Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Thomas Hobbes and his mechanistic physiology : factors in the reception of the mechanical philosophy… Spohn, William Frederick 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1979_A8 S66.pdf [ 4.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094737.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094737-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094737-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094737-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094737-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094737-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094737-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094737-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094737.ris

Full Text

THOMAS HOBBES AND HIS MECHANISTIC PHYSIOLOGY: FACTORS IN THE RECEPTION OF THE MECHANICAL PHILOSOPHY IN SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND BY WILLIAM FREDERICK SPOHN B.Sc. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tmen t . o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 (c) W i l l i a m F r e d e r i c k Spohn, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 8, 1979 D E - 6 B P 75-51 1 E ABSTRACT Thomas Hobbes i s the g e n e r a l l y acknowledged pre-eminent E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and the p o l i t i c a l a r e a s o f h i s work have been much s t u d i e d . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the f i e l d o f p h y s i o l o g y has remained l a r g e l y u n a p p r e c i a t e d , and i n f a c t has been deemed t o be l a r g e l y n e g a t i v e by tho s e s c h o l a r s who have examined i t . By e x a m i n i n g Hobbes' p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and comparing i t t o t h a t o f o t h e r contemporary p h y s i o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , t h i s s t u d y r eaches the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Hobbes was w o r k i n g v e r y much as a p a r t o f the d e v e l o p i n g m e c h a n i c a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the b a s i s f o r making a case f o r a p o s i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e f o r Hobbes in the encouragement and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f me c h a n i c a l p h y s i o l o g y i n England i s f o r m u l a t e d . The reasons why such a p o s i t i v e r o l e i s not at f i r s t a p p a r e n t a r e found t o i n c l u d e the t h e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i o n s t o any m a t e r i a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e and Hobbes 1 r e p u t a t i o n as an a t h e i s t e n t a i l e d by h i s p h i l o s o p h y . The c l i m a t e o f s c i e n t i f i c and c l e r i c a l o p i n i o n s u r r o u n d i n g Hobbes 1 i d e a s i s a l s o examined. The s e e m i n g l y p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n wh i c h Hobbes c o u l d make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o E n g l i s h s c i e n c e and y e t g a i n no o v e r t r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT • i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i PHOTOGRAPH OF HOBBES i i i a EPIGRAPH iv CHAPTER I HOBBES ' MECHANICAL PHYSIOLOGY 9 II HOBBES AND THE ENGLISH PHYSIOLOGISTS 26 III HOBBES* ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY 54 BIBLIOGRAPHY 69 i i i l i i a " I know a l r e a d y , by e x p e r i e n c e , how much g r e a t e r thanks w i l l be due than p a i d me, f o r t e l l i n g men the t r u t h o f what men a r e . " Hobbes INTRODUCTION In an i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n 1977, T.M. Brown d i s c u s s e d the development o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y i n England from 1640 t o 1660, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the r e c e p t i o n o f the new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l -osophy a p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r e w h i c h Brown i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D e s c a r t e s . He found t h a t England e x p e r i e n c e d a " m u l t i p l y a m b i v a l e n t i n c u r s i o n " o f C a r t e s i a n m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . He found t h a t "even w i t h i n u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i o l o g y e n t h u s i a s m was q u a l i f i e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e , and t h e r o l e o f the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y was c a r e f u l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d . " ' S e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r such an a m b i v a l e n c e toward m e c h a n i c a l p h i l -osophy were o f f e r e d , i n c l u d i n g the c o n s e r v a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f the neo-c l a s s i c a l m e d i c a l t r a d i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y W i l l i a m Harvey's o r t h o d o x a u t h o r i t y , and contemporary t h e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i o n s t o m a t e r i a l i s m . As a f i n a l p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h e h e s i t a n c y on the p a r t o f the E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t s t o embrace a p h y s i o l o g y based on t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r e Brown s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p h i l o s o p h y had become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i d e a s o f Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes had p u b l i s h e d L e v i a t h a n (1651) and De C orpore (1655) and i n t h a t and t h e n e x t decade r e c e i v e d much 2 a d v e r s e r e a c t i o n t o h i s moral and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s . As Hobbes was a l s o a f e r v e n t proponent o f the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , Brown argued t h a t i t may have become d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone t o a c c e p t f r e e l y the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h o u t r i s k i n g c e n s u r e by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Hobbes. 1 2 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o - a s s e s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Thomas Hobbes i n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , f o r the r e c e n t l y i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n Hobbes' s t u d i e s has c e n t r e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y on the p o l i t i c a l , moral and r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y , f o r the most p a r t o m i t t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s b i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t . The few a u t h o r s who have d i s c u s s e d Hobbes 1 n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y have f o r the most p a r t done so in o r d e r t o e x p l i c a t e some moral o r p o l i t i c a l p o i n t . The o n l y n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s F r i t h i o f B r a n d t who gave a m e t i c u l o u s and i n v a l -u a b l e a c c o u n t o f t h e development o f Hobbes' t h o u g h t s on n a t u r a l p h i l o s -3 ophy and o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o contemporary n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r our p u r p o s e s , B r a n d t d i d not examine Hobbes 1 p h y s i o -l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . I t seems c l e a r t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n o f Hobbes i n h i s contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e n v ironment i s i n c o m p l e t e . There a r e perhaps s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . The image o f Hobbes as the b e t e n o i re o f E n g l i s h moral and p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c s as o u t l i n e d by Samuel M i n t z may have become something o f a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g t r u i s m . The i d e a s f o r wh i c h Hobbes was denounced w i t h such a s p e r i t y i n h i s own time seem to have g e n e r a t e d most o f the d i s c u s s i o n i n the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y as w e l l . Hobbes' t h e o r i e s o f b i o l o g y have been l a r g e l y n e g l e c t e d by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and t h i s i s a response t h a t modern w r i t e r s have seen f i t t o f o l l o w . Whereas s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have d e a l t w i t h Hobbes 1 thought i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n t e x t , most r e c e n t l y and n o t a b l y Q u e n t i n S k i n n e r , none have p r o p e r l y examined h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e a s 3 In t h i s f a s h i o n . T h i s i s s u r e l y a l a c u n a t h a t s h o u l d be f i l l e d . A f i r s t r e a c t i o n t o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Hobbes' p h y s i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s thought and o f the development o f t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , might be t h a t he no more made a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o b i o l o g y than he d i d t o m a t h e m a t i c s , and, i n any c a s e , the p o l i t i c a l s e c t i o n s o f h i s w r i t i n g s a r e the t r u l y i m p o r t a n t ones. To i g n o r e t h e s e p o o r l y e x p l o r e d a r e a s o f Hobbes' thought as t r i v i a l o r as p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d would be an e r r o r f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . To do a t r u l y c omplete c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f Hobbes and h i s w o r k s , a l l p o r t i o n s o f t h a t work must be c o n s i d e r e d on Hobbes 1 own terms, as a l l p a r t o f a d e v e l o p i n g whole. Not o n l y i s Hobbes 1 m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i m p o r t a n t t o the h i s t o r y o f s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y p h y s i o l o g y i n the manner s u g g e s t e d by Brown, but : i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y a c c o r d i n g t o Hobbes h i m s e l f . In o r d e r p r o p e r l y t o compare Hobbes' work w i t h t h a t o f h i s contem-o r a r i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o c l o s e l y examine t h e s e works and summarize h i s th o u g h t s on m e c h a n i c a l p h y s i o l o g y , s e n s a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y . These c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l then be compared w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r p h i l o s o -phers and m e d i c a l s c i e n t i s t s o f the l a t t e r s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n o r d e r t o see i f Hobbes has any p a r t i n the i n c u r s i o n o f s o - c a l l e d ' C a r t e s i a n p h i l o s o p h y ' i n Eng l a n d . I t w i l l be shown t h a t Hobbes 1 thought was i m p o r t a n t not o n l y f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the development o f p h y s i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y , but a l s o t o the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l development o f E n g l i s h s c i e n c e . A case w i l l be made t h a t c o n t r a r y t o Brown the development o f s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e c h a n i s t i c t r e n d s i n E n g l i s h p h y s i o l o g y was in a s i g n i f i c a n t way due t o Hobbes. W h i l e Brown i s c o r r e c t i n s t a t i n g t h a t Hobbes may have had a p a r t i n the a m b i v a l e n c e o f the i n c u r s i o n h o f mechanism i n t o E n g l i s h t h o u g h t , he s t r e s s e s o n l y the n e g a t i v e c o n t r i b -u t i o n o f Hobbes. The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f Hobbes'thought on h i s f e l l o w s c i e n t i s t s may ou t w e i g h the n e g a t i v e , and much o f the s o - c a l l e d C a r t e s i a n d o c t r i n e o r E p i c u r e a n t h e o r y adopted by t h e s e s c i e n t i s t s c o u l d j u s t as a p t l y be d e s c r i b e d as Hobbesian. The reasons why such an a p p e l a t i o n was a l m o s t u n t h i n k a b l e t o Hobbes' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . Thomas Hobbes was as e x c e p t i o n a l f o r h i s l o n g e v i t y as f o r h i s i d e a s . Born i n the y e a r o f the S p a n i s h Armada, 1588, he l i v e d t o see h i s n i n e t y - s e c o n d y e a r , d y i n g i n 1679- Hobbes was e d u c a t e d i n a t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o l a s t i c manner and r e c e i v e d h i s B.A. from O x f o r d a t t he age o f n i n e t e e n . H i s l i f e f o r the n e x t t h r e e decades was an i t i n e r a n t one, as he s e r v e d as companion and t u t o r t o noblemen's sons t a k i n g the grand t o u r o f t h e C o n t i n e n t . A l t h o u g h he spent some time as F r a n c i s Bacon's s e c r e t a r y , none o f the c h a n c e l l o r ' s i d e a s seem t o have impressed Hobbes g r e a t l y . H i s p e r s o n a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t came l a t e i n l i f e , when i n 1629, a t t h e age o f Ul, he was abroad on h i s second t r i p t o t h e C o n t i n e n t . Aubrey d e s c r i b e d how Hobbes chanced upon some E u c l i d e a n g e o m e t r i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and was much taken w i t h the mathem-a t i c a l method o f d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . ^ Hobbes h i m s e l f e l s e w h e r e r e c o u n t s the i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h he became c o g n i z a n t o f the im p o r t a n c e o f sens-a t i o n t o p h i l o s o p h y , and he had f o r m u l a t e d a t h e o r y o f s e n s a t i o n by 1630, u s i n g m e c h a n i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s . 7 These two e l e m e n t s , d e d u c t i v e l o g i c and an i n t e r e s t i n human p s y c h o l o g y , were t o form t h e b a s i s f o r the development o f Hobbes' p h i l o s o p h i c a l system. A l t h o u g h somewhat a s o l i t a r y man, Hobbes n e v e r t h e l e s s made a few i m p o r t a n t f r i e n d s i n s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s . A f t e r I63O, Hobbes was the i n s t r u c t o r and f r i e n d o f W i l l i a m C a v e n d i s h , E a r l o f N e w c a s t l e 5 ( l a t e r M a r q u i s and Duke) and o f h i s b r o t h e r S i r C h a r l e s C a v e n d i s h . When i n the autumn o f 1 6 4 0 , Hobbes f l e d t o F r a n c e , he renewed k i s a c q u a i n -t a n c e w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e i n P a r i s o r g a n i z e d by F a t h e r M a r i n Mersenne. Hobbes had f r e q u e n t e d t h i s group on h i s p r e v i o u s c o n t i n e n t a l s o j o u r n ( 1 6 3 4 - 1 6 3 7 ) i n the c o u r s e o f w h i c h he a l s o met G a l i l e o i n F l o r e n c e . W h i l e back i n England he had been a member o f a n o t h e r group o f s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l amateurs c e n t r e d around N e w c a s t l e and h i s b r o t h e r . When some o f the o t h e r members o f the N e w c a s t l e c i r c l e f l e d England i n the e a r l y 1 6 4 0 s , i t was n a t u r a l t h a t they w o u l d convene once more i n P a r i s , where Hobbes p l a y e d a p a r t i n the exchange o f i d e a s between E n g l i s h and French t h i n k e r s . * P i e r r e Gassend ( G a s s e n d i ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , was a good f r i e n d o f Hobbes, and i n 1644 showed him the m a n u s c r i p t o f the f i r s t major p r e s e n t -q a t i o n o f h i s p h y s i c s . Hobbes saw more m e r i t i n G a s s e n d i ' s E p i c u r e a n m e c h a n i s t i c atomism than i n D e s c a r t e s ' work w h i c h Hobbes r e p e a t e d l y c r i t i c i z e d . Gassendi b e l i e v e d . ( c o n t r a r y to Descartes* opinions) t h a t i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t he senses t h a t knowledge o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d can come.'^ T h i s v i e w was b a s i c a l s o t o Hobbes' t h e o r y , and t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l agreement had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he r e c e p t i o n o f G a s s e n d i ' s work i n E n g l i s h c i r c l e s . Hobbes i s p r o b a b l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f i r s t i n t e r e s t i n g the members o f the Ne w c a s t l e c i r c l e i n E p i c u r e a n atomism, and i n i n t r o d u c i n g h i s f r i e n d W a l t e r C h a r l e t o n t o t h i s p h i l o s -ophy.'' C h a r l e t o n was l a t e r t o become an a v i d exponent o f Gassendi 12 and an i n f l u e n t i a l man i n c i r c l e s o f l e a r n i n g i n R e s t o r a t i o n E n g l a n d , Hobbes took f a r l e s s i n t e r e s t i n D e s c a r t e s as a f r i e n d o r p h i l o s -opher than as a geometer. A l t h o u g h Hobbes c a s t i g a t e d him f o r p a n d e r i n g to r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y and f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e o r y on w h i c h t he two 6 d i f f e r e d , he seems n e v e r t h e l e s s t o have had an open mind on the s u b j e c t o f t h e mechanical p h i l o s o p h y and was w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r the C a r t e s i a n 13 v e r s i o n on i t s m e r i t s . He c o u l d n e v e r agree, on the n e c e s s i t y o f p o s t u l a t i n g a r a t i o n a l s o u l t o e x p l a i n r a t i o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomena. By h i s v e r y d i s a g r e e m e n t , Hobbes i n s t i g a t e d d i s c u s s i o n o f D e s c a r t e s as w e l l as o f Gassendi among h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e . Thus the 16k0s saw i n P a r i s the f o r m a t i o n o f an u n o f f i c i a l u n i v e r -s i t y , (an ' i n v i s i b l e c o l l e g e ' ) c o n c e r n e d w i t h the new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s -ophy, c e n t r e d around Hobbes, Mersenne, D e s c a r t e s , and G a s s e n d i , i n c l u d i n g 14 • b o t h E n g l i s h and c o n t i n e n t a l components. The t a s k here .'.includes :.the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a t e r e f f e c t s o f t h i s ' u n i v e r s i t y ' on E n g l i s h p h y s i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y , and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r o l e t h a t Thomas Hobbes was t o p l a y i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n o f the l a t t e r h a l f o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 7 FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION 1. Theodore M. Brown, " P h y s i o l o g y and the M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y i n M i d - S e v e n t e e n t h Century E n g l a n d , " Bui 1 . H i s t . Med. 51 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 5 ^ . 2 . For an a c c o u n t o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m see Samuel I. M i n t z , The H u n t i n g  o f L e v i a t h a n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) . 3 - F r i t h i o f B r a n d t , Thomas Hobbes' M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y o f N a t u r e , (Copenhagen: L e v i n & Munksgaard, 1 9 2 8 ) . B r a n d t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f o r m -a t i v e on Hobbes 1 o p t i c a l t h e o r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a c c o r d i n g t o Kargon, the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s work from the o r i g i n a l D a nish i s a v e r y poor one r e n d e r i n g the t e x t o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e . See Robert H. Kargon, Atomism i n England from Ha r i o t t o Newton, ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1966) p.5 ^ . 4 . Robert Kargon, Atomism i n England from H a r i o t t o Newton, 1 9 6 6 , was the f i r s t t o deal a t any l e n g t h w i t h Hobbes' m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , e s p e c i a l l y h i s atomism, i n an E n g l i s h c o n t e x t . He d e a l t o n l y i n p a s s i n g w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f Hobbes. More a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f Hobbes 1 p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , n o t a b l y by S k i n n e r , "The I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f Hobbes' P o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l 9 ( 1 9 6 6 ) and by J.A.W. Gunn i n P o l i t i cs and the P u b l i c I n t e r e s t i n the S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: R o u t l e d g e £ K. P a u l , 1 9 6 8 ) . . 5 . The b e s t b i o g r a p h y o f Hobbes remains t h a t o f G.C. R o b e r t s o n , Hobbes ( E d i n b u r g h & London: Blackwood and S o n s ) , 1 8 8 6 , a l t h o u g h M i r i a m ; R e i k has done an i n f o r m a t i v e i f u n e x c e p t i o n a l r e v i s i o n o f t h a t a c c o u n t o f Hobbes 1 l i f e i n The Golden Lands o f Thomas Hobbes ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1-977). 6 . John Aubrey, B r i e f L i v e s , ed. A. C l a r k ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 8 9 8 ) . 7- T h i s t h e o r y i s t h e S h o r t T r a c t on F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s w h i c h Hobbes never p u b l i s h e d . The r e v i s e d i d e a s o f t h i s t r a c t were p u b l i s h e d i n Elements o f Law, i n E n g l i s h Works, ed. S i r . W. M o l e s w o r t h (London: John Bohn, 1839) v o l . IV. The S h o r t T r a c t i t s e l f was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by F e r d i n a n d T o n n i e s i n 1 8 8 9 , Elements o f Law , (London:. Frank Cass & Co, L t d . , 1 9 6 9 ) . 8 . W h i l e Hobbes, N e w c a s t l e , C h a r l e s C a v e n d i s h and o t h e r s l i v e d i n P a r i s , some o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s r e s i d e d i n o t h e r a r e a s , such as John P e l l i n the N e t h e r l a n d s . 9- T h i s work was A n i m a d v e r s i o n e s i n Decimum L i b r u m D i o g e n i s L a e r t i i , p u b l i s h e d i n 1649- C a v e n d i s h n o t e d the f r i e n d s h i p o f Hobbes and Gassendi i n a l e t t e r t o P e l l , 10 O c t o b e r 1644 ( H a l l i w e l l , C o l l e c t i o n o f L e t t e r s  I l l u s t r a t i v e o f the P r o g r e s s o f S c i e n c e i n England (London: H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f S c i e n c e , 1644 p.85) and Robert Kargon, d i s c u s s e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Atomism i n E n g l a n d , 1966 p . 6 0 f f . 8 10. C. B r u s h , S e l e c t e d Works o f P i e r r e Gassendi (New Y o r k : Johnson R e p r i n t C o r p o r a t i o n , 1972) p.86, Gassendi a l s o i n c l u d e d d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e f o r knowledge, I b i d , , p.13. 11. Robert Kargon, Atomism i n E n g l a n d , p.60. 12. A n o t a b l e work by C h a r l e t o n i s Phys i o l o g i a E p i e u r o - G a s s e n d - C h a r i t o n i a n a (1654), an u p d a t i n g o f G a s s e n d i ' s t h e o r i e s . Hobbes may a l s o have i n t r o d u c e d W i l l i a m P e t t y t o G a s s e n d i ' s w r i t i n g s . 13. A u s e f u l work on Hobbes and D e s c a r t e s as seen through contemporary c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s Helen Hervey, "Hobbes and D e s c a r t e s i n the L i g h t o f some U n p u b l i s h e d L e t t e r s o f t h e Correspondence between S i r C h a r l e s C a v e n d i s h and Dr. John P e l 1," O s i r i s X (1952):67"90. 