UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The poetry of Ts'ao Chih : a critical introduction Russell, Terence Craig 1979

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THE POETRY OF TS'AO CHIH A C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n by TERENCE CRAIG RUSSELL A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 3 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . . MASTER OF ARTS. i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A s i a n S t u d i e s , Chinese) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH September 1 9 7 9 ( c )Terence C r a i g R u s s e l l , COLUMBIA 1 9 7 9 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f A s i a n S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 n.tP Sept. 12, 1979 i i ABSTRACT (Preface) The form which this thesis has taken is rather different from what I had originally envisioned. It contains far more discussion of literary style and far less translation than I had planned to include. This is both a virtue.- and a short-coming. Certainly i t has been much more. Interesting to have attempted an analysis of some of the literary forces which molded and characterized the poetry of Ts ' ao Chih and the Chien An writers than i t would have been simply to have translated a large number of their works. I have made many fascinating discoveries and the reader w i l l surely find more substance to occupy his attention. However, i t is d i f f i c u l t to avoid feeling that to try to analyse and c r i t i c i s e poetry which one has the greatest d i f f i c u l t y even reading, and which is the product of a literary tradition as remote as that of third century China,is very presumptuous. After a l l , i f as accomplished and mature a scholar.as Professor Donald Holzman would decline to engage in just this type of discussion on the grounds that he felt i t so d i f f i c u l t as to 'actually defeat i t s own purpose'"'" how could I hope for any kind of success? Nevertheless, as mentioned, I have learned much through the preparation of this work and generally don't regret my presumption. It is perhaps only necessary to forewarn the reader that many of the statements made herein are of a tentative and speculative nature and are i i i n o t i n a n y r e s p e c t t h e l a s t w o r d o n t h e s u b j e c t . Y e t i f t h e s e s p e c u l a t i o n s l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o a s l i g h t l y d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f t h e f i n e p o e t r y o f T s ' a o C h i h , o r e v e n i f t h e y o n l y s t i m u l a t e h i m t o s e e k s u c h a p p r e c i a t i o n o n h i s o w n , t h e n I w i l l c o n s i d e r t h a t m y w o r k h a s n o t b e e n c o m p l e t e l y i n v a i n . I h a v e p l a c e d m y t r a n s l a t i o n s o f T s ' a o C h i h ' s p o e m s a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h e s i s . T h i s i s o n l y b e c a u s e , t h a t s e e m e d t o b e t h e o n l y l o g i c a l p l a c e t o p u t t h e m . I t d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t I c o n s i d e r t h e m t o f o r m m e r e l y a k i n d o f a p p e n d i x w h i c h t h e r e a d e r m a y r e f e r t o f o r h i s o w n c o n v e n i e n c e . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , I h a v e s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e I n p r e p a r i n g t h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s a n d w o u l d l i k e t o t h i n k t h a t t h e y a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . T h u s t h e y r e p r e s e n t p e r h a p s , a n e v e n g r e a t e r ' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o k n o w l e d g e ' t h a n d o e s t h e m a i n b o d y o f m y t e x t . 2 I n m y t r a n s l a t i o n s I h a v e f o l l o w e d H u a n g C h i e h ' s t e x t e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . I h a v e r e c o r d e d v a r i a n t w o r d i n g s b u t , d u e t o a l a c k o f l i b r a r y r e -s o u r c e s a n d p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t , I h a v e n o t a t t e m p t e d t o i n d u l g e i n e x t e n s i v e t e x t u a l c o m m e n t a r y . I h a v e s t r i v e n t o p r e s e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s t h a t a r e b o t h a c c u r a t e a n d f u l f i l t h e a x i o m t h a t a t r a n s l a t i o n m u s t b e g o o d p o e t r y i n i t s o w n r i g h t i n o r d e r t o b e s u c c e s s f u l . I h a v e u s e d t h e m o d i f i e d W a d e - G i l e s s y s t e m o f r o m a n i z a -•3 t i o n f o u n d i n t h e Mathews' Chinese English Dictionary t h r o u g h -o u t . T o t h i s s y s t e m I h a v e m a d e a f e w m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f m y o w n b u t t h e s e s h o u l d b e q u i t e s e l f - e v i d e n t . i v I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i m m e a s u r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t h a t h a s b e e n g i v e n m e b y P r o f . Y . C . Y . C h a o a n d P r o f . E . G . P u l l e y b l a n k i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s m u s t b e g i v e n t o P r o f . M i c h a e l B u l l o c k a n d t h e m e m b e r s o f h i s t r a n s l a t i o n w o r k s h o p f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n m a k i n g m y t r a n s -l a t i o n s m o r e r e a d a b l e . I a m a l s o i n d e b t e d t o M j r . _ E_^Y; S h i n w h o w a s k i n d e n o u g h t o w r i t e i n t h e C h i n e s e S c r i p t f o r m e . Notes: 1 - S e e D o n a l d H o l z m a n , Poetry and P o l i t i c s ; The L i f e and Works of Juan Chi3 C a m b r i d g e , 1976, p . 228. 2 T h i s t e x t h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h e s i s . A l s o s e e H u a n g C h i e h , Ts'ao Tzu-ohien shih chu •# . 3 - z j ^ f o r t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n w i t h a n n o t a t i o n . 9 3see R . H . M a t h e w s , Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n , H a r v a r d , 1969, o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d 1931-V C O N T E N T S Abstract _ — ' — - — i i L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s vi I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 N o t e o n E d i t i o n s 6 T h e L i f e o f T s ' a o C h i h 15 A- G e n e r a l I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P o e t i c s o f t h e C h i e n A n a n d W e i E r a s 45 T h e P o e t i c s o f T s ' a o C h i h • 65 A ) T r a d i t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n 67 B ) R o o t s a n d I n f l u e n c e s 69 i ) Shih Ching 69 I i ) Yiieh-fu 74 f i l l ) Ku-shih a n d t h e ' 19 O l d P o e m s ' 80 C ) T h e Q u e s t i o n . ' o f A l l e g o r y 81 D ) M e t a p h o r a n d Using 9 2 E / P i c ' t i o n a l l z a t i o n • ."97 P ) R e s p o n s e a n d D e d i c a t i o n 106 G ) S o c i a l a n d - . P o l i t i c a l C o n c e r n 115 F ) F o r m a l R e f i n e m e n t s 120 1) O v e r a l l S t r u c t u r e 121 l i ) I m a g e r y ; . • ; N a t u r e a s m e t a p h o r 1 2 4 . - ' . i i i ) P a r a l l e l i s m 1 2 5 i v ) W o r d S e l e c t i o n 128 C o n c l u s i o n 135 T r a n s l a t i o n s o f T s ' a o C h i h ' s P o e m s w i t h A n n o t a t i o n s - 138 B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 0 4 C h i n e s e T e x t s 213 V I L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s BSOAS B u l l e t i n of the School of Oriental and African ..Studies CHC CK'u Hsueh-ahi CHS Ch'ilan Han shih CCS Ch ''uan Chin shih CSKS Ch'uan San-kuo shih CHW Ch'uan Han wen CSKW Ch 'uan San-kuo wen HS Han Shu pu-chu HHS Hou Han Shu HYHP Hsin-ya Hsueh-pao JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society JAS Journal of Asian Studies PTSC Pei-t'ang shu ch'ao SKC San-kuo-chih (Wei ChihJ_ WC San-kuo-chih, pu-chu, Wei Chih SPPY Ssu-pu pei-yao SSCCS Shih-san-chirig$' chu-shu SSHY Shih-shuo hsin-yu TPYL T'ai-p'ing yu-lan CP Ts'ao chi ch 'uan-p 'ing WCTKTL Wei Chin Nan-pei-ch 'ao wen-hsueh shih ts'an-k'ao t z u - l i a o WH Wen Hsuan YWLC Yi-wen lei-chu YTHY Yu-t'ai hsin-yung YPSC Yueh-fu shih-chi CHHW Ch 'uan Hou Han wen SKCCC San-kuo-ch-ih cki-chink 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e t h i r d c e n t u r y A . D . w a s a c r u c i a l t i m e p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e f o r a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s . P r o f . D o n a l d H o l z m a n h a s d e s c r i b e d i t a s a w a t e r s h e d e r a d u r i n g w h i c h t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e p r o g r e s s e d f r o m t h e a n t i q u e t o t h e m e d i e v a l . " ' " T h i s i s a n a p t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . J u s t a s t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m a n t i q u i t y t o t h e m i d d l e a g e s i n E u r o p e I n v o l v e d m a n y c o m p l e x , y e t o f t e n i n t e r r e l a t e d , p h e n o m e n a , s o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l i t e r a r y v a l u e s f r o m t h e e n d o f t h e H a n D y n a s t y u n t i l t h e C h i n -^j- a n d S i x D y n a s t i e s p e r i o d s i n v o l v e d a n u m b e r o f e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a m o n g t h e s e f a c t o r s w a s t h e e m e r g e n c e o f l i t e r a t u r e f r o m t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f C o n f u c i a n p r a g m a t i s m a n d r a t i o n a l i s m . I n t e r m s o f t h e C o n f u c i a n p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m w h i c h h e l d s w a y o v e r v i r t u a l l y a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e l i v e s o f l i t e r a t e C h i n e s e d u r i n g t h e H a n D y n a s t y , l i t e r a t u r e w a s o n l y v a l u a b l e i n s o f a r a s I t c o u l d b e o f b e n e f i t i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e s t a t e . T h e c r e a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e w i t h n o i n t r i n s i c p o l i t i c a l o r m o r a l v a l u e w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a v a l i d o c c u p a t i o n f o r e d u c a t e d m e n . A s a r e s u l t , t h o u g h p o e t s c o n t i n -u e d t o w r i t e , t h e i r w o r k t e n d e d t o b e o v e r l a d e n w i t h p o l i t i c a l a n d m o r a l c o n t e n t . T h e o r i z a t i o n a b o u t t h e a e s t h e t i c m e r i t s o f l i t e r a t u r e w a s o p e n l y eschewed. D u r i n g t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y , t h i s s u b j u g a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e b y C o n f u c i a n p h i l o s o p h y w a s s t r o n g l y c h a l l e n g e d . E v e n t h o u g h 2 n o . w r i t e r w o u l d d a r e t o o p e n l y c o n t r a d i c t C o n f u c i a n p r i n c i p l e s b y a r g u i n g f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l i t e r a t u r e a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t a r t f o r m , i n p r a c t i c e , l i t e r a t u r e d i d a c h i e v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m . L i t e r a t u s p o e t s b e g a n t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s l e s s a n d l e s s w i t h m o r a l o r s o c i a l m a t t e r s . T h e y w r o t e i n a m o r e l y r i c a l v e i n , e n d e a v o u r i n g t o a c h i e v e l u c i d i t y o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n h e a v y m o r a l r e l e v a n c e . T h e y a l s o b e g a n t o c o n s i d e r t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s t r e n d b e g a n w i t h g e n e r a l a n d p a s s i n g c o m m e n t s o n t h e m e r i t s o f c e r t a i n w r i t e r s o r o n t h e n a t u r e o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t m a j o r t r e a t -i s e s o n l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c s , s u c h a s t h e Wen-hsin tiao-lung "5t ,viT ^ | 2 a n d Shih p'in "j^f *a 3 w e r e w r i t t e n . S u c h w o r k s i n r e s s e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t w r i t e r s h a d f r e e d t h e m s e l v e s d f c m o r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l o b l i g a t i o n s a n d h a d d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p u r e l y e x p r e s s i v e p o t e n t i a l o f l i t e r a t u r e . O n a m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l , t h e f a l l o f t h e H a n D y n a s t y a n d t h e c o i n c i d i n g d e c l i n e i n t h e p r e s t i g e o f C o n f u c i a n i s m m e a n t t h a t w r i t e r s w e r e l e s s b o u n d t o t h e r a t i o n a l i s m a n d a n t h r o p o c e n t r i s m o f t h a t p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m . A c c o r d i n g t o C o n f u c i a n c o s m o l o g y , m a n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f n a t u r e a n d t h e u n i v e r s e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s a c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e s p e c t i v e s p h e r e s o f M a n , H e a v e n a n d E a r t h . T h i s d e m a r c a t i o n w a s e v i d e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o m p o s e d d u r i n g H a n a n d p r e - H a n t i m e s . C h i n e s e w r i t e r s w e r e f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e a n d t h e y p a i d t r i b u t e t o i t s m y s t e r i e s a n d f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e i r p o e t r y a n d fu. Y e t i n t h e i r w o r k t h e r e a l w a y s e x i s t s a k i n d o f s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e 3 f o r c e s a n d o b j e c t s o f n a t u r e . W h e n t h e y w r o t e , t h e y d e s c r i b e d n a t u r e o b j e c t i v e l y o r u s e d n a t u r a l i m a g e r y o n l y a s a k i n d o f e m b e l l i s h m e n t o r o r n a m e n t a t i o n . I n t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y , w r i t e r s , a l o n g w i t h t h e l i t e r a t e c l a s s i n g e n e r a l , b e c a m e m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c o u o u t l o o k o f T a o i s m . T h r o u g h t h i s p h i l o s o p h y t h e y b e g a n t o f i n d m o r e i d e n t i t y a n d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d a n d m o v e d . I n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e t h e y b e g a n t o e x p r e s s t h i s s u b j e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f n a t u r a l i m a g e r y a s m e t a p h o r f o r t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a n d b y f i n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n f o r e m o t i o n s s t i m u l a t e d b y n a t u r a l s c e n e s . T h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e c o m e m o r e i n v o l v e d w i t h n a t u r e i s o n e o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m e d i e v a l C h i n e s e p o e t s . C o n f u c i a n r a t i o n a l i s m h a d l e d w r i t e r s a w a y f r o m t h e r e a l m o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n t o w a r d m o r e o b j e c t i v e , e x p o s i t i v e s t y l e s . A f t e r t h e f a l l o f t h e H a n , e m o t i o n a l s u b j e c t i v i s i m c a m e t o t p l a y a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g r o l e i n - l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . F r i e n d s h i p , l o v e , p e r s o n a l a n x i e t y a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r e m o t i o n a l t h e m e s b e c a m e f a r m o r e p r e v a l e n t t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s e e m o t i o n s b e c a m e m o r e d i r e c t a n d i n t e n s e . T h i s d i r e c t n e s s a n d i n t e n s i t y w e r e t r a i t s t h a t w e r e e s p e c i a l l y v a l u e d b y l a t e r p o e t s a n d c r i t i c s . T h e t h i r d c e n t u r y w a s a l s o t h e t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h p o e t r y w a s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e m o s t I m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y f o r m , r e p l a c i n g t h e fu w h i c h h a d b e e n s o p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h e H a n D y n a s t y . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n w a s a l s o i n a s e n s e r e l a t e d t o t h e f a l l o f t h e H a n a n d t h e d e c l i n e o f C o n f u c i a n i s m . T h e fu h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d p r i -m a r i l y a s a v e h i c l e f o r p o l i t i c a l r e m o n s t r a n c e . ^ A s s u c h i t f i t w e l l Into the framework of Confucian views concerning l i t e r a t u r e . With the d e c l i n e i n the formal power of Confucianism there was l e s s pressure on w r i t e r s to w r i t e p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s allowed them to explore new forms and to r e d i s c o v e r the p o t e n t i a l of poetry f o r l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n . Fu continued to be w r i t t e n but i t was q u i c k l y surpassed by poetry as the most popular l i t e r a r y form. In a l l of the above mentioned phenomena, the Chien An w r i t e r s played a c r u c i a l r o l e . They were s t i l l b a s i c a l l y p a r t of the c l a s s i c a l or antique t r a d i t i o n but i n t h e i r work we f i n d that the seeds of medieval l i t e r a r y values have a l r e a d y begun to grow f o r t h . As mentioned, the f i r s t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s of p u r e l y l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c s appear i n w r i t i n g s from t h i s time,-' i n d i c a t i n g a growing consciousness of l i t e r a -ture as an Independent medium of e x p r e s s i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , we f i n d i n the a c t u a l poems and fu of t h i s e r a , a very marked development i n l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e . In almost a l l aspects of t h e i r a r t , the Chien An w r i t e r s show a p r o g r e s s i o n away from the s t r i c t u r e s of a n t i q u i t y , toward a f r e e r , more potent s t y l e of e x p r e s s i o n . The most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w r i t e r of the Chien An p e r i o d i s Ts'ao Chih. He was born near the end of the second century and l i v e d through the t u r b u l e n t years that accompanied the d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n of the Han Dynasty. To an extent the imprint of . these years can be seen i n h i s works. Not only was he a poet of great t e c h n i c a l accomplishment, but i n h i s work we can see most g r a p h i c a l l y I l l u s t r a t e d the i n n o v a t i o n s and s p e c i a l a t t r i -butes of Chien An l i t e r a t u r e . For t h i s reason I have chosen him 5 and h i s work as the subject of t h i s t h e s i s . I hope that through an examination of c e r t a i n aspects of h i s work we w i l l be able to d i s c o v e r the nature of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e v o l u t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the e a r l y middle ages i n China as w e l l as of the development of Chinese p o e t i c s i n g e n e r a l . Notes 1 I n a l e c t u r e given at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n September, 1 9 7 8 . 2 L i u Hsieh ^-l] •fyf^Wen-hsi-n tiao-lung iK^ )f|f|L ^ [ com-posed duri n g the Liang Dynasty ( 5 0 2 - 5 5 6 ) . 3chung Jung brfe Shih p'in a l s o composed durin g the Liang Dynasty but not as comprehensive as the Wen-hsin. 4 See Helmut Wilhelm, "The S c h o l a r ' s F r u s t r a t i o n : Notes on a Type of Fu" i n Fairbank ed., Chinese Thought and I n s t i t u -tions, Chicago, 1 9 5 7 -^For example i n Ts'ao Chih's l e t t e r to Yang Hsiu , and Ts'ao P ' i ' s Tien Lun jJL . 6 A N O T E O N E D I T I O N S I n T s ' a o C h i n ' s b i o g r a p h y i n t h e Wei chih " ^ j^ , C h ' e n S h o u j j t j j ^ ; | | s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e Ching Ch'u %f) e r a o f t h e E m p e r o r M i n g ' s r e i g n ( 2 3 7 - 2 3 9 ) T s ' a o C h i h ' s w r i t i n g s w e r e c o l l e c t e d a n d p l a c e d i n t h e i m p e r i a l a r c h i v e s . " ' " T h e r e w e r e a p p a r e n t l y o v e r a h u n d r e d p i e c e s o f b o t h p r o s e a n d p o e t r y i n t h a t c o l l e c t i o n . C h i h h i m s e l f a l s o m a d e a c o l l e c t i o n o f s o m e 2 s e v e n t y - e i g h t o f h i s w o r k s b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s h a v e b e e n t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . I n t h e Sui-shu ching - chi - chih j5^ j| i|t- jif„ t h e r e i s a r e c o r d o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f T s ' a o C h i n ' s w o r k s e n t i t l e d Ch'en-ssu Wang Chih chi |^ ^  ^ J l - ^ i n t h i r t y . ch'uan. ^ T h e T ' a n g h i s t o r i e s r e c o r d w o r k s o f t h e s a m e t i t l e i n t w e n t y chuan. T h e a u t h o r s o f t h e Ssu-k'u ch'uan-shu tsung-mu t'i-yao \£) ^  Q 4^-^  s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n s r e c o r d e d i n t h e T ' a n g h i s t o r i e s w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e a s t h a t r e c o r d e d i n t h e Sui-shu b u t t h a t t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f ch'uan h a d b e e n a l t e r e d . A n e d i t i o n o f t w e n t y chuan w a s r e c o r d e d b y C h - ' e n C h e n - s u n ' " - o f t h e S u n g i n h i s Chih-chai shu-lu chieh-t'i ^_*yjj^ fyfy 7^1 ^  b u t t h i s w a s m o s t l i k e l y n o t t h e s a m e e d i t i o n a s r e c o r d e d i n t h e T ' a n g a n d S u i h i s t o r i e s a s i t a p p a r e n t l y c o n t a i n e d a n u m b e r o f p i e c e s c o l l e c t e d f r o m v a r i o u s lei-shu ifH-^r • T h e o l d e s t ' . - e x t a n t e d i t i o n s a r e a l l I n ten chuan. , T h e Ssu-k'u ch'uan-shu e d i t i o n w a s b a s e d o n a r e c u t b l o c k p r i n t f r o m t h e s i x t h y e a r o f Chia-ting ^ i n t h e S u n g D y n a s t y ( 1 2 1 3 A . D . ) . C h u H s u - t s e n g 7 had access to a s i m i l a r e d i t i o n and he b e l i e v e d that i t was the v e r s i o n upon which the numerous l a t e r Ming Dynasty block p r i n t s i n ten ohiian were based. 5 There are f o r t y - f o u r fu seventy-four poems and ninety-two mis c e l l a n e o u s prose p i e c e s i n the Ssu-k'u e d i t i o n , making a t o t a l of 2 1 0 p i e c e s . Although many of these are fragmentary, t h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more than the "hundred or more" pi e c e s r e f e r r e d to i n the Wei Chih. E i t h e r the l a t e r e d i t i o n contains many f o r g e r i e s , or e l s e the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n excluded many works that were recorded i n other sources. In any case, the Sung v e r s i o n used by the Ssu-k'u was > a l s o ••-. Incomplete as i t d i d not c o n t a i n Ch'i-fu shih found 1 i n the Yu~ty'\:a'i^hsin-yung j L fj|T ^ \ " | ^ C a n c ^ s e v e r a l other p i e c e s to be found i n v a r i o u s lei-shu. In the Ming Dynasty there were at l e a s t two moveable-type e d i t i o n s made. The e a r l i e r of these, that of a c e r t a i n Mr. Hsu i n Ch 1 ang Chou ~h\ \^ seems to have preceded the block p r i n t s of Kuo Yun-p'eng ^fjj and L i Meng-yang jjj^ It was u n f o r t u n a t e l y not w e l l prepared and contained many t e x t u a l e r r o r s . The l a t e r e d i t i o n , made by a Mr. Fu i n Chiang An yX-^ ^Jj" fa was more r e l i a b l e and served as the b a s i s of the Ssu-pu ts'ung-k'an %^ -f'J e d i t i o n . The most notable Ming block p r i n t s are those of Kuo Yiin-.fe p'eng made durin g the Chia Ching-:: era j^- 5^ " , and L i Meng-yang, the o r i g i n a l of which was made at roughly the same time and was l a t e r r e - c u t d u r i n g the Ch'ing Dynasty and p r i n t e d i n f o u r v o l -umes. Wang Sh i h - h s i e n yfc. made an e d i t i o n which must have been p u b l i s h e d somewhat l a t e r than these two e d i t i o n s as I t contains L i Meng-yang.';s p r e f a c e . Chang P'u a l s o made an e d i t i o n i n the l a t e Ming p e r i o d e n t i t l e d Ch1 en-' Ssu-wang • ch'uan-chi i • I t was p r i n t e d i n f o u r volumes and two chuan. A l l of these e d i t i o n s used the Sung Ch'ia Ting v e r s i o n as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t and went on to make c o r r e c t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s of t h e i r own. In the Ch'ing Dynasty c o n s i d e r a b l e work was done toward making a d e f i n i t i v e c o l l e c t i o n of''Ts'ao Chih's works. The most s u c c e s s f u l attempt was made by Chu Hsu-tseng, a Tao Kuang '•• t i n g y u ^ J t T'H ^ l 837) ohu-jen ^K- H i s T s ' a o G h i k'ao-yi ^ ^ -^L Is based p r i m a r i l y on an e a r l y Sung b l o c k p r i n t made du r i n g the f i f t h year of Yuan Feng ^ (1082) by the Wan-yii T'ang p r i n t e r s f«£[ . Chu a l s o c o l l e c t e d both complete and fragmen-t a r y works from the lei-shu and added h i s own c o l l a t i o n s , based on numerous e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s at h i s d i s p o s a l , and a n n o t a t i o n s , based on the work of e a r l i e r commentators and h i s own r e s e a r c h . The work i s i n twelve chuan. . Ten chuan c o n t a i n the a c t u a l c o l -l e c t e d works. One ehuan contains e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the h i s t o r y of the t e x t as w e l l as an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y of e d i t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o . The f i n a l ••- ahuan contains a d e t a i l e d chron-ology or nien-p'u jcf-'|£jg" of Chih's l i f e . T h i s book was p u b l i s h e d i n the Chin-ling ts'ung-shu ^f^^_^^n f o u r volumes and u n f o r -t u n a t e l y has not been r e p r i n t e d i n a more a c c e s s i b l e and con-venient modern form. The Ts'ao chi ch'uan-p'ing ^ ^ £ ^ of Ting Yen "T" ^ was completed at roughly the same time as Chu's work but d i d not appear i n p r i n t u n t i l somewhat l a t e r . Apparently Ti n g and Chu were unaware of each other's work and there i s much s i m i l a r i t y between them. Ting Yen took a Ming Wan Li |^ ^ (1573-1620) e r a p r i n t made by a Mr. Ch'eng i n Hsiu Yang -jj:]^ . as h i s base t e x t and added three prose p i e c e s to i t . Although he d i d exten-s i v e work c o l l a t i n g the t e x t , he d i d not i n c l u d e as many annota-t i o n s as d i d Chu. T i n g a l s o drew up a nien-p'u and made notes on the t e x t . His book was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 7 2 i n two volumes by the C h i n - l i n g Book Company/^|^j |£.y2j and has been r e -p u b l i s h e d ' i n a r e - s e t "Western"- v e r s i o n e d i t e d by Yeh Chii-sheng - j ^ H / ^ i n Peking i n 1 9 5 7 -Two e x c e l l e n t annotated c o l l e c t i o n s o f Ts'ao Chih's poetry were made i n the 2 0 t h century by Chinese s c h o l a r s . The Ts'ao Tzu-ahien shih ch-'-ien ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o f Ku Chih ~^ Jj[_ appeared i n 1 9 2 8 i n the Ts'eng ping t'ang, wu ahung "J§g ^ J C ^ e d i t e d by Ch'en H s i i n . The other work, Ts'ao Tzu-ahien shih chu ^ ^ 5^"$^r by Huang C h i e h w a s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 0 by the Commercial Press i n Peking and then r e p r i n t e d by Jen-min wen-hsueh A ^ j i ^ ^ i n 1 9 5 7 - Of the two, Ku Chih's i s the l e s s e x t e n s i v e and the more d i f f i c u l t to use. I t has no index and i s unpunctuated. Ku's s c h o l a r s h i p i s somewhat b e t t e r however, as he gives a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the back-ground and t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of most of the poems- and i d e n t i f i e s the source of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a more s p e c i f i c manner. Huang Chieh has e s s e n t i a l l y f o l l o w e d Chu Hsu-tseng's t e x t . He s e l e c t e d seventy-one of Chih's poems and added a great deal of commentary and annotation to each p i e c e . The most u s e f u l f o r e i g n language work on Ts'ao Chih's poetry i s Ito Masafumi's Sd Shoku.^ . I t o has s e l e c t e d f o r t y -four of Chih's poems, made h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n and comments and added a c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to Chih's l i f e and work. He has 10 a l s o prepared a w e l l researched chronology of Chih's l i f e . P r o f e s s o r I t o ' s d e t a i l e d and j u d i c i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p i s an i n d i s -p e n s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding of Ts'ao Chih's poetry. There are numerous fragmentary t r a n s l a t i o n s of Chih's works i n E n g l i s h . The most Important being Hans F r a n k e l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of f i f t e e n p i e c e s i n h i s a r t i c l e , " F i f t e e n Poems o by Ts'ao Chih: An Attempt at a New Approach". There are a l s o David Roy's t r a n s l a t i o n s of s i x of Chih's poems on the theme of the "neglected w i f e " , ^ and K.P.K. Whitaker's t r a n s l a t i o n s of Lo-shen fu10 San tang shih E - ^ f ^ p 1 and Ch'ieh po ming hsing ^ • j ^ - ^ " ^ 1 ^ • Chih's works are a l s o found In many ant h o l o -gies made by Western t r a n s l a t o r s . The only l a r g e - s c a l e t r a n s l a t i o n of Ts'ao Chih's poetry made i n t o E n g l i s h i s George Kent's Worlds of Dust and JadeT3 Mr. Kent has t r a n s l a t e d f o r t y - s e v e n of Chih's works and w r i t t e n a c r i t i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to them. The t r a n s l a t i o n s are by and l a r g e a c c u r a t e , but the sometimes c u r i o u s language employed, and the l i m i t e d nature of the annotations has l e d me to use my own t r a n s l a t i o n s and commentary i n the present work, r a t h e r than r e l y on h i s . Ts'ao Chih's poems are i n c l u d e d In a number of e a r l y l i t e r a r y a n t h o l o g i e s . The e a r l i e s t of these i s the Wen Esuan compiled under the auspices of P r i n c e Chao Ming of the Liang Dynasty. This book i n c l u d e s t w e n t y - f i v e of Chih's poems, one of h i s fu and s i x other miscellaneous prose p i e c e s . The commentary made to these pieces by L i Shan ^ jp J|. and l a t e r the s o - c a l l e d " F i v e O f f i c i a l s " of the Sung Dynasty, i s very 11 u s e f u l i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e p o e m s . A l s o , t h e p'ing chu Chao Ming Wen Hsuan'pf'%$Qo9i\%jBi e d i t i o n o f t h i s b o o k m a d e i n t h e C h ' i n g D y n a s t y b y Y u K u a n g - h w a -J"-^^ ( i n Ch^ien lung 37 J^pj^ ( 1 7 7 2 ) ) " ^ i s a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m e n t a r y c o l -l e c t e d - f r o m t h e n o t e s o f v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s . T h e Yu t 'ai hsin yung J S - ' f j r % % j > a n a n t h o l o g y o f l y r i c a l v e r s e m a d e d u r i n g t h e C h ' e n D y n a s t y b y . H s u L i n g ^ ^ ^ ^ c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f C h i h ' s p o e m s , a t l e a s t o n e o f w h i c h , Ch'i-fu shih' w a s p r e s e r v e d o n l y i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n b y S u n g t i m e s ' . T i n g P u - p a o ' s Ch'uan Han San-Kuo Chin Nan-pei-ch'ao shih lH>i% £ 1% 1%% $\$L%$ 1 5 , P e n g W e i - n a ' s §fe \%%$\Shih chi "f^ f * £ i 1 6 a n d Y a n g T e - c h o u ' s ^ ^ ^ Chien An ch'i tzu chi j f ^ ^ c t - T ^ ^ a 1 1 c o n t a i n i m p o r t a n t c o l l e c t i o n s o f C h i h ' s w o r k s . T h e Yueh-fu shih chi j^/£j"^J£of K u o M a o - c h ' i e n f^j^of S u n g c o n t a i n s m o s t o f C h i h ' s p o e m s w h i c h f a l l u n d e r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f yileh-fu a n d p r o v i d e s m u c h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . r e g a r d i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f m a n y o f t h e s e w o r k s . F i n a l l y , t h e e x c e l l e n t w o r k o f Y i i K u a n - y i n g ^ C ^ j f e i - n h i s San Ts'ao shih hsuan ^ "J^r j j ^ a n d o f t h e s c h o l a r s a t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y i n ' t h e i r Wei-chin Nan-pei-ch'ao wen-hsueh shih, ts'an-k'ao t z u - l i a o ^ j ^ - ^ " s h o u l d n o t b e o v e r l o o k e d . B o t h o f . t h e s e b o o k s c o n t a i n s c h o l a r s h i p o f a v e r y h i g h c a l i b r e p r e s e n t e d I n a f o r m w h i c h i s b o t h e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d a n d a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e m o d e r n s t u d e n t . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e n u m e r o u s lei-shu c o m p i l e d l a r g e l y i n t h e T ' a n g a n d S u n g e r a s w e r e v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f w o r k s l o s t f r o m t h e c o l l e c t e d w o r k s o f T s ' a o C h i h . T h e T' ai p'ing yu lan fcfy Yt-wen lei c h u l ^ i j ^ ^ ^ , Ch'u hsileh chi '#77r^'f£»and P e ^ t'ang shu ch'ao $X*^£.3k%M t o n a m e b u t a f e w , a l l c o n t a i n C h i h ' s 1 2 works In e i t h e r fragmentary or complete form. I have had r e -course to these p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of v e r i f y i n g the c o l -l a t i o n s of former s c h o l a r s . The most important source of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . r e g a r d i n g Ts'ao Chih's l i f e i s the Wei Chih i n the San Kuo Chih ^ of Ch ' en Shou f^L-^ • This work i s supplemented by the annotations of P'ei Sung-chih y^^-fc^of the Liu-Sung Dynasty .^'1 $R' a n < ^ l a t e r by those of Lu p l ^ _ ^ S ^ o f the e a r l y r e p u b l i c a n era i n h i s San Kuo chih, chi-ohieh • This l a t t e r work contains a great deal of i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o drawn from c e r t a i n lei-shu and l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l accounts such as the Tzu-chih t'ung ohien >(? i|j.£jjaOf Ssu-ma Kuang ^ ^ . The work of I t o Masa-fumi In h i s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to h i s So Shoku and that of Yoshikawa K i j i r o ^ )l| ^ / f c i n h i s Sankokushi j i t s u r o k u 5-§;ci^ ^ j c 2 1 were a l s o most h e l p f u l i n c l a r i f y i n g c e r t a i n matters of an h i s * t o r i c a l n ature. In the b i o g r a p h i c a l chapter a l l r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be to the Wei Chih of the San-Kuo chih, pu-chu J*. "^j p r e p r i n t e d by 2 2 the Y i Wen Book Company of T a i p e i unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . I have used t h i s t e x t because i t f o l l o w s most c l o s e l y the index compiled by the Harvard-Yenching I n s t i t u t e . In other cases where there i s an index with t e x t Included to a given source work I have used the r e f e r e n c e system of that work. Where no such work e x i s t s or i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e I t r i e d to use e i t h e r the Shih-s an-ching, chu-shu -f'^ e d i t i o n , ( Y i Wen r e p r i n t ) 2 ^ or the Ssu-pu pei-yao ^ g ^ p j ^ j ^ e d i t i o n . 2 ^ E x c e p t i o n s ' to t h i s w i l l be noted. 13.- '>'---N o t e s 1 W C 1 9 / 2 2 a , 2 Y W L C 5 5 / 9 9 6 . ^Sui Shu]\$L, P e k i n g , C h u n g H w a e d i t i o n , p . 1 0 5 9 ^ C h ' e n C h e n - s u n f ^ ^ l t ^ ^ , , Chih chai shu-lu chieh-t'i J l ® * p h o t o - r e p r i n t o f a b l o c k - p r i n t b a s e d o n t h e Yung-lo ta t i e n ^ *g* Jfc e d i t i o n i n t w e n t y - t w o ch'uan 3 v o l s . , p u b l i s h e d b y K u a n g W e n * B o o k C o m p a n y i n T a i p e i , 1 9 6 8 . l 6 / 3 a . ^ C h u H s u - t s e n g , Ts'ao-ohi k'ao-yi %^rJ^^x , l l / 6 a . ^ S e e p o s t f a c e t o Ts'ao-ohi k'ao-yi b y C h i a n g K u o - p a n g 7 I t o M a s a f u m i , So Shoku , T o k y o , 1 9 5 8 . o H a n s H . F r a n k e l , " F i f t e e n P o e m s b y T s ' a o C h i h ; A n A t t e m p t a t a N e w A p p r o a c h " , i n J A O S 8 4 / 1 9 6 4 , p p . 1 - 1 4 . ^ D a v i d T . R o y , " T h e T h e m e o f t h e N e g l e c t e d W i f e i n t h e P o e t r y o f T g ' a o C h i h " i n J A S 1 9 / 1 9 5 9 , p p . 2 5 - 3 1 . l ^ K . P . K . W h i t a k e r , " T s a u r J y r ' s L o u h s h e r n F u " i n Asia Major, I V / I , 1 9 5 4 , p p . 3 6 - 5 6 . 1 1 . " S o m e N o t e s o n t h e B a c k g r o u n d a n d D a t e o f T s a u r J y r ' s P o e m o f t h e T h r e e G o o d C o u r t i e r s " i n B S O A S 1 8 / 1 9 5 6 , p p . 3 0 3 - 3 1 1 . 1 2 _ — . " T s a u r J y r ' s S o n g o f t h e I l l - f a t e d L a d y " , i n B S O A S 1 7 / 1 9 5 5 . " ^ G e o r g e 0 . K e n t , Worlds of Dust and Jade 3 N e w . Y o r k , 1969. ^ R e p u b l i s h e d i n S h a n g h a i , 1 9 3 1 . 1 5 F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 6 a s a b l o c k - p r i n t , r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 6 a n d 1 9 6 8 i n f a c s i m i l e b y Y i W e n o f T a i p e i . l 6 F e n g W e i - n a Shih-chi # L p u b l i s h e d i n a b l o c k -p r i n t i n 1 6 1 3 , a m o d e r n e d i t i o n d o e s n o t s e e m t o b e a v a i l a b l e . 1 7 Y a n g T e - c h o u jfj w a s a M i n g D y n a s t y s c h o l a r . A C h ' i n g , Ch'ien Lung, wu'-yin % t f k ^ % ( 1 7 5 8 ) p r i n t o f t h i s w o r k h a s b e e n p h o t o - r e p r i n t e d b y C h u n g H w a i n T a i p e i . l 8 P u b l i s h e d b y Jen-min Wen-hsueh A . ^ ^ C ' ^ i n 1 9 5 7 , P e k i n g . - ^ p u b l i s h e d b y C h u n g H w a i n P e k i n g i n t w o v o l u m e s , 1 9 6 2 . 1 4 2 0 F i r s t p u b l i s h e d by the Ku Chi P u b l i s h i n g Company ^ iK )j/^L^i_ and subsequently r e p r i n t e d i n Peking, 1 9 5 7 -2 1 S e e The Collected Works of Yoshikawa Kojiro volume 7 , P- 7 3 - 1 3 3 -^San-kuo-chih, pu chu Z - § & | ,c: p h o t o - r e p r i n t e d by Y i Wen Book Co. if j^ ->£*jrin T a i p e i , from a Ch'Ing, Tao Kuang £jl era (18.50) b l o c k - p r i n t , produced i n Shanghai by the Wu-shih Esi-shuang-t 'ang Jp- x&? $L 'jtl ^Sh ih-san-ching, chu-shu -f" 2- >JL 2»Lj p h o t o - r e p r i n t e d by Y i Wen, T a i p e i , from a Ch'ing Chia Ch'ing"20 jjfe M ( 1 8 1 5 ) b l o c k p r i n t produced by the Nan Ch ''ang fu-/zsue/zi.in>,Gniangh~ ^Ssu-pu pei-yaoffl %f jfa f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n Shanghai by the Chung Hwa Book Co. $ £ jt fa from 1 9 2 7 - 1 9 3 5 . 15 THE LIFE OF TS'AO CHIH Ts'ao Chih was born i n the t h i r d year of Ch'u-p'ing i^U 3f- ) era of the L a t e r Han Dynasty ( 1 9 2 A.D.) 1 He took the s t y l e Tzu-chien and i s , a c c o r d i n g to Chinese convention, r e f e r r e d to a l s o by the v a r i o u s t i t l e s which he was granted throughout h i s l i f e . His f a t h e r was the famous ge n e r a l Ts'ao Ts'ao leg. who was to become the de facto r u l e r of n o r t h e r n China i n succeeding -years. His mother was a former s i n g i n g g i r l whose f a m i l y name was Pien -"jr . Chih was her t h i r d son, and at the time of h i s b i r t h she was merely one of Ts'ao Ts'ao's many o f f i c i a l concubines • 2 L a t e r she was to become Ts'ao Ts'ao's queen and the woman whose sons would succeed him i n h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . The l a t t e r h a l f of the second century was a time of tremendous s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l chaos. The L a t e r Han Dynasty was p a s s i n g i n t o a f i n a l phase of profound d e c l i n e . In answer to i n t o l e r a b l e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s In the r u r a l areas, numerous peasant r e v o l t s surged f o r t h over the c o u n t r y s i d e . The l a r g e s t and most powerful of these was l e d by a s e m i - r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y c a l l e d the Yellow Turbans. This movement came to p u b l i c a t t e n -t i o n i n 184 A.D. when l a r g e numbers of i t s adherents launched h a t t a c k s i n northern China. This massive d i s t u r b a n c e was per-haps the c a t a l y s t that l e d to the outbreak of wholesale m i l i t a r y s t r u g g l e between the v a r i o u s generals f o r c o n t r o l of the empire. 16 Ts'ao Chih grew up i n the midst of t h i s c o n f l i c t . I t was not u n t i l he was seventeen years o l d , i n 208, that h i s f a t h e r had managed to defeat or c o n t a i n the other generals and u n i f y most of northern China. T h i s brought a measure of s t a b i l -i t y and peace to the area. Even then, however, the m i l i t a r y campaigns continued as Ts'ao Ts'ao t r i e d to complete the u n i f i -c a t i o n of the empire by overcoming the regimes that had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Szechwan by L i u P e l J ^ ] ' ^ a n ^ i n the lower Yangtze r e g i o n by Sun Ch'uan . There were a l s o campaigns a g a i n s t i n v a d i n g t r i b a l peoples from the north and r e b e l l i n g g e n e r a l s . ffit Is easy to imagine that Chih's e a r l y l i f e must have been h e a v i l y c o l o u r e d by the c o n t i n u a l movement, pressure and discomfort of m i l i t a r y l i f e . I t i s a l s o n a t u r a l that Chih would very e a r l y have been subjected to t r a i n i n g i n the m a r t i a l a r t s . We can f i n d evidence of t h i s i n many of h i s poems and prose works. For example, i n a memorial to the Emperor Ming (Ts'ao J u l ) w r i t t e n l a t e i n h i s l i f e , Chih w r i t e s : I was born i n t o times of chaos and grew up among the t r o o p s . I o f t e n r e c e i v e d I n s t r u c t i o n from the M a r t i a l Emperor (Ts'ao Ts'ao) and observed the e s s e n t i a l s of h i s c-technique i n d i r e c t i n g the troops and employing weaponry1;-We a l s o know that from an e a r l y age he had taken p a r t i n h i s f a t h e r ' s m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s . In a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r memorial to the same man which contained much advice on m i l i t a r y matters Chih says: Formerly I f o l l o w e d our ancestor, the M a r t i a l Emp-er o r southward to Ch' i h An. To the east I approached •• • • • the vast seas, i n the west I saw the Jade Gates, while i n the n o r t h I passed out through the Dark Pass. I saw the power that he used i n d i r e c t i n g the troops^and em-p l o y i n g weaponry. I t could be c a l l e d sublime. The memorials that Chih sent to the Emperors Wen (Ts'ao P ' i ^ ^ l ) and Ming o f t e n s t r e s s the importance of m i l i t a r y a f - ? -f a i r s . These, along with a few of h i s poems and fu on m a r t i a l themes, such as "The White Horse" or "Marching E a s t " 7 demon-s t r a t e t h a t Chih must have been very much impressed of the s t r a t e g i c importance of the m i l i t a r y d u r i n g p o l i t i c a l l y u n stable times. He f u r t h e r expresses the c o n v i c t i o n that he was a man very competent to d e a l with such matters. Although Ts'ao Ts'ao's f a m i l y background was m i l i t a r y r a t h e r than s c h o l a s t i c , 8 he had obtained a very good education. He had become a w r i t e r of c o n s i d e r a b l e accomplishment. He a l s o b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y i n the importance of employing men of s c h o l a s -t i c and a r t i s t i c t a l e n t i n government. Next to h i s success i n u n i t i n g (§Jstabilizing n o r t hern China, h i s patronage of l i t e r a t u r e and the a r t s was probably h i s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to Chinese h i s t o r y . In many ways i t was the longer l a s t i n g . Ts'ao Chih b e n e f i t t e d very s u b s t a n t i a l l y from h i s f a t h e r ' s l o v e of a r t s and l e t t e r s . He and h i s b r o t h e r s most l i k e l y r e c e i v e d the best t r a -d i t i o n a l education a v a i l a b l e at that time. They must a l s o have been g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i r contact with the many l e a r n e d and a r t i s t i c men who had been c a l l e d to serve i n the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of t h e i r f a t h e r . Ts'ao Chih began to e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e t a l e n t i n l i t e r -ary p u r s u i t s at a very e a r l y age. In Ch'en Shou's biography of him we read: The King of Ch'en, Chih^ was s t y l e d Tzu-chien. At the the age of ten years or more he c o u l d r e c i t e the "Poems" and the " A n a l e c t s " as w e l l as tz 'u and fit $j£ t o t a l l i n g thousands of c h a r a c t e r s . He was a l s o very accomplished i n composition. Once Ts'ao Ts'ao saw one of Chih's compositions and asked him, "Did you copy t h i s from someone?" Chih k n e l t and s a i d , "As I speak my words have refinement. P u t t i n g brush to paper I cre a t e t r e a t i s e s . Test me face to face i f you wish, why should I copy from someone? Ts'ao Ts'ao took h i s son up on t h i s i d e a and sponsored a k i n d of poetry competition i n one of the newly f i n i s h e d towers i n the c i t y of Yeh jjjrjj : At that time i n Yeh, the T'ung Chiieh Tower ^ was .'. • • newly completed. Ts'ao Ts'ao took a l l h i s sons i n t o the tower and had each of them w r i t e a fu. Chih took up h i s brush and immediately completed h i s p i e c e . I t was very readable and Ts'ao Ts'ao was much i m p r e s s e d . 1 1 The r e s u l t of t h i s c o m petition set the stage f o r the most a c t i v e and problematic phase of Ts'ao Chih's l i f e . H is e l d e s t b r o t h e r Ts'ao P ' i i s not mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s passage but we know f o r c e r t a i n that he must have attended because the Yi-wen lei-ahu ^ - ^ 1 *KJ£ contains the fu which 1 2 he wrote on that o c c a s s i o n . From roughly t h i s time u n t i l the end of P ' i ' s l i f e , the two brot h e r s would play major r o l e s i n o each other',s lives. Sometime between 2 0 5 and 2 0 8 (Chien A n ^ j j - 9 - 1 2 ) Ts'ao Ts'ao decided to make the c i t y of Yeh i n Honan h i s base of o p e r a t i o n s . 1 3 Because of t h i s Chih, who was then s t i l l teenagedj.mmust have moved to l i v e i n that c i t y . Of these e a r l y years i n Yeh we know very l i t t l e . We can only assume that Chih was c o n t i n u i n g h i s education i n the v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y and c i v i l a r t s i n a more s t a b l e environment than he had p r e v i o u s l y . In 2 1 1 (C.A. 1 6 ) Ts'ao Chih turned twenty sui ^ , the age of m a j o r i t y i n t r a d i t i o n a l China. Because of t h i s he r e -c e i v e d h i s f i r s t o f f i c i a l t i t l e : Duke of P' i n g Yuan . This t i t l e c a r r i e d with i t an endowment '-of l a n d and made Chih the f e u d a l r u l e r of that l a n d . 1 1 * There i s no reason to b e l i e v e that he a c t u a l l y took up r e s i d e n c e i n P'ing Yuan however, as the next few years saw him i n v o l v e d i n many a c t i v i t i e s i n and around Yeh. In the same year, C A . 1 6 , Chih accompanied h i s f a t h e r on two important campaigns a g a i n s t r e b e l l i o u s g e n e r a l s ; one a g a i n s t Ma Ch' ao J ^ j j ^ i n the west and the other northward a g a i n s t Yang Ch'iu \^^f')k'^ S e v e r a l of h i s best poems and fu a l l u d e to these journeys and seem to have been w r i t t e n at about t h i s t i m e . 1 6 The l 6 t h year of Chien An i s a l s o very s i g n i f i c a n t as i t was the year i n which Ts'ao Ts'ao, through the Han emperor, made Ts'ao P ' i Wu-kuan chung-lang-chvang ^3. ^  cj 7 ffj5 ^ -If 1 ^ and aide to the Prime M i n i s t e r . The Prime M i n i s t e r was none other than Ts'ao Ts'ao h i m s e l f and h i s a c t u a l powers extended f a r beyond those normally a s c r i b e d to that o f f i c e . He was de facto r u l e r of northern and c e n t r a l China and had s i n c e 2 0 7 ( C A . 1 2 ) been bestowing f e u d a l t i t l e s on h i s s u p p o r t e r s . He was by then f i f t y - e i g h t years o l d and was undoubtedly concerned about the problem of s e l e c t i n g someone to succeed him i n h i s p o s i t i o n . P ' i was the e l d e s t of the three sons borne by the Lady Plen, Ts'ao Ts'ao's p r i n c i p a l w i f e , and as such was the nrcfst "obvious c a n d i -date. I t had been p o i n t e d out that by g i v i n g P ' i a p o s i t i o n i n the c e n t r a l court and making that p o s i t i o n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Prime M i n i s t e r , Ts'ao Ts'ao was very l i k e l y i n d i c a t i n g 19 that he had t e n t a t i v e l y chosen him as h i s h e i r . J Ts'ao Ts'ao d i d not, however, c o n s i d e r the matter of s e l e c t i n g a successor c l o s e d . He was a tough-minded man who would not allow convention to a r b i t r a t e d e c i s i o n s of importance. He used v a r i o u s means i n the f o l l o w i n g years to t e s t the a b i l i -t i e s of h i s sons. He wanted to ensure t h a t the most capable among, them would succeed him i n the work that he had so a b l y begun. