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Generalised land-use mapping from LANDSAT imagery Wong, Patrick H.T. 1979

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GENERALISED LAND-USE MAPPING FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY by PATRICK H. T.^WONG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS.FOR THE DEGREE OF j MASTER OF ARTS ' i n ! THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 197 9 (cT) P a t r i c k H. T. Wong, 1979 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for r e f e r e n c e and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of (^&e^4^JLj The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date tflMcX zs , I'M i ABSTRACT G e n e r a l i s e d s m a l l - s c a l e land-use maps are a u s e f u l t o o l i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . However, t h e i r c o m p i l a t i o n by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods i s too time consuming to permit t h e i r widespread employment. Remote sensing technology, such as LANDSAT imagery, suggests an a l t e r n a t i v e method by which c o m p i l a t i o n and updating can be more c o n v e n i e n t l y done. The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s . to i n v e s t i g a t e the advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of c o m p i l i n g such maps from LANDSAT images. The study adopted the w e l l used " t r a i n i n g s e t - t e s t s e t " approach i n remote sensing experiments. An imaged area was used as the " t r a i n i n g s i t e " . I t was ground checked to o b t a i n a working knowledge of LANDSAT image s i g n a t u r e s . Using t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , s i g n a t u r e s of a s i m i l i a r r e g i o n recorded i n the same image (the t e s t s i t e ) were i n t e r p r e t e d and f i e l d -v e r i f i e d . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was guided by a dichotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key developed f o r t h i s study i n s t e a d of the customary machine data p r o c e s s i n g . The v e r i f i e d manuscript became the b a s i s of a l a n d -use map. G e n e r a l i s a t i o n as a c a r t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e and as a g r a p h i c technique were a p p l i e d t o d e f i n e the scope of the study and to achieve the d e s i r e d e f f e c t f o r the f i n a l map. I t was concluded t h a t LANDSAT images can be used to compile g e n e r a l i s e d s m a l l - s c a l e land-use maps. F u r t h e r refinement i n the technique and more experience i n t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e approach were deemed necessary. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . i LIST OF TABLES . i v LIST OF FIGURES . v Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Study O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 L i t e r a t u r e Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s of•Land-cover, Land-use and Land-use Mapping . . . . . . 4 1.4 Study Methodology and Study O r g a n i z a t i o n . 5 1.5 Study Area . . . . .". . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 THE PRECONDITIONS OF GENERALISATION IN LAND-USE MAPPING FROM LANDSAT .' . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1 Map Purpose . . . . •'. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 •2.2 Sc a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Q u a l i t y o f Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3.1 P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of LANDSAT imagery . . . . 10 2.3.2 The method of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t e r ' s b i a s e s . . . . . . 14 2.4 Graphic L i m i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3 THE COMPILATION OF LAND-USE INFORMATION FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 17 3.1 F i e l d I n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . . . . ..... . . 17 3.1.1 The s e l e c t i o n o f f i e l d area . . . . 18 3.1.2 F i e l d a c t i v i t i e s 19 3.1.3 R e s u l t s of f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . 20 3.1.4 System of land-use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d 26 3.2 The P r o d u c t i o n o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i d s . . 27 3.2.1.,The process of d i a z o enhancement . . 34 3.2.2 The dichotomous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key . 38 3.3 Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the T e s t - . Manuscript . . . . . . . . . . 43 i i i 3.4 F i e l d V e r i f i c a t i o n o f the I n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s 43 3.4.1 C r i t e r i a of f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . . . 45 3.4.2 R e s u l t s of f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . . . 47 3.4.3 Con c l u s i o n s from f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n s 48 4 REFINEMENT OF THE TEST-MANUSCRIPT BY GENERAL-ISATION 51 4.1 Problem Areas i n the Test-manuscript . . 51 4.2 Techniques of G e n e r a l i s a t i o n . . . . . . 52 4.3 The G e n e r a l i s e d Land-use Map -A p p l i c a t i o n s and P r e c a u t i o n s 5 5 5 CONCLUSIONS 57 5.1 LANDSAT as a Source.of Land-use Data . . . 57 5.2 Adequacy and A p p l i c a b i l i t y of I n t e r p r e -t a t i o n Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.3 E f f i c i e n c y o f Land-use Mapping from LANDSAT . . . . . . . . . . 58 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 60 APPENDIX 65 i v LIST. OF TABLES I. Design S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r LANDSAT Imagery Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 I I . Dichotomous Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 I I I . G e n e r a l i s e d C a t e g o r i e s Versus O r i g i n a l C a t e g o r i e s 53 V LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 1 L o c a t i o n of Study Area 7 2 P h y s i o g r a p h i c - c u l t u r a l Regions i n the T r a i n i n g S i t e and F i e l d Coverage d u r i n g T r a i n i n g E x e r c i s e . . . . . . 21 3-10 C o n t r a s t i n g Land-use Types on LANDSAT Images . . . . . . . . . . . 23 11-14 General Views of some Land-use Types . . . . . 28 15-22 Close-up Views of some Land-use Types . . . . 30 23 C o l o r Diazo Composite of Band 5 i n Green and Band 7 i n red 37 24 The Manuscript 44 25 Land-use Map of Okanagan-Similkameen. (By Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen - Pl a n n i n g Department) . . . . 4 9 26 Land-use Map of Okanagan-Similkameen and Thompson-Nicola Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia - 5'6"' !+-. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Small s c a l e land-use maps may be d e r i v e d from t h e i r l a r g e s c a l e c o u n t e r p a r t s . Notable examples are maps from the p l a n n i n g departments of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Often, maps c o v e r i n g e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s are generated from e x i s t i n g l a r g e s c a l e maps by means of mechan-i c a l - o p t i c a l r e d u c t i o n s and f u r t h e r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . These d e r i v e d s m a l l s c a l e maps are not easy to keep up to date because of the amount of work i n v o l v e d . From d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s , i t i s apparent t h a t f o r g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g purposes t h e r e i s a need f o r s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l -i s e d land-use maps t h a t can be compiled or updated q u i c k l y and i n e x p e n s i v e l y from a r e l i a b l e and convenient data 1 source. The LANDSAT (formerly E a r t h Resource Technology S a t e l l i t e - ERTS) programme p r o v i d e s such a data source. In o p e r a t i o n s i n c e 197 2, LANDSAT s u p p l i e s a s y n o p t i c view of the e a r t h i n the form of remote sensor imagery. LANDSAT imagery a l s o suggests i t s e l f as a source of data f o r s m a l l s c a l e mapping, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r d i r e c t c o m p i l a t i o n of "^Discussion w i t h personnel o f the Regional D i s t r i c t of North Okanagan and Regional D i s t r i c t of Thompson-Nicola i n August 197 5 and with personnel of the Regional D i s t r i c t o f Okanagan-Similkameen i n A p r i l 197 6. 2 s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l i s e d land-use maps. 1.1 Study O b j e c t i v e s To the p r a c t i c i n g c a r t o g r a p h e r , who i s not i n the mainstream of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and development of s a t e l l i t e imagery, the use of LANDSAT products has been l i m i t e d and r a t h e r t e n t a t i v e d e s p i t e i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e poten-t i a l . The purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine the f e a s i b i l i t y , l i m i t a t i o n s and advantages of u s i n g LANDSAT imagery i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h simple i n t e r p r e t i v e a i d s as a source o f data f o r s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l i s e d land-use mapping. I t aims t o demonstrate t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l equipment a v a i l a b l e to most ca r t o g r a p h e r s i s s u f f i c i e n t to u t i l i z e LANDSAT imagery e f f e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r , i t argues t h a t , g i v e n a s u i t a b l e degree of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , ithe accuracy o f such a map i s su f -f i c i e n t f o r i t s common a p p l i c a t i o n s . I t i s hoped t h a t the r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may encourage and a s s i s t c a r t o g r a p h e r s t o e x p l o i t the p o t e n t i a l of LANDSAT imagery as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l means of c o m p i l i n g s m a l l -s c a l e land-use maps. 1.2 L i t e r a t u r e Review Given the promise of LANDSAT imagery, c u r r e n t c a r t o -g r a p h i c and remote sensing l i t e r a t u r e was reviewed i n search of examples or suggestions as t o how t h i s new data source may h e l p s o l v e the problem of s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l i s e d l a n d -use mapping. At the time when t h i s r e s e a r c h began (1974), LANDSAT s t u d i e s were mainly e x p e r i m e n t a l . The l i t e r a t u r e 3 g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s and p o i n t e d to the need of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C a r t o g r a p h i c a p p l i c a t i o n s were f a r from being an o p e r a t i o n a l r o u t i n e . However, the experimental methodology, which was c a r r i e d over from o l d e r remote sensing s t u d i e s , was g e n e r a l l y employed. The " t r a i n -i n g s e t - t e s t s e t " approach was a popular c h o i c e . T h i s approach,, w i t h s u i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n , was adopted f o r the p r e s e n t study. References and d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n are g i v e n i n s e c t i o n s 1.4 and 2.3.2. Since t h i s i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h , LANDSAT data have.been more widely employed i n mapping. Machine p r o c e s s i n g of LANDSAT data f o r land-use mapping, which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the present study, was r e p o r t e d (e.g., Odenyo, 1977). The employ-ment of LANDSAT data to map s e l e c t e d aspects of land-use was a l s o r e p o r t e d (e.g., Murtha and Watson, 1975). The emphasis of these s t u d i e s was g e n e r a l l y h e a v i e r on data m a n i p u l a t i o n than on c a r t o g r a p h i c procedures. As a r e s u l t , the f i n a l products were l e s s than what one might expect from a map. Surveying the contemporary l i t e r a t u r e on a p p l i e d 2 cartography , one f i n d s l i t t l e supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t of land-use mapping from remote-sensing d a t a . Related i n f o r m a t i o n seems to be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the s u b j e c t of automation. G e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s a necessary process i n any k i n d of 2 " A p p l i e d Cartography" i s a s u b - d i s c i p l i n e i n c a r t o -g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h as o u t l i n e d by R a t a j s k i (1973). The w r i t e r i d e n t i f i e s h i s work as a member of t h i s group. 