14. Robert Kargon, Atomism i n E n g l a n d , pp.68-69. CHAPTER I HOBBES 1 MECHANICAL PSYCHOLOGY The q u e s t i o n o f the p l a c e o f Hobbes 1 m e c h a n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y w i t h i n the grand scheme o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o r p u s has been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one. Hobbes h i m s e l f e n v i s i o n e d a t r i p a r t i t e whole w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : ' In the f i r s t (parO I would have t r e a t e d o f body and i t s g e n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s ( j . e , the - p h y s i c s t ) , i n the second o f man and h i s s p e c i a l f a c u l t i e s and a f f e c t i o n s ' Q .e. p h y s i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y } ; jn the t h i r d o f c i v i l government and t h e d u t i e s o f s u b j e c t s . " C.B. MacPherson has s t a t e d t h a t most o f Hobbes 1 i n t e r p r e t e r s and c r i t i c s "have proceeded by b r e a k i n g up what Hobbes had p r e s e n t e d as a m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c t u r e . . . a s o f t e n as t h i s has been done t o Hobbes, the r e s u l t s have been i n c o n c l u s i v e , and i t may be doubted whether t h e 2 p r o c e s s has f u r t h e r e d t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Hobbes's t h e o r y . " The case f o r s t u d y i n g Hobbes 1 p h y s i o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y appears d o u b l y s t r o n g . Such a st u d y would not o n l y s e r v e t o p l a c e Hobbes i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e c h a n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a -t i o n , as i s the aim o f t h i s p a p e r , but a l s o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y i n i t s own terms may a l l o w a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t Hobbes i n t e n d e d i t t o have t o the o t h e r two p a r t s o f h i s work. Hobbes c o n s i d e r e d the " s c i e n c e o f man's body (j.o be3 t h e most 3 p r o f i t a b l e p a r t o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , and y e t he was d e s t i n e d t o spend an amount o f e f f o r t i n d e v e l o p i n g a f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e p h y s i o l o g y l e s s than commensurate w i t h the a p p a r e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p h y s i o l o g y t o 9 10 h i s p h i l o s o p h y . T h e e a r l i e s t e v i d e n c e o f H o b b e s ' t h o u g h t o n p h y s i o l o g y i s t h e S h o r t T r a c t , w r i t t e n a b o u t 1 6 3 0 , i n w h i c h , a f t e r l a y i n g d o w n t h e e l e m e n t s o f a t h e o r y o f o p t i c s , H o b b e s d i s c u s s e d s e n s a t i o n a n d t h e b a s i c s o f a p s y c h o l o g y . T h e e a r l i e s t w o r k i n v o l v i n g p h y s i o l o g y t o b e p u b l i s h e d b y H o b b e s w a s T h e E l e m e n t s o f L a w , t h e f i r s t p a r t o f w h i c h d e a l s w i t h m a n a n d n a t u r e . A l t h o u g h H o b b e s w r o t e t h i s t r e a t i s e b e f o r e 1 6 4 0 , i t w a s n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 6 4 9 - 1 6 5 0 , a n d t h e n i n a c o r r u p t v e r s i o n . T h i s w o r k w a s n o t p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f m a n , b u t w i t h t h e t h i r d , o f c i v i l m e n . I t t h u s a l s o m a r k s t h e f i r s t d e v i a t i o n f r o m a s y s t e m a t i c e x p o s i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o w n p l a n . T h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n E n g l a n d b e t w e e n 1637 a n d 1 6 4 0 , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e H o b b e s c o m p o s e d t h e E l e m e n t s , w a s d i r e ; t h e w i d e n i n g r i f t b e t w e e n K i n g a n d P a r l i a m e n t c a u s e d H o b b e s t o n e g l e c t t h e f i r s t t w o p a r t s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y , t h e p h y s i c s a n d p s y c h o l o g y , a n d i n s t e a d t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f t r e a t i s e o n p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y w h i c h w o u l d b e o f m o s t i m m e d i a t e u s e t o E n g l a n d . T h e p r e c e d e n t o f d e f e r r i n g a f u l l e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y w a s t o b e f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h m u c h o f t h e E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l 1- c r i s i s . H o b b e s p u b l i s h e d a t r a n s l a t i o n o f D e C i v e i n 1651, t h e s a m e y e a r t h a t h e p u b l i s h e d L e v i a t h a n . I n o r d e r t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , h e c o m p o s e d t h e L e v i a t h a n , h i s g r e a t e s t p o l i t i c a l w o r k a n d r e n o v a t e d a n d t r a n s l a t e d D e C i v e , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n L a t i n 1 6 4 2 , w h i c h i n c l u d e d h i s e a r l i e r p o l i t i c a 1 t h o u g h t . O n c e m o r e t h e n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y h a d t o b e d e f e r r e d . D e C o r p o r e , t h e f i r s t p a r t o f H o b b e s 1 p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m , w a s n o t f i n i s h e d u n t i l 1 6 5 4 , a n d w a s p u b l i s h e d i n L a t i n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . D e H o m i n e , w h i c h H o b b e s s a i d i n c l u d e d t h e m o s t p r o f i t a b l e p a r t o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , 11 and upon w h i c h he had worked s i n c e a t l e a s t 1646, was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l I658, a g a i n i n L a t i n . The L a t i n works were a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o l a r s and s c i e n t i s t s ; t h e p o l i t i c a l works were p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a l a r g e r and l e s s e d u c a t e d a u d i e n c e , ^ The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f Hobbes 1 Elements o f P h i l o s o p h y , De C o r p o r e , d e a l s o n l y b r i e f l y w i t h s e n s a t i o n and animal m o t i o n . De Homine, i n w h i c h Hobbes had pro m i s e d h i s long d e f e r r e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f man, proved t o be a c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s e a r l y o p t i c a l t h e o r y w i t h , a c c o r d i n g t o R o b e r t s o n , "a few c h a p t e r s on t o p i c s o f human n a t u r e appended i n excuse o f the t i t l e " i n w h i c h " t h e r e was l i t t l e g i f a n y t h i n g , t o w h i c h he had not g i v e n r e p e a t e d e x p r e s s i o n before, 1' 1 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Hobbes had d e f e r r e d work on De Homine f a r too l o n g . W h i l e he l i k e l y s t a r t e d t h i s s e c t i o n o f h i s work as e a r l y as 1646, n o t h i n g was r e a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d f o r a l m o s t ten y e a r s , by w h i c h time Hobbes was not o n l y a p a l s i e d o l d man, but he was a l s o u s i n g much o f h i s energy d e b a t i n g and d e f e n d i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y a g a i n s t h i s many c r i t i c s , and h i s m a t h e m a t i c a l t h e o r y a g a i n s t h i s opponent Dr. g W a l l i s . I t i s not so s u r p r i s i n g t h e n , t h a t the work on human n a t u r e and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f human n a t u r e t o c i v i l government do not appear t o f u l f i l l Hobbes' e a r l i e r p r o m i s e s . In o r d e r t o g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p s y c h o l o g y and p h y s i o l o g y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g l e a n the p a r t s o f t h i s t h e o r y from t h e v a r i o u s works i n w h i c h they r e p o s e . T h i s i s not t o s u g g e s t t h a t such s e c t i o n s a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t o r too s p a r s e however, f o r even i n h i s most p o l i t i c a l l y d i d a c t i c work,. L e v i a t h a n , Hobbes remained t r u e t o h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s and gave a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g y t h a t i s v e r y d i r e c t and unambiguous, 12 i f f a r from c o m p l e t e . The S h o r t T r a c t on F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s shows Hobbes u s i n g m e c h a n i s t i c axioms and p r o c e e d i n g l o g i c a l l y t o c o n c l u s i o n s about p h y s i c s and about man. The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s s h o r t paper o f f e r s ten p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g s e n s a t i o n and t e n c o n c l u s i o n s based on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . ' ^ He t h e o r i z e s t h a t the motion o f t h e b o d i e s o f l i v i n g t h i n g s , ('animate m o t i o n ' ) , must r e s u l t from some i n t e r i o r m o t i o n s , and he c a l l s t h e s e m a t e r i a l i n t e r n a l m o t i v e a g e n t s 'animal s p i r i t s ' . S i n c e the (human) body moves sometimes but not a l w a y s , the motions t h a t the animal s p i r i t s i mpart come not from an i n h e r e n t power t o move, but r a t h e r from some-where e l s e , t h a t i s the animal s p i r i t s a r e moved by some e x t e r n a l m a t t e r and i n t u r n move p a r t s o f the body. Hobbes c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t i s the ' s p e c i e s ' o f e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , t h a t i s , the m a t e r i a l e m i s s i o n s from o b j e c t s t h a t make c o n t a c t and c o l l i d e w i t h the b o d i e s ' s u b s t a n c e and cause m o t i o n s i n t h e organs o f sense which i s s e n s a t i o n and v a r i o u s l y w i t h as w e l l as w i t h o u t the m e d i a t i o n o f the b r a i n cause motion o f 12 . . . 1 3 the animal s p i r i t s . S e n s a t i o n , i n f a c t , i s the motion o f the s p i r i t s . S i m i l a r l y , comprehension o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f motion o n l y s i n c e comprehension and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e n o t h i n g more than s e n s a t i o n s . Good and Bad (Mallum) a r e d e f i n e d as m o t i o n s ; something, i s good w h i c h causes motion toward i t s e l f , something i s bad w h i c h causes a r e p u l s i o n i n the body. M o t i o n toward an o b j e c t i s c a l l e d a p p e t i t e . Hobbes has, i n the S h o r t T r a c t , d e v e l o p e d the m e c h a n i s t i c b a s i s o f h i s p s y c h o l -o g i c a l t h e o r y . He began w i t h t h e p o s t u l a t e t h a t s e n s a t i o n i s m e r e l y l o c a l m o t i o n , the animal s p i r i t s moved by e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s , and s i n c e , Hobbes s a y s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and comprehension a r e s i m p l y c o m b i n a t i o n s 13 o f i d e a s w h i c h a r e i n t u r n m erely c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s e n s a t i o n s , under-s t a n d i n g i s l o c a l motion i n the body. He had taken the f i r s t s t e p toward e x p l a i n i n g a l l o f human m e n t a t i o n and ' s o u l ' i n terms o f m a t t e r i n m otion. The p e r v a d i n g theme o f the S h o r t T r a c t may be summed up t h u s : " b o t h the e x t e r n a l and the i n t e r n a l a c t o f sense and t h e h i g h e r , p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n s d e r i v e d t h e r e from a r e l o c a l motion and n o t h i n g but l o c a l m o t i o n . " ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Hobbes had d e v e l o p e d t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a t an e a r l y s t a g e i n h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l c a r e e r , perhaps by 1630, and p r i o r t o h i s e n l i g h t e n i n g t h i r d t r i p t o t h e C o n t i n e n t 16 (1634-1637) on w h i c h he met G a l i l e o , The b a s i s f o r Hobbes 1 m e c h a n i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e was l i k e l y a r r i v e d a t about t e n y e a r s b e f o r e the p r o d u c t i o n o f h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l work. The m e c h a n i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f Hobbes' p h i l o s o p h i c a l p l a n i s a p p a r e n t i n the Elements o f Law, d a t e d i n the d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r May 9, 1640. Hobbes d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l the m e c h a n i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s t h a t r e s u l t s i n s e n s a t i o n . A l u c i d o b j e c t c o n t r a c t s and d i l a t e s p h y s i c a l l y (Hobbes s a i d ) , and moves the medium around i t , w h i c h motion proceeds to the eye, the s p i r i t s i n the o p t i c n e r v e , and t h e n c e the b r a i n . From the b r a i n t h e s e motions o f f l u i d s rebound outward through t h e n e r v e s and t h u s , because o f the rebound, a l t h o u g h the motion i s a c t u a l l y w i t h i n our b o d i e s , the s e n s a t i o n seems t o have a s o u r c e o u t s i d e , the o b j e c t 17 18 o f sense. The s u b j e c t i v i t y o f s e n s a t i o n i s summarized i n t h i s way: Whatsoever a c c i d e n t s o r q u a l i t i e s o u r senses make us t h i n k t h e r e be i n t h e w o r l d , they a r e not t h e r e , but a r e seemings and a p p a r i t i o n s o n l y . The t h i n g s t h a t r e a l l y a r e i n the w o r l d w i t h o u t us, a r e t h o s e motions by w h i c h t h e s e seemings a r e caused. 14 Hobbes n e x t c a r r i e s mechanism i n t o the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the h i g h e r f a c u l t i e s o f the mind. He e x p l a i n e d i m a g i n a t i o n as " c o n c e p t i o n r e m a i n i n g , 19 and by l i t t l e and l i t t l e d e c a y i n g from and a f t e r the a c t o f s e n s e . " The m o t i on w i t h i n o u r b o d i e s was thought t o r e v e r b e r a t e , d e c a y i n g s l o w l y , sometimes overwhelmed by f r e s h e r m otions o r s e n s o r y s t i m u l i , and o t h e r t i m e s , as i n s l e e p , a p p e a r i n g as dreams. He e x p l a i n e d memory 20 as r e p e a t e d sense: •'j When the c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e same t h i n g cometh a g a i n , we t a k e n o t i c e t h a t i t i s a g a i n * t h a t i s t o s a y , t h a t we have had the same c o n c e p t i o n b e f o r e ; w h i c h i s as much as t o imagine a t h i n g p a s t ; w h i c h i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e n s e , w h i c h i s o n l y o f t h i n g s p r e s e n t . The s u c c e s s i o n o f c o n c e p t i o n s i n t h e mind, When o r d e r l y i n manner, i s d i s c o u r s e o f the mind. When such d i s c o u r s e i s remembered i t i s c a l l e d e x p e r i e n c e , and from e x p e r i e n c e c o n c l u s i o n s may be made, Hobbes went on t o o u t l i n e h i s t h e o r y o f knowledge and language, a n o m i n a l i s t i c t h e o r y w h i c h depends upon m e c h a n i s t i c bases. T h i s t h e o r y w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . Of more immediate imp o r t a n c e t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y i s the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p p e t i t e and a v e r s i o n . T h i s i d e a , o u t l i n e d i n t h e S h o r t T r a c t , i s expanded and used t o d e s c r i b e human m o t i v a t i o n s . The m otions w h i c h cause c o n c e p t i o n o r s e n s a t i o n a r e thought not t o s t o p i n the b r a i n , but t o f o l l o w a p a t h t o the h e a r t , and once t h e r e 21 e i t h e r h e l p o r h i n d e r 'i'tbat motion w h i c h i s c a l l e d v i t a l . " I f v i t a l m o tion i s enhanced, the s e n s a t i o n i s p l e a s u r a b l e , i f " i t i s h i n d e r e d then p a i n i s f e l t . The tendency to draw p h y s i c a l l y toward p l e a s u r a b l e and away from p a i n f u l ' o b j e c t s o f sense' i s termed (as i n o r d i n a r y speech) ' a p p e t i t e ' o r ' [ a v e r s i o n 1 , A l l o f the f e e l i n g s o r p a s s i o n s 15 o f man can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f the v a r i o u s a v e r s i o n s o r a p p e t i t e s , and Hobbes goes on t o d e s c r i b e shame, c o u r a g e , a n g e r , l o v e , l u s t and many o t h e r human p a s s i o n s and emotions i n t h e s e terms, r e d u c i n g them a l l t o a p p e t i t e and a d v e r s i o n , w h i c h i s i t s e l f reduced t o t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l enhancement o r i n h i b i t i o n o f v i t a l m o t i o n . I t i s t h i s mechan-i s t i c b a s i s o f the l i f e o f men and the w o r k i n g s o f men's minds t h a t Hobbes uses t o f o r m u l a t e a s c i e n c e o f human i n t e r a c t i o n o r p o l i t i c s 22 i n t he l a t t e r h a l f o f Elements o f Law. Thus i n the Elements o f Law, Hobbes de m o n s t r a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i me h i s f u l l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p l a n . J u s t p r i o r t o 1640, w r i t i n g contemp-o r a r i l y w i t h D e s c a r t e s , Hobbes had formed h i s own t h e o r y i n the emerging t r a d i t i o n t h a t B o y l e would l a t e r name t h e "mechan i c a l f o r c o r p u s c u l a r ) p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r e , " i n w h i c h a l l n a t u r a l phenomena woul d be e x p l a i n e d 23 i n terms o f the "two c a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s " , m a t t e r and m o t i o n . There a r e some p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t developments i n Hobbes' thought from 1630 t o 1640. In 1630 Hobbes was t a k i n g h i s f i r s t s t e p s away from s c h o l a s t i c i s m , s t i l l u s i n g some s c h o l a s t i c language and t r a d i t i o n a l l o g i c a l methods but r e j e c t i n g A r i s t o t e l i a n forms and q u a l -24 i t i e s . By 1640 Hobbes had taken the i m p o r t a n t l o g i c a l s t e p ( n ot ye t c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the S h o r t T r a c t ) , o f e x t e n d i n g mechanism t o a l l phenomena o f animate b o d i e s i n c l u d i n g l i f e , t h o ught and mind. Whereas Hobbes' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s such as D e s c a r t e s and Gassendi m a i n t a i n e d the e x i s t e n c e o f an i m m a t e r i a l s o u l , f o r r e l i g i o u s as w e l l as p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e a s o n s , Hobbes saw no need f o r such c o n s t r u c t s and 25 was a p p a r e n t l y u n a f r a i d t o say so. F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e D e s c a r t e s gave us the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a m e c h a n i c a l a n a l o g o f Man i n s p i r e d by t h e h y d r a u l i c a l l y o p e r a t e d automatons a t S t . Germain-en-Laye, he r e s e r v e d 16 26 f o r t he s o u l t h e g o v e r n i n g , a n i m a t i n g r o l e i n the b o d i l y economy. Hobbes gave a s i m p l e r m e c h a n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f man by d e s c r i b i n g a mechanism as s e l f g o v e r n i n g ; an o r g a n i s m w i l l move toward s t i m u l i w h i c h enhance i t s v i t a l motion and away from t h o s e t h a t reduce t h i s m o tion. L i k e a machine w i t h f eedback mechanisms, o r g a n i s m s seek t o enhance t h e i r v i t a l m o t i o n s . C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , L e v i a t h a n was the n e x t p u b l i s h e d o f Hobbes 1 27 works d e a l i n g w i t h p h y s i o l o g y . T h i s work was w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y as Hobbes 1 p o l i t i c a l magnum opus i n re s p o n s e t o the i n c r e a s i n g s t r i f e i n E ngland i n 1651. Hobbes c a l l e d i t a " d i s c o u r s e o f c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l government, o c c a s i o n e d by the d i s o r d e r s o f the p r e s e n t t i m e " i n t e n d e d " t o s e t b e f o r e men's eyes the mutual r e l a t i o n between p r o t e c -28 t i o n and obedience.';' A l t h o u g h Hobbes s t a t e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n t o L e v i a t h a n , " I hope t o r e t u r n t o my i n t e r r u p t e d s p e c u l a t i o n o f b o d i e s n a t u r a l , " he had n e v e r t h e l e s s i n c l u d e d i n L e v i a t h a n a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f h i s m e c h a n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g y as t h e b a s i s f o r h i s s c i e n c e o f human 29 n a t u r e and p o l i t i c s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h the axiom t h a t " l i f e i s but a motion 30 o f the l i m b s " and d i s c u s s e s as:havi:ng an a r t i f i c i a l l i f e automa t a . s i mi 1 a r 31 t o t h o s e mentioned by D e s c a r t e s . "What i s the h e a r t but a s p r i n g and the n e r v e s but so many s t r i n g s ; and t h e j o i n t s , but so many w h e e l s , 32 g i v i n g motion t o the whole body." The language used by Hobbes i s f a m i l i a r ; he has taken the macrocosmic c l o c k metaphor o f a c l o c k w o r k u n i v e r s e c o n s t r u c t e d and run by the master A r t i f i c e r , and a p p l i e d i t to t he microcosm o f man's body. T h i s i n i t s e l f was n o t a no v e l i n n o v a t i o n . 17 D e s c a r t e s had used the language o f the c l o c k metaphor i n much the same f a s h i o n when d e s c r i b i n g b o d i l y a n i m a t e m o t i o n , D e s c a r t e s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f a l i v i n g t h i n g r e q u i r e d t h r e e t h i n g s : f i r s t the c o r p o r e a l s t r u c t u r e , t h a t 15,3 s u i t a b l e arrangement o f m a t t e r ; second t h e motion o f the p a r t s o f p a r t i c l e s o f t h a t body i n v o l v e d i n c e r t a i n ' l i f e f u n c t i o n ' (e.g. d i g e s t i o n , r e s p i r a t i o n e t c . ) ; and, f i n a l l y , an i n t e r n a l i z e d p r i n c i p l e o f motion o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s w h i c h might be l i k e n e d t o the 33 i n t e r n a l i z e d p r i n c i p l e o f motion o f a wound c l o c k s p r i n g . Thomas Hobbes' c o n c e p t i o n o f a l i v i n g t h i n g i s s i m i l a r : " l i f e i s but a motion o f l i m b s , t h e b e g i n n i n g w hereof i s i n some p r i n c i p a l 34 p a r t w i t h i n . " There a r e some v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n c l u s i o n s o f Hobbes and D e s c a r t e s , however. For b o t h , t h e e n t i t y t h a t ^ s o t o speak, winds the m a i n s p r i n g o f both man and u n i v e r s e i s God. For D e s c a r t e s , God not o n l y c o n s t r u c t s but a l s o r e g u l a t e s and m a i n t a i n s the u n i v e r s e t h a t He b u i l t . For Hobbes, God must e x i s t s i n c e t h e r e must be a f i r s t c a u s e , but He m e r e l y assembled the u n i v e r s a l machine and then gave the macrocosmic pendulum i t s f i r s t p ush, t h e n c e f o r t h 35 a l l o w i n g the u n i v e r s e t o p r o c e e d on i t s m e c h a n i c a l way. D e s c a r t e s w r o t e to Henry More i n 1649, and s a i d "There a r e two d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s o f o u r m o v e m e n t — v i z . , one which i s p l a i n l y m e c h a n i c a l and c o r p o r e a l , 36 . . . t h e o t h e r i n c o r p o r e a l , t h a t i s t o s a y , mind...." Hobbes took the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t but r e l i g i o u s l y dangerous and p h i l o s o -p h i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t s t a n d t h a t o n l y m a t t e r and motion a r e needed to e x p l a i n a l l t h i n g s ; t h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y t o p o s t u l a t e a s o u l o r any o t h e r i m m a t e r i a l e n t i t i e s . T h i s b e l i e f s e t Hobbes a p a r t from contemp-o r a r y p h i l o s o p h e r s who were u n w i l l i n g t o f o l l o w t h e l o g i c o f t h e m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y t o such an u n p a l a t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n , an i d e o l o g i c a l r e c a l c i -t r a n c e t h a t w i l l be s e e n , i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t o i n f l u e n c e p h y s i o l o g i s t s 18 a s w e l 1 , H o b b e s p r o c e e d e d t o g i v e a c o n c i s e a c c o u n t o f s e n s a t i o n a n d t h o u g h t i n L e v i a t h a n w h i c h i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e s a m e a s t h a t g i v e n i n t h e E l e m e n t s o f L a w . T h e n o m i n a l i s t i c a c c o u n t o f s p e e c h a n d n a m e s i s m o r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d , a n d t h e s e c t i o n * o f p a s s i o n s * i s e x p a n d e d . T h e p r o s e o f L e v i a t h a n s e e m s m o r e p o l i s h e d , a n d s o m e o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 37 p a s s i o n s a r e e n g a g i n g l y a p t . T h e r e i s a s e c t i o n o n k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w a s n o t a p a r t o f E l e m e n t s o f L a w a n d w h i c h s e e m s t o h a v e h a d s o m e e f f e c t o n d i s c u s s i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d