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s k i n d of pragmatism gave r i s e to a number of problems i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c i r c l e s at Yeh. Perhaps as-.a r e s u l t of the fu contest i n the T'ung Chiieh Tower, Ts'ao Chih came more and more to h i s f a t h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . He had by then matured i n t o a t a l e n t e d and personable young man and Ts'ao Ts'ao was charmed by him. In Ch'en Shou's words: Chih's nature was simple and easy-going. He d i d n ' t c u l -t i v a t e a severe demeanour. Whether i n h i s c a r r i a g e or t r a p p i n g s , robes or j e w e l l e r y , he d i d not s t r i v e f o r beauty or o s t e n t a t i o n . Each time he was questioned d u r i n g an audience he would respond d i r e c t l y and a p t l y . Hence he r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r favour and love.20 I t i s n ' t p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n i f Chih a c t i v e l y sought t h i s favour. I t was not l o n g , however, before a number of prominent court p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e a l i z e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that Ts'ao Ts'ao might e v e n t u a l l y s e l e c t Chih as h i s h e i r . Thus, e i t h e r through confidence i n Chih's a b i l i t y or through s e l f - L i t i n t e r e s t , these men began to c u l t i v a t e Chih's f r i e n d s h i p and to promote him i n Ts'ao T s l a o ' s presence. Foremost among these men were two b r o t h e r s named Tin g Yi"J"^J^and Ting I "J" ^  and a long time aide of Ts'ao Ts'ao's, Yang Hs i u - ^ ^ ^ i ^ - . ^ l A l l of these men h e l d c o n s i d e r a b l e power at court and there i s no doubt that t h e i r p ersuasions on Chih's account, along with those of a number of other f r i e n d s df Chih's had a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on Ts'ao Ts'ao's t h i n k i n g . Evidence of t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s perhaps found i n the Wei-wu ku-shih t s a i - l i n g 4 5JC^jP^^Quoted by P'ei Sung-chih. There we f i n d t h i s passage "At f i r s t he (Ts'ao Ts'ao) s a i d , 'Among my sons, Tzu-chien i s most able to s e t t l e major a f f a i r s . ' " 2 2 I f t h i s i s r e l i a b l e i n -formation, i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Ts'ao Ts'ao may indeed have been s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g making Chih h i s successor. Ts'ao P ' i was w e l l aware of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In response to t h i s t h r e a t to h i s p o s i t i o n he used h i s power to gather a group of supporters to counter the e f f o r t s of the c l i q u e sur-rounding Chih. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e which clouded the a i r around Ts'ao Tsao's court with many b i t t e r f e e l -ings t hat d i d n ' t d i s s i p a t e u n t i l many years afterwards. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to t r a c e the exact course of events i n that s t r u g g l e . There i s very l i t t l e i n the way of source mater-• i a l , and t hat m a t e r i a l which remains tends to be r a t h e r s u b j e c t -i v e or r o m a n t i c i z e d . We know f o r c e r t a i n that Chih must have been i n h i s f a t h e r ' s good graces i n 214 ( C A . 1 9 ) because I t was i n t h a t year that he was given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of guarding Yeh while Ts'ao Ts'ao and h i s two sons, P ' i and Chang jjr^ went 23 o f f to campaign a g a i n s t Sun Ch'uan. When l e a v i n g the c a p i t a l Ts'ao Ts'ao demonstrated h i s confidence i n Chih by s a y i n g : When f o r m e r l y " I was made commander of Tun Ch'lu I was 23 years o l d . I remember my a c t i o n s d u r i n g that time and have no r e g r e t s to t h i s day. Now you are a l s o 23 years o l d . You must s t r i v e to do your b e s t . 2 ^ In that year a l s o , Chih was given a new f i e f . He was made Duke of L i n T z u ^ ^ ^ - This f i e f seems to have been of the same s i z e as h i s former one i n P'ing Yuan. J A f t e r t h i s time Chih's f o r t u n e s d e c l i n e d . For some reason or other he seems to have abandoned h i s simple, easy-going ways and become something of a r e p r o b a t e . He began to 22 d r i n k e x c e s s i v e l y and c a r r i e d on without much concern f o r h i s r e p u t a t i o n . According to Ch'en Shou's account, P ' i took advan-tage of t h i s and used v a r i o u s means to undermine Chih's p o s i t i o n f u r t h e r . P ' i h i m s e l f , on the other hand, was c a r e f u l not to s u l l y h i s v i r t u o u s image. Those l o b b y i n g on h i s b e h a l f o f t e n s t r e s s e d t h i s seeming u p r i g h t n e s s . Ts'ao Ts'ao was a p p a r e n t l y persuaded t h a t P ' i was i n f a c t the most r e s p o n s i b l e of h i s sons as he made him the o f f i c i a l crown p r i n c e i n 217 ( C A . 22) a f t e r he was made King of Wei ^j^J_by the Han emperor. Chih was only given the c o n s o l a t i o n of having f i v e thousand households added to h i s f i e f . The drama at court d i d not end at t h i s j u n c t u r e . In the next two or three years Chih was to be i n v o l v e d i n a number of r a t h e r unseemly i n c i d e n t s . Sometime i n 219, Chih drove h i s c h a r i o t down the main thoroughfare i n Yeh and then f o r c e d h i s way out through a gate which was r e s t r i c t e d to use by the em-peror h i m s e l f . T h i s made Ts'ao Ts'ao very angry and l e d him to have the o f f i c e r i n charge of the gate executed and to have the r e g u l a t i o n s governing the behaviour of the v a r i o u s f e u d a l 29 "30 l o r d s J made more s t r i c t . There i s some evidence to suggest that Yang Hsiu was i n v o l v e d i n the i n c i d e n t with Chih and even that he induced him to break the o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s . Por example, i n the Hsu Han shu $||?]^-|| , w e f i n d t h i s account: Someone informed (the court) that Yang Hsiu and the Duke of L i n Tzu, Ts'ao Chih, had become drunk and were r i d i n g i n the same c a r r i a g e when they had d r i v e n out through the Ssu-ma Gate and defamed the Duke of Yen L i n g (Ts'ao) Chang. When Ts'ao Ts'ao heard t h i s he was g r e a t l y angered. So he a r r e s t e d (Hsiu) . and executed him. At the time he was f 6 r t y - f I v e . 3 1 Another account i n the Shih Yu reads t h i s way: Ts'ao Ts'ao sent the Crown Pr i n c e and Chih each to go out through one of the gates of Yeh. S e c r e t l y he ordered that the gates not be opened so that he c o u l d observe t h e i r behaviour. The Crown Pr i n c e a r r i v e d at the gate but when he c o u l d not gain e x i t he r e t u r n e d . Hsiu f i r s t warned Chih that i f the gate d i d not open f o r him he c o u l d , s i n c e he had been given orders by the King, have the keeper k i l l e d . Chih f o l l o w e d t h i s a d v i c e . Thus, Hsiu, as a r e s u l t of h i s involvement was executed.33 A second i n c i d e n t , a l s o o c c u r r i n g i n 2 1 9 , had more s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . In the f a l l of that year Chih's h a l f -b r o t h e r , Ts'ao Jen had become surrounded while doing b a t t l e with the S h u - H a n g e n e r a l Kuan Yii ^ |J^^ • He was i n danger of s u f f e r i n g a major de f e a t . Ts'ao Ts'ao decided to d i s p a t c h Chih, whom he had endowed with two weighty m i l i t a r y t i t l e s , - 1 to rescue Jen. U n f o r t u n a t e l y Chih was drunk at the time when the orders a r r i v e d and he c o u l d not but d e c l i n e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with great embarrassment. A f t e r t h i s f i a s c o Ts'ao Ts'ao undoubtedly became very d i s i l l u s i o n e d about Chih's c h a r a c t e r . Ch'en Shou s t a t e s that a f t e r the f i r s t i n c i d e n t , "Chih's favour d e c l i n e d day by d a y " . ^ In another q u o t a t i o n from the Wei-wu ku-shih t s a i - l i n g we read that a f t e r Chih had t r a n s g r e s s e d o f f i c i a l s e c u r i t y r e g u l a t i o n s , Ts'ao Ts'ao began to regard"him i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . ^ The i n a b i l i t y of Chih to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a m i l i t a r y emergency was of f a r more se r i o u s consequence than h i s t r a n s g r e s s i n g of the gate c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s i n Yeh and must have had an even g r e a t e r e f f e c t on h i s f a t h e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of him. F u r t h e r , i n t h a t , or perhaps the f o l l o w i n g year, Chih once again apparently f e l l a f o u l of r e g u l a t i o n s governing the behaviour of o f f i c i a l s and l o r d s . In an i n c i d e n t recorded i n the Shih Yu, Ts'ao Ts'ao a l l e g e d l y had climbed a tower and caught s i g h t of Chih's wife dressed i n brocade. Since a law had been passed p r o h i b i t i n g palace women from wearing such e l a b o r a t e *. -> dress/' Ts'ao Ts'ao had the woman sent home and put to death. This must a l s o have been very h u m i l i a t i n g f o r Chih and very aggravating f o r h i s f a t h e r . When d e a l i n g with these s t o r i e s , one cannot but wonder j u s t what relevance they have to the eventual outcome of the st r u g g l e to succeed Ts'ao Ts'ao. Some h i s t o r i a n s , i n c l u d i n g Ch'en Shou, seem to have f e l t t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these i n c i d e n t s was that because of them Chih r u i n e d any s l i g h t chance that h i s f a t h e r might change h i s mind about the s e l e c t i o n of a crown p r i n c e . Although t h a t i s probably t r u e , I am i n c l i n e d to see t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . When d e a l i n g with the p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e connected with the s e l e c t i o n of a crown p r i n c e , t r a d i t i o n a l accounts tend to a s c r i b e a somewhat p a s s i v e r o l e to Chih. Ch'en Shou's records never s t a t e that Chih sought to be crown p r i n c e , but they do im-ply that h i s supporters had h i s s u c c e s s i o n i n mind and a l s o that P ' i worked d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t such a p o s s i b i l i t y . There are s t o r -i e s of how P ' i oppressed and c o n t r o l l e d h i s b r o t h e r , i n c l u d i n g one that a t t r i b u t e s to him the act of f o r c i n g Chih to get drunk before the messengers c a r r y i n g Ts'ao Ts'ao's orders to go to the a i d of Ts'ao Jen a r r i v e d . Such s t o r i e s tend to l e a d us to imagine a s c e n a r i o i n which P ' i , the v i l l a i n , u n s c r u p u l o u s l y manipulated h i s younger b r o t h e r , who was r e a l l y a n i c e man, but r a t h e r i n e p t . More r e c e n t i e v a l u a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these t w o b r o t h e r s a n d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m o t i v a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n u m b e r o f C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s . F o r e m o s t a m o n g t h e s e i s t h e l a t e w i t h h i s c l i q u e , t r i e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s f a v o u r b y u n d e r h a n d e d l y s e e k i n g t o b e n a m e d c r o w n p r i n c e , e v e n a f t e r t h e m a t t e r h a d b e e n o f f i c i a l l y s e t t l e d . I n s u c h a n i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , C h i h b e c o m e s t h e s h a m e l e s s i n t r i g u e r a n d P ' i t h e r i g h t -e o u s h e r o . T h e r e i s s o m e m e r i t i n b o t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a n d t h e m o d e r n v i e w . F r o m t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h P ' i r a t h e r h e a v y - h a n d e d -l y d e a l t w i t h a l l o f h i s b r o t h e r s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y C h i h a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s , a f t e r T s ' a o T s ' a o ' s d e a t h , w e k n o w t h a t h e w a s n o t o n e t o a l l o w h i s p o s i t i o n t o b e t h r e a t e n e d s i m p l y i n o r d e r t o b e h u m a n e . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h a t h e w o u l d h a v e u s e d a l l t h e s a m e m e a n s o p e n t o h i m t o d e f e a t a n y m o v e m e n t t h a t m i g h t h a v e e n d a n g e r e d t h a t p o s i t i o n . C h i h , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s e e m s f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l a c c o u n t s , a n d f r o m h i s o w n w r i t i n g t o h a v e b e e n q u i t e - i n n o c e n t o f s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t h i s b r o t h e r o r t h e p o w e r t h a t h e w a s g o i n g t o i n h e r i t . I n h i s w r i t i n g s C h i h a l w a y s e x p r e s s e s g r e a t d e f e r e n c e a n d a f -f e c t i o n f o r P ' i . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 2 1 1 , t h e y e a r i n w h i c h P ' i w a s m a d e Wu-kuan bhung-lang-ohiang, C h i h w r o t e a fu d e d i c a t e d t o h i m i n w h i c h h e e x p r e s s e d w h a t s e e m s t o b e g e n u i n e f r a t e r -4 2 n a l l o v e . L a t e r , w h e n P ' i w a s m a d e c r o w n p r i n c e , C h i h w r o t e b o t h p o e m s a n d l a u d a t o r y p r o s e p i e c e s t o c o m m e m o r a t e t h e o c c a -s i o n . C h i h ' s e u l o g y f o r P ' i a l s o s e e m s t o b e q u i t e s i n c e r e , e v e n i f , a s L i u H s i e h n o t e s , h e d e v o t e d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e 4 4 p i e c e t o h i s o w n c o n c e r n s r a t h e r t h a n t o P ' i . S o m e l a t e r K u o M o - j o j p - ^ w h o h a s d e a l t w i t h t h e p r o b l e m i n h i s Li-Ahih jen 4 1 s e r i e s . H e t r i e s t o p r o v e t h a t C h i h , a l o n g 26 s c h o l a r s even went so f a r as to c l a i m that Chih a c t u a l l y y i e l d e d il c the throne to P ' i r a t h e r than s e l f i s h l y take i t h i m s e l f . J ' It seems u n r e a l i s t i c to b e l i e v e that Chih had no d e s i r e to i n h e r i t h i s f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n . He c e r t a i n l y was aware of h i s f a -ther ' s favour f o r him and i t would have been only human i f he had hoped that that favour would e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to h i s being made crown p r i n c e . The f a c t that he allowed men l i k e Yang Hsiu and the Ting b r o t h e r s to lobby on h i s b e h a l f i s c e r t a i n l y evidence that he e n t e r t a i n e d some a s p i r a t i o n s In that r e g a r d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r Chih, he d i d not possess the a b i l i t y to handle a f f a i r s t h a t h i s f a t h e r b e l i e v e d he d i d . He allowed him-s e l f to become i n v o l v e d i n a s t r u g g l e f o r s u c c e s s i o n to the throne, yet he c l e a r l y l a c k e d the p o l i t i c a l f i n e s s e to be s u c c e s s f u l i n that s t r u g g l e . In the f i r s t p l a c e , by o c c a s i o n a l l y d r i n k i n g to excess and not r e s p e c t i n g the laws and r e g u l a t i o n s l a i d down by h i s f a t h e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , he c r e a t e d a very poor p u b l i c image of h i m s e l f . Even i f P ' i had played some pa r t In s t a g i n g those i n c i d e n t s mentioned above, the simple f a c t that Chih allowed him-s e l f to come to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n that manner demonstrates that he was e i t h e r h i g h l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e , or at l e a s t p o l i t i c a l l y i n e p t . Secondly, there i s a good i n d i c a t i o n that Chih may have been v i c t i m i z e d by the over-anxiousness of h i s suppo r t e r s . A l l of the above-mentioned events occ u r r e d a f t e r the s e l -e c t i o n of a crown p r i n c e had been made. I t would seem that a man with, as much r e s o l u t i o n as Ts'ao Ts'ao would be u n l i k e l y to ren -ege such an Important d e c i s i o n without extremely good reason. In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g to Ch'en Shou, Yang Hsiu was executed because Ts'ao Ts'ao f e a r e d that he would j e o p a r d i z e P ' i ' s o r d e r l y sue-'2 7 39 c e s s i o n to the throne. That would c e r t a i n l y suggest t h a t , at l e a s t by t h a t time (219) Ts'ao Ts'ao must have been f i r m l y set i n h i s d e c i s i o n to have P ' i f o l l o w him on the throne. I t i s improbable that Chih, who at l e a s t i n h i s w r i t i n g s , seems to have been a h i g h l y p r i n c i p l e d man, would have continued to seek that p o s i t i o n a f t e r h i s f a t h e r had made a d e f i n i t e dee--.' c i s i o n to award i t to P ' i . Nor i s he l i k e l y to have encouraged h i s supporters to continue to lobby or p l o t on h i s b e h a l f . In working to subvert Ts'ao Ts'ao's w i l l , Yang Hsiu was very l i k e l y a c t i n g on h i s own b e h a l f . S i m i l a r l y , the f a c t that P ' i had the Ting b r o t h e r s and a l l t h e i r male o f f - s p r i n g s l a u g h t e r e d as p r a c -t i c a l l y h i s f i r s t o f f i c i a l act as King of Wei, i n d i c a t e s t h at he must have suspected that they a l s o had I n t e n t i o n s of f i n d i n g a means to r e p l a c e him with h i s b r o t h e r Chih. Here again, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine that Chih h i m s e l f would have played a very a c t i v e part i n such p l o t t i n g . I f he had, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that P ' i would have had him executed along with the T i n g s . I t would seem then, that Chih had become a v i c t i m of h i s i n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l those who he had hoped would help him gain p o l i t i c a l advantage. Whereas Ts'ao P ' i had made good use of the support that v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s around the court were w i l l i n g to give him, Chih was used by h i s s o - c a l l e d supporters as they t r i e d to f u r t h e r t h e i r own ends. The number of embarrassing a f f a i r s that he became caught i n i n the l a s t few years before Ts'ao Ts'ao passed away were perhaps to some extent by-products of h i s in-f-volvement with these men. As a r e s u l t of those a f f a i r s he l o s t a l l the favour that h i s f a t h e r had at f i r s t g i v e n him. In the s p r i n g of 220 ( C A . 25), the year f o l l o w i n g Chih's heavy f a l l from h i s f a t h e r ' s grace, Ts'ao Ts'ao d i e d at the r e l a t i v e l y advanced age of 6 6 . ' '-• " He had e s t a b l i s h e d a legacy of formidable dimensions. He had a l s o done h i s best to ensure that t h i s legacy would be preserved and expanded a f t e r h i s pas-s i n g . In t h i s r e s p e c t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n s proved to have some i r o n -i c r e s u l t s , f o r , as we have seen above, the pragmatic a t t i t u d e that he maintained about the s e l e c t i o n of h i s successor brought about a great deal of 1 1 1 f e e l i n g among those of h i s sons who may have f e l t themselves worthy of the honour. Ts'ao P ' i took on the t i t l e of King of Wei immediately upon h i s f a t h e r ' s death. Within a year, however, he decided to take the step that h i s f a t h e r had, f o r v a r i o u s reasons, r e f u s e d to take. He f o r c e d the a b d i c a t i o n of the Han emperor and pro-claimed r e c o g n i t i o n of the a c t u a l s t a t e of p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s n orth of the Yangtze as they had e x i s t e d f o r a number of years. It was, nonetheless, a f a i r l y b o l d g e s t u r e . Under the p r e v i o u s arrangement,- the House of Wei was o f f i c i a l l y the p r o t e c t o r of Han i m p e r i a l i n t e r e s t s . As such, t h e i r r o l e was a r i g h t e o u s one. By founding a new dynasty, P ' i t e c h n i c a l l y speaking made h i m s e l f usurper of the Han throne. But he had a p p a r e n t l y grown impatient with the pretense of the former s i t u a t i o n and f e l t secure enough i n h i s p o s i t i o n to p r o c l a i m the t r a n s f e r of Heaven's mandate from the Han to the Wei. Upon ascending the throne, one of P ' i ' s f i r s t a c t s , as mentioned, was to execute the b r o t h e r s T i n g along with t h e i r male c h i l d r e n . He a l s o ordered a l l the f e u d a l l o r d s to take up r e s i -48 dence i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e f s . These gestures c l e a r l y showed the b i t t e r n e s s t h at P ' i f e l t about the p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u i n g t h a t 2'9 had come c l o s e to c o s t i n g him the throne. They a l s o r e v e a l e d the d i s t r u s t which he had of h i s b r o t h e r s and t h e i r f u t u r e ambi-t i o n s . Por Chih, h i s b r o t h e r ' s assumption of the i m p e r i a l throne and h i s own subsequent e x i l e to h i s f i e f marked the beginning of a very t r y i n g and d i s h e a r t e n i n g phase i n h i s l i f e . Although he i s now remembered p r i m a r i l y as a poet, Chih's ambition was to become an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the Imperial government. The favour and encouragement t h a t h i s f a t h e r had i n i t i a l l y g i v e n him had undoubtedly strengthened those ambitions. He was s i n c e r e l y con-v i n c e d of the t r a d i t i o n a l Confucian view that the duty of a l l able and educated men was to devote t h e i r l i v e s and energies to 49 the betterment of the s t a t e . His e x i l e from the c a p i t a l meant that h i s ambitions q u i t e l i k e l y were not going to be f u l f i l l e d and the f u t u r e must have looked very bleak. Some of the worst was yet to come. His e x i l e to L i n Tzu was r a t h e r short l i v e d . S h o r t l y a f t e r he a r r i v e d there he was r e c a l l e d to the c a p i t a l to answer the a l l e g a t i o n s of the o f f i c i a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s , or censors, who had been d i s p a t c h e d to monitor h i s behaviour. I t i s n ' t p o s s i b l e to determine f o r c e r t a i n what crimes had been committed, i f any, but i t seems t h a t Chih once again had become a v i c t i m of h i s penchant f o r wine d r i n k i n g . Ch'en Shou records the i n c i d e n t t h i s way: In the second year of Huang Ch'u (221), the s t a t e I n v e s t i g a -t o r , Kou Chun, s y c o p h a n t i c a l l y r e p o r t e d t h a t Chih had become drunk and unruly and had threatened the I m p e r i a l envoys. Some o f f i c i a l s wanted to have Chih punished f o r t h i s crime, but the Emperor, i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Empress Dowager's f e e l i n g s , only decreased him i n rank, by e x i l i n g him to be Duke of An Hsiang tfc tfe .51 Ch'en Shou o b v i o u s l y f e l t that the I n v e s t i g a t o r , knowing .30. that P ' i was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t r u s t f u l of Chih, w a s ' t r y i n g to i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f to P ' i by f i n d i n g , or perhaps f a b r i c a t i n g , cause.to have Chih punished. There i s some reason to b e l i e v e that P ' i would indeed have been, g r a t e f u l f o r an excuse to d e a l h a r s h l y with Chih. Aside from being b i t t e r about the problems that Chih had caused, him, even i f p a s s i v e l y , before the death of t h e i r f a t h e r , and s t i l l f e a r i n g t h a t Chih might consider-t a k i n g part i n a p l o t to overthrow him, P ' i had a p p a r e n t l y been deeply offended by h i s b r o t h e r ' s overt e x p r e s s i o n of remorse at the t e r m i n a t i o n of the Han Dynasty's mandate. There are a number of s t o r i e s r e l a t i n g t h i s , but once again we w i l l f o l l o w Ch'en Shou' s: . •' t P r e v i o u s l y , when TSe (Su Tse' j&fc. H'] and the Duke of L i n Tzu, Chih heard that the. House of Wei had r e p l a c e d the Han, they both put on mourning c l o t h e s and c r i e d g r i e v o u s l y . The Emperor Wen heard that Chih had done t h i s but. he d i d n ' t hear about TSe. When the Emperor was i n Loyang he c a s u a l l y s a i d : "I.have responded to the Heavens and taken the throne, but I heard that there were those who c r i e d . • Why was that? 53 Tse, who was present at the time was about to b l u r t out the ans-wer, but someone pinched him and he p r u d e n t l y remained s i l e n t . I f Chih had a c t u a l l y done those t h i n g s , one can h a r d l y blame P ' i f o r t a k i n g offence.. At the same time Chih was not n e c e s s a r i l y t r y i n g to be o f f e n s i v e . As. mentioned a l r e a d y , he was a h i g h l y i d e a l i s t i c man and he l i k e l y took great p r i d e i n the f a c t that h i s f a t h e r had been, at l e a s t i n name, p r o t e c t o r of' the Han Dynasty. He may have been genuinely g r i e v e d to hear that •the 'Han, which had l a s t e d for roughly '100 ycarr; and had come to represent a l l that was grand and c i v i l i z e d , had f i n a l l y come to an end. N e v e r t h e l e s s , to have made such•an overt show of remorse was c e r t a i n l y not very t a c t f u l to say the l e a s t . .31 J u s t how s t r o n g l y P ' i wastmotivated to punish Chih i s a matter open to s p e c u l a t i o n . The punishment which he meted out, on the s u r f a c e j m i g h t seem to be no punishment at a l l . Chih was simply a s s i g n e d to a new f i e f . The essence of the punishment la y i n the f a c t that the new f i e f was c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r and perhaps more c u l t u r a l l y backward than the one which he h e l d i n L i n Tzu.5^ A l s o , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , had i t not been f o r the i n f l u e n c e of the Empress Dowager, the Lady Pien, the punishment might have been c o n s i d e r a b l y more severe. T h i s was not the only time t h a t Chih's mother saved him from a r a t h e r unhappy f a t e . She was a s t r o n g person and Chih was 55 her f a v o u r i t e son. ^ I t may be t h a t she was a l s o to some extent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c i t i n g the a f f e c t i o n t h a t Ts'ao Ts'ao f e l t toward Chih. A f t e r Ts'ao Ts'ao's death she seems to have con-t i n u e d to e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n the court through her p o s i t i o n as empress dowager. Often she defended Chih a g a i n s t the enmity of h i s e l d e s t b r o t h e r . Her death, i n 2 3 0 ( T ' a l Ho jk-%a 4 ) - ^ was a great blow to Chih. Chih was understandably upset about h i s demotion to Duke of An Hsiang. He l a t e r complained that h i s f i e f , at Yung Ch'iu which he was given subsequently, was n o t h i n g but marshy low-lands and d i d not give him an income l a r g e enough to support him-57 s e l f and h i s r e t i n u e p r o p e r l y . An Hsiang was undoubtedly no more a p p e a l i n g a l o c a t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t l y , to have i n c u r r e d a g r e a t e r share of i l l w i l l from h i s b r o t h e r meant that h i s chances of e v e n t u a l l y r e g a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n of prominence at the court were c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced. In the same year, 2 2 1 (Huang Ch'u ^jpf)), Chih was ordered to another f i e f , .this one centered at Chiian Ch' eng j^5£/7^  The motive f o r t h i s change i s not recorded,, but from the l e t t e r Chih wrote to the emperor the f o l l o w i n g year, we know that he was s t i l l very much under the cloud of g u i l t c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t 59 of Kou Chun's a c c u s a t i o n s . In that year ( 2 2 2 ) Chih was g i v e n a t i t u l a r promotion. He was made Pr i n c e of Chuan Ch 6 0 ^_ . This promotion was simply an adjustment to the new o f f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and s i m i l a r promotions were granted to a l l the f e u d a l l o r d s . The s i z e of the f i e f was not i n c r e a s e d It was only 2 5 0 0 households, or one f o u r t h of the s i z e of h i s f i e f at L i n Tzu. In 2 2 3 (HC 4 ) Chih was summoned to Loyang to take part i n the seasonal r i t e s . 6 1 I t was normal f o r f e u d a l l o r d s to be i n attendance at such ceremonies at the c o u r t , but t h i s was the f i r s t time that Chih or h i s f e l l o w l o r d s had been i n v i t e d to do so s i n c e P ' i had taken the throne. There were a number of f a c -t o r s at work which prevented P ' i from c a l l i n g the f e u d a l l o r d s 6 2 to the c a p i t a l e a r l i e r . Probably the most important however, was the f a c t t h a t P ' i had moved the c a p i t a l from the c i t y of Yeh where Ts'ao Ts'ao had e s t a b l i s h e d i t , back to the o l d Han c e n t e r of Loyang. He d i d t h i s undoubtedly as a means of s t r e n g t h e n i n g the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s f l e d g e l i n g dynasty. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Loy-ang had not s u r v i v e d the t u r m o i l that took p l a c e i n the wake of the Yellow Turban u p r i s i n g and the numerous m i l i t a r y r e b e l l i o n s toward the end of the second century. I t had been badly sacked 6 3 and burned by Tung Cho i n 1 9 0 . N a t u r a l l y , i f P ' i wanted to r e - e s t a b l i s h the c a p i t a l there he was faced with a major r e b u i l d 64 m g j o b . This r e b u i l d i n g was probably not s u f f i c i e n t l y com-p l e t e u n t i l 223 to allow f o r the proper observance of the v a r i o u s 65 c o u r t l y r i t u a l s . Once r e c o n s t r u c t i o n had taken p l a c e , however, P ' i c e r t a i n l y wanted to waste n o t t i m e ^ i n b r i n g i n g h i s ' b r o t h ^ - " ers and r e l a t i v e s back from t h e i r f i e f s to witness how he had c o n s o l i d a t e d h i s power and was w e l l i n c o n t r o l of the new dynasty '• . . The atmosphere i n the c a p i t a l was not by any means c l e a r . Ts'ao Chih r e c e i v e d an audience with h i s b r o t h e r but there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that i t was not granted h a p p i l y and that P ' i d i d not greet him warmly. 6 6 L a t e r , f e e l i n g s became even more s t r a i n e d when Ts'ao Chang, the P r i n c e of Jen Ch' eng 4£^$(, d i e d suddenly i n one of the r e s i d e n c e s at the c a p i t a l . He had been the Empress Dowager Pien's second born and had been very success-f u l as a g e n e r a l . T r a d i t i o n has I t that he was p a r t i c u l a r l y - 1 strong and h e a l t h y . 6 7 Thus h i s death r a i s e d s p e c u l a t i o n about the p o s s i b i l i t y of f o u l p l a y being i n v o l v e d . There are e a r l y accounts that a t t r i b u t e Chang's death d i r e c t l y to Ts'ao P ' i . 6 8 There are a l s o I n d i c a t i o n s that P ' i wanted to dispense with Chih as w e l l , while he had him w i t h i n arm's reach so to speak. The Empress Dowager i s s a i d to have put an end to any such p l a n s . F i n a l l y , we know f o r c e r t a i n that censors a c t i n g on P l i ' s b e h a l f would not allow Chih to r e t u r n to h i s f i e f i n the company of h i s h a l f - b r o t h e r Ts'ao Piao. T h i s I n c i t e d much resentment on the part of these men. In the Wei shih oh'un-oh'iu ^ ^ ^ T ^ h ^ ^ v Wecfind t h i s resume of the s i t u a t i o n : At that time the fiefdoms were t r e a t e d very s t r i c t l y i n accordance with the laws. A f t e r the P r i n c e of Jen Ch'eng d i e d suddenly (or v i o l e n t l y ) a l l c t h e l p r i h c e s ?) no:.-> f e l t b r o t h e r l y sorrow. When Chih and the P r i n c e of Pai-ma 34 Piao, were going to r e t u r n to t h e i r fiefdoms, they wished to t r a v e l east together on the same road, i n order to ex-press t h e i r f e e l i n g s of bereavement,70 tmt the o f f i c i a l o verseers would not allow i t . Chih a n g r i l y took h i s leave and wrote a poem (to express h i s f e e l i n g s ) . 7 1 In a l l , the events i n Loyang demonstrated that there s t i l l was much d i s t r u s t and i l l f e e l i n g between Ts'ao P ' i and h i s b r o t h e r s . P ' i apparently f e l t that there was s t i l l a r e a l danger of a r e b e l l i o n or coup being staged a g a i n s t him and he d i d a l l he could to a v o i d such a t h r e a t . Chih, f o r h i s p a r t , r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d h i s l o y a l t y and w i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate 72 with the i m p e r i a l government i n h i s p e t i t i o n s to the throne. These p e t i t i o n s were, however, l a r g e l y ignored. In the autumn of that year, a f t e r r e t u r n i n g from the c a p i t a l , Chih was again t r a n s f e r r e d to another f i e f ; t h i s time i n Yung Ch' i u . There he passed the f o l l o w i n g year r a t h e r u n e v e n t f u l l y we must assume. In 225 (H.C. 6) however, we f i n d evidence that r e l a t i o n s between Chih and. P ' i had begun to thaw somewhat. While on h i s way back to Loyang from a campaign against Sun Ch'uan i n the e a s t , P ' i stopped at Yung Ch'iu to v i s i t h i s b r o t h e r . I t must have been a c o r d i a l meeting as P ' i 73 i n c r e a s e d Chih's endowment of households by 5 0 0 . I J Chih un-doubtedly took heart i n t h i s g e s t u r e . He co u l d genuinely hope f o r a f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with P ' i and, perhaps e v e n t u a l l y , a r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y to take p a r t i n the gov-ernment and thereby to f u l f i l l h i s lo n g - s t a n d i n g ambition to make a name f o r h i m s e l f . But, almost as i f h i s l i f e ' s s c e n a r i o had been w r i t t e n by Samuel Beckett, Chih's hopes were q u i c k l y dashed. P ' i d i e d 7 4 i n the summer of 226 (H.C. 7 ) . He was succeeded by h i s son, 3 5 75a Ts'ao J u l . Chih's e f f o r t s to r e g a i n h i s b r o t h e r ' s t r u s t were thus wasted and he had to begin a f r e s h with a man many years h i s j u n i o r . J u l n a t u r a l l y f e l t very uncomfortable about the p r e s -ence of the men who had s t r u g g l e d with, or had been m a l t r e a t e d by h i s f a t h e r . They were a l l h i s e l d e r s and were more mature and experienced than he. Chih p a r t i c u l a r l y must have f r i g h t e n e d him. There seemed to be a number of m i n i s t e r s and o f f i c i a l s who f e l t that Chih would have made a b e t t e r emperor than J u i , a f a c t 75 which must have worried the l a t t e r very deeply. Because of t h i s , f a r from i n v i t i n g Chih back to the c a p i t a l to a i d i n ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e matters, J u i continued h i s f a t h e r ' s e a r l y p r a c t i c e of c o n s t a n t l y moving him from one f i e f to another. In the f i r s t year of h i s r e i g n , 2 2 7 ( T ' a i Ho jfcjpp 1) , J u i made Chih P r i n c e of Chun Y i ^ In the next year he made him P r i n c e of Yung 7 7 Ch'iu once again. Then again, i n 2 2 9 (T.H. 3 ) he was moved 7 ft to Tung 0 tjj? jjsj > a p l a c e he seemed to p r e f e r to h i s previous f i e f s . A l l t h i s moving was o b v i o u s l y very f r u s t r a t i n g to Chih. We f i n d testimony to t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n i n many of the poems that 79 he wrote d u r i n g " t h i s - t i m e . And y e t , he d i d not give up hope completely. He sent a number of memorials to the court pro-c l a i m i n g d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y h i s s i n c e r e d e s i r e to a i d i n 8 0 matters of s t a t e . These memorials and the numerous other l e t t e r s and p e t i t i o n s that Chih presented to J u i d i d not seem to have much e f f e c t . , Chih sensed t h i s and h i s f r u s t r a t i o n began slowly to t u r n to hopeless d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . In the Wei Liieh j£ we f i n d t h i s passage: 8 l Although Chih o f f e r e d t h i s p e t i t i o n he s t i l l suspected ;36 that he would not r e c e i v e employment. Therefore he s a i d : "The reason t h a t men value l i f e i s not that they value the n o u r i s h i n g of t h e i r b o d i e s , the wearing of good c l o t h -i n g and l i v i n g to a r i p e o l d age. They value the a b i l i t y to a i d the Heavens and put t h i n g s i n order... Hence the u l t i m a t e g o a l i s to e s t a b l i s h one's v i r t u e . E s t a b l i s h i n g achievements i s the next b e s t . For through v i r t u e and achievements one can transmit a r e p u t a t i o n , and what a gentleman values i s f o r h i s r e p u t a t i o n to be preserved... I have ambitions which have not been acted upon and because of t h i s I sighed and sought to be t e s t e d , as I thought I would s u r e l y be able to e s t a b l i s h some m e r i t . But a l a s , I hope that my words that have not been heeded. w i l l l e t l a t e r men of v i r t u e know my i n t e n t i o n s . " ' 8 2 Chih was f i n a l l y summoned to the c a p i t a l , along with a l l other f e u d a l l o r d s to take p a r t i n the New Year r i t e s o f 232 (T.H. 6 ) . At that time he was given the new t i t l e of P r i n c e of Ch'en (Jjjj..^ . This c a r r i e d with i t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g f o u r p r e f e c t u r e s as w e l l as a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r endowment of households. T h i s gesture i n Chih's reckoning was undoubtedly only a token or even an I n s u l t . He was al r e a d y f o r t y years o l d , which at t h a t time would have been considered r a t h e r e l d e r l y . Being granted a new f i e f was l i k e being given an e x t e n t i o n of h i s term of e x i l e . He d i e d a very sad and u n f u l f i l l e d man the f o l l o w i n g winter at the age of f o r t y - o n e . He was b u r i e d on Yu Mounta i n tl? ^4 i n Tung 0 as he had once expressed a d e s i r e to 84 be. He was given the posthumous t i t l e of "Thoughtful" or perhaps "Melancholy", ssu . ^ His son, Ts'ao Chih ^ ^ , 86 i n h e r i t e d h i s t i t l e and f i e f . A few years a f t e r h i s death there was an o f f i c i a l p r o clamation at c o u r t , sponsored by a number of powerful m i n i s t e r s , that exonerated Chih of a l l g u i l t . His w r i t i n g s were a l s o c o l l e c t e d and p l a c e d i n the 87 i m p e r i a l a r c h i v e s . Taken as a whole, Ts'ao Chih's l i f e c o u l d be seen as a kind of low-keyed tragedy. Although the c r i s e s that he encount-ered were never grand i n s c a l e or i m p l i c a t i o n , he was very much a v i c t i m of the f o r c e s i n h i s environment. His s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t these f o r c e s were noble, but never h e r o i c . In the end, he suc-cumbed to a melancholy and perhaps welcome death. 38 Notes Ito Masafumi A^f^ S-iC i n h i s boook So Shoku spec = u l a t e s that Chih was born i n e i t h e r Tung Wu Yang e j ? ^ ^ or Chlian Ch' eng i$£ . P • 5 . p The Lady Pien was born i n Lang-yeh K'ai-yan^ present day Shantung. She had been working as an e n t e r t a i n e r She..became the o f f i c i a l " f i r s t w i f e " when the former " f i r s t w i f e " , the Lady Ting T^.^ f e l l from favour, l a r g e l y because of the death of her m 1g? ^ when. Ts'ao .Ts'ao took her as- a concubine adopted son, Ts'ao Ang 5/2a-b. See note from the Wei Lueh, 3 The Yellow Turbans seem to have had c e r t a i n connec-t i o n s with the f o l k T a o i s t t r a d i t i o n . See Maspero, "Le Taoisme" pp. 149 - 156 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s . In Melange Posthwnes Sur Les Religion et L'histoire de la Chine, P a r i s , 1950. l / 3 a . ^Prom Ch' en-shen ahu-piao f^^Jt^ ^ > found on 19/l8b. 1 9 / 1 3 a . Tung-oheng fu ^ ^ E f ^ , , see Ts'ao ohi oh'uan p ' ing ^ p . l . This was w r i t t e n on the o c c a s i o n of Chih's departure on a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n . "The White H o r s e " ^ |^ see my t r a n s l a -t i o n . He came from a l i n e of p r o v i n c i a l m i l i t a r y commanders. His f a t h e r , Ts'ao Sung ^ % was e v e n t u a l l y promoted to the posi-t i o n of TJai-wei jk. fjfif or "Grand Commander". Ts'ao Ts'ao inher-i t e d t h i s o f f i c e from him. ^ A c t u a l l y i t begins, & £. , but the ssu was a posthumous name, perhaps meaning " t h o u g h t f u l " or "melancholy". This i s d i f f i c u l t to t r a n s l a t e i n t o E n g l i s h smoothly. P r i n c e of Ch'en was Chih's l a s t o f f i c i a l t i t l e . 10 11 1 9 / 3 a . 1 9 / 3 b . 1 2 S e e YWLC 6 2 , a l s o Ch'u Esueh chi 24. JThe conquest of Yeh, which had been h e l d by Yuan Shao e took p l a c e i n 2 0 5 , l / 2 1 b - 2 2 a . We next, f i n d that i n 2 0 8 Ts'ao Ts'ao r e t u r n e d to Yeh and began to assess h i s accomplish-ments and d i s t r i b u t e f e u d a l t i t l e s to h i s f o l l o w e r s , i n d i c a t i n g that Yeh must have been h i s base of o p e r a t i o n s by that time. We are not t o l d e x a c t l y when Yeh was chosen f o r the f u n c t i o n . l / 2 5 a 39 14 P'ing Yuan i t s e l f was s i t u a t e d i n present day Shantung, east and s l i g h t l y north o f Yeh. The s i z e of the f i e f was f i v e thousand households. See Lu P i .San Kuo ohih.ohi ohieh - ifi<l ,*JL 1 9 / 6 a . ' 1 5 l / 3 1 a - 3 2 b . ~^The most famous poem w r i t t e n with r e f e r e n c e to t h i s journey i s the f i r s t of ...the two poem set e n t i t l e d "Sending o f f Master .Ying'"-' • fc^2^ . The Li ssu fu & was w r i t t e n on l e a v i n g the c a p i t a l and addressed to Ts'ao P ' i who had been l e f t to guard the c a p i t a l , see CP p. 6 . 17 l / 3 0 a . This o f f i c e presumably delegated to P ' i the command of the palace guard. l 8 l / 2 5 a . 19 A l l the other male o f f s p r i n g had been gi v e n f e u d a l t i t l e s r a t h e r than p o s i t i o n s as o f f i c i a l s at court as P ' i had been. A l s o , i n the passage i n the "Annals of the M a r t i a l Emper-or: jj^fify p e r t a i n i n g to P ' i ' s appointment, he i s r e f e r r e d to as the Kung shih tzu which would i n d i c a t e that he was considered the h e i r to Ts'ao Ts'ao's o f f i c e . 2 0 1 9 / 3 b . 21 See P ' e i Sung-chih's note drawn from the Tien Liteh '-concerning Yang Hsiu's background, 1 9 / 4 b . Information nuout about the Ting b r o t h e r s can be found i n P'ei's note from the Wei;-L'ueh 1 9 / 7 a . 2 2 1 9 / 4 a . 2 3 1 9 / 3 b - 4 a . 2 4 1 9 / 4 a . 25 L i n Tzu was s i t u a t e d south of the Yellow R i v e r almost due east o f Yeh. 2 6 r Shou's: Because of h i s t a l e n t , Chih r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l regard. Ting Y i , T i n g I, Yang Hsiu and others acted as h i s suppo r t e r s . Ts'ao Ts'ao had many r e s e r v a t i o n s , but he almost made Chih crown p r i n c e s e v e r a l times. Yet Chih i n d u l g e d h i m s e l f and d i d not seek to cover up h i s behaviour. He drank wine u n r e s t r a i n e d l y . . The • Emperor Wen manipulatedhim with v a r i o u s d e v i c e s . He ( P ' i ) was p r e t e n t i o u s and t r i e d to put up a facade of v i r t u e . The palace personnel a l l around spoke on h i s b e h a l f . Thus he was e v e n t u a l l y made the h e i r to the throne.: 1 9 / 4 a . Also see T s ' u e i Yen's Biography i n W.C., 1 2 / 4 a . 2 8 Ts'ao was made King of Wei i n the summer of 2 1 6 , P ' i was made crown p r i n c e i n the winter o f 2 1 7 . l / 4 l b . 2Q At that time many of Ts'ao Ts'ao's o f f i c e r s and r e l a -t i v e s were given f e u d a l t i t l e s but, r a t h e r than l i v e on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e f s , they g e n e r a l l y remained at the c a p i t a l . 3°19/4a. 3 1 S e e Lu P i SKCCC, 19/8b. The Hsu Han shu was compiled by Ssu-ma Piao sifj^jfy , a member of the Ssu-ma c l a n who usurped the Wei throne to found the C h i n D y n a s t y . Although he d i d not i n h e r i t h i s f a t h e r ' s t i t l e ( P r i n c e of Kao Yang %)~$Q J_ ) due to h i s r a t h e r d i s s o l u t e behaviour, he r e c e i v e d a number of appointments at the Chin court because of h i s o u t s t a n d i n g s c h o l -a r s h i p . As a servant of the C h i n Dynasty he might have been i n c l i n e d to t r y to d i s c r e d i t members of the Wei r o y a l f a m i l y and thus h i s account must be regarded with some c i r c u m s p e c t i o n . There are two i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h i s passage. The f i r s t i s that Ts'ao Chih i s not l i k e l y to have been abusive to h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r , Ts'ao Chang as the two seem to have been on good terms. Secondly, the te x t s t a t e s that Yang Hsiu was f o r t y - f i v e at the time of h i s death. T h i s , Lu P i and Ito' Masafumi f i n d to be_in-. c o r r e c t . Lu P i bases h i s argument on -a t e x t i n the Shih Yu- " : which s t a t e s that at age t w e n t y - f i v e , Yang H s i u , along with the Ting b r o t h e r s wanted to make Chih the crown p r i n c e . Lu's rea-1 soning i s ap p a r e n t l y that i f t h i s passage i s more or l e s s ' par-a l l e l to Ch'en Shou's, which mentions these men's involvement i n that s i t u a t i o n when he d e s c r i b e s events around 214, then Yang, who di e d i n 219, would have been t h i r t y i n that year. Ito does not c l a r i f y h i s r e asoning, but he may simply be f o l -lowing Lu, p. 209. The Shih Yu was compiled by Kuo Pan J"j5'^ i n the l a t e t" t h i r d century. 3 3 1 9 / 6 b , quoted from the Shih Yu. 34 The two t i t l e s mentioned by Ch'en Shou are Nan ahung-lang ahiang $jf) £jj ^  and Cheng-lu ohiang-ohun fa _j|jL 3 5 1 9 / 4 a . 36 1 9 / 4 a , quoted by P'ei Sung-chih. See note from the Wei Shu quoted by P'ei Sung-ch i h i n 1 / 4 6 b . v*" & See note quoted from the Shih Yu i n 1 2 / 3 a . 37  38 39 19/4a-b, the te x t reads; "Since Ts'ao Ts'ao was con-cerned about the s u c c e s s i o n and because he r e a l i z e d that Yang Hsiu had much t a l e n t at p l o t t i n g and was a l s o Yuan Shao's nephew, he had H s i u executed f o r a crime. Chih became very .much i l l at ease. See P'ei Sung-chih's quotations from the Wei-shih ah'un ch'iu3 19/7a. •--41 4 l S e e Kuo Mo-jo, "Lun Ts'ao Chih" f^" % yfjL , L i - s h i h jen-wu, (Hai Jen Book Company, Shanghai, 1 9 4 7 , pp. 1 - 2 9 -42 T h i s was Li-ssu fu , w r i t t e n on the o c c a s i o n of Chih's departure from the c a p i t a l with h i s f a t h e r on a m i l i -t a r y e x p e d i t i o n . P ' i had been assig n e d to remain and guard the c a p i t a l . 4 3 For example, Serving the Crown Prinoe ^ If- j £ . Euang-tzu sheng sung '£% • These may or may not have been w r i t t e n j u s t at the time that P ' i f i r s t became crown p r i n c e , but they were w r i t t e n to P ' i i n the p o s i t i o n of crown p r i n c e . ^ S e e Wen hsin tiao-lung•'••12/36/6 , Shih p. 6 5 . 45 See, f o r example, the p r e f a c e s of L i Meng-yang and Chang P'u to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e c t i o n s of Chih's w r i t i n g s . 4 6 l / 4 6 a . ^ 7 2 / l b - 5 a . 4 8 1 9 / 7 a - b . 49 T h i s theme i s repeated many times i n Chih's poetry and prose. See f o r example, Hsuan-oh 'ang fu ^ | | ^ and "For T i n g Y i and Wang Ts'an" -5 1 1 9 / 7 b . 52 Su Tze was a g e n e r a l a l l i e d f o r m e r l y to Ts'ao Ts'ao. 5 3 l 6 / 4 b . 54 An Hsiang was a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e due north of Yeh, i n present day Hopei. The endowment of households i n the f i e f i s not known e x a c t l y , but s i n c e h i s next f i e f , at Chiian Ch'eng ^jj had 2 5 0 0 households, we may s a f e l y assume that An Hsiang had that number or fewer. See 1 9 / 7 b . 