r National Park, Montana. Ph.D. t h e s i s . Duke U n i v e r s i t y , Durham, North C a r o l i n a . Hoefs, M., I . McT. Cowan, and V. J . K r a j i n a . 1975. P h y t o s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s o f Sheep Mountain, southwestern Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  Canada. Syesis (Suppl. 1), 8: 125-228. Hol land, S. S. 1964. Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia: a physiographic o u t l i n e . B u l l e t i n No. 48. B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Mines and Petroleum Resources. Howarth, P. J . 1972. Film and f i l t e r combinations f o r the study o f the p e r i g l a c i a l landscape o f the high A r c t i c , p. 379-386. ]n_ Proc. F i r s t Can. Symp. Remote Sens. Ottawa. Hubbard, W. A. 1969. The grasses o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B. C. Prov. Mus. Handb. 9. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . Hulten, E. 1968. F lora of Alaska and neighboring t e r r i t o r i e s . Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a . Jenny, H. 1941. Factors o f s o i l formation. McGraw-Hil l , New York. Johnson, P. L. and W. D. B i l l i n g s . 1962. The a l p i n e vegetat ion o f the Beartooth Plateau i n r e l a t i o n to cryopedogenic processes and p a t t e r n s . E c o l . Monogr. 32: 105-135. Kendrew, W. G. and D. Kerr . 1955. The cl imate o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Edmond C l o u t i e r , Ottawa. Klemas, V . , D. B a r t l e t t , W. P h i l p o t , R. Rogers and L. Reed. 1974. Coastal and e s t u a r i n e s t u d i e s w i t h ERTS-1 and Skylab. Remote Sensing o f Environment. 3: 153-174. K l i n k a , K. 1976. Ecosystem u n i t s , t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and mapping in the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest. Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. K n i p l i n g , E. B. 1969. Leaf r e f l e c t a n c e and image formation on c o l o r i n f r a r e d f i l m . p. 17-29. In_ P. L. Johnson (ed.) Remote sensing i n ecology. U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia Press. Athens. Komarov, V. B. 1968. A e r i a l photography i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f natural resources in the U . S . S . R . p. 143-185. L l A e r i a l Surveys and I n t e g r a t e d S t u d i e s . Proceedings o f the Toulouse Conference. UNESCO. K r a j i n a , V. J . 1965. B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ecol . West. N. Amer. 1: 1-17. . 1969. Ecology o f f o r e s t trees in B r i t i s h Columbia. Ecol . West. N. Amer. 2: 1-146. . 1973. Biogeocl imatic zones of B r i t i s h Columbia. Map pub- l i s h e d by B r i t i s h Columbia Ecological Reserves Committee, B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. Lands, F o r e s t , and Water Resources. K r a j i n a , V. J . 1975. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s on the three s u b - a l p i n e zones in B r i t i s h Columbia, Yukon and MacKenzie D i s t r i c t . Phytocoenologia. 2: 396-400. Kuchler, A. W. 1951. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s i f y i n g and mapping v e g e t a t i o n . Ecology. 32(2): 275-283. . 1967. Vegetation mappina. The Ronald Press Company, New York. . 1973. Problems i n c l a s s i f y i n g and mapping vegetat ion f o r e c o l o g i c a l r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n . Ecology 54(3): 512-523. L a v k u l i c h , L. M. 1973. S o i I s - v e g e t a t i o n - l a n d f o r m s o f the Wrigley Area, N.W.T. E n v i r o n m e n t a l - S o c i a l Committee, Northern P i p e l i n e s , Task Force on Northern O i l Development. Rep. No. 73-18. Legge, A. H . , D. R. Jaques, C. E. Poulton, C. L. K i r b y and P. Van Eck. 1974. Development and a p p l i c a t i o n of an e c o l o g i c a l l y based remote sensing legend system f o r the Kananaskis, A l b e r t a , Remote Sensing Test C o r r i d o r (Subalpine Forest r e g i o n ) . Environmental Sciences Centre Kananaskis, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . Lord, T. M. and A. J . Green. 1974. The s o i l s o f the Tulameen area of B r i t i s h Columbia. Rept. No. 13. B. C. S o i l S u r v e y , Resource Branch, Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa. and A. J . Luckhurst. 1974. Alpine s o i l s and p l a n t communities o f a Stone s h e e p . h a b i t a t in northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. Northwest Science. 48(1): 38-51. Love, D. 1970. S u b a r c t i c and s u b a l p i n e : where and what? A r c t i c and A l p i n e Research. 2: 63-73. L o z i n s k i , W. 1909. Uber die mechanische Verwitterung  der Sandsteine im gemassigten Klima. Acad, s c i . cracovie B u l l , i n t e r n a t . , c l . s c i . math, et n a t u r e l l e s . 1: 1-25. Luckhurst, A. 1973. Stone sheep and t h e i r h a b i t a t in the northern Rocky Mountain f o o t h i l l s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished M.Sc. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Marr, J . W. 1961. Ecosystems of the east slope o f the Front Range in Colorado. Univ. o f Colorado S t u d . , Ser. in B i o l . 8: 1-134. Meier, M. F . , R. H. Alexander and W. J . Campbell. 1966. M u l t i s p e c t r a l sensing t e s t s a t South Cascade G l a c i e r , Washington, p. 145-159. J j l Proceedings o f the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing o f Environment. Univ. o f Michigan, Ann A r b o r . M i l l e r , M. M. 1964. Morphogenic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n s i n the Alaska-Canada Boundary Range. Proc. Am. P h i l . Soc. 108(3): 247-256. M i l l e r , M. M. and J . H. Anderson. 1974a. Out-of-phase Holocene c l i m a t i c trends i n the maritime and c o n t i n e n t a l sectors of the Alaska-Canada Boundary Range, p. 33-35. Jn_ W. C. Mahaney (ed.) Quarternary e n v i r o n - ments: proceedings o f a symposium. Geographical Monographs No. 5. Department o f Geography, Atkinson C o l l e g e , York U n i v e r s i t y , T o r o n t o . . 1974b. Pleistocene-Holocene sequences i n the Alaska-Canada Boundary Range, p. 197-223. jn_ National Geographic S o c i e t y Research Reports, 1967 p r o j e c t s . Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. E l l e n b e r g . 1974. Aims and methods of vegetat ion e c o l o g y . John Wiley and Sons, T o r o n t o . Murtha, P. A. 1972. A guide to photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f o r e s t damage i n Canada. Canadian F o r e s t r y  S e r v i c e . P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1292. . 1977. Remote sensing as a tool in e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . p. 157-168. I n Proceedings: E c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t land in Canada and northwestern U.S.A. FP 2453/477. and E. K. Watson. 1976. Mapping of f o r e s t c l e a r c u t t i n g , South Vancouver I s l a n d from Landsat imagery, p. 257-263. _In_ Proc. T h i r d Can. Symp. Remote Sens. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Remote sensing: w i t h special reference to a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y . Washington, D. C. Nimlos, T . J . and R. C. McConnell. 1962. The morphology o f a l p i n e s o i l s in Montana. Northwest Science. 36(4): 99-112. Oswald, E. T . 1976. T e r r a i n a n a l y s i s from Landsat imagery. Forest Chron. 42(6): 274-281. Peterson, R. M., G. R. Cochrane, S. A. Morain and D. S. Simonett. 1969. A m u l t i - s e n s o r study o f p l a n t communities at H o r s e f l y Mountain, Oregon, p. 63-94. In P. L. Johnson (ed.) Remote sensing i n e c o l o g y . U n i v e r s i t y of Georgia Press. Athens. P o j a r , J . 1977. Vegetation and some plant-animal r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f E c o l o g i c a l Reserve #68, Gladys Lake. Unpublished r e p o r t of Ecological Reserves U n i t , Land Management Branch, Department of Environment, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Poore, M. E. D. 1955. The use of p h y t o s o c i o l o g i c a l methods i n e c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I . The Braun-Blanquet system. I I . P r a c t i c a l issues i n v o l v e d i n an attempt to apply the Braun-Blanquet system. I I I . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . J . E c o l . 43: 226-244, 245-269, 606-651. . 1956. The use o f p h y t o s o c i o l o g i c a l methods in e c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I V . General d i s c u s s i o n o f p h y t o s o c i o l o g i c a l problems. J . Ecol . 44: 28-50. . 1962. The method o f successive approximation in d e s c r i p t i v e ecology. Adv. E c o l . Res. 1: 35-68. Poore, M. E. D. 1964. I n t e g r a t i o n in the p l a n t community. J . E c o l . 52 ( s u p p l . ) : 213-226. Poulton, C. E. 1972. A comprehensive remote sensing legend f o r the e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and annotation o f natural and a l t e r e d landscapes, p. 393-408. J n Proc. Eighth I n t e r n a t . Symp. Remote Sens. E n v i r o n . P r i c e , L. W. 1972a. The p e r i g l a c i a l environment, permafrost, and man. Commission on College Geography, Resource Paper No. 14. A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, Washington, D. C. . 1972b. V e g e t a t i o n , microtopography, and depth o f a c t i v e l a y e r on d i f f e r e n t exposures i n s u b a r c t i c a l p i n e tundra, p. 211- 220.'In_ V. C. Bushnel1 and R. H. Ragle (eds.) I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t , S c i e n t i f i c R e s u l t s . V o l . 3. American Geographical S o c i e t y , N. Y. and A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, Montreal. Reed, J . C. 1968. Remote sensing o f the p o l a r r e g i o n s , p. 479-481. _In_ Proceedings o f the F i f t h Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. Univ. o f Michigan, Ann A r b o r . R e t z e r , J . L. 1956. A l p i n e s o i l s o f the Rocky Mountains. J . S o i l S c i . 7(1): 22-32. . 