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The British Columbia Teacher’s Federation and its conversion to partisanship, 1966-1972 Yri, Marlene Ingrid 1979

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THE  BRITISH COLUMBIA TEACHERS' FEDERATION  AND ITS CONVERSION TO PARTISANSHIP, 1966-1972  by MARLENE INGRID YRI B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e )  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1979 Marlene I n g r i d Y r i , 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I further for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  this  thesis for  It  j . j.  j-  Science  BP  75-5 1 1 E  2 5 September, 19 79  the requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  i s understood  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  D E-6  extensive  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  Political  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available for  permission.  Department of  D a t e  of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  written  „  freely  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT T h i s i s a study o f the c o n v e r s i o n Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . interviews with  teachers,  to p a r t i s a n s h i p o f the B r i t i s h  Research m a t e r i a l was d e r i v e d from  former B.C.T.F. E x e c u t i v e  B.C.T.F. s t a f f members, s c h o o l  Committee Members,  t r u s t e e s , and members o f the government.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was supplemented by m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d monthly n e w s l e t t e r s  and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , l o c a l newspapers, government  r e p o r t s and i n t e r e s t group From these s o u r c e s , p a r t i s a n seemed e v i d e n t . education  from B.C.T.F.  literature. some f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the B.C.T.F. t o become These f a c t o r s were:  1. R e s t r i c t i v e government  p o l i c i e s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y the removal by l e g i s l a t i o n o f automatic  membership p r o v i s i o n s i n the B.C.T.F., and the e l i m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  rights;  2.  S o c i e t a l trends  - the l a t e 1960's and  e a r l y 1970's were times o f p r o t e s t and r e j e c t i o n o f the s t a t u s quo. These trends  and the i n c r e a s i n g m i l i t a n c y o f o t h e r teachers  i n f l u e n c e d the B.C. teachers 3.  i n Canada  to c o n s i d e r anti-government p r o t e s t a c t i o n .  A power s t r u g g l e w i t h i n the B.C.T.F.;  between the h i r e d General  S e c r e t a r y , who had h e l d the p o s i t i o n s i n c e 1947, and the e l e c t e d Committee, attempting  Executive  to w i e l d the power i t was e n t i t l e d to a c c o r d i n g t o  the B.C.T.F. C o n s t i t u t i o n .  The s t r u g g l e was won by the e l e c t e d members,  who were then s u c c e s s f u l i n i n f l u e n c i n g the r e s t o f the membership t o take r a d i c a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t the government.  4.  An i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h and  e x p e r t i s e i n the B.C.T.F.; from 1966-1972, the budget o f the B.C.T.F. doubled, and t h i s h e l p e d  to i n c r e a s e the c a p a c i t y o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Now  i t became p o s s i b l e to h i r e experts to h e l p o r g a n i z e  protest action.  The  had time o f f w i t h pay  political  P r e s i d e n t and the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f the f e d e r a t i o n from t h e i r t e a c h i n g d u t i e s , and t h i s gave them the  o p p o r t u n i t y to devote t h e i r time to p o l i t i c i z i n g government campaign o f 1972  5.  The  Department o f  From 1965-1970, 8 new  u n i v e r s i t i e s were i n s t i t u t e d by the B.C. M i n i s t e r Dr. N e i l P e r r y was  The  anti-  became a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to more conven-  t i o n a l i n t e r e s t group a c t i v i t y . seeming incompetence.  the members.  Education's  j u n i o r c o l l e g e s and 2  government;  Deputy  new  Education  s a i d to have n e g l e c t e d the p u b l i c s c h o o l  system i n f a v o r o f post-secondary  education.  The  Department was  unable  to s t r e t c h the e d u c a t i o n budget to take care o f t h i s added l o a d p l u s r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c school enrollment. Brothers antagonized the B.C.T.F.  E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald  the teachers and imposed measures to t r y to weaken  These departmental  to take anti-government The  inadequacies  i n f l u e n c e d the  c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e study were t h a t these f i v e f a c t o r s p l a y e d As w e l l , i t was  t h a t the s t r o n g anti-government stance taken by the  Columbia Teachers'  F e d e r a t i o n was  S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  I n t e r e s t groups g e n e r a l l y do not become p a r t i s a n ; an e x c e p t i o n , responding  British  the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t o f the s t r o n g  a n t i - g r o u p p o l i c i e s o f W.A.C. Bennett's  was  teachers  action.  a r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the B.C.T.F. to become p a r t i s a n . concluded  the B.C.T.F.,  to the e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances  then,  posed by  the s t r o n g a n t i - g r o u p government i n power i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1952-1972.  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Acknow1e dg ement Chronology o f Events  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE  Government A c t i o n s and B.C.T.F. Reactions  CHAPTER TWO  B.C.T.F. I n c r e a s e s Wealth and E x p e r t i s e  CHAPTER THREE  A Power S t r u g g l e and t h e B i r t h o f T.P.A.C  CHAPTER FOUR  The E f f e c t o f S o c i e t a l Trends on the B.C.T.F  CHAPTER FIVE  Departmental I n f l u e n c e s on t h e B.C.T.F  CHAPTER S I X  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Conclusion  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The a u t h o r would l i k e t o thank s e v e r a l people f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s study.  F o r t h e i r moral  support and  encouragement, s p e c i a l thanks  go to my husband R o l f and my two  daughters, Karen and K i r s t e n .  F o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and h e l p f u l  sug-  g e s t i o n s over t h e y e a r s , I would l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r s Paul Tennant, Ken C a r t y and Donald Blake. i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s paper; Columbia  Thanks go a l s o to t h e p e o p l e  e s p e c i a l l y the members o f t h e B r i t i s h  Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , who were so f r a n k about t h e  f e d e r a t i o n , and w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e me w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n n o t a v a i l a b l e elsewhere.  Finally,  I would l i k e to thank Grace Cross f o r h e r  c h e e r f u l o f f e r t o type the f i n a l  draft.  vi  CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 1963 E l e c t i o n to 1966  Election  March, 1965  - L e g i s l a t i v e Changes i n P u b l i c Schools A c t  January, 1966  - R e s t r i c t i o n i n Classroom C o n s t r u c t i o n  August, 1966  - BCTF Sends out Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  September 12, 1966  - P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n ; L-5, C-0,  1966  E l e c t i o n to 1969  March, 1967  -  February/March May  28,  1968  Election AGM  1968  NDP-14, Socred-33  R e s o l u t i o n to E s t a b l i s h Emergency P r o t e s t Fund by l e v y D e f e a t e d  Bennett Freezes School C o n s t r u c t i o n and B i l l Introduced - C a b i n e t S h u f f l e - New  86  Education Minister:  Donald B r o t h e r s June,  1968  October, November, April,  - S t r o n g D e n i a l o f BCTF P a r t i s a n s h i p  1968 1968  1969  August 27, 1969  1969  - C o q u i t l a m Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n Organizes Mass Meeting - P a r t i a l Thaw i n Classroom C o n s t r u c t i o n - Teachers' Apple Campaign - Provincial Election;  E l e c t i o n to 1972  L-5, C-0,  NDP-12, Socred-38  Election  September, 1969  S t r o n g D e n i a l o f BCTF P a r t i s a n s h i p  November,  More than 4,500 Teachers P r o t e s t N e g o t i a t i o n s Stalemate  April,  1969  AGM  1970  September, October,  1970  1970  R e s o l u t i o n r e : S t r i k e Vote o v e r Pensions  Passed  88% o f Teachers Vote f o r S t r i k e A c t i o n Government Passes FLQ O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  January, 19 71  Bennett Announces Freeze on Gymnasia and Rooms L i f t e d  March,  Amendments to P u b l i c Schools A c t to Remove Automatic BCTF Membership § Dept. o f E d u c a t i o n Re-Organized  1971  March 19,  1971  Activity  Province-Wide One-Day Teachers' S t r i k e r e : Pensions  vii  1969  E l e c t i o n to 1972 E l e c t i o n  AGM - Increase i n BCTF Fees f o r Emergency Fund  May, 1971 October,  (cont'd.)  19 71  and Arrangements made  M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n Announces C e i l i n g o f 108% on School Budgets  November, 1971  M i n i s t e r Announces C e i l i n g o f 6.5% Increase on Teachers' S a l a r i e s  January, 1972  BCTF I n s i s t s on N o n - P a r t i s a n s h i p  January, 1972  Government Introduces B i l l  February,  BCTF M o b i l i z e s  19 72  to F i g h t  3  Bill  3  March 9, 1972  " C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Defence Committee" Formed and Mass R a l l y H e l d  March 2 7, 1972  Bill  A p r i l , 1972  AGM - Levy o f One Day's Pay to Defeat Government Passed 495 - 84  A p r i l , 1972  P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson Says, " S o c i a l C r e d i t be Voted Out a t t h e P o l l s "  Must  June 30, 1972  I n j u n c t i o n i n Supreme Court A g a i n s t P o l i t i c a l by BCTF  Action  July,  TPAC Formed to Defeat  19 72  August, 1972  3 R e c e i v e d T h i r d Reading  E l e c t i o n and Socreds Socred-10  and Passed  Socreds Defeated  L-5, C-2, NDP-38  1  INTRODUCTION  On August 30, Columbia was was  1972,  the S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n B r i t i s h  d e f e a t e d a f t e r 20 years  in office.  One  reason  a c t i o n taken a g a i n s t the government by i n t e r e s t groups.  group was  the B.C.  Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n .  p a r t i s a n ; however, j u s t b e f o r e neutrality.  In March, 1972,  c a l l on a l l teachers  and  freedom, to u n i t e and  conventional  Was  to be non-  e l e c t i o n i t gave up  and  in  What caused the t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n to  i n t e r e s t group n e u t r a l i t y and use Was  the d e c i s i o n due  f o r a change o f government i n B r i t i s h  i t s resources  for  to a p a r t i c u l a r government Or was  i t simply  time  Columbia?  T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt to answer these q u e s t i o n s  and  others  I t i s an examination o f the reasons f o r the B.C.T.F.'s  change from n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p i n t e r e s t group was  i t s ostensibl  B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson s a i d , "I  government i n t r a n s i g e n c e a f a c t o r ?  r e l a t i n g to them.  such  to work f o r the d e f e a t o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t govern1  anti-government a c t i o n ? action?  claimed  One  other c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n education,  ment i n the next e l e c t i o n . " g i v e up  the 1972  I t had  f o r i t s demis  to m i l i t a n c y .  I t i s a study o f how  i n f l u e n c e d , and what m o t i v a t e d  defeat  the government.  Aggressive  i s not  common i n Canadian p o l i t i c s .  the group to t r y to  p a r t i s a n a c t i o n by As Presthus  an  interest  wrote:  The need to f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e whose members change p e r i o d i c a l l y means t h a t i n t e r e s t groups t y p i c a l l y a v o i d p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s and work towards a s p e c i f i c goal w i t h i n the prevailing p o l i t i c a l structure.2  groups  2  Why was the B.C.T.F. d i f f e r e n t ? Democracy and D i s c o n t e n t , s a i d ,  W a l t e r Young, w r i t i n g i n  "When p e o p l e do seek t o change o r d e s t r o y  p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s i t i s u s u a l l y because they have  reached  a p o s i t i o n , f o r whatever reasons, where they can no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e to l i v e as b e f o r e ;  they have reached a p o i n t where t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n ,  anger  3 or  s u f f e r i n g demand r e l i e f , and r e l i e f r e q u i r e s change."  C r e d i t government made the B.C.T.F. s u f f e r . w i t h t h e passage o f B i l l  The b r e a k i n g p o i n t o c c u r r e d  3 i n the B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e .  e l i m i n a t e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r the t e a c h e r s . r e a c t i o n was c a t a c l y s m i c .  not l i v e w i t h t h i s  The S o c i a l  Bill  3 effectively  The B.C.T.F.'s  The p r e s i d e n t o f the B.C.T.F. s a i d , 4  legislation!"  H i s p o s i t i o n was  "We  will  unanimously  endorsed by the E x e c u t i v e Committee and t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Assembly.^ Robertson  l a t e r s a i d , " I r e a l i z e d t h a t the r a t i o n a l ,  i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h government was, i s and w i l l  the reasoned  approach  c o n t i n u e t o be an  exercise i n f u t i l i t y . " ^ The  events leadinguup  were many.  to the moment when the B.C.T.F. r e v o l t e d  Ten S o c i a l C r e d i t government p o l i c i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r were  responsible.  These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One.  They p r o v i d e a  c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework f o r the B.C.T.F.'s gradual c o n v e r s i o n to partisanship.  I n combination w i t h these a c t i o n s , f o u r o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s  can be i s o l a t e d .  Two o f these i n f l u e n c e s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the B.C.T.F.  and two w i t h o u t . Briefly,  the f o u r i n f l u e n c e s a r e as f o l l o w s ;  the B.C.T.F.'s  3  i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h and e x p e r t i s e , the B . C . T . F . ,  in  the p r e v a i l i n g mood o f s o c i e t y , and the incompetence o f  the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . subsequent  the p r e s e n c e o f a power s t r u g g l e  These w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n  chapters.  I t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t , when s p e a k i n g o f the B . C . T . F .  as a  group, i t i s n e v e r meant to i m p l y t h a t a l l the t e a c h e r s were always i n complete agreement w i t h e v e r y t h i n g the group d i d . Committee o f t h e group,  The E x e c u t i v e  composed o f a c u r r e n t p r e s i d e n t ,  a f i r s t and a  second v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , a p a s t p r e s i d e n t and seven m e m b e r s - a t - l a r g e ,  is  e l e c t e d by d e l e g a t e s to the Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g ; and these d e l e g a t e s are nominated by t h e i r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . after  attaining office,  The E x e c u t i v e Committee,  makes p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and recommendations,  does the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e A s s e m b l y , composed o f g e o g r a p h i c a l tives.  as  representa-  The G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , who i s h i r e d by the E x e c u t i v e Committee  and can be d i s m i s s e d by i t ,  can a l s o make p o l i c y  recommendations;  however h i s power i n t h a t m a t t e r waned d u r i n g the p e r i o d s t u d i e d . the p o l i c i e s i n v o l v e major m a t t e r s , they are u s u a l l y brought to  If the  Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g i n .'the form o f r e s o l u t i o n s which are t h e n v o t e d upon by the d e l e g a t e s , Committee.  the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e A s s e m b l y , and t h e E x e c u t i v e  V o t i n g procedures  are a c c o r d i n g to By-Law 8 . 2 ;  mentioned  on page 7 o f t h e B . C . T . F . MEMBERS' GUIDE 197,8/79: The v o t i n g body o f an Annual G e n e r a l o r S p e c i a l M e e t i n g s h a l l c o n s i s t o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , the members o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee,  4  and d e l e g a t e s from each l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n e l e c t e d i n accordance with by-law 2. Each l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s h a l l have the r i g h t to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the meeting i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f one v o t i n g d e l e g a t e f o r each 0.2%, o r f r a c t i o n t h e r e o f , o f the t o t a l v o t i n g membership o f the f e d e r a t i o n who a r e v o t i n g members o f the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . . . The  d e c i s i o n t o study the B.C.T.F.'s c o n v e r s i o n to p a r t i s a n s h i p  stems from the author's p o l i c i e s i n B.C.  The  long-time  i n t e r e s t i n government e d u c a t i o n  i n t e r e s t began w i t h d i r e c t involvement  p r o t e s t movement i n i t i a t e d i n 19 70 by s e v e r a l p a r e n t s who d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h government e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s . our c h i l d r e n b e i n g put on s h i f t s  i n a small  were  F a c i n g the p r o s p e c t o f  i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , we  collected  1,300  names on a p e t i t i o n demanding the government p l a c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y education.  We  then p i c k e t e d the opening o f the L e g i s l a t u r e w i t h  mothers and c h i l d r e n .  M.L.A. Bob  w i t h E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald  paper.  other  Wenman arranged an i n t e r v i e w f o r us  Brothers.  ment e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s s u r p r i s e d us. i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s  on  His angry  defense  of  govern-  P a r t s o f t h a t i n t e r v i e w were  used  5 INTRODUCTION FOOTNOTES  1.  "Adam asks f o r p r o t e s t v o t e " , B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n C r i s i s N e w s l e t t e r #3, Vancouver, 24 March 1972, p. 1.  2.  R. P r e s t h u s , E l i t e Accommodation i n Canadian Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 73, p. 77.  3.  W. Young, Democracy and D i s c o n t e n t , Toronto, McGraw-Hill,  4.  A. Robertson, "We Won't L i v e With I t " , B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , Vancouver, February 1972, p. 1.  5.  Loc. c i t .  6.  " B i l l 3 - Teachers' 'Pearl Harbour'," B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 13, Vancouver, A p r i l 1972, p . 1.  P o l i t i c s , London,  1969, p. 1.  6 CHAPTER ONE GOVERNMENT ACTIONS AND B.C.T.F. REACTIONS  In the p e r i o d from 1966-1972, the S o c i a l C r e d i t government l e d by W.A.C. Bennett c a r r i e d out a s e r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y designed those  to keep e d u c a t i o n  c o s t s to a minimum.  actions  This i s a c h r o n i c l e o f  a c t i o n s and t h e responses to them by the B.C.T.F. The  p o l i c i e s most o b j e c t e d to by the F e d e r a t i o n were as f o l l o w s :  1.  Freezes  2.  The 1968 e d u c a t i o n  3.  FLQ O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l  4.  M i n i s t e r o f Education's a u t h o r i t y over t h e s c h o o l system extended - 1971.  5.  Removal o f automatic membership - 1971.  6.  F u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on s c h o o l board budgets - 1971.  7.  Pensions improvements u n f a i r to r e t i r e d and s h o r t term teachers - 1971.  8.  M i n i s t e r i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s a l a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s - 1971.  9.  Finance  10.  on s c h o o l  formula  c o n s t r u c t i o n - 1966-68 finance  1970, 1971.  formula.  - 1970.  made even more r e s t r i c t i v e - 1972.  C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a b o l i s h e d - 1972.^  A glance a t those a c t i o n s most o b j e c t e d  government p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s shows t h a t the  to by the B.C.T.F. d i d not b e g i n  1966, and t h a t most o f them o c c u r r e d  to o c c u r  until  d u r i n g 1970, 1971,and 1972.  1966, when government p o l i c i e s became r e s t r i c t i v e ,  Until  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the B.C.T.F. and t h e government was f a i r l y good. In June, 1966, i t was r e p o r t e d i n t h e B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r f i r s t r e s t r i c t i o n on classroom  t h a t the  c o n s t r u c t i o n had been announced by  7  Education M i n i s t e r L e s l i e Peterson.  An e d i t o r i a l  followed,  blaming  r e s t r i c t i o n s on " r i s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o s t s , brought on i n l a r g e p a r t 2  by  t h e hydro p o l i c i e s o f t h e government i t s e l f . "  A f t e r t h i s , the  B.C.T.F. began to i n v o l v e i t s e l f i n e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s . provincial  When a B.C.  e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d f o r September 12, 1966, the B.C.T.F.  launched a program to make e d u c a t i o n  Questionnaires  an i s s u e i n the e l e c t i o n . 3  were m a i l e d out t o a l l  While t h e B.C.T.F h a d e n t e r e d  candidates.  the p o l i t i c a l  campaign w i t h  a c t i o n , i t d i d not advocate s u p p o r t f o r any p a r t i c u l a r p a r t y .  this After  u r g i n g i t s members t o v o t e f o r the c a n d i d a t e whose answers t o the questionnaire insisted,  were most f a v o r a b l e  to the t e a c h e r s ,  the E x e c u t i v e  "The B.C.T.F. has always been a n o n - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I t has t h e r e f o r e a v o i d e d a c t i o n s which c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d 4 any p o l i t i c a l  as f a v o r i n g  party."  A t the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting i n March, 1967, a recommendation was adopted c h a s t i s i n g the government f o r i t s " f a i l u r e to make adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r the f i n a n c i n g o f e d u c a t i o n " . Executive  Committee's R e s o l u t i o n  But the  19, which would have e s t a b l i s h e d an  emergency p r o t e s t fund by s p e c i a l l e v y on the membership, was defeated"? T h i s was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t d e l e g a t e s about e d u c a t i o n  t o the meeting were concerned  f i n a n c i n g , but n o t so concerned t h a t they f e l t  they s h o u l d p r o v i d e  that  e x t r a money f o r the purpose o f p r o t e s t i n g to the  government. In February o f 1968, a B.C.T.F. d e l e g a t i o n met w i t h the c a b i n e t ; something which had n o t been done f o r 15 y e a r s .  The i s s u e  discussed  8  concerned improvements to the t e a c h e r s ' pension teachers  A t t h a t time  r e t i r i n g a f t e r 30-35 y e a r s ' s e r v i c e r e c e i v e d on the  $275 a month. and was  plan.  The  t e a c h e r s ' pension  growing at the r a t e o f $12  fund had reached $130  m i l l i o n a y e a r , and  average  million,  the  delegation  6 wanted h i g h e r payouts from t h e fund. fund and  i n v e s t e d the money i n i t s own  f e l t t h a t r e t u r n on investment upon, and  The  government c o n t r o l l e d the  hydro p r o j e c t s .  The  (4% a t t h a t time) c o u l d be  they wanted c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own  pension  funds.  teachers  improved The  govern-  ment r e f u s e d to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l , however. In e a r l y 1968, now  another f r e e z e was  o n l y e s s e n t i a l classrooms were to be b u i l t ,  education  f a c i l i t i e s were to be c o n s t r u c t e d ;  the planned l i b r a r i e s were approved. h o l d back on s c h o o l c o s t s was Sections how  p l a c e d on s c h o o l  to  no new  physical  as w e l l , o n l y some o f  Then a more s e r i o u s move to  i n t r o d u c e d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e :  24-27 i n s t i t u t e d a new  i t was  and  construction;  education  finance formula.  Bill  This i s  operate: Grants to s c h o o l boards were based upon the average approved (by the M i n i s t r y o f Education) c o s t s o f the p r e v i o u s y e a r f o r the p r o v i n c e as a whole. T h i s average c o s t was a p p l i e d to each d i s t r i c t a c c o r d i n g to enrolment, and became the c o s t o f the B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Program f o r the d i s t r i c t . Each d i s t r i c t was r e s t r i c t e d i n b u d g e t i n g f o r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s to a f i g u r e t h a t was 10% above the amount o f i t s own B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Program. I f a d i s t r i c t wished to budget i n excess o f t h i s B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Program p l u s 10%, i t had to seek v o t e r a p p r o v a l through a referendum.7  J . A. Spragge, B.C.T.F. A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f P r o f e s s i o n a l  86.  