4 mapping. In the pr e s e n t study, i t i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance s i n c e i t d e f i n e s the scope of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . An abundance of l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s s u b j e c t . I t s r e l e v a n c e and r e f e r e n c e s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2 and i n S e c t i o n s 4.2 and 4.3. 1.3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f Land-cover, Land-use and Land-- use MappincfT-3 For the purpose of the presen t study, one may l o o s e l y d e f i n e the n a t u r a l o r a r t i f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t are d i s t r i b -uted over the ea r t h ' s s u r f a c e as land-cover. N a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e v e g e t a t i o n canopies, s o i l s , bedrock, water, snow and i c e . A r t i f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s are man-altered s u r f a c e s such as a g r i c u l t u r a l or urban landscapes and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n avenues. A land-cover type by i t s e l f has o n l y nominal s i g n i f -i c a n c e , but i t s s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r land-cover types g i v e s a good i n d i c a t i o n o f man's a c t i v i t i e s on the l a n d . These a c t i v i t i e s are r e f e r r e d t o as land-use. A land-use map i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s p l a y of man's a c t i v i t i e s on the e a r t h . The process of land-use mapping e n t a i l s the . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f land-cover types, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of v a r i o u s land-uses therefrom and the gr a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 3 The concept of land-use and land-cover i s adopted from J . R. Anderson (1973). 5 1.4 Study Methodology and Study O r g a n i z a t i o n G e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s an important concept i n the presen t study : i t e n t a i l s the processes by which one e d i t s and r e f i n e s a manuscript to the form of a f i n a l map. S i m p l i f i -c a t i o n and s y m b o l i z a t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d . A s i d e from the p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s , g e n e r a l i s a t i o n a l s o e n t a i l s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which may i n f l u e n c e the mapping e x e r c i s e even be f o r e the c o m p i l a t i o n stage. As i n t h i s study, where one of the purposes i s to produce a g e n e r a l i s e d l a n d -use map, the i n f l u e n c e o f the g e n e r a l i s a t i o n process both a t the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l and a t the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l i s con-s i d e r a b l e . To r e f l e c t t h i s c o n d i t i o n , g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s d e a l t w i t h b e f o r e the c o m p i l a t i o n stage of the study, and i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 2. Since some aspects of the mechanics of LANDSAT are important i n the context of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , they are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n t h a t chapter. The method adopted f o r the map c o m p i l a t i o n i s t h a t of the " t r a i n i n g s e t - t e s t s e t " approach as m o d i f i e d from Brooner and Simonett (19.71). In t h i s approach a study area i s s e l e c t e d and a p o r t i o n o f i t i s used as the " t r a i n i n g s i t e " . D i f f e r e n t s i g n a t u r e s i n the imagery are i d e n t i f i e d as v a r i o u s land-covers i n the f i e l d so t h a t a working know-ledge of the meanings of these s i g n a t u r e s i s formed. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n comprises the " t r a i n i n g s e t " . I t can be expressed v e r b a l l y and g r a p h i c a l l y i n the form of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key, one of which was developed i n t h i s study. The 6 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key i s then employed to i n t e r p r e t the remainder of the study area ( t e s t s i t e ) to produce a t e s t -s e t c o n s i s t i n g of a s i n g l e map ( t e s t map). Subsequently, a d d i t i o n a l f i e l d work i s conducted to v e r i f y the i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s shown on the t e s t map w h i l e i t i s s t i l l i n manuscript form. The f i n a l , v e r i f i e d land-use map i s produced from t h i s manuscript. With r e s p e c t to g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as the governing con-cept, s p e c i f i c g e n e r a l i s a t i o n techniques s u i t a b l e to the present e x e r c i s e are employed to r e f i n e the t e s t map f o r i t s f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n as a g e n e r a l i s e d land-use map. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4. A d i s c u s s i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s of such a map i s i n c l u d e d i n the c o n c l u d i n g Chapter. 1.5 Study Area The study area s e l e c t e d i s w i t h i n the Okanagan-Similkameen and Thompson-Nicola r e g i o n s of s o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s area c o n t a i n s a d i v e r s i t y of land uses ranging from u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r e - f o r e s t r y t o mining a n d , r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. Moreover, the area i s covered by a s i n g l e LANDSAT image. T h i s c o n v e n i e n t l y by-passes the problem, of s i g n a l and image p r o c e s s i n g i n c o n -s i s t e n c y t h a t may occur from one image to another. The s e l e c t e d area i s w e l l served by roads t h a t enables easy f i e l d a c c e s s . F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the l o c a t i o n of the study area and the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t r a i n -i n g s i t e and the t e s t s i t e . FIGURE 1 : LOCATION OF STUDY AREA. 8 CHAPTER 2 THE PRECONDITIONS OF GENERALISATION IN LAND-USE MAPPING FROM LANDSAT Ac c o r d i n g t o Robinson, Sale..and M o r r i s o n (1978, p. 150), g e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s a mechanism by which a ca r t o g r a p h e r may r e f i n e a d i v e r s i f i e d s e t of data to bes t r e f l e c t the s c a l e and the purpose of the map. The degree of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n depends on the nature o f the mapping e x e r c i s e and i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s the c o m p i l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n of the map. G e n e r a l i s a t i o n d e c i s i o n s should be based on the o b j e c t i v e and s c a l e of the map, the q u a l i t y of data and the g r a p h i c l i m i t s o f the communication system employed (Robinson, S a l e and M o r r i s o n , 1978, pp. 149-158). A d i s c u s s i o n of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the context of the presen t study f o l l o w s . 2•1 Map Purpose The s u b j e c t of the presen t map i s land-use i n the r e g i o n s o f Okanagan-Similkameen and Thompson-Nicola. I t s purpose i s to show, i n g e n e r a l terms, the d i s t r i b u t i o n , s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n and r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s of major l a n d -use a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , c o m p i l a t i o n focuses on l a n d -cover f e a t u r e s which help the car t o g r a p h e r to e s t a b l i s h the v a r i o u s land-use c a t e g o r i e s . Other f e a t u r e s , even though q u i t e e v i d e n t and perhaps i n t e r e s t i n g from another p o i n t of view, are not d e a l t with i n any d e t a i l . The purpose of the 9 map h e l p s t o l i m i t the scope of the study. 2.2 S c a l e A map a t any s c a l e i s n e c e s s a r i l y a g e n e r a l i s e d p o r t r a y a l of the s u r f a c e i t d e p i c t s . The degree of g e n e r a l -i s a t i o n i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the s c a l e . The g r e a t e r the area covered i n a g i v e n map s i z e , the more g e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . In a s m a l l s c a l e map such as one compiled from a LANDSAT image, one cannot expect t o d i s p l a y a l l the a v a i l -a b l e data simply because of the l a c k of space. The degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of boundaries a l s o v a r i e s w i t h s c a l e . When s c a l e i s s m a l l , boundaries are not p r e c i s e r e g a r d l e s s of the g r a p h i c t o o l a v a i l a b l e . Given the l i m i t of g r a p h i c r e s o l u t i o n , s c a l e imposes a r e s t r i c t i o n on the p r e c i s i o n o f the chorographic boundaries r e p r e s e n t e d . The s c a l e of a map a l s o i n f l u e n c e s the p r e c i s i o n of measurement taken from the map s u r f a c e because the b a s i c u n i t o f measurement i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l a r g e r as the s c a l e becomes s m a l l e r . Since the range of i n t e r p o l a t i o n i n t a k i n g a measurement should not be l a r g e r than h a l f o f the s m a l l e s t measuring u n i t , measurement from a s m a l l - s c a l e map tends t h e r e f o r e to be l e s s exact than measurement from a l a r g e -s c a l e map. Because o f t h i s , p h y s i c a l measurement on such a map i s not recommended. Rather, such a map i s employed to pro v i d e an overview of. .the..; s p a t i a l - . d i s t r i b u t i o n s ' - a n d a s s o c i -a t i o n s of the f e a t u r e s f o r a b e t t e r r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . 10 I t has been estimated t h a t the c a r t o g r a p h i c accuracy of c o r r e c t e d LANDSAT data can o n l y meet the requirements of mapping a t 1:500,000 s c a l e (Wong, 1975), thus the intended map f o r the p r e s e n t study would have to be of a s i m i l a r l y small... s c a l e . The d e s c r i b e d s c a l e r e s t r i c t i o n s were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g c o m p i l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n unavoidable g e n e r a l i s a t i o n of land-use types, type boundaries and p l a n i -m e t r i c d e t a i l s . 2.3 Q u a l i t y of Data In t h i s study the q u a l i t y of data r e f e r s to the accuracy of the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from the LANDSAT image by means of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The accuracy was determined by the i n h e r e n t p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the image and the method by which the i n f o r m a t i o n was e x t r a c t e d . 