o l o g y l a t e i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e m a j o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g y w a s i n t e n d e d f o r D e H o m i n e , h o w e v e r , a n d s i n c e H o b b e s t h o u g h t t h e p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y m o s t i m p o r t a n t a t t h e t i m e , a f u l l e r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y w a s a g a i n d e f e r r e d . W h e n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f H o b b e s 1 p h i l o s o p h y w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1654 a s D e C o r p o r e , t h e e p i s t l e d e d i c a t o r y c i t e d p h y s i c i a n s , " t h e o n l y t r u e n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y o f o u r m o s t l e a r n e d m e n o f t h e C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s i n L o n d o n " a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f a d v a n c e i n t h e s c i e n c e o f h u m a n b o d i e s . F o r h i s o w n p a r t , h o w e v e r , H o b b e s o n c e a g a i n d e f e r r e d m o s t o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f m a n . H e d i d i n c l u d e s i x c h a p t e r s o n o p t i c s w h i c h h e h a d w r i t t e n s i x y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y a n d o f t h e r e m a i n i n g 39 p o r t i o n s t i l l t o b e a c c o m p l i s h e d h e s a i d : T h e r e s t s h a l l , a s s o o n a s 1 c a n , b e a d d e d t o i t ; t h o u g h b y t h e c o n t u m e l i e s a n d p e t t y i n j u r i e s o f s o m e u n s k i l f u l m e n , I k n o w a l r e a d y , b y e x p e r i e n c e , h o w m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n k s w i l l b e d u e t h a n p a i d m e , f o r t e l l i n g m e n t h e t r u t h o f w h a t m e n a r e . : T h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h u m a n n a t u r e t h a t H o b b e s h a d g i v e n i n L e v i a t h a n h a d a l r e a d y b r o u g h t m u c h c r i t i c i s m f r o m h i s p e e r s . I n c h a p t e r 25 o f D e C o r p o r e , H o b b e s o n c e m o r e s t a t e s h i s m e c h a n i s t i c i 9 p r i n c i p l e o f the s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l i v i n g b e i n g s . He s a i d t h a t v i t a l m o t i o n , the motion o f b l o o d c i r c u l a t e d by the h e a r t was a f f e c t e d by s e n s o r y i n p u t and t h a t the organs " w i l l be d i s p o s e d t o g u i d e t h e s p i r i t s i n such manner as co n d u c e t h most t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n and aug m e n t a t i o n o f t h a t m o t i o n . " T h i s s t r i v i n g t o enhance v i t a l m otion and thus m i n i m i z e p a i n , ( a p p e t i t e and a v e r s i o n ) , i s the g o v e r n i n g f o r c e i n a l l animal m o t i o n . Men a r e s e t a p a r t not by a s o u l but by p o s s e s s i n g speech and the a b i l i t y t o name t h i n g s w h i c h e n t a i l s p a s s i o n s not s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r a n i m a l s . For Hobbes, t h e s o - c a l l e d human s o u l i s t h e same as l i f e , t h a t i s the c o l l e c t i v e f a c u l t i e s and motions and 4 l make-up o f an i n d i v i d u a l . The d o c t r i n e t h a t men a r e r u l e d by a p p e t i t e and a v e r s i o n i n a s t r i c t l y m e c h a n i c a l f a s h i o n had d i r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r any b e l i e f i n f r e e w i l l . Hobbes s a i d t h a t man had no g r e a t e r freedom i n w i l l i n g 4 2 o r not w i l l i n g than a n i m a l s , t h a t i s / h a v e no f r e e w i l l , and such arguments had b r o u g h t i n t e n s e c r i t i c i s m from c l e r i c s l i k e B i s h o p B r a m h a l l . Hobbes s t o o d by h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i n the f a c e o f a l l c r i t i c i s m , h o w e v e r , and defended h i s views i n Of L i b e r t y and N e c e s s i t y (165*0 and An Answer to Dr. Bramhal1, r e i t e r a t i n g i n each, the m a t e r i a l i s t and m e c h a n i c a l 4 3 bases f o r h i s p s y c h o l o g y . F i n a l l y , i n I658, Hobbes p u b l i s h e d De Homine, the second p a r t o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y . I t c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g new from the p h y s i o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t and, i n f a c t , the f i r s t h a l f o f the work c o n s i s t s o f e s s e n t i a l l y the same o p t i c a l t h e o r y as was i n c l u d e d i n De C o r p o r e . The second h a l f i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e l i g i o n and a u t h o r i t y and a c h a p t e r on emotions w h i c h r e p e a t s e a r l i e r work. The d e d i c a t o r y l e t t e r t o De Homine i s w o r t h q u o t i n g a t some l e n g t h f o r t h e l i g h t i t c a s t s on Hobbes 1 a t t i t u d e 2 0 t o h i s work and the n e c e s s i t y f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d a c t i v e advocacy o f h i s t h e o r i e s : The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n was long s i n c e ready f o r t h e p r e s s . "Why t h e n , " you may a s k , " s i n c e the remainder was ea s y , have we had t o a w a i t p u b l i c a t i o n so lo n g ? What have you been d o i n g i n the meantime?" I r e p l y , " I have been f i g h t i n g t he b e a s t s . " For I too have my Deme t r i u s e s and A l e x a n d e r s , whose t r i f l i n g works 1 am t h o u g h t , though f a l s e l y , t o w i s h to oppose. Y e t s i n c e I had t o answer t h e i r c l a m o r i n g s and i n s u l t s , t he l o n g , drawn-out c o n t r o v e r s y hath caused e x c e s s i v e ^ d e l a y i n p u b l i c a t i o n . I had d e c i d e d t h a t , when t h e s e Elements were f i n i s h e d , 1 would c a s t my pen a s i d e . But when I see the c u r r e n t manners o f t h o s e t h a t t e a c h s c i e n c e , I c a s t t h i s hope a s i d e and r e t a i n my pen; f o r p e r a d v e n t u r e t h e s e t h i n g s may a l s o have t o be defended. Hobbes, by 1658, had embarked upon the d i s p u t e s w i t h W a i l i s o v e r mathematics t h a t would c o n t i n u e f o r twenty y e a r s , and he had become 46 i n v o l v e d i n the c u r r e n t r e f o r m c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . Hobbes' mathematics was d o u b t f u l , and the reasons f o r h i s i l l - f o u n d e d but dogged d e f e n s e a r e a m a t t e r f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . He may have f e l t t h a t t o be found i n e r r o r i n one a r e a would impugn h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n o t h e r a r e a s , a r e p u t a t i o n w h i c h he always j e a l o u s l y , i f immodestly 47 guarded. In any c a s e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Hobbes f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y about t h e s e m a t t e r s i n h i s l a t e r l i f e , and w h i l e p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y had f o r so long d e f e r r e d h i s f i n a l work on p s y c h o l o g y , so may the d i s t r a c t i o n o f h i s l a t t e r d ebates have caused an abridgement o f t h e f i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n . I f the f i n a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the l i n k between b i o l o g i c a l and c i v i l t h e o r y i s w a n t i n g , however, Hobbes n e v e r t h e l e s s was c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i t h f u l t o h i s g e n e r a l p l a n o f m e c h a n i s t i c b i o l o g y . H i s view o f mind and s o u l as c o n s i s t i n g o f m a t t e r and motion b r o u g h t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e c r i t i c i s m . S i n c e the s o u l must cease t o e x i s t when v i t a l motion c e a s e s 2 1 ( i . e . d e a t h ) , t o be r e c o n s t i t u t e d by God on judgement day a c c o r d i n g 48 t o Hobbes, Hobbes was p a t e n t l y a m o r t a l i s t . S i n c e Hobbes thought t h a t an ' i m m a t e r i a l s p i r i t ' was a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms and t h a t 49 God i s s u b s t a n t i a l and m a t e r i a l , he was o p e n l y a s a d d u c i s t . In s p i t e o f the f u r o r caused by h i s p h i l o s o p h y , "Hobbes a t t e m p t e d a t a s k w h i c h no o t h e r a d h e r e n t o f the new me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y c o n c e i v e d , n o t h i n g l e s s than such a u n i v e r s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f human knowledge as would b r i n g s o c i e t y and man w i t h i n the same p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n as were found a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . That t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s r e a c t i o n engendered by Hobbes' t h e o r y i n h i b i t e d t he w i d e r p u b l i c acknowledgement o f the m e r i t o f h i s p h y s i o l o g y but not the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t m e r i t w i l l be shown in t he f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 22 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER J. HOBBES' MECHANICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1. Thomas Hobbes, The E n g l i s h Works o f Thomas Hobbes, ed. S i r W i l l i a m M o lesworth (London! John Bohn, 1839) Vol I I x i x - x x . 2 . C.B. MacPherson, The P o l i t i c a l Theory o f P o s s e s s i v e I n d i v i d u a l i s m (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962) p.9 3- Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works, p. v i i i . k. See the t h i r d s e c t i o n o f the S h o r t T r a c t , i n Hobbes, i T h e ' E l e m e n t s  o f Law N a t u r a l and P o l i t i c , ed. F~ Tonn i e s (London: Frank Cass & Co. L t d . , 1969) pp.204 - 2 1 0 . 5. Hobbes had d i s t r i b u t e d The Elements o f Law by c i r c u l a t i n g i t i n m a n u s c r i p t b e f o r e he f l e d t o the c o n t i n e n t . I t was n e x t p u b l i s h e d i n two p a r t s i n London and t h i s c o r r u p t v e r s i o n was the b a s i s f o r Molesworth's e d i t i o n i n Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works V o l . IV. The f i r s t v e r s i o n p u b l i s h e d from the o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t was t h a t o f T o n n i e s i n 1889. T o n n i e s ' e d i t i o n was used f o r the purposes o f t h i s p a p e r . 6. On Hobbes' d e f e r a l o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y t o meet p o l i t i c a l e x i g e n c i e s see MacPherson's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n (London: Penguin Books, 1968) p.19-20 and B. G e r t , Man and Ci t i z e n (New Y o r k : Doubleday S Co. L t d . , 1972) p.35-7. An E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f De Corpore p u b l i s h e d i n I656 was o n l y p a r t i a l l y c hecked by Hobbes, and De Homine a p p e a r e d , i n p a r t , f o r the f i r s t t ime i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1972 i n G e r t , Man and C i t i z e n . 8. George C. R o b e r t s o n , Hobbes ( E d i n b u r g h S London: Blackwood and Sons, 1886) p.178. 9 . Hobbes i n 1658 was s e v e n t y y e a r s o l d . He was i n v o l v e d i n a c o n t r o -v e r y w i t h many churchmen such as Seth Ward and B i s h o p B r a m h a l l , F i l m e r , Ross and Lucy, and the i m b r o g l i o w i t h W a l l i s o v e r geometry was b e g i n n i n g t o heat up. The l a s t p o l e m i c s h o t i n t h i s l a t t e r debate was not t o be f i r e d u n t i l Hobbes' n i n e t i e t h y e a r , I 6 7 8 . 10. Only the f i r s t t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s a r e used t o produce c o n c l u s i o n s ; t h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n i s i n c o m p l e t e o r u n f i n i s h e d , c . f . B r a n d t , Thomas Hobbes' M e c h a n i c a l C o n c e p t i o n o f Nature (Copenhagen: L e v i n & Munksgaard, 1928) p.32 . 11 . Hobbes' animal s p i r i t s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l f l u i d s w h i c h performed the t a s k o f moving the body's m u s c l e s , and a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as D e s c a r t e s ' h y d r a u l i c f l u i d s . 2 3 12. Though Hobbes l a t e r changed h i s t h e o r i e s o f o p t i c s from an e m i s s i o n t o a m e d i u m i s t i c one, the p r i n c i p l e o f t h e sense organs b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y moved from o u t s i d e remained unchanged. 13- On the complex r e a s o n i n g o f s e n s a t i o n see B r a n d t , Thomas Hobbes, p . 3 9 f f ; " A c t u a l sense i s a m o t i o n . . . " , Hobbes, S h o r t T r a c t p.2 0 8 . 14. Hobbes, Elements o f Law, p.2 0 9 . 15- F r i t h i o f B r a n d t , Thomas Hobbes', p.4 6 . 16. I f B r a n d t ' s d a t i n g o f t h e s h o r t t r a c t i s c o r r e c t , i . e . c . 1 6 3 0 , then MacPherson's a t t r i b u t i o n o f the d i s c o v e r y o f the b a s i c t h e o r y t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s m a t t e r i n motion t o the p e r i o d o f 1 6 3 4 - 1 6 3 7 i n P a r i s w i t h Mersenne and i n F l o r e n c e w i t h G a l i l e o i s i n c o r r e c t . See B r a n d t , Thomas Hobbes'; c . f . MacPherson ed. L e v i a t h a n , p . l 8 . 17- T h i s n o t i o n o f the e x t e r n a l seeming o f s e n s a t i o n s b e i n g the r e s u l t o f a rebound i n motion w i t h i n the body i s a n o v e l one and perhaps i s o r i g i n a l t o Hobbes. W i l l i s n oted t h a t sense i s m i s t a k e n by us t o be a p e r i p h e r a l p r o c e s s when i t r e a l l y t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e b r a i n , but doesn't g i v e an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s . C e r e b r i Anatome, 1 6 6 4 , c i t e d by H. I s l e r , Thomas W i l l i s , New Y o r k , 1968, p.9 3 -18. Hobbes, Elements o f Law, p.7-19. I b i d , p.8 . 2 0 . I b i d , p.11 . 2 1 . I b i d . , p.28 V i t a l m o t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t i s not s t a t e d i n the Elements o f  Law, i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e f l o w o f the b l o o d . Hobbes s t a t e s t h i s e x p l i c i t l y , g i v i n g due c r e d i t t o Harvey i n De C o r p o r e , Engl ?sh Works V o l . I , p.407-22. Hobbes even framed the n e c e s s i t y f o r a prime mover o r cause f o r the u n i v e r s e i n m e c h a n i s t i c t e r m s , thus God must be m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t s may not be i n s u b s t a n t i a l . Hobbes, Elements o f Law, pp. 5 3 - 5 5 . 2 3 . R.S. W e s t f a l l , The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Modern S c i e n c e : Mechanisms and  Mechanics (New York"! John W i l e y and Sons, 1971) p.41 . 2 4 . Robert Kargon, Atomism i n England from Har i o t ;.to;.New.ton ( O x f o r d ; C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1966) p. 5 5 . 2 5 . I t may be noted t h a t Hobbes d i d not s t a t e t h i s b e l i e f i n any i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c way u n t i l he had s a f e l y f l e d t o France. Elements o f Law was p u b l i s h e d i n 1649 and 1 6 5 0 , p r o b a b l y w i t h o u t Hobbes p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p . v i . 24 2 6 . D e s c a r t e s s a i d in< the T r e a t i s e o f L i g h t t h a t he would p o r t r a y a p o s s i b l e w o r l d t h a t God c o u l d have c r e a t e d , . h a d he w i s h e d t o c o n s t r u c t a m e c h a n i c a l a n a l o g o f the w o r l d He c r e a t e d i n f a c t . Thomas H a l l , " D e s c a r t e s P h y s i o l o g i c a l Method" J . H i s t . B i o l . 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 7 8 - 7 9 . He c i t e d the automatons o f S t . Germain i n Tra i t e de 1'Homme, T. H a l l t r a n s . ( 1 9 7 2 ) p . 2 1 f f . 2 7 . Of L i b e r t y and N e c e s s i t y was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 6 5 4 , and bo r e the d a t e o f 1646 i n i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n , though l a t e r e d i t i o n s changed t h i s t o 1 6 5 2 . T h i s work w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a f t e r L e v i a t h a n . 2 8 . Thomas Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n , p.7 2 8 . 2 9 . I b i d . , p.729- Hobbes s a i d t h a t he i n c l u d e d t h e a c c o u n t o f s e n s a t i o n to " f i l l each p a r t o f my p r e s e n t method," I b i d . , p.8 5 -3 0 . I b i d . , p.8 1 . 3 1 . V i d e s u p r a , n . 2 6 . 32 . Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n , p.8 1 . 3 3 - MacKenzie,A."A Word About D e s c a r t e s ' M e c h a n i s t i c C o n c e p t i o n o f L i f e , " J . H i s t . B i o l • 8 ( 1 9 7 5 ) :1 , a l s o see D i s c o u r s e on Method. 3 4 . Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n , p.81 3 5 - For r e f e r e n c e t o the argument f o r the n e c e s s i t y o f a m a t e r i a l prime mover, see above n . 2 2 . 3 6 . E.A. Adam and Paul Tannery e d s . , Oeuvres de D e s c a r t e s ( P a r i s : J . V r i n , 1967) 5 , l e t t e r 5 3 7 -37- For example, f e a r o f i n v i s i b l e power, f e i g n e d by the mind o r imagined from p u b l i c a l l y a l l o w e d t a l e s i s ' r e l i g i o n 1 , i f imagined from t a l e s n ot a l l o w e d , ' s u p e r s t i t i o n ' . " Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n p. 124. L a u g h t e r i s a grima c e caused by a r e a l i z a t i o n o f 'sudden g l o r y 1 when one sees d e f o r m i t y i n a n o t h e r , by comparison whereof they s u d d e n l y a p p l a u d t h e m s e l v e s , p.1 2 5 . 3 8 . T. Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works V o l . I, p . i x . 3 9 . I b i d . , p . x i i . 4 0 . I b i d . , p.407- Hobbes i n c l u d e d i n the c a t e g o r y o f v i t a l motion o t h e r l i f e f u n c t i o n s l i k e r e s p i r a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , and e x c r e t i o n . T. Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n Chap. VI. 4 1 . I b i d . , p.4 1 0 . Hobbes c i t e s s c r i p t u r e t o s u p p o r t h i s i d e a t h a t s o u l i s the same as l i f e . T. H0M5.es, L e v i a t h a n , p.4 8 4 . 4 2 . I b i d . , p.4 0 9 -25 4 3 . T. Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works Vol IV, p p . 2 2 9 - 4 1 2 . 4 4 . Hobbes r e f e r r e d t o h i s complete work i . e . De C o r p o r e , De Homine, and De C i v e c o l l e c t i v e l y as the Elements o f P h i l o s p h y . W i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f De Homine, Hobbes f e l t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l system was a c c o m p l i s h e d . W h i l e De Homine has n o t h i n g o f p h y s i o l o g y not c o n t a i n e d i n e a r l i e r w o r k s , some o f Hobbes' th o u g h t s on the p a r t i c u l a r s o f p s y c h o l o g y a r e an advance and e l a b o r a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s work. B. G e r t , Man and  Ci t i z e n (New Y o r k : Doubleday & Co. L t d . , 1 9 7 2 ) p.3 . 4 5 . B. G e r t , Man and Ci t i z e n , p.3 5 - 3 6 . 4 6 . Hobbes was d i s c u s s e d i n V i n d i c i a e Academiarum ( 1 6 5 4 ) i n t h i s c o n t e x t . 4 7 . C o n s i d e r a t i o n upon the R e p u t a t i o n , L o y a l t y , Manners and R e l i g i o n  o f Thomas Hobbes, London, 1662 i s a n o t a b l e example o f such d e f e n s i v e e s s a y s . T. Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works V o l . IV. 4 8 . Harvey was s i m i l a r l y a c c u s e d o f m o r t a l i s t i c ' b e l i e f s . 4 9 . T. Hobbes, E n g l i s h Works, V o l . IV, p. 60-61 . Sadducism i s the term g i v e n t o a d i s b e l i e f i n i m m a t e r i a l s p i r i t s . 5 0 . G.C. R o b e r t s o n , "Hobbes" i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t t a n n i c a , 1 1 t h e d . , X I I I , p.5 5 2 . 26 CHAPTER ( I HOBBES AND THE ENGLISH PHYSIOLOGISTS The c e n t r e s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l thought i n England i n t h e p e r i o d 1640-1680 were i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y w e l l d e f i n e d . When E n g l i s h p h y s i o l o g y began t o grow i n t h e 1650s, i t blossomed p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the u n i v e r s i t y a t O x ford and under the a u s p i c e s o f t h e Royal C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s i n London. P h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d y grew i n p a r a l l e l w i t h the a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . W i l l i a m Harvey, an a u t h o r i t y c i t e d by Hobbes i n s u p p o r t o f a p o i n t i n m e c h a n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g y , on the h e a r t and c i r c u l a t i o n , was c e r t a i n l y not a m e c h a n i s t , though he used some m e c h a n i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s and language i n h i s s t u d y o f the c i r c u l a t i o n o f the b l o o d J Harvey had been a G a l e n i s t when f i r s t w r i t i n g i n about 1616, and when he changed h i s a t t i t u d e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f De Motu C o r d i s i n 2 1628, he changed not t o m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y but t o A r i s t o t e l i a n i s m . The A r i s t o t e l i a n metaphor o f the h e a r t as s o v e r e i g n i n the body was c e n t r a l t o H a r v e y ' s t h e o r y , and he a l s o used an a s t r o n o m i c a l a l l u s i o n 3 t o the p r i o r i t y o f t h e h e a r t when he compared i t t o t h e sun. I f he was n e i t h e r f o r nor a g a i n s t mechanism i n the e a r l y y e a r s , by 1649-1651 Harvey had become a devoted a n t i - m e c h a n i s t when t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r p h i l o s o p h y c h a l l e n g e d A r i s t o t e l i a n i s m . W h i l e the a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by Harvey was n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e , the d i r e c t i o n o f the f u t u r e i n v o l v e d mechanism, T h i s t r e n d Harvey c o u l d o n l y hope to i n h i b i t t e m p o r a r i l y ; ^ I t became c l e a r t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y p h y s i o l o g i s t a f t e r Harvey t r i e d t o work out some p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the l a t e s t 27 development i n p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e , and i t was t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , not the a t t e m p t e d s o l u t i o n o f a s e t o f c o n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h problems, t h a t d e t e r m i n e d the p a t t e r n o f development o f E n g l i s h p h y s i o l o g y i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The key t o p o s t - H a r v e i a n p h y s i o l o g y . . . l a y . . . i n the e v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the 'animal oeconomy'."