Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tellers and their tales in The studhorse man and Prochain épisode Wright, Claire Anne 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1979_A8 W75.pdf [ 3.06MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094735.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094735-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094735-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094735-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094735-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094735-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094735-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094735-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094735.ris

Full Text

TELLERS  AND THEIR TALES  IN  THE-STUDHORSE- MAN  AND PROCHAIN EPISODE  by C L A I R E ANNE WRIGHT B.A.,  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL THE  1972  FULFILLMENT  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES COMPARATIVE LITERATURE PROGRAMME  We a c c e p t t h i s to  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May,  ©  1979  C l a i r e Anne W r i g h t ,  1979.  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I further for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  this  thesis for  It  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  B P 7S-5I 1 E  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and this  that  not  copying or  for that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  Department  the requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  i s understood  permission.  of  extensive copying of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  written  DE-6  of  freely available for  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  PAGES INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER ONE:  THE NARRATORS AND THEIR HEROES.  CHAPTER TWO:  THE  CHAPTER THREE:  THE DOUBLE NARRATIVE STRUCTURE.  CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY  POET:  LOVER AND MADMAN.  .  . . .  . . . . . . .  9 29  .  45 63 68  1.  INTRODUCTION  Until field  very r e c e n t l y ,  comparative  w h i c h was r e l a t i v e l y i g n o r e d  critics.  A number  of a r t i c l e s  by b o t h  a n d books  such t o p i c s as the l i t e r a t u r e o f French Canada, until  French  l i t e r a t u r e had been a and E n g l i s h  the l a s t decade, Beginning  Canada,  the l i t e r a t u r e of  book l e n g t h c o m p a r a t i v e as Ronald  Sutherland  4 (1971),  ( 1 9 7 1 1 * and 1 9 7 7 2 ) ,  a n d M a r g a r e t Atwood  which represent the f i r s t attempts and F r e n c h , descriptive,  p o s i t a number thematic,  "Canadian"  l i t e r a t u r e by s u c h  D.G.  5 (1972 ) .  Jones  (19703),  Canadian w r i t i n g  approaches to Canadian  sociological,  of  critics  Northrop  These c o m p a r a t i v e  t o examine  of d i f f e r e n t  political,  English  s i x t i e s , t h e r e appeared a f l u r r y  s t u d i e s of Canadian  with  l i t e r a t u r e , but  t h e r e was a d e a r t h o f s t u d i e s a b o u t i n the late  Canadian  had been p u b l i s h e d d e a l i n g  p r a i r i e l i t e r a t u r e o r even w e s t e r n Canadian  literature.  Frye  Canadian  studies, in English literature:  g e n e r i c or s t r u c t u r a l ,  and a d d r e s s r e a d e r s h i p s w h i c h range f r o m t h e i n i t i a t e t o t h e s c h o l a r .  *  A l t h o u g h S e c o n d Image was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 1 , a number o f c h a p t e r s appeared a s a r t i c l e s and a d d r e s s e s i n t h e s i x t i e s .  2.  The  two  novels  Prochain Episode  by H u b e r t A q u i n  Man by R o b e r t K r o e t s c h may be c o m p a r e d  i n terms of  proposed  by t h e s e c r i t i c s .  might  products  of  colonial  - w h i c h s h a p e and d e t e r m i n e  regarded  as c h r o n i c l e s o f  novel, rural  his  agrarian this  free  spirit,  succeeds  new e r a s  things,  society to  their  with  an u r b a n  that  impotent after  in putting  the  of  and  the  unrest. violent  Prochain manifesto  dissatisfied  with  of the  can b e ,  the young state  of  t e r r o r i s m and v i o l e n c e a s t h e  or may  be  prairie  illus-  the  The  (who  v i o l e n c e and  his province, the  eventually serving  i n Quebec:  who,  named,  Canadian  has been r e a d  b e s t means t o c h a n g e  is  and who  French  a new e r a  trailing  fertilizing  p o s i t i o n of  Quebec r e v o l u t i o n a r y , in  The  Kroetsch  Demeter,  anomalous  indeed-often  affairs  frontier  as  t r a n s i s t i o n from a  consciousness, a period of  Episode  theories  both n o v e l s  fertility)  s t e r i l e commercial w o r l d .  political  the  v i r i l e studhorseman,  the c o r n goddess of i n the  Studhorse  instance,  history.  the  man,  c a n be s e e n a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e e m e r g e n c e o f heightened  either  who r e p r e s e n t s  and u n f r u i t f u l  studhorse  -  i n d u s t r i a l west.  b l u e - b l a c k mustang,  enough,  infertility  of  be s e e n f o r  i n Canadian  i s a testimony  some o f  content;  t r a n s i t i o n when he r e p l a c e s t h e  spirited  ironically  novels  s p e c i f i c a l l y Canadian environments  among o t h e r  trates  The  and The  a  novel time  ebullient  as a  passionately advocates  political  situation:  Le temps s e r a venu de t u e r e t c e l u i , p l u s i m p e r i e u x e n c o r e , d'organiser la destruction selon les doctrines antiques et les c a n o n s de l a g u e r i l l a s a n s nom.1 If faudra remplacer les buttes p a r l e m e n t a i r e s p a r l a g u e r r e ct m o r t . Apr&s deux s i ^ c l e s d ' a g o n i e , nous f e r o n s e ' c l a t e r l a v i o l e n c e d e r e g l e ' e . . .  3.  A n o t h e r p r e v a l e n t theme i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e  frequently  a n a l y z e d by t h e c o u n t r y ' s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s i n one format o r a n o t h e r ,  is  the much d i s c u s s e d q u e s t i o n o f the F r e n c h / E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t - the two solitudes,  t h a t p e r v a s i v e "body odour o f r a c e " ^ .  A l t h o u g h the French/  E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t i s not a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n The Studhorse Man, t h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e o f i t i n the n o v e l .  The hero o f the novel i s named Hazard  Lepage, a n d , we are t o l d , i s descended from a Rimouski f a m i l y whose s e i g n e u r y was e s t a b l i s h e d on the shores o f the S t . H a z a r d ' s b i o g r a p h e r , Demeter, s t a t e s :  Lawrence i n 1660.  " A l l i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t  Lepages o f Rimouski were g r e a t dreamers about the f u t u r e :  the  c e t t e mauvaise  g h a b i t u d e q u i separe l e s F r a n c a i s des A n g l a i s . "  Hazard i s  frequently  s u b j e c t to i n s u l t from the p r a i r i e people and i s v a r i o u s l y r e v i l e d as a "pea-soup l o a f e r " and a "damned coward f r o g " ; even Demeter, when e x t r e m e l y overwrought,  r e s o r t s to c a l l i n g him a " s u p e r s t i t i o u s f r o g "  (p.139).  W h i l e K r o e t s c h i n c l u d e s such s u g g e s t i v e d e t a i l s as the w a l l s o f H a z a r d ' s house were " p a t t e r n e d w h i t e and b l u e and g o l d , w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g l i o n s and f l e u r de l i s " ( p . 1 0 ) , the F r e n c h / E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t i s not developed i n The Studhorse Man i n t o a n y t h i n g s t r o n g e r than a minor t e n s i o n which f u r t h e r s the sense o f a l i e n a t i o n o f the hero from those around him.  The F r e n c h / E n g l i s h c o n f l i c t i n P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e , on the  o t h e r hand, i s developed and e x p l o r e d to a much l a r g e r e x t e n t , i n f a c t c o n s t i t u t e one o f the major i s s u e s o f the n o v e l .  and does  In the p r e f a c e  to the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the n o v e l , Ronald S u t h e r l a n d suggests  that  P r o c h a i n Episode may be r e a d a l l e g o r i c a l l y : w i t h K r e p r e s e n t i n g Quebec; the n a r r a t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the young Quebecker; enemy,  r e p r e s e n t i n g E n g l i s h Canada.  and H.de  Heutz, his  The two men's b a t t l e to possess K  4.  is  seen as s y m b o l i c of  control  of  the  province,  self-confidence problems of  the  current  struggle  w h i l e the  between  narrator's  problems  and i n c a p a c i t y t o a c t a r e a l l  French  the  two f o r c e s of  related to  Canada w h i c h s o c i o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s  for  "identity,  of  collective have  been  commenting  g on f o r  years."  the n a r r a t o r  Sutherland  i s p o s s i b l y an a l l u s i o n t o  Quebec p o p u l a c e t o nature of  of  the  the novel  support  is  i n d i c a t i v e of  While  in  Studhorse the  novels,  regional  these  regions.  tragic Ross,  of  "engagement"  Rene D u c h a r m e .  the adventure  important  of  of  their  in  that  the  both  two  particular  Claude Jasmin or the  and r o m a n c e o f  the  novels  lyricism  o r Roch  from of  Carrier,  black despairing the  bleak,  Grove or S i n c l a i r  the Canadian formula  c e r t a i n novels  are  environments.  The S t u d h o r s e Man s h a r e s some o f Frederick  part  comparison  novels  other  Marie-Claire Blais  the f i c t i o n s of  e l e g i a c s t r a i n of  exists  area of  c o n t a i n s elements of  v i o l e n c e of  narrator  them.  they share c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s with  brutal  complex  (and c e r t a i n l y a much l a r g e r  has been o b s e r v e d  of  the  and t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p that  c o n f l i c t plays a part  of  the  Heutz  in a u t h o r i t y over  v e r y much p r o d u c t s  undercurrents  and t h e  It  Prochain Episode  the  political  sickness  novels.  double-cross  f a i l u r e of  between H.de  i s b y no means t h e most  novels,  Anne H e b e r t , the  French/English  K's  F r o n t and t h a t  k i n d of  and t h e p e o p l e  it  t h e two  regional  the  Man and P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e  latter),  between  As  the  exists  that  the general  the L i b e r a t i o n  relationship that  between Quebeckers  The  g o e s on t o s u g g e s t  by Margaret  westerns  Laurence  or  5.  Rudy Wiebe. tinctly  Although  regional  f r o m and a b o u t the in  novels  the  and A q u i n  the  narrators mythic  Both  exposes  novels  alleviate  allegedly record,  s h i f t i n g from the  of  other  writing  *  of  perhaps  w h a t most  their  literature. artificers -  of  past  invent,  tale)  tales,  As a r e s u l t , Borges, not  structurally,  certain  Both  are actions.  environments, about  love-hate  heroes  relationship.  technique  (a  i n two w a y s :  h e r o and n a r r a t o r composition  and A q u i n  i s that  trends  who  their  stories  narrative  narrative  Canadian w r i t e r s  novels  criminal  which f u n c t i o n s  process of  dis-  counterparts.  tedium of  distinguishes Kroetsch  regional  is characterized  a double  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  other  by n a r r a t o r - m a d m e n *  oppressive  but  t e l l e r to  contemporary  stories,  western  regional  as a r e s u l t  make u s e o f  paradoxical  Perhaps  local  their  and w i t h  d i m e n s i o n , w i t h whom t h e y e n j o y a c u r i o u s  s e r v e s as a p a r a d i g m f o r  majority  each o t h e r  related  the  with  are  l o c a t i o n , t h e m a t i c a l l y and  t h e y do w i t h  institutions  K r o e t s c h and A q u i n  constant  Episode  and do s h a r e common f e a t u r e s  write  to  Man and P r o c h a i n  i n common w i t h  i n mental  a vain e f f o r t  Studhorse  same g e o g r a p h i c  have more  imprisoned  of  novels  European f i c t i o n than  Kroetsch  In  The  it  and itself.  from  the  they  situate  their  i n t h e much w i d e r  context  of  t h e i r work  Nabokov,  more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s  Robbe-Gri1 l e t  o n l y by i t s  awareness  of  or Butor  -  that  whose  and c o n c e r n  with  For other " e c c e n t r i c " n a r r a t o r s i n recent Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , s e e t h e n a r r a t o r o f B e a u t i f u l L o s e r s , Ramsay i n F i f t h B u s i n e s s , P a u l i n e i n M a n u s c r i t s de P a u l i n e A r c h a n g e , B e r e n i c e i n L ' A v a l e e d e s a v a l e e s , Galarneau in Salut Galarneau.  6.  the forms that  it  and c o n v e n t i o n s  and t o  the  forms  In a r e c e n t Stratford  spoke to  careful  comparisons  a n d The  a very  apparent  a v e i n of  novel than  is  "to  are going  compares  pull  to  the  other  comic s i t u a t i o n s which pervades  hand, His  quite  Philip liter-  the  Rather,  novel,  "other  apparent"  Although  absurd or h i s humour  and  the  is  the  uses that Aquin's  solipsistic  through  the  use  of  ridiculous  is intellectual,  is parodic,  puns  o n l y elements  which serve  to  d e s p a i r and  things  (p.49).  melancholy,  there  playfulness  s e r i o u s " , Kroetsch the  Episode  There  a comic  novel  of  First,  novels.  i s n o t made e v i d e n t  a sense of  the  respects.  as  remarkable  Prochain  Mark T w a i n ^ .  then  make t h e m s e l v e s  sombre a t m o s p h e r e  creation.  many  between  t h e two  Kroetsch's  i n " , so t h a t  novel.  Despite  i n two  " c l o w n i n g " of  playfulness  the  its  to  comparing Canadian  v o i c e of  something  Although  fact  attention  B r i t i s h Columbia,  which e x i s t  i s much more s o b e r ,  or through  are  through  will  calling  fictions.  differ  i n the  to the  readers  usually linguistic.  predominantly  runs  Kroetsch's  gymnastics  novels  convey  on u n d e r n e a t h  Kroetsch's.  Canadian  difference  "meant  on t h e  verbal  the  a l s o by the  m a k i n g a c c u r a t e d i s t i n c t i o n s as w e l l  similarities  h i l a r i t y that  which Kroetsch clowning  Man,  of  and f a c u l t y a b o u t  between  but  which govern  the U n i v e r s i t y  need f o r  and s t r u c t u r a l Studhorse  at  students  He s t r e s s e d t h e  thematic  and c o n v e n t i o n s  talk  ature.  humour  literary tradition,  is a highly self-conscious literature,  itself,  is  of  and s o p h i s t i c a t e d  lighten  frustration.  its  Aquin,  too,  writing  i s perhaps  i s much more c o m p l e x  writer's,  and w h i l e  techniques baroque  of  centrated  writing,  seems t o style  Despite  The  of  that  names t o changed  "uninvent  job  it to  the  be t h e  that  t o un-name. just  threaten world".  this to  the  nouveau  -  of  the  a radical them.  i n tone between At  Canadian At  to  their  less  con-  and s t y l e ,  the  and  one t i m e ,  Kroetsch  writer  "give  to  point,  contrary  -  he  that  parodic f i c t i o n s ,  borrow  the  Prochain Episode  a later  p r o c e s s of To  while  novelist.  differences.  he b e l i e v e d  define  romanciers,  and a c c e s s i b l e ,  namer".^  Through  prairie  the  comparisons  task  the  seems t o more n e a r l y r e s e m b l e  dissimilarities  their  than  his  new  contemporary  outweigh  Kroetsch:  are v i t a l l y concerned with  t h e more r e l a x e d  and t h e m a t i c  Man f a r  attempt  the  some o f  these apparent  h i s mind and s a i d  that  writing  popular  his experience,  and A q u i n  of  emulate the  and r i c h l y t e x t u r e d  Aquin's  he c o n s i d e r e d  the w r i t e r ' s  systems  of  t e c h n i c i a n than  Canadian w r i t e r s  style  structural  Studhorse  stated  both  and t o r t u o u s  Kroetsch's  number  a more s u b t l e  it  Kroetsch  "demythologizing"  Kroetsch's  was  words,  the they  Ronald S u t h e r l a n d ,  S e c o n d Image  (Toronto:  New P r e s s ,  Ronald  The New H e r o  (Toronto:  MacMillan,- 1977).  (Toronto:  University  Sutherland,  D.G. J o n e s , B u t t e r f l y Press, 1970).  on Rock  N o r t h r o p F r y e , The B u s h G a r d e n : (Toronto: Anansi P r e s s , 1971). Margaret Atwood, (Toronto: Anansi  Essays  S u r v i v a l : A Thematic P r e s s , 1972).  1971).  of  on t h e C a n a d i a n  Guide  t o Canadian  Toronto  Imagination  Literature  H u b e r t A q u i n , P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e ( O t t a w a : Le C e r c l e du L i v r e de France, 1965), p.172. Hereafter', a l l f u r t h e r references to t h i s n o v e l w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be d o c u m e n t e d b y page numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s . A.M. K l e i n , " P o l i t i c a l Second Image, p . 3 2 .  Meeting",  as q u o t e d  by Ronald  Sutherland,  R o b e r t K r o e t s c h , The S t u d h o r s e Man ( T o r o n t o : M c M i l l a n , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.120. H e r e a f t e r a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s n o v e l w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n a n d w i l l be d o c u m e n t e d b y page numbers i n parentheses. Ronald S u t h e r l a n d , i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Hubert A q u i n , P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e , t r a n s . P e n n y Wi 1 l i a m s , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1972 ) , p.vi i . D o n a l d C a m e r o n , " R o b e r t K r o e t s c h : The A m e r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e and The C a n a d i a n V o i c e " , J o u r n a l o f C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n , I (Summer 1 9 7 2 ) , p.49. Robert K r o e t s c h , "Unhiding the Hidden: Recent Canadian J o u r n a l of Canadian F i c t i o n , I I I ( 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 4 3 .  