2.3.1 P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of LANDSAT imagery. The p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of LANDSAT imagery which a f f e c t data q u a l i t y i n c l u d e s p a t i a l p r o p e r t i e s , s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s and sampling method used by the imaging system. The s p a t i a l accuracy of LANDSAT images i s low due to e a r t h r o t a t i o n d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n of the imaging system, ( M u l t i s p e c t r a l . Scanner - MSS). W i t h i n the time r e q u i r e d to scan and r e c o r d a scene, the e a r t h would have r o t a t e d through 7° of a r c . T h i s causes a skewing of the image to the west. The: displacement becomes more pronounced f u r t h e r from the n o r t h e r n margin of the image. Depending on the l a t i t u d i n a l l o c a t i o n of the scene, the p o s i t i o n e r r o r c o u l d be as g r e a t 11 4 as 10 km. The net r e s u l t of t h i s i s t h a t the images are skewed to become p a r a l l e l o g r a m s i n s t e a d of remaining square, and the r e f e r e n c e marks f o r the g e o g r a p h i c a l and U n i v e r s a l Transverse Mercator g r i d s are not v a l i d . Consequently, the l o c a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s o b j e c t s are not t r u e . Although the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the image p i x e l by p i x e l by " p r e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i n g " can r e c t i f y the geometric problem, o p e r a t i o n a l problems i n t h i s procedure have prevented i t from being w i d e l y used. T h i s d i s t o r t i o n does not prevent the r e c o g n i t i o n of f a m i l i a r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s but i t does cause problems i n o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e p l a n i m e t r i c measurements. The s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s of LANDSAT images enhance data q u a l i t y . The MSS scanning system employs an a r r a y of 24 sensors r e a d i n g r e f l e c t a n c e s of ground o b j e c t s from an o s c i l l a t i n g m i r r o r . The sensor i n p u t i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s p e c t r a l channels or bands. Each band i s s e n s i t i v e o n l y i n a narrow s p e c t r a l range. The combined s p e c t r a l s e n s i t i v i t i e s of a l l bands cover c o n t i n u o u s l y a spectrum extending from 500 to 1100 nm, w i t h ground r e s o l u t i o n ranging from 224 to 316 m,-depending on the scene contrast. (Table I) . The instantaneous view of the ground of each sensor c o n s t i t u t e s a p i c t u r e element ( p i x e l ) . The nominal dimension of each p i x e l i s 57m X 74m (Colvocoresses, 1972). R e f l e c t a n c e v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a p i x e l are averaged e l e c t r o n i c a l l y . These averaged readings ( s i g n a l s ) are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 64 c a t e g o r i e s 4 K i r b y , 1975, pp. 55-72 pr o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d explan-a t i o n of the causes of the displacements. TABLE I DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER - MSS Band Wavelengths C o l o r R e s o l u t i o n (ran) (metres on the ground) High s u b j e c t Low s u b j e c t c o n t r a s t c o n t r a s t (1.000:1) (1.6:1) IV 500-600 green 224 316 V 600-700 red 224 316 VI 700-800 i n f r a r e d 224 316 VII 800-1100 i n f r a r e d 224 316 A. C o l v o c o r e s s e s , "Image R e s o l u t i o n s f o r ERTS, SKYLAB and GEMINI/APOLLO", Photogrammetric E n g i n e e r i n g , Jan., 1972, pp. 33-35. 13 represented by the numbers 0 t o 63 (0 i s near zero r e f l e c -tance and 63 i s the s t r o n g e s t r e f l e c t a n c e ) . These s i g n a l s are t r a n s m i t t e d t o ground t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s . The r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s are reproduced i n the form of e i t h e r computer compatible magnetic tapes (CCT) or photo-gr a p h i c imagery. For the imagery, because of the l i m i t e d b r i g h t n e s s range and t o n a l s e p a r a t i o n i n photographic r e p r o -d u c t i o n , the s i g n a l s are f u r t h e r g e n e r a l i s e d i n t o 16 c a t e -g o r i e s , each re p r e s e n t e d by a d i s c r e t e tone ranging from b l a c k to white. Each p i x e l i s represented by a dot of one of the 16 tones on the imagery. The s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT imagery and the sampling method of the imaging system degrade the data c o l -l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. The data are onl y a " s e l e c t e d " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s u r f a c e t y p e s . T h i s i s because a s u r f a c e type must be s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e or must possess s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r a s t b e f o r e i t i s recorded by the MSS. Other important p r o p e r t i e s such as shape or t e x t u r e are not taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 2. The data are a " g e n e r a l i s e d " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d s u r f a c e types. T h i s i s because the o r i g i n a l d i s c r e t e s i g n a l o f a r e s o l v e d s u r f a c e type i s c l a s s i f i e d i n an unsuper-v i s e d manner b e f o r e i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d to the ground s t a t i o n s . F u r t h e r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n occurs when the data are reproduced i n the image form as the s i g n a l s are condensed i n t o 16 t o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . Thus, i t can be s t a t e d t h a t MSS imagery i s g e n e r a l i s e d 14 s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e f o r e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s , and t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s only a d i s c r e t e s e t of ground r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s . The s p a t i a l accuracy i s unacceptable f o r l a r g e -s c a l e a p p l i c a t i o n s . However, these inadequacies are o f f s e t by the s p a t i a l coverage LANDSAT p r o v i d e s . Each image covers a ground area of 18 5 k i l o m e t r e s square. From a r e g i o n a l p o i n t of view, as espoused i n t h i s study, f i n e d e t a i l i s unnecessary. For the present a p p l i c a t i o n s of LANDSAT data, the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s o f the data are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r -a t i o n i n the c o m p i l a t i o n processes of the map. 2.3.2 The method of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n The method of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the accuracy and c o n s i s t e n c y of the i n f o r m a t i o n ex-t r a c t e d from an image. There are two methods used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of LANDSAT data each w i t h a s p e c i a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a type of LANDSAT product. The f i r s t method i s l a r g e l y computerized, making use of the d i g i t a l CCT. A " t r a i n i n g s e t - t e s t s e t " procedure i s f o l l o w e d : F i e l d surveys are conducted t o determine the meanings of the d i g i t a l codes i n a CCT. T h i s p o r t i o n o f the data i s known as the t r a i n i n g - s e t . Computer programs are then w r i t t e n f o r matching the remainder of the d i g i t a l i n f o r -mation ( t e s t - s e t ) t o the t r a i n i n g - s e t . F r e q u e n t l y , f i e l d surveys are conducted afterwards t o determine the accuracy of the computer i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s (e.g., H a r a l i c k and Shanmugan, 1974) . 15 The second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n method i s manual: The i n t e r p r e t e r has e x t e n s i v e knowledge of the f i e l d area and the s u b j e c t matter from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s and f i e l d work. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are used to c o r r o b o r a t e the r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s work or as a means to c o n v e n i e n t l y expand p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (e.g., Murtha and Watson, 1975). The computer method p r o v i d e s c o n s i s t e n c y and speed i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s . However, i t s accuracy depends e n t i r e l y on the s t r u c t u r e and v a l i d i t y of the t r a i n i n g - s e t and l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e f o r c o r r e c t i o n w h ile the machine p r o c e s s i n g of data i s being executed. The manual method allows the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s e xperience. However, the danger of i n t e r p r e t e r b i a s i s p r e s e n t . In the p r e s e n t e x e r c i s e , a combination of the two methods was attempted. The " t r a i n i n g s e t - t e s t s e t " approach was r e t a i n e d as the experimental procedure. Machine data p r o c e s s i n g i s not used; r a t h e r , manual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n con-t r o l l e d by a diehotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key has been chosen. Since t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key i s based.on the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d f o r the t r a i n i n g - s e t , the human i n t e r p r e t e r can perform o b j e c t i v e l y l i k e a computer, but i s allowed to e x e r c i s e h i s judgement when con f r o n t e d w i t h q u e s t i o n a b l e d a t a . 2.4 Graphic L i m i t s Graphic l i m i t s r e f e r t o the t e c h n i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the map. Depending on the g r a p h i c 16 techniques available for use, some map information may be l o s t in the presentation. For example, black and white maps employing tonal or pattern symbols could not match the v i s u a l c l a r i t y of using color. The l i n e work produced by pen and ink could not compare favourably with l i n e work produced by negative s c r i b i n g . I t i s f u t i l e for the image interpreter to extract as much d e t a i l as possible when the cartographer can e f f e c t i v e l y present only part of i t . In the present exercise, graphic techniques such as negative sc r i b i n g , color separation, and color p r i n t i n g are available to the writer. This provides the basis for clearer presentation which i n turn encourages the extraction of more d e t a i l s from the LANDSAT .image. Other methods of color pre-sentation w i l l also serve the purpose well i f mass reproduction i s not a requirement. 17 CHAPTER 3 THE COMPILATION OF LAND-USE INFORMATION FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY In order to use LANDSAT imagery as a source of data f o r land-use mapping, the f o l l o w i n g steps are i n v o l v e d : 1. Obtain a working knowledge of the meaning of the imaged s i g n a t u r e s through f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The imagery and i t s ground t r u t h are the t r a i n i n g s e t . 