^ In 1 6 4 8 , many o f the members o f B o y l e ' s ' i n v i s i b l e c o l l e g e , 1 a group o f s c i e n t i f i c amateurs, were a p p o i n t e d t o O x f o r d c h a i r s . These i n c l u d e d John W i l k i n s , John W a l l i s , J o n athan Goddard,^ Seth Ward, and W i l l i a m P e t t y , who, when j o i n e d by B o y l e , c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s the ' v i r t u o s \ ) J T h i s was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a blow t o the e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h by t h e p u r i t a n p a r l i a m e n t ; t h e new a p p o i n t e e s g e n e r a l l y eschewed A r i s t o t e 1 i a n i s m and were a n t i - c l e r i c a 1 i n a t t i t u d e . A f t e r 1 6 5 0 , under the Commonwealth, the w r i t i n g s o f D e s c a r t e s , Gassendi and o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s became more g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l a n d , and the e n q u i r i e s i n t o r e s p i r a t i o n and n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y a t O x f o r d began to i n c l u d e C a r t e s i a n ( m e c h a n i c a l ) e x p l a n a t i o n s , though a mixed a t t i t u d e toward mechanism was a p p a r e n t . The f l o u r i s h i n g o f m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a t O x f o r d was b r i e f ; by I667-I668 most o f the l e a d i n g l i g h t s o f the r e s e a r c h t h e r e had g l e f t f o r London and the Royal S o c i e t y . By the l a t e 1660s and e a r l y 1 6 7 0 s , the Royal S o c i e t y had members whose a t t i t u d e s ranged from t r a d i t i o n a l H a r v e i a n through f r a n k l y uncommitted l i k e B o y l e t o a v i d m e c h a n i s t l i k e W i l l i s o r C h a r l e t o n . The Royal C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s was i n a somewhat more i n s e c u r e p o s i t i o n than the Royal S o c i e t y . F i r s t c r e a t e d i n 1518 t o r e g u l a t e m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e i n London, by the 1650s the C o l l e g e was under a t t a c k and under t h r e a t o f l o s i n g t h e i r monopoly by a group c a l l e d the 28 Company o f A p o t h e c a r i e s . T h i s Company was a group o f p h a r m a c i s t s who w i s h e d t o expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s t o f i l l t h e v o i d l e f t by the w o e f u l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f p h y s t c f a n s . The C o l l e g e demanded t h a t : 9 Every a p o t h e c a r y must t a k e an o a t h t o c o n f i n e h i s p r a c t i c e t o d i s p e n s i n g the p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c i a n s o f t h e i r C o l l e g e and t h a t he would not presume, e x c e p t i n emergencies t o o f f e r s e r v i c e o r a d m i n i s t e r t r e a t m e n t t o p a t i e n t s . D u r i n g the C i v i 1 ' W a r , the Royal C o l l e g e was u n a b l e t o e n f o r c e the u s u a l s t r i c t u r e s and the Company ( l a t e r S o c i e t y ) o f A p o t h e c a r i e s became s t r o n g e r . There was an i m p o r t a n t group o f Helmontain c h e m i c a l p h y s i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g Marchamont Nedham,^ who a l l i e d t h e mselves w i t h the A p o t h e c a r i e s i n an a t t e m p t t o break the monopoly o f the C o l l e g e . T h i s amorphous but i n f l u e n t i a l c o a l i t i o n o f c h e m i s t s and d r u g g i s t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r p o l e m i c armamentarium, the arguments t h a t the C o l l e g e was t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , as w e l l as the a l l e g a t i o n t h a t i t s members were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f p r o p e r e n q u i r y . One o f the l e a d e r s . o f the C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s was Thomas W i l l i s . W i l l i s was an a c q u a i n t a n c e o f B o y l e , a member o f the o l d O x f o r d group i n the f i f t i e s , and an a s s o c i a t e o f the Royal S o c i e t y i n the s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s . He h i m s e l f was a d e v o t e d m e c h a n i s t and i a t r o c h e m i s t and h i s s t r a t e g y o f d e f e n s e a g a i n s t the A p o t h e c a r i e s was t o t u r n t h e i r own arguments a g a i n s t them and demonstrate t h a t i t was the members o f the Royal C o l l e g e who were most a b l e and w i l l i n g t o c a r r y out m e d i c a l e n q u i r e , and t h a t t h i s e n q u i r y was ;best p e rformed by i a t r o c h e m i c a 1 methods. By showing t h a t the Royal C o l l e g e c o u l d p e r f o r m r e s e a r c h i n the new m e c h a n i c a l i d i o m , the members o f the C o l l e g e hoped t o b u t t r e s s t h e i r f l a g g i n g r e p u t a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r c r i t i c s . T h i s mode o f d e f e n s e became e s t a b l i s h e d C o l l e g e 29 p o l i c y , and W i l l i s w r o t e t h a t '-•'•mechanical means-' would save t h e m e d i c a l a r t from the " . v i l e s t scum o f the p e o p l e who b a r k a g a i n s t and f l i n g 1 2 d i r t upon P h y s i c k 1 1 . The Royal S o c i e t y and the Royal C o l l e g e were thus two p r i n c i p a l f o c i o f m e c h a n i s t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . There were a l s o , o f c o u r s e , a number o f men who were not c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e s e c e n t r e s and y e t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f u r t h e r i n g the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . Some o f t h e s e men were s c i e n t i f i c a mateurs, o t h e r s were m e d i c a l men, and s t i l l o t h e r s were r e l i g i o u s men pr o p o u n d i n g mechanism t o f u r t h e r t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . S i r Kenelm Digby ( l 6 0 3 - l 6 6 5 ) was one o f the s c i e n t i f i c p h i l o s o p h e r s who i n f l u e n c e d the e a r l y development o f the me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n England. He was a Roman C a t h o l i c v i r t u o s o , s e r v i n g a t one ti m e o r a n o t h e r as p r i v a t e e r , p h i l o s o p h e r , r o y a l c o u n c i l o r , and p l a y w r i g h t . He was a l s o a good f r i e n d o f Hobbes, and a member o f Mersenne's group i n P a r i s . Digby's f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Hobbes t r a n s c e n d e d t h e i r b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; t o one God was merely the pr i mum mob i 1 e and a r c h i t e c t o f the w o r l d machine; t o the o t h e r God was t h e a r c h i t e c t 1 3 o f man's d i v i n e s o u l . T h e i r common ground, however, was t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n G a s s e n d i ' s a t o m i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and i n D e s c a r t e s ' new p h i l o s o p h y . W h i l e Digby may have been an i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the new p h i l o s o p h y i n England though h i s i n f l u e n c e i n the Royal S o c i e t y and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Mersenne and N e w c a s t l e c i r c l e s , t h i s i m p o r t a n c e is c e r t a i n l y o ut o f p r o p o r t i o n t o the w o r t h o f h i s 30 1 4 p u b l i c a t i o n s , w h i c h were o f a c o n s i s t e n t l y a m a t e u r i s h q u a l i t y , Digby was f u n d a m e n t a l l y an A r i s t o t e l i a n who i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n t o a s y n t h e s i s w h i c h a l l o w e d , i n the H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n , o c c u l t e l ements and i m m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e s such as the s o u l . ' " ' W h i l e an i m m a t e r i a l s o u l would c e r t a i n l y be defended by Mersenne and many o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s , the m a g i c a l elements o f H e r m e t i c p h i l o s o p h y had been a t t a c k e d by many churchmen, i n c l u d i n g M e r s e n n e . I n Two T r e a t i s e s ( 1 6 4 4 ) , Digby u n d e r t o o k t o prove the e x i s t e n c e o f an immortal s o u l u s i n g h i s t h e o r y o f b o d i e s as a b a s i s . He does t h i s by f i r s t showing the p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g motion o f b o d i e s , and then a t t e m p t i n g t o show t h a t the o p e r a t i o n s o f the s o u l cannot be e x p l a i n e d by t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s , and t h e r e f o r e the s o u l i s i m m a t e r i a l , and, s i n c e not s u b j e c t t o decay, i m m o r t a l . ' ^ In o t h e r words, Digby argued t h a t s i n c e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s o u l l i k e thought and i m a g i n a t i o n d i d not ( c o n t r a Hobbes) seem t o f o l l o w p h y s i c a l l a w s , then the s o u l , w h i c h Digby n e v e r q u e s t i o n s the e x i s t e n c e o f , must be i m m a t e r i a l . T h i s s o r t o f t a u t o l o g i c a l argument was a p i t f a l l o f many who r e g a r d e d f o r one reason o r o t h e r the e x i s t e n c e o f s o u l t o be a x i o m a t i c . Digby t r e a t e d b i o l o g y and p h y s i o l o g y i n a m e c h a n i s t i c , a t o m i s t i c f a s h i o n . Human s e n s a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d i n an u n r e f i n e d manner somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t o f Hobbes i n the S h o r t T r a c t . H e a r i n g i s thought t o f u n c t i o n by a m e d i u m i s t i c m o t i o n , but the o t h e r senses a r e a l l thought t o f u n c t i o n 18 by r e c e p t i o n o f atoms from the p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t i n the sense o r g a n . The sense o r g a n s themselves do not s e n s e , says Digby, but channel the s m a l l atoms o r p a r t i c l e s t o t h e b r a i n , h e l p e d and c a r r i e d by " v i t a l s p i r i t s , " 31 19 w h e r e i n they t h e n c e f o r t h r e s i d e . Dighy i s a l i t t l e vague as t o how s e n s a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o b o d i l y a c t i o n , but he t h i n k s t h a t the p a r t i c l e s cause some s o r t o f messages t o be s e n t from the b r a i n t o the body. The p a s s i o n s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n a s t r i k i n g l y Hobbesian manner. P a r t i c l e s t r a v e l t o the h e a r t and make i t expand ( j o y ) o r c o n t r a c t ( f e a r , h a t e , e t c ) . Digby thus agreed w i t h Hobbes t h a t the h e a r t has an i m p o r t a n t 20 r o l e i n p a s s i o n s , but d i s a g r e e d on t h e s p e c i f i c s o f t h a t r o l e . For both^men the pass i o n s .are::! i n k e d t o motion o f h e a r t and b l o o d , but o n l y f o r Hobbes was s e n s a t i o n and p a s s i o n l i n k e d t o the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f the b e i n g , the v i t a l motion o f the b l o o d . Digby d e s c r i b e s the o r i g i n a l p a r t i c l e s o f sense as the v e h i c l e o f memory, w h i c h somehow repose i n the b r a i n , and wh i c h when s t i r r e d up a g a i n cause t h e o r i g i n a l s e n s a t i o n s once more. Digby thus f a r was i n agreement w i t h Hobbes; the f u r t h e r s t e p o f mec h a n i c a l s o u l was, however, u n t h i n k a b l e . In t h i s he s t o o d w i t h D e s c a r t e s , s a y i n g t h a t the s o u l "apprehends" o b j e c t s i n some i n d e f i n a b l e s p i r i t u a l manner. To the q u e s t i o n o f how t h i s can come t o pass w i t h o u t the m e d i a t i o n o f the senses Digby r e p l i e s , " ! c o n f e s s I s h a l l n ot be a b l e t o s a t i s f y y ou, but must answer t h a t i t i s done, I know not how, 21 by the power o f the s o u l . " Digby's e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e as u n s a t i s f y i n g t o us as they were t o h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Faced w i t h the t h e o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y f o r an i m m a t e r i a l , immortal s o u l , Digby was f o r c e d t o admit t h a t he c o u l d not e x p l a i n any c o n n e c t i o n between t h e s o u l and the body i n terms o f h i s r a t h e r p o o r l y a r t i c u l a t e d m e c h a n i c a l t h e o r i e s . Devout C a t h o l i c s were not the o n l y ones t o i n s i s t upon the e x i s t e n c e 32 o f an i n c o r p o r e a l s o u l ? o f c o u r s e , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the group c a l l e d the 'Cambridge P l a t g n i s t s ' i s Henry More ( .1614-1687) , an e a r l y E n g l i s h c o n v e r t t o C a r t e s i a n d o c t r i n e . In h i s e a r l y e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e new p h i l o s o p h y i n the 1 6 4 0 s , More may have been q u i t e i m p o r t a n t i n i t s 22 d i s s e m i n a t i o n i n England. He c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h D e s c a r t e s i n 1648 and 1 6 4 9 , m o s t l y about the i s s u e o f animal motion and automatism and animal s o u l , and i t was t h i s i s s u e w h i c h g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o More's l a t e r v o 1 t e - f a c e and h i s subsequent vehement d e r o g a t i o n o f h i s former 23 i d o l ' s t h e o r i e s . T h i s i s s u e o f animal motion and s o u l , b e a r s d i r e c t l y upon the r e l a t i o n s o f Hobbes and the Cambridge P l a t o n i s t s . D e s c a r t e s had d e s c r i b e d a n i m a l s , and t o a degree man, as me c h a n i c a l automata. In the a n i m a l s , w h i c h l a c k a d i v i n e s o u l , the p r o c e s s o f s e n s a t i o n i s completed when the s e n s i b l e motions reach the b r a i n ; i n man, i t i s the s o u l w h i c h i s the f i n a l r e c e p t o r o f s e n s a t i o n , and the b r a i n m erely the agent o r medium o f the passage o f t h a t s e n s a t i o n . Thus f o r D e s c a r t e s ' animal machine, s e n s a t i o n c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y o f ma t t e r and m o t i o n , whereas i n man t h e r e i s the p r o b l e m a t i c i n v o l v e m e n t o f the i n s u b s t a n t i a l s o u l i n the p r o c e s s o f s e n s a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows t h a t D e s c a r t e s and Hobbes agreed c o m p l e t e l y on what s e n s a t i o n and motion i n a n i m a l s i s ; Hobbes c a r r i e d t h i s on t o a p p l y 24 to man as w e l l . D e s c a r t e s s t a t e d i n 1 6 4 9 , t h a t he: had g i v e n heed t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s o f our movements t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d - - v i z . , one w h i c h i s p l a i n l y m e c h a n i c a l and c o r p o r e a l , w h i c h depends upon the s o l e f o r c e o f the animal s p i r i t s and the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the body,...the o t h e r i n c o r p o r e a l . . . I sought q u i t e d i l i g e n t l y whether animal movements a r i s e from t h e s e two p r i n c i p l e s , o r s i m p l y from one. When I had c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d t h a t a l l movement c o u l d o r i g i n a t e from the one p r i n c i p l e , t h a t i s t o sa y , the c o r p o r e a l and m e c h a n i c a l one, then I h e l d f o r c e r t a i n and proven t h a t we can i n no way demonstrate any r a t i o n a l s o u l i n b r u t e s . For More,the P l a t o n i s t , s p i r i t s and s o u l have p r i o r i t y o v e r the 33 p h y s i c a l w o r l d , and m a t t e r i s ' s e n t i e n t 1 , W h i l e the C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s t i c c o e x i s t e n c e o f m a t e r i a l w o r l d and s p i r i t u a l w o r l d a t f i r s t 26 seemed a t t r a c t i v e t o the Cambridge P l a t o n i s t s , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t the two p h i l o s o p h i e s were m e t a p h y s i c a l l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h each o t h e r . More f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t D e s c a r t e s ' t h e o r i e s were b a s i c a l l y p r e j u d i c i a l t o r e l i g i o n and t h a t no phenomenon c o u l d be p r o p e r l y 27 e x p l a i n e d i n p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l terms. In t h i s P l a t o n i c r e j e c t i o n o f mechanism More was echoed by h i s f r i e n d and compeer Ralph Cudworth who s a i d t h a t the C a r t e s i a n s "have an u n d i s c e r n e d tang o f the mechan-28 i c a l l y a t h e i s t i c humour ha n g i n g about them." The n e o - P l a t o n i s t r e p u d i a t i o n o f m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y came in the 1660s and 1670s, a f t e r Hobbes' major works were p u b l i s h e d , and one must wonder how much th e c r i t i c i s m was due t o D e s c a r t e s and how much was~a : r e s u l t o f Hobbes showing them c l e a r l y i n what d i r e c t i o n such m e c h a n i s t i c r e a s o n i n g c o u l d l e a d . I t was perhaps Hobbes who was t h e major enemy, and who caused most o f the r e a c t i o n , w h i l e D e s c a r t e s reaped the c r i t i c i s m thus due any m e c h a n i s t . The c r i t i c i s m o f D e s c a r t e s was enhanced perhaps by a f e e l i n g o f b e t r a y a l on the p a r t o f t h o s e Cambridge men who had championed h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n the 1640s and 1650s, o n l y t o f i n d t o t h e i r dismay t h a t mechanism was not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e o l o g y as they had f i r s t t h o u g h t . I t was c e r t a i n l y Hobbes' s t a t e m e n t t h a t s p i r i t i s "a body n a t u r a l . . . t h a t f i l l e t h up the p l a c e w h i c h the image o f a v i s i b l e body might 29 f i l l up" t h a t e l i c i t e d the response from More t h a t " t o r o o t o u t 30 t h i s s u l l e n c o n c e i t " o f Hobbes was o f h i g h p r i o r i t y . The Cambridge P l a t o n i s t s might a g r e e w i t h some o f Hobbes' t h e o r i e s on s e n s a t i o n 3h and n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , but the m a t e r i a l ism w h i c h d e n i e d t he r u l i n g s p i r i t s o f the w o r l d , the v i t a e mundi, w h i c h were a v i t a l p a r t o f n e o - P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e , must be d e p l o r e d , j u s t as t h e C a r t e s i a n m e c h a n i c a l man must be d e p l o r e d f o r i t s m a t e r i a l i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . W h i l e D e s c a r t e s c o u l d n o t , o f c o u r s e , c a r r y t he m e c h a n i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n to t he e x t e n t o f e x p l a i n i n g a l l t h i n g s i n c l u d i n g mind, the P l a t o n i s t s saw t h i s l o g i c a l s t e p , o r r a t h e r , had i t f o r c e f u l l y p o i n t e d o u t t o them by Hobbes. Joseph G l a n v i l l (1636-1680) was not a member o f the Cambridge group, but was n e v e r t h e l e s s an a d m i r e r o f Henry More. He was a l s o 31 a churchman and member o f the Royal S o c i e t y . In 1661 G l a n v i l l p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l work, The V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , o s t e n s i b l y i n t e n d e d as a rebuke t o s c h o l a s t i c s . In f a c t t h i s work pursues a somewhat a m b i v a l e n t c o u r s e , on the one hand p o i n t i n g o u t the s t a t e o f i g n o r a n c e o f contemporary thought and on the o t h e r hand championing t h e new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and the knowledge g a i n e d 32 from i t . I t i s w r i t t e n in a g e n e r a l l y s c e p t i c a l ve1n, however, and t h i s a t t i t u d e i s a p p a r e n t as much i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the hew m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y as i n the c r i t i c i s m o f the a n c i e n t s ' p h i l o s o p h i e s . G l a n v i l l i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a number o f s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i n k e r s caught on t h e horns o f the H o b b i s t - C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s t i c dilemma. D e s c a r t e s ' pure mind-body d u a l i s m became i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h t he mec h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h he h i m s e l f had propounded. Many p h i l o s o p h e r s (and c e r t a i n l y G l a n v i l l , as an o r t h o d o x churchman) were u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t he extreme Hobb'ist view t h a t t h e r e i s no i m m a t e r i a l s o u l , , and y e t the a l t e r n a t i v e p r e s e n t e d i m p o s i n g l o g i c a l 3 5 p r o b l e m s . I f a n i m m a t e r i a l s o u l e x i s t s , h o w c a n i t i n f l u e n c e t h e m a t e r t a l b o d y , a n d v i c e v e r s a ? N o m a t t e r w h a t t h e o r y o f s e n s a t i o n i s p u t f o r t h , t h e p o i n t i s a l w a y s r e a c h e d w h e r e o n e c a n n o t l o g i c a l l y b r i d g e t h e g u l f b e t w e e n m a t t e r - i n - m o t i o n a n d i m m a t e r i a l m i n d ( o r s o u l ) . T h e n e w m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y h a d b r o u g h t w i t h i t a p r o b l e m w h i c h m e n s u c h a s D e s c a r t e s c o u l d n ' t s o l v e . I f o n e i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e m e c h a n i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f a l l p h e n o m e n a , o n e i s f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f w h a t t o d o a b o u t s o u l . T h i s i s a p r o b l e m w h i c h d i d n ' t e x i s t f o r n o n - m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . G l a n v i l l w a s v e r y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o b l e m , a n d s t a t e d i t r a t h e r 3 3 c l e a r l y i n T h e V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g : F o r b o d y c a n n o t a c t o n a n y t h i n g b u t b y m o t i o n ; m o t i o n c a n n o t b e r e c e i v e d b u t b y q u a n t i t a t i v e d i m e n s i o n ; t h e s o u l i s a s t r a n g e r t o s u c h g r o s s s u b s t a n t i a l i t y , a n d b o t h n o t h i n g o f q u a n t i t y . . . a n d t h e r e f o r e h o w c a n w e c o n c e i v e i t u n d e r a p a s s i v e s u b j e c t i o n t o m a t e r i a l i m p r e s s i o n s ? H e s a y s t h a t i f s o u l i s c o n s i d e r e d a s p u r e m i n d a n d k n o w l e d g e , a s b y D i g b y , o r a s a t h i n k i n g s u b s t a n c e , " u n e c h o s e q u i p e n s e " , a s b y D e s c a r t e s , i t m a k e s i t " a s h a r d t o a p p r e h e n d a s t h a t a n e m p t y w i s h 34 s h o u l d r e m o v e M o u n t a i n s " . S i m i l a r l y , h e d e n i e s h i s f r i e n d H e n r y 35 M o r e ' s n e o - P l a t o n i s t i d e a t h a t s o u l h a s e x t e n s i o n , t h a t i s l o c a t i o n , s i n c e i f s o u l i n d e e d i s e v e r y w h e r e , p e n e t r a t i n g a l l b o d i e s , h o w c o u l d i t i m p a r t m o t i o n t o b o d i e s ? G l a n v i l l w a s c l e a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m e c h a n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . H e s i n g l e d o u t f o r d i s c u s s i o n a n d c r i t i c i s m t h e m a j o r c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i e s o f m e m o r y . B o t h D e s c a r t e s ' t h e o r y i n v o l v i n g p a t h s i n a p o r o u s b r a i n a n d D i g b y ' s i d e a t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s e n s i b l e p a r t i c l e s s o m e h o w 3 6 l a y a b o u t i n t h e b r a i n h e f o u n d ' u n c o n c e i v a b l e ' . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y 36 t h a t G l a n v i l l e gave Hobbes the same s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as he d i d the esteemed D e s c a r t e s , when he d i s c u s s e d Hobbes' t h e o r y o f memory. T h i s t h e o r y h e l d t h a t memory (and i m a g i n a t i o n ) were ' d e c a y i n g s e n s e 1 , 37 the p e r s i s t i n g v i b r a t i o n i n the b r a i n caused by a s e n s o r y s t i m u l u s . G l a n v i l l d i d not t h i n k t h a t the s u b s t a n c e o f the b r a i n was o f such n a t u r e as t o m a i n t a i n such v i b r a t i o n s l i k e a q u i v e r i n g mental j e l l y , and even i f t h i s p r e c o n d i t i o n was g r a n t e d , he thought t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n would resemble t r y i n g t o " p l a y a thousand tunes on a l u t e 38 G l a n v i l l propounded h i s b e l i e f i n man's n e c e s s a r y i g n o r a n c e , s a y i n g "We a r e i g n o r a n t o f some t h i n g s from our s p e c i f i c a l i n c a p -a c i t y , as men; o f more from o u r c o n t r a c t e d [ i n c a p a c i t y ] as s i n n e r s : 39 and i t i s no f a u l t i n the s p e c t a c l e s t h a t the b l i n d man sees n o t . " In t h i s l a s t a l l e g o r i c a l p h r a s e G l a n v i l l was u s i n g the s p e c t a c l e s t o r e p r e s e n t s c i e n c e , and the b l i n d man t o r e p r e s e n t a l l men, b l i n d e d t o a degree by t h e i r n a t u r e . H i s s u p p o r t o f t h e method o f the new p h i l o s o p h y by such a p t s i m i l e s and by h i s b e l i e f i n p a r t s o f t h a t p h i l o s o p h y were s u f f i c i e n t t o cause c h a r g e s o f a t h e i s m t o be a t t a c h e d t o him i n s p i t e o f h i s f e r v e n t a n t i - s a d d u c i s t o p i n i o n s . ^ G l a n v i l l ' s P l u s U l t r a (1668) was w r i t t e n i n p a r t t o defend the a u t h o r a g a i n s t charges o f a t h e i s m , an i n d i c t m e n t o f w h i c h the v i r t u o s i h] o f the Royal S o c i e t y were e x c e p t i o n a l l y wary. He d i d t h i s by d e f e n d i n g the l e g i t i m a c y o f the me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and i t s r e c o n c i l -a b i l i t y t o r e l i g i o n , u s i n g Robert B o y l e as a model o f the S o c i e t y ' s hi a c h i e v e m e n t s . T h i s work d i d not r e c e i v e i t s i n t e n d e d r e a c t i o n 37 from a l l q u a r t e r s . M e r i c Casaubon, a l e a r n e d d i v i n e , r e s p o n d e d t o PI us Ul t r a and G . l a n v i l l by d e p l o r i n g t he tendency t o d i s r e g a r d e t h i c s and to d e f i n e advancement o f knowledge i n p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c terms. He f e l t t h a t such an amoral a t t i t u d e would l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e i n the 43 a t h e i s m a t t a c h e d t o Hobbes 1 m a t e r i a l i s m . To p r e v e n t such c r i t i c i s m from m i t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f h i s d e f e n s e o f the S o c i e t y , G l a n v i l l , when he n e x t ro s e t o t h a t d e f e n s e , p o i n t e d l y s e p a r a t e d Hobbes from the S o c i e t y v i r t u o s i . He n o t e d t h a t a "Modern Sadducee ("Hobbes^ p r e t e n d s t h a t a l l t h i n g s we do a r e performed by meer m a t t e r and motion and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e r e i s no such t h i n g 44 as an i m m a t e r i a l b e i n g . " He f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s a d m i t t e d the e x i s t e n c e o f an i m m a t e r i a l s o u l : "Thus f a r I dare say I may u n d e r t a k e f o r most o f the C o r p u s c u l a r i a n P h i l o s o p h e r s o f o u r t i m e s , e x c e p t i n g t h o s e [men] o f 45 Mr. Hobb's way." The f u r y s t i r r e d up by Hobbes had th u s a f f e c t e d a l l a d h e r e n t s o f the me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f such t h i n k e r s i n the Royal S o c i e t y . W i l l i a m P e t t y ( 1 6 2 3 - 1 6 8 7 ) , was a n o t h e r member o f the Royal S o c i e t y who was i n t e r e s t e d i n mec h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . In the 1640s P e t t y had been i n t r o d u c e d t o the N e w c a s t l e c i r c l e by h i s f r i e n d John P e l l , a m a t h e m a t i c i a n . I t was he r e t h a t he f i r s t d e v e l o p e d an i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c s ; he became a good f r i e n d o f Hobbes, and drew t h e diagrams 1 46 f o r Hobbes o p t i c a l t r e a t i s e s . When i n 1674 P e t t y p r e s e n t e d h i s o n l y n o t a b l e work on mec h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y t o the S o c i e t y , he d e d i c a t e d i t t o h i s o l d p a t r o n and f r i e n d W i l l i a m C a v e n d i s h , Duke o f N e w c a s t l e . 