1965. Present s o i l - f o r m i n g f a c t o r s and processes i n a r c t i c and a l p i n e r e g i o n s . S o i l Science 99: 38-44. . 1974. A l p i n e s o i l s , p. 771-801. J_n J . D. Ives and R. G. Barry (eds.) A r c t i c and a l p i n e environments. Methuen, London. Sanderson, M. 1948. The climates o f Canada according to the new Thornthwaite c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . S c i . A g r i . 28: 501-517. S a v i l e , D. B. 0. 1972. A r c t i c adaptations in p l a n t s . Monograph No. 6. Research Branch, Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . S c h u r h o l z , G. and J . Larsson. 1973. F a l s c h f a r b e n b i l d e r f u r d ie V e g e t a t i o n s k a r t i e r u n g .  Allgemeine Forst und Jagdzeitung. 144. J g . 5/6: 111-117. S c o t t , R. W. 1974a. A l p i n e p l a n t communities o f the southeastern Wrangell Mountains, Alaska, p. 283-306. _In_ V. C. Bushnell and R. H. Ragle (eds.) I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t , S c i e n t i f i c R e s u l t s . V o l . 4. American Geographical S o c i e t y . N. Y. and A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America, Montreal. . 1974b. The e f f e c t o f snow d u r a t i o n on a l p i n e p l a n t community composition and d i s t r i b u t i o n , p. 307-318. Jj]_ V. C. Bushnell and R. H. Ragle (eds.) I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t , S c i e n t i f i c Results. V o l . 4. American Geographical S o c i e t y , N. Y. and A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America, Montreal. S c o t t , R. W. 1974c. The vegetat ion of C h i t i s t o n e , Skolai and Frederika v a l l e y s , Alaska, p. 331-337. _In_ V. C. Bushnell and R. H. Ragel (eds.) I c e f i e l d Ranges Research P r o j e c t , S c i e n t i f i c R e s u l t s . V o l . 4. American Geographical S o c i e t y , N. Y. and A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America, Montreal. S i g a f o o s , R. S. 1951. Some botanical problems i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a e r i a l photographs o f tundra areas. Photogr. Engr. 16:429-431. Sneddon, J . I . , L. M. L a v k u l i c h , and L. Farstad. 1972. Morphology and Genesis o f some a l p i n e s o i l s in B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. I . Morphology, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and genesis. S o i l S c i . Amer. Proc. 36: 100-104. Stephens, P. R. 1976. Comparison o f c o l o r , c o l o r i n f r a r e d , and panchromatic a e r i a l photography. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensina. 42(10): 1273-1277. T a r n o c a i , C. 1972. The use o f remote sensing techniques to study peatland and v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , organic s o i l s and permafrost i n the boreal region o f Manitoba, p. 323-335. I_n Proceedings o f the F i r s t Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing. Ottawa. T a y l o r , R. L. and B. MacBryde. 1977. Vascular plants o f B r i t i s h Columbia - - A d e s c r i p t i v e resource i n v e n t o r y . Tech. B u l l . No. 4. U.B.C. Botanical Garden. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, Vancouver. T h i e , J . 1972. A p p l i c a t i o n o f remote sensing techniques f o r d e s c r i p t i o n and mapping o f f o r e s t ecosystems, p. 149-169. J_n_ Proc. F i r s t Can. Symp. Remote Sens. Ottawa. Thomson, J . W. 1967. The l i c h e n genus Cladonia in North America. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , T o r o n t o . van Ryswyk,  A. L. 1969. Forest and a l p i n e s o i l s o f s o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s . Washington State U n i v e r s i t y . V i e r e c k , L. A. and E. L. L i t t l e , J r . 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. A g r i c u l t u r a l handbook no. 410. Forest S e r v i c e , United States Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Washington, D. C. Washburn, A. L. 1956. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f patterned ground and review o f suggested o r i g i n s . Geol. Soc. America B u l l . 67: 823-865. . 1973. P e r i g l a c i a l processes and environments. Edward Arnold L t d . , London. Watson, E. K. 1977. A remote sensing based m u l t i l e v e l rangeland c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n f o r the Lac-du-bois rangelands, Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished M.Sc. t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's f l o r a o f Alaska and adjacent parts o f Canada. Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y Press, Provo, Utah. Welsh, S. L. and J . K. Rigby. 1971. Botanical and physiographic reconnaissance o f northern B r i t i s h Columbia.. Brigham Young Univ. S c i . B u l l . B i o l . Ser. 14(4): 1-49. W h i t t a k e r , R. H. 1956. Vegetation o f the Great Smoky Mountains. E c o l . Monogr. 26: 1-80. . 1962. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f natural communities. Bot. Rev. 28: 1-239. W i l l a r d , B. and J . Marr. 1970. E f f e c t s o f human a c t i v i t i e s on a l p i n e tundra ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. B i o l o g i c a l Conservation 2: 257-265. . 1971. Recovery o f a l p i n e tundra under p r o t e c t i o n a f t e r damage by human a c t i v i t y in the Rocky Mountains o f Colorado. B i o l o g i c a l Conservation 3: 181-190. W i l s o n , J . W. 1958. D i r t on snow patches. J . E c o l . 46: 191-198. . 1959. Notes on wind and i t s e f f e c t s i n a r c t i c - a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . J . E c o l . 45: 415-427. Worsfold, R. D. 1976. Color compensating f i l t e r s with i n f r a r e d f i l m . Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 42(11): 1385-1398. Young, G. K. and N. F. A l l e y . The northern and central plateaus and mountains. Ijn K. W. G. V a l e n t i n e , P. N. Sprout, T . E. Baker and L. M. Lavkul ich (eds.) The s o i l landscapes of B r i t i s h Columbia. Resource A n a l y s i s Branch, M i n i s t r y o f Environment, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. ( In p r e s s ) . Zwinger, A. H. and B. E. W i l l a r d . 1972. Land above the t r e e s : a guide to American a l p i n e tundra. Harper and Row, New York. APPENDIX A Vascular Plants Occurring in the A l p i n e Zone o f Teresa I s l a n d A t o t a l o f 161 taxa o f v a s c u l a r plants were i d e n t i f i e d from c o l l e c t i o n s made in 1971, 1974, 1975 and 1976. T h i r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s are represented. In the f o l l o w i n g l i s t , the h a b i t a t type f o r each species i s recorded. Rela- t i v e abundance w i t h i n a h a b i t a t type i s i n d i c a t e d by: " a 1 , abundant; ' c ' , common; ' o ' , o c c a s i o n a l ; ' r 1 , r a r e ; and absent. Nomenclature is accord- ing to T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977). I d e n t i f i c a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by r e f e r - ence to Hulte'n (1968) and Welsh (1974): I , f e l l f i e l d s and b l o c k f i e l d s ; I I , snowbeds; I I I , drainage areas; I V , meadows and s h r u b f i e l d s . A s t e r i s k s s i g n i f y an SFUV specimen w i t h no recorded h a b i t a t data. Taxa Habitat types I I I I I I IV LYCOPODIACEAE Lycopodium alpinum L. r c - r k - clavatu m L. - - r - L_. complanatum L. - - r - Huperzia selago ( L . ) Bernh. - c o o SELAGINELLACEAE S e l a g i n e l l a s i b i r i c a (Milde) Hieron. o EQUISETACEAE Equisetum p a l u s t r e L. - c c - E_. s c i r p o i d e s Mi chx. - o o - ASPLENIACEAE C y s t o p t e r i s f r a g i l i s ( L . ) Bernh. o D r y o p t e r i s fragran s ( L . ) Schott r OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium l u n a r i a ( L . ) Sw. r - - - C'JPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. ssp. a l p i n a ( N e i l r . ) Celakov. - r - - PINACEAE Abies l a s i o c a r p a (Hook.) N u t t . ssp. l a s i o c a r p a o Pinus contort a Doug!. v a r . l a t i f o l i a Engelm. - o - - ASTERACEAE Agoseris aurantiac a (Hook.) Greene v a r . aurantiac a o Antennaria a l p i n a ~ T L . ) Gaertn. v a r . media c o - r A. m i c r o p h y l l a Rydb. r A. monocephala DC. a c - - A r n i c a a l p i n a ( L . ) O l i n ssp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire o - - - A. c o r d i f o l i a Hook. - - - c Taxa Habitat Types I I I I I I IV A. l a t i f o l i a Bong. v a r . l a t i f o l i a r A. louiseana F a r r . ssp. f r i g i d a (C.A. Mey.) Welsh r A r t e m i s i a a r c t i c a Less, ssp. a r c t i c a c c a a *A. michauxian a Bess. Er igeron a c r i s L. ssp. d e b i l i s (Gray) Piper r E_. h u m i l l s Graham c Hieracium g r a c i l e Hook. c P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s ( L . ) F r i e s v a r . f r i g i d u s o P_. n i v a l i s Greene - - c - Senecio lugens Richards. - - o o S_. sheldonensis Pors. o S_. t r i a n g u l a r i s Hook c o S_. yukonensi s Pors. o - c Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a A i t , v a r . m u l t i r a d i a t a c - o o Taraxacum lyratu m (Ledeb.)DC. o o - r BETULACEAE Betula glandulos a Michx. v a r . glandulos a c c o o BORAGiNACEAE Mertensia paniculata ( A i t . ) G. Don c Myosotis a s i a t i c a ( V e s t e r g r . ) Schischk. o BRASSICACEAE Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a L. c - r Draba a l p i n a L. - o - boreal i s DC. - o D_. c r a s s i f o l i a Graham o - o d e n s i f o l i a N u t t . o i n c e r t a Payson o - - r D_. lac te a Adams - - r D. n i v a l i s L i l j . c stenoloba Ledeb. o CAMPANULACEAE Campanula l a s i o c a r p a Cham, ssp. l a s i o c a r p a c o - o CARYOPHYLLACEAE Cerastium beeringianu m Cham. & Schlecht. ssp. beeringianu m r - - r Minuarti a o b t u s i l o b a (Rvdb.) House o - o M. r u b e l l a (Wahl.) Hiern r - - r S i l e n e a c a u l i s ( L . ) N. J . Jacquin ssp. a c a u l i s c o - o S t e l ! a r i a longipe s Goldie v a r . edwardsi i (R. B r . ) Gray a o - c CRASSULACEAE Sedum lanceolatum T o r r . v a r . lanceolatum r .S. rosea ( L . ) Scop, ssp. i n t e g r i f o l ium (Raf.) H u l t . o - c o EMPETRACEAE Empetrum nigrum L. ssd. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) Bocher c o c o ERICACEAE ' A r c t o s t a p h y l o s rubr a (Rehd. & Wilson) Fern. r A. u v a - u r s i ( L . ) Spreng. r Cassiope mertensiana (Bong.) D. Don v a r . mertensiana o o o s t e l l e r i a n a ( P a l l . ) DC. - c c C. t e t r a g o n a T L . ) D. Don v a r . tetragon a r a - a KaTmia m i c r o p h y l l a (Hook.) H e l l e r ssp, m i c r o p h y l l a - o o Ledum p a l u s t r e L. ssp, decumbens ( A i t . ) H u l t . o - - o L o i s e l e u r i a procumbens ( L . ) Desv. o - - o Phyl lodoce empetriformi s (Sm.) D. Don Vaccinium uliginosu m L. ssp. microphyl lu m Lange h V 1 ' t i s - i d a e a L. ssp. minus (Lodd.) H u l t . FABACEAE Lupinus a r c t i c u s Wats, ssp. a r c t i c u s k - kuschei Eastw. O x y t r o p i s  huddelsoni i Pors. GENTIANACEAE Gentiana glauca Pal 1. GERANIACEAE Geranium erianthum DC. GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes t r i s t e Pal 1. ONAGRACEAE Epilobium a n a g a l l i d i f o l i u m Lamarck a n g u s t i f o l i u m L. E_. l a c t i f l o r u m Hausskn. E_. l a t i f o l i u m L. PAPAVERACEAE Papaver kluanense Love PARNASSIACEAE Parnassia f i m b r i a t a Konig POLEMONIACEAE Polemonium pulcherrimum Hook. POLYGONACEAE B i s t o r t a v i v i p a r a ( L . ) Gray O x y r i a  digyn a ( L . ) H i l l PORTULACACEAE C l a y t o n i a sarmentosa C. A. Mey. PRIMULACEAE Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s L. PYROLACEAE P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a Michx. v a r . purpurea (Bunge) Fern. P.. g r a n d i f l o r a Radium RANUNCULACEAE Aconitum del p h i n i f o l i u m DC. ssp. d e l p h i n i f o l i u m Anemone r i c h a r d s o n i i Hook. Caltha leptosepala DC. P u l s a t i l l a patens ( L . ) M i l l e r ssp. m u l t i f i d a ( P r i t z e l ) Zamels Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i Schlecht. v a r . e s c h s c h o l t z i i E.- n i v a l i s L. R. pygmaeus Wahl. ROSACEAE Dryas i n t e g r i f o l i a M. Vahl. ssp. i n t e g r i f o l i a D. octopetala L. ssp. octopetala Luetkea pect inata (Pursh) Kuntze P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Lehm. v a r . d i v e r s i f o l i a *P. hookeriana Lehm. P. h y p a r c t i c a Malte P_. u n i f l o r a Ledeb. Rosa a c i c u l a r i s L i n d l . s s p , say i (Schwein.) Lewis Rubus a r c t i c u s L. ssp. a c a u l i s (Michx.) Focke Sanguisorba canadensis L. ssp. l a t i f o l i a (Hook.) Calder & T a y l o r S i b b a l d i a procumbens L. Sorbus s i t c h e n s i s L. SALICACEAE S a l i x a r c t i c a P a l l . S. b a r r a t t i a n a Hook. S. brachycarp a N u t t . ssp. niphoclada (Rydb.) Argus S_. p l a n i f o l i a Pursh ssp. pulchra (Cham.) Argus S_. p o l a r i s Wahl. S_. r e t i c u l a t a L. SAXIFRA6ACEAE Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a (D. Don) R. Br. Saxi f raga  bronchial i s L. ssp. f u n s t o n i i (Small) H u l t . S_. cernua L. S_. c e s p i t o s a L. ssp. s i l e n e f l o r a ( S t e r n b . ) H u l t . S_. f e r r u g i n e a Grah. S_. l y a l l i i Engler ssp. h u l t e n i i (Calder & S a v i l e ) Calder & S a v i l e S_. nelsoniana D. Don ssp. p o r s i l d i a n a (Calder & S a v i l e ) H u l t . S_. n i v a l i s L. S_. o p p o s i t i f o l i a L. S_. r i v u l a r i s L. v a r . f l e x u o s a ( S t e r n b . ) Eng. & Irmsch.. S_. t r i c u s p i d a t a Rottb. SCROPHULARIACEAE C a s t i l l e j a unalaschcensis (Cham. & S c h l e c h t . ) Malt. P e d i c u l a r i s c a p i t a t a Adams £_. l a b r a d o r i c a Wirsing P_. l a n g s o r f i i F isch. ssp. a r c t i c a (R. B r . ) Pennell Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i Roem. & S c h u l t . v a r . w o r m s k j o l d i i VALERIANACEAE V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s Bong, ssp. s i t c h e n s i s VIOLACEAE V i o l a e p i p s i l a Ledeb. ssp. repens ( T u r c z . ) Becker CYPERACEAE Carex a l b o n i g r a Mack. C_. bi p a r t i t a Al 1. C_. c a p i t a t a L. microchaeta Holm Ĉ . nardina F r i e s C_. n i g r i c a n s C. A. Mey. phaeocephala P i p e r C_. podocarpa R. Br. C_. pyrenaic a Wahl. ssp. micropoda (C. A. Mey.) H u l t . *C. s p e c t a b i l i s Dewey Eriophorum scheuchzeri Hoppe Kobresia myosuroide s ( V l l l . ) F i o r i & Paol. POACEAE Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beav. ssp. canadensis v a r . canadensis C_. lapponica (Wah.) "Hertm. v a r . n e a r c t i c a Pors. Taxa Habitat Types I I I I I I IV *C_. purpurascens R. Br. ssp. purpurascens Festuca a l t a i c a T r i n . a o o a £_. b r a c h y p h y l l a S c h u l t . a - - c Hierochloe a l p i n a (Swartz) Roem. & S c h u l t . ssp. a l p i n a c c - o Phleum alpinum L. v a r . commutatum (Gaudin) Grisebach o Poa a r c t i c a R. Br. c o o F\ glauca Vahl o P.. leptocoma T r i