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Generalised land-use mapping from LANDSAT imagery Wong, Patrick H.T. 1979

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GENERALISED  LAND-USE MAPPING FROM  LANDSAT  IMAGERY  by PATRICK H. T.^WONG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS.FOR THE DEGREE OF j  MASTER OF ARTS  '  in  !  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  to the required  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 197 9  (cT)  Patrick  H. T. Wong, 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make i t  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r of B r i t i s h  available  for  Columbia, I agree  that  r e f e r e n c e and study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  for  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  representatives.  this  written  It  thesis for financial  gain shall  permission.  Department of  (^&e^4^JLj  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  tflMcX  zs  ,  I'M  Columbia  not be allowed without my  i  ABSTRACT Generalised tool  s m a l l - s c a l e l a n d - u s e maps a r e  i n regional planning.  conventional widespread  methods  is  too  employment.  LANDSAT i m a g e r y , compilation  and  However, t h e i r  updating  The  o b j e c t i v e of  and  limitations  of compiling  The  adopted  set" was  this  can  study  study  the  "training  technology,  be more c o n v e n i e n t l y  "training  site".  I t was  An  as  done. advantages  s u c h maps f r o m LANDSAT  experiments.  their  which  i s . to i n v e s t i g a t e the  the w e l l used  by  such  a l t e r n a t i v e method by  approach i n remote s e n s i n g u s e d as  compilation  time consuming t o p e r m i t  Remote s e n s i n g  s u g g e s t s an  a useful  images.  set -  test  imaged  area  ground checked  to  o b t a i n a w o r k i n g knowledge o f LANDSAT image s i g n a t u r e s . U s i n g this in  information,  the  same image  verified.  The  signatures (the t e s t  developed  customary machine data  use  map.  verified  region  guided  for this  by  study  a  m a n u s c r i p t became t h e a cartographic  b a s i s of a principle  t e c h n i q u e were a p p l i e d t o d e f i n e t h e  study  to achieve  compile generalised refinement alternative  the  concluded  i n the  dichotomous  instead of  a graphic  I t was  field-  the  processing.  G e n e r a l i s a t i o n as  and  recorded  s i t e ) were i n t e r p r e t e d and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key  The  of a s i m i l i a r  desired effect  f o r the  s m a l l - s c a l e l a n d - u s e maps. and  a p p r o a c h were deemed  more e x p e r i e n c e necessary.  and  scope of  t h a t LANDSAT images c a n  technique  land-  final be  the map.  used  Further in  as  this  to  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  .  i  L I S T OF TABLES .  iv  L I S T OF FIGURES  .  v  Chapter 1  2  3  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1 S t u d y O b j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 L i t e r a t u r e Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f • L a n d - c o v e r , L a n d - u s e and L a n d - u s e M a p p i n g . . . . . . 1.4 S t u d y M e t h o d o l o g y and S t u d y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 1.5 S t u d y A r e a . . . . .". . . . . . . . . . . .  2 2  THE PRECONDITIONS OF GENERALISATION IN LANDUSE MAPPING FROM LANDSAT .' . . . . . . . . . .  4 5 6  8  2.1 Map P u r p o s e . . . . •'. . . . . . . . . . . . . •2.2 S c a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Q u a l i t y o f D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT imagery . . . . 2.3.2 The method o f image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t e r ' s b i a s e s . . . . . . 2.4 G r a p h i c L i m i t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14 15  THE COMPILATION OF LAND-USE INFORMATION FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .  17  3.1 F i e l d 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4  Investigation . . . . . . ..... . The s e l e c t i o n o f f i e l d a r e a . . . Field activities Results of f i e l d investigation . . System o f l a n d - u s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in the f i e l d 3.2 The P r o d u c t i o n o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i d s . 3.2.1.,The p r o c e s s o f d i a z o enhancement . 3.2.2 The d i c h o t o m o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n k e y 3.3 Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e T e s t - . Manuscript . . . . . . . . .  . . .  8 9 10 10  17 18 19 20  . . .  26 27 34 38  .  43  iii  4  3.4 F i e l d V e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e I n t e r p r e tations 3.4.1 C r i t e r i a o f f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . . . 3.4.2 R e s u l t s o f f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n . . . 3.4.3 C o n c l u s i o n s f r o m f i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n s  43 45 47 48  REFINEMENT OF THE TEST-MANUSCRIPT BY GENERALISATION  51  4.1 4.2 4.3 5  51 52 55  CONCLUSIONS  57  5.1 LANDSAT a s a S o u r c e . o f L a n d - u s e D a t a . . . 5.2 A d e q u a c y and A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 E f f i c i e n c y o f L a n d - u s e M a p p i n g f r o m LANDSAT . . . . . . . . . .  57  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  Problem Areas i n t h e Test-manuscript . . Techniques of G e n e r a l i s a t i o n . . . . . . The G e n e r a l i s e d L a n d - u s e Map A p p l i c a t i o n s and P r e c a u t i o n s  .  58 58 60 65  iv  LIST. OF  I.  Design  Specifications  Systems II. III.  TABLES  f o r LANDSAT  Imagery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  D i c h o t o m o u s Key  . . . . . .  Generalised Categories Categories  . . . . . . . . .  Versus  12 41  Original 53  V  L I S T OF FIGURES AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  1  L o c a t i o n o f Study Area  2  P h y s i o g r a p h i c - c u l t u r a l Regions i n the T r a i n i n g S i t e and F i e l d C o v e r a g e d u r i n g Training Exercise . . . . . .  3-10  7  C o n t r a s t i n g L a n d - u s e T y p e s on LANDSAT Images  . . . . . . . . . . .  23  11-14  G e n e r a l V i e w s o f some L a n d - u s e T y p e s  15-22  C l o s e - u p V i e w s o f some L a n d - u s e T y p e s  23  C o l o r D i a z o C o m p o s i t e o f Band and Band 7 i n r e d The M a n u s c r i p t  24 25  26  21  . . . . .  28  . . . .  30  5 i n Green  L a n d - u s e Map o f O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n . (By R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Okanagan-Similkameen - P l a n n i n g Department) . . . . L a n d - u s e Map o f O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n and Thompson-Nicola Regions o f B r i t i s h Columbia  37 44  49  - 5'6"' !+-.  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Small large the  s c a l e land-use  scale counterparts.  planning  Columbia. generated  Notable  Often,  reductions  small  ised and  purposes there  land-use  units are  and f u r t h e r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n .  These  s c a l e maps a r e n o t e a s y t o k e e p up t o d a t e  regional planners,  planning  from  l a r g e s c a l e maps by means o f mechan-  b e c a u s e o f t h e amount o f work i n v o l v e d . with  their  in British  maps c o v e r i n g e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l  from e x i s t i n g  from  e x a m p l e s a r e maps  departments o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  ical-optical derived  maps may be d e r i v e d  i t i s apparent  From d i s c u s s i o n s that f o r general  i s a need f o r s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l -  maps t h a t c a n be c o m p i l e d  i n e x p e n s i v e l y from a r e l i a b l e  o r updated q u i c k l y  and c o n v e n i e n t  data  1 source. The Satellite  LANDSAT  (formerly E a r t h Resource  - ERTS) programme p r o v i d e s  In o p e r a t i o n  s i n c e 197 2,  such a data  source.  LANDSAT s u p p l i e s a s y n o p t i c  o f t h e e a r t h i n t h e form o f remote s e n s o r imagery a l s o suggests  Technology  itself  s c a l e mapping, p a r t i c u l a r l y  as a source fordirect  imagery. of data  view LANDSAT  f o r small  compilation of  "^Discussion w i t h p e r s o n n e l o f the Regional D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Okanagan and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a i n A u g u s t 197 5 and w i t h p e r s o n n e l o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n i n A p r i l 197 6.  2  small-scale, 1.1 S t u d y  g e n e r a l i s e d land-use  maps.  Objectives  To  the p r a c t i c i n g  cartographer,  who i s n o t i n t h e  mainstream o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h satellite limited tial.  i m a g e r y , t h e u s e o f LANDSAT p r o d u c t s  has been  and r a t h e r t e n t a t i v e d e s p i t e i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  limitations  study  simple  interpretive  LANDSAT i m a g e r y i n c o n -  a i d s as a source  s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l i s e d land-use  demonstrate t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l most c a r t o g r a p h e r s effectively.  i s sufficient  Further,  poten-  i s t o examine t h e f e a s i b i l i t y ,  and a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g  junction with for  and development o f  mapping.  o f data  I t aims t o  equipment a v a i l a b l e t o to u t i l i z e  LANDSAT  i t argues t h a t , given  imagery  a suitable  degree o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , ithe a c c u r a c y  o f s u c h a map  ficient  f o r i t s common a p p l i c a t i o n s .  I t i s hoped t h a t t h e  results  of this  cartographers as  i n v e s t i g a t i o n may e n c o u r a g e and a s s i s t  to exploit  an a l t e r n a t i v e  scale  land-use  i s suf-  the p o t e n t i a l  o f LANDSAT  imagery  t o c o n v e n t i o n a l means o f c o m p i l i n g  small-  maps.  1.2 L i t e r a t u r e Review Given graphic of  and r e m o t e s e n s i n g  examples o r s u g g e s t i o n s  may h e l p use  t h e p r o m i s e o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y , c u r r e n t c a r t o l i t e r a t u r e was r e v i e w e d a s t o how t h i s  new d a t a  i n search source  solve the problem o f s m a l l - s c a l e , g e n e r a l i s e d  mapping.  A t t h e t i m e when t h i s  LANDSAT s t u d i e s were m a i n l y  r e s e a r c h began  experimental.  The  land-  (1974),  literature  3  generally need o f  reported  p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s and  further investigation.  were f a r f r o m b e i n g experimental  an  operational routine.  remote s e n s i n g  s t u d i e s , was  ing  s e t " a p p r o a c h was  approach,, w i t h present in  References  s e c t i o n s 1.4 Since  widely data  and  this  employed  present  study,  initial  of  reported  these  than  on  products  a popular  and  detailed  reported t o map  s t u d i e s was  "train-  adopted  This for  d i s c u s s i o n are  Machine p r o c e s s i n g of  the given  selected aspects  than the  of  what one  As  contemporary  the employwas  emphasis  manipulation  a result,  literature  The  The  data  might expect  to  land-use  Watson, 1 9 7 5 ) .  g e n e r a l l y h e a v i e r on  LANDSAT  related  ( e . g . , Odenyo, 1 9 7 7 ) .  cartographic procedures.  