55 See P'ei's note from the Wei Shu, 5 / 3 a . ^ 6 5 / 4 a . ^ 7See Chiian feng Tung 0 wang hsieh piao JJU^ £=f ^ " l H C P P- 1 1 9 . Also see Ch'ien tu fu , there he a l s o complains, t h a t h i s f i e f s had g e n e r a l l y been poor and backward. In Ch'iian San-kuo-wen ^ =. 1 3 / 4 a . 58 Huang Ch'u was the r e i g n p e r i o d name adopted by Ts'ao P ' i when he f i r s t took the i m p e r i a l throne. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to " F i v e Phases" £. ff theory, the c o l o u r y e l -low should succeed the c o l o u r red. Red had been the c o l o u r that represented the han Dynasty. For r e f e r e n c e to Chih's t r a n s f e r to Chiian Ch'eng see 1 9 / 8 a . 42 5 9 -See Feng Chiian Ch'eng Wang hsieh piao ? •SfrT- #1 CP pp. 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 . . / 6 0 1 9 / 8 a . 6 l 1 9 / 8 a , a l s o the " P r e f a c e " to "For P r i n c e Pai'ma, Piao". The seasonal r i t e s i n q u e s t i o n are not s p e c i f i c a l l y iclen^ t i f f e d . Many s c h o l a r s have f e l t that i t must have been f o r the " A r r i v a l of Summer" ^ ^_ or f o r a ceremony t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d eighteen days before the "Establishment of Autumn" iLJfk r i t e s that the l o r d s had been summoned. L e i C h i a - c h i i n Ts'ao Chih3 Tseng Pai-ma wang Piao ping hsu .chien oheng ^ f$H & j£j £. ' H f ~Pk %1 ~i*fc l n Hsin-ya Hsileh-pao %tf$_1^4ffL 12/August, 1 9 7 7 , argues that the r i t e s were to commemorate the ^ "Great Heat", p. 358. 6 2 For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s see L e i C h i a - c h i , i b i d . , pp. 3580360. 6 3 l / 5 b . 64 The r e b u i l d i n g was a c t u a l l y begun by Ts'ao Ts'ao i n 220. See P'ei-'s note drawn from the Shih Yu - l/46a. 65 See L e i , i b i d . , p. 3 6 0 . 6 6 S e e the s t o r y quoted by P'ei from the:Wei Lueh 19/10a. 6 7 S e e Shih-shuo • Esin-yu %fc $(f$fc33/l, the note from the Wei Lueh. Mather's t r a n s l a t i o n p. 470. 6 8 S e e SSHY 33/1, Mather p. 4 7 0 . 6 9 I b i d . 70 In order to be t r a v e l l i n g east together to t h e i r f i e f s , Ts'ao Chih would probably have s t i l l been P r i n c e of Chiian Ch'eng and Ts'ao Piao would have been P r i n c e of Wu j^. . See L e i , pp. 342 - 346 and Piao's biography, Wei Chih 2*0. • f i P ' e i ' s note, 19/10a. Much of the same i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o found i n the p r e f a c e to 'Chih's poem" s e r i e s , '-For P r i n c e Pai'ma, Piao". 72 For example, the two memorials In the form of poems, Ying chao shih -£g Tse kung shih -% % i$f •» c p PP-41-2, and pp. 48 - 5 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7 319/10b. 7 4 2 / 2 6 a . 7 5 a 3 / l b - 2 a . ^ E v i d e n c e to t h i s e f f e c t can be found i n a passage quoted from the Wei Lueh_ by P'ei Sung-chih. In r e l a t i o n to J u i ' s r e t u r n to Loyang from a campaign i n Shu, i t says: "At t h i s time there was a f a l s e r e p o r t which claimed that the Emperor was al r e a d y dead. The r e t i n u e o f o f f i c e r s and the f l o c k of m i n i s t e r s wished to place the P r i n c e of Yung Ch'iu, Chih on the throne. At the c a p i t a l , every-on one from the Empress Dowager Pien to the host of l o r d s a l l were f e a r f u l . When the Emperor r e t u r n e d , they a l l were mi n d f u l of t h e i r countenances. Empress Dowager Pien was both sad and happy. She wished to f i n d the o r i g i n a t o r of the s t o r y . The Emperor s a i d , 'Everyone i n the empire t o l d i t , how are you going to f i n d the o r i g i n a t o r ? ' " 3 / 4 b . ^ C h u n Y i i s not very f a r from Yung Ch'iu to the norths west, i n present day Honan. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t Chih never a c t u a l l y " l i v e d " i n Chun Y i . A f t e r he had been made P r i n c e of Ch'en i n 2 3 2 , Ch'en Shou w r i t e s that i n eleve n years he had moved h i s c a p i t a l three times, 1 9 / 2 1 b . Prom the time that he was made P r i n c e of Chuan Ch'eng he was, i n name, given f i v e d i f f e r e n t f i e f s . Since Chiin Y i was very c l o s e to Yung Ch'iu and s i n c e Chih s t a t e s i h ^ h i s Chuan feng Tung 0 wang hsieh-piaa that he spent f i v e years at Yung Ch'iu, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t he remained there while being i n name the P r i n c e o f Chiin Y i . Also see Ch'ien tu fu CSKW 1 3 / 4 a . 7 7 1 9 / 1 0 b . 7 8 Tung 0 was i n present day Shantung on the nort h bank of the Yellow R i v e r . 1 9 / 1 4 b . 7 ^ T R e best example i s from h i s yueh-fu " A l a s ! " tf-J ^ which P'ei Sung-chih f e e l s i s from t h i s p e r i o d , 1 9 / 2 1 b ' . In i t he a l l u d e s to h i m s e l f as a tumble-weed broken from i t s s t a l k and t o s s e d at the mercy of the wind. Chih o f t e n uses metaphors of p l a n t s or animals which have no f i x e d p l a c e to r e f e r to him-s e l f . Many of these metaphors seem to be the product of t h i s p e r i o d . See f o r example, h i s lengthy p i e c e s r e q u e s t i n g to be given a chance to prove h i m s e l f by the emperor, Tzu-shih piao Q 4t ,and. Ch'iu tzu-shih piao ^ ^ . 8 l R e f e r r i n g toCChiiu '~ tzu? s.n'ih^ piao. 8 2 1 9 / l 4 b . Ch' i u 8 3 1 9 / 2 1 a - b , Ch'en was i n Honan d i r e c t l y south of Yung 84. 1 9 / 2 2 a , The passage r e f e r r i n g to Chih's death i s r e a l l y very poignant. I t reads: • • •.. • "He l e f t orders that he be giv e n a simple b u r i a l . His small son Chih was to become p r o t e c t o r of the household and he wished to make him h i s successor. Once when Chih had climbed Yu Mountain, and approached Tung 0 (the e a s t e r n slope) he sighed and expressed a d e s i r e to be b u r i e d t h e r e . So they made h i s tomb at t h a t p l a c e . " S e v e r a l Buddhist apocryphal t e x t s have been a t t r a c t e d by t h i s passage and have e l a b o r a t e d on i t to give Chih c r e d i t f o r being a Buddhist and w r i t i n g Buddhist hymns. See Lu P i 1 9 / 3 8 a . 85 There i s a t r a d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the choice o f t h i s t i t l e quoted by Lu P i from Hu San-hsing £fl 'Jg\ which says: "According to the r u l e f o r c o n f e r r i n g posthumous t i t l e s , 'to come to r e g r e t past f a u l t s i s c a l l e d ' t h o u g h t f u l ' ( S S M ) 1 . " I f t h i s i s the case i t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a s t r e a m l i n e d E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . Perhaps "Repentant"? 86 ' i b i d In about 2 3 8 , JJrjjto 19/22a. 7-4 5 A G E N E R A L I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E P O E T I C S O F T H E C H I E N A N A N D W E I E R A S T h e p e r i o d o f p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l t u r m o i l t h a t m a r k e d t h e d e c l i n e a n d e v e n t u a l c o l l a p s e o f t h e H a n D y n a s t y h a d w i d e r a n g i n g e f f e c t s o n m o s t f a c e t s o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r e . P o l i t i c a l l y , n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s h a d t o b e d e v e l o p e d t o r e p l a c e t h o s e o f t h e H a n a n d t o m e e t t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e c h a o t i c t i m e s . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , t h e c o l l a p s e o f f o r m a l d y n a s t i c p o w e r m e a n t a c o i n c i d e n t a l d e c l i n e o f t h e C o n f u c i a n e t h i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m w h i c h h a d b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d t o s u p p o r t i t . N e w p h i l o s o - ' p h i e s a n d r e l i g i o n s g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y a n d t h e C o n f u c i a n s y s t e m w a s r e - e v a l u a t e d . I n t h e a r e a o f l i t e r a t u r e m a j o r c h a n g e s a l s o t o o k p l a c e . T h e s e c h a n g e s a r e p e r h a p s l e s s e a s i l y d e f i n e d i n o b j e c t i v e t e r m s t h a n a r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f n e w p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t s , b u t t h e y d i d t a k e p l a c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e c h a n g e s i n l i t e r a r y . p r a c t i c e a n d t h e o r y t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e H a n ( u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o b y t h e l a s t r e i g n p e r i o d n a m e o f H a n Chien An 5^ _'-^ - ) a n d W e i e r a s w e r e p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t c r u c i a l s i n c e t h e p o e m s o f t h e Shih Ching w e r e c o m m i t t e d t o w r i t i n g , o r a t l e a s t s i n c e C h ' u Y u a n h a d w r i t t e n t h e Li Sao. I n m a n y w a y s i t w a s s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l t h a t s t i m u l a t e d a n d s p e e d e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l i t e r a r y s t y l e . T h i s m a y s e e m c o n t r a r y t o t h e g e n e r a l l y h e l d v i e w t h a t l i t e r a t u r e , 46 along with a l l the a r t s t h r i v e s only i n times of peace and s t a -b i l i t y . To some extent i t i s . In terms of sheer numbers, there were undoubtedly more poets, musicians and a r t i s a n s l i v i n g under the patronage of the Han court i n i t s heyday than there were under the patronage of Ts'ao Ts'ao's m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , or at the court of the Wei Dynasty which were the centres of the l i t e r a r y movement i n q u e s t i o n . However, duri n g the Han Dynasty the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s toward l i t e r a t u r e and a r t were extreme-l y pragmatic and almost a n t i - a r t i s t i c . The system of Confucian e t h i c s and governmental philosophy which had been made s t a t e orthodoxy i n the e a r l y Han 1 had a s t r o n g governmental b i a s . It was a system developed by and f o r the l i t e r a t e , s c h o l a r -o f f i c i a l ' c l a s s which had r i s e n to pre-eminence In Chinese govern-ment and s o c i e t y . This c l a s s owed a l l of i t s power and p r e s t i g e to the r o l e i t played i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s t a t e . Thus i t n a t u r a l l y tended to value l i t e r a t u r e only i n so f a r as i t was u s e f u l In the realm of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s t a t e . Such an a t t i t u d e was not conducive to the vigorous development of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . As a r e s u l t , l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s b e l l e - l e t -t r i s t i c mode stagnated. Poetry was w r i t t e n by and l a r g e i n h o l -low I m i t a t i o n of the works i n the Shih Ching. The major l i t e r -ary form of the Han the fu or rhyme-prose, which owed much i n s p i r a t i o n f o r i t s development to the Ch'u Tz'u j^j|j!J:did not f o l l o w up the t r e n d , s t a r t e d by the Ch'u Tz'u toward c r e a t i o n of a f r e e - f l o w i n g , e x p r e s s i v e s t y l e . Rather i t became a v e h i -c l e f o r , at worst, dry panegyric addressed to the Emperor or some important f i g u r e , or at best somewhat s t i l t e d and a r t i f i c i a l 47 d e s c r i p t i v e p i eces w r i t t e n under the guise of admonition or s a t i r e f o r the emperor's p e r u s a l and entertainment. F o r t u n a t e l y , while the l i t e r a t u r e of the s c h o l a r - o f f i -c i a l c l a s s was becoming ever more s t y l i z e d and i n v o l u t e d , o r a l t r a d i t i o n s of song and prosody among the people had continued to evolve and f i n d new forms of e x p r e s s i o n . The Chinese s o c i a l f a b r i c had changed dur i n g Han. New s o c i a l c l a s s e s had r i s e n out of the framework of an ever more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c u l t u r e . These c l a s s e s had new concerns and l i f e s t y l e s and demanded e n t e r -tainment t a i l o r e d to t h e i r s p e c i a l t a s t e s . F u r t h e r , the m i l i t a r y conquests of the e a r l y Han had brought the Chinese i n t o more intense contact with c u l t u r e s from C e n t r a l A s i a . Music from these c u l t u r e s became popular i n China and new verse forms e v e n t u a l l y were c r e a t e d from the l y r i c s w r i t t e n to the accom-paniment of t h i s music. So long as Confucian t r a d i t i o n a l i s m h e l d sway over the l i t e r a t e c l a s s these new c u r r e n t s i n p r o s o d i c a r t were eschewed. The l i t e r a t i c o n s idered such l i t e r a t u r e too base f o r t h e i r s e r -ious c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t was f o r the entertainment of the common c l a s s e s and perhaps t h e i r own l e i s u r e - t i m e d i v e r s i o n . Because of t h i s outlook, p o t e n t i a l s t i m u l i f o r new p o e t i c forms were d e l i b e r a t e l y overlooked. With the s o c i a l t urbulence of the l a t e Han era the s c h o l -a r - o f f i c i a l c l a s s and the Confucian orthodoxy which they so r e -vered were both given a major shaking up. P o l i t i c a l power f e l l from the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s Into the hands of men commanding m i l i t a r y power and t h e i r r e t a i n e r s . These men were g e n e r a l l y 48 of more common o r i g i n and t h e i r t a s t e i n the a r t s tended to be at once l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d and l e s s a f f e c t e d by Confucian P h i l -i s t i n i s m than the l i t e r a t i they r e p l a c e d . Consequently, they were w i l l i n g to cast a s i d e the o p p r e s s i v e t r a d i t i o n a l i s m of the Han and sponsor the w r i t i n g of l i t e r a t u r e i n a more popular s t y l e . In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to overestimate the importance of the great m i l i t a r y commander Ts'ao Ts'ao. This man not only made a tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c o n t i n u i t y of Chinese c u l t u r e by u n i f y i n g most of n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l China (the t r a d i t i o n a l centre of c i v i l i z a t i o n ) i n the wake of unprecedented popular and m i l i t a r y r e b e l l i o n * , he a l s o p a t r o n i z e d , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , a major new l i t e r a r y movement. Ts'ao Ts'ao was of r e l a t i v e l y low b i r t h and was not a p a r t of the Confucian e l i t e such as i t then e x i s t e d . He d i d however, r e c e i v e a f a i r l y r e s p e c t a b l e e d u c a t i o n . Through t h i s education he c u l t i v a t e d a s t r o n g a f f e c t i o n f o r the a r t s , es^e p e c i a l l y l i t e r a t u r e and music. As he c o n s o l i d a t e d m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l power through h i s successes i n p u t t i n g down popular r e b e l l i o n and m i l i t a r y r e v o l t , he gathered a core of a d v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s around h i s court i n Yeh. Although essen-t i a l l y a very pragmatic man who employed men and methods on the b a s i s of t h e i r e f f i c a c y i n s o l v i n g e x i s t i n g problems, Ts'ao a l s o h e l d a s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n that l i t e r a t u r e and c r e a t i v e l i t -e rary men had a d e f i n i t e place i n a s t a t e ' s government. This c o n v i c t i o n , coupled with h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a t u r e l e d him to seek out and give employment to the best l i t e r a r y minds i n the country. Yeh became a centre of vigorous l i t e r a r y a c t i -v i t y . 49 One of the most famous l i t e r a r y c o t e r i e s i n Chinese h i s t o r y , the "Seven Masters of the Chien An E r a " was formed out of a group of men i n Ts'ao's employ. These men o b v i o u s l y ben-e f i t t e d from t h e i r mutual contact and i n t e r a c t i o n . Along with Ts'ao's t a l e n t e d sons Ts'ao P ' i and Ts'ao Chih as w e l l as a num-ber of other noteworthy f i g u r e s , they a c t i v e l y engaged i n c r e a -t i n g new s t y l e s and forms i n both poetry and prose. The raw m a t e r i a l from which they worked was p r i m a r i l y • the l a r g e corpus of popular b a l l a d s and l y r i c s which had been accumulating a l l through the years of Han but which had been passed over by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . Under the patronage of Ts'ao Ts'ao, who had l i t t l e or no a f f e c t i o n f o r Confucian l i t e r a r y t a s t e , the Chien An w r i t e r s used t h i s f r e s h m a t e r i a l to give new impetus to l i t e r a r y development. This i s e s p e c i a l l y so of poetry, which they helped to r e - e s t a b l i s h as the major l i t e r a r y form. By p i o n e e r i n g new a e s t h e t i c s and techniques, they made an important f i r s t step i n the p r o g r e s s i o n toward the great f l o u r i s h i n g of poetry and p o e t i c s d u r i n g the T'ang Dynasty. Let us now examine b r i e f l y the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chien An and Wei p o e t i c s . To begin w i t h , l i t may be u s e f u l to look at t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese c r i t i c i s m to see how the Chien An w r i t e r s were eva l u a t e d by men much c l o s e r totthem i n time and space than we are. L i u Hsieh i n h i s L i t e r a r y Mind and the Carving of Dragons^ says of the Chien An poets that they were, "Heroic i n g i v i n g f r e e p l a y to t h e i r v i t a l i t y , open and a r t l e s s In the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r t a l e n t s . " ' This r a t h e r I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c statement i s quoted time 50 and again by l a t e r c r i t i c s . I t d e s c r i b e s the " s p i r i t " of Chien An l i t e r a t u r e and t e l l s us very l i t t l e about i t s formal . prop-e r t i e s . I t i s very tempting to d i s c a r d t h i s statement and nu-merous others l i k e i t made by s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s over the cen-t u r i e s as being i r r e l e v a n t i n terms of modern c r i t i c i s m . I be-l i e v e however, that there i s a good deal of very r e l e v a n t , con-c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n t h i s k i n d of statement, but i n order to f i n d i t one must d i g beneath the s u r f a c e somewhat. The f i r s t phrase, which Shih t r a n s l a t e s as "Heroic i n g i v i n g f r e e p lay to t h e i r v i t a l i t y " , i}^ >'A ^ i s perhaps the most famous statement ever made about Chien An l i t e r a t u r e . I found very few, i f any, l a t e r c r i t i c a l works that d i d not quote or paraphrase i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y there i s no simple t r a n s -l a t i o n of the phrase and Shih has simply given an e s t i m a t i o n of i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s . Keys to the phrase are contained i n the words "'r^ JL'HSEl' a n d '' T n e w o r d oh'i ^ , here t r a n s l a t e d " v i t a l i t y " i s of course n o t o r i o u s l y ambiguous. " V i t a l i t y " i s not a bad approximation i n t h i s context but we must keep i n mind that oh'i was not an absolute q u a l i t y ; the oh'i of Chien An was not the same as the oh'i of other times. As Hu Y i n g - l i n . i n h i s "Poetry Preserve" says, "The v i t a l i t y ( s p i r i t ? ) ^ of Wei was more Q masculine than that of Han". In any case, the l i t e r a t u r e of Chien An and Wei was very v i t a l and str o n g i n comparison to both the l i t e r a t u r e o f Han which preceded i t and that of the Six Dy-n a s t i e s which f o l l o w e d . As mentioned above, the l i t e r a t u r e of Han had stagnated and become r a t h e r detached from popular c u l -t u r e . Chien An w r i t e r s were much c l o s e r to f o l k t r a d i t i o n and they e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y embraced the freshness and v i t a l i t y of i t s 51 l i t e r a t u r e . T h e i r work was thus b o l d e r and more e x p r e s s i v e than that of Han. The w r i t e r s of the l a t e r S i x Dynasties p e r i o d d i d not continue t h i s t r e n d . They became more concerned with w r i t i n g ' f l o r i d , h i g h l y ornamental verse and so l o s t most of the I n t e n s i t y of e x p r e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Chien An and Wei. The term Shih has rendered as " h e r o i c " i s K'ang-k'ai ' When d e a l i n g with Chien An l i t e r a t u r e i t Is one of the most important epithets-. I t i s a l s o one of the most d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e . The connotations that i t c a r r i e s are very p o s i t i v e . I t seems to r e f e r to an emotion that only noble-minded s c h o l a r -knights or l i t e r a t i were capable of f e e l i n g . In some cases i t r e f e r s to a f e e l i n g of a g i t a t i o n r e l a t e d e s p e c i a l l y to the noble d e s i r e s t o meet with and.endeavour to s o l v e problems of government and s o c i e t y . In that sense i t could be c a l l e d ."heroism". At the same time k'ang-k'ai can d e s c r i b e the i n t e n s e d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and f r u s t r a t i o n which noble and s i n c e r e men f e l t when they r e a -l i z e d t h a t , f o r whatever reason, they would not be g i v e n a chance to act upon t h e i r ambitions. An example of t h i s i s found i n the l a s t l i n e o f the l a s t poem i n the "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems" s e t . A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g how he longs to j o i n i n the m i l i t a r y s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the kingdoms to the south of Wei and i n t i m a t i n g that he i s unable to do so Ts'ao Chih ends the poem with t h e - l i n e s : The s t r i n g s sound s w i f t l y , a sad a i r r i n g s out. Won't you l i s t e n to my song of d e s p a i r . In t h i s i n s t a n c e k'ang-k'ai seems to be best t r a n s l a t e d as " d e s p a i r " . On a more p e r s o n a l l e v e l , the term k'ang-k'ai wascalsor 1 a p p l i e d to sadness over the shortness of l i f e , the f e a r that one 52 w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o m a k e a l a s t i n g n a m e f o r h i m s e l f , a n d t h e s e e m i n g f u t i l i t y o f a l l s i n c e r e e n d e a v o u r w h e n t i m e s a r e c h a o t i c a n d u n c e r t a i n . T s ' a o T s ' a o ' s Tuan-ko hi^ng Ij^ L f^ u s e s k'ang fe.' CL-1 i n t h i s s e n s e . T h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f t h e p i e c e r e a d : I w i l l s i n g a s o n g t o w i n e , C a n m y l i f e l a s t m u c h l i n g e r ? I t i s l i k e t h e m o r n i n g d e w A n d t h e p a s t h a s b r o u g h t m u c h b i t t e r n e s s . I f e e l a g r e a t s o r r o w , F o r c h e r i s h e d t h o u g h t s a r e n ' t e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n . H e r e k'ang fe' ai. h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d a s " s o r r o w " . T h e t e r m fe' ang fe.' a-i o f t e n o c c u r s i n t h e p o e t r y o f C h i e n A n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e w o r k o f t h e T s ' a o f a m i l y . M a n y o t h e r p o e m s d e s c r i b e e m o t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d b e c a l l e d fe'ang k'a-i, b u t w h i c h a r e n ' t r e f e r r e d t o b y t h a t t e r m . L a t e s c h o l a r s a n d c r i -53 t i c s have found the e x p r e s s i o n of these f e e l i n g s h i g h l y a p p e a l i n g and have revered Chien An l i t e r a t u r e because of i t . The reason being p r i m a r i l y , I t h i n k , t h a t , as mentioned, k'ang k'ai i n a l l of i t s shadings i s such a noble and Confucian emotion. As has been mentioned, the profound d e c l i n e of Han du r i n g the l a t t e r part o f the second century A.D. had l e d to a breakdown i n the formal Confucian governmental system. This was accompanied by a l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y fc5r Confucian m o r a l i t y and philosophy i n g e n e r a l . Among Chien An poets however, there was s t i l l f a i t h i n the e s s e n t i a l v a l i d i t y of Confucian v a l u e s . These men were connected with Ts'ao Ts'ao's and l a t e r Ts'ao P l i ' s a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . For them, the r e l a t i v e success that the Ts'ao f a m i l y had a t t a i n e d i n r e s t o r i n g order to most of the c i v i l i z e d r e g i o n s of China must have produced a l a r g e s t o r e o f hope that d y n a s t i c order could be r e s t o r e d w i t h i n a reasonably short p e r i o d o f time. The c l o s e contact which these w r i t e r s seem to have had with the Ts'ao f a m i l y was probably a l s o a f a c t o r i n l e a d i n g them to f e e l a kind of i d e n t i t y with the f a m i l y and the government they headed. • Thus the tone of Chien An w r i t i n g s was s i n c e r e and concerned-. The poets were w e l l aware of the tremendous d i f f i c u l -t i e s t h e i r s o c i e t y was e x p e r i e n c i n g and i n the best Confucian manner they continued to seek to give t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the s t a t e and to work f o r the u l t i m a t e remedy of i t s problems. This a t t i t u d e may seem r a t h e r naive to us now, but to l a t e r Confucian s c h o l a r s these w r i t e r s epitomized the s i n c e r e devotion to the s e r v i c e of the s t a t e that was so much venerated i n the Confucian t r a d i t i o n . I t i s the f o r c e of Confucian moral-ism, which viewed e t h i c a l content as being f a r more important 54 than t e c h n i c a l achievement, that has, to a l a r g e extent, been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p o s i t i o n of r e s p e c t that Chien An l i t e r a -t u r e has enjoyed i n China f o r so long. Even Huang Chieh, a r e l a t i v e l y modern l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n and c r i t i c " ^ concludes that the t h i n g that sets Ts'ao Chih, the most accomplished Chien An poet, apart from most l a t e r w r i t e r s i s h i s r i g h t e o u s n e s s or p r i n c i p l e above a l l e l s e . 1 1 We may not c o n s i d e r e t h i c a l content to be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the a p p r e c i a t i o n of an ? a r t i s t ' s work, but i t i s c e r t a i n l y worth b e a r i n g i n mind that I t was a l a r g e f a c t o r In t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese l i t e r a r y theory and that i t was p a r t l y because of i t s moral v i g o u r that Chien' An l i t e r a t u r e exerted the strong i n f l u e n c e that i t d i d on l a t e r w a i t e r s . On a more p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , L i u Hsieh a l s o acknowledged the f a c t that the Chien An poets had made a major c o n t r i b u t i o n 12 to the development of the pentametric verse form. Pentameter had been w r i t t e n d u r i n g the Han Dynasty by a number of e s t a b l l s h -1 T O ed w r i t e r s , . but f o r the most part tetrameter was the accepted form. There i s evidence that pentameter may have a l r e a d y been on the way to becoming the predominant form toward the l a t t e r stages of Han. T h i s evidence i s p r i m a r i l y i n the form of a set of pentametric"verses'swhichnwereecomposed anonymously d u r i n g 14 the. E a s t e r n Han. T h i s set i s ' r e f e r r e d to simply as the "19 Old t h e i r e x i s t e n c e tends to i n d i c a t e that the form had f a i r l y broad p o p u l a r i t y by that time. However, the nature of t h e i r content, which i s r e l a t e d more to the popular t r a d i t i o n than the s c h o l a r -These are e x c e p t i o n a l l y b e a u t i f u l p i e c e s and 55 o f f i c i a l c l a s s , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r p o e t , m a y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t w r i t t e n b y a l i t e r a t u s p o e t o r p o e t s , o r t h a t t h e a u t h o r d i d n o t p a r t i c u l a r -l y w a n t t o b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e w o r k . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e w e m i g h t c o n c l u d e t h a t s u c h v e r s e , w r i t t e n i n p e n t a m e t e r , h a d n o t y e t b e e n f u l l y a c c e p t e d a s a l e g i t i m a t e f o r m b y t h e l i t e r a t i . C h i e n A n p o e t s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a d n o i n h i b i t i o n s a b o u t u s i n g i t . T a k i n g t h e i r l e a d f r o m t h e " 1 9 O l d P o e m s " a n d p o p u l a r yueh-fu p o e m s , w h i c h a l s o o f t e n e m p l o y e d f i v e - c h a r a c t e r l i n e s , t h e y p u t t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t s i n t o d e v e l o p i n g a n d e x p l o i t i n g t h e p o t e n -t i a l s o f t h e f o r m . B y t h e t i m e S s u - m a Y e n ^ ] ^ ^ u s u r p e d t h e W e i 1 5 t h r o n e t o f o u n d t h e C h i n D y n a s t y p e n t a m e t e r w a s f i r m l y e s t a b -l i s h e d a s t h e p r e f e r r e d p o e t i c f o r m . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f yueh-fu p o e m s h a s b e e n a l l u d e d t o a b o v e . I f o n e w e r e t o s i n g l e o u t o n e s o u r c e a s b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n i " f o r m i n g t h e n e w l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c s a n d f o r m s o f t h e C h i e n A n p e r i o d i t w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y b e t h e yueh-fu. Yueh-fu, s t r i c t l y t r a n s l a t e d , m e a n s " M u s i c B u r e a u " . I n t h e F o r m e r H a n D y n a s t y t h e E m p e r o r W u e s t a b l i s h e d a b u r e a u f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n a n d e x a m i n a -1 6 t i o n o f p o p u l a r s o n g s a n d p o e m s . A l t h o u g h t h i s b u r e a u w a s a b o l i s h e d n e a r t h e t u r n o f t h e m i l l e n l u m , c e r t a i n k i n d s o f p o p u -l a r b a l l a d s a n d p o e m s c o n t i n u e d t o b e r e f e r r e d t o a s yueh-fu f o r y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e j u s t w h a t yueh-fu a r e o r w h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e y g e n e r a l l y p o s s e s s . A s s t a t e d a b o v e , yueh-fu w e r e o r i g i n a l l y f o l k s o n g s c o l l e c t e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e I m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t . A f t e r t h e M u s i c B u r e a u w a s a b o l i s h e d , p o p u l a r b a l l a d s c o l l e c t e d a n d r e c o r d e d b y p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s 56 continued to be c a l l e d yueh-fu. In the l a t e Han and Wei p e r i o d s s c h o l a r - p o e t s began to w r i t e i m i t a t i o n s of f o l k yueh-fu. They e i t h e r wrote new words to o l d tunes or borrowed the theme or s t o r y of a f o l k yueh-fu as the b a s i s f o r one of t h e i r poems. Sometimes they would borrow a theme and add t h e i r own t i t l e or they 'would borrow a t i t l e and w r i t e a poem on a new theme. Some-times they would w r i t e such poems to mus i c a l accompaniment and sometimes not. In a l l cases however, the p i e c e s that they wrote were c a l l e d yueh-fu. In l a t e r times, e s p e c i a l l y i n the T'ang, poets wrote poems with new t i t l e s and new themes and s t i l l c a l l e d 17 them yueh-fu. We can only assume that the reason f o r t h i s was that the poets were w r i t i n g i n what they thought or c o n s i d e r e d to be a f o l k s t y l e . In a c t u a l f a c t these poems were l a r g e l y u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from standard shih poems. Formally, because y'ueh-fu were o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n to mu-s i c , they o f t e n had l i n e s of v a r y i n g l e n g t h i n order to s u i t the melodies to which they were play e d . As time went by however, t h e i r musical b a s i s became l e s s important and many yueh-fu w r i t t e n by s c h o l a r - p o e t s had l i n e s of r e g u l a r l e n g t h . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , e a r l y yueh-fu tended to be b a l l a d s , n a r r a t i n g s t o r i e s of some d e s c r i p t i o n . T h e i r language was simple and c o l l o q u i a l . T h i s a l s o changed with time so that l a t e r yueh-fu c o u l d be r a t h e r p o l i s h e d l y r i c s . There are s c a t t e r e d examples of yueh-fu that seem to have 18 been w r i t t e n by pre-Chien An poets, but i t was under the l e a d -e r s h i p of Ts'ao Ts'ao (whose extant yueh-fu number around twenty and c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t part of h i s p o e t i c works) that s c h o l -ar-poets began to w r i t e yueh-fu on a l a r g e s c a l e . Many of t h e i r 5 7 works tend to be q u i t e d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n s of f o l k yueh-fu s t y l e and form, but some of the more i n n o v a t i v e w r i t e r s began to modi-fy both s t y l e and form. The importance of yueh-fu d i d not l i e simply i n the f a c t t h a t l i t e r a t u s - c l a s s poets began to w r i t e poems i n i m i t a t i o n of them. Yueh-fu were tremendously r i c h i n the v a r i e t y of t h e i r themes. During Han, poets were, extremely r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r themes. L i t e r a t u r e was intended to serve the s t a t e and r e f l e c t Confucian v i r t u e . Many themes were thus passed over as being i r r e l e v a n t to" these concerns. Yueh-fu* being the product df f o l k c u l t u r e , were not so bound, and they f r e e l y d e a l t with such matters as l o v e , estrangement, the hardships of r u r a l l i f e and the tragedy of war. Chien An w r i t e r s became very f a m i l i a r with yueh-fu and took advantage of the d e c l i n e of formal Confucian a u t h o r i t y i n the a r t s to begin to w r i t e both yueh-fu and standard poems on a much broader range of themes. Love and f r i e n d s h i p became common t o p i c s . Poets even went so f a r as to deal with some of the b i t t e r hardships of peasant l i f e , 1 ^ something which Han w r i t e r s would never have deigned to touch upon. In t h i s r e -spect the work of Chien An poets became much more r e a l i s t i c and attuned to the r e a l world. Yueh-fu s t y l e a l s o had a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on Chien An 20 w r i t e r s . Han poetry had been n o t o r i o u s l y dry and wooden. I t s language was sometimes c o n t r i v e d and g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n v i t a l -i t y . F o l k yueh-fu, on the other hand, were extremely f e r t i l e i n emotional content. The language was d i r e c t and powerful, i f r a -t h e r u n r e f i n e d . The m u s i c a l nature r i n g s through i n the h e a v i l y 21 rhythmic f e e l i n g of t h e i r sentence and rhyme s t r u c t u r e s . The 58 Chien An poets d i s c a r d e d the s t i f f , s t y l i z e d language of Han l i t e r a t i and began to use the f r e s h d i r e c t language of the common people. This gave t h e i r works a l i v e l y , u n c o n t r i v e d d i c t i o n . L i u Hsieh d e s c r i b e d the Chien An poets as, "Open and a r t l e s s i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r t a l e n t s , never r e s o r t i n g to pet t y c l e v e r n e s s i n the ex p r e s s i o n of t h e i r f e e l i n g s , or i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of what they saw, and i n harness i n g language f o r t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s , aiming simply 2 2 at l u c i d i t y . " There i s l i t t l e doubt that a fondness of yueh-fu poetry had pla y e d a major p a r t i n producing these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s. Although-.yueh-'fu were of great importance i n the formation of CHien An p o e t i c s , there were other potent i n f l u e n c e s at work. The most e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e of t h e s e / M " ^ were the "OJd-style poems"o w r i t t e n i n the E a s t e r n Han era. Of these, the "19 Old Poems" and the works a t t r i b u t e d to L i L i n g , Su Wu and Chang Heng^were p a r t i c u l a r l y impor-t a n t . The importance of the "19 Old Poems" i n " t h e d e v e l -opment of pentameter has already been d i s c u s s e d . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e was a l s o f e l t i n other areas. F i r s t l y , t h e i r d i c t i o n was s i m i l a r to yueh-fu,having most l i k e l y been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by them, but i t was s l i g h t l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . The authors.of 'Old Poems' were q u i t e p o s s i b l y l i t e r a t i who had added a ge n t l e touch of r e f i n e -ment to the rough v e r n a c u l a r d i c t i o n common i n yueh-fu, much as Ch'u Yuan or some other Ch'u poet had done with the 'Nine Songs ' )L ^JC^ . Not only d i d Chien An poets quote l i b e r a l l y from "Old Poems", they a l s o continued the tr e n d of u s i n g b a s i c a l l y c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n and adding some 59 degree of r e f i n e d elegance to I t . Secondly, the content of the ' 1 9 Old Poems' was much more h u m a n i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d than e a r l i e r court p o e t r y . This was a l s o undoubtedly the r e s u l t of contact with the y i i e h - f u t ^ t r & d l t l o n . However, whereas ' fo-lk yueh-fu were l a r g e l y n a r r a t i v e s , d e s c r i b i n g emotion or l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n the t h i r d person, the " 1 9 Old Poems" were more o f t e n d i r e c t expressionsrd'f thought and f e e l i n g w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t person. This t r e n d toward a more pe r s o n a l express-ionism, d e a l i n g with very human concerns was a l s o continued and g r e a t l y developed i n the Chien An and Wei e r a . In summary, we have noted a number of significant:' -,- ' ... trends and phenomena i n the development of Chinese p o e t i c s from the Han to the Wei p e r i o d s . We f i r s t noted that i t was due to the f a l l of Han Dynasty a u t h o r i t y and the accompanying s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l that was i n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g about major changes i n the l i t e r a r y f i e l d . L i t e r a r y men, who had p r e v i o u s l y l a b -oured under the opp r e s s i v e conservatism of s t a t e Confucian-ism, were f r e e d to explore f r e s h modes of e x p r e s s i o n under the patronage of such men as Ts'ao Ts'ao who were much l e s s I n f l u e n c e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l t a s t e s i n l i t e r a t u r e than the Han a r i s t o c r a c y . We a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t the primary source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f new l i t e r a r y s t y l e s was the popular t r a d i t i o n of f o l k songs and b a l l a d s , represented l a r g e l y by so c a l l e d yueh-fu. That t r a d i t i o n was a source of a broad v a r i e t y of i n f l u e n c e s . Prom these, Chien An and Wei poets drew new content, 60 new d i c t i o n and new form. Yu Kuan - y i n g has summarized the p r i n c i p a l trends of the Chien An and Wei era and grouped them under three 2k headings: . -I) Realism: By t h i s he r e f e r s to the tendency of Chien An w r i t e r s to deal i n a more r e a l i s t i c and e x p r e s s i v e way with matters and emotions c l o s e l y a f f e c t i n g them. This extended to the f e e l i n g which these w r i t e r s had f o r the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s being experienced i n t h e i r time and to the attempts which they made to d e p i c t these d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . I I ) E x p r e s s i v e n e s s : This r e f e r s to the g r e a t e r candor and i n t e n s i t y with which Chien An w r i t e r s expressed t h e i r f e e l i n g s . They abandoned the h e a v i l y n a r r a t i v e or d e p i c -t i v e modes of the Han i n favour of a more p e r s o n a l and emotional s t y l e . I I I ) C o l l o q u l a l n e s s : Taking t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n from f o l k yueh-fu poems,-Chien An poets d i s c a r d e d the a r t i f -i c i a l , s t y l l z . e d d i c t i o n of Han court l i t e r a t u r e i n favour or a more simple and d i r e c t language, mostly based on the common' v e r n a c u l a r . Though they added a f a i r degree of p o l i s h to the language.*- they s t i l l were able to preserve a l a r g e p a r t of i t s raw power. To these o b s e r v a t i o n s we should add that Chien An was the p e r i o d i n which pentametric verse became e s t a b l -i s h e d as the most important p o e t i c form, s e t t i n g the stage f o r the tremendous f l o w e r i n g of poetry w r i t t e n i n that form d u r i n g the Six Dynasty and T'ang eras. We a l s o spent 61 a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of space e x p l o r i n g the ' s p i r i t ' of Chien An land the reason why l a t e r s c h o l a r s have o f t e n considered t h i s s p i r i t to the the most important aspect of Chien An l i t e r a t u r e . The term k 'ang-k 'ai7,\ was i d e n -t i f i e d as the m o d i f i e r most d e s c r i p t i v e of t h i s s p i r i t and i t t w a s suggested that k 'ang-k ' ai d e s c r i b e d a number of i n t e r r e l a t e d emotions which were a ki n d of p r a c t i c a l embodiment o f . n o b l e , Confucian i d e a l s . The reason I t h a t Chien An w r i t e r s manifested t h i s k i n d of emotion "so s t r o n g l y and c l e a r l y was perhaps that they were o f t e n p e r s o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with c e n t r a l d y n a s t i c power and he l d the c o n v i c t i o n that they c o u l d a c t u a l l y a i d i n the e x e r c i s e of t h i s power to the end of remedying the problems of t h e i r c u l t u r e . They had not become completely d i s -i l l u s i o n e d with the a b i l i t y of the i m p e r i a l government to r u l e the country e f f e c t i v e l y and were thus not as p e s s i m i s t i c or a l i e n a t e d as l a t e r poets. This being a rough o u t l i n e of the general p r o p e r t i e s of Chien An l i t e r a t u r e we should now move on to examine the part Ts'ao Chih played i n the development of these p r o p e r t i e s , what unique q u a l i t i e s he possessed, and what made him the most re s p e c t e d poet of h i s age. 62 Notes "'"During the r e i g n o f Wu T i . ^Ts'ao Ts'ao's f a t h e r Ts'ao Sung ^ ^ was a m i l i t a r y commander. Ts'ao Ts'ao e s t a b l i s h e d h i s c a p i t a l at Yeh sometime between 2 0 5 and 2 0 8 A.D. See WC l / 2 5 a . 5 " The o l d e s t member of the group K'ung Yung 3 L $ £ a c t u a l l y was a m i n i s t e r i n the Han court but he had c o n s i d e r a b l e contact with Ts'ao Ts'ao, o f t e n as a s a t i r i s t or a n t a g o n i s t . Of the other members, Ch'en L i n J#|L Juan Yu f r t $$q and Hsli Kan1'' fe j ^ -served Ts'ao before he became Prime M i n i s t e r and Wang Ts'an L i u Chen !§?|/f£and Ying Chfang jfe Jjjjj served him while he h e l d that o f f i c e . See Complete Works of Yoshikawa K o j i r o , v o l . 7, Ts'ao Chih h s u i n g - t i ^J l . JL. ^  (Soshokukyodai) pp. 9 1 - 9 3 -4 P o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s see, m jfcfe g . * g ^ chpt. 1 . 6 IJ^ . f^t, j | l P a r i s U n i v e r s i t y , Peking I n s t i -t u te f o r Chinese S t u d i e s . T r a n s l a t e d by Vincent Shih as "The L i t e r a r y Mind and the Carving of Dragons". See Wen-hsin tiao-lung 6, 2 / 1 8 / 2 . Shih t r a n s , p. 3 5 -8Hu Y i n g - l i n Shih Sou %^ j & T a i p e i , Cheng Sheng ed. 9 # | £ ? / 2 1 . 9a" T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l below. - 1 0Huang Chieh ( 1 8 7 4 - 1 9 3 5 ) was a c t i v e as a l e c t u r e r and s c h o l a r at Peking U n i v e r s i t y and Ch'ing-hua U n i v e r s i t y i n the e a r l y 2 0 t h century. See Hsiao T i - f e i Ifi Jf^ 4fc Tu-shu san tsa-ehi $L * £L %ZJ which i s based on notes taken from Huang's l e c t u r e s i n 1 9 3 0 and 1 9 3 1 -1 1 S e e Hsiao p. 9 -1 2 S e e " L i t e r a r y Mind" 2 / 1 7 / 1 0 , Shih p. 3 5 -1 3 E s p e c i a l l y T s ' a i Yung Ch ' i n Chia and Chang H e n g ^ | ^ . "^See Yeh Chia-yingi^s 'an 'Ku-shih shih-ohiu-shou' ohih shih-tai wen-t'i i n Chia-ling T'an-shih jp7 - i - , ^ v o l . 1 , pp. 9 - 2 0 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the problem of d a t i n g these poems. 1 5 i n 2 6 5 A.D. 63 The i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the establishment of t h i s bureau was undoubtedly the t r a d i t i o n begun i n pre-Ch'in times that h e l d that the poems i n the Shih Ching had been c o l l e c t e d under i m p e r i a l auspices f o r the purpose of gauging popular o p i n i o n . 17 L i P a i and P a i Chu-yi were p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n t h i s phenomenon. l 8 Such as Yu-lin-lang j>]^) ^ "tp a t t r i b u t e d to Hs i n Yen-nien j^--"^e.g. Ts'ao P ' i ' s Shang-liu-t ' ien hsing J^ . ^ \J) •^3* T'ai-shan-liang-fu hsing >jfj- >jf^ • 2 0 The Shih P'in~%^^0 i n i t s g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n says of Pan Ku's Yu'ng-shih -zfy< & > that i t s content was wooden and had no l i t e r a r y adornment; ^ ^ ^ ^ C - See Shih-p 'in-ahu $v by Chung Jung, annotated by Ch'en Yen- c h i e h f l * /Art; , Tsung-lun *g | ^ i / 2 . ^ ^ For example Ts'ao Ts'ao's Tuan-ko hsing £&_^k.'fior Ts'ao Chih's P'ing-ling-tung hsing ^ - ^ $ . 4 ^ " - The former i s laden with i n t e r n a l and end rhyme, the l a t t e r has a l i n e s t r u c t u r e o f 3 - 3 - 4 - 3 - 3 - 3 - 4 - 3 - 7 - 7 - and thus has a strong rhythm r e m i n i s c e n t of c h i l d r e n ' s verse. 2 2 S e e " L i t e r a r y Mind", 2 / 1 8 / 2 - 3 , Shih pp. 35 - 3 6 . 23 There i s some qu e s t i o n about the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the poems a t t r i b u t e d to L i and Su. See 5tr^»£ f|j|5=|-PP- 6 o i ~ 24 See Yu Kuan-ying, San Ts'ao shih-hsuan ^ . ^ ^ i ^ P 28 64 no page 64 no page 65 66 THE POETICS OF TS'AO CHIH Ts'ao Chih i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the most accom-p l i s h e d poet of the Chien An p e r i o d . U n t i l Su Tung-po r e d i s c o v -ered T'ao Yuan-ming and brought h i s work the a t t e n t i o n and r e -nown i t deserved, Ts'ao Chih was a l s o thought to be the most Important poet to have l i v e d between the time of Ch'u Yuan and that of L i Po and Tu F u . 1 The Shih P'in^%Q , p l a c e s Chih's work i n the h i g h e s t category (Ji_ ^ 2 ) a n d says that Chih's con-t r i b u t i o n to poetry was e q u i v a l e n t to the c o n t r i b u t i o n that 2 Duke Chou and Confucius made to human e t h i c s . L i u Hsieh i n h i s " L i t e r a r y Mind and the Carving of Dragons" a l s o acknowledges the p r e s t i g e of Chih's work i n a somewhat back-handed manner by saying that Chih's e l d e r b r o t h e r Ts'ao P ' i ought to be given r e l a t i v e l y more r e c o g n i t i o n and that Chih's r e p u t a t i o n was to an extent based on h i s work's m o r a l i s t i c appeal. Even today, only T'ao Yuan-ming i s thought to have made a g r e a t e r c o n t r i -b u t i o n to Chinese poetry d u r i n g the long p e r i o d from the be-g i n n i n g of the Ch'in Dynasty u n t i l the "Golden Age" of the T'ang i When we c o n s i d e r that such w e l l r e s p e c t e d w r i t e r s as Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju, Pao Chao, Hsieh Ling-yiin and Lu Chi a l l l i v e d d u r i n g that time span, we must conclude that Ts'ao Chih was not only a s k i l l f u l and p r o l i f i c w r i t e r but a l s o a p r o g r e s s i v e and innova-t i v e one. I t w i l l be our o b j e c t i v e i n the f o l l o w i n g pages to t r y to e s t a b l i s h , wherever p o s s i b l e , j u s t what c o n t r i b u t i o n s 67 Ts'ao Chih made to the development of Chinese poetry and what made him a great poet." A. Traditional Evaluation As i n the case of many Chinese poets, the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d to Ts'ao Chih's renown as a poet d i d not always have to do with poetry. I t has al r e a d y been p o i n t e d out that the Chien An w r i t e r s , as a group, were much r e s p e c t e d because of the noble, u p r i g h t and moral tone of much of t h e i r work. This tone i s given p a r t i c u l a r l y strong e x p r e s s i o n i n Chih's work. As a consequence h i s r e p u t a t i o n has been p a r t i c u l a r l y good. Pang Tung-shu says of him f o r example t h a t : His n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r was l o f t y , he was l o y a l and p r i n -c i p l e d as w e l l as being w e l l read. Thus when he wrote, he could l e t f r e e h i s emotions without f e a r of t r a n s -g r e s s i n g a g a i n s t the c o r r e c t way.