Fiction",  9.  CHAPTER ONE THE NARRATORS AND THEIR  "There In  i s a pleasure  b e i n g mad, which  Both The S t u d h o r s e by underground acts  of v i o l e n c e .  of  l a r g e r than  of  their  its  narrators,  s o u n d and f u r y , e s p e c i a l l y about ties  and q u e s t s  principal sliding  -  know".  Episode  both  the narrators  shape,  while  The theme  novels  between  for  related  committing  seeming t o r e c o r d ,  o f e a c h book  are t a l e s  told  the narrators  in  by " i d i o t s " , f u l l  their  of  but  own i d e n t i -  The p a r a d o x i c a l  and t h e i r  and c o n t r a s t s  to the very  reality  i s mirrored  heroes  between  s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s gross  stories  the a l l e g e d heroes  story subjects.  i m p l i c i t comparisons  s c a l e from the very  are novels  who v i c a r i o u s l y p r o j e c t  on t o t h e i r m y t h i c  c h a r a c t e r s , whose  Dryden  to psychiatric cells  s i g n i f y i n g much - n o t o n l y a b o u t  through  -  o s t e n s i b l y to escape the unbearable  imprisonment.'  r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s determined  b u t madmen  confined  l i f e heroes  structure;  sure  Man a n d P r o c h a i n  The n a r r a t o r s  clinical  narrative  none  HEROES  delicate.  c a n be  the  range a l o n g a  10.  The descendants Man.  narrators of  a common b u t  They c o h a b i t  tration.  Like  h i g h l y aware them,  complex  their  them,  Man,  Man a n d P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e  ancestor,  his miserable c e l l  the Underground  of  explore  o f The S t u d h o r s e  of  anxiety,  a s i c k man,  ultimately rationalize  a spiteful  man,  by t a u n t i n g  that  an i n t e l l i g e n t man " c a n n o t  intelligent  himself with  man o f  the  the  insists  s e l e c t i o n of  nineteenth  l a c k both  narrators  of  The  his  the  a u d i e n c e as w e l l :  centry  seems a l s o t o while  speaks  a company o f  for  to  dull  (p.5).  the  admits  The  that  he  He j u s t i f i e s  else"J to  be  justifirepre-  in suffering. both w r i t e  The for  claims to write  an for  h i s m i s t r e s s ' eyes",  his  S t u d h o r s e Man,  An  a c t i o n " whom he  Prochain Episode  revolutionary  Demeter  Proudfoot,  d e s p i c a b l e , i n s e n s i t i v e people with  a "passion  b l i n d i n g l a b o u r and h o l l o w s u c c e s s "  insultingly  men o f  but a " m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of  of  Underground  constant  Man a n d P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e  narrator  admit  "useless" consolation  His  i n c l u d e the condemning eyes of  brothers,  they  g e n t l e m e n who c o n s t i t u t e a  of  frus-  "must and m o r a l l y o u g h t  "straightforward  the n a r r a t o r  a p u b l i c which i s nothing but  underworld,  i n s i g h t and h i s e x p e r i e n c e  Studhorse  The  s e r i o u s l y become a n y t h i n g  a r e d i r e c t e d t o a j u r y of  sentative  them.  " s p i t e f u l " and  pre-eminently a characterless creature" cations  failures:  e v e n an u n p l e a s a n t man.  this  Underground  t i m i d i t y and  own i n a d e q u a c i e s and p r i v a t e  but  both  they are hyperconscious i n d i v i d u a l s  Man w r i t i n g f r o m h i s w r e t c h e d c o r n e r i n t h e is  Dostoevsky's  are  i d e n t i f i e s his  readership:  (p.61).  At  one p o i n t  he  -  11.  You who s t a r e b l a n k l y i n y o u r m u s t y b a s e m e n t f l a t s , i n y o u r r e n t e d u p s t a i r s a p a r t m e n t s , i n y o u r s o - c a l l e d " l i v i n g " rooms f u l l o f TV and o f f s p r i n g , i n y o u r k i n g - s i z e d b e d s ; y o u h o t - p a n t s s e c r e t a r i e s s k u l k i n g behind y o u r t y p e w r i t e r s , you matrons s w e a t i n g i n t h e i l l u s o r y s t i n k o f t h e b e a u t y p a r l o u r ( f o r g i v e me i f I s m i l e ) , y o u e x e c u t i v e s h u n c h e d b o n y - k n e e d and h a i r y and s t r a i n i n g i n t h e J o h n , y o u s c h o o l b o y s i n t h e l i b r a r y , u s i n g my p r e c i o u s knowledge to c o n c e a l your f u r t i v e l u s t i n g a f t e r the g i r l who d o e s n ' t know h e r s k i r t i s up and h e r l e g s s p r e a d . . . a l l o f y o u who t h i n k y o u do n o t l i v e i n a madhouse ( p . 1 4 2 ) .  The nominal  or  a b l e need The  presence of  a r e a d e r s h i p which the  no i m p o r t a n c e , to  justify  narrators  readers.  both  The  their  fear  provides  c l a i m to  many c l u e s a b o u t  l i v e s and a c t i o n s t o  others  and s c o r n t h e d i s a p p r o v a l  Underground  h i m s e l f and t h e  in fact  narrators  Man d e s c r i b e s t h i s  of  their  and t o  their  anomalous  be  of  insati-  themselves.  judging  tendency  within  others:  . . . How t i r e s o m e , how i m p u d e n t y o u r o u t b u r s t s a r e , and a t t h e same t i m e , how s c a r e d y o u a r e . ' You t a l k n o n s e n s e and a r e p l e a s e d w i t h i t ; y o u s a y i m p u d e n t t h i n g s and a r e c o n s t a n t l y a f r a i d o f them and a p o l o g i z i n g f o r t h e m . You d e c l a r e y o u a r e a f r a i d o f n o t h i n g and a t t h e same t i m e y o u t r y t o i n g r a t i a t e y o u r s e l f w i t h us . . . You u n d o u b t e d l y mean t o s a y s o m e t h i n g , b u t h i d e y o u r r e a l m e a n i n g f o r f e a r , b e c a u s e y o u l a c k t h e r e s o l u t i o n t o s a y i t and o n l y have c o w a r d l y i m p u d e n c e ( p . 3 4 ) .  The  cloak of  and a f e a r confesses  scornful  of the  s u p e r i o r i t y d i s g u i s e s deep f e e l i n g s o f  rejection.  "Tu  narrator  Prochain  of  me d e t e s t r a s Episode  D e m e t e r d e c l a r e s he i s i n d i f f e r e n t  to  others,  protest  but  righteous  like  tone  the  lady,  belies his  he d o t h words:  si  tu  apprends  (p.139)  inferiority  ma f a i b l e s s e " ,  i n a f r e n z y of  t h e o p i n i o n s and j u d g e m e n t s too much.  His  petulant  despair. of self-  12.  I do not w i s h f o r a me i n t h e h e a r t s o f naked t r u t h and l e t i s i t s own r e w a r d . r e c u r r i n g mud. And  moment t h a t my own martyrdom s h o u l d e n s h r i n e a grateful population. I have pursued the f a t e f l i n g what naked d a r t s i t w i l l , t r u t h I need no bronze s t a t u e s as a sop t o t h e no one e x p e c t s t o be l o v e d ( p . 1 7 2 ) .  H i s c h o i c e o f t h e word "martyrdom" i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H a z a r d ' s death i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i s busy t r y i n g t o c o n v i n c e h i m s e l f and h i s j u r y , whoever they b e , t h a t h i s a c t i o n s i n the c r i t i c a l were a d m i r a b l e , even h e r o i c .  episode of h i s l i f e  H i s f r a c t i o u s a s s e r t i o n s , however, a r e  t e s t i m o n i a l s t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y and a n x i e t y i n h i s own m i n d .  One o f the most s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the n a r r a t o r s i s their terrible loneliness, they a r e e v e r y o n e " ,  t h e i r sense o f o t h e r n e s s .  "I am a l o n e and  says t h e Underground Man, and t h e two Canadian  n a r r a t o r s echo h i s c r y .  " J ' a i peur parce que j e s u i s s e u l e t abandonne.  Personne ne v i e n t a m o i , personne ne peut me r e j o i n d r e " ( p . 1 3 7 ) s t a t e s the n a r r a t o r o f P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e : s e u l e t que n i l e s o l e i l  "Est-il visible qu'ici  je v i e i l l i s  n i l a v o l u p t e ne r e d o r e n t ma peau?"  (p.71).  Demeter P r o u d f o o t i s more c l o s e - l i p p e d about h i s p e r s o n a l a g o n i e s ; perhaps as h i s name s u g g e s t s , he i s too proud t o admit them f r e e l y . o c c a s i o n however, h i s l o n e l i n e s s s u r f a c e s and he speaks about n i g h t s " and " l o n e l y a f t e r n o o n s "  On  "sleepless  ( p . 1 0 ) and l e t s s l i p t h a t the g r a v e y a r d  was one o f t h e f a v o u r i t e haunts o f h i s y o u t h : on t h e g r a v e s t o n e s he studied his alphabet. adult,  As an a d o l e s c e n t , he has no f r i e n d s and as an  h i s o n l y v i s i t o r a t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s c r a z y o l d Lady  another inmate.  Eshpeter,  13.  The their fly  existence.  i n the eyes  humiliated Canadian the  narrators  of  s u i s aux  however  their  in the  of  in,  narrators'  to  recognizes  intense,  (p.89),  writes  the  un n o y l "  (p.71).  secondes  d'angoisse  pour meViter  fascinated  of  enemy a g e n t ' s  it,  of  by h i s  The  sans r e l S c h e , -  of  (p.94).  The  frequent  not  c'est  i d e a of  j'en  du d r a p  "La  Episode  of  happi-  periods  of  veines" t r i s t e s s e me comme  "Combien  faudra-t-il  blanc?" (p.27).  he d e s c r i b e t h e  "alter-  suis plein  suicide:  l a ma m i s s i o n " ( p . 2 5 ) .  o n l y does  than  fluctu-  timorous  periods  and a g a i n ,  les pores,  the  the  w i t h whom he  Prochain  s e c r e t e dans mes  narrator  by  impress.  de s i & c l e s de de'semparement  l'e'treinte finale  by death  hero H a z a r d ,  in  faire:  as a n o n - e n t i t y  narrator  and much l e s s  par tous  the  Demeter,  to d e p r e s s i o n , from  de r e m o n t e V '  He i s o b s e s s e d w i t h et  (p.129).  i m p u l s e s and d e s c r i b e s them as an  1'avale  and  feels  ignominy i s accompanied by w i l d  "Ma t r i s t e s s e c o u r t  je  insulted  g r a c e and s a v o i r  me d e ' p a s s e "  range from e l a t i o n  et  "like a  Prochain Episode  i s regarded  violence.  of  h u m i l i a t i o n and r i d i c u l e  the  conceal  ignominy  Russian counterpart,  narrator  French-Canadian  l a pompe,  et  their  un homme q u i  are b r i e f  or m o r b i d i t y .  partout  disgusting f l y ,  The  s e n s e of  de n o y a d e  sadness  vive  of  his contradictory  while  je  Like  and even w o r s e ,  psychopathic  nance maniaque  salit:  to  mood - w h i c h  behaviour  a nasty,  the  confesses to f e e l i n g  and whom he w i s h e s d e s p e r a t e l y t o  The  ness,  peers.  p r i s e s avec  he l i v e s  identifies  -  (p.46).  light  by a sense of  anti-hero  experience feelings  much he t r i e s  community  ations  the world  narrators  p r e s e n c e of  tormented  Dostoevsky's  by e v e r y o n e "  insignificant "Je  are a l l  que  de je  "Me s u i c i d e r  Demeter  too,  c e m e t e r y as one  is of  14.  the f a v o u r i t e death the  are  haunts  interspersed  hero's  death  their  occasions of  the  mistress,  power  narrators  Prochain Episode he s t o p s  but f r e q u e n t  throughout  inadequacies the  his youth,  i s an i n f e r n a l  Sometimes into  of  of  narrators'  great  for  from the  to contemplate  himself  The  memory w h i c h h a u n t s  retreat  starts  his narrative.  the  i s too  nightmare  and r e r o u t e s  visions  ghastly vision  his entire  emotions  or  and on  truth.  time  his  Each  of  narrative.  their  them t o f a c e  the  of  insight  these  the  narrator  p o s s i b l e i n f i d e l i t y of  his  thoughts:  P l u t f r t que de c ^ d e r ei l a d e m o r a l i s a t i o n comme j e l e f a i s en c e moment, j e p r e f e Y e s u r s e o i r a 1 ' a n a l y s e . . . D ' i c i lei j e n ' a i pas l e d r o i t de me q u e s t i o n n e r at p r o p o s de t o u t e t de r i e n . . . (p.171).  When D e m e t e r f i n d s as his  to  adored M a r t h a ,  o n l y do t h e deal w i t h  embark  narrators  a painful  himself,  (p.50),  while  leading  a revolution  their  escape the  situation,  flights  the  of  short  of  Man.  area of  discussion,  l a c k of  it)  (or  and r e t u r n s  intolerable with  refuge  Man t e r m s  Demeter P r o u d f o o t ,  the (p.66).  refusal  i n dreams, it.  "the  They a l l  The  imagines  established with  to  a simple  h o r s e and c r o w n e d w i t h  Prochain Episode  with  predicament"  fancy a la Walter M i t t y .  or comfortably  Studhorse  himself  as t h e U n d e r g r o u n d  own c a s t l e i n S w i t z e r l a n d .  Proudfoot,  activity  they also f i n d  " r i d i n g a white  narrator  a dangerous  I was d e s c r i b i n g H a z a r d ' s  beautiful",  on r o m a n t i c  Man f a n c i e s  "But  into  sexual  he q u i c k l y p u l l s  line:  s u b l i m e and t h e  D.  straying  he does when he d e s c r i b e s h i s  main n a r r a t i v e Not  himself  Underground laurel"  himself  either  his mistress pictures  in  himself  as  15.  The however, the  Canadian  i s the  adventures  s h i p of  narrators'  narrative of  identity  other  men.  heroes  them.  enslaved,  Demeter's  nature  of  c h o i c e of  the  adventurers,  men o f  action,  the  p l a c e them o u t s i d e  and s i t u a t e  them i n t h e  fills  the  roving  bill  hero  woolly  kill,  to  lies  their  heroes  in the f a c t  figures of  whose  -  through  i n the  "hero" of  i n both  The  senses of of  H.  they  are  realism  de H e u t z ,  the word. the  of  of  characters  Studhorse  more r e c e n t t r a d i t i o n  are  Part  twentieth  Odysseus  the  they  that  conventional  heroic t r a d i t i o n .  long-established tradition  de H e u t z ,  inhabits  complete with  t h e enemy o u r  the  glamorous  the  century Man, He i s a  wanderer,  the w i l d  "II  vit  (p. 128),  and i t  dans  un u n i v e r s  is precisely this  so a t t r a c t i v e  to  the  narrator-cum-revolutionary  t h r i l l e r w o r l d of  car c h a s e s , weapons,  blonde.  Heutz  hero,  with  and  west.  H. to  they  "enthralled" indicates  boundaries  the  i n the  Although  t h e men who f a s c i n a t e t h e m .  w h i l e Hazard Lepage,  and he i s t h e f r o n t i e r s m a n  relation-  live vicariously  i s a hero f a s h i o n e d  as t h e w e s t e r n  i n the  the  chronicling  "secretly enthralled"  affinity  narrators  r e a l m of  Prochain Episode,  spy heroes,  to  introspection  a curious  subjects.  larger-than-life  and a c t i o n s  "hero" of  story  t h e word  invent,  enjoy  they are  narrators'  fascination for  or perhaps  e n v y them and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y bonded  heroes'  mold of  their  them,  from dangerous  narrators  t h e s e men,  they admire  In f a c t  paradoxical  the  -  Both  (  outlet  recall,  and e n m i t y w i t h  are p r o f e s s e d enemies of their  they  chief  codes,  aliases  second qui  the  is  s e c r e t agent  and a  ne m'a j a m a i s e t e  He i s a s s u a v e  -  mysterious accesible"  i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y w h i c h makes H.  narrator.  meant  de  and s e l f - a s s u r e d as  16.  James  Bond;  he d r i v e s  ous c h a t e a u ,  an i r o n - g r e y M e r c e d e s  a huge m a n s i o n f i l l e d  L a k e G e n e v a and t h e A l p s . his  c h o i c e of  eye:  "H.  de H e u t z  connoisseur expert  paintings  qui  himself  giving as  H.  wealthy  himself  jamais"  s o p h i s t i c a t e but  dangereux"  (p.40).  twentieth-century gentleman  de H e u t z makes  accomplished de H e u t z .  a little  et  His  nervous  covers  to  the  to  d i s t r e s s which the  an  be a s p e c i a l i s t  p e r i o d of  Roman  as d i s g u i s i n g d i r e une messe  the the  et  r o l e of  only a  carrement  cult  hero  secret agent.  i s o n l y one o f  the  three  a melodramatic  narrator  The  tale  had o f f e r e d  von  be t h e  on b y b a n k r u p t c y .  of  the  his  faces  named C a r l  who c l a i m s t o  which  Yet  and s p e c i a l i z e d l e a r n i n g ,  de S a u g y ,  narrator  and  unfailing  The man i s n o t  i n c l u d e a German b a n k e r  depression brought  repeat  in furniture  "un homme i n c r o y a b l e d ' a s t u c e ,  named F r a n c o i s - M a r c  and m a r i t a l  (p.39).  f i c t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  other  the a u d a c i t y to  known  i s as d i f f i c u l t  sous-diacre"  his multifarious  luxuri-  overlooking  as b e i n g  out  d ' a l l e r jusqu ' \  g r a c e and c h a r m i n g e a s e ,  and a B e l g i a n a severe  of  As w e l l  himself  He c l e a r l y q u a l i f i e s f o r  with  d'art,  in a  i n c r o y a b l e s , m i l l i o n a i r e ou  (p.128).  a cover which  avec d i a c r e e t  objets  impeccable t a s t e  un de c e s i ' t r e s  arts,  fine  and l i v e s  pieces r e f l e c t s a connoisseur's  "un n o n c e a p o s t o l i q u e  pontificale  ruin  and a r t  on an h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e  history,  of  The man has  ne s e t r o m p e  i n the f i n e  working  urbane  est  with  300 SL  of  Ryndt  victim  latter  has  financial  him t h a t  very  morning.  The aspects such  of  three the  recognizes  i d e n t i t i e s of  narrator's  H.  complex  and a p p r e c i a t e s  de H e u t z  correspond  personality:  the wealth  roughly to  he i s an a r t i s t ,  and good  taste  of  de  three  and as Heutz;  17.  he i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y stealth  and t e c h n i q u e o f  a v i c t i m of F.M.  with  mesmerizing t h e man i s  The  tri-faceted  power o v e r  revolutionary,  d i s o r d e r and r e l a t e s  h i s a l t e r ego,  in fact  a r e v o l u t i o n a r y manque)  the c o u n t e r  a severe mental  de S a u g y .  