9  Development, c a l l e d the new  f i n a n c e formula a " s t r a i t  j a c k e t " and  wrote, C a r e f u l examination o f S e c t i o n s 24-27 o f B i l l 86 convinces us t h a t the B i l l i s a d e v i c e to peg r a t e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e on s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n f o r an u n s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f years up a t a l e v e l equal t o , o r v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o , those i n e f f e c t i n 1967. T h i s b i l l pegs e x p e n d i t u r e a t 110% but the M i n i s t e r can d e c i d e t h a t o n l y 90% o f l a s t y e a r ' s budget might be used, l e a v i n g the d i s c r e t i o n f o r him t o approve o n l y 99% o f the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e x p e n d i t u r e , which would then f o r c e school!boards i f n e c e s s a r y to get m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o r a i s e the m i l l r a t e s f o r e d u c a t i o n purposes.8 The  B.C.T.F's response  f i n a n c e formula was Meeting  in April,  public relations  to the government's new  to pass s e v e r a l r e s o l u t i o n s a t i t s Annual  1968.  One  was  General  a r e s o l u t i o n to i n i t i a t e a s p e c i a l  campaign b e f o r e the next p r o v i n c i a l  i n f o r m v o t e r s o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the new and another was  education  election,  to  e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c e formula,  to impose a l e v y o f $3.00 on each B.C.T.F. member to 9  p r o v i d e funds  f o r the s p e c i a l p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign.  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s had become more w i l l i n g to take political  a c t i o n than they had been p r e v i o u s l y .  government a c t i o n s i n i n t r o d u c i n g the new  1968  Newsletter,  complained  The  teachers  I t seemed a d i r e c t r e s u l t  of  education f i n a n c e formula.  However, not a l l the members o f the F e d e r a t i o n approved the B.C.T.F. had d e c i d e d t o take;  concrete  J u s t the y e a r b e f o r e ,  R e s o l u t i o n 19 t o r a i s e funds by l e v y had been d e f e a t e d . were b e g i n n i n g to become more m i l i t a n t .  T h i s i s an  o f the a c t i o n s  a l e t t e r to the E d i t o r i n the  May,  t h a t o n l y 10% o f the members o f the B.C.T.F  10  had  voted f o r t h e $3.00 l e v y and the $5.00 i n c r e a s e  membership.  i n t h e B.C.T.F.  The a u t h o r f e l t t h a t members s h o u l d have had a vote,  whether o r n o t they were a t the Annual General Meeting, and c a l l e d the 10%  t h e " M i l i t a n t M i n o r i t y " and t h e 90% the "Non-Violent N i n e t y . "  l e t t e r was from T o r q u i l Macleod, o f Edmonds Elementary J u n i o r  The  Secondary  School. In May, 1968, t h e B.C.T.F. began to implement i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s campaign.  An A l l - C a n d i d a t e s  education  p r i o r to a b y - e l e c t i o n i n South Vancouver.  forum was  organized  Co-sponsors were;  Vancouver Elementary School Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver School Administrators'  A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e B.C.T.F. and t h e Vancouver Parent-  Teachers' C o u n c i l .  The Forum was p u b l i c i z e d by a t a b l o i d newspaper  d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e houses i n the r i d i n g , and by r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g . Norm L e v i , N.D.P. c a n d i d a t e and P r e s i d e n t won  o f t h e B.C. N.D.P. P a r t y  the e l e c t i o n . Immediately f o l l o w i n g the Forum there was evidence t h a t t h e  o v e r t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n taken by t h e B.C.T.F. i n h e l p i n g t o sponsor t h e all-Candidates article  forum, caused c o n t r o v e r s y  i n the membership.  An  denying p a r t i s a n s h i p was p r i n t e d i n the June, 1968 N e w s l e t t e r : D e s p i t e o u r e f f o r t s to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n , many p e o p l e s t i l l b e l i e v e t h a t the F e d e r a t i o n has embarked on a p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l campaign. Were the misunderstanding n o t so s e r i o u s , i t would be l a u g h a b l e . F o r reasons which escape us, some p e o p l e seem to be i n c a p a b l e o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between o p p o s i t i o n to a governmental p o l i c y and o p p o s i t i o n to t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y .  11  The B.C.T.F. i s n o t now and never has been f o r o r a g a i n s t any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Indeed, how can anyone s e r i o u s l y suggest t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e to get 19,000 teachers to agree to s u p p o r t o r oppose any p a r t y ? In s h o r t , we s u p p o r t o r oppose p o l i c i e s , not p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . . In t h e same month o f 1968, there was a c a b i n e t E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r was a p p o i n t e d :  Donald B r o t h e r s ,  p r e v i o u s l y been M i n i s t e r o f Mines and Resources.  s h u f f l e , and a new  a lawyer who had  This move by the  government gave B.C. a f u l l - t i m e E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r , which t h e teachers had  been demanding f o r some time.  L e s l i e Peterson, t h e p r e v i o u s  E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r , had h e l d a double p o r t f o l i o ; Labor.  t h a t o f E d u c a t i o n and  The June, 1968 B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r r e p o r t e d  t h a t the new  E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r addressed the B.C.T.F. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Assembly, and  d e c l a r e d t h a t he was a " f i r m b e l i e v e r i n e y e b a l l to e y e b a l l i f disputes  arise."  He s t a y e d  l e f t f o r a U.B.C. luncheon.  confrontation  f o r o n l y h a l f the d i s c u s s i o n s  and then  T h i s c r i t i c i s m i n the N e w s l e t t e r seemed  to i n d i c a t e the e a r l y b e g i n n i n g o f a breakdown i n communication between the B.C.T.F. and t h e E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r . By  the f a l l  o f 1968, the s c h o o l  c o n s t r u c t i o n f r e e z e had begun  to cause s e r i o u s d i s r u p t i o n s i n some o f the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l districts.  A system o f s e n d i n g students t o s c h o o l  i n s t i t u t e d i n the h a r d e s t - h i t areas, were o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c p r o t e s t s . a meeting i n Coquitlam, B.C. Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n .  i n s h i f t s had been  and branches o f the B.C.T.F.  In October,  2,500 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d  I t was sponsored by the l o c a l  Coquitlam  Those a t t e n d i n g were t o l d o f 4,200 s t u d e n t s  12  on s h i f t  i n the d i s t r i c t ,  a shortage o f 71 classrooms  o f the government t o r e l e a s e more than 1/3 passed by referendum i n Coquitlam by 80%  and o f the  o f the e i g h t m i l l i o n  the p r e v i o u s y e a r .  a t t e n d i n g the meeting v o t e d to w i r e Premier  Bennett  refusal dollars  Those  to r e q u e s t  the 12  r e l e a s e immediately  o f funds  for essential  In November, p o s s i b l y as a response  classroom c o n s t r u c t i o n . to the p u b l i c meeting, a  p a r t i a l thaw i n the f r e e z e on c l a s s r o o m c o n s t r u c t i o n was 13 gymnasia and a c t i v i t y rooms were not i n c l u d e d .  announced, but  This helped  such as Coquitlam, but i t d i d not e l i m i n a t e the problem; school  districts  the  secondary  i n C o q u i t l a m remained i n o p e r a t i o n on a s h i f t b a s i s f o r s e v e r a l  more y e a r s . In February, M i n i s t e r Donald financing.  1969,  a B.C.T.F. d e l e g a t i o n met  with  Education  B r o t h e r s to d i s c u s s the B.C.T.F.'s s t a n d on  B r o t h e r s was  g i v e n a copy o f a brochure  education  c a l l e d " L e t ' s Review  the Formula;" a B.C.T.F. commentary on the government's e d u c a t i o n finance p o l i c i e s .  Copies o f the brochure had been s e n t by the B.C.T.F.  to a l l M.L.A.s, s c h o o l t r u s t e e s and o t h e r s concerned finance.  The M i n i s t e r promised  Federation at a l a t e r  to review  about  the formula w i t h  education the  date.  In March, a group made up o f B.C.T.F. e x e c u t i v e members and teachers  (most o f them from d i s t r i c t s  i n V i c t o r i a t o lobby M.L.A.s and  f a c i n g education referenda)  cabinet m i n i s t e r s .  32 met  (Altogether that  y e a r , 40 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s out o f 77 exceeded the 110% l i m i t and o f 14 those, 9 h e l d r e f e r e n d a and o n l y 2 were passed.) The t e a c h e r s  13  c o n f r o n t e d M.L.A.s and c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s i n the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g c o r r i d o r s , had meetings w i t h them i n t h e i r o f f i c e s , d i n n e r , and some met  took  them out f o r  w i t h the Premier p e r s o n a l l y . A l t h o u g h  B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r r e p o r t e d the t r i p as " w e l l worth i t " , M.L.A. was  not so e n t h u s i a s t i c .  the  at l e a s t  one  Bob Wenman, a backbencher i n the  S o c i a l C r e d i t government from 1966-1972, s a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e author i n March, 1979,  "The  t e a c h e r s who  V i c t o r i a were rude and i g n o r a n t when they met  were coming over  to  us i n caucus."  He  ated, s a y i n g t h a t the t e a c h e r s were i s o l a t e d and had no way the whole p i c t u r e , t h a t they l i v e d i n an u n r e a l world,  elabor-  of seeing  going from  grade s c h o o l to h i g h s c h o o l , to u n i v e r s i t y and p r o c e e d i n g back to the p u b l i c school again. T h i s was  T h i s , he  felt,  a s u r p r i s i n g a t t i t u d e to take, because Wenman was  t e a c h e r , and  a member o f the B.C.T.F.  view t h a t t h e r e was  a cutback  ignorant. himself a  Wenman a l s o denied i n the  on e d u c a t i o n spending,  the government had been spending He  made them i s o l a t e d and  and  inter-  claimed t h a t  more on e d u c a t i o n than ever b e f o r e .  s a i d t h a t t h e r e had been a tremendous i n c r e a s e i n the bureaucracy  in  s c h o o l s , t h a t t h e r e were more f u l l - t i m e p r i n c i p a l s and more v i c e p r i n c i p a l s , and t h a t t e a c h e r s had fewer s t u d e n t s and  fewer c l a s s e s t o  t e a c h , w i t h more p r o f e s s i o n a l days and spares i n the h i g h s c h o o l s ; whereas i n the e a r l y 1960's they had had  to t e a c h a l l t h e time.  He  told  the a u t h o r t h a t a t t h a t time, the c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n had e s c a l a t e d tremendously.  When the i n t e r v i e w e r mentioned t h a t teachers had  because e d u c a t i o n had a s m a l l e r percentage  o f the t o t a l budget  complained than  14  p r e v i o u s l y , he s a i d t h a t percentage o f the budget was a meaningless concept, and t h a t the o n l y meaningful t h i n g to look a t was the c o s t per p u p i l , v i s - a - v i s other provinces.  However, he d i d not g i v e any  f i g u r e s t o support h i s v i e w p o i n t . Wenman a l s o t o l d t h e a u t h o r t h a t the B.C. government n e v e r p l a c e d a f r e e z e on s c h o o l  c o n s t r u c t i o n , but t h a t Bennett had e n f o r c e d  a slowdown  to b r i n g i n f l a t i o n under c o n t r o l by p l a c i n g a r e s t r a i n t on a l l p u b l i c s e c t o r spending.  He s a i d t h a t " f r e e z e " was j u s t a p o l i t i c a l  by  As f a r as the referendum i d e a was concerned, he s a i d  the t e a c h e r s .  term used  t h a t i t was i n s t i t u t e d to l e t the p u b l i c say i t s e l f t h a t i t was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s o f education. obtained had  by the a u t h o r w i t h Donald Brothers  I n the i n t e r v i e w  i n 1970, the M i n i s t e r a l s o  s a i d t h a t t h e r e a s o n a f r e e z e had been p l a c e d on s c h o o l  was t o f i g h t i n f l a t i o n ; operation  construction  and f u r t h e r , t h a t the f r e e z e on r e f e r e n d a i n  a t t h a t time was caused by a h i k e i n i n t e r e s t r a t e s on money  f o r borrowing. At the B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting i n A p r i l ,  1969, a  r e s o l u t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o l e v y one day's s a l a r y f o r t h e purpose o f p o l i t i c a l protest action. Representative  The r e s o l u t i o n was d e f e a t e d ,  b u t the  Assembly suggested that c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f one day's pay  c o u l d be made v o l u n t a r i l y by those o f the membership w i s h i n g to do s o . Some o f those a g a i n s t  the one-day l e v y e x p r e s s e d the f e a r t h a t t h e  government might take r e t a l i a t i v e measures a g a i n s t i t s members had to c o n t r i b u t e to a fund to f i g h t  the o r g a n i z a t i o n i f  government  policies."^  T h i s was the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the B.C.T.F. membership was f e a r f u l o f p o s s i b l e government r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s actions.  political  The e d i t o r s o f t h e monthly B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r were e v i d e n t l y  less cautious;  i n the June, 1969 e d i t i o n , they p r i n t e d a c a r t o o n  d e p i c t i n g the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n as a Nazi with j a c k b o o t s on, s h o o t i n g education pull  (a dead teacher) arid the c a p t i o n , "Don't blame me, I d i d n ' t  the t r i g g e r . " By t h i s time  in and  the o f f i n g .  (June,  1969) another  B.C. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was  The B.C.T.F. made plans t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the campaign,  engaged a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i r m t o h e l p them p u b l i c i z e  concerns.  their  A network o f c o n t a c t s ' was made i n l o c a l t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i -  z a t i o n s , and John A r n e t t , Press and I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r ,  called for  17 maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the t e a c h e r s .  The money f o r the t e a c h e r s '  p u b l i c i t y campaign d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n was t o come from t h e $3.00 f e e l e v i e d upon the t e a c h e r s a t the recommendation o f t h e 1968 Annual General Meeting.  The symbol f o r the t e a c h e r s ' campaign was an a p p l e .  I f an e l e c t i o n candidate sympathized  w i t h the p l a t f o r m o f the t e a c h e r s ,  he was to use the apple symbol t o a d v e r t i s e the f a c t . urged by the t e a c h e r s t o support The to  V o t e r s were then  the c a n d i d a t e s who used the symbol.  e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d f o r August 27, which made i t d i f f i c u l t  e n l i s t the h e l p o f t e a c h e r s s i n c e many were away on v a c a t i o n .  However, numerous t e a c h e r s d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e campaign.  President  Jim K i l l e e n f e l t t h a t t h e goal to make e d u c a t i o n a major i s s u e was a c h i e v e d , f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons:  16  Hundreds o f t e a c h e r s a l l over the p r o v i n c e discussed education with i n d i v i d u a l candidates . . . Teachers sponsored at l e a s t two dozen a l l c a n d i d a t e s ' meetings, which f e a t u r e d e d u c a t i o n p r o m i n e n t l y . . . Almost a l l o f the c a n d i d a t e s f e a t u r e d e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r campaigns . . . Most o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s used t h e apple symbol . . . The Socreds  r e s u l t s o f the e l e c t i o n were: L i b e r a l s 5, N.D.P. 12, and  38, g i v i n g t h e Socreds  and the N.D.P. 2 l e s s .  a g a i n o f 5 s e a t s over t h e 1966 e l e c t i o n ,  On C.B.U. Radio,  F r i d a y , August 29, A l l a n  Fotheringham r e p o r t e d , "The B.C. Teachers'  F e d e r a t i o n launched a  $50,000 a d v e r t i s i n g campaign a d v o c a t i n g d e f e a t o f the government. v o t e r s laughed  The  at the $50,000 and i g n o r e d the c a n d i d a t e s who had t h e 19  teachers' endorsation."  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t none o f the  S o c i a l C r e d i t c a n d i d a t e s used the apple symbol i n the e l e c t i o n A p p a r e n t l y , some thought  campaign.  t h a t the B.C.T.F. was out t o d e f e a t the  Socred government w i t h the Apple  Campaign.  B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t K i l l e e n  found i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e p o r t , Some people f e l t t h a t the campaign was d i r e c t e d at t h e government and/or the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . / I t was not . . .J Some people thought the campaign was designed t o promote the New Democratic P a r t y . /Nothing c o u l d be f u r t h e r from the t r u t h . . .J I t i s s a f e t o say t h a t , by e l e c t i o n time, people agreed t h a t t h e B.C.T.F. campaign had been conducted i n a n o n - p a r t i s a n manner.^0 In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e author conducted.in March, 1979, Bob  Wenman s a i d t h a t the t e a c h e r s had been v e r y u n f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e i r  campaign.  He claimed t h a t t h e y had sent r a d i c a l members t o a l l -  c a n d i d a t e s ' meetings t o h e c k l e Socred c a n d i d a t e s .  He s a i d t h a t some  17  teachers, to him.  embarrassed by t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e r a d i c a l s , had a p o l o g i z e d He i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s had made f o o l s o f themselves  i n t h e i r Apple Campaign, and t h a t i t was a " p a t h e t i c and r i d i c u l o u s campaign, which made t h e p u b l i c a n t i - t e a c h e r s , making i t p o s s i b l e t o make p o l i t i c a l hay i f you went a g a i n s t the t e a c h e r s . "  He f e l t  the Apple Campaign was "a mess" and s a i d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s l i k e the l e v y imposed on them the year b e f o r e .  that  didn't  He mentioned t h a t he,  too, was expected t o pay the l e v y , " i n o r d e r t o d e f e a t m y s e l f . " r e l u c t a n t l y admitted  He  t h a t subsequent a c t i o n s taken " a g a i n s t " the  teachers  were " i n some measure r e t r i b u t i o n " f o r t h e a c t i o n s o f the  teachers  d u r i n g the campaign.  In t h e f a l l  o f 1969, t e a c h e r s  i n various school  districts  encountered problems i n the n e g o t i a t i o n o f s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s w i t h r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l boards.  As t h e B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r  " S a l a r y agreements were n e g o t i a t e d t i n g 20% o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  reported,  i n o n l y 32 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ,  teachers.  their  S a l a r i e s f o r the o t h e r  affec-  80% were  21 determined by a r b i t r a t i o n h e a r i n g s . " T r u s t e e s were b a r g a i n i n g  i n bad f a i t h ,  I t was f e l t t h a t t h e School and i n November,  President  Jim K i l l e e n c a l l e d f o r a mass p r o t e s t r a l l y , t o be h e l d i n t h e P.N.E. Agrodome.  The subsequent r a l l y was the l a r g e s t meeting o f t e a c h e r s  ever h e l d i n B.C., w i t h 4,500 i n attendance.  A vote o f censure a g a i n s t  the B.C. School T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n was passed and arrangements were made t o s t r i k e a committee t o probe t e a c h e r s ' b a r g a i n i n g  rights?2  18  In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were d i s s a t i s f i e d  at that  time w i t h t h e i r s a l a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e f r e e z e on s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n , the e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c e formula, t h e i r pensions s i z e s , they were a d v i s e d by General  and t h e i r  S e c r e t a r y C D . Ovans n o t t o " r e s o r t  t o t a c t i c s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e m o r a l i t y (such as booking questionable l e g a l i t y  large class  o f f sick) or o f  (such as s t r i k e a c t i o n ) t o p r o t e s t t h e l a c k o f  n e g o t i a t i o n s by s c h o o l board."  He backed up h i s stand by s a y i n g ,  "Under t h e terms o f the P u b l i c Schools A c t . . . t e a c h e r s have c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s they cannot break without line.  To s t r i k e i t s e l f i s n o t i l l e g a l ;  p u t t i n g t h e i r j o b s on the  t o be i n breach o f a c o n t r a c t  23 is;"  he s a i d .  M i l i t a n t teachers  l a t e r accused  Ovans o f making p o l i c y  f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n , but Ovans was v i n d i c a t e d by P r e s i d e n t J i m K i l l e e n , who s a i d t h a t Ovans d i d n o t make p o l i c y f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  that the  d e c i s i o n a g a i n s t s t r i k e a c t i o n had been made i n a meeting o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee and t h e Agreements Committee b e f o r e the r a l l y . In March o f 1970, b e s i d e s t h e r e g u l a r n e w s l e t t e r , a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n d e a l i n g s t r i c t l y w i t h t e a c h e r s ' pensions detailed l i s t  was p u b l i s h e d .  A  o f a l l t h e B.C.T.F.'s l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s i n the p r e v i o u s  months was l i s t e d ,  inadequacies  i n the p e n s i o n were p o i n t e d out, and  i t was mentioned t h a t t h e r e was no new l e g i s l a t i o n planned year t o change the p e n s i o n p l a n .  There was a s t r o n g c a l l  f o r a r e s o l u t i o n t o be brought forward to be h e l d t h a t month.  f o r the f o r support  at t h e Annual General  Meeting  The r e s o l u t i o n t o be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e  d e l e g a t e s t o the Annual General Meeting  read as f o l l o w s :  19  That the B.C.T.F. d e c l a r e t h a t , u n l e s s the F e d e r a t i o n r e c e i v e s guarantees t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l improvements i n pensions l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d i n the 1971 s e s s i o n o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, t h i s Annual General Meeting d i r e c t s the E x e c u t i v e Committee t o c a l l f o r work-stoppages or o t h e r s a n c t i o n s t o compel governmental a t t e n t i o n t o the r e a s o n a b l e p r o p o s a l s the B.C.T.F. has advanced f o r improving t e a c h e r s ' pensions.24 The p u b l i c a t i o n o f the S p e c i a l March E d i t i o n o f the n e w s l e t t e r and  i t s attempt  t o make the p e n s i o n s an i s s u e i n the impending  General Meeting i n the Annual  i s an example o f e x e c u t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  General Meeting o f March, 1970,  p a v i n g the way  a s t r i k e vote a t  the government's c o n t r o l o f the fund, the low government  contribution,  At the time the r e s o l u t i o n  passed, the t o t a l p e n s i o n funds p a i d out each y e a r were l e s s  the i n t e r e s t  c o l l e c t e d on the fund.  been f i x e d i n 1961,  The  than  s t r u c t u r e o f the fund had  and the government's c o n t r i b u t i o n - $281  t e a c h e r , had not changed s i n c e t h a t time. 1968  passed,  The main cause f o r complaint about the p e n s i o n p l a n  and the low r e t u r n t o r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . was  the r e s o l u t i o n  f o r the E x e c u t i v e Committee t o c a l l  some l a t e r date. was  Annual  Changes i n 1965  per  and i n  accommodated the Canada P e n s i o n , but the government p a i d  the 25  Canada Pension c o n t r i b u t i o n from the f i x e d $281 At t h i s same Annual M i n i s t e r Donald  General Meeting,  B r o t h e r s was  sum  established in  a speech by E d u c a t i o n  b a d l y r e c e i v e d ; i t was  reported i n a  l o c a l newspaper, TEACHER DELEGATES JEER MINISTER The d e l e g a t e s j e e r e d openly when B r o t h e r s s a i d t h a t t e a c h e r s f o r m e r l y were drawn t o the p r o f e s s i o n "out o f sheer d e d i c a t i o n " but t h a t now  1961.  20  many came because o f the " f a v o r a b l e working c o n d i t i o n s and h o l i d a y b e n e f i t s and good r a t e s of pay."26 The  teachers  seemed t o have l o s t r e s p e c t f o r the M i n i s t e r , and  c a t i o n s were b r e a k i n g down between the two.  Brothers  communi-  continued,  "In  an e r a when c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s looked upon as a n a t u r a l procedure, be t h a t from c o n f l i c t w i l l On October 27,  1970,  come the seeds o f e d u c a t i o n a l growth." a f t e r the f e d e r a l government had  War  Measures Act d u r i n g the F.L.Q. C r i s i s , the B.C.  saw  f i t t o add  i t s endorsation  As  i t was  invoked  government  to the f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n by  an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g the F.L.Q. B.C.T.F.  i t may  the  itself  passing  r e p o r t e d i n the  Newsletter, Although the F e d e r a l War Measures Act was more than adequate l e g i s l a t i o n to cope with the F.L.Q. c r i s i s i n Quebec, the p r o v i n c i a l government s i n g l e d out t e a c h e r s ( p u b l i c s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y ) i n B.C. and made them the o n l y group of c i t i z e n s i n the e n t i r e country s u b j e c t t o i n s t a n t d i s m i s s a l f o r s a y i n g or doing a n y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as support o f or f o r the F.L.Q. p a r t y . 