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The British Columbia Teacher’s Federation and its conversion to partisanship, 1966-1972 Yri, Marlene Ingrid 1979

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THE BRITISH COLUMBIA TEACHERS' FEDERATION AND ITS CONVERSION TO PARTISANSHIP, 1966-1972 by MARLENE INGRID YRI B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1979 Marlene Ingrid Y r i , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . „ j . j . j - P o l i t i c a l Science D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e 2 5 September, 19 79 D E - 6 B P 75-5 1 1 E ABSTRACT This i s a study of the conversion to partisanship of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. Research material was derived from interviews with teachers, former B.C.T.F. Executive Committee Members, B.C.T.F. s t a f f members, school trustees, and members of the government. This information was supplemented by material obtained from B.C.T.F. monthly newsletters and other publications, l o c a l newspapers, government reports and i n t e r e s t group l i t e r a t u r e . From these sources, some factors i n f l u e n c i n g the B.C.T.F. to become partisan seemed evident. These factors were: 1. R e s t r i c t i v e government education p o l i c i e s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y the removal by l e g i s l a t i o n of automatic membership provisions i n the B.C.T.F., and the elimination of teachers' c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r i g h t s ; 2. S o c i e t a l trends - the l a t e 1960's and early 1970's were times of protest and r e j e c t i o n of the status quo. These trends and the increasing militancy of other teachers i n Canada influenced the B.C. teachers to consider anti-government protest action. 3. A power struggle within the B.C.T.F.; between the h i r e d General Secretary, who had held the p o s i t i o n since 1947, and the elected Executive Committee, attempting to wield the power i t was e n t i t l e d to according to the B.C.T.F. Constitution. The struggle was won by the elect e d members, who were then successful i n i n f l u e n c i n g the rest of the membership to take r a d i c a l action against the government. 4. An increase i n wealth and expertise i n the B.C.T.F.; from 1966-1972, the budget of the B.C.T.F. doubled, and t h i s helped to increase the capacity of the organization. Now i t became possible to h i r e experts to help organize p o l i t i c a l protest a c t i o n . The President and the Vice-President of the federation had time o f f with pay from t h e i r teaching duties, and t h i s gave them the opportunity to devote t h e i r time to p o l i t i c i z i n g the members. The a n t i -government campaign o f 1972 became a viable a l t e r n a t i v e to more conven-t i o n a l i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t y . 5. The Department o f Education's seeming incompetence. From 1965-1970, 8 new j u n i o r colleges and 2 new u n i v e r s i t i e s were i n s t i t u t e d by the B.C. government; Deputy Education Minis t e r Dr. N e i l Perry was s a i d to have neglected the p u b l i c school system i n favor of post-secondary education. The Department was unable to s t r e t c h the education budget to take care of t h i s added load plus the ra p i d l y increasing p u b l i c school enrollment. Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers antagonized the teachers and imposed measures to t r y to weaken the B.C.T.F. These departmental inadequacies influenced the teachers to take anti-government action. The conclusions of the study were that these f i v e factors played a role i n i n f l u e n c i n g the B.C.T.F. to become partisan. As well, i t was concluded that the strong anti-government stance taken by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation was the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of the strong anti-group p o l i c i e s of W.A.C. Bennett's S o c i a l Credit government. Interest groups generally do not become partisan; the B.C.T.F., then, was an exception, responding to the exceptional circumstances posed by the strong anti-group government i n power i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1952-1972. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abst r a c t Acknow1e dg ement Chronology o f Events INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE Government Actions and B.C.T.F. Reactions CHAPTER TWO B.C.T.F. Increases Wealth and E x p e r t i s e CHAPTER THREE A Power Struggle and the B i r t h o f T.P.A.C CHAPTER FOUR The E f f e c t o f S o c i e t a l Trends on the B.C.T.F CHAPTER FIVE Departmental Influences on the B.C.T.F CHAPTER SIX Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would l i k e to thank several people f o r t h e i r help i n the preparation of th i s study. For the i r moral support and encouragement, sp e c i a l thanks go to my husband Rolf and my two daughters, Karen and Kirsten. For t h e i r patience and h e l p f u l sug-gestions over the years, I would l i k e to thank my advisors Paul Tennant, Ken Carty and Donald Blake. Thanks go also to the people interviewed for this paper; e s p e c i a l l y the members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, who were so frank about the federation, and w i l l i n g to provide me with information not a v a i l a b l e elsewhere. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank Grace Cross for her cheerful o f f e r to type the f i n a l d r a f t . vi CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 1963 E l e c t i o n to 1966 E l e c t i o n March, 1965 - L e g i s l a t i v e Changes i n Public Schools Act January, 1966 - R e s t r i c t i o n i n Classroom Construction August, 1966 - BCTF Sends out Questionnaires September 12, 1966 - P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n ; L-5, C-0, NDP-14, Socred-33 1966 E l e c t i o n to 1969 E l e c t i o n March, 1967 - AGM February/March 1968 May 28, 1968 June, 1968 October, 1968 November, 1968 A p r i l , 1969 August 27, 1969 Resolution to E s t a b l i s h Emergency Protest Fund by levy Defeated Bennett Freezes School Construction and B i l l 86 Introduced - Cabinet Shuffle - New Education Minister: Donald Brothers - Strong Denial of BCTF Partisanship - Coquitlam Teachers' Association Organizes Mass Meeting - P a r t i a l Thaw i n Classroom Construction - Teachers' Apple Campaign - P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n ; L-5, C-0, NDP-12, Socred-38 1969 E l e c t i o n to 1972 E l e c t i o n September, 1969 November, 1969 A p r i l , 1970 September, 1970 October, 1970 January, 19 71 March, 1971 March 19, 1971 Strong Denial o f BCTF Partisanship More than 4,500 Teachers Protest Negotiations Stalemate AGM Resolution re: S t r i k e Vote over Pensions Passed 88% of Teachers Vote f o r S t r i k e Action Government Passes FLQ Order-in-Council Bennett Announces Freeze on Gymnasia and A c t i v i t y Rooms L i f t e d Amendments to Public Schools Act to Remove Automatic BCTF Membership § Dept. of Education Re-Organized Province-Wide One-Day Teachers' S t r i k e re: Pensions v i i 1969 E l e c t i o n to 1972 E l e c t i o n (cont'd.) May, 1971 October, 19 71 November, 1971 January, 1972 January, 1972 February, 19 72 March 9, 1972 March 2 7, 1972 A p r i l , 1972 A p r i l , 1972 June 30, 1972 July, 19 72 August, 1972 AGM - Increase i n BCTF Fees and Arrangements made fo r Emergency Fund Ministe r o f Education Announces C e i l i n g of 108% on School Budgets Ministe r Announces C e i l i n g o f 6.5% Increase on Teachers' Sal a r i e s BCTF Insists on Non-Partisanship Government Introduces B i l l 3 BCTF Mobilizes to Fight B i l l 3 " C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining Defence Committee" Formed and Mass Rally Held B i l l 3 Received Third Reading and Passed AGM - Levy of One Day's Pay to Defeat Government Passed 495 - 84 President Adam Robertson Says, "S o c i a l Credit Must be Voted Out at the P o l l s " Injunction i n Supreme Court Against P o l i t i c a l Action by BCTF TPAC Formed to Defeat Socreds E l e c t i o n and Socreds Defeated Socred-10 L-5, C-2, NDP-38 1 INTRODUCTION On August 30, 1972, the S o c i a l Credit government i n B r i t i s h Columbia was defeated a f t e r 20 years i n o f f i c e . One reason f o r i t s demis was action taken against the government by i n t e r e s t groups. One such group was the B.C. Teachers' Federation. It had claimed to be non-partisan; however, j u s t before the 1972 e l e c t i o n i t gave up i t s o s t e n s i b l n e u t r a l i t y . In March, 1972, B.C.T.F. President Adam Robertson sa i d , "I c a l l on a l l teachers and other c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n education, and i n freedom, to unite and to work f o r the defeat of the S o c i a l Credit govern-1 ment i n the next e l e c t i o n . " What caused the teachers' organization to give up conventional i n t e r e s t group n e u t r a l i t y and use i t s resources for anti-government action? Was the decision due to a p a r t i c u l a r government action? Was government intransigence a factor? Or was i t simply time f o r a change of government i n B r i t i s h Columbia? This thesis i s an attempt to answer these questions and others r e l a t i n g to them. I t i s an examination o f the reasons f o r the B.C.T.F.'s change from non-partisanship to militancy. I t i s a study of how an i n t e r e s t group was influenced, and what motivated the group to try to defeat the government. Aggressive p a r t i s a n action by i n t e r e s t groups i s not common i n Canadian p o l i t i c s . As Presthus wrote: The need to function within a p o l i t i c a l structure whose members change p e r i o d i c a l l y means that i n t e r e s t groups t y p i c a l l y avoid p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s and work towards a s p e c i f i c goal within the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l structure.2 2 Why was the B.C.T.F. d i f f e r e n t ? Walter Young, w r i t i n g i n Democracy and Discontent, said, "When people do seek to change or destroy previously accepted i n s t i t u t i o n s i t i s usually because they have reached a p o s i t i o n , f o r whatever reasons, where they can no longer continue to l i v e as before; they have reached a point where t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n , anger 3 or s u f f e r i n g demand r e l i e f , and r e l i e f requires change." The So c i a l Credit government made the B.C.T.F. s u f f e r . The breaking point occurred with the passage of B i l l 3 i n the B.C. Legi s l a t u r e . B i l l 3 e f f e c t i v e l y eliminated c o l l e c t i v e bargaining f o r the teachers. The B.C.T.F.'s reaction was cataclysmic. The president of the B.C.T.F. said, "We w i l l 4 not l i v e with t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n ! " His p o s i t i o n was unanimously endorsed by the Executive Committee and the Representative Assembly.^ Robertson l a t e r s a i d , "I r e a l i z e d that the r a t i o n a l , the reasoned approach i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p with government was, i s and w i l l continue to be an exercise i n f u t i l i t y . " ^ The events leadinguup to the moment when the B.C.T.F. revolted were many. Ten So c i a l Credit government p o l i c i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r were responsible. These w i l l be discussed i n Chapter One. They provide a chronological framework f o r the B.C.T.F.'s gradual conversion to partisanship. In combination with these actions, four other influences can be i s o l a t e d . Two of these influences occurred within the B.C.T.F. and two without. B r i e f l y , the four influences are as follows; the B.C.T.F.'s 3 i nc rease i n weal th and e x p e r t i s e , the presence o f a power s t r u g g l e i n the B . C . T . F . , the p r e v a i l i n g mood o f s o c i e t y , and the incompetence o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . These w i l l be e l abora t ed upon i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . I t shou ld be mentioned t h a t , when speaking o f the B . C . T . F . as a group, i t i s never meant to imply t ha t a l l the teachers were always i n complete agreement w i t h eve ry th ing the group d i d . The Execu t ive Committee o f the group, composed o f a cur ren t p r e s i d e n t , a f i r s t and a second v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , a past p r e s i d e n t and seven members-at - large, i s e l e c t e d by delegates to the Annual General Meet ing; and these delegates are nominated by t h e i r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . The Execu t ive Committee, a f t e r a t t a i n i n g o f f i c e , makes p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and recommendations, as does the Represen ta t ive Assembly, composed o f geographica l r ep resen ta -t i v e s . The General S e c r e t a r y , who i s h i r e d by the Execu t ive Committee and can be d i smissed by i t , can a l s o make p o l i c y recommendations; however h i s power i n tha t matter waned du r ing the p e r i o d s t u d i e d . I f the p o l i c i e s i n v o l v e major mat te rs , they are u s u a l l y brought to the Annual General Meet ing i n .'the form o f r e s o l u t i o n s which are then vo ted upon by the de lega tes , the Represen ta t ive Assembly, and the Execu t ive Committee. V o t i n g procedures are acco rd ing to By-Law 8.2; mentioned on page 7 o f the B . C . T . F . MEMBERS' GUIDE 197,8/79: The v o t i n g body o f an Annual General o r S p e c i a l Meet ing s h a l l c o n s i s t o f the geograph ica l r ep re -s e n t a t i v e s , the members o f the Execu t ive Committee, 4 and delegates from each l o c a l a ssociation elected i n accordance with by-law 2. Each l o c a l associa-t i o n s h a l l have the righ t to representation at the meeting i n the proportion of one voting delegate f o r each 0.2%, or f r a c t i o n thereof, of the t o t a l voting membership o f the federation who are voting members of the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . . . The decision to study the B.C.T.F.'s conversion to partisanship stems from the author's long-time i n t e r e s t i n government education p o l i c i e s i n B.C. The i n t e r e s t began with d i r e c t involvement i n a small protest movement i n i t i a t e d i n 19 70 by several parents who were d i s s a t i s f i e d with government education p o l i c i e s . Facing the prospect of our children being put on s h i f t s i n t h e i r schools, we c o l l e c t e d 1,300 names on a p e t i t i o n demanding the government place a higher p r i o r i t y on education. We then picketed the opening of the Legislature with other mothers and c h i l d r e n . M.L.A. Bob Wenman arranged an interview for us with Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers. His angry defense of govern-ment education p o l i c i e s surprised us. Parts of that interview were used i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s paper. 5 INTRODUCTION FOOTNOTES 1. "Adam asks f o r protest vote", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers'  Federation C r i s i s Newsletter #3, Vancouver, 24 March 1972, p. 1. 2. R. Presthus, E l i t e Accommodation i n Canadian P o l i t i c s , London, Cambridge University Press, 19 73, p. 77. 3. W. Young, Democracy and Discontent, Toronto, McGraw-Hill, 1969, p. 1. 4. A. Robertson, "We Won't Live With I t " , B.C.T.F. Newsletter, Vol. 11 No. 9 Special E d i t i o n , Vancouver, February 1972, p. 1. 5. Loc. c i t . 6. " B i l l 3 - Teachers' 'Pearl Harbour'," B.C.T.F. Newsletter, Vol. 11 No. 13, Vancouver, A p r i l 1972, p. 1. 6 CHAPTER ONE GOVERNMENT ACTIONS AND B.C.T.F. REACTIONS In the period from 1966-1972, the S o c i a l Credit government l e d by W.A.C. Bennett c a r r i e d out a series of education p o l i c y actions designed to keep education costs to a minimum. This i s a chronicle of those actions and the responses to them by the B.C.T.F. The p o l i c i e s most objected to by the Federation were as follows: 1. Freezes on school construction - 1966-68 1970, 1971. 2. The 1968 education finance formula. 3. FLQ Order-in-Council - 1970. 4. Minister of Education's authority over the school system extended - 1971. 5. Removal of automatic membership - 1971. 6. Further r e s t r i c t i o n s on school board budgets - 1971. 7. Pensions improvements u n f a i r to r e t i r e d and short-term teachers - 1971. 8. M i n i s t e r i a l i n tervention i n salary negotiations - 1971. 9. Finance formula made even more r e s t r i c t i v e - 1972. 10. C o l l e c t i v e bargaining abolished - 1972.^ A glance at those government p o l i c y decisions shows that the actions most objected to by the B.C.T.F. did not begin to occur u n t i l 1966, and that most of them occurred during 1970, 1971,and 1972. U n t i l 1966, when government p o l i c i e s became r e s t r i c t i v e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the B.C.T.F. and the government was f a i r l y good. In June, 1966, i t was reported i n the B.C.T.F. Newsletter that the f i r s t r e s t r i c t i o n on classroom construction had been announced by 7 Education Mini s t e r L e s l i e Peterson. An e d i t o r i a l followed, blaming r e s t r i c t i o n s on " r i s i n g construction costs, brought on i n large part 2 by the hydro p o l i c i e s of the government i t s e l f . " A f t e r t h i s , the B.C.T.F. began to involve i t s e l f i n e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s . When a B.C. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d f o r September 12, 1966, the B.C.T.F. launched a program to make education an issue i n the e l e c t i o n . 3 Questionnaires were mailed out to a l l candidates. While the B.C.T.F had entered the p o l i t i c a l campaign with t h i s action, i t d i d not advocate support f o r any p a r t i c u l a r party. A f t e r urging i t s members to vote f o r the candidate whose answers to the questionnaire were most favorable to the teachers, the Executive i n s i s t e d , "The B.C.T.F. has always been a n o n - p o l i t i c a l organization. It has therefore avoided actions which could be construed as favoring 4 any p o l i t i c a l party." At the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting i n March, 1967, a recommendation was adopted c h a s t i s i n g the government f o r i t s " f a i l u r e to make adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r the financing of education". But the Executive Committee's Resolution 19, which would have established an emergency protest fund by s p e c i a l levy on the membership, was defeated"? This was an i n d i c a t i o n that delegates to the meeting were concerned about education financing, but not so concerned that they f e l t that they should provide extra money f o r the purpose o f pro t e s t i n g to the government. In February o f 1968, a B.C.T.F. delegation met with the cabinet; something which had not been done f o r 15 years. The issue discussed 8 concerned improvements to the teachers' pension plan. At that time teachers r e t i r i n g a f t e r 30-35 years' service received on the average $275 a month. The teachers' pension fund had reached $130 m i l l i o n , and was growing at the rate of $12 m i l l i o n a year, and the delegation 6 wanted higher payouts from the fund. The government c o n t r o l l e d the fund and invested the money i n i t s own hydro p r o j e c t s . The teachers f e l t that return on investment (4% at that time) could be improved upon, and they wanted control of t h e i r own pension funds. The govern-ment refused to r e l i n q u i s h control, however. In early 1968, another freeze was placed on school construction; now only e s s e n t i a l classrooms were to be b u i l t , and no new p h y s i c a l education f a c i l i t i e s were to be constructed; as well, only some of the planned l i b r a r i e s were approved. Then a more serious move to hold back on school costs was introduced i n the L e g i s l a t u r e : B i l l 86. Sections 24-27 i n s t i t u t e d a new education finance formula. This i s how i t was to operate: Grants to school boards were based upon the average approved (by the M i n i s t r y of Education) costs of the previous year f o r the province as a whole. This average cost was applied to each d i s t r i c t according to enrolment, and became the cost of the Basic Education Program f o r the d i s t r i c t . Each d i s t r i c t was r e s t r i c t e d i n budgeting f o r operating costs to a figure that was 10% above the amount o f i t s own Basic Education Program. I f a d i s t r i c t wished to budget i n excess of t h i s Basic Education Program plus 10%, i t had to seek voter approval through a referendum.7 J. A. Spragge, B.C.T.F. Assistant Director of Professional 9 Development, c a l l e d the new finance formula a " s t r a i t jacket" and wrote, Careful examination of Sections 24-27 of B i l l 86 convinces us that the B i l l i s a device to peg rates of expenditure on school operation f o r an unspeci-f i e d period of years up at a l e v e l equal to, or very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to, those i n e f f e c t i n 1967. This b i l l pegs expenditure at 110% but the M i n i s t e r can decide that only 90% of l a s t year's budget might be used, leaving the d i s c r e t i o n f o r him to approve only 99% of the previous year's expenditure, which would then force school!boards i f necessary to get m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to r a i s e the m i l l rates f o r education purposes.8 The B.C.T.F's response to the government's new education finance formula was to pass several resolutions at i t s Annual General Meeting i n A p r i l , 1968. One was a r e s o l u t i o n to i n i t i a t e a s p e c i a l public r e l a t i o n s campaign before the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , to inform voters of the implications of the new education finance formula, and another was to impose a levy of $3.00 on each B.C.T.F. member to 9 provide funds f o r the s p e c i a l p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n that teachers had become more w i l l i n g to take concrete p o l i t i c a l a ction than they had been previously. Just the year before, Resolution 19 to r a i s e funds by levy had been defeated. The teachers were beginning to become more m i l i t a n t . It seemed a d i r e c t r e s u l t of government actions i n introducing the new education finance formula. However, not a l l the members of the Federation approved of the actions the B.C.T.F. had decided to take; a l e t t e r to the E d i t o r i n the May, 1968 Newsletter, complained that only 10% of the members of the B.C.T.F 10 had voted f o r the $3.00 levy and the $5.00 increase i n the B.C.T.F. membership. The author f e l t that members should have had a vote, whether or not they were at the Annual General Meeting, and c a l l e d the 10% the " M i l i t a n t Minority" and the 90% the "Non-Violent Ninety." The l e t t e r was from Torquil Macleod, of Edmonds Elementary Junior Secondary School. In May, 1968, the B.C.T.F. began to implement i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign. An All-Candidates education forum was organized p r i o r to a by-election i n South Vancouver. Co-sponsors were; Vancouver Elementary School Teachers' Association, Vancouver School Administrators' Association, the B.C.T.F. and the Vancouver Parent-Teachers' Council. The Forum was p u b l i c i z e d by a t a b l o i d newspaper d i s t r i b u t e d to the houses i n the r i d i n g , and by radio a d v e r t i s i n g . Norm Levi, N.D.P. candidate and President of the B.C. N.D.P. Party won the e l e c t i o n . Immediately following the Forum there was evidence that the overt p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n taken by the B.C.T.F. i n helping to sponsor the all-Candidates forum, caused controversy i n the membership. An a r t i c l e denying partisanship was pr i n t e d i n the June, 1968 Newsletter: Despite our e f f o r t s to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n , many people s t i l l believe that the Federation has embarked on a pa r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l campaign. Were the misunderstanding not so serious, i t would be laughable. For reasons which escape us, some people seem to be incapable of d i s t i n -guishing between opposition to a governmental p o l i c y and opposition to the So c i a l Credit Party. 