Surveying  The  older  r e s e a r c h , LANDSAT d a t a have.been more  ( e . g . , M u r t h a and  were l e s s  the  from  choice.  mapping, w h i c h i s c l o s e l y  was  the  2.3.2.  ment o f LANDSAT d a t a also  over  g e n e r a l l y employed.  i n mapping.  f o r land-use  However,  carried  s u i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n , was  study.  to  Cartographic applications  m e t h o d o l o g y , w h i c h was  set - test  pointed  the  final  from a on  map.  applied  2 cartography the  subject of  Related of  , one  finds l i t t l e  land-use  information  supplementary  information  mapping f r o m r e m o t e - s e n s i n g  seems t o be  concentrated  on  the  on  data. subject  automation.  G e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y p r o c e s s i n any k i n d o f 2 "Applied Cartography" i s a s u b - d i s c i p l i n e i n c a r t o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h as o u t l i n e d by R a t a j s k i ( 1 9 7 3 ) . The w r i t e r i d e n t i f i e s h i s work as a member o f t h i s g r o u p .  4  mapping. since of  In the present  study,  i ti s of particular  i t d e f i n e s t h e scope o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  literature  and  references  and  4.3.  i s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s are discussed  subject.  i n Chapter  importance An a b u n d a n c e  I t s relevance  2 and i n S e c t i o n s  4.2  1.3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f L a n d - c o v e r , L a n d - u s e and L a n d - u s e MappincfT-3 For  the purpose o f the present  define the natural or a r t i f i c i a l uted  over the earth's  materials  surface  include vegetation  snow and i c e .  Artificial  such as a g r i c u l t u r a l  as  study,  materials  one may l o o s e l y  that are d i s t r i b -  land-cover.  canopies,  materials  Natural  soils,  bedrock,  are man-altered  o r urban landscapes  water,  surfaces  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  avenues. A icance, types  land-cover  but i t s s p a t i a l  gives  land.  by i t s e l f  association with  nominal  other  a r e r e f e r r e d t o as  mapping e n t a i l s  on t h e e a r t h .  the . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  interpretation of various  on t h e  land-use.  The p r o c e s s  display  of land-use  o f land-cover  land-uses  signif-  land-cover  l a n d - u s e map i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c a r t o g r a p h i c  o f man's a c t i v i t i e s  graphic  has o n l y  a good i n d i c a t i o n o f man's a c t i v i t i e s  These a c t i v i t i e s A  the  type  therefrom  types, and t h e  representation of these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  3 The c o n c e p t o f l a n d - u s e and l a n d - c o v e r f r o m J . R. A n d e r s o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) .  i s adopted  5  1.4  S t u d y M e t h o d o l o g y and S t u d y Generalisation  study : i t e n t a i l s refines cation  Organization  i s an i m p o r t a n t  the processes  concept  i n the present  by w h i c h one e d i t s and  a m a n u s c r i p t t o t h e f o r m o f a f i n a l map. and s y m b o l i z a t i o n  are frequently  from t h e p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s , theoretical exercise  Simplifi-  involved.  generalisation also  Aside entails  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e t h e m a p p i n g  even b e f o r e  the compilation  stage.  As i n t h i s  where one o f t h e p u r p o s e s i s t o p r o d u c e a g e n e r a l i s e d use  map, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n p r o c e s s  at the t h e o r e t i c a l  level  To r e f l e c t  theoretical  consideration i s d e a l t with  stage  o f t h e study,  Since  some a s p e c t s  in  the context  in that  c o n d i t i o n , g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as a  and i s d i s c u s s e d  before  i n detail  the compilation i n Chapter  o f t h e m e c h a n i c s o f LANDSAT a r e  o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , they  method a d o p t e d  the " t r a i n i n g  are also  2.  important  discussed  f o r t h e map c o m p i l a t i o n  set - test  B r o o n e r and S i m o n e t t is  i s con-  chapter. The  of  this  landboth  and a t t h e t e c h n i c a l l e v e l  siderable.  study,  i s that  s e t " approach as m o d i f i e d  (19.71).  In t h i s  approach a study  from area  s e l e c t e d and a p o r t i o n o f i t i s u s e d a s t h e " t r a i n i n g  site".  Different signatures  as v a r i o u s ledge  i n the f i e l d  o f t h e meanings o f t h e s e  information verbally key,  land-covers  i n t h e imagery a r e i d e n t i f i e d so t h a t a working  signatures  comprises the " t r a i n i n g  set".  and g r a p h i c a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f a n  one o f w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d  i n this  i s formed. I t c a n be  knowThis expressed  identification  study.  The  6  identification remainder  additional  form. this  The  final,  verified  the  to produce  ( t e s t map).  the  while i t i s s t i l l  l a n d - u s e map  a  test-  Subsequently,  to v e r i f y  respect to g e n e r a l i s a t i o n  specific  generalisation  present exercise final  a r e employed  interprei n manuscript  i s produced  from  as t h e g o v e r n i n g  techniques suitable to r e f i n e  limitations  4.  o f s u c h a map  for  l a n d - u s e map.  A d i s c u s s i o n of the i s included  con-  to the  t h e t e s t map  p r e s e n t a t i o n as a g e n e r a l i s e d  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  and  site)  work i s c o n d u c t e d  shown on t h e t e s t map  to i n t e r p r e t  manuscript.  cept,  is  (test  o f a s i n g l e map  field  With  its  i s t h e n employed  o f the study area  set c o n s i s t i n g  tations  key  This  applications  i n the concluding  Chapter.  1.5  Study  Area  The Similkameen British uses  study area s e l e c t e d and  i s w i t h i n t h e Okanagan-  Thompson-Nicola r e g i o n s of  Columbia.  This area contains a d i v e r s i t y  r a n g i n g from u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l  to mining  and,recreational uses.  and  p a s s e s t h e problem, o f s i g n a l sistency  t h a t may  selected  area i s well  access.  site  and  o c c u r f r o m one  the t e s t  agriculture-forestry  This  c o n v e n i e n t l y by-  image t o a n o t h e r .  s e r v e d by r o a d s t h a t  the s p a t i a l site.  land  image p r o c e s s i n g i n c o n -  Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s  s t u d y a r e a and ing  and  of  Moreover, the a r e a i s  c o v e r e d by a s i n g l e LANDSAT image.  field  south-central  enables  the l o c a t i o n of  relationship  between t h e  The easy the train-  FIGURE 1 : LOCATION OF STUDY AREA.  8  CHAPTER 2 THE PRECONDITIONS OF GENERALISATION IN LAND-USE MAPPING According generalisation refine and  FROM LANDSAT  t o Robinson,  Sale..and  Morrison  (1978, p. 1 5 0 ) ,  i s a mechanism b y w h i c h a c a r t o g r a p h e r  a diversified  s e t of data  t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e map.  depends on t h e n a t u r e  to best r e f l e c t  may  the scale  The d e g r e e o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n  o f t h e mapping e x e r c i s e and i n t u r n  i n f l u e n c e s t h e c o m p i l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e map. G e n e r a l i s a t i o n d e c i s i o n s should and  s c a l e o f t h e map,  limits and  the q u a l i t y  o f t h e communication  Morrison,  of data  and t h e g r a p h i c  s y s t e m employed  1978, pp. 1 4 9 - 1 5 8 ) .  considerations  2•1 Map  be b a s e d on t h e o b j e c t i v e  i n the context  (Robinson,  Sale  A d i s c u s s i o n of these  of the present  study  follows.  Purpose The  s u b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t map  r e g i o n s o f Okanagan-Similkameen  i s land-use  i n the  and T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a .  Its  p u r p o s e i s t o show, i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , spatial use  a s s o c i a t i o n and r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s  activities.  cover  As a r e s u l t ,  f e a t u r e s which help  various  land-use  compilation focuses  the cartographer  categories.  from another  i n any d e t a i l .  land-  on l a n d -  to e s t a b l i s h the  Other f e a t u r e s , even  q u i t e e v i d e n t and p e r h a p s i n t e r e s t i n g view, a r e n o t d e a l t w i t h  o f major  though point of  The p u r p o s e o f t h e  9  map  helps to l i m i t  2.2  Scale A map  portrayal isation the is  t h e scope o f the study.  a t any s c a l e  of the surface  i s inversely  area covered required.  i s necessarily  i t depicts.  proportional  i n a g i v e n map  In a small  a  generalised  The d e g r e e o f  to the s c a l e .  size,  s c a l e map  t h e more  data  simply because o f the l a c k  The d e g r e e o f d i f f i c u l t y boundaries also v a r i e s  with  boundaries are not p r e c i s e available.  imposes a r e s t r i c t i o n boundaries  smaller.  a measurement  When s c a l e  of graphic  also  resolution,  tool  scale  surface  the p r e c i s i o n of  because the b a s i c larger  as t h e s c a l e  S i n c e t h e range o f i n t e r p o l a t i o n i n t a k i n g  s h o u l d n o t be l a r g e r  than h a l f o f the  from a s m a l l - s c a l e  t o be l e s s e x a c t t h a n measurement Because o f t h i s ,  i s n o t recommended.  physical  Rather,  map  from a  smallest tends large-  measurement o n s u c h a  s u c h a map  i s employed t o  p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w of. .the..; s p a t i a l - . d i s t r i b u t i o n s ' - a n d ations  of  i s small,  of the graphic  influences  i s correspondingly  m e a s u r i n g u n i t , measurement  map  a l l the a v a i l -  on t h e p r e c i s i o n o f t h e c h o r o g r a p h i c  o f a map  u n i t o f measurement  s c a l e map.  from  of space.  regardless  measurement t a k e n f r o m t h e map  therefore  generalisation  represented.  The s c a l e  becomes  greater  i n the representation  scale.  Given the l i m i t  The  s u c h a s one c o m p i l e d  a LANDSAT image, one c a n n o t e x p e c t t o d i s p l a y able  general-  of the features  for a better  regional  associ-  perspective.  10  I t has  been e s t i m a t e d  o f c o r r e c t e d LANDSAT d a t a  can  mapping a t 1:500,000 s c a l e for  the  present  scale.  The  considered  study  described during  g e n e r a l i s a t i o n of metric 2.3  Q u a l i t y of  accuracy  by  of  means o f  the  cartographic  o n l y meet t h e  (Wong, 1 9 7 5 ) ,  w o u l d have t o be  requirements  thus the  resulting  land-use types,  type  in  inherent which the 2.3.1  quality  small...  unavoidable  b o u n d a r i e s and  plani-  Data  the  study  the  q u a l i t y of data  information obtained  interpretation.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n was  r e f e r s to  from the  accuracy  p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the  was  include spatial  The  LANDSAT image determined  image and  the  spatial  the  extracted.  imaging  accuracy  7° o f a r c .  scene,  the  the  margin of the  location  of the  image.  and  due  operation  system,  of  Within  the  the  imaging  time r e q u i r e d  e a r t h w o u l d have r o t a t e d  becomes more p r o n o u n c e d  northern  data  system.  