2. The p r o d u c t i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a i d s . In t h i s study, t h i s i n c l u d e s the process of d i a z o enhancement and .the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a dichotomous key. 3. The process of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the p r o d u c t i o n of a t e s t manuscript of a d i f f e r e n t but c o n s i d e r a b l y larger, r e g i o n s i m i l i a r to t h a t covered i n the t r a i n i n g s e t . 4. Compare the t e s t manuscript to the ground t r u t h i n the unknown r e g i o n , which n e c e s s i t a t e s a second f i e l d t r i p . The r e s u l t s of t h i s comparison w i l l determine whether t h i s manuscript i s v e r i f i a b l e , and thus f i t to be transformed i n t o a f i n a l map. 3.1 F i e l d I n v e s t i g a t i o n Compared to the advanced s t a t e of a e r i a l photography i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the development of LANDSAT image i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y immature. T h e r e f o r e , no manuals have 18 been compiled f o r LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and most such work i s s t i l l , by and l a r g e , e xperimental. Based on pre v i o u s experience with black-and-white and c o l o r - i n f r a r e d photography, many w r i t e r s o f f e r obser-v a t i o n s or deductions of what some p a r t i c u l a r image f e a t u r e s might be. These o b s e r v a t i o n s are s c a t t e r e d throughout the l i t e r a t u r e of remote s e n s i n g . Some of these o b s e r v a t i o n s have been v e r i f i e d i n the f i e l d w h i le o t h e r s are merely c o n j e c t u r a l . In any case, they are v a l u a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g a background education f o r the imagery i n t e r p r e t e r . ( e . g . , see Warrington, 1974 and American S o c i e t y of Photogrammetry, 1975) . Although these o b s e r v a t i o n s were h e l p f u l i n t h i s study, f i e l d work was s t i l l e s s e n t i a l t o pr o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s . 3.1.1 The s e l e c t i o n of the f i e l d a r e a . Since l a n d -use a c t i v i t i e s are mostly a g r i c u l t u r a l ( i n c l u d i n g f o r e s t r y ) , i n d u s t r i a l or domestic, an area was s e l e c t e d t h a t had a good v a r i e t y of primary, secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v -i t i e s as w e l l as of d i v e r s i f i e d urban r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . For LANDSAT s t u d i e s , an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f good q u a l i t y , c l o u d - f r e e imagery e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the summer months. T h i s i s important because many a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s d i s p l a y t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i n t h i s season o n l y . L o g i s t i c convenience was another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n 19 i n the study. Since a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s were not contem-p l a t e d , a w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d road network was e s s e n t i a l . Based on these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the Okanagan r e g i o n of S o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia was chosen. The image s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study was E-1689-18183 dated J u l y 11, 1974. Since the LANDSAT imagery c o v e r i n g t h i s r e g i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s p a r t s o f the Thompson, N i c o l a and Similkameen V a l l e y s , they were i n c l u d e d i n the study area t o enhance the v a r i a b i l i t y of land-use p a t t e r n s . I t was decided t h a t the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n of the f i e l d area, which i n c l u d e s a major urban se t t l e m e n t (Kamloops), would be used as the t r a i n i n g s i t e and the southern p o r t i o n would be used as the t e s t s i t e f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the imagery (Figure 1 ) . 3.1.2 F i e l d a c t i v i t i e s . The f i e l d work f o r the t r a i n i n g s et was conducted i n August, 1975. The a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s e x e r c i s e i n c l u d e d f i e l d t r i p s t o sub-regions of the study area, the c o l l e c t i n g and/or updating o f e x i s t i n g maps and other a v a i l a b l e g e o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o land-use mapping, and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h persons i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s r e g a r d i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The Regional D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s o f Northern Okanagan and Thompson-N i c o l a were v i s i t e d . O f f i c i a l s i n those o f f i c e s were most h e l p f u l i n s u p p l y i n g land-use maps and a e r i a l photo mosaics of v ery r e c e n t dates i n s e l e c t e d l o c a l e s of the t r a i n i n g area. They a l s o p r o v i d e d a c c u r a t e overviews of the r e g i o n a l 20 geography; and accounts o f t h e i r experiences i n l o c a l l a n d -use mapping were most v a l u a b l e . L o c a l r e s i d e n t s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d concerning r e c e n t land-use changes and seasonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some land-cover types. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e f u l i n e l i m i n a t i n g repeated v i s i t s t o the t r a i n i n g area to monitor these v a r i a t i o n s . In areas where usable maps d i d not e x i s t , f i e l d t r i p s were conducted f o r f i r s t - h a n d study. Access t o t e s t areas was mainly by road ( i n c l u d i n g secondary and l o g g i n g roads) but some s i t e s were v i s i t e d on f o o t or observed v i a b i n o c u l a r s and t e l e s c o p e . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the areas covered i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i e l d 'information. During the course of the f i e l d work a t o t a l of over three thousand m i l e s was t r a v e r s e d . 3.1.3 R e s u l t s o f f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i e l d work y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g types of i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. General g e o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n - t h i s i n c l u d e s the s p a t i a l frequency o f occurrence of v a r i o u s land-use types, the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of one land-use type to another and the g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n of t e r r a i n w i t h land-use p a t t e r n s . These provide'up-to-date background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For example, Coldstream V a l l e y i n n o r t h e r n Okanagan was observed to be an area of i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d -use, i n c l u d i n g orchards, f i e l d c o r n or market gardening 22 on f l a t t e r r a i n , improved a g r i c u l t u r a l land with hay or other feed on the r o l l i n g f o o t h i l l s , grazing or rough pastureland on steeper slopes, and timberland at higher elevations. Various secondary industries such as sawmills and packing houses were sparsely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the region. This pattern was observed f a i r l y consistently throughout the sub-region. 2. S p e c i f i c land-cover information - th i s includes surface material types, t h e i r s p a t i a l extension and configu-rat i o n , observable or deduced temporal evolution of the surface materials and spectral information i n terms of tones and colors v i s i b l e to the eye. This information was correlated with.:the LANDSAT imagery to provide an example with which various tonal d i s -t r i b u t i o n s i n various bands could be compared. For example, a homogeneous, i r r i g a t e d f i e l d of hay of a size obviously larger than one p i x e l was i d e n t i f i e d at the north end of Nicola.Lake. I t was also noted that rough grazing land exists around the f i e l d . When t h i s locale was correlated to the Band 7 po s i t i v e of the LANDSAT image set, i t was observed that the hay f i e l d was rendered l i g h t against the darker tones of the grazing land. This piece of information became an example from which other hay f i e l d s were i d e n t i f i e d . Figures 3 through 10 provide some examples of these contrast-ing land-use types. Figure 3 Band 7 Scale 1:250,000 (enlarged from o r i g i n a l film) Sharp contrast between treed areas (dark grey) and c l e a r -ed urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l land-uses ( l i g h t grey). This enlargement centres at the C i t y of Kelowna. Figure 4 Band 7 Scale 1:250,000 (enlarged from o r i g i n a l film) I r r i g a t e d pastures imaged i n very l i g h t tones against the background of darker tones of grazing land. Water bodies are imaged j e t black against the grey tones of surrounding land. 24 Figure 5 Band 5 Scale 1:250,000 (enlarged from o r i g i n a l f i l m ) Power l i n e right-of-ways are recorded as l i g h t toned, l i n e a l f e a t u r e s running through dark tones of f o r e s t e d land. Logging patches show up as c l e a r i n g s of r e g u l a r shapes i n l i g h t tones. Band 7 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 Figure 6 From bands of the same image, snow i s recorded as a white patch on Band 5 whereas on Band 7 only packed snow or i c e i s recorded. A l s o note the b e t t e r c o n t r a s t of the logging p a t t e r n s i n Band 5. (Warrington, 1974, p. 47) 25 Figure 7 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 Logging patterns near Princeton Figure 8 Band 7 Scale 1:1,000,000 The flood plains of the Similkameen River with a g r i c u l t u r a l land-use i s imaged a smooth l i g h t grey tone against the dissected texture of the surrounding h i l l s . Also note the sharp rendering of the meandering r i v e r . Figure 9 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 Mining a c t i v i t i e s near Kamloops. Note the sharp d e f i n i t i o n of the access roads. Figure 10 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 "Improved a g r i c u l t u r a l " land-use near Armstrong. 26 3.1.4 System of land-use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d . There i s a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of land-use types observable i n the t r a i n i n g s i t e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s an advantage to have a system of standard names f o r v a r i o u s land-use types. The most popular system o r i g i n a t e s from Anderson e t a l , (1972). A Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t to t h i s system was pro-posed by Ryerson and Gierman (1975) . I t was adopted f o r use by Canadian government agencies i n the same year. Ryerson and Gierman's system was adopted f o r the study r e g i o n . The Appendix l i s t s the names and d e f i n i t i o n s used i n t h i s system. The two types of i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n the f i e l d were or g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. General g e o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n terms of small r e g i o n s . For example, a r i v e r v a l l e y o r a w e l l - d e f i n e d p l a i n was sometimes d e c l a r e d a r e g i o n . However, when such p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l c r i t e r i a were not conven-i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , a r t i f i c i a l c r i t e r i a such as a highway system or sub-system or a m u n i c i p a l i t y were used. The o b j e c t of u s i n g such a system was to make the r e g i o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y s mall t h a t a simple statement or d e s c r i p t i o n about each became more r e l i a b l e . F i g u r e 2 d e l i n e a t e s the u n i t areas c l a s -s i f i e d from t h i s procedure. 