2 7  The  F.L.Q. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l was f o l l o w e d t h r e e days l a t e r by  referendum among t e a c h e r s was  t o see how  (October  30).  a  The purpose o f the referendum  many would f a v o r a s t r i k e to support  t h e i r pension  demands.  They v o t e d overwhelmingly i n f a v o r of a l l o w i n g the E x e c u t i v e t o c a l l  a  28 strike;  the r e s u l t s were 88%, At the b e g i n n i n g  to  or 22,000 t e a c h e r s  of March, 1971,  amend the P u b l i c Schools Act - B i l l  removal o f automatic  i n favor.  the government i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l  47.  Included  i n the B i l l  membership p r o v i s i o n s f o r c e r t i f i e d t e a c h e r s  B.C.T.F. and removal o f the r i g h t s o f t e a c h e r s  was i n the  t o run f o r p o s i t i o n s on  21  school  boards.  Another s e c t i o n o f t h e B i l l  B.C.T.F. t o n e g o t i a t e  association.  insulting, felt  for the  any u n i o n o r c l o s e d shop agreement w i t h s c h o o l  Teachers were incensed, their  made i t i m p o s s i b l e  boards.  and saw t h e amendment as an attempt t o d e s t r o y  Removal o f automatic membership was p a r t i c u l a r l y  f o r the teachers  had had those p r o v i s i o n s s i n c e 1947.  They  t h a t without automatic membership t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c i p l i n e  their  own p r o f e s s i o n was taken away from them, because as long as membership was  a c r i t e r i o n f o r anyone working i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l , e x p u l s i o n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n meant t h a t t h e t e a c h e r system i n B.C.  Without automatic membership, e x p u l s i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n would be meaningless. teach,  c o u l d no longer  teach  from  i n the  from t h e  I f one d i d n o t have t o belong t o  one would n o t be compelled t o behave i n an e t h i c a l manner i n t h e 29  eyes o f other t e a c h e r s .  Besides these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  the B i l l  presented a serious threat t o the s o l i d a r i t y o f the f e d e r a t i o n . On March 19, 1971, the t e a c h e r s strike one  f o r b e t t e r pensions.  day.  c a r r i e d out t h e i r t h r e a t t o  The s t r i k e was p r o v i n c e - w i d e and l a s t e d f o r  I t was t h e f i r s t p r o v i n c e - w i d e s t r i k e o f t e a c h e r s  h e l d i n B.C.  Many t e a c h e r s  felt  a f t e r the s t r i k e that  good e x p e r i e n c e , i n t h a t i t brought t h e t e a c h e r s cause;  t h a t o f concern f o r t h e poor r e t u r n s  ever t o be  i t had been a  together  i n a common  offered to r e t i r e d  teachers.  I t made them f e e l s e l f l e s s t o be a g i t a t i n g f o r something t h a t would not b r i n g them immediate p e r s o n a l  returns.  One former  Executive  Member l a t e r t o l d t h e author, "Some b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s happened that s t r i k e . "  during  E v i d e n t l y , t h e government was l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c .  Four  22  days l a t e r , on March 23,  Bill  47 passed T h i r d Reading i n the  Legislature,  arid the automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s were removed from the  legislation.  However, the  teachers'  s e c t i o n o f the  Bill  regarding  the removal o f the 30  r i g h t s t o run  f o r s c h o o l board had  President  Jim  Killeen felt  been withdrawn. t h a t the p a s s i n g  act o f r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the t e a c h e r s ' 1969  election.  zation. In an he who  He  felt  M.L.A. Bob  that  i t was  he  claimed  that  and  majority  s a i d i t was  o f the workers i n B.C. o f people i n B.C.  B.C.T.F. had  it  implemented i t . Wenman s a i d t h a t  be r e q u i r e d t o belong t o a n y t h i n g ,  about 35%  organi-  L a t e r the  r a t i o n a l e behind the change i n the membership p r o v i s i o n s was  He  the  was  the removal o f automatic membership i n the  ment made the p o l i c y i t s own  l i k e d the i d e a .  an  a different interpretation.  B.C.T.F. to the L e g i s l a t u r e as a P r i v a t e Member's B i l l .  should  was  a l s o an attempt t o weaken the  Wenman, however, had  introduced  Bill  Apple Campaign. waged p r i o r t o  i n t e r v i e w with the author i n March, 1979, first  o f the  and  governthe  t h a t no-one  t h a t the broad p u b l i c  d e s i g n e d f o r the p u b l i c , because were u n i o n i z e d ,  were a g a i n s t u n i o n s .  and He  only  that therefore also said that  been g e t t i n g m i l i t a n t , and many of the t e a c h e r s  the the  were uneasy  about h a v i n g to b e l o n g to such a m i l i t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Jack Smedley, P r e s i d e n t at  o f the  School T r u s t e e s '  Association  t h a t time, mentioned i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the author conducted i n  March, 1979,  t h a t he  felt  t h a t the reason the government took away the  automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s was had  B.C.  t h a t some members of the  complained t o the M i n i s t e r t h a t they d i d n ' t  B.C.T.F.  l i k e the m i l i t a n c y o f  23 the B.C.T.F. and d i d n ' t want t o b e l o n g t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t anti-Social Credit. removal  was  However, both Wenman and Smedley f e l t t h a t  o f the membership p r o v i s i o n s was  camel's back as f a r as t h e B.C.T.F. was automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s was Mayse, o f the V i c t o r i a Times,  the straw t h a t broke concerned.  criticized  the  the  The removal  i n the p r e s s ;  o f the  Arthur  wrote,  I t i s the n a t u r e o f government t o r e s e r v e i t s most p i o u s f a c e f o r i t s more dubious undertakings. By t h i s p l o y , what might look s u s p i c i o u s l y l i k e a S o c i a l Credit venture into u n i o n - b u s i n g i s p r e s e n t e d as something q u i t e o t h e r w i s e . . .I'm s o l i d l y on the s i d e o f the f e d e r a t i o n i n t h i s a s s a u l t by the government on a membership which f o r i t s own sake would be wise t o s t i c k with i t s u n i o n . . . . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s to,be d i v i d e d and conquered . . . . ^ F e e l i n g t h r e a t e n e d by the government's apparent emasculate  attempt  to  t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the B.C.T.F. launched a p u b l i c  relations  campaign to make the t e a c h e r s aware o f the many b e n e f i t s b e l o n g i n g to the F e d e r a t i o n , and at the Annual d e l e g a t e s approved  General Meeting o f May,  1971,  a p o l i c y t h a t would i n c r e a s e B.C.T.F. cash r e s e r v e s  by an amount o f h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s over the f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s . The  amount would come from an i n c r e a s e i n membership f e e s .  a l s o approved  a decreasing l i n e of c r e d i t  Delegates  at the bank i n o r d e r t o  p r o v i d e funds immediately i n case o f an emergency.  At t h i s  General Meeting the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n d i d not speak.  Annual School  T r u s t e e Jack Smedley t o l d the author t h a t B r o t h e r s didr.not f e e l  that  he would get a f a i r h e a r i n g , so he d i d n ' t g i v e h i s u s u a l address. From the evidence c o l l e c t e d so f a r , i t appears  t h a t the more  24  p u n i t i v e the government l e g i s l a t i o n the t e a c h e r s were t o p r o v i d e  appeared to t e a c h e r s ,  the more w i l l i n g  e x t r a funds and t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r membership  fees i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . On O c t o b e r 4, 1971, the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n School  announced a t the B.C.  T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n Convention t h a t the c e i l i n g i n those  school  d i s t r i c t s w i t h budgets o f t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s or more would be lowered from 110% o f t h e B a s i c Program to 108%.  Those d i s t r i c t s ,  accounted f o r about 85% o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n , and 85% o f  t h e gross  o p e r a t i n g budgets.  Brothers  35 i n a l l ,  t o l d the d e l e g a t e s :  T h i s i s the f a i r e s t formula f o r o p e r a t i n g expenses o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n Canada. We have l a b o r e d l o n g and hard to a r r i v e a t a s o l u t i o n which i s f a i r t o everyone and which c o r r e c t s the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the o r i g i n a l formula.32 An Social  editorial  i n the Vancouver Sun s t a t e d , " A l l the b i a s e s o f the  C r e d i t government are exposed by the new s c h o o l  announced by E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald B r o t h e r s .  financing policy  . . . I t i s anti-urban, 33  a n t i - t e a c h e r s , a n t i - e d u c a t i o n and i n s e n s i t i v e t o economic c o n d i t i o n s . " P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson s t a t e d , " I f c a r r i e d through, t h i s a c t i o n must be  regarded  as a t r a g i c blow a g a i n s t q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n i n B.C., and 34  another step i n the process In November, 1971, w h i l e the teachers  o f educational  erosion."  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was p r o c e e d i n g  and t h e s c h o o l boards, E d u c a t i o n  c e i l i n g o f 6.5% on t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s . d i s r u p t i o n o f the bargaining process;  M i n i s t e r Brothers  between  put a  T h i s was seen as a c l e a r  P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson s t a t e d ,  25  In a c a r e l e s s manner the M i n i s t e r , w i t h h i s focus on i n p u t s and outputs i n d o l l a r terms a l o n e , d i s r u p t e d the p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . With an announcement t h a t whatever the s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s were gained, he would share c o s t s o n l y up to 6.5%, the M i n i s t e r attempted to d e s t r o y c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g throughout the p r o v i n c e . . . This y e a r , as a r e s u l t o f the M i n i s t e r ' s unwarranted i n t r u s i o n i n t o c o l l e c t i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s , 5 3 o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s 77 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are committed to a r b i t r a t i o n ; o n l y 24 d i s t r i c t s have s e t t l e d o r have agreements-in-committee. In January, 1972,  i n s p i t e o f a l l the r e c e n t measures taken by  the government which seemed c a l c u l a t e d to a n t a g o n i z e  the t e a c h e r s ,  B.C.T.F. s t i l l  announced i n the  i n s i s t e d i t was  Newsletter  t h a t "The  political  stance but  non-partisan;  B.C.T.F.< w i l l continue  continue  to maintain  an independent  i t s p r a c t i c e o f commending o r  government e d u c a t i o n programs . . . i n d i c a t e d that  i t was  A general  ' p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s ' was  felt  the  criticizing  consensus o f o p i n i o n  to have no  role i n a  professional organization.""^ However, i n "the same month, the government i n t r o d u c e d B i l l put  a c e i l i n g on  t e a c h e r s ' wages, making any  3, which  i n c r e a s e s above t h a t amount  agreed to by n e g o t i a t i o n o r a r b i t r a t i o n s u b j e c t to a referendum i n the school  district  concerned.  T h i s meant t h a t the taxpayers  d i r e c t l y on t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s , and s c h o o l r e f e r e n d a up o f them would pass.  were to  decide  g i v e n the f a i l u r e o f most o f the  to t h a t time, i t would be extremely d o u b t f u l i f any Robertson s a i d ,  The amendment takes away from teachers t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e bargaining rights. I t denies t r u s t e e s , as duly e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the people, the  26  a u t h o r i t y to e x e r c i s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y accorded to them i n law o f a c t i n g as employers o f t e a c h e r s . As p r e s i d e n t o f the B.C.T.F., I took a s t r o n g p u b l i c s t a n d a g a i n s t the l e g i s l a t i o n , s t a t i n g f i r m l y : 'We w i l l not l i v e w i t h i t ' . There was no i n t i m a t i o n from government t h a t such l e g i s l a t i o n was contemplated. At s i x o ' c l o c k on January 28, the M i n i s t e r t o l d me t h a t the B i l l had been p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . The government's a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r s was made c l e a r - they don't care what we t h i n k . . . We have no c h o i c e but to t u r n to p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n defending o u r s e l v e s . . . T h i s i s not to say t h a t we s h o u l d o r need to engage i n p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s . . . .37  Even at t h i s partisanship".  l a t e date, the P r e s i d e n t was He was  still  i n s i s t i n g on  "non-  w i l l i n g to see i f the government would change i t s  p o l i c i e s , but i f i t would not, he t h r e a t e n e d ,  "we  must a c t i v e l y oppose the  38 p o l i c y u n t i l a new The  government i s e l e c t e d . "  B.C.T.F. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Assembly met  s e v e r a l measures to f i g h t B i l l  on February  3 and  approved  3, the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f which were to  b e g i n p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a s t r i k e v o t e , and to l e v y one  day's s a l a r y  from  each o f t h e members, the money to be used f o r " p u b l i c i t y and p o l i t i c a l The matters  would be brought up  f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n a t the Annual  action."  General  39 Meeting. In March,Robertson s t r o n g l y condemned the government and t h a t he would attempt to d e f e a t i t i f B i l l  3 was  not withdrawn.  announced With  these words, the B.C.T.F. gave up i t s n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p and embarked on anti-government p o l i t i c a l  an  campaign,  I take a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l s t a n d a g a i n s t the government at t h i s time. The government must change i t s p o l i c i e s d i s p l a y a reasonable degree o f f a i r p l a y and r e s p e c t  27  toward teachers and show some concern f o r the q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n , otherwise I w i l l do e v e r y t h i n g i n my power to b r i n g about i t s d e f e a t i n the next e l e c t i o n . 4 0 By  t h i s time, the B.C.T.F. was  opposed to B i l l the B i l l  3.  not  the o n l y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n  Other p u b l i c employees and  l a b o r union members  as an attempt to a b o l i s h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  B a r g a i n i n g Defence Committee" was B.C.T.F., the B.C.  The  B.C. saw  "Collective  formed, w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the  Government Employees' Union, the Canadian Union o f  P u b l i c Employees, H o s p i t a l Employees Union, the P s y c h i a t r i c Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C.,  and  the C o l l e g e F a c u l t y F e d e r a t i o n . A mass r a l l y  h e l d a t the P.N.E. Garden A u d i t o r i u m d i s c u s s i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f B i l l  i n March, 19 72,  was  f o r the purpose o f  3:  B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson c h a i r e d the meeting and J i m MacFarlan, F i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , d e l i v e r e d the opening address at the r a l l y t h a t rose from t e a c h e r s ' appeals to o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s u p p o r t i n the f i g h t a g a i n s t B i l l 3 . . . More than 3500 people r o a r e d a p p r o v a l as speaker a f t e r speaker denounced B i l l 3 . . . Gary Greene, P r e s i d e n t o f the B.C. D i v i s i o n o f C.U.P.E., spoke and p l e d g e d t h a t 15,000 C.U.P.E. members would do e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e i r power to d e f e a t B i l l 3 i f i t were passed ( s i c ) . C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y l e a d e r D e r r i l Warren l e n t h i s support a t the meeting, as d i d L i b e r a l M.L.A. B a r r i e C l a r k , O p p o s i t i o n Leader Dave B a r r e t t , B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour S e c r e t a r y Ray Haynes and o t h e r s . At the f i n i s h the crowd voted unanimously to condemn the B i l l as a n t i - e d u c a t i o n a l and anti-democratic.41 On March 27,  d e s p i t e t h e p r o t e s t s o f t e a c h e r s , p u b l i c employees,  union members and o t h e r segments o f s o c i e t y , B i l l i n the L e g i s l a t u r e by a vote o f 30 to 19.  The  3 p a s s e d T h i r d Reading  f a t was  i n the f i r e .  At  28  the  B.C.T.F. Annual General Meeting h e l d i n A p r i l ,  dations dealing with B i l l  3 were a l l passed.  p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a s t r i k e vote passed, 428 impose a l e v y o f one  day's s a l a r y on  The  1972,  the  recommen-  r e s o l u t i o n to b e g i n  to 122.  The  resolution  each member o f the  to  B.C.T.F. passed,  42 495  to  84. With funds coming i n from the one-day l e v y ,  organize t h e i r p o l i t i c a l government. voters  a c t i o n campaign a g a i n s t  They o r g a n i z e d v o t e r s '  were on  the v o t e r s '  lists,  B r o t h e r s ' e l e c t i o n newspaper ads.  the  t e a c h e r s began to  the S o c i a l  Credit  a c t i o n groups, made sure a l l e l i g i b l e  and began to answer E d u c a t i o n For  example, Press and  Minister  Information  O f f i c e r John Hardy sent s e v e r a l n e w s l e t t e r s to l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . o f them, dated A p r i l  14,  1972,  had  the f o l l o w i n g b i t s o f  advice;  Over the next t h r e e weeks the M i n i s t e r has reserved space i n newspapers f o r more o f h i s propaganda. What does i t i n d i c a t e ? F i r s t that he has enacted poor l e g i s l a t i o n and f e e l s compelled to r a t i o n a l i z e i t with advertising. Second, t h a t our r e p l y has shaken him--and by our r e p l y , I mean the m i l l i o n d o l l a r l e v y as w e l l as s p e c i f i c ads. Here's the immediate p l a n s . We w i l l be moving on to a new medium even w h i l e he i s r u n n i n g h i s ads. TV c l i p s are b e i n g p r e p a r e d . A f t e r he has exhausted h i s c r e a t i v i t y i n the newspapers i t i s l i k e l y t h a t we w i l l p r i c e h i s e f f o r t and l e t the p e o p l e know the s s h o c k i n g waste o f p u b l i c money, a l l to degrade education. We may a l s o run an ad i n the F i n a n c i a l Post, which i s an i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l Canada wide, and p o i n t out the gross mismanagement o f p u b l i c monies. . . . Another t h i n g to do i s to get l e t t e r s i n to the e d i t o r . Spread the word l o c a l l y t h a t teachers have been s i n g l e d out as an o c c u p a t i o n a l group ( d i c t a t o r s h i p ) and t h a t the government i s c o v e r i n g up i t s s i n s w i t h t a x p a y e r s ' money i n an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign c a l c u l a t e d to m i s l e a d the public (fraudulent advertising).43  0ne  :  29  The B.C.T.F. and Donald B r o t h e r s engaged i n a war o f s t a t i s t i c s i n the l o c a l newspapers.  Brothers declared that with school costs  w i t h i n 10 y e a r s e d u c a t i o n would take o v e r the e n t i r e budget. r e p l i e d w i t h graphs showing  t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e o f budget  elementary and secondary e d u c a t i o n was the upswing.  rising,  Teachers  earmarked f o r  on the d e c l i n e r a t h e r than on  The B.C.T.F. p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f f o u r  n e w s l e t t e r s , b e a r i n g such b y l i n e s as "Gov.lt Obscures  "Crisis" Real I s s u e s , "  "Socreds c r y i n g w o l f on c o s t s , " " S a l a r y share same f o r decade," "Adam asks f o r p r o t e s t v o t e , " i n coming e l e c t i o n "  " I t ' s the end o f an e r a -- Socreds v u l n e r a b l e  "Teachers not to blame f o r poor s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s , "  "Is Premier Bennett another Juan Peron?" and " F i n a n c i a l Wizard o r Master of Deceit?" Besides these n e w s l e t t e r s , the B.C.T.F. p u b l i s h e d numerous pamphlets  and l e t t e r s .  and a. comprehensive  Teachers wrote l e t t e r s to e d i t o r s o f newspapers,  b o o k l e t was  sent out, c a l l e d Teachers v e r s u s S o c i a l  C r e d i t ; i n i t B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson i s s u e d a b a t t l e - c r y ; "I c a l l on a l l teachers and o t h e r c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n , and i n freedom,  to u n i t e and to work f o r the d e f e a t o f the S o c i a l  government i n the next  election."  The campaign o f the t e a c h e r s became a p u b l i c i s s u e . m e n t a l i s t S u r r e y clergyman wrote a l e t t e r to the Columbian condemning the teachers f o r b e i n g " u n c h r i s t i a n . " teachers,  Credit  One  funda-  newspaper  Several Socred  (Barber and Hale from V i c t o r i a ) took i s s u e w i t h the one-day's  30  s a l a r y l e v y , took the matter to c o u r t , and o b t a i n e d the B.C.T.F.  an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t  The funds which had amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1 m i l l i o n  were f r o z e n , and none o f t h e a s s e t s o f t h e B.C.T.F. c o u l d be touched for  use as p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t .  The whole p o l i t i c a l  campaign which had  been p l a n n e d to d e f e a t the Socreds seemed i n jeopardy. Executive  Committee formed the Teachers' P o l i t i c a l  Undaunted, the  A c t i o n Committee,  i n c o r p o r a t e d i t under the S o c i e t i e s ' A c t , and c a r r i e d on t h e i r until  the e l e c t i o n o f 1972 when t h e Socreds were This c h a p t e r  has d e a l t w i t h  by t h e government and o b j e c t e d education  f i n a n c e formula,  finally  defeated.  the major p o l i c y a c t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t  t o by the B.C.T.F.  the f r e e z e s on s c h o o l  necessitating the i n s t i t u t i o n o f s h i f t s , and  campaign  The r e s t r i c t i v e 1968 construction  the l a c k o f p e n s i o n improvements,  t h e removal o f automatic membership p r o v i s i o n s and t h e  passage o f B i l l  3, were seen by most -teachers  them as a group.  They f e l t t h a t the l a s t  taken i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r the t e a c h e r s ' While the t e a c h e r s  as a c t i o n s p u n i t i v e t o  two a c t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y were  c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e government.  i n i s t e d t h a t they were c r i t i c i z i n g  the government's  p o l i c i e s and not the government i t s e l f , the government d i d not make that d i s t i n c t i o n .  The teachers  finally  a c t i o n p r i o r t o the 1972 e l e c t i o n . r e s u l t o f the government's a c t i o n s . which i n f l u e n c e d the teachers chapters  will  deal w i t h  turned  to p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l  On the s u r f a c e , i t seemed a d i r e c t But t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r f a c t o r s  to a c t as they d i d .  The f o l l o w i n g  these l e s s t a n g i b l e i n f l u e n c e s .  31 CHAPTER ONE  - FOOTNOTES  1.  "The S o c i a l C r e d i t Record", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n C r i s i s N e w s l e t t e r #3, Vancouver, 24 March 1972, p. 1.  2.  " E d i t o r i a l " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' V o l . 5 No. 7, June 1966, p. 2.  3.  " F e d e r a t i o n C a l l s f o r P u b l i c Stand," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 6 N o . l , September 1966, p. 1 Q u e s t i o n s :  Federation Newsletter,  1.  What, i f a n y t h i n g , would you do t o reduce pupil-teacher ratio?  2.  What p o s i t i v e measures would you propose to ensure an adequate s u p p l y o f w e l l - q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s f o r B.C. s c h o o l s ?  3.  What steps would you recommend to m a i n t a i n the p r e s e n t h i g h standards o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n the p r o v i n c e ?  4.  Are you i n f a v o r o f a g r e a t e r percentage o f the t a x d o l l a r b e i n g a l l o c a t e d to education?  5.  Do you b e l i e v e t h a t B.C. M i n i s t e r o f Education?  6.  Are you i n f a v o r o f s e t t i n g up an e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h program i n B.C.?  s h o u l d have a  the  full-time  4.  " P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 6 No. 1, September 1966, p. 2.  5.  B.C.  6.  " D e l e g a t i o n Meets Cabinet on Pensions", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r E x t r a E d i t i o n , V o l . 7 No. 6, February 1968, p. 1.  7.  " E d u c a t i o n F i n a n c e " , Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, Vancouver, p. 75. J.A. Spragge, "New Finance Formula a S t r a i t - J a c k e t " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 7 No. 9, A D r i l p.l.  8.  9.  Teachers'  B.C. Teachers' pp. 5 and 6.  