T h i s causes a skewing of the  displacement  The  o f LANDSAT images i s low  ( M u l t i s p e c t r a l . S c a n n e r - MSS). record a  by  method  properties, spectral properties  to earth r o t a t i o n during  and  the  P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y .  s a m p l i n g method u s e d by  The:  map  therefore  p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y w h i c h a f f e c t  scan  of  intended  of a s i m i l a r l y  s c a l e r e s t r i c t i o n s were  compilation  accuracy  details.  In t h i s  by  t h a t the  image t o t h e f u r t h e r from  D e p e n d i n g on  the  scene, the p o s i t i o n e r r o r c o u l d  to  through west. the  latitudinal be  as  great  11  as  10  4  km.  The  net  result  of t h i s  i s that  the  images  skewed t o become p a r a l l e l o g r a m s  instead of remaining  and  geographical  the  reference  Transverse  marks f o r t h e  Mercator g r i d s are  locations of various r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of processing"  can  of  used.  familiar  obtaining  24  the  but  planimetric  The  MSS  reading  pixel  by  The  nm,  with  d e p e n d i n g on  the  sensor  operational  i t from  being  prevent the  input  The  combined  enhance array  i s divided  X 74m  from into  spectral  of an  four  view of  the  (pixel).  a pixel  are  averaged  averaged readings  (signals) are  from  224  to  500  316  ground of each The  nominal 1972).  sensor dimension  Reflectance  electronically.  classified  i n t o 64  These  categories  4 a t i o n of  m,-  I) .  (Colvocoresses,  variations within  from  in  sensitivities  a spectrum extending  scene contrast. (Table  i s 57m  in  E a c h band i s s e n s i t i v e o n l y  a p i c t u r e element  of each p i x e l  recognition  i t does cause problems  ground r e s o l u t i o n r a n g i n g  instantaneous  the  "precision  s y s t e m e m p l o y s an  o f a l l bands c o v e r c o n t i n u o u s l y  constitutes  by  Although  r e f l e c t a n c e s o f ground o b j e c t s  channels or bands.  The  true.  the  measurements.  scanning  a narrow s p e c t r a l range.  1100  Universal  s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT images  o s c i l l a t i n g mirror.  to  not  does not  square,  Consequently,  geometric problem,  This d i s t o r t i o n  quality.  spectral  image p i x e l  valid.  p r o c e d u r e have p r e v e n t e d  accurate  sensors  are  physical features  The data  the  rectify  problems i n t h i s widely  objects  not  and  are  K i r b y , 1975, pp. 55-72 p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d the causes of the displacements.  explan-  TABLE I DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER - MSS  Band  Wavelengths (ran)  Color  Resolution (metres on t h e ground) High subject contrast (1.000:1)  Low s u b j e c t contrast (1.6:1)  IV  500-600  green  224  316  V  600-700  red  224  316  VI  700-800  infrared  224  316  VII  800-1100  infrared  224  316  A. C o l v o c o r e s s e s , "Image R e s o l u t i o n s f o r ERTS, SKYLAB and GEMINI/APOLLO", P h o t o g r a m m e t r i c E n g i n e e r i n g , J a n . , 1972, pp. 33-35.  13  represented  by t h e numbers  0 t o 63 (0 i s n e a r  t a n c e and 63 i s t h e s t r o n g e s t are  transmitted The  either  received  imagery.  brightness duction, gories,  reflec-  These s i g n a l s  t o ground t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s . s i g n a l s are reproduced  computer c o m p a t i b l e magnetic t a p e s  graphic  black  reflectance).  zero  i n t h e form o f  (CCT) o r p h o t o -  F o r t h e imagery, because o f t h e l i m i t e d  r a n g e and t o n a l s e p a r a t i o n  i n photographic  the signals are further generalised each represented  to white.  i n t o 16  by a d i s c r e t e tone r a n g i n g  Each p i x e l  i s represented  reprocate-  from  by a d o t o f one  o f t h e 16 t o n e s on t h e i m a g e r y . The  s p e c t r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y and t h e  s a m p l i n g method o f t h e i m a g i n g lected  i n the following 1.  of  surface  The d a t a types.  sufficiently before  selected signal  The d a t a  surface  of a resolved  v i s e d manner b e f o r e Further in  Other  surface  contrast  important  are not taken i n t o  This  t y p e must be  sufficient  are a "generalised"  types.  representation  i s because a s u r f a c e  by t h e MSS.  s u c h a s shape o r t e x t u r e 2.  a "selected"  l a r g e o r must p o s s e s s  i t i s recorded  col-  ways:  are only  This  system degrade the data  properties  consideration.  representation of  i s because the o r i g i n a l type i s c l a s s i f i e d  i t i s transmitted  g e n e r a l i s a t i o n occurs  discrete  i n an u n s u p e r -  t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s .  when t h e d a t a  are reproduced  t h e image f o r m a s t h e s i g n a l s a r e c o n d e n s e d  i n t o 16 t o n a l  categories. T h u s , i t c a n be s t a t e d  t h a t MSS  imagery i s g e n e r a l i s e d  14  significantly it  represents only a discrete  values. scale by  before the interpretation  The s p a t i a l  accuracy  applications.  the s p a t i a l  s e t o f ground  a g r o u n d a r e a o f 18 5 k i l o m e t r e s s q u a r e .  unnecessary. the  E a c h image  From a r e g i o n a l  study,  fine detail i s  o f the data are taken  into consider-  i n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o f t h e map.  2.3.2 The method o f image The affect tracted  interpretation  method o f image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  significantly  t h e a c c u r a c y and c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n exfrom  a n image.  There  a r e two methods u s e d  i nthe  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f LANDSAT d a t a e a c h w i t h a s p e c i a l f o r a t y p e o f LANDSAT The  first  of  the d i g i t a l  is  followed:  method i s l a r g e l y  CCT. Field  A "training  surveys a r e conducted c o d e s i n a CCT.  then w r i t t e n f o r matching  surveys of  (test-set)  1974) .  set"  the remainder  procedure  t o determine the T h i s p o r t i o n o f the  of the d i g i t a l Frequently,  afterwards t o determine  interpretations  making u s e  Computer p r o g r a m s a r e  to the training-set.  a r e conducted  t h e computer  computerized,  set - test  i s known a s t h e t r a i n i n g - s e t .  mation  suitability  product.  meanings o f t h e d i g i t a l data  covers  F o r t h e p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f LANDSAT d a t a ,  inherent limitations  ation  i n this  f o r large-  inadequacies are o f f s e t  LANDSAT p r o v i d e s .  p o i n t o f view, as espoused  reflectance  i s unacceptable  However, t h e s e  coverage  p r o c e s s , and t h a t  infor-  field  the accuracy  ( e . g . , H a r a l i c k and Shanmugan,  15 The  second  interpreter  has  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n method i s m a n u a l :  e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f the  the  subject matter  from p r e v i o u s  The  interpretations  p r e v i o u s work o r as studies  the  and  on  little  to corroborate  Watson,  process.  the s t r u c t u r e opportunity  and  the  i s being  exploitation  In the present  was  The  of the  manual  bias  collected perform exercise  key  procedure.  objectively  like  experience.  of the  two  s e t " approach  Machine  data  manual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key  has  i s based.on the  f o r the t r a i n i n g - s e t ,  been  conchosen.  information  t h e human i n t e r p r e t e r  a computer, but  the  i s present.  a combination  a diehotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n interpretation  The  interpreter's  trolled  this  depends  executed.  i s not used; r a t h e r ,  Since  speed  while  processing by  previous  training-set  "training set-test  as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  of  for correction  of the  exercise,  attempted.  retained  the r e s u l t s  c o n s i s t e n c y and  validity  However, t h e d a n g e r o f i n t e r p r e t e r  methods was  work.  However, i t s a c c u r a c y  i s available  machine p r o c e s s i n g of d a t a method a l l o w s  field  and  1975).  computer method p r o v i d e s  interpretation  entirely  and  area  a means t o c o n v e n i e n t l y expand  ( e . g . , M u r t h a and The  in  are used  studies  field  The  i s allowed  h i s judgement when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h  can  to  questionable  data. 2.4  Graphic  Limits  Graphic in  limits  r e f e r to the  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e map.  technical  D e p e n d i n g on  restrictions the  graphic  16  techniques  a v a i l a b l e f o r use,  l o s t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  some map  i n f o r m a t i o n may  be  For example, b l a c k and white maps  employing t o n a l or p a t t e r n symbols c o u l d not match the  visual  c l a r i t y of u s i n g c o l o r .  and  The  l i n e work produced by pen  ink c o u l d not compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h l i n e work produced negative  scribing.  I t i s f u t i l e f o r the image i n t e r p r e t e r  to e x t r a c t as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e when the can e f f e c t i v e l y present In the present negative  by  cartographer  only p a r t of i t . e x e r c i s e , g r a p h i c techniques  s c r i b i n g , c o l o r s e p a r a t i o n , and  a v a i l a b l e to the w r i t e r .  such as  color printing  are  T h i s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r c l e a r e r  p r e s e n t a t i o n which i n t u r n encourages the e x t r a c t i o n of more d e t a i l s from the LANDSAT .image.  Other methods of c o l o r pre-  s e n t a t i o n w i l l a l s o serve the purpose w e l l i f mass r e p r o d u c t i o n i s not a requirement.  17  CHAPTER 3 THE  COMPILATION OF LAND-USE FROM LANDSAT  In  INFORMATION  IMAGERY  o r d e r t o u s e LANDSAT i m a g e r y a s a s o u r c e o f d a t a  for  l a n d - u s e mapping, t h e f o l l o w i n g  steps are  1.  O b t a i n a w o r k i n g knowledge o f t h e meaning o f t h e imaged s i g n a t u r e s t h r o u g h f i e l d i m a g e r y and i t s g r o u n d t r u t h  2.  includes  construction 3.  investigation.  aids.  the process of diazo  In t h i s  study,  enhancement and .the  o f a dichotomous key.  The p r o c e s s o f image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  The  are the t r a i n i n g s e t .  The p r o d u c t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n this  involved:  and t h e p r o d u c t i o n  a t e s t manuscript of a d i f f e r e n t but considerably  larger, region  s i m i l i a r to that  covered  i n the training  set. 4.  Compare t h e t e s t m a n u s c r i p t t o t h e g r o u n d unknown r e g i o n , w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s The  results  o f t h i s comparison w i l l  t h i s manuscript transformed  3.1 F i e l d  into  a second  i n the  field  trip.  determine whether  i s v e r i f i a b l e , and t h u s f i t t o be a final  map.  Investigation  Compared t o t h e a d v a n c e d interpretation, tation  truth  state  o f a e r i a l photography  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f LANDSAT image  i s r e l a t i v e l y immature.  Therefore,  interpre-  no m a n u a l s have  18  been c o m p i l e d is  still,  f o r LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  b y and l a r g e ,  and most s u c h work  experimental.  