38 T h i s t r e a t i s e , A D i s c o u r s e . . , C o n c e r n i n g the Use o f D u p l i c a t e P r o p o r t i o n . . . , was w r i t t e n t o encourage members t o a p p l y m a t h e m a t i c s , P e t t y ' s f o r t e , t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m a t t e r , The i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i n the D i s c o u r s e i s h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y t o the t h e o l o g i a n s ; -P e t t y was as much con c e r n e d w i t h c h u r c h o p i n i o n as any o f the v i r t u o s i , and he was c a r e f u l t o t r y t o l e g i t i m i z e h i s view o f the u n i v e r s e 47 as m e c h a n i c a l '. By a t t r i b u t i n g t o atoms a s e x u a l q u a l i t y , 'maleness' o r ' f e m a l e n e s s j he t r i e d t o show t h a t atoms were indeed mentioned 48 i n G e n e s i s i n the B i b l e (male and female c r e a t e d He them). Though he was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a l l c u r r e n t p h y s i c a l t h e o r i e s f o r t h e i r l a c k o f m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n , he drew h i s t h e o r i e s i n l a r g e p a r t from the men who o r i g i n a t e d them and who i n f l u e n c e d him i n the 1 6 4 0 s , 49 D e s c a r t e s , Gassendi and Hobbes. Hobbes i s c i t e d as a s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t o r t o Gassendi and D e s c a r t e s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f the members o f the Royal S o c i e t y and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Hobbes cannot be c o n s i d e r e d complete w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g Robert B o y l e ( 1 6 2 7 - 1 6 9 1 ) . A l t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c h e m i s t r y , B o y l e p r o b a b l y g a i n e d a c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i o l o g y d u r i n g a v i s i t t o I re 1 and i n 1 6 5 3 " 1 6 5 4 wi t h Wi 1 1iam P e t t y . In I re l a n d they found c h e m i c a l t o o l s and a p p a r a t u s "so u n p r o c u r a b l e t h a t i t was har d t o have any H e r m e t i c t h o u g h t " and the two men t u r n e d t o anatom-i c a l d i s s e c t i o n . B o y l e was a l s o somewhat d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h t he c u r r e n t a c c o u n t s o f me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , not o n l y because they l a c k e d a f i r m m a t h e m a t i c a l b a s i s , as P e t t y had remarked, but p a r t i c u l a r l y because the t h e o r i e s o f D e s c a r t e s , Gassendi and Hobbes 39 were t e n t a t i v e , p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h none o f the p h i l o s o p h e r s had sought e m p i r i c a l l y t o t e s t , B o y l e h i m s e l f r e t a i n e d a good ' B a c o n i a n ' a t t i t u d e , u s i n g the mechanical p h i l o s o p h y " p r i m a r i l y as an h e u r i s t i c i n s t r u m e n t t o l e a d t o new e x p e r i m e n t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s . " ' ' ' Of the p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s o f the p h i l o s o p h y he was s c e p t i c a l , and he was wary o f o p e n l y s u p p o r t i n g a d o c t r i n e so a s s o c i a t e d i n 52 the p u b l i c mind w i t h a t h e i s m . When he d i d e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n o f me c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , i t was a n e u t r a l one, c o m b i n i n g elements o f Gassendi and D e s c a r t e s , y e t r e f u s i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between them o r t o t a k e a s t a n d o v e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e t a i l between the 53 two. B o y l e was v e r y much a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s i n E n g l a n d , however, and i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h the N e w c a s t l e group. He was a c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f John P e l l , a f r i e n d and p u p i l o f P e t t y , an a d m i r e r o f Kenelm Digby, and an e a r l y i n i t i a t e t o G a s s e n d i ' s p h i l o s o p h y t h r o u g h the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f Samuel H a r t l i b , a merchant and s c i e n t i f i c amateur. B o y l e ' s o b j e c t i o n t o Hobbes seems, on the s u r f a c e , t o be an e p i s t e m -o l o g i c a l one. W h i l e he lau d s the men l i k e D e s c a r t e s and Gassendi f o r p u b l i s h i n g g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t may a i d s c i e n t i f i c endeavour, t h a t i s , B a c o n i a n n a t u r a l h i s t o r i e s , he says t h a t some men seem c o n s t r a i n e d t o w r i t e e i t h e r c o m p lete systems o* n o t h i n g a t a l l , and t h a t when t h e s e men l a c k p a r t i c u l a r knowledge they n e v e r t h e l e s s f e e l t h a t they must w r i t e something r a t h e r than say n o t h i n g a t a l l on a 5k s u b j e c t . W h i l e B o y l e d i d c r i t i c i z e Hobbes f o r some o f h i s i d e a s on vacuum and f o r h i s method, t h e r e seems t o be a d i s t i n c t u n d e r c u r r e n t o f r e l i g i o u s p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i o n w h i c h B o y l e h e l d i n common w i t h 55 o t h e r c r i t i c s l i k e W a l l i s . B o y l e d i d n o t d i r e c t l y a t t a c k Hobbes' ko p h y s i o l o g y o r p s y c h o l o g y , y e t t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t t h a t i t w a s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y t h a t h e l p e d m o t i v a t e h i s g e n e r a l c r i t i c i s m o f H o b b e s . B o y l e w a s a p o w e r f u l f i g u r e i n t h e e a r l y R o y a l S o c i e t y a n d w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h b u i l d i n g a n d s e c u r i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h a t S o c i e t y . In o r d e r t o d o t h i s , h e o p p o s e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f H o b b e s i n t h e S o c i e t y a n d d e n i g r a t e d H o b b e s a n d h i s t h e o r i e s f o r t w o r e a s o n s . He d i d n o t w a n t a m a t e r i a l i s t a n d a c c u s e d a t h e i s t t o b e s e e n a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S o c i e t y , a n d h e d i d n o t w a n t h i m t o r e p r e s e n t E n g l i s h s c i e n c e a b r o a d . ^ T h i s a t t i t u d e w a s n o t u n i v e r s a l i n t h e S o c i e t y , h o w e v e r . W a l t e r C h a r l e t o n , ( 1 6 1 9 - 1 7 0 7 ) , a n o l d f r i e n d o f H o b b e s ^ w a s a n e a r l y c o n v e r t t o G a s s e n d i ' s m e c h a n i c a l E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o p h y , p o s s i b l y d u e t o h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h H o b b e s a n d t h e N e w c a s t l e c i r c l e . A s a n e a r l y m e m b e r o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f p h y s i c i a n s , h e s p a n s t h e t w o c e n t r e s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l e n d e a v o u r d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r r Q i n t h i s e s s a y . B o y l e a n d C h a r l e t o n w e r e q u i t e s i m i l a r i n m a n y a r e a s o f t h o u g h t . C h a r l e t o n , r e s p o n s i b l e i n l a r g e p a r t f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f G a s s e n d i t o E n g l a n d , a t t e m p t e d t o c l e a n s e t h e E p i c u r e a n c o r p u s c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y o f i t s G r e e k p a g a n e l e m e n t s w h i c h h e f e l t w o u l d m e n a c e r e l i g i o n a n d h i n d e r i t s a c c e p t a n c e a s a t h e o r y . I t w a s t o t h e r e v i s e d E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o p h y , p u b l i s h e d b y C h a r l e t o n a s P h y s i o l o g i a E p i e u r o - G a s s e n d o - C h a r 1 t o n i a n a ( 1 6 5 4 ) , t h a t B o y l e l a t e r 5 9 a d h e r e d . A l t h o u g h h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h H o b b e s may h a v e b e e n a n e m b a r r a s s m e n t t o C h a r l e t o n i n h i s a t t e m p t t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n E n g l a n d , t h e r e a r e m a n y c o n g r u e n t p o i n t s i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f 41 the two men, C h a r l e t o n , l i k e Hobbes, saw God as the F i r s t Cause, the u n i v e r s a l prime m o v e r , ^ E v e r y t h i n g a f t e r the f i r s t ' d i v i n e push' c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f m a t t e r and m o t i o n . C h a r l e t o n ' s a c c o u n t o f s e n s a t i o n i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o Hobbes and he c i t e d 61 Hobbes as a s o u r c e f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a s s i o n s . He s t a t e d t h a t " a l l e f f e c t s w h i c h e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s can p o s s i b l e e x i s t e i n us... may be... r e f e r r e d t o two g e n e r a l heads, namely p l e a s u r e , and p a i n " , 62 w h i c h he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good and e v i l . C h a r l e t o n gave an a c c o u n t o f human p s y c h o l o g y based on m a t t e r and motion w h i c h d i f f e r s o n l y in d e t a i l from t h a t o f Hobbes. He s a i d t h a t s e n s a t i o n proceeds as motion t o t h e b r a i n and i f weak, d e c a y s , i f s t r o n g c o n t i n u e s t o t h e h e a r t . I f a s e n s a t i o n i s p l e a s u r a b l e , " i t i m m e d i a t e l y p u t s the s p i r i t s t h e r e i n r e s e r v e d i n t o b r i s k e r but r e g u l a r m o t i o n s . . . , i f 6 3 d i s p l e a s i n g i t p u t s them i n t o c o n f u s i o n . " Thus the p a s s i o n s , e x a c t l y as i n Hobbes t h e o r y , a f f e c t the motions o f the s p i r i t s and b l o o d . The s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e from H o b b i s t t h e o r y by C h a r l e t o n i s , o f c o u r s e , o v e r the m a t t e r o f s o u l . He d i v i d e d s o u l i n t o r a t i o n a l and s e n s i t i v e / c o m p o n e n t s , as d i d Digby; the s e n s i t i v e s o u l c o n s i s t s i n m o t i o n , b e i n g l i k e a ' l u c i d f l u i d u m ' composed o f v i t a l flame and animal s p i r i t s , " s u b j e c t t o u n d u l a t i o n s o r w a v i n g motions t h r o u g h o u t . " Thus f a r C h a r l e t o n i s i n agreement w i t h Hobbes (and D e s c a r t e s ) . He m a i n t a i n s , however, t h a t the r a t i o n a l s o u l must be i m m a t e r i a l f o r r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n s , i n o r d e r t o be i m m o r t a l , though he saw the problems i n h e r e n t i n a C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s t i c view, "| as l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d how I n t u i t i o n [thought) can be a s c r i b e d t o an i m m a t e r i a l , t h a t hath no e y e s , as I do how f e e l i n g o f s t r o k e s can be a s c r i b e d t o a> 66 t h i n g t h a t cannot be t o u c h e d . " . But C h a r l e t o n goes a s t e p f a r t h e r than most o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s when, w i t h a somewhat 42 a t y p i c a l candour, h e a d m i t s h i s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and suspends judgement on t h e s u b j e c t , "Wherefore h a v i n g c o n f e s s e d my i g n o r a n c e , I r e f e r the m a t t e r t o your a r b i t r a t i o n ; a l l o w i n g you as much time as you s h a l l t h i n k f i t , s e r i o u s l y t o c o n s i d e r the same; and i n the i n t e r i m c o n t e n t e d l y s u s p e n d i n g my c u r i o s i t y , w h i c h hath o f t e n p e r p l e x e d ,,67 me.1 C h a r l e t o n " s t h o u g h t s on human p s y c h o l o g y and the s o u l h o l d i m p o r t a n t c l u e s t o e x p l a i n the p o s i t i o n s taken on t h e s e s u b j e c t s by o t h e r l e s s f o r t h r i g h t w r i t e r s . To i n t e r p r e t t h e s e t h o u g h t s i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s e t t i n g r e q u i r e s some grasp o f the p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f England i n the 1 640s to 1670s. D u r i n g the t r o u b l e d t i m e s o f the C i v i l War, n o n - c o n f o r m i s t s , s e c t a r i a n s , and f r e e - t h i n k e r s f l o u r i s h e d , a t t a c k i n g the d o c t r i n e s o f b oth ' P u r i t a n ' and High Church o r t h o d o x y . Among t h e s e must be counted R i c h a r d O v e r t o n , a f r i e n d o f John L i l b u r n e and a p a m p h l e t e e r f o r the L e v e l l e r s . A s i d e from h i s p o l i t i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , O verton p u b l i s h e d i n 1643 a r e l i g i o u s t r a c t e n t i t l e d Mans M o r t a l 1i t i e i n w h i c h he r e v i v e d the d o c t r i n e o f ' s o u l - s 1 e e p i n g ' , the ' A r a b i a n e r r o r ' 68 o f m o r t a l s o u l . T h i s i s s u e had been f i r s t r a i s e d i n the p r e v i o u s 69 y e a r by S i r Thomas Browne' s;-,Rel i g i o ' M e d i c i ' (1642). Browne d e s c r i b e d m o r t a l ism and r e j e c t e d i t on grounds o f f a i t h , s a y i n g t h a t p h i l o s o p h y had not y e t d i s p r o v e d the d o c t r i n e . ^ T h i s s t a t e m e n t was i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e renewed debate on an o l d c o n t r o v e r s y , ^ and O v e r t o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n added f u e l t o the p o l e m i c f i r e , a l t h o u g h the r e s p e c t a b l e p h y s i c i a n Browne was t o be c o n s i d e r e d 72 more worthy o f response than the r a d i c a l O v e r t o n . Overton w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y 43 p r o p o u n d e d h i s m o r t a l 1 s t d o c t r i n e , p r o d u c i n g c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h a r e 73 v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f H o b b e s , i f a n t e d a t i n g h i m b y e i g h t y e a r s . H e s a w n o b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n i m a l s a n d m e n : " B r u t e s . . . h a v e o u r m o s t n o b l e a n d f a c u l t i e s s c a t t e r e d a m o n g t h e m , t h o u g h i n a n 74 i n f e r i o r d e g r e e . " P r o c e e d i n g o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t " a l l t h a t i s c r e a t e d i s m a t e r i a l " ^ , h e t o o k A r i s t o t l e ' s ( a n d H o b b e s 1 ) c o n c e p t o f s o u l a s t h e f a c u l t i e s o f m a n j o i n t l y c o n s i d e r e d a n d s h o w e d t h a t e a c h f a c u l t y i s c o r p o r e a l a n d t h a t t h u s t h e s o u l m u s t b e c o r p o r e a l a n d m o r t a 1 . ^ I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e m o r t a l i s m c o n t r o v e r s y , t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s o r d e r e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p u b l i s h e r s o f m o r t a l i s t p a m p h l e t s . I n 1646 l e g i s l a t i o n w a s p a s s e d f o r t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f s u c h h e r e t i c s a n d b l a s p h e m e r s . ^ A l t h o u g h O v e r t o n ' s t r a c t w a s n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y E p i c u r e a n , i t w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s s u c h b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , a n d t o q u o t e K a r g o n , i t " b e c a m e t h e l i g h t n i n g r o d f o r c r i t i c i s m o f E p i c u r e a n i s m " T h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a t o m i s m a n d a t h e i s m b e c a m e f i x e d a t l e a s t i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y r e l i g i o u s m i n d , a n d G a s s e n d i ' s E p i c u r e a n s y n t h e s i s 79 c a m e u n d e r a t t a c k . T h u s C h a r l e t o n h i m s e l f w a s c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s r e v i s i o n o f G a s s e n d i ' s p h i l o s o p h y , a n d i n t h e 1650s h e p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l t r a c t s d e n y i n g m o r t a l i s m a n d c o n f i r m i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n i m m o r t a l s o u l . ^ T o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d C h a r l e t o n ' s a v i d a t t e m p t s t o p u r i f y E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o p h y o f i t s a t h e i s t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e m e m b e r t h a t h e w a s i n t h e 1 6 5 0 s , a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t i n t h e 1 6 6 0 s , s t i l l w o r k i n g u n d e r t h e d a r k c l o u d o f c r i t i c i s m e n g e n d e r e d b y m e n l i k e O v e r t o n i n t h e p r e v i o u s d e c a d e . I n 1656 C h a r l e t o n p u b 1 i s h e d , E p i c u r u s 1 s  M o r a 1 s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d i s c u s s t h e s e p r o b l e m s , a n d i n a n a p p e n d e d " A n A p o l o g y f o r E p i c u r u s " , t o d e f e n d E p i c u r u s ( a n d t h u s E p i c u r e a n s ) kk from c h a r g e s o f a t h e i s m , To add t o the d e s i r e o f E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s p h e r s f o r a d i s a s s o c i a t ion w i t h m o r t a l ism and h e r e s y , t h e r e was the c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Thomas Hobbes and h i s much c r i t i c i z e d p h i l o s o p h y . I t was the m a t e r i a l i s m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E p i c u r u s t h a t C h a r l e t o n had t o e x c u s e , and t o many o b s e r v e r s t h i s was e q u i v a l e n t t o the m a t e r i a l i s m o f Hobbes. Hobbes d e r i v e d h i s m o r t a l ism i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, f i r s t from h i s n a t u r a l m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y as has been shown, and s e c o n d l y 81 by s c r i p t u r a l e x e g e s i s . He d i d not d i f f e r i n any i m p o r t a n t way 82 from the views o f O v e r t o n , M i l t o n , and Browne on m o r t a l ism. Thus, a f t e r 1 6 5 1 , t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o r t a l ism was t o be seen as H o b b i s t . Hobbes was n o t , by h i s own a d m i s s i o n an E p i c u r e a n . When Seth Ward ac c u s e d Hobbes o f r e s t a t i n g the s e n s a t i o n t h e o r i e s o f D e s c a r t e s , G a s s e n d i , and Digby, thus a t t e m p t i n g t o b e l i t t l e Hobbes' c o n t r i b u t i o n to p h y s i o l o g y , Hobbes i n d i g n a n t l y responded t h a t D e s c a r t e s ' t h e o r y was nonsense, and Gassendi and Digby h e l d the o p i n i o n o f E p i c u r u s 8k "which i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from mine." The major d i f f e r e n c e s between E p i c u r e a n t h e o r y and Hobbes' thought c e n t r e on the e x i s t e n c e o f vacuum and on Hobbes l a t e r m e d i u m i s t i c t h e o r y o f l i g h t as opposed to the n e o - E p i c u r e a n e m i s s i o n t h e o r y . To most o b s e r v o r s , however, Hobbes and E p i c u r e a n s were, by d i n t o f t h e i r common m a t e r i a l i s m and mec h a n i c a l c o r p u s c u l a r p h y s i c s , c o l l a b o r a t o r s in s i n g l e dangerous dogma. Thus Cudworth and More tended t o i n c l u d e any E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o p h gl-and s c i e n t i s t s w i t h Hobbes i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o L e v i a t h a n . The a d m i s s i o n by W a l t e r C h a r l e t o n i n 1675 t h a t he d i d not a f t e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d how an i m m a t e r i a l s o u l c o u l d f u n c t i o n was the more rem a r k a b l e g i v e n the c o n t i n u e d a n t i - m o r t a l i s t c l i m a t e o f t h e 1 6 7 0 s . 