narrator  (albeit  him.  h i s enemy,  p e r s o n a l i t y of  and a d m i r e s  the  Von R y n d t ; and he  t o and e m p a t h i z e s  with  presents  the  a d o u b l e who e x e r c i s e s a t e r r i f y i n g  yet  He has t o c o n s t a n t l y a s s u r e h i m s e l f  that  and t h a t  de H e u t z  he i s meant  to  kill  is  him:  C e t homme e s t un i m p o s t e u r : F . M . de S a u g y , Von R y n d t ou H. de H e u t z ne f o n t q u ' u n e s e u l e m£me p e r s o n n e . H. de H e u t z e s t un e n n e m i , e t j e l ' a i emmene i c i dans l e s e u l b u t de 1 ' a b a t t r e froidement. R i e n au monde ne d o i t me f a i r e d e V o g e r de mon projet. R i e n . ' s u r t o u t pas c e t t e D a r a d e d ' A m o t i o n s q u ' e x e c u t e c e cher a f r i c a n i s t e . En t o u t e r e c o n n a i s que H. de H e u t z f a i t p r e u v e d ' u n a r t consomme'. C e t homme p o s s e d e un don d i a b o l i q u e p o u r f a l s i f i e r l a v v r a i s e m b l a n c e ; s i j e n ' e t a i s pas s u r mes g a r d e s , i l m ' a u r a i t a c o u p s u r e t p o u r r a i t me c o n v a i n c r e q u ' i l e s t mon f r e r e que nous I t i o n s n l s p o u r nous r e n c o n t r e r e t p o u r nous c o m p r e n d r e . J ' a i v r a i m e n t a f f a i r e au d i a b l e ( p . 8 5 ) .  Like the  power o f  the H.  or supernatural fascinated  " e n t h r a l l i n g " power w h i c h H a z a r d e x e r t s de H e u t z o v e r overtones.  the  revolutionary  Against  b y h i m and drawn t o w a r d  his w i l l ,  over  Demeter,  i s imbued w i t h m a g i c a l  against his reason,  he i s  him:  Ce q u i me m y s t i f i e l e p l u s c ' e s t son a u t o b i o g r a p h i e i n c r o y a b l e q u ' i l n ' a pas i n v e n t e e dans l e b u t de me d u p e r , m a i s dans un b u t p l u s p e r v e r s : p o u r m ' e n v o f t t e r , me f a i r e d o u t e r de l a r a i s o n d ' e t a t q u i nous c o n f r o n t e i c i dans c e t e ' t r o i t e n c l o s . . . A v r a i d i r e l a p u i s s a n c e de H. de H e u t z m ' e n v o u t e e n c o r e p l u s q u ' e l l e me t e r r i f i e . A q u i a i - j e a f f a i r e au j u s t e ? A 1 'ombre metempsyc de F e r r a g u s ? C e t i n c o n n u que j e r e g a r d e m ' a t t i r e a 1 ' i n s t a n t meW ou j e m ' a p p r t t e a" l e t u e r . Son m y s t e V e d e c o n c e r t e ma p r e m e d i t a t i o n et j e r e s t e p a n t e l a n t devant l u i .  18.  . . . L ' a g i l i t e ' s u p e r s o n i q u e de mon e s p r i t s ' a f f a i s e s o u d a i n e m e n t s o u s l e c h a r m e m a l e f i q u e de H. de H e u t z . J e m ' i m m o b i l i s e , m e t a morphose^ en s t a t u e de s e l e t ne p u i s m ' e m p ^ c h e r de me p e r c e v o i r comme f o u d r o y e . Un e W n n e m e n t s o u v e r a i n e s t en t r a i n de s e , p r o d u i r e . . . d a n s un b o i s c h a r m e u r q u i s u r p l o m b e C o p p e t . . . e t j e s e m b l e c h e r c h e r e n c o r e , d e v a n t un homme i m p o s s i b l e a i d e n t i f i e r , l a r a i s o n p u r e q u i m'a £ a i t l e p o u r s u i v r e de'sespe're'ment e t d e v r a i t d i s l o r s , m ' i n c l i n e r a p r e s s e r l a g f t c h e t t e de M a u s e r e t £ f a i r e feu sur l u i pour rompre e n f i n l a r e l a t i o n i n q u i e ' t a n t e q u i s ' e s t ^ t a b l i e e n t r e nous . . . une s o r t e de m y s t e r e me f r a p p e d'une i n d e c i s i o n sacree. Un eve^nement que j ' a i c e s s e " de c o n t r o l l e r s ' a c c o m p l i t s o l e n e l l e m e n t en moi e t me p l o n g e d a n s une t r a n s e p r o f o n d e ( p . 8 8 My u n d e r l i n i n g ) .  The  preponderance  of  magical  confirms  t h a t de H e u t z '  morbide"  for  given  a perfect  blonde with  this  fairy  her.  testifies  power  "trinite  to  narrator's  over  to  the  r e a l m of  uncertainty  The  strange  failure  But  f r o m H. cipate  de H e u t z . i n the  the  and s e l f - d o u b t " ,  combination  of  between  the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s Hazard Lepage,  the  He i s n o t  a worldly  dramatic  and  live  happily  ever  i s beyond  his  of  control, laws  identity is  Demeter P r o u d f o o t and h i s  s o p h i s i c a t e , nor the  after  (p.138).  de H e u t z  a different  his  terrifying  and c o m p l i c i t y , o f and H.  when  situation  une e x i s t e n c e d e m a n t l e e "  narrator  attirance  his r i v a l  h i s c h a n c e s t o meet  and p l a c e s h i m i n a  is quite  life  "une  f a m i l i a r and c o m f o r t a b l e  between  Man,  kill  in this crucial  enmity  Studhorse  fast-paced  hour  passage  i s more t h a n  r e l a t i o n s h i p which all  i n the  i n a b i l i t y to  to a c t  his existence,  and d i s t a n c e w h i c h e x i s t s in  His  do s o , d e s t r o y s  a r e l a t i o n s h i p which n u l l i f i e s and o r d e r  terms  the n a r r a t o r  appointed  an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  which govern  supernatural  noire".  opportunity  princess at  The  and  breed of d o e s he  Belgian spy.  echoed hero.  hero parti-  He i s a z a n y  19.  e c c e n t r i c who l i v e s j u s t o u t s i d e S m a l l T o w n , A l b e r t a mansion - a house f i l l e d with of  h o r s e s and s t u d b o o k s .  t h e man "knew no b o u n d s " :  ness depended" from a French about His  not with  (p.14). Canadian  the f u t u r e  fine  To D e m e t e r  Hazard Lepage, line,  In many w a y s , Eugene U t t e r , "lanky,  Hazard's  moon-faced  or p e r i l  Hazard  Proudfoot  however,  family,  motto:  him:  the heroism  who w e r e g r e a t  "Nothing  he v e n t u r e s ,  i n b o l d but always  in  great-  dreamers  Moderation".  he c h a n c e s , he  haphazard  i s the a n t i t h e s i s of h i s a n i l e  manner.  admirer.  t r a v e l l i n g c o m p a n i o n , d e s c r i b e s Demeter  k i d " who " m o o n s "  but  a s h i s name i n d i c a t e s , i s d e s c e n d e d  a Rimouski  a n d who had a s t h e i r  a c c i d e n t , danger  and r a r e a r t w o r k ,  he was t h e man on whom " a b r e e d o f  f i r s t name s u g g e s t s much a b o u t  risks  furniture  i n a multi-roomed  as a  around:  I f you looked a t him h a r d , U t t e r s a i d , I b e l i e v e h e ' d f a l l f l a t on h i s a s s . Gawky s o r t o f k i d . H a r d l y t h r o w s a s h a d o w . All head - b i g b r o o d i n g e y e s s e t t o o c l o s e t o g e t h e r , a h a t c h e t n o s e and h i s h a i r down o v e r . . . (p.88).  W h i l e Demeter Hazard  resembles the before  picture for a Charles Atlas  i s a l a d y - k i l l e r of Herculean  has b l a c k , c u r l y h a i r , penetrating  proportions  visage.  a c o a r s e b l a c k b e a r d , a s e n s u o u s mouth  eyes which a p p a r e n t l y suffers  c o m p e l women t o s p e a k  u s u a l l y more.  Demeter  and  and c o m p l e t e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l w i t h  i s awkward  and A d o n i c  paroxysms  f r o m s a t y r i a s i s and i s a p r o d i g i o u s  success with  Hazard  He  and d a r k -  (p.81)  o f shyness i n f r o n t them:  course,  of  - and women,  suffers  the opposite sex.  20.  The (nothing Demeter "blurs  for  in moderation) works  the  water"; claims  two men d i f f e r  Demeter to f i n d  driver  all  the  between  in  scabrous t a l k  outside  we a r e t o l d  is  between  (p.100).  in order  imbibing.  a l c o h o l , because  of  the water.  Hazard r e v e l s  it the  Demeter in i t  (See  h i m s e l f and a t h e r s i t i c a l  two men o f  such d i f f e r e n t  legerdemain,  Demeter  h i m s e l f and h i s h e r o and e v e n c r e a t e s  He d e s c r i b e s H a z a r d ' s  assumptions  he i s  " p r a c t i c a l l y grew up i n  been f o n d  between  i s a c r a p u l o u s man  truck  Edmonton).  i n c o n t e s t a b l e , Demeter  my own"  touch  "offensive";  With b e g u i l i n g verbal  between  Hazard  implanting,  does not  them w h e r e none seem t o e x i s t .  love.  unlike  but  us he has n e v e r  i s the a f f i n i t y  and i n t e r e s t s ? differences  Hazard,  bawdy.exchange  on a b r i d g e  Where  Hazard  tells  respects.  and when he i s n o t  i n a beer p a r l o u r  perception".  example,  in other  Although  speaks of n o s e as  He makes b r o a d  to p r o j e c t  minimizes rapprochements  Martha's  love  H a z a r d and h i m s e l f  "a g r e a t  hatchet  generalizations  styles  nose,  for as  "rivals"  not  and f a l l a c i o u s  h i s own n e e d s and o b s e s s i o n s on t o  the  hero:  Romance w i l l somehow f i n d a way i n t o o u r l i v e s . S u r e l y Hazard , and I w e r e a l i k e i n s t r e n u o u s l y r e s i s t i n g t h a t d i s t o r t i o n o f f a c t s b y w h i c h men d e l u d e t h e m s e l v e s ( p . 7 9 ) .  His  observation  between  is highly ironic -  t h e men l i e s  i n the f a c t  perhaps  that  both  the of  l a r g e s t ground f o r them do l i v e  comparison  in a world  21.  of d e l u s i o n . order  to mold him t o  delusion  of  For that  Demeter's  them  frequent  misreading of  h i s own i d e a l  of  quest of  Demeter,  greatest  H a z a r d ' s main c l a i m to h i s s e q u a c i o u s d e v o t i o n eyes,  he i s t h e S t u d h o r s e M a n , on whom a b r e e d o f  lonely Albertan the  in  al1.  Demeter e n v i s a g e s h i m a s an O d y s s e u s the  character  i s perhaps the  he i s a man w i t h a m i s s i o n - and i n D e m e t e r ' s  mission:  over  a hero  Hazard's  roads,  p e r f e c t mare f o r  figure,  fighting  is  a sacrosanct  greatness  depends.  journeying r e l e n t l e s s l y  the rage of  his magnificent  the elements  in  stallion:  . . . he had t r a v e l l e d b e n t and f r e e z i n g a g a i n s t t h e snows o f s p r i n g . . . r a i n s q u a l l s came w i t h t h u n d e r t o d r i v e h i m a c r o s s a t r e e l e s s p r a i r i e . . . h a i l s t o r m s k n o c k e d a t h i s e y e s and s e t t h e c a n n o n b a l l s o f i c e t o l e a p i n g on t h e s u n - p a c k e d r o a d s ; mud s p a t t e r e d h i m brown and g r i t t y b l a c k ; t h e w i n d d r o v e d u s t i n t o h i s f l e s h (p.59).  As a man w i t h a v i s i o n , D e m e t e r ' s enters  into  Hazard's  a higher  quest that  order  of  men.  h e r o t r a n s c e n d s t h e common man and It  i s the  D e m e t e r c h e r i s h e s and most  lonely,  singular nature  identifies  of  with:  He d r o v e a l l a f t e r n o o n and s o m e t i m e s i n t o t h e n i g h t , t h e n r o u n d e d up l i k e l y m a r e s o u t o f a p a s t u r e . He was t h e man f r o m whom e a c h f a r m must have i t s v i s i t s ; y e t he must e a t a l o n e , t r a v e l a l o n e , work a l o n e , s u f f e r a l o n e , l a u g h a l o n e , b i t c h a l o n e , b l e e d a l o n e , p i s s a l o n e , s i n g a l o n e , dream a l o n e . . . (p.59).  22.  '  But  Demeter's it  his  precedent,  on h i s  hero's  priest  this  way,  his  180  personality  are  brilliantly  opposition,  of  ambulatory  neck pace.  speed, The  confined  to  perfect,  H a z a r d ' s weaknesses  Macdonald's  i n c l u s i o n of Macdonald  as  that  his  from h i s  "priest  to  (p.36).  The  his  his  Demeter,  lust"  one t o not  (p.31). comment  position  the  narrator  of  priest Prochain  on t h e i r  their  story  altogether  to  and  becomes  trying  in  "repulsive  long c o n f e s s i o n  In  if  some  in a superior  l i k e the  point.  which  or h i s  as a  biographers  inordinate  confessor  own c a s t - o f f  personalities,  let  as  "faiblesses"  o c c a s i o n pass w i t h o u t  starting  their  biography  hero's  tippled,  his crudeness,  brings  too i n a c c e s s i b l e ,  hero's subject,  credible,  inventive.  the  both  thought/action, The  face  create  too  Demeter p l a c e s h i m s e l f  and r e l e g a t i n g  narrators  J o h n A.  no o p p o r t u n e  himself  degrees  the  One  the  e r r i n g ways"  i n an i r o n i c a b o u t  seem n o t  H a z a r d L e p a g e was a man o f  lets  portraying  a l s o to  Episode,  Sir  "sordid" behaviour,  In  hero,  hero  " S i r John A.  biographer  bravado". his  Citing  Demeter j u s t i f i e s  as t h e y w i l l ;  Hazard's  his  i s as much a c h r o n i c l e o f  heroics.  own b i o g r a p h y :  quibble  that  description  i s of  his  in order  key p a t t e r n s  structural  and t h e m a t i c  flesh/spirit, hero  along  the  h i g h l y mobile free cells  of  i n each of of  the  highways  backroads  agents  of  of  -  and  novels  Alberta  "wizened"  at with  is  the  tendencies: stasis/motion.  Switzerland  are juxtaposed  p s y c h i a t r i c wards  the  dialectical  freedom/imprisonment,  races around  o r moseys  developed  his  at own  breakleisurely  narrators  "Euclidean"  spaces.  23.  But  the  physical environment,  w h i c h e a c h man i s as  locked i n t o ,  Demeter e x p l a i n s .  "confrontation  with  Real  enclos  narrators'  perfect  heros  mare,  the  hellish,  painful  journeys  i n terms  himself  the outside  a haven,  a "sinecure,"  is terrifying.  cell  i s the c e l l  phantomes",  on q u e s t s  narrators journeys  find  of  of  t h e i r minds  i n s e a r c h of  prefer  w h i c h he n e v e r  forced to  out  (p.47). or  participate  B o t h men s e e  some s o r t . gets  "cet  t h e enemy a g e n t  self-exploration. of  -  "cet espace r e t r ^ c i "  themselves  a sea voyage  in his bathtub  "I  The  (p.61).  true  embark  of  a sanctuary,  mere s p a c e i s so a p p a l l i n g " , s a y D e m e t e r .  i r r e s p i r a b l e peuple'de  While t h e i r  seemingly s t i f l i n g enclosure  is in fact  contact with  my s t u d i e s and my p r i v a c y "  The  the  Demeter  the in  their  stations  of:  Sometimes of a morning I f o l d a t h r e e - b y - f i v e c a r d w i t h a l i t t l e t r i a n g u l a r h a t and s e t i t s q u a r e on my p e r k y f e l l o w ' s n o g g i n and p i r a t e s we s a i l t o g e t h e r h e r e i n my b a t h t u b , o u r c a r g o t h e l e a t h e r b o u n d b o o k s and t h e y e l l o w i n g s c r i b b l e r s , t h e c r u m b l i n g n e w s p a p e r c l i p p i n g s and t h e e n v e l o p e s w i t h t h e i r c a n c e l l e d s t a m p s and t h e p a c k s o f n o t e - c a r d s t h a t make up t h e b o o t y o f o u r daring (p.39).  On r a r e o c c a s i o n , D e m e t e r a d m i t s "take On one  a turn level,  at  the w h e e l " ,  Demeter's  sea  but  that  he a l l o w s o l d L a d y E s h p e t e r  i n the main,  "voyage",  his  is a s o l i t a r y  a punishment  a n g r y P o s e i d o n , may seem m e r e l y a s u b c o n s c i o u s y e t emulate h i s Odyssean of  hero;  on a n o t h e r  h i s p a s t a c t i o n s and f a i l u r e s .  level,  to  voyage.  l e v i e d on h i m b y an bathetic  h i s voyage  attempt  i s an  to  exploration  He i s t r a v e l l i n g e q u i p p e d w i t h  the  24.  artifacts  to a i d  him t o  r e l i v e and t o  newspapers  no d o u b t c h r o n i c l e t h e  death;  leather-bound  the  the  note  cards  The in  but  more g r a p h i c His  yet  underwater  herme'tique  record events  narrator  a bathtub,  books  of  Episode  in a bathyscaph.  vessel  voyage than  (p.14),  d'obsidienne"  (p.69),  and  precious  of  stud  his  sensational  books,  "sous-marin"  sea voyage  not  descent,  a much  narrator's  undergoes.  (p.10),  (p.22),  (p.71).  while  lives.  counterpart  fune'raire"  the  crumbling  Hazard's  i s an u n d e r w a t e r  " s u b m e r s i b l e ferine""  claustration,  The  and D e m e t e r ' s  his Albertan  "barque  of  undertakes  is variously called  vitree"  a sense of  His  that past.  details  from Hazard's  et  conveys  gruesome  are Hazard's  Prochain  complex  relieve  "cabine  "vaisseau  Each of  the  entrapment  images  in his  own  consciousness.  The narrator  dominant  associates with  thematically. between  image  past  structures  His  "noyades"  novel.  and  tient  lieu  d e p r e s s i o n a" l a d e p r e s s i o n a l a n g u i e  (p.10),  represents  -  the  of  " i n l a s s a b l e m e n t )i l a r e c h e r c h e de (s)on  his descent  into  "plonge  de s u b c o n s c i e n t , (p.ll).  the murky depths  as  which  Lake Leman,  du R h o n e "  the  movement  and c o n f e s s i o n a l  depths  (s)a  lake  parallel  the  s a mouvance  i n the  and s u r f a c i n g w h i c h  s t r u c t u r a l l y as w e l l  narrative  to  (1 )e  works  dans  diving  qui  diving  "remontees"  between  He d i v e s  fluide  of  his journey  and p r e s e n t ,  his  pattern  melant  The  narrator's  cadavre"  "du moi  obscur":  25.  D £ r o u t e \ j e d e s c e n d s en moi-m&me m a i s j e s u i s i n c a p a b l e de m ' o r i e n t e r . . . E m p r i s o n n e ' d a n s un s o u s - m a r i n c l i n i q u e , j e m ' e n g l o u t i s sans h e u r t dans 1 ' i n c e r t i t u d e m o r t u a i r e ( p . 1 0 ) .  Prisoners their  of  obsessions.  The  nightmares  his  own, or  their journeys,  the  narrators  are also prisoners  B o t h men a r e b e s e t w i t h r e c u r r i n g n i g h t m a r e  Demeter d e t a i l s a r e a s c r i b e d to H a z a r d ,  so l i k e  h i s own t h a t  of  visions.  but are  obviously  he i s a b l e t o r e c o r d them and  amplify  them:  H a z a r d o f c o u r s e was n o t a s a r t i c u l a t e a s I m i g h t have w i s h e d i n r e c a l l i n g the p a r t i c u l a r s of h i s p a r t i c u l a r dream. I begged him t o be more s p e c i f i c . He c o u l d o n l y g r u n t and s h a k e h i s h e a d . F o r t u n a t e l y my own e x p e r i e n c e e n a b l e d me t o f l e s h o u t t h e b o n e s o f h i s n e a r l y d e a d memory . . . (p.109).  When D e m e t e r d e s c r i b e s H a z a r d ' s full  of  bones,  narration terrifying  of  he i s b e y o n d  the  nightmare  the pale of  dream i n d i c a t e s n o t  participation in  journey  empathetic  locked in a  boxcar  storyteller.  a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of  it,  but,  His a  it:  The box c a r s r o c k e d h i m d o w n , down t o w a r d s s u b m i s s i o n . i n d a r k n e s s i n t h e w i n d ' s w a i l and t h e i n f i n i t e c l a t t e r  Drowning of night  O h , how I u n d e r s t a n d p o o r H a z a r d . How I u n d e r s t a n d . There i s no need f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The b o n e s r a t t l e d . There i n the d a r k n e s s t h e b o n e s c h a t t e r e d and t a l k e d . H a z a r d l a y on a w i n t e r o f b o n e s : s k u l l s and h o o f s and h i p b o n e s , v e r t e b r a e and s c a p u l a e , r i b s and p e l v i s e s and s t r a y j a w s . . . The v e r y b e a s t d i s m a n t l e d : b o n e s b e a t w h i t e by t h e s u n , p o l i s h e d by d u s t on d u s t , s c o u r e d by t h e s l o w d r i f t o f w i n d and r a i n . Bones b l a s t e d , d y i n g i n t o t h e c o l d e a r t h ; bones plowed from the e a r t h , r a i s e d o u t o f t h e  26.  