F e d e r a t i o n , Annual General Meeting  F e d e r a t i o n , Annual General Meeting  Federation  Report  Report  1967,p.  1968,  8.  1968,  32 10.  "500 Vol.  a t Forum", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , 7 No. 12, June, 1968, p. 1.  11.  I b i d . , p.  12.  "2500 A t t e n d M e e t i n g " , N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 7 No.  13.  " P r e d i c t i o n s True", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 2, November, 1968, p. 2.  14.  "40 School D i s t r i c t s Exceed 110% L i m i t " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 7, A p r i l 1969, p. 7, and "Washington, Oregon E x p e r i e n c e O p e r a t i n g Referenda ' D i s a s t r o u s ' ", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 1.  15.  "Frank T a l k From Four T e a c h e r s " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 7, A p r i l 1969, p. 1. '  16.  "One Day's Pay Sought to B u i l d Fund", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 1.  17.  " E d u c a t i o n B i g Issue i n Upcoming Campaign", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p i 8.  18.  "Says P r e s i d e n t K i l l e e n 'Campaign w i l l C o n t i n u e ' ", B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 1.  19.  " K i l l e e n Comments 'How Do you Measure Success?' " B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 4.  20.  "Says P r e s i d e n t K i l l e e n 'Campaign w i l l C o n t i n u e ' ", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 1.  21.  "Committee t o Probe B a r g a i n i n g R i g h t s , " B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 6, January 1970, p. 1.  22.  Loc. c i t .  23.  " R a l l y f o r T e a c h e r s " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 5, December 1969, p. 1.  24.  "Pensions R e s o l u t i o n to be P l a c e d Before Annual General M e e t i n g " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , V o l . 9 No. 9, March 1970, p. 4.  3. B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n 14, O c t o b e r 1968, p. 1.  33  25_.  T. H u t c h i s o n , "Pensions", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n Newsletter, V o l . 9 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1970, p. 1.  26.  "Teacher Delegates J e e r M i n i s t e r " , S u r r e y Columbian, Tuesday 31 March 1970, p. 1.  27.  "The S o c i a l C r e d i t Record", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' N e w s l e t t e r C r i s i s #3, 24 March 1972, p. 1.  28.  "88% W i l l S t r i k e i f Necessary", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 5, December 1970, p. 1.  29.  "Message from P r e s i d e n t Jim K i l l e e n " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 1.  30.  Loc. c i t .  31.  A. Mayse, "Others Are S a y i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t 'Union B u s t i n g ' ", V i c t o r i a Times, March 3, 1971, as r e p o r t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2.  32.  "Formula Change Means Budget Cuts", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 3, October 1971, p. 1.  33.  I b i d . , p.  2.  34.  I b i d . , p.  1.  35.  A. Robertson, " M i n i s t e r D i s r u p t i n g System", B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 5, November 1971, p. 1.  36.  " P a r t i s a n P o l i t i c s Out!", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 7, January 1972, p. 2.  37.  A. Robertson, "We Won't L i v e w i t h I t ! " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , February 1972, p. 1.  38.  Loc. c i t .  39.  Loc. c i t .  40.  A. Robertson, " P r e s i d e n t Speaks Out", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 10, March 1972, p . l .  Surrey,  Federation  Teachers'  Federation  34  41.  Loc. c i t .  42.  "AGM Q u i e t B e f o r e Storm", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 13, A p r i l 1972, p. 1.  43.  J . Hardy, " A d v e r t i s i n g , B.C. f o r Local A s s o c i a t i o n Pros.  Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r V o l . 3, No. 8, A p r i l 1972, pp. 1 § 2.  35 CHAPTER TWO B.C.T.F. INCREASES WEALTH AND EXPERTISE  I n t h e p e r i o d 1963-1972, t h e B.C.T.F. changed i t s p h i l o s o p h y o f n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p , gained a w e a l t h o f e x p e r i e n c e  i n l o b b y i n g and  succeeded i n i t s campaign a g a i n s t t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government. W i t h o u t changes i n the r e s o u r c e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n (and i n i t s number o f p a i d p e r s o n n e l ) , these t h i n g s might n o t have been p o s s i b l e .  What, t h e n ,  were these changes, and how d i d they a f f e c t t h e success  o f the teachers  i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e government and i t s p o l i c i e s ? I n O c t o b e r o f 1966, facilities.  t h e B.C.T.F. i n c r e a s e d i t s p h y s i c a l  A $500,000 a d d i t i o n was b u i l t t o t h e e i g h t - y e a r - o l d B.C.T.F.  b u i l d i n g on B u r r a r d S t r e e t i n Vancouver.  T h i s added 18,000 square f e e t  and a 300-seat a u d i t o r i u m , d o u b l i n g t h e p r e v i o u s f a c i l i t i e s .  At that  t i m e , t h e membership i n the B.C.T.F. was 16,600 and growing a t 6% p e r year;  and 2% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia were teachers.^" I n March, 1967, t h e B.C.T.F. income t o t a l l e d $914,059;  this i s  how i t was s p e n t : Salaries S a l a r y Indemnity % Benevolent Fund Travelling Excess Revenue Canadian Teachers' Federation C o n v e n t i o n A.G/M Departments § Committees  32.03% 8.82% 4,46% 18.18% 3.09% 1 .53% 9.25%  -  i . e . Public Relations § E d u c a t i o n Week $10,564.35  36  General International Assistance Magazine  B.C.T.F. budget passed the m i l l i o n d o l l a r mark,  budgets c o n t i n u e d to  short  $  space o f f i v e y e a r s ,  Even a c c o u n t i n g f o r i n f l a t i o n , B.C.T.F. a l s o had of p o l i t i c a l at the 1972,  1968 and  and  increase: 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972  In the  1.72% 4.77%  2 $166,161.16  - Surplus Soon the  16.15%  the  914,059 1,362,582 1,685,704 1,699,100 1,647,779 1,906,184  the budget o f the B.C.T.F. doubled. i n c r e a s e was  substantial.  The  the a b i l i t y to r a i s e funds q u i c k l y f o r the purpose  campaigning;  f o r example, the  t h r e e - d o l l a r l e v y approved  Annual General Meeting, the one-day's pay  levy passed i n  the a b i l i t y o f members to r a i s e money f o r T.P.A.C. when they  were thwarted i n u s i n g r a i s e membership f e e s ;  t h e i r one-day l e v y .  As w e l l , i t was  f o r example, the May  1971  possible  B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r  announced t h a t d e l e g a t e s to the Annual General Meeting had  approved  increase  i n the membership f e e s , aimed at i n c r e a s i n g B.C.T.F. cash  reserves  by h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s w i t h i n  f i v e years.  bank c r e d i t to p r o v i d e p o s s i b l e emergency funds was  A decreasing  a l s o agreed to  The  the  meeting.  budget f o r the  B.C.T.F. came from membership f e e s .  matter o f i n t e r e s t , the B.C.T.F. a l s o had  assets  As  i n i t s Teachers'  an  line by  4 those a t t e n d i n g  to  a  37  Investment and Housing C o - o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n and i n t h e B.C. Teachers' C r e d i t Union. "investment . . .  The B.C.T.F. C o - o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r e d  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , mortgages, i n s u r a n c e , c h a r t e r f l i g h t s , e t c .  The B.C.T.F. Teachers' C r e d i t Union . . . s a v i n g s p l a n s ,  p e r s o n a l l o a n s , chequing a c c o u n t s , endowment p l a n s , s a f e d e p o s i t boxes, t r a v e l l e r s ' cheques, etc.""' In March, 1970, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a s s e t s o f t h e B.C.T.F. C o - o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n had exceeded $25 m i l l i o n .  W h i l e t h e B.C.T.F.  d i d not r e c e i v e income from these a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e i r e x i s t e n c e d i d i n c r e a s e t h e f e d e r a t i o n ' s scope. The  B.C.T.F. had become a w e a l t h y o r g a n i z a t i o n , and c o u l d a f f o r d  t o pay f o r e x p e r t i s e .  The t h r e e - d o l l a r l e v y i n 1968 was used t o f u n d  the A p p l e Campaign,, b e f o r e t h e 1968 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . was n o t l e f t f o r amateurs t o o r g a n i z e .  The campaign  John A r n e t t , former  education  r e p o r t e r f o r t h e Vancouver Sun and t h e B.C.T.F.'s new Press and I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h F o s t e r , Young, Ross Anthony and A s s o c i a t e s , the F e d e r a t i o n ' s a d v e r t i s i n g agency, o r g a n i z e d t h e campaign. They made p r e p a r a t i o n s t o s t a r t t h e campaign t h e day t h e e l e c t i o n was announced, wrote l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t s a s k i n g them t o c o n s i d e r s e t t i n g up l o c a l committees t o c o - o r d i n a t e the campaign a t the l o c a l l e v e l , and g e n e r a l l y d e v i s e d a p l a n o f a c t i o n , e n c o u r a g i n g t h e 7 teachers to co-operate  with their plans.  Even though t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1969 was c a l l e d f o r t h e summer when  38  many t e a c h e r s were away, they s t i l l managed t o m o b i l i z e , as P r e s i d e n t Jim K i l l e e n reported: When c o n t a c t s were a r r a n g e d , b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were sent t o them, i n c l u d i n g such m a t e r i a l a s ; e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t maps, s c h o o l d i s t r i c t maps, sample c o p i e s o f the two b r o c h u r e s , r e p r i n t s o f the f o u r major ads used i n the media campaign, e l a b o r a t i o n o f our e d u c a t i o n p l a t f o r m s t a t e m e n t s , s u g g e s t i o n s f o r h o l d i n g meetings o f l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s , q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be a s k e d o f l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s , o r posed a t c a n d i d a t e s ' meetings, bumper s t i c k e r s , a r t i c l e s by C D . Ovans and J.A. Spragge on t h e e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c e f o r m u l a . . . A l l c a n d i d a t e s (187) r e c e i v e d a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r from t h e p r e s i d e n t p l u s a k i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n and m a t e r i a l s . . . A l l T.V. and r a d i o s t a t i o n s and a l l B.C. newspapers (95) r e c e i v e d a k i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l a i n i n g the F e d e r a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n . An a e r i a l s i g n — t o w e d by an a i r p l a n e - f l o a t e d above the P.N.E. p a r a d e . ^ The  t h r e e - d o l l a r l e v y was  put to good use.  $39,000 on media a d v e r t i s i n g a l o n e , i n the 1969 was  not an unusual  o r d i f f i c u l t a s s e t to t a p .  The  B.C.T.F. spent  campaign.  The  levy  At the 19 70 Annual  General M e e t i n g , when f o r m e r B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t Bob  Buzza a t t e m p t e d t o  i n c r e a s e the t e a c h e r s ' membership f e e s from $80 p e r y e a r t o $200 p e r y e a r to p r o v i d e money f o r m i l i t a n t a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h e r s ' p e n s i o n p l a n , the motion was  d e f e a t e d , but the Annual General  Meeting  9 decided that another  l e v y c o u l d be used l a t e r .  I n February o f 1970,  the B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t ' s allowance, was  r a i s e d , and F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t became a p a i d p o s i t i o n w i t h f u l l o f f from t e a c h i n g d u t i e s .  time  This enabled d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n to devote t h e i r e n e r g i e s time to l e a d e r s h i p i n the F e d e r a t i o n .  More time was  now  full-  available for  39  the c r e a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f p l a n s and p o l i c i e s on b e h a l f o f t h e teachers. In March, 1971, when t h e P u b l i c Schools A c t was r e v i s e d t o e l i m i n a t e a u t o m a t i c membership i n the B.C.T.F., an i n f o r m a t i o n a l a r t i c l e was p r i n t e d i n t h e N e w s l e t t e r .  The purpose o f the a r t i c l e  was t o remind r e a c h e r s o f the many s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e B.C.T.F. I t was hoped t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e removal o f a u t o m a t i c  membership,  t e a c h e r s would v o l u n t a r i l y remain i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  statements  i n t h e a r t i c l e p r o v i d e d a good s u r v e y o f t h e many a i d s a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s , arid demonstrated t h e e x t e n s i v e range o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . For t h e purpose o f d e s c r i b i n g some o f the c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e B.C.T.F., p a r t o f the a r t i c l e i s i n c l u d e d here:  DID YOU KNOW The B.C.T.F. i s t h e o n l y t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d t h a t o f f e r s a Lesson A i d s s e r v i c e ; any B.C.T.F. member may borrow books, p e r i o d i c a l s , f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s , r e c o r d i n g s and tapes from t h e B.C.T.F. Resources C e n t e r . The B.C.T.F. has a s s i s t e d thousands o f t e a c h e r s i n l o c a t i n g t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s . The B.C.T.F. has s u c c e s s f u l l y opposed such p r o p o s a l s as one t o s h o r t e n the E a s t e r V a c a t i o n and one t o i n s t i t u t e p r o v i n c i a l s a l a r y b a r g a i n i n g on terms t h a t would have been u n f a v o u r a b l e t o t e a c h e r s . The B.C.T.F. o f f e r s g r a n t s t o l o c a l assoc i a t i o n s t o enable them t o send d e l e g a t e s t o t h e Annual General Meeting and Summer Conference, so t h a t a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d . The B.'C.T.F. R e t i r e m e n t Savings P l a n o f f e r s B.C.T.F. members t a x s h e l t e r e d s a v i n g s . The B.C. Teacher i s r a t e d by o u t s i d e p u b l i s h e r s as t h e l e a d e r i n Canadian t e a c h e r s ' magazines. B.C.T.F. summer s h o r t courses o f f e r p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  40  to t e a c h e r s a t a l l l e v e l s . The B.C.T.F. pays f o r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s the cost o f s a l a r y a r b i t r a t i o n s o v e r and above a sum equal t o $10 a member o f t h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The B.C. Teachers' C r e d i t Union o f f e r s s a v i n g s p l a n s , p e r s o n a l l o a n s , chequing a c c o u n t s , s a f e d e p o s i t boxes, t r a v e l l e r s ' cheques, e t c . The B.C.T.F. C o - o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r s investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , mortgages, i n s u r a n c e , c h a r t e r f l i g h t s , e t c . Through g r a n t s t o i s o l a t e d l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e B.C.T.F. makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r s i n those areas t o meet w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s on p r o f e s s i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters. The B.C.T.F. Benevolent Fund p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n cases o f emergency. Any B.C.T.F. member i s e n t i t l e d t o f r e e l e g a l a d v i c e on any m a t t e r a r i s i n g from h i s p o s i t i o n as a t e a c h e r . The B.C.T.F. Teacher Award Fund p r o v i d e s cash awards t o t e a c h e r s f o r i n n o v a t i v e t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . There are 22 p r o v i n c i a l s p e c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n ' the B.C.T.F. through which t e a c h e r s can pursue t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The B.C.T.F. p r o v i d e s a l l members each y e a r w i t h a summary o f t h e s a l a r i e s p a i d by a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e ^ p r o v i n c e . T h i s y e a r ' s summary w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n t h e March i s s u e o f t h e B.C. Teacher. The B.C.T.F. i s promoting the development o f c u r r i c u l a a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The B.C.T.F. campaign on c l a s s s i z e s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d c l a s s e s o f more than 40 s t u d e n t s . The maximum c l a s s room t e a c h e r ' s s a l a r y i n 1947, the y e a r the B.C.T.F. g a i n e d a u t o m a t i c mambership was $4,400 a y e a r . I n 1971 t h e maximum c l a s s room t e a c h e r ' s s a l a r y i s $15,118. 11  An example o f t h e B.C.T.F.'s growth i n c a p a c i t y was t h e i n c r e a s e i n the number o f p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e 1953-1963, 34 p o l i c y statements by t h e B.C.T.F.  statements.  and 35 procedure  F o r example, from statements  From 1964-1974, 215 p o l i c y statements  were made  and 210  12 procedure  statements  were made.  Such statements  a r e made by Annual  General M e e t i n g s , meetings o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Assembly, and t h e  41  Executive, or a combination o f these.  I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d  a c a t e g o r y not c o v e r e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p o l i c i e s and  procedures.  P o l i c y statements range from such s e e m i n g l y obvious statements as 1.A.01 - "(a) A s u p e r v i s o r , to be e f f e c t i v e , must enjoy the c o n f i d e n c e those s u p e r v i s e d . "  to such l o a d e d statements as 37.01  - "That the  B.C.T.F. go on r e c o r d as b e i n g opposed to the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f weapons t e s t i n g  ('62  A.G.M., P. 44 § Reviewed Nov.  "That the B.C.T.F. v o i c e i t s o p p o s i t i o n to any  '73 Ex p 3)  (Jan.'78 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  From the b e g i n n i n g 1972,  nuclear and  f u r t h e r uranium mine  s i t e developments i n B r i t i s h Columbia, u n t i l a j u d i c i a l i n q u i r y been h e l d . "  of  has  Assembly).  o f the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n u n t i l i t s end  in  the B.C.T.F. p r o g r e s s e d from an o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned w i t h  lobbying f o r the teachers,  t o a m i l i t a n t and h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d ,  san f o r c e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l system i n B r i t i s h Columbia. a l o n e i n c r e a s e d from 16,000 i n 1966  The  t o o v e r 22,000 i n 1972,  parti-  membership i n spite  of  the f a c t t h a t the government had t a k e n away p r o v i s i o n s f o r a u t o m a t i c membership.  An  teachers  the f a c t t h a t when i t was  was  i n d i c a t i o n o f how  i m p o r t a n t the f e d e r a t i o n was  to most  no l o n g e r mandatory t o b e l o n g to 14  the o r g a n i z a t i o n , o n l y 69 t e a c h e r s The  i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h was  chose not to renew t h e i r memberships.  p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s e i n member-  s h i p and p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e s i n s t i t u t i o n of l e v i e s .  i n membership fees and  the  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e B.C.T.F. would  not have become as l a r g e and as w e a l t h y i f the government had been more  42  sympathetic system.  t o what t h e t e a c h e r s saw as n e c e s s a r y  i n the education  When t h e government r e f u s e d t o comply w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s '  demands t o lower p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o s , p r o c e e d w i t h p l a n n e d s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c r e a s e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s ' b e n e f i t s , change t h e f i n a n c e f o r m u l a and p r o v i d e f o r f r e e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t e a c h e r s were w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e funds f o r p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t purposes.  Increases i n  membership f e e s a l l o w e d t h e budget o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o double i n s i x y e a r s w h i l e t h e membership i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 33 p e r c e n t . h i g h degree o f e x p e r t i s e , o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s  With i t s  i n terms o f money  and t h e p o t e n t i a l t o r a i s e money, t h e B.C.T.F. became a f o r c e t o r e c k o n w i t h i n t h e B.C. p o l i t i c a l system.  When t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e  F e d e r a t i o n were m o b i l i z e d f o r t h e purpose o f d e f e a t i n g t h e government, even an i n j u n c t i o n c o u l d n o t staunch  the flow  o f anti-government  propaganda and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n mounted by t h e t e a c h e r s under t h e leadership of t h e i r organization.  43  CHAPTER TWO  - FOOTNOTES  1.  " B u i l d i n g Grows w i t h F e d e r a t i o n " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 6 No. 2, October 1966, p. 1.  2.  " F e d e r a t i o n Income T o t a l s $914,059", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 6 No. 7, March 1967, p. 4.  3.  "Budget", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r s , V o l . 9 No. 6, January 1970, p. 6; V o l . 10 No. 6, January 1971, p. 4; V o l . 11 No. 6, December 1971, p. 2.  4.  "Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g D e l e g a t e s Okay Fund Fee H i k e , " British Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 11, May 1971, p . l .  5.  " D i d You Know?" B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2.  6.  "Co-op Passes $25 M i l l i o n Mark," B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 8, March 1970, p. 7.  7.  " E d u c a t i o n B i g Issue i n Upcoming Campaign'.', B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 8 No. 9, June 1969, p. 8.  8.  "The Campaign - How The Word Was Spread", B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 1, September 1969, p. 2.  9.  "Fee Boost to $200 Defeated",' B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 10, A p r i l 1970, p. 1.  i  10.  " P r e s i d e n t ' s A l l o w a n c e R a i s e d " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 7, F e b r u a r y 1970, p. 1.  11.  " D i d You Know?" B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March 1971, p. 2.  12.  B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, pp. 9-10.  13.  B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , Members' Guide to the B.C.T.F. 1978/79, pp. 10 § 51.  14.  B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , Teachers Versus S o c i a l Vancouver, August 19 72, p. 9.  Credit,  44  CHAPTER THREE A POWER STRUGGLE AND  THE  BIRTH OF T .P.A.C.  I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e was  an i n t e r n a l change i n  the B.C.T.F. i n t h a t i t became more w e a l t h y and more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n the 1960's.  There were a l s o o t h e r i n t e r n a l changes d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d .  These were the r e s u l t o f a power s t r u g g l e , and a v i c t o r y o f the o v e r the r i g h t i n  1972.  In March, 1979,  the a u t h o r conducted i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  members o f the E x e c u t i v e  Committee who  a power s t r u g g l e between C.D.,  Executive "Subject  Ovans, who  the E x e c u t i v e  Committee had t o by-laws 6,  several  had h e l d o f f i c e i n the B.C.T.F.  d u r i n g the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's.  from 1945-1973, and  They c l a i m e d was  that there  the General  Committees.  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , the  the p o w e r - - a c c o r d i n g to By-Law no. 8, 9 and  v i s i o n o f t h e b u s i n e s s and However, the E x e c u t i v e  5.3,  14, the E x e c u t i v e Committee s h a l l super-  the conduct o f the a f f a i r s o f the f e d e r a t i o n . "  Committees d i d not r e a l l y b e g i n t o  exercise  t h a t power u n t i l the mid-1960's, when s e v e r a l s t r o n g p r e s i d e n t s these were J.H.  R o b e r t s o n (1966/67), Bob  responded to a r e a l movement from the t e a c h e r s  General Secretary C D .  who  themselves f o r a more  s t a n c e ( a c c o r d i n g to an i n t e r v i e w w i t h p r e s e n t  Al Blakey) .  came  Buzza (1967/68),  and subsequent p r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y J i m K i l l e e n (1969/70),  political  was  Secretary  e x e r c i s e a l l the powers o f the f e d e r a t i o n , the d i r e c t i o n and  i n t o power;  left  President  Ovans had been a g a i n s t  the  45  teachers t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  I n some ways, he had become a  r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on some o f t h e more m i l i t a n t members i n t h e Federation.  But now, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f G e n e r a l  S e c r e t a r y , he ceased t o be t h e major spokesman f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . He l o s t much o f h i s i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and became s o r t o f a "resident philosopher". C D . Ovans had been q u i t e a r a d i c a l when he f i r s t j o i n e d t h e B.C.T.F. i n t h e 1930's.  But he o b t a i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f A s s i s t a n t  General S e c r e t a r y i n 1942 and t h a t o f General S e c r e t a r y i n 1945; and t h e r e a f t e r he became more i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e cause o f e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f , t h a n i n any o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  He h a d v e r y  d e f i n i t e views on e d u c a t i o n , and some o f h i s i d e a s were i n n o v a t i v e t o the p o i n t o f b e i n g r a d i c a l .  