11 The B.C.T.F. i s not now and never has been f o r or against any p o l i t i c a l party. Indeed, how can anyone s e r i o u s l y suggest that i t would be possible to get 19,000 teachers to agree to support or oppose any party? In short, we support or oppose p o l i c i e s , not p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . . In the same month o f 1968, there was a cabinet s h u f f l e , and a new Education Minister was appointed: Donald Brothers, a lawyer who had previously been Minist e r of Mines and Resources. This move by the government gave B.C. a f u l l - t i m e Education Minister, which the teachers had been demanding f or some time. L e s l i e Peterson, the previous Education Minister, had held a double p o r t f o l i o ; that of Education and Labor. The June, 1968 B.C.T.F. Newsletter reported that the new Education M i n i s t e r addressed the B.C.T.F. Representative Assembly, and declared that he was a " f i r m b e l i e v e r i n eyeball to eyeball confrontation i f disputes a r i s e . " He stayed f o r only h a l f the discussions and then l e f t f o r a U.B.C. luncheon. This c r i t i c i s m i n the Newsletter seemed to i n d i c a t e the early beginning of a breakdown i n communication between the B.C.T.F. and the Education M i n i s t e r . By the f a l l of 1968, the school construction freeze had begun to cause serious disruptions i n some of the p r o v i n c i a l school d i s t r i c t s . A system of sending students to school i n s h i f t s had been i n s t i t u t e d i n the hardest-hit areas, and branches of the B.C.T.F. were organizing p u b l i c protests. In October, 2,500 people attended a meeting i n Coquitlam, B.C. It was sponsored by the l o c a l Coquitlam Teachers' Association. Those attending were t o l d o f 4,200 students 12 on s h i f t i n the d i s t r i c t , a shortage o f 71 classrooms and of the r e f u s a l of the government to release more than 1/3 of the eight m i l l i o n d o l l a r s passed by referendum i n Coquitlam by 80% the previous year. Those attending the meeting voted to wire Premier Bennett to request the 12 release immediately of funds f o r e s s e n t i a l classroom construction. In November, possibly as a response to the public meeting, a p a r t i a l thaw i n the freeze on classroom construction was announced, but 13 gymnasia and a c t i v i t y rooms were not included. This helped d i s t r i c t s such as Coquitlam, but i t did not eliminate the problem; the secondary school i n Coquitlam remained i n operation on a s h i f t basis f o r several more years. In February, 1969, a B.C.T.F. delegation met with Education Minister Donald Brothers to discuss the B.C.T.F.'s stand on education financing. Brothers was given a copy of a brochure c a l l e d "Let's Review the Formula;" a B.C.T.F. commentary on the government's education finance p o l i c i e s . Copies o f the brochure had been sent by the B.C.T.F. to a l l M.L.A.s, school trustees and others concerned about education finance. The M i n i s t e r promised to review the formula with the Federation at a l a t e r date. In March, a group made up of B.C.T.F. executive members and 32 teachers (most of them from d i s t r i c t s f a c i n g education referenda) met i n V i c t o r i a to lobby M.L.A.s and cabinet ministers. (Altogether that year, 40 school d i s t r i c t s out of 77 exceeded the 110% l i m i t and of 14 those, 9 held referenda and only 2 were passed.) The teachers 13 confronted M.L.A.s and cabinet ministers i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Building corridors, had meetings with them i n t h e i r o f f i c e s , took them out for dinner, and some met with the Premier p e r s o n a l l y . A l t h o u g h the B.C.T.F. Newsletter reported the t r i p as "well worth i t " , at l e a s t one M.L.A. was not so enthusiastic. Bob Wenman, a backbencher i n the S o c i a l Credit government from 1966-1972, sa i d i n an interview with the author i n March, 1979, "The teachers who were coming over to V i c t o r i a were rude and ignorant when they met us i n caucus." He elabor-ated, saying that the teachers were i s o l a t e d and had no way of seeing the whole pi c t u r e , that they l i v e d i n an unreal world, going from grade school to high school, to u n i v e r s i t y and proceeding back to the p u b l i c school again. This, he f e l t , made them i s o l a t e d and ignorant. This was a s u r p r i s i n g a t t i t u d e to take, because Wenman was himself a teacher, and a member of the B.C.T.F. Wenman also denied i n the i n t e r -view that there was a cutback on education spending, and claimed that the government had been spending more on education than ever before. He s a i d that there had been a tremendous increase i n the bureaucracy i n schools, that there were more f u l l - t i m e p r i n c i p a l s and more v i c e -p r i n c i p a l s , and that teachers had fewer students and fewer classes to teach, with more professional days and spares i n the high schools; whereas i n the early 1960's they had had to teach a l l the time. He t o l d the author that at that time, the cost of education had escalated tremendously. When the interviewer mentioned that teachers had complained because education had a smaller percentage of the t o t a l budget than 14 previously, he said that percentage of the budget was a meaningless concept, and that the only meaningful thing to look at was the cost per p u p i l , v i s - a - v i s other provinces. However, he did not give any figures to support his viewpoint. Wenman also t o l d the author that the B.C. government never placed a freeze on school construction, but that Bennett had enforced a slowdown to b r i n g i n f l a t i o n under control by p l a c i n g a r e s t r a i n t on a l l public sector spending. He said that "freeze" was just a p o l i t i c a l term used by the teachers. As f a r as the referendum idea was concerned, he said that i t was i n s t i t u t e d to l e t the public say i t s e l f that i t was d i s -s a t i s f i e d with the escalating costs of education. In the interview obtained by the author with Donald Brothers i n 1970, the Mi n i s t e r also had said that the reason a freeze had been placed on school construction was to f i g h t i n f l a t i o n ; and further, that the freeze on referenda i n operation at that time was caused by a hike i n i n t e r e s t rates on money f o r borrowing. At the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting i n A p r i l , 1969, a res o l u t i o n was presented to levy one day's salary f o r the purpose of p o l i t i c a l protest a c t i o n . The r e s o l u t i o n was defeated, but the Representative Assembly suggested that contributions of one day's pay could be made v o l u n t a r i l y by those of the membership wishing to do so. Some of those against the one-day levy expressed the fear that the government might take r e t a l i a t i v e measures against the organization i f i t s members had to contribute to a fund to f i g h t government p o l i c i e s . " ^ This was the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n that the B.C.T.F. membership was f e a r f u l of possible government r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the Federation's p o l i t i c a l actions. The editors of the monthly B.C.T.F. Newsletter were evidently less cautious; i n the June, 1969 ed i t i o n , they p r i n t e d a cartoon depicting the Mi n i s t e r of Education as a Nazi with jackboots on, shooting education (a dead teacher) arid the caption, "Don't blame me, I didn't p u l l the t r i g g e r . " By this time (June, 1969) another B.C. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was i n the o f f i n g . The B.C.T.F. made plans to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the campaign, and engaged a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i r m to help them p u b l i c i z e t h e i r concerns. A network of contacts' was made i n l o c a l teachers' organi-zations, and John Arnett, Press and Information O f f i c e r , c a l l e d f o r 17 maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the teachers. The money f o r the teachers' p u b l i c i t y campaign during the e l e c t i o n was to come from the $3.00 fee le v i e d upon the teachers at the recommendation o f the 1968 Annual General Meeting. The symbol f o r the teachers' campaign was an apple. I f an e l e c t i o n candidate sympathized with the platform o f the teachers, he was to use the apple symbol to advertise the f a c t . Voters were then urged by the teachers to support the candidates who used the symbol. The e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d for August 27, which made i t d i f f i c u l t to e n l i s t the help o f teachers since many were away on vacation. However, numerous teachers did p a r t i c i p a t e i n the campaign. President Jim K i l l e e n f e l t that the goal to make education a major issue was achieved, f o r the following reasons: 16 Hundreds of teachers a l l over the province discussed education with i n d i v i d u a l candidates . . . Teachers sponsored at least two dozen a l l -candidates' meetings, which featured education prominently . . . Almost a l l of the candidates featured education i n t h e i r campaigns . . . Most of the candidates used the apple symbol . . . The r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n were: Lib e r a l s 5, N.D.P. 12, and Socreds 38, giving the Socreds a gain of 5 seats over the 1966 e l e c t i o n , and the N.D.P. 2 le s s . On C.B.U. Radio, Friday, August 29, A l l a n Fotheringham reported, "The B.C. Teachers' Federation launched a $50,000 advertising campaign advocating defeat of the government. The voters laughed at the $50,000 and ignored the candidates who had the 19 teachers' endorsation." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that none of the Socia l Credit candidates used the apple symbol i n the e l e c t i o n campaign. Apparently, some thought that the B.C.T.F. was out to defeat the Socred government with the Apple Campaign. B.C.T.F. President K i l l e e n found i t necessary to report, Some people f e l t that the campaign was directed at the government and/or the So c i a l Credit Party. / I t was not . . .J Some people thought the campaign was designed to promote the New Democratic Party. /Nothing could be further from the truth . . .J It i s safe to say that, by e l e c t i o n time, people agreed that the B.C.T.F. campaign had been conducted i n a non-partisan manner.^0 In an interview with the author conducted.in March, 1979, Bob Wenman said that the teachers had been very unfprofessional i n t h e i r campaign. He claimed that they had sent r a d i c a l members to a l l -candidates' meetings to heckle Socred candidates. He said that some 17 teachers, embarrassed by the actions of the r a d i c a l s , had apologized to him. He i n s i s t e d that the teachers had made fools of themselves i n t h e i r Apple Campaign, and that i t was a "pathetic and r i d i c u l o u s campaign, which made the pu b l i c anti-teachers, making i t possible to make p o l i t i c a l hay i f you went against the teachers." He f e l t that the Apple Campaign was "a mess" and said that the teachers didn't l i k e the levy imposed on them the year before. He mentioned that he, too, was expected to pay the levy, " i n order to defeat myself." He r e l u c t a n t l y admitted that subsequent actions taken "against" the teachers were " i n some measure r e t r i b u t i o n " f o r the actions of the teachers during the campaign. In the f a l l of 1969, teachers i n various school d i s t r i c t s encountered problems i n the negotiation of salary increases with t h e i r respective school boards. As the B.C.T.F. Newsletter reported, "Salary agreements were negotiated i n only 32 school d i s t r i c t s , a f f e c -t i n g 20% of the province's teachers. Salaries f o r the other 80% were 21 determined by a r b i t r a t i o n hearings." It was f e l t that the School Trustees were bargaining i n bad f a i t h , and i n November, President Jim K i l l e e n c a l l e d f o r a mass protest r a l l y , to be held i n the P.N.E. Agrodome. The subsequent r a l l y was the largest meeting of teachers ever held i n B.C., with 4,500 i n attendance. A vote of censure against the B.C. School Trustees' Association was passed and arrangements were made to s t r i k e a committee to probe teachers' bargaining rights?2 18 In spite of the fac t that the teachers were d i s s a t i s f i e d at that time with t h e i r salary negotiations, the freeze on school construction, the education finance formula, t h e i r pensions and t h e i r large class s i z e s , they were advised by General Secretary CD. Ovans not to "resort to t a c t i c s of questionable morality (such as booking o f f sick) or of questionable l e g a l i t y (such as s t r i k e action) to protest the lack of negotiations by school board." He backed up his stand by saying, "Under the terms of the Public Schools Act . . . teachers have contrac-tua l obligations they cannot break without putting t h e i r jobs on the l i n e . To s t r i k e i t s e l f i s not i l l e g a l ; to be i n breach of a contract 23 i s ; " he said. M i l i t a n t teachers l a t e r accused Ovans of making p o l i c y for the organization, but Ovans was vindicated by President Jim K i l l e e n , who said that Ovans did not make p o l i c y f o r the organization; that the decision against s t r i k e action had been made i n a meeting of the Executive Committee and the Agreements Committee before the r a l l y . In March of 1970, besides the regular newsletter, a sp e c i a l e d i t i o n dealing s t r i c t l y with teachers' pensions was published. A de t a i l e d l i s t of a l l the B.C.T.F.'s lobbying e f f o r t s i n the previous months was l i s t e d , inadequacies i n the pension were pointed out, and i t was mentioned that there was no new l e g i s l a t i o n planned f o r the year to change the pension plan. There was a strong c a l l f o r support for a r e s o l u t i o n to be brought forward at the Annual General Meeting to be held that month. The r e s o l u t i o n to be placed before the delegates to the Annual General Meeting read as follows: 19 That the B.C.T.F. declare that, unless the Federation receives guarantees that substantial improvements i n pensions l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be introduced i n the 1971 session of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, t h i s Annual General Meeting d i r e c t s the Executive Committee to c a l l f o r work-stoppages or other sanctions to compel governmental attention to the reasonable proposals the B.C.T.F. has advanced for improving teachers' pensions.24 The p u b l i c a t i o n of the Special March E d i t i o n of the newsletter and i t s attempt to make the pensions an issue in the impending Annual General Meeting i s an example of executive leadership i n the organization; i n the Annual General Meeting of March, 1970, the r e s o l u t i o n passed, paving the way for the Executive Committee to c a l l a s t r i k e vote at some l a t e r date. The main cause for complaint about the pension plan was the government's control of the fund, the low government contribution, and the low return to r e t i r e d teachers. At the time the r e s o l u t i o n was passed, the t o t a l pension funds paid out each year were less than the i n t e r e s t c o l l e c t e d on the fund. The structure of the fund had been f i x e d i n 1961, and the government's contribution - $281 per teacher, had not changed since that time. Changes i n 1965 and i n 1968 accommodated the Canada Pension, but the government paid the 25 Canada Pension contribution from the f i x e d $281 sum established in 1961. At t h i s same Annual General Meeting, a speech by Education Minister Donald Brothers was badly received; i t was reported i n a l o c a l newspaper, TEACHER DELEGATES JEER MINISTER -The delegates jeered openly when Brothers said that teachers formerly were drawn to the pro-fession "out of sheer dedication" but that now 20 many came because of the "favorable working conditions and holiday benefits and good rates of pay."26 The teachers seemed to have l o s t respect for the Minister, and communi-cations were breaking down between the two. Brothers continued, "In an era when confrontation i s looked upon as a natural procedure, i t may be that from c o n f l i c t w i l l come the seeds of educational growth." On October 27, 1970, a f t e r the federal government had invoked the War Measures Act during the F.L.Q. C r i s i s , the B.C. government i t s e l f saw f i t to add i t s endorsation to the federal l e g i s l a t i o n by passing an Order-in-Council regarding the F.L.Q. As i t was reported i n the B.C.T.F. Newsletter, Although the Federal War Measures Act was more than adequate l e g i s l a t i o n to cope with the F.L.Q. c r i s i s i n Quebec, the p r o v i n c i a l government singled out teachers (public school, college and university) i n B.C. and made them the only group of c i t i z e n s i n the entire country subject to instant dismissal f o r saying or doing anything that could be construed as support of or for the F.L.Q. p a r t y . 