dark by the n i g h t ' s f r o s t . The l o s t b o n e s o f t i m e , c r a c k e d and b r o k e n , t h e ache a l l r o t t e d back i n t o o b l i v i o n ; o n l y the s t a r k f o r m l e f t , r e m i n d i n g h i m t h a t p a i n t o o i s b r i e f and maybe t o be treasured. Oh how I u n d e r s t a n d . Bones s p r o u t i n g and g r o w i n g from the v e r y dark i t s e l f ( p . 2 1 - 2 2 ) .  D e m e t e r ' s (and  i n c i d e n t a l l y Kroetsch's^ obsession with  to  h i s dream;  t h e y haunt  His  emphatic  of  repetition  sheer horror  suggests  him t h r o u g h o u t of  and p a n i c  "How before  how much he i s s t i l l  Bergson once remarked  on t h e  the  c o u r s e of  I understand",  i s not  limited  narrative. h i s own  v i s i o n and  by H a z a r d ' s  r e l e a s e of  the  indicates  s u c h an i n f e r n a l  disturbed  bones  sense  also  g r i s l y death.  r e p r e s s e d memories  i n a comment w h i c h a p t l y d e s c r i b e s t h e H a z a r d - D e m e t e r  Henri  during  sleep  dreams:  Suppose I f a l l a s l e e p . Then t h e s e r e p r e s s e d m e m o r i e s , f e e l i n g t h a t I have s e t a s i d e the o b s t a c l e s , r a i s e t h e t r a p door w h i c h h e l d them b a c k b e l o w t h e f l o o r o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and b e g i n t o stir. T h e y r i s e and s p r e a d and p e r f o r m i n t h e n i g h t o f t h e unconscious a w i l d 'danse macabre'. They rush t o g e t h e r to the d o o r w h i c h has been l e f t a j a r .  W h i l e Demeter drowns Episode wild, night,  drowns  desperate but  endless,  in a l i q u i d p a n i c of  rather  immobile  inhabiti"  a slow, night:  i n a sea of  grave  of  bones,  memories.  suffocation,  the His  amid the w a i l  melancholic sinking into "mon c e r c e u i l  plombe  narrator drowning  of  Prochain  i s not  the  and c l a t t e r o f  the  the  depths  c o u l e au f o n d  of  d'un  an lac  (p.97):  J ' a g o n i s e d r o g u e dans un l a c a d o u b l e f o n d , t a n d i s que p a r des h u b l o t s t r a n s l u c i d e s , j e n ' a p e r c o i s q u ' u n e masse p r o t o z o a i r e e t g £ l a t i n e u s e q u i m ' e ' p u i s e e t me r e s s e m b l e ( p . 6 9 ) .  27.  However t r a p p e d inner  q u e s t s and n i g h t m a r i s h  them c e r t a i n  liberties.  stories  about  records  of  to  At  the  change t h e m s e l v e s .  oscillate themselves  defined  boldly  merge.  allows  While t h e i r  i n the c o n f i n e s of  it  allows  confinement  freedom  the  region,  gives invent  narrators'  the  freedom  changeless,  narrators  pole  also  by t h e  narrators  h e r o e s must r e m a i n  character  their  to change or  imprisoned  d e s c r i p t i o n s , the  in a nether  l o s t or  them t h e  themselves  same t i m e  by t h e i r  feel  obsessions, their  f r o m one e x t r e m e  finally  signs are  It  narrators'  c h a r a c t e r s who a r e  them.  permanently  the  the  are free  to a n o t h e r ,  to  situate  i n an i l l - c h a r t e d t e r r i t o r y  i m p o s s i b l e to r e a d , where a c t u a l i t y  and  to  where  invention  1.  Fyodor D o s t o e v s k y , Inquisitor, trans. 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 5.  N o t e s f r o m t h e U n d e r g r o u n d and The G r a n d R a l p h M a t l a w (New Y o r k : E . P . Dutton & C o . ,  2.  Henri Bergson, " L ' e n e r g i e s p i r i t u e l l e " , Ceuvres Completes, e d i t e d b y A n d r e R o b i n e t and H e n r i C r o u t i e r ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1964), p.886.  29.  CHAPTER TWO THE POET:  One heroes  of t h e major  word.  while  The h e r o e s  participate  their  u s u a l l y manage  Man i s t h a t  are actors  in l i f e ;  to control  to handle  and even  their  fears  i n both  i s their  sexual  imprisonment,  rejection  by other  to t h e i r writing  women.  turn  this  respect,  they resemble Nabokov's  also  confined  in j a i l ,  while awaiting  who w r i t e s trial  a game they  one o f t h e t o r m e n t s  which,  b u t w h i c h more  can o n l y  Although  and w h i c h t h e y f i n d  frustration  senses of t h e  experience,  and a n x i e t i e s ,  the narrators  and t h e i r  the narrators  the narrators  i s a second-hand  the narrators  story,  the narrators  e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e s i d e l i n e s o f l i f e .  largely to their  failures  story subjects  participate f u l l y  which c o n s t a n t l y plagues difficult  between  and The S t u d h o r s e  vicariously - theirs  played almost  due  differences  i n Prochain Episode  are w r i t e r s ,  LOVER AND MADMAN  increasingly  they imply,  l i k e l y stems  To r e l i e v e t h e i r  from  a f i r s t - p e r s o n account  f o r t h e murder  past  frustrations,  t o e x c i t e and s t i m u l a t e them. g e n i u s - m a n i a c Humbert  is  In  Humbert,  of h i s love  of h i s r i v a l - i n - l o v e .  In a  30.  lyrical  c r y which e l o q u e n t l y p r e f i g u r e s  exclaims; their  "0 my L o l i t a ,  mad f r i e n d ,  scenes,  but  narrator  of  for  describes  nude,  play with  t h e C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s use words  to  now"J  Like  c o n j u r e up  love  Prochain Episode  s c e n e s i n w h i c h he i s a p a s s i o n a t e  recalls  w h i l e Demeter P r o u d f o o t , the f i n a l love  Demeter's  c h o i c e of  to  Humbert  r a d i c a l l y from each o t h e r ;  the  satisfaction  I have o n l y words  distress,  love scenes which d i f f e r  participant, (except  our n a r r a t o r s '  scenes of  writing  o n l y at  sexual  abortive  b e c a u s e he n e v e r  e p i s o d e of  his  is highly voyeuristic:  scenes i s e c l e c t i c  w a t c h i n g H a z a r d make l o v e , In one s c e n e ,  Martha  d r y her naked wet  is a participant  as a f r e e  citizen)  others.  a remove f r o m h i s s e x u a l  mate.  life  the  he r e c a l l s body  -  he a c h i e v e s  objects  or scenes.  His  he d e s c r i b e s w a t c h i n g M a r t h a  even w a t c h i n g H a z a r d ' s  horse  a s an a d o l e s c e n t f u r t i v e l y  in the  sexual  twilight  by the  swim  Poseidon  watching  lake:  I l a y i n t h e shadows o f a l a r g e s p r u c e . She p r e t e n d e d n o t t o s e e me a s s h e t o u c h e d h e r own s o f t b o d y w i t h c u r i o u s h a n d s ; s h e cupped a t i p p e d b r e a s t as i f t o t a u n t t h e b r o k e n c i r c l e of t h e moon; she brushed t h e c l i n g i n g drops of water from t h e round p e r f e c t i o n o f h e r b e l l y ; s h e b e n t and s c o o p e d i n h e r s o f t w h i t e p a l m a sweep o f w a t e r and g u s h e d i t i n t o t h e p r i v a t e shadows o f her naked body. S u r e l y s h e knew I was w a t c h i n g - and i n t h e a s s u r a n c e o f h e r b e a u t y s h e p u t down h e r b a t h i n g s u i t on h e r b e a c h s a n d a l s , p i c k e d up a huge b l u e t o w e l and t h e r e i n t h e l a s t r e d g l o w o f my l o n g v e s p e r s s h e r u b b e d h e r t a u t s k i n w a r m ; s h e t o w e l l e d and s m o o t h l y m a s s a g e d t h e m o l d o f h e r l o n g and c r e a m y t h i g h s , h e r s w e l l i n g h i p s and b u t t o c k s and t h e n e s t o f h a i r (p.65).  Demeter's the  writing  s c e n e and t h e  g a i n s momentum a s he l o v i n g l y r e c a l l s rhythm of  the passage i m i t a t e s  each d e t a i l  the f r e n z i e d  haste  of of  31.  the voyeur  whose b o d y  he a t t a i n s  from  enjoys  here  this  r u d e l y to hers"  d e s c r i p t i o n i s at  i s derived from  watching Martha "one m i g h t  "responded  remembering  as a b o y .  go c r a z y " ,  he p u t s  it,  the  sometimes  "sexploits" with Eshpeter,  than is  of  he f e e l s  a bevy of  one s u s p e c t s ,  in the  apparent  scene with overcome  interests  less of  that  that  he b u r s t s  p l e a s u r e he  sexual  pleasure  he  experienced the  for  experiences  " w i l d l y horny".  b u s t l u s c i o u s women  o l d adage  -  onanistic  (P.  Laporte) are  i n the  Cockburn,  not  only  into  veracious  t o m i s t r e s s t h a n as son t o  the  and b e h a v e s  numerous Marie  toward  by  biography, biographer.  h i s one and o n l y  i s he i n c a p a b l e w i t h  tears  because,  recorded f a i t h f u l l y  i n t e r e s t s of  own d e s c r i p t i o n o f  partly  Hazard's  t i t i l l a t i v e distraction for  from Demeter's Martha,  the  satisfaction  urge.  t h e Widow L a n k and M r s .  Demeter,  the  remove:  c l e a r l y he u s e s h i s w r i t i n g  C e r t a i n l y Demeter w r i t e s as  a double  The  Demeter j o k e s w e a k l y about  but  p u r p o s e s when he f e e l s  (p.55).  her, her  but less  It  love he i s as  so  lover  mother:  I had somehow g o t h a l f w a y o n t o t h e c o u c h . She p r e s s e d me t o t h e c o m f o r t o f h e r n i p p l e s and I t o o k o n e , t h e n t h e o t h e r , i n t o my k i s s i n g and g r e e d y m o u t h . " D o n ' t c r y " , was a l l s h e s a i d t o my hunger. And a f t e r w h a t seemed an e n d l e s s t i m e , I h e a r d h e r s a y i n g , " D o n ' t c r y D e m e t e r , i t w i l l be a l l r i g h t . " ( p . 1 6 9 ) .  In misnomer: his  the  l i g h t of  his sexual  name c o n j u r e s  up.  his  life  inadequacies,  b e l i e s the  In f a c t ,  images of  Demeter i s  t h e d i s c o v e r y and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  Demeter's  name seems a g r o s s  f e r t i l i t y and p l e n t y  inadvertently  a hormone w h i c h w o u l d  responsible "prevent  the  that for  32.  further the well  m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of  novel  plays with  as i n  life.  the mythic, depends  that  road  to a r t .  that  would appear Martha,  names D e m e t e r ;  of  Hazard,  through  his mysterious  mistress  i n the  But  in art,  procreation And  his  as  -  of  creation  s o l i t a r y pleasure:  birth  the  Demeter's  high  to a daughter  whom  birth  to  a book,  to  she  the  Demeter.*  of  t h e memoirs  of  in fact  gives  (p.172).  creativity -  of  is  gives  Hazard,  the  resembles  of  earth"  is his tale  lead to madness,  t h e most p a r t ,  P e e p i n g Tom a c c o u n t s  kinds  the  a h o r s e and h i s m a s t e r .  For lections  two  is a lonely l i f e  through  Demeter,  the'birth  of  his  to  of  the face of  "creation",  p r o l i f i c powers  path  mistress  notion  Demeter's  on t h e f a c t  s t o r y of  the  man upon  of  various  of  beginning  French-Canadian K.,  scenes.  narrator's  written  vary  g r e a t l y from  Demeter's  His  a c c o u n t more  strikingly  H u m b e r t H u m b e r t who p a s s i o n a t e l y i n v o k e s lines  of  recol-  his novel:  "Lolita,  light  of  my  his life,  9  fire her  of  my l o i n s ,  in the  end o f  my s i n , my s o u l , the  Lo-lee-ta..."  and l o v i n g l y  eulogizes  novel:  I i n s i s t t h e w o r l d know how much I l o v e d my L o l i t a , t h i s L o l i t a , p a l e and p o l l u t e d , and b i g w i t h a n o t h e r ' s c h i l d , b u t s t i l l g r e y - e y e d , s t i l l s o o t y - l a s h e d , s t i l l a u b u r n and a l m o n d , s t i l l c a r m e n c i t a , s t i l l mine.  ( I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e l e a t h e r b o u n d c o l l e c t i o n o f The G e n e r a l S t u d Book i n H a z a r d ' s l i b r a r y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a m i n i a t u r e o f Demeter's Studhorse Man, s i n c e i t t o o , i s a r e c o r d of both c r e a t i o n and p r o c r e a t i o n . F o r H a z a r d , The G e n e r a l S t u d Book i s a c a t a l o g u e which d e t a i l s the p a r t i c u l a r s of h o r s e m a t i n g , but f o r D e m e t e r t h e book i s a monument t o t h e h i s t o r y o f " e q u i n e glory". F o r h i m i t i s a w o r k o f a r t and as s u c h w i l l l o n g o u t l a s t the s u b j e c t s i t r e c o r d s ) .  33.  Like of  H u m b e r t , whose  Prochain Episode  not  love  passionate looks  love f o r  b a c k on s c e n e s w i t h  him and p o s s i b l y b e t r a y e d  description  of  Lolita  his union with  him.  is unrequited,  the  narrator  a woman who p r o b a b l y  Nevertheless,  he r e v e l s  did  in  the  her:  Tu e t a i s b e l l e , mon a m o u r . Comme j e s u i s f i e r de t a b e a u t e . Comme e l l e me r e c o m p e n s e . 1 . . . n o s deux c o r p s n u s , f l a m b a n t s u n i s d a n s l e u r d£mence r h y t h m e ' e . Ce s o i r e n c o r e , j e g a r d e s u r mes l e v r e s l e gofrt humecte' de t e s b a i s e r s £ p e r d u s . S u r t o n l i t de s a b l e s c a l c a i r e s e t s u r t e s muqueuses a l p e s t r e s , j e d e s c e n d s & t o u t e a l l u r e ^ j e m ' e ' t e n d s comme une nappe phrlatique, j'occupe t o u t ; j e p e n e t r e , t e r r o r i s t e a b s o l u , d a n s t o u s l e s p o r e s de t o n l a c p a r l £ : j e l ' i n o n d e d ' u n s e u l j e t , j e d £ b o r d e de\ia a u - d e s s u s de l a l i g n e des l i v r e s e t j e f u i s , oh comme j e f u i s s o u d a i n r a p i d e comme l a f o u d r e m a r i n e , j e f u i s ^ t o u t e s v a g u e s , s e c o u e par 1'onde i m p u l s i v e ( p . 7 2 ) .  Like The  the  passages  incalescent fervour  supercharged of  in L o i i t a ,  love  evening  however,  desperate  the  summoning  of  of  this  the  of  is lyrical  lines recreates  June 2 4 t h .  narrator's  passage  More t h a n  writing  t h e woman he has  the  and h i g h l y  erotic  a passionate  seems t o  evocative.  tempo o f  the  recollection  be an i n v o c a t i o n  -  a  lost:  Que f a i s - t u en c e moment, mon amour? Ou c i r c u l e s - t u a u - d e l c l d e s murs? P a s s e s - t u p a r f o i s dans 1 ' a i r e eVogene de n o t r e f £ t e n a t i o n a l e ? . . . R e t r o u v e s - t u l e g o u t de ma b o u c h e comme j e r e t r o u v e o b s £ d a n t s , n o t r e b a i s e r ? . . . P e n s e s - t u a* m o i ? S a i s - t u e n c o r e mon nom? M ' e n t e n d s - t u dans t o n v e n t r e quand 1 ' E v o c a t i o n o n i r i q u e de nos c a r e s s e s v i e n t s e c o u e r t o n c o r p s e n d o r m i ? Me c h e r c h e s - t u sous l e s draps . . . Regarde j e s u i s p l e i n e m e n t couc sur t o i et j e c o u r s comme l e f l e u v e p u i s s a n t dans t a g r a n d e v a l i n e . Je m ' a p p r o c h e de t o i infiniment...(p.73).  34.  The n a r r a t o r his  affirms  beloved:  t h e m a g i c a l power  o f w r i t i n g w h i c h c a n c o n j u r e up  "A f o r c e de t ' e c r i r e j e v a i s  m a g i e , amour"  (p.20).  A t one p o i n t  te toucher  he t a k e s  ombre n o i r ,  h i s a s s e r t i o n one s t e p  farther  and c o m p a r e s t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g t o t h e a c t o f m a k i n g  "Ecrire  e s t un g r a n d a m o u r "  more t h a n  (p.70).  noire  His w r i t i n g  the c r y p t i c c o n t i n u a t i o n of a n i g h t of  he c l a i m s ,  love: is  nothing  love:  L ' a m o u r e s t l e c y c l e de l a p a r o l e . Je t ' e ' c r i s i n f i n i m e n t e t j ' i n v e n t e s a n s c e s s e l e c a n t i q u e que j ' a i l u dans t e s y e u x ; p a r mes mots j e p o s e mes l e v r e s s u r l a c h a i r b r f r l a n t e de mon p a y s e t j e t ' a i m e de'sespe're'ment comme au j o u r de n o t r e p r e m i e Y e communion . (p.70).  By w r i t i n g , mistress, way  the narrator  not o n l y r e c r e a t e s but captures h i s e l u s i v e  i m p r i s o n i n g her t o the page,  making her a c c e s s i b l e  i n the  only  that remains p o s s i b l e f o r him.  While the narrators e x p e r i e n c e and u s e w o r d s lives,  they a l s o w r i t e  write  a s a means o f  as s u r r o g a t e s  to defeat  the e f f e c t s  "one who a s s e m b l e s f r a g m e n t s "  (p.34),  "whole"  past:  image o f t h e v a n i s h e d  for their  intensifying dreadfully  of time.  Demeter c l a i m s  As a that  their vacant biographer,  he l o n g s f o r a  We s e e k e r s a f t e r t r u t h , w h a t do we f i n d ? A f i n g e r p r i n t on t h e corner of a page. A worn s t e p a t t h e t u r n o f t h e s t a i r w a y . A s q u a r e o f f a d e d p a i n t on t h e f a d e d w a l l . Someone was h e r e , we know. B u t who? When? (p.34).  35.  He v a u n t s  himself  as a s e e k e r a f t e r  "insufferable  blank  Hazard,  "dear  ninny",  "denied  the  of  Hazard's fear  writing time the  past".  -  of  as a weapon the  events  Although  pages  Like  many o f  time  is  to  of  the  the  hero.  and d e a t h  with  B r u t a l l y attacked  floor  as D e m e t e r and M a r t h a  looked  the  himself the f a c t s  arrive.  I saw t h e  history",  Demeter's  fateful  for  of  him t o  image o f  Hazard  his  aspect novel  of  to  alter  acknowledge. the  past  i n the  climactic  lies  Demeter t a k e s shoot  and  (in  w h a t he r e a l l y seems  a n y blame  i n the  the  criticism  s i n c e Demeter uses  Hazard L e p a g e ) ,  the  death  scene of  motionless one  look  at  on  his  the  Hazard,  stallion:  l a s t and o n l y s u r v i v i n g  stallion  horse's  e y e s were  open and  head.  h i m , " Martha w h i s p e r e d ,  "No,"  I  "kill  him."  l o o k i n g nowhere  to  of  of  horse.  "Kill  answered.  remarks,  painful  by P o s e i d o n ,  away and H a z a r d ' s  yet watching  with  himself  He i s u s i n g h i s  and r a i s e s h i s gun t o  the Lepage breed of  I  of  to absolve  sight  contrasting  he i s s e e k i n g a w h o l e  novel.  