B a s e d on p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h and  color-infrared  photography,  vations or deductions  black-and-white  many w r i t e r s o f f e r  o f what some p a r t i c u l a r  might be.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e s c a t t e r e d  literature  o f remote s e n s i n g .  have b e e n v e r i f i e d conjectural.  throughout the  while others are merely  they a r e v a l u a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g  a background e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e imagery see W a r r i n g t o n ,  image f e a t u r e s  Some o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s  i n the f i e l d  I n any c a s e ,  obser-  interpreter.(e.g.,  1974 and A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P h o t o g r a m m e t r y ,  1975) . Although study,  field  t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s were h e l p f u l  work was s t i l l  essential  i n this  t o p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l  basis. 3.1.1 use  The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d  activities  industrial variety ities  are mostly  or domestic,  of primary,  as w e l l  agricultural  secondary  F o r LANDSAT s t u d i e s ,  season  activities  t h a t had a good  industrial  c l o u d - f r e e imagery  their  activ-  consideration i s  T h i s i s important  display  forestry),  residential patterns.  an a d d i t i o n a l  o f good q u a l i t y ,  d u r i n g t h e summer months. agricultural  and t e r t i a r y urban  Since land-  (including  an a r e a was s e l e c t e d  as o f d i v e r s i f i e d  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  area.  especially  b e c a u s e many  distinctiveness  i n this  only. L o g i s t i c c o n v e n i e n c e was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n  19 in  the study.  plated,  Since a i r c r a f t  a well distributed B a s e d on t h e s e  of  1974.  for this  road  n e t w o r k was  essential.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e Okanagan r e g i o n  South-central B r i t i s h  selected  o p e r a t i o n s were n o t contem-  study  C o l u m b i a was c h o s e n .  The image  was E-1689-18183 d a t e d  S i n c e t h e LANDSAT i m a g e r y c o v e r i n g t h i s  J u l y 11, region also  i n c l u d e s p a r t s o f t h e Thompson, N i c o l a and S i m i l k a m e e n Valleys,  t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y  the v a r i a b i l i t y It field  o f land-use  was d e c i d e d  patterns.  that the northern  w o u l d be u s e d a s t h e t e s t imagery  site  site  and t h e s o u t h e r n  training  study  area,  land-use  The f i e l d  i n August,  exercise included f i e l d  maps and o t h e r  the c o l l e c t i n g available  work f o r t h e  1975.  trips  The a c t i v i t i e s  t o sub-regions of  and/or updating  geographical  of existing  information pertaining  m a p p i n g , and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p e r s o n s  regional  district  offices  regarding local  Regional  District  offices  o f Northern  N i c o l a were v i s i t e d .  Officials  helpful  i n supplying land-use  of  recent dates  area.  portion  f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  activities.  s e t was c o n d u c t e d  during this  very  (Kamloops),  (Figure 1 ) .  3.1.2 F i e l d  to  portion of the  area, which i n c l u d e s a major urban s e t t l e m e n t  w o u l d be u s e d a s t h e t r a i n i n g  the  a r e a t o enhance  conditions.  The  Okanagan and Thompson-  i n those  o f f i c e s were most  maps and a e r i a l  i n selected locales  They a l s o p r o v i d e d  i n the  photo mosaics  of the t r a i n i n g  accurate overviews  of the regional  20  g e o g r a p h y ; and a c c o u n t s  of their  experiences  in local  land-  u s e m a p p i n g were most v a l u a b l e . L o c a l r e s i d e n t s were a l s o recent  land-use  c h a n g e s and s e a s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  some l a n d - c o v e r t y p e s . eliminating these  interviewed concerning  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e f u l i n  repeated v i s i t s  t o the t r a i n i n g  area t o monitor  variations. In  a r e a s where u s a b l e maps d i d n o t e x i s t ,  t r i p s were c o n d u c t e d a r e a s was m a i n l y  for first-hand  by r o a d  (including  r o a d s ) b u t some s i t e s were v i s i t e d b i n o c u l a r s and t e l e s c o p e . covered  study.  secondary on f o o t  o r observed v i a the areas  'information.  work a t o t a l  to test  and l o g g i n g  Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i e l d  the course o f the f i e l d  Access  field  of over  three  During thousand  m i l e s was t r a v e r s e d .  3.1.3 R e s u l t s o f f i e l d work y i e l d e d 1.  the f o l l o w i n g  investigation.  types, to  frequency the s p a t i a l  another  of occurrence  use,  of various  relationships  patterns.  These  land-use  o f one l a n d - u s e  type  provide'up-to-date  information f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  F o r example, C o l d s t r e a m V a l l e y observed  includes the  and t h e g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n o f t e r r a i n  with land-use background  field  types of information:  General geographical information - t h i s spatial  The  i n n o r t h e r n Okanagan was  t o be an a r e a o f i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l  including  orchards, f i e l d  land-  corn or market gardening  22 on f l a t t e r r a i n , improved a g r i c u l t u r a l land w i t h hay or other feed on the r o l l i n g f o o t h i l l s , g r a z i n g o r rough p a s t u r e l a n d on steeper at  higher e l e v a t i o n s .  such as sawmills  Various  and packing  d i s t r i b u t e d i n the r e g i o n . fairly 2.  s l o p e s , and timberland secondary i n d u s t r i e s  houses were s p a r s e l y T h i s p a t t e r n was observed  c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout the sub-region.  S p e c i f i c land-cover  information - t h i s includes surface  m a t e r i a l types, t h e i r s p a t i a l e x t e n s i o n and c o n f i g u r a t i o n , observable  o r deduced temporal e v o l u t i o n o f  the s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s and s p e c t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n terms o f tones and c o l o r s v i s i b l e t o the eye. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d with.:the  LANDSAT  imagery t o p r o v i d e an example with which v a r i o u s t o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n v a r i o u s bands c o u l d be compared.  F o r example,  a homogeneous, i r r i g a t e d  obviously  f i e l d o f hay o f a s i z e  l a r g e r than one p i x e l was i d e n t i f i e d a t the n o r t h end o f Nicola.Lake.  I t was a l s o noted t h a t rough g r a z i n g land  e x i s t s around the f i e l d . to  When t h i s l o c a l e was c o r r e l a t e d  the Band 7 p o s i t i v e o f the LANDSAT image s e t , i t was  observed t h a t the hay f i e l d was rendered l i g h t a g a i n s t the darker tones of the g r a z i n g l a n d .  This piece of information  became an example from which other hay f i e l d s were i d e n t i f i e d . F i g u r e s 3 through 10 provide ing  land-use  types.  some examples o f these c o n t r a s t -  Figure 3 Band 7 Scale 1:250,000 ( e n l a r g e d from o r i g i n a l f i l m ) Sharp c o n t r a s t between t r e e d areas (dark grey) and c l e a r ed urban and a g r i c u l t u r a l land-uses ( l i g h t g r e y ) . T h i s enlargement c e n t r e s a t the C i t y of Kelowna.  Figure 4 Band 7 Scale 1:250,000 ( e n l a r g e d from o r i g i n a l f i l m ) I r r i g a t e d p a s t u r e s imaged i n v e r y l i g h t tones a g a i n s t the background of darker tones of g r a z i n g l a n d . Water b o d i e s a r e imaged j e t b l a c k a g a i n s t t h e grey tones of s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d .  24  Figure 5 Band 5 Scale 1:250,000 ( e n l a r g e d from o r i g i n a l f i l m ) Power l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y s a r e r e c o r d e d as l i g h t t o n e d , l i n e a l f e a t u r e s r u n n i n g through d a r k tones o f f o r e s t e d l a n d . L o g g i n g patches show up as c l e a r i n g s of r e g u l a r shapes i n l i g h t t o n e s .  Figure 6 From bands o f t h e same image, snow i s r e c o r d e d as a w h i t e p a t c h on Band 5 whereas on Band 7 o n l y packed snow o r i c e i s r e c o r d e d . A l s o n o t e t h e b e t t e r c o n t r a s t of the l o g g i n g p a t t e r n s i n Band 5. ( W a r r i n g t o n , 1974, p. 47)  Band 7 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000  25  Figure 7 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 Logging p a t t e r n s near P r i n c e t o n  Figure 8 Band 7 Scale 1:1,000,000 The f l o o d p l a i n s of the Similkameen R i v e r w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l land-use i s imaged a smooth l i g h t grey tone a g a i n s t the d i s s e c t e d t e x t u r e of the surrounding h i l l s . A l s o note t h e sharp r e n d e r i n g o f the meandering river.  Figure 9 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 Mining a c t i v i t i e s near Kamloops. d e f i n i t i o n of the access roads.  Note t h e sharp  F i g u r e 10 Band 5 Scale 1:1,000,000 "Improved a g r i c u l t u r a l " land-use near Armstrong.  26  3.1.4  System  of land-use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  There i s a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y the t r a i n i n g  site.  Therefore,  i t i s an advantage  A Canadian counterpart  p o s e d by R y e r s o n and G i e r m a n  t o have a  land-use types.  The most p o p u l a r s y s t e m o r i g i n a t e s  from Anderson  to t h i s  (1975) .  s y s t e m was  I t was  adopted  by C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s i n t h e same y e a r . and G i e r m a n ' s Appendix  s y s t e m was  lists The  two  adopted  in this  The system.  field  manner:  i n f o r m a t i o n was  terms o f s m a l l r e g i o n s .  f o r use  Ryerson  types of information gathered i n the  General geographical in  used  et  pro-  f o r the study region.  t h e names and d e f i n i t i o n s  were o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g 1.  field.  of land-use types observable i n  s y s t e m o f s t a n d a r d names f o r v a r i o u s  a l , (1972).  i n the  s p a t i a l l y organized  F o r example, a r i v e r  valley  o r a w e l l - d e f i n e d p l a i n was sometimes d e c l a r e d a r e g i o n . However, when s u c h p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l c r i t e r i a were n o t c o n v e n iently  a v a i l a b l e , a r t i f i c i a l c r i t e r i a s u c h as a highway  s y s t e m o r s u b - s y s t e m o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y were u s e d . The o b j e c t o f u s i n g s u c h a s y s t e m was t o make t h e r e g i o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y s m a l l t h a t a s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t o r d e s c r i p t i o n a b o u t e a c h became more r e l i a b l e . sified 2.  areas  clas-  land-cover i n f o r m a t i o n - With the help of  large  from t h i s  Specific  Figure  2 d e l i n e a t e s the u n i t  procedure.  s c a l e t o p o g r a p h i c maps (1:50, 000 and 1:25,000) v a r i o u s l a n d - c o v e r t y p e s were i d e n t i f i e d  to the nearest  m i n u t e o f l o n g i t u d e and l a t i t u d e .  