2 7 The F.L.Q. Order-in-Council was followed three days l a t e r by a referendum among teachers (October 30). The purpose of the referendum was to see how many would favor a s t r i k e to support t h e i r pension demands. They voted overwhelmingly i n favor of allowing the Executive to c a l l a 28 s t r i k e ; the r e s u l t s were 88%, or 22,000 teachers i n favor. At the beginning of March, 1971, the government introduced a b i l l to amend the Public Schools Act - B i l l 47. Included i n the B i l l was removal of automatic membership provisions for c e r t i f i e d teachers i n the B.C.T.F. and removal of the r i g h t s of teachers to run f o r p o s i t i o n s on 21 school boards. Another section of the B i l l made i t impossible for the B.C.T.F. to negotiate any union or closed shop agreement with school boards. Teachers were incensed, and saw the amendment as an attempt to destroy t h e i r association. Removal of automatic membership was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s u l t i n g , for the teachers had had those provisions since 1947. They f e l t that without automatic membership t h e i r a b i l i t y to d i s c i p l i n e t h e i r own profession was taken away from them, because as long as membership was a c r i t e r i o n f or anyone working i n a pub l i c school, expulsion from the organization meant that the teacher could no longer teach i n the system i n B.C. Without automatic membership, expulsion from the organization would be meaningless. I f one did not have to belong to teach, one would not be compelled to behave i n an e t h i c a l manner i n the 29 eyes of other teachers. Besides these considerations, the B i l l presented a serious threat to the s o l i d a r i t y of the federation. On March 19, 1971, the teachers c a r r i e d out t h e i r threat to s t r i k e f or better pensions. The s t r i k e was province-wide and lasted f o r one day. It was the f i r s t province-wide s t r i k e of teachers ever to be held i n B.C. Many teachers f e l t a f t e r the s t r i k e that i t had been a good experience, i n that i t brought the teachers together i n a common cause; that of concern for the poor returns offered to r e t i r e d teachers. It made them f e e l s e l f l e s s to be a g i t a t i n g for something that would not bring them immediate personal returns. One former Executive Member l a t e r t o l d the author, "Some b e a u t i f u l things happened during that s t r i k e . " Evidently, the government was less enthusiastic. Four 22 days l a t e r , on March 23, B i l l 47 passed Third Reading i n the Legislature, arid the automatic membership provisions were removed from the l e g i s l a t i o n . However, the section of the B i l l regarding the removal of the teachers' 30 r i g h t s to run f o r school board had been withdrawn. President Jim K i l l e e n f e l t that the passing of the B i l l was an act of r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the teachers' Apple Campaign. waged p r i o r to the 1969 e l e c t i o n . He f e l t that i t was also an attempt to weaken the organi-zation. M.L.A. Bob Wenman, however, had a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In an interview with the author i n March, 1979, he claimed that i t was he who f i r s t introduced the removal of automatic membership i n the B.C.T.F. to the Legislature as a Private Member's B i l l . Later the govern-ment made the p o l i c y i t s own and implemented i t . Wenman said that the r a t i o n a l e behind the change i n the membership provisions was that no-one should be required to belong to anything, and that the broad p u b l i c l i k e d the idea. He said i t was designed for the p u b l i c , because only about 35% of the workers i n B.C. were unionized, and that therefore the majority of people in B.C. were against unions. He also said that the B.C.T.F. had been getting m i l i t a n t , and many of the teachers were uneasy about having to belong to such a m i l i t a n t organization. Jack Smedley, President of the B.C. School Trustees' Association at that time, mentioned i n an interview with the author conducted in March, 1979, that he f e l t that the reason the government took away the automatic membership provisions was that some members of the B.C.T.F. had complained to the Minister that they didn't l i k e the m i l i t a n c y of 23 the B.C.T.F. and didn't want to belong to an organization that was a n t i - S o c i a l Credit. However, both Wenman and Smedley f e l t that the removal of the membership provisions was the straw that broke the camel's back as f a r as the B.C.T.F. was concerned. The removal of the automatic membership provisions was c r i t i c i z e d i n the press; Arthur Mayse, of the V i c t o r i a Times, wrote, It i s the nature of government to reserve i t s most pious face for i t s more dubious under-takings. By t h i s ploy, what might look suspiciously l i k e a S o c i a l Credit venture into union-busing i s presented as something quite otherwise . . .I'm s o l i d l y on the side of the federation i n t h i s assault by the government on a membership which f o r i t s own sake would be wise to s t i c k with i t s union . . . . The a l t e r -native i s to,be divided and conquered . . . . ^ Feeling threatened by the government's apparent attempt to emasculate t h e i r organization, the B.C.T.F. launched a public r e l a t i o n s campaign to make the teachers aware of the many benefits belonging to the Federation, and at the Annual General Meeting of May, 1971, delegates approved a p o l i c y that would increase B.C.T.F. cash reserves by an amount of h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s over the following f i v e years. The amount would come from an increase i n membership fees. Delegates also approved a decreasing l i n e of c r e d i t at the bank i n order to provide funds immediately i n case of an emergency. At t h i s Annual General Meeting the Minister of Education did not speak. School Trustee Jack Smedley t o l d the author that Brothers didr.not f e e l that he would get a f a i r hearing, so he didn't give h i s usual address. From the evidence c o l l e c t e d so f a r , i t appears that the more 24 punitive the government l e g i s l a t i o n appeared to teachers, the more w i l l i n g the teachers were to provide extra funds and to increase t h e i r membership fees i n the organization. On October 4, 1971, the Mi n i s t e r of Education announced at the B.C. School Trustees' Association Convention that the c e i l i n g i n those school d i s t r i c t s with budgets o f three m i l l i o n d o l l a r s or more would be lowered from 110% of the Basic Program to 108%. Those d i s t r i c t s , 35 i n a l l , accounted f o r about 85% o f the province's p u p i l population, and 85% of the gross operating budgets. Brothers t o l d the delegates: This i s the f a i r e s t formula f o r operating expenses of school d i s t r i c t s i n Canada. We have labored long and hard to a r r i v e at a s o l u t i o n which i s f a i r to everyone and which corrects the de f i c i e n c i e s i n the o r i g i n a l formula.32 An e d i t o r i a l i n the Vancouver Sun stated, " A l l the biases of the Social Credit government are exposed by the new school financing p o l i c y announced by Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers. . . . It i s anti-urban, 33 anti-teachers, anti-education and i n s e n s i t i v e to economic conditions." President Adam Robertson stated, " I f c a r r i e d through, t h i s a ction must be regarded as a t r a g i c blow against q u a l i t y education i n B.C., and 34 another step i n the process o f educational erosion." In November, 1971, while c o l l e c t i v e bargaining was proceeding between the teachers and the school boards, Education M i n i s t e r Brothers put a c e i l i n g of 6.5% on teachers' salary increases. This was seen as a c l e a r disruption of the bargaining process; President Adam Robertson stated, 25 In a careless manner the Minister, with h i s focus on inputs and outputs i n d o l l a r terms alone, disrupted the process of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. With an announcement that whatever the salary increases were gained, he would share costs only up to 6.5%, the Minister attempted to destroy c o l l e c t i v e bargaining throughout the province . . . This year, as a r e s u l t o f the Minister's unwarranted i n t r u s i o n into c o l l e c t i v e negotia-t i o n s , 5 3 of the province's 77 school d i s t r i c t s are committed to a r b i t r a t i o n ; only 24 d i s t r i c t s have s e t t l e d or have agreements-in-committee. In January, 1972, i n s p i t e of a l l the recent measures taken by the government which seemed calculated to antagonize the teachers, the B.C.T.F. s t i l l i n s i s t e d i t was non-partisan; i t was announced i n the Newsletter that "The B.C.T.F.< w i l l continue to maintain an independent p o l i t i c a l stance but continue i t s p r a c t i c e of commending or c r i t i c i z i n g government education programs . . . A general consensus of opinion i n d i c a t e d that 'partisan p o l i t i c s ' was f e l t to have no role i n a professional organization.""^ However, i n "the same month, the government introduced B i l l 3, which put a c e i l i n g on teachers' wages, making any increases above that amount agreed to by negotiation or a r b i t r a t i o n subject to a referendum i n the school d i s t r i c t concerned. This meant that the taxpayers were to decide d i r e c t l y on teachers' s a l a r i e s , and given the f a i l u r e of most o f the school referenda up to that time, i t would be extremely doubtful i f any of them would pass. Robertson sa i d , The amendment takes away from teachers t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r i g h t s . I t denies trustees, as duly elected representatives of the people, the 26 authority to exercise r e s p o n s i b i l i t y accorded to them i n law of acting as employers of teachers. As president of the B.C.T.F., I took a strong public stand against the l e g i s l a t i o n , s t a t i n g f i r m l y : 'We w i l l not l i v e with i t ' . There was no intimation from government that such l e g i s l a -t i o n was contemplated. At s i x o'clock on January 28, the Minister t o l d me that the B i l l had been presented i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . The government's att i t u d e toward teachers was made cl e a r - they don't care what we think . . . We have no choice but to turn to p o l i t i c a l action i n defending ourselves . . . This i s not to say that we should or need to engage i n p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . . . .37 Even at t h i s l a t e date, the President was s t i l l i n s i s t i n g on "non-partisanship". He was w i l l i n g to see i f the government would change i t s p o l i c i e s , but i f i t would not, he threatened, "we must a c t i v e l y oppose the 38 p o l i c y u n t i l a new government i s elected." The B.C.T.F. Representative Assembly met on February 3 and approved several measures to f i g h t B i l l 3, the most s i g n i f i c a n t of which were to begin preparations for a s t r i k e vote, and to levy one day's salary from each of the members, the money to be used f o r " p u b l i c i t y and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . " The matters would be brought up f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n at the Annual General 39 Meeting. In March,Robertson strongly condemned the government and announced that he would attempt to defeat i t i f B i l l 3 was not withdrawn. With these words, the B.C.T.F. gave up i t s non-partisanship and embarked on an anti-government p o l i t i c a l campaign, I take a strong personal stand against the government at this time. The government must change i t s p o l i c i e s -display a reasonable degree o f f a i r play and respect 27 toward teachers and show some concern f o r the q u a l i t y of education, otherwise I w i l l do everything i n my power to bring about i t s defeat i n the next election.40 By this time, the B.C.T.F. was not the only organization i n B.C. opposed to B i l l 3. Other p u b l i c employees and labor union members saw the B i l l as an attempt to abolish c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. The " C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining Defence Committee" was formed, with representatives from the B.C.T.F., the B.C. Government Employees' Union, the Canadian Union o f Public Employees, Hospital Employees Union, the P s y c h i a t r i c Nurses' Association o f B.C., and the College Faculty Federation. A mass r a l l y was held at the P.N.E. Garden Auditorium i n March, 19 72, for the purpose of discussing the implications of B i l l 3: B.C.T.F. President Adam Robertson chaired the meeting and Jim MacFarlan, F i r s t Vice-President, delivered the opening address at the r a l l y that rose from teachers' appeals to other organizations f o r support i n the f i g h t against B i l l 3 . . . More than 3500 people roared approval as speaker a f t e r speaker denounced B i l l 3 . . . Gary Greene, President of the B.C. D i v i s i o n of C.U.P.E., spoke and pledged that 15,000 C.U.P.E. members would do everything i n t h e i r power to defeat B i l l 3 i f i t were passed (sic) . Conservative party leader D e r r i l Warren l e n t his support at the meeting, as did L i b e r a l M.L.A. Barrie Clark, Opposition Leader Dave Barrett, B.C. Federation of Labour Secretary Ray Haynes and others. At the f i n i s h the crowd voted unanimously to condemn the B i l l as anti-educational and anti-democratic.41 On March 27, despite the protests of teachers, p u b l i c employees, union members and other segments of society, B i l l 3 passed T h i r d Reading i n the Legislature by a vote of 30 to 19. The f a t was i n the f i r e . At 28 the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting held i n A p r i l , 1972, the recommen-dations dealing with B i l l 3 were a l l passed. The r e s o l u t i o n to begin preparations f o r a s t r i k e vote passed, 428 to 122. The r e s o l u t i o n to impose a levy of one day's salary on each member of the B.C.T.F. passed, 42 495 to 84. With funds coming i n from the one-day levy, the teachers began to organize t h e i r p o l i t i c a l action campaign against the S o c i a l Credit government. They organized voters' action groups, made sure a l l e l i g i b l e voters were on the voters' l i s t s , and began to answer Education Minis t e r Brothers' e l e c t i o n newspaper ads. For example, Press and Information O f f i c e r John Hardy sent several newsletters to l o c a l associations. 0ne : of them, dated A p r i l 14, 1972, had the following b i t s of advice; Over the next three weeks the M i n i s t e r has reserved space i n newspapers for more of his propaganda. What does i t indicate? F i r s t that he has enacted poor l e g i s l a t i o n and f e e l s compelled to r a t i o n a l i z e i t with advertising. Second, that our reply has shaken him--and by our reply, I mean the m i l l i o n d o l l a r levy as well as s p e c i f i c ads. Here's the immediate plans. We w i l l be moving on to a new medium even while he i s running his ads. TV c l i p s are being prepared. A f t e r he has exhausted his c r e a t i v i t y i n the newspapers i t i s l i k e l y that we w i l l p r i c e his e f f o r t and l e t the people know the sshocking waste of p u b l i c money, a l l to degrade education. We may also run an ad i n the F i n a n c i a l  Post, which i s an i n f l u e n t i a l journal Canada wide, and point out the gross mismanagement of p u b l i c monies. . . . Another thing to do i s to get l e t t e r s i n to the editor. Spread the word l o c a l l y that teachers have been singled out as an occupational group (dictatorship) and that the government i s covering up i t s sins with taxpayers' money i n an advertising campaign calculated to mislead the public (fraudulent advertising).43 29 The B.C.T.F. and Donald Brothers engaged i n a war of s t a t i s t i c s i n the l o c a l newspapers. Brothers declared that with school costs r i s i n g , within 10 years education would take over the entire budget. Teachers r e p l i e d with graphs showing that the percentage of budget earmarked f o r elementary and secondary education was on the decline rather than on the upswing. The B.C.T.F. published a seri e s of four " C r i s i s " newsletters, bearing such bylines as "Gov.lt Obscures Real Issues," "Socreds crying wolf on costs," "Salary share same f o r decade," "Adam asks f o r protest vote," "It's the end of an era -- Socreds vulnerable i n coming e l e c t i o n " "Teachers not to blame f o r poor school conditions," "Is Premier Bennett another Juan Peron?" and " F i n a n c i a l Wizard or Master of Deceit?" Besides these newsletters, the B.C.T.F. published numerous pamphlets and l e t t e r s . Teachers wrote l e t t e r s to editors o f newspapers, and a. comprehensive booklet was sent out, c a l l e d Teachers versus So c i a l  Credit; i n i t B.C.T.F. President Adam Robertson issued a b a t t l e - c r y ; "I c a l l on a l l teachers and other c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n education, and i n freedom, to unite and to work f o r the defeat of the So c i a l Credit government i n the next e l e c t i o n . " The campaign of the teachers became a p u b l i c issue. One funda-mentalist Surrey clergyman wrote a l e t t e r to the Columbian newspaper condemning the teachers f o r being " u n c h r i s t i a n . " Several Socred teachers, (Barber and Hale from V i c t o r i a ) took issue with the one-day's 30 salary levy, took the matter to court, and obtained an i n j u n c t i o n against the B.C.T.F. The funds which had amounted to approximately $1 m i l l i o n were frozen, and none of the assets o f the B.C.T.F. could be touched f o r use as p o l i t i c a l p r otest. The whole p o l i t i c a l campaign which had been planned to defeat the Socreds seemed i n jeopardy. Undaunted, the Executive Committee formed the Teachers' P o l i t i c a l Action Committee, incorporated i t under the S o c i e t i e s ' Act, and c a r r i e d on t h e i r campaign u n t i l the e l e c t i o n of 1972 when the Socreds were defeated. This chapter has dealt with the major p o l i c y actions c a r r i e d out by the government and objected to by the B.C.T.F. The r e s t r i c t i v e 1968 education finance formula, the freezes on school construction necessitating the i n s t i t u t i o n of s h i f t s , the lack of pension improvements, and f i n a l l y the removal of automatic membership provisions and the passage of B i l l 3, were seen by most -teachers as actions punitive to them as a group. They f e l t that the l a s t two actions e s p e c i a l l y were taken i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the teachers' c r i t i c i s m s o f the government. While the teachers i n i s t e d that they were c r i t i c i z i n g the government's p o l i c i e s and not the government i t s e l f , the government did not make that d i s t i n c t i o n . The teachers f i n a l l y turned to pa r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l action p r i o r to the 1972 e l e c t i o n . On the surface, i t seemed a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the government's actions. But there were also other factors which influenced the teachers to act as they did. The following chapters w i l l deal with these less tangible influences. 31 CHAPTER ONE - FOOTNOTES 1. "The S o c i a l Credit Record", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  C r i s i s Newsletter #3, Vancouver, 24 March 1972, p. 1. 2. " E d i t o r i a l " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 5 No. 7, June 1966, p. 2. 3. "Federation C a l l s f o r Public Stand," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 6 N o . l , September 1966, p. 1 Questions: 1. What, i f anything, would you do to reduce the pupil-teacher r a t i o ? 2. What p o s i t i v e measures would you propose to ensure an adequate supply of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d teachers f o r B.C. schools? 3. What steps would you recommend to maintain the present high standards of teacher t r a i n i n g i n the province? 4. Are you i n favor of a greater percentage of the tax d o l l a r being a l l o c a t e d to education? 5. Do you believe that B.C. should have a f u l l - t i m e Minister of Education? 6. Are you i n favor of s e t t i n g up an educational research program i n B.C.? 4. " P o l i t i c a l Action", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, Vol. 6 No. 1, September 1966, p. 2. 5. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Annual General Meeting Report 1967,p. 8. 6. "Delegation Meets Cabinet on Pensions", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter Extra E d i t i o n , Vol. 7 No. 6, February 1968, p. 1. 7. "Education Finance", Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, Vancouver, p. 75. 8. J.A. Spragge, "New Finance Formula a S t r a i t - J a c k e t " , B r i t i s h  Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 7 No. 9, A D r i l 1968, p . l . 9. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Annual General Meeting Report 1968, pp. 5 and 6. 32 10. "500 at Forum", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 7 No. 12, June, 1968, p. 1. 11. I b i d . , p. 3. 12. "2500 Attend Meeting", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, V o l . 7 No. 14, October 1968, p. 1. 13. " P r e d i c t i o n s True", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 2, November, 1968, p. 2. 14. "40 School D i s t r i c t s Exceed 110% L i m i t " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 7, A p r i l 1969, p. 7, and "Washington, Oregon Experience Operating Referenda 'Disastrous' ", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 1. 15. "Frank Talk From Four Teachers", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 7, A p r i l 1969, p. 1. ' 16. "One Day's Pay Sought to B u i l d Fund", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 1. 17. "Education B i g Issue i n Upcoming Campaign", B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p i 8. 18. "Says President K i l l e e n 'Campaign w i l l Continue' ", B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 1. 19. " K i l l e e n Comments 'How Do you Measure Success?' " B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 4. 20. "Says President K i l l e e n 'Campaign w i l l Continue' ", B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 1. 21. "Committee to Probe Bargaining R i g h t s , " B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers'  Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 6, January 1970, p. 1. 22. Loc. c i t . 23. " R a l l y f o r Teachers", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 5, December 1969, p. 1. 24. "Pensions R e s o l u t i o n to be Placed Before Annual General Meeting", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , V o l . 9 No. 9, March 1970, p. 4. 33 25_. T. Hutchison, "Pensions", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, Vol. 9 No. 9 Special E d i t i o n , March 1970, p. 1. 26. "Teacher Delegates Jeer Minister", Surrey Columbian, Surrey, Tuesday 31 March 1970, p. 1. 27. "The S o c i a l Credit Record", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter C r i s i s #3, 24 March 1972, p. 1. 28. "88% W i l l S t r i k e i f Necessary", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 5, December 1970, p. 1. 29. "Message from President Jim K i l l e e n " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 10 No. 9 Special E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 1. 30. Loc. c i t . 31. A. Mayse, "Others Are Saying So c i a l Credit 'Union Busting' ", V i c t o r i a Times, March 3, 1971, as reported i n B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 10 No. 9 Special E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2. 32. "Formula Change Means Budget Cuts", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 11 No. 3, October 1971, p. 1. 33. Ibid., p. 2. 34. Ibid., p. 1. 35. A. Robertson, "Minister Disrupting System", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers'  Federation Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 5, November 1971, p. 1. 36. "Partisan P o l i t i c s Out!", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, Vol. 11 No. 7, January 1972, p. 2. 37. A. Robertson, "We Won't Live with I t ! " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, Vol. 11 No. 9 Special E d i t i o n , February 1972, p. 1. 