b l o o d i e d and s t i l l ,  fill  the f a t a l ,  past.  past which are too  life  the  the  whose m i s s i o n i s t o  " t e r r i f i e d of  his other  d e f y and d e f e a t  Demeter tampers  And o v e r  (p. 11),  highly ironic,  i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y of  be s e e k i n g i s a means his  time"  whom he c l a i m s was  he c l a i m s t h a t  particular  of  truth,  and  36.  "Kill  h i m now,  Hazard  is s t i l l  "He's  a l l that  Hazard  lived for,"  "No,"  Martha  And I  thought  and t h e  love  of  f i r i n g the  head went  kicking at  "No,"  I  said,  gun;  s i d e w a y s and u p . the a i r  "Martha  The  h i s head a t  I s w e a r he s h o o k  for  this,  s t a l l i o n of  but Demeter  sacrosanct mission. immaterial; shoot the  twisted  and r o l l e d  the  All  shoot  move a c r o s s  r a i s e d gun  the other  (p.  171).  e v i d e n c e of  the  P o s e i d o n b e c a u s e he s e e s him a s  a breed of  greatness.  H a z a r d has  t e m p o r a r i l y or permanently  cannot  the  countenance Hazard's  o r not H a z a r d shook  had a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t h a t  lost  b l i n d e d by h i s swerve  h i s head a t  he c o u l d n o t ,  the  would  from gun  his is  not,  horse.  the word,  the p a s t ,  the  recapture  lost  writes that  narrator time,  consciously with retrouve"  Whether  Demeter  W h i l e Demeter s e n s e of  he c a n n o t  as he i s e i t h e r  Martha,  stallion fell  o n c e more t o  l a s t sentence i n d i c t s him.  last surviving  neck  -"  floor.  indicates that  eye t h e  ...  trying  of  said.  i n my m i n d ' s  And H a z a r d s t i r r e d t h e n ,  passage  sight  I  said.  over,  Demeter's  the  breathing."  (p.32);  in the  is, of  hopes o f  defeating  i n o r d e r t o overcome  Prochain Episode  in the P r o u s t i a n  Proustian phrases:  writes  sense of "Je  time,  the  in the  i n e l u c t a b i l i t y of  in order  the word.  me s o u v i e n s  " l e temps p a s s Y r e p a s s e e n c o r e p l u s  classical  to r e c a l l He  plays  de c e temps vite"  or  perdu  (p.33);  37.  and le  "J'avais temps  vraiment  perdu"  envie  (p.162).  les  minutes  du temps  his  imprisonment.  out  that  de p o s s e ' d e r une m o n t r e  I n i t i a l l y the narrator  ve*cu" i n an e f f o r t  In h i s b o o k ,  by remembering,  de p o c h e p o u r  claims that  to counteract  Le Temps H u m a i n ,  "(il) ecrit  the l o s t  Georges  mesurer  time  Poulet  man " e s c a p e s t h e p u r e l y m o m e n t a r y " ;  of  points  he e s c a p e s  4 "the The  nothingness narrator  that  lies  of P r o c h a i n  in wait  Episode  f o r him between  would  moments  of  existence".  concur:  J ' e c r i s p o u r t r o m p e r l e temps que j e p e r d s i c i e t q u i me p e r d , l a i s s a n t s u r mon v i s a g e l e s t r a c e s r a v i n e ' e s de s o n i n t e r m i n a b l e a l l u v i o n e t l a p r e u v e i n d e ' l e ' b i l e de mon a b o l i t i o n ( p . 7 2 - 7 3 ) .  In  fact,  the n a r r a t o r ' s  himself, also  t o combat  an a t t e m p t  soir-la  to r e c a l l  predecessor sequestered  "le  temps  (p.73).  passe".  quel  an a t t e m p t  triumphant  triomphe  en n o u s . ' "  i n a c o r k - l i n e d room,  experience "J'ecris  times  to  tromper  his past. but l i k e  he i s d i s c o n t e n t  and s e e k s t o r e c a p t u r e  pour  distract His w r i t i n g  of  (p.72);  "Ce  his  with  desperately to  time,  writing  the n a r r a t o r  he i s w r i t i n g  of Prochain  as a means o f a l t e r i n g  Episode  the past.  is vitally Demeter,  of  re-experience  experienced  t o remember  Like  the  la ressentir"  f o r the  time.  that  is  the sensations  l a t r i s t e s s e et pour  of emotion which accompanies a n y t h i n g  A t t h e same t i m e lost  the happy,  T h r o u g h r e c o l l e c t i o n , he t r i e s  the f r e s h n e s s first  past  i s not j u s t  t h e boredom a n d i s o l a t i o n o f p r i s o n .  j e me s o u v i e n s ,  mere memory o f  writing  or  recapture  interested he c a n n o t  in  38.  tolerate  the l a s t  ma v i e , c ' e s t (p.164). the  incomplete,  la violence  So he w r i t e s  most  painful  unsuccessful  episode  arme'e q u i me manque  a "prochain episode",  event  of h i s  of h i s f r e e  et notre  life.  triomphe  a new, improved  "A  eperdu"  version  of  life:  V o i l a comment j ' a r r i v e r a i a" ma c o n c l u s i o n . Oui, je sortirai v a i n q u e u r de mon i n t r i g u e , t u a n t H de H e u t z a v e c p l a c i d i t e p o u r me p r e ' c i p i t e r v e r s t o i , mon a m o u r , e t c l o r e mon r e c i t p a r a p o t h e o s e . T o u t f i n i r a dans l a s p l e n d e u r s e c r e t e de t o n v e n t r e d ' A l p e s muqueuses e t de n e i g e s e " t e r n e l l e s . O u i , v o i l c l l e denouement de l ' h i s t o i r e : p u i s q u e t o u t a* une f i n , j ' i r a i r e t r o u v e r l a femme q u i m ' a t t e n d t o u j o u r s ct l a t e r a s s e de 1 ' h S t e l d'Angleterre. C ' e s t c e q u e j e d i r a i dans l a d e r n i e r e p h r a s e du r o m a n . Et, q u e l q u e s l i g n e s p l u s b a s , j ' i n s c r i r a i en l e t t r e s m a j u s c u l e s l e mot:  peuplY  FIN.  All  the bunglings  episode  finally,  he c a n " r e s o l v e " his  present  suffering brftle  and u n r e s o l v e d  a r e amended  pretends  (p.173-4)  i n one h a p p y - e v e r - a f t e r  that  he i s a b l e  his novel.  situation  He c a n n o t  bear  h i s past  The  life  final  narrator  as e a s i l y a s  the indeterminate  quality  of  a c o n c l u s i o n which f i n i s h e s h i s  which concludes  e t de m e t t r e  of the n a r r a t o r ' s  conclusion.  to resolve  and so i n v e n t s  definitively,  d'en f i n i r  complications  un p o i n t  h i s open-ended final  novel  a" mon passe*  life:  "Je  indefini"  (p.167).  There  i s another  write  i n order  which  they s e c r e t l y find  discussion Louis life  and a r t :  r e a s o n why t h e n a r r a t o r s  t o shape o r c o n t r o l  on t h e n o v e l  Stevenson  major  the w i l d ,  so f a s c i n a t i n g , between  eloquently  Walter  pointed  raw w o r l d  write: of  experience  y e t so t e r r i f y i n g .  Besant  they  In a famous  and H e n r y J a m e s ,  o u t some o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s  Robert between  39.  L i f e i s m o n s t r o u s , a b r u p t , i n f i n i t e , i l l o g i c a l and p o i g n a n t ; a work of a r t i n c o m p a r i s o n i s n e a t , f i n i t e , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , r a t i o n a l , f l o w i n g and e m a s c u l a t e . L i f e imposes by b r u t e e n e r g y , l i k e i n a r t i c u l a t e t h u n d e r ; a r t c a t c h e s t h e e a r , among t h e f a r l o u d e r n o i s e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , l i k e t h e a i r a r t i f i c i a l l y made by a discreet musician. The n o v e l w h i c h i s a work o f a r t e x i s t s n o t b y i t s r e s e m b l a n c e s t o l i f e , w h i c h a r e f o r c e d and m a t e r i a l , as a s h o e must s t i l l c o n s i s t o f l e a t h e r , b u t b y i t s i m m e a s u r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m l i f e w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d and s i g n i f i c a n t and i s b o t h t h e method and t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r k .  It  i s p r e c i s e l y these  qualities  of  l i f e which Stevenson  s h y away f r o m . myself of  of  Both  prefer  madness)"  their  "monstrous"  men a b h o r  an o r d e r e d (p.59).  novels.  Like  h i s wooden  Their the  dolls,  the f e e l i n g of  world  control  " i n f i n i t e " and  so v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e s ,  c h a o s and d i s o r d e r . (even  if  c h i e f means  puppet  the  "abrupt",  master  narrator  of  ordering  manipulating  it  his  through  life  is  the words  Prochain Episode  he e x e r c i s e s o v e r  the  narrators  Demeter w r i t e s :  I must o r d e r of  that  "illogical"  a  "I posture  through and  actions  is fascinated  by  characters:  (Je s u i s ) f a s c i n e ^ p a r I ' a i r e de d i s p o n i b i l i t £ dans l a q u e l l e s ( l e s p e r s o n n a g e s ) s e meuvent comme a 1 ' i n t e r i e u r d ' u n e p r ^ h i s t o i r e q u ' i l ne t i e n t qu'c! moi de f a i r e c e s s e r en e c r i v a n t c e q u ' i l s n ' o n t pas e n c o r e f a i t e t q u ' i l s f e r o n t dans 1 ' e x a c t e p r o p o r t i o n oil mon i n v e n t i o n s a n s £ l a n l e s a c t u a l i s e ( p . 9 7 ) .  Both  narrators  infinite  combinations  the  world.  real  e n c o r e dans  "Je  a l l u d e to  the  and p e r m u t a t i o n s , refuse  toute  .  the  they feel  He i s s o i n t e n t  (p.91),  i n the f a c e  numberless  systefnatisation  l a d e t r e s s e de 1 ' i n c r e V '  Prochain Episode  terror  the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  qui m ' e n f o n c e r a i t  states  on g u a r d i n g  of  plus  the  narrator  of  himself  from the  "de/sespoir  40.  incisif entrer  qu'(il) dans  protects  ressen(t)  devant  la composition"  him f r o m  l e nombre  (p.91)  that  de v a r i a b l e s q u i  he i n v e n t s  peuvent  a system which  them:  Condamne ci une c e r t a i n e i n c o h e r e n c e o n t o l o g i q u e , j ' e n p r e n d s mon parti. J ' e n f a i s meme un syste>ne d o n t j e d e c r ^ t e 1 ' a p p l i c a t i o n immediate. I n f i n i , j e l e s e r a i a ma f a ^ o n ^ e t au s e n s p r o p r e . J e ne s o r t i r a i p l u s d ' u n s y s t & n e que j e c r e e dans l e s e u l b u t de n ' e n j a m a i s s o r t i r (p. 14).  Demeter,  too,  ilities  proffered  certain  the  by the  outcome  r e a l l y happened  panics  i n t h e f a c e of  real world.  o r d e t a i l s of  during Hazard's  a given  I f i n d myself  n e a t way o u t ;  life  so o b l i g i n g "  of  the  chaos  French-Canadian or d i s o r d e r at  narrator, bay,  When H a z a r d d e s c r i b e s t h e of  c r o c u s e s and s n a t c h "  into  the  Demeter's lists,  catalogues  high  raw o d o u r  penchant  He seems d r i v e n  contents  Hazard's  of  through  for  know f o r  Laporte,  To  it, "that  "the  Art  absolute  to  s c e n t of  mares and s p r i n g "  (what instance),  would f i n d  spectre  he c a n ,  into  a wind  flamboyant S p r i n g was (p.  naming  bookshelves, his  hero's  for  c l a s s i f y things:  instance -  perhaps  p o s s e s s i o n s he c a n c o n t r o l  Art. full  description in  that  12).  o r d e r i n g may be s e e n i n t h e  b y a need t o  a  degree  keep t h e  raw b i t c h o f that  for  a greater  whenever  Demeter r e f i n e s  of  possib-  numbers  and g e n e a l o g i e s w h i c h he i n t e r s p e r s e s t h r o u g h o u t  narrative.  that  12),  142).  D e m e t e r manages  h i s own more c o n t r o l l e d v e r s i o n :  yeasty wind,  (p.  by r e s h a p i n g  unknown  episode or c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  in a corner.  s p r i n g w i n d as  (p.  not  encounter with Mrs.  "Once a g a i n  than  infinite  When he d o e s  he d e s p a i r s :  i s not  the  he l i s t s i n the him  of his the  hope better:  41.  . . . c u r r y c o m b s , a broken h a m s t r a p , a spoon w i r e d t o a s t i c k f o r d r o p p i n g p o i s o n e d wheat i n t o t h e h o l e s of o f f e n d i n g g o p h e r s , s a l t p e t r e , g e n t i a n r o o t , a s c a t t e r i n g of copper r i v e t s , b l a c k antimony, a s c h o o l b o y ' s r u l e r , three mousetraps i n a matchbox, two c h i s e l s f o r t r i m m i n g h o o f s , c o r n u c r e s c i n e ( f o r m a k i n g h o r n g r o w ) , g i n g e r , h o r s e l i n i m e n t and l i n i m e n t f o r h i s b a c k , E l l i m a n ' s R o y a l E m b r o c a t i o n , b l u e v i t r i o l , an e l e c t u a r y , nux v o m i c a , s a d d l e s o a p i n a s p o d e (a s i m p l e b l u e and w h i t e ) s a u c e r . S p a n i s h fly... (p.9-10).  The  ceremony of  family,  of  the  Titmarsh), Ukrainian  of  naming  Proudfoots the  defies  represents, the of  the  that  to  among o t h e r  spirit.  things, power  Demeter c a n n o t  he c a n b e s t d e s c r i b e t h e  "superlative  Canada,  Toreador, the food  the  g r a c e and b e a u t y "  of  that  fabulous  and w i l l  other  not  Chinese  to  and at  a  ordering  major  and b e a u t y  unconscious,  the  the  Poseidon of  the  creative  reader  Hazard  life-force  describe Poseidon;  horse by r e f e r r i n g of  Lepage  Tennyson  blue s t a l l i o n .  c r u d e power the  the  horse.  to order  the  of  and d r i n k  his obsessive l i s t - m a k i n g ,  Hazard's  irrational  catalogues:  Thatcher,  of  Demeter t r i e s  his control:  unleashed,  other  and t h e d i s e a s e s o f  in addition  and h i s a d v e n t u r e s , that  (Martha,  hockey players  wedding,  But  continues with  to  flesh, vitality  he c l a i m s the  art:  I h a r d l y know w h e r e t o s u g g e s t you b e g i n . Those o l d C h i n e s e a r t i s t s , t h e y drew t h e i r h o r s e s t r u e t o l i f e , t r u e t o t h e rhythm of l i f e . T h e y dreamed t h e i r h o r s e s and made t h e h o r s e t o o . T h e y had t h e i r l i v i n g d r e a m o f h o r s e s . . . A h , where t o b e g i n ? Why i s t h e t r u t h n e v e r where i t s h o u l d be? I s t h e t r u t h o f t h e man i n t h e man o r i n h i s b i o g r a p h y ? Is the t r u t h of the b e a s t i n t h e f l e s h and c o n f u s i o n o r i n t h e f e w s k i l l f u l l y a r r a n g e d l i n e s . . .  42.  You m i g h t s e e t h e b r o n z e h o r s e s o f t h e L a t e Chou D y n a s t y . Or t h e "Five Horses" of L i - L u n g - m i e n , that l o v e l y ink drawing o r , i f I r e c a l l c o r r e c t l y , a hand s c r o l l . Or by a l l means s p e n d an hour c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e h o r s e s o f C h a o - M e n g - F u as t h e y go t o t h e i r w a t e r i n g . . . (p. 134).  Demeter c h o o s e s t o favour  of  arranged  the  negate  or  s h a p i n g power  lines"  but o b v i o u s l y  horses, "The  the  about  earlier  the  h a s done  also watching, (p.  it  applaud  in  f l e s h and c o n f u s i o n "  only  bronze  the  In  statue  of  The  bronze f o r e v e r . "  drawing,  Poseidon  a h o r s e on t h e  intones  b r i e f l y and r e p e a t  skillfully  he i m i t a t e s  who v i e w s  Building. and  "few  Chinese a r t i s t ' s  so d o i n g ,  novel,  lacking,  the  the  lawn  man c o m p a r e s  30).  solemnly:  The  in  the  two  voice,  man's  "Forever,  man  standing  in ministerial  (p.  in  colleagues,  in  bronze",  30).  Like  the  horse's  s c u l p t o r of life  and t h r o u g h others, to  r e a l one  "the  imagination,  in the  Edmonton L e g i s l a t i v e  finds  artist  the  which comprise not  b e s i d e a p o i s e d and p e r f e c t of  of  h i s own s t o r y a s w e l l .  whom he w r i t e s  front  subordinate  and f r e e z e s art,  Demeter's  control  both  bronze it  statue  forever,  and a r r e s t  aesthetic  h i s hero H a z a r d ' s  Purpose  the  credo.  belief In  who c a p t u r e s a moment  Demeter it.  In  presents  h i s book,  hopes this  capture  his  polar  A r t i c u l a t i n g West:  their  the subject  s e n s e , a s i n so many  i t s e l f as the  and Form i n M o d e r n C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e ,  H a z a r d and D e m e t e r a r e p r i s o n e r s o f  to  of  W.H.  Essays  New p o i n t s  visions:  extreme  out  on how  43.  . . . f o r n e i t h e r t h e man o f t h e f l e s h n o r t h e man o f t h e word w i l l a b s o l u t e f r e e d o m be p o s s i b l e . If Hazard cannot r e c o g n i z e the a r t i f i c e o f p o e t r y , D e m e t e r c a n n o t accommodate h i m s e l f t o H a z a r d ' s unabashed s e x u a l i t y . The o n e , s h o u t i n g " s t o p " , " n o " , "wait", and " n e v e r " t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e , r e j e c t s a l l o r d e r and i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s t a n t l y u p s e t by s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s ; t h e o t h e r , seeking order before l i f e , cannot r e s t i n the o r d i n a r y w o r l d w i t h w h i c h he s t r i v e s t o c o m m u n i c a t e .  The  narrators'  willingness  to  seem on t h e  one hand  hand, say,  despite not  only  narrators,  obvious  do v i o l e n c e t o  the  machinations their  to u n d e r c u t  s u b j e c t matter  their  "noble"  unselfconscious irony,  about  their  who a r e a b l e ,  subjects, through  h e r o and t o r a i s e h i s t a s k  to  the  and m a n i p u l a t i o n s ,  level  words, of  the  the  purpose.  the n a r r a t o r s  but about  their  for  their  sake of  art  On t h e  other  have t h e  final  themselves.  is  the  t o make t h e w r i t e r  the  ultimate  It  quest:  The b i o g r a p h e r i s a p e r s o n a f f l i c t e d w i t h s a n i t y . He i s a man who m u s t f i r s t o f a l l be o f s o u n d m i n d , and i n t h e c l a r i t y o f h i s own v i s i o n he must r i d e o u t t h e d a r k n i g h t , r i d e on w h i l e a l l a b o u t him f a l l s i n t o c h a o s . The man o f t h e c o l d e y e a n d t h e s t e a d y h a n d , he f a c e s f o r a l l o f h u m a n i t y t h e r a v i s h m e n t s and the t e r r o r s of e x i s t e n c e (p. 152).  44.  Footnotes:  1.  V l a d i m i r Nabokov, L o i i t a Berkley Medallion Press,  (New Y o r k : 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 3 2 .  2.  Ibid.,  p.  11.  3.  Ibid.,  p.  253.  4.  Georges (Paris:  5.  R o b e r t L o u i s S t e v e n s o n , as q u o t e d b y L e o n The M o d e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l (New Y o r k : G r o s s e t & D u n l o p , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 2 3 .  6.  