2. S p e c i f i c land-cover i n f o r m a t i o n - With the help of l a r g e s c a l e topographic maps (1:50, 000 and 1:25,000) v a r i o u s land-cover types were i d e n t i f i e d to the nearest q u a r t e r -minute of l o n g i t u d e and l a t i t u d e . The purpose of so doing was to enable the w r i t e r to r e f e r the data to the LANDSAT 27 image a t a l a t e r stage. As d i s c u s s e d on page 11 the LANDSAT image used i s of the ' n o n - p r e c i s i o n processed" type, which means t h a t such images are skewed and c o - o r d i n a t e s r e g i s t e r e d on them are u n r e l i a b l e . Thus, c o - o r d i n a t e s f o r f e a t u r e s recorded i n the f i e l d merely enable the w r i t e r to s e l e c t a c c u r a t e l y land marks from the topographic maps f o r r e f e r -e n c i n g . Frequently, used land marks were the s h o r e l i n e s o f l a k e s , the conf l u e n c e s of streams or the conspicuous meanders of l a r g e r r i v e r s . The two i n f o r m a t i o n types were t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n the r e c o r d i n g p r o c e s s . For g e n e r a l g e o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r -• mation, d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d terms were used and supplemented by photography. F i g u r e s 11 through 14 prov i d e a sampling of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . For s p e c i f i c land-cover i n f o r m a t i o n , a c o - o r d i n a t e read-i n g , a standard name and, q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , a cl o s e - u p photograph were employed. F i g u r e s 15 through 22 g i v e a sampling of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 3.2 The P r o d u c t i o n o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i d s There are numerous a i d s a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t the i n t e r p r e t e r i n image a n a l y s i s . For multi-band imagery such as LANDSAT imagery, there i s equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r -band as w e l l as i n t r a - b a n d enhancement. For example, the c o l o r a d d i t i v e viewer i s used f o r i n t e r - b a n d enhancement whereas a d e n s i t y s l i c e r i s used f o r i n t r a - b a n d enhancement. Intra-band enhancement i s not a n e c e s s i t y i n the 28 Figure 1 2 : Rangeland near N i c o l a Lake 29 30 Figure 15: Gravel p i t near Vernon ( E x t r a c t i v e ) Figure 16: R e s i d e n t i a l patterns i n the suburbs of Kamloops (Medium d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l ) 31 Figure 18: Orchards near Oyama ( H o r t i c u l t u r e ) Figures 21 and 22: Logging patterns near Mabel Lake 34 employment of LANDSAT imagery s i n c e i t i s a l r e a d y d e n s i t y -s l i c e d i n t o 16 grey-tone c a t e g o r i e s . However, some may p r e f e r f u r t h e r d e n s i t y m a n i p u l a t i o n by employing a d e n s i t y -s l i c e r . However, such m a n i p u l a t i o n , and the equipment necessary i s not g e n e r a l l y used by the c a r t o g r a p h e r . The c o l o r a d d i t i v e viewer i s an instrument f o r i n t e r -band enhancement. I t s e t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f l e c t a n c e s o f o b j e c t s i n one band a g a i n s t a c o n t r a s t i n g background of other bands f o r e a s i e r a n a l y s i s . T h i s e f f e c t can be d u p l i c a t e d to a c e r t a i n extent by d i a z o f i l m enhancement. In the p r e s e n t study i n which low c o s t and ease of o p e r a t i o n were emphasized, d i a z o enhancement was deemed s u i t a b l e . A p r o c e d u r a l a i d t h a t has proven e f f e c t i v e i n organ-i z i n g the work of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the dichotomous key. A dichotomous key i s a t a b l e of l o g i c a l branches t h a t l e a d s an i n t e r p r e t e r to the c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A t y p i c a l dichotomous key i s the s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key commonly used i n b o t a n i c a l work. A dichotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key f o r the present study was developed by the w r i t e r . I t a i d s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process by i d e n t i f y i n g imaged o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s (see Table 2). 3.2.1 The process of d i a z o enhancement. The advan-tages and l i m i t a t i o n s of the d i a z o enhancement technique have been summarized by Warrington (1974, pp. 44-45). Since d i a z o m a t e r i a l s must be exposed i n c o n t a c t w i t h the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l , users who d e s i r e maximum image s i z e are l i m i t e d to the 24 cm 35 format. The choice of diazo f i l m i s quite extensive. This f i l m i s available i n various colors as well as b l a c k a n d white. Moreover, th i s material i s usually polyester-based, which r e s i s t s dimensional changes well. Various manufacturers, such as Keuffel and Esser, Artwright, Brunning, and Ansco o f f e r products of t h i s type. Amongst several films t r i e d , Anscochrome from Ansco i s superior i n terms of color density, color f i d e l i t y , and exposure l a t i t u d e . Moreover, the colors available are also the most extensive. I t was decided to employ the subtractive (yellow, cyan, and magenta) and additive (red, green, and blue) primary colors to maximize the possible color combin-ations of various bands. The equipment available to the writer .was a rotary-drum type diazo processor. This type of machine can cause lin e a r d i s t o r t i o n i n the diazo image, which would introduce d i f f i c u l t y i n multi-band r e g i s t r a t i o n l a t e r . A way to circum-vent t h i s problem i s to process the d i f f e r e n t bands of an image frame simultaneously, provided the width of the rotary drum i s s u f f i c i e n t . The leading edges,of the image "sand-wiches" were arranged normal to the axis of the rotary-drum and i n l i n e with each other before they were fed into the machine. Linear d i s t o r t i o n may s t i l l be present under t h i s condition. However, the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of the error among the diazo images are common. This s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the problem of r e g i s t r a t i o n . 36 Another common problem w i t h the rotary-drum type d i a z o p r o c e s s o r i s the s l i p p a g e t h a t occurs between the o r i g i n a l and the s e n s i t i z e d medium d u r i n g the course of exposure. T h i s s l i p p a g e can cause unsharpness or image s h i f t on the d i a z o t r a n s p a r e n c y . A way to a v o i d t h i s prob-lem i s t o tape the l e a d i n g edges of the o r i g i n a l image and the d i a z o f i l m t o g e t h e r b e f o r e the imagery.sandwich i s fed through the r o t a r y drum. A f t e r s e v e r a l t r i a l runs, these two most o b j e c t i o n -a b l e drawbacks of the d i a z o process were circumvented suf-f i c i e n t l y t h a t the r e s u l t i n g c o l o r d i a z o composites r e v e a l e d no apparent m i s - r e g i s t r a t i o n or image s h i f t s . The f i n a l product f u l f i l l s i t s intended purpose adequately. However, the o n l y way to e l i m i n a t e the problem of r e g i s t r a t i o n com-p l e t e l y i s to use a vacuum-frame c o n t a c t p r i n t e r , which was not a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r . For t h i s p r o c e s s , the 24 cm transparency o f the same frame . (E-1689-1.8183-5) was u t i l i z e d . Both the n e g a t i v e and the p o s i t i v e of every band was transformed i n t o t r a n s p a r e n c i e s of a l l the a d d i t i v e and s u b t r a c t i v e primary c o l o r s . In a l l , 48 t r a n s p a r e n c i e s were generated. T h i s r i c h v a r i e t y of primary c o l o r s f o r the p o s i t i v e s and n e g a t i v e s of the bands enabled the w r i t e r to experiment w i t h the f u l l p o s s i b l e range of c o l o r combinations and permutations to enhance v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t . The most u s e f u l s i n g l e combination was found to be t h a t of Band 5 i n green and Band 7 i n r e d . T h i s combination was used h e a v i l y i n the study (see F i g u r e 23). 37 Figure 23: Color Diazo Composite of Band 5 i n green and Band 7 in red. (Reproduced at the scale of 1:1,000,000) 38 3.2.2 The dichotomous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key. An i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n key uses d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of known sp e c i e s or types as c l a s s i f i e r s t o a s s i g n the observed e l e -ments to probable c a t e g o r i e s . As the key i s f o l l o w e d , refinement o f the c a t e g o r i e s by more e x a c t i n g c l a s s i f i e r s l eads t o s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . Pankhurst (1971, pp. 357-360) d e s c r i b e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and some of the d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n a dichotomous key. The Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Handbook V o l . i;(1967, pp. 3.56-62) prepared by the U.S. Naval Reconnaissance and Tech-n i c a l Support Centre gives an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n on the mechanics of image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n keys. Scope, t e c h n i c a l l e v e l , o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n are some of the impor-t a n t elements: 1. Scope - A key c o u l d be designed to encompass any breadth of s u b j e c t matter. However, i f a key i s to be p r a c t i c a l , i t must have a manageable scope. A method of l i m i t i n g the scope of an image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key i s to r e s t r i c t i t s p e r s p e c t i v e t o a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n . The v a l i d i t y of such a key would thus be f o r the o b j e c t s or c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h a t r e g i o n o n l y . Expanding t h i s concept f u r t h e r , a s i m i l a r key c o u l d be designed such t h a t i t s . a p p l i c a b i l i t y , e x t e n d s to s i m i l a r r e g i o n s . For the present study, t h i s i s judged to be the most s u i t a b l e d e s i g n . 2. T e c h n i c a l L e v e l - A key may be prepared i n such a way t h a t very s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and e l a b o r a t e 39 equipment support are necessary b e f o r e i t can be used e f f e c t i v e l y . Conversely, i t c o u l d a l s o be designed f o r i n t e r p r e t e r s who have l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g or equipment. For the present study, the l a t t e r s impler key, i s more d e s i r a b l e . 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n - There are many types of keys. The two most common types are e l i m i n a t i o n keys and s e l e c t i v e keys. A s e l e c t i v e key merely r e q u i r e s the user to match the unknown to i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r d e s c r i p t i o n s of v a r i o u s known o b j e c t s to achieve i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . An e l i m i n a t i o n key r e q u i r e s the user to f o l l o w a step-by-step d e d u c t i v e procedure to a r r i v e a t a c o n c l u s i o n . A dichotomous key i s a type of e l i m i n a t i o n key t h a t has been demonstrated to be most e f f i c i e n t (Pankhurst,, 1971) . 