38. Loc. c i t . 39. Loc. c i t . 40. A. Robertson, "President Speaks Out", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 10, March 1972, p . l . 34 41. Loc. c i t . 42. "AGM Quiet Before Storm", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 13, A p r i l 1972, p. 1. 43. J. Hardy, " A d v e r t i s i n g , B.C. Teachers' Federation Newsletter f o r Local A s s o c i a t i o n Pros. V o l . 3, No. 8, A p r i l 1972, pp. 1 § 2. CHAPTER TWO 35 B.C.T.F. INCREASES WEALTH AND EXPERTISE In the p e r i o d 1963-1972, the B.C.T.F. changed i t s philosophy of non-partisanship, gained a wealth o f experience i n lobbying and succeeded i n i t s campaign against the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. Without changes i n the resources o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n (and i n i t s number o f p a i d p e r s o n n e l ) , these things might not have been p o s s i b l e . What, then, were these changes, and how d i d they a f f e c t the success o f the teachers i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to the government and i t s p o l i c i e s ? In October o f 1966, the B.C.T.F. increased i t s p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . A $500,000 a d d i t i o n was b u i l t to the e i g h t - y e a r - o l d B.C.T.F. b u i l d i n g on Burrard S t r e e t i n Vancouver. This added 18,000 square f e e t and a 300-seat auditorium, doubling the previous f a c i l i t i e s . At th a t time, the membership i n the B.C.T.F. was 16,600 and growing at 6% per year; and 2% o f the po p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia were teachers.^" In March, 1967, the B.C.T.F. income t o t a l l e d $914,059; t h i s i s how i t was spent: S a l a r i e s S a l a r y Indemnity % Benevolent Fund T r a v e l l i n g Excess Revenue Canadian Teachers' Federation Convention A.G/M Departments § Committees 32.03% 8.82% 4,46% 18.18% 3.09% 1 .53% 9.25% - i . e . P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s § Education Week -$10,564.35 36 General International Assistance Magazine 16.15% 1.72% 4.77% 2 - Surplus $166,161.16 Soon the B.C.T.F. budget passed the m i l l i o n d o l l a r mark, and budgets continued to increase: In the short space of f i v e years, the budget of the B.C.T.F. doubled. Even accounting f o r i n f l a t i o n , the increase was s u b s t a n t i a l . The B.C.T.F. also had the a b i l i t y to r a i s e funds quickly f o r the purpose of p o l i t i c a l campaigning; f o r example, the t h r e e - d o l l a r levy approved at the 1968 Annual General Meeting, the one-day's pay levy passed i n 1972, and the a b i l i t y of members to r a i s e money f o r T.P.A.C. when they were thwarted i n using t h e i r one-day levy. As well, i t was possible to r a i s e membership fees; f o r example, the May 1971 B.C.T.F. Newsletter announced that delegates to the Annual General Meeting had approved an increase i n the membership fees, aimed at increasing B.C.T.F. cash reserves by h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s within f i v e years. A decreasing l i n e bank cr e d i t to provide possible emergency funds was also agreed to by 4 those attending the meeting. The budget f o r the B.C.T.F. came from membership fees. As a matter of i n t e r e s t , the B.C.T.F. also had assets i n i t s Teachers' 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 $ 914,059 1,362,582 1,685,704 1,699,100 1,647,779 1,906,184 37 Investment and Housing Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n and i n the B.C. Teachers' C r e d i t Union. The B.C.T.F. Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r e d "investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , mortgages, insurance, c h a r t e r f l i g h t s , e t c. . . . The B.C.T.F. Teachers' C r e d i t Union . . . savings p l a n s , personal loans, chequing accounts, endowment plans, safe deposit boxes, t r a v e l l e r s ' cheques, etc.""' In March, 1970, i t was reporte d that the assets of the B.C.T.F. Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n had exceeded $25 m i l l i o n . While the B.C.T.F. d i d not r e c e i v e income from these a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e i r e x i s t e n c e d i d increase the fe d e r a t i o n ' s scope. The B.C.T.F. had become a wealthy o r g a n i z a t i o n , and could a f f o r d to pay f o r e x p e r t i s e . The t h r e e - d o l l a r l e v y i n 1968 was used to fund the Apple Campaign,, before the 1968 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The campaign was not l e f t f o r amateurs to organize. John A r n e t t , former education r e p o r t e r f o r the Vancouver Sun and the B.C.T.F.'s new Press and Information O f f i c e r , together with Foster, Young, Ross Anthony and As s o c i a t e s , the Federation's a d v e r t i s i n g agency, organized the campaign. They made preparations to s t a r t the campaign the day the e l e c t i o n was announced, wrote l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n presidents asking them to consider s e t t i n g up l o c a l committees to co-ordinate the campaign at the l o c a l l e v e l , and g e n e r a l l y devised a p l a n of a c t i o n , encouraging the 7 teachers to co-operate w i t h t h e i r p l a n s . Even though the e l e c t i o n o f 1969 was c a l l e d f o r the summer when 38 many teachers were away, they s t i l l managed to m o b i l i z e , as P r e s i d e n t Jim K i l l e e n reported: When contacts were arranged,bits of i n f o r m a t i o n were sent to them, i n c l u d i n g such m a t e r i a l as; e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t maps, school d i s t r i c t maps, sample copies of the two brochures, r e p r i n t s o f the four major ads used i n the media campaign, e l a b o r a t i o n o f our education p l a t f o r m statements, suggestions f o r h o l d i n g meetings of l o c a l candidates, questions t h a t could be asked o f l o c a l candidates, or posed at candidates' meetings, bumper s t i c k e r s , a r t i c l e s by CD. Ovans and J.A. Spragge on the education finance formula . . . A l l candidates (187) r e c e i v e d a personal l e t t e r from the president plus a k i t o f informa-t i o n and m a t e r i a l s . . . A l l T.V. and r a d i o s t a t i o n s and a l l B.C. newspapers (95) r e c e i v e d a k i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l a i n i n g the Federation's p o s i t i o n . An a e r i a l s i g n — t o w e d by an a i r p l a n e - -f l o a t e d above the P.N.E. parade.^ The t h r e e - d o l l a r l e v y was put to good use. The B.C.T.F. spent $39,000 on media a d v e r t i s i n g alone, i n the 1969 campaign. The l e v y was not an unusual or d i f f i c u l t asset to tap. At the 19 70 Annual General Meeting, when former B.C.T.F. President Bob Buzza attempted to increase the teachers' membership fees from $80 per year to $200 per year to provide money f o r m i l i t a n t a c t i o n regarding the teachers' pension p l a n , the motion was defeated, but the Annual General Meeting 9 decided that another l e v y could be used l a t e r . In February o f 1970, the B.C.T.F. President's allowance, was r a i s e d , and F i r s t Vice President became a p a i d p o s i t i o n w i t h f u l l time o f f from teaching d u t i e s . This enabled d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d repre-s e n t a t i v e s of the teaching p r o f e s s i o n to devote t h e i r energies f u l l -time to l e a d e r s h i p i n the Federation. More time was now a v a i l a b l e f o r 39 the c r e a t i o n and execution o f plans and p o l i c i e s on b e h a l f o f the teachers. In March, 1971, when the P u b l i c Schools Act was r e v i s e d to el i m i n a t e automatic membership i n the B.C.T.F., an i n f o r m a t i o n a l a r t i c l e was p r i n t e d i n the Newsletter. The purpose o f the a r t i c l e was to remind reachers o f the many s e r v i c e s provided by the B.C.T.F. I t was hoped that i n s p i t e o f the removal o f automatic membership, teachers would v o l u n t a r i l y remain i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The statements i n the a r t i c l e provided a good survey o f the many aids a v a i l a b l e to teachers, arid demonstrated the extensive range o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . For the purpose o f d e s c r i b i n g some o f the c a p a c i t i e s o f the B.C.T.F., pa r t o f the a r t i c l e i s i n c l u d e d here: DID YOU KNOW The B.C.T.F. i s the only teachers' o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the world t h a t o f f e r s a Lesson Aids s e r v i c e ; any B.C.T.F. member may borrow books, p e r i o d i c a l s , f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s , recordings and tapes from the B.C.T.F. Resources Center. The B.C.T.F. has a s s i s t e d thousands o f teachers i n l o c a -t i n g teaching p o s i t i o n s . The B.C.T.F. has s u c c e s s f u l l y opposed such proposals as one to shorten the Easter Vacation and one to i n s t i t u t e p r o v i n c i a l s a l a r y b a rgaining on terms t h a t would have been unfavourable to teachers. The B.C.T.F. o f f e r s grants to l o c a l asso-c i a t i o n s to enable them to send delegates to the Annual General Meeting and Summer Conference, so that a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s can be represented. The B.'C.T.F. Retirement Savings Plan o f f e r s B.C.T.F. members tax s h e l t e r e d savings. The B.C. Teacher i s r a t e d by o u t s i d e p u b l i s h e r s as the leader i n Canadian teachers' magazines. B.C.T.F. summer short courses o f f e r p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e 40 to teachers at a l l l e v e l s . The B.C.T.F. pays f o r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s the cost of s a l a r y a r b i t r a t i o n s over and above a sum equal to $10 a member o f the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The B.C. Teachers' C r e d i t Union o f f e r s savings p l a n s , personal loans, chequing accounts, safe deposit boxes, t r a v e l l e r s ' cheques, et c . The B.C.T.F. Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r s investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , mortgages, insurance, c h a r t e r f l i g h t s , e t c . Through grants to i s o l a t e d l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , the B.C.T.F. makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r teachers i n those areas to meet w i t h t h e i r colleagues on p r o f e s s i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters. The B.C.T.F. Benevolent Fund provides f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to teachers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n cases of emergency. Any B.C.T.F. member i s e n t i t l e d to f r e e l e g a l advice on any matter a r i s i n g from h i s p o s i t i o n as a teacher. The B.C.T.F. Teacher Award Fund provides cash awards to teachers f o r i n n o v a t i v e teaching p r a c t i c e s . There are 22 p r o v i n c i a l s p e c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n ' the B.C.T.F. through which teachers can pursue t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The B.C.T.F. provides a l l members each year w i t h a summary of the s a l a r i e s p a i d by a l l school d i s t r i c t s i n the^province. This year's summary w i l l be pu b l i s h e d i n the March is s u e of the B.C. Teacher. The B.C.T.F. i s promoting the develop-ment of c u r r i c u l a at the school d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The B.C.T.F. campaign on c l a s s s i z e s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d classes o f more than 40 students. The maximum c l a s s -room teacher's s a l a r y i n 1947, the year the B.C.T.F. gained automatic mambership was $4,400 a year. In 1971 the maximum c l a s s room teacher's s a l a r y i s $15,118. 1 1 An example of the B.C.T.F.'s growth i n ca p a c i t y was the increase i n the number of p o l i c y and procedure statements. For example, from 1953-1963, 34 p o l i c y statements and 35 procedure statements were made by the B.C.T.F. From 1964-1974, 215 p o l i c y statements and 210 12 procedure statements were made. Such statements are made by Annual General Meetings, meetings o f the Representative Assembly, and the 41 Executive, or a combination o f these. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a category not covered by the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p o l i c i e s and procedures. P o l i c y statements range from such seemingly obvious statements as 1.A.01 - "(a) A s u p e r v i s o r , to be e f f e c t i v e , must enjoy the confidence of those supervised." to such loaded statements as 37.01 - "That the B.C.T.F. go on record as being opposed to the c o n t i n u a t i o n of n u c l e a r weapons t e s t i n g ('62 A.G.M., P. 44 § Reviewed Nov. '73 Ex p 3) and "That the B.C.T.F. voice i t s o p p o s i t i o n to any f u r t h e r uranium mine s i t e developments i n B r i t i s h Columbia, u n t i l a j u d i c i a l i n q u i r y has been h e l d . " (Jan.'78 Representative Assembly). From the beginning o f the p e r i o d i n question u n t i l i t s end i n 1972, the B.C.T.F. progressed from an o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned with lobbying f o r the teachers, to a m i l i t a n t and h i g h l y organized, p a r t i -san f o r c e i n the p o l i t i c a l system i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The membership alone increased from 16,000 i n 1966 to over 22,000 i n 1972, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t that the government had taken away p r o v i s i o n s f o r automatic membership. An i n d i c a t i o n o f how important the f e d e r a t i o n was to most teachers was the f a c t t h a t when i t was no longer mandatory to belong to 14 the o r g a n i z a t i o n , only 69 teachers chose not to renew t h e i r memberships. The increase i n wealth was p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f the increase i n member-ship and p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f increases i n membership fees and the i n s t i t u t i o n of l e v i e s . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that the B.C.T.F. would not have become as large and as wealthy i f the government had been more 42 sympathetic to what the teachers saw as necessary i n the education system. When the government refused to comply w i t h the teachers' demands to lower p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o s , proceed w i t h planned school c o n s t r u c t i o n , increase r e t i r e d teachers' b e n e f i t s , change the finance formula and provide f o r f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , teachers were w i l l i n g to provide funds f o r p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t purposes. Increases i n membership fees allowed the budget o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n to double i n s i x years while the membership increased by only 33 percent. With i t s high degree of e x p e r t i s e , o r g a n i z a t i o n and resources i n terms o f money and the p o t e n t i a l to r a i s e money, the B.C.T.F. became a fo r c e to reckon w i t h i n the B.C. p o l i t i c a l system. When the resources o f the Federation were m o b i l i z e d f o r the purpose o f d e f e a t i n g the government, even an i n j u n c t i o n could not staunch the flow o f anti-government propaganda and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n mounted by the teachers under the leadership of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . 43 CHAPTER TWO - FOOTNOTES 1. " B u i l d i n g Grows w i t h Federation", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 6 No. 2, October 1966, p. 1. 2. "Federation Income Totals $914,059", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 6 No. 7, March 1967, p. 4. 3. "Budget", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletters, V o l . 9 No. 6, January 1970, p. 6; V o l . 10 No. 6, January 1971, p. 4; V o l . 11 No. 6, December 1971, p. 2. 4. "Annual General Meeting Delegates Okay Fund Fee Hike," B r i t i s h  Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 11, May 1971, p . l . i 5. "Did You Know?" B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2. 6. "Co-op Passes $25 M i l l i o n Mark," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 8, March 1970, p. 7. 7. "Education B i g Issue i n Upcoming Campaign'.', B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 8. 8. "The Campaign - How The Word Was Spread", B r i t i s h Columbia  Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 2. 9. "Fee Boost to $200 Defeated",' B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 10, A p r i l 1970, p. 1. 10. "President's Allowance Raised", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 7, February 1970, p. 1. 11. "Did You Know?" B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2. 12. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, pp. 9-10. 13. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, pp. 10 § 51. 14. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Teachers Versus S o c i a l C r e d i t , Vancouver, August 19 72, p. 9. 44 CHAPTER THREE A POWER STRUGGLE AND THE BIRTH OF T .P.A.C. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t there was an i n t e r n a l change i n the B.C.T.F. i n that i t became more wealthy and more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n the 1960's. There were al s o other i n t e r n a l changes during that p e r i o d . These were the r e s u l t of a power s t r u g g l e , and a v i c t o r y of the l e f t over the r i g h t i n 1972. In March, 1979, the author conducted i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s e v e r a l members o f the Executive Committee who had h e l d o f f i c e i n the B.C.T.F. during the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's. They claimed that there was a power s t r u g g l e between C.D., Ovans, who was the General Secretary from 1945-1973, and the Executive Committees. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , the Executive Committee had the power--according to By-Law no. 5.3, "Subject to by-laws 6, 8, 9 and 14, the Executive Committee s h a l l e x e r c i s e a l l the powers of the f e d e r a t i o n , the d i r e c t i o n and super-v i s i o n o f the business and the conduct o f the a f f a i r s of the f e d e r a t i o n . " However, the Executive Committees d i d not r e a l l y begin to e x e r c i s e that power u n t i l the mid-1960's, when se v e r a l strong presidents came i n t o power; these were J.H. Robertson (1966/67), Bob Buzza (1967/68), and subsequent p r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y Jim K i l l e e n (1969/70), who responded to a r e a l movement from the teachers themselves f o r a more p o l i t i c a l stance (according to an i n t e r v i e w w i t h present Pre s i d e n t A l Blakey) . General Secretary C D . Ovans had been against the 45 teachers t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . In some ways, he had become a r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on some o f the more m i l i t a n t members i n the Federation. But now, while r e t a i n i n g the p o s i t i o n o f General Secretary, he ceased to be the major spokesman f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n . He l o s t much of h i s i n f l u e n c e i n policy-making, and became s o r t o f a " r e s i d e n t philosopher". C D . Ovans had been q u i t e a r a d i c a l when he f i r s t j o i n e d the B.C.T.F. i n the 1930's. But he obtained the p o s i t i o n o f A s s i s t a n t General Secretary i n 1942 and th a t o f General Secretary i n 1945; and t h e r e a f t e r he became more i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r i n g the cause o f education i t s e l f , than i n any other c o n s i d e r a t i o n . He had very d e f i n i t e views on education, and some o f h i s ideas were i n n o v a t i v e to the p o i n t o f being r a d i c a l . When he r e t i r e d i n 1973, he s e t t l e d down to w r i t e a book about h i s views on education-- Behind the Looking Glass: Toward the Educating S o c i e t y . He had an intense i n t e r e s t i n b e t t e r i n g education, and he was an advocate o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , who f e l t that teachers should not take overt p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . He was 2 against teachers s t r i k i n g . There has long been a p h i l o s o p h i c a l argument among teachers; i t deals w i t h the idea o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m versus unionism. Some teachers b e l i e v e that teachers are p r o f e s s i o n a l s and as such, they should not stoop to the t a c t i c s of or d i n a r y union members. Others f e e l that t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s are true unions, and as such should have the betterment o f the l o t o f teachers as t h e i r 46 main o b j e c t i v e . Ovans was one who subscribed to the idea that the B.C.T.F. was a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . This d i d not mean t h a t he did not c r i t i c i z e the government and i t s p o l i c i e s ; he d i d so c o n s i s t e n t l y . But he stopped at the id e a o f mounting a p o l i t i c a l campaign against the S o c i a l C r e d i t government as such. That was taboo. Ovans had been the General Secretary f o r a long p e r i o d o f time, and w i t h h i s wealth o f experience, came the e x e r c i s e o f i n f l u e n c e . When he l o s t t h a t i n f l u e n c e , when the power s t r u g g l e was won by the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , he f e l t h i s f u n c t i o n i n the B.C.T.F. was v i r t u a l l y over, and he r e t i r e d i n 1973. In h i s book, he was q u i t e frank about the reasons: The t h i r d t u r n i n g p o i n t came i n 1968 when the B.C. Teachers' Federation i n annual convention i n c r e a t i n g a fund to make education an i s s u e i n the forthcoming p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n took the f i r s t step toward p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . Within three years the process was complete; power i n the o r g a n i -z a t i o n had been f i r m l y won and t i g h t l y h e l d by e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s who were p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . I do not c l a i m o r maintain t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n was wrong i n t h i s change i n d i r e c t i o n . The change was openly and f a i r l y made as a democratic expression of the w i l l o f the membership. For the f i r s t time i n my t h i r t y - y e a r career as the s e c r e t a r y , however, the " t r a j e c t o r y " o f my personal l i f e and that o f the l i f e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not c o i n c i d e . In my view a teachers' o r g a n i z a t i o n that professes a concern f o r education should use an ed u c a t i o n a l , not a p o l i t i c a l model i n pursuing i t s o b j e c t i v e s . The educational model f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s depends on persuasion; the p o l i t i c a l one that teachers were f a v o r i n g on coercion . . . I was not prepared to change my " l i f e p l a n " ; ^ there f o r e I took the easy way out i n e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t . 