n . v a r . p a u c i s p i c u l a ( S c r i b n . & Merr.) H i t c h c . c a l e t t e r m a n i i Vasey o T r i s e t u m spicatum ( L . ) R i c h t e r c o - r *Vahlodea atropurpure a (Wahl.) F r i e s ssp. paramushirensi s (Kudo) H u l t . JUNCACEAE Juncus biglumi s L. - - o o *J_. castaneus J . E. Smith v a r . castaneus vh drummondii E. Meyer - c Luzula arcuata (Wahl.) Swartz ssp. unalaskensis (Buch.) H u l t . - - c o L_. confusa Lindeb; c - - o L_. m u l t i f l o r a ( R e t z . ) L e j . v a r . f r i g i d a (Buch.) Sam. - o o - L_. m u l t i f l o r a ( R e t z . ) L e j . ssp. m u l t i f l o r a v a r . m u l t i f l o r a o L . s p i c a t a ( L . ) DC. c - - c L_. wahlenbergi i Rupr. - - o r C h e c k l i s t of cryptogams occurr ing in the a l p i n e zone of Teresa I s l a n d Musci Andreaea r u p e s t r i s v a r . a l p e s t r i s (Thed.) Sharp Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e (Hedw.) Schwaegr. A. turgidu m (Wg.) Schwaegr. Bartramia i t h y p h y l l a B r i d . Brachytheeiu m sp. Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) B.S.G. B. campestre (C.Muel l . ) B.S.G. B_. salebrosum (Web.+ Mohr) B.S.G. Bryum sp. Bryum creberrimum T a y l . B̂ . cryophilu m Mart. C a l l i e r g o n sarmentosum (Wahlenb.) Kindb. C_. stramineum ( P i c k s T T Kindb. Ceratodon purpureus (Dedw.) B r i d . Cnestrum s h i s t i i (Wg.) Hag. Cynodontium strumiferu m (Hedw.) Lindb. Desmadodon l a t i f o l i u s (Hedw.) Lindb. Dicranoweisia c r i s p u l a (Hedw.) L indb. Dicranum elongatum S c h l e i c h . ex Schwaegr. .13. fuscescens Turn. D. muhlenbeckii B.S.G. D. p a l l i d i s e t u m ( B a i l , ex H o l z . ) I r e l . jD. scoparium Hedw. D i s t i c h i u m capil laceum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Drepanocladus exannulatu s (B.S.G.) Warnst. D.. uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. Encalyptra rhabdocarpa Schwaegr. Eurhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn. Grimmia apocarpa ( L . ) Hedw. Hygroh.ypnum luridum (Hedw.) Jenn. H. styr iacu m Broth. Hylocomium alaskanum Lesq.+ Jam. K i a r i a b l y t t i i (Schimp.) Broth. I<. f a l c a t a (Hedw.) Hag. ii- s t a r k e i (Web. ex Mohr) Hag. P a l u d e l l a squarros a (Hedw.) B r i d . Paraleucobryum enerv e (Thed. ex C . J . H a r t m . ) Loeske P h i l o n o t i s fontana v a r . pumila ( T u r n . ) B r i d . Plagiomnium e l l i p t i c u m ( B r i d . ) Kop. P_. rostratu m (Schrad.) Kop. Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pleurozium schreber i ( B r i d . ) M i t t . P o h l i a cruda (Hedw.) L i n d l . P_. nutans (Hedw.) L i n d l . P.- P^ol iger a (Kindb. ex L i m p r . ) L indb. P_. wahlenbergi i (Web.+ Mohr) Andr. Polytr ichum a l p e s t r e Hoppe + Hornsch. Polytr ichum alpinum (Hedw.) Roehl. P.. p i l i feru m Hedw. Rhacomitrium canescens (Hedw.) B r i d . R_. lanuginosum (Hedw.) B r i d . R. sudeticumTFunck) B.S.G. Sphagnum g i r g e n s o h n i i Russ. . S_. nemoreum Scop. Splachnum ovatum Hedw. Stegonia l a t i f o l i a (Schwaegr. ex Schultes) Vent ex Broth. Tomenthypnum nitens (Hedw.) Loeske. T o r t u l a r u r a l i s (Hedw.) Gaertn. Hepaticae Anastroph.yllurn minutum (Schreb. ex Cranz) Schust. A n t h e l i a j u r a t z k a n a (Limpr.) T r e v . A s t e r e l l a l u d w i g i i (Schwaegr.) Und. B a r b i l o p h o z i a hatcher i Loeske B. l y c o p o d i o i d e s Loeske Blepharostoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m ( L . ) Dum. Cephalozia sp. Chandonanthus s e t i f o r m i s (Ehrh.) L indb. Diplophyl lum t a x i f o l i u m (Wahlenb.) Dum. Gymnomitrion c o r a l ! i o i d e s Nees Lophocolea minor Nees Lophozia longiden s ( L i n d b . ) Mac. O p a c i f o l i a Culmann I.. v e n t r i c o s a ( D i c k s . ) Dum. L_. wenzel i i~TNees) Steph. Marsupella sp. O r t h o c a u l i s kunzeanus Buch Pleuroclada albescens (Hook.) Spruce P t l i d i u m c i l i a r e ( L . ) Hampe Scapania sp. (Huds.) Buch Lichens A l e c t o r i a minuscula ( N y l . ex Arnold) Degel A. n i g r i c a n s (Ach.) Ny. A. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) Mass. C e t r a r i a commixta ( N y l . ) T h . F r . C_. c u c u l l a t a ( B e l l . ) Ach. C. d e l i s e i CBory) T h . F r . C_. er icetoru m O p i z . C_. hepatizon (Ach.) Vain. C_. i s l a n d i c a ( L . ) Ach. C_. l a e v i g a t a (Sm.) Ach. C. n i v a l i s CL.) Ach. p i n a s t r i (Scop.) S.Gray r i c h a r d s o n i i Hook. C_. t i l e s i i Ach. Cladina arbuscula ( W a l l r . ) Rabenh, Ĉ . m i t i s Sandst. r a n g i f e r i n a ( L . ) Wigg. t e n u i s (Flbrke) Harm. Cladonia amaurocraea (Florke) Schaer. C. b e l l i d i f o l i a (Ach.) Schaer. C_. carneola ( F r . ) F r . C_. cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. C_. chlorophaea (Florke ex Somm.) Spreng. ex Asah C_. cocc i f era~U-.) Wi 11 d. C_. c r i s p a t a (Ach.) F l o t . ecmocyna (Ach.) N y l . C. f i m b r i a t a ( L . ) Fr . Ĉ . gonecha (Ach.) Asah. C_. g r a c i l i s ( L . ) W i l l d . C_. l e p i d o t a N y l . C. macrophyll a (Schaer.) Stenham. C_. p o c i l l u m T A c h . ) O.Rich. C_. p y x i d a t a ( L . ) Hoffm. uncial i s ( L . ) Wigg. v e r t i c i l l a t a (Hoffm.) Schaer. C o r n i c u l a r i a aculeata (Schreb.) Ach. C_. muricata (Ach.) Ach. D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a (Hook.) N y l . D̂  ramulosa (Hook.) Tuck. Dermatocarpon r i v u l o r u m (Arnold) D . T . + Sarnth. Hypogymnia o r o a r c t i c a Krog Lobaria l i n i t a (Ach.) Rabenh. Nephroma arcticum ( L . ) T o r s s . N_. expall idu m ( N y l . ) N y l . Ochrolechia f r i g i d a (Sw.) Lynge Parmelia c e n t r i f u g a ( L . ) Ach. P_. s t y g i a ( L . ) Ach. Parmeliopsis hyperopt a (Ach.) Arn. P e l t i g e r a aphthosa ( L . ) W i l l d . P.. canina ( L . ) W i l l d . P e r t u s a r i a d a c t y l i n a (Ach.) N y l . Rhizocarpon geographicu m ( L . ) DC. S o l o r i n a crocea ( L . ) Ach. Stereocaulon arcticum Lynge Ŝ . botryosu m Ach. Ŝ . paschale ( I . ) Hoffm. S_. tomentosum Fr. Thamnolia v e r m i c u l a r i s (Sw.) Ach. T . s u b u l f f o r m i s (Ehrb.) Culb. U m b i l i c a r i a c y l i n d r i c a ( L . ) Del. U. deusta~XL.) Baumg. U. hyperbore a (Ach.) Ach. U_. proboscoidea C.L.) Schrad. Appendix B Symbolic and Technical Legend Classes ( A f t e r Legge, et_. al_., 1974) EARTH SURFACE AND LAND-USE FEATURES PRIMARY CLASSES 100 - BARREN LAND 200 - WATER RESOURCES 300 - NATURAL VEGETATION 400 - CULTURAL VEGETATION 500 - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 600 - URBAN, INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORTATION 700 - EXTRACTIVE  INDUSTRY, NATURAL DISASTERS 800 - RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE-RELATED 900 - OBSCURED LAND PRIMARY CLASSES SECONDARY CLASSES TERTIARY  CLASSES QUATERNARY  CLASSES 100 - BARREN LAND 110 - P l a y a s , d r y , o r i n t e r m i t t e n t lake basins 120 - Aeol ian barrens (other than beaches and beach sand) 121 - Dunes 122 - Sandplains 123 - Blowouts 130 - Rocklands 131 - Bedrock outcrops ( i n t r u s i v e & e r o s i o n - b a r e d s t r a t a ) 132 - E x t r u s i v e igneous ( l a v a f l o w s , pumice, c inder and ash) 133 - G r a v e l s , s t o n e s , cobbles & boulders ( u s u a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d ) 134 - Scarps, t a l u s and/or c o l l u v i u m (system o f outcropping s t r a t a ) 135 - Patterned rock!and (nets o r s t r i p e s ) 140 - S h o r e l i n e s , beaches, t i d e f l a t s , and r i v e r banks 150 - Badlands (barren s i l t s and c l a y s , r e l a t e d metamorphic rocks and e r o s i o n a l wastes) 160 - S l i c k s ( s a l i n e , a l k a l i , s o i l s t r u c t u r a l , non-playa barrens) 170 - Mass movement 190 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes o f barren lands 200 - WATER RESOURCES 210 - Ponds, l a k e s , and r e s e r v o i r s 211 - Natural lakes and ponds 212 - Man-made r e s e r v o i r s and ponds 220 - Water courses 221 - Natural water courses 222 - Man-made water courses TERTIARY  CLASSES QUATERNARY  CLASSES 230 - Seeps, springs and w e l l s 231 - Seeps and springs 232 - Wells 240 - Lagoons and bayous 250 - E s t u a r i e s 260 - Bays and coves 270 - Oceans, seas, and g u l f s 280 - Snow and Ice 281 - Seasonal snow cover 282 - Permanent snow f i e l d s and g l a c i e r s 290 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d water resources 300 - NATURAL VEGETATION 310 - Herbaceous types 311 - L i c h e n , cryptogam, and r e l a t e d communities 312 - Prominently annuals 313 - Forb types 314 - Grassland, steppe, and p r a i r i e 315 - Meadows 316 - Marshes 317 - Bogs and muskegs 319 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes o f herbaceous types 320 - Shrub/Scrub Types 321 - M i c r o p h y l l o u s , non-thorny scrub 322 - Microphyl lous thorn scrub 323 - Succulent and cactus scrub 324 - Halophyt ic shrub 325 - Shrub steppe 326 - S c l e r o p h y l l o u s shrub 327 - Macrophyllous shrub 327.1 - Wil low ( S a l i x ) Predominant Vegetation 327.2 - Birch (Betula) Predominant Vegetation 327.3 - A l d e r (Alnus)Predominant Vegetation 327.4 - Mixed Shrub (Prunus/S.ymphoricarpos/Crataegu s) 327.9 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Shrub-Types 328 - Microphyl lous dwarf shrub 328.1 - S p r u c e - F i r (Picea-Abie s) Krummholz Types 328.2 - Mountain Heath Types (Vaccinium/Cassiope/ Phyl lodoc e) 328.3 - Mountain Avens Types (Drya s) 328.4 - J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s ) - B e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s ) Types 328.9 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 329 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes o f shrub/scrub types 330 - Savanna-l ike Types 331 - T a l l shrub/scrub over herb l a y e r 332 - Broad-leaved t r e e over herb l a y e r 333 - Coniferous t r e e over herb l a y e r TERTIARY  CLASSES QUATERNARY  CLASSES 334 - Mixed t r e e over herb l a y e r 335 - Broad-leaved t r e e over low shrub l a y e r 336 - Coniferous t r e e over low shrub l a y e r 337 - Mixed t r e e over low shrub l a y e r 339 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes o f s a v a n n a - l i k e types 340 - Forest and Woodland Types 341 - C o n i f e r f o r e s t s 341.1 - Pine (Pinus) Prominent Vegetation 341.2 - Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga) Prominent 341.3 - Pine/Spruce (Pinus/Picea) 341.4 - Spruce (Picea) Prominent 3 4 1 . 