^ In terms of Confucian e t h i c s , that i s f a i r l y t h i c k p r a i s e . Furthermore, because of the unfortunate circumstances of h i s l i f e , he has been viewed by many s c h o l a r s as an e s p e c i a l l y t r a g i c f i g u r e ; a noble and t a l e n t e d man who became the o b j e c t of u n r e l e n t i n g and unwarranted p e r s e c u t i o n . For t h i s reason h i s work has an even g r e a t e r appeal. In h i s preface to h i s Ts'ao Tzu-chien chi ^-f"^^^- the great Ming Dynasty t r a d i t i o n a l -i s t L i Meng-yang ^ says : When i n re a d i n g Chih's poetry I come to "Lute Tune", "Song of Complaint", "For Pai-ma", " F l o a t i n g Duckweed" and such p i e c e s , or read "Seeking to be T r i e d " , "The S p i r i t R i s e s " and other memorials. I always shed many t e a r s . A l a s ! C h i h , " h i s tone was courteous, h i s emotions l o f t y and h i s words were earnest and had an excess of sorrow.5 Chang P'u i n h i s preface to Ch'en Ssu-wang ch' uan^-chi ^^S^X^ Jf\ w ^ i t e s i n a s i m i l a r v e i n : 68 When I read Ch'en Ssu-wang's "Rebuking Myself" 41"-i}^  |£<f and "Responding to the Summons" -|g I t e a r f u l l y g r i e v e over them. I c o n s i d e r them to be of the same k i n d as Po Ch'i's "Treading the F r o s t " and"Mas-t e r T s ' u e i Crosses the R i v e r " . In both these p r e f a c e s L i and Chang deal p r i m a r i l y with the un-f o r t u n a t e aspects of Chih's l i f e . They both assume that Chih w i l l i n g l y y i e l d e d the throne to P ' i and was t h e r e f o r e a t r u l y magnanimous person who was r e p a i d with only c r u e l t y and oppres-s i o n . I t i s very common1; to f i n d t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o l a r s approach-i n g the poetry of Ts'ao Chih i n t h i s f a s h i o n , g i v i n g p r i n c i p a l importance to the emotional content of h i s work as i t was ima-gined to r e l a t e to the circumstances of h i s l i f e . Quite c l e a r l y , the grievance and anguish that Chih gave v o i c e t o , when p l a c e d i n the context of those l i f e circumstances, found many res o n -ances i n the hearts of l a t e r s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s . T h i s c o n t r i b u -ted q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to e s t i m a t i o n s of h i s poetry. The v a l i d i t y of some of the t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions about Chih's l i f e and a l s o the b a s i c nature of Chih's grievances has been su b j e c t of r e - e v a l u a t i o n on the p a r t of c e r t a i n modern C h i -7 nese and Western s c h o l a r s . C u r i o u s l y enough, some of these r e -e v a l u a t i o n s have a l s o been accompanied by r e - e v a l u a t i o n s of h i s poetry. Apparently t r a d i t i o n l i v e s on. We are only i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u a l i t y of Ts'ao Chih's verse. The q u e s t i o n of whether he was e s s e n t i a l l y an oppressed and v i r t u o u s martyr or a s p i n e l e s s ninny i s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t to such i n t e r e s t s . As the l a t e Wallace Stevens (who was a p p a r e n t l y u n f a m i l i a r with Chinese l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m ) once wrote: "I do not t h i n k that a poet owes any more as a s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n than he owes as a moral o b l i g a t i o n , and i f there i s anything con-69 c e r n i n g poetry about which people agree i t i s that the r o l e of g the poet i s not to be found i n morals." With t h i s i n mind we w i l l leave Ts'ao Chih's c h a r a c t e r and proceed to examine h i s p o e t i c s . B . Roots and Influences No w r i t e r works without employing i n f l u e n c e s gained from a great v a r i e t y of sources. This was e s p e c i a l l y so of Chinese w r i t e r s who worked under the i n f l u e n c e of Confucian , s c h o l a s t i c i s m and conservatism. Ts'ao Chitewas very , w e l l read. His study brought him i n t o i n t i m a t e contact with such t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y c l a s s i c s as the Shih Ching and the Ch'u Tz 'u as w e l l as l a t e r d e veloping works such as the " o l d - s t y l e poems" and yueh-fu of the Han e r a . Heavy t r a c e s of a l l these sources can be found i n Chih's poetry, i . Shih Ching The Shih P'in says that Chih's poetry was produced out Q of the Kuo feng i n the Shih Ching. The exact i n t e n t i o n of t h i s statement i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Some have suggested that Chung Jung i s simply i n d i c a t i n g that he b e l i e v e d Chih's work to be part of the orthodox, mainstream of p o e t i c development. 1^ This i s a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n but one suspects that Chung had something s l i g h t l y more s p e c i f i c i n mind. The t i t l e Kuo feng i s sometimes t r a n s l a t e d as "Lessons from the S t a t e s " . There i s a t r a d i t i o n which h e l d that the poems recorded t h e r e i n were l a r g e l y v e i l e d s a t i r e s c r i t i c i z i n g the Emperor or l o c a l r u l e r s . Many of the pieces i n f a c t had l i t t l e i f any p o l i t i c a l content. I t was b e l i e v e d i n such cases that the poet had w r i t t e n i n a s t r i c t l y a l l e g o r i c a l s t y l e , p a r t l y so that the author might a v o i d r e p r i s a l s and p a r t l y to give a measure of d i s c r e e t i n d i r e c t i o n to h i s work. Despite the f a i r l y obvious f a l l a c y of t h i s t r a d i t i o n , i t was accepted as being the simple t r u t h by most Chinese s c h o l a r s u n t i l f a i r l y recent times. In f a c t , many of the poems i n the Shih. Ching and Ch'u Tz'u un-doubtedly owe t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n to the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s t r a -d i t i o n . Were i t b e l i e v e d that c e r t a i n poems had no p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n or e l e v a t e d moral content, pragmatic Confucian s c h o l a r s would have been l e s s concerned that they be t r a n s m i t t e d to l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s . In any case, b e g i n n i n g with the authors of the Ch'u Tz'u, more and more Chinese poets began to express c e r t a i n types of p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e and complaint through the medium of a l l e g o r y . Ts'ao Chih, as w e l s h a l l see l a t e r , was p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d at t h i s s t y l e of composition. L a t e r s c h o l a r s were quick to make note of t h i s and o f t e n became so i n v o l v e d i n uncovering such a l l e g o r y that they managed to f i n d i t i n many pla c e s where i t q u i t e c l e a r l y d i d not e x i s t . In view of t h i s i t seems not u n l i k e l y that by saying that Chih's poetry was d e r i v e d from the Kuo feng, Chung Jung was r e f e r r i n g to h i s a b i l i t y to express p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e and p e r s o n a l complaint through a l l e g o r y . I t would be d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n that the primary source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the s t y l e and content of Chih's poetry was the Kuo feng or t h e Shih Ching i n g e n e r a l . Chih d i d w r i t e i n tetrameter, the predominant form of the Shih Ching f but none of h i s important works are i n t h i s form. There are i n s t a n c e s of l i n e s or phrases borrowed from the Shih Ching s c a t t e r e d throughout h i s poems, as w e l l as a l l u s i o n s to p a r t i c u l a r poems. In "Poems of F e e l i n g s " the t i t l e s of two Shih Ching poems are mentioned as a means of a l l u d i n g to c e r t a i n f e e l i n g s or s i t u a -t i o n s d e s c r i b e d by those poems. Outside of t h i s k i n d of a l l u s i o n and i n c i d e n t a l borrowing, perhaps the c l e a r e s t example of Chih's debt to the Shih Ching i s i n h i s famous "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Piao". In t h i s s e r i e s , which we w i l l have o c c a s i o n to d i s c u s s i n more d e t a i l l a t e r , there are f i r s t of a l l a number of phrases or terms borrowed from the Shih Ching. For example, the l a s t three l i n e s of the second poem, or strophe: So I a l t e r course and mount the steep r i d g e . The long slopes reach to the clouds and sun, My b l a c k horse i s p a l i n g from f a t i g u e . i s d e r i v e d from a couplet found i n the t h i r d ode of the Shih Ching which reads: I was ascending that r i d g e , ^ But my horse's blackness p a l e d . The r e f e r e n c e to "blue f l i e s " i n the t h i r d strophe i s 12 r e l a t e d to a poem i n the "Lesser Odes", as i s the l i n e : "But 13 as d e p r e s s i o n becomes a s i c k n e s s " i n the s i x t h strophe. In these two i n s t a n c e s Chih most l i k e l y wishes to a l l u d e to the content of the poems as a means of supplementing the meaning of h i s poem. The most s t r i k i n g aspect of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s poem and the Shih Ching i s the f a c t that the strophes i n the s e r i e s are connected to each other" by the r e p e t i t i o n of a key phrase from the l a s t l i n e of one strophe i n the f i r s t l i n e of the f o l l o w i n g strophe. T h i s occurs between a l l but the f i r s t and second poems. Chih must have d e r i v e d t h i s device from the f i r s t poem i n the "Greater Odes". In that p i e c e the v a r i o u s strophes are o f t e n j o i n e d by the r e p e t i t i o n of phrases or p a r t s 72 of phrases from one to the next. Chih m o d i f i e d the format of t h i s poem c o n s i d e r a b l y but the b a s i c device of r e p e t i t i o n ena-b l e d him to c r e a t e a s t r o n g sense of cohesion and c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n the s e r i e s such as had never p r e v i o u s l y been achieved. Ts'ao Chih was much more drawn to the imagery and f e e l -ings of the Ch'u Tz'u than he was to those of the Shih Ching. In the f i g u r e of Ch'u Yuan, Chih found much to i d e n t i f y with. He must have seen i n Ch'u Yuan a man who, l i k e h i m s e l f , had s u f f e r e d many h u m i l i a t i o n s and hardships due to the unjust a c c u s a t i o n s and s u s p i c i o n s of p e t t y men. Although the exact circumstances of t h e i r l i v e s were r a t h e r d i s s i m i l a r , the f e e l -ings of i n t e n s e f r u s t r a t i o n and i n d i g n a t i o n expressed i n Ch'u. Yiian's work s t r u c k many resonant chords among Ts'ao Chih's emotions. Chih a l s o found the e x p r e s s i v e nature of the Ch'u Tz'u very a p p e a l i n g . Han Dynasty w r i t e r s had g e n e r a l l y avoided such expressionism i n favour of a more o b j e c t i v e d e p i c t i v e s t y l e . The Chien An w r i t e r s , and e s p e c i a l l y Chih f e l t a need to develop a more d i r e c t and s u b j e c t i v e s t y l e . The Ch'u Tz'u o f f e r e d a good model f o r such a s t y l e . Furthermore, the h i g h l y emotive imagery of the Ch'u Tz'u was a great source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Chih's work. To a poet l i v i n g i n the r e l a t i v e l y dry and severe northern r e g i o n of China, the l u s h images of s e m i - t r o p i c a l f l o r a and fauna which f i l l e d the Ch'u Tz'u must have seemed very e x o t i c and a t t r a c t i v e . As a r e s u l t Chih o f t e n drew upon the v a r i o u s p i e c e s i n the Ch*u Tz'u i n h i s own w r i t i n g . T h i s tendency i s e s p e c i a l l y evident i n h i s "wandering immortals" poems. Chih wrote q u i t e a number of these 73 and a l l of them are e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the Yuan yu ^j^f£ i n the Ch'u Tz'u 7 ^ Poems such as "Duckweed" and " A l a s ! " i n which he uses p l a n t imagery i n a metaphoric or a l l e g o r i c manner a l s o owe a c e r t a i n amount of i n s p i r a t i o n to the p e r s i s t e n t use of nature imagery i n the Ch'u Tz'u.. I t might be u s e f u l here to examine one of Chih's "wandering immortals" poems as a means of demonstrating how and to what extent he employed such imagery. " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm" i s a c l a s s i c example of a "wandering immortals" poem. I t combines mythology from the t r a d i t i o n of r e l i g i o u s Taoism with elements of pure phantasy. We w i l l be l o o k i n g at t h i s genre l a t e r i n more d e t a i l . For our purposes here i t i s only necessary to note t h a t Chih's approach to such p i e c e s was probably not f u l l y r e l i g i o u s . The opening l i n e of the Yuan yu - in":the Ch'u Tz'u reads: "I am saddened by the oppressions of the common run and would l i k e to l i g h t l y r i s e and t r a v e l a f a r . " 1 ^ Chih used t h i s l i n e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t and took the i d e a of wandering as an immortal p r i m a r i l y as a symbol f o r h i s d e s i r e to f i n d an escape from the the mundane ex i s t e n c e which he found so abhorrent. The f i r s t c o u p l e t s of " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm" s t a t e the poet's d e s i r e to escape the c o n f i n e s of t e r r e s t r i a l e x i s -tence and t r a v e l f a r i n t o the mysterious realms beyond the c l o u d s . This i s a f a i r l y standard manner of i n t r o d u c t i o n . I t r e l a t e s to the f i r s t l i n e of the Yuan yu quoted above. The f i f t h and s i x t h l i n e s c o n t a i n images drawn from the Chiu ko JtMfc There we f i n d r e f e r e n c e to a "blue cloud gown" and a "white rainbow t u n i c " . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , as i n most o t h e r s , Chih hasn't used the exact wording of the o r i g i n a l passage, he has m o d i f i e d i t s l i g h t l y to b e t t e r s u i t the context and f e e l i n g of h i s own poem. 17 In the f o l l o w i n g l i n e , the term "flower canopy" Is drawn from the Chiu huai > while the m o d i f i e r an-ai ^ " l i j i s found i n the Li sao. The idea of r i d i n g behind s i x dragons i s d e r i v e d l8 from the l i Ching & r a t h e r than the Ch'u Tz'u but i t seems to have had wide usage i n "wandering immortals" poetry d u r i n g that time. Reference to the sun as "the d a z z l i n g s p i r i t " i s found i n the T'ien wen J^fJ^ , and the m o d i f i e r shu-hu -('Jf-^ ?* i s used i n the Chiu chang • T o continue with t h i s account-i n g process would be tedious as i n almost h a l f of the twenty-four l i n e s i n the poem some term or image has been borrowed from one of s e v e r a l p i e c e s i n the Ch'u Tz'u. Although t h i s k i n d of borrowing i s most p r e v a l e n t In Chih's "wandering immortals" poems, i t does occur to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree In a very l a r g e number of h i s works. i i . Yueh-fu The importance of yueh-fu i n the p o e t i c development of the Chien An and Wei p e r i o d s has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n the previous chapter. Here we w i l l look at the s p e c i a l r o l e t h at Ts'ao Chih played i n b r i n g i n g yueh-fu i n f l u e n c e to bear on l i t -e ratus poetry and i n modifying yueh-fu s t y l e . Yueh-fu were, by o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n , popular songs c o l -l e c t e d by an i m p e r i a l bureau. As songs they n a t u r a l l y were as much music as they were poetr y . The l e n g t h of t h e i r l i n e s was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the melody used to accompany them. The t o n a l i t y of the words was taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n so that the sound and rhythm of the words might b e t t e r flow and accentuate the melody. Both of these f a c t o r s are apparent i n the yueh-fu . w r i t t e n by Ts'ao Chih. 75 Many yueh-fu were w r i t t e n i n i r r e g u l a r meter. Chih a l s o wrote a reasonable number of such v e r s e s . The m a j o r i t y of these were composed to tunes a l r e a d y i n use as the accompaniment to o l d e r yueh-fu."East of P'ing L i n g " , "To: Great Trouble i n Coming Days" and "The C a s s i a Tree" are a l l examples of t h i s type of composition. Many yueh-fu^ eve w r i t t e n In r e g u l a r p.entamet.erc Chih o b v i o u s l y p r e f e r r e d t h i s form as approximately three-quar-t e r s of h i s extant yueh-fu employ i t . Th i s i s i n f a i r l y marked c o n t r a s t to h i s b r o t h e r Ts'ao P ' i and h i s f a t h e r Ts'ao Ts'ao who both seemed, to have p r e f e r r e d tetrameter and i r r e g u l a r 19 forms. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h j u s t how ...closely -some of Chih's longer poems such as "The Sage Emperor"^ j^? , "Ling Chih ' lg. and "Great Wei";^$^Jj^ were r e l a t e d to music. Some s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e that i n many cases the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not at a l l s t r o n g. When poetry i s sung, the sound of the words, or t h e i r t o n a l i t y , becomes very important. The authors of f o l k yueh-fu must have been aware of t h i s and so, a p p a r e n t l y , was Chih. Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , without r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the sounds of h i s poems, something q u i t e beyond the scope of t h i s work, we cannot l e g i t i -mately make^any statements about t h i s s i t u a t i o n . For now, we w i l l have to r e l y on the e v a l u a t i o n s of Chinese s c h o l a r s such as Chang Chieh«j|jij£- and Chang Wen-chu^ j ^ ^ ^ ^ . Chang Chieh, i n hi s Sui-han-t'ang shih-hua w r i t e s , " I n Juan Shih-tsung's poetry the f e e l i n g i s the outsta n d i n g q u a l i t y . In T'ao Yuan-ming's poetry the f e e l i n g i s the ou t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y . In Ts'ao Tzu-20 chien's poetry the out s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y i s i t s t o n a l i t y . " Chang Wen-chu, i n h i s a r t i c l e " L i t e r a r y attainments of Ts'ao Ts'ao and h i s sons"^J^^^y3^__^^ , l i s t s among 76 the f o u r major c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Ts'ao Chih, h i s a b i l i t y to cre a t e 2 '1 a musical f e e l i n g i n h i s poems. This a t t e n t i o n to t o n a l i t y was very l i k e l y s t i m u l a t e d through h i s contact with yueh-fu. As we a l s o noted above, the language of f o l k yueh-fu was very c o l l o q u i a l and u n r e f i n e d . I t was.also, by nature, much more d i r e c t than the ornamental d i c t i o n found i n Han court l i t -e r a t u r e . Ts'ao Chih was conscious of the p r o p e r t i e s of t h i s l a n g -uage. In some of h i s yueh-fu he uses a d i c t i o n that i s very s i -m i l a r to that of e a r l i e r Han yueh-fu. For some reason or ot h e r , i t i s i n poems of i r r e g u l a r meter that one most o f t e n f i n d s t h i s s t y l e o f language. Chih seems to have a s s o c i a t e d c o l l o q u i a l d i c -t i o n with i r r e g u l a r verse much more than with r e g u l a r pentameter. Chih was not s a t i s f i e d simply to i m i t a t e the u n r e f i n e d d i c t i o n of f o l k b a l l a d s however. He wished to f i n d a language that would have the f o r c e f u l n e s s of c o l l o q u i a l speech but which would a l s o possess a much higher degree of elegance and r e f i n e -ment. In t h i s quest he was-quite s u c c e s s f u l . Many of h i s yueh-fu ? though p r e s e r v i n g the v i t a l i t y and d i r e c t n e s s of e a r l i e r b a l l a d s , have a f e e l i n g of elegance that c o u l d only have been produced by a s k i l l f u l and h i g h l y l i t e r a t e poet such as Chih. The c l a s s i c example of t h i s i s found i n the comparison of h i s " B e a u t i f u l Maiden" with the e a r l y yueh-fu "Mulberry by the Path" f & J ^ - ^ ' Both of these poems concern a b e a u t i f u l young woman who p i c k s mulberry l e a v e s . From the s i m i l a r i t y of theme and the number of common images and phrases, we can be q u i t e c e r t a i n that Ts'ao Chih intended h i s piece to be an i m i t a t i o n of the e a r l i e r p i e c e . "Mulberry by the Path" opens with the l i n e s : 77 The sun r i s e s from the south-east corner And shines on Master Ch ' i n ' s mansion. Master Ch'in has a f i n e woman Who goes by the name of Lo Fu. Lo Fu l i k e s silkworms and the mulberry ? y So she p i c k s mulberry leaves by the town's southern corner. _ i I have d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided s i m p l i f y i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n so as to convey some of the roughness i n the t e x t u r e of the o r -i g i n a l . It i s n ' t d i f f i c u l t to see that there i s very l i t t l e p o e t i c refinement i n these l i n e s . The vocabulary i s simple and there i s no attempt made to a v o i d r e p e a t i n g words from one l i n e to the next. By c o n t r a s t Chih's opening l i n e s are much more a r t f u l : A b e a u t i f u l maiden, a t t r a c t i v e and charming Picks mulberry leaves by the f o r k i n the road. The s o f t branches sway i n p r o f u s i o n , . F a l l i n g leaves f l u t t e r to the ground. In "Mulberry..." the i d e n t i t y of the maiden i s r e l e v a n t because there i s a legend behind the p i e c e 25- Chih i s only I n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s woman as a symbolic f i g u r e and t h e r e f o r e i s able to d i s -pense with the long winded i n t r o d u c t i o n found i n the e a r l i e r poem. The woman i n "Mulberry..." i s d e s c r i b e d simply as " f i n e " or "good" TJJ^ - . Chih however, manages to i n c l u d e three mod-i f i e r s i n h i s opening l i n e ; " b e a u t i f u l " i£ , " f a s c i n a t i n g " or "TV " a t t r a c t i v e " - ^ and "at ease" or "charming" . In the second couplet Chih o s t e n s i b l y d e s c r i b e s the mulberry t r e e , but the d e s c r i p t i o n a l s o serves as a metaphor f o r the beauty of the maiden. The "Mulberry..." c o n t i n u e s : Her basket sash i s made of blue s i l k , The basket hook i s made of a c a s s i a branch. 78 From her head f a l l p l i a n t t r e s s e s > In her ears are b r i g h t moon-pearls. Her p e t t i c o a t i s made of l i g h t - y e l l o w brocade, Her bodice i s made of purple brocade. These l i n e s are meant to d e s c r i b e the beauty of the maiden. Rather than do t h i s d i r e c t l y , the poet has d e s c r i b e d her jewelry and c l o t h i n g from which we are meant to i n f e r the nature of her beauty. This i s a neat d e v i c e , but the clumsiness of the ph r a s i n g makes i t seem weak and c o n t r i v e d . Ther?e i s a rudimentary p a r a l l e l i s m i n the l i n e s , but t h i s i s c r e a t e d through an obvious redundancy i n the syntax (XX 3^ XX) which gi v e s a f e e l i n g o f simple r e p e t i t i o n more than anything e l s e . The middle couplet i s c o n s t r u c t e d with somewhat more f i n e s s e but the o p p o s i t i o n of "From her head..." f ^ J ^ - and "In her e a r s . . . " j£ cj? i s q u i t e without grace. In t h i s passage once again there has been no attempt to avoid r e p e t i t i o n of words from one l i n e to the next. Ts'ao Chih employs a s i m i l a r technique of d e s c r i p t i o n by a s s o c i a t i o n to b e t t e r e f f e c t ; Her r o l l e d - u p sleeve r e v e a l s a s i l k - w h i t e hand; On her f a i r w r i s t i s a b r a c e l e t of g o l d . Gdlden swallow c l a s p s h o l d up her h a i r , And from her waist hang pendants of blue jade. B r i g h t p e a r l s are strung a l l around her p r e c i o u s f i g u r e While s t r i n g s of c o r a l are mixed with green p e a r l s . Her s i l k e n robes seem to be f l o a t i n g As her l i g h t s k i r t s w i r l s with the wind. From her glances a l i g h t seems to shine f o r t h And when she sings her breath i s l i k e o r c h i d s . Even through the heavy screen of my t r a n s l a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to see that t h i s passage i s f a r more elegant and s k l l f u l l t h a n the one i n "Mulberry...". The vocabulary Chih employs Is much more v a r i e d and e x o t i c . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence of Ch'u Tz'u i n f l u e n c e i n h i s choice of imagery. There i s a simple p a r a l l e l -ism i n some of the coup l e t s but he has avoided the redundancy of "Mulberry...". Perhaps the most a r t f u l t u r n i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n of motion and sound i n t o the p i c t u r e he c r e -a t e s . The image of the maiden's robes s w i r l i n g and f l o a t i n g and the imagined sound of her vo i c e adds c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h to the passage. The "Mulberry..." continues with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e f f e c t t h a t Lo Fu has on those who see her; When t r a v e l l e r s see Lo Fu They drop t h e i r shoulder poles and stroke t h e i r beards. When youths see Lo Fu They d o f f t h e i r hats and wear a turban. Ploughmen f o r g e t t h e i r ploughs, Hoe-men f o r g e t t h e i r hoes. 26 In t h e i r comings and goings, they resent each other, But they only s i t and watch Lo Fu. Here again, the f e e l i n g of redundancy a r i s e s . Line p a t t e r n s and words are repeated with u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d abandon. Ts'ao Chih avoids t h i s problem by re d u c i n g h i s passage to only one c o u p l e t : Passers-by stop i n t h e i r c a r r i a g e s ; Those r e s t i n g f o r g e t to eat t h e i r meals. From t h i s p o i n t on the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between the two pie c e s i s l o s t . In "Mulberry..." Lo Fu i s d i s c o v e r e d by a gov-ernment o f f i c i a l who p r o p o s i t i o n s her. She r e j e c t s him on the grounds that they both are married, and not to each'-other. •, The l a s t stanza i n v o l v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of Lo Fu's husband and h i s household. T h i s man i s apparently very r i c h and important. 8 0 In " B e a u t i f u l Maiden" Chih turns the ending i n t o a b i t of p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y . The maiden, though b e a u t i f u l beyond compare, has not yet found a s u i t a b l e mate. There i s no one who has ~. enough v i r t u e or p r i n c i p l e to s a t i s f y her. As a r e s u l t she wastes away i n her p a i n t e d tower and bemoans her f a t e . This i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y an a l l e g o r y r e p r e s e n t i n g the p l i g h t of v i r t u o u s o f f i c i a l s such as Chih h i m s e l f who are unable to g a i n an oppor-t u n i t y to e x e r c i s e t h e i r t a l e n t s i n government because the r u l e r Is not e n l i g h t e n e d enough to a p p r e c i a t e them. This poem i s t h e r e f o r e , an e x c e l l e n t example not only of how Ts'ao Chih was able to r e f i n e the rough, c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n of f o l k yueh-fu and create an elegant p o e t i c s t y l e , but a l s o of how he remoulded the content of such p i e c e s . Polk yueh-fu were most o f t e n b a l l a d s which simply n a r r a t e d a s t o r y . They seldom c a r r i e d much expres-s i o n of p e r s o n a l thought or emotion. In c o n t r a s t , Ts'ao Chih worked from the framework of t h i s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e to c r e a t e poetry that was of a very p e r s o n a l nature. T h i s tendency toward an In -d i v i d u a l i s t i c e xpressionism i s a major f a c e t of h i s a r t . From the yueh-fu t r a d i t i o n he was able to draw a wide v a r i e t y of ima-ges and human s i t u a t i o n s which could serve as a v e h i c l e f o r t h i s expressionism. i i i . Ku-shih and the "19 Old Poems" The term Ku-shih o v " o l d - s t y l e poem" g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s to any poem w r i t t e n i n pentameter or heptameter without the use of t o n a l i n v e r s i o n or s y n t a c t i c p a r a l l e l i s m . In d e a l i n g with the Chien An p e r i o d the term o f t e n r e f e r s more s p e c i f i c a l l y to the anonymous pentametric verse w r i t t e n d u r i n g the E a s t e r n Han Dynasty. This poetry was very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the yueh-fu •27' t r a d i t i o n . The use of pentameter was c e r t a i n l y i n s p i r e d by 8 1 the use of t h i s form i n v a r i o u s yueh-fu poems, such as "Mulberry by the Path" examined above. Furthermore, ku-shih o f t e n d e a l t with themes r e l a t i n g to the l i v e s of the common people, e i t h e r the peasants or the urban b o u r g e o i s i e . This was a tendency de-r i v e d from the yueh-fu t r a d i t i o n a l s o . What set these poems apart was l a r g e l y the f a c t that they were not w r i t t e n to the accompaniment of a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e of music and were not w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of an e s t a b l i s h e d yueh-fu theme. There was a l s o a tendency f o r these poems to be l e s s n a r r a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r and to employ a somewhat more c l a s s i c a l language than f o l k yueh-fu. Among ku-shih the p i e c e s that had by f a r the g r e a t e s t impact on l a t e r generations were the " 1 9 Old Poems". These were probably c o l l e c t e d by an u n i d e n t i f i e d s c h o l a r i n the E a s t -ern Han e r a . The reason that these poems became so important i s most l i k e l y that they were not only very p r o g r e s s i v e i n t h e i r use of themes and d i c t i o n drawn from the popular t r a d i t i o n but a l s o very w e l l w r i t t e n . T h e i r language i s d i r e c t and e x p r e s s i v e , the themes they deal with are very human. These p r o p e r t i e s were very a t t r a c t i v e to l a t e r poets. In the poetry of Ts'ao Chih we c o n s t a n t l y f i n d the use of themes and p h r a s i n g from these works. When r e a d i n g such works as "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems" and"Seven Sorrows" i t i s extremely easy to d i s c e r n the great debt that Chih owes to these e a r l y composi-t i o n s . C. The Question of Allegory One of the most persistent, concerns of Chinese s c h o l a r s d e a l i n g with the :poe try cdf'".'Ts'ao. 'Gnlh'-hasofeeenttD^.d±scoverj-.arid i n t e r p r e t the a l l e g o r i c a l meanings beneath the s u r f a c e of h i s t e x t s . Often t h i s concern has overshadowed a l l others and some sc h o l a r s have, as a r e s u l t , drawn a very d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e of the nature and i n t e n t of Chih's work. There i s l i t t l e doubt that some of Chih's poems have a d e f i n i t e a l l e g o r i c a l content. As mentioned above, the technique of w r i t i n g a l l e g o r y i n t o poems developed very e a r l y i n China. Due to the e x e g e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s that had grown up around the Shih Ching and Ch'u Tz'u, poets were l e d to b e l i e v e that poets of h i g h a n t i q u i t y employed the d e v i c e . Thus, because of the pressure of Confucian t r a d i t i o n they f e l t somewhat o b l i g e d to use i t a l s o . More i m p o r t a n t l y though, the great emphasis on the use of i n d i r e c t n e s s i n l i t e r -ature made a l l e g o r y seem a r a t h e r d i s c r e e t and elegant mannerism. The problem now, as always, i s to d i s c e r n when a l l e g o r y i s being used and what i t means. The "Concise Oxford D i c t i o n -ary" d e f i n e s a l l e g o r y as: " N a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of a s u b j e c t 28 under guise of another s u g g e s t i v e l y s i m i l a r . " T h i s would seem to be a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r our d i s c u s s i o n . Leaving aside c l a s s i c a l Chinese l i t e r a t u r e f o r the moment, i f we take George Orwell's "Animal Farm" as a good example of modern day a l l e g o r y we can e a s i l y see that i t i s a n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the Russian R e v o l u t i o n under the guise of a s u g g e s t i v e l y s i m i l a r r e v o l u t i o n undertaken by the animals on a p a r t i c u l a r farm. This a l l seems q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d except when we c o n s i -der that when I f i r s t read the s t o r y ( i n h i g h s c h o o l ) , I had no idea that Orwell was concerned p r i m a r i l y with events i n Russia and not on an imaginary farm. Obviously what i s s u g g e s t i v e l y s i m i l a r to one i s q u i t e opaque to another. Herein l i e s the major problem with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a l l e g o r y i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese poetry. We are l i v i n g almost two thousand years a f t e r Chih wrote h i s poetry. This n a t u r a l l y p l a c e s us at a c o n s i d e r a b l e disadvan-tage when d e a l i n g with the quest i o n of a l l e g o r y i n h i s work. What may have been s u g g e s t i v e l y s i m i l a r imagery or ph r a s i n g to one of Chih's contemporaries i s o f t e n simply imagery or p h r a s i n g to us. Even s c h o l a r s l i v i n g i n c l o s e r s p a c i a l and temporal prox-i m i t y to Chih than we do apparently had a great d e a l of d i f f i c u l -ty i n i d e n t i f y i n g some of h i s a l l e g o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . Sometimes as many as three or fo u r c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may e x i s t f o r the same l i n e or poem., There were a l s o many s c h o l a r s who chose to ignore advances i n p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e and stead-f a s t l y continued to i n t e r p r e t Chih's poetry a c c o r d i n g to the very t r a d i t i o n a l view t h a t , l i k e a l l l i t e r a t u r e , i t almost by d e f i n i t i o n contained some form of p o l i t i c a l content or r e l e v a n c e . As a r e s u l t , a l l e g o r i c a l meanings have been a t t r i b u t e d to the m a j o r i t y of Chih's poems, when i n f a c t , only a few of h i s works can with c e r t a i n t y be s a i d to possess t h i s p r o p e r t y . A d e f i n i t i v e study of the use of a l l e g o r y i n Ts'ao Chih's poetry would be a very complex and treacherous undertaking and I do not propose anything of the s o r t here. However, by examining two or three of h i s poems, I t h i n k we may be able to ga i n some i n s i g h t i n t o the gen e r a l extent and s t y l e o f h i s employment of the technique. Let us begin with "A Fea s t " . This poem i s of a standard form which i s Intended to c e l e b r a t e the pl e a s u r e s of a f e a s t . In t h i s case the f e a s t seems to have been given by the f u t u r e founder of the Wei Dynasty, Ts'ao P ' i . The guests are the v a r i o u s nobles, o f f i c i a l s and l i t -e r a t i of the Wei c a p i t a l at Yeh and the f e a s t takes p l a c e i n a garden i n that c i t y , p o s s i b l y the T'ung Chiieh Garden. We can e a s i l y assume that t h i s poem i s a product of a time i n Ts'ao Chih's l i f e when he enjoyed an a c t i v e and s t i m u l a t i n g s o c i a l l i f e . He seems to have been a s s o c i a t e d c l o s e l y with many members of the s o - c a l l e d "Seven Masters of Chien An" c o t e r i e . T h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n was both s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c as we f i n d much evidence of mutual borrowing and i n f l u e n c e among Chih, h i s b r o t h e r P ' i and the members of the "Seven Masters" group. For example, we can see that the f i r s t l i n e from t h i s poem i s very s i m i l a r to a l i n e from one of Ying Ch' ang' s poems, 2 9, and p o i n t s of s i m i l a r i t y can a l s o be found i n poems e n t i t l e d "A F e a s t " by Wang Ts'an and L i u unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chih's "A F e a s t " i s that i t i s not r e s t r i c t e d to a f a c i l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the f e s t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . Rather, Chih q u i c k l y moves from the f e a s t outwards, to d e s c r i b e the n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s of the park at n i g h t . To the extent that t h i s i s t r u e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to see c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s between t h i s poem- and Ts'ao P ' i ' s "Lotus Pond" ^ ^ L - - ^ ^ which transcend op the d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e themes. Despite the a t t e n t i o n given to the landscape, Chih only leaves the f e a s t i t s e l f behind f o r a short w h i l e . A f t e r s i x l i n e s of n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n we once more are r e t u r n e d to the f e a s t . Furthermore, by drawing back from the scene of the f e a s t and f o c u s s i n g on the landscape Chih has not n e c e s s a r i l y done anything very unique. By and l a r g e poems on f e a s t i n g themes w r i t t e n both b e f o r e and a f t e r t h i s time, and even some of Chih's Chen. 30 Fang Po-hai has suggested that one of the own poems ° do not take such l i b e r t i e s . However, In the other "Feast" poems from the Chien An p e r i o d which are i n c l u d e d i n the Wen Hsiian we f i n d that there i s much use of n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n to complement the d e s c r i p t i o n of the f e a s t . These poems even c o n t a i n a number of mutually borrowed phrases and images r e l a -t i n g to the landscape. It i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e that Chih has used the l a n d s -cape imagery as an a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n aspects of the f e a s t i t s e l f . Ho Cho maintains t h i s and he has sketched *r\ out the d e t a i l s of the a l l e g o r y f o r us. He b e l i e v e s , f o r example that the " b r i g h t moon" re p r e s e n t s the master or host, and the s t a r s r epresent the guests. The "autumn o r c h i d s " and " s c a r l e t f l o w e r s " (presumably l o t u s blossoms) on the banks symbolize the guests and the host's a p p r e c i a t i o n of them. The f i s h who s u r f a c e from the depths of the pond and the b i r d s p e r c h i n g on the high branches represent the guests who have gained enough confidence, i n t h e i r host to present themselves and t h e i r ideas openly. The gusty winds that blow around the c h a r i o t are symbolic i c of the f e a s t e r s who r a l l y around t h e i r r o y a l master. Whether or not t h i s poem was i n fact' written as-- an ' a l l e g o r y , and to what extent any a l l e g o r i c a l meaning might be important, i s , of course, impossible to determine f o r c e r t a i n . The comparison of the moon to the host and the s t a r s to the guests seems to be q u i t e obvious. Chih uses a very s i m i l a r image i n "For Hsu Kan" which a l s o seems to c o n t a i n a l l e g o r i c a l meaning. Si m i l a r l y , * the f i s h which ascend from the depths and the b i r d s on high branches are images which have been used by other poets as symbols f o r men of high v i r t u e who can only be drawn out by a p a r t i c u l a r l y e n l i g h t e n e d r u l e r . D The wind that blows around the c h a r i o t s i s a l s o reasonably easy to see as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the guests who gather around the P r i n c e . Even i n the couplet concerning the o r c h i d s and s c a r l e t flowers ( l i n e s 7 and 8) i t does not take too very much ima g i n a t i o n to see these f l o w e r s " as being metaphors f o r the guests who have a r r i v e d i n great num-bers f o r the f e a s t and who present themselves to the host i n c o l -o u r f u l a r r a y . With a l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n Ho Cho's t h e s i s appears to be qu i t e p l a u s i b l e . I t Is not s t r e t c h i n g t h i n g s too f a r to say that there e x i s t s a suggestive s i m i l a r i t y between the landscape imagery and the . f e s t i v e proceedings. At the same time, i f we accept t h i s t h e s i s we must not t h i n k that the poem has no content save the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning. A re a d i n g of the p r e v i o u s l y men-t i o n e d poems by Wang Ts'an, L i u Chen and Ying Ch'ang r e v e a l s con-s i d e r a b l e use of n a t u r a l imagery. For the most part however, these images do not betray any second l e v e l of meaning. Assuming that these men were a l l w r i t i n g i n a comparable s t y l e , i t i s l i k e l y that the d i r e c t e v o c a t i o n of n a t u r a l scenery was the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of Chih's composition too. C e r t a i n l y , there i s much genuine power i n the d e p i c t i o n of the landscape i t s e l f , and even without assuming a second l e v e l o f meaning, t h i s would stand as good poetry. By i n j e c t i n g a l l e g o r i c a l meaning Into the landscape imagery, Chih has given h i s poem c o n s i d e r a b l y more depth and i n t e r e s t . I t i s a de f t touch which allows' him to comment on the nature and ambience of the f e a s t and yet f r e e s him from the need to employ hackneyed formulas which would d e p i c t the d r i n k i n g and c a r r y i n g on directly".. I t i s an e x c e l l e n t example of Ts'ao Chih's t e c h n i c a l accomplishment. The second example I would l i k e to make use of i s " R e j o i c in g with the Rain"., On f i r s t r e a d i n g , t h i s poem seems a s t r a i g h t forward ode to the r a i n •: . ' Vwhich f a l l s a f t e r a long, drought. Commentators have maintained, however, that the pie c e i s not so simple as i t might at f i r s t appear. 3 6 Beginning with the pre -mise that the poem was w r i t t e n i n 228, d u r i n g the r e i g n of Ts'ao J u l , when Chih's w r i t i n g s were h e a v i l y laden with f r u s t r a t i o n arid appeal f o r b e t t e r treatment, they have t r i e d to show that •this i s an a l l e g o r y of complaint a g a i n s t the c o u r t . They b e l i e v e that the Heavens represent the Emperor, and the "abundant l i f e " or "myriad l i v i n g t h i n g s " ^ ^_ i n c l u d e the poet h i m s e l f . . Thus, when Chih w r i t e s that l i v i n g t h i n g s f l o u r i s h with proper n u r t u r e ^ from the Heavens', he r e a l l y i m p l i e s that he would be much more happy and p r o d u c t i v e with proper a t t e n t i o n from the Emperor and the c o u r t . Though there i s a tendency to. r e s i s t t h i s k i n d of I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , there i s f a i r l y s o l i d evidence to support i t . T h i s evidence i s based on the s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s poem and c e r t a i n passages i n the memorial by Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju mentioned i n the annotation to the t r a n s l a t i o n (see note #2) and a l s o a fu w r i t t e n by Chia Yi,"Dry Clouds" j ^ ^ T . In h i s essay, Hsiang-ju works on the concept of the Emperor as r i t u a l i n t e r m e d i a r y between man and the Heavens. In t h i s r o l e he (the Emperor) has a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to maintain the balance and order between these spheres. T h i s theme i s f u r t h e r blended with the i d e a that the Emperor i s ' h i m s e l f l i k e the Heavens i n that h i s a t t e n t i o n arid nurture have the same kind of e f f e c t on h i s s u b j e c t s as the Hea-vens' nurture has on a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . He w r i t e s : "Prom the r o l l i n g of the clouds In the canopy of Heaven comes sweet dew 37 and seasonal r a i n In whose f e c u n d i t y we may r e v e l . . . " A l s o , In an e a r l i e r passage, we f i n d : "Your majesty's humanity nur-tures the myriad l i v i n g t h i n g s , and your r i g h t e o u s n e s s a t t a c k s those who are d i s o b e d i e n t . " Chih has made use of both these passages i n h i s opening c o u p l e t . In t h i s way he informs the e r u d i t e reader that he should keep the meaning of Hslang-ju's essay i n mind while r e a d i n g the poem. The e f f e c t i s t h a t , a l -though Chih never s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s the emperor and h i s power to s u s t a i n h i s s u b j e c t s with the power of the Heavens to n o u r i s h l i v i n g t h i n g s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t l y t h e r e . There i s no t e x t u a l correspondence between " R e j o i c i n g with the Rain" and "Dry Clouds". There i s a st r o n g thematic s i m i l a r i t y however. "Dry Clouds" Is a d e s c r i p t i o n of a drought and the e f f e c t s t h a t drought has on a g r i c u l t u r e and the people who r e l y on a g r i c u l t u r e f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . In the course of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n Chia Y i d i r e c t l y accuses the emperor of being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a c k of r a i n . He w r i t e s : I a t t r i b u t e blame ( f o r t h i s drought) to the emperor. Has he not heard of the way In which great merit was accumulated i n T'ang £g and Yu & , or of the s p i r i t of the three epochs?...When the government l o s e s i t s cen-t r a l i s m and goes c o n t r a r y to the rhythms of nature, the yin f o r c e s withdraw and stagnate." 