47 Jim K i l l e e n was a strong president who" h e l d o f f i c e from 1969-1971. During h i s term i n o f f i c e ( i n 1970) the s a l a r y of the President was increased, and the p o s i t i o n o f F i r s t Vice President was made f u l l time and p a i d . In 1969-19 70, Adam Robertson was F i r s t Vice P r e s i d e n t ; i n h i s younger days, he had been a member o f the Rural Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , which had t i e s w i t h the C.C.F. Party and organized l a b o r . In the background by t h i s time, were some r e a l r a d i c a l s , anxious to change the B.C.T.F. and a i d i n g and a b e t t i n g the " e l e c t e d " s i d e of the s t r u g g l e . With Ovans l o s i n g i n f l u e n c e , Jim MacFarlan, a s e l f -professed Communist and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t and h i s f r i e n d , Gary Onstad, o f t e n c a l l e d a "Marxist N.D.P.er", entered the f r a y . They were both members o f the Burnaby Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , which along with the Vancouver Elementary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r being l e f t - w i n g r a d i c a l and m i l i t a n t . In 1968, the year the Annual General Meeting was h e l d i n P e n t i c t o n , a group o f r a d i c a l delegates i n c l u d i n g MacFarlan met the evening before the meeting s t a r t e d and agreed t h a t the B.C.T.F. was not t a k i n g the p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i t should to f i g h t the education formula. The group managed to have the matter i n c l u d e d as Number One on the Agenda f o r the f o l l o w i n g day. As a r e s u l t o f the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n , a r e s o l u t i o n was made to l e v y $3.00 on the membership to be used l a t e r f o r y . - p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . In an i n t e r v i e w with the author, MacFarlan s a i d that he f e l t that the 1968 r e s o l u t i o n to l e v y $3.00 was very s i g n i f i c a n t , i n that i t gave teachers a c l e a r understanding that they had a r i g h t to take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Many o f those the author t a l k e d to a l s o mentioned 48 the 1968 Annual General Meeting with i t s $3.00 levy as a d e f i n i t e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . For the f i r s t time, the organiza-t i o n r e a l l y was determined to take concrete p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ; the le v y was something that everyone was o b l i g e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n . C.D. Ovans c a l l e d i t the " f i r s t step toward p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . " With the money from the le v y , the B.C.T.F. launched i t s Apple Campaign before the 1969 e l e c t i o n . One of the purposes o f the campaign was to get p u b l i c support f o r the r e p e a l i n g o f the finance formula. This purpose was not achieved, but the experience was, according to MacFarlan, "a huge step i n the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the membership." President Adam Robertson f e l t t hat subsequent actions taken by the government were i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the teachers' Apple Campaign. This was a view shared w i t h 1971 President J i m K i l l e e n and M.L.A. Bob Wenman. K i l l e e n wrote a f t e r the government's removal o f the B.C.T.F.'s automatic membership, "One of the main reasons f o r the government's d e s i r e to c l i p the Federation's wings, was the Federation's 'apple campaign' i n the 1969 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , a campaign designed to make education an i s s u e i n th a t e l e c t i o n , not to attack o r promote any 4 p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Bob Wenman s a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the author i n 1979, "There was an element o f r e t r i b u t i o n " i n the Socred's measures to remove the automatic membership, and the Apple Campaign had back-f i r e d on the teachers. He added that i t was popular at th a t time to "break the backs o f unions." 49 MacFarlan f e l t t hat the government f a c i l i t a t e d the p o l i t i c i -z a t i o n o f the membership by f a i l i n g to provide an adequate pension p l a n f o r the r e t i r e d teachers. Adam Robertson, President i n 1972, claimed that the pension returns f o r the r e t i r e d were the worst i n the country at the time; B.C. was number 10 province as f a r as teachers' pensions were concerned. I t was on March 19, 1971 t h a t teachers a l l over the province went out on one-day s t r i k e ; but while MacFarlan c a l l e d t h i s event the "second nodal p o i n t i n the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the B.C.T.F.," Gary Onstad f e l t t h a t the one-day s t r i k e was a compromise fo r the r a d i c a l s . He s a i d t h a t , i n order to get the teachers to go along w i t h the s t r i k e , a l o t o f hard backroom work had to be done, convincing the teachers that i t was the r i g h t t h i n g to do. However, when they d i d become convinced, Onstad s a i d , i t turned out to be the most important event i n the process o f the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the teachers. They f e l t t hat they were doing something s e l f l e s s - - t h e y were s t r i k i n g f o r t h e i r r e t i r e d c olleagues, and they saw that i t was r e a l l y p o s s i b l e to get together and take c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . A f t e r t h a t , s a i d Onstad, i t was much e a s i e r to get the teachers to p a r t i c i p a t e i n m i l i t a n t a c t i o n s . In an i n t e r v i e w i n 1979, Adam Robertson s a i d that the one-day s t r i k e embarrassed Premier Bennett, because u n t i l then, the Premier had always had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r t a k i n g good care o f o l d s t e r s . Robertson f e l t t h a t l a t e r measures taken by the government against the B.C.T.F. were p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s s t r i k e , and Bennett's 50 r e a c t i o n to i t . MacFarlan f e l t t h a t the s t r i k e was "99% s u c c e s s f u l " and t h a t i t s impact was to r a d i c a l i z e the a s s o c i a t i o n permanently. He claimed that the two e v e n t s — t h e passage o f the $3.00 levy i n 1968 and the s t r i k e i n 1971, were e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n s to what happened i n 1972. A l l these opinions were given to the author i n i n t e r v i e w s i n March, 19 79. Another s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n taken by the teachers was the passing (at the urging o f the Executive Committee) o f the one-day levy at the Annual General Meeting of 1972, when the " u n i t y " c o a l i t i o n was i n a c t i o n . In 1970, MacFarlan was e l e c t e d a Member-at-Large. In 1971, he and Gary Onstad ran f o r o f f i c e . Instead of submitting autobio-graphies to the B.C.T.F. Newsletter as the other candidates d i d , they submitted p o l i t i c a l statements. The e d i t o r refused to p u b l i s h them, so MacFarlan and Onstad had t h e i r statements p r i n t e d at t h e i r own expense and d i s t r i b u t e d them to about 1,000 members each. They were both e l e c t e d ; Onstad as a Member-at-Large, and MacFarlan as F i r s t V ice President. MacFarlan t o l d the author that there were two " l e f t i s t s " i n the Executive Committee then--he and Onstad; that t h a t there were also two " l i b e r a l l e f t i s t s " , two " r i g h t wingers" and two i n the middle; the r e s t were " f l o a t e r s . " " ' MacFarlan and Onstad undertook to develop r a d i c a l i s m i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . There ensued a s t r u g g l e over what to do about the measures being taken by the government; the s t r u g g l e f i n a l l y culminated i n the d e c i s i o n to recommend to the 51 1972 Annual General Meeting a levy o f one day's pay as a c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r the purpose o f t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n against the Socreds. In 1972, Macfarlan was e n t i t l e d to run f o r P r e s i d e n t , but, knowing t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was pending, he decided that i t would be b e t t e r i f he d i d not run, but i n s t e a d formed a " u n i t y " c o a l i t i o n and supported Adam Robertson i n another term as Pr e s i d e n t . MacFarlan s a i d that i f he had run f o r Pr e s i d e n t , i t would have p o l a r i z e d the membership, and they might not have been so co-operative i n the impending a n t i - S o c r e d campaign. MacFarlan t r i e d to get Frank Roemer (Second Vice President) not to run e i t h e r . He wanted the whole Executive Committee to u n i t e and stand behind the c o l l e c t i o n o f the one-day levy f o r the purpose o f d e f e a t i n g the Socred government. Roemer ran and l o s t , but the " c o a l i t i o n " managed to get the Representative Assembly and the delegates at the 1972 Annual General Meeting to pass the one-day levy f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . I t was passed by a vote o f 495-84. 6 C o l l e c t i n g the one-day levy n e t t e d the B.C.T.F. almost one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Two Socred members of the B.C.T.F., Barker and Hale from V i c t o r i a , sought and obtained an i n j u n c t i o n on June 30, 1972. The i n j u n c t i o n , i s s u e d i n the Supreme Court, r e s t r a i n e d the B.C.T.F. from c o l l e c t i n g the r e s t o f the levy and prevented the a s s o c i a t i o n from u s i n g any o f the funds already c o l l e c t e d . By t h a t time, however, the B.C.T.F. had put $10,000 i n t o o p p o s i t i o n education c r i t i c E i l e e n D a i l l y ' s e l e c t i o n campaign.•• Some 52 other money had already been spent, but the r e s t was f r o z e n . This meant that the preparations the B.C.T.F. had made f o r the e l e c t i o n campaign at the end of August could not be c a r r i e d out. The Executive met and t r i e d to decide what to do. Since they weren't allowed to take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n the name o f the B.C..T.F., they l e f t the B.C.T.F. b u i l d i n g , rented a room i n the Rembrandt H o t e l , and formed the Teachers' P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n Committee, o r T.P.A.C., as i t became known. They i n c o r p o r a t e d the Committee under the S o c i e t i e s ' Act. They c o l l e c t e d money f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n from teachers and other i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s . W ithin a week they.had $85,000. $25,000 o f that amount was used f o r r a d i o ads, o v e r t l y against the Socred government and advocating i t s defeat. The r e s t of the money was spent mostly to sponsor candidates who were running against the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. In most c o n s t i t u e n c i e s they sponsored N.D.P. candidates, but the idea was to sponsor the candidate most l i k e l y to defeat the Socred candidate. T h i r t y - t h r e e o f the t h i r t y - s i x s u c c e s s f u l N.D.P. candidates i n the 1972 e l e c t i o n had been sponsored by T.P.A.C. Some L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g P a t r i c k McGeer and Garde Gardom, were also sponsored. Money was a l s o sent by T.P.A.C. to Conservative Leader Scott Wallace f o r h i s campaign, but he sent i t back, saying t h a t he didn't want the support o f any p a r t i c u l a r group. The amounts given t o candidates were q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l , w i t h some r e c e i v i n g up 7 to $4,000. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the impact o f the support o f T.P.A.C. on candidates r e c e i v i n g money, no doubt the N.D.P. 53 candidates at l e a s t b e n e f i t e d , because that p a r t y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y short o f money f o r campaign purposes. MacFarlan claimed i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the author that at l e a s t 6 of the candidates got i n t o power e n t i r e l y because of the teachers. He f e l t that the new N.D.P. government had a "huge debt" to pay the teachers f o r t h e i r support during the campaign. Besides p r o v i d i n g support f o r candidates, T.P.A.C. formed a l l i a n c e s w i t h some trade unions. The H o s p i t a l Employees' Union donated i t s o f f i c e s to T.P.A.C. f o r use as a m a i l i n g headquarters. T.P.A.C. provided a leadership r o l e i n the e l e c t i o n campaign, h e l p i n g other trade unions to take c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n against the government by g i v i n g advice, p r o v i d i n g examples o f ads, e t c . Some patterned t h e i r campaigns on t h a t o f T.P.A.C. The Chairman o f T.P.A.C. was Gary Onstad, and the co-chairman was B i l l Broadley, a L i b e r a l . This was done d e l i b e r a t e l y , so that T.P.A.C. wouldn't look l i k e an N.D.P. o r g a n i z a t i o n , Gary Onstad t o l d the author. T.P.A.C. was very w e l l organized and took over the p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committees which had been s t a r t e d by the B.C.T.F. as p a r t o f i t s p o l i t i c a l campaign i n connection with the one-day le v y . There was a network o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committees throughout the province, and i n s p i t e o f the f a c t that the e l e c t i o n campaign was i n the summer when teachers were o f f on h o l i d a y s , ( i t was c a l l e d on J u l y 24 f o r August 30), i t was l a t e r estimated by those i n v o l v e d t h a t 3,500 teachers took p a r t i n the campaign to defeat the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. 54 They volunteered t h e i r help i n N.D.P. constituency o f f i c e s , campaigned from door to door, gave out p o l i t i c a l campaign m a t e r i a l , and i n some co n s t i t u e n c i e s d i d more to support N.D.P. candidates than the pa r t y workers themselves. Gary Onstad b e l i e v e d that the N.D.P. party members were by and large not o p t i m i s t i c about winning the e l e c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e d i d not work as hard at i t as they could have. F i r s t V ice President Jim MacFarlan co-ordinated the a c t i v i t i e s of the p o l i -t i c a l a c t i o n committees, and c o n s o l i d a t e d a network o f " l e f t " people. The whole t h i n g was a grass roots movement; i n the words of Gary Onstad, " b e a u t i f u l . " A l Blakey, from the m i l i t a n t Vancouver Elementary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , ran the T.P.A.C. o f f i c e and Gary Onstad d i d the p o l i t i c a l speech-making, t a l k e d at and organized p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s , a l l - c a n d i d a t e s meetings, e t c . The group took p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s , and i f they found out that Premier Bennett was unpopular i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, they would c a p i t a l i z e on th a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r campaign. Several groups who a l l i e d themselves w i t h T.P.A.C. were the Pensioners For A c t i o n Now Committee, and the newly-formed Unemployed Teachers' Federation; they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the campaign and g Gary Onstad was the l i a i s o n to them. In an a r t i c l e i n This Magazine i s About Schools p u b l i s h e d i n the f a l l o f 1972 a f t e r the defeat o f the Socreds, i t was reported, On the whole T.P.A.C. was q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n c a r r y i n g out the e l e c t i o n plans made by the B.C.T.F. They spent $25,000 on an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign on r a d i o and gave f i n a n c i a l support to 55 36 candidates. They had to use volunteers r a t h e r than p a i d s t a f f , but t h i s may not n e c e s s a r i l y have been a bad t h i n g . I t could w e l l be th a t more teachers became p o l i t i c i z e d , knowing that the campaign depended on t h e i r v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s , r a t h e r than on a masterplan d i r e c t e d and financed by the Federation.9 By l o o k i n g a t the prime movers i n the T.P.A.C. o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t can be seen that the r a d i c a l s were p r e v a l e n t . MacFarlan never made a se c r e t o f h i s a f f i l i a t i o n s ; i n h i s f a r e w e l l speech as President i n 1975, he addressed the Annual General Meeting, saying, During those f o u r years some of my p o l i t i c a l opponents both w i t h i n and without the Federation have c a l l e d me a m i l i t a n t , a s o c i a l i s t , a marxist, a r a d i c a l . W e l l , although those terms were used by f r i g h t e n e d people, I have never attempted to deny those a l l e g a t i o n s because they are a l l t r u e . I am proud o f the f a c t t h a t some of the most conservative and r e a c t i o n a r y elements among our colleagues have chosen to c r i t i c i z e me on t h i s basis.10 Gary Onstad, who mentioned i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t many c a l l e d him a "marxist N.D.P.er", was Chairman o f T.P.A.C. A l Blakey, o f the m i l i t a n t Vancouver Elementary Schools A s s o c i a t i o n , was i n charge o f the o f f i c e o f T.P.A.C. (he was l a t e r to become President o f the B.C.T.F. i n 1979). Blakey was head o f the Vancouver group when i t was awarded the f i r s t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s contract given out i n a B.C. school d i s t r i c t . I t had been a b i g b a t t l e f o r the B.C.T.F. to get teachers to demand good l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , such as s m a l l e r c l a s s e s . I t was Vancouver and Burnaby, the two most r a d i c a l teachers' o r g a n i -zations i n the province, that got the f i r s t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s 56 c o n t r a c t s . I n an i n t e r v i e w i n 1979, Gary Onstad s a i d t h a t making the teachers aware that they should be working f o r good l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s was e s s e n t i a l to the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f the teachers, and that i t had been a s t r u g g l e , because teachers tended to be martyrs and put up w i t h whatever was given them, without doing anything about i t . In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Jim MacFarlan i n 1979, he t o l d the author i t would be a mistake to assume that i t was p u r e l y the a c t i o n s o f the government that brought about the m i l i t a n c y and r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the members of the B.C.T.F. He s a i d that there had been a long h i s t o r y - o f l e f t i s t a c t i v i t y i n the B.C.T.F., j u s t as there i s i n the h i s t o r y of B.C. i t s e l f . The B.C.T.F. was the f i r s t teachers' o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada to s t r i k e , and i n the e a r l y 1930's there were many r a d i c a l s and l e f t i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Rural Teachers' Or g a n i z a t i o n , who were experiencing bad co n d i t i o n s and lower pay than t h e i r urban contemporaries. Ovans h i m s e l f was one of those r a d i c a l s . MacFarlan s a i d that there were r a d i c a l members i n the 1940's as w e l l , who were a c t i v e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and took l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s . Two of these.were John Sutherland and John P r i o r - - t h e y l a t e r became Presidents o f the Canadian Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n . There were some very b i t t e r s t r u g g l e s i n the 1930's, and these spawned m i l i t a n t l e f t i s t a c t i o n that was to continue i n the B.C.T.F. i n t o the 1940's. Then there was a dying down of r a d i c a l i s m 57 i n the B.C.T.F. i n the 1950's w i t h the McCarthy era, but i n the e a r l y 1960's i t began to come back. For example, i n 1961 a group o f members of the B.C.T.F. got together and p a i d f o r an ad i n the news-paper p r o t e s t i n g nuclear weapons. L a t e r i n the 1960's r a d i c a l s and l e f t i s t s took p o s i t i o n s on the Executive Committee, and continued to t r y to r a d i c a l i z e the Federation membership. MacFarlan s a i d that many of the l e f t i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n who were t a k i n g p o s i t i o n s of leadership came out o f f a m i l i e s w i t h a long experience i n the trade union movement, the C.C.F. Party or the Communist Party. He f e l t t h a t the l e f t i s t tendencies were a continuum--that the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the B.C.T.F. was not a phenomenon a s s o c i a t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h the act i o n s of the S o c i a l C r e d i t government, but a t r a d i t i o n i n the B.C.T.F. that 12 was "dormant but not dead." On e l e c t i o n n i g h t i n 1972 when the Socreds were defeated by the N.D.P. Par t y , a r e p o r t e r present at B.C.T.F. headquarters wrote, Many of the o l d e r teachers present are v i s i b l y moved by the N.D.P. v i c t o r y . In t a l k i n g to them I d i s c o v e r that many o f them had been a c t i v e i n the founding o f the C.C.F. pa r t y f o r t y years ago, which was a forerunner to the N.D.P. They had a l s o been members o f the r a d i c a l teachers' caucus i n the B.C.T.F. i n the ' t h i r t i e s ' and ' f o r t i e s ' , which had forged c l o s e r t i e s w i t h teachers and organized labor.13 MacFarlan f e l t that the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n which manifested i t s e l f i n the B.C.T.F.iin the 1960's and e a r l y 1970's caused a profound change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; i t became more m i l i t a n t , more p o l i t i c i z e d , and now (1979) manifested a s o c i a l conscience. A very a c t i v e status of 58 women o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n s t i t u t e d w i t h a f u l l - t i m e p a i d s t a f f member, and the women's group was r a d i c a l and w i l l i n g to take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The a n t i r a c i s m program i n the B.C.T.F. a l s o had i t s roots i n the p e r i o d under question. MacFarlan f e l t that the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n helped to make teachers more aware o f s o c i a l issues and gave them the idea 14 that they could do something about them. Another change th a t came about i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , was t h a t the " u n i t y c o a l i t i o n " formed before the 1972 e l e c t i o n soon f e l l apart a f t e r the N.D.P. got i n t o power. They had a f a l l i n g out over t a c t i c s , w i t h Adam Robertson wanting to leave the new government alone, but MacFarlan demanding h i s pound o f f l e s h . In s p i t e o f the f a c t that Robertson attacked MacFarlan p u b l i c l y i n the next executive e l e c t i o n campaign,MacFarlan won the Presidency i n 1973."