45 H i s s k e p t i c i s m w o u l d b e s a v e d i n t h e e y e s o f r e l i g i o u s c r i t i c s o n l y b y h i s i n s i s t e n c e , w h e t h e r t h r o u g h s i n c e r e C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f o r b y s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y , o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n i m m o r t a l i m m a t e r i a l s o u l . F o r o t h e r m e n l i k e T h o m a s W i l l i s , c h a m p i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e a n d , l i k e C h a r l e t o n , a l s o a m e m b e r o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f H o b b e s 1 m a t e r i a l i s m . a n d C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s m a l s o a r o s e . W i l l i s w a s i n v o l v e d i n t w o n o t d i s s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s : h e s o u g h t t o p r o v e t h a t t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e w a s t h e p r o p e r s e a t o f m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d l e a r n i n g i n L o n d o n b y e x h i b i t i n g t h e m e c h a n i c a l a n d i a t r o c h e m i c a 1 e x p e r t i s e o f C o l l e g e m e m b e r s ; a n d h e a l s o c a r r i e d o u t h i s o w n s t u d i e s t h e r e , m o s t l y o n n e u r o a n a t o m y . I n h i s w o r k D e A n i m a B r u t o r u m , W i l l i s 86 d e a l t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e s o u l s o f a n i m a l s a n d m e n . W i l l i s d i v i d e d s o u l s i n t o s e n s i t i v e s o u l a n d r a t i o n a l s o u l . T h e s e n s i t i v e s o u l f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h a n i m a l s p i r i t s w h i c h t r a v e l t h e n e r v e s a n d b r a i n a n d a r e i n v o l v e d i n s e n s a t i o n a n d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f t h o u g h t . A t h i r d , s u b s i d i a r y , s o u l , t h e b o d y - s o u l , i s p o s t u l a t e d t o g o v e r n u n c o n s c i o u s , a u t o n o m o u s b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s s u c h a s d i g e s t i o n a n d r e s p i r a t i o n . T h e r a t i o n a l s o u l i s p r e s e n t o n l y i n m a n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t f o r W i l l i s , t h e s o u l o f b r u t e s c o n s i s t s o f m a t t e r i n m o t i o n , a n d t h e a n i m a l s p i r i t s w h i c h p o w e r i t a r e c h e m i c a l 87 p r i n c i p l e s . T h i s s o u l , r e a l l y a b o d y s o u l a n d s e n s i t i v e s o u l c o m p o s i t e , i s a c c o r d e d a l i m i t e d r a t i o c i n a t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n 88 a n i m a l f u n c t i o n s a n d a c t i o n s . T o a v o i d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s W i l l i s s e p a r a t e d s u c h b a s i c c o g n i t i o n f r o m h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t i o n , w h i c h h e s a i d , w a s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a n i m m a t e r i a l r a t i o n a l s o u l w h i c h w a s s o m e h o w ( W i l l i s i s u n c l e a r a s t o p r e c i s e l y i n w h a t m a n n e r ) , ke 89 c o n n e c t e d t o the body-sou 1 f o r i t s s e n s o r y i n p u t . T h i s s o l u t i o n t o the d u a l i s t p r o b l e m was e s s e n t i a l l y the same as t h a t o f f e r e d i n the same y e a r , 1672, by a French J e s u i t w r i t e r , F a t h e r Ignace Gaston P a r d i e s , i n h i s D i s c o u r s de l a Co n n o i s s a n c e des b e s t s . L i k e W i l l i s , P a r d i e s s a i d t h a t b e a s t s have a s e n s i t i v e k i n d o f c o g n i t i o n , b u t 90 not an i n t e l l e c t u a l one. W i l l i s was the p h y s i c i a n t o the A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y and i n t h i s c a p a c i t y as w e l l as i n h i s r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s i n the Royal C o l l e g e and Royal S o c i e t y , he was c o n s t r a i n e d t o m a i n t a i n a t l e a s t the f a c a d e o f t h e o l o g i c a l o r t h o d o x y . H i s compromise o f a b i p a r t i t e s o u l was s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y h i s c r i t i c s , and y e t a l l o w e d W i l l i s t o t a l k about the mind and s o u l i n m a t e r i a l i s t i c terms. The f r a n k l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c a s s e r t i o n w h i c h the c h u r c h f a i l e d t o comment on was t h a t m a t t e r c o u l d r e a s o n . The communication between t h e body s o u l and the r a t i o n a l s o u l i n man a l l o w e d W i l l i s t o t r e a t the r a t i o n a l s o u l as i f i t were a p a r t o f the m a t e r i a l body s o u l i n h i s e n q u i r y i n t o mental i l l n e s s . B e i n g v e r y much aware o f the a t h e i s t i c dangers o f a m a t e r i a l i s t i c o r Hobbesian d o c t r i n e , W i l l i s p r e f a c e d De An i ma 92 Brutorum w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : I know not whether i t w i l l be p l e a s i n g t o a l l t h a t i n s t i t u t i n g the s o m e t h i n g p a r a d o x i c a l d o c t r i n e o f the animal s o u l , t h a t I s h o u l d a s s i g n t o t h a t s o u l , by w h i c h the b r u t e s as w e l l as men l i v e , f e e l , move, not o n l y e x t e n s i o n , but members, and as i t were o r g a n i c a l p a r t s . . . . M o r e o v e r , t h a t the c o r p o r e a l s o u l doth e x t e n d i t s s i c k n e s s e s not o n l y t o the body, but to the mind o r r a t i o n a l s o u l , . . I t h i n k i s c l e a r enough. i ; When he d e s c r i b e d the r a t i o n a l s o u l as "a p a r t i c l e o f a d i v i n e b r e a t h " , " d i v i n a e p a r t i c u l a m a u r a e " , he was u s i n g p r e c i s e l y t h e same language as he had used t o d e s c r i b e the s u b t l e s t o f c h e m i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n 47 93 a p r i o r d i s c u s s i o n o f f e r m e n t a t i o n . Hansreudi I s l e r comments, " I t seems t h a t W i l l i s c o u l d not al w a y s h o l d on t o h i s t h e o l o g i c a l f o o t i n g when he was b e i n g c a r r i e d away by the t r e n d s i n h e r e n t i n 94 h i s t h e o r i e s . " T h i s assessment n i c e l y sums up an a t t i t u d e w h i c h has been shown t o e x i s t i n a number o f W i l l i s ' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s such as C h a r l e t o n . W i l l i s was a s c i e n t i s t who was s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m e c h a n i c a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . He wanted t o e x p l a i n t h e w o r k i n g s and i l l n e s s e s o f the mind and t h e most p o t e n t i n s t r u m e n t a t h i s d i s p o s a l was the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h i s o n l y e f f e c t i v e when a p p l i e d t o m a t e r i a l e n t i t i e s . By p r o c e e d i n g i n such an e n q u i r y , W i l l i s was i n an i m p o r t a n t way a f o l l o w e r o f Hobbes, but f o r o b v i o u s reasons c o u l d not admit t o t h i s i n f l u e n c e . He tbus.:typi f i e s ' f o l l o w e r s ' o f Hobbes o r p h y s i o l o g i s t s who to o k Hobbes s e r i o u s l y y e t c o u l d not acknowledge t h a t f a c t . 48 FOOTNOTES CHAPTER I! HOBBES AND THE ENGLISH PHYSIOLOGISTS 1 , Thomas Hobbes, E n g l i sh Works, ed. S i r W. Molesworth (London: John Bohn, 1839) V o l . I, p.4 0 7 -2 . Theodore Brown, The M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y and..the,Animal Oeconomy, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969) p.2 8 . 3- C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l , " W i l l i a m Harvey and t h e Idea o f Monarchy," P a s t and P r e s e n t (1963) XXVII. 4 . "T. Brown, M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y , p. 2 9 ,p. 4 8 . In the e a r l y p a r t o f the c e n t u r y , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e d i d n ' t r e a l l y e x i s t a 'mechanical p h i l o s o p h y ' f o r Harvey t o e i t h e r a c c e p t o r disavow. 5 . I b i d . , p.v. The 'animal oeconomy' was the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y term f o r p h y s i o l o g y . 6 . P r o f e s s o r o f M e d i c i n e a t Gresham C o l l e g e 7. H. I s 1 e r , Thomas W i l l i s , p . 1 3 8 . H.M. S i n c l a i r , " O x f o r d M e d i c i n e " i n M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  England (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) . 9 . C. W a l l , H.C. Cameron, and E.A. Underwood, A H i s t o r y o f the W o r s h i p f u l  S o c i e t y o f A p o t h e c a r i e s o f London,'(London: O x f o r d , 1963) V o l . 1 , p.4 1 . 1 0 . Nedham was the a u t h o r / e d i t o r o f M e r c u r i u s B r i t a n i c u s ( s i c . ) the most c o n t i n u o u s P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n news-sheet d u r i n g the war. 11. l a t r o c h e m i s t r y i s the name g i v e n t o th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o r p u s c u l a r m e c h a n i c a l t h e o r y t o m e d i c i n e i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 12. T. W i l l i s , P h a r m a c a e t i c e R a t i o n a l i s , ( 1 6 7 4 ) . 13/ C'.'W; Bodemer, " M a t e r i a l i s t i c and N e p p l a t o n i c I n f l u e n c e s i n Embryology", i n A.G. Debus, M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h Century E n g l a n d , (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974) p. 1 8 4 - 8 5 . 14. R. Kargon, Atomism i n England from H a r i o t t o Newton, ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1966) pp. 7 2 - 7 3 -15- I b i d . 1.6. The H e r m e t i c t r a d i t i o n was a t t a c k e d as a t h r e a t t o r e l i g i o n i n t he l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y by the J e s u i t d e l Rio and P r o t e s t a n t s l i k e E r a s t u s . In the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Mersenne h i m s e l f condemned i t as t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f m i r a c l e s , and moderates i n th e War condemned i t w i t h the accompanying t h r e a t o f the s e c t a r i e s . See P. R a t t o n s i , "The S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Se v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y S c i e n c e " 49 i n P. M a t h i a s ed, , S c i e n c e and S o c i e t y , 1 6 0 0 - 1 9 0 0 , p , 3 0 . 17. R.T. P e t e r s s o n , S i r Kenelm Digby, (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956) p . l 9 0 f f . 1 8 . I b i d . 1 9 . K. Digby, Of B o d i e s , ( 1 6 4 4 ) pp.3 5 7 - 3 6 2 . 2 0 . Digby had been i n t e r e s t e d i n the h e a r t and c i r c u l a t i o n s i n c e h i s e a r l y days a t Gresham C o l l e g e ( 1 6 3 3 - 1 6 3 5 ) - He t e s t e d and f i n a l l y a g r eed w i t h much o f Harvey's c i r c u l a t i o n t h e o r y . 2 1 . K. Digby, Of Man's Soul ( 1 6 4 4 ) p.5 1 . 22 . On More's i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h C a r t e s i a n i s m see M. N i c o l s o n , "The E a r l y Stages o f C a r t e s i a n i s m i n E n g l a n d " , S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , XXVI ( 1 9 2 9 ) pp.3 5 6 - 3 7 4 . 2 3 . L.D. Cohen, " D e s c a r t e s and Henry More on the B e a s t Machine," Ann, o f S c i . I ( 1 9 3 6 ) p.4 9 . 2 4 . L e t t e r o f D e s c a r t e s t o More, F e b r u a r y 5 , 1 6 4 9 , E;A. Adamfand ..- • Paul Tannery, e d s . , Oevres de D e s c a r t e s , ( P a r i s : J . V r i n , 1967) V o l . V, l e t t e r 5 3 7 , p.2 7 5 ; t r a n s . L. Cohen, " D e s c a r t e s and Henry More", P P ; 5 1 - . 5 2 . 2 5 . L. Cohen, " D e s c a r t e s and Henry More", p.5 9 -2 6 . C.W. Bodemer, " M a t e r i a l i s t i c and N e o p l a t o n i c I n f l u e n c e s " , _i_n A.G. Debus, M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h Century E n g l a n d , p.201 . 2 7 . C. Webster, "Henry More and D e s c a r t e s : Some New S o u r c e s " , B r i t . J o u r n a l f o r the H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e , 4 ( 1 9 6 9 ).p.3 6 0 . 2 8 . The True I n t e l l e c t u a l System o f the U n i v e r s e , I678, p . 1 7 8 . 2 9 . T. Hobbes, E n g l i sh Works, v o l . IV, pp.6 6 - 7 1 3 0 . B a s i l W i l l e y , The S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y Background, (London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1967) p.1 6 2 . 3 1 . G l a n v i l l e w a s ..Chapl a i n - i n - O r d i n a r y t o C h a r l e s II and R e c t o r o f Bath Abbey. 3 2 . B a s i l W i l l e y , S e v e n t e e n t h Century Background, p.173 3 3 - J o s e p h , G l a n v i l l , The V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , (London: Henry E v e r s d e n , 1661) p.2 9 . 50 34 . J . ' . - . i G l a n v i l 1 , V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , p , 2 2 , 3 5 . O n M o r e 1 s i d e a o f u n i v e r s a l e x t e n s i o n f o r s o u l s e e h i s T r u e N o t i o n o f S p i r i t ( 1 6 7 1 , r e p r i n t e d i n G l a n v i l l e ' s S a d d u c i s m u s T r i u m p h a t u s (1681). ' 36. J J i G l a n v i 1 1 , V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , p . 3 3 f f . 37- T . H o b b e s , L e v i a t h a n , p p . 8 8 - 8 9 . 38 . J . G l a n v i l l , V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , p . 3 8 . 39- J - G l a n v i l l , V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , p . 2 3 7 -kO. G l a n v i l l ' s s u p p o r t o f i m m a t e r i a l s p i r i t s , m i r a c l e s a n d w i t c h c r a f t i s b e s t o u t l i n e d i n P h i l o s o p h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s T o u c h i n g W i t c h e s  a n d W i t c h c r a f t (1666T! k]. R . S . W e s t f a l l , S c i e n c e a n d R e l i g i o n i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  E n g l a n d , ( N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958) p . 1 1 3 -kl. O l d e n b u r g m e a n t P l u s U l t r a t o b e a n u n o f f i c i a l s u p p l e m e n t t o S p r a t ' s , H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y , ( 1667) t h e f i r s t a p o l o g i s t t o a t t e m p t t o a l l a y t h e f e a r s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s a b o u t t h e S o c i e t y ' s a t h e i s t i c m a t e r i a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s . S p r a t u s e d C h r i s t o p h e r W r e n a s a m o d e l f o r t h e S o c i e t y . 43- C M i - . ; C a s a u b o n , A L e t t e r o f M e r i c C a s a u b o n P . P . S c t o P e t e r d u M o u l i n , P . P . a n d P r e b e n d a r i e o f t h e S a m e C h u r c h , ( C a m b r i d g e , 1669) • kk. J . G1 a n v i 11 . , ' P Hi i :1 o s o p h a a P i. a , : (1 6 7 1 ) • P 3 3 • kS. J . G l a n v i l l , P h i l o s o p h i a P i a , p . 1 0 9 -46. R . K a r g o n , A t o m i s m i n E n g l a n d f r o m H a r i o t t o N e w t o n , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1966) p . 6 9 . 4 7 . P e t t y w a s s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h o p i n i o n t h a t h e f i n a l l y c h o s e n o t t o p u b l i s h a t r e a t i s e t h a t d e a l t w i t h s o m e p o i n t s o f n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n r a t h e r t h a n e x p o s e h i m s e l f t o t h e d i s p l e a s u r e o f " t h e c e n s o r i o u s a n d e n v i o u s , t h e s c i o l u s , e t c . " P e t t y t o S o u t h w e l l , A u g u s t , 1677; P e t t y - S o u t h w e l 1 C o r r e s p o n d e n c e p . 3 1 , c . f . W e s t f a l 1 , S c i e n c e a n d  R e . l i g i o n " ! ( N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958) p . 1 1 4 . 48. R . K a r g o n , " W i l l i a m P e t t y ' s M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y , " I s i s L X V I (1965) P - 6 5 , G e n e s i s 1:27-49- I b i d . , p . 6 6 . 50 . K e n n e t h 0. K e e l e , " P h y s i o l o g y " A . G . D e b u s , M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h  C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , ( L o s A n g e l e s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974) p . 1 6 5 -51 5 1 , K a r g o n ? R , A t o m i s m , . p , 9 5 5 2 , An e a r l y m a n u s c r i p t , w 0 f t h e Atom r e a l P h i l o s o p h y ' 1 b e a r s t h e m e s s a g e s - ' T h e s e p a p e r s a r e w i t h o u t f a i l t o b e b u r n e d , 1 ' R , K a r g o n , A t o m i s m p . 9 6 . 5 3 - R- K a r g o n , I b i d . , p . 9 5 , 5 4 . T h e m a j o r d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n H o b b e s a n d B o y l e w a s o v e r t h e s t u d y o f a i r . B o y l e f e l t t h a t H o b b e s h a d l i t t l e r i g h t t o a n o p i n i o n i n s u c h m a t t e r s , e s c h e w i n g a c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a s h e d i d . H o b b e s h a d a t t a c k e d B o y l e ' s v i e w s o n v a c u u m i n D i a l o g u s P h y s i c u s (1661) 5 5 . M i r i a m R e i k , T h e G o l d e n L a n d s o f T h o m a s H o b b e s , ( D e t r o i t : W a y n e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) p . 1 6 7 -5 6 . Q . S k i n n e r , " T h e I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f H o b b e s ' P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l X I I. ( 1 9 6 9 ) p p . 2 1 7 - 2 3 9 -57- M . R e i k , G o l d e n L a n d s , p . l 8 0 f f . 5 8 . C h a r l e t o n w a s p r e v i o u s l y R o y a l P h y s i c i a n t o C h a r l e s . D u a l m e m b e r s h i p i n b o t h t h e S o c i e t y a n d t h e C o l l e g e w a s c o m m o n t o n e a r l y f i f t y o t h e r m e n . B o y l e w a s n o t a m o n g t h e s e . 5 9 - O n B o y l e ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f C h a r l e t o n ' s d o c t r i n e s e e R . K a r g o n , A t o m i s m , . ' p . 9 7 f f • 60. C h a r l e t o n , P h y s i o l o g i a E p i e u r o - G a s s e n d - C h a r i t o n i a n a , ( L o n d o n , 1654) p . 1 2 6 . 6 1 . C h a r l e t o n , : N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f t h e P a s s i o n s , ( L o n d o n , 1 6 7 4 ) , e p i s t l e p r e f a t o r y . 6 2 . I b i d . , p . 8 2 . 63. I b i d . , p . 8 4 ; c . f . H o b b e s , E n g l i s h W o r k s , V o l . I , p . 4 0 7 a n d T . H o b b e s , E l e m e n t s o f L a w N a t u r a l a n d P o l i t i c , e d . F e r d i n a n d T o n n i e s , ( L o n d o n : F r a n k C a s s & C o . L t d . , 1969) p . 2 8 . 6 4 . C h a r l e t o n a d m i t s a t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f s e n s e - - n e i t h e r p l e a s u r e n o r p a i n , g o o d n o r e v i l b u t n e u t r a l ; " i f t h e s o u l a t t h a t t i m e , b o t h f o r h e r o b j e c t , n o t g o o d o r e v i l , b u t o n l y k n o w l e d g e . . . s h e c o n v e r t s a l l h e r p o w e r u p o n t h e b r a i n a l o n e , w h e r e i n a l l s e n s e i s p e r f o r m e d . " I b i d . , p . 9 0 6 5 - I b i d . , p p . 1 4 - 1 5 , 2 9 -6 6 . I b i d , , p . 6 6 52 67. I b i d , , p , 6 7 , 68. T h e A r a b i a n e r r o r o r T h n e t o p s y c h i s m d o e s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n a n i m a l a n d h u m a n s o u l , a n d h o l d s t h a t b o t h d i e w i t h t h e b o d y , N o r m a n T . B u r n s , C h r i s t i a n . M o r t a 1 i s m f r o m T y n d a l e t o M i 1 t o n , ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972) p p . 1 6 - 1 8 . 69. T h i s p o p u l a r b o o k s a w e i g h t e d i t i o n s b y 1646 a n d m a d e B r o w n e f a m o u s . 70. S i r T h o m a s B r o w n e , W o r k s , E d . S . W i l k i n . 3 v o l . ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e B e l l & S o n s , 1901 - 1 9 1 0 ) , V o l . I I p p . 3 2 9 - 3 0 . R e l i g i o M e d i c i w a s w r i t t e n c . 1 6 3 5 -71. G . W i l l i a m s o n , S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y C o n t e x t s , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1969) pp.148-149 c . f . N . B u r n s , C h r i s t i a n M o r t a l i s m p.148. 72. O v e r t o n c h i d e d h i s a d v e r s a r i e s f o r t h e i r l a c k o f r e s p o n s e t o M a n s M o r t a l 1 i t i e , ( L o n d o n , 1675) i n R . O v e r t o n , T h e A r a i g n m e n t o f M r . P e r s e c u t i o n ( L o n d o n , 1645). W h e n t h e y d i d r e s p o n d , O v e r t o n f a i l e d t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f , b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n m o r e p r e s s i n g L e v e l l e r a c t i v i t i e s N . B u r n s , C h r i s t i a n M o r t a l i s m , p p . 1 5 5 - 1 5 6 . A l e x a n d e r R o s s c o n s i d e r e d h i m u n w o r t h y o f r e s p o n s e . G . W i l l i a m s o n , S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y C o n t e x t s 73- H o b b e s f i r s t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d h i s m o r t a l i s t t h o u g h t i n L e v i a t h a n . 74. O v e r t o n , R . , M a n i W h o .1 l : y , M o r t a 1 , ( L o n d o n , 1675). p . 17- T h i s w a s a l a t e r e d i t i o n o f M a n s M o r t a 1 1 i t i e . 75. O v e r t o n , R . , M a n W h o l l y M o r t a l , p . 2 1 . 76. I b i d . , p . 5 f f . 77- K a r g o n , R . , A t o m i s m , p . 8 0 . T h o m a s E d w a r d s ! G a n g r a e n a ( L o n d o n , 1646) s i n g l e d o u t s i x t e e n s e p a r a t e h e r e t i c a l s e c t s . 78. K a r g o n , R . , A t o m i s m , p .81. F o r K a r g o n , E p i c u r e a n i s m i s a n y t h o u g h t w h i c h w a s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h E p i c u r u s , e . g . G a s s e n d i , C h a r l e t o n , H o b b e s , a n d e v e n B o y l e . 79- H o l l a n d , G . , T h e G r a n d P r e r o g a t i v e o f H u m a n N a t u r e , ( L o n d o n , 1953) 80. T h e s e t r a c t s i n c l u d e C h a r l e t o n , W . , D a r k n e s s o f A t h e i s m ( L o n d o n ; 1652) a n d I m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e H u m a n S o u l , ( L o n d o n , 1657)• 81. H o b b e s , T . , L e v i a t h a n , c h a p t e r s 38 ,44. 82. B u r n s , N . , C h r i s t i a n M o r t a l i s m , p . 1 8 5 • 83. W a r d , S . a n d W i l k i n s , J . , V i n d i c i a e A c a d e m i a r u m ( O x f o r d , 1654), p . 53 8 4 . T . H o b b e s , E n g l i s h W o r k s , S i x L e s s o n s , L e s s o n V I ? ' ' O f M a n n e r s " , . p . 34tV4 l . 85. L a d y M a r g a r e t C a v e n d i s h K s s o m e w h a t n u g a t o r y m a t e r i a l i s t i c e s s a y s o n E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s p h y a d d e d t o t h e f u r o r . T h u s t h e N e w c a s t l e c i r c l e w a s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h E p i c u r e a n i s m i n E n g l a n d , 8 6 . T . W i l l i s , " D e A n i m a B r u t o r u m " , i n D r . W i l l i s ' s P r a c t i c e o f  P h y s i c k , B e i n g t h e W h o l e W o r k s o f t h e R e n o w n e d a n d F a m o u s P h y s i c i a n , t r a n s . S~i P o r d a g e , ( L o n d o n , 1684) . T h i s w o r k a l s o c o n t a i n s s o m e o f W i l l i s ' b e s t a n a t o m i c a l w o r k . S e e F . J . C o l e , A H i s t o r y o f C o m p a r a t i v e  A n a t o m y , 1 9 4 4 , p . 2 2 1 f f . 87. H . I s l e r , T h o m a s W i 1 1 i s , p . 1 5 6 . 8 8 . I b i d . , p . 1 5 8 . 89. W i l l i s a g r e e d w i t h H o b b e s t h a t m a n c o u l d k n o w o n l y w h a t h i s s e n s e s a l l o w e d h i m . 9 0 . H . I s l e r , T h o m a s W i l l i s , p . 1 5 3 -9 1 . T h e p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e b y t h e c h u r c h o f t h i s H o b b e s i a n i d e a m a y h a v e s e t t h e p r e c e d e n t f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f L o c k e ' s s i m i l a r i d e a s s o m e d e c a d e s l a t e r , T . W i l l i s , D r . W i 1 1 i s ' s P r a c t i c e , p . 1 5 4 . 9 2 . T . W i l l i s , " D e A n i m a B r u t o r u m " , p r e f a c e _i_n D r . W i l l i s ' s P r a c t i c e . 9 3 - H . I s l e r , T h o m a s W i 1 1 i s , p . 1 5 7 -9 4 . I b i d , p . 1 5 7 , 5k C H A P T E R I I I H O B B E S ' R O L E I N T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F P H Y S I O L O G Y to O n e m u s t b e c a u t i o u s w h e n t r y i n g A s h o w s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n c e a n d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . T h e a c c e p t a n c e a n d r e p u t a t i o n o f a m a n l i k e H o b b e s h a s m u c h t o d o w i t h t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h h i s t h o u g h t c h a l l e n g e s r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y a n d o n t h e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r w i e l d e d b y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h a t o r t h o d o x y . I n t h e 1930s a n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o c o n n e c t " P u r i t a n i s m ' a n d t h e r i s e o f s c i e n c e i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ' O n e m a j o r p r o b l e m t o b e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s e n d e a v o u r i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m ' P u r i t a n " . F o r s u c h a c o n n e c t i o n t o m a k e a n y s e n s e , t h e c a t e g o r y , ' P u r i t a n ' , m u s t b e s o b r o a d a s t o b e a l m o s t m e a n i n g l e s s ; a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n o f a l l s o r t s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e a n i n g s m u s t b e l a b e l l e d P u r i t a n , a n d t h e C i v i l W a r d e v o l v e s i n t o P u r i t a n f i g h t i n g P u r i t a n . A n y a t t e m p t t o s h o w t h a t o n l y a p a r t o f t h e s e p e o p l e , t h e m o s t m o d e r a t e o r l e a s t r a d i c a l o f P u r i t a n s w a s i n v o l v e d i n s c i e n c e i s d o o m e d s i m i l a r l y t o f a i l u r e . A m o d e r a t e P u r i t a n m a k e s a s m u c h s e n s e a s a n i m m a t e r i a l s u b s t a n c e d i d t o H o b b e s ; t h e y a r e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s 2 i n t e r m s . T o s a y t h a t t h e m o s t m o d e r a t e P u r i t a n s w e r e m o s t i n v o l v e d i n S c i e n c e i s t o s a y t h a t t h e m o s t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d m e n w e r e t h e l e a s t P u r i t a n . I t i s m u c h m o r e m e a n i n g f u l a n d u s e f u l t o s a y t h a t s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t w a s a f f e c t e d b y a g r o u p o f m o d e r a t e s w h o w e r e n e i t h e r H i g h C h u r c h L a u d i a n s n o r P u r i t a n , b u t w h o r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n -s e n s u s o f o r t h o d o x y a g a i n s t w h i c h s c i e n t i f i c d o c t r i n e m u s t b e g a u g e d . " " I t w a s f r o m t h i s s o m e w h a t a m o r p h o u s b o d y o f m e n t h a t i n c l u d e d c l e r i c s a n d s c i e n t i s t s a l i k e , t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c p h i l o s o p h e r s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a d t o g a i n a p p r o v a l . T h e R o y a l S o c i e t y 55 a n d t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s w e r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n R o y a l s u p p o r t a n d p u b l i c o p i n i o n , a n d w e r e t h u s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e t o a n y p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o v e r p u b l i s h e d d o c t r i n e . O n e o f t h e p r i m e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d o f m a n y s c i e n t i f i c a m a t e u r s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r b o d y , w a s a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e t o d i s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o t h e G r e e k m a t e r i a l i s t s w h o w e r e i n m a n y w a y s t h e i r o w n t r u e f o r e b e a r s . I n t h e 1660s a n d 1670s, t h e r e w a s a n i n c r e a s i n g b o d y o f o p i n i o n i n E n g l a n d t h a t t h e n e w s c i e n c e w a s e q u i v a l e n t t o m a t e r i a l i s m w h i c h k w a s i n t u r n e q u i v a l e n t t o a t h e i s m . T h a t T h o m a s H o b b e s w a s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n a n d p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h i s o p i n i o n i s i n c o n t e s t a b l e . H i s m o r t a l i s t t h o u g h t i n L e v i a t h a n f o l l o w e d o n t h e h e e l s o f O v e r t o n a n d B r o w n e ' s r a t h e r i n v i d i o u s w o r k i n t h e 1640s, a n d c r i t i c i s m f o r t h i s a n d f o r o t h e r p a r t s o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y c a u s e d H o b b e s t o b e a c c u s e d o f a t h e i s m . ^ W h e n t h e R e s t o r a t i o n b r o u g h t a s p a t e o f ' l i b e r t i n i s m , ' H o b b e s w a s e v e n a c c u s e d o f s p o n s o r i n g t h i s , b o t h b y h i s f r e e t h i n k i n g a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e l i n k b e t w e e n E p i c u r e a n i s m a n d l i b e r t i n e h e d o n i s m . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , d e s p i t e H o b b e s ' o w n d e n i a l o f b e i n g a n E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o -p h e r , o p i n i o n s p o n s o r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y b y t h e C a m b r i d g e P l a t o n i s t s d i d t e n d t o s e e h i m t h a t w a y , a n d i n d e e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e s m a l l e n o u g h t o m a k e s u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e e m q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e . T h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n R e s t o r a t i o n E n g l a n d w a s p e r h a p s n o t s o m u c h a r e s u l t o f a n y C a r t e s i a n i n c u r s i o n a s t h e o f f s p r i n g o f b o t h D e s c a r t e s a n d G a s s e n d i . A l t h o u g h H o b b e s l a t e r a d o p t e d a p l e n i s t s t a n d , h i s e a r l y w o r k w a s a t o m i s t i c , T h i s e a r l y a t o m i s m h a d s e v e r a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . S i n c e h e o n l y p u b l i s h e d h i s p l e n i s t t h o u g h t i n 1655 56 i n D e C o r p o r e j f o u r y e a r s a f t e r L e y i, a t h a n a n d r i g h t a t t h e t i m e o f m o s t h e a t e d d e b a t e o v e r p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , t h a t t h o u g h t s e e m s t o h a v e h a d m u c h l e s s i m p a c t t h a n i t m i g h t o t h e r w i s e h a v e h a d , " l l w a s t h e e a r l y a t o m i s t i c w o r k t h a t H o b b e s w a s m o s t n o t i c e d f o r , a n d t h i s w a s t h e w o r k t h a t m o s t r e s e m b l e d G a s s e n d i ' s E p i c u r e a n i s m . T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t w o p h i l o s o p h i e s w e r e s t r u c t u r a l l y v e r y s i m i l a r ; G a s s e n d i ' s S y n t a g m a i s a v a r i e g a t e d h o d g e p o d g e o f a n c i e n t t h o u g h t m e l d e d t o g e t h e r a s a m o d e r n E p i c u r e a n d o c t r i n e w h e r e a s H o b b e s h a d n o l e s s a p u r p o s e t h a n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s y s t e m w h i c h w o u l d e x p l a i n a l l t h i n g s i n t e r m s o f m a t t e r a n d m o t i o n . ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e t w o s y s t e m s h a d t h e s a m e b a s i c m a t e r i a l i s m a n d t h e s a m e s o r t o f c o r p u s c u l a r m e c h a n i s m a s i n t e g r a l p a r t s . T h e E p i c u r e a n p h i l o s o p h y h a d a c e r t a i n o d o u r o f a t h e i s m a t t a c h e d t o i t d u e t o i t s p a g a n o r i g i n s , a n d t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H o b b e s o n l y e x a c e r b a t e d t h i s p r o b l e m . T h u s t h e t a s k o f C h a r l e t o n , W i l l i s a n d o t h e r p r o p o n e n t s o f m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y b e c a m e n o t o n l y t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t p h i l o s o p h y f r o m a n c i e n t a t h e i s m b u t a c o m p l e t e d e n i a l o f a n y H o b b i s t c o n n e c t i o n a s w e l l . T h i s w a s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k , f o r t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y h a d t o e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C h a r i t o n i a n - G a s s e n d i s t - E p i c u r e a n m e c h a n i s m a n d H o b b t s t m e c h a n i s m , a n d i n t h i s t a s k t h e S o c i e t y f a i l e d t o t h e e x t e n t g t h a t t h e y t o o w e r e a t t a c k e d a s a t h e i s t i c m a t e r i a l i s t s . I t w a s s h o w n i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n t h a t m a n y o f t h e v i r t u o s i w e r e i n f a c t f o l l o w i n g p a t h s i n p h y s i o l o g y a n d p s y c h o l o g y v e r y c l o s e t o H o b b e s ' p h i l o s o p h y , b u t d r a w i n g t h e l i n e a t e x p l a i n i n g s o u l i n s i m i l a r m e c h a n i c a l t e r m s . S a m u e l M i n t z , i n T h e H u n t i n g o f L e v i a t h a n , i s a i d t h a t i t w a s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s m a n d t h e H o b b i s t m o n i s m t h a t w o u l d h e l p u s d e f i n e t h e C a r t e s i a n a n d H o b b i s t 57 q spheres of in f luence . The conclus ion based upon the f ind ings o f th is paper must be that Mintz was making a fundamental mistake. If monism is used as a c r i t e r i o n for Hobbism then the only supporters of Hobbes to be found w i l l be r e l i g ious and p o l i t i c a l r ad i ca l s l i k e Overton, and the occasional person who openly agreed with Hobbes on some minor point l i k e Henry S t u b b e . ^ This s i t ua t i on resu l ts in a p a r t i c u l a r l y clouded view of Hobbes' reception in England, and in fact Mintz does paint jus t such a p i c tu re . The true re l a t ionsh ip of Hobbes to mechanical philosophy is far more subt le than the role of a mere f igurehead of atheism against which his opponents were forced to formulate and organize other theories would al l o w J - When Kargon sa id that "The ba t t l e for atomism was begun in the shadow of 12 Hobbes," he was only p a r t i a l l y s t a t ing the t ru th . The development of mechanical philosophy progressed in part because of Hobbes encourage-ment and dissemination of that philosophy to his f r i ends l i k e Char le ton , and h is inf luence and reputation as a ser ious s c i e n t i s t . Hobbes had a small but real part in the trend to Engl ish hypothet-i ca l ism, in f luenc ing his peers in the method as well as the content of the i r theor ies . As ear ly as 1636, Hobbes had a d e f i n i t i o n of hypothesis in mind, had given the method of tes t ing i t , and had noted i t s i n a b i l i t y ever to be more than probable. For Hobbes, the world cons is ted of things which were demonstrable, that is geometry and mathematics, and things not demonstrable "as depending upon the motion 14 of bodies so sub t i l e as they are i n v i s i b l e . " Of the things which are not demonstrable, he sa id that "the most that can be atteyned unto is to have such op in ions , as no cer ta in experience can confute and from which can be deduced by lawful argumentation no a b s u r d i t y . " ^ 58 T h i s w a s v e r y s i m i l a r t o D e s c a r t e s ' i d e a o f a u n i v e r s a l w o r l d c l o c k , t h e f a c e o f w h i c h w e c a n s e e b u t t h e w o r k i n g s o f w h i c h a r e h i d d e n f 16 f r o m u s . R o b e r t B o y l e a d a p t e d D e s c a r t e s ' u s e o f t h e c l o c k m e t a p h o r t o j u s t i f y a h y p o t h e t i c a l v i e w o f s c i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e . ' ^ H e s h a r e d w i t h D e s c a r t e s a n d E n g l i s h s c e p t i c s l i k e G l a n v i l l t h e i d e a t h a t a n y h y p o t h e s i s c a n i n v o l v e o n l y a p o s s i b l e m e c h a n i s m f o r t h e c l o c k - w o r k a n d t h a t m a n c a n n o t d e m o n s t r a t e t r u e m e c h a n i s m s . T h i s i s , i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e i h y p o t h e t i c a l t h e o r y w h i c h w a s p o p u l a r i n E n g l a n d i n t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . H o b b e s , h o w e v e r , w a s d r a w n t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h o s e t h i n g s i n v o l v i n g i n s e n s i b l y s m a l l o b j e c t s a r e i n p r i n c i p l e d e m o n s t r a b l e , c o u l d w e b u t s e e t h e i r p a r t s a n d h o w t h e y m o v e . I n t h e 1660s t h e r e w a s a g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t h y p o t h e t i c a l i s m i n s c i e n c e w h i c h o f f e r e d t h e c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n t h a t t h e t r u t h o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d c o u l d i n d e e d b e f a t h o m e d i n o n e m a n n e r o r a n o t h e r . S o m e h e l d t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w a s t h e p a t h t o p r o p e r k n o w l e d g e , l i k e B o y l e w h o h a d c r i t i c i z e d H o b b e s f o r h i s a p p a r e n t u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p e r i m e n t , a n d s o m e t h o u g h t l i k e P e t t y a n d N e w t o n t h a t m a t h e m a t i c s w a s t h e t o o l w h i c h w o u l d e x p l a i n p h y s i c s . O n e a v i d m i c r o s c o p i s t , H e n r y P o w e r ( 1 6 2 3 - 1 6 8 8 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e m i c r o s c o p e w a s t h e i n s t r u -m e n t w h i c h , g i v e n e n o u g h e l a b o r a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e , w o u l d a l l o w m e n t o s e e c o r p u s c l e s a n d t h e i r m e c h a n i s m s a n d b r e a k i n t o t h e w o r k s o f 1 8 D e s c a r t e s ' w o r l d - c l o c k . . W h e t h e r t h e y w i s h e d t o r e n o v a t e h y p o t h e t i c a l p h y s i c s , l i k e B o y l e , o r t o r e p l a c e i t w i t h c e r t a i n t y l i k e N e w t o n a n d H o o k e , t h e r e v i s i o n i s t s h a d t h e i r w a y , a n d E n g l i s h h y p o t h e t i c a l i s m d e c l i n e d w i t h t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h e h y p o t h e t i c a l i s m o f b o t h D e s c a r t e s a n d G a s s e n d i w a s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s . F o r b o t h m e n n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y h a d t o r e m a i n 5 9 c o n j e c t u r a l . O f t h e t h r e e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a n t s o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y i n E n g l a n d , o n l y H o b b e s a d m i t t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e m o n s t r a b l e m e c h a n i s m s i n n a t u r e . I n t h i s H o b b e s f o r e t o l d m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n B o y l e t h e t r e n d o f s c i e n c e i n N e w t o n ' s t i m e , e v e n i f h i s a c t i v e p a r t i n t h a t t r e n d w a s s m a l l . H o b b e s ' m o n i s m w a s t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e l o g i c o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s c a r r i e d t o i t s e x t r e m e , a n d i t i s I n t h i s t h a t H o b b e s h a s h a d h i s g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d p a r a d o x i c a l l y w a s g i v e n l e a s t c r e d i t a n d r e p u t a t i o n b y h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . H o b b e s a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o a p r o b l e m w h i c h e x i s t e d f o r e v e r y m e c h a n i s t s i n c e D e s c a r t e s , t h a t o f h o w t o e x p l a i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n i m m a t e r i a l s o u l a n d r e c o n c i l e t h a t w i t h a m a t e r i a l b o d y . S o m e m e n r e s o r t e d t o s t r a n g e a n d e l a b o r a t e d e v i c e s t o e x p l a i n a w a y t h e p r o b l e m . O n e A r n o l d G e u l i n e x ( 1 6 2 5 - 1 6 6 9 ) p r o p o s e d a c r e e d c a l l e d O c c a s i o n a l i s m , i n w h i c h G o d H i m s e l f w a s t h e a c t i v e l i n k b e t w e e n b o d y a n d m i n d a n d e v e r y c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n 1 9 t h e m r e q u i r e d m i r a c u l o u s d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n . O t h e r s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e p r o b l e m w a s b e y o n d h u m a n k n o w l e d g e . " H o w t h e p u r e r s p i r i t i s u n i t e d t o t h i s C l o d i s a k n o t t o o h a r d f o r f a l l e n H u m a n i t y t o u n t y . . . 2 0 t o h a n « j w e i g h t s o n t h e w i n g s o f t h e w i n d e s e e m s f a r m o r e i n t e l l i g i b l e . " S t i l l o t h e r s i g n o r e d t h e p r o b l e m , a n d W a l t e r C h a r l e t o n . a r t i c u l a t e d t h e p e r p l e x i t y o f m a n y w h e n h e s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d s h e l v e t h e m a t t e r i n d e f i n i t e l y , c o n v e n i e n t l y " s u s p e n d i n g m y c u r i o s i t y , w h i c h h a t h t o o 21 o f t e n p e r p l e x e d m e . " E v e n t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t c o n s c i o u s l y o r s u b c o n s c i o u s l y t e n d t o a g r e e w i t h H o b b e s i n t h i s m a t t e r , t h e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t a n y s u c h a d m i s -s i o n w a s s o s t r o n g a s t o p r e v e n t a n y s u c h a d m i s s i o n o r a l l o c a t i o n o f c r e d i t f r o m b e i n g m a d e . T h e s e s a m e p r e s s u r e s c a u s e d m a n y b o o k s t o 60 22 b e p u b l i s h e d a n o n y m o u s l y a n d o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t s t o r e m a i n h i d d e n . T h e m e n w h o r a i l a g a i n s t H o b b e s f o r h i s m o n i s m d o s o b e c a u s e o f t h e r e a s o n a b l e n a t u r e o f t h a t m o n i s m ; i f H o b b e s t h e o r y w a s p l a i n l y n o n s e n s -i c a l i t w o u l d n o t b e d a n g e r o u s n o r w o r t h y o f r e p u d i a t i o n . E v e n t h o s e w h o s e e m e r i t i n p a r t s o f h i s p h y s i o l o g y o r w h o f o l l o w f a i r l y c l o s e l y h i s s c h e m e o f p s y c h o l o g y c o u l d n o t o p e n l y g i v e c r e d i t t o H o b b e s . T h e a t t i t u d e s o f H o b b e s ' c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i s a d m i r a b l y s u m m e d u p b y 23 a n e x e r p t f r o m a l e t t e r d e s c r i b i n g a n i n t e r c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h r e e m e n : ' H o w ' , s a y d o n e , ' I w o u l d s o o n e r r e n o u n c e s m o a k i n g , t h e n I w o u l d f o l l o w t h a t H o b b e s . ' ' N a y ' s a i d a n o t h e r , ' I w o u l d s m o a k e f o r e v e r r a t h e r t h a n i m i t a t e w h a t s u c h a v a r l e t h a s d o n e - - H e L o g i c i a n ! W h y d i d n o t o u r D r . W a l l i s k i c k h i s A l g e b r a a b o u t h i s e a r e s , a n d o u t d o e h i m t o o e v e n a t P l a i n e R a y l i n g ? ' B u t a t h i r d w a s m o r e s e d a t e , f o r h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e m a t t e r s a y i n g : ' G e n t l e m e n , w e a r e p r e s e n t n o t u p p o n M r . H o b b s 1 D i v i n i t y b u t h i s L o g i c . T h e m a n h a d p a r t s , t h o p r o u d a n d p e r h a p s u n g r a t e f u l . ' T h u s w h i l e m a n y d e p l o r e d H o b b e s a n d h i s p h i 1 o s o p h y , o t h e r s w e r e a b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e c o n t e n t o f h i s t h o u g h t f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p u b l i c d e n i a l o f i t , a n d , a t l e a s t i n a s e m i - p r i v a t e s i t u a t i o n , t o d i s c u s s s e r i o u s l y t h e i d e a s o f t h e p r o u d o b s t r e p e r o u s m e c h a n i s t . T h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e w a n i n g o f C a r t e s i a n d o c t r i n e i n E n g l a n d c a n n o t b e h e l d d u e t o H o b b e s , y e t H o b b e s w a s t h e o n l y o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c o f C a r t e s i a n d u a l i s m w h o w a s a l s o a r e s p e c t e d s c i e n t i f i c p h i l o s o p h e r . T h e d e c l i n e o f C a r t e s i a n i s m w a s r a t h e r d u e t o t h e o p i n i o n s a f t e r t h e 1690s o f a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f m e n t h a t t h e n e w e r N e w t o n i a n p h y s i c s w a s a m o r e a t t r a c t i v e a n d c o n s i s t e n t f o r m u l a t i o n o f m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d f u r t h e r m o r e ( p a r t i a l l y d u e t o i t s s m a l l e r c o m p a s s ) m o r e e a s i l y r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h r e l i g i o u s o r t h o d o x y . T h e s w a n - s o n g o f C a r t e s i a n i s m i n E n g l a n d w a s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1694 o f A n t o i n e L e G r a n d ' s E n t i r e 61 B o d y o f P h i l o s o p h y A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e F a m o u s R e n a t e D e s C a r t e s , i n w h i c h L e G r a n d a t t e m p t e d a r e n o v a t i o n o f C a r t e s i a n i s m m u c h a s C h a r l e t o n h a d r e v i s e d G a s s e n d i ' s E p i c u r e a n i s m . A l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h i s w o r k w a s n e c e s s a r i l y d e v o t e d t o t h e v e r y i s s u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e t w e e n H o b b e s a n d D e s c a r t e s , t h a t o f a n i m a l s o u l o r a n i m a l a u t o m a t i s m . I f H o b b e s w a s d u a l i s m . ' s : . : m o s t o u t s p o k e n c r i t i c , i t i s p l a i n t h a t e v e n t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f C a r t e s i a n i s m t o i t s v e r y e n d s a w t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e l o g i c a l b a s i s o f H o b b e s 1 o b j e c t i o n s . F a c e d w i t h t w o c a t e g o r i e s o f a p p a r e n t l y s e n s i b l e b e i n g s , m a n a n d a n i m a l s , C a r t e s i a n s h a d t h e d u a l t a s k s o f s h o w i n g t h a t m a n h a s a n i m m a t e r i a l s o u l a n d a n i m a l s d o n o t . I r o n i c a l l y , t h i s s i t u a t i o n p o s e s a l o g i c a l d i l e m m a . I f o n e a d m i t s t h a t a n i m a l s h a v e s o u l s t h e n t h e y a r e n o d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s f r o m m a n , a n d w i l l g o t o h e a v e n . I f o n t h e o t h e r h a n d o n e s h o w s t h a t a l l o f t h e f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b y a n i m a l s c a n b e e x p l a i n e d m e c h a n i c a l l y , a n d t h e n c a n f i n d n o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o d i s t i n g u i s h a n i m a l s f r o m m a n , t h e n o n e i s l e d t o t h e l o g i c a l a n d H o b b e s i a n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t m e n t o o a r e a u t o m a t o n s w i t h o u t i m m a t e r i a l s o u l s . E i t h e r c o u r s e i n v o l v e s o n e i n c l e a r h e r e s y . 2k L e G r a n d a n s w e r e d H o b b e s d i r e c t l y , s a y i n g : B u t m e t h i n k s I h e a r M r . H o b b e s c r y i n g o u t , t h a t t h e r e i s n o n e c e s s i t y I s h o u l d h a v e r e c o u r s e t o a n i m m a t e r i a l p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e p r o d u c i n g o f c o g i t a t i o n , s i n c e m o t i o n i t s e l f , o r t h e r e a c t i o n o f o n e p a r t o f m a t t e r a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r , o r a t l e a s t a d u e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s a i d r e a c t i o n c a n a s w e l l e f f e c t t h e s a m e . H e c o u n t e r e d b y s i m p l y s t a t i n g t h a t i f o n l y m a t t e r a n d m o t i o n e x i s t e d , H o b b e s 1 a c c o u n t w o u l d b e c o r r e c t , b u t t h a t s i n c e t h a t b a s i c p r e m i s e 25 i s w r o n g , t h e a r g u m e n t i s m e a n i n g l e s s . T h e p r o b l e m h e r e i s o n c e a g a i n o n e o f a l a c k o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . L e G r a n d c a n n o t c o n c e i v e o f 62 matter, which is defined as an unthinking substance,as ever , even in 26 any soph is t i ca ted arrangement, th ink ing . There a l l too e a s i l y may be a tendency to view Hobbes-the-psychologist in the same manner as Hobbes the p o l i t i c a l theor i s t has been often cha rac te r i zed , as a thinker somehow iso la ted from his t ime, or ahead 27 o f his time. He might seem even more i so la ted in his psychologica l thought than in his p o l i t i c a l thought, for no one but fanat i cs and rad ica ls openly agreed with him in the former area, whereas at least 28 a few men agreed with port ions at least o f the l a t t e r . This study has attempted to show that such a conclusion would be erroneous and detrimental to the understanding o f Hobbes and his phi losophy. Hobbes was not a lone f igure mooting an unpopular doct r ine to a h o s t i l e audience. He was s ta t ing a log i ca l conclusion that others could :not or would not admit to yet which many had come to rea l i ze for themselves; the mechanical conception o f nature does not require the postu la t ion of an immaterial sou l . That many men knew the truth of th i s conclus ion is imp l i c i t in the i r painstaking avoidance of the pub l i ca t ion of i t . Hobbes represented the conscious thought of men l i ke Charleton and W i l l i s and a number of other p rac t i t i one r s of the mechanical phi losophy, who were engaged in the mechanical explanat ion of the world and of man. The d i f f e rence is that a l l of these men, whether through r e l i g i ous b e l i e f , or from simple prudent e t i que t t e , included in the i r work the immaterial sou l . Hobbes alone did not do t h i s . When Brown a t t r ibu ted to Hobbes a negative ro le in the spread of mechanical philosophy in England he was descr ib ing the s u p e r f i c i a l l y apparent case against Hobbes. There is however, much more to the 63 re l a t ionsh ip between Hobbes and contemporary phys io log i s t s than Brown's suggestion would lead one to expect. It has been indicated here that Hobbes was not working in i so l a t i on in terms of phys io log ica l theory but rather was funct ion ing very much in the mainstream of contemporary thought. While pub l i c acclamation of Hobbes' work was obviously impossible, p r i va te acknowledgement was ce r t a in l y permiss ib le . One of the more s i g n i f i c a n t examples o f such covert approval may be found in a l e t t e r from Thomas Sprat to Christopher Wren. Sprat was the author of History of the Royal Society of London, <an o f f i c i a l h is tory intended to excuse the Society from accusat ions of mater ia l ism and 29 * 30 atheism. Sprat , w r i t i ng about So rb ie re ' s opinion of Hobbes s a i d : He feorb ie re j wounds him [Hobbes] in the most dangerous p lace , his Phi losophy, and his understanding. He very k indly reports of him, that he is too dogmatical in his Op in ion . . . Bu t however, to comfort Mr. Hobbs for th is a f f r o n t , I dare assure him that as for Monsieur de Sorb ie re ' s par t , he understands not his Phi losophy. Of th is I w i l l give an unanswerable testimony, and that is the resemblance that he makes o f him, to the Lord Verulam: . . . I scarce know two men in the World, that have more d i f f e r en t co lors of speech, then these two great W i t t s : The Lord Bacon shor t , a l l u s i v e , and abounding with Metaphors: Mr. Hobbs round, c l o se , sparing of s i m i l i t u d e s : but ever extraordinary decent in them. The one's way of reas 'n ing proceeds on p a r t i c u l a r s , and pleasant images, only suggesting new ways of exper iment ing . . . . The o the r ' s bo ld , r e s o l v ' d , se t led upon general c o n c l u s i o n s . . . Sprat had read Hobbes and obviously was w i l l i n g to give h is ideas ser ious cons idera t ion . It i s. estab 1 i shed fact that men l i ke Charleton and W i l l i s knew and even corresponded with Hobbes and the other members of the Newcastle c i r c l e in the years when the mechanical philosophy was being introduced from the Continent. To conc lus ive ly prove that the works of such phys io log i s t s borrowed d i r e c t l y from Hobbes, or 64 t o ; s u b s t a n t i a t e a w i d e l y i f p r i v a t e l y h e l d good o p i n i o n o f Hobbes would r e q u i r e b o t h e x t e n s i v e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s and p r i m a r y s o u r c e s u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s w r i t e r . That such a c o n c l u s i o n i s a t l e a s t p l a u s i b l e and t h a t i t can be s u p p o r t e d by some a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e has been shown. The causes f o r the p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f such a q u e s t have a l s o been i n d i c a t e d . In a time when H o b b i s t meant a t h e i s t , the f o l l o w e r s o f the new m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y such as C h a r l e t o n were 31 p u b l i c A y l a b e l l e d H o b b i s t . Thus, f o r t h e r e t o be any f u t u r e f o r t h e i r p u r s u i t o f m e c h a n i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f n a t u r e , even C h a r l e t o n was f o r c e d t o d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f from Hobbes, who may w e l l have n u r t u r e d m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y i n him, and even t o j o i n t h e a t t a c k a g a i n s t m a t e r i a l i s m . M e r i c Casaubon, d i s c e r n i n g the t r e n d o f E n g l i s h s c i e n c e and the ends t o w h i c h men l i k e Hobbes might l e a d 32 i t , p u b l i s h e d a l e t t e r i n 1669 i n r e s p o n s e : Now I c r a v e l e a v e t o t e l l you t h a t i t £experimental p h i l o s o p h y j i s v e r y a p t t o be abused and t o d e g e n e r a t e i n t o A t h e i s m . Men t h a t a r much f i x e d upon m a t t e r and secondary causes and s e n s u a l o b j e c t s , i f g r e a t c a r e be not t a k e n , may i n time ( t h e r e be many examples) and by degree f o r g e t t h a t t h e r e be such t h i n g s i n the w o r l d as S p i r i t s . . . f o r g e t I s a y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y d i s c r e d i t s u p e r n a t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s : and a t l a s t , t h a t t h e r e i s a God, and t h a t t h e i r s o u l s a r e i m m o r t a l . Casaubon was w r i t i n g t o c h a s t i s e Joseph G l a n v i l l f o r h i s P l u s U l t r a , the second and u n o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y o f the Royal S o c i e t y i n t e n d e d by Henry O l d e n b u r g , P r e s i d e n t o f the S o c i e t y , t o r e v i s e S p r a t ' s a p o l o g i s t e f f o r t s on b e h a l f o f the S o c i e t y . Casaubon, though he does not name Hobbes, i s e s s e n t i a l l y t e l l i n g G l a n v i l l t h a t i f he i s not c a r e f u l , the m e c h a n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w i l l l e a d him t o the same s o r t o f h e r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n s as t h o s e reached by Hobbes. 