3'9 Here again the connection between the o f f i c e of the emperor and the f u n c t i o n i n g of. the elements i s o u t l i n e d . T h i s connection was founded on the very ancient i d e a that the emperor was the intermediary between Heaven, nature and man and that to ensure harmony between these spheres he had to perform h i s r i t u a l d u t i e s c o r r e c t l y . When Chih speaks of the f u n c t i o n i n g of the Heavens and p a r t i c u l a r l y Heaven's r e l a t i o n to l i v i n g t h i n g s , he almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y i m p l i c a t e s the emperor i n the s i t u a t i o n . Commentators such as Yu Kuan-ying (pp. 1 0 6 - 1 0 7 ) have t r i e d to r e l a t e the content of t h i s poem as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e to the f e e l i n g s expressed i n other works w r i t t e n i n the T'ai-ho era. Yu b e l i e v e s that Chih i s speaking very s p e c i f i c a l l y of h i s own r e l a t i o n s h i p with the emperor and that h i s tone i s d e f i n i t e l y one of complaint. I f we assume, as Yu does, that the poem p o s i -t i v e l y was w r i t t e n i n 2 2 8 , t h i s k i n d of i n f e r e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t to a v o i d . On the other hand, i f we a l l o w the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the poem might have been w r i t t e n at some other, unknown, time, I t would seem more reasonable to view i t as a g e n e r a l statement about the powers of the emperor contained a l l e g o r i c a l l y w i t h i n a p i e c e w r i t t e n about the advent of r a i n a f t e r . a p e r i o d of . :r--\^.: drought. Here again the q u e s t i o n of "suggestive s i m i l a r i t y " i s a r e l a t i v e one. We may not a s s o c i a t e the f u n c t i o n of the emper-or with the f u n c t i o n i n g of the elements but once we understand the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n that the a n c i e n t Chinese made between these two spheres, the a l l e g o r i c a l nature of " R e j o i c i n g with the Rain" becomes c l e a r . Probably the most e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h e d a l l e g o r i e s that Chih wrote were a l l based on a s i m i l a r theme; that of a woman aban-doned by her husband or l o v e r . There i s very l i t t l e doubt that i n almost any Chinese poem where the poet adopts the persona of a woman who s u f f e r s f e e l i n g s of l o n e l i n e s s and b e t r a y a l because her beloved has l e f t f o r p a r t s unknown, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 90 the poet and h i s r u l e r i s being i - m d l i c i t l y o r e f e r r e d t o . In the symbolism of the Ji Ching, the r u l e r r e p r e s e n t s yang q u a l i t i e s and the sub j e c t r e p r e s e n t s yin q u a l i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , i n a sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p the man repr e s e n t s yang q u a l i t i e s and the woman rep -r e s e n t s yin q u a l i t i e s . Consequently i t i s r a t h e r n a t u r a l that r u l e r - s u b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s should come to be symbolized by man-40 woman r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ' Let us look at one of the best examples of t h i s manner of a l l e g o r y to be found among Chih's poems. This i s "Seven Sorrows". In t h i s poem, as i n many of h i s poems and fu the woman's f e e l i n g s of estrangement must be s y m b o l i c a l l y equated with Chih's own f e e l i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to the treatment that he had r e c e i v e d from h i s b r o t h e r , Ts'ao P ' i . A f t e r P ' i took the throne of Wei and made h i m s e l f emperor, he di s p a t c h e d Chih to h i s f i e f i n L i n Tzu. Thi s was a k i n d of e x i l e . I t meant that Chih could not take an a c t i v e part i n s t a t e a f f a i r s ; something which he had a great ambition to do. P ' i o b v i o u s l y d i s t r u s t e d Chih very much and had no i n c l i n a t i o n to l e t him remain at the c a p i t a l . We can w e l l imagine that Chih's f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s i n face of t h i s s i t u a t i o n must have had some s i m i l a r i t y to the f e e l i n g s of a woman whose husband has l e f t her and may never r e t u r n . The moon i n the f i r s t l i n e may symbolize; the woman's husband, but the image of the moon i s s l i g h t l y enigmatic. Chih may simply be u s i n g the f i r s t c ouplet to set a mood f o r the p i e c e . However some commentators have attempted to a s s i g n sym-b o l i c meaning to i t . Ho Cho b e l i e v e s that the moon symbolizes the l o r d or master whom the poet, In the persona of the abandoned wife ihopes w i l l c ast down an observant look to d i s c o v e r her ( h i s ) true f e e l i n g s . The h e s i t a n c y of the rays shows t h a t though the l o r d or husband i s about to withdraw h i s favour, the woman s t i l l hopes that the favour w i l l be r e t u r n e d to her. The two c o u p l e t s beginning "He i s l i k e t h e : dust on a bv:i:~: b r i g h t road..." c l e a r l y draws our? a t t e n t i o n toward the c o n t r a d i c -t i o n s i n Chih's s i t u a t i o n vis a vis h i s b r o t h e r . The dust on the road and the mud i n the stream are e s s e n t i a l l y the same m a t e r i a l , but f o r reasons beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , they have been drawn apart and f o r c e d i n very d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . Chih and P ' i were bro-thers borne of the same mother, they were the same f l e s h and blood. But, because of circumstances p r e v a i l i n g at c o u r t , P ' i f e l t that i t was In h i s best i n t e r e s t to a l i e n a t e Chih, along with many other b l o o d r e l a t i v e s , from h i m s e l f and the court by keeping them i n a s t a t e of s e m i - e x i l e on t h e i r f i e f s . As mentioned i n note #6 of the annotations to the t r a n s -l a t i o n , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the southwesterly wind has been de-bated by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s . Without even being c e r t a i n about the a c t u a l time d u r i n g which the poem was w r i t t e n i t seems meaning-l e s s to maintain that Chih was, at the time of w r i t i n g , r e s i d i n g i n a place southwest of where P ' i was l i v i n g . T h i s may have been the case and may be the true foundation of the l i n e ' s mean-ing , but i t seems more reasonable and i m a g i n a t i v e to f o l l o w I t o ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h a t manner a q u i t e s a t i s f y i n g p a r a l l e l i n g of p o e t i c image and a l l e g o r i c a l r e a l i t y i s achieved. As with " R e j o i c i n g with the Rain" and "A F e a s t " , the f u l l beauty of the poem cannot be a p p r e c i a t e d i f one takes e i t h e r the s u r f a c e meaning or the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning as being the more important. Both meanings are e q u a l l y important. I t i s 92 one of the great v i r t u e s of Ts'ao Chih's work that he was able to use ambiguity and a l l e g o r y i n such a way as to crea t e poems that could f u n c t i o n i n a very balanced manner at two or more l e v -e l s at once. D. Metaphor and "Hsing" Jjs& Metaphor i s of course the very foundation of p o e t i c ex-p r e s s i o n . I t i s the technique of modifying an o b j e c t or a s t a t e 41 by comparing i t with some other o b j e c t or s t a t e . - Por example, i n the l i n e s : I dwelt alone In a world of moan, ^ And my so u l was a stagnant t i d e , there i s a very simple metaphor. The i d e a of " s o u l " Is m o d i f i e d by comparing i t to the ideas r e p r e s e n t e d by the words "stagnant t i d e " . Obviously the poet's s o u l i s not s t r i c t l y speaking a t i d e of any k i n d , but by d e s c r i b i n g i t as one, the poet has conveyed to us some very r e a l f e e l i n g s . In c l a s s i c a l Chinese poetry, metaphors are o f t e n c o n s t r u c -ted i n ways that are u n f a m i l i a r to the modern Western reader. Por example, as Waley notes: " E a r l y Chinese songs do not as a r u l e i n t r o d u c e a comparison with an "as i f " or " l i k e " , but s t a t e 43 i t on the same f o o t i n g as the f a c t s t h a t they n a r r a t e . " This technique i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n one of Ts'ao Chih's poems. The opening two co u p l e t s of "Duckweed" read: Duckweed l y i n g on the c l e a r water Follows the wind f l o w i n g east and west. On becoming a woman I l e f t my parents To become a gentleman's mate. The poem goes on to d e s c r i b e how the woman i s f a u l t e d u n j u s t l y and as a consequence i s abandoned by her husband. Although the f i r s t couplet might, on s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g , seem out of p l a c e , i n f a c t i t p r o v i d e s a metaphor f o r the i n s t a b i l i t y of the woman' l i f e . L i k e the duckweed she has no r o o t s to h o l d her f a s t , so she i s d r i v e n to and f r o by f o r c e s beyond her c o n t r o l . As such the couplet i s a h i g h l y d e s c r i p t i v e image. In "Occasional Poem" we f i n d another very suggestive met aphor r e l a t i n g the f e e l i n g s of a woman abandoned by her l o v e r . The l i n e s : The abandoned h a l l s , how s i l e n t now! Green weeds cover the c o u r t y a r d s t a i r s . Empty caverns blow f o r t h t h e i r own winds While a hundred b i r d s r i s e f o r the the southward f l i g h t . suggest l o n e l i n e s s , d e s o l a t i o n and abandonment. With the f o l l o w ing c o u p l e t : S p r i n g thoughts can never be f o r g o t t e n , Sorrow and l o n e l i n e s s u n i t e with me. Chih i n d i c a t e s that the d e s c r i p t i o n of the"empty c o u r t y a r d and de p a r t i n g b i r d s i s a c t u a l l y a metaphor f o r the woman's sorrow over the departure of her beloved. This metaphor i s executed with a great deal of elegance and depth of f e e l i n g . One of the most commonly c i t e d • • examples of the use of met-aphor i n Ts'ao Chih's poetry i s from the f i r s t of the "Six Occa-s i o n a l Poems". The f i r s t two coup l e t s o f t h i s poem read: Around the t a l l tower blow many sad winds; Morning sun shines on the northern wood. He i s a thousand miles away now; The lakes and r i v e r s are f a r and deep. In t h i s poem a l s o Chih uses the persona of a woman l e f t behind by her wandering l o v e r . That the poem concerns a woman and her l o v e r i s s u b t l y h i n t e d at i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t . F i r s t l y , as Huang Chieh p o i n t s out, the a s s o c i a t i o n given to the phrase 94 "northern wood" by i t s locus c l a s s i c u s i n the Shih Ching i s of 45 the sorrows of an abandoned w i f e . This a s s o c i a t i o n i s employed 4 6 by other poets such as Juan C h i . The tower i n the f i r s t l i n e c o uld e a s i l y r e f e r to the place where the l o n e l y woman l i v e s . There i s a tendency to i d e n t i f y towers as being the d w e l l i n g places of l o n e l y women In Chih's work. Note f o r example, "Sev-en Sorrows", and " B e a u t i f u l Maiden". This i s a l s o the case i n the f i f t h of the "19 Old Poems". The image of "sad winds" blow-in g around the tower i s very e v o c a t i v e . I t sets a mood of mel-andholy In the poem, yet i s not o v e r l y s e n t i m e n t a l . The impor-tance of the second l i n e i s that i t conveys both an a l l u s i o n r e -garding the content of the poem and a l s o an image that compli-ments that of the f i r s t l i n e . This a b i l i t y to combine a l l u s i o n with metaphoric imagery i s one of Chih's most notable accomplish-ments. In "Poem of F e e l i n g s " Chih uses a metaphor which operates s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y from the examples above. This metaphor i s found i n the second and t h i r d c ouplets of the poem; G l i d i n g f i s h hide beneath green r i v e r s And r i s i n g b i r d s press toward the sky. So d i s t a n t , the t r a v e l l i n g k n i g h t , Cast a f a r , he cannot return.': The " g l i d i n g f i s h " and the " r i s i n g b i r d s " a l l have a pl a c e where they f e e l secure and comfortable. By c o n t r a s t , the t r a v e l l i n g knight has no such p l a c e . He Is f a r from h i s home and has no means of r e t u r n . In t h i s case, r a t h e r than modifying the pre-dicament of the knight by comparing i t d i r e c t l y to c e r t a i n nat-u r a l imagery, Chih modifies by c o n t r a s t i n g the r e l a t i v e l y s a f e , s t a b l e e x i s t e n c e of the f i s h and b i r d s with the h i g h l y unstable e x i s t e n c e of the k n i g h t . There e x i s t s i n Chinese p o e t i c theory a term which seems q u i t e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the i d e a of metaphor. This i s hsing Hsing l i t e r a l l y means "to give r i s e t o " or "to r a i s e " . I t was used as a l i t e r a r y term from very e a r l y times, but by the Han 4 7' Dynasty i t s o r i g i n a l meaning had been l o s t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l -l y , Chinese s c h o l a r s were not w i l l i n g to admit that they no longer knew what hsing meant as a l i t e r a r y term so they a t t r i b u -ted new meaning to i t a c c o r d i n g to what they thought that i t probably meant. L i u Hsieh d e s c r i b e s one of the more commonly he l d t h e o r i e s about t h i s termes meaning i n h i s " L i t e r a r y Mind and the Carving of the Dragons"; "Hsing ( i s ) response to s t i m -ulus...When we respond to s t i m u l i we formulate our ideas a c c o r -4^ 8 ding to s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e s we r e c e i v e . In other words, i n s t e a d of f i n d i n g images that w i l l s t i m u l a t e i n the reader c e r t a i n f e e l Ings r e g a r d i n g p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s or s t a t e s , the poet i s stimu-l a t e d to c e r t a i n f e e l i n g s by e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s and then simply d e s c r i b e s those o b j e c t s along with the f e e l i n g s that they s t i m -u l a t e d . The i d e a of kan wu jj^ffi "being moved by t h i n g s " which 49 i s found i n the Lz Chi- and i s repeated c o n t i n u a l l y by poets throughout China's h i s t o r y i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the i d e a of hsing as L i u Hsieh d e s c r i b e s i t . Chih h i m s e l f uses the term i n the f o u r t h strophe of "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Piao". In that passage he d e s c r i b e s the coming of autumn's c h i l l , the d e s o l a -t i o n of the p l a i n s and the urgency with which b i r d s and animals are seeking the s e c u r i t y of the woods and t h e i r own k i n d . The c o n c l u d i n g couplet reads: Moved by these t h i n g s , I f e e l great d i s t r e s s ? Beating my b r e a s t , I heave a long s i g h . In t h i s case Chih has a l r e a d y i n t i m a t e d t h a t h i s f e e l i n g s of dis-t r e s s are r e l a t e d to h i s f o r c e d estrangement from h i s b r o t h e r Ts'ao P'i. Thus the p e r c e p t i o n of those very somber images drawn from the landscape serve p r i n c i p a l l y to i n t e n s i f y h i s f e e l i n g s . Another e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s type of "response-to-s t i m u l u s " metaphor i s found i n the f i r s t of Chih's two poems dedica t e d to Ying Ch'ang. In t h i s poem Ts'ao Chih i s moved to strong feelings -of melancholy and remorse on viewing the r u i n s of the o l d Han c a p i t a l at Loyang. There i s a t r a d i t i o n a l asso-c i a t i o n i n Chinese l i t e r a t u r e between viewing scenery from a high place and the remembrance of the g l o r i e s of former ages." This i s p r e c i s e l y the theme that Chih develops here. With the f i r s t l i n e a somber mood i s set because the h i l l upon which he i s walking i s one which h e l d the tombs of many former members of the- Han r o y a l f a m i l y . He then d e p i c t s a scene of Loyang's deep d e s o l a t i o n . Loyang, which once was the most f l o u r i s h i n g and r i c h m e t r o p o l i s i n the world had been ravaged. Years l a t e r i t s t i l l remained i n a s t a t e of u t t e r decay. . Walls were crumb-l i n g and weeds climbed from the cracks i n the roads and c o u r t -yards . There no longer remained any of the o f f i c i a l s and s c h o l -ars who once watched over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the empire. There were only a few common people who had r e t u r n e d to t r y to r e - e s t a b l i s h some k i n d of l i v e l i h o o d . Outside the c i t y too, the farming lands which had supported the opulence of the imper-i a l court l a y l a r g e l y untended. The peasants-had a l l moved away or died and the paths and f i e l d s had become overgrown. Prom t h i s p i c t u r e of Loyang and i t s environs l y i n g i n a s t a t e of neg-97 l e c t and d e v a s t a t i o n , Chih i s moved to f e e l i n g s of inten s e d i s -t r e s s . Loyang's dismal s t a t e was symbolic of the s t a t e of c i v i l -i z a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , or at l e a s t as the Chinese knew i t . The f a l l of Han a u t h o r i t y had been a severe blow to a l l Chinese and espe-c i a l l y to the educated e l i t e . For them the p o l i t i c a l e s t a b l i s h -ment of the Han with i t s Confucian orthodoxy had come to be i d e n -t i f i e d with a l l that was c i v i l i z e d and i t gave a sense of u l t i -.•ma'te- v a l i d i t y to the way i n which they l i v e d t h e i r l i v e s . Chih, as part of the e l i t e , must have f e l t a tremendous melancholy and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n at the s i g h t of Loyang i n r u i n s . The w i l d s amid which he viewed those r u i n s extended not only f o r hundreds of miles i n t o the d i s t a n c e , but a l s o deep i n t o h i s own being. E. F ' i c t ' i o n a l - i z a t i o n We have seen how Ts'ao Chih o f t e n used the s i t u a t i o n of an abandoned woman as an a l l e g o r y or metaphor f o r h i s own f e e l -ings of estrangement from h i s b r o t h e r Ts'ao P ' i and l a t e r h i s nephew Ts'ao J u i when these men h e l d the p o s i t i o n of Emperor. It i s the i n t e n s i t y and depth with which Chih i s able to d e p i c t both h i s own f e e l i n g s and those of the imaginary woman whose persona he adopts that makes such poems so s u c c e s s f u l . Ts'ao Chih had a tremendous a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y with the emotions of others and a l s o to employ e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s as symbols or meta-phors f o r h i s own emotions. This l a t t e r f a c e t of h i s a r t i s most p o w e r f u l l y demonstrated i n a number of what might be c a l l e d phantasy or imaginary p i e c e s . Two of the best examples of t h i s s t y l e of poem are w r i t t e n along very s i m i l a r l i n e s . The f i r s t i s the second poem i n the set of "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems". Chih o f t e n uses animals or p l a n t s which wander or are moved about 9 8 a i m l e s s l y and have no f i x e d r e s t i n g p l a c e as symbols f o r men or women who have been f o r c e d to leave t h e i r homes and t r a v e l i n d i s t a n t p l a c e s . Here, the tumble-weed, blown at the mercy of the wind's constant pressure i s l i k e the t r a v e l l e r or s o l d i e r who must f o l l o w the army u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y to d i s t a n t p l a c e s , o f t e n r i s k i n g h i s l i f e to do so. It has been suggested that t h i s poem was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the l a t t e r stages of Chih's l i f e when he was c o n s t a n t l y being s h i f t e d from one f i e f to another. • In two prose p i e c e s , ".Mem-o r i a l i n g r a t i t u d e f o r being t r a n s f e r r e d to be P r i n c e of Tung-O" we f i n d Chih complaining of the number of times he had been t r a n s f e r r e d , and i n two other notable yueh-fu poems " A l a s ! " and the "Great Rock" fa'-j^ > which we w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r , he a l l u d e s to the sadness" and f r u s t r a t i o n that he experienced i n h i s l a t e r years because of that i n s t a b i l i t y . I b e l i e v e that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem was w r i t t e n at a r a t h e r e a r l y stage i n Chih's development. Though he would nat-u r a l l y i n c l u d e h i m s e l f among those who were sub j e c t to p e r i o d s of r o o t l e s s n e s s and a l i e n a t i o n , the s u b j e c t i n the poem seems to be man i n general r a t h e r than the poet i n p a r t i c u l a r . The theme of the t r a v e l l i n g s o l d i e r i s a very p r e v a l e n t one i n the ku^shih & f ^ o f the Han and Wei p e r i o d s . 5 2 Chih appears p r i -m a r i l y to be i m i t a t i n g poems of t h i s convention. He has bor-rowed h e a v i l y from the s t y l e and vocabulary of such poems. How-ever, he has a l s o added c e r t a i n r e f i n i n g touches of h i s own so that we can e a s i l y determine that the poem was composed by a w e l l - t r a i n e d poet r a t h e r than a b a l l a d e e r . What makes the poem most a t t r a c t i v e i s that the d e s c r i p t i o n of the weed blown h i t h e r and yon by the wind i s made i n t o a k i n d of t r a n s c e n d e n t a l phan-tas y . The weed s w i r l s up through the clouds to reach toward Heaven's i n f i n i t y and f e e l the endlessness of the u n i v e r s e . In l i k e manner, we, as t r a v e l l e r s through a world o f t e n h o s t i l e and f o r b i d d i n g , are o f t e n l e d to f e e l , i n our l o n e l i n e s s and a l i e n a -t i o n , t h i s same emptiness and i n d i f f e r e n c e of the u n i v e r s e ' s i n f i n i t y . In "Al'as! "> Chih has again employed the image of a tumble-weed blown i n the wind, but i n t h i s case, r a t h e r than simply use the image as a metaphor f o r the f e e l i n g s of t r a v e l l i n g s o l d i e r s , he has extended i t through the l e n g t h of the poem. In that man-ner the piece becomes more of a p h a n t a s t i c a l l e g o r y . As such i t i s q u i t e unique. I t was c e r t a i n l y not unusual f o r n a t u r a l imagery, such as p l a n t s or animals, to be used as metaphors or symbols f o r a poet's f e e l i n g s . Nor was i t unusual f o r a poet to w r i t e from the persona or p e r s p e c t i v e of someone other than h i m s e l f , such as i n the case where Chih wrote i n the persona of a woman. However, by w r i t i n g a completely p h a n t a s t i c p i e c e i n which he imagined h i m s e l f to be an e s s e n t i a l l y inanimate o b j e c t , Chih had taken a very i n n o v a t i v e step. The poem was most l i k e l y w r i t t e n sometime a f t e r Ts'ao P'I had taken the throne and f o r c e d h i s b r o t h e r s to leave the c a p i t a l and take up r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e f s . Chih i s w r i t i n g with r e f e r e n c e to h i s f e e l i n g s d u r i n g that t r y i n g p e r i o d . Through h i s e x c i t i n g -and r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n of the o f t e n v i o l e n t and dramatic movements of the tumble-weed, he c r e a t e d an exceedingly e v o c a t i v e metaphor f o r h i s f e e l i n g s of hopeless,-100 i n s t a b i l i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n . T h i s a b i l i t y to f i c t i o n a l i z e Is a l s o e x e r c i s e d e x t e n s i v e -l y i n Ts'ao Chih's "wandering Immortals" poems. Such poems, which c o n s t i t u t e d a k i n d of sub-genre i n the l i t e r a t u r e of med-i e v a l China, owed t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n to a p i e c e i n the Ch'u Tz'u e n t i t l e d " T r a v e l l i n g A f a r " , Yuan Yu • T h i s p i e c e was t r a -d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to Ch'u Yuan but i s now g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to have been an e a r l y Han composition. J I t i s the account of a man who i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d and anxious about mortal e x i s t e n c e and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and so c o n t r i v e s to become an immortal. We are t r a n s p o r t e d with him on a journey through the ultramundane realms frequented by immortals. In view of the great p o p u l a r i -ty of the c u l t of i m m o r t a l i t y and r e l i g i o u s Taoism d u r i n g the Han e r a , i t c o u l d very w e l l have been t h a t t h i s p i e c e was w r i t -ten as a r e l i g i o u s testament; a Swedenborgian t r i p through the Chinese e q u i v a l e n t of Heaven. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was, of course, unacceptable i n Confucian terms. As a consequence i t was i n t e r p r e t e d as being a p u r e l y i m a g i n a t i v e e x e r c i s e ; the product of Ch'u Yuan's f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n , '"phantastic escapism i f you w i l l . The same type of i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n was a p p l i e d to most works subsequently w r i t t e n i n t h i s s t y l e . Whether or not i t was a p p l i e d c o r r e c t l y i s another q u e s t i o n . Ts'ao Chih wrote a l a r g e number of poems on the theme of "wandering immortals", but i t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to de-termine why he so favoured t h i s s t y l e . A f t e r r e a d i n g h i s " D i s -course on D i s t i n g u i s h i n g the Tad" > ^  there remains l i t -t l e doubt that Chih was not a naive f o l l o w e r of popular Taoism. 101 In that essay he Is very h o s t i l e to the s o r c e r y p r a c t i c e d by the fang-shih -^-irof the time and h i g h l y s c e p t i c a l about the i d e a of i m m o r t a l i t y . Another example of t h i s s c e p t i c i s m Is found i n the l a s t strophe of "For Prince Pai-ma, Piao". There he w r i t e s : I t i s v a i n and empty to seek the immortals, Master Sung (an immortal) has deceived us too long. In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such statements we must assume that e i t h e r Chih had accepted the Confucian view that "wandering immortals" poems were simply phantasies w r i t t e n i n r e a c t i o n to the o p p r e s e i o i sions of p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e r s , o r that he h e l d s t r o n g l y c o n t r a -d i c t o r y f e e l i n g s on the subject of i m m o r t a l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s work to give more thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h i s problem. I t w i l l have to be s u f f i c i e n t f o r us to understand that whatever the a c t u a l extent of Ts'ao Chih's b e l i e f i n the immortals might have been, there was c e r -t a i n l y a l a r g e measure of e s c a p i s t f i c t i o n a l l z a t i o n at the heart of h i s "wandering immortals" poems. A l l of Chih's "wandering immortals" poems have been c l a s s i f i e d as yueh-fu. Some are very rough c o l l o q u i a l p i e c e s that seem to be f a i r l y d i r e c t l y i m i t a t i v e of popular d i t t i e s . Others are more h i g h l y developed and owe more to the Ch'u Tz'u than to popular yueh-fu. A good example of the former k i n d i s "East of P'ing L i n g " . The form of t h i s poem Is q u i t e s i m i l a r , but not i d e n t i c a l , to a f o l k yUeh-fu of the same t i t l e . Both pieces begin with a l i n e s t r u c t u r e of 3-3-7 and are composed-al-most e n t i r e l y of three and seven c h a r a c t e r l i n e s . The f o l k yueh-fu uses the technique of r e p e a t i n g the l a s t l i n e or phrase of one strophe at the beginning of the next. This i s a l s o used i n Chih's poem. Both poems a l s o have I r r e g u l a r rhyme p a t t e r n s , and use v e r n a c u l a r d i c t i o n . There the s i m i l a r i t i e s end. The f o l k yueh-fu i s concerned with a c e r t a i n Duke Y i who was execu-ted f o r l e a d i n g an u n s u c c e s s f u l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t Wang Mang. Ts'ao Chih's poem was concerned with the mythology of the immor-t a l i t y c u l t . He imagines donning a f e a t h e r e d cloak and r i d i n g a f l y i n g dragon through the gates of Heaven to meet with the immortals. He then climbs Mount P'eng L a i to p i c k l i n g chih fungus which he eats and consequently achieves i m m o r t a l i t y . I t i s b a s i c a l l y a very s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and unadorned verse except f o r the i n c l u s i o n of the m y t h o l o g i c a l imagery. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , Chih wrote a number of "wandering immortals" p i e c e s that are much more h i g h l y developed, both f o r -mally and s t y l i s t i c a l l y 1 . . One such p i e c e " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm" has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n terms of i t s t e x t u a l i n -debtedness to the Ch'u Tz 'u..Another^good example i s " T r a v e l l i n g A f a r " . Although there i s a p i e c e i n the Ch'u Tz'u with the same t i t l e , Ts''iao Chih seems not to have been attempting to d i r e c t l y i m i t a t e that p i e c e . N a t u r a l l y the theme of i m m o r t a l i t y and immortals i s the same, and as i n " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm", Chih has borrowed a number of phrases and images from v a r i o u s works i n the Ch'u Tz'u. For the most p a r t , however, t h i s poem i s h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Chih's own s t y l e . As i n " A l a s ! " , i t i s Chih's wonderful a b i l i t y to f i c -t i o n a l i z e that g i v e s l i f e and f o r c e to the poem. Chih not only creates imagery that i s extremely s u g g e s t i v e , he b u i l d s h i s des-c r i p t i o n s very l o g i c a l l y , so that we f e e l the imagery being g r a -d u a l l y completed before us, much as i f we had been watching an a r t i s t b r i n g a sketch to completion. Chih has an a b i l i t y to i n j e c t motion i n t o h i s work. His images are seldom s t a t i c . This property i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n such p i e c e s as " A l a s ! " and "The Great Rock". I t can a l s o be seen i n t h i s poem. " T r a v e l l i n g A f a r " i s d i v i d e d i n t o two movements of f i v e c o u p l e t s each. In the f i r s t movement Chih uses h i s d e p i c t i v e a b i l i t i e s to c r e a t e a scene of r o l l i n g waves, rugged mountains and s u p e r - n a t u r a l beings. Each l i n e leads i n t o the next as our mind's eye i s slowly guided from one image to the next. The second movement i s more e x p o s i t i v e than d e s c r i p t i v e , but here too, the Image of him l e a p i n g the sands and dancing on the winds i n the seventh and e i g h t h c o u p l e t s i s w e l l developed and very potent. Ts'ao Chih was very w e l l acquainted with the symbolism and mythology of the i m m o r t a l i t y c u l t . His poems c o n t a i n a wide v a r i e t y of images and a l l u s i o n s drawn from that c u l t . He was a l s o f a m i l i a r with the works of the pre-Ch'in p h i l o s o p h i c a l Tao-i s t s . An i n t e r e s t i n g example of t h i s i s found In the " B a l l a d of B i t t e r Thoughts". In that poem he d e s c r i b e s f o l l o w i n g two ohen-j en jjji./^ to a p l a c e where he meets an o l d r e c l u s e who Is w e l l versed i n the concepts of Taoism. The r e c l u s e advises him "to f o r g e t mere words". This phrase i s , of course, drawn from the Chuang-tzu and r e f e r s to one of the c e n t r a l ideas of p h i l -o s o p h i c a l Taoism, that of the e s s e n t i a l l y m y s t i c a l nature of the Tao and of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d e s c r i b i n g i t with words or l o g i c a l concepts. Despite the h o s t i l i t y to the i m m o r t a l i t y c u l t that Chih demonstrates i n h i s "Discourse on D i s t i n g u i s h i n g the Tao" i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e that he d i d not h o l d more than a c a s u a l c u r i o s i t y about I t s t e n e t s . In any case, he f r e e l y e x p l o i t e d 104 the suggestive,magical p r o p e r t i e s of the c u l t ' s mythology to create a good deal of h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e v e r s e . In many r e s p e c t s the success that Chih had i n u s i n g t h i s mythology i n h i s poetry paved the way f o r the extensive development that took place i n t h i s sub-genre l a t e r i n the Six Dynasties e r a . Such poets as Kuo P'u and Ho Shao /{S^/^jj were noted as w r i t e r s of "wandering immortals" poetry. In many ways Chih's work i s s u p e r i o r to that of l a t e r poets. Although the "Immortals" poems of Kuo P'u f o r i n s t a n c e are more h i g h l y developed i n the sense that he used more s o p h i s t i c a t e d imagery and spent more time r e f i n i n g h i s d i c t i o n , h i s poems tend to be mostly concerned with d e s c r i b - -i n g the c u r i o s i t i e s of T a o i s t i c mythology and possess r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e emotional f o r c e . For example, l e t us look at one of Kuo's "wandering immortals" poems and compare i t to Chih's " T r a v e l l i n g A f a r " . The second i n the s e r i e s of Kuo P'u's poems contained 5S i n the Wen 'Esuan J reads: Ch'ing Gorge i s more than a thousand yards deep. In i t there l i v e s a T a o i s t . Clouds form amid h i s r a f t e r s And winds i s s u e f o r t h from the windows and doors. May I ask, who i s t h i s man? ^ It i s s a i d that t h i s i s Master Kuei Ku?• 573 ' I r i s e and look toward Ying Yang, ' j - o Nearing the r i v e r I t h i n k to wash out my e a r s . " " Ch'ang-ho's wind comes from the s o u t h w e s t , ^ Hidden waves r i s e l i k e s c a t t e r e d f i s h s c a l e s . Fu F e i looks back at me and l a u g h s ' ^ G a i l y showing her j a d e - l i k e t e e t h . Chien H s i u i s no longer l i v i n g , I f I want her, who can I d i s p a t c h ? The f e e l i n g of t h i s poem i s of subdued elegance. The poet speaks 105 of h i s encounter f i r s t with the T a o i s t adept Master Kuei Ku and then with the famous Goddess of the Lo R i v e r , Fu F e i . There are a number of w e l l drawn images that would ."not have been found i n one of Ts'ao Chih's poems. In the second couplet the p i c t u r e of the clouds forming amid the r a f t e r s of the T a o i s t ' s cottage and the winds blowing from h i s windows and doors i s somewhat more i n v o l v e d than i s g e n e r a l l y found i n Chih's work. Likewi s e , the image of the waves s c a t t e r i n g l i k e f i s h s c a l e s before the wind i s more advanced than most imagery employed by w r i t e r s i n Chih's time. Apart from the f i n e s s e with which the poet has c r e a t e d h i s imagery, there i s very l i t t l e to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s poem. In the f o u r t h couplet there i s an a l l u s i o n that i n t i m a t e s that the poet i s u n i n t e r e s t e d i n g a i n i n g ' w o r l d l y success and t h e r e f o r e chooses to wander i n search of immortal beings, but t h i s i d e a i s not e l a b o r a t e d upon. In the l a s t few l i n e s the poet expresses h i s a t t r a c t i o n to the b e a u t i f u l Fu F e i but he does so i n a very d i f f u s e manner, without any r e v e l a t i o n of s t r o n g emotion. The poemr.seems to d r i f t along r a t h e r than flow with any f o r c e . Ts'ao Chih's " T r a v e l l i n g A f a r " , by c o n t r a s t , moves at a great pace. Grand images r i s e d r a m a t i c a l l y b e f o r e us and the poet f l i e s and leaps r a t h e r than walk. There i s a l s o a great deal more emotion i n t h i s poem. Chih gives v o i c e to h i s d i s -i l l u s i o n m e n t with the mundane, and expresses a great d e s i r e to escape the mortal world and take h i s p l a c e among the immortals. This poem, along with others such as " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm", and "Wandering as an Immortal" are deeply imbued with r e a l human emotion. Chih may not have b e l i e v e d very s t r o n g -l y i n the v a l i d i t y of the immortality c u l t , but he f e l t a need to 106 f i n d some means of r i s i n g - above the oppressiveness of mundane e x i s t e n c e . In h i s p h a n t a s t i c wanderings through the realms of the immortals he was a b l e , i n h i s im a g i n a t i o n at l e a s t , to do j u s t t h a t . had managed to gather so many t a l e n t e d l i t e r a r y men together at h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p i t a l i n Yeh, there was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of contact between these men, both o f f i c i a l l y and so-c i a l l y . I n e v i t a b l y , f r i e n d s h i p s arose out of t h i s c o n t a c t . We f i n d t r i b u t e to these f r i e n d s h i p s i n the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of poems de d i c a t e d by these men to t h e i r comrades and a s s o c i a t e s . Ts'ao Chih's c o l l e c t e d works c o n t a i n e i g h t poems ( i f "Por P r i n c e Pai-ma, Piao" i s taken as one poem) s p e c i f i -c a l l y d e d i c a t e d to men who he was a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h i n some way. Many of these poems are con s i d e r e d to be among h i s best works. I f we accept the g e n e r a l l y h e l d view that the seven poems once supposed to have been exchanged between L i L i n g and 62 ' Su Wu are a c t u a l l y l a t e r f o r g e r i e s , •• the " d e d i c a t i o n " poems w r i t t e n by Ts'ao Chih i n pentameter are among the e a r l i e s t ex-amples i n that form. There are a number of remaining examples of " d e d i c a t i o n or response" poems from the Han Dynasty, but these were g e n e r a l l y w r i t t e n i n tetrameter. The only excep-t i o n to t h i s seems to be the three poems that Ch' i n Chia-' wrote to h i s wi f e . Chih's poems were a l l w r i t t e n In pentameter however, and they e x h i b i t a high degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . A very l a r g e p o r t i o n of e a r l y " d e d i c a t i o n " poems were F. Response and Dedication 64 1 0 7 w r i t t e n on the oc c a s i o n of a f r i e n d ' s departure. Because of t h i s they are o f t e n expressions of sadness and a f f e c t i o n . The general tendency was to de s c r i b e one's f e e l i n g s about the one de p a r t i n g d i r e c t l y , although i n some cases poets employed a l l e g -ory or metaphor.. In cases where a poem was de d i c a t e d to a f r i e n d simply as a show of a f f e c t i o n or i n response to a poem w r i t t e n by the f r i e n d , the poet u s u a l l y t r i e d to d e s c r i b e the v i r t u e s 6 5 1 -and t a l e n t s of the f r i e n d and to express h i s esteem f o r him. The f o l l o w i n g simple poem w r i t t e n by Hsu Kan ( 1 7 9 - 2 1 7 ) i n r e s -ponse to a much more e l a b o r a t e p i e c e from L i u Chen ( ? - 2 1 7 ) w i l l 66 perhaps serve as an example o f t h i s type of poem. Poem in Response to Liu Kung-kan I t has not been long s i n c e we parted Not even ten days have passed. How grave my thoughts have become, This sorrow makes i t seem l i k e three years. Although the le n g t h of the road i s t r i f l i n g I t is-as-hard: t o cross as the Nine Gates. 6 ;'7' Amid the splendour of the s c a r l e t summer we p a r t e d , The grasses and t r e e s were g l o r i o u s and abundant. The prime concern here,as In L i u ' s poem,is the sadness that the poet f e l t on having to depart h i s f r i e n d . L i u a l s o wrote a s e r -i e s of three poems to h i s c o u s i n . These poems were w r i t t e n as a l l e g o r i e s . The f i r s t poem reads: The east f l o w i n g r i v e r churns along, • Over the rocks i t leaps and sp l a s h e s . Weeds and rushes grow by i t s bank, T h e i r leaves and flowers sway In p r o f u s i o n . Pick them to place i n the a n c e s t r a l h a l l Or t o o f f e r to your honoured guests. Why not use h o l l y h o c k from the garden? gg You know the beauty of these from the deep marsh. T h i s piece,which o b v i o u s l y owes a great d e a l to the "19 Old ? r Poems", i s b a s i c a l l y an a l l e g o r y . L i u i s t e l l i n g h i s c o u s i n that although he may come from a poor f a m i l y , he has v i r t u e s of h i s own which people w i l l a p p r e c i a t e , j u s t as people can a p p r e c i a t e the beauty of flowers grown i n the marshes as w e l l as those grown i n more ge n t e e l l o c a t i o n s . I-. In a l l except two cases, Chih's d e d i c a t i o n poems were a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from these p a t t e r n s . These two excep-t i o n s are the second of the poems w r i t t e n sending o f f Master Ying, and "For T i n g I" j l ^ ' T • T n e second poem of the "Sending Off Master Ying" set f o r example, I s of r a t h e r c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e . I t was w r i t t e n on the o c c a s i o n of Ying Ch'ang's depar-ture from Ts'ao Chih. I t d e s c r i b e s the departure f e a s t and expresses many co n v e n t i o n a l emotions a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i n g an o l d and t r u s t e d f r i e n d . Although i t Is w r i t t e n i n a some-what c o n v e n t i o n a l s t y l e , i t does c o n t a i n genuine and deep emo-t i o n . "For T i n g I" i s a s t y l i z e d p i e c e beginning with a des-c r i p t i o n of a f e a s t and ending with a s e r i e s of p l a t i t u d e s r e -garding the nature of v i r t u e and achievement. I t i s not a h i g h -l y p o l i s h e d or deep work. I f we exclude these two p i e c e s and a l s o the f i r s t poem of "Sending o f f Master' Ying" and "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Pi a o " which are unique f o r reasons to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , Ts'ao Chih's "ded-i c a t i o n " poems f o l l o w a roughly i d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n . Let us examine "For Wang Ts'an" as a means of f i n d i n g the nature of t h i s p a t t e r n . Wang Ts'an was of course one of the major l i t e r -ary f i g u r e s of the l a t e Han p e r i o d . He had served both the l a s t Han 'emperor and L i u Piao u n t i l the l a t t e r d i e d . He 109 'then t r a v e l l e d n o r t h to serve Ts'ao Ts'ao. Although Ts'ao Chih was f i f t e e n years younger than Wang Ts'an, the two had much i n common as f a r as t h e i r t a s t e and a b i l i t y i n l i t e r a t u r e was con-cerned. In t h i s poem i t seems as though Chih i s seeking to "break the i c e " as i t were, and to e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r f r i e n d s h i p with Ts'an. In the opening two c o u p l e t s , Chih i n t r o d u c e s asdes-c r i p t i o n of h i s own thoughts and of a scene that he comes upon as he s t r o l l s though a garden. In c o n t r a s t to h i s f e e l i n g s , which are r a t h e r .depressed, the garden scene i s b r i g h t and gen-t l e . In the t h i r d couplet he i n t r o d u c e s a lone mandarin duch . • which s i t s on the pool and c a l l s i n search of a companion. T h i s q u i t e c l e a r l y must be a symbol f o r Ts'an who had perhaps only a r r i v e d i n Ts'ao Ts'ao's court a short while p r e v i o u s l y and had not yet e s t a b l i s h e d many f r i e n d s h i p s . In the f o u r t h couplet Chih i m p l i e s that he would l i k e to b e f r i e n d Ts'an but has not yet found a s u i t a b l e method of doing t h a t . The f i f t h c ouplet begins a new movement i n the poem. Here, r a t h e r that develop one cohesive image, Chih has chosen to use a s e r i e s of images and a l l u s i o n s as a means of conveying c e r t a i n i d e a s . U n f o r t -u n a t e l y , with the scant i n f o r m a t i o n we have p e r t a i n i n g to the background of t h i s poem, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to be c e r t a i n what ideas Chih i s t r y i n g to express. The f i f t h c ouplet seems to imply that i t i s no longer p o s s i b l e to r e t r a c e one's steps and r e t u r n to a former e x i s t e n c e . I t may have been that Wang Ts'an was not happy with h i s s i t u a t i o n i n Ts'ao Ts'ao's s e r v i c e and wished to r e t u r n to h i s home or to the government of L i u P e i ^ i ] / | ^ i n Szechwan. Chih may have been t r y i n g to persuade him that t h i s would be unwise. In the s i x t h c o u p l e t , the " d o l e f u l wint" i s most l i k e l y symbolic of the u n s e t t l e d s t a t e of p o l i t i c a l and. s o c i a l a f f a i r s t h a t e x i s t e d at that time. The r e f e r e n c e to 1 1 0 the " s u n - c h a r i o t " i s undoubtedly an a l l u s i o n to the shortness of l i f e . In the seventh couplet we f i n d a symbolic r e f e r e n c e to the de facto r u l e r of northern China, Ts'ao Ts'ao. As was the case In " R e j o i c i n g with the Rain", the r u l e r ' s a b i l i t y to give support and encouragement to h i s s u b j e c t s i s equated to the a b i l i t y of the heavens to give nourishment, i n the form of r a i n , to a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . Chih i s a s s u r i n g Ts'an that t h i s support would not be denied him. In the l a s t c ouplet Chih asks Ts'an why he seems to be unhappy about h i s l o t and then, by way of a l l u s i o n to one of Ts'an's own works, t r i e s to comfort him. We can see i n the most ge n e r a l terms, t h i s poem i s com-' posed of two movements. In the f i r s t movement Chih c r e a t e s a scene which i s d e s c r i p t i v e of h i s own f e e l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e l a t e to Wang Ts'an. In the second movement Chih addresses c e r t a i n advice and c o n s o l a t i o n to Ts'an with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to h i s p e r s o n a l concerns. Although not a l l of h i s " d e d i c a t i o n " poems d i v i d e so n e a t l y , they a l l , with the ex c e p t i o n of those mentioned above, c o n t a i n these same two elements to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r extent. A l l open with a d e s c r i p t i o n of n a t u r a l scen-ery. The images i n t h i s scenery g e n e r a l l y s u g g e s t ; t h r o u g h a l l e g -ory or d i r e c t e v o c a t i o n , the mood i n which Chih i s w r i t i n g the poem. Often t h i s mood i s r e l a t e d to some aspect of h i s f e e l i n g s toward the r e c i p i e n t of the poem. This approach was q u i t e n o v e l . His contemporaries v i r t u a l l y a l l s t i l l h e l d to l e s s s o p h i s t i c a -ted s t y l e s , such as d i r e c t l y d e s c r i b i n g the r e c i p i e n t ' s v i r t u e s or a t t e s t i n g t h e i r love and r e s p e c t f o r that person. Even i n a complex pi e c e such as L i u Chen's "Por Hsu /Kan" i t i s the poet's sorrow at having to be pa r t e d from h i s dear f r i e n d t h at i s the I l l predominant f e e l i n g i n the p i e c e . By spontaneously r e l a t i n g h i s own f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than t r y i n g to evoke c o n v e n t i o n a l f e e l i n g s of admiration or a f f e c t i o n , or give a f l a t t e r i n g account of the r e c i p i e n t ' s m e rits and a b i l i t i e s , Chih added a very p e r s o n a l touch to these poems. We are given the impression that he was w r i t i n g with g r e a t e s t s i n c e r i t y and with a great d e a l of under-standing of the f e e l i n g s of the other person. This impression i s deepened when we note that the other unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Chih's " d e d i c a t i o n " poems was that he almost always addressed h i m s e l f to c e r t a i n concerns h e l d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the r e c i p i e n t . For example, we have j u s t seen how he urges a somewhat r e l u c -tant Wang Ts'an to leave aside h i s a n x i e t i e s and have f a i t h i n the l e a d e r s h i p of Ts'ao Ts'ao. In h i s poem to T i n g Y i he t r i e s to emphasize that he i s a broad-minded and p r i n c i p l e d man and that Y i should t r u s t i n h i s f r i e n d s h i p . Hsu Kan i s urged to come out of r e t i r e m e n t and take a more a c t i v e part-'''iii. p o l i t i c s . In t h i s way, Chih not only made h i s d e d i c a t i o n poems more person-a l and s p e c i f i c , he a l s o expanded the range of themes that c o u l d be d e a l t with i n such poems. No longer were " d e d i c a t i o n " poems concerned only with the sorrows of p a r t i n g or mutual a d m i r a t i o n , they c o u l d be very f l e x i b l e and spontaneous means of communica-t i o n . A poem that Chih wrote f o r Ying Ch'ang; the f i r s t of the "Sending o f f Master Ying" poems, i s a r a t h e r sublime example of that k i n d of communication. This poem does not f o l l o w the p a t t e r n of most of Chih's " d e d i c a t i o n " poems as i n i t he does not o f f e r any p a r t i c u l a r advice or c o n s o l a t i o n to Ying Ch'ang. On the s u r f a c e i t would seem that Chih had not made an attempt to r e l a t e the poem to Ying Ch'ang at a l l . We must c o n s i d e r , howei> ever, that the s i g h t t h a t Chih was viewing, Loy.ang, was not h i s home but Ch'ang's. Chih had c o n c e i v a b l y never seen Loyang i n i t s prime. Ch'ang on the other hand had served at the i m p e r i a l court there and would have been very f a m i l i a r with i t s former g l o r i e s . In that sense we can see that through h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the r u i n s of Loyang Chih was not only g i v i n g Ch'ang a r e p o r t on the s t a t e i n t o which h i s former home had f a l l e n , he was put-t i n g h i m s e l f i n Ch'ang's place and f e e l i n g the deep sadness that Ch'ang h i m s e l f would c e r t a i n l y have f e l t had he been