^ MacFarlan f e l t t h a t the change i n the B.C.T.F. came about as a "complex d i a l e c t i c o f a combination o f e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , growing m i l i t a n c y on the p a r t of the teachers, and the i n f l u e n c e of r a d i c a l members who were long-standing r a d i c a l s and d i d not j u s t become that way because o f what the government d i d i n the way of education p o l i c y . " He s a i d t h a t now (1979) there i s a l a r g e , mass-based l e f t caucus i n the B.C.T.F. th a t plays a b i g r o l e and has a powerful v o i c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t c o l l e c t s fees of $10 ( a c t u a l l y a donation) from i t s members, and publishes a f o r t n i g h t l y n e w s l e t t e r c a l l e d "Teacher Viewpoint" which i s c r i t i c a l o f the r e s t o f the B.C.T.F. MacFarlan claimed that the r a d i c a l wing o f the f e d e r a t i o n i s a c o a l i t i o n o f 59 l i b e r a l humanists and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ; not the usual trade union m i l i t a n c y , but i n f a c t , more r a d i c a l . The r a d i c a l s i n the B.C.T.F. i n f l u e n c e d the Executive and the membership to take p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . They were behind g e t t i n g the membership to pass the $3.00 levy i n 1968 f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , they were instrumental i n i n t r o d u c i n g the one-day s a l a r y l e v y f o r p o l i t i c a l campaigning, they formed a c o a l i t i o n f o r the sake o f u n i t y against the Socreds, and they organized T.P.A.C. f o r the f i n a l rout o f the government. However, i n s p i t e o f the l e f t i s t i n f l u e n c e s w i t h i n the Federation, present President A l Blakey when in t e r v i e w e d i n March, 1979, d i d not f e e l that the B.C.T.F. was as . r a d i c a l as most unions i n B.C. The r a d i c a l s d i d win out i n 1972, but he claimed that now the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p o l a r i z e d , w i t h f l u c t u a t i o n s i n control--sometimes the r a d i c a l s win out, and. sometimes the conservatives do. However, he d i d say that the whole spectrum of views i n the B.C.T.F. has s h i f t e d to a more r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y speaking. I t seems apparent that the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the B.C.T.F. won a power s t r u g g l e w i t h the General Secretary. This l e d to the f u r t h e r s t r u g g l e between the r i g h t and the l e f t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , with the l e f t winning out i n 1972 before the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The d e c i s i o n of the Executive to give up i t s non-partisan stance and advocate the defeat of the Socreds was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r a s t r u g g l e between the m i l i t a n t s and the moderates within-".the Executive Committee. 60 CHAPTER THREE - FOOTNOTES 1. B.C. Teachers' Federation, Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79. p. 5 . 2. " R a l l y f o r Teachers", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 5, December 1969, p. 1. 3. C. Ovans, Behind the Looking Glass: Toward the Educating S o c i e t y , Vancouver, Evergreen Press L i m i t e d , 1978, p. 11. 4. "Gov't Moves to Destroy B.C.T.F.", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n ; - March 1971, p. 2. 5. J . MacFarlan, i n t e r v i e w w i t h w r i t e r , March, 1979. 6. S. Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l " , This Magazine Is About  Schools, V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, p. 18. 7. G. Onstad, i n t e r v i e w with the w r i t e r , March, 1979. 8. G. Onstad and J . MacFarlan, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w r i t e r , March 1979. 9. S. Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l " , This Magazine Is About  Schools, V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, p. 20. 10. B.C. Teachers' Federation, "Report o f the President to the 1975 Annual General Meeting", Vancouver, 27 March 1975, p. 13. 11. G. Onstad, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , March, 1979. 12. J . MacFarlan, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , March, 1979. 13. S. Repo, op. c i t . , p. 10. 14. J . MacFarlan, i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , March 1979. 15. Loc. c i t . 16. Loc. c i t . 61 CHAPTER FOUR THE EFFECT OF SOCIETAL TRENDS ON THE B.C.T.F. While the power s t r u g g l e and the democratization of the B.C.T.F. played a part i n i n f l u e n c i n g the Federation to become more r a d i c a l and p a r t i s a n , s o c i e t a l trends seemed a l s o to a f f e c t the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's were times of r a p i d change. This was the era of the h i p p i e s , the anti-Vietnam War p r o t e s t , the student r a d i c a l i z a t i o n , and the r e j e c t i o n of o l d ways of doing t h i n g s , even i n the f i e l d of education. The o l d concepts of r i g i d examinations, r o t e l e a r n i n g , and b a s i c s u b j e c t s , was being r e j e c t e d f o r a new "do-your-own-thing" philosophy. Teachers were not immune to these s h i f t s . They too questioned o l d values; they too changed t h e i r ideas about th i n g s and dared to become more m i l i t a n t . Charles A. Reich, w r i t i n g i n h i s popular book The Greening of America (1970) , described i t as an important r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d : But i f we t h i n k of a l l that i s now challenged--the nature of education, the very v a l i d i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m and the l e g a l system, the nature and purpose of work, the course of man's d e a l i n g wit h environment, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l f to technology and society--we can see that the present transformation goes beyond anything i n modern h i s t o r y . Beside i t , a mere r e v o l u t i o n , such as the French or the Russian, seems ^ i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l - - a s h i f t i n the base of power . . . While changes were going on a l l around, and i n s p i t e of t h i s f o r c e f u l trend f o r new ideas that was prevalent a l l over North America 62 Socred p o l i t i c i a n s seemed to remain i n the same o l d mold. How could the teachers support Socred M.L.A. Don Campbell, who was reported on March 2, 1972, i n the Vancouver Province to have s a i d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , "The man i n the s t r e e t i s f e d up w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l people i n the school s y s t e m - - a l l those t i p p y - t a p people running about planning music and a r t and a l l t hat baloney"? C l e a r l y , the S o c i a l C r e d i t government, while f o l l o w i n g what i t saw as the taxpayers' concern w i t h the increase i n the cost of education, f a i l e d to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n other, e q u a l l y important trends i n s o c i e t y . I f ever there was a c u l t o f youth, now was the time--a new consciousness was developing, thought Charles Reich: one that was young, enlightened, s u r e l y more humanitarian than the o l d consciousness: For t h i s same reason, more and more of the o l d e r generation w i l l change a l l e g i a n c e from the forces of r e p r e s s i o n to the forces of change. Every new consciousness person becomes an e v a n g e l i s t seeking new converts. Many young people have already succeeded i n converting one or both of t h e i r parents or o l d e r brothers and s i s t e r s , and a growing number o f o l d e r people have 2 experienced a change of consciousness on t h e i r own. While t h i s "new consciousness" seemed to be sweeping the North American c o n t i n e n t , Bennett's government continued with the o l d way of doing t h i n g s . The forces of change d i d not seem to be p e n e t r a t i n g the cabinet; Bennett h i m s e l f s t i l l f e l t he knew what was best f o r the people of B.C. For example, when a campaign was h e l d i n Kelowna (the Premier's own r i d i n g ) to p r o t e s t overcrowing i n the schools and the 63 subsequent i n s t i t u t i o n of s h i f t s , Bennett claimed that "the school s i t u a t i o n i n and around Kelowna was not serious at a l l " and blamed the school board f o r f a i l i n g to convery governmental p o l i c y to the people. When questioned about the e f f e c t s of s h i f t s on f a m i l y l i f e , Premier Bennett s a i d that people w i l l j u s t "have to l e a r n to adapt to 3 s h i f t i n g . " There were s e v e r a l groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the campaign f o r more school c o n s t r u c t i o n i n School D i s t r i c t No. 23 at the time; the c i t y c o u n c i l , the school board, P.T.A. groups, Kelowna's Chamber of Commerce, and the C i t i z e n s ' A c t i o n f o r Education Committee. That the p u b l i c was behind the need f o r an increase i n school spending i s evidenced by the f a c t that a few days a f t e r the Premier's v i s i t to them, a c a p i t a l referendum f o r schools was passed w i t h an 81% m a j o r i t y i n D i s t r i c t 23. Four out of the d i s t r i c t ' s s i x secondary schools were to be on s h i f t that f a l l (1970), and a new secondary school was being b u i l t without a gymnasium. Bennett's hard l i n e on school spending and h i s apparent paternalism i n the matter of p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n due to those p o l i c i e s , i n d i c a t e d that he was out of tune with the times; the o l d w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d t i e s t o the grass roots which were so important to the Socreds during t h e i r r i s e to power and t h e i r long tenure i n that p o s i t i o n , seemed to be breaking down. Those groups i n Kelowna who lobbied Bennett were not the only d i s a f f e c t e d groups i n B.C. By 1972 a l l p u b l i c s e c t o r employees seemed determined to get a b e t t e r deal f o r themselves. The government, r a t h e r than g i v i n g i n a l i t t l e , a s s u m e d a combative stance, j u s t as i t had done 64 with the teachers. When the doctors asked f o r permission to r a i s e fees on t h e i r fee guide, the government had t h e i r gross s a l a r i e s before expenses published i n the newspapers. This gave the p u b l i c the idea that the doctors were rapacious i n t h e i r demands; and i t a l i e n a t e d the doctors from the government and much of the p u b l i c . A hard l i n e on s a l a r y increases f o r other sectors of p u b l i c employees and the i n t r o -duction of B i l l 3 i n 1972 brought together most o f the groups who f e l t l e t down by the Socred government. The C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining Defence Committee, made up of members of the B.C.T.F., the B.C. Government Employees' Union, the Canadian Union of P u b l i c Employees, the H o s p i t a l Employees' Union, the P s y c h i a t r i c Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C., and the College F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n , provided a r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r other trade union members as w e l l , and served to b r i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the p u b l i c to t h e i r demands and t h e i r impatience with the o l d Socred government. The r a l l y i n the P.N.E. Garden Auditorium on March 9, 1972, with i t s 3,500 i n attendance and the pledge of 155,000 members of the B.C. Federation of Labor to support the teachers i n t h e i r f i g h t , should have been a warning to the Socred a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that they had l o s t touch w i t h a dangerously large s e c t i o n of the p u b l i c . Instead, B i l l 3 was 4 passed a few weeks a f t e r the R a l l y , on March 27. The S o c i a l C r e d i t government, a f t e r having served the province X f o r 20 years, r e t a i n e d many of the same personnel who had been with the o r i g i n a l group i n the 1950's. In 1972, out of 17 cabinet m i n i s t e r s , 65 5 had been w i t h the o r i g i n a l Socred government when i t a t t a i n e d power i n 1952, and 3 more had j o i n e d i n 1953; the average length of cabinet experience was 15 years, and the average age of the cabinet m i n i s t e r s was 55. Bennett h i m s e l f , while c l a i m i n g to be ten years younger than h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age because he n e i t h e r smoked nor drank, at 72 was v i s i b l y beginning to age. Many p r e d i c t e d that he would soon have to step down as leader of the Socreds, and some feared that P h i l G a g l a r d i , c o l o r f u l renegade, would be the next leader. This f e a r d i d much to shake the confidence of the p u b l i c i n the o l d Socred a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For a s o c i e t y t r y i n g to "look young" the Socred cabinet, with i t s youngest member Pat Jordan at 41, and i t s o l d e s t W i l l i a m Chant at 77, seemed out of step. The Socreds were beginning to look o l d and t i r e d . I t seemed to be time f o r a change. B.C. was not the only province to sweep out an o l d government and vote i n a new one. Within the space of 3 years, v i r t u a l l y every Western province changed i t s government. In Manitoba i n 1969, the Con-s e r v a t i v e s were voted out a f t e r 11 years and the province's f i r s t N.D.P. government took o f f i c e . In Saskatchewan, i n 1971 the 7-year L i b e r a l government was voted out i n favor of the N.D.P. In A l b e r t a , the Socreds l o s t t h e i r 36-year g r i p on the e l e c t o r a t e and a Conservative government was voted i n t o power i n 1971. B.C. was the l a s t i n the West to t r y a new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i t h the r e j e c t i o n of the Socreds and the espousal of the dreaded S o c i a l i s t s i n 1972. 66 While the Socred government i n B.C. i n the e a r l y 1970's seemed unable to appreciate the importance of the "new consciousness" as Reich described i t , i t d i d become very s e n s i t i v e to what i t perceived to be the beginning of a r e v o l t of taxpayers against the e s c a l a t i n g costs of education. Donald Brothers, speaking on the n e f a r i o u s B i l l 3, began h i s speech thus: The 7th Annual Report of the Economic Council of Canada says: " I f the costs of education and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s continue t o r i s e at the r a t e they have f o r the l a s t f i v e years (nine percent per year r e a l growth, not counting i n f l a t i o n ) they threaten to absorb the whole of the gross n a t i o n a l product by the end of the century. . . ."5 Using t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and making i t sound l e g i t i m a t e w i t h the quote from the Economic Co u n c i l of Canada, Brothers p r e d i c t e d that the budget f o r education, h e a l t h and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s at an increase of 15% per year, would before 1980, surpass the t o t a l budget.^ He s a i d , "In s h o r t , i f present cost increases are allowed to continue, there w i l l be no funds l e f t f o r a l l the other P r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s . This i s the same warning f o r B r i t i s h Columbia that was given to Canada by the Economic Co u n c i l of Canada." There was a trend at t h i s time f o r governments a l l across Canada and the United States t o re-examine school costs and t o attempt t o c o n t r o l them. The 1960's had been a time of expansion i n school c o s t s , l a r g e l y at the post-secondary l e v e l as j u n i o r c o l l e g e s were b u i l t and u n i v e r s i t i e s expanded t o take care of the s p i r a l l i n g enrollment. 67 For example, i n 1950, the t o t a l number of u n i v e r s i t y students i n Canada was 68,306. By 1958, the number had increased to 94,994; but by 1964, the number was 178,238. A study done by Dr. E.F. S h e f f i e l d f o r the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s p r o j e c t e d an even greater increase i n the years from 1965 - 1970-71 of from 178-,238 to 340,400. 7 By 1974-1975, he expected the enrollment t o be 461,000. Even at these f a n t a s t i c r a t e s of i n c r e a s e , he underestimated, because a c t u a l g enrollment i n 1969-70 was 474,418. Governments were having d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g education spending, and the dialogue between teachers and governments became very f o r c e f u l as governments t r i e d to impose c e i l i n g s on school board budgets. In h i s speech i n the L e g i s l a t u r e over B i l l 3 i n March, 1972, Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers mentioned cutbacks elsewhere: "Other provinces i n Canada have al s o taken steps to r e s t r a i n the r a t e at which t h e i r teachers' s a l a r i e s are allowed to increase each year. Nova S c o t i a has a 5 percent c e i l i n g on teachers' pay i n c r e a s e s , while A l b e r t a has a 6.6 percent g u i d e l i n e . Recently I have been advised that the Province of Quebec has a l s o f i x e d a 5 percent 9 c e i l i n g on teachers' s a l a r i e s f o r t h i s year." So while the Socreds may have been out of tune w i t h the times i n other matters, they were more than w i l l i n g to i n s t i t u t e budget r e s t r a i n t s they observed elsewhere! While these l i m i t s were being placed on education spending and teachers' s a l a r i e s , the teachers nowhere took the circumstances l y i n g down. In This Magazine i s about Schools ( F a l l 1972) i t was r e p o r t e d , 68 1972 has been a year of c o n f r o n t a t i o n between teachers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments across the n a t i o n . In Nova S c o t i a , teachers have h e l d demonstrations, walkouts, work-to-rule campaigns and a s t r i k e vote i n t h e i r f i g h t w i t h Finance and Education M i n i s t e r Peter Nicholson over a 5 per-cent wage-increase c e i l i n g . . . . In Quebec, teachers j o i n e d workers' unions i n n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the government on common demands, and t h e i r leaders went to j a i l w i t h C.N.T.U. and Q.F.L. lead e r s . . . . . . In Toronto and near-by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the proposed cuts i n the education budget brought a storm of p r o t e s t from teachers. A f t e r a number of r a l l i e s , demonstrations and work stoppages, the p r o v i n c i a l government backed down s u f f i c i e n t l y to cool out the s i t u a t i o n . Both i n Saskatchewan and Newfoundland hundreds of teachers campaign a c t i v e l y to defeat governments notorious f o r t h e i r a n t i - e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s . ^ The teachers i n Quebec were p a r t i c u l a r l y m i l i t a n t and, i n 1971 j o i n e d w i t h other unions i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r to present a common f r o n t . The Quebec Teachers' Union (C.E.Q.) had become r a d i c a l i z e d ; i n an a r t i c l e about the growth o f the C.E.Q., i t was s a i d , "Barely three years ago the i d e a of a common f r o n t i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e would have been a joke to the m a j o r i t y of teachers. Today, i t i s a f a i t accompli. In i t s e l f , such a common f r o n t has the i n i t i a l advantage o f b r i n g i n g teachers much c l o s e r to a l l Quebec u n i o n i s t s . And f o r many, i t w i l l l o g i c a l l y open the way, some time i n the f u t u r e , f o r one f u r t h e r n e c e s s i t y ; the establishment of a new socio-economic system, where the possessing c l a s s w i l l cease to dominate everything, i n c l u d i n g the government."