W . H . New, "The S t u d h o r s e Q u e s t s " , A r t i c u l a t i n g West: E s s a y s on P u r p o s e and Form i n Modern C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e (Toronto: New P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 1 8 4 . ( I n h i s a r t i c l e , t h e " q u e s t s " New w r i t e s a b o u t r e f e r t o t h o s e D e m e t e r and H a z a r d , n o t t h o s e o f D e m e t e r and t h e n a r r a t o r o f Prochain Episode.)  P o u l e t , E t u d e s s u r l e temps h u m a i n L i b r a r i e P l o n , 1 9 5 2 J , p. 78. Edel,  of  45.  CHAPTER THREE THE DOUBLE NARRATIVE  It Episode that  h a s been p o i n t e d  e a c h have  telling  What r e m a i n s  tales are told  literature.  adventures part the  follows narrator  tradition  heroes,  structured  In The S t u d h o r s e  c o n t a i n s elements  i s how and why t h e  ways.  When t h e n a r r a t o r s a r e are related  l a r g e l y on c e r t a i n f o r m u l a  Man, Demeter's  of t h e Homeric  states  he i s a t t e m p t i n g  in the twentieth  of t h e n a r r a t o r and  tale  odyssey. t o model  very  patterns  b u t f o r t h e most  In P r o c h a i n  Episode,  his narrative  t h e s p y - t h r i l l e r genre  century.  in  o f H a z a r d and h i s  of the p i c a r e s q u e p a t t e r n ,  of the espionage s t o r y ,  popularized  that  Man a n d P r o c h a i n  the n a r r a t i v e s  the pattern that  -  t o be e x a m i n e d  i n such d i f f e r e n t  the s t o r i e s of t h e i r  c l o s e l y contained forms, of  The S t u d h o r s e  two d i s t i n c t s t o r y l i n e s  of t h e h e r o .  narrative  out that  STRUCTURE  that  The a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  on t h e  has been  story line  in  ) 46.  each of  the  novels  differently. pattern  but  In terms  are  the  closure  rather  own s t o r i e s f o l l o w  of  clarity,  "closed" form.  Barbara  (or  In  it her  Herrnstein  Smith  book,  Poetic  investigates  literature  and a l t h o u g h  her  closure  in poetry,  she s u g g e s t s  t h a t many o f  to  narrative  difference telephone  between  The  organization nation  child  or  events  of are  design that  exhibiting  related  to examine  the  the  A Study  concept  of  of  are  per-  Smith  out  the  points a  ringing  speaking,  she p o s t u l a t e s , a relatively  t o one a n o t h e r  i m p l i e s the  form.  h e r comments  generally  Conclusions,  events  or  is primarily a discussion  Initially  can o n l y s t o p ,  music c o n c l u d e s .  by a sequence  structure.  as w e l l .  study  very  formula  Closure:  c o n c l u s i o n and mere c e s s a t i o n : w h i l e  and a c r y i n g  o r a p i e c e of acterized  fiction  "open"  seems a p p r o p r i a t e  in  tinent  unstructured),  no p a r t i c u l a r  in a loosely constructed  interests  End,  is structured  narrators'  related  " o p e n " and  How Poems  of  The  however,  existence  a poem  are  high  char-  degree  b y some p r i n c i p l e of  a definite  of  of  termi-  point:  Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e o c c u r r e n c e of t h e t e r m i n a l e v e n t i s a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e q u e n c e and i s u s u a l l y d i s t i n c t l y g r a t i fying. The s e n s e o f s t a b l e c o n c l u s i v e n e s s , f i n a l i t y o r " c l i n c h " w h i c h we e x p e r i e n c e a t t h a t p o i n t i s w h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o h e r e as closure.1  Smith  points  out  t h a t c l o s u r e need n o t  be s p a t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d . a structure  appears  But w h e t h e r  closed,  when  it  always  be t e m p o r a l ,  s p a t i a l l y or i s experienced  but  temporally as  may  also  perceived,  "integral:  coherent,  47. >  c o m p l e t e and s t a b l e " fragmentary, beyond seek if  interrupted,  B e c a u s e s o much o f  fortuitously  our agency or c o m p r e h e n s i o n ,  out  enclosures:  b y an i m p l i c i t  randomness justifies varying  -  are  relate  points  or  from a background  the  states  of  of  integral  ones a r e  narrator's  their  c h o i c e of  heroes'  tales  Both  and a d h e r e n c e  D e m e t e r and t h e  i s as i f  the s t o r y t e l l e r s which  threaten  to  highly organized, narrator of  the  "locked  of  -  Prochain  p r i s o n s which  haven f r o m  their  from  that  those  other  every  develop,  they inhabit. as t h e  own e m o t i o n a l  or She  since  in a l l  our  "whatever  in the of  unbearable  turn.  cells  In  for  Smith's  Episode  the  "story-  background own  as a r e t r e a t personal  this  sense,  The  story  do:  they offer  protective  patterns  chaos.  the  for  narratives the  w h i c h D e m e t e r and  p a r a l l e l the  and n a r r a t i v e  forms  l i g h t of  Prochain  framework  constructed narratives  Episode  into" function  as  closed narrative  they choose f u n c t i o n  gain precedence at tightly  separated  chaos which d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e i r  the forms  a refuge  or  i s d i s t i n c t l y separate from the  random d i s o r d e r and c o n f u s e d It  to  narrator  which  novels  "we c r e a t e  (p.2).  i n which  seem u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  line"  their  by c a u s e s  disorder  be p r e s e n t  is  (p.3).  or create a s t r u c t u r a l  narratives.  relative  those  d e l i b e r a t e l y seek out  of  that  or complete"  t e n s i o n seem t o  most g r a t i f y i n g  on c l o s u r e .  of  out  highly organized,  are created are a l s o r e l e a s e d "  The  remarks  frame  connected or determined  Smith  that  common e x p e r i e n c e  common s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c l o s u r e b y s t a t i n g  degrees  tensions  structures  s t r u c t u r e s which are  our  experiences,  to  (p.2).  the  enclosure  which they  are  two men s a f e t y ,  a  48.  W h i l e some o f narrative  the  and H o m e r ' s  which Joyce  structural  Odyssey are  e s t a b l i s h e s between  Odysseus,  he m i g h t  blatant,  others  his Ulysses  L e p a g e i s m o d e l l e d on a p a t t e r n Like  s i m i l a r i t i e s between  a r e as s u b t l e as  and t h e  original.  d i s t i n c t l y r e m i n i s c e n t of  be c h i e f l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d  Hazard's some  Hazard  his  forefather.  by h i s w i l i n e s s ;  adept  p in  chicanery,  he i s  "far  outstanding  in a l l  c u n n i n g and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s a r e a p p a r e n t and  in his  ingenious  use of  or M i n i s t e r .  At  able to  survive  l e s s e r men m i g h t  endurance with with Utter, his  return  just is  from near death but  the  kind words.  Yet  Indian  old Lady Eshpeter  "a s i n c e r e man whose  in the  Like  Odysseus,  solitary travel  behind h i s f a i t h f u l  his  trial  Like  kindness  What a r a r e  ( M a r t h a ) who  the  test  on t h e  Rugged  as  of  icy  rivers  he i s  place"  "He  or  not  and v i r i l e ,  he  was  combination...nothing he  feared",  Laporte notes  is a lonely quester, p l a c e , and  stories  endurance,  Odysseus,  i n the world  right  great  and g e n t l e n e s s .  while Mrs.  in the  from p l a c e to Penelope  (as w i t h  t o women.  a thing  (p.135),  Hazard  elaborate  His  pony from the c o l d l a k e ,  icehouse).  wasn't  h e a r t was  in his  he i s a man o f  and t h e  so c o n s i d e r a t e . there  devices".  is equally convincing  perish  highly attractive  c l e v e r and y e t  of  his death-defying  a p p r e c i a t e d a l s o b y them f o r  remarks  of  same t i m e ,  t h e Widow L a n k ,  a man's man,  always but  the  h i s r e s c u e of  both  d i s g u i s e : Hazard  Mountie  where  kinds  (p.  that  154).  condemned  l i k e Odysseus,  l o y a l l y waits  he was  at  he  to  a  life  leaves  home  fending  49.  off of  eager s u i t o r s .  France  -  not T r o y ,  mer s e r a v o t r e in  this  His  novel  Cassandra  but  must  And  a sea-god,  Hazard undergoes boxcar  nevertheless  meutrieYe". not  loaded with  struggle with  she p r o p h e s i e s  in f a c t ,  but  his  a descent  bones the  i s an o l d woman on t h e  him t h a t ,  is killed  by  "La  Poseidon,  horse.  into  t r a v e l l i n g to  Cyclopean  Hazard  to  battlefields  the  underworld,  Edmonton,  embrace of  P.  albeit  and o n c e  Cockburn  in  on a  Edmonton  i n her  "Poly-  3 phemusian in  cave-bed."  the form of  persuades Hazard's  s i s t e r Raphael  him t o  stay amidst  unpleasant  presentation  of  dalliance with  In a n o t h e r  nymph  winsome M a r i e E s h p e t e r , him l i k e  a god.  Hazard's  desire for  ment w i t h  the  unwanted  (however b r i e f l y ) ,  with  While Hazard's structuring,  full  of  of  Scylla-Charybdis Calypso  Penelope  Like  almost  her at  is  incurables.  and  is a  ministrations in spite  of  Mrs.  stay with  kindness however,  and  and  the  tends  do n o t  one more tempting  Laporte,  door  re-  Odysseus'  p a r a l l e l e d by H a z a r d ' s loving  Circe  kill  detain-  Hazard succeeds in being  re-united  last.  narrative  the  "come" and  dilemma w h i l e  s u i t o r from M a r t h a ' s  it  picaresque novel.  accident.  him t o  who r e c e i v e s h i m w i t h  i n many r e s p e c t s the  his  t h e Widow L a n k and j a i l  Even M a r i e - C a l y p s o ' s his  Hazard encounters  her f a s c i n a t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of  a s l i g h t l y lascivious Nausicaa,  in driving  patterns  who commands  c h o i c e between  Odysseus' the  episode,  seems t o  borrow  a l s o conforms It  to  h e a v i l y from a the  Homeric  structures  is strongly episodic in plot  archetypal  picaro Lazarillo  de T o r m e s ,  and and and  50.  many p i c a r o s s i n c e , in  desperate  alive  H a z a r d i s an i n d i v i d u a l who f i n d s  financial  straits  i n an u g l y and o f t e n  and must  only choice other  the world  is tricky,  than  peopled  frequently  c o n s t a n t l y use h i s w i t s  cruel world.  makes t h e  himself  to  By b e c o m i n g a t r i c k s t e r ,  suicide that  by t r i c k s t e r s ,  the world  the  offers  stay Hazard  him.  p i c a r o must e i t h e r  "If give  4 up h i s p e r s o n a l i t y t o j o i n t h e is  able to  trick  festivities  h i s way i n t o a U k r a i n i a n  and t o  escaping with  bluff  a relatively light  self-determined,  assaulted  by e v e n t s ,  these events Hazard  than  i n the  wedding  sentence.  "reactions",  The  a result  of  but  seems t o  be much l e s s  surviving  narrative  them.  Like  by a s t r o n g w i l l  to  are coupled with  on e v e n t  in s t r i k i n g l y short  of  slow-down  let-down  i n the  we a r e meant  Hazard's ated His  to f e e l  storyline,  a l s o by j o u r n e y s  into  u n l i k e l y adventures  woman  named P.  Cockburn  narrative  a rapid-fire  l i k e other the w e i r d ,  the food  session,  picaro's  actions  should  are  he i s  The  usually  continually  concerned with  shaping  predecessors, numerous  adventures  common p i c a r e s q u e compass.  pace,  There  and as  a s s a u l t by the  device  i s no  picaresque  hero's  experiences.  is  the  improbable  and e v e n  range from a w i l d  lovemaking  session with  poster  sense  in other  picaresque narratives,  on a c a n o p i e d f o u r  and  a court  live.  the  Hazard  through  his picaresque  p i l i n g event  tales,  and a l l  a c c i d e n t or f a t e ;  of  or  Thus  since his adventures  but  is characterized  related  else perish".  h i s way a s a " r e v e r e n d "  more a c c u r a t e l y be t e r m e d not  t r i c k e r y or  punctu-  the  bed i n a d i s p l a y  absurd. a  51.  section his  of  the  blue-black  provincial  museum t o  colt,  of  both  the  absurd  scene w i t h  whom he s a v e s f r o m  the Cree  and  drowning:  He was w e a r i n g o n l y m o c c a s i n s and a p a i r o f b a d l y s o i l e d t w e e d dress trousers. He p u l l e d s o m e t h i n g t h a t l o o k e d l i k e an e a g l e f e a t h e r f r o m h i s p o c k e t and s t u c k i t i n one o f h i s b r a i d s . T h e n - and H a z a r d s w o r e t o t h i s - he b r o u g h t o u t a s m a l l p o c k e t m i r r o r and l o o k e d a t h i m s e l f . "I s a v e d y o u r c o l t " , he s a i d , (p.69).  O t h e r e p i s o d e s of improbable:  a brawl  a Doukhabour d i s c o v e r y of  like  reader,  school  doubting  its  mare's  main n a r r a t i v e  novel,  "insurer  (p.8).  Prochain  dans  that  comporte  un g r a n d nombre  dream of  doing  narrator  claims is his  anything  that  de r e g i e s e t  laziness  Kroetsch's. Episode  wedding,  In  however,  and a  this is  the  that  the  is structured  the  initial  de l a t r a d i t i o n of  trying  du to  (p.7).  i s c o m p l i c a t e d by what  and a l s o b y t h e f a c t  that  to  roman write  i n a "genre  non-e^rUes"  on  words  c l a i m s he has d e c i d e d  cause problems  de l o i s  novel,  novel  he had t h o u g h t  might  session,  it.  l e sens majeur  this  original  in the  Hubert A q u i n ' s  of  He m e n t i o n s  o r i g i n a l , but  re-examine  Robert  vient  Ukrainian  it  the  horse t r a d i n g  t o w a r d w h a t he b e l i e v e s  so d i s t o r t i n g  than  by a sense of  Kroetsch f u l l y e x p l o i t s  reader  l i n e of  narrator  l e roman q u i  d'espionage" something  the  a surreal  urine.  v a l i d i t y must  model  a beer-parlour  burning,  by l e a d i n g t h e  a more c o n t e m p o r a r y the  in a boneyard,  t h e f a m i l i a r and t h e n  The  of  s t o r y are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d  a use f o r  picaresque t r a i t , realm of  his  qui His  the  he c o n f e s s e s  52.  to a f e e l i n g of creuset d'un  great  genre  which the n a r r a t o r of  h i s p i c t u r e of  "security" in  l i t t e r a i r e aussi  it.  The  i s as much a j a i l  feels  a great  t h e most o b v i o u s  accounts. beautiful  bien d e ' f i n i " (p.8).  language  genre w i t h  its  as t h e p l a c e w h e r e  invents,  elements of  a country with  The  agent's  (or  is  stocked with  and O p e l ) ,  not  is  situations  -  is set  he  in bank  elements of  encounters at  but  a s l i p p e r y but  The a g e n t ' s  p u r s u i t of  the  d i s c r e e t but c l e v e r q u e s t i o n i n g cover,  f o l l o w e d by a high The a g e n t g o e s  through  t o c a p t u r e t h e enemy a g e n t . the spy s t o r y : gunpoint,  in  speed  c a p t u r e and i n e v i t a b l e e s c a p e and t h e n p l o t s  typical  his  The  plot  s e c r e t codes  racy foreign cars  (Mercedes  t o m e n t i o n d i s g u i s e and d o u b l e c r o s s .  Thriller Thriller,  i m p r i s o n e d , but yet  The s t o r y  i n the A l p s .  predictable trap  ("indechiffrabies"),  " l a w s " , and d e f i n i -  i s t o t r a c k down and k i l l  hairpin corners  own i n g e n i o u s b u t  indicative  as many s p i e s as s e c r e t o r anonymous  w h i c h he " u n c o v e r s " t h e enemy a g e n t ' s  stages of  is  it.  thriller fiction.  c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y agent.  c a r chase around  genre  p o s s i b l y r e t e l l s ) a s t o r y w i t h many o f  enemy n a t u r a l l y i n c l u d e s a p e r i o d o f  ritual  he i s  The  le  m i s s i o n , c o n f e r r e d upon him b y a m y s t e r i o u s  blonde c o l l e a g u e ,  sophisticated  the  "rules",  security in enclosing himself in  narrator  Switzerland,  dans  chooses to e x p l a i n h i s c h o i c e of  tions  The  "|e] p e l o t o n n e r mollement  literature,  "crisis  p o i n t s out  literature".  The  ones w h i c h c o n c e r n d e a t h ,  R a l p h H a r p e r i n The W o r l d o f hero i s guilt,  involved  fate  in  critical  or major c h o i c e -  the  53.  situations of  his  w h i c h l e a d him t o  life.  agent's  life  turning.  are  crisis  to explain  the  situations  at  a fantastic  another  tale  point,  the  enemy.  At  both  points,  i n t e n s e and t h e  Like structured  the  of  episodically.  The  The  episodic nature  sense of  closure associated with  p r o c e s s , most  H a z a r d and t h e novels,*  narrators,  while  a sense of  closure.  *  of  h e r o moves  pleted.  the  but  still  of  stop  the  o r a new  i n c l u d e s such  i n one the  instance,  agent,  to  asked  escape  f i n a n c i a l d i s t r e s s and n e r v o u s trembling with time,  ready  and m e n t a l  o d y s s e y and p i c a r e s q u e s t o r y  i n the  end o f  elements  Episode  story:  "frontiers"  to  break-  nervous shoot  tension  and  p r e s s u r e on  kill  the  suspense i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h i g h .  but  (of  the  a complete  gunpoint,  physical  another,  stories  at  length  the  of  Prochain  he i s p o i s e d ,  w h a t seems an i n t e r m i n a b l e  is  of  in his agent's  for  agent  alternative  narrator  " b o r d e r s , " or  these points  his suspicious behaviour  invents  down a n d ,  "boundaries,"  that at  reduced to  C e r t a i n l y the  dramatic  death,  Harper s t a t e s  the  of  of  unnamed  of  thriller  is  f r o m one a d v e n t u r e  or event  to  his episodes are  the  resolved or  greatly reinforces  storylines.  Not  o n l y do t h e  comthe two  agent) conclude d e f i n i t i v e l y at  each adventure part  the  the n a r r a t i v e s the  patterns,  or e p i s o d e c h r o n i c l e d by  larger  narrative,  the  the  is characterized  by  H a z a r d ' s s t o r y e n d s d e f i n i t i v e l y w i t h h i s d e a t h , and w h i l e t h e t h r i l l e r s t o r y ends d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y f o r t h e a g e n t , (he d o e s n o t g e t h i s man) t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e s e n s e o f an e n d i n g , a l b e i t a f r u s t r a t i n g o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y one f o r h i m .  54.  The narrator  narratives  are f u r t h e r  Events f o l l o w related:  written  characterized  one a n o t h e r  Hazard  b y D e m e t e r and t h e by a s t r o n g  the  job  b e c a u s e he c h o s e t h i s  as p u n i s h m e n t ,  h o r s e s a l l o w e d on t h e  beach,  free  of  c h a r g e an u n a t t e n d e d  the agent  finds  he w i s h e s  to  miss  his  himself  kill  with  his  of  sequence.  