there with him. The manner i n which Chih was able to i d e n t i f y i n h i s own emotions, the emotions of others and f u r t h e r , to d e s c r i b e these emotions with great f e l i c i t y , i s the mark of a t r u l y per-c e p t i v e and accomplished poet. "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Pi a o " i s perhaps Chih's best known work. I t i s w e l l known p a r t l y because I t i s of such great s i g -n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the h i s t o r i c a l legends surrounding Chih's l i f e . In t h i s poem,or poem s e r i e s , Chih g i v e s very strong e x p r e s s i o n to h i s f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n g i v e n r i s e to by the treatment he had r e c e i v e d at the hands of h i s b r o t h e r Ts'ao P ' i and c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s at the Wei c o u r t . Many have h e l d t h i s poem up as proof that Chih was i n f a c t a v i r t u o u s and h i g h l y p r i n c i p l e d man who had been b u l l i e d m e r c i l e s s l y by h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r P ' i and h i s e v i l c o h o r t s . More important to our purposes here, t h i s poem s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t s a major development i n p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . We have had o c c a s i o n to examine some of the more t e c h n i c a l aspects of t h i s poem. For now i t i s neces-sary only to look at i t from the p e r s p e c t i v e of i t s being a " d e d i c a t i o n " poem. I have used the word poem i n the s i n g u l a r because, alfe/.o though i t i s most o f t e n t r e a t e d as a s e r i e s of poems, i t cou l d j u s t "as e a s i l y be t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e poem which has seven strophes. Taken as a s i n g l e poem, i t demonstrates a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r to that of the other d e d i c a t i o n poems. The p r e f a c e , which may or may not be a u t h e n t i c , o u t l i n e s the background to the. poem. Chih s t a t e s that i t was h i s i n d i g n a t i o n at being f o r c e d to abandon plans to t r a v e l back to h i s f i e f with h i s h a l f brother Ts'ao Piao that l e d him to w r i t e the poem. Piao a l s o must have f e l t a very s i m i l a r i n d i g n a t i o n , but not being a poet, was unable to give vent to I t i n w r i t i n g . Thus the poem l i k e l y served as a r e c o r d of the a f f a i r and of i t s emotional s i g n i f i -cance to both men. The f i r s t two strophes make no r e f e r e n c e to Piao* at a l l . Chih gives r e i g n to h i s emotions through a d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the scenery through which he passed on the f i r s t p art of h i s journey away from the c a p i t a l . As i n so much of h i s best work, Chih employs a combination of d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n , metaphor, i n the form of n a t u r a l imagery, and s u b t l e a l l u s i o n , to give sharp expre s s i o n to h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . In the t h i r d and f o u r t h strophes, Chih turns h i s a t t e n t i o n to the f e e l i n g s which e x i s t between h i m s e l f and Piao. In the t h i r d strophe he i s esp-e c i a l l y h o s t i l e toward those who have d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r c e d him and h i s bro t h e r to become estranged. He c a l l s them wolves, sc r e e c h i n g owls and b l u e - f l i e s . In the f o u r t h strophe he r e l i e s more-heavily * on metaphor drawn from n a t u r a l imagery to express the d e s o l a t i o n and deep l o n e l i n e s s which both he and h i s br o t h e r 114 must have f e l t . The f i f t h strophe deals with the death of Ts'ao Chang. Both Chih and Piao s u r e l y f e l t deeply b e r e f t by h i s sud-den p a s s i n g . Chih p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y notes that though they are s t i l l among the l i v i n g , there i s no c e r t a i n t y that t h e i r l i v e s a l s o might not be s n u f f e d out j u s t as suddenly as Chang's. In the l a s t two strophes Chih addresses Piao d i r e c t l y and speaks of hi s d e p r e s s i o n and b i t t e r n e s s i n regard to the I n d i g n i t i e s they have been f o r c e d to bear. He consoles Piao f i r s t l y with the thought that I t i s n ' t always e s s e n t i a l f o r two men to be p h y s i -c a l l y c l o s e to each .other • i n order f o r them to f e e l the comfort of t h e i r mutual love and c a r i n g . Then he i m p l i e s t h a t , although there i s no hope of g a i n i n g immortal l i f e , they should s t i l l have hope that some day they may s t i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y to be r e -u n i t e d and to spend t h e i r o l d age together. Reading t h i s poem i t i s very d i f f i c u l t not to be moved by the tremendously deep poignancy of Chih's e x p r e s s i o n . Not only had he been f o r c e d i n t o e x i l e by h i s j e a l o u s and ins e c u r e e l d e r b r o t h e r , he was not even allowed the comfort and c o n s o l a -t i o n which the companionship of h i s b r o t h e r Piao would have meant to him. But Chih d i d n ' t w r i t e the poem simply as a v e h i -c l e f o r expounding h i s own misery and complaint. He hoped that through h i s poetry Piao a l s o c o u l d f i n d a k i n d of emotional out-l e t . By g i v i n g so d i r e c t and powerful e x p r e s s i o n to h i s f e e l -ings and then d e d i c a t i n g the pie c e to Piao, Chih was saying that the poem d i d not belong to him p e r s o n a l l y , but was a product of t h e i r mutual experience. In a sense i t was Piao's poem as much as i t was Chih's. It was through the achievement of t h i s k i n d of i n t e n s e l y ' p e r s o n a l communication that Chih was able to e l e v a t e h i s "ded-ication"'..;poems to heights never before reached. I t i s o f t e n s a i d that i n Chinese poetry, the e x p r e s s i o n of f r i e n d s h i p be-tween men was of the same importance as the e x p r e s s i o n of sexual love i n Western poetry. To whatever extent t h i s i s t r u e , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see that Ts'ao Chih made a very s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n In r a i s i n g i t to that l e v e l of importance. G. Social and P o l i t i c a l Concern Although attempts to i n c o r p o r a t e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l content i n t o a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t e n r e s u l t i n the debasement of the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the a r t , such content can a l s o be a v i t a l i z i n g f o r c e i f p r o p e r l y handled. Ts'ao Chih was very much concerned with the p o l i t i c s and s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n of h i s country. As a member of the r u l i n g f a m i l y he had every reason to be. His concern c o n s t a n t l y f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s poetry and prose. In some of h i s poems, p a r t i c u l a r l y those w r i t t e n as memorials to the throne d u r i n g Ts'ao P ' i ' s r e i g n , the p o l i t i c a l content i s r a t h e r too heavy and the q u a l i t y o f the poetry s u f f e r s as a r e s u l t . In a number of other cases however, Chih was able to blend h i s p o l i t i c a l concerns more s u b t l y i n t o ^ t h e f a b r i c of the poem, such that the e s s e n t i a l l y a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r of the work i s preserved. The l a s t two poems In the "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems" set are good examples of t h i s s t y l e of poem. In the f i f t h poem s e v e r a l t r a c e s of a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l events can be found. Chih was o b v i o u s l y w r i t i n g with r e f e r e n c e to the s t a t e of Wu which dur i n g h i s l i f e t i m e w a s t c o n s t a n t l y In-volved In c o n f l i c t with the s t a t e of Wei. The r u l e r s of Wei from Ts'ao Ts'ao onwards were anxious to conquer Wu-, as w e l l as 116 Shu-Han i n the south-west, and to r e u n i f y the empire under t h e i r r u l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they were-'never s u c c e s s f u l . Chih n a t u r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the causes taken up by the c o u r t . Thus he wished to take part i n the m i l i t a r y campaigns a g a i n s t Wu. However, a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s death and the s u c c e s s i o n of h i s b r o t h e r P ' i to the throne,IChih was e s s e n t i a l l y banished from a l l important a f f a i r s of s t a t e . This poem i s c l e a r l y an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s d e s i r e to r e g a i n h i s b r o t h e r ' s t r u s t and to be allowed to a i d i n the wars aga i n s t Wu. L i k e the f o u r t h poem i n t h i s s e t , t h i s p i e c e owes a c e r t a i n amount of i n s p i r a t i o n and imagery to v a r i o u s works contained i n the Ch'u Tz'u. In L i Shan's commentary he quotes f i v e passages from the Ch'u Tz'u and one passage from an h i s t o r -i c a l source d e a l i n g with the King of Ch'u. On c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n , these passages seem to have a r a t h e r c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the content of Chih's poem. The p o l i t i c a l message which i s conveyed through t h i s poem i s f a i r l y s t r o n g. In a sense one could i n t e r p r e t the work as simply a v e h i c l e f o r t h i s message. However, the f i n e s s e with which Chih has i n c o r p o r a t e d the p o l i t i c a l comment i n t o the frame-work of the poem's imagery has saved i t from being merely an ex-e r c i s e i n r h e t o r i c and allows the p i e c e to stand on i t s own as pure poetry. The i n c l u s i o n of p h r a s i n g and a l l u s i o n s - r e l a t e d to the Ch'u Tz'u lends a s l i g h t l y e x o t i c and perhaps s c h o l a s t i c f e e l i n g to the work. Through them Chih i n d i c a t e s that h i s f e e l -ings of f r u s t r a t i o n are s i m i l a r to those a s s o c i a t e d with the legendary Ch'u Yuan. He has managed to avoi d u s i n g these phrases and a l l u s i o n s b l a t a n t l y and thus maintains a f r e s h , u n c o n t r i v e d tone throughout the poem. 117 .'.•^ 1 The l a s t poem i n the set i s even more laden with p o l i t i -c a l comment than the previous one. Chih climbs a look-out tower. The view of the open p l a i n s i n s p i r e s him to f e e l a c e r t a i n ex-pansiveness and then to sense a l o n e l y f r u s t r a t i o n which has r e -s u l t e d from h i s not being able to take a more a c t i v e r o l e i n government and e s p e c i a l l y i n m i l i t a r y matters. S e v e r a l t h e o r i e s have been put forward concerning the d a t i n g of t h i s poem. None are very c o n c l u s i v e . Whatever the c h r o n o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n may have been, the f e e l i n g s of p a t r i o t -ism and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e are expressed i n very d i r e c t terms. There seermtoobe some s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n t h i s p i e c e . The t r a n s i t i o n between the f i r s t two c o u p l e t s and the middle three i s q u i t e abrupt. T h i s abruptness i s somewhat understand-able however, when we co n s i d e r that the f i r s t c o u p l e t s are e v i -dence of hsing as d e s c r i b e d above. From the dramatic view a f -forded from the tower , Chih has been s t i m u l a t e d to f e e l c e r t a i n emotions r e l a t e d to the m i l i t a r y s t r u g g l e s of h i s country. The l a s t couplet appears to have been added as a k i n d of tag or r e -f r a i n , such as might be found i n a yueh-fu poem. I t doesn't flow smoothly from what precedes. Despite t h i s , the poem has a very l y r i c a l q u a l i t y about i t which balances the p o l i t i c a l message. "The Famous C a p i t a l " i s c l a s s i f i e d as a yueh-fu. This i s perhaps more because of i t s n a r r a t i v e q u a l i t y more than any other f a c t o r . Formally speaking i t s r e g u l a r pentametric l i n e s are j u s t as much l i k e shih poetry as yueh-fu. Here Chih has indu l g e d i n some s u b t l e s o c i a l commentary. The young a r i s t o c r a t s d e s c r i b e d i n the pie c e l e a d a l i f e of ease and l u x u r y . They spend t h e i r days engaging i n sports and l a v i s h f e a s t s . Chih d e s c r i b e s In e l a b o r a t e d e t a i l h o w s k i l l f u l t h e y o u n g m e n a r e a t t h e m a r t i a l a r t s a n d h o w a g i l e t h e y a r e i n p l a y i n g v a r i o u s l e i s u r e s p o r t s . H e n e v e r a c t u a l l y m a k e s a n y d i r e c t l y c r i t i c a l s t a t e m e n t i n r e -g a r d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e p e o p l e a n d o n e m i g h t b e l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p i e c e w a s s t r i c t l y a n e x e r c i s e i n f i n e p h r a s -i n g . T w o f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . T h e f i r s t f a c t o r i s t h e i r o n i c q u a l i t y o f t h e l a s t c o u p l e t o f t h e p o e m . A s w e r e a d C h i h ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t s o f o n e d a y i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e s e y o u t h s w e a r e i m p r e s s e d b y t h e d i s p l a y o f m a r t i a l a n d e q u e s t r i a n s k i l l s a n d a t t h e a r r a y o f e x o t i c f o o d s a t t h e f e a s t . I t a l l s e e m s s o w o n d e r f u l l y e x c i t i n g . W e a r e q u i t e r e l i e v e d w h e n t h e e n d o f t h e d a y c o m e s a n d t h e p a r t i -c i p a n t s d i s p e r s e t o t h e i r o w n h o m e s . I n t h e l a s t l i n e w e r e a d t h a t w i t h t h e d a w n , t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s w i l l b e r e p e a t e d a l l o v e r a g a i n . T h i s h a s t h e : ; : s a m e e f f e c t o n u s a s t o o m u c h r i c h f o o d . W h a t s e e m e d e x c i t i n g a n d d e s i r a b l e t h e f i r s t t i m e t h r o u g h , s e e m s v u l g a r a n d p o i n t l e s s w h e n r e p e a t e d i n s u c h f a s t s u c c e s s i o n . T h e i d e a t h a t t h e y o u t h o f L o y a n g . c a r r y o n i n s u c h a p r o t r a c t e d f a s h i o n d a y a f t e r d a y , m a k e s u s a w a r e o f h o w u t t e r l y i d l e a n d u n p r o d u c t i v e s u c h a l i f e m u s t b e . W e f e e l a d e e p r e v u l s i o n t o -w a r d t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h e s e c o n d f a c t o r t h a t m a k e s u s a w a r e o f t h e e s s e n t i a l l y c r i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h i s p o e m c a n b e a p p r e c i a t e d w h e n o n e r e a d s a n o t h e r o f C h i h ' s yueh-fuj"The W h i t e H o r s e " . T h i s p i e c e i s c o n -r t a i n e d i n t h e s a m e c a t e g o r y o f t h e Y F S C a s i s " T h e F a m o u s C a p i -t a l " . I t h a s a s i m i l a r n u m b e r o f l i n e s ( 2 8 ) , a n d i s w r i t t e n i n a v e r y s i m i l a r s t y l e t o t h a t o f " T h e F a m o u s C a p i t a l " . I w o u l d e v e n v e n t u r e t o c l a i m t h a t t h e t w o p i e c e s w e r e w r i t t e n a s a k i n d 1 1 9 of s e t . Regardless of whether t h i s i s a l l true or not, there i s at l e a s t one p o i n t of very important correspondence. Both con-t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of a d i s p l a y of e q u e s t r i a n and m a r t i a l s k i l l s . In "The Famous C a p i t a l " we f i n d : As they g a l l o p e d along, not half-way there A p a i r of r a b b i t s c r o s s e d t h e i r path. Grasping h i s bow, one drew a s i n g i n g arrow And gave chase up South Mountain. Drawing back l e f t to shoot to the r i g h t His f i r s t arrow h i t both animals. And as there were s k i l l s he had not yet d i s p l a y e d He shot toward the sky and brought down a hawk. In "The White Horse" he w r i t e s : It has been a long time t h a t he has c a r r i e d a bow, His hemlock arrows a l l l i e i n neat a r r a y . Drawing the bowstring he h i t s the l e f t b u l l ' s - e y e ; To the r i g h t he s t r i k e s the jou-chih post. R a i s i n g h i s hand he snatches down a f l y i n g monkey Then leans down, d r i v i n g h i s horse i n a g a l l o p . Both men demonstrate s i m i l a r s k i l l s at r i d i n g and a r c h e r y . The c r u c i a l p o i n t i s that the one employs these s k i l l s s o l e l y f o r h i s own amusement, while the other has devoted h i s l i f e to the noble e n t e r p r i s e of defending h i s country a g a i n s t the i n c u r s i o n s of the nomadic t r i b e s from the n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r s . When we con-s i d e r t h i s c o n t r a s t , we are given an even sharper p e r c e p t i o n of the i d l e n e s s and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the young men d e s c r i b e d i n "The Famous C a p i t a l " . They are s t r o n g , able-bodied and have the r e q u i r e d s k i l l s f o r warfare at t h e i r command. However, r a t h e r than o f f e r t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the s t a t e , they choose to while away t h e i r time i n extravagant, yet f r u i t l e s s pastimes. Chih i s very s u b t l e In h i s commentary on t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Yet a f t e r r e a d i n g both poems, there can be no doubt that he was d i s g u s t e d with the i d l e , uncommitted young people at the c a p i t a l , (one of whose number he might have once been counted), and ad-mires those who wage the wars along the f r o n t i e r . I t i s perhaps the s u b t l e t y of h i s manner that makes the message come through with such genuine f o r c e . We are r e q u i r e d to put some of the p i e c e s together and thus the r e a l i z a t i o n we come to i s much more immediate and meaningful. H. Formal Refinements One of the most t a n g i b l e achievements of the Chien An and Wei poets was the establishment of pentameter as the most important verse form. Ts'ao Chih made a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u -t i o n i n t h i s r e g ard. Although he wrote both tetrameter and i r r e g u l a r v e r s e , he used the former p r i m a r i l y f o r r a t h e r formal pieces addressed to the throne, such as "Rebuking Myself", "Responding to the Summons" and "The Great F e a s t " ^ ^ " f ^ p > the l a t t e r s t y l e was used e x c l u s i v e l y i n p i e c e s w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of f o l k yueh-fu s t y l e , such as "East of P'ing L i n g , "TorGreat Trouble i n the Coming Days" and "The C a s s i a Tree". In a l l , more than three q u a r t e r s of Chih's t o t a l extant poems are w r i t t e n i n pentameter. T h i s predominance i s e s p e c i a l l y noteworthy when d e a l i n g with yiieh-fu poems. As noted above, f i v e - c h a r a c t e r l i n e s were o f t e n found i n f o l k yiieh-fu, but o f t e n i n combination with l i n e s of other l e n g t h s . A l l of Chih's most important yiieh-fu a r e l w r i t t e n i n r e g u l a r pentameter. In that sense they are i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from shih poems. One wonders what r e l a t i o n such yiieh-fu would have had to music, such an important f a c t o r i n o r i g i n a l yueh-fu poems. Chih must s u r e l y have downplayed the f u n c t i o n of music and w r i t t e n h i s poems p r i m a r i l y to be spo--; 121 ken or chanted. T h i s tendency continued down i n t o the T'ang Dynasty. In h i s shih poems Chih c o n s t a n t l y borrows from the phras-ing and imagery of the "19 Old Poems". There Is l i t t l e doubt-that these works served as the models from which Chih worked while w r i t i n g pentametric verse. In our d i s c u s s i o n of the developments i n Chien An l i t -e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l , we made r e f e r e n c e to the f a c t t h at Chien An w r i t e r s spent a good d e a l of time and e f f o r t on the r e f i n i n g of t h e i r p o e t i c d i c t i o n . As i n so many cases Ts'ao Chih was the l e a d i n g proponent of t h i s concern. In f a c t , some have suggested that i t was Ts'ao Chih's success i n c r e a t i n g verse of a r e l a t i v e -l y p o l i s h e d nature that sparked the tendency i n Six Dynasties p o e t i c s toward a h i g h l y f l o r i d and c o n t r i v e d s t y l i s m . However j u s t or unjust these claims may be, i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r ue that Chih spent c o n s i d e r a b l y more time than e a r l i e r poets on the r e -f i n i n g and p o l i s h i n g of h i s poems. Oftenrithis p r o p e r t y of r e -finement i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to p e r c e i v e and d e f i n e . I t i s p o s s i b l e though, to give some examples of the more obvious kinds of refinement that Chih worked on. i . Overall Structure I t has a l r e a d y been noted that Chih was h i g h l y s k i l l e d at developing h i s imagery i n a l o g i c a l and p r o g r e s s i v e manner. The e f f e c t o f t h i s being to promote a more d i r e c t and f o r c e f u l i n -volvement of the reader i n the poem. This a b i l i t y to develop imagery was a l s o extended to the poem as a whole. E a r l i e r poets d i d not spend a great d e a l of time In the p l a n n i n g of t h e i r works. They tended to j o i n images and ideas together with l i t t l e r e g a r d 122 f o r matters of p r o g r e s s i o n and c o n t i n u i t y . The r e s u l t was o f t e n a f e e l i n g of d i s j o i n t e d n e s s which impeded the involvement i n , and i d e n t i t y with, the emotions expressed through the poem. In Ts'ao Chih's poetry, much progress was made toward the p l a n n i n g and i n -t e g r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l works. Chih p a i d a great d e a l of a t t e n -t i o n to the net e f f e c t of h i s poems. He attempted to s t r u c t u r e them i n such a manner as to l e a d the reader to the g r e a t e s t appre-c i a t i o n of the ideas and emotions contained i n h i s l i n e s . T h i s i s perhaps best I l l u s t r a t e d through concrete example. The f i r s t poem of "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems" has a l r e a d y been b r i e f l y mentioned i n r e l a t i o n to the use of the image of a woman estranged from her l o v e r as a symbol f o r an o f f i c i a l who i s not t r u s t e d or a p p r e c i a t e d by the r u l e r . I t i s a s k i l l f u l l y w r i t t e n p i e c e that develops a great d e a l of e v o c a t i v e power through. I t s s t r u c t u r e . The poem i s d i v i d e d i n t o two movements of s i x l i n e s each. The f i r s t movement n a r r a t e s the woman's s i t u a t i o n . We have d i s c u s s e d the f i r s t couplet at some l e n g t h p r e v i o u s l y . It very s u b t l y i n t r o d u c e s thestheme of the poem through the a l l u s i o n i n the second l i n e . The n a t u r a l imagery sets the mood of the poem as. being e s s e n t i a l l y somber. The second and t h i r d c o u p l e t s f i l l out the theme of the pie c e by d e s c r i b i n g the wo-man's s i t u a t i o n i n more e x p l i c i t terms. The second movement draws us d i r e c t l y to the centre of the woman's f e e l i n g s through a very i n t e n s e metaphor. The lone goose i s a very common symbol o f ^ l o n e l i n e s s or s e p a r a t i o n from lo v e d ones. I t probably o r i g i n -ates i n the Minor Odes of the Shih Ching where we f i n d a p i e c e e n t i t l e d Hung Yen J^ln which the p l i g h t of those who l o s e t h e i r spouses to war i s r e f e r r e d t o . Chih i s almost c e r t a i n l y a l l u d i n g to th a t p i e c e here.- In Chih's hands the image of the goose takes on a sublime q u a l i t y . The goose i s f l y i n g southward, a s i g n of autumn which i s i n t u r n suggestive of the coldness and sorrow of l o n e l i n e s s . Wheniit c r i e s out above the woman's cou r t y a r d , she looks skyward and immediately the image of the goose and the remembered image of the man estranged from her are g e n t l y i n t e r t w i n e d . The poem might have ended on the ten t h l i n e with the woman wishing to communicate with her l o v e r through the c a l l s of the goose. A m i l d climax i s reached at that p o i n t . Chih, however, employs great f i n e s s e i n b r i n g i n g the piece to a f a r more moving c l o s e . In the penultimate l i n e the images of the goose and the l o v e r are momentarily confused. We are not sure i f the "form" i s that of the goose or that of the l o v e r . This ambiguity creates a f e e l i n g of deep poignancy. In the l a s t l i n e , we are re t u r n e d a b r u p t l y and a n t i - c l i m a c t i c l y to the r e a l -i t y of the woman's s i t u a t i o n . She remains alone In her c o u r t -yard while the goose has flown s w i f t l y from s i g h t . With t h i s , her l o n e l i n e s s and f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s are brought home with great f o r c e . Because of the deftness with which we are l e d to t h i s a n t i - c l i m a x , t h i s i s p o s s i b l y one of Chih's most moving poems. Another poem that we have d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to the use of a woman's persona as an a l l e g o r i c a l device i s "Seven Sorrows". This poem i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o two movements. I t begins with the image of the moon s h i n i n g on a tower. As noted above, t h i s image i n t r o d u c e s the theme and ."provides a metaphor f o r the f e e l i n g s of the woman. The next three c o u p l e t s n a r r a t e the s i t u a t i o n of the woman. In the f i f t h c o u p l e t , which begins 124 the second movement of the poem, Chih i n t r o d u c e s a metaphor f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the man and the woman. With the s i x t h c o u p l e t , the poem seems to have come to an end. i f i t were not f o r the minor c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b a l a n c i n g the l e n g t h of the sec-ond movement with the f i r s t , the somewhat r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n i n the s i x t h couplet would be a very l o g i c a l and u s u a l p l a c e f o r the piece to f i n i s h . But Chih has not exhausted the emotional p o t e n t i a l of the s i t u a t i o n . He adds another metaphor; that of the wind blowing across the d i s t a n c e . Through i t he expresses the woman's strong d e s i r e to f i n d her husband once again. In the l a s t c ouplet however, the p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s of wanting to seek out her husband are brought down by the p e r s i s t e n t uncer-t a i n t y t h at e x i s t s when people become separated. Even i f she were to f i n d him, how could she be sure that'-he would still.'ho Id any love f o r her? The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s element of uncer-t a i n t y b r i n g s a great deal of depth and r e a l i t y to the s i t u a -t i o n . The poem i s no longer a c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c e x e r c i s e , i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n of powerful and r e a l i s t i c emotion. I t i s l a r g e l y the manner In which Chih has s t r u c t u r e d the p i e c e , and e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t movement, that allows us to f e e l that emo-t i o n . i i . Imagery: Nature as Metaphor One of the most e a s i l y p e r c e i v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Ts'ao Chih's p o e t i c a r t i s h i s use of n a t u r a l imagery. The extensive use of n a t u r a l imagery was not uncommon i n e a r l y C h i -nese l i t e r a t u r e . The Ch'u Tz'u was f u l l of such imagery as were many fu w r i t t e n d u r i n g the Han Dynasty. There are two t h i n g s that set the work of Ts'ao Chih apart from e a r l i e r poets 1 2 5 In r e g a rd to the use of n a t u r a l imagery. F i r s t l y , he was one of the f i r s t to make ext e n s i v e use of landscape imagery i n poetry. The Ch'u Tz'u and the Han fu d i d co n t a i n landscape d e s c r i p t i o n to a' c e r t a i n extent,.but they.were n a t u r a l l y not w r i t t e n i n the same form as shih poetry. E a r l i e r poets had ap p a r e n t l y not gen-e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d landscape d e s c r i p t i o n and the heavy use of n a t u r a l images with s t r i c t l y p o e t i c forms. They had f o l l o w e d more i n the t r a d i t i o n of the Shih Ching which used such imagery i n a very l i m i t e d manner. As we can see from p i e c e s l i k e the f i r s t poem of "Sending o f f Master Ying", "Alas'." and "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Piao", Chih made a good d e a l of p r o g r e s s ? i n g r a f t i n g the d e s c r i p t i v e manner of fu and the Ch'u Tz'u i n t o the framework of shih p o e t r y . Secondly, Chih was p a r t i c u l a r l y adept at u s i n g n a t u r a l imagery as metaphor. He seldom uses imagery s t r i c t l y f o r orna-mentation. As we have seen i n the case of such poems as "A Feast " , "For Hsli .K'an" and numerous other p i e c e s , Chih was very s k i l f u l both i n e x p r e s s i n g emotion or i d e a by u s i n g n a t u r a l images as a l l e g o r y or metaphor, and i n u s i n g such imagery to creat e a mood or atmosphere w i t h i n a poem. In t h i s r e s p e c t he was a poet of c o n s i d e r a b l y more s k i l l and depth than v i r t u a l l y a l l of h i s contemporaries, i i i . PavalleI ism One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ku-shih, the form i n which Chih wrote, was the absence of ex t e n s i v e p a r a l l e l i s m or t o n a l a p p o s i t i o n . Ts'ao Chih was one of the f i r s t w r i t e r s to employ these devices i n h i s poems. P a r a l l e l i s m was not by any means a new concept i n Chinese l i t e r a t u r e . I t had been used q u i t e 1 2 6 e x t e n s i v e l y i n fu and prose compositions i n the Han Dynasty and e a r l i e r . I t a l s o occurred, although i n f r e q u e n t l y , i n the Ch'u Tz'u. I t s use i n poetry was r a t h e r slow i n developing. This i s most l i k e l y due to the f a c t that the t r a d i t i o n a l i s m of Chinese w r i t e r s l e d them to look p r i m a r i l y to the Shih Ching f o r .ideas concerning p o e t i c form. In the Shih Ching, d e s p i t e the tremen-dous p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r a l l e l i s m i n i t s t e t r a m e f r i c form, s t r i c t l y p a r a l l e l c ouplets are very seldom found. As a r e s u l t , poets tend-ed to avoid the i d e a of p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e i r p o e t r y , even though they might have employed i t q u i t e l i b e r a l l y i n t h e i r prose and fu. Yueh-fu poems were not g e n e r a l l y h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by s c h o l a s t i c t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and as we observed i n "Mulberry by the Path", they could be laden w i t h rudimentary p a r a l l e l i s m . Per-haps due to i n s p i r a t i o n from such yueh-fu , Chien An w r i t e r s , l e d by Chih, began to i n c o r p o r a t e p a r a l l e l i s m i n t o t h e i r v e r s e . I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to f i n d examples of t h i s i n Chih's poetry. P a r a l l e l i s m of v a r y i n g degree i s evident i n "A Fea s t " . In the t h i r d couplet there i s a rough p a r a l l e l between "B r i g h t moon" flj^J JtJ and "the c o n s t e l l a t i o n s " ^ ij ^  . The s t r u c t u r e of both l i n e s i s s u b j e c t - m o d i f i e r , which gives a f e e l i n g of p a r a l l e l . The s i x t h couplet a l s o contains a s i m i l a r type of correspondence. In the f o u r t h and f i f t h c o u p l e t s however, the p a r a l l e l i s m i s very w e l l developed. The o p p o s i t i o n i s not only on the l e v e l of grammatical f u n c t i o n , i . e . s u b j e c t - v e r b - o b j e c t , i t extends to a s i m i l a r i t y between the su b j e c t s and between the o b j e c t s : autumn o r c h i d s - crimson f l o w e r s , or, m o d i f i e r - f l o w e r ; hidden f i s h - b e a u t i f u l b i r d s , or, m o d i f i e r - a n i m a l s ; long slopes -127 green ponds, or, m o d i f i e r - landscape o b j e c t ; c l e a r waves - h i g h -est boughs, or m o d i f i e r - landscape o b j e c t . In the f o u r t h coup-l e t there i s an ambiguous r e l a t i o n s h i p between the verbs. Both, i n one way or a n o t h e r , r e l a t e to the idea of wearing c l o t h i n g . In the case of p e i the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i r e c t , i n the case of mao ^ the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s through i t s phonetic and graphic resem-7 0 blance to the word mao , "a hat". T h i s i s a very advanced form of p a r a l l e l i s m . P a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s most e a s i l y employed i n des-c r i p t i v e passages. Because of the d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r of many "wandering immortals" poems, we f i n d some of the h e a v i e s t usage of p a r a l l e l i s m i n these works. In " T r a v e l l i n g as an Immortal" f o r example, the l a s t f o u r l i n e s a l l have a very s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , which c o u l d roughly be d e s c r i b e d as " d i r e c t i o n - v e r b - p l a c e " , or D-V-P-P-P. Only the l a s t l i n e d e v i a t e s s l i g h t l y . I t has two verbs i n s u c c e s s i o n : D-V-V-P-P. In " T r a v e l l i n g the F i f t h Realm", there are examples of p a r a l l e l i s m used i n v a r i o u s types of sentence p a t t e r n . In the t h i r d couplet we f i n d : "I w i l l open my cinnabar-mist cloak and u n r a v e l my s i l k rainbow s k i r t . " In the Chinese these l i n e s have a very c l o s e correspondence. The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s a verb p e r t a i n i n g to the use of c l o t h i n g , p ' i ^ ^ , "to open" and hsi^"to t u r n the sleeves down". The sec-ond c h a r a c t e r i s wo^, "T." or "my" i n both cases. The t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s a c o l o u r word which a l s o r e f e r s to a material,- tan "red" or "cinnabar", s u ^ , "white" or " p l a i n s i l k " . The f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s a noun r e f e r r i n g to an atmospheric c o n d i t i o n , ni ^"rainbow", hsia ^ " m i s t " . The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i s a noun r e -f e r r i n g to a type of c l o t h i n g . Yi ^  "gown" and shang1^" a lower 128 garment". The nature of the p a r a l l e l i n g i n t h i s couplet i s very complex, yet Chih c a r r i e s i t o f f very a r t f u l l y and without o s t e n -t a t i o n . Couplets s i x to eleven a l l possess p a r a l l e l i s m to some degree. In c e r t a i n cases the o p p o s i t i o n i s very obvious and c l o s e , as i n couplets 7, 8 and 11. In other cases the p a r a l l e l i s q u i t e l o o s e , as i n c o u p l e t s 6, 9 and 10. P a r a l l e l i s m can be found i n a great many of Chih's poems. In some poems he appears to avoid t h i s device as a means of c r e -a t i n g a f e e l i n g of r u s t i c asymmetry i n h i s work. This i s par-t i c u l a r l y t r ue of p i e c e s that were w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of e a r l i -er ku-shih,:^sxich as the "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems". At the same time, Chih was aware that p a r a l l e l i s m c o u l d be a very e f f e c t i v e technique, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e s c r i p t i v e . p a s sages. The e f f e c t o f the use of p a r a l l e l i s m i s to give the apiece a slower and more ornate movement. Rather than being rushed along by p r o s a i c , n a r r a t i v e d i c t i o n , we are drawn back and allowed to become more i n v o l v e d i n the imagery. The poem.becomes an atmosphere i n which we may move and breathe, not simply a s t o r y t h at i s r e -counted f o r us. The success which Ts'ao Chih had i n h i s use of t h i s device was undoubtedly a major f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t s great importance i n the work of l a t e r poets, i v . Word Selection A good w r i t e r i s one who has developed c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n the use of the language of h i s time. A great w r i t e r i s one who not only can use language s k i l f u l l y , but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the e v o l u t i o n of new and more e x p r e s s i v e means of u s i n g that language. T h i s i s as true of James Joyce or e.e. cummings as i t i s of Ts'ao Chih. None of these men were content to l i m i t t h e i r 129 e x p r e s s i o n to the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y accepted manner of t h e i r time. They strove to f i n d i m a g i n a t i v e and s t r i k i n g ways i n which to convey t h e i r f e e l i n g s and thoughts. We touched upon c e r t a i n ways i n which Ts'ao Chih was able to accomplish t h i s end when we examined h i s use of such devices as a l l e g o r y and metaphor. His developmental work was a l s o evident i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n s that he made to c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n found i n yueh-fu poems. Here I would l i k e to look at the manner i n which he was able to c r e a t e very i n t e r e s t i n g e f f e c t s by f i n d i n g new uses f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l words. The f i r s t example of t h i s we f i n d i n the couplet from "A F e a s t " j u s t p r e v i o u s l y examined i n r e f e r e n c e to the use of p a r a l l e l i s m . The word mao^ has. a derived meaning of "to i s s u e f o r t h " . T h i s f i t s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y i n t o the context of l i n e 8. Yet, because i t Is used In p a r a l l e l with the verb pei ^ t . which means "to wear" as w e l l as "to cover", we cannot ?; ? avoid a s s o c i a t i n g i t with the word mao^ f^j "a hat" which i s a homophone and a l s o i s g r a p h i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . The ambiguity l a t e n t i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n would give the l i n e a meaning of something l i k e : "The crimson blossoms "hat" the green p o o l " . This Is a unique and suggestive image. In "Serving the Crown P r i n c e " we f i n d two of the numer-ous examples of Chih's v e r b a l use of words g e n e r a l l y used as nouns or m o d i f i e r s . In the f i r s t l i n e the word yccoS^ i s most commonly used as a m o d i f i e r meaning " b r i g h t " or " d a z z l i n g " . As a verb i t must mean something l i k e "to b r i g h t e n " or "to d a z z l e " . In the second l i n e the word ahing which u s u a l l y r e f e r s to the s t a t e of s t i l l n e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e when Chih uses 130 It as a verb, meaning "to s t i l l " . The f i r s t l i n e of "Por Hsu Kan" has a very modern sound when t r a n s l a t e d into E n g l i s h as "A s t a r t l e d wind b u f f e t s the white sun...". The reason being that the word " s t a r t l e d " i s so s u g g e s t i v e . In the Chinese o r -i g i n a l however, i t i s the word p'ido t r a n s l a t e d as "buf-f e t s " that,, s t r i k e s one as being most c u r i o u s and e f f e c t i v e . P'iao u s u a l l y i s an i n t r a n s i t i v e verb meaning "to f l o a t " , or a m o d i f i e r meaning " f l o a t i n g " . In t h i s usage i t must be a t r a n s -i t i v e verb. The i d e a of the wind " f l o a t i n g " the sun i s very i n t e r e s t i n g , though d i f f i c u l t to convey i n t r a n s l a t i o n . The same word i s used again i n a s i m i l a r manner i n "For Ting Y i " i n the l i n e "And a c l e a r wind b u f f e t s the winged p a v i l i o n . " . In the preceding l i n e of that poem, Chih has used the word yi. /\%L "to r e l y on" or "to l e a n on" to d e s c r i b e the way In which the f r o s t has formed on the s t a i r c a s e s . One c o u l d go on o u t l i n i n g t h i s k i n d of unique word usage, but these examples should serve as adequate evidence of Ts'ao Chih's accomplishment i n t h i s r e g ard. Very few poets have the s k i l l or i m a g i n a t i o n to extend and modify the meaning of words i n t h i s manner. There i s l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s a b i l i t y was a very important m a n i f e s t a t i o n of Ts'ao Chih's p o e t i c genius. 1 3 1 Notes ^See Yoshikawa K o j i r o ' s p o s t f a c e to Ito Masafumi's :\ So Shoku ••• p. 2 1 7 2 Shih P'in, p. 7 2 . 3Wen-hsing Tiao-lung, 1 0 / 1 2 3 / 1 - 3 - Shih pp. 2 5 4 - 2 5 5 ^See Fang Tung-shu Chao mei chart yen \\# 5See L i Meng-yang, Ts'ao Tzu-chien pp. 1 1 - 2 6 ^  _ _ ™ T-, t .^i. f . .. ^ _ . . . - 1. r *• _ 7- -• m * -• J- _ t . . Hth & p. 70 See Chang P'u, Ch'en Ssu-wang ch'uan-chi, T:'i tz'u Y%.fc X ' i r ^ ^ifsl p . l . Po Ch'i >fa-§j" was the son. of a Chou k i n g . His own mother d i e d and h i s stepmother, slandered him i n order to have her own son, Po Feng ^{3 i?[ , e s t a b l i s h e d as crown p r i n c e . The k i n g b e l i e v e d her and e x i l e d Po C h ' i . "Treading F r o s t " was w r i t t e n out of h i s sorrow. Master T s ' u e i ' s mother a l s o d i e d e a r l y . His stepmother mocked him by c a l l i n g him by h i s own mother's name. He r e f u s e d to respond to i t . E v e n t u a l l y he t i e d a rock to h i s waist and jumped i n t o the r i v e r . "Master T s ' u e i Crosses the R i v e r " i s a song r e c o u n t i n g h i s m i s f o r t u n e . 7 F o r example Kuo Mo-jo i n "Lun Ts'ao Chih", Liao Chung-an i n "Kuan-yu Ts'ao Chih te chi-ke wen-t'i and Hans F r a n k e l i n "15 Poems by Ts'ao Chih: An Attempt at a New Approach". o Wallace Stevens,-"The Noble Rider and the Sound of Words", i n The Necessary Angel p. 2 7 . ^Shih Vin p. 7 2 . 1 0 See Suzuki S h u j i , Kan Qishi no Kenkyu fftfijV • 664 11Shih Ching 1 / 3 / 3 - Legge. p. 8. 1 2 i b i d . 5 4 / 2 1 9 - Legge p. 3 9 4 . 1 3 l b i d . 46 / 1 9 7 / 2 . Legge p. 3 3 7 -^Ch'u Tz'u pu-chu $j$ti%i£chuan 5 , SPPY ed. 1 5 i b i d . , 5/86 f . 1 6 . i b i d . , 2/41 -p . The l i n e reads : % ^ . 1 7 $fiL i b i d - , 15/147 1 8 The i d e a of r i d i n g behind dragons i s o f t e n found i n the Chiu ko. For example i n the l i n e ; ^ ^ g ^ ^ f ^ ^ j 2 / h < 2 • 1 3 2 The Idea of r i d i n g behind s i x dragons i s found i n Ts'ao Ts'ao's Ch'i ch'u ch'ang |^#o|jCSKS 5/7a, and Kuo P' u's Yu-hsien shih 19 For example, only seven of Ts'ao P'i's twenty-two extant yueh-fu are w r i t t e n i n pentameter. 2C]Sui-han'4-t''ang shih-hua %-^^° • 21 "• Chang Wen-chu, ^jg^j fyj^.^'sft in Eua Kuo • #3 . p. 8 5 . 2 2 J&\4L See Huang Chieh, Han Wei yueh-fu feng chien . }%^J^.t^j^xJ^. pp. 10 - 1 3 - From c e r t a i n terminology used i n the p i e c e i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine that i t was w r i t t e n i n the E a s t e r n Han p e r i o d . See Liang Han wen-hsvseh-shih ts'an-k'ao t z u - l i a o &)>%it?f JL^% f P{ P- 5 1 8 > N O T E # 1 3 -23 My t r a n s l a t i o n . 24 a l s o my t r a n s . . For a n n o t a t i o n see f u l l t r a n s l a t i o n appendixed. 2 5 See T s ' u e i Pao,. '.Ku-chin chu /s^ , quoted by Huang Chieh i n Yueh-fu feng ch ien . "7 / 2 6 'There i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n determining j u s t what t h i s l i n e means. 2 7 Some have even suggested that c e r t a i n ku-shih were i n f a c t yueh-fu. See Chu Chu-t'ang Otibfe quoted by Huang i n Yueh-fu feng chien, P> 3 5 . ? 8 See "The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y of Current English!! 5th e d i t i o n , p. 3 2 . 29 See note #2 i n a n n o t a t i o n ; 3°See WH 20/8b . - 10a. 3^See Ving chu chao ming wen hs'uan &f\~$L^zr 5 / 7 « 32 "Lotus Pond" i s a landscape poem. 3 3 ] 34 For example see "The Gre t F e a s t " jr\®~"*£? a n <3 the second poem of "Sending Off Master Ying". 0 *'J According to L i Shan. 35 , See f o r example Tu Fu's Ch'iao'Ling shih san-shih yan See Huang Chieh, Ts'ao Tzu-chien chi chu p. 1 6, and Yu Kuan-ying San Ts'ao shih hs'uan pp. 1 0 6 - 10 .7 . 3 7 S e e WH 48/3b. My t r a n s . 1 3 3 3 8WH 4 8 / 2 b . 3 9CHW 15/Ib/2Q8. ^°See Helmut Wilhelm, "The Scholar's F r u s t r a t i o n " i n Chin-ese Thought and I n s t i t u t i o n s , i Fairbank ed., p. 401. n. 46. 41 For our purposes, the d i s t i n c t i o n between s i m i l e and metaphor i s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t . A l l such comparisons w i l l be r e -f e r r e d to as "metaphor" r e g a r d l e s s of whether or not they i n v o l v e the use of such words as " l i k e " or "as" or the Chinese equiva-l e n t . 42 See Edgar A l l a n Poe, " E u l a l i e " , i n Edgar Allan Poe: Poems and Essays, J.M. Dent & Sons N.Y. 1 9 2 7 , 1 9 7 7 - p. 2 0 . 43 Arthur Waley, The Book of Songs, p. 1 3 . 44 As i n d i c a t e d i n the note #8 of the annotations to the t r a n s l a t i o n , " s p r i n g thoughts" i s an a l l u s i o n to thoughts of love between a man and w i f e . 45 See note #3 i n ann o t a t i o n . ^ 6See Juan Chi ^fu^jj , Yung huai shih '$7^>\%t~$%#1 • 47 'See Ch'en Shih-hsiang, "The Shih Ching; I t s Generic S i g n i f i c a n c e " i n B i r c h ed. Studies in Chinese Literary Genre, B e r k l e y , 1 9 7 4 , p. 2 1 . 4 8 Wen-hsin tiao-lung 9 8 / 8 / 2 - 3 , Shih p. 1 9 5 -49 Li Chi 3 7 / l b , There the phrase i s used with r e f e r e n c e to music: " A l l music i s borne out of men's h e a r t s . The movement; of men's he a r t s i s caused by ( e x t e r n a l ) o b b j e c t s . We" are a f f e c t e d by t h i n g s and are moved. This i s given form to i n sound." 50 For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s phenomenon see Hans F r a n k e l , "Contemplation of the Past i n T'ang Poetry", i n Perspectives on the T'ang, Wright and Twit c h e t t ed., Yale, 1 9 7 3 , PP • 3 4 5 - 3 6 5 -5 1 , 52 , "See Ku Chih ^ Jfi Ts 'ao Tzu-chien shih chien 2 / 2 a . .. . "For example the f i r s t of the "19 Old Poems", and Shih W l x i ts'un.g chun-cheng - j -5 3 S e e Chiang L i a n g - f u <fc Ch'u Yuan fu, chiao-chu ft VL H.K. 1 9 6 4 , 5 1 9 ' - 5 2 3 -54 55 ^See Ting Yen -T ^ , Ts'ao chi chluan p ' ing pp. 1 5 5 - 1 5 8 . J WH 2 1 / 1 5 b 134 "^Master Kuei-ku ^ ^ " ^ w a s a famous T a o i s t adept. There i s a l s o a book which c a r r i e s h i s name. "^Ying Yang ^ was a mountain i n Honan. 58 T h i s i s an a l l u s i o n to Hsu Yu who washed out h i s ears as a gesture i n d i c a t i n g to the Emperor Yao that he was not i n -t e r e s t e d i n r u l i n g the empire. "^Ch'ang Ho i s the name of a m y t h o l o g i c a l gate from whence the south wind blows f o r t h . I t i s a l s o the name of one of the gates of Heaven. ^°Fu P e l i s the legendary Goddess of the Lo Ri v e r about whom Chih h i m s e l f , as w e l l as numerous other poets, a l s o wrote. The a c t u a l term i n the poem i s Ling fei lfj!P-££J o r " s p i r i t concu-bine V. Chien Hsiu w a s t n e D i r e c t o r of Marriages i n Fu 61 Hsi's time 6 2 See Liang Ran...ts'an k'ao t z u - l i a o pp. 6 0 1 - 6 ( 3 6 . ^ 3 F o r example Wang Ts'an's three p i e c e s i n the WH ( 2 3 / l 6 b - 1 9 a ) , Ying H e n g ' s j ^ % "For the Four Wang's on t h e i r coming of age", | f tsP $ %L%ks (CHS 2 / 1 5 a-b) and Chu M u ' s ^ i J - "Breaking • Off R e l a t i o n s with L i u Poetsung, j^^i]^ ' ^ C H S 2/lla) See CHS 2 / l l b - 1 2 a . 65 An i n t e r e s t i n g e xception i s Chu Mu's "Breaking Off Re-l a t i o n s with L i u Po-tsung". This i s a r a t h e r v i o l e n t a l l e g o r i -c a l a t t a c k on L i u ' s honour and probably was a'model f o r Chi K'ang's "Breaking Off R e l a t i o n s with Shan Chu-yiian". 6 6 S e e CSKS 3 / 6 a . ^ 7The Nine Gates were the gates of the i m p e r i a l palace of m y t h o l o g i c a l times. 6 8 S e e CSKS 3 / 8 a . 6 9 S e e Shih Ching 4 0 / 1 8 1 / 1 , 2 , 3 . 70 ' This r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the s e c t i o n on word s e l e c t i o n . 