When he r e t i r e d i n 1973, he s e t t l e d down  to w r i t e a book about h i s views on e d u c a t i o n - - Behind t h e L o o k i n g Glass:  Toward t h e E d u c a t i n g S o c i e t y .  He had a n i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n  b e t t e r i n g e d u c a t i o n , and he was an advocate  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , who  f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o t take o v e r t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  He was  2 against teachers s t r i k i n g . argument among t e a c h e r s ; versus unionism.  There has l o n g been a p h i l o s o p h i c a l i t deals w i t h the idea o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m  Some t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s  and as such, they s h o u l d n o t stoop t o t h e t a c t i c s o f o r d i n a r y u n i o n members.  Others  f e e l t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t r u e u n i o n s , and  as such s h o u l d have t h e b e t t e r m e n t  o f t h e l o t o f t e a c h e r s as t h e i r  46  main o b j e c t i v e .  Ovans was one who s u b s c r i b e d  B.C.T.F. was a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  to the idea that the  T h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t he  d i d n o t c r i t i c i z e the government and i t s p o l i c i e s ; consistently.  he d i d so  But he s t o p p e d a t the i d e a o f mounting a p o l i t i c a l  campaign a g a i n s t the S o c i a l C r e d i t government as such. Ovans had been t h e General S e c r e t a r y with h i s wealth o f experience,  That was taboo.  f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time, and  came t h e e x e r c i s e o f i n f l u e n c e .  When  he l o s t t h a t i n f l u e n c e , when the power s t r u g g l e was won by t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , he f e l t h i s f u n c t i o n i n t h e B.C.T.F. was virtually  o v e r , and he r e t i r e d i n 1973.  I n h i s book, he was q u i t e  f r a n k about t h e r e a s o n s : The t h i r d t u r n i n g p o i n t came i n 1968 when t h e B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n i n annual c o n v e n t i o n i n c r e a t i n g a f u n d t o make e d u c a t i o n an i s s u e i n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n took t h e f i r s t s t e p toward p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . Within three years the p r o c e s s was complete; power i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had been f i r m l y won and t i g h t l y h e l d by e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s who were p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . I do n o t c l a i m o r m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was wrong i n t h i s change i n d i r e c t i o n . The change was o p e n l y and f a i r l y made as a democratic e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e w i l l o f t h e membership. F o r the f i r s t time i n my t h i r t y - y e a r c a r e e r as t h e s e c r e t a r y , however, t h e " t r a j e c t o r y " o f my p e r s o n a l l i f e and t h a t o f the l i f e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d n o t c o i n c i d e . I n my view a t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t p r o f e s s e s a c o n c e r n f o r e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d use an e d u c a t i o n a l , not a p o l i t i c a l model i n p u r s u i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l model f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s depends on p e r s u a s i o n ; the p o l i t i c a l one t h a t t e a c h e r s were f a v o r i n g on c o e r c i o n . . . I was n o t p r e p a r e d t o change my " l i f e p l a n " ; ^ t h e r e f o r e I took the easy way o u t i n e a r l y r e t i r e m e n t .  47  J i m K i l l e e n was 1971. was  a strong president  D u r i n g h i s term i n o f f i c e ( i n 1970)  increased,  time and p a i d .  and  who" h e l d o f f i c e from the s a l a r y o f the  t h e p o s i t i o n o f F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t was  In 1969-19 70, Adam Robertson was  F i r s t Vice  i n h i s younger days, he had been a member o f the R u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h had  1969-  President made f u l l President;  Teachers'  t i e s w i t h the C.C.F. P a r t y and o r g a n i z e d  labor.  In the background by t h i s t i m e , were some r e a l r a d i c a l s , a n x i o u s t o change the B.C.T.F. and a i d i n g and a b e t t i n g the " e l e c t e d " s i d e the s t r u g g l e . professed  of  With Ovans l o s i n g i n f l u e n c e , J i m M a c F a r l a n , a s e l f -  Communist and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t and h i s f r i e n d , Gary Onstad,  o f t e n c a l l e d a " M a r x i s t N.D.P.er", e n t e r e d the f r a y .  They were b o t h  members o f the Burnaby Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , which a l o n g w i t h  the  Vancouver Elementary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g l e f t - w i n g r a d i c a l and m i l i t a n t . I n 1968,  the y e a r t h e Annual General M e e t i n g was  held i n  P e n t i c t o n , a group o f r a d i c a l d e l e g a t e s i n c l u d i n g M a c F a r l a n met  the  e v e n i n g b e f o r e the meeting s t a r t e d and agreed t h a t the B.C.T.F. was not t a k i n g the p o l i t i c a l formula.  The  a c t i o n i t s h o u l d to f i g h t the  education  group managed to have the m a t t e r i n c l u d e d as Number  on the Agenda f o r the f o l l o w i n g day. d i s c u s s i o n , a r e s o l u t i o n was  As a r e s u l t o f the  One  ensuing  made to l e v y $3.00 on the membership t o  be used l a t e r f o r y . - p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r , M a c F a r l a n s a i d t h a t he t h a t the 1968 it  r e s o l u t i o n to l e v y $3.00 was  felt  very s i g n i f i c a n t , i n that  gave t e a c h e r s a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t they had a r i g h t t o take  political  action.  Many o f t h o s e the a u t h o r t a l k e d to a l s o mentioned  48  t h e 1968 Annual G e n e r a l Meeting w i t h i t s $3.00 l e v y as a d e f i n i t e turning point i n the organization.  For t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e o r g a n i z a -  t i o n r e a l l y was determined t o t a k e c o n c r e t e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ; l e v y was something  the  t h a t everyone was o b l i g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n .  C.D. Ovans c a l l e d i t t h e " f i r s t s t e p toward p o l i t i c i z a t i o n . "  With  the money from t h e l e v y , t h e B.C.T.F. launched i t s Apple Campaign b e f o r e t h e 1969 e l e c t i o n .  One o f t h e purposes o f t h e campaign was t o  get p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e p e a l i n g o f t h e f i n a n c e f o r m u l a .  This  purpose was n o t a c h i e v e d , b u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e was, a c c o r d i n g t o M a c F a r l a n , "a huge s t e p i n t h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e membership." P r e s i d e n t Adam Robertson f e l t t h a t subsequent  a c t i o n s t a k e n by t h e  government were i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e t e a c h e r s ' Apple Campaign.  This  was a view s h a r e d w i t h 1971 P r e s i d e n t J i m K i l l e e n and M.L.A. Bob Wenman.  K i l l e e n wrote a f t e r t h e government's removal o f t h e B.C.T.F.'s  a u t o m a t i c membership, "One o f t h e main reasons f o r t h e government's d e s i r e t o c l i p t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s wings, was t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s 'apple campaign' i n t h e 1969 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , a campaign d e s i g n e d t o make e d u c a t i o n a n i s s u e i n t h a t e l e c t i o n , n o t t o a t t a c k o r promote any 4 p o l i t i c a l party. i n 1979, to  Bob Wenman s a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r  "There was an element o f r e t r i b u t i o n " i n t h e Socred's  measures  remove t h e a u t o m a t i c membership, and t h e Apple Campaign had back-  f i r e d on t h e t e a c h e r s .  He added t h a t i t was p o p u l a r a t t h a t time t o  "break t h e backs o f u n i o n s . "  49  M a c F a r l a n f e l t t h a t the government f a c i l i t a t e d the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e membership by f a i l i n g p l a n f o r the r e t i r e d teachers.  t o p r o v i d e an adequate p e n s i o n  Adam R o b e r t s o n , P r e s i d e n t i n 1972,  c l a i m e d t h a t the p e n s i o n r e t u r n s f o r the r e t i r e d were t h e worst i n the country a t the time;  B.C. was number 10 p r o v i n c e as f a r as t e a c h e r s '  pensions were concerned.  I t was on March 19, 1971 t h a t t e a c h e r s a l l  o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e went o u t on one-day s t r i k e ;  but w h i l e MacFarlan  c a l l e d t h i s event t h e "second n o d a l p o i n t i n t h e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e B.C.T.F.," Gary Onstad f e l t t h a t the one-day s t r i k e was a compromise for  the r a d i c a l s .  He s a i d t h a t , i n o r d e r to get the t e a c h e r s t o go  a l o n g w i t h t h e s t r i k e , a l o t o f h a r d backroom work had to be done, c o n v i n c i n g the t e a c h e r s t h a t i t was the r i g h t t h i n g to do.  However,  when they d i d become c o n v i n c e d , Onstad s a i d , i t t u r n e d o u t t o be the most i m p o r t a n t event i n the p r o c e s s o f the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e teachers.  They f e l t t h a t they were d o i n g something s e l f l e s s - - t h e y were  s t r i k i n g f o r t h e i r r e t i r e d c o l l e a g u e s , and they saw t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o get t o g e t h e r and take c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . Onstad,  really  After that, said  i t was much e a s i e r t o g e t the t e a c h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  militant actions.  I n an i n t e r v i e w i n 1979, Adam Robertson s a i d t h a t  the one-day s t r i k e embarrassed  Premier B e n n e t t , because u n t i l  then,  the P r e m i e r had always had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r t a k i n g good c a r e o f o l d s t e r s . Robertson f e l t t h a t l a t e r measures t a k e n by t h e government a g a i n s t the B.C.T.F. were p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t r i k e , and Bennett's  50  r e a c t i o n to i t .  M a c F a r l a n f e l t t h a t the s t r i k e was  and t h a t i t s impact was  "99%  to r a d i c a l i z e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  successful"  permanently.  He c l a i m e d t h a t the two e v e n t s — t h e passage o f t h e $3.00 l e v y i n 1968 and the s t r i k e i n 1971, were e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n s to what happened i n 1972.  A l l t h e s e o p i n i o n s were g i v e n to the a u t h o r i n i n t e r v i e w s  i n March, 19 79. Another s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e t e a c h e r s was  the passing  ( a t the u r g i n g o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee) o f the one-day l e v y a t the Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g o f 1972, when t h e " u n i t y " c o a l i t i o n was i n action.  I n 1970, M a c F a r l a n was  e l e c t e d a Member-at-Large.  he and Gary Onstad r a n f o r o f f i c e .  In  1971,  Instead of submitting autobio-  g r a p h i e s to the B.C.T.F. N e w s l e t t e r as the o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s d i d , they submitted p o l i t i c a l statements.  The e d i t o r r e f u s e d to p u b l i s h them,  so M a c F a r l a n and Onstad had t h e i r statements p r i n t e d a t t h e i r expense and d i s t r i b u t e d them to about 1,000 both e l e c t e d ;  members each.  They were  Onstad as a Member-at-Large, and M a c F a r l a n as  Vice President.  own  First  M a c F a r l a n t o l d the a u t h o r t h a t t h e r e were two  i n the E x e c u t i v e Committee  then--he and Onstad;  "leftists"  that that there  were a l s o two " l i b e r a l l e f t i s t s " , two " r i g h t w i n g e r s " and two i n the middle;  the r e s t were " f l o a t e r s . " " '  M a c F a r l a n and Onstad  t o develop r a d i c a l i s m i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  undertook  There ensued a s t r u g g l e  o v e r what t o do about the measures b e i n g t a k e n by t h e government; the s t r u g g l e f i n a l l y c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n to recommend t o the  51  1972 Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g a l e v y o f one day's pay as a c o n t r i b u t i o n for  t h e purpose o f t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t the S o c r e d s . In 1972, M a c f a r l a n was e n t i t l e d t o r u n f o r P r e s i d e n t , b u t ,  knowing t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was p e n d i n g , he d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be b e t t e r i f he d i d not r u n , b u t i n s t e a d formed a " u n i t y " c o a l i t i o n and s u p p o r t e d Adam R o b e r t s o n i n a n o t h e r term as P r e s i d e n t . M a c F a r l a n s a i d t h a t i f he had r u n f o r P r e s i d e n t , i t would have p o l a r i z e d the  membership, and they might n o t have been so c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t h e  impending a n t i - S o c r e d campaign.  M a c F a r l a n t r i e d t o g e t Frank Roemer  (Second V i c e P r e s i d e n t ) n o t t o r u n e i t h e r .  He wanted t h e whole  E x e c u t i v e Committee t o u n i t e and s t a n d b e h i n d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f the oneday l e v y f o r t h e purpose o f d e f e a t i n g t h e S o c r e d government. ran  Roemer  and l o s t , b u t t h e " c o a l i t i o n " managed t o g e t t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Assembly and t h e d e l e g a t e s a t t h e 1972 Annual General M e e t i n g t o pass the  one-day l e v y f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  495-84.  I t was p a s s e d by a v o t e o f  6  C o l l e c t i n g t h e one-day l e v y n e t t e d t h e B.C.T.F. almost one million dollars.  Two S o c r e d members o f the B.C.T.F., B a r k e r and Hale  from V i c t o r i a , sought and o b t a i n e d an i n j u n c t i o n on June 30, 1972. The i n j u n c t i o n , i s s u e d i n t h e Supreme C o u r t , r e s t r a i n e d t h e B.C.T.F. from c o l l e c t i n g the r e s t o f t h e l e v y and p r e v e n t e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n from u s i n g any o f t h e funds a l r e a d y c o l l e c t e d . By t h a t t i m e , however, t h e B.C.T.F. had put $10,000 i n t o o p p o s i t i o n e d u c a t i o n c r i t i c E i l e e n D a i l l y ' s e l e c t i o n campaign.•• Some  52  o t h e r money had a l r e a d y been s p e n t , but the r e s t was  frozen.  This  meant t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n s the B.C.T.F. had made f o r the e l e c t i o n campaign a t the end o f August c o u l d not be c a r r i e d o u t . E x e c u t i v e met  and t r i e d to d e c i d e what to do.  The  S i n c e they weren't  a l l o w e d to take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n the name o f t h e B.C..T.F., they l e f t the B.C.T.F. b u i l d i n g , r e n t e d a room i n the Rembrandt H o t e l , and formed the Teachers' P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n Committee, o r T.P.A.C., as i t became known. Act.  They i n c o r p o r a t e d the Committee under the S o c i e t i e s '  They c o l l e c t e d money f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n from t e a c h e r s  other interested c i t i z e n s . o f t h a t amount was  W i t h i n a week they.had $85,000.  used f o r r a d i o ads, o v e r t l y a g a i n s t the  and $25,000  Socred  government and a d v o c a t i n g i t s d e f e a t .  The  spent m o s t l y t o s p o n s o r c a n d i d a t e s who  were r u n n i n g a g a i n s t the S o c i a l  C r e d i t government.  I n most c o n s t i t u e n c i e s they s p o n s o r e d N.D.P.  c a n d i d a t e s , but the i d e a was d e f e a t the S o c r e d c a n d i d a t e . s u c c e s s f u l N.D.P. c a n d i d a t e s by T.P.A.C.  r e s t o f the money was  to s p o n s o r the c a n d i d a t e most l i k e l y T h i r t y - t h r e e o f the i n the 1972  to  thirty-six  e l e c t i o n had been s p o n s o r e d  Some L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g P a t r i c k McGeer and Garde Gardom,  were a l s o s p o n s o r e d . Leader S c o t t W a l l a c e  Money was  a l s o s e n t by T.P.A.C. to  Conservative  f o r h i s campaign, but he s e n t i t back, s a y i n g  t h a t he d i d n ' t want the support o f any p a r t i c u l a r group.  The  amounts  g i v e n t o c a n d i d a t e s were q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l , w i t h some r e c e i v i n g up 7 to $4,000.  W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s the impact o f t h e  o f T.P.A.C. on c a n d i d a t e s r e c e i v i n g money, no doubt the N.D.P.  support  53  c a n d i d a t e s a t l e a s t b e n e f i t e d , because t h a t p a r t y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y s h o r t o f money f o r campaign p u r p o s e s .  MacFarlan  c l a i m e d i n an  i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r t h a t a t l e a s t 6 o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s got i n t o power e n t i r e l y because o f t h e t e a c h e r s .  He f e l t t h a t t h e new N.D.P.  government had a "huge debt" t o pay t h e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r  support  d u r i n g t h e campaign. B e s i d e s p r o v i d i n g support f o r c a n d i d a t e s , T.P.A.C. formed a l l i a n c e s w i t h some t r a d e u n i o n s .  The H o s p i t a l Employees' Union  donated i t s o f f i c e s t o T.P.A.C. f o r use as a m a i l i n g h e a d q u a r t e r s . T.P.A.C. p r o v i d e d a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n t h e e l e c t i o n campaign, h e l p i n g o t h e r t r a d e unions t o t a k e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e government by g i v i n g a d v i c e , p r o v i d i n g examples o f ads, e t c . t h e i r campaigns on t h a t o f T.P.A.C.  Some p a t t e r n e d  The Chairman o f T.P.A.C. was  Gary Onstad, and t h e co-chairman was B i l l  Broadley, a L i b e r a l .  This  was done d e l i b e r a t e l y , so t h a t T.P.A.C. wouldn't l o o k l i k e an N.D.P. o r g a n i z a t i o n , Gary Onstad t o l d t h e a u t h o r . T.P.A.C. was v e r y w e l l o r g a n i z e d and took o v e r t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committees w h i c h had been s t a r t e d by t h e B.C.T.F. as p a r t o f its political  campaign i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e one-day l e v y .  a network o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committees throughout  There was  t h e p r o v i n c e , and  i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n campaign was i n t h e summer when t e a c h e r s were o f f on h o l i d a y s , ( i t was c a l l e d on J u l y 24 f o r August 30), i t was l a t e r e s t i m a t e d by those i n v o l v e d t h a t 3,500 t e a c h e r s took p a r t i n t h e campaign t o d e f e a t t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  54  They v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r h e l p i n N.D.P. c o n s t i t u e n c y o f f i c e s , campaigned from door t o door, gave o u t p o l i t i c a l  campaign m a t e r i a l , and i n some  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s d i d more t o support N.D.P. c a n d i d a t e s workers t h e m s e l v e s .  than t h e p a r t y  Gary Onstad b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e N.D.P. p a r t y  members were by and l a r g e n o t o p t i m i s t i c about w i n n i n g  the e l e c t i o n ,  and t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t work as h a r d a t i t as they c o u l d have.  First  V i c e P r e s i d e n t J i m M a c F a r l a n c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n committees, and c o n s o l i d a t e d a network o f " l e f t " The whole t h i n g was a grass r o o t s movement; Onstad, " b e a u t i f u l . "  people.  i n t h e words o f Gary  A l B l a k e y , from t h e m i l i t a n t Vancouver  Elementary Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , r a n t h e T.P.A.C. o f f i c e and Gary Onstad d i d t h e p o l i t i c a l speech-making, t a l k e d a t and o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l r a l l i e s , a l l - c a n d i d a t e s meetings, e t c .  The group took p u b l i c  o p i n i o n p o l l s , and i f they found o u t t h a t P r e m i e r Bennett was u n p o p u l a r i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , they would c a p i t a l i z e on t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r campaign.  S e v e r a l groups who a l l i e d themselves w i t h T.P.A.C.  were t h e P e n s i o n e r s  F o r A c t i o n Now Committee, and t h e newly-formed  Unemployed T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n ;  they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e campaign and g  Gary Onstad was t h e l i a i s o n to them. In an a r t i c l e i n T h i s Magazine i s About Schools p u b l i s h e d i n the f a l l o f 1972 a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f t h e S o c r e d s , i t was r e p o r t e d , On t h e whole T.P.A.C. was q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e e l e c t i o n p l a n s made by t h e B.C.T.F. They spent $25,000 on an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign on r a d i o and gave f i n a n c i a l support t o  55  36 c a n d i d a t e s . They had t o use v o l u n t e e r s r a t h e r t h a n p a i d s t a f f , but t h i s may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have been a bad t h i n g . I t c o u l d w e l l be t h a t more t e a c h e r s became p o l i t i c i z e d , knowing t h a t the campaign depended on t h e i r v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s , r a t h e r t h a n on a m a s t e r p l a n d i r e c t e d and f i n a n c e d by the F e d e r a t i o n . 9 By l o o k i n g a t t h e prime movers i n t h e T.P.A.C. o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t can be seen t h a t t h e r a d i c a l s were p r e v a l e n t . a secret o f his a f f i l i a t i o n s ; 1975,  M a c F a r l a n n e v e r made  i n h i s f a r e w e l l speech as P r e s i d e n t i n  he a d d r e s s e d t h e Annual General M e e t i n g , s a y i n g , D u r i n g t h o s e f o u r y e a r s some o f my p o l i t i c a l opponents b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e F e d e r a t i o n have c a l l e d me a m i l i t a n t , a s o c i a l i s t , a m a r x i s t , a r a d i c a l . W e l l , a l t h o u g h those terms were used by f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e , I have never a t t e m p t e d t o deny t h o s e a l l e g a t i o n s because they are a l l t r u e . I am proud o f t h e f a c t t h a t some o f t h e most c o n s e r v a t i v e and r e a c t i o n a r y elements among o u r c o l l e a g u e s have chosen t o c r i t i c i z e me on t h i s b a s i s . 1 0 Gary Onstad, who mentioned i n an i n t e r v i e w t h a t many c a l l e d h i m  a "marxist  N.D.P.er", was Chairman o f T.P.A.C.  A l Blakey, o f the  m i l i t a n t Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s A s s o c i a t i o n , was i n charge o f the o f f i c e o f T.P.A.C. (he was l a t e r to become P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B.C.T.F. i n 1979). was  B l a k e y was head o f t h e Vancouver group when i t  awarded t h e f i r s t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r a c t g i v e n o u t i n a B.C.  school d i s t r i c t . teachers  I t had been a b i g b a t t l e f o r t h e B.C.T.F. t o g e t  t o demand good l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , such as s m a l l e r c l a s s e s .  I t was Vancouver and Burnaby, t h e two most r a d i c a l zations i n the province,  teachers'  organi-  t h a t got the f i r s t l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s  56  contracts. the t e a c h e r s  I n an i n t e r v i e w i n 1979, Gary Onstad s a i d t h a t making aware t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be w o r k i n g f o r good l e a r n i n g  c o n d i t i o n s was e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s , and t h a t i t had been a s t r u g g l e , because t e a c h e r s  tended t o be m a r t y r s  and p u t up w i t h whatever was g i v e n them, w i t h o u t d o i n g a n y t h i n g  about  it. In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h J i m M a c F a r l a n i n 1979, he t o l d t h e a u t h o r i t would be a m i s t a k e t o assume t h a t i t was p u r e l y t h e a c t i o n s o f the government t h a t brought about the m i l i t a n c y and r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the members o f t h e B.C.T.F.  He s a i d t h a t t h e r e had been a l o n g  h i s t o r y - o f l e f t i s t a c t i v i t y i n t h e B.C.T.F., j u s t as t h e r e i s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f B.C. i t s e l f .  The B.C.T.F. was t h e f i r s t  teachers'  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada t o s t r i k e , and i n t h e e a r l y 1930's t h e r e were many r a d i c a l s and l e f t i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e R u r a l Teachers' O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  who were e x p e r i e n c i n g bad c o n d i t i o n s  and  l o w e r pay t h a n t h e i r urban c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  one  o f those r a d i c a l s .  