and a r e  pig s t i c k e r for  b e c a u s e he b r o k e  often  causally  t h e Widow  the  law of  b e c a u s e on i m p u l s e he d e c i d e d t o mare  lying  him b e f o r e  rendezvous  sense of  in chronological order  i s stuck with  French-Canadian  in f u l l  in wait six  heat.  i n the  o'clock,  beautiful  In  Prochain  enemy a g e n t ' s  b e c a u s e he d o e s  m i s t r e s s on t h e  Lank  no  service Episode,  home,  because  not want  terrace  of  to the  hotel.  The ized  narrator's  by a l a c k of  ordering  of  events.  The  through At  other  or at  narrator  of  l e a s t an a p p a r e n t l y Prochain Episode  he i s  i n Quebec;  fluctuates  i n the  his  relationship  next  the  drive  breath  of  "now" past  to Martha,  "smart-aleck  and  relates  to  through  his  Demeter's  the  headshrinker".  of  Events  p a s t and  the  countryside the  tale  to  the  present.  sights  own n a r r a t i v e  his youth, i n both  of  random  autobiography  of  Acton  he c a n  also  is a careful  his c h r o n i c l e r ' s narrative haunts  character-  the  "then"; while Hazard's  events,  are  i s a sense of  he i s d o c u m e n t i n g  p e n i t e n t i a r y window.  between  reconstruction  recalling  hand,  random a c c o u n t  w i l d and c o n f u s i n g v a c i l l a t i o n s b e t w e e n  see through  his  on t h e  chronological sequencing; there  events,  one moment  Vale  own n a r r a t i v e s ,  the  narrators'  jumps f r o m questions lives  are  his of  55.  o b v i o u s l y not c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d , mind w a n d e r s " , it  says Demeter,  but r a t h e r  "what  subjectively related.  a strange e x p r e s s i o n . "  i s t h e m o s t a p t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e movement  the events memories  they narrate  of o t h e r  as a j a y b i r d " Martha's  soft  call  events.  up r e a c t i o n s  Demeter's  ( p . 9 8 ) prompts  novel  Canadian  The h e a t  deux  qu'un  night:  i n much t h e same  "II  fait  f o r example,  In a d d i t i o n  Those  few a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  are r a r e l y complete, The F r e n c h  s t o r i e s are punctuated e p i s o d e s of t h e i r  b u t a r e much more Canadian  "La n e i g e e ' b l o u i e . . . a v a i t  1 ' a p p a r t e m e n t anonyme  also  narrative  unstructured reminds  him of soir-la,  l a v i l l e dans nos  by f r e q u e n t  narrator  enveloppe  de c6te-dea-Neigej!'  interruptions.  l i v e s w h i c h t h e y do r e l a t e  l i k e l y t o be p a r t i a l gives  notre  or  fragmentary  no more t h a n one o r two  sentences d e s c r i p t i o n of the time of h i s important  His  The  to a sense of c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r or d i s j o i n t e d -  the narrators'  on t h i s c r u c i a l  name.  a b o u t why  (p.119).  ness,  K:  "naked  nakedness;  a u s s i c h a u d en moi que c e  se'isme s e c r e t f a i s a i t f r i s s o n n e r t o u t e  corps convulses"  accounts.  h i s theory of  i s a feminine  i n the p r i s o n e r ' s c e l l ,  the heat of another alors  proceeds  minds:  lying  w h i s p e r i n g o f h i s name i n i t i a t e s h i s r u m i n a t i o n s  of  manner.  of t h e n a r r a t o r s '  t o , a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h and  him t o r e c a l l  w h i c h he p r o t e s t s  the French  But perhaps  d e s c r i p t i o n of L i t t e r ,  he was c a l l e d D e m e t e r ,  "The  first  encounters  premiere e'treinte  ( p . 10) a n d t h e n w i t h o u t  with  dans elaborating  s c e n e o f h i s l i f e goes on t o d e s c r i b e h i s d e p r e s s i o n .  d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s d i s a s t r o u s capture by the p o l i c e i n Montreal p i e c e m e a l and must  be g l e a n e d f r o m t a n t a l i z i n g  is  snatches of r e c o l l e c t i o n :  56.  A t r a v e r s ma v i t r e p e n i t e n t i a l ' r e , j e v o i s une c a m i o n e t t e r o u g e s u s p e c t e ma f o i - q u i me r a p p e l l e une a u t r e c a m i o n e t t e r o u g e s t a t i o n e d un m a t i n s u r 1 ' a v e n u e des P i n s , d e v a n t l a p o r t e c o c h e Y e des F u s i l i e r s Mont R o y a l . M a i s v o i l c i que c e t t e t a c h e r o u g e s ' e ' b r a n l e e t d i s p a r a T t dans l a n o i r c e u r , me p r i v a n t a i n s i d'un souvenir t o n i f i a n t (p.15).  Demeter's himself,  tale  i s also fragmentary.  p u l l i n g himself  explaining Hazard's scientific or  "But  jargon  I drift  into  J u s t as t h e fragmentary stories, Their  traditional  a  episodes which the  end p o i n t  novel:  still  the  the  there  make a n y f i n a l  In Jones,"  (p.  horrible failure r e p l a c e the  i s an o b v i o u s  comments  about  Ronald  Crane  " c h a r a c t e r " and p l o t s  points of  out  "The the  seem  little (p.  172)  unresolved, their  open-ended.  i s no d e a t h ,  a typical  no  on t h e  in their  lives;  part  or t h e i r  Concept  of  synthesizing  marriage,  c o n c l u s i o n of  sitting  their  themselves  an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d ,  relate  still  still  of  the  the  respective trying  not  constructing  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e p i s o d e s of  refusal  of  was  a  account..."  "head-shrinkers"; of  I  intrude  " c o n c l u s i o n s " of  There  are s t i l l  respective  here  "But  are c o n s i s t e n t l y  "end".  narrators  must  accounts  192).  the  criteria,  do n o t  such a s :  narrators  which c o n s t i t u t e s  seeing t h e i r  "prochain episode" to And  "I  crucial  straightforward  mere s p e c u l a t i o n "  " c e a s e " but  contemplate  lives.  (p.66);  an o t h e r w i s e  according to Smith's  nor any o t h e r  to  comments  or o n l y p a r t i a l l y complete,  stories  cells;  up s h o r t w i t h  predicament"  into  He i n t e r r u p t s  their  narrators  to  narratives.  Plot  and t h e P l o t  p r i n c i p l e s of  of  plots  " a c t i o n " , w h i c h he c l a i m s make up most o f  Tom of  the  57.  familiar  classic  characterized of  plots.  by a "completed  the p r o t a g o n i s t " , 6  "completed  p r o c e s s of  precipitated thought  heroes'  i n The  the  (p.  Studhorse  names K r o e t s c h  narrators'  The  W o r l d and t h e out  gradual of  the  620). the  Using  narrator's  novels  examined  o r sudden  c h a r a c t e r of  stories  a r e not  Book,  similar,  the  the  both  i n the  traditional  the d i f f e r e n t  It  is vital  natures  of  and  in  novels  the  two  while avoiding to  we  differ  authors'  in  that In  Josipovici  n e c e s s i t y of  n o v e l l a Death  mention  novels.  less  difficult,  narra-  recognize  but  i n Mann's  by a  plots.  however,  same as t h e i r  two  is  situation  as a g u i d e ,  modern f i c t i o n , G a b r i e l  g u i s h i n g Mann and A s c h e n b a c h  action  protagonist,  in i t  a s t u d y of rather  of  i n the  these d e f i n i t i o n s  Man and P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e , or Aquin.  plot  character is characterized  i n the moral  s t o r i e s and o t h e r  I have  the  points  a typical  o r m o l d e d b y a c t i o n and made m a n i f e s t  Thus f a r tives  change  t o what e x t e n t  from t h e i r  change,  while a plot  and f e e l i n g . "  can judge  of  According to Crane,  distin-  Venice:  B u t what i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n i s t h a t Mann i s n o t A s c h e n b a c h . . . t h e r e a s o n i s Mann i s , w h e r e a s A s c h e n b a c h i s n ' t able to w r i t e t h e s t o r y o f A s c h e n b a c h ' s f i n a l d e s c e n t i n t o s i l e n c e and d e a t h . F o r Mann h i m s e l f t h e end i s n o t s i l e n c e b u t t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f silence. In t h i s he i s a t one w i t h P r o u s t and K a f k a , Nabokov and G o l d i n g and R o b b e - G r i l l e t : i n t h e c o u r s e o f e a c h o f t h e i r w o r k s we a r e made t o move f r o m t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f i c t i o n t o t h e m a k e r o f t h e book and t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e f i n a l m e a n i n g o f t h e work i s one w h i c h i t i s i t s e l f p o w e r l e s s t o s a y , and t h i s i s t h a t i t has been made.1 ( a u t h o r ' s italics).  In  other  various  words,  Josipovici  neo-modernist  number o f  years:  i s m e r e l y p o i n t i n g out what R o b b e - G r i l l e t  writers  and c r i t i c s  have  been p o s t u l a t i n g  for  and a  58.  C r o i r e que l e r o m a n c i e r a " q u e l q u e c h o s e ^ d i r e " , e t q u ' i l c h e r c h e e n s u i t e comment l e d i r e , r e p r e s e n t e l e p l u s g r a v e d e s contre-sens. C a r , c ' e s t p r l c i s e m e n t ce " c o m m e n t " , c e t t e m a n i e Y e de d i r e , q u i c o n s t i t u e s o n p r o j e c t d ' i c r i v a i n , p r o j e t o b s c u r e n t r e t o u s , e t q u i s e r a p l u s t a r d l e c o n t e n u d o u t e u x de s o n livre.  It  is precisely this  Butor in  describe  (and  accentuating.  "maniere  de d i r e " w h i c h R o b b e - G r i l l e t ,  advocate),  w h i c h K r o e t s c h and A q u i n  By j u x t a p o s i n g  different  structures  and s t y l e s ,  the whole  p r o c e s s of  narrative  and s t r u c t u r a l subject of  of  novels  t h e o d y s s e y and t h e  not  two  narratives  the  novelists  composition,  c h o i c e s open t o  their  the  the w r i t e r .  the  the  to  the  with  so,  their  between  intensely  attention  but  the  the w r i t e r  to  stylistic  t h e y make  thriller,  and  interested  i n f i n i t y of  By d o i n g  "play"  are  are c a l l i n g  odyssey or the  thriller,  Sarraute  the writing  and  tradition.  In Aquin  and K r o e t s c h  standing  of  who r e l a t e less  emphasizing  the  the  stories,  perspective. novel  something  The  quite  novels  "anti-roman."  Their  narrative, the  reader  and t h e n  and K r o e t s c h ' s  crucial  than, role  o r as w e l l a s , of  By p r e s e n t i n g us w i t h  one t r a d i t i o n a l  conventional reading  stress  novel.  conventional  double  process rather  i s drawn  is tricked In  seem t o go b e y o n d novels  are not  reader  i n the  two u n r e l i a b l e  while also relating  novelists  different.  the  meaning, under-  narrators  their  own much  are d e l i b e r a t e l y c r e a t i n g a i n by what appears  be a  into  the  this  s e n s e , we c a n s e e how  some o f  realization  to  that  the c o n c e p t s of  s e t up m e r e l y i n d i r e c t  he  is  Aquin  the  opposition  59.  to  the  the  traditional  traditional  and t h e n  novel;  novel  to  by c o n t r a s t ,  force  the  reader  to  rules  and c o n v e n t i o n s  rather lull  Prochain Episode  o r even a d d r e s s would "But  like  the  frequently  their  readers  t h e games p l a y e d , or control  their  about  Canadian  i s both  narrator  the  their  the  stories,  narrator  interject  writing:  the  artifact.  D e m e t e r and t h e  p r o b l e m s of  "I  comments too  be more e x p l i c i t " , c o m p l a i n s  relevant  interrupts  they  become a w a r e o f  the making of  Demeter,  and a c c u r a t e ? " ( p . 1 4 4 ) .  his narrative  to  of  security,  traditional,  to  narratives,  interrupt  and s t r u c t u r e s  a f a l s e sense of  and d i s t o r t i n g t h e  preceding chapter to  what c a n I add t h a t  French  reader into  which govern  Through the c o u r s e of of  the  inverting  recognize  t h e y use the forms  The  lament:  . . . j ' i g n o r e l e s noms de mes f r e r e s q u i s e r o n t t u e s au c o m b a t , a u t a n t que j ' i g n o r e l e s t i t r e s des d i f f e V e n t s c h a p i t r e s de mon r o m a n . J ' i g n o r e meme c e q u i a d v i e n d r a de mes p e r s o n a g e s  qui m'attendent  dans l e b o i s de Coppet.  J ' e n v i e n s \ me  demander s i j ' a r r i v e r a i a temps ci 1 ' h f e t e l d ' A n g l e t e r r e , c e l a s e u l me p r e ' o c c u p e m a i n t e n a n t . . . (p. 9 6 ) .  The  effect  of  these  interruptions  s u d d e n l y we a r e f o r c e d framework draws  of  the  attention  " f o r c e the  reader  W h i l e we m i g h t to  itself,  to  to concentrate  stories. to  the  its  Josipovici  not  that  that  Pre-Romantic  g e n r e and t o  on t h e  points  r u l e s which g o v e r n  into recognizing  argue  or addresses to the  it  out  its  reader  stories, that  but  is  that  on  t h e modern  the novel  own c r e a t i o n i n o r d e r  i s not  the w o r l d " ,  l i t e r a t u r e also c a l l s  the conventions  car  w i t h which i t  to  (p.298) attention is  working,  60.  Josipovici is  that  remarks  that  the author  is  the  f e e l i n g we g e t  "confident  that  w o r l d w h i c h makes s e n s e , w h i c h i s the  human m i n d " .  universe  Today's world  b u i l t on a s e r i e s o f  f r o m The A e n e i d  he i s b o t h w r i t i n g  i t s e l f capable of  he c o n t i n u e s ,  or  "Lycidas"  i n and a b o u t  a  being apprehended  i s not  Dante's  world;  by  a  analogies:  In D a n t e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a n a l o g y s e r v e s t o make us r e a l i z e t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s m e a n i n g f u l , no l o n g e r a s e r i e s o f d i s c r e t e o b j e c t s o r e v e n t s . . . b u t p a r t s o f a w e l l - b o u n d v o l u m e , no l o n g e r i s o l a t e d notes but a t u n e . The " t r o m p e l ' o e i l " e f f e c t s o f modern a r t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p l a y f u l i n v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l f o r m and t h e p a r o d y o f l a n g u a g e and c o n v e n t i o n i n modern f i c t i o n , have t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t , m a k i n g us r e a l i z e w i t h a s h o c k t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g n o t w i t h t h e w o r l d b u t w i t h one more o b j e c t i n t h e w o r l d , o n e made by a human b e i n g , (p.299).  The e f f e c t obviously  of  this  from  integration,  kind of  that  of  of  literature  D a n t e and M i l t o n .  belonging  to  the whole  universe  isolation  and a l i e n a t i o n , o f  "frontal two  novels  emphasizes  autobiography inability the  painfully  cannot or  clear.  modern w o r k s  (of  or  artists  of  as K a f k a  puts  definitively  do n o t r e a l i z e  it.  shifting  f e e l i n g a sense  The  their  Proust,  sense  getting  of  past  structure  of  plight  of  analogy  Kafka,  -  the the  to  his  another.  authors  of  because  from n a r r a t i v e  tell  makes an a p p r o p r i a t e  such as E l i o t ,  ever  essential  know o r this,  different  is meaningful,  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  the constant  Josipovici  i s very  we e x p e r i e n c e a t e r r i f i c  or c o n f e s s i o n u n d e r l i n e s man's  to a b s o l u t e l y  narrators  the  own s k u l l " this:  Instead  a t r a d i t i o n which  is meaningful,  bone o f , o u r  on t h e r e a d e r  make between  While it the  Robbe-Grillet,  61.  Golding) that  at  and n e g a t i v e s , t h e end o f  world  of  the  world  i s only  hero  which  such w o r k s , i s only  a book",  n o v e l i s t versus  we come t o  307).  attempt  in their  then  His  t h e modern n o v e l i s t  structures  "how t h i n g s  his world,  (p.  K r o e t s c h and A q u i n  different  p i c t u r e s of  the  are not".  He r e m i n d s  realization  that  w h a t we had t a k e n  statements  on t h e  through  the  the  be  that  traditional  i l l u s t r a t e trenchantly  and a c h i e v e  to  "if  us  the  task  dialectic  of  novels:  . . . t h e r e a l w o r l d i s t h a t w h i c h t h e book i s n o t , b u t s i n c e I c a n n o t s t e p o u t s i d e my w o r l d t h i s n e g a t i v e i s a l l t h a t c a n be expressed. To i m a g i n e , l i k e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l i s t t h a t o n e ' s w o r k i s an image o f t h e r e a l w o r l d , t o i m a g i n e t h a t one c a n c o m m u n i c a t e d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e a d e r w h a t i t i s t h a t one u n i q u e l y f e e l s , t h a t i s to f a l l i n t o the r e a l s o l i p s i s m , which i s , to p a r a p h r a s e K i e r k e g a a r d on d e s p a i r , n o t t o know t h a t one i s i n a s t a t e of s o l i p s i s m . The modern n o v e l i s t , s e e i n g l i k e W i t t g e n s t e i n t h a t h i s f i r s t t a s k i s t o wake man t o t h i s d i f f i c u l t i n s i g h t , c o n s t r u c t s a book w h i c h i s a n e g a t i v e o f r e a l i t y and w h i c h a l w a y s a s k s o f us t h a t we move f r o m i t t o i t s s i l e n t referent.(p.309).  \  62.  Footnotes:  1.  Barbara H e r r n s t e i n Smith, How Poems E n d , ( C h i c a g o : 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 2 .  2.  Nestor's  3.  I am i n d e b t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o some s u g g e s t i o n s made b y W. H. New, i n "The S t u d h o r s e Q u e s t s " , A r t i c u l a t i n g W e s t : E s s a y s on P u r p o s e a n d Form i n M o d e r n C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , (Toronto: New P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 1 8 2 .  4.  S t u a r t M i l l e r , The P i c a r e s q u e N o v e l ( C l e v e l a n d : The P r e s s o f C a s e o f W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 56  5.  R a l p h H a r p e r , The W o r l d o f t h e T h r i l l e r ( C l e v e l a n d : P r e s s of Case of Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 9 ) ,  6.  R o n a l d C r a n e , ' T h e C o n c e p t o f P l o t a n d t h e P l o t o f Tom J o n e s " , C r i t i c s and C r i t i c i s m : A n c i e n t and Modern (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 6 2 1 .  7.  