135 CONCLUSION In a time when poets had j u s t begun to throw o f f the chains of Confucian pragmatism and move toward a g r e a t e r con-sciousness of l i t e r a t u r e as a p u r e l y e x p r e s s i v e medium, Ts'ao Chih stands out as the poet who was most able to give form to that new consciousness through h i s work. = He was a man of very deep and genuine sentiments and he d i d not s h r i n k from the ex-p r e s s i o n of h i s thoughts and emotions i n a l l t h e i r v a r i e g a t e d , and sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y , shadings. More important from an a r t i s t i c standpoint was the f a c t t h a t he was an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d t e c h n i c i a n . He was w e l l aware of the importance of f o r -mal refinement as a means of augmenting the o v e r a l l impact of h i s poems. This aspect of h i s work i s perhaps not immediately evident to the reader u n f a m i l i a r with pre-T'ang poetry. Chih's poems read r a t h e r p r o s a i c a l l y and are not p a r t i c u l a r l y ornate i n com-p a r i s o n with l a t e r works. In t h i s sense he i s perhaps best con-s i d e r e d part of the c l a s s i c a l or antique t r a d i t i o n , r a t h e r than the medieval. Yet when we compare h i s work to that or e a r l i e r poets i t becomes c l e a r that he was a f a r more complex and s e l f -conscious w r i t e r than any that had preceded him. He wrote i n most of the forms and s t y l e s popular i n h i s time and demonstrated a great deal of s k i l l i n a l l of them. Prom lengthy . r a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e s such as Pien tao lun ^^^"1^ to l y r i c a l poems l i k e "Seven Sorrows", or from r e l a t i v e l y ornate 136 fu such as Lo-shen fu J&'vf^'S&to simple d i t t i e s l i k e "East of P'ing L i n g " , i n a l l he manifested a high degree of a r t i s t i c m a t u r i t y . S i m i l a r l y , l i n h i s poems we f i n d expressions of many d i f f e r e n t moods. In "A F e a s t " he i s expansive and noble, i n "For P r i n c e Pai-ma, Piao" f r u s t r a t e d and d i s i l l u s i o n e d . In " A l a s ! " h i s f e e l i n g s s h i f t v i o l e n t l y from e c s t a s y to d e j e c t i o n , while i n "The B e a u t i f u l Maiden" h i s tone i s elegant and sub-dued . Wang Shih-mao , i n h i s summary of the most im-portant developments i n the h i s t o r y of Chinese p o e t i c s says: ("In the development of) antique poetry from the time of t the two Han Dynasties, Ts'ao Tzu-chien appeared and f o r the f i r s t time there was strong e x p r e s s i v e n e s s . He man-i f e s t e d many emotional a t t i t u d e s . 1 Aside from h i s t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , i t i s perhaps.the complexi-ty and v a r i e t y of Ts'ao Chih's work which most d i s t i n g u i s h e s him as a great poet. I t was the tumultuous and i n v o l v e d circum-stances of h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e and the world around him which were undoubtedly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s complexity. Chih had a great reservior of l i f e experience from which to draw the raw m a t e r i a l of h i s a r t . Through h i s n a t u r a l t a l e n t and broad c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g he forged that raw m a t e r i a l Into f i n e l y c r a f t e d and e x q u i s i t e l y moving forms. Perhaps i n the work of no other pre-T'ang w r i t e r , i n c l u d i n g T'ao Yuan-ming, do we f i n d the l e v e l of emotional complexity and t e c h n i c a l accomplishment t h a t we f i n d i n the work of Ts'ao Chih. His poetry i s an i n t i m a t e r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y as i t e x i s t e d i n China 1700 years ago and as I t i n some r e s p e c t s s t i l l e x i s t s today. This work has d e a l t with a l a r g e number of problems In a 1 3 7 r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l manner. There are many more problems concern-i n g the l i f e , thought and work of Ts'ao Chih that deserve more d e t a i l e d and e x t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n than they have thus f a r r e -c e i v e d i n any language. I hope that those who read t h i s t h e s i s may be encouraged to begin a study of some of these problems. I f my own experience i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s work i s any i n d i c a t i o n , such study w i l l not go unrewarded. Note See Wang Shih-mao £ & ,u£ Yi-p'u hsieh yu Ssu-k'u ch'uan-shu, chen-pen, san chi fflflfy.&j^-'Sfi'fcz.jL e d i t i o n , volume 1 5 2 3 , Commercial Press, T a i p e i , p. 2a. 138 TRANSLATIONS OP TS'AO CHIH'S POEMS WITH ANNOTATIONS 139 I. A Feast1 2 3 The young noble loves and honours h i s guests, ' 4 • T i l the end of the f e a s t he knows no f a t i g u e . In the c l e a r n i g h t t h e y , a l l roam the Western Park While f l y i n g c a r r i a g e - t o p s chase to and f r o . " The b r i g h t moon c a s t s down i t s c l e a r glow, The c o n s t e l l a t i o n s are a l l strewn about the sky. Autumn or c h i d s have covered the long s l o p e s , Crimson blossoms r i s e from green p o o l s . Hidden f i s h come out to leap t h e - c l e a r ' waves, B e a u t i f u l b i r d s s i n g on the h i g h e s t boughs. 7 S p i r i t gusts meet the s c a r l e t c a r t wheels,' The l i g h t c a r r i a g e rocks i n the wind. B u f f e t e d and tossed we may g i v e r e i g n to-=h=i=s ambitions J~ Por a thousand more autumns may i t always be t h i s way I Notes: 1 i -'A , This type of f e a s t was one which was g i v e n by a noble f o r the entertainment.of h i s r e t a i n e r s and a i d s . See Lu Yen-chi ^ i n the Liu oh'en chu Wen .Hsuan. 2 ' -The "young noble" /£ V. i n t h i s case can f a i r l y p o s i t i v e l y be i d e n t i f i e d as rs'ao P ' i . In Ying Ch'ang's Shih Wu-kuan ohung-lang-chiang chien Chang-t'ai chi shih ^ -2»-'IT *f $k T % L O r - Pfr ; we f i n d a couplet c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to the f i r s t f o u p l e t of t h i s poem; " ^ t M t * * D & " "The young noble honours and l o v e s . h i s guests, Amid the music and d r i n k he knows no f a t i g u e " . Ts'ao P ' i became Wu-kuan chung-lang-chiang i n 211 A.D. (C.A. 1 6) ,.. see .the San-kuo-chih s. g|J*. . "A F e a s t " must have been w r i t t e n around that time. tfiL » T h e - Wen. Hsuan v e r s i o n reads > a s d ° e s the p a r a l l e l l i n e i n Ying Ch'ang's poem. Perhaps that i s the more c o r r e c t p h r a s i n g . 140 The T'ai-p'ing yu-lan quotes t h i s passage as 4|_ ^ i n 824/9b. I t seems that t h i s i s simply a mistake i n the c'o'pying as another q u o t a t i o n of the same l i n e i n 474/12a f o l l o w s the other v e r s i o n s of the t e x t . The Western Garden may have been the T'ung Chueh Gar-den. In the notes to Tso Ssu's Wei tu fu fy^Y L 1 Shan we read: "To the west of the Wen Ch'ang H a l l there i s T'ung Chueh Garden. In the garden there i s a f i s h pond." WH 6/6b. T h i s f i s h pond may be i d e n t i f i a b l e with the pond i n Ts'ao P ' i ' s "Lotus Pond" poem , there too the "Western Garden" i s mentioned. Wherever i t was,It seems to have been a f a v o u r i t e g a t h e r i n g place f o r the s c h o l a r s of Yeh. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n the poems of other Chien An w r i t e r s . ^•$LJHL> T n e image of the c a r r i a g e canopies suggests the noble a n d e l i t e c h a r a c t e r of the guests a t t e n d i n g the f e a s t . 7 ~ % 'f^ L s Here again c a r r i a g e s are used to symbolize the vaunted s t a t u s of the guests. The " l i g h t c a r r i a g e " jfcfL ^r-r e f e r s e s p e c i a l l y to the King's c a r r i a g e . 8 J C ^ I I ^ A L , This phrase owes much to the "Nineteen Old Poems". K l i n e i n the poem beginning "The ea s t e r n w a l l i s high and l o n g " reads: " ±jL :4\&--i:lr " 29/4a WH. 9Chang P'u's e d i t i o n reads "^"fa"-141 I I . Serving the Crown Prince The white sun b r i g h t e n s the green of s p r i n g , Seasonal r a i n s s t i l l the f l y i n g dust. Cold i c e f l e e s the b l a z i n g sun, Cool winds s w i r l around me. C l e a r wine f i l l s the golden cup, Rich food i s spread a l l about. Musicians of Ch'i perform r a r e tunes, And s i n g e r s have come from western Ch'in. How elegant indeed Is my l o r d ! His wit as s w i f t as a s p i r i t . 3 Notes: The Crown P r i n c e was Ts'ao P ' i who had come to that p o s i t i o n i n 2 1 7 . See SKC 2 / l a . 2 -^f Chang P'u, Huang Chieh and Chu Hsu-tseng use t h i s v a r i a t i o n . Ting Yen, Ku Chih and the TPYL (539/2444) make i t -^j" ^ . The l a t t e r would seem more n a t u r a l , but the former v e r s i o n i s perhaps more d e s c r i p t i v e . The sun may rep-resent the Crown P r i n c e . Also,chun makes a b e t t e r rhyme. 3Chu Chia-cherg TK-JT^C.believes t h i s poem to be u t t e r l y s a r c a s t i c . He r e f e r s to two poems i n the Shih Ching which were considered to be s a r c a s t i c because they p r a i s e d men who d i d not warrant p r a i s e . See 1 6 / 7 7 and 2 1 / 1 0 6 . I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t Chu i s c o r r e c t as the poem does not betray even the s l i g h t e s t t r a c e of i r o n y or s a t i r e . 1 4 2 I I I . Seven Sorrows T h e b r i g h t m o o n s h i n e s o n t h e t a l l t o w e r , I t s f l o w i n g r a y s m o v e t o a n d f r o . I n t h e t o w e r a l a d y l i v e s i n s o r r o w , H e r l a m e n t o v e r f l o w s w i t h g r i e f . 3 P r a y t e l l , w h o i s i t w h o l a m e n t s ? ^ S h e s a y s , " I a m a t r a v e l l e r ' s w i f e , " " M y l o r d h a s b e e n g o n e t e n y e a r s a n d m o r e , L e a v i n g m e t o s l e e p a l o n e . H e i s l i k e t h e d u s t o n a b r i g h t r o a d , I , l i k e t h e m u d i n a t u r b i d s t r e a m ; O n e f l o a t i n g , o n e s i n k i n g , e a c h h a s a d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e , W i l l t h e r e c o m e a t i m e f o r u s t o m e e t a g a i n ? I w i s h I w e r e a s o u t h - w e s t e r l y w i n d , 6 B l o w i n g a c r o s s t h e d i s t a n c e I ' d e n t e r h i s e m b r a c e . B u t i f h i s h e a r t w o u l d n o t o p e n t o m e W h e r e w o u l d I t h e n f i n d r e p o s e ? " N o t e s : T h i s p o e m a p p e a r s i n d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s u n d e r t w o d i s -t i n c t t i t l e s . T h e m o r e c o m m o n t i t l e i s " S e v e n S o r r o w s " - t * . I n t h e Yu t'ai hsin yung a n d Yueh-fu shih-ehi t h e p o e m i s c a l l e d " P o e m o f C o m p l a i n t " %~ 'ft • W a n g T s ' a n , C h a n g T s a i a n d T ' a o Y u n g ( o f t h e T ' a n g D y n a s t y ) h a v e a l l w r i t t e n p o e m s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e u n d e r t h e s a m e t i t l e . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o e m i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e Yiieh-fu shih-ohi r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p o e m ' s o r i g i n - a n d : - i t s i n t e n d e d ' c h a r a c t e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t T s H a o C h i h w r o t e t h e p i e c e a s a yueh-fu o r n o t . T h e s t y l e a n d s o m e o f t h e l a n g u a g e e m p l o y e d c o u l d p a s s f o r e i t h e r a r e f i n e d yueh-fu o r a s o m e w h a t c o l l o q u i a l p o e m . T h i s p o e m i s t h e e a r l i e s t e x t a n t u n d e r i t s t i t l e w h i c h m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t T s ' a o C h i h w a s n o t w r i t i n g o n a n e s t a b l i s h e d yueh-fu t h e m e . B y t h e C h i n D y n a s t y 143 there was a m o d i f i e d and lengthened v e r s i o n which must have been accompanied by music and would have been considered a yueh-fu. Kuo Mao-ch'Ien has i n c l u d e d t h i s v e r s i o n along with the o r i g i n a l i n the Hsiang-ho Ch ' u - t i a o - o h ' i i yfS-Jp? & s e c t i o n of h i s YPSC. The lengthened v e r s i o n i s c a l l e d Yuan shih. hsing, oh'i chieh $<^f. ft i s a l s o r e f e r r e d to i n the Yileh Chih - of the Sung Shu where the t i t l e i s reduced simply to Ming •YVleh flfl k| , the f i r s t two c h a r a c t e r s of the work. The t i t l e "Seven Sorrows" i s not easy to g i v e d e f i n i t e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o . I t d e f i n i t e l y i s not a .eh 'i-fc, f o l l o w i n g the model of Ch'i chien found i n the Ch'u Tz'u ; these were e s s e n t i a l -l y prose d i s c o u r s e s . Commentators have t r i e d to. show that "Sev-en Sorrows" i m p l i e s e i t h e r that the poet was sad i n seven d i f -f e r e n t ways ( i . e . sad because of h i s p a i n , sad because of un-r i g h t e o u s n e s s , e t c . , see Huang Chieh's q u o t a t i o n of Lu Hsiang), or that a l l seven em o t i o n s , ( i . e . j o y , anger, sorrow, p l e a s u r e , l o v e , hate, d e s i r e , see Chu Hsu-tseng 5 / 5 b ) , are a l l dominated by sorrow. Such arguments are not p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v i n c i n g . As there are two quotations from a poem or poems en-t i t l e d "Seven Sorrows" by Ts'ao Chih i n c l u d e d i n the Wen Hsuan commentary, some s c h o l a r s have t h e o r i z e d that perhaps there was o r i g i n a l l y a s e r i e s of seven poems (see WCTKTL p. 8 2 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the t i t l e r e l a t e s to music. The p i e c e was used as a yueh-fu and the Chin v e r s i o n of i t was d i v i d e d i n t o seven stanzas. Whatever the true meaning and o r i g i n of the t i t l e , i t was used by l a t e r w r i t e r s as a yueh-fu whose t i t l e was l o o s e l y a p p l i e d to poems d e a l i n g with the sorrows of a l o n e l y or aban-doned woman. This l i n e i s p a r t i a l l y " " d e r i v e d -from one of the "Nine-teen Old Poems" # 5 , which reads "Just", in', the midst of the tune she h e s i t a t e s " ^ oE./M^  flQ • This l i n e i s a l s o d e r i v e d from the same poem. The o r i g i n a l reads, "Her d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t overflows with g r i e f . " Depending on the e d i t i o n t h i s reads v a r i o u s l y ^- , ^ ^- , or • There i s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e made to the meaning of the l i n e r e g a r d l e s s which v a r i a n t i s employed. I have f o l l o w e d Huang Chieh's v e r s i o n as u s u a l . Huang Chieh says that the c h a r a c t e r -fa i n the above two l i n e s reads ^ i n the'TPYL. I c o u l d not f i n d the passage to confirm or r e f u t e t h i s . ^The r e f e r e n c e to the "south-west wind" has r a i s e d s p e c u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the l o c a t i o n i n which Chih a c t u a l l y wrote t h i s poem. L i u Lia ^Jyff^ b e l i e v e s t h a t Chih was showing h i s d e s i r e to be u n i t e d with h i s b r o t h e r P ' i who^Liu b e l i e v e s , would have been r e s i d i n g at the Imperial court i n Yeh. At > that time Chih would have been l i v i n g on h i s f i e f at Yung Ch'iu, southwest of Yeh. In that way, a southwest wind would have t r a v e l l e d from Chih towards P ' i . According to my c a l c u l a t i o n s however, by the time that Chih had moved to Yung. Ch'iu the 144 the Imperial court had moved to Loyang, almost d i r e c t l y west of Yung Ch'iu. Ito Masafumi notes that the Southwest was a feminine area a c c o r d i n g to Chinese geomancy and thus would n a t u r a l l y have been a s s o c i a t e d with the female persona In the poem. (p.119) 145 IV. Sending Off Master Ying,• Two Poems 1. Walking up the slope of P e l Mang In the d i s t a n c e I see Loyang's h i l l s . How s i l e n t now i s Loyang! _ The palaces and mansions a l l burned. The w a l l s l i e broken and s h a t t e r e d Amid brambles that now r i s e to meet the sky. Nowhere are the e l d e r s of y e s t e r y e a r , There are only young people newly come. 4 My.y steps are awkward f o r there i s no t r a v e l l e d path; Overgrown f i e l d s have not been r e t u r n e d to theoplough. 5 A t r a v e l l e r , absent so long Would not know the roads and byways. How d e s o l a t e i t i s amid these w i l d s There i s no hearth smoke f o r a thousand m i l e s . When I r e c a l l my former home '' g My chest grows so t i g h t I cannot speak. Notes: The Master Ying named i n the t i t l e was Ying Ch'ang. He was one of the s o - c a l l e d "Seven Masters of Chien An" and once served as Ts'ao Chih's t u t o r while the l a t t e r was Duke of P'ing Yuan. I t has been suggested that the poems were_ addressed to both Y i n g Ch'ang and h i s younger b r o t h e r Ying Chu. However, Ying Chii i s not known to have had any c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with Chih. The c o n f u s i o n a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t Chih d i d not spec-i f y the f u l l name of the r e c i p i e n t of the poem as he d i d with a l l of the other poems de d i c a t e d to f r i e n d s . I t seems to me that to take the poems as being w r i t t e n to two d i f f e r e n t people simply adds unnecessary c o m p l i c a t i o n to t h e i r understanding. 146 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two poems i s not c l e a r . They may or may not have been w r i t t e n as a complementary p a i r . The f i r s t p iece i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r u i n s of Loyang which had been burned and sacked i n 190 by Tung Chuo. (see SKC, WC l/5b) Shih probably saw these r u i n s i n 211 when on an exped-i t i o n a g a i n s t Ma Ch'ao. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e e i n g Loyang was that Ying Ch'ang, as the son of a Han o f f i c i a l ( h i s f a t h e r Ying Shao fill was Grand Guardian of T ' a i Shan ^ & ), most l i k e l y grew up there at a time when i t was a f l o u r i s h i n g m e t r o p o l i s . The second poem was w r i t t e n as p a r t of an a c t u a l f a r e -w e l l g a t h e r i n g . I t i s n ' t p o s s i b l e to t e l l j u s t where Ying Ch'ang was going or why. I t may be, as some have suggested, that he was l e a v i n g Chih's s e r v i c e ~-to j o i n the ranks of Ts'ao P'i' s o f f i c i a l d o m . Assuming that the poem i s not o v e r l y hyper-b o l i c or h y p o t h e t i c a l , l i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Ch'ang was l e a v i n g on a lengthy journey northward i n any case. •IL or "tp was a mountain northeast of Loyangg' In 37 A.D. a c e r t a i n King Kung j>&. jL£_ was b u r i e d t h e r e . A f t e r -wards many other nobles were a l s o i n t e r r e d t h e r e . 3 The burning of Loyang, as mentioned, was done by the army of Tung Chuo i n 190. There i s a v a r i a n t of J"5^ " found i n the T 'ai-p 'ing Huan-yu-chi r$?- r * ? -f^ r e a d i n g . I was-::unable to t r a c e t h i s down. v ^There i s a v a r i a n t of t h i s i n Kuo Ylin-p'eng ^ f o l l o w e d by Ting Yen r e a d i n g ^ f o r ^ . 5 I^t T h i s probably r e f e r s to Ying Ch'ang. 6 T h i s i s , s t r i c t l y speaking, a f i r s t person pro-noun. In the l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s time however, i t o f t e n was used to imply a second person. That i s the case here. Chih must be speaking of Ying Ch'ang. 7 * -^"lrj» fe> There i s a common v a r i a n t (found i n the Wu-Ch'en. \£_ v e r s i o n of the Wen Hsuan' '•- among other p l a c e s ) which reads j t £ ; " f r i e n d of my youth...". I t i s a p l a u s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e out i t would seem that the other v e r s i o n i s more c o n s i s t e n t with the g e n e r a l emphasis i n the poem on d e s c r i b i n g the r u i n e d c i t y of Loyang. #k This i s taken from an anonymous poem i n the "Old S t y l e " ^ ^ . The couplet reads: j ^ M M ^ . M ^ X i "Sadly I part from my beloved f r i e n d ; my chest grows so t i g h t that I can h a r d l y speak.". .This may give s t r e n g t h to arguments f o r employing the v a r i a n t rp. ^  i n the preceding l i n e . 147 2 . Times of peace don't o f t e n come, Such pl e a s a n t meetings can't be repeated. Por though heaven and e a r t h w i l l have no end A man's l i f e i s l i k e the morning f r o s t . I wish we c o u l d continue t h i s harmony and joy But my f r i e n d i s t r a v e l l i n g northward.2 F r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s a l l gather to send him o f f J With a f e a s t on the r i v e r ' s northern shore. 4 The k i t c h e n ' s o f f e r i n g s are so meagre, The guests d r i n k but don't d r a i n t h e i r cups. With a f f e c t i o n s so s t r o n g , the hopes were so deep.., I f e e l shame down to my very core.5 The mountains and r i v e r s are dangerous and l o n g , ^ P a r t i n g i s s w i f t , the day of reunion f a r . 7 I f only we c o u l d be as b i r d s who share wings Spreading our plumes we'd r i s e and soar on h i g h . Notes: The f i r s t l i n e seems to have a s l i g h t a l l u s i o n to L i Ling's l e t t e r to Su Wu /f-^iX 4|* • There we f i n d the l i n e : %j :s%Q&f • S e e 4 l / l b ^ p. 584. The second l i n e once again f o l l o w s L i L i n g , t h i s time from a poem w r i t t e n to Su Wu. The l i n e reads : jfc ^  ( S e e^ ($kft S » W H 2 9 / 6 a ) 2 - T h i s r e f e r s to the n o r t h . In t h i s case i t has connotations of the severe c l i m a t e and u n c i v i l i z e d nature of lands north of the Great Wall. 3 i M L ^ T h e W u ^ ' e n - e d i t i o n of the WH gives |?J^(jj{| • ^Ho Yang >»f m a y be a p l a c e name as Huang Chieh i n d i -c a t e s , being the i n t e r i o r of the Yellow r i v e r bend. I t i s more l i k e l y that t h i s simply r e f e r s to the southern bank of a r i v e r as I have t r a n s l a t e d I t . 148 The use of the word i\y^ , "shame" i s c u r i o u s as one would not o r d i n a r i l y f e e l shame at a f r i e n d ' s p a r t i n g . Ito". Masa-fumi s p e c u l a t e s that Chih had requested that Ch'ang r e m a i n i i n h i s s e r v i c e r a t h e r than go to serve P ' i . Ch'ang app a r e n t l y c could not do that and Chih was ashamed f o r making such a r e -quest, (p. 33) There Is no other evidence to t h i s e f f e c t . 6 lU ) '| P J L The YWLC 2 9 / 5 1 5 quotes t h i s as ^ j i | • 7 The b i r d s who j o i n wings i n order to f l y are mytholog-i c a l c r e a t u r e s of the south c a l l e d ahien-chien %%) • See Erh-ya 2 1 / 5 / 6 . These animals were of course, symbolic of f r i e n d -ship and a f f e c t i o n . 149 V. Six Occasional Poems1 2 Around the t a l l s p i r e s blow many sad winds; Morning sun shines on the northern wood. He i s thousands of miles away now; The lakes and r i v e r s are f a r and deep. 5 With only a s k i f f I c o u l d s u r e l y never cross them So the sorrow of being p a r t e d i s yet harder to bear. A"* lone goose f l y i n g southward^ Passes my yard and c r i e s long and sad. Looking up, I yearn f o r him so d i s t a n t ; I f only I could speak through those f a d i n g c a l l s . . . But h i s form has suddenly disappeared; The b e a t i n g of wings s t r i k e s to my h e a r t . Notes: "'"The s i x poems i n c l u d e d i n t h i s set were most l i k e l y not a l l composed at the same time or p l a c e . There are s i m i l a r -i t i e s of theme between some of the .pieces, but no s i n g l e theme runs through the e n t i r e s e t . U n l i k e "For P r i n c e Pai-ma Piao" which i s a d e f i n i t e s e r i e s of poems w r i t t e n on a s i n g l e o c c a s i o n , "Six O c c a s i o n a l Poems" i s most probably a group of u n t i t l e d poems which were made i n t o a set when Chih's works were f i r s t c o l l e c t e d . 2 The t a l l s p i r e s represent the c a p i t a l c i t y and the c o u r t , the sad winds may symbolize the e v i l s t a t e of p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s i n and around the c o u r t . The .''.northern wood" i s probably an a l l u s i o n to one of the "Odes of Ch'in" i n the Shih Ching e n t i t l e d Ch'en feng JUL. , 2 7 / 1 3 2 which deals with the theme of an estranged husband. See Legge p. 2 0 0 . ^ ^L^f i s a l s o a term taken from the Shih Ching. I t t r a n s l a t e s l i t e r a l l y as "that one". 150 5 •> / This was a kind of v e s s e l made by l a s h i n g two mono-hulled boats together. Presumably t h i s made f o r a more s t a b l e r i d e . 6The image of the goose f l y i n g south seems to owe some-t h i n g to the Ch'u Tz'u which contains a passage r e a d i n g : ffc o^jr iT * S e e c h i u Pien JLsMfy W H 3 3 / 8 b . A v a r i a n t t e x t 151 2 . A tumble-weed, broken from i t s s t a l k ^ S w i r l s and rushes with the c e a s e l e s s wind. R e c k l e s s l y a whirlwind l i f t s i t up And blows i t skyward amid the c l o u d s . Higher, h i g h e r , there are no boundaries above; The r o a d of Heaven w i l l never reach an end. 2 L i k e the weed i s a j o u r n e y i n g k n i g h t , He l a y s down h i s l i f e to wage d i s t a n t war. His t o r n hempen cloak leaves h i s body exposed And he can never get h i s f i l l of pulses and beans. Gone, gone, d o n ' t speak of i t a g a i n . I t ' s t h i s deep sorrow that makes men grow o l d . Notes : This image i s s i m i l a r to that i n " A l a s ! " v^Q%.f£ft> L i Shan quotes a passage from the Shuo-yuan concerning p l a n t s l e a v i n g t h e i r r o o t s but the i m p l i c a t i o n of that passage has nothing to do with the meaning of t h i s poem. 2 T h i s i s a s l i g h t l y ambiguous term which c o u l d mean e i t h e r a r e t a i n e r or a t r a v e l l e r . Here the person Is apparently t r a v e l l i n g with the army. The YWLC 82/1413 reads The o b j e c t of the penultimate l i n e i s not s p e c i f i e d . I have taken the " i t " to r e f e r to the t r a v e l l e r ' s sorrows. 152 3-In the northwest l i v e s a weaver woman. A l l her s i l k c l o t h l i e s i n d i s a r r a y . 2 3 At morning's l i g h t she takes up the s h u t t l e , ' But by evening the p a t t e r n s are s t i l l not done. S i g h i n g deeply a l l through the long night Her sobs reach the dark clouds above. " I remain alone In the empty chamber^ While...my l o v e d one marches with the t r o o p s . He hoped to r e t u r n w i t h i n three y e a r s . Yet a l r e a d y nine s p r i n g s have passed.' g A lone b i r d f l i e s c i r c l i n g the t r e e s , He c a l l s sadly i n search of the f l o c k . Q : I f only I were the south-moving sun I would cast down my rays to see my l o r d . " Notes: In the northern sky there Is a famous t r i a n g u l a r con-s t e l l a t i o n c a l l e d the "Weaving Woman". Chinese mythology a s s o c i -ates a number of legends with t h i s s t e l l a r b e i n g . See Shih Chi T'ien-kuan shu 2 7 / 2 3 ( 1 8 3 4 ) . Note e s p e c i a l l y the ^ jj^ and Jjv, commentaries. 2The TPYL 8 l 6 / 3 b r e a d s ^ - f o r p£) .. 3Huang Chieh s t a t e s that tfie'Z'ao yi-% %• reads . (See Chu 5 / 8 b ) . Ku Chih s t a t e s that the Y'THY a l s o reads jj}* . The e d i t i o n s that I have seen of these works do not have t h i s v a r i a n t I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see where c o n f u s i o n would a r i s e however, as a l i n e i n the tenth of the "19 Old Poems" reads ^ L > W J ^ ^ I L ^ • 11 The YWLC 3 2 / 5 6 3 reads fl The TPYL 8 l 6 / 3 b reads £ 5 This l i n e r e l a t e s to a poem i n the Shih Ching which reads i n part j£g>Uf ^A^ct' S e e ^ 9 / 2 0 3 / 5 , 6 Legge pp. 3 5 5 - 3 5 6 . 153 The YWLC reads . 7 L i Shan f o r some reason wanted to make the nine s p r i n g s e q u i v a l e n t to only three years. I t seems more l i k e l y t h a t the number nine, as i s so o f t e n the case, i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e , I n d e f i n -i t e number. o The YTHY e d i t i o n reads . I have f o l l o w e d t h i s variant'. 9Huang Chieh argues that t h i s must be the moon r a t h e r than the sun. He quotes a passage from the Han Shu, T ' ien-Wen chih which says: "The moon has nine phases. Prom the f i r s t of summer u n t i l summer f u l l y a r r i v e s i t f o l l o w s the red road south". See Han Shu, T'ien-wen-chih £ jc_ fe 26/21a. This seems a somewhat c o n t r i v e d e x p l a n a t i o n . 154 4 . There i s a beauty i n a southern land; ' ^ Her face l i k e the blossoming peach and plum. 4 At dawn she walks on the Yangtze's n o r t h e r n bank; At sunset she r e s t s by the Hsiang or H s i a o . ^ s 6 The v u l g a r crowd don't value her beauty Is there anyone worthy of her smiles?? I t won't be long before her years reach t h e i r end; Such radiance can't be preserved very long.9 Notes: The "southern l a n d " r e f e r s to that area south of the Yangtze. See Wang Y i ' s note to the Ch'u Tz'u, C'hiu Chang, Hsi Wang Jih ^ ^ ^ f Q . 2 " In the Ch'u Tz'u, e s p e c i a l l y the Li Sao,Mei-jen, ( l i t . beauteous one) r e f e r s to the King of Ch'u. In t h i s case, how-ever, though Chih i s o b v i o u s l y a l l u d i n g to the Ch'u Tz'u the "beauteous one" must represent e i t h e r Chih h i m s e l f or perhaps someone toward whom Chih f e l t sympathy. This second l i n e seems to have been l i f t e d from the Shih Ching. SSee Kuo Feng, Shao-nan, Ho pi nung yi, 2 / 2 4 / 2 , * L e g g e p - 3 5 ' 4 There are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of t h i s l i n e . Chang P'u and the WH g i v e : £fl ig* £(.& jf • T h e Y W L C 1 8 / 3 2 6 reads: ^ | 51. yfo jjl . Ting Yen and Kuo Yun-p' eng g i v e : ^Mi£f4t» i£ . Of these, the f i r s t mentioned seems to be the most apt. ^ 5 Here a l s o , there are at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t v a r i a -t i o n s of the t e x t . Huang Chieh f o l l o w s the WH In g i v i n g Q J ^ 3 t 8 5 £ -• T n e Y T H Y g i v e s p ft :M >'l ;it . Huang Chieh a l s o claims that a Liu Ch'en -fc e d i t i o n of the WH give s '/ ^ Jjjjj . The e d i t i o n s I have seen a l l read: £J ^ : J | j j L • This l a s t v a r i a t i o n may simply be a m i s p r i n t as i t doesn't work w e l l i n context. A l l other e d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Chang P'u, Ting Yen, Ku Chih and the Ming moveable type e d i t i o n give ^ ip§ ' 155 I ~-prefer t h i s as It preserves a c e r t a i n degree of p a r a l l e l i s m with the preceding l i n e . More c l o s e l y t r a n s l a t e d t h i s would read: "At dusk she r e s t s on i s l a n d s i n the Hsiao and Hsiang.* 6The r e f e r e n c e s to the banks of the Yangtze, the Hsiao and Hsiang R i v e r s are intended to le n d an e x o t i c and romantic feel.-'.t-o the poem. The Hsiao and Hsiang are i n present-day Hunan Province and have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d very b e a u t i f u l , probably because of the l u s h v e g e t a t i o n and b e a u t i f u l land forms i n the area. 7 L i t e r a l l y : "Show her white t e e t h " . This could e i t h e r mean to smile, as I have t r a n s l a t e d , or to s i n g . 8 The Ming e d i t i o n o f Kuo Yun-p'eng app a r e n t l y gives-; The YWLC 18/326 q u o t a t i o n of t h i s passage reads: ^ f o r m 156 5 . The grooms prepare my c a r r i a g e e a r l y , I am l e a v i n g to t r a v e l a f a r . l 2 Where i s i t that I wish to journey? The s t a t e of Wu i s " 5 s t i l l our foe. I w i l l g a l l o p along that endless road, Never wanting to r e t u r n to the east.3 Along the Yangtze many sad winds blow; The Huai and Ssu plunge, s w i f t l y on, 5 I wish that I could cross them q u i c k l y But a l a s ! I have no s k i f f . 6 My ambition i s not to l e a d a l e i s u r e l y l i f e , I want to assuage my country's woes.7 Notes: The Wen Hsilan reads : ^ f t ^ - The second passage quoted by L i Shan from the •Ch'u Tz'u seems to have been l o s t i n the o r i g i n a l . (I couldn't f i n d i t anyway.) 2 Chang' P'u's v e r s i o n g i v e s : J ^ ^ ^ ' f f f ^ . * -2 L i t e r a l l y : "How could the East Road be worth t r a v e l l -i n g ? " . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s l i n e i s not c l e a r . The E asts ern Road may have been the same one r e f e r r e d to i n "For P r i n c e Pai-ma Piao" i n the l i n e s : "On a p i t c h i n g r a f t we t r a v e r s e the great waves, I despise the endlessness of t h i s E a s t e r n Road.", (poem # 1 ) . T h i s was the road eastward from the c a p i t a l to h i s f i e f i n Yung Ch'iu. ii T h is l i n e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a passage i n the Ch%u Chang, She Chiang -/L 4£ >^;t-which reads ^ J i ^ p ^ . ( I am sad-dened by the l i n g e r i n g winds on the Y a n g t z e ' s b a n k s ) . L i Shan, i n h i s commentary misquotes t h i s passage as : >fr ^  JiY j|J , which makes i t seem even more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . ' ^ The Huai and Ssu flow i n t o each other • and empty i n t o 1 5 7 the sea i n present-day Anhwei p r o v i n c e . 6 T h i s i s again the "square boat" mentioned i n poem # 1 . See poem # 1 , n o t e o # 5 . 7 The phrase i s somewhat :.problematic. Chih has perhaps borrowed i t from the Shih Ching, Wei Feng, Po Hsi P'ien %tT )iL i ifa'*) '%o > 1 / 5 / 8 swhere i t seems to mean the opposite of what i t would o r d i n a r i l y . Legge f o l l o w s the a n c i e n t commentators and t r a n s l a t e s i t as: " ' T i l l my heart i s weary,". (See Legge p. 1 0 5 ) . I f t h i s meaning were a p p l i e d to Chih's l i n e i t would t r a n s l a t e more l i k e : "With weary heart I w i l l assuage my coun-t r y ' s woes.", or "I burden my heart (with d e s i r e to) a i d my country's woes.". I f i n d i t more reasonable to t r a n s l a t e the •jj" A^ * i n i t s normal sense which i s , "I take p l e a s u r e i n . . . " or "I would be happy t o . . . " . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s supported to some extent by the e x i s t e n c e of a l i n e i n Chih's Tse Kung Shih % % f f w h i c h reads: jfcV =*g (1 w l s n t o t r a v e l to the Yangtze and Hsiang to a t t a c k Wu and Yueh.). 158 6. In a winged look-out over a hundred f e e t h i g h , ' I go to the window and l e a n a g a i n s t the s i l l . 3 » 4 Gazing around I can see f o r a thousand m i l e s ; Prom dawn to dusk I watch the f l a t p l a i n s . Brave knights h o l d much sorrow i n t h e i r h e a r t s . While p e t t y men j u s t r e v e l i n t h e i r s l o t h . " The kingdom's foes have not yet been vanquished; Por that cause I would l a y down my l i f e . 8 q I grasp my sword and look southwest, y And wish I could go to Mount T ' a i . 1 ^ The s t r i n g s sound s w i f t l y , a sad a i r r i n g s out. Won't you l i s t e n to my song of d e s p a i r . Notes: t^t ^ L i t e r a l l y , " f l y i n g l ook-out". There are two ways i n which to i n t e r p r e t t h i s . I t could mean that the tower Is very t a l l and perhaps unsupported so that i t seems to be suspended from the sky. The other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the one I have t r i e d to convey, i s that the r o o f of the look-out has t r a d i t i o n a l up-turned eaves and, as i t i s very t a l l , the r o o f -l i n e of the tower very much resembles a b i r d i n f l i g h t . 2 This l i n e must be d e r i v e d from the t h i r d of the "19 Old Poems" which reads: ^ / v . > (Twin towers of over a hundred f e e t h i g h ) . ' The window i n t h i s case seems to be a l a t t i c e type. What I have t r a n s l a t e d as " s i l l " i s more p r e c i s e l y a r a i l i n g . H Huang Chieh c i t e s a Wu Ch'en e d i t i o n of the WH as having (^p i n place of^-y. I could not confirm t h i s . In any case, the c h a r a c t e r jjjy which o r d i n a r i l y means "to d r i v e " , has a k i n d of a f f i n i t y with.the word which o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d to the r a i l i n g on the f r o n t of a c h a r i o t . 1 5 9 fll More l i t e r a l l y "vigorous k n i g h t s " . L i Shan quotes the'Feng-su-t'ung jfL f g - a s d e f i n i n g f,'\ -t- as "those whose ambition or aim i n l i f e does not waiver." 6Huang Chieh has found a v a r i a n t i n a Wu Ch'en e d i t i o n of the WH which reads /[^ j" f o r ^ . 7 Han, The "kingdom's f o e s " would be p r i m a r i l y Wu and Shu-The term JV^ i s repeated here and I have t r a n s l a t e d i t i n the same manner as In Poem #5• See note #7 to the p r e -vious poem. 9 T h e r e i s a s i m i l a r l i n e i n Chih's Ch 'iu-tzu-shih-piao J^'fli^fe, (see Ting p. 1 0 6 ) which reads: 'Vl l i !r&#t ^ ^ j£ > "Grasping my sword I t u r n my gaze eastward; my heart has va?rea.dy hastened f o r t h to meet with Wu.". il^ I b e l i e v e simply to be the mountain i n southern Shantung which would be on the road to the s t a t e of Wu. The authors of the WCTKTL t r y to i d e n t i f y T ' a i Shan as being the m y t h o l o g i c a l r e s i d e n c e of the s p i r i t s of the dead. I f that were the case, Chih would be i m p l y i n g that he wished to d i e f o r h i s kingdom. I see no p a r t i c u l a r value i n t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . 1 6 0 VI. Rejoicing with the Rain How vast i s the canopy of Heaven! 2 I t s nurture b r i n g s f o r t h abundant l i f e . Without i t there would be b i t t e r h a r d s h i p , Yet with i t s grace t h i n g s may grow and f l o u r i s h . P r o p i t i o u s clouds come from the no r t h ; ' g B i l l o w i n g and churning, they move southwest. 7 The seasonal r a i n begins to f a l l m the n i g h t ' B r i n g i n g long b o l t s of l i g h t n i n g t h a t c i r c l e my house. o E x c e l l e n t s e e d i ; n 0w f i l l s the f e r t i l e land;° When autumn comes the harvest w i l l be good. Notes: In the ann o t a t i o n to the Pei-t''ang Shu-ch 1 ao i l t , ^ ( 1 5 6 / 1 0 a ) the commentator, K'ung Kuang-t'ao |$] of the Ch'ing Dynasty, quotes what he b e l i e v e s to be the" p r e f a c e to t h i s poem. I t reads: "In the second year of T'ai-ho ( 2 2 8 ) there was a r e a l drought. The three c e r e a l s could not be har vested. The people's l o t was s t a r v a t i o n . " However, he notes that i n an e a r l i e r e d i t i o n , the commentary of Ch'en Yu ^ j " a t t r i b u t e d the passage to Ts'ao Chih but d i d not gi v e i t a t i t l e . That there was a drought d u r i n g the summer of 2 2 8 i s confirmed by the Wei Chih ( 3 / 4 b ) . At that time Chih had been renamed P r i n c e of Yung Ch'iu (WC 1 9 / 1 0 b ) . 2 In the f i r s t c o u p l e t , and e s p e c i a l l y the second l i n e , a c e r t a i n a f f i n i t y with a memorial by Ssu-ma Hsia n g - j u is. h i n t e d a t . In that memorial, e n t i t l e d Feng-shan-wen3 ^•JL%jT_> Hsiang-ju urges the Emperor Wu to r e i n t r o d u c e a p a r t i c u l a r s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l i n t o the i m p e r i a l r e p e r t o i r e . In i t we f i n d the l i n e s : ft #C ^_ * |T ^  i& & , f & <3^ £) jfr £$L ST ^ 3 This c o u p l e t , rendered more l i t e r a l l y , would read: "Cast i t o f f and i t must s u f f e r h a r d s h i p , show i t grace and i t w i l l grow and f l o u r i s h . " The " i t " p r e f e r s to "abundant' l i f e " or "myriad l i v i n g t h i n g s " . 1 6 1 In the Records of the Grand Historian ( 7^ .1? ^ 2 7 / 7 6 ) we f i n d t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of " p r o p i t i o u s c l o u d s " ^ >g ; "Like smoke, but not smoke; l i k e c l o u d s , but not cl o u d . B r i l l i a n t and b e a u t i f u l , s p i r a l l i n g s i l e n t l y , these are what are c a l l e d " P r o p i t i o u s c l o u d s " . One would be hard-pressed to f i n d a good E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t . 5 In northern China when the wind blows from the nort h i n summer i t b r i n g s r a i n . (See Huang p. 1 7 ) \ ^ '^^' l^.This e x p r e s s i o n can r e f e r e i t h e r to* the upward motion of clouds or to the sound of d i s t a n t thunder. (See HUang's note on page 1 6 ) 7Some e d i t i o n s r e p l a c e ^ with #4- . E i t h e r c h a r a c t e r makes good sense but I p r e f e r ^ . g The v a r i o u s e d i t i o n s give a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the f i r s t three c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s l i n e . L i Meng-yang r e p l a c e s JL with X . Chahg-'Yen $|r r e p l a c e s ^ with jfcjf . The YWLC (2/28F exchang es with • The only one of these that to be reasonable i s the l a s t . Q The Ming moveable-type e d i t i o n , L i Meng-yang and Ting a l l use i n place of 162 VI I . For Hsu Kan1 2 A s t a r t l e d wind b u f f e t s the white sun S w i f t l y r e t u r n i n g to the western h i l l s . The radiance of the moon i s not yet f u l l But the host of s t a r s i s dense and b r i g h t . A s c h o l a r of i n t e g r i t y attends to h i s l i f e work ' And even the p e t t y man i s not completely i d l e . Aimless, I s t r o l l around i n the n i g h t , g Wandering between the twin palace s p i r e s . The Wen Ch'ang H a l l r i s e s out of heavy c l o u d s , And the Ying Peng Tower reaches to the sky.7 Spr i n g doves coo i n the upturned eaves While window casements r a t t l e i n the gusty wind. g I t h i n k of the s c h o l a r of the Bramble Cottage; His l o w l i n e s s and poverty are t r u l y p i t e o u s . The coarse greens don't f i l l h i s empty stomach And h i s crude robes are now a l l i n t a t t e r s . " D i s i l l u s i o n e d , h i s heart i s f i l l e d with sorrow, Yet, d e l i g h t i n g i n l e t t e r s , he completes h i s book. I f one c a s t s away a jewel who i s there to blame? Master Ho was not without h i s f a u l t s . 1 1 12 Dusting h i s cap he awaits an understanding patron But aren't we a l l as n e g l e c t e d as he? 13 A good f i e l d w i l l have no l a t e h a r v e s t s , A f e r t i l e marsh has many p r o d u c t i v e years. A s i n c e r e heart has the beauty of an ornate jade; As the years pass i t s v i r t u e shines f o r t h more and more 14 The meaning of f r i e n d s h i p l i e s i n s i n c e r i t y , I o f f e r you t h i s v e r s e, what more i s there to say? 1 6 3 Notes: "'"In the Wei Chih ( 2 1 / 3 a - b ) we f i n d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n about Hsu Kan: "Hsu Kan of P e l Hai was s t y l e d Wei-chang." The com-mentary quotes the Hsien-hsien Esing-ohuang 'A^ 7 ^ (no long-er extant) which t e l l s us that Hsu '..Kan was of high moral f i b r e , broad e r u d i t i o n , t a l e n t e d at composition and not i n t e r e s t e d i n seeking an o f f i c i a l c a r e e r . In the mid-Chlen An p e r i o d he was twice o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s i n government by Ts'ao Ts'ao but both times he d e c l i n e d , c l a i m i n g i l l n e s s . He d i e d i n 2 1 7 (C.A. 2 2 ) (see WC 2 1 / 5 a - b ) . He was twenty-three years o l d e r than Chih and c o n s i d e r e d to be one of the "Seven- Masters of the Chien An E r a " . Ito speculates that t h i s poem was w r i t t e n In 2 1 6 , one year before Kan's death (p. 40). j^P)|J.The " s t a r t l e d wind" or " s t a r t l i n g wind" i s a f f a i r l y common image i n the l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s time. I t seems to have f i r s t been used by Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju i n h i s Shang-lin Fu J ^ ^ ^ ( W H 8 / 7 a ) . ^ i ^ l "ffc L i t e r a l l y " c i r c u l a r r a d i a n c e " . T h i s r e f e r s to the moon. >\3. According to the Lun Yu, a Vscholar of I n t e g r i t y " i s one who does not t r y to make a l i v i n g by harming others or by inhumanity. See ^ , 3 1 / 1 5 / 9 . ^ "-jft I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact connota-t i o n of t h i s term. Both L i Shan, who quotes from the K'ung Ts 'ung-tzu ^{^^t and I t o , b e l i e v e that i t r e f e r s to those e n t e r p r i s e s whose b e n e f i t s are passed on to succeeding gener-a t i o n s . ^ ^ ^ T h i s a l l u d e s to the I m p e r i a l p a l a c e s , see #3 of the "Nineteen Old P6ems". 7 According to L i Shan, the Wen Ch'ang H a l l and Ying Feng Tower were b u i l d i n g s i n the c i t y of Yeh. He a l s o Im-p l i e s t h a t the tj? ^_ i n l i n e 10 r e f e r s to a tower c o n s t r u c t e d by King Mu of Cn'in. To f o l l o w such an e x p l a n a t i o n would destroy the p a r a l l e l i s m of the c o u p l e t . 8 The " s c h o l a r of the Bramble Cottage" i s Hsu Kan. Q The above f o u r l i n e s r e f e r to the f a c t t h a t Kan was l i v i n g as a r e t i r e d s c h o l a r and had not accepted o f f i c i a l em-ployment . "^The book a l l u d e d to was probably Kan's Chung Lun, tj? •fljg" no longer extant. "'""''This l i n e a l l u d e s to a s t o r y i n the Han-fei-tzu about a c e r t a i n Master Pien-ho who found a p i e c e of raw jade. He o f f e r e d i t to King L i of Ch'u and l a t e r King Wu of Ch'u, both 1 6 4 of whom eould not recog n i z e i t as jade and consequently pun-i s h e d Pien-ho by c u t t i n g o f f one fo o t and then the other. F i -n a l l y King Wen of Ch'u rec o g n i z e d that i t was r e a l jade. See Han-Fei-tzu, #13 : 4 / 1 0 b - 1 1 a . The e x p r e s s i o n " d u s t i n g h i s cap" §3? %L > o r i g i n a t e s i n the biography of Wang Chi i n the •"Ng$..~Shu.; 5%^- There w e r f i n d the passage: "(Wang) Ch'i and Kung Yu were f r i e n d s , people of the time s a i d , ..'."When Wang Yang (Wang Chi) was i n o f f i c e , S i r Kung dusted h i s cap". Yen Shih-ku's commentary says that 'dusting one's capVmeanstto enter o f f i c i a l s e r v i c e . (See HS 7 2 / 3 2 a ) 13 J L i n e 22 l i t e r a l l y reads: "But as f o r understanding patrons who Is not a l s o thus.". I take that to mean that Chih i s complaining that he too i s w a i t i n g to be given a chance to prove h i m s e l f i n o f f i c e . "^The c h a r a c t e r <|£_ i n the penultimate l i n e has s e v e r a l meanings. I t cou l d mean "esteem" or " s i n c e r i t y " or p o s s i b l y "to urge". The l a s t meaning seems to f i t b e t t e r i n the con-t e x t of the poem as a whole and gives more s i g n i f i c a n c e to the l a s t l i n e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y I t does no t r a n s l a t e w e l l , t h e r e f o r e I have used the more n e u t r a l " s i n c e r i t y " . 1 6 5 V I I I . For Ting l i The c o o l a i r of e a r l y autumn comes f o r t h , Leaves on the c o u r t y a r d t r e e s have,just begun to f a l l . An Icy f r o s t l i e s on the jade s t a i r c a s e s '. -And a c l e a r wind b u f f e t s the winged p a v x l l i o n . The morning clouds don't r e t u r n to the mountains ^ And constant r a i n has c r e a t e d streams and marshes. The wheat and m i l l e t l i e on the f i e l d s and embankments. How can the peasants harvest them now?5 The r i c h so o f t e n f o r g e t the lowly; Who can spread grace f a r and wide? With white fox down to face the w i n t e r , Why should one t h i n k of those i n rags? I t r u l y admire Master Yen L i n g : g „ His jeweled sword was not what he t r e a s u r e d . ' Put your mind at ease my l o r d , T h e - s p i r i t of c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p i s not t h i n . Notes: Tin g Y i , whose s t y l e was C h e n g - l i , j £ - ^ § _ 3 was employed as an o f f i c i a l by Ts'ao Ts'ao. He i s most n o t o r i o u s f o r h i s support of Ts'ao Chih i n the s u c c e s s i o n s t r u g g l e . Because of those d e a l i n g s he was executed, along with h i s b r o t h e r , when Ts'ao P ' i e v e n t u a l l y ascended the throne. The date of t h i s poem i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. I t may have been w r i t t e n j u s t p revious to Ting's e x e c u t i o n , as Yu Kuan-ying (p. 109) suggests, or i t may have been w r i t t e n before 216 (C.A. 22) the year i n which P ' i was named crown p r i n c e . LI Shan f o r some reason b e l i e v e d that t h i s poem was w r i t t e n to T i n g Y i ' s b r o t h e r , T i n g I -J | , and had been m i s - t i t l e d . Huang Chieh demonstrates the f a l l a c y of t h i s . 