Ovans h i m s e l f was  M a c F a r l a n s a i d t h a t t h e r e were r a d i c a l  members i n t h e 1940's as w e l l , who were a c t i v e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and took l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s .  Two o f these.were John S u t h e r l a n d  and  John P r i o r - - t h e y l a t e r became P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Canadian T e a c h e r s ' Association. and  There were some v e r y b i t t e r s t r u g g l e s i n t h e 1930's,  t h e s e spawned m i l i t a n t l e f t i s t a c t i o n t h a t was t o c o n t i n u e  B.C.T.F. i n t o t h e 1940's.  i n the  Then t h e r e was a d y i n g down o f r a d i c a l i s m  57  i n t h e B.C.T.F. i n t h e 1950's w i t h t h e McCarthy e r a , b u t i n t h e e a r l y 1960's i t began t o come back.  F o r example, i n 1961 a group o f  members o f t h e B.C.T.F. got t o g e t h e r and p a i d f o r an ad i n t h e newspaper p r o t e s t i n g n u c l e a r weapons.  L a t e r i n t h e 1960's r a d i c a l s and  l e f t i s t s took p o s i t i o n s on t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee, and c o n t i n u e d t o t r y t o r a d i c a l i z e t h e F e d e r a t i o n membership.  MacFarlan s a i d that  many o f t h e l e f t i s t s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n who were t a k i n g p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p came o u t o f f a m i l i e s w i t h a l o n g e x p e r i e n c e  i n the trade  u n i o n movement, t h e C.C.F. P a r t y o r t h e Communist P a r t y . the l e f t i s t t e n d e n c i e s  He f e l t  that  were a continuum--that t h e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f  the B.C.T.F. was n o t a phenomenon a s s o c i a t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government, b u t a t r a d i t i o n i n t h e B.C.T.F. t h a t 12 was "dormant b u t n o t dead." On e l e c t i o n n i g h t i n 1972 when the Socreds were d e f e a t e d by the N.D.P. P a r t y , a r e p o r t e r p r e s e n t a t B.C.T.F. h e a d q u a r t e r s w r o t e , Many o f the o l d e r t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t a r e v i s i b l y moved by t h e N.D.P. v i c t o r y . I n t a l k i n g t o them I d i s c o v e r t h a t many o f them had been a c t i v e i n the f o u n d i n g o f t h e C.C.F. p a r t y f o r t y y e a r s ago, which was a f o r e r u n n e r t o t h e N.D.P. They had a l s o been members o f t h e r a d i c a l t e a c h e r s ' caucus i n t h e B.C.T.F. i n the ' t h i r t i e s ' and ' f o r t i e s ' , w h i c h had f o r g e d c l o s e r t i e s w i t h t e a c h e r s and organized labor.13 M a c F a r l a n f e l t t h a t the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n which m a n i f e s t e d i n the B.C.T.F.iin  itself  t h e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's caused a p r o f o u n d change  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  i t became more m i l i t a n t , more p o l i t i c i z e d , and  now (1979) m a n i f e s t e d  a s o c i a l conscience.  A very a c t i v e status o f  58  women o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n s t i t u t e d w i t h a f u l l - t i m e p a i d s t a f f member, and the women's group was r a d i c a l and w i l l i n g t o take p o l i t i c a l The  action.  a n t i r a c i s m program i n the B.C.T.F. a l s o had i t s r o o t s i n t h e  p e r i o d under q u e s t i o n . to make t e a c h e r s  MacFarlan f e l t that the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n helped  more aware o f s o c i a l i s s u e s and gave them t h e i d e a 14  t h a t they c o u l d do something about them. A n o t h e r change t h a t came about i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , was t h a t the " u n i t y c o a l i t i o n " formed b e f o r e a f t e r t h e N.D.P. got i n t o power.  the 1972 e l e c t i o n soon f e l l  apart  They had a f a l l i n g o u t o v e r t a c t i c s ,  w i t h Adam R o b e r t s o n w a n t i n g t o l e a v e t h e new government a l o n e , b u t M a c F a r l a n demanding h i s pound o f f l e s h .  In s p i t e o f the f a c t that  R o b e r t s o n a t t a c k e d M a c F a r l a n p u b l i c l y i n t h e next e x e c u t i v e e l e c t i o n campaign,MacFarlan won t h e P r e s i d e n c y  i n 1973."^  M a c F a r l a n f e l t t h a t t h e change i n t h e B.C.T.F. came about as a "complex d i a l e c t i c o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , growing m i l i t a n c y on t h e p a r t o f the t e a c h e r s , members who were l o n g - s t a n d i n g  and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r a d i c a l  r a d i c a l s and d i d n o t j u s t become t h a t  way because o f what t h e government d i d i n t h e way o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . " He s a i d t h a t now (1979) t h e r e i s a l a r g e , mass-based l e f t caucus i n the B.C.T.F. t h a t p l a y s a b i g r o l e and has a p o w e r f u l v o i c e i n the organization.  I t c o l l e c t s f e e s o f $10 ( a c t u a l l y a d o n a t i o n ) from i t s  members, and p u b l i s h e s  a f o r t n i g h t l y newsletter  c a l l e d "Teacher  V i e w p o i n t " w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l o f t h e r e s t o f t h e B.C.T.F.  MacFarlan  c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r a d i c a l w i n g o f the f e d e r a t i o n i s a c o a l i t i o n o f  59  l i b e r a l humanists and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ; not t h e u s u a l t r a d e  union  m i l i t a n c y , but i n f a c t , more r a d i c a l . The  r a d i c a l s i n the B.C.T.F. i n f l u e n c e d the E x e c u t i v e and  membership to take p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . the membership t o pass the $3.00 l e v y i n 1968  They were b e h i n d  the getting  for p o l i t i c a l action,  they were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e one-day s a l a r y l e v y f o r p o l i t i c a l campaigning, they formed a c o a l i t i o n f o r the sake o f u n i t y a g a i n s t the S o c r e d s , and they o r g a n i z e d T.P.A.C. f o r t h e f i n a l r o u t o f the government.  However, i n s p i t e o f the l e f t i s t i n f l u e n c e s w i t h i n  the F e d e r a t i o n , p r e s e n t  P r e s i d e n t A l Blakey when i n t e r v i e w e d i n March,  1979,  d i d not f e e l t h a t the B.C.T.F. was  B.C.  The  r a d i c a l s d i d win out i n 1972,  as . r a d i c a l as most unions i n but he c l a i m e d t h a t now  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p o l a r i z e d , w i t h f l u c t u a t i o n s i n control--sometimes r a d i c a l s w i n o u t , and. sometimes the c o n s e r v a t i v e s do. did  However, he  say t h a t the whole spectrum o f views i n the B.C.T.F. has  to a more r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y  the  shifted  speaking.  I t seems apparent t h a t the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the B.C.T.F. won  a power s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e General  Secretary.  T h i s l e d to the  f u r t h e r s t r u g g l e between the r i g h t and the l e f t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h the l e f t w i n n i n g out i n 1972  b e f o r e the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n .  d e c i s i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e to g i v e up i t s n o n - p a r t i s a n s t a n c e advocate the d e f e a t o f the Socreds was between the m i l i t a n t s and  The  and  arrived at after a struggle  the moderates within-".the E x e c u t i v e Committee.  60 CHAPTER THREE - FOOTNOTES  1.  B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , Members' Guide t o t h e B.C.T.F. 1978/79. p. 5 .  2.  " R a l l y f o r T e a c h e r s " , B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 5, December 1969, p. 1.  3.  C. Ovans, Behind t h e L o o k i n g G l a s s : Toward t h e E d u c a t i n g S o c i e t y , Vancouver, E v e r g r e e n P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1978, p. 11.  4.  "Gov't Moves t o D e s t r o y B.C.T.F.", B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n ; - March 1971, p. 2.  5.  J . M a c F a r l a n , i n t e r v i e w w i t h w r i t e r , March, 1979.  6.  S. Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l " , T h i s Magazine S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, p. 18.  7.  G. Onstad, i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , March, 1979.  8.  G. Onstad and J . M a c F a r l a n , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w r i t e r , March 1979.  9.  S. Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l " , T h i s Magazine S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, p. 20.  Federation  I s About  I s About  10.  B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , "Report o f t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e 1975 Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g " , Vancouver, 27 March 1975, p. 13.  11.  G. Onstad, i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , March, 1979.  12.  J . M a c F a r l a n , i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , March, 1979.  13.  S. Repo, op. c i t . , p. 10.  14.  J . M a c F a r l a n , i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , March 1979.  15.  Loc. c i t .  16.  Loc. c i t .  61  CHAPTER FOUR THE  EFFECT OF SOCIETAL TRENDS ON THE  B.C.T.F.  While the power s t r u g g l e and t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f the B.C.T.F. p l a y e d a p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e F e d e r a t i o n t o become more r a d i c a l and p a r t i s a n , s o c i e t a l t r e n d s seemed a l s o t o a f f e c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's were times o f r a p i d change.  This  was  t h e e r a o f the h i p p i e s , t h e a n t i - V i e t n a m War p r o t e s t , t h e  student  r a d i c a l i z a t i o n , and t h e r e j e c t i o n o f o l d ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s , even i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n .  The  o l d concepts  of r i g i d examinations,  rote  l e a r n i n g , and b a s i c s u b j e c t s , was b e i n g r e j e c t e d f o r a new  "do-your-  own-thing" p h i l o s o p h y .  shifts.  Teachers were not immune t o t h e s e  They too q u e s t i o n e d o l d v a l u e s ;  t h e y too changed t h e i r i d e a s about  t h i n g s and dared t o become more m i l i t a n t .  C h a r l e s A. R e i c h , w r i t i n g  i n h i s p o p u l a r book The Greening o f A m e r i c a (1970) , d e s c r i b e d i t as an i m p o r t a n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d : But i f we t h i n k o f a l l t h a t i s now c h a l l e n g e d - t h e n a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n , the v e r y v a l i d i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m and t h e l e g a l system, t h e n a t u r e and purpose o f work, t h e course o f man's d e a l i n g w i t h environment, the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s e l f t o t e c h n o l o g y and s o c i e t y - - w e can see t h a t the p r e s e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n goes beyond a n y t h i n g i n modern h i s t o r y . B e s i d e i t , a mere r e v o l u t i o n , such as the French o r t h e R u s s i a n , seems ^ i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l - - a s h i f t i n the base o f power . . . While changes were g o i n g on a l l around, and i n s p i t e o f t h i s f o r c e f u l t r e n d f o r new  i d e a s t h a t was  p r e v a l e n t a l l over N o r t h America  62  S o c r e d p o l i t i c i a n s seemed to remain i n the same o l d mold. the t e a c h e r s s u p p o r t S o c r e d M.L.A. Don Campbell, who March 2, 1972, "The man  How  could  was r e p o r t e d on  i n the Vancouver P r o v i n c e to have s a i d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e ,  i n the s t r e e t i s f e d up w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e i n the  s c h o o l s y s t e m - - a l l those t i p p y - t a p p e o p l e r u n n i n g about p l a n n i n g music and a r t and a l l t h a t b a l o n e y " ?  C l e a r l y , the S o c i a l C r e d i t government,  w h i l e f o l l o w i n g what i t saw as the t a x p a y e r s ' concern w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n , f a i l e d to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o t h e r , equally important trends i n s o c i e t y .  I f e v e r t h e r e was  c o n s c i o u s n e s s was  a c u l t of youth,  now was  the time--a new  d e v e l o p i n g , thought C h a r l e s  Reich:  one t h a t was young, e n l i g h t e n e d , s u r e l y more h u m a n i t a r i a n than  the o l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s : F o r t h i s same r e a s o n , more and more o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n w i l l change a l l e g i a n c e from the f o r c e s o f r e p r e s s i o n t o the f o r c e s o f change. Every new c o n s c i o u s n e s s p e r s o n becomes an e v a n g e l i s t s e e k i n g new c o n v e r t s . Many young people have a l r e a d y succeeded i n c o n v e r t i n g one or b o t h o f t h e i r p a r e n t s o r o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , and a growing number o f o l d e r p e o p l e have 2 e x p e r i e n c e d a change o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e i r own. While t h i s "new  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " seemed to be sweeping the N o r t h  American c o n t i n e n t , Bennett's government c o n t i n u e d w i t h the o l d way doing t h i n g s . cabinet;  The f o r c e s o f change d i d not seem t o be p e n e t r a t i n g the  Bennett h i m s e l f s t i l l  p e o p l e o f B.C.  of  f e l t he knew what was b e s t f o r the  For example, when a campaign was h e l d i n Kelowna (the  P r e m i e r ' s own r i d i n g ) to p r o t e s t o v e r c r o w i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s and  the  63  subsequent i n s t i t u t i o n o f s h i f t s , Bennett c l a i m e d t h a t "the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n and around Kelowna was not s e r i o u s a t a l l " and blamed the  s c h o o l board f o r f a i l i n g t o c o n v e r y governmental p o l i c y t o the  people.  When q u e s t i o n e d about t h e e f f e c t s o f s h i f t s on f a m i l y  life,  P r e m i e r Bennett s a i d t h a t p e o p l e w i l l j u s t "have t o l e a r n t o adapt t o 3  shifting." for  There were s e v e r a l groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the campaign  more s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 23 at the t i m e ; t h e  c i t y c o u n c i l , the s c h o o l b o a r d , P.T.A. groups, Kelowna's Chamber o f Commerce, and t h e C i t i z e n s ' A c t i o n f o r E d u c a t i o n Committee.  That the  p u b l i c was b e h i n d the need f o r an i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l spending i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a few days a f t e r the P r e m i e r ' s v i s i t t o them, a c a p i t a l referendum f o r s c h o o l s was passed w i t h an 81% m a j o r i t y i n D i s t r i c t 23. to  Four out o f the d i s t r i c t ' s s i x secondary s c h o o l s were  be on s h i f t t h a t f a l l  (1970), and a new  b u i l t w i t h o u t a gymnasium. his  secondary s c h o o l was b e i n g  B e n n e t t ' s h a r d l i n e on s c h o o l spending and  apparent p a t e r n a l i s m i n t h e m a t t e r o f p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n due t o  those p o l i c i e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t he was out o f tune w i t h the t i m e s ;  the  old  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d t i e s t o t h e g r a s s r o o t s which were so i m p o r t a n t t o  the  Socreds d u r i n g t h e i r r i s e t o power and t h e i r l o n g t e n u r e i n t h a t  p o s i t i o n , seemed t o be b r e a k i n g down. Those groups i n Kelowna who d i s a f f e c t e d groups i n B.C.  l o b b i e d Bennett were not the o n l y  By 1972 a l l p u b l i c s e c t o r employees seemed  determined t o get a b e t t e r d e a l f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  The government, r a t h e r  t h a n g i v i n g i n a l i t t l e , a s s u m e d a combative s t a n c e , j u s t as i t had done  64  with the teachers.  When t h e d o c t o r s asked f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o r a i s e f e e s  on t h e i r f e e g u i d e , t h e government had t h e i r g r o s s s a l a r i e s b e f o r e expenses p u b l i s h e d i n t h e newspapers.  T h i s gave t h e p u b l i c t h e i d e a  t h a t t h e d o c t o r s were r a p a c i o u s i n t h e i r demands; d o c t o r s from t h e government and much o f t h e p u b l i c .  and i t a l i e n a t e d t h e A h a r d l i n e on  s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s f o r o t h e r s e c t o r s o f p u b l i c employees and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f B i l l 3 i n 1972 brought t o g e t h e r most o f t h e l e t down by t h e Socred government.  groups who f e l t  The C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Defence  Committee, made up o f members o f t h e B.C.T.F., t h e B.C. Government Employees' Union, t h e Canadian Union o f P u b l i c Employees, t h e H o s p i t a l Employees' U n i o n , t h e P s y c h i a t r i c N u r s e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C., and t h e College F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n , provided a r a l l y i n g point f o r other trade u n i o n members as w e l l , and s e r v e d t o b r i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c t o t h e i r demands and t h e i r i m p a t i e n c e w i t h t h e o l d Socred  government.  The r a l l y i n t h e P.N.E. Garden A u d i t o r i u m on March 9, 1972, w i t h i t s 3,500 i n attendance  and t h e p l e d g e o f 155,000 members o f t h e B.C.  F e d e r a t i o n o f Labor t o support t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r f i g h t , s h o u l d have been a warning t o t h e Socred a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e y had l o s t  touch  w i t h a dangerously  3 was  large s e c t i o n of the p u b l i c .  Instead, B i l l 4  passed  a few weeks a f t e r t h e R a l l y , on March 27. The S o c i a l C r e d i t government, a f t e r h a v i n g s e r v e d t h e p r o v i n c e  X for  20 y e a r s , r e t a i n e d many o f t h e same p e r s o n n e l who had been w i t h t h e  o r i g i n a l group i n t h e 1950's.  I n 1972, out o f 17 c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s ,  65  5 had been w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l Socred government when i t a t t a i n e d power i n 1952,  and 3 more had j o i n e d i n 1953;  experience was  55.  was  the average l e n g t h o f c a b i n e t  15 y e a r s , and the average age o f the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s  Bennett h i m s e l f , w h i l e c l a i m i n g t o be t e n y e a r s younger than  h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age because he n e i t h e r smoked nor drank, at 72 v i s i b l y beginning  t o age.  was  Many p r e d i c t e d t h a t he would soon have t o  s t e p down as l e a d e r o f the S o c r e d s , and some f e a r e d t h a t P h i l G a g l a r d i , c o l o r f u l renegade, would be the n e x t l e a d e r . shake the c o n f i d e n c e  T h i s f e a r d i d much t o  o f the p u b l i c i n the o l d Socred a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  For a s o c i e t y t r y i n g t o " l o o k young" the Socred c a b i n e t , w i t h i t s youngest member Pat J o r d a n at 41, and seemed out o f s t e p .  The  i t s o l d e s t W i l l i a m Chant at  Socreds were b e g i n n i n g  t o l o o k o l d and  77,  tired.  I t seemed t o be time f o r a change. B.C.  was  not t h e o n l y p r o v i n c e t o sweep out an o l d government  and v o t e i n a new  one.  W i t h i n the space o f 3 y e a r s , v i r t u a l l y  Western p r o v i n c e changed i t s government.  I n M a n i t o b a i n 1969,  every the Con-  s e r v a t i v e s were v o t e d out a f t e r 11 y e a r s and the p r o v i n c e ' s f i r s t N.D.P. government took o f f i c e . government was  In Saskatchewan, i n 1971  v o t e d out i n f a v o r o f the N.D.P.  the 7-year L i b e r a l In A l b e r t a , t h e  Socreds l o s t t h e i r 36-year g r i p on the e l e c t o r a t e and a government was t o t r y a new  v o t e d i n t o power i n 1971.  B.C.  was  Conservative  the l a s t i n the West  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i t h the r e j e c t i o n o f the Socreds and  e s p o u s a l o f t h e dreaded S o c i a l i s t s i n 1972.  the  66  While t h e Socred government i n B.C. u n a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e importance  i n t h e e a r l y 1970's seemed  o f t h e "new  consciousness"  as  R e i c h d e s c r i b e d i t , i t d i d become v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o what i t p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a r e v o l t o f t a x p a y e r s a g a i n s t the e s c a l a t i n g costs of education.  Donald B r o t h e r s , s p e a k i n g on the n e f a r i o u s B i l l  3,  began h i s speech t h u s : The 7th Annual Report o f t h e Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada s a y s : " I f the c o s t s o f e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s c o n t i n u e t o r i s e a t t h e r a t e they have f o r t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s ( n i n e p e r c e n t p e r y e a r r e a l growth, not c o u n t i n g i n f l a t i o n ) t h e y t h r e a t e n t o absorb t h e whole o f t h e g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t by t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y . . . ."5 U s i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and making i t sound l e g i t i m a t e w i t h the quote from t h e Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, B r o t h e r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the budget f o r e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a t an i n c r e a s e o f 15% p e r y e a r , would b e f o r e 1980, "In  s u r p a s s t h e t o t a l budget.^  He  said,  s h o r t , i f p r e s e n t c o s t i n c r e a s e s are a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e , t h e r e  be no funds l e f t f o r a l l the o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s . same warning  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t was  will  T h i s i s the  g i v e n t o Canada by t h e  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada." There was  a t r e n d at t h i s time f o r governments a l l a c r o s s Canada  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o re-examine s c h o o l c o s t s and t o attempt c o n t r o l them.  The  1960's had been a time o f expansion  l a r g e l y at the post-secondary  to  i n school costs,  l e v e l as j u n i o r c o l l e g e s were b u i l t  and u n i v e r s i t i e s expanded t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e s p i r a l l i n g  enrollment.  67  For example, i n 1950, the t o t a l number o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n Canada was  68,306.  By 1958, the number had i n c r e a s e d t o 94,994;  by 1964, t h e number was  178,238.  A s t u d y done by Dr. E.F.  but  Sheffield  f o r t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s p r o j e c t e d an even g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n the y e a r s from 1965  - 1970-71 o f from 178-,238 t o 340,400. 7  By 1974-1975, he expected t h e e n r o l l m e n t t o be 461,000.  Even a t  t h e s e f a n t a s t i c r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e , he u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , because a c t u a l g  e n r o l l m e n t i n 1969-70 was  474,418.  Governments were h a v i n g  difficulty  c o n t r o l l i n g e d u c a t i o n spending, and the d i a l o g u e between t e a c h e r s and governments became v e r y f o r c e f u l as governments t r i e d t o impose c e i l i n g s on s c h o o l board budgets.  In h i s speech i n the L e g i s l a t u r e over B i l l  i n March, 1972, E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald B r o t h e r s mentioned elsewhere:  3  cutbacks  "Other p r o v i n c e s i n Canada have a l s o t a k e n s t e p s t o  r e s t r a i n the r a t e at which t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s are a l l o w e d t o i n c r e a s e each y e a r .  Nova S c o t i a has a 5 p e r c e n t c e i l i n g on t e a c h e r s '  pay i n c r e a s e s , w h i l e A l b e r t a has a 6.6 p e r c e n t g u i d e l i n e .  Recently I  have been a d v i s e d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec has a l s o f i x e d a 5 p e r c e n t 9 c e i l i n g on t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s f o r t h i s y e a r . " may  So w h i l e the  Socreds  have been out o f tune w i t h t h e t i m e s i n o t h e r m a t t e r s , t h e y were  more t h a n w i l l i n g t o i n s t i t u t e budget r e s t r a i n t s t h e y  observed  elsewhere! W h i l e t h e s e l i m i t s were b e i n g p l a c e d on e d u c a t i o n spending t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s , t h e t e a c h e r s nowhere took t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s down.  