The p u r p o s e o f so d o i n g  was  to enable the w r i t e r  to r e f e r  quarter-  t h e d a t a t o t h e LANDSAT  27 image a t a l a t e r s t a g e .  As d i s c u s s e d o n page 11 t h e LANDSAT  image u s e d i s o f t h e ' n o n - p r e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e d " t y p e , w h i c h means t h a t s u c h images a r e skewed and c o - o r d i n a t e s r e g i s t e r e d on  them a r e u n r e l i a b l e .  recorded  Thus, c o - o r d i n a t e s f o r f e a t u r e s  i n the f i e l d merely enable  the writer to select  a c c u r a t e l y l a n d marks f r o m t h e t o p o g r a p h i c maps f o r r e f e r encing.  F r e q u e n t l y , u s e d l a n d marks were t h e s h o r e l i n e s o f  l a k e s , the c o n f l u e n c e s o f streams o r the conspicuous of  larger  rivers.  The two i n f o r m a t i o n t y p e s the •  recording process.  ing,  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e r m s were  s u p p l e m e n t e d by p h o t o g r a p h y .  provide For  were t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n  For general geographical i n f o r -  mation, d e s c r i p t i o n s with and  a sampling  specific  of this  land-cover  a standard  used  F i g u r e s 11 t h r o u g h 14  information.  information, a co-ordinate  read-  name a n d , q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , a c l o s e - u p  p h o t o g r a p h were e m p l o y e d . a sampling  meanders  of this  F i g u r e s 15 t h r o u g h  22 g i v e  information.  3.2 The P r o d u c t i o n o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A i d s T h e r e a r e numerous interpreter  aids available  i n image a n a l y s i s .  as LANDSAT i m a g e r y , t h e r e  For multi-band  a d d i t i v e viewer  i s used  whereas a d e n s i t y s l i c e r Intra-band  imagery  i s equipment a v a i l a b l e  band a s w e l l a s i n t r a - b a n d enhancement. color  t o a s s i s t the  enhancement  for inter-  F o r example, t h e  f o r inter-band  i s used  such  enhancement  f o r intra-band  enhancement.  i s not a necessity i n the  28  Figure 12:  Rangeland near N i c o l a Lake  29  30  F i g u r e 15:  G r a v e l p i t near Vernon  (Extractive)  F i g u r e 16:  R e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i n the suburbs of Kamloops (Medium density residential)  31  F i g u r e 18:  Orchards near Oyama ( H o r t i c u l t u r e )  F i g u r e s 21 and 22:  Logging p a t t e r n s near Mabel Lake  34  employment o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y s i n c e sliced  i n t o 16  prefer  further density  slicer.  grey-tone c a t e g o r i e s .  i s not  m a n i p u l a t i o n by  The  generally  c o l o r a d d i t i v e viewer  band enhancement. of objects  i n one  I t sets  the  band a g a i n s t  by  diazo  cost  and  study  i n w h i c h low  diazo  enhancement was A procedural work o f  key.  A d i c h o t o m o u s key  leads  an  i s the  the  classification  according  3.2.1 t a g e s and  The  instrument  This  e f f e c t can  enhancement.  for  ease of  operation  be  inter-  were  of  duplicated  In the  present  emphasized,  proven e f f e c t i v e i n organ-  logical  dichotomous branches  correct interpretation. identification  key  d e v e l o p e d by  the  signatures  (see T a b l e  process of diazo the  Warrington  diazo  that typical  commonly  writer.  i d e n t i f y i n g imaged  exposed  A  A dichotomous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  p r o c e s s by  l i m i t a t i o n s of  b e e n summarized by  film  species  s t u d y was  to t h e i r  equipment  cartographer.  i s an  i s a t a b l e of  i n b o t a n i c a l work. present  the  the  image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h e  i n t e r p r e t e r to the  the  and  density-  a c o n t r a s t i n g background  a i d t h a t has  the  for  employing a  deemed s u i t a b l e .  izing  d i c h o t o m o u s key  may  characteristic reflectances  bands f o r e a s i e r a n a l y s i s .  to a c e r t a i n extent  used  u s e d by  density-  However, some  However, s u c h m a n i p u l a t i o n ,  necessary  other  i t i s already  key  It  aids  objects  2).  enhancement .  The  advan-  enhancement t e c h n i q u e  (1974, pp.  materials  must be  i n contact  u s e r s who  d e s i r e maximum image s i z e a r e  44-45).  w i t h the  Since  have diazo  original material,  l i m i t e d to the  24  cm  35  format. The c h o i c e of d i a z o f i l m i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . f i l m i s a v a i l a b l e i n v a r i o u s c o l o r s as w e l l as white.  This  blackand  Moreover, t h i s m a t e r i a l i s u s u a l l y p o l y e s t e r - b a s e d ,  which r e s i s t s dimensional changes w e l l .  Various  such as K e u f f e l and E s s e r , A r t w r i g h t , Brunning, o f f e r products of t h i s  manufacturers, and Ansco  type.  Amongst s e v e r a l f i l m s t r i e d , Anscochrome from Ansco i s s u p e r i o r i n terms of c o l o r d e n s i t y , c o l o r f i d e l i t y , exposure l a t i t u d e .  and  Moreover, the c o l o r s a v a i l a b l e are a l s o  the most e x t e n s i v e .  I t was  decided to employ the s u b t r a c t i v e  (yellow, cyan, and magenta) and a d d i t i v e (red, green,  and  blue) primary c o l o r s to maximize the p o s s i b l e c o l o r combina t i o n s of v a r i o u s bands. The equipment a v a i l a b l e to the w r i t e r .was drum type d i a z o p r o c e s s o r .  a rotary-  T h i s type of machine can cause  l i n e a r d i s t o r t i o n i n the d i a z o image, which would i n t r o d u c e difficulty  i n multi-band  registration later.  A way  t o circum-  vent t h i s problem i s to process the d i f f e r e n t bands of an image frame s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , provided the width of the r o t a r y drum i s s u f f i c i e n t . wiches" were arranged and  The  l e a d i n g edges,of the image "sand-  normal to the a x i s of the  rotary-drum  i n l i n e with each other b e f o r e they were fed i n t o  machine.  L i n e a r d i s t o r t i o n may  condition.  s t i l l be present under t h i s  However, the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of the  e r r o r among the d i a z o images are common. reduced  the  the problem of r e g i s t r a t i o n .  This  significantly  36 Another  common p r o b l e m  w i t h the rotary-drum  type  d i a z o p r o c e s s o r i s t h e s l i p p a g e t h a t o c c u r s between original  and  exposure. shift lem  t h e s e n s i t i z e d medium d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e  T h i s s l i p p a g e can cause  on t h e d i a z o t r a n s p a r e n c y .  i s t o tape the l e a d i n g  the d i a z o f i l m through  the  A way  or  image  to avoid t h i s  edges o f the o r i g i n a l  together before the  the r o t a r y After  unsharpness  of  image  imagery.sandwich  drum.  several  that  trial  r u n s , t h e s e two  the r e s u l t i n g  most  objection-  c o l o r d i a z o composites  no a p p a r e n t m i s - r e g i s t r a t i o n product  fulfills  t h e o n l y way pletely  to eliminate  not a v a i l a b l e For  a l l the a d d i t i v e  48  t r a n s p a r e n c i e s were g e n e r a t e d .  the w r i t e r  of  color  and  to experiment  features of i n t e r e s t . was  found  t o be  transparency o f the Both  was  and The  and  with the f u l l  most u s e f u l  used  heavily  and  into transparencies  negatives of the  permutations  same  the negative  This rich variety  t h a t o f Band 5 i n g r e e n  T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n was  com-  which  s u b t r a c t i v e primary c o l o r s .  f o r the p o s i t i v e s  combinations  cm  transformed  of  enabled  However,  of r e g i s t r a t i o n  utilized.  o f e v e r y band was  colors  revealed  writer.  p r o c e s s , t h e 24  primary  suf-  final  adequately.  the problem  frame . (E-1689-1.8183-5) was the p o s i t i v e  The  a vacuum-frame c o n t a c t p r i n t e r ,  t o the  this  o r image s h i f t s .  i t s intended purpose  i s t o use  and  i s fed  a b l e d r a w b a c k s o f t h e d i a z o p r o c e s s were c i r c u m v e n t e d ficiently  prob-  In  all,  of bands  possible  range  t o enhance v a r i o u s single and  combination  Band 7 i n r e d .  i n the study  (see F i g u r e 2 3 ) .  37  F i g u r e 23:  C o l o r Diazo Composite of Band 5 i n green and Band 7 i n r e d . (Reproduced at the s c a l e o f 1:1,000,000)  38  3.2.2 fication  The  key  species or  dichotomous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  key.  uses d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  types  as  classifiers  to a s s i g n the  ele-  c a t e g o r i e s by more e x a c t i n g  classifiers  identifications.  (1971,  specific  357-360) d e s c r i b e d considerations The  mechanics of  tant 1.  and  some o f t h e  design  key.  by  the  U.S.  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  pp.  N a v a l R e c o n n a i s s a n c e and e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n on  image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n k e y s . presentation  Tech-  the  Scope, t e c h n i c a l  are  some o f  the  impor-  elements: S c o p e - A key  c o u l d be  designed  t o encompass any  of  subject matter.  it  must have a m a n a g e a b l e s c o p e .  the  scope of  its  perspective  validity  of  an  However, i f a key  this  concept  i s t o be  A method o f  image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key to a s p e c i f i c  s u c h a key  conditions prevailing  w o u l d t h u s be  key  For  the  present  suitable  study,  f o r the  The  objects  specific  may  c o u l d be  i s j u d g e d t o be  be  prepared  technical training  designed  the  regions. most  i n such a  and  or  Expanding  design.  T e c h n i c a l L e v e l - A key that very  this  restrict  region.  i n that region only.  further, a similar  limiting  i s to  geographical  breadth  practical,  such t h a t i t s . a p p l i c a b i l i t y , e x t e n d s to s i m i l a r  2.  pp.  Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Handbook V o l . i ; ( 1 9 6 7 ,  S u p p o r t C e n t r e gives an  level,  followed,  Pankhurst  characteristics  i n a dichotomous  3.56-62) p r e p a r e d nical  the  is  observed  refinement to  key  known  categories.  leads  the  of  identi-  ments t o p r o b a b l e o f the  As  An  way  elaborate  39  equipment s u p p o r t effectively. for  Conversely,  i n t e r p r e t e r s who  equipment. key, 3.  a r e n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e i t c a n be  For  i s more  i t c o u l d a l s o be  have l i t t l e  selective  m a t c h t h e unknown  key m e r e l y  e l i m i n a t i o n key  to  selective  P r e s e n t a t i o n - The  spectral  key  or s p a t i a l  and  study methodology adopted,  B a s e d on  t h u s was  used  by  the  presented  aspects  are  of  a r e more imagery  a combination  c o n s i d e r e d most  of logical  writer.  these d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the  most s u i t a b l e  has  signatures.  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e n a t u r e o f LANDSAT  b o t h methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was  A  quantitative  s i g n a t u r e s , then graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n s  efficient. the  that  c a n be  However, i f t h e c l a s s i f i e r s a r e q u a l i t a t i v e  and  step-by-  Verbal descriptions  when t h e c l a s s i f i e r s a r e  measurements o f e i t h e r  An  (Pankhurst,, 1971) .  