^ Yvon Charbonneau, who was p r e s i d e n t of the C.E.Q. i n 1970 and 1971, had been an i n f l u e n c e on Jim MacFarlan, according to 69 MacFarlan h i m s e l f . Given the cutbacks on education spending i n the r e s t of Canada and the m i l i t a n t responses o f the teachers i n v o l v e d , the acti o n s o f the B.C. Teachers' Federation can be viewed as r i g h t i n step with the times; the r e v o l u t i o n a r y times, the end of teacher apathy and the beginning o f teacher m i l i t a n c y . In 1971, the C.E.Q. developed a "White Paper", discussed i t at i t s 25th Anniversary, and, with only an amendment to i t s major recommendation, adopted i t s other s i x recommendations. The major recommendation was, "The C.E.Q. takes as i t s p r i n c i p l e and as i t s general l i n e o f a c t i o n , that i t s organi-z a t i o n as a union--the s t r u g g l e s i t pursues and the i n t e r e s t s i t defends--to be placed a t the centre of the workers' movement, whose goal i s a profound transformation o f the present economic, s o c i a l and 12 p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , (of s o c i e t y s i c ) " This i s ' s i m i l a r i n tune to MacFarlan's pronouncements i n h i s r e t i r i n g speech to the B.C.T.F. i n 1975--"I b e l i e v e our Federation i s now permanently and u n a l t e r a b l y committed to the idea that we have a c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This means we are o b l i g e d to become i n v o l v e d i n the p o l i t i c a l processes i n our s o c i e t y . . . . Our Federation can become, and i n f a c t , has 13 become an agency f o r s o c i a l change." The whole idea o f a change i n the socio-economic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and perhaps l e d by m i l i t a n t teachers, had become acceptable to r a d i c a l teachers' groups i n the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's. 70 The r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the B.C.T.F. was p a r t of a trend being experienced across Canada. The que s t i o n i n g and r e j e c t i o n o f o l d values and o l d ways o f doing things c o n t r i b u t e d to the idea o f teachers that they should no longer accept government de c i s i o n s at face value. "However, the p r o v i n c i a l governments are al s o d i s c o v e r i n g that the teacher i n the seventies i s no longer the meek creature o f the hungry t h i r t i e s and p a t r i o t i c f o r t i e s , used to going cap-in-hand to the l o c a l school board, pl e a d i n g f o r a r a i s e . B e t t e r p a i d and b e t t e r educated than h i s colleagues of an e a r l i e r era, he i s not t a k i n g a r e d u c t i o n e i t h e r i n h i s standard of l i v i n g or i n h i s democratic r i g h t s l y i n g down. To no l i t t l e extent, then, the changes i n the B.C.T.F. were the r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e s from s o c i e t y at the t i m e - - i n c l u d i n g i n f l u e n c e s from other groups i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r and i n f l u e n c e s from teachers' groups across the country. The other Western provinces changed govern-ments i n an attempt to f i n d new s o l u t i o n s to o l d questions, and B.C. fo l l o w e d s u i t . The B.C. Teachers' Federation, l i k e i t s r a d i c a l counterpart i n Quebec, gave up non-partisanship and took a m i l i t a n t stance against a government i t f e l t to be no longer adequate. 71 CHAPTER FOUR - FOOTNOTES 1. C A . Reich, The Greening of America, New York, Bantam Books, 1970, p. 380. 2. I b i d . , p. 338. 3. "School S h i f t s 'Acceptable' - Bennett", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 11, May 1970, p. 1. 4. " B i l l 3 - Teachers' P e a r l Harbour", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 13, A p r i l 1972, p. 1. 5. Donald Brothers "Speech to the L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3", p. 1. 6. I b i d . , pp. 11-15. 7. Bladen et a l , Commission on the Financing of Higher Education i n Canada, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965, p. 16; and S.G. P e i t c h i n i n s , Financing Post Secondary Education i n Canada, U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1971, p. 94. 8. Loc. c i t . 9. Donald Brothers "Speech to the L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3", p. 5. 10. Satu Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l , " This Magazine i s about  Schools, V o l . 6 No. 3, F a l l , 1972, p. 22 11. J . LeBlanc, "Becoming P o l i t i c a l : The Growth of the Quebec Teachers Union," This Magazine i s about Schools, V o l . 6 No. 1 Spring 1972, p. 22. 12. I b i d . , p. 20. 13. J . MacFarlan, "Report of the President to the 1975 Annual General Meeting", Vancouver, 27 March 1975, p. 14. 14. J . LeBlanc, op. c i t . , , p . 23. 72 CHAPTER FIVE DEPARTMENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE B.C.T.F. While i t would be d i f f i c u l t to say t h a t a c t u a l Education Department incompetence c o n t r i b u t e d to the change i n the B.C.T.F., there was p l e n t y o f evidence that r e l a t i o n s between the two were not good. Soon a f t e r Donald Brothers became Education M i n i s t e r i n May of 1968, there seemed to be a breakdown i n communications between the teachers and the M i n i s t e r . A combative stance was adopted by the M i n i s t e r i n h i s dealings w i t h the B.C.T.F. At h i s f i r s t meeting with the Representative Assembly, Brothers e s t a b l i s h e d h i s c o n f r o n t a t i v e a t t i t u d e , d e c l a r i n g t h a t he b e l i e v e d i n " e y e b a l l to e y e b a l l c o n f r o n t a t i o n " . By the time o f the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting i n March, 1970, Brothers was j e e r e d openly by the delegates as he gave h i s annual speech. I f the Education M i n i s t e r had introduced cutbacks on school costs w i t h a v e l v e t glove and not done unnecessary things to antagonize the teachers, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t they would not have become so m i l i t a n t and turned so d e f i n i t e l y against the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. For example, Brothers' i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the proposed amendment to the P u b l i c Schools Act i n the s p r i n g o f 1971 preventing teachers from running f o r school boards i n the d i s t r i c t s they taught i n was unwise. I t made the teachers f e e l as i f they were being s i n g l e d out as a group and denied t h e i r democratic r i g h t to run f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . They re c e i v e d 73 sympathy from the general p u b l i c over i t . One r e p o r t e r wrote, "Brothers Keeper - The p r o v i n c i a l government appears to have l i t t l e f a i t h i n the democratic process i n s o f a r as e l e c t i o n o f school trustees i s concerned. To d i s a l l o w school teachers from running f o r seats on school boards, even outside of the d i s t r i c t s i n which they teach, i s a r e t r o -grade move. . . Teachers have good reason to be upset over the government's a c t i o n . I t i n d i c a t e s a l a c k o f f a i t h i n the i n t e g r i t y o f the p r o f e s s i o n . Some w i l l look upon i t as a c h i l d i s h move - and who b e t t e r than they understand the ways o f the immature?"! L a t e r , Brothers withdrew that s e c t i o n of the amendment a f t e r pressure from the p u b l i c . But i n the meantime, he antagonized teachers Another unpopular move, and one which s u r e l y was not i n the i n t e r e s t o f d i r e c t l y saving the province money on education, was the removal by l e g i s l a t i o n of the automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s i n the B.C.T.F. This was the removal o f a r i g h t which the teachers had h e l d f o r 24 years, and which most saw as e s s e n t i a l to the a b i l i t y o f the teachers to p o l i c e themselves--because removal o f membership had, u n t i l t hat time, meant removal o f a teacher from h i s job. The removal o f automatic B.C.T.F. membership was a move by the M i n i s t e r to destroy the u n i t y of the Federation, and as such i t antagonized the teachers, but i t d i d not accomplish i t s g o a l . Only 69 teachers of the membership of over 22,000 chose not to renew t h e i r memberships i n the B.C.T.F. The r e s t continued to pay t h e i r dues and the main r e a c t i o n to the M i n i s t e r ' s unduly i n h i s attempt to exclude them from running f o r school board. 74 amendment was anger--anger which was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o m i l i t a n c y as other measures were taken to a l i e n a t e the teachers. Some f e l t that the th r e a t posed by the amendment served to u n i f y the Federation more than ever. When the Education M i n i s t e r introduced B i l l 3 e a r l y i n 1972, i t seemed to the teachers again that they were being s i n g l e d out as a group and submitted to treatment a f f o r d e d no other group o f p u b l i c employees. This assessment was accurate, because p r o v i s i o n s of B i l l 3 were that teachers' s a l a r y increases above the b a s i c minimum set by the Department o f Education would go to referendum. To make matters worse, when B i l l 3 was introduced i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , there was no warning beforehand that i t would be introduced. Adam Robertson, President o f the B.C.T.F. at the time, s a i d , "At s i x o'clock on January 28, the M i n i s t e r t o l d me that the B i l l had been presented i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . The government's a t t i t u d e toward teachers was made c l e a r — t h e y don't 3 care what we t h i n k . " While B i l l 3 probably would have saved the govern-ment money i f i t had been implemented (the government f e l l before i t was), the teachers were incensed over the i m p l i c a t i o n s . As Adam Robertson s a i d , S e c t i o n 15, 16 o f B i l l 3, an Act to amend the P u b l i c Schools Act now before the l e g i s l a t u r e , give the government the power to l i m i t by r e g u l a t i o n the percentage increase t h a t w i l l apply to teachers' s a l a r i e s . Any excess granted by n e g o t i a t i o n or a r b i t r a t i o n would not be b i n d i n g upon school boards or teachers unless assented to by the owner e l e c t o r s through referendum. 75 The amendment takes away from teachers t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e b a rgaining r i g h t s . I t denies t r u s t e e s , as duly e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the people, the a u t h o r i t y to ex e r c i s e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y accorded to them i n law o f a c t i n g as employers o f teachers.4 In Brothers' speech to the l e g i s l a t u r e on the Second Reading o f B i l l 3 i n ^ 4arch, 1972, he s a i d , The B.C. Teachers' Federation has expressed o p p o s i t i o n to the proposed amendment which allows the l o c a l taxpayers to have a voi c e i n s a l a r y increases granted annually to teachers. The Federation's complaint a p p l i e s to two areas; f i r s t , they a l l e g e t h a t teachers are being d i s c r i m i n a t e d against and are being s i n g l e d out f o r p u n i t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n on s a l a r i e s ; and, second, they suggest that the l o c a l taxpayers w i l l never approve s a l a r y increases i n excess of the g u i d e l i n e s set out i n re g u l a t i o n s under the Act . . . The Federation's complaint that teachers are being s i n g l e d out--when the same approach i s not being: made wi t h respect to a l l wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s - - i s not f a c t u a l . The Government i s moving on s e v e r a l f r o n t s to reduce the r a p i d r a t e o f s a l a r y increases. We want the people o f the Province to know that as a Government we are showing l e a d e r s h i p , and we are w i l l i n g to take the f i r s t steps to r e s t r a i n the i n f l a t i o n a r y trend o f recent years i n the hope that p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w i l l f o l l o w t h e i r example . . . . I t i s very easy f o r those who wish u n l i m i t e d spending f o r education to say that the Government should provide more funds and the problem o f education costs would cease to e x i s t . To t h i s a s s e r t i o n I would answer that education, i s only one o f many s e r v i c e s which a Government has to provide w i t h the money i t r e c e i v e s from the taxpayers.5 Brothers was not a )pbpular m i n i s t e r as f a r as the teachers were concerned. Even some school t r u s t e e s f e l t a c e r t a i n antagonism toward him. While one t r u s t e e t o l d the author he f e l t Brothers was too 76 weak to stand up against Premier Bennett and f e l t that he was simply a mouthpiece f o r the Premier when i t came to school p o l i c i e s , another t r u s t e e of that p e r i o d (who didn't want to be quoted) i n an i n t e r v i e w , refused to say anything about Brothers except, " I t was a l o v e l y morning u n t i l you mentioned h i s name. I'd r a t h e r not t a l k about him at a l l . " The author and a f r i e n d , who obtained a meeting with Brothers i n 1970 a f t e r conducting a p r o t e s t movement against the freeze on school c o n s t r u c t i o n , were shouted at i n h i s o f f i c e . When questioned on the education p o l i c i e s o f the government, he y e l l e d , "Don't t a l k to me_ l i k e t h a t ! I'm a lawyer!"^ Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers may or may not have been a competent m i n i s t e r , but h i s s k i l l s i n d e a l i n g with the teachers, the B.C.T.F. and others i n the education f i e l d seemed t o be l a c k i n g . While the B.C.T.F. may have antagonized him, Brothers' b e l l i g e r e n t a t t i t u d e d i d not a l l e v i a t e matters. I t d i d not help that he introduced measures which were seen by the teachers as d i s c r i m i n a t o r y against them as a group. Some of those measures, such as amendments to the P u b l i c Schools Act to prevent them from running f o r the school boards, the removal of automatic membership, and f i n a l l y B i l l 3, were not r e a l l y necessary i f the object was to cut back on school c o s t s . I f the r a t i o n a l e behind those measures was to undermine the strength of the B.C.T.F. and cow the teachers, the r e s u l t was the opposite. Faced with those measures, the B.C.T.F. and i t s m i l i t a n t executive took strong 77 a c t i o n against the government i t s e l f , and helped i n 1972 to defeat i t . In t h i s case, the o l d adage that nothing draws a people together f a s t e r than attack from the ou t s i d e , was a r e a l i t y . Nor d i d the teachers give up t h e i r campaign against the government even when a Supreme Court i n j u n c t i o n was brought against them using t h e i r one-day levy f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The c r e a t i o n of T.P.A.C. was proof that the teachers were not to be e a s i l y defeated i n t h e i r determination to b r i n g about a change i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1965, a new Deputy M i n i s t e r of Education was appointed; Dr. G.N. Perry. He was the f i r s t Deputy Education M i n i s t e r who had never been a teacher. During h i s time i n o f f i c e ( u n t i l 1970 when he resigned) he was kept very busy implementing the recommendations of the Macdonald Report on Education of 1962. An amendment to the P u b l i c Schools Act i n 1963 c a l l e d f o r the establishment of d i s t r i c t and r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s . From J u l y , 1965 u n t i l September 1970, 8 new c o l l e g e s were opened up i n B.C.: Vancouver C i t y - J u l y , 1965 S e l k i r k - September, 1965 Okanagan - September, 1968 Malaspina - September, 1969 Douglas - September, 1970 College o f New Caledonia - September, 1969 Cariboo - September, 1970 Capilano - September, 1968 7 As w e l l , two new u n i v e r s i t i e s were i n s t i t u t e d - - S i m o n Fraser and the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a during that p e r i o d . 78 With the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s and the enormous increase i n u n i v e r s i t y students (1961 - 62 enrolment at U.B.C. -12,649; 1970-71 i t was 20,157) i t was n a t u r a l that a great deal of the Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s time and e f f o r t s were taken up with post-secondary education; t h i s was time and money that might have gone to p u b l i c schools i f there had not been such an increase i n attendance at the post-secondary l e v e l . According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, the cost of post-secondary education i n B.C. went from $19,192,000 i n 1960 to g $109,476,000 i n 1969. The percentage of the t o t a l education budget earmarked f o r elementary and secondary education dropped from 81.9% i n 1960-61 to 68.9% i n 1969-70. Some f e l t t hat Dr. G.N. Perry was de a l i n g w i t h the new c o l l e g e s at the expense of the p u b l i c schools. Interviews conducted by the author i n 1979 i n d i c a t e d that i t was f e l t by p u b l i c school teachers and t h e i r spokesmen that Perry was not dedicated to p u b l i c education below the post-secondary l e v e l ; that he was concerned almost completely with the post-secondary l e v e l - - t h a t i s , w i t h the new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , and Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , which was coming i n t o being at that time. Ex-B.C.T.F. President Bob Buzza went so f a r as t o say that Perry didn't seem committed to d e a l i n g with the p u b l i c school system, which he f e l t he had no p r i o r commitment to and that he wasn't r e a l l y a p u b l i c spokesman f o r . In 1970, both the Deputy Education M i n i s t e r and the Superintendent of Education, Mr. F.P. L e v i r s , resigned. A f t e r t h a t , Education 79 M i n i s t e r Brothers re-organized the Department. The p o s i t i o n of Superintendent of Education was e l i m i n a t e d , and those d u t i e s t r a n s -f e r r e d to seven a s s i s t a n t superintendents, the Deputy M i n i s t e r and the M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f . Teachers saw t h i s as a move to c e n t r a l i z e power i n the hands of the M i n i s t e r . General Secretary CD. Ovans c r i t i c i z e d the move: The Department of Education bureaucracy i s to be r e s t r u c t u r e d . . . . Consider some of the i n t e r e s t i n g f u n c t i o n s the M i n i s t e r now acquires. L e g i s l a t i o n m i r a c u l o u s l y transforms him from a p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e to a p r o f e s s i o n a l educator. By s t a t u t e , not by e x p e r t i s e , he i s competent to c o n t r o l issuance of textbooks and courses of study, to hold d i s t r i c t superintendents d i r e c t l y r e s -p o n s i b l e to him f o r a t t a i n i n g the standard of education he r e q u i r e s , to recommend a reducation i n grant to a school d i s t r i c t i f i t s program of s t u d i e s or q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n i s not s a t i s -f a c t o r y and to make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on d i s m i s s a l of p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r v i s o r y personnel.10 The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department, the M i n i s t e r ' s antagonis-t i c a t t i t u d e toward the teachers, and the Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s pre-occupation with post-secondary education had by 1970, a l i e n a t e d the teachers and sowed the seeds of m i l i t a n c y . The government could have avoided some of those things which t r o u b l e d the teachers, i f there had been b e t t e r communication between them. Brothers could have discussed impending l e g i s l a t i o n with the B.C.T.F., as former Deputy M i n i s t e r J.F.K. E n g l i s h and former Education M i n i s t e r L e s l i e Peterson had done. L e g i s l a t i o n which seemed c a l c u l a t e d to destroy 80 the u n i t y of the teachers was not necessary; i t served only to u n i t e the teachers and to make them more determined.. The problem of the increase i n emphasis on post-secondary education at the expense of p u b l i c schools was a d i f f i c u l t one to deal w i t h , but perhaps i t was u n r e a l i s t i c of the government to expect to keep education costs down to l e s s than 30% of the budget (see Chapter Five) when no other province i n Canada was able to do so. This was an e s p e c i a l l y harsh budget r e s t r a i n t when the increase i n p u p i l enrollment at the p u b l i c school l e v e l alone increased 60% i n the ten years from 1962-1972.