In T h i s Magazine i s about S c h o o l s ( F a l l 1972)  and lying  i t was r e p o r t e d ,  68  1972 has been a y e a r o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r o v i n c i a l governments a c r o s s the n a t i o n . In Nova S c o t i a , t e a c h e r s have h e l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , w a l k o u t s , w o r k - t o - r u l e campaigns and a s t r i k e v o t e i n t h e i r f i g h t w i t h Finance and E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r P e t e r N i c h o l s o n over a 5 p e r cent wage-increase c e i l i n g . ... In Quebec, t e a c h e r s j o i n e d workers' unions i n n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h the government on common demands, and t h e i r l e a d e r s went t o j a i l w i t h C.N.T.U. and Q.F.L. l e a d e r s . ..... In Toronto and near-by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the p r o p o s e d cuts i n the e d u c a t i o n budget brought a storm o f p r o t e s t f r o m t e a c h e r s . A f t e r a number o f r a l l i e s , demonstrations and work stoppages, the p r o v i n c i a l government backed down s u f f i c i e n t l y t o c o o l out the s i t u a t i o n . Both i n Saskatchewan and Newfoundland hundreds o f t e a c h e r s campaign a c t i v e l y t o d e f e a t governments notorious for t h e i r anti-education p o l i c i e s . ^ The t e a c h e r s i n Quebec were p a r t i c u l a r l y m i l i t a n t and, i n  1971  j o i n e d w i t h o t h e r unions i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r to p r e s e n t a common f r o n t . The Quebec Teachers'  Union (C.E.Q.) had become r a d i c a l i z e d ;  a r t i c l e about t h e growth o f t h e C.E.Q., i t was  i n an  s a i d , "Barely three years  ago the i d e a o f a common f r o n t i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e would have been a j o k e to the m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s .  Today, i t i s a f a i t a c c o m p l i .  In  i t s e l f , such a common f r o n t has the i n i t i a l advantage o f b r i n g i n g t e a c h e r s much c l o s e r t o a l l Quebec u n i o n i s t s . l o g i c a l l y open the way, necessity;  government."^ i n 1970  some time i n the f u t u r e , f o r one f u r t h e r  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new  possessing class w i l l  And f o r many, i t w i l l  socio-economic  system, where the  cease to dominate e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g the  Yvon Charbonneau, who  was  p r e s i d e n t o f t h e C.E.Q.  and 1971, had been an i n f l u e n c e on J i m M a c F a r l a n ,  according to  69  MacFarlan himself. G i v e n t h e cutbacks on e d u c a t i o n spending  i n t h e r e s t o f Canada  and t h e m i l i t a n t responses o f the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d , t h e a c t i o n s o f the B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n c a n be viewed as r i g h t i n s t e p w i t h t h e times;  t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y t i m e s , t h e end o f t e a c h e r apathy and t h e  beginning o f teacher m i l i t a n c y .  I n 1971, t h e C.E.Q. developed  a  "White Paper", d i s c u s s e d i t a t i t s 25th A n n i v e r s a r y , and, w i t h o n l y an amendment t o i t s major recommendation, adopted i t s o t h e r s i x recommendations.  The major recommendation was, "The C.E.Q. takes  as i t s p r i n c i p l e and as i t s g e n e r a l l i n e o f a c t i o n , t h a t i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n as a u n i o n - - t h e defends--to  s t r u g g l e s i t pursues and t h e i n t e r e s t s i t  be p l a c e d a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e workers'  g o a l i s a profound  movement, whose  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t economic, s o c i a l and 12  p o l i t i c a l organization, (of society s i c ) "  T h i s i s ' s i m i l a r i n tune  to M a c F a r l a n ' s pronouncements i n h i s r e t i r i n g speech t o t h e B.C.T.F. i n 1975--"I b e l i e v e o u r F e d e r a t i o n i s now permanently and u n a l t e r a b l y committed t o t h e i d e a t h a t we have a c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l  responsibility.  T h i s means we a r e o b l i g e d t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l  processes  i n o u r s o c i e t y . . . . Our F e d e r a t i o n can become, and i n f a c t , has 13 become an agency f o r s o c i a l change." the socio-economic  The whole i d e a o f a change i n  s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and perhaps  l e d by m i l i t a n t t e a c h e r s , h a d become a c c e p t a b l e t o r a d i c a l groups i n t h e l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's.  teachers'  70  The  r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e B.C.T.F. was p a r t o f a t r e n d  experienced  a c r o s s Canada.  being  The q u e s t i o n i n g and r e j e c t i o n o f o l d  v a l u e s and o l d ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i d e a o f t e a c h e r s t h a t they s h o u l d no l o n g e r a c c e p t government d e c i s i o n s a t f a c e v a l u e . "However, t h e p r o v i n c i a l  governments a r e a l s o d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t t h e  t e a c h e r i n t h e s e v e n t i e s i s no l o n g e r the meek c r e a t u r e o f t h e hungry t h i r t i e s and p a t r i o t i c f o r t i e s , used t o g o i n g cap-in-hand t o t h e l o c a l school board, p l e a d i n g f o r a r a i s e .  B e t t e r p a i d and b e t t e r educated  t h a n h i s c o l l e a g u e s o f an e a r l i e r e r a , he i s n o t t a k i n g a r e d u c t i o n e i t h e r i n h i s s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o r i n h i s democratic  rights  lying  down. To no l i t t l e e x t e n t , then, t h e changes i n the B.C.T.F. were the r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e s from s o c i e t y a t t h e t i m e - - i n c l u d i n g i n f l u e n c e s from o t h e r groups i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r and i n f l u e n c e s from t e a c h e r s ' groups a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y .  The o t h e r Western p r o v i n c e s changed govern-  ments i n an attempt t o f i n d new s o l u t i o n s t o o l d q u e s t i o n s , and B.C. followed s u i t .  The B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , l i k e i t s r a d i c a l  c o u n t e r p a r t i n Quebec, gave up n o n - p a r t i s a n s h i p  and took a m i l i t a n t  s t a n c e a g a i n s t a government i t f e l t t o be no l o n g e r adequate.  71  CHAPTER FOUR - FOOTNOTES  1.  C A . R e i c h , The Greening o f A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , Bantam Books, 1970, p. 380.  2.  I b i d . , p. 338.  3.  " S c h o o l S h i f t s ' A c c e p t a b l e ' - B e n n e t t " , B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 9 No. 11, May 1970, p. 1.  4.  " B i l l 3 - T e a c h e r s ' P e a r l Harbour", B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 13, A p r i l 1972, p. 1.  5.  Donald B r o t h e r s "Speech t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3", p. 1.  6.  I b i d . , pp. 11-15.  7.  Bladen e t a l , Commission on t h e F i n a n c i n g o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965, p. 16; and S.G. P e i t c h i n i n s , F i n a n c i n g P o s t Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1971, p. 94.  8.  Loc. c i t .  9.  Donald B r o t h e r s "Speech t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3", p. 5.  10.  Satu Repo, "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l , " T h i s Magazine S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 3, F a l l , 1972, p. 22  i s about  11.  J . L e B l a n c , "Becoming P o l i t i c a l : The Growth o f t h e Quebec Teachers U n i o n , " T h i s Magazine i s about S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 1 S p r i n g 1972, p. 22.  12.  I b i d . , p. 20.  13.  J . M a c F a r l a n , "Report o f t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e 1975 Annual G e n e r a l M e e t i n g " , Vancouver, 27 March 1975, p. 14.  14.  J . L e B l a n c , op. c i t . , , p . 23.  72  CHAPTER FIVE DEPARTMENTAL INFLUENCES ON THE B.C.T.F.  W h i l e i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o s a y t h a t a c t u a l E d u c a t i o n Department incompetence c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change i n the B.C.T.F., t h e r e was  p l e n t y o f e v i d e n c e t h a t r e l a t i o n s between t h e two were n o t good.  Soon a f t e r Donald B r o t h e r s  became E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r i n May o f 1968,  t h e r e seemed t o be a breakdown i n communications between t h e t e a c h e r s and  the Minister.  A combative s t a n c e was adopted by t h e M i n i s t e r i n h i s  d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e B.C.T.F. Assembly, B r o t h e r s  A t h i s f i r s t meeting w i t h t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  established his confrontative attitude,  t h a t he b e l i e v e d i n " e y e b a l l t o e y e b a l l c o n f r o n t a t i o n " .  declaring  By t h e time o f  the B.C.T.F. Annual General M e e t i n g i n March, 1970, B r o t h e r s o p e n l y by t h e d e l e g a t e s  was j e e r e d  as he gave h i s annual speech.  I f t h e E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r had i n t r o d u c e d  c u t b a c k s on s c h o o l  costs  w i t h a v e l v e t g l o v e and n o t done unnecessary t h i n g s t o a n t a g o n i z e t h e teachers,  i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t they would n o t have become so  m i l i t a n t and t u r n e d so d e f i n i t e l y a g a i n s t For example, B r o t h e r s '  the S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e proposed amendment t o t h e  P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1971 p r e v e n t i n g  teachers  f o r s c h o o l boards i n t h e d i s t r i c t s they taught i n was unwise. the teachers  f e e l as i f t h e y were b e i n g  from  running  I t made  s i n g l e d o u t as a group and  denied t h e i r democratic r i g h t to run f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e .  They r e c e i v e d  73  sympathy from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c o v e r i t .  One  r e p o r t e r wrote,  " B r o t h e r s Keeper - The p r o v i n c i a l government appears t o have l i t t l e f a i t h i n the democratic p r o c e s s i n s o f a r as e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l t r u s t e e s i s concerned. To d i s a l l o w s c h o o l t e a c h e r s from r u n n i n g f o r s e a t s on s c h o o l boards, even o u t s i d e o f the d i s t r i c t s i n which they t e a c h , i s a r e t r o grade move. . . Teachers have good reason to be upset o v e r t h e government's a c t i o n . It indicates a l a c k o f f a i t h i n the i n t e g r i t y o f the p r o f e s s i o n . Some w i l l l o o k upon i t as a c h i l d i s h move - and who b e t t e r than they u n d e r s t a n d the ways o f the immature?"! L a t e r , B r o t h e r s withdrew t h a t s e c t i o n o f the amendment a f t e r p r e s s u r e from t h e p u b l i c . unduly i n h i s attempt  But i n the meantime, he a n t a g o n i z e d  to e x c l u d e them from r u n n i n g f o r s c h o o l  A n o t h e r unpopular  move, and one which s u r e l y was  teachers board.  n o t i n the  i n t e r e s t o f d i r e c t l y s a v i n g the p r o v i n c e money on e d u c a t i o n , was  the  removal by l e g i s l a t i o n o f the a u t o m a t i c membership p r o v i s i o n s i n the B.C.T.F.  T h i s was  the removal o f a r i g h t w h i c h the t e a c h e r s had h e l d  f o r 24 y e a r s , and w h i c h most saw as e s s e n t i a l to the a b i l i t y o f the t e a c h e r s to p o l i c e themselves--because removal o f membership had, t h a t time, meant removal o f a t e a c h e r from h i s j o b . a u t o m a t i c B.C.T.F. membership was  until  The removal o f  a move by the M i n i s t e r t o d e s t r o y the  u n i t y o f the F e d e r a t i o n , and as such i t a n t a g o n i z e d t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t i t d i d not a c c o m p l i s h i t s g o a l .  Only 69 t e a c h e r s o f t h e membership o f  o v e r 22,000 chose not to renew t h e i r memberships i n t h e B.C.T.F.  The  r e s t c o n t i n u e d to pay t h e i r dues and the main r e a c t i o n to the M i n i s t e r ' s  74  amendment was anger--anger which was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o m i l i t a n c y as o t h e r measures were taken t o a l i e n a t e t h e t e a c h e r s .  Some f e l t  t h a t t h e t h r e a t posed by t h e amendment s e r v e d t o u n i f y t h e F e d e r a t i o n more than e v e r . When t h e E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r i n t r o d u c e d B i l l  3 e a r l y i n 1972, i t  seemed t o t h e t e a c h e r s a g a i n t h a t t h e y were b e i n g s i n g l e d o u t as a group and s u b m i t t e d t o treatment a f f o r d e d no o t h e r group o f p u b l i c employees.  T h i s assessment was a c c u r a t e , because p r o v i s i o n s o f B i l l  3  were t h a t t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s above t h e b a s i c minimum s e t by t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n would go t o referendum. when B i l l beforehand  To make m a t t e r s worse,  3 was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , t h e r e was no w a r n i n g t h a t i t would be i n t r o d u c e d .  Adam Robertson,  President o f  the B.C.T.F. a t the t i m e , s a i d , "At s i x o ' c l o c k on January  28, t h e  M i n i s t e r t o l d me t h a t t h e B i l l had been p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . The government's a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r s was made c l e a r — t h e y don't 3 c a r e what we t h i n k . "  While B i l l  3 p r o b a b l y would have saved t h e govern-  ment money i f i t had been implemented ( t h e government f e l l b e f o r e i t was),  t h e t e a c h e r s were i n c e n s e d o v e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s .  Robertson  As Adam  said, S e c t i o n 15, 16 o f B i l l 3, an A c t t o amend t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t now b e f o r e the l e g i s l a t u r e , g i v e t h e government t h e power t o l i m i t by r e g u l a t i o n the p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e t h a t w i l l apply to teachers' s a l a r i e s . Any excess g r a n t e d by n e g o t i a t i o n o r a r b i t r a t i o n would not be b i n d i n g upon s c h o o l boards o r t e a c h e r s u n l e s s a s s e n t e d t o by t h e owner e l e c t o r s t h r o u g h referendum.  75  The amendment takes away from t e a c h e r s t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r i g h t s . I t denies t r u s t e e s , as d u l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p e o p l e , the a u t h o r i t y t o e x e r c i s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y accorded t o them i n law o f a c t i n g as employers o f t e a c h e r s . 4 In B r o t h e r s ' Bill  speech t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e on the Second Reading o f  3 i n ^4arch, 1972, he s a i d , The B.C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n has e x p r e s s e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e proposed amendment which a l l o w s the l o c a l t a x p a y e r s t o have a v o i c e i n s a l a r y increases granted annually to teachers. The F e d e r a t i o n ' s c o m p l a i n t a p p l i e s t o two a r e a s ; f i r s t , they a l l e g e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t and a r e b e i n g s i n g l e d o u t f o r p u n i t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n on s a l a r i e s ; and, second, they suggest t h a t t h e l o c a l t a x p a y e r s w i l l n e v e r approve s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s i n excess o f the g u i d e l i n e s s e t o u t i n r e g u l a t i o n s under t h e A c t . . . The F e d e r a t i o n ' s complaint that teachers a r e being s i n g l e d out-when t h e same approach i s n o t being: made w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s - - i s n o t factual. The Government i s moving o n s e v e r a l f r o n t s to reduce the r a p i d r a t e o f s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s . We want t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P r o v i n c e t o know t h a t as a Government we a r e showing l e a d e r s h i p , and we a r e w i l l i n g t o t a k e the f i r s t steps t o r e s t r a i n t h e i n f l a t i o n a r y t r e n d o f r e c e n t y e a r s i n the hope t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w i l l f o l l o w t h e i r example . . . . I t i s very easy f o r those who w i s h u n l i m i t e d s p e n d i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n t o say t h a t t h e Government s h o u l d p r o v i d e more funds and t h e problem o f e d u c a t i o n c o s t s would cease t o e x i s t . To t h i s a s s e r t i o n I would answer t h a t education, i s o n l y one o f many s e r v i c e s w h i c h a Government has t o p r o v i d e w i t h t h e money i t r e c e i v e s from t h e taxpayers.5 Brothers  concerned. toward him.  was n o t  a )pbpular m i n i s t e r as f a r as t h e t e a c h e r s  Even some s c h o o l t r u s t e e s f e l t  were  a c e r t a i n antagonism  W h i l e one t r u s t e e t o l d t h e a u t h o r he f e l t B r o t h e r s  was too  76  weak t o s t a n d up a g a i n s t Premier Bennett and f e l t t h a t he was  simply  a mouthpiece f o r the Premier when i t came t o s c h o o l p o l i c i e s ,  another  t r u s t e e o f t h a t p e r i o d (who  d i d n ' t want t o be quoted) i n an i n t e r v i e w ,  r e f u s e d t o say a n y t h i n g about B r o t h e r s e x c e p t , " I t was  a lovely  morning u n t i l  you mentioned h i s name.  I'd r a t h e r not t a l k about him  at  author and a f r i e n d , who  o b t a i n e d a meeting w i t h B r o t h e r s  all."  i n 1970  The  a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g a p r o t e s t movement a g a i n s t the f r e e z e on  c o n s t r u c t i o n , were shouted at i n h i s o f f i c e .  When q u e s t i o n e d on  school the  e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s o f the government, he y e l l e d , "Don't t a l k t o me_ like that!  I'm  a  lawyer!"^  E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald B r o t h e r s may  o r may  not have been a  competent m i n i s t e r , but h i s s k i l l s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the t e a c h e r s , t h e B.C.T.F. and o t h e r s i n the e d u c a t i o n f i e l d seemed t o be l a c k i n g . the B.C.T.F. may did  have a n t a g o n i z e d  not a l l e v i a t e m a t t e r s .  him, B r o t h e r s ' b e l l i g e r e n t  While  attitude  I t d i d not h e l p t h a t he i n t r o d u c e d measures  which were seen by the t e a c h e r s as d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a g a i n s t them as a group.  Some o f those measures, such as amendments t o the P u b l i c  Schools Act to prevent  them from r u n n i n g f o r the s c h o o l boards,  removal o f automatic membership, and f i n a l l y B i l l 3, were not necessary  i f the o b j e c t was  t o cut back on s c h o o l c o s t s .  r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d those measures was B.C.T.F. and cow  the really  I f the  t o undermine the s t r e n g t h o f the  the t e a c h e r s , t h e r e s u l t was  the o p p o s i t e .  those measures, the B.C.T.F. and i t s m i l i t a n t e x e c u t i v e took  Faced w i t h strong  77  a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e government i t s e l f , and h e l p e d i n 1972 t o d e f e a t i t . In t h i s case, t h e o l d adage t h a t n o t h i n g draws a p e o p l e t o g e t h e r than a t t a c k from t h e o u t s i d e , was a r e a l i t y .  faster  Nor d i d t h e t e a c h e r s  g i v e up t h e i r campaign a g a i n s t t h e government even when a Supreme Court i n j u n c t i o n was brought a g a i n s t them u s i n g t h e i r one-day l e v y for p o l i t i c a l action.  The c r e a t i o n o f T.P.A.C. was p r o o f t h a t t h e  t e a c h e r s were n o t t o be e a s i l y d e f e a t e d i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o b r i n g about a change i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In  1965, a new Deputy M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n was a p p o i n t e d ;  Dr. G.N. P e r r y .  He was t h e f i r s t Deputy E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r who had  never been a t e a c h e r .  D u r i n g h i s time i n o f f i c e  r e s i g n e d ) he was kept v e r y busy implementing the Macdonald Report  ( u n t i l 1970 when he  t h e recommendations o f  on E d u c a t i o n o f 1962. An amendment t o t h e P u b l i c  S c h o o l s A c t i n 1963 c a l l e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i s t r i c t and regional colleges.  From J u l y , 1965 u n t i l September 1970, 8 new c o l l e g e s  were opened up i n B.C.: Vancouver C i t y Selkirk Okanagan Malaspina Douglas C o l l e g e o f New Caledonia Cariboo Capilano  -  J u l y , 1965 September, 1965 September, 1968 September, 1969 September, 1970  - September, 1969 - September, 1970 - September, 1968 7  As w e l l , two new u n i v e r s i t i e s were i n s t i t u t e d - - S i m o n F r a s e r and t h e University of V i c t o r i a during that period.  78  With t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s and t h e enormous i n c r e a s e i n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s (1961 - 62 enrolment a t U.B.C. 12,649;  1970-71 i t was 20,157) i t was n a t u r a l t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e  Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s t i m e and e f f o r t s were t a k e n up w i t h p o s t - s e c o n d a r y education; schools  t h i s was time and money t h a t might have gone t o p u b l i c  i f t h e r e had n o t been such an i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e  post-secondary l e v e l .  According  t o S t a t i s t i c s Canada, t h e c o s t o f  post-secondary education g  i n B.C. went from $19,192,000 i n 1960 t o  $109,476,000 i n 1969.  The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l e d u c a t i o n  earmarked f o r elementary and secondary e d u c a t i o n i n 1960-61 t o 68.9% i n 1969-70.  dropped from 81.9%  Some f e l t t h a t D r . G.N. P e r r y was  d e a l i n g w i t h t h e new c o l l e g e s a t t h e expense o f t h e p u b l i c Interviews  was  schools.  conducted by t h e a u t h o r i n 1979 i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was f e l t  by p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s dedicated  budget  and t h e i r spokesmen t h a t P e r r y was n o t  t o p u b l i c education  below t h e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ;  concerned almost c o m p l e t e l y  t h a t he  with the post-secondary l e v e l - - t h a t i s ,  w i t h t h e new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , and Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , which was coming i n t o b e i n g  at that time.  Ex-B.C.T.F. P r e s i d e n t Bob Buzza went  so f a r as t o say t h a t P e r r y d i d n ' t seem committed t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system, which he f e l t he had no p r i o r commitment t o and t h a t he wasn't r e a l l y a p u b l i c spokesman f o r . In 1970, of Education,  b o t h t h e Deputy E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r and t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Mr. F.P. L e v i r s , r e s i g n e d .  A f t e r t h a t , Education  79  M i n i s t e r B r o t h e r s r e - o r g a n i z e d t h e Department. Superintendent  o f E d u c a t i o n was  The p o s i t i o n o f  e l i m i n a t e d , and those d u t i e s t r a n s -  f e r r e d t o seven a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , the Deputy M i n i s t e r and the M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f .  Teachers saw  power i n the hands o f t h e M i n i s t e r .  t h i s as a move t o c e n t r a l i z e General S e c r e t a r y C D .  Ovans  c r i t i c i z e d the move: The Department o f E d u c a t i o n b u r e a u c r a c y i s t o be r e s t r u c t u r e d . . . . C o n s i d e r some o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f u n c t i o n s t h e M i n i s t e r now a c q u i r e s . L e g i s l a t i o n m i r a c u l o u s l y t r a n s f o r m s him from a p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e to a p r o f e s s i o n a l educator. By s t a t u t e , not by e x p e r t i s e , he i s competent t o c o n t r o l i s s u a n c e o f t e x t b o o k s and c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , to hold d i s t r i c t superintendents d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o him f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n he r e q u i r e s , t o recommend a r e d u c a t i o n i n g r a n t t o a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i f i t s program o f s t u d i e s o r q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y and t o make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n on d i s m i s s a l o f p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l . 1 0  The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Department, t h e M i n i s t e r ' s a n t a g o n i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward t h e t e a c h e r s , and t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r ' s p r e occupation with post-secondary  e d u c a t i o n had by 1970,  t e a c h e r s and sowed t h e seeds o f m i l i t a n c y .  a l i e n a t e d the  The government c o u l d have  a v o i d e d some o f t h o s e t h i n g s which t r o u b l e d t h e t e a c h e r s , i f t h e r e had been b e t t e r communication between them.  B r o t h e r s c o u l d have  d i s c u s s e d impending l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h t h e B.C.T.F., as  former  Deputy M i n i s t e r J.F.K. E n g l i s h and former E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r L e s l i e P e t e r s o n had done.  