i n a key  or g r a p h i c a l l y .  of  at a conclusion.  t o be most e f f i c i e n t classifiers  to  identification.  to arrive  two  or descriptions  i s a type of e l i m i n a t i o n  been demonstrated  more s p e c i f i c  The  r e q u i r e s the user to f o l l o w a  d i c h o t o m o u s key  either verbally  k e y s and  illustrations  step deductive procedure  spatial  or  simpler  r e q u i r e s the user  v a r i o u s known o b j e c t s t o a c h i e v e  4.  the l a t t e r  a r e many t y p e s o f k e y s .  most common t y p e s a r e e l i m i n a t i o n A  training  desirable.  O r g a n i z a t i o n - There  keys.  designed  technical  the present study,  used  identification  f o r t h e p r e s e n t a p p l i c a t i o n was  a d i c h o t o m o u s key w i t h a r e g i o n a l  scope,  chosen  to  which r e q u i r e s  key be  40  little  technical  appropriate  support  and may be p r e s e n t e d  known s p e c i e s  from.the  characteristics  field  are the signatures  o r m e a s u r a b l e on t h e LANDSAT image a f t e r r e f e r e n c -  i n g t h e ground t r u t h to  truths obtained  The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  observable  characteristics of  ( t y p e s ) a s c l a s s i f i e r s . . The known s p e c i e s i n  c a s e were t h e g r o u n d  study.  with  illustrations.  Such a k e y u s e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  this  verbally  t o t h e images.  focus the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s  Diazo  attention  enhancement  helped  on some o f t h e s p e c t r a l  signatures. In the present was d i r e c t l y measurement  related  lished  t h e importance  to i t sr e p e a t a b i l i t y  on t h e i m a g e r y .  were n o t a s r e a d i l y a group,  study,  However,  observable  of a  classifier  o f o b s e r v a t i o n and  those  s i g n a t u r e s which  or measurable could s t i l l ,  s e r v e as c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  by t h e p r i m a r y  when i n d e c i s i o n  classifiers.  occurred  T h e y were a l s o  i n the process  o f image  as  estab-  helpful  interpre-  tation. In t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e key developed the user  that are indicative  of the o b j e c t of i n t e r e s t .  of the presence  s e t of choices.  Identi-  i s a c h i e v e d when t h e outcome i s g i v e n a s a t y p e o f T h i s key a l s o  some e x p e r i e n c e , of  o r absence  Each s u c c e s s i v e c h o i c e leads t o  an outcome t h a t i n t r o d u c e s a n o t h e r  land-use.  study,  i s r e q u i r e d t o make a c h o i c e between two c o n t r a s t i n g  classifiers  fication  for this  the user  s e r v e s as a t r a i n i n g  process.  s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e  t h e image o b j e c t s r e a d i l y  (see T a b l e  2).  After some  I t s h o u l d be  TABLE 2 DICHOTOMOUS KEY  1 2  D i s p l a y s t o n a l v a r i a t i o n s from Band to Band D i s p l a y s l i t t l e or no t o n a l v a r i a t i o n s from Band to Band 1.1 L i g h t e r tone i n Bands 4 and 5 . 1.2 Darker tones i n Bands 4 and 5 2.1 Dark o r B l a c k i n a l l Bands 2.2 L i g h t or w h i t e i n a l l Bands 1.1.1 Dark tones i n Bands 6 and 7. Shows l i t t l e t e x t u r e , l i g h t r e d d i s h brown i n d i a z o image 1.1.2 Very dark tone i n Bands 6 and 7 1.2.1 L i g h t e r tone i n Bands 6 and 7. Very d i s s e c t e d p a t t e r n , e s p e c i a l l y i n Band 5. D i s s e c t e d green and white i n d i a z o image 1.2.2 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2.1 2.2.2  Very l i g h t tone i n Bands 6 and 7. Shows v e r y l i t t l e texture. I s o l a t e d a r e a l f e a t u r e . - B r i g h t green in.diazo.image Displays texture D i s p l a y s no t e x t u r e , may c o n t a i n cloudy p a t t e r n i n Band 4 . . . Displays texture D i s p l a y s no t e x t u r e 1.2.1.1 F i n e d i s s e c t e d p a t t e r n . 1.2.1.2 Coarse d i s s e c t e d p a t t e r n 2.1.1.1 A r e a l extent constant from Band to Band 2.1.1.2 A r e a l extent d e c r e a s e s from Band 4 t o Band 7. I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; may c o n t a i n square d o t - l i k e p a t t e r n ; may be d i s s e c t e d by d e n d r i t i c p a t t e r n s . . . . 2.1.2.1 L i n e a r f e a t u r e 2.1.2.2 I s o l a t e d a r e a l f e a t u r e 2.2.1.1 C o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h i t s environment i n Bands 4 and 5 2.2.1.2 L i t t l e c o n t r a s t w i t h i t s environment i n any Band. I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; n o n - a r t i c u l a t e d and c o n t a i n s l i t t l e texture .  1.1,2 2.1, 2 1.1.1, 2 1.2.1,2 2.1.1, 2 2.2.1, 2 RANGELAND no conclusion ^ Cropped Land 1.2.1.1, 2 Improved P a s t u r e and Hay 2.1.1.1,2 2.1.2.1, 2 2.2.1.1,2 2.2.2.1,2 H o r t i c u l t u r e (orchards) other crops no conclusion  FOREST, 2.1.1.2.1, 2 r i v e r or streamC l a k e or ocean 2.2.1.1.1, 2  BARREN and EXTRACTIVE  TABLE 2  2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2  (continued)  Areal feature L i n e a l feature 2.1.1.2.1 Dark g r e e n i s h brown i n d i a z o image* . . . . 2.1.1.2.2 D u l l green i n d i a z o image . . . 2.2.1.1.1 I r r e g u l a r l y shaped; may c o n t a i n l i n e a r and/or g r i d - l i k e p a t t e r n 2.2.1.1.2 Occur i n groups of d i s t i n c t s q u a r e - l i k e shapes; o f t e n i n t e r l i n k e d by l i g h t l i n e a r f e a t u r e s ; occur w i t h i n or adjacent to l a r g e dark areas i n a l l Bands 2.2.2.1.1  A r e a l extent  decreases from Band 4 to Band 7  2.2.2.1.2 2.2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2.2  A r e a l extent constant Occurs i n s e c t i o n s of s t r a i g h t l i n e s . . . Irregular linear feature 2.2.1.1.1.1 White i n Bands 4 and 5 2.2.1.1.1.2 Grey i n Bands 4 and 5 . . . . 2.2.1.1.2.1 Very sharp boundaries . . . . 2.2.1.1.2.2 I n d i s t i n c t boundaries . . . . 2.2.2.1.1.1 White i n d i a z o image 2.2.2.1.1.2 P i n k i s h brown i n d i a z o image . 2.2.2.1.2.1 A s s o c i a t e d with some l i n e a l features 2.2.2.1.2.2 I s o l a t e d f e a t u r e  Level I identifications  (Ryerson and  2.2.2.1.1,2 2.2.2.2.1,2 mature f o r e s t immature f o r e s t URBAN 2.2.1.1.1.1, 2  logged f o r e s t 2.2.1.1.2.1, 2 snow and i c e 2.2.2.1.1.1, 2 2.2.2.1.2.1,2 power l i n e r i g h t - o f - w a y roads no conclusion Residential Recent l o g g i n g Older l o g g i n g snow pack m e l t i n g snow EXTRACTIVE (mines) Exposed Bedrock  A.  RANGELAND - r e p r e s e n t s  B.  Cropped Land - r e p r e s e n t s  C.  r i v e r or stream - r e p r e s e n t s  *  D i a z o Image - r e f e r s to the d i a z o composite of Band 5 i n green and  Level II i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  Gierman, 1975) .  (Ryerson and  Gierman, 1975).  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s not l i s t e d by Ryerson and  Gierman  (1975).  Band 7 i n r e d .  43 noted here t h a t the of  the  i n t e r p r e t e r are very  This could, flexible,  3.3  p e r h a p s , be  help  This process  appeared  delineated  areas  o v e r l a y was  and  from which the  u s e d as  field  final  key.  test  map  T h i s was  a product  as  the  from f i e l d  area).  this mission, tool )  f o r the  The of A p r i l ,  to  field  197 6.  i s the  test  from  manuscript.  i t became t h e  manuscript  (see F i g u r e  24).  Interpretations second  field or  through the  trip  information  land-use use  to  of  verify  patterns  of the  dichotomous was  a similar  insufficient key  only  area  evidence,  with-  itself  a  was  imagery.  conducted during and  was  d i c h o t o m o u s key  a n a l y s i s o f LANDSAT  access  exercised  b a s i s from which a c o l o r  i n d i c a t e whether the  Field  test  image w h i c h  t o 1:500,000  produced  T h e r e was  work was  the  Judgement was  land-cover  obtained  on  the  and  another.  the  was  processing.  p e r f o r m e d on  areas  e s s e n t i a l because the  derived  (the t r a i n i n g  valid  to the i n -  Manuscript  enlarged  of the  o b j e c t i v e of  area  the  checking,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the the  compared  enhancement t e c h n i q u e  This overlay  Verification  The the  print  produced.  After editing  Field  was  Test  signatures.  f r o m one  A photographic Band 5 n e g a t i v e  the  image t y p i n g was  t o have s i m i l a r  segregating  3.4  capabilities  i n e x e r c i s e s of t h i s type.  advantage as  of the d i a z o  d i c h o t o m o u s key,  area.  out  important  Image I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  the  of  an  learning  " o b j e c t i v e " approach t o automated data  With the  in  i n t e r p r e t i v e and  the  latter  half  p r o c e d u r e s were s i m i l a r  to  44  test F i g u r e 24:  T h e m a n u s c r i p t ( o r i g i n a l l y c o m p i l e d a t t h e s c a l e of 1:500,000, reproduced a t t h e s c a l e of 1:1,000,000) y  45  those the  for  the  southern  This  area  training exercise. Okanagan V a l l e y  contains  the  The a r e a  and the  Regional  covered  included  Similkameen River  D i s t r i c t s of  valley.  Southern  Okanagan and O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n . The a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s trips  to  the  sub-regions  verifications  and  and c o m p a r i s o n o f by the  local For  of  the  corrections the  test  of  area,  the  manuscript  the  the  of  scale  posite  last  writer  which  purpose,  with  the  Criteria  map a r e  (1976,  p.  error,  sources field  of  similar  Regional  field  ground discussions,  maps  produced  to  671)  as  field  establish  manuscript with  well  as  a  (see  accuracy  degree of  d e l i n e a t i o n and  in  are  time  of  The an  error  and  series com-  criteria  imagein  field  location error.  in  25).  image  verification. of  classification error,  lag error  kind  a  Figure  i d e n t i f i e d three main types  They a r e :  office  small-scale  verification.  the  the  and c o n t r o l p o i n t error  the  District  They were most  had c o m p i l e d  of  i n type  t h a t may o c c u r . line  maps  essentially  interpretation, Hord  compare  land-use  o n e may u s e  derived  to  their o f f i c e  3.4.1 that  direct  manuscript,  O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n was v i s i t e d .  large  included  authorities.  allowing  error boundary  Additional  sampling bias  in  verification. Control  the  of  exercise  map  feature.  point  error  l o c a t i o n and the In  the  present  refers  true  to  the  location of  study,  the  discrepancy an  between  identifiable  control points  are  known  46  t o be i n e r r o r  s i n c e t h e image f r o m w h i c h t h e t e s t  was d e r i v e d h a s a s t a t e d Further, formly  geometric  distortion  Boundary l i n e  error  throughout  refers  unavoidable  generalisation  graphic r e s o l u t i o n  (1:500,000).  I t i s caused  by t h e  At this would  s u c h a s t h e one scale, the  entail  an e r r o r  500 m on t h e g r o u n d . T h e s e two t y p e s o f e r r o r  relation There  o f the typed  prevent  image t o g r o u n d a r e a s  a p o i n t - b y - p o i n t comparison  f o r checking.  