4. P r e s e n t a t i o n - The c l a s s i f i e r s i n a key can be presented e i t h e r v e r b a l l y or g r a p h i c a l l y . V e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are more s p e c i f i c when the c l a s s i f i e r s are q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements of e i t h e r s p e c t r a l or s p a t i a l s i g n a t u r e s . However, i f the c l a s s i f i e r s are q u a l i t a t i v e a spects of s p a t i a l s i g n a t u r e s , then g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s are more e f f i c i e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g the nature of LANDSAT imagery and the study methodology adopted, a combination of both methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d most l o g i c a l and thus was used by the w r i t e r . Based on these d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n key most s u i t a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n was chosen to be a dichotomous key with a r e g i o n a l scope, which r e q u i r e s 40 l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l support and may be presented v e r b a l l y w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Such a key uses d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of known s p e c i e s (types) as c l a s s i f i e r s . . The known s p e c i e s i n t h i s case were the ground t r u t h s obtained from.the f i e l d study. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the s i g n a t u r e s observable or measurable on the LANDSAT image a f t e r r e f e r e n c -i n g the ground t r u t h t o the images. Diazo enhancement helped to focus the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on some of the s p e c t r a l s i g n a t u r e s . In the present study, the importance o f a c l a s s i f i e r was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i t s r e p e a t a b i l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n and measurement on the imagery. However, those s i g n a t u r e s which were not as r e a d i l y o b s ervable or measurable c o u l d s t i l l , as a group, serve as c o n f i r m a t i o n of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s estab-l i s h e d by the primary c l a s s i f i e r s . They were a l s o h e l p f u l when i n d e c i s i o n o c c u r r e d i n the process of image i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n . In the o p e r a t i o n of the key developed f o r t h i s study, the user i s r e q u i r e d to make a c h o i c e between two c o n t r a s t i n g c l a s s i f i e r s t h a t are i n d i c a t i v e of the presence or absence of the o b j e c t of i n t e r e s t . Each s u c c e s s i v e c h o i c e leads t o an outcome t h a t i n t r o d u c e s another s e t of c h o i c e s . I d e n t i -f i c a t i o n i s achieved when the outcome i s g i v e n as a type of land-use. T h i s key a l s o serves as a t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s . A f t e r some experience, the user should be ab l e to r e c o g n i z e some of the image o b j e c t s r e a d i l y (see Table 2 ) . I t should be TABLE 2 DICHOTOMOUS KEY 1 Displays tonal v a r i a t i o n s from Band to Band 1.1,2 2 Displays l i t t l e or no tonal v a r i a t i o n s from Band to Band 2.1, 2 1.1 Lighter tone i n Bands 4 and 5 . 1.1.1, 2 1.2 Darker tones i n Bands 4 and 5 1.2.1,2 2.1 Dark or Black i n a l l Bands 2.1.1, 2 2.2 Li g h t or white i n a l l Bands 2.2.1, 2 1.1.1 Dark tones i n Bands 6 and 7. Shows l i t t l e texture, l i g h t reddish brown i n diazo image RANGELAND 1.1.2 Very dark tone i n Bands 6 and 7 no conclusion 1.2.1 Lighter tone i n Bands 6 and 7. Very dissected pattern, e s p e c i a l l y i n Band 5. Dissected green and white i n ^ diazo image Cropped Land 1.2.1.1, 2 1.2.2 Very l i g h t tone i n Bands 6 and 7. Shows very l i t t l e texture. Isolated a r e a l feature. -Bright green in.diazo.image Improved Pasture and Hay 2.1.1 Displays texture 2.1.1.1,2 2.1.2 Displays no texture, may contain cloudy pattern i n Band 4 . . . 2.1.2.1, 2 2.2.1 Displays texture 2.2.1.1,2 2.2.2 Displays no texture 2.2.2.1,2 1.2.1.1 Fine dissected pattern . Ho r t i c u l t u r e (orchards) 1.2.1.2 Coarse dissected pattern other crops 2.1.1.1 Area l extent constant from Band to Band no conclusion 2.1.1.2 A r e a l extent decreases from Band 4 to Band 7. I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; may contain square d o t - l i k e pattern; may be dissected by den d r i t i c patterns . . . . FOREST, 2.1.1.2.1, 2 2.1.2.1 Linear feature r i v e r or streamC 2.1.2.2 Isolated a r e a l feature lake or ocean 2.2.1.1 Contrast sharply with i t s environment i n Bands 4 and 5 2.2.1.1.1, 2 2.2.1.2 L i t t l e contrast with i t s environment i n any Band. I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; non-articulated and contains l i t t l e texture . BARREN and EXTRACTIVE TABLE 2 (continued) 2.2.2.1 Area l feature 2.2.2.1.1,2 2.2.2.2 L i n e a l feature 2.2.2.2.1,2 2.1.1.2.1 Dark greenish brown i n diazo image* . . . . mature forest 2.1.1.2.2 D u l l green i n diazo image . . . immature forest 2.2.1.1.1 I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; may contain l i n e a r and/or g r i d - l i k e pattern URBAN 2.2.1.1.1.1, 2 2.2.1.1.2 Occur i n groups of d i s t i n c t square-like shapes; often i n t e r l i n k e d by l i g h t l i n e a r features; occur within or adjacent to large dark areas i n a l l Bands logged forest 2.2.1.1.2.1, 2 2.2.2.1.1 Areal extent decreases from Band 4 to Band 7 snow and i c e 2.2.2.1.1.1, 2 2.2.2.1.2 Areal extent constant 2.2.2.1.2.1,2 2.2.2.2.1 Occurs i n sections of straight l i n e s . . . power l i n e right-of-way 2.2.2.2.2 Irregular l i n e a r feature roads 2.2.1.1.1.1 White i n Bands 4 and 5 no conclusion 2.2.1.1.1.2 Grey i n Bands 4 and 5 . . . . Residential 2.2.1.1.2.1 Very sharp boundaries . . . . Recent logging 2.2.1.1.2.2 I n d i s t i n c t boundaries . . . . Older logging 2.2.2.1.1.1 White i n diazo image snow pack 2.2.2.1.1.2 Pinkish brown i n diazo image . melting snow 2.2.2.1.2.1 Associated with some l i n e a l features EXTRACTIVE (mines) 2.2.2.1.2.2 Isolated feature Exposed Bedrock A. RANGELAND - represents Level I i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s (Ryerson and Gierman, 1975) . B. Cropped Land - represents Level II i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s (Ryerson and Gierman, 1975). C. r i v e r or stream - represents i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s not l i s t e d by Ryerson and Gierman (1975). * Diazo Image - r e f e r s to the diazo composite of Band 5 i n green and Band 7 i n red. 43 noted here t h a t the i n t e r p r e t i v e and l e a r n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s of the i n t e r p r e t e r are very important i n e x e r c i s e s of t h i s type. T h i s c o u l d , perhaps, be an advantage as compared to the i n -f l e x i b l e , " o b j e c t i v e " approach to automated data p r o c e s s i n g . 3.3 Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the T e s t Manuscript With the help of the d i a z o enhancement technique and the dichotomous key, image t y p i n g was performed on the t e s t a r e a. T h i s process d e l i n e a t e d the areas on the image which appeared to have s i m i l a r s i g n a t u r e s . Judgement was e x e r c i s e d i n s e g r e g a t i n g areas from one another. A photographic p r i n t enlarged to 1:500,000 from Band 5 n e g a t i v e was used as the b a s i s from which a c o l o r o v e r l a y was produced. T h i s o v e r l a y i s the t e s t manuscript. A f t e r e d i t i n g and f i e l d checking, i t became the manuscript from which the f i n a l map was produced (see F i g u r e 24). 3.4 F i e l d V e r i f i c a t i o n of the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s The o b j e c t i v e of the second f i e l d t r i p was t o v e r i f y the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the land-cover or land-use p a t t e r n s of the t e s t area as obtained through the use of the dichotomous key. T h i s was e s s e n t i a l because the dichotomous key was o n l y a product d e r i v e d from f i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n of a s i m i l a r area (the t r a i n i n g a r e a ) . There was i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence, w i t h -out t h i s m i s s i o n , to i n d i c a t e whether the key i t s e l f was a v a l i d t o o l f o r the a n a l y s i s of LANDSAT imagery. ) The f i e l d work was conducted d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of A p r i l , 197 6. F i e l d access and procedures were s i m i l a r t o 44 test Figure 24: The ymanuscript ( o r i g i n a l l y compiled at the s c a l e of 1:500,000, reproduced at the s c a l e of 1:1,000,000) 45 t h o s e f o r t h e t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e . T h e a r e a c o v e r e d i n c l u d e d t h e s o u t h e r n O k a n a g a n V a l l e y a n d t h e S i m i l k a m e e n R i v e r v a l l e y . T h i s a r e a c o n t a i n s t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s o f S o u t h e r n O k a n a g a n a n d O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n . T h e a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s e x e r c i s e i n c l u d e d f i e l d t r i p s t o t h e s u b - r e g i o n s o f t h e t e s t a r e a , d i r e c t g r o u n d v e r i f i c a t i o n s a n d c o r r e c t i o n s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t , d i s c u s s i o n s , a n d c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t w i t h s i m i l a r maps p r o d u c e d b y t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . F o r t h e l a s t p u r p o s e , t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f f i c e o f O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n was v i s i t e d . T h e y w e r e m o s t k i n d i n a l l o w i n g t h e w r i t e r t o c o m p a r e t h e m a n u s c r i p t w i t h a s e r i e s o f l a r g e s c a l e l a n d - u s e maps a s w e l l a s a s m a l l - s c a l e c o m -p o s i t e w h i c h t h e i r o f f i c e h a d c o m p i l e d ( s e e F i g u r e 2 5 ) . 3 . 4 . 1 C r i t e r i a o f f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . T h e c r i t e r i a t h a t o n e may u s e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a c c u r a c y o f a n i m a g e -d e r i v e d map a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e d e g r e e o f e r r o r i n i m a g e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n t y p e d e l i n e a t i o n a n d i n f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . H o r d ( 1 9 7 6 , p . 671) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e m a i n t y p e s o f e r r o r t h a t may o c c u r . T h e y a r e : c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e r r o r , b o u n d a r y l i n e e r r o r , a n d c o n t r o l p o i n t l o c a t i o n e r r o r . A d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f e r r o r a r e t i m e l a g e r r o r a n d s a m p l i n g b i a s i n f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . C o n t r o l p o i n t e r r o r r e f e r s t o t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e map l o c a t i o n a n d t h e t r u e l o c a t i o n o f a n i d e n t i f i a b l e f e a t u r e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e c o n t r o l p o i n t s a r e k n o w n 46 to be i n e r r o r s i n c e the image from which the t e s t manuscript was d e r i v e d has a s t a t e d geometric d i s t o r t i o n of up to 10 km. Fu r t h e r , i t i s not known whether t h i s d i s t o r t i o n o ccurs u n i -formly i n magnitude or d i r e c t i o n throughout the image. Boundary l i n e e r r o r r e f e r s t o the m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or misplacement of the type boundaries. I t i s caused by the unavoidable g e n e r a l i s a t i o n i n mapping and by the l i m i t of graphic r e s o l u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y a t small s c a l e s such as the one used i n the present map (1:500,000). At t h i s s c a l e , the misplacement of the boundary by 1 mm would e n t a i l an e r r o r of 500 m on the ground. These two types of e r r o r prevent the a c c u r a t e c o r -r e l a t i o n of the typed image to ground areas f o r c h e c k i n g . There i s no p h y s i c a l means by which one c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y perform a p o i n t - b y - p o i n t comparison between the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the ground o b s e r v a t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h the accuracy o f the image c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The t e s t s i t e was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t to completely survey the e n t i r e a r ea. In order to s t a t i s t i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h the "confidence l e v e l " o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , one must randomly s e l e c t a s e t o f t a r g e t s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . However, such a set of random t a r g e t s was i m p r a c t i c a l f o r the present study s i n c e the access t o the f i e l d areas was b i a s e d toward the road network. Without a v a l i d s e t of random t a r g e t s and a way to perform a p o i n t -b y - p o i n t comparison, any s t a t i s t i c a l means of e s t i m a t i n g the accuracy or co n f i d e n c e l e v e l of the map was i n a p p l i c a b l e . 47 At the s m a l l s c a l e a t which the map was compiled, i t was un-c e r t a i n whether such a t e s t was i n f l u e n c e d more by the accuracy of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or by the a c c u r a r y and the nature of the t a r g e t l o c a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the time l a g between the image date ( J u l y , 1974) and the f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n date ( A p r i l , 1976) was some 22 months, some land-uses may a l r e a d y have been transformed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The o n l y c r i t e r i a one c o u l d use to e s t a b l i s h the accuracy of the p r e s e n t manu-s c r i p t are g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the f i e l d and the comparison of the manuscript to e x i s t i n g maps of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e . 3.4.2 R e s u l t s of f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . D e s p i t e the a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g t a r g e t s i n the f i e l d , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i f a t a r g e t were homogeneous and s u f f i -c i e n t l y l a r g e and i f i t were l o c a t e d near a prominent lan d mark, i t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d and v e r i f i e d . For example, a l a r g e f i e l d of i r r i g a t e d pasture (Improved pasture) t h a t was "contained" i n a d i s t i n c t meander of a r i v e r c o u l d be p o s i -t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d , and s m a l l e r t a r g e t s t h a t were mixed w i t h s e v e r a l other land-use types d i d cause d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n . Land-use t h a t o c c u r r e d i n c l u s t e r s , such as l o g -ging c l e a r i n g s , p r o v i d e d t h a t there was a l a n d mark f o r r e f e r e n c e , c o u l d a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d with a r e a s o n a b l e degree of c e r t a i n t y . However, as a n t i c i p a t e d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these t a r g e t s was not random, and the q u a n t i t y was not s u f -f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to a r r i v e a t some ki n d of s t a t i s t i c a l c o nfidence l e v e l . 48 Another f i n d i n g from the f i e l d e x e r c i s e was t h a t some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were not c o r r e c t a t L e v e l I I but were c o r r e c t a t L e v e l I i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h i e r a r c h y (Ryerson and Gierman, 1975). For example, v i n e y a r d s were confused w i t h orchards although they both belong to the h o r t i c u l t u r e group. T h i s i n t r o d u c e d the a d d i t i o n a l problem of the "degree of r e s o l u t i o n " t h a t one should adopt i n f i e l d check-i n g . Given the requirements of a g e n e r a l i z e d land-use map, accuracy a t L e v e l I may be s u f f i c i e n t ; but from a s t a t i s t i c a l p o i n t of view, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be c o r r e c t a t a l l l e v e l I t was found t h a t the accuracy of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s gener-a l l y decrease w i t h the number of steps i n the dichotomous key through which the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s e v o l v e d . In o t h e r word the accuracy became p r o g r e s s i v e l y poorer as the key was pur-sued f u r t h e r . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the land-use p a t t e r n mapped from these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was t r u t h f u l . In g e n e r a l , the r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s agree q u i t e w e l l w i t h the composite land-use map examined i n the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t O f f i c e of Okanagan-Similkameen (see F i g u r e 25). 3.4.3. C o n c l u s i o n s from f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n s . From the f i e l d r e s u l t s , i t was determined t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e r i v e d from the dichotomous key are c o r r e c t o n l y i n t h e i r g e n e r a l i t i e s . S p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e r i v e d a f t e r many steps through the key tend to be i n e x a c t . The mapping exer-c i s e i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s indeed f e a s i b l e to compile land-use BUILT UP AREAS MINES, QUARRIES, GRAVEL PITS ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS OPEN GRASSLAND ROCKS, OTHER UNVEGE-TATED SURFACES SWAMPS, MARSH, BOG OUTDOOR RECREATION IMPROVED PASTURE, FORAGE CROPS SANDFLATS, DUNES, BEACHES PRODUCTIVE WOODLAND NON-PRODUCTIVE WOODLAND WATER 4^  Figure 25: Land-use Map of Okanagan-Similkameen. (By Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen -Planning Department.) (Reproduced at the s c a l e of 1:1,000,000.) 50 i n f o r m a t i o n from LANDSAT, but only i n g e n e r a l terms. From the comparison between the composite map by the Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen and the t e s t manu-s c r i p t by the w r i t e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n such s m a l l - s c a l e maps can c o n t a i n and the time r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r c o m p i l a t i o n , the w r i t e r contends t h a t the LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n route can y i e l d comparable r e s u l t s with much l e s s time r e q u i r e d . When one c o n s i d e r s the speed wit h which land-use changes can occur and the time r e q u i r e d f o r the c a r t o g r a p h e r to keep up wit h the mapping, perhaps the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of LANDSAT imagery i s more e f f i c i e n t . I t i s a l s o apparent to the w r i t e r t h a t the important l i m i t a t i o n o f the land-use map d e r i v e d from LANDSAT image i s t h a t i t i s not based on a v e r i f i a b l e s e t of i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n t e r p r e t e r ' s knowledge of h i s study area and the c a r t o -graphic s k i l l i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n can i n f l u e n c e the impression the map may make. The w r i t e r contends t h a t the c a r t o g r a p h i c treatment r e q u i r e d f o r LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s t h a t of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . I f t h i s treatment i s administered p r o p e r l y , r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s c o u l d be preserved and at the same time the i n e x a c t n e s s of the d e t a i l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s rendered l e s s o f f e n s i v e . 51 CHAPTER 4 REFINEMENT OF THE TEST MANUSCRIPT BY GENERALISATION As s t a t e d i n s e c t i o n 1.1, one of the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study was to attempt to produce a g e n e r a l i s e d land-use map from LANDSAT imagery. G e n e r a l i s a t i o n was expected to be a p p l i e d so t h a t the f i n a l product was a c c e p t a b l e i n accuracy f o r i t s intended a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the t e s t manu-s c r i p t showed t h a t there are s e v e r a l problems i n the LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as the s o l u t i o n . 4.1 Problem Areas i n the Test-Manuscript The f i r s t problem area i s the over-abundance of l a n d -use types. T h i s i s a r e s u l t of i n t e n s i v e study of the t r a i n -i n g area to the p o i n t where the i n t e r p r e t e r c o n s i d e r s t h a t he can make d i s t i n c t i o n s and produce i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t h a t have exceeded the r e s o l u t i o n of the LANDSAT image. O v e r - i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i s more severe i n the t r a i n i n g area than i n the t e s t area p o r t i o n of the study area. T h i s o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e of the i n t e r p r e t e r does, however, c a r r y over to the t e s t a r e a . Thus, i n the t e s t - m a n u s c r i p t , one f i n d s the d i s t i n c t i o n made between snow and i c e packs, range land and open g r a z i n g l a n d , swamps and water courses, and f o r e s t and mature t i m b e r l a n d . Some of these d i s t i n c t i o n s were found to be f a i r l y a c c u r a t e and c o n s i s t e n t . Others were found to be i n a c c u r a t e or i n c o n s i s t e n t . 52 For example, f o r e s t and mature timbe r l a n d were i d e n t i f i e d w e l l , w h i l e the d i s t i n c t i o n between snow and i c e packs i s l e s s than c o n v i n c i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n can be c o r r e c t e d by grouping snow and i c e together. Not o n l y are some of the type d i s t i n c t i o n s over-emphasized by the i n t e r p r e t e r ; some of the boundaries separ-a t i n g them are i n d i s t i c t i n nature. As i n the case of f o r e s t versus mature ti m b e r l a n d , the change from one type t o the other i s more of a t r a n s i t i o n than an abrupt change. How-ever, some boundaries (such as the one between i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and open g r a z i n g land) do appear to be sharp and d e c i s i v e . T h i s c o n d i t i o n can be r e f l e c t e d i n the f i n a l map. In the manuscript, the type boundaries appear to be h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r and convoluted, but from ground o b s e r v a t i o n s , many of these type boundaries are l e s s dramatic i n appear-ance. T h i s i s probably a r e s u l t of the p i x e l s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . , the arrangement of the p i x e l s and the scan l i n e s i n the imagery) which has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of type boundaries e x t r a c t e d . A g e n e r a l i s a t i o n of the type boundaries seems to be c a l l e d f o r . 