65 H o b b e s w a s n o t t h e p r o g e n i t o r o f t h e m o n i s t i c v e r s i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l p h y s i o l o g y , n o r c e r t a i n l y w a s h e i t s o n l y a d h e r e n t . T h i s s a m e s t r a i n m a y b e s e e n i n t h e n e x t c e n t u r y i n t h e w o r k s o f m e n s u c h a s L a M e t t r i e a n d D a v i d H a r t l e y . H o b b e s w a s , h o w e v e r , a n o u t s t a n d i n g s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e s e i d e a s , a n d a s s u c h h e h a s a n i m p o r t a n t i f h e r e t o -f o r e l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t e d p l a c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f p h y s i o l o g y a s w e l l a s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 66 F O O T N O T E S C H A P T E R I I I H O B B E S 1 R O L E I N T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F P H Y S I O L O G Y 1. T h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n P u r i t a n i s m a n d s c i e n c e w a s f i r s t s u g g e s t e d b y R o b e r t K . M e r t o n a n d D o r o t h y S t i m s o n . A l i s t o f t h e i r a r t i c l e s a n d t h o s e o f m o r e r e c e n t w r i t e r s i n t h e s a m e v e i n m a y b e f o u n d i n B a r b a r a S h a p i r o ' s , J o h n W i 1 k i n s , ( L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p - 2 5 3 - C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l i s a m o r e r e c e n t p r o p o n e n t o f t h i s t h e o r y . 2 . P u r i t a n a l l o w s n o p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n . T h e t e r m w a s u s e d b y c o n t e m -p o r a r i e s a s a p e j o r a t i v e l a b e l f o r o n e w h o h a d s t r i c t e r v i e w s o n r e l i g i o n t h a n t h e s p e a k e r , t h a t i s a r a d i c a l ( e . g . s o m e o n e w h o a t t e n d e d c h u r c h s e r v i c e m o r e o f t e n t h a n t h e s p e a k e r d i d ) . 3 . O n t h e a r g u m e n t f o r a n e w ' m o d e r a t e ' d e f i n i t i o n s e e S h a p i r o , J o h n W i 1 k i n s , p p . 5 _ 1 1 . 4 . M i r i a m M . R e i k , T h e G o l d e n L a n d s o f T h o m a s H o b b e s , ( D e t r o i t : W a y n e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . l 8 l . 5 . H o b b e s l a t e r f e a r e d f o r h i s l i f e ( p e r h a p s u n n e c e s s a r i l y ) a n d w r o t e C o n c e r n i n g H e r e s y a n d C o n s i d e r a t i o n s u p o n t h e R e p u t a t i o n , L o y a l t y , M a n n e r s , a n d R e l i g i o n o f T h o m a s H o b b e s , , l n - E n g l i s h " W o r k s , e d . S i r . W . M o l e s w o r t h , , ( L o n d o n : J o h n B o h n & C o . L t d . , 1 8 3 9 ) , V o l . I V . S a d d u c i s m a n d t h e f r e e - w i l l c o n t r o v e r s y w e r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s o f c r i t i c i s m a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y o u t o f H o b b e s 1 n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y . A t o n e p o i n t , t h e b i s h o p s w a n t e d t o b u r n H o b b e s a s a h e r e t i c , s e e J . A u b r e y , B r i e f L i v e s , e d . A . C l a r k , ( O x f o r d : T h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 8 9 8 ) , v o l . I , p . 3 3 9 -6 . H o b b e s p e r s o n a l l y w a s c e r t a i n l y f a r m o r e a s c e t i c t h a n m a n y o f h i s c r i t i c s . O n t h e l i n k s w i t h l i b e r t i n e s , s e e M i n t z , S . J . , T h e H u n t i n g  o f L e v i a t h a n , ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , c h a p t e r V I I . 7 . I t w a s f o r t h i s v e r y u n i v e r s a l a s p i r a t i o n o f H o b b e s 1 s y s t e m t h a t B o y l e c r i t i c i z e d h i m . 8 . S e e ' - . : f o o t n o t e 4 3 , c h a p t e r I I . S e e a l s o M . R e i k , G o l d e n L a n d s , p . 1 8 4 . 9 . S . J . M i n t z , T h e H u n t i n g o f L e v i a t h a n , p . 1 0 - 1 I . 1 0 . S t u b b e p u b l i s h e d a b o o k d e f e n d i n g p o i n t s o f H o b b e s 1 g r a m m a r a n d b e c a u s e o f t h i s w a s h i m s e l f c r i t i c i z e d . 11. S . J . M i n t z , T h e H u n t i n g o f L e v i a t h a n , p . l 4 9 f f . 67 12. R . K a r g o n , A t o m i s m i n E n g l a n d f r o m H a r i o t t o N e w t o n , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s " 1966) , p . 6 2 . K a r g o n p e r h a p s o v e r l y s t r e s s e s a t o m i s m . T h e s t a t e m e n t s h e m a k e s a p p l y e q u a l l y t o m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y i n g e n e r a 1 . 13- E . M a d d e n , " T h o m a s H o b b e s a n d t h e R a t i o n a l i s t i c I d e a l , " j_n_ R . M . B l a k e , T h e o r i e s o f S c i e n t i f i c M e t h o d , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h -i n g t o n P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) p . 1 1 6 . T h i s e s s a y o u t l i n e s H o b b e s ' d e v e l o p m e n t i n h y p o t h e t i c a l p h y s i c s . 14. H o b b e s ' l e t t e r t o N e w c a s t l e , J u l y 1 6 3 6 , i n P o r t l a n d M a n u s c r i p t s , E n g l i s h W o r k s V o l . I I , p . 1 2 8 . 1 5 . I b i d . 16. R . D e s c a r t e s , O e u v r e s d e D e s c a r t e s , E . A . A d a m a n d P . T a n n e r y e d s . , ( P a r i s : J . V r i n , 1 9 6 7 ) , v o l . I X , p . 3 2 2 . 17. L . L a u d o n , " T h e C l o c k M e t a p h o r a n d P r o b a b a l i s m , " A n n a l s o f  S c i e n c e X X I I ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 8 l f f . 18; - . . i b i d . ; : p - . r i : o o f f . 1 9 « B . W i l l e y , T h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y B a c k g r o u n d , ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o a n d W i n d u s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 8 5 - 8 6 . 2 0 . J . G l a n v i l l , T h e V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , ( L o n d o n : H e n r y E v e r s d e n , 1 6 6 1 ) , p . 2 0 s e e a l s o W . C h a r l e t o n , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y - o f -„ t h e ; P a s s i o n s , ( l o n d o n ; M 6 7 4 ) , ' , p ; 6 6 . . ". . \ 2 1 . W . C h a r l e t o n , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , p . 6 7 . 2 2 . R . S . W e s t f a l 1 , S c i e n c e a n d R e l i g i o n i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  E n g l a n d , ( N e w H a v e n " ! Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 . 2 3 . W . P e t t y , T h e P e t t y - S o u t h w e l l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 6 7 6 - 1 6 8 7 , e d . M a r q u i s o f L a n s d o w n , ( L o n d o n : C o n s t a b l e , 1928) , p . 3 1 1 . 2 4 . A . L e G r a n d , A n E n t i r e B o d y o f P h i l o s o p h y A c c o r d i n g t o t h e  P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e F a m o u s R e n a t e D e s C a r t e s , ( L o n d o n : J o h n s o n R e p r i n t C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , V o l I I I , p . 2 3 2 . 2 5 . L e G r a n d a l s o m i s i n t e r p r e t e d H o b b e s , o b j e c t i n g t h a t i n a H o b b i s t v i e w , a l l m a t t e r c o u l d s e n s e . H o b b e s h a d a n s w e r e d t h a t o b j e c t i o n i n D e C o r p o r e w h e n h e s a i d t h a t c e r t a i n l y o b j e c t s h a d a b a s i c s o r t o f s e n s e b u t u n l e s s t h e y w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d s o a s t o r e t a i n t h e s e n s i b l e m o t i o n ( e . g . a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) t h e r e c o u l d b e n o m e m o r y a n d t h a t s u c h i n d i v i d u a l a c t s o f s e n s e w e r e " n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h a t s e n s e w h i c h i s t h e s u b j e c t o f m y d i s c o u r s e . " E n g l i s h W o r k s , v o l . I p . 3 9 3 -2 6 . A . L e G r a n d , E n t i r e B o d y , i n t r o d u c t i o n t o 1972 r e p r i n t , e d . R . W a t s o n , p . x . 68 27- T h i s v i e w o f H o b b e s a s a n i n t e l l e c t u a l o u t c a s t i s d i s c u s s e d b y Q.. S k i n n e r , " T h e I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f H o b b e s 1 P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l 9 ( 1 9 6 6 ) p p . 2 8 6 - 3 1 7 . 2 8 . I b i d . 2 9 - T o t h i s e n d S p r a t e m p h a s i z e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e d w i t h m a n ' s b o d y a n d d e - e m p h a s i z e d e n q u i r y i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f m a n ' s s o u l - - t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h w a s c a u s i n g t h e S o c i e t y s o m u c h t r o u b l e , A . G . D e b u s , M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , ( L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1 6 3 . 30. C i t e d . : i n R. " I b n n i e s , S t u d i e n z u r P h i l o s o p h i e u n d G e s e l 1 s c h a f t s l e h r e  i m 17. J a h r h u n d e r t , ( S t u t t g a r t : F r o m m a n n - H o l z b o o g , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 4 8 . 3 1 . R. K a r g o n , A t o m i s m , p . 8 4 . 32. M. C a s a u b o n , A L e t t e r o f M e r i c C a s a u b o n D P . & c t o P e t e r d u M o u l i n , P . P . a n d P r e b e n d a r i e o f t h e S a m e C h u r c h : C o n c e r n i n g N a t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l  P h i l o s o p h i e a n d S o m e B o o k s L a t e l y S e t O u t A b o u t I t , ( C a m b r i d g e , 1669) p . 3 0 . 69 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A u b r e y , J , , B r i e f L i v e s , e d . A . C l a r k , O x f o r d ; T h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1898. B l a k e , R . M . , D u c a s s e , C u r t J . a n d M a d d e n , E d w a r d , T h e o r i e s o f S c i e n t i f i c  M e t h o d , S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 196O. B r a n d t , F r i t h i o f , T h o m a s H o b b e s ' M e c h a n i c a l C o n c e p t i o n o f N a t u r e , • C o p e n h a g e n : ' L e v i n £ . M u n k s g a a r d , . 1 9 2 8 . B r o w n , T h e o d o r e M . , T h e M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e A n i m a l O e c o n o m y , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969-, " P h y s i o l o g y a n d t h e M e c h a n i c a l P h i l o s o p h y i n M i d - S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , " B u l l . H i s t . M e d . 51 (1977)=54 . B r o w n e , S i r T h o m a s , W o r k s , e d . S . W i l k i n . 3 v o l . L o n d o n : G e o r g e B e l 1 & S o n s , 1 9 1 0 . B u r n s , N o r m a n T . , C h r i s t i a n M o r t a l i s m f r o m T y n d a l e t o M i l t o n , C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y p r e s s , 1972. C a s a u b o n , M e r i c , A L e t t e r o f M e r i c C a s a u b o n P . P . & c t o P e t e r d u M o u l i n , P . P . a n d P r e b e n d a r i e o f t h e S a m e C h u r c h : C o n c e r n i n g N a t u r a l  E x p e r i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h i e a n d S o m e B o o k s L a t e l y S e t O u t A b o u t I t , C a m b r i d g e , 1669 . C h a r l e t o n , W . P a r k n e s s o f A t h e i s m , L o n d o n , 1652 . , I m m o r t a l i t y o f t h e H u m a n S o u l , L o n d o n , 1657- ^ ~ \ , P h y s i o l o g i a E p i e u r o - G a s s e n d - C h a r i t o n i a n a , L o n d o n , 1 6 5 4 . , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f t h e P a s s i o n s , L o n d o n , 1 6 7 4 . C o h e n , L . D . , " P e s c a r t e s a n d H e n r y M o r e o n t h e B e a s t M a c h i n e , " A n n , o f S c i . I ( 1 9 4 5 ) : 4 8 - 6 1 . C o l e , F . J . , A H i s t o r y o f C o m p a r a t i v e A n a t o m y , 1 9 4 4 . C o l l i n g w o o d , R . G . , T h e I d e a o f N a t u r e , N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 0 . P e b u s , A l l e n G . , M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974. P e s c a r t e s , R e n e , O e u v r e s d e P e s c a r t e s , E . A . A d a m a n d P a u l T a n n e r y e d . , P a r i s : J . V r i n , 19&7-, T r e a t i s e o f M a n - - R e n e P e s c a r t e s , C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 . 70 D e W a a r d , C o r n e l i s , e d . , C o r r e s p o n d a n c e d u P . M a r i n M e r s e n n e , P a r i s : E d i t i o n s d u C e n t r e N a t i o n a l e d e l a R e c h e r c h e S c i e n t i f i q u e . D i g b y , S i r K e n e l m , T w o T r e a t i s e s , L o n d o n , 1 6 4 4 . E d w a r d s , T . , G a n g r a e n a , L o n d o n , 1 6 4 6 . F o s t e r , S i r M i c h a e l , L e c t u r e s o n t h e H i s t o r y o f P h y s i o l o g y D u r i n g t h e S i x t e e n t h , S e v e n t e e n t h a n d E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , C a m b r i d g e : G a s s e n d , P i e r r e , T h e S e l e c t e d W o r k s o f P i e r r e G a s s e n d i , C r a i g B . B r u s h , e d . a n d t r a n s . , N e w Y o r k : J o h n s o n R e p r i n t C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 972 . G e r t , B e r n a r d , M a n a n d C i t i z e n , N e w Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y & C o . L t d . , 1 972 . G l a n v i l l , J o s e p h , T h e V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g , L o n d o n : H e n r y E v e r s d e n , 1 6 6 1 . , P h i l o s o p h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s T o u c h i n g W i t c h e s a n d W i t c h c r a f t ^ 1 6 6 6 . , P l u s U l t r a . 1 6 6 8 . G a i n s f i l l e , F l o r i d a : S c h o l a r s ' F a c s i m i l e s £ R e p r i n t s , 1 9 5 8 . , S a d d u c i s m u s T r i u m p h a t u s , L o n d o n , 1 6 8 1 . , T h e V a n i t y o f D o g m a t i z i n g : T h r e e V e r s i o n s , S u s s e x : H a r v e s t e r P r e s s , 1970. G r e e n s l e t , F . , J o s e p h G l a n v i 1 1 , N e w Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 0 0 . G u n n , J . A . W . , P o l i t i c s a n d t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h  C e n t u r y , L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e £ K . P a u l , . H a l l , T h o m a s S . , " D e s c a r t e s ' P h y s i o l o g i c a l M e t h o d , " J . H i s t . B i o l . 8 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 7 8 - 7 9 . H a l l i w e l l , J a m e s 0 . , e d . , A C o l l e c t i o n o f L e t t e r s I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e P r o g r e s s o f S c i e n c e i n E n g l a n d , L o n d o n : H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f S c i e n c e , 1 8 4 1 . 71 Heryey, Helen, '••Hobbes and Descartes in the Light o f some Unpublished Letters o f . t he Correspondence between S i r Charles Cavendish and Dp, John Pel 1 , " O s i r i s X (19.52) ;67-90. Hi 11 , Chr is topher , ' 'Wil l iam Harvey and the Idea of Monarchy,' 1  Past and Present 27 (1964). H i s t o r i c a l Manuscripts Commission, The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke o f Port land and Preserved at Welbeck Abbey, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1893 -Hobbes, Thomas, Engli sh Works, ed. S i r W. Molesworth. 11 v o l . London; John Bohn, 1839-, Opera La t ina , ed. S i r. W. .-M61 eswor th , London: John Bohn, 1839- 5 v o l . , Leviathan. 1657- ed. C.B. MacPherson, London: Penguin Books, 1968. , The Elements of Law Natural and P o l i t i c , ed. Ferdinand Tonnies, London: Frank Cass & Co. L t d . , 1969• Hol land, G. , The Grand Prerogat ive of Human Nature, London, 1953-I s le r , Hansreudi, Thomas W i l l i s 1621-1675, New York: Hafner Publ ish ing Co . , 1968. Jacquot, Jean, " S i r Charles Cavendish and his Learned Fr iends , " Ann, of S c i . 8 (1952). Jaynes, J u l i a n , "The Problem of Animate Motion in the Seventeenth Century , " J . H i s t . Ideas 31 (1950) :219 f f . Jones, Harold W., "Mid-Seventeenth Century Science: Some Po lemics , " O s i r i s IX (1950):254-274. Kargon, Robert, "Wi l l iam Pet ty ' s Mechanical Ph i losophy , " I s i s LXVI (1965). , Atomism in England from Hariot to Newton, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966. Laudon, L., "The Clock Metaphor and Probabal ism," Annals of Science XXII (.1966), Le Grand, Anto ine, An Ent i re Body of Philosophy According to the  P r inc ip l es of the Famous Renate Des Cartes , London: Johnson Reprint Corporat ion, 1972. MacKenzie, A.W., "A Word About Descartes ' Mechanist ic Conception of L i f e , " J . H i s t . B i o l . 8 (1975):1. 72 M a c K i n n o n , F - i t , P h i l o s o p h i c a l W r i t i n g s o f H e n r y M o r e , N e w Y o r k ; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925 , M a c P h e r s o n , C . B . , T h e P o l i t i c a 1 . T h e o r y o f P o s s e s s i v e I n d i v i d u a l i s m , N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. M a t h i a s , P . e d . , S c i e n c e a n d S o c i e t y , 1 6 0 0 - 1 9 0 0 , C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. M i n t z , S a m u e l J . , T h e H u n t i n g o f L e v i a t h a n , C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s s , 1962. N i c o l s o n , M . , " T h e E a r l y S t a g e s o f C a r t e s i a n i s m i n E n g l a n d , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y X X V I ( 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 5 6 - 3 7 4 . O v e r t o n , R i c h a r d , M a n s M o r t a l 1 i t i e , L o n d o n , 1643-, T h e A r a i g n m e n t o f M r . P e r s e c u t i o n , L o n d o n , 1645. M a n W h o ! l y M o r t a l , L o n d o n , 1675 . P e t e r s s o n , R . T . , S i r K e n e l m D i g b y , C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. P e t t y , W i l l i a m , T h e P e t t y - S o u t h w e l l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I 6 7 6 - I 6 8 7 , e d . M a r q u i s o f L a n s d o w n e , L o n d o n : C o n s t a b l e , 1928. R e i k , M i r i a m M . , T h e G o l d e n L a n d s o f T h o m a s H o b b e s , D e t r o i t : W a y n e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977-R o b e r t s o n , G e o r g e C , H o b b e s , E d i n b u r g h & L o n d o n : B l a c k w o o d a n d S o n s , 1886. R o s e n f i e l d , L e o n o r a C . , F r o m B e a s t - M a c h i n e t o M a n - M a c h i n e , N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 l . S h a p i r o , B a r b a r a , J o h n W i 1 k i n s , L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1969-S i n c l a i r , H . M . , " O x f o r d M e d i c i n e , " i n M e d i c i n e i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  E n g l a n d , L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974. S k i n n e r , Q u e n t i n , " T h e I d e o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t o f H o b b e s 1 P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l 9 ( I 9 6 6 ) ; 2 8 6 ~ 3 1 7 , , " T h o m a s H o b b e s a n d t h e N a t u r e o f t h e E a r l y R o y a l S o c i e t y , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l 12 ( 1 9 6 9 ) : 2 1 7 - 2 3 9 . 73 S p r a t , T , , H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a 1 S o c i e t y , L o n d o n , 1667. T o n n i e s , F e r d i n a n d , S t u d i e n z u r P h i l o s o p h i e u n d G e s e l 1 s c h a f t s 1 e h r e  i m 17- J a h r h u n d e r t , S t u t t g a r t : F r o m m a n n - H o l z b o o g , 1975. W a l l , C , C a m e r o n , H . C . , a n d U n d e r w o o d , E . A . , A H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r s h i p f u l  S o c i e t y o f A p o t h e c a r i e s o f L o n d o n , L o n d o n ! O x f o r d , 1963-W a r d , S . a n d W i l k i n s , J . , V i n d i c i a e A c a d e m i a r u m , O x f o r d , 1654. W a t k i n s , J . W . N . , H o b b e s ' S y s t e m o f I d e a s , L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n . U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1973-W e b s t e r , C . , " H e n r y M o r e a n d D e s c a r t e s : S o m e N e w S o u r c e s , " B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l f o r t h e H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e 4 (1969). W e s t f a l l , R i c h a r d S . , S c i e n c e a n d R e l i g i o n i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  E n g l a n d , N e w H a v e n ! Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. , T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f M o d e r n S c i e n c e : M e c h a n i s m s a n d M e c h a n i c s , N e w Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , 1971. W i l l e y , B a s i l , T h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y B a c k g r o u n d , L o n d o n : C h a t t o a n d W i n d u s , 1967-W i l l i a m s o n , G e o r g e , S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y C o n t e x t s , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1969- : W i l l i s , T h o m a s , D r . W i l l i s ' s P r a c t i c e o f P h y s i c k , B e i n g t h e W h o l e W o r k s o f t h e R e n o w n e d a n d F a m o u s P h y s i c i a n , t r a n s . S a m u e l P o r d a g e , L o n d o n , 1684. \ 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094737/manifest

Comment

Related Items