5 - Spruce/Fir (Picea/Abies) 341.6 - F ir/Larch (Abies/Lari x) 341.9 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 342 - Broad!eaf Forests 342.1 - Poplar (Populus) Prominent Vegetation 342.2 - Birch (Betula) Prominent Vegetation 343 - C o n i f e r - b r o a d l e a f mixed f o r e s t s and woodlands 343.1 - Pine/Poplar (Pinus/Populus) 343.2 - Spruce/Poplar (Picea/Populus) 343.3 - Douglas F i r / P o p l a r (Pseudotsuga/Populus) 344 - B r o a d ! e a f - c o n i f e r mixed f o r e s t s and woodlands 344.1 - Poplar/Pine (Populus/Pinus) 344.2 - Poplar/Spruce (PopuTus/Picea) 344.2 - Poplar/Douglas F i r (Populus/Pseudotsuga) 349 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d complexes of f o r e s t and woodland types 390 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Natural Vegetation 400 - CULTURAL VEGETATION 410 - C u l t u r a l herbaceous types 411-419 - T e r t i a r y l e v e l s d u p l i c a t e those o f Natural Vegetation (300) 420 - C u l t u r a l shrub/scrub types 421-429 - T e r t i a r y l e v e l s d u p l i c a t e those o f Natural Vegetation (300) 430 - C u l t u r a l s a v a n n a - l i k e types 431-437, 439 - T e r t i a r y l e v e l s d u p l i c a t e those o f Natural Vegetation (300) 440 - C u l t u r a l f o r e s t and woodland types 441-443, 449 - T e r t i a r y l e v e l s d u p l i c a t e those of Natural Vegetation (300) 490 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u l t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n types 500 - AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 510 - F i e l d crops 520 - Vegetable and truck crops 530 - T r e e , shrub, and v i n e crops TERTIARY  CLASSES QUATERNARY  CLASSES 540 - Pasture 550 - H o r t i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l t i e s 560 - Non-producing f a l l o w , t r a n s i t i o n a l , o r i d l e land 570 - A g r i c u l t u r a l production f a c i l i t i e s 580 - Aquaculture 590 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l production 600 - URBAN, INDUSTRIAL, AND TRANSPORTATION 610 - R e s i d e n t i a l 620 - Commercial and s e r v i c e s 630 - I n s t i t u t i o n a l 640 - I n d u s t r i a l 650 - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communications, and u t i l i t i e s 651 - Man and Material T r a n s p o r t 651.1 - Rail 651.2 - Motor V e h i c l e 651.3 - Water 651.4 - A i r 651.5 - T r a i l s , f o o t and animal 651.9 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 652 - U t i l i t i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n 653 - Power production 654 - Communication 655 - Sewer and s o l i d waste 659 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 670 - Vacant p l o t s and l o t s 690 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d urban 700 - EXTRACTIVE  INDUSTRY AND NATURAL DISASTERS 710 - Non-Renewable Resource E x t r a c t i o n 711 - Sand and Gravel 712 - Rock q u a r r i e 713 - Petroleum E x t r a c t i o n - Gas and o i l f i e l d s 714 - O i l shale and sand e x t r a c t i o n 715 - Coal/peat 716 - Non-metal ic, chemical, f e r t i l i z e r , e t c . 717 - Metal ic 719 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 720 - Renewable resource e x t r a c t i o n 721 - Forest harvest 721.1 - Clearcut Forest 721.2 - S e l e c t i v e Forest Cut 722 - F i s h e r i e s 729 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 730 - Natural d i s a s t e r s 731 - Earth 732 - A i r TERTIARY  CLASSES QUATERNARY  CLASSES 733 - F i r e 734 - Water 735 - Disease 739 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 800 - RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE RELATED 810 - Natural greenways,  open space and b u f f e r zones 820 - P r e s e r v a t i o n areas and natural museums 830 - Improved and developed open space 840 - H i s t o r i c a l and archeological s i t e s 850 - Scenic views 860 - Rock hounding, p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l s i t e s 870 - Recreation f a c i l i t i e s 880 - Designated d e s t r u c t i v e use areas 890 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 900 - OBSCURED LAND 910 - Clouds and fog 920 - Smoke and haze 930 - Dust and sand storms 940 - Smog . 990 - U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d obscured land  OVERLAY  4 1 OVERLAY  6 |   N 1 OVERLAY  14

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 6 0
Canada 2 0
China 2 24
Russia 1 0
Germany 1 0
City Views Downloads
Houston 2 0
Matawan 2 0
Redmond 2 0
Beijing 2 0
Berkeley 1 0
Unknown 1 0
Hamburg 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items