4.2 Techniques of G e n e r a l i s a t i o n To d e a l w i t h the problem of the over-abundance of land-use or land-cover types, a combination o f the r e l a t e d types i n t o a s i n g l e type i s e s s e n t i a l . T h i s condenses the data i n t o l a r g e r , more manageable u n i t s . Table 3 l i s t s the g e n e r a l i s e d c a t e g o r i e s from the o r i g i n a l land-use cover types. 53 TABLE 3 GENERALISED CATEGORIES VERSUS ORIGINAL CATEGORIES O r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s (from dichotomous key) URBAN b  R e s i d e n t i a l Cropped Land Improved Pasture and Hay H o r t i c u l t u r e o t h e r crops FOREST c immature f o r e s t mature f o r e s t logged f o r e s t r e c e n t l o g g i n g o l d e r l o g g i n g RANGELAND BARREN and EXTRACTIVE e x t r a c t i v e r i v e r or stream lake o r ocean snow and i c e snow pack m e l t i n g snow roads power l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y Exposed Bedrock G e n e r a l i s e d c a t e g o r i e s URBAN IMPROVED AGRICULTURE FOREST MATURE TIMBERLAND LOGGING RANGELAND AND ROUGH PASTURE LAND OPEN PIT EXTRACTIVE WATER BODIES SNOW AND ICE Omitted a URBAN re p r e s e n t s L e v e l I i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b R e s i d e n t i a l r e p r e s e n t s L e v e l I I i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , c immature f o r e s t r e p r e s e n t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s not l i s t e d by Ryerson and Gierman (1975) 54 Land-use lends i t s e l f w e l l t o c h o r o p l e t h mapping. Th i s simple map form merely symbolizes the land-use types w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries. Often, the use of symbols i s necessary o n l y f o r the sake of c l a r i t y . The use of c o n t r a s t -i n g c o l o u r s f u r t h e r improves l e g i b i l i t y . However, the data boundaries r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s manner suggest abrupt changes from one type to the next. I f c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r s are used, the a d d i t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n i s made t h a t the land-use types are mutually e x c l u s i v e of each o t h e r . T h i s i s perhaps the case f o r s e v e r a l of the types ( f o r example, a g r i c u l t u r e versus urban). But f o r other types t h i s has been observed to be the o p p o s i t e ( f o r example, f o r e s t versus mature t i m b e r l a n d ) . A way to circumvent t h i s problem i s to apply d i f f e r -ent tones o f the same c o l o u r to r e l a t e d land-use t y p e s . F u r t h e r , i f the two types are not separated from each o t h e r by an abrupt change, the type l i n e may be omitted so t h a t the impression of a grad u a l t r a n s i t i o n i s gained. To render a complicated l i n e symbol i n t o a simp l e r form and not to d e s t r o y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a problem a cartographer o f t e n f a c e s . Many w r i t e r s have d i s c u s s e d the treatment o f such l i n e symbols - o f t e n through the example of the c o a s t l i n e - so t h a t i t s complexity c o u l d be made to appear ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' a t v a r i o u s s c a l e s . A n o t a b l e treatment of t h i s s u b j e c t i s o f f e r e d by Pannekoek (1962). In the 55 p resent e x e r c i s e , heavy r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d on h i s methods. A p p l y i n g the techniques of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , the manu-s c r i p t i s transformed i n t o the f i n a l map (see F i g u r e 26). 4.3 The G e n e r a l i s e d Land-Use Map - A p p l i c a t i o n s and  L i m i t a t i o n s The g e n e r a l i z e d LANDSAT land-use map p r o v i d e s a con-v e n i e n t overview o f r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are not immediately apparent i n more d e t a i l e d maps of l a r g e r s c a l e s . However, the a p p l i c a t i o n of maps of t h i s type should not be made without some c a u t i o n s . The user should be aware t h a t such a map should not be used f o r e i t h e r l i n e a r or a r e a l measurements. They are not l i k e l y to be a c c u r a t e enough f o r s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons. At such small s c a l e s , any map i s a l s o v e r y s e n s i t i v e to p r o j e c t i o n e r r o r s . A r e a l d i s t o r t i o n s c o u l d be severe enough to prevent r e l i a b l e comparisons even w i t h i n the map format i t s e l f . Another p r e c a u t i o n t h a t should be brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of the user i s t h a t the map i s g e n e r a l i s e d . D e t a i l s are n e c e s s a r i l y omitted as a r e s u l t . Readers are reminded t h a t such d e t a i l would be a v a i l a b l e o n l y i n a map of much l a r g e r s c a l e . 57 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS To conclude the study, the q u e s t i o n s asked a t the beginning must be answered. Is LANDSAT imagery a s u i t a b l e source o f s m a l l - s c a l e land-use data? Are the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n methods used i n t h i s study adequate and are they s u i t a b l e f o r everday use? Does LANDSAT image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n save time i n p r e p a r i n g r e g i o n a l land-use maps? 5.1 LANDSAT as a Source o f Land-Use Data The u s e f u l n e s s of LANDSAT data depends on the i n t e n t i o n s of the user. LANDSAT, which cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as a h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n system, nonetheless produces data which f a r exceeds the e x p e c t a t i o n o f i t s d e v e l o p e r s . C e r t a i n l y , the m u l t i - s p e c t r a l coverage of t h i s system i n t r o d u c e s advan-tages unmatched by c o n v e n t i o n a l systems. However, i f the user r e q u i r e s r e s o l u t i o n which enables him to make measure-ments or other q u a n t i t a t i v e comparisons, LANDSAT imagery i s p r e s e n t l y inadequate. I f the user i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n e x t r a c t i n g q u a l i -t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , LANDSAT i s most u s e f u l , e s p e c i a l l y i f simple i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a i d s are employed to h e l p i n making q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Moreover, i f f i e l d e xperience i s accumulated f o r the study r e g i o n , many of the f e a t u r e s recorded on the image can be i d e n t i f i e d c o n f i d e n t l y . 58 5.2 Adequacy and A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Methods One need only t o examine the t e s t manuscript compiled from the imagery t o be assured of the adequacy of the i n t e r -p r e t i v e method developed i n t h i s study: the manuscript con-t a i n s much more i n f o r m a t i o n than i s r e q u i r e d to produce the f i n a l map. Moreover, some of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s unique i n t h a t i t cannot be e x t r a c t e d from any ot h e r remote sensor imagery. The c a t e g o r i e s o f snow versus the i c e pack i s a good example. To answer the second q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a p p l i c a b i l i t y , more complicated c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are i n v o l v e d . To g a i n accep-tance, anew method must be simple enough t h a t a person w i t h a s u i t a b l e background can t r a i n h i m s e l f t o be a b l e t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y . T h i s assumption i s based on the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of imagery of comparable q u a l i t y t o t h a t used i n t h i s study, and an i n t e r p r e t e r with s i m i l a r f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s premature to attempt such an e v a l u a t i o n u n t i l t h e r e are s u f f i c i e n t r e p o r t s from persons attempting t h i s procedure. 5.3 E f f i c i e n c y of Land-Use Mapping from LANDSAT The t h i r d q u e s t i o n r e l a t e s t o the b a s i c premise of t h i s t h e s i s . The w r i t e r has contended t h a t the u s u a l pro-cedures f o r c o m p i l i n g land-use maps i s i n e f f i c i e n t i n t h a t too much e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d to compile the l a r g e - s c a l e base manuscripts o n l y t o be g e n e r a l i s e d d r a s t i c a l l y t o produce the r e q u i r e d s m a l l - s c a l e f i n a l map. A l e s s r e f i n e d data base such as LANDSAT imagery c o u l d produce comparable r e s u l t s 59 for less work. Comparison of the f i n a l generalised land-use map derived from LAND SAT imagery with the regional land-use maps produced by compilation from large-scale documents such as the one by the Regional D i s t r i c t of Okanagan-Similkameen reveals few shortcomings i n the LANDSAT derived map at the appropriately generalised l e v e l . Although no actual man-hour figures are available on the time spent i n the compilation of the conventional map, i t i s estimated to be much longer than the time required to compile a s i m i l a r map from a LANDSAT image, e s p e c i a l l y when one considers that the conventional map required many f i e l d seasons and the p a r t i c i -pation of several individuals and that i t only covers h a l f of the ground area. Thus, the e f f i c i e n c y of LANDSAT image interpretation i s substantiated. 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May, 1975, pp. 621-635. 65 APPENDIX Standard Names of Land-use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Ryerson and Gierman, 1975) L e v e l I L e v e l I I URBAN Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Medium D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Commercial I n d u s t r i a l Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and U t i l i t i e s Open Space and R e c r e a t i o n IMPROVED AGRICULTURE Cropped Land Improved Pasture and Hay H o r t i c u l t u r e Farmsteads and A g r i c u l t u r a l B u i l d i n g s RANGELAND AND ROUGH PASTURE-LAND FOREST Co n i f e r o u s Deciduous and Mature Orchards Mixed WETLANDS BARREN AND EXTRACTIVE Sand, G r a v e l and Other Open P i t E x t r a c t i v e Sand Slag and T a i l i n g P i l e s Exposed Bedrock L e v e l I - recommended f o r use wit h s a t e l l i t e imagery. L e v e l I I - recommended f o r use with h i g h a l t i t u d e a i r b o r n e c o l o u r imagery. L A N D - U S E • T H O M P S O N , N I C O L A , O K A N A G A N A N D S I M I L K A M E E N R E G I O N S 1974 10 I : 500000 20 30 40 50 KILOMETRES URBAN IMPROVED AGRICULTURE MATURE TIMBERLAND FOREST LOGG ING RANGELAND, ROUGH PASTURELAND OPEN PIT EXTRACTIVE WATER BODIES S N O W and ICE ( JUNE ) 

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