between t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  t h e ground o b s e r v a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h  image  the accurate cor-  i s no p h y s i c a l means by w h i c h one c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y  perform and  t h e image.  a t small scales  m i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e b o u n d a r y by 1 mm of  uni-  i n mapping and by t h e l i m i t o f  especially  i n t h e p r e s e n t map  occurs  to the misrepresentation  or misplacement o f the type boundaries.  used  o f up t o 10 km.  i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r t h i s d i s t o r t i o n  i n magnitude or d i r e c t i o n  manuscript  the accuracy of the  classifications. The  difficult  test  s i t e was s u f f i c i e n t l y  to completely  survey the e n t i r e  to s t a t i s t i c a l l y  establish  interpretations,  one must r a n d o m l y  for v e r i f i c a t i o n . was i m p r a c t i c a l the f i e l d a valid  large  that  area.  i t was In order  the "confidence l e v e l " select  o f the  a set of targets  However, s u c h a s e t o f random t a r g e t s  f o r the present study  a r e a s was b i a s e d toward  since the access t o  the road  network.  s e t o f random t a r g e t s and a way t o p e r f o r m  b y - p o i n t comparison,  any s t a t i s t i c a l  accuracy or confidence l e v e l  Without a point-  means o f e s t i m a t i n g t h e  o f t h e map was  inapplicable.  47  At  the  small  s c a l e at which the  map  was  compiled,  c e r t a i n w h e t h e r s u c h a t e s t was  influenced  of  accurary  the  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r by  target  locations.  image d a t e (April,  was  could  script of  use  are  to  the manuscript  anticipated was  ciently  difficulty that  irrigated  of  and  could  nature  l a g between  criteria  present the  a l s o be  not  manucomparison  Despite  i n the  the  field,  pasture  (Improved  For  targets  could  that be  in  identified  a l a n d mark  the  log-  degree  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  quantity of  with  for  with a reasonable  a n t i c i p a t e d , the  was  identi-  i n c l u s t e r s , s u c h as was  a  posi-  t h a t were m i x e d  cause d i f f i c u l t y  there  random, and  land  example,  pasture)  a river  i t  suffi-  l o c a t e d near a prominent verified.  that  already  the  and  the  date  only  verification.  smaller  of  a s i m i l a r nature.  l a r g e t o a r r i v e a t some k i n d level.  the  The  field  and  However, as  t h e s e t a r g e t s was  confidence  i n the  Land-use t h a t o c c u r r e d  certainty.  ficiently  accuracy of  land-use types did  c l e a r i n g s , provided  reference,  time  period.  i n a d i s t i n c t meander o f  several other  ging  identified  identified,  fication.  this  field  i f i t were  large  tively  accuracy  i f a t a r g e t were homogeneous and  be  "contained"  and  in locating targets  mark, i t c o u l d of  the  more by  months, some l a n d - u s e s may  during  of  un-  verification  t o e x i s t i n g maps o f  l a r g e and  field  field  observations  Results  discovered  the  e s t a b l i s h the  general  3.4.2  and  some 22  have been t r a n s f o r m e d one  In a d d i t i o n , the  ( J u l y , 1974)  1976)  the  i t was  was  not  statistical  suf-  48  Another  finding  from  the f i e l d  e x e r c i s e was  that  some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were n o t c o r r e c t a t L e v e l I I b u t were correct and  a t L e v e l I i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Gierman,  1975).  hierarchy  F o r example, v i n e y a r d s were  with orchards although they both belong  to the  group.  This introduced  problem  "degree  of r e s o l u t i o n "  ing.  Given the requirements  point  o f view,  was  ally key  found  an  that  additional  t h a t one  a c c u r a c y a t L e v e l I may  It  the  be  should adopt  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be  of  the check-  land-use  from  a  correct  d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e number o f s t e p s i n t h e through which the  map,  statistical at a l l l e v e l  interpretations  gener-  dichotomous  evolved.  I n o t h e r word  p o o r e r as t h e key was  pur-  further. It  mapped  was  from  also discovered that  these  p a t t e r n s agree  l a n d - u s e map  examined  Okanagan-Similkameen  derived  results,  from  i n the Regional D i s t r i c t (see F i g u r e  steps through indicated  Specific t h e key that  field  composite Office  of  verifications.  that  the  are c o r r e c t  interpretations  t e n d t o be  In g e n e r a l ,  25).  i t was d e t e r m i n e d  t h e d i c h o t o m o u s key  generalities.  truthful.  q u i t e well with the  3.4.3. C o n c l u s i o n s from the f i e l d  the land-use p a t t e r n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was  the r e g i o n a l  cise  horticulture  the accuracy of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  t h e a c c u r a c y became p r o g r e s s i v e l y sued  but  confused  in field  of a generalized  sufficient;  (Ryerson  From  interpretations only i n t h e i r  d e r i v e d a f t e r many  inexact.  i t i s indeed f e a s i b l e  The  mapping  to compile  exer-  land-use  BUILT UP AREAS MINES, QUARRIES, GRAVEL PITS ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS OPEN GRASSLAND ROCKS, OTHER UNVEGETATED SURFACES SWAMPS, MARSH, BOG OUTDOOR RECREATION IMPROVED PASTURE, FORAGE CROPS SANDFLATS, DUNES, BEACHES PRODUCTIVE WOODLAND NON-PRODUCTIVE WOODLAND WATER  F i g u r e 25: Land-use Map o f Okanagan-Similkameen. (By R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f Okanagan-Similkameen P l a n n i n g Department.) (Reproduced a t t h e s c a l e o f 1:1,000,000.)  4^  50  information  f r o m LANDSAT, b u t o n l y  i n general  terms.  From t h e c o m p a r i s o n between t h e c o m p o s i t e map by t h e Regional script  District  o f O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n and t h e t e s t  by t h e w r i t e r , e s p e c i a l l y  information required  i n t e r m s o f t h e amount o f  s u c h s m a l l - s c a l e maps c a n c o n t a i n  for their  compilation,  LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r o u t e time r e q u i r e d .  can y i e l d  much l e s s  with  which l a n d - u s e changes can occur  comparable  When one c o n s i d e r s  the cartographer  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f LANDSAT i m a g e r y i s more  is The  that  t o keep up w i t h  t h e mapping,  i s a l s o apparent to the w r i t e r that o f t h e l a n d - u s e map d e r i v e d  i t i s n o t b a s e d on a v e r i f i a b l e  skill  i n the presentation  t h e speed required perhaps  efficient. the  important  f r o m LANDSAT  i n t e r p r e t e r ' s knowledge o f h i s s t u d y  graphic  results  and t h e t i m e  for  limitation  and t h e t i m e  the w r i t e r contends that the  with  It  manu-  image  set of information. area  and t h e c a r t o -  can i n f l u e n c e the  impression  t h e map may make. The required If  this  w r i t e r contends t h a t the c a r t o g r a p h i c  f o r LANDSAT i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s t h a t o f g e n e r a l i s a t i o n . treatment  c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d the  treatment  i s administered  properly,  regional  patterns  and a t t h e same t i m e t h e i n e x a c t n e s s  d e t a i l e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s rendered  less offensive.  of  51  CHAPTER 4  REFINEMENT OF BY  As this map  stated  s t u d y was  THE  GENERALISATION  i n s e c t i o n 1.1,  to attempt  for  so  that  the  i t s intended  script  interpretation  4.1  that  Problem Areas The  require  types.  ing  area  can  make d i s t i n c t i o n s and  exceeded tation area  the  where t h e  the  of  i s the  the  intensive  snow and and  the  i n the  study of  LANDSAT image.  t r a i n i n g area  of  one  This  and  LANDSAT  solution.  the  and  f o r e s t and  trainthat  that  he  have  Over-interpre-  than  i n the  test  t e s t area.  open g r a z i n g  land,  mature t i m b e r l a n d .  O t h e r s were f o u n d t o be  land-  the Thus,  d i s t i n c t i o n made between  t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s were f o u n d t o be  consistent.  t e s t manu-  over-confidence of  f i n d s the  i c e packs, range land  water courses,  the  be  accuracy  interpreter considers  study area.  test-manuscript,  the  to  over-abundance of  i n t e r p r e t e r d o e s , however, c a r r y o v e r t o t h e in  in  produce i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  r e s o l u t i o n of  portion of  Inspection  of  land-use  expected  acceptable  g e n e r a l i s a t i o n as  i s a r e s u l t of  i s more s e v e r e  objectives  s e v e r a l problems i n the  problem area  point  the  Test-Manuscript  use  to the  p r o d u c t was  are  i n the  first This  final  there  of  G e n e r a l i s a t i o n was  applications.  showed t h a t  one  to produce a g e n e r a l i s e d  f r o m LANDSAT i m a g e r y .  applied  TEST MANUSCRIPT  fairly  Some  accurate  inaccurate  or  swamps  and  inconsistent.  52  For  example, f o r e s t  well,  and m a t u r e t i m b e r l a n d were  while the d i s t i n c t i o n  l e s s than convincing. grouping  between snow and i c e p a c k s i s  This situation  c a n be c o r r e c t e d by  snow and i c e t o g e t h e r . Not  emphasized ating  identified  o n l y a r e some o f t h e t y p e d i s t i n c t i o n s by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r ;  them a r e i n d i s t i c t  over-  some o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s  i n nature.  separ-  As i n t h e c a s e o f f o r e s t  v e r s u s m a t u r e t i m b e r l a n d , t h e change f r o m one t y p e t o t h e other  i s more o f a t r a n s i t i o n  ever,  some b o u n d a r i e s  agricultural  land  and d e c i s i v e . In highly  t h a n an a b r u p t c h a n g e .  ( s u c h as t h e one between  and open g r a z i n g l a n d )  the manuscript,  irregular  do a p p e a r  the type boundaries  and c o n v o l u t e d , b u t f r o m  This i s probably a r e s u l t  (i.e.,  t h e arrangement o f the p i x e l s  t h e imagery) which has a d i r e c t type boundaries  extracted.  t o be  ground o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  of the p i x e l  i n appear-  structure  and t h e s c a n l i n e s i n  i n f l u e n c e on the c o n f i g u r a t i o n A g e n e r a l i s a t i o n of the type  of Generalisation  To d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m  of the over-abundance o f  land-use or land-cover types, a combination  data i n t o  sharp  seems t o be c a l l e d f o r .  4.2 T e c h n i q u e s  types i n t o  t o be  appear  are less dramatic  ance.  boundaries  irrigated  T h i s c o n d i t i o n c a n be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f i n a l map.  many o f t h e s e t y p e b o u n d a r i e s  of  How-  a single larger,  type  i s essential.  more m a n a g e a b l e u n i t s .  of the related  T h i s condenses the Table 3 l i s t s the  g e n e r a l i s e d c a t e g o r i e s from t h e o r i g i n a l l a n d - u s e c o v e r t y p e s .  