^ I t n e c e s s i t a t e d desperate measures, such as the i n s t i t u t i o n of s h i f t s i n schools l a c k i n g adequate p h y s i c a l accommodation. With a l l the other d i f f i c u l t i e s faced i n the p u b l i c school system, t h i s was bound t o have the e f f e c t of causing an e x p l o s i o n ; and i n t h i s case i t was the teachers, through t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s new m i l i t a n t executive who blew up. 81 CHAPTER FIVE - FOOTNOTES "Brothers Keeper". V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , 3 March, 1971, p. 2 B.C. Teachers' Federation, Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, p. 75. A. Robertson, "We Won't Live With I t " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers  Federation Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , February 1972, p. 1. Loc. c i t . D. Brothers, "Speech to the L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3:, pp. 4, 5 "§ 6 J . Smedley et a l , i n t e r v i e w s with the w r i t e r , March 1979. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Century of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1871-1971, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1971, p."51. "Government Story Not Complete," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, C r i s i s #2, 17 March, 1972, p. 1. S t a t i s t i c s Canada,, op. c i t . , p. 70. CD. Ovans, "Over-Reaction - Or Something More S i n i s t e r ? " B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March, 1971, p. 2. "Government Story Not complete," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, C r i s i s #2, 17 March, 1972, p. 1. 82 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION During the 1960*s and the e a r l y 1970's, the B.C. Teachers' Federation changed from an ordinary i n t e r e s t group i n t o a m i l i t a n t , p a r t i s a n , anti-Socred o r g a n i z a t i o n . In s p i t e of the general b e l i e f that the change was simply the r e s u l t of p u n i t i v e a c t i o n s taken by the government against the teachers, there were al s o other f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the change i n the B.C.T.F.: i n the f i r s t p l a c e , the B.C.T.F. increased i t s f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , and became bur e a u c r a t i z e d , b e t t e r organized, and w e a l t h i e r . The r e s u l t i n g increase i n e x p e r t i s e made the o r g a n i z a t i o n more powerful, more v i a b l e , and b e t t e r able to communicate with the teachers and the p u b l i c at l a r g e . With strength came both the optimism that things could be changed, and the morale necessary to c a r r y on, even when levy funds r a i s e d f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n were frozen. With such a powerful o r g a n i z a t i o n behind them, teachers no longer f e l t i n a weak p o s i t i o n . Now they could take concerted a c t i o n against d e f i c i e n c i e s they saw i n the government's education p o l i c i e s . The f a c t that most of the teachers remained part of the B.C.T.F. a f t e r the government took away t h e i r automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s , i n d i c a t e d that they thought i t was a worthwhile o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i n s i s t e n c e by the M i n i s t e r of Education and other members of the 83 government, that members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were uncomfortable with the m i l i t a n c y of the B.C.T.F. and no longer wanted to be members, does not seem borne out by the f a c t s , f o r a f t e r the automatic member-ship p r o v i s i o n s were removed, only 69 out of over 22,000 teachers d i d not renew t h e i r memberships. The p a i d s t a f f and the Executive of the o r g a n i z a t i o n played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of the members. When interviewed i n 1979, executive members claimed that i t had been a d i f f i c u l t task to get teachers to complain about things l i k e overcrowded classrooms and pension p l a n inadequacies. C l e a r l y , the B.C.T.F. Executive took the i n i t i a t i v e . However, without an adequate supply of funds f o r research, f u l l time o f f from teaching d u t i e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l help i n the B.C.T.F. o f f i c e s , as w e l l as the monthly n e w s l e t t e r , which provided the Executive w i t h an e x c e l l e n t opportunity to p o l i t i c i z e the members, i t would have been more d i f f i c u l t to spur the teachers to a c t i o n . The m i l i t a n c y of the B.C.T.F. i n the 1972 e l e c t i o n campaign d i d not simply appear out of the blue. The p o t e n t i a l was there a l l along: to quote Jim MacFarlan, r a d i c a l i s m was "dormant but not dead." The f a c t that the B.C.T.F. took r a d i c a l a c t i o n against the Socred government i n 1972 d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the m a j o r i t y o f teachers had suddenly become r a d i c a l . They-remained as conservative as ever, according to former Executive members. The d i f f e r e n c e was, 84 however, that now they were w i l l i n g to allow t h e i r executive to take strong a c t i o n when they saw that a l l e l s e had f a i l e d ; besides, i t was a time when a l l kinds of groups were t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ; i t was the s t y l e to p r o t e s t . Therefore they voted f o r those candidates who seemed most l i k e l y to take strong a c t i o n against the government, regardless of the l e f t i s t i d e o l o g i e s of some of them. The strong l e f t i s t and r a d i c a l members who got themselves i n t o p o s i t i o n s of power w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n had a long h i s t o r y of r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l commitment.- They d i d not hide t h e i r r a d i c a l i s m , and they were voted i n t o power d e m o c r a t i c a l l y . So, while the stance taken by the B.C.T.F. against the government and the apparent p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the teachers was p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the strong leadership of the l e f t -wing r a d i c a l s who had taken over the o r g a n i z a t i o n , they cannot be f a u l t e d f o r t a k i n g the stance they d i d ; they had the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the general membership because they were e l e c t e d as the l e g i t i m a t e spokesmen of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As w e l l , the teachers voted f o r the one-day levy f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . They supported T.P.A.C. when the Supreme Court i n j u n c t i o n was obtained against t h e i r c o l l e c t e d fund. They made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the r a d i c a l s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n to take strong a c t i o n during the e l e c t i o n campaign to defeat the Socreds. In an era when a new consciousness was developing, when there was a great re-examination of s o c i e t y and a renewed emphasis on education, the Socred government seemed out of date and a n a c h r o n i s t i c . 85 The sense of honesty and openness being advocated everywhere d i d not f i t i n with the o l d Socred ways of doing t h i n g s . When Brothers s a i d that B.C. had the most e q u i t a b l e education finance formula to be found anywhere i n North America and the teachers could e a s i l y prove him wrong, he l o s t h i s c r e d i b i l i t y . When a cabinet member c a l l e d a r t and music "baloney", the Socreds showed that they were out of tune with the times. When youth seemed t o be t a k i n g over the r e i g n s of i n f l u e n c e from the ol d e r generation, the o l d government of W.A..C. Bennett seemed inadequate. The teachers were not the only ones to tu r n m i l i t a n t . The government had antagonized many groups i n B.C. s o c i e t y , but e s p e c i a l l y the p u b l i c employees. They were t i r e d o f the t i r e d o l d government. When even the people of Kelowna, the Premier's own r i d i n g , p r otested and demanded a b e t t e r deal f o r t h e i r school d i s t r i c t , s u r e l y i t must have looked ominous t o the members of the government. Yet Finance Minster-Premier W.A.C. Bennett d i d not loosen the purse s t r i n g s . While the Socreds had once been h e l d i n power by the grass roots p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people of B.C., now they were looked upon as the establishment, and the establishment at that point i n time i n North America was suspect. So, the trend of the times a l s o had a par t to p l a y i n the i n c r e a s i n g p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the teachers. I t was the r i g h t time and the r i g h t place to take a c t i o n against the government. The i n a b i l i t y of the M i n i s t e r of Education and perhaps a l s o h i s 86 Deputy to cope w i t h the new, changed era and the bolder teachers while h o l d i n g the l i n e on education c o s t s , made f o r animosity. But the f a c t that the M i n i s t e r seemed to 4°°k upon the teachers as "the enemy" d i d not cause them to back o f f ; and h i s act i o n s i n t a k i n g away t h e i r automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s only served to strengthen t h e i r r e s o l v e to take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . For years, the B.C.T.F. had t r i e d t o change the government's education p o l i c i e s . Not only were they l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l , but the government seemed more determined than ever to take a tough stand against the teachers. Instead of the teachers changing the p o l i c i e s of the government, the government t r i e d to change the teachers, and attempted to "break t h e i r union." In the face of such o p p o s i t i o n , the teachers chose a route they had never chosen before; that of m i l i t a n c y and overt o p p o s i t i o n to the government i t s e l f . A f t e r years and years of i n s i s t i n g that they were non-partisan, they became p a r t i s a n . With the passage of B i l l 3 t h a t would make c o l l e c t i v e b a rgaining meaningless and make i t necessary i n some cases to submit s a l a r y increases t o referendum, the teachers decided i t was "destroy or be destroyed." And so they launched t h e i r campaign against the Socreds, t a k i n g with them as many other d i s a f f e c t e d groups as they could f i n d . Premier W.A.C. Bennett was well-known f o r not a l l o w i n g groups to i n f l u e n c e or coerce him. He i s reported to have s a i d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , "I've opposed lumber barons, and the press barons, teachers, doctors and then the labor bosses and a l l the others when 87 they've t r i e d to pressure the d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d government of the people. And I always w i l l . " " * " Edwin Black elaborated on t h i s aspect of Bennett's government: I f , f o r example, your group f a i l s to make the r i g h t impression on a l e g i s l a t i v e committee (or you cannot even get a h e a r i n g ) , i t goes t o work on i n d i v i d u a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e , or puts pressure on the c i v i l s e r v i c e , or works through the press, or "wines and dines " leading members of the government, and so on. This kind of p o l i t i c a l o peration assumes the existence of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l e g i s l a t u r e that exerts r e a l and observable i n f l u e n c e on government d e c i s i o n s and policy-making, as w e l l as government leaders r e s p e c t f u l of, and responsive t o , spokesmen f o r the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l groupings i n the p o l i t y . But these assumptions, so f a r as they apply to B r i t i s h Columbia, are not v a l i d . The present government represents an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p r o t e s t against e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l e l i t e s of a l l kinds. The i n a b i l i t y of such groups to secure the d e s i r e d hearing and appropriate a c t i o n accounts f o r the frequent charges that Mr. Bennett i s "undemocratic"; the charges are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y made by members of the Union of B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Teachers' Federation, the Chambers o f Commerce, the u n i v e r s i t y community, the w i l d l i f e f e d e r a t i o n s and labour groups.2 The B.C.T.F used o l d and t i m e - t r i e d methods to lobby the government f o r many years. T a c t i c s used i n the 1966 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and l a t e r i n the Apple Campaign of 1969, were based on methods i n use by pressure groups i n Canada f o r more than h a l f a century. In urging the p u b l i c to vote f o r the candidates who supported the teachers, the B.C.T.F. was a c t i n g much l i k e the Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n long ago - "In the e l e c t i o n campaign of 1904, the CM.A. recommended that members 'support those candidates, i r r e s p e c t i v e of p a r t y , who 88 announce themselves p u b l i c l y i n favour of an immediate t a r i f f r e v i s i o n . ' " In the face of an entrenched anti-group p a r t y l i k e the Socreds, who seemed more determined than ever to go against organized i n t e r e s t groups, the o l d methods were no longer u s e f u l . The teachers had to f i g h t f i r e with f i r e . Donald Smiley, w r i t i n g i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : a New Look at S o c i a l C r e d i t , " s a i d , An e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between S o c i a l C r e d i t and other p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n Canada i s that i t s s t r a t e g y i s based on what I s h a l l c a l l " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " as opposed to "group p o l i t i c s . " . . . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y then, the p o l i t i c a l universe of the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s i s one of groups, a universe to be approached through the circumspect treatment of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p a r t i c u l a r organized i n t e r e s t s . The " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " of S o c i a l C r e d i t i s a l e s s complicated business. The movement has drawn i t s leaders f o r the most part from persons of lower educational attainment and s t a t u s than the other p a r t i e s . . . c h i r o p r a c t o r s and e v a n g e l i s t s have been prominent - and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to name a prominent S o c i a l C r e d i t o r who has a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n of eminence i n any other f i e l d than p o l i t i c s . These men have got where they are through the e l e c t o r a t e alone and they thus pursue the v o t e r s ' support i n a most d i r e c t and u n i n h i b i t e d way without the deference to centres of i n f l u e n c e and the complex balancing of group i n t e r e s t s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of other p o l i t i c i a n s . Because S o c i a l C r e d i t leaders have shared r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n the rewards of s t a t u s or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n outside of p o l i t i c s , they are able to i d e n t i f y themselves c l o s e l y w i t h the v o t e r s ' a t t i t u d e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as these a t t i t u d e s embody resentments against the e x i s t i n g order -resentments of the educated by the uneducated, of metropolitan i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s by r u r a l and s e m i - f r o n t i e r areas, of the denominations by the s e c t s , of the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c bureaucracies by the small entrepreneur, of the f a b r i c of l e g a l i t y by those who regard law as not wholly b e n e f i c i e n t A 89 The remarks of Education M i n i s t e r Donald Brothers i n h i s speech to the l e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3 demonstrate the " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " of the Socreds: "The Honourable Members are very w e l l aware that the taxpayers i n t h i s Province are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y alarmed about the co n t i n u i n g upward s p i r a l i n the cost of p r o v i d i n g educational s e r v i c e s . A l s o , they are aware of the resentment of the taxpayers i n the annual increase i n t h e i r school taxes."^ The B.C.T.F's switch from a non-partisan stance to an a n t i -government one i n 1972 seemed an i n e v i t a b l e response to continued government i n t r a n s i g e n c e . Then, when other circumstances were present, such as B.C.T.F. wealth and e x p e r t i s e , the acceptance of r a d i c a l i s m by the general p u b l i c , m i l i t a n t a c t i o n s by teachers i n other provinces, Department of Education inadequacies, and r a d i c a l l e a d ership i n the B.C.T.F., the time was r i p e to take concrete anti-government a c t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the st r e s s e s and s t r a i n s e l i c i t e d by a strong anti-group government would have i n e v i t a b l y brought f o r t h i n t e r e s t groups so strong that they i m p e r i l e d the government i t s e l f . In a sense, perhaps, the very strength of the government became i t s weakness. In response to strong government measures, the B.C.T.F. became strong--strong enough t o provide l e a d e r s h i p t o other discontented groups i n B.C. s o c i e t y , who came together i n a concerted e f f o r t to help to defeat the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. 90 CHAPTER SIX - FOOTNOTES J . Hardy, "Comment", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation  Newsletter, V o l . 11 No. 10, March 1972, p. 2. E. Black, "B.C.: The P o l i t i c s of E x p l o i t a t i o n , " Party P o l i t i c s  i r i Canada, Hugh Thorburn, ed., Scarborough, P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada L t d . , 1972, p. 230. F. Engelmann £ M. Sehwarz, P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and the Canadian  S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Scarborough, P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada L t d . , 1967, p. 112. D.V. Smiley, "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : A New Look at S o c i a l C r e d i t , Canadian Forum, September 1962, p. 123. D. Brothers, "Speech to the L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3", p. 1. 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Engelmann, Freder i c k § Schwarz, M i l d r e d A. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and the  Canadian S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada, L t d . , 1967. Kruhlak, Orest M. et a l . The Canadian P o l i t i c a l Process., Revised E d i t i o n . Toronto and Montreal, H o l t , Rinehart and Winston of Canada, L i m i t e d , 1973. Ovans, Charles D. Behind the Looking Glass: Toward the Educating  S o c i e t y . Vancouver, Evergreen Press L i m i t e d , 1978. Presthus, Robert. E l i t e Accommodation i n Canadian P o l i t i c s . London Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Pross, A. P a u l . Pressure Group Behavior i n Canadian P o l i t i c s , Reich, Charles A. The Greening of America. New York, Bantam Books Inc., 1970. Thorburn, Hugh G. ed. Part y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, T h i r d E d i t i o n . Scarborough, Ontario, P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada L t d . , 1972. Young, Walter D. Democracy and Discontent. Toronto, McGraw-Hill Co. of Canada L t d . , 1969. Pamphlets B.C. Teachers' Federation. Teachers Versus S o c i a l C r e d i t . Vancouver, B.C. Teachers' Federation, August 1972. Commissions and Reports Bladen et a l . Commission on the Financing of Higher Education i n  Canada, being the Report of a Commission to the A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, e t c . Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965. P e i t c h i n i n s , Stephen G. Financing Post Secondary Education i n  Canada, a study commissioned by the Council of M i n i s t e r s of Education, Canada. Calgary, U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1971. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Century of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1871-1971. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1971 92 Newsletters, Newspapers and Magazines B.C. Teachers' Federation. B.C. Teachers' Federation Newsletters, October, 1962 - December, 1972, Vancouver. MacFarlan, Jim. "What Kind of School System?" This Magazine Is  About Schools, V o l . 8 No. 3 August-September 1974, pp. 9-12. LeBlanc, J u l e s . "Becoming P o l i t i c a l The Growth of the Quebec Teachers Union". This Magazine Is About Schools, V o l . 6 No. 1 Spring, 1972. Repo, Satu. "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l . " This Magazine Is  About Schools, V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, pp. 8-25. "Brothers Keeper". V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , 3 March 1971, p. 2. Smiley, Donald V. "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : A New Look at S o c i a l C r e d i t . " Canadian Forum, September, 1962. "Teacher Delegates Jeer M i n i s t e r " , Surrey Columbia, 31 March 1970, p. 1. Mayse, Art h u r , "Others Are Laying S o c i a l C r e d i t Union Busting". V i c t o r i a Times, 3 March 1971, p. 2. B.C. Teachers' Federation. Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79. Vancouver, B.C. Teachers' Federation, 1979. Personal Communication Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r : Booklets Blakey, A l . Brothers, Donald January,:1970 March, 1979 MacFarlan, Jim N i c h o l l s , Alan Onstad, Gary Robertson, Adam Smedley, Jack Wenman, Robert Buzza, Bob March, 1979 March, 1979 March,.1979 March, 1979 March, 1979 March, 1979 March, 1979 

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