G a b r i e l J o s i p o v i c i , The W o r l d a n d The Book M a c M i l l a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 2 8 8 .  (London:  8.  A l a i n R o b b e - G r i 1 l e t , P o u r un n o u v e a u roman L e s E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 5 3 .  (Paris:  remark  Poetic Closure: A Study of U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ,  to Telemachus,  The O d y s s e y ,  Book  3,  (11.  121-2.)  The p. 5 1 .  63.  CONCLUSION  In published versal  h i s c o n c l u s i o n t o The in  1965,  problem  Northrop  i n Canadian  Literary  History  Frye e x p l a i n e d literature  at  of  Canada,  w h a t he f e l t  that  to  first  be t h e  uni-  time:  T h e r e i s no C a n a d i a n w r i t e r o f whom we c a n s a y what we c a n s a y o f t h e w o r l d ' s m a j o r w r i t e r s , t h a t t h e i r r e a d e r s c a n grow up i n s i d e t h e i r work w i t h o u t e v e r b e c o m i n g a w a r e of a c i r c u m f e r e n c e . . . I f no C a n a d i a n a u t h o r p u l l s us away f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t t o w a r d t h e c e n t r e of l i t e r a r y e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f , t h e n a t e v e r y p o i n t we r e m a i n a w a r e o f h i s s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g . The c o n c e p t i o n o f what i s l i t e r a r y has t o be g r e a t l y b r o a d e n e d f o r such a l i t e r a t u r e . The l i t e r a r y , i n C a n a d a , i s o f t e n o n l y an i n c i d e n t a l q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g s , w h i c h , l i k e t h o s e o f many o f t h e e a r l y e x p l o r e r s , a r e as i n n o c e n t o f l i t e r a r y i n t e n t i o n a s a mating l o o n .  In a s e r i e s of comments  critical  on what  recognize  essays w r i t t e n  he s e e s as t h e  and e x p r e s s  their  twelve  growing  years  tendency  l i t e r a r y forms  and  of  later,  Eli  Canadian  Mandel  writers  to  traditions:  The w r i t e r ' s t a s k becomes an i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f h i s l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n - n o t t o w r i t e up t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the c o u n t r y but t o a r t i c u l a t e the form of i t s f i c t i o n . So . . . C a n a d i a n f i c t i o n may be s e e n t o i n v o l v e a d o u b l e p r o c e s s . . . one t h a t i s c o n s c i o u s as w e l l : on t h e one hand i t i n v o l v e s f i n d i n g f o r m s a p p r o p r i a t e t o new s e t s o f e x p e r i e n c e o r , more e x a c t l y , t h e p l a c i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n t e x t ; on t h e other hand, i t involves i n t e g r a t i n g or u n i f y i n g l i t e r a r y experience i t s e l f , f i n d i n g out i n o t h e r w o r d s , whether e x i s t i n g l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , i n a l l i t s r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y , c o n n e c t s w i t h t h e l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l s at hand.  If  this  " i n c r e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of  represents Mandel  t h e movement o f  proposes,  the f o r e f r o n t  of  the  then  Kroetsch  this  movement.  \  more  innovative  and A q u i n  are  While the  our  literary  Canadian  writers,  c e r t a i n l y among  novels  tradition"  Prochain  as  those  Episode  at and  64.  The Studhorse Man may not be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f the canon o f  "the  3 genuine c l a s s i c s o f l i t e r a t u r e " ,  i n a number o f i m p o r t a n t ways the work  s i g n a l s a coming o f age i n Canadian f i c t i o n . To begin w i t h ,  both K r o e t s c h and Aquin have c r e a t e d  highly  complex c h a r a c t e r s as the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s o f t h e i r n o v e l s .  Their  n a r r a t o r s descend from a d i s t i n g u i s h e d but e c c e n t r i c l i n e o f i o n a l a n t i - h e r o s which i n c l u d e s such u n c o n v e n t i o n a l Jacques Rousseau, Camus' CIemence, Herzog (to name o n l y a f e w ) .  confess-  i n d i v i d u a l s as J e a n -  Nabokov's Humbert Humbent o r B e l l o w ' s  Intelligent,  h y p e r c o n s c i o u s and i n t e n s e ,  the n a r r a t o r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v a r i e t y o f anomalous and c o n f l i c t ing tendencies:  t h e i r moods swing from manic d e p r e s s i o n to w i l d e l a t i o n ,  from morbid w i t h d r a w a l sentimental  s e l f - p i t y to c y n i c a l  baroque narrator-madmen stories,  to a g g r e s s i o n o r v i o l e n c e , from lachrymose and introspection.  Coupled w i t h  are the r o m a n t i c s u p e r - h e r o e s , whose  ( e i t h e r r e c o r d e d o r i n v e n t e d by t h e i r a d m i r i n g  p r o v i d e s t r i k i n g i r o n i c c o n t r a s t to t h e i r n a r r a t o r s '  the flamboyant  storytellers),  own  undramatic  tales.  The n a r r a t o r s o f P r o c h a i n Episode and The Studhorse Man a r e m e r e l y g e n i u s madmen;  they are a l s o w r i t e r s .  It  i s noteworthy t h a t  K r o e t s c h and Aquin t a k e p a i n s to emphasize t h i s f a c t and to make the s e l f - r e f l e x i v e n e s s o f t h e i r t e x t s : (p.  34);  evident  "Je c h a v i r e dans mon r e c i t "  j e m'egare dans ce proces v e r b a l "  (p.  45).  They expose and  e x p l o r e the complex causes and e f f e c t s o f t h e i r n a r r a t o r s ' m a k i n g , and i n so d o i n g , the a u t h o r s  not  fiction-  i n v a r i a b l y r a i s e q u e s t i o n s not  only  65.  about the n a t u r e and problems o f t h e i r own w r i t i n g , but a l s o about the n a t u r e and problems o f a l l f i c t i o n w r i t i n g .  W h i l e the s e l f - r e -  f l e x i v e t e x t i s not an uncommon phenomenon i n the n e o - m o d e r n i s t t r a d i t i o n , The Studhorse Man and P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e ,  literary  a l o n g w i t h a handful  o f r e c e n t Canadian n o v e l s rank as some o f the few Canadian examples  of  t h i s kind of n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n .  K r o e t s c h and A q u i n 1 s shared awareness o f ,  and concern  for,  l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s i s r e f l e c t e d a l s o i n t h e i r b r i l l i a n t play with story patterns.  In making use o f the t h r i l l e r and the odyssey  p a t t e r n s i n t h e i r n o v e l s , the n o v e l i s t s a r e not s i m p l y r e w o r k i n g o l d models;  r a t h e r they a r e e x p o s i n g them f o r what they are - merely  patterns,  forms f o r r e c o u n t i n g s t o r i e s .  These s t r i c t p a t t e r n s when  j u x t a p o s e d t o the d i s j o i n t e d , c o n f u s e d wanderings o f the  narrators'  t a l e s s e r v e t o emphasize n a r r a t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n as p r o c e s s r a t h e r meaning.  than  In u n d e r l i n i n g the c r a f t o f f i c t i o n as one o f the s u b j e c t s  of  t h e i r n o v e l s , i f not the s u b j e c t o f t h e i r n o v e l s , Aquin and K r o e t s c h , l i k e Gide and many o t h e r s e l f - c o n s c i o u s w r i t e r s b e f o r e them, a r e i n v i t i n g the r e a d e r to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r c r e a t i v e a c t , o f the same c r i t i c a l  u r g i n g him to make some  judgements and d i s t i n c t i o n s , t h a t the w r i t e r  does,  f o r c i n g him to become aware o f the r u l e s and c o n v e n t i o n s which govern the making o f f i c t i o n .  With The Studhorse Man and P r o c h a i n Episode the Canadian novel seems to be t a k i n g g i a n t s t e p s f o r w a r d i n the areas o f s u b j e c t and s t r u c t u r e .  character,  We are moving away from the r e a l i s t i c ,  socio-  66.  logical long.  novel which has dominated Canadian n a r r a t i v e f i c t i o n f o r so A new e r a o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s announcing i t s e l f - an e r a i n  which the "roman d ' a v e n t u r e " roman".  i s b e i n g d i s p l a c e d by the " a v e n t u r e du  67.  Footnotes:  1.  N o r t h r o p F r y e , The Bush Garden ( T o r o n t o : A n a n s i P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p.214. ( f i r s t published i n L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, e d . Carl F. K l i n e k ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) .  2.  E l i Mandel,  3.  Frye,  p.213.  A n o t h e r Time  (Erin:  Press  Porcepic,  1977), p . 5 8 .  68.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  PRIMARY SOURCES  Aquin, Hubert. P o i n t de F u i t e . M o n t r e a l : L e C e r c l e du l i v r e de F r a n c e , 1 9 7 1 .  Le  Prochain Episode. C e r c l e du l i v r e de F r a n c e , 1 9 6 5 .  Kroetsch,  Journal  Robert.  A.  The S t u d h o r s e M a n . T o r o n t o : Creation.  Toronto:  "Unhiding  the Hidden:  of Canadian F i c t i o n ,  SECONDARY  M a c M i l l a n , 1969.  New P r e s s , Recent  1970. Canadian  V o l . 3 , No. 3 ( 1 9 7 4 ) ,  Fiction"  pp.43-45.  "Voice/in Prose: e f f i n g the i n e f f a b l e " V o l . 8 , No. 2 (November, 1976) p p . 3 5 - 3 6 .  freelance,  II  Montreal:  SOURCES  Works a b o u t  Hubert  Aquin.  A l l a r d , Jacques. "Prochain Episode". N o . 5 , (December 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 6 0 - 6 3 .  Parti-pris,  Vol.Ill,  Bergeron, Leandre. "Prochain episode et la r e v o l u t i o n " , i n V o i x e t Images du p a y s V I , M o n t r e a l , L e s P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de Q u e b e c , . 1 9 7 3 , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 9 . Berthiaume, Andre. "Le theme de 1 1 ' h e s i t a t i o n d a n s P r o c h a i n L i b e r t e , V o . XV, No. 1 , j a n v i e r - f e ' v r i e r 1 9 7 3 , p. 1 3 5 - 4 8 . Bouthillette, Perspectives,  Jean. " E c r i v a i n , faute 14 O c t o b r e 1 9 6 7 .  d'etre  episode",  banquier,"  C l o u t i e r , Normand. "James + B a l z a c + S t e r l i n g Moss + . . . = H u b e r t A q u i n " (entrevue avec A q u i n ) , l e magasine M a c l e a n , V o l . V I , N o . 9 , September 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 4 , 4 1 - 4 2 . D e s a u l n i e r s , L e o - P a u l . " D u c h a r m e , A q u i n : c o n s e q u e n c e s de l a m o r t de l ' a u t e u r " E t u d e s f r a n g a i s e s , V o l . V I I , N o . 4 , Novembre 1 9 7 1 , p p . 3 9 8 - 4 0 9 .  69.  BIBLIOGRAPHY -  Cont'd.  D v o r a k , M a r t h a . "Une a n a l y s e s t r u c t u r a l e des p e r s o n n a g e s dans P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e de H u b e r t A q u i n , " Revue de 1 ' u n i v e r s i t e * d ' O t t a w a , 4 5 , Septembre 1975, pp.371-378. F o l c h , J a c q u e s , " E n t r e t i e n avec Hubert A q u i n , " N o . 6 , Novembre-Decembre 1965, pp. 5 0 5 - 5 0 7 . Folch-Ribas, V o l . 1 9 , No.  Liberte',  Vol.  J a c q u e s . "La s o l i t u d e du c o u r e u r de f o n d , " 3 , March 1977, pp.3-6.  VII,  Liberte,  I q b a l , F r a n c o i s e . " L ' o e u v r e r o m a n e s q u e de H u b e r t A q u i n . "Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Department of F r e n c h l a n g u a g e and L i t e r a t u r e , J u n e 1972. LaBossiere, CR. " H u b e r t A q u i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y commedia d e l l ' a r t e h e l l : a baroque i m p a s s e . " , M o s a i c I I : S p r i n g 1978, pp.119-25. Lapierre, pp.96-97.  R.  "Aquin  et  les c r i t i q u e s " , Liberte*,  Vol.  20,  Mai  of  1978,  Lefehvre, Jocelyne. " P r o c h a i n e p i s o d e ou l e r e f u s du l i v r e , " i n V o i x e t Images du p a y s V , M o n t r e a l , L e s P r e s s e s de 1 ' u n i v e r s i t e ' du Quebec, 1972, pp. 141-164. P r e f o n t a i n e , Yves, e t M i r e i l i e B o r g r a s . " P r o c h a i n E p i s o d e , l e p r e m i e r roman de H u b e r t A q u i n , " L i b e r t e , V o l . V I I , No. 6 , Novembre-Decembre 1965, pp.557-563.v Smart, P a t r i c i a . Hubert A q u i n , agent de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e ' de M o n t r e a l , 1 9 7 3 ) .  Works a b o u t  Robert  B r o w n , R u s s e l l M. of Windsor Review, Cameron, D o n a l d . Canadian V o i c e . " 1972), pp.48-52. Dahlie, Hallvard. e d . James V i n s o n ,  double.  (Montreal:  Les  Presses  Kroetsch. "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h R o b e r t K r o e t s c h . " V o l . 7, No.2 ( s p r i n g , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 - 8 .  University  " R o b e r t K r o e t s c h : The A m e r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e and t h e Journal of Canadian F i c t i o n , V o l . 1 , N o . 3 , (Summer,  "Robert K r o e t s c h , " i n Contemporary N o v e l i s t s , New Y o r k : S t . J a m e s , 1 9 7 6 , p p . 7 7 9 - 7 8 0 .  70.  BIBLIOGRAPHY -  Cont'd.  Lecker, Robert. "An A n n o l a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Works b y and a b o u t Robert Kroetsch. " E s s a y s on C a n a d i a n W r i t i n g , Numbers 7 a n d 8 , ( F a l l , 1977) pp.74-96. Mandel, E l i . "Romance and R e a l i s m i n W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n " , i n Another Time. E r i n : P r e s s P o r c e p i c , 1977, p p . 5 4 - 6 8 . M o s s , J o h n G. "The Humour Canadian N o v e l . Toronto:  o f i t A l l . " Sex and V i o l e n c e i n t h e M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 7 , pp.274-298.  New, W . H . "The S t u d h o r s e Q u e s t s " , New P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 6 .  i n A r t i c u l a t i n g West.  Toronto:  Ross M o r t o n L. " R o b e r t K r o e t s c h and H i s N o v e l s , " i n W r i t e r s o f t h e P r a i r i e s , e d . D o n a l d G. S t e p h e n s , V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1973, pp. 101-114. Thomas D . P . " R o b e r t F r o s t , R u p e r t B r o o k e , The V o i c e s o f t h e Dead." S t u d i e s i n C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . No. 1 . ( W i n t e r , pp. 124-129. T h o m a s , P e t e r " P r i a p u s i n t h e D a n s e M a c a b r e : The N o v e l s o f Kroetsch". C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , No. 61 (Summer, 1 9 7 4 ) p p .  Works a b o u t  Canadian  Frye,  Raymond. Toronto:  Northrop.  Harrison, Dick. Prairie Fiction. Jones, Press,  A Thematic  Edward. Ryerson  Guide  to Canadian  An O u t l i n e o f C o n t e m p o r a r y Forum H o u s e , 1 9 7 2 .  The B u s h G a r d e n .  Toronto:  French  Anansi,  Literature.  Canadian  1971.  Unnamed C o u n t r y : The S t r u g g l e f o r a C a n a d i a n Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a P r e s s , 1977.  D . G . B u t t e r f l y on R o c k . 1970.  McCourt, Toronto:  Robert 54-64.  literature.  Atwood, M a r g a r e t . Survival: T o r o n t o : A n a n s i , 1972. Barzeau, J . Literature.  1976),  Toronto:  U n i v e r s i t y of  The C a n a d i a n West i n F i c t i o n . P r e s s , 1970.  Mandel, E l i . Contexts of Canadian C r i t i c i s m . of Chicago P r e s s , 1971. Another  Time  Erin:  Revised  Chicago:  Porcepic Press,  1977.  Toronto  edition.  University  71.  BIBLIOGRAPHY -  Cont'd.  Moison, Clement. L ' A g e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e . E d i t i o n s HMH L t £ e , 1 9 6 9 .  Montreal:  Moss, John. Patterns of I s o l a t i o n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974.  McCelland  Sex a n d V i o l e n c e i n t h e C a n a d i a n N o v e l . and S t e w a r t , 1977.  New, W . H . A r t i c u l a t i n g W e s t : Modern C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e .  Vancouver:  S t e p h e n s , D o n a l d G. e d . W r i t e r s o f t h e P r a i r i e s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1973. Donald.  Second Image.  The New H e r o .  D.  General  Toronto:  Toronto:  Vancouver:  New P r e s s ,  MacMillan,  1971.  1977.  Works.  Axthelm, London: Butor,  Toronto:  E s s a y s on P u r p o s e a n d Form i n Toronto: New P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 .  Ricou, Laurie. V e r t i c a l Man, H o r i z o n t a l W o r l d . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1973.  Sutherland,  Fiction.  Peter. The Modern C o n f e s s i o n a l N o v e l . Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967.  Michel,  E s s a i s s u r l e roman.  Paris:  New Haven a n d  L i b r a i r i e G a l l i m a r d , 1969.  E d e l , Leon. The M o d e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l . G r o s s e t and P u n l a p , 1955.  New Y o r k :  Harper, Ralph. The W o r l d o f The T h r i l l e r . Cleveland: P r e s s of Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 9 .  The  Herrnstein-Smith, Barbara. P o e t i c C l o s u r e : A S t u d y o f How Poems E n d . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicao P r e s s , 1968. H o w l y , M. 0 1 d f i e l d . C a s t l e Books, 1923.  The H o r s e  i n M a g i c and M y t h .  Josipovici, Gabriel. The W o r l d a n d The B o o k . M a c M i l l a n P r e s s , 1971. M e n d i l o w , A . A . Time a n d t h e N o v e l . Humanities P r e s s , 1965.  New Y o r k :  London:  New Y o r k :  M i l l e r , Stuart. The P i c a r e s q u e N o v e l . Cleveland: of Case Western R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y , 1967.  The P r e s s  72.  BIBLIOGRAPHY -  Cont'd.  Monteser, Frederick. The P i c a r e s q u e E l e m e n t A l a b a m a : U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama P r e s s , 1975. P o u l e t , Georges. Paris: Librairie  E t u d e s s u r l e temps P l o n , 1952.  Robbe-Grillet, Alain. Pour L i b r a i r i e G a l l i m a r d , 1963. Sarraute, Librairie Scholes, London:  un n o u v e a u  Nathalie. L ' E r e du S o u p c o n . G a l l i m a r d , 1956.  i n Western  Literature.  humain.  romafl.  Paris:  Robert. Kellogg Robert. The N a t u r e o f Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966.  Narrative.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094735/manifest

Comment

Related Items