53  TABLE 3 GENERALISED CATEGORIES VERSUS ORIGINAL CATEGORIES  Original categories (from d i c h o t o m o u s key)  Generalised  URBAN Residential  URBAN  b  Cropped Land Improved P a s t u r e Horticulture other crops  categories  IMPROVED AGRICULTURE and Hay  FOREST  c immature f o r e s t mature f o r e s t  FOREST  MATURE  TIMBERLAND  logged f o r e s t recent logging older logging  LOGGING  RANGELAND  RANGELAND AND ROUGH PASTURE LAND  BARREN and EXTRACTIVE extractive  OPEN P I T EXTRACTIVE  r i v e r o r stream l a k e o r ocean  WATER BODIES  snow and i c e snow p a c k m e l t i n g snow  SNOW AND I C E  roads power l i n e right-of-way Exposed Bedrock  Omitted  a URBAN r e p r e s e n t s L e v e l I i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , b Residential represents Level II i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , c immature f o r e s t represents i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s not l i s t e d R y e r s o n and Gierman (1975)  by  54  Land-use l e n d s i t s e l f This  s i m p l e map f o r m m e r e l y  within their  boundaries.  well  t o c h o r o p l e t h mapping.  symbolizes  the land-use  O f t e n , t h e use o f symbols i s  n e c e s s a r y o n l y f o r t h e sake o f c l a r i t y . ing colours further  improves  contrasting made t h a t other.  The u s e o f c o n t r a s t -  legibility.  However, t h e d a t a b o u n d a r i e s manner s u g g e s t  represented i n this  a b r u p t c h a n g e s f r o m one t y p e  c o l o u r s a r e used,  the land-use  T h i s i s perhaps  the a d d i t i o n a l  to the next.  If  suggestion i s  types a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e o f each the case  f o r several  ( f o r example, a g r i c u l t u r e v e r s u s u r b a n ) . t h i s has been o b s e r v e d  types  of the types  But f o r other  t o be t h e o p p o s i t e  ( f o r example,  types forest  v e r s u s mature t i m b e r l a n d ) . A way t o c i r c u m v e n t  t h i s problem  e n t t o n e s o f t h e same c o l o u r t o r e l a t e d Further, by  i s to apply land-use  i f t h e two t y p e s a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m  To  each  render a complicated l i n e  cartographer often treatment  o f such  the coast l i n e  appear of t h i s  faces.  symbol  line  Many w r i t e r s  into  a simpler a  have d i s c u s s e d t h e t h e example  i t s c o m p l e x i t y c o u l d be made t o  'appropriate' at various scales. subject i s offered  so t h a t  i s a problem  symbols - o f t e n t h r o u g h  - so t h a t  other  i s gained.  f o r m and n o t t o d e s t r o y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  types.  an a b r u p t c h a n g e , t h e t y p e l i n e may be o m i t t e d  the impression o f a gradual t r a n s i t i o n  differ-  by Pannekoek  A notable (1962).  treatment  In the  55  present exercise, Applying script  heavy r e l i a n c e  4.3 The G e n e r a l i s e d Limitations  i n t o t h e f i n a l map  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e not  i n more d e t a i l e d maps o f l a r g e r  However, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f maps o f t h i s t y p e made w i t h o u t The be  likely  should  s h o u l d be aware t h a t  n o t be  s u c h a map s h o u l d n o t  l i n e a r o r a r e a l measurements.  t o be a c c u r a t e enough f o r s t a t i s t i c a l  such small  projection to  user  scales.  cautions.  used f o r e i t h e r  not At  some  and  LANDSAT l a n d - u s e map p r o v i d e s a c o n -  venient overview o f r e g i o n a l apparent  t h e manu-  (see F i g u r e 26).  Land-Use Map - A p p l i c a t i o n s  generalized  immediately  on h i s methods.  the techniques of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n ,  i s transformed  The  i s placed  scales,  errors.  prevent r e l i a b l e  any map i s a l s o  Areal  very  d i s t o r t i o n s could  comparisons even w i t h i n  They a r e comparisons.  sensitive to be s e v e r e t h e map  enough  format  itself. Another precaution attention are that  of the user  necessarily  that  i s that  omitted  s h o u l d be b r o u g h t t o t h e  t h e map i s g e n e r a l i s e d .  as a r e s u l t .  Readers a r e reminded  s u c h d e t a i l w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e o n l y  larger  scale.  Details  i n a map o f much  57  CHAPTER 5  CONCLUSIONS  To  conclude  the study,  b e g i n n i n g must be a n s w e r e d . source  for  everday  time  i n this use?  study  data?  o f Land-Use D a t a  LANDSAT, w h i c h c a n n o t  the m u l t i - s p e c t r a l  coverage  of t h i s  produces data  system  unmatched by c o n v e n t i o n a l s y s t e m s .  u s e r r e q u i r e s r e s o l u t i o n which enables ments o r o t h e r q u a n t i t a t i v e  advan-  However, i f t h e  h i m t o make m e a s u r e -  comparisons,  LANDSAT i m a g e r y i s  inadequate. the user  i s interested  only i n extracting  i n f o r m a t i o n , LANDSAT i s most u s e f u l ,  simple  interpretation  qualitative  which  Certainly,  introduces  tative  is  be c o n s i d e r e d  exceeds t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f i t s d e v e l o p e r s .  If  save  maps?  as a h i g h - r e s o l u t i o n s y s t e m , n o n e t h e l e s s  presently  suitable  u s e f u l n e s s o f LANDSAT d a t a d e p e n d s o n t h e  i n t e n t i o n s o f the user.  tages  suitable  Does LANDSAT image i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  5.1 LANDSAT a s a S o u r c e  far  a t the  Are the interpretation  a d e q u a t e and a r e t h e y  i n p r e p a r i n g r e g i o n a l land-use  The  asked  I s LANDSAT i m a g e r y a  o f s m a l l - s c a l e land-use  methods u s e d  the questions  a i d s a r e employed  interpretations.  accumulated  f o r the study  Moreover,  quali-  especially i f  to help i f field  i n making experience  r e g i o n , many o f t h e f e a t u r e s  r e c o r d e d o n t h e image c a n be i d e n t i f i e d  confidently.  58  5.2 A d e q u a c y a n d A p p l i c a b i l i t y One need  only  from t h e imagery  of Interpretation  t o examine t h e t e s t m a n u s c r i p t c o m p i l e d  t o be a s s u r e d o f t h e a d e q u a c y  p r e t i v e method d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s  study:  that  Moreover,  imagery. good  t o produce t h e  some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  i t c a n n o t be e x t r a c t e d  of the i n t e r -  t h e manuscript con-  t a i n s much more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n i s r e q u i r e d f i n a l map.  Methods  i s unique i n  f r o m any o t h e r r e m o t e  sensor  The c a t e g o r i e s o f snow v e r s u s t h e i c e p a c k  isa  example. To  answer t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a p p l i c a b i l i t y ,  more c o m p l i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d .  To g a i n  accep-  t a n c e , a n e w method must be s i m p l e enough t h a t a p e r s o n w i t h a s u i t a b l e background  can t r a i n  information quickly.  T h i s assumption  ability study, is  o f imagery  sufficient  t o attempt  reports  5.3 E f f i c i e n c y The thesis.  cedures  quality  question relates  f o r compiling  manuscripts only the r e q u i r e d  field  from  until  procedure.  LANDSAT  to the basic that  premise o f  the usual  small-scale  f i n a l map.  b a s e s u c h a s LANDSAT i m a g e r y c o u l d  drastically A less produce  pro-  i n that  to compile the l a r g e - s c a l e  t o be g e n e r a l i s e d  It  there are  l a n d - u s e maps i s i n e f f i c i e n t  i s required  i n this  experience.  from persons a t t e m p t i n g t h i s  The w r i t e r h a s c o n t e n d e d  t o o much e f f o r t  t o t h a t used  s u c h an e v a l u a t i o n  o f L a n d - U s e Mapping  third  t o be a b l e t o e x t r a c t  i s based on t h e a v a i l -  and an i n t e r p r e t e r w i t h s i m i l a r  premature  this  o f comparable  himself  base  t o produce  refined  data  comparable  results  59  f o r l e s s work. Comparison o f the f i n a l g e n e r a l i s e d land-use map d e r i v e d from LAND SAT  imagery with the r e g i o n a l land-use maps  produced by c o m p i l a t i o n  from l a r g e - s c a l e documents such as  the one by the Regional  D i s t r i c t o f Okanagan-Similkameen  r e v e a l s few shortcomings i n the LANDSAT d e r i v e d map a t the a p p r o p r i a t e l y g e n e r a l i s e d l e v e l .  Although no a c t u a l  man-hour f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e on the time spent i n the compilation  o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l  map, i t i s estimated  to be  much longer than the time r e q u i r e d t o compile a s i m i l a r map from a LANDSAT image, e s p e c i a l l y when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t the conventional  map r e q u i r e d many f i e l d  seasons and the p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s and that i t o n l y covers of the ground area.  half  Thus, the e f f i c i e n c y o f LANDSAT image  interpretation i s substantiated. I t should  a l s o be noted t h a t the assessment o f the  adequacy o f the LANDSAT map i s r e l a t e d t o the e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y o f the p a r t i c u l a r image used i n t h i s study.  If  comparable image q u a l i t y i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r other  regions,  the same r e s u l t s may n o t be p o s s i b l e . statements concerning  Again, more c o n c l u s i v e  t h i s c o n t e n t i o n must be generated  from s u f f i c i e n t r e p o r t s from other experimenters. hoped t h a t s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w i l l be forthcoming the w r i t e r ' s  contention.  It i s  t o support  60  BIBLIOGRAPHY  American  S o c i e t y o f Photogrammetry (ASP). 1975. "Manual o f Remote S e n s i n g . " ASP, F a l l s C h u r c h , V i r g i n i a .  A n d e r s o n , J . R.; H a r d y , Z. E . and Roach, J . T. 1972. "A L a n d - u s e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S y s t e m f o r Use w i t h Remote Sensor Data." USGS C i r c u l a r 671, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. A n d e r s o n , J . R.; H a r d y , Z. E . and Roach, J . T. 1973. "Land u s e a n a l y s i s w i t h Remote S e n s o r d a t a . 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P h o t o g r a m m e t r i c E n g i n e e r i n g and Remote S e n s i n g . May, 1975, pp. 621-635.  65  APPENDIX Standard  Names o f L a n d - u s e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( R y e r s o n and G i e r m a n , 1975)  Level I  Level I I  URBAN  Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Medium D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Commercial Industrial C o m m e r c i a l and I n d u s t r i a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and U t i l i t i e s Open Space a n d R e c r e a t i o n  IMPROVED AGRICULTURE  Cropped Land Improved P a s t u r e and Hay Horticulture Farmsteads and A g r i c u l t u r a l Buildings  RANGELAND AND ROUGH PASTURELAND  FOREST  Coniferous D e c i d u o u s and M a t u r e Mixed  Orchards  WETLANDS  BARREN AND EXTRACTIVE  Level Level  I - recommended  Sand, G r a v e l a n d O t h e r Open Pit Extractive Sand S l a g and T a i l i n g P i l e s Exposed Bedrock  f o r use w i t h  satellite  imagery.  I I - recommended f o r u s e w i t h h i g h a l t i t u d e a i r b o r n e c o l o u r imagery.  L A N D - U S E  • T H O M P S O N ,  N I C O L A ,  O K A N A G A N S I M I L K A M E E N  A N D R E G I O N S  1974  20  10  I : 500000 30  40  KILOMETRES  URBAN IMPROVED AGRICULTURE MATURE  TIMBERLAND  FOREST LOGGING R A N G E L A N D , R O U G H PASTURELAND OPEN WATER  PIT EXTRACTIVE BODIES  S N O W and ICE ( JUNE )  50  

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