L e g i s l a t i o n which seemed c a l c u l a t e d t o d e s t r o y  80  the u n i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s was n o t n e c e s s a r y ;  i t served only t o u n i t e  the t e a c h e r s and t o make them more d e t e r m i n e d . . i n c r e a s e i n emphasis on p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  The problem o f t h e  e d u c a t i o n a t t h e expense o f  p u b l i c s c h o o l s was a d i f f i c u l t one t o d e a l w i t h , b u t perhaps i t was u n r e a l i s t i c o f t h e government t o expect t o keep e d u c a t i o n c o s t s down to  l e s s than 30% o f t h e budget (see Chapter  F i v e ) when no o t h e r  p r o v i n c e i n Canada was a b l e t o do so. T h i s was an e s p e c i a l l y h a r s h budget r e s t r a i n t when t h e i n c r e a s e i n p u p i l e n r o l l m e n t a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l l e v e l a l o n e i n c r e a s e d 60% i n t h e t e n y e a r s from 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 7 2 . ^ I t n e c e s s i t a t e d d e s p e r a t e measures, such as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f s h i f t s i n s c h o o l s l a c k i n g adequate p h y s i c a l accommodation. the other d i f f i c u l t i e s  With a l l  f a c e d i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system, t h i s was  bound t o have t h e e f f e c t o f c a u s i n g an e x p l o s i o n ;  and i n t h i s  case  i t was t h e t e a c h e r s , through t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s new m i l i t a n t e x e c u t i v e who blew up.  81  CHAPTER FIVE - FOOTNOTES  " B r o t h e r s Keeper".  V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , 3 March, 1971, p. 2  B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , Members' Guide t o t h e B.C.T.F. 1978/79, p. 75. A. R o b e r t s o n , "We Won't L i v e With I t " , B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , F e b r u a r y 1972, p. 1. Loc. c i t . D. B r o t h e r s , "Speech t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3:, pp. 4, 5 "§ 6 J . Smedley et a l , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e w r i t e r , March  1979.  S t a t i s t i c s Canada, C e n t u r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1871-1971, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1971, p."51. "Government S t o r y Not Complete," B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , C r i s i s #2, 17 March, 1972, p. 1. Statistics  Canada,, op. c i t . , p. 70.  C D . Ovans, " O v e r - R e a c t i o n - Or Something More S i n i s t e r ? " B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 10 No. 9 S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , March, 1971, p. 2. "Government S t o r y Not c o m p l e t e , " B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , C r i s i s #2, 17 March, 1972, p. 1.  82  CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION D u r i n g t h e 1960*s and t h e e a r l y 1970's, t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s ' Federation  changed from an o r d i n a r y i n t e r e s t group i n t o a m i l i t a n t ,  partisan, anti-Socred  organization.  In s p i t e of the general  belief  t h a t t h e change was s i m p l y t h e r e s u l t o f p u n i t i v e a c t i o n s t a k e n by the government a g a i n s t t h e t e a c h e r s ,  t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r  which c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change i n t h e B.C.T.F.: the B.C.T.F. i n c r e a s e d better organized,  i n the f i r s t  i t s f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , and became  and w e a l t h i e r .  place,  bureaucratized,  The r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n e x p e r t i s e  made t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n more p o w e r f u l , communicate w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s  factors  more v i a b l e , and b e t t e r a b l e t o  and t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e .  With  strength  came both t h e optimism t h a t t h i n g s c o u l d be changed, and t h e morale n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y on, even when l e v y funds r a i s e d f o r p o l i t i c a l were f r o z e n .  With such a p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n b e h i n d them,  no l o n g e r f e l t i n a weak p o s i t i o n .  Now they c o u l d t a k e  a c t i o n a g a i n s t d e f i c i e n c i e s t h e y saw i n t h e government's  action  teachers  concerted education  policies. The  f a c t t h a t most o f t h e t e a c h e r s  remained p a r t o f t h e B.C.T.F.  a f t e r t h e government took away t h e i r a u t o m a t i c membership p r o v i s i o n s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y thought i t was a w o r t h w h i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  i n s i s t e n c e by t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n and o t h e r members o f t h e  83  government, t h a t members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n were u n c o m f o r t a b l e  with  t h e m i l i t a n c y o f t h e B.C.T.F. and no l o n g e r wanted t o be members, does n o t seem borne out by t h e f a c t s , f o r a f t e r t h e automatic members h i p p r o v i s i o n s were removed, o n l y 69 out o f over 22,000 t e a c h e r s d i d not renew t h e i r memberships. The p a i d s t a f f and t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e members.  When i n t e r v i e w e d  i n 1979, e x e c u t i v e members c l a i m e d t h a t i t had been a d i f f i c u l t to get t e a c h e r s t o complain  about t h i n g s l i k e overcrowded  and p e n s i o n p l a n i n a d e q u a c i e s . the i n i t i a t i v e .  task  classrooms  C l e a r l y , t h e B.C.T.F. E x e c u t i v e  took  However, w i t h o u t an adequate s u p p l y o f funds f o r  r e s e a r c h , f u l l time o f f from t e a c h i n g d u t i e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p i n t h e B.C.T.F. o f f i c e s , as w e l l as t h e monthly n e w s l e t t e r , which p r o v i d e d t h e E x e c u t i v e w i t h an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p o l i t i c i z e the members, i t would have been more d i f f i c u l t t o spur t h e t e a c h e r s to a c t i o n . The m i l i t a n c y o f t h e B.C.T.F. i n t h e 1972 e l e c t i o n campaign d i d not s i m p l y appear out o f t h e b l u e . t o quote J i m MacFarlan,  The p o t e n t i a l was t h e r e a l l a l o n g :  r a d i c a l i s m was "dormant but n o t dead."  The  f a c t t h a t t h e B.C.T.F. took r a d i c a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e Socred government i n 1972 d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s had suddenly become r a d i c a l .  They-remained as c o n s e r v a t i v e  as e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o former E x e c u t i v e members.  The d i f f e r e n c e was,  84  however, t h a t now t h e y were w i l l i n g t o a l l o w t h e i r e x e c u t i v e t o t a k e s t r o n g a c t i o n when they saw t h a t a l l e l s e had f a i l e d ;  besides, i t  was a time when a l l k i n d s o f groups were t a k i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n ; i t was t h e s t y l e t o p r o t e s t .  T h e r e f o r e they v o t e d f o r t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s  who seemed most l i k e l y t o t a k e s t r o n g a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e government, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e l e f t i s t i d e o l o g i e s o f some o f them.  The s t r o n g  l e f t i s t and r a d i c a l members who got themselves i n t o p o s i t i o n s o f power w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f r a d i c a l commitment.-  political  They d i d n o t h i d e t h e i r r a d i c a l i s m , and t h e y were v o t e d  i n t o power d e m o c r a t i c a l l y .  So, w h i l e t h e s t a n c e t a k e n by t h e B.C.T.F.  a g a i n s t t h e government and t h e apparent p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r s was p a r t l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e l e f t wing r a d i c a l s who had t a k e n over t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , they cannot be f a u l t e d f o r t a k i n g the stance they d i d ;  t h e y had t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f  the g e n e r a l membership because they were e l e c t e d as t h e l e g i t i m a t e spokesmen o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As w e l l , t h e t e a c h e r s v o t e d f o r t h e  one-day l e v y f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  They supported T.P.A.C. when t h e  Supreme Court i n j u n c t i o n was o b t a i n e d a g a i n s t t h e i r c o l l e c t e d f u n d . They made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r a d i c a l s w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t a k e s t r o n g a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n campaign t o d e f e a t t h e Socreds. In an e r a when a new c o n s c i o u s n e s s was d e v e l o p i n g , when t h e r e was a g r e a t r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and a renewed emphasis on e d u c a t i o n , t h e Socred government seemed out o f date and a n a c h r o n i s t i c .  85  The sense o f honesty and openness b e i n g advocated everywhere d i d n o t fit  i n w i t h t h e o l d Socred ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s .  When B r o t h e r s s a i d  t h a t B.C. had t h e most e q u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n f i n a n c e f o r m u l a t o be found anywhere i n N o r t h America and t h e t e a c h e r s c o u l d e a s i l y prove h i m wrong, he l o s t h i s c r e d i b i l i t y .  When a c a b i n e t member c a l l e d a r t  and music " b a l o n e y " , t h e Socreds showed t h a t t h e y were out o f tune w i t h the times.  When y o u t h seemed t o be t a k i n g over t h e r e i g n s o f i n f l u e n c e  from t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , t h e o l d government o f W.A..C. Bennett seemed inadequate.  The t e a c h e r s were n o t t h e o n l y ones t o t u r n m i l i t a n t .  The government had a n t a g o n i z e d many groups i n B.C. s o c i e t y , b u t e s p e c i a l l y t h e p u b l i c employees. government.  They were t i r e d o f t h e t i r e d o l d  When even t h e p e o p l e o f Kelowna, t h e P r e m i e r ' s own r i d i n g ,  p r o t e s t e d and demanded a b e t t e r d e a l f o r t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ,  surely  i t must have l o o k e d ominous t o t h e members o f t h e government. Y e t Finance M i n s t e r - P r e m i e r W.A.C. Bennett d i d n o t l o o s e n t h e purse  strings.  While t h e Socreds had once been h e l d i n power by t h e g r a s s r o o t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e o f B.C., now t h e y were looked upon as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t t h a t p o i n t i n time i n N o r t h America was s u s p e c t . So, t h e t r e n d o f t h e times a l s o had a p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e increasing p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f the teachers.  I t was t h e r i g h t time and  t h e r i g h t p l a c e t o t a k e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e government. The i n a b i l i t y o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n and perhaps  also his  86  Deputy t o cope w i t h t h e new, changed e r a and t h e b o l d e r t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g t h e l i n e on e d u c a t i o n c o s t s , made f o r a n i m o s i t y .  while  But t h e  f a c t t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r seemed t o 4°°k upon t h e t e a c h e r s as " t h e enemy" d i d n o t cause them t o back o f f ;  and h i s a c t i o n s i n t a k i n g away  t h e i r a u t o m a t i c membership p r o v i s i o n s o n l y s e r v e d t o s t r e n g t h e n r e s o l v e t o take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  their  F o r y e a r s , t h e B.C.T.F. had t r i e d  t o change t h e government's e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s .  Not o n l y were t h e y  l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l , b u t t h e government seemed more d e t e r m i n e d ever t o t a k e a tough s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e t e a c h e r s . teachers  than  Instead of the  changing t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e government, t h e government t r i e d  t o change t h e t e a c h e r s , and attempted t o "break t h e i r u n i o n . "  In  t h e f a c e o f such o p p o s i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s chose a r o u t e t h e y had n e v e r chosen b e f o r e ; government i t s e l f .  t h a t o f m i l i t a n c y and o v e r t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e A f t e r y e a r s and y e a r s o f i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e y were  n o n - p a r t i s a n , t h e y became p a r t i s a n .  With t h e passage o f B i l l 3 t h a t  would make c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g m e a n i n g l e s s and make i t n e c e s s a r y i n some cases t o submit s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s t o referendum, t h e t e a c h e r s decided  i t was " d e s t r o y o r be d e s t r o y e d . "  campaign a g a i n s t t h e S o c r e d s ,  t a k i n g w i t h them as many  d i s a f f e c t e d groups as t h e y c o u l d Premier  their  other  find.  W.A.C. Bennett was well-known f o r n o t a l l o w i n g groups  t o i n f l u e n c e o r coerce him. legislature,  And so t h e y launched  He i s r e p o r t e d t o have s a i d i n t h e  " I ' v e opposed lumber b a r o n s , and t h e p r e s s b a r o n s ,  t e a c h e r s , d o c t o r s and then t h e l a b o r b o s s e s and a l l t h e o t h e r s when  87  they've t r i e d t o p r e s s u r e t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d government o f the people.  And I always w i l l . " " * "  Edwin B l a c k e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s  aspect o f Bennett's government: I f , f o r example, y o u r group f a i l s t o make t h e r i g h t i m p r e s s i o n on a l e g i s l a t i v e committee ( o r you cannot even get a h e a r i n g ) , i t goes t o work on i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , o r p u t s p r e s s u r e on t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e , or works t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s , o r "wines and d i n e s " l e a d i n g members o f t h e government, and so on. T h i s k i n d o f p o l i t i c a l o p e r a t i o n assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t e x e r t s r e a l and o b s e r v a b l e i n f l u e n c e on government d e c i s i o n s and p o l i c y - m a k i n g , as w e l l as government l e a d e r s r e s p e c t f u l o f , and r e s p o n s i v e t o , spokesmen f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l groupings i n the p o l i t y . But these a s s u m p t i o n s , so f a r as they a p p l y t o B r i t i s h Columbia, a r e n o t v a l i d . The p r e s e n t government r e p r e s e n t s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d protest against established s o c i a l e l i t e s o f a l l k i n d s . The i n a b i l i t y o f such groups t o secure t h e d e s i r e d h e a r i n g and a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n accounts f o r t h e f r e q u e n t charges t h a t Mr. Bennett i s "undemocratic"; t h e charges a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y made by members o f t h e Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , the Chambers o f Commerce, t h e u n i v e r s i t y community, t h e w i l d l i f e f e d e r a t i o n s and l a b o u r groups.2 The B.C.T.F used o l d and t i m e - t r i e d methods t o lobby t h e government f o r many y e a r s .  T a c t i c s used i n t h e 1966 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and  l a t e r i n t h e A p p l e Campaign o f 1969, were based on methods i n use by p r e s s u r e groups i n Canada f o r more than h a l f a c e n t u r y . public  t o vote f o r the candidates  who supported  the teachers, the  B.C.T.F. was a c t i n g much l i k e t h e Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' l o n g ago - " I n t h e e l e c t i o n campaign o f 1904, t h e CM.A. t h a t members 'support  In urging the  Association recommended  those c a n d i d a t e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p a r t y , who  88  announce themselves revision.'  p u b l i c l y i n f a v o u r o f an immediate t a r i f f  "  In the f a c e o f an entrenched who  seemed more determined  a n t i - g r o u p p a r t y l i k e the  Socreds,  than ever t o go a g a i n s t o r g a n i z e d  interest  groups, the o l d methods were no l o n g e r u s e f u l .  The t e a c h e r s had  to  fight f i r e with f i r e . Donald S m i l e y , w r i t i n g i n h i s a r t i c l e , New  "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : a  Look a t S o c i a l C r e d i t , " s a i d , An e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between S o c i a l C r e d i t and o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n Canada i s t h a t i t s s t r a t e g y i s based on what I s h a l l c a l l " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " as opposed t o "group p o l i t i c s . " . . . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h e n , the p o l i t i c a l u n i v e r s e o f the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s i s one o f groups, a u n i v e r s e t o be approached through the c i r c u m s p e c t treatment o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z e d i n t e r e s t s . The " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " o f S o c i a l C r e d i t i s a less complicated business. The movement has drawn i t s l e a d e r s f o r t h e most p a r t from persons o f lower e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t and s t a t u s than the o t h e r p a r t i e s . . . c h i r o p r a c t o r s and e v a n g e l i s t s have been prominent - and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o name a prominent S o c i a l C r e d i t o r who has a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n o f eminence i n any o t h e r f i e l d than politics. These men have got where t h e y are through the e l e c t o r a t e alone and t h e y thus pursue the v o t e r s ' support i n a most d i r e c t and u n i n h i b i t e d way w i t h o u t the d e f e r e n c e t o c e n t r e s o f i n f l u e n c e and the complex b a l a n c i n g o f group i n t e r e s t s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of other p o l i t i c i a n s . Because S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a d e r s have shared r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n the rewards o f s t a t u s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o u t s i d e o f p o l i t i c s , they are a b l e t o i d e n t i f y themselves c l o s e l y w i t h the v o t e r s ' a t t i t u d e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as these a t t i t u d e s embody resentments a g a i n s t the e x i s t i n g o r d e r resentments o f the educated by t h e uneducated, o f m e t r o p o l i t a n i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s by r u r a l and s e m i - f r o n t i e r a r e a s , o f t h e denominations by t h e s e c t s , o f the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c b u r e a u c r a c i e s by the s m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r , o f t h e f a b r i c o f l e g a l i t y by those who r e g a r d law as not w h o l l y b e n e f i c i e n t A  89 The remarks o f E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Donald B r o t h e r s i n h i s speech t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l 3 demonstrate t h e " e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s " o f t h e Socreds:  "The Honourable Members are v e r y w e l l aware t h a t t h e  t a x p a y e r s i n t h i s P r o v i n c e a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y alarmed  about  the c o n t i n u i n g upward s p i r a l i n t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l services.  A l s o , they a r e aware o f t h e resentment o f t h e t a x p a y e r s  i n t h e annual i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r s c h o o l t a x e s . " ^ The B.C.T.F's s w i t c h from a n o n - p a r t i s a n s t a n c e t o an a n t i government one i n 1972 seemed an i n e v i t a b l e response government i n t r a n s i g e n c e .  t o continued  Then, when o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s were p r e s e n t ,  such as B.C.T.F. w e a l t h and e x p e r t i s e , t h e acceptance  of radicalism  by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , m i l i t a n t a c t i o n s by t e a c h e r s i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n a d e q u a c i e s , and r a d i c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e B.C.T.F., t h e t i m e was r i p e t o t a k e c o n c r e t e anti-government  action.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s e l i c i t e d by a s t r o n g a n t i - g r o u p government would have i n e v i t a b l y brought f o r t h  interest  groups so s t r o n g t h a t they i m p e r i l e d t h e government i t s e l f . sense, perhaps, In response  In a  t h e v e r y s t r e n g t h o f t h e government became i t s weakness.  t o s t r o n g government measures, t h e B.C.T.F. became  s t r o n g - - s t r o n g enough t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p t o o t h e r d i s c o n t e n t e d groups i n B.C. s o c i e t y , who came t o g e t h e r i n a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o h e l p t o d e f e a t t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  90  CHAPTER SIX - FOOTNOTES  J . Hardy, "Comment", B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r , V o l . 11 No. 10, March 1972, p. 2. E. B l a c k , "B.C.: The P o l i t i c s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n , " P a r t y P o l i t i c s iri Canada, Hugh T h o r b u r n , ed., S c a r b o r o u g h , P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1972, p. 230. F. Engelmann £ M. Sehwarz, P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and t h e Canadian Social Structure, Scarborough, P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1967, p. 112. D.V. S m i l e y , "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : A New Look a t S o c i a l C r e d i t , Canadian Forum, September 1962, p. 123. D. B r o t h e r s ,  "Speech t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e on B i l l  3", p. 1.  91 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Engelmann, F r e d e r i c k § Schwarz, M i l d r e d A. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and the Canadian S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, L t d . , 1967. K r u h l a k , O r e s t M. et a l . The Canadian P o l i t i c a l Process., R e v i s e d E d i t i o n . T o r o n t o and M o n t r e a l , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada, L i m i t e d , 1973. Ovans, C h a r l e s D. Behind t h e L o o k i n g G l a s s : Toward t h e E d u c a t i n g S o c i e t y . Vancouver, E v e r g r e e n P r e s s L i m i t e d , 1978. P r e s t h u s , Robert. E l i t e Accommodation i n Canadian P o l i t i c s . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. P r o s s , A. P a u l . R e i c h , C h a r l e s A. Inc., 1970.  P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o r i n Canadian The Greening o f A m e r i c a .  London  Politics,  New Y o r k , Bantam Books  Thorburn, Hugh G. ed. P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, T h i r d E d i t i o n . Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1972. Young, W a l t e r D. Democracy and D i s c o n t e n t . Co. o f Canada L t d . , 1969.  Toronto, McGraw-Hill  Pamphlets B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . Teachers Versus S o c i a l C r e d i t . B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , August 1972.  Vancouver,  Commissions and Reports Bladen e t a l . Commission on t h e F i n a n c i n g o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, b e i n g the Report o f a Commission t o the A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s o f Canada, e t c . T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965. P e i t c h i n i n s , Stephen G. F i n a n c i n g Post Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, a s t u d y commissioned by t h e C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f E d u c a t i o n , Canada. C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , 1971. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. C e n t u r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h 1971. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1971  Columbia  1871-  92 N e w s l e t t e r s , Newspapers  and Magazines  B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n N e w s l e t t e r s , October, 1962 - December, 1972, Vancouver. M a c F a r l a n , J i m . "What K i n d o f School System?" T h i s Magazine I s About S c h o o l s , V o l . 8 No. 3 August-September 1974, pp. 9-12. L e B l a n c , J u l e s . "Becoming P o l i t i c a l The Growth o f t h e Quebec Teachers U n i o n " . T h i s Magazine I s About S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 1 S p r i n g , 1972. Repo, S a t u . "B.C. Teachers Turn P o l i t i c a l . " T h i s Magazine I s About S c h o o l s , V o l . 6 No. 3 F a l l 1972, pp. 8-25. " B r o t h e r s Keeper".  Victoria Daily Colonist,  3 March 1971, p. 2.  S m i l e y , Donald V. "Canada's P o u j a d i s t s : A New Look a t S o c i a l C r e d i t . " Canadian Forum, September, 1962. "Teacher D e l e g a t e s J e e r M i n i s t e r " , S u r r e y C o l u m b i a , 31 March 1970, p. 1. Mayse, A r t h u r , "Others Are L a y i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t Union B u s t i n g " . V i c t o r i a Times, 3 March 1971, p. 2. Booklets B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n . Members' Guide t o t h e B.C.T.F. 1978/79. Vancouver, B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , 1979. Personal  Communication  Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r : Blakey, A l .  March,  B r o t h e r s , Donald  January,:1970  Buzza, Bob  March,  MacFarlan, Jim  March, 1979  Nicholls,  March,.1979  Alan  1979 1979  Onstad, Gary  March,  1979  R o b e r t s o n , Adam  March,  1979  Smedley,  March,  1979  March,  1979  Jack  Wenman, Robert  

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