166 2 The "jade s t a i r c a s e s " and "winged p a v i l l i o n s " r e p r e -sent the i m p e r i a l p a l a c e s . See "Oc c a s i o n a l Poems"#6, note #1 f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of "winged p a v i l l i o n " . T h i s i s an i n d i r e c t i n d i c a t i o n of the season. In the Kuang.Ya Jgj ffi. (3/9 -k-/5b) i t s t a t e s : "In the E i g h t h month the f l o a t i n g clouds don't r e t u r n . " "Constant r.ain" t r a n s l a t e s the term which means any r a i n t h a t l a s t s more than three days. (see ^ J L T ^% ^ Legge p. 2 7 ) . ~ ' 5 ^ Chang P'u's e d i t i o n reads . ^The s t o r y of Master Yen L i n g i s found i n the Hsin Hsu iffi ftfr 7 / 3 b - 4 a . Yen L i n g C h i - t z u had to t r a v e l to Chin on bus-i n e s s . He was wearing h i s j e w e l l e d 'sword as he went by Lord Hsu. Lord Hsu looked as i f he admired and wanted the sword but d i d n ' t say anything. Master Yen L i n g d i d n ' t o f f e r i t at the time as he was on an important m i s s i o n f o r h i s s t a t e . In h i s h e a r t , however, he decided to gi v e i t to the l o r d . When he r e t u r n e d , the l o r d had d i e d l Yen L i n g then took the sword and p l a n t e d i t on the l o r d ' s grave. 1 6 7 IX. For Wang Ts 'an As I s i t e r e c t my thoughts t u r n b i t t e r and sad; Gathering my robe, I r i s e and s t r o l l toward the west. The t r e e s have brought f o r t h s p r i n g blossoms And the c l e a r pool r i p p l e s with the constant flow. •3 On the pool a lone mandarin duck J C r i e s mournfully i n search of a companion. I would l i k e to . h o l d t h i s b i r d B u t , a l a s , I have no boat.4 I wish to r e t u r n but have f o r g o t t e n the former path, And l o o k i n g back, there i s only melancholy and g r i e f . A d o l e f u l wind moans at. my s i d e While the sun c h a r i o t f l i e s past without stopping. c The heavy clouds b r i n g moisture to a l l t h i n g s , Why f e a r that the b e n e f i t s w i l l not go around? Who has given you so many f e a r s ? „ You have caused y o u r s e l f these hundred w o r r i e s . Notes: "'"Wang Ts'an ( 1 7 7 - 2 1 7 ) along with L i u Chen %\ f & and Ts'ao Chih, was one of those most h e a v i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i r e c t i o n and development of l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the Chien An p e r i o d . He had f o l l o w e d the Emperor Hsien to Ch'ang An and then, d u r i n g a p e r i o d of great t u r m o i l , had f l e d to seek asylum with L i u Piao. When Piao d i e d , he t r a v e l l e d n o r t h to serve Ts'ao Ts'ao. . He was e v e n t u a l l y made Shih^-ohung tjf . See WC 2 1 / l a - 2 b . This poem seems to have been w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of one of Wang's own " O c c a s i o n a l Poems". Many of the images and ideas between the two works correspond, (see CSKS 3 / 4 b ) . L i u Lu b e l i e v e s that the work was w r i t t e n while Wang was s t i l l i n Ching Chou J i j f f | as a r e t a i n e r of L i u Piao. Wu Ch' i ^ however, makes a good case f o r b e l i e v i n g t h at Wang h a d s a l r e a d y moved to Wei at the time t h i s poem was w r i t t e n . The tone of 1 6 8 c o n s o l a t i o n i n the p i e c e suggests however, that he had not yet been given very much r e c o g n i t i o n . 2 This p a r t i c u l a r l i n e i s a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d from one of the "19 Old Poems" where we f i n d t h e e l i n e s $fci^ # 3 • See "19 Old Poems" #19- Chih a l s o used a s i m i l a r l i n e i n h i s "Occasional Poem". There the l i n e reads, "Gathering my robes, I walk the chamber,". % |^ The "lone mandarin duck" must be a symbol r e p r e s e n t i n g Wang Ts'an. 4 This l i n e perhaps i m p l i e s that Ts'ao Chih has not yet had an o p p o r t u n i t y to make the acquaintance of Ts'an. 5 H s i H o ^ ^ i 7 i s the m y t h o l o g i c a l c h a r i o t e e r who c a r -r i e s the^s.un across the sky. 6The clouds must symbolize Ts'ao Ts'ao. Since Ts'ao was, d u r i n g Ts'an's l i f e t i m e * o f f i c i a l l y a servant of the Han Emperor, he c o u l d not be symbolized by the' sun (see Wang Y i ' s note to the She-chiang yfy >1_ i n the Ch'u Tz'u)'. The i m p l i c a -t i o n i s that Ts'ao Ts'ao gives support to a l l of h i s s u b j e c t s i n much the same way as r a i n clouds b r i n g nourishment to l i v i n g t h i n g s . Ts'an could thus f e e l assured that he would not be n e g l e c t e d f o r long. 7The phrase "hundred w o r r i e s " seems to a l l u d e to a passage i n the Shih Ching which reads.: "In the l a t t e r p a r t of my l i f e , I w i l l meet with a hundred w o r r i e s . " jfc dfc-^.'flt These worries are i n part, r e l a t e d to the f e a r of death ami growing o l d . See ShihcChing'-15/70/2 Legge p. 1 1 8 . 169 X. For Ting Ii and Wang Ts 'an With the l e g i o n s I cross Han Ku P a s s / 2 D r i v i n g my horse, I pass the western c a p i t a l . '^ 4 The mountain peaks seem unendingly h i g h , c-The Ching and Wei mix t h e i r waters muddy and c l e a r . How formidable the i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e s ; r T h e i r beauty stands apart from a l l o t h e r s . C i r c l e Tower p i e r c e s the f l o a t i n g c l o u d s , The Dew Catcher touches the s k y . i 5 8 q The Emperor's r e t a i n e r disseminates heavenly grace. Within the fo u r seas no armies contend.10 For though m i l i t a r i s t s love v i c t o r y , ^ P r e s e r v i n g the s t a t e b r i n g s g r e a t e s t renown. 12 I f a gentleman i s In the lowest p o s i t i o n , He cannot s i n g those songs of v i r t u e . 13 Master T i n g r e s e n t s those at c o u r t , And Master Wang enjoys h i s own occupations. Enjoyment and resentment are not the purest mode, But the C e n t r a l Harmony can t r u l y be obeyed.^5 Notes: Han Ku Pass was a very narrow mountain pass i n Honan. 2 According to Huang Chieh t h i s l i n e i s quoted m the TPYL with r e p l a c i n g ^ ^ . I co u l d not v e r i f y t h i s . 3 JThe western c a p i t a l was Ch'ang An. I t seems most l i k e l y that Ts'ao Chih was speaking from experiences gained while t r a v e l l i n g with h i s f a t h e r on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Ma Ch'ao jjij j £ | and Han Sui ^  j^L i n the autumn of 211 and then a g a i n s t Yang Ch'iu jp)^ i n the winter of t h a t year. 170 % Wu Ch'en e d i t i o n of the WH appa r e n t l y g i v e s f o r I could not v e r i f y t h i s . ' The Ching R i v e r flowed i n t o the Wei R i v e r which i n tur n emptied i n t o the Yellow R i v e r . ^ L i t e r a l l y , " T h e i r beauty i s d i f f e r e n t from the hundred w a l l s . 7 'The C i r c l e Tower and the Dew Catchers were s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t d u r i n g the Han Dynasty i n Ch'ang An. The C i r c l e Tower was_ s i t u a t e d n o r t h of the gates of the Chien Chang Palace "IT • On the top of the Chien Chang Palace there was a _re'at bronze bowl c a l l e d the Dew Catcher which was intended to catch the Heavenly essences that might give i m m o r t a l i t y . 8 L i t e r a l l y "great c l a r i t y " . T h i s r e f e r s to one of the three l e v e l s of the sky. I t was supposed to be s i t u a -ted 40 l i above the ground. See Pao P'u-tzu <XI kMa ^ i s / s e e . q The Emperor's r e t a i n e r was Ts'ao Ts'ao. " ^ T h i s p o s s i b l y a l l u d e s to Ts'ao Ts'ao's v i c t o r i e s over Ma Ch'ao,•• Han Sui and Yang Ch'iu. ^"Preserving''t.he'istate ", t h i s a l l u d e s to the Sun-tzu •ping-fa which s t a t e s that the highest aim of any m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y i s to take the enemy s t a t e without d e s t r o y -i n g i t . See Sun-tzu ^- 3 / l a . 12 T h i s must have been w r i t t e n while T i n g and Wang were s t i l l minor o f f i c i a l s i n Ts'ao Ts'ao's c o u r t . 13 T h i s may r e f e r to a passage i n Ting's Li-ahth-fu s e e C H H W 9V2a-b Huang b e l i e v e s t h i s r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to a passage from Wang's Ch'i-shih ^ , found i n YWLC 57-"'"''The C e n t r a l Harmony tjf^owas a s t a t e i n which a l l the emotions are i n balance. When t h i s s t a t e p r e v a i l e d a l l l i v -i n g t h i n g s were no u r i s h e d . Chih i s perhaps imp l y i n g that the government of h i s f a t h e r e x i s t e d i n such a s t a t e . See L i Shan's note. 1 7 1 XI. For Prince Pai-ma, Piao In the f i f t h month of the f o u r t h year of Huang Ch'u, ( 2 2 3 ) the P r i n c e of Pai-ma, the Pr i n c e of J e n - c h ' e n g 3 and I ^ t r a v e l l e d to the c a p i t a l to take part i n the seasonal r i t e s . When we a r r i v e d i n Loyang, P r i n c e Jen-ch'eng d i e d . 5 i n the seventh month I was going to r e t u r n to my f i e f with P r i n c e P a i -ma," but a court o f f i c i a l , having heard of our i n t e n t i o n s , r u l e d t hat i f two p r i n c e s were r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r f i e f s they must not t r a v e l t o g e t h e r . I deeply resented t h a t , and, know-ing that our long s e p a r a t i o n 7 was going to begin i n a few days, I used that time which remained to express my f e e l i n g s to the P r i n c e and to take proper leave of him. I wrote t h i s p iece out of my i n d i g n a t i o n . 1 . A f t e r an audience with the, Emperor i n the Ch'eng Ming H a l l I am r e t u r n i n g to my former t e r r i t o r y . 2 In the c l e a r dawn we leave the Imp e r i a l P r e c i n c t , By dusk we have passed Mount Shou-yang . 3 4 The Y i and Lo r i v e r s are broad and deep: We wish to cross but there i s no b r i d g e . On a p i t c h i n g r a f t we t r a v e r s e the great waves; I hate the endlessness of t h i s e a s t e r n road! 5 Looking around I long f o r those w a l l s and towe r s , 6 Gazing upward, I f e e l an inn e r g r i e f . .• 2 . How broad and deep i s T ' a i g o r g e ! 1 The mountain t r e e s are so l u x u r i a n t and green. 2 Unceasing r a i n s have o b s t r u c t e d my rou t e ; Great t o r r e n t s flow i n every d i r e c t i o n . The c e n t r a l road i s cut o f f and without rutsjj So I a l t e r course and mount the steep r i d g e . The long slopes reach to the clouds and sun, My bl a c k horse i s p a l i n g from f a t i g u e . >7 172 3-His blackness has paled but he can s t i l l advance. My thoughts are sad and d e j e c t e d . In t h i s sad d e j e c t i o n who i s i t that I t h i n k of? A beloved f r i e n d l i v i n g f a r away. 1 Our f i r s t p l a n was to be tog e t h e r , But t h i n g s changed and i t was not to be. 2 3 An owl s h r i e k s from my c a r r i a g e yoke, 5 J ^ Wolves have taken to the roads and paths. Blue f l i e s have changed white i n t o b l a c k With a r t f u l s l a n d e r that estranges c l o s e s t f r i e n d s . I wish to r e t u r n but am cut o f f without t r a c k s ; H o l d i n g the r e i g n s , I stop i n i n d e c i s i o n . How can I l i n g e r i n i n d e c i s i o n ? There w i l l be no end to my thoughts of you. The autumn wind b r i n g s a s l i g h t c h i l l As c o l d cicadas c h i r p at my s i d e . 1 So d e s o l a t e now, the w i l d p l a i n s , The white sun suddenly hides i n the west. 2 Returning b i r d s f l y toward the l o f t y wood, T h e i r wings w h i r r i n g as they pass. A l o n e l y beast runs i n search of the herd, I t s mouth f i l l e d with g r a s s , I t cannot eat at l e i s u r e 4 Moved by these t h i n g s , I f e e l great d i s t r e s s , B e a t i n g my b r e a s t , I heave a l o n g sigh.- 3 1 2 What good w i l l come of si g h i n g ? 5 Heaven's w i l l i s set a g a i n s t me. What use to worry about my brother? Once gone, h i s form w i l l not r e t u r n . 4 His l o n e l y s o u l f l i e s to i t s former home, But h i s casket s t i l l remains i n the c a p i t a l 5 Those l e f t w i l l soon a l s o pass away: The body d e c l i n e s and then i s gone." A man's l i f e l a s t s but a g e n e r a t i o n „ And then p e r i s h e s l i k e the morning dew. o My years have reached t h e i r h o r i z o n , T h e i r glow cannot be pursued.9 I know that I am not stone or metal, Ah I How i t saddens my heart.10 My h e a r t ' s sadness moves my very s o u l . _ C a s t i n g i t a s i d e , I won't speak of i t again. A s t r o n g man's w i l l encompasses the f o u r seas, Within a myriad miles a l l are l i k e h i s neighbours. I f h i s grace and love are not d i m i n i s h e d , Those f a r away become ever more c l o s e . Men don't need to l i v e c l o s e t o g e t h e r ^ o Before they can speak t h e i r deepest thoughts, ' But i f d e p r e s s i o n becomes a s i c k n e s s ^ It i s only the sentiment of women and c h i l d r e n . When f e e l i n g s f o r f l e s h and blood are ravaged, Could one but harbour great b i t t e r n e s s ? 7-How t h i s b i t t e r n e s s d i s t u r b s my thoughts! The w i l l of Heaven must t r u l y be doubted. I t i s v a i n and empty to seek the immortals; Master Sung has deceived us too long. Mortal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s take p l a c e In an i n s t a n t ; Who can h o l d on f o r a hundred years? Once we separate, we w i l l never meet again; When can we once more j o i n hands? 3 4 My l o r d you must c h e r i s h your p r e c i o u s body ' So that we may enjoy great o l d age together.- 3 H o l d i n g back my t e a r s I begin the long road, "' Taking up my brush I must now b i d you f a r e w e l l . 1 7 4 Notes: A. Pre face "'"According to L i Shan's note, t h i s p i e c e was o r i g i n a l l y e n t i t l e d : %h~ l l *%> If , "Written i n Ch'uan Ch'eng". Ch'uan Ch'eng (sometimes w r i t t e n ^ J^O ) was s i t u a t e d i n present-day Honan. Pr i n c e Pai-ma was Chih's h a l f - b r o t h e r Ts'ao Piao. His s t y l e was Chu-hu feu . There i s some i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h i s t i t l e and preface as, a c c o r d i n g to the SKC (WC 2 0 / 1 0 a ) Piao was not made Pr i n c e of Pai-ma u n t i l 2 2 6 (H.C. 7 ) . Some s c h o l -ars b e l i e v e that there must be an omission i n the SKC and that Piao was t e m p o r a r i l y e n f i e f e d as P r i n c e of Pai-ma i n 2 2 3 . I t seems more l i k e l y however, t h a t , as L e i Chia-Chi has argued, the preface and t i t l e were added l a t e r e i t h e r by Chih or by a f o r g e r . Thus, at the time that the poems were w r i t t e n , Piao was i n f a c t P r i n c e of Wu. See L e i Chia-Chi, >| j£ #f &4 3- M> % ft $ p. 5 9 . HYHP # 1 2 . 2 Chang P'u and Chu Hsu'-tseng make t h i s the " f i r s t month" They must be mistaken as P ' i d i d not r e t u r n to Loyang u n t i l the t h i r d month of 2 2 3 . (WC 2 / 2 3 a ) P r i n c e Jen-ch'eng was Ts'ao Chang,% ^  Ts'ao Chih's e l d e r f u l l b r o t h e r . l i The exact seasonal r i t e t h a t . t h e s e l o r d s were to atte n d has been a matter of some d i s p u t e . Most s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e i t was f o r the ceremonies which took place 1 8 days before the "establishment of Autumn"£ that they had come. L e i , however, has argued c o n v i n c i n g l y that they had come f o r the "Great Heat" K% r i t e s . (p. 2 2 ) 5 The death of Pr i n c e Jen-ch'eng seems to have occurred suddenly and somewhat m y s t e r i o u s l y . T h e r e ' l s an u n v e r i f i a b l e account In the Shih-shuo hsin-yu which i n d i c a t e s that he was poisoned by Ts'ao P ' i who was envious of h i s younger b r o t h e r ' s s t r e n g t h and v i r i l i t y . (See SSHY 3 3 / 1 , Mather pp. 4 7 0 - 4 7 1 ) ^Even i f Piao was e n f i e f e d as P r i n c e of Wu he would have had to t r a v e l east before heading south to h i s f i e f . Chih was most l i k e l y r e t u r n i n g to Chuan Ch'eng or Yung Ch'iu. -k.%'\ Because of the s t r i c t r u l e s governing f e u d a l l o r d s which had been imposed by P ' i and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Chih and Piao would not be allowed to see each other.- a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e f s . Thus, a f t e r t h e i r departure from the c a p i t a l they might not see one another f o r a very long time, i f ever. Poem #1 Chih has been d e l i b e r a t e l y i n a c c u r a t e i n the f i r s t l i n e . The Ch'eng Ming H a l l was no longer i n e x i s t e n c e at the 1 7 5 time the poem r e l a t e s t o . # I t was used by the former Han emper-ors i n Ch'ang An. (See Yu p. 1 1 3 . ) ;-; 2 The former t e r r i t o r y was e i t h e r Chuan ChAeng or Yung Ch'iu as mentioned i n note #6 above. The r e c o r d i n the SKC tends to i n d i c a t e that Chih had been moved to Yung Ch'iu before being c a l l e d to the c a p i t a l . However, i t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i -b l e that he was not moved there u n t i l sometime a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to Chiian Ch'eng. Mount Shou-yang was the h i g h e s t peak i n the Pei-mang range and was s i t u a t e d some 20 li northeast of Loyang; -It -was probably not the same place that the legendary b r o t h e r s Po-yi and Shu-ch'i were said to have s t a r v e d to death, but i t seems that people at the time b e l i e v e d that I t was, (see Chu 5 / l 8 b ) . By mentioning i t , Chih undoubtedly was making an a l l u s i o n to that legend. The s i g n i f i c a n c e was probably t h a t , whereas Po-yi and Shu-ch'i had p r e f e r r e d to s t a r v e to death r a t h e r than take the throne from one another, Ts'ao P ' i had r a t h e r unashamedly and r u t h l e s s l y assumed the throne and done a great d e a l to i n s u r e that h i s b r o t h e r s d i d not take i t from him. the Lo The Y i and Lo are r i v e r s near Loyang, the Y i flows Into 5 The e a s t e r n road was the road back to h i s f i e f . The w a l l s and towers are n a t u r a l l y those of Loyang. Poem 2 ^ T ' a i Gorge seems to have been some 50 7 i s s o u t h - e a s t of Loyang. Although there are c o n f l i c t i n g accounts of i t s l o c a -t i o n , i t was probably the same p l a c e that Chih mentioned i n h i s Lo-shen fu. There he c a l l e d i t T'ung G o r g e , . 2 "unceasing r a i n s " , see "For T i n g Y i " note #4. 3 4 The SKC annotation reads ^ © . ^ The WH gives $ . 5 )X_ The WH gives Yu Kuan-ying s p e c u l a t e s that t h i s r i d g e was one j u s t west of Ch'eng Kaoi£ % where he, b e l i e v e s Chih and Piao would have had to take leave of each other . 6The l a s t couplet owes much to the t h i r d ode i n the Shih • Ching which reads : f$ '<iJL % $> , ty* % ' % , "I was ascending that l o f t y r i d g e , but my horses' blackness yellowed" (my t r a n s . ) (See Legge p. 8 ) Chu Hsi's commentary to t h i s passage i s that the horses were so f a t i g u e d that they changed c o l o u r . Shih Ching 1 / 3 / 3 . 1 7 6 There are those who would make t h i s second poem pa r t of the f i r s t . They have two major reasons f o r doing t h i s . F i r s t l y , the two poems have the same rhyme whereas none of the others continue the rhyme of the pre c e d i n g v e r s e . Secondly, a l l the other poems begin by r e p e a t i n g a key phrase from the l a s t l i n e of the preceding poem. This i s not the case between poems one and two. As Wang Shih-chen has noted however, t h i s set of poems i m i t a t e s the s t y l e of the f i r s t poem i n the Great-er Odes i n the Shih Ching 5 8 / 2 3 5 (see Legge 4 2 7 - 4 3 1 ) . In that p i e c e , the stanzas f r e q u e n t l y , but not i n v a r i a b l y , repeat the l a s t l i n e of the preceding stanza. Therefore i t i s q u i t e reasonable that the second poem of "Pai-ma" might not b e ^ i n by r e p e a t i n g the l a s t l i n e of the f i r s t . (See i i L l ^ . J\Lf£j% quoted by Chu 5 / 1 9 a ) . Poem 3 "'"The beloved f r i e n d was of course Ts'ao Piao. 2 Owls were considered to be very i n a u s p i c i o u s b i r d s by the ancient Chinese-. 3The WH givesvfe fov$ft 4 The owls and wolves most l i k e l y r e present e v i l , p e t t y men who had become i n f l u e n c i a l at the i m p e r i a l c o u r t . The "blue f l i e s " a l s o must represent those at court who had made Ts'ao P ' i s u s p i c i o u s of h i s own b r o t h e r s . The ref e r e n c e to blue f l i e s i s probably d e r i v e d from a passage^ i n the Shih China "Lesser Odes" 5 4 / 2 1 9 - There we read \ If 4 f !fc f : " T h e y buzz about, the blue f l i e s , l i g h t i n g on fences, Ohhappy and courteous s o v e r e i g n , do not b e l i e v e slanderous speeches." (See Legge p. 3 9 4 ) Poem A 1 % Cicadas are s a i d to have a d i f f e r e n t sound i n the f a l l and i n the summer. 2The S C reads % ^ r a t h e r than ^ U~ . Couplets 4 and 5 are re v e r s e d i n the SKC. In an anc i e n t yueh-fu poem e n t i t l e d there i s a l i n e r e a d i n g t y %_pf&- : "Moved by these t h i n g s , I embrace my thoughts.". Chih seems to have borrowed a number of h i s Images f o r Poem IV from t h i s poem. (See WH 2 7 ) . 5 jk*L- The SKC gives ,t . 177 Poem 5. "'"Once again the SKC gives j^L f o r k~ . 2The SKC reads fi[ % • L i t e r a l l y : , "one of the same b i r t h " . I t c o u l d only mean "One borne of the same mother". This must r e f e r to Ts'ao Chang who was, l i k e Chih, the son of Lady P i e n . 4 The former home would presumably by Jen-ch'eng or perhaps Chang's b i r t h - p l a c e . The WH reads for i ^ C . 5 L i u Lu suggests that the p h r a s e s ^ - ^ and co u l d or should be interchanged. This would make e a s i e r r e a d i n g but • i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d t e x t u a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t . 6The SKC gives ft f o r . 7 £ The SKC reads & . o L i t e r a l l y : "My years are i n the Mulberry and Elm". The Mulberry and Elm were two s t a r s In the western sky. In t h i s l i n e they symbolize the p l a c e where the sun s e t s . By saying that h i s years were i n the pl a c e where the sun s e t s , Chih o b v i o u s l y means that he f e e l s he i s g e t t i n g o l d . Most e d i t i o n s give i n place of;?, . % meaning " l i g h t " or "the sun" makes more sense i n terms of the metaphor Chih has developed. 1 0 *i The SKC gives . Poem 6 "'"This l i n e i s r e l a t e d to one found In the f i r s t of the " 1 9 Old Poems" which reads % k\ % '\\^L > "Cast i t aside and don;'jt speak of i t aga i n . " Ts'ao P ' i a l s o employed a s i m i l a r l i n e i n the second of h i s "Occa s i o n a l Poems"; see CSKS 1 / l l b . 2 T h i s ^couplet probably a l l u d e s to the "Biography of Chiang Kung" %• fjfa -ff i n the HHS ( 4 3 ) . Chiang Kung was so fond of h i s younger brot h e r s t h a t he o f t e n s l e p t In the same bed with them. 3Most e d i t i o n s give but Chu Hsii-tseng f o l l o w s the SKC i n g i v i n g , which he appa r e n t l y f e e l s i s more c o r -r e c t . 4 The sentiments of women and c h i l d r e n were, of course, considered to be much l e s s profound than those between men. 1 7 8 Poem '.?' Master Sung, or Ch'ih-sung-tzu was a legendary Immortal. 2Chang P'&ilgives M f o r .• The term*^#Ccan mean simply "a d i s a s t e r " (see Huang's n o t e ) , but here i t probably r e f e r s to death. q The "Lord" JL must be Ts'ao Piao. 4 „ The term "jade body" p o s s i b l y comes from Mel Sheng'a "Seven S t i m u l i " , where there i s a passage; ^ ff j 7^  4" f£ "I have heard that the Crown P r i n c e ' s jade body i s . n o t at -•-peace." I t i s simply a r e s p e c t f u l way of speaking of Plao's body. 5 L i t e r a l l y : "time of yellow h a i r " . 6 iH The SKC reads $ . 7 J & , The SKC reads ^ . 1 7 9 XII. Oceasionat Poem 2 Gathering my robe, I walk from the chamber And l e i s u r e l y s t r o l l between the twin p i l l a r s . 4 The abandoned h a l l s , how s i l e n t now! _ Green weeds cover the c o u r t y a r d s t a i r s . Empty caverns blow f o r t h t h e i r own winds^ „ While a hundred b i r d s r i s e f o r the southward f l i g h t . g S p r i n g thoughts can never be f o r g o t t e n , Sorrow and l o n e l i n e s s u n i t e with me.9 The beauteous one i s on a d i s t a n t road And I am so completely alone.10 Those joyous meetings won't e a s i l y come a g a i n ; 1 1 The o r c h i d and i r i s seldom blossom t w i c e . 1 2 A l l people abandon o l d a f f e c t i o n s , How c o u l d you s t i l l f e e l as you once did? 13 I am the c l i m b i n g moss that c l i n g s to a pine ,^ And the f l o a t i n g weed that l i e s on the stream. With great a t t e n t i o n I w i l l serve your every n e e d , 1 ^ ' 1 ^ Prom morning ' t i l l n i g h t I won't f a l l by the w a y . 1 7 1 8 I f I may always enjoy your grace and regard My heart w i l l remain f o r e v e r content. ° Notes: "''Certain e d i t i o n s e n t i t l e t h i s poem "Sentiment from the Inner Chamber" f£\ \% . The Ming moveable type e d i t i o n does t h i s and p a i r s i t with a f o u r c h a r a c t e r poem a t t r i b u t e d to Ts'ao Chih found i n the YWLC 3 2 / 5 6 3 . The YTHY records t h i s work under the heading " O c c a s i o n a l Poems". The o r i g i n of the t i t l e "Sen-timent from the Inner Chamber" i s probably the YWLC which p l a -ces the poem i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d f i \ i \ . I t does not, how-ever, give any s p e c i f i c t i t l e to the poem I t s e l f . 1 8 0 2 This l i n e i s s i m i l a r to one i n the l a s t i n the s e r i e s of "19 Old Poems" which reads: % ftsj , "Gathering my robe, I r i s e to pace to and f r o . " The "twin p i l l a r s " were perhaps those d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of the doorway. She YWLC ( 3 2 / 5 6 3 ) g i v e s f f o r 'f^ . 5 In t h i s l i n e the l a s t two c h a r a c t e r s seem to have been i n v e r t e d i n order to achieve the proper rhyme. 6The YTHY ( 2 / 3 6 ) gives % f o r . ^ seems more l i k e l y to be c o r r e c t as i n Sung Yu's "Wind Fu" (WH 1 3 ) there i s a l i n e '^E '^ -^ .^ 11 ; "Empty caverns make winds come f o r t h " . 7The YWLC givesj$) i n s t e a d #t| 8 i . • The phrase " s p r i n g thoughts" 4 r m o s t l i k e l y Implies thoughts of the woman f o r her husband. (See Ito p. 1 0 9 ) C e r t a i n e d i t i o n s give r a t h e r than I- t h i n k the former t r a n s l a t e s s l i g h t l y more e a s i l y than the l a t t e r . 1 0 T h e YWLC gives H r a t h e r thanJif) ty ^ . "'""'•Certain e d i t i o n s give i ^ - f o r i$\ . 1 2 T h e Ming e d i t i o n s r e a d l r a t h e r than j^',,>L • 1 3The:"term used i s actually-^- ^ which i s a type of para-s i t i c c l i m b i n g moss or dodder found " e s p e c i a l l y on pine t r e e s . l 4 A, st 1%.'^ This could be read as the term f o r duckweed. 1 5 r r t l l 6 r 'The YWLC gives # , "to o f f e r " . S e v e r a l other ed i t i o n s -f o l l o w t h i s v a r i a n t and i t seems q u i t e reasonable. This i s l i t e r a l l y , "Binding my body and o f f e r i n g my l a p e l and sash." The exact s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i s not e a s i l y determined. Ku Chih and I t o b e l i e v e that i t Is a r e f e r e n c e to c e r t a i n r i t u a l s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l marriage ceremony. The im p l i e d meaning must have to do with the woman's l o y a l t y and respec t f o r her husband. 1 7 3t Apparently some e d i t i o n s r e a d ' ^ . I couldn't f i n d any. l 8 T h e YTHY makes t h i s l i n e ^ M. 9ft 1 9Huang seems to b e l i e v e that the c h a r a c t e r S ' l i n t h i s l a s t l i n e means "to examine". He quotes a l i n e from the Li Sao and a g l o s s from the Erh Ya i$) i n support of h i s theory. The main problem with h i s t h i n k i n g i s that the meaning of "to examine" d o e s not work w e l l i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r context. I have employed t h e more normal meaning of "to f i t w i t h " or, by exten-t i o n , "to s a t i s f y or content" i n my t r a n s l a t i o n . 181 X I I I . Poem of Feelings\ Thin clouds obscure the sun's glow, A c l e a r breeze s w i r l s i n my gown. 2 G l i d i n g f i s h hide beneath green r i v e r s . And r i s i n g b i r d s press toward the sky. So d i s t a n t , the t r a v e l l i n g k n i g h t , Cast a f a r , he cannot r e t u r n . As I f i r s t set out the hard f r o s t was forming, By now the white dew has d r i e d . 5 The wanderer s i g h s , "The Drooping M i l l e t " , ^ The one remaining s i n g s , " L i f e D e c l i n e s " . Disheartened, I face my honoured guests, So s o r r o w f u l , I am s t r i c k e n from w i t h i n . Notes : 1The YTHY (2/36) places t h i s under the heading of "Occa-s i o n a l Poems", the WH (29) i n c l u d e s i t i n the category of "Occa-s i o n a l Poems" but e n t i t l e s i t "Poem of F e e l i n g s " . 2 ^ Many e d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Huang Chieh and the WH (29) ^ , meaning " c l e a r " . The YTHY reads $~, "green". I i read p r e f e r the l a t t e r . 3The word , meaning "to extend toward" or "to cleave — a t o " i s i n a p p o s i t i o n to the word >B , "to h i d e " i n the previous l i n e . The meaning i s that the b i r d s , l i k e the f i s h , have a place i n which to take refuge. ^S^Several e d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Ting Yen and the Ming e d i t i o n s give ^Huang Chieh and Ting Yen c l a i m that the YWLC r e a d s ^ f o r 9Jf> . N e i t h e r of the e d i t i o n s which I saw has t h i s v a r i a n t . (See YWLC 29/515) The YWLC gives 4" 182 'The "Drooping M i l l e t " Shu Li J = W- and " L i f e D e c l i n e s " Shih Wei ^ '1%JL are t i t l e s from the Shih Ching. Their' meaning here has been a matter of d i s p u t e among s c h o l a r s . Ku Chih b e l i e v e s that Chih i s r e f e r r i n g to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g i v e n these two poems i n the "Lesser P r e f a c e " of the Mao Shih. There, the "Drooping M i l l e t " i s s a i d to be a d e s c r i p t i o n of a s c h o l a r -knight's sorrow at seeing the a n c i e n t Chou c a p i t a l i n r u i n s . " L i f e D e c l i n e s " i s supposed to be a poem w r i t t e n to urge Hou Yu to r e t u r n to h i s homeland. Based on those i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Ku maintains that Chih was w r i t i n g i n the mid-Chien An era about the d e s t r u c t i o n the Han and the many m i l i t a r y campaigns which had f o r c e d men to t r a v e l f a r from t h e i r homes. Huang Chieh takes another tack and argues that Chih was r e f e r r i n g to the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s given these poems i n the Han^ commentary and the Lieh-nu Chuan H i% (V3ab , ^ L#4: K. ) The Han commentary i n d i c a t e s that "Drooping M i l l e t " was w r i t t e n by the younger b r o t h e r of a f i l i a l son who was k i l l e d because of the s l a n d e r of one of h i s f a t h e r ' s wives. (See ife !l> .1) l^i CP 9/159). I f t h i s was the case then Chih might be a l l u d i n g to the death of P r i n c e Jen Ch'eng. In the Lieh-nu Chuan i s a s t o r y about a wife who i s n e g l e c t e d by her husband but does not r e t u r n home. The poem " L i f e D e c l i n e s " i s s a i d to have been w r i t t e n to urge her to r e t u r n . The use of t h i s t i t l e oo could i n d i c a t e that Chih was p r o f e s s i n g h i s u n d i v i d e d l o y a l t y to the emperor. Yli Kuan-ying seems to o f f e r the best e x p l a n a t i o n of the a l l u s i o n s . He f e e l s t h at the "Drooping M i l l e t " i s a l l u d e d to only because i t speaks of t r a v e l l i n g o f f to war. The " L i f e D e c l i n e s " i s a l l u d e d to because i t speaks of u r g i n g someone to r e t u r n home. This e x p l a n a t i o n f a i r l y w e l l excludes any s p e c i f i c a l l e g o r i c a l meaning i n the l i n e s of the type Ku and Huang have t r i e d to d e f i n e , but i t makes the couplet seem much more c o n s i s t e n t with the i d e a of a woman l o n g i n g f o r her estranged husband. 183 XIV. The White Horse1 On a white horse with g i l d e d b r i d l e He g a l l o p s s w i f t l y towards the northwest. 2 May I ask, who i s t h i s man? He's the son of a knight from Yu or Ping. When s t i l l s mall he l e f t h i s homeland ^ -To make h i s name on the desert f r o n t i e r s . •' I t ' s been a long time that he's c a r r i e d a bow, His hemlock arrows a l l l i e i n neat a r r a y . 5 Drawing the bowstring he h i t s the l e f t b u l l ' s - e y e ; To the r i g h t h e e s t r i k e s the m o o n . , •• p ost. 6,7 R a i s i n g h i s hand he snatches down a f l y i n g monkey ;a! 9 Then leans down, d r i v i n g h i s horse i n a g l l o p . 8 His quickness of hand surpasses the apes. In courage he i s a panther and a dragon. To the f r o n t i e r w a l l s come many alarms; ^ The nomad horsemen are always on the move. When down from the nort h a c a l l to arms comes 1 1 He w i l l urge h i s horse up the high r i d g e . 12 D r i v i n g f o r t h , he tramples the Huns, Then looks l e f t to a t t a c k the H s i e n - p i . 14 He throws h i m s e l f amid the swords and l a n c e s ; S u r e l y he can't value h i s l i f e ! Nor does he t h i n k of h i s f a t h e r and mother, Much l e s s of h i s c h i l d r e n and wi f e . His name w i l l be found on the l i s t s of brave knights But from t h i s he seeks no s e l f i s h g a i n . Devoting h i s l i f e to the good of the s t a t e He sees death as a r e t u r n to h i s home. 1" 15 184 Notes: .": •' This i s entered i n the "Miscellaneous Song Words" ^ft ^ ILff- s e c t i o n o f the YPSC 63/4b. I t was b e l i e v e d to be a Ch'i Se-hsing'^ltp'tf as were "The Famous C a p i t a l " and "The B e a u t i -f u l Maiden". This p i e c e i s found i n the TPYL 359/2b under the t i t l e "Wandering Knight". 2"May I ask..." 4$//) , t h i s was a standard phrase found i n yueh-fu poems. Yu and Ping were two pro v i n c e s i n northern China. The people there were reputed to be very vigorous and w a r l i k e . J*a , the YWLC reads % . "~<3 7*- i found i t somewhat d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h j u s t what k i n d of arrows these might b e h u was the p r e f e r r e d m a t e r i a l f o r making arrow s h a f t s and was perhaps hemlock. 6 i it > the TPYL reads isu^-7 9\ ^ .pronounced " yut-chih" . T h i s .was the name of a type of t a r g e t . _ . v . Some commentators, such as Chu Hsii-tseng and Yu Kuan-yi n g have argued t h a t J , $tf was a l s o a type of t a r g e t used i n m a r t i a l e x e r c i s e s . These arguments are q u i t e c o n v i n c i n g but I f e e l t h a t , as two types of t a r g e t s have alr e a d y been mentioned i n l i n e s 9 and 10, another mention would have seemed redundant. Thus I have taken the phrase, ifJLfo $f i n a more l i t e r a l way. 9 ML T n e Y F S C givesJXk ML 1 0 JflM t n e W H a n d Y W L C Sive ^ /| . 42/753-, l i t e r a l l y " f e a t h e r e d d i s p a t c h " . In an c i e n t times a "summons-to-action" was w r i t t e n on a wooden s l i p . In times of urgency f e a t h e r s were atta c h e d to the s l i p . 1 2 -4. T n e YFSC reads /£ . This balances the f o l l o w i n g l i n e b e t t e r , but the a p p o s i t i o n of l e f t and r i g h t has al r e a d y been used i n the piec e and i t i s u n l i k e l y that Chih would have used t h i s device twice. 1 3 T h e Hsiung-nu (Huns) and Hsien-pi were two t r i b e s of f r o n t i e r nomads. • 1 1 1 '•- J/;. , the YWLC reads SJJ . : 1 5 , the YWLC reads ;f; J § . For ± the WH reads ^ 1 6 ^.o the YWLC reads % . 185 XV. The Famous Capital In the famous c a p i t a l l i v e many charming g i r l s , In Loyang l i v e many young men. T h e i r j e w e l l e d swords are worth thousands In g o l d ; T h e i r c l o t h e s are p r e t t y and new.3 4 There were cock f i g h t s by the east .side, path And horse races on the c a t a l p a - l l n e d road. 5 6 As they g a l l o p e d along, not half-way t h e r e ^ ' A p a i r of r a b b i t s crossed t h e i r path.' g Grasping h i s bow, one drew a s i n g i n g arrow And gave chase up South Mountain.9 Drawing back l e f t to shoot to the r i g h t His f i r s t arrow h i t both animals. And as there were s k i l l s he had not yet d i s p l a y e d 1 He shot toward the sky and brought down a hawk. Those watching a l l p r a i s e d h i s a b i l i t y , 1 1 The other r i d e r s admitted h i s s k i l l . Then they re t u r n e d to f e a s t i n the P'Ing Lo Tower With f i n e wine worth t en thousand a quart. 13 There was minced carp and stewed shrimp with roe, Cold t u r t l e and r o a s t e d bear paws. 1^ 15 When he c a l l e d to h i s comrades to gather around Not a p l a c e remained on the mats. They flew back and f o r t h p l a y i n g f o o t b a l l and s k i t t l e T h e i r s k i l l s and a g i l i t y had myriad v a r i a t i o n s . But the white sun sped to the southwest. I t s radiance c o u l d not be waylaid. Like the clouds they d i s p e r s e d beyond the c i t y w a l l s , They would r e t u r n again with the coming of c l e a r dawn 1 8 6 Notes: The poem o s t e n s i b l y d e s c r i b e s l i f e i n the great Han c a p i t a l of Loyang but Chih may have been w r i t i n g i n r e f e r e n c e to the Wei c a p i t a l of Yeh. Th i s p i e c e i s contained i n the YFSC under the heading of "Miscellaneous Song Tunes", 63/2b-3 a . From the s t y l e and phr a s i n g i t seems to have been w r i t t e n at around the same time as "The White Horse". 2The YWLC reads JLlfc f o r ^  42 / 7 5 3 -, the WH 27 reads £ j£_ ^ . the YWLC reads -4 ?£- . ^ jfjCi > there are s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s . YFSC g i v e s , , YWLC gi v e s h% %h , and WH gives j&fc Jfc . 6 ^ / 5 L f , the YFSC g i v e s ^ ^ f . 7 This does not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be taken as f i r s t personal" 5 s i n g u l a r . In poetry of t h i s era i t could r e f e r to the t h i r d person or persons as w e l l . 8 i t , the TPYL 746/3a reads . Q South Mountain was a mountain near Loyang. 1 0 ^ ^ / | _ t h e TPYL reads jL^/C . 11 i f Jk. , the YFSC gives $ 1 9 & iH -f >"i> , t h i s was the name of a tower o u t s i d e the west-ern gate of Loyang. 1 3 T h i s i s , as Chu Hsu-tseng l a b o r i o u s l y p o i n t s out, a b i t of hyperbole. YFSC gives jfa . 1 5 fc€ 48 , the WH 27 gives g . was a type of b a l l . There was a ki n d of game i n which i t was k i c k e d a r o u n d . g a n g was a k i n d of wooden s k i t t l e , t h i c k at one end and sharp at the other. I t was p l a c e d at a d i s t a n c e and another p i e c e of wood was thrown at i t In an attempt to knock i t down. 1 8 7 XVI. The Beautiful Maiden A b e a u t i f u l maiden, a t t r a c t i v e and charming P i c k s mulberry leaves by the f o r k i n the road. 2 The s o f t branches sway i n p r o f u s i o n , F a l l i n g leaves f l u t t e r to the ground. Her r o l l e d - u p sleeve r e v e a l s a s i l k - w h i t e hand; On her f a i r w r i s t i s a b r a c e l e t of gold.3 Golden swallow c l a s p s h o l d up her h a i r , ,-And from her waist hang pendants of blue jade. B r i g h t p e a r l s are strung a l l around her p r e c i o u s f i g u r e ! While s t r i n g s of c o r a l are mixed with green p e a r l s . 7 o Her s i l k e n robes seem to be f l o a t i n g As her l i g h t s k i r t s w i r l s with the wind. Q From her glances a l i g h t seems to shine f o r t h ..Q And when she sings her b r e a t h i s l i k e o r c h i d s . Passers-by stop i n t h e i r c a r r i a g e s ; Those r e s t i n g f o r g e t to eat t h e i r meals. Pray t e l l , where does t h i s maiden l i v e ? 1 1 She l i v e s to the south of the town. 12 Her p a i n t e d tower i s by the great road, I t s high gate blocked up with wooden beams. 13 So f a i r as to r i v a l the b r i l l i a n t morning sun, Who would not p r a i s e her wondrous beauty? What i s that match-maker busy with? She d i d n ' t f i x a match while there was time. But t h i s one of beauty admires l o f t y p r i n c i p l e s And f i n d i n g such v i r t u e i s very hard. 15 The crowd of s u i t o r s only r a i s e s a hubbub; How c o u l d they know what she r e s p e c t s ? 1 " Thus her best years are wasted i n that chamber, She o f t e n wakes i n the n i g h t and s i g h s . 1 8 8 Notes: "'"This i s contained i n the YFSC under "Miscellaneous Song Words''^ as a Ch'i-se-hsing ^ fa I t seems to have been w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of an anc i e n t yueh-fu "Mulberry by. the Road" 2 %. The -YTHY 2 / 3 7 gives . The Pei-t'ang Shu-oh'ao 1 3 6 / 8 a g i v e s . The PTSC give s 8 . The Ch te-hsueh'-shi • 8£ %U ! 9 / 4 5 7 gives . The TPYL 7 l 8 / l b gives £ j£ . 3i1L.The CHC gives . 4 U J: The PTSC reads 3k *f The TPYL giv e s I I 5The YWLC 1 8 / 3 2 6 reads Z- f o r | j . . The TPYL giv e s ^ it. ^"Precious f i g u r e " , l i t e r a l l y ; "jade body", see "For Prince .Pai-ma, Piao" #7 ,. note '#4. mu-nan, ; t h i s was a. type of green p e a r l r e p u t e d to be formed from the s a l i v a of a c e r t a i n b i r d . 9 fl$F The YTHY gives #2) . 1 0 The YWLC reads • 11-Jc^r J& the Ming moveable-type e d i t i o n reads -JrJ^ J$ • 1 2 ?L l ^ t h e Tai-Kung liu-i'ieh ' - . fa %l 1 0 / 1 3 a g i v e s 1 3 The YWLC gives ^ . This l i n e might a l s o be t r a n s l a t e d as "Her beauty shines i n the morning sun". ^ £• ^  , l i t e r a l l y , "Jade and s i l k " . A jade baton and a r o l l of s i l k were t r a d i t i o n a l tokens i n the b e t r o t h a l c e r e -mony . 1 5 the WH reads fa . 1 6 , the YTHY gives 189 XVII. Wandering as an Immortal1 2 A man's years seldom reach a hundred. _ Sad and alone, there i s l i t t l e to r e j o i c e f o r . 4 In my heart I want to spread great wings To j o i n the mists that t r a v e r s e the purple v o i d . 5 6 Just l i k e Sung and Chiao I ' l l shed my e a r t h l y s k i n , ' And f o l l o w the t r a c k s that ascend from Lake Ting.7 Q Soaring above amid the Nine Heavens I w i l l give r e i g n and journey a f a r . Q To the east I w i l l see the b r i g h t Sun Tree; Westward I w i l l near the Jo R i v e r ' s flow.10 11 To the north I w i l l v i s i t Heaven's b l a c k i s l e s , 1 1 , ^ And then southward f l y to climb the Cinnabar H i l l s . Notes: This seems to have been I n s p i r e d by the Yuan Yu i n the Ch'u Tz'u. I t i s not found i n YFSC and one wonders how • i t came to be c l a s s i f i e d as a yueh-fu r a t h e r than a shih. , 2 T h i s l i n e i s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to a l i n e i n the t h i r -teenth of the "19 Old Poems" which reads % & j& S ; "The years we l i v e don't reach a hundred." 3 J l ^ T h e YWLC 78/1332 reads^C A . T h i s seems to be a more e v o c a t i v e v e r s i o n and I have f o l l o w e d i t . ^ |]$ L i t e r a l l y , " s i x q u i l l s " , t h i s r e f e r s to the s i x p r i n c i p a l f e a t h e r s on a bird''s wing. Sung and .Chiao were Ch ' ih-sung-tzu and Wang-tzu-chiao , theso were famous immortals. l i t e r a l l y , "to exuviate as a c i c a d a " ; the process of becoming an immortal was imagined to be s i m i l a r to the pro-cess of e x u v i a t i o n . 190 7 Lake Ting was the p l a c e where the Yellow Emperor was s a i d to have ascended to heaven. o "Nine Heavens", these were the regions of the heavens corresponding to the e i g h t p o i n t s of the compass and the centre 9 \k & , l i t e r a l l y , " supporting mulberry", t h i s was a m y t h o l o g i c a l t r e e which was s a i d to grow i n the east and sup-port the sun. 1 0 T h e Jo R i v e r flowed west out of Kansu, thus i t was b e l i e v e d to move toward the land of the immortals. 1 1 % "dark o r r b l a c k " was the c o l o u r a s s o c i a t e d with the n o r t h . 1 2 The Cinnabar H i l l s or Red H i l l s were a legendary d w e l l i n g p l a c e of immortals. They were s a i d to glow day and n i g h t . 191 XVIII. Travelling the Fifth Realm1 2 The nine regions are too small f o r my t r a v e l s I want to t r a v e r s e the clouds and soar. Roaming about beyond the e i g h t f r o n t i e r s I w i l l c a st my gaze to the d i s t a n t w i l d s . 5 I w i l l open my cinnabar-mist cloakg And u n r a v e l my s i l k rainbow-skirt :.. 7 8 The Flower Canopy i s f r a g r a n t and shady; ' My s i x dragons prance toward the sky. 9 Before the b r i g h t sun can s h i f t i t s rays I suddenly reach the vast heavens' b l u e . The gate of Heaven opens i t s cinnabar d o o r ; 1 0 Twin s p i r e s throw f o r t h t h e i r s c a r l e t glow. I pace up and down i n the Wen Ch'ang Palace Then ascend to the T ' a i Wei Hall.12 13 The Lord of Heaven r e s t s on the western balcony A l l the empresses are gathered i n the east chamber. Jasper pendants dangle at my waist As I r i n s e my mouth with e l i x i r of midnight m i s t . S t r o l l i n g to and f r o I admire the ling chih,15's1^ 'Round about, I f r o l i c amid f r a g r a n t blossoms. 17 Wang Tzu o f f e r s the drug of i m m o r t a l i t v . Hslen Men b r i n g s f o r t h magic p o t i o n s . I f C T I take them I w i l l enjoy great l o n g e v i t y , My l i f e w i l l be preserved without end. 192 Notes: There are f o u r d i r e c t i o n s or regions on the e a r t h ; n o r t h , south, east and west. The f i f t h d i r e c t i o n or r e g i o n i s upwards, toward the sky. 2 The known world was d i v i d e d i n t o nine p r o v i n c e s or regions i n Chinese m y t h o l o g i c a l times. 3 fjji T h i s may be simply a m i s p r i n t i n my e d i t i o n of Huang, but most e d i t i o n s g i v e . 4 /v || p S hung. Beyond the nine provinces were t h e " e i g h t d i s t a n t realms , and beyond those were t h e , v e i g h t f r o n -t i e r s " or " e x t r e m i t i e s " , s^- . 5 Cinnabar or mercurous oxide was a substance t r a d i -t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the i m m o r t a l i t y c u l t . ^"Rainbow-skirt" i s a term found i n the "Nine Songs" JLifc. There i s a great deal of e x o t i c terminology and imagery i n t h i s poem borrowed from the v a r i o u s pieces in'*the Ch'u Tz'u. See- Chia Ko. . 2/4l f . 7 The Flowered Canopy was supposedly made by the Yellow Emperor duri n g h i s wars ag a i n s t Ch' i h Yu ^ from a f i v e -c o loured c l o u d . See .h/2a. 8 *-l The YWLC g i v e s , ^ f o r % . The Sung e d i t i o n : gives The Sung e d i t i o n f u r t h e r reads ^ f o r 8^ . ^The sun i s r e f e r r e d to as "the d a z z l i n g s p i r i t ' ^ HL . l ° T n e " g a t e of Heaven" i s r e f e r r e d to by i t s legendary name, Ch ' ang Ho j ^ j . 1 1 T h e YWLC givesfjfj for$|] . 12 The Wen Ch'ang palace and the T ' a i Wei H a l l were two of the three palaces that were b e l i e v e d to e x i s t i n Heaven. Wen Ch'ang and T ' a i Wei were a l s o the names of s t a r s . 1 3 V / | ^ L The Sung e d i t i o n gives . hang hsieh, t h i s was a k i n d of vapour produced i n the n o r t h i n the middle of the n i g h t . 1 5 J $ - P $M The Sung e d i t i o n reads ^ ^Ling chih i s a type of fungus reputed to endow immor-t a l i t y i f eaten c o r r e c t l y . 1 7Wang Tzu was Wang Tzu Ch' iao ^ , Master of the Rain, i n Shen Nung's time and a famous immortal. 193 l 8 H s l e n Men was Hsien Men Tzu Kao,^f^ % a famous fang shih % or s o r c e r o r . 194 XIX. East of V 1 ing Ling The gates of Heaven are open, The Milky Way passes through them. Donning a f e a t h e r e d c l o a k , I w i l l r i d e a f l y i n g dragon. I w i l l r i d e a f l y i n g dragon To meet with the Immortals. In the east I climb Mount P'eng L a i to p i c k the l i n g chih Pick the l i n g chih, f o r i f you should eat them 6 7 3 Your years, l i k e Wang Fu's, w i l l be without end. ' ' * Notes: The o r i g i n a l l y r i c s to t h i s yueh-fu were b e l i e v e d to have been w r i t t e n by the f o l l o w e r s of a c e r t a i n T s ' u e i Y i of the Han Dynasty. T s ' u e i YI l e d an u n s u c c e s s f u l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t Wang Mang and was executed f o r i t . Ts'ao Chih's poem i s w r i t t e n i n roughly the same form but has a completely d i f -f e r e n t theme. 2 f%\f£\ Ch'ang Ho, i s the proper name of one of the gates of Heaven. 3 M i l k y Way, ^.flff , l i t e r a l l y "the (western l e a d i n g ) road of Heaven". ^P'eng Lai,££-jjL , a m y t h i c a l mountain i n the sea r e -puted to be a home of the Immortals. ^Ling chih || i s a t y P e o f fungus b e l i e v e d to endow immo r t a l i t y i f eaten. ^ /£ C h u Hsu-tseng gives ^ £|§ . 7 Wang Fu i , a famous immortal who - i t was b e l i e v e d , l i v e d i n a palace i n the Fu-sang,Tree where the sun came to r e s t . 8 & t , Chang P'u reads $L ^ . 195 XX. Ballad of Bitter Thoughts Green vines climb the t r e e of jade, A b r i g h t radiance glows a l l around them. 2 Beneath are two immortals Who r a i s e t h e i r wings to f l y a l o f t . 3 My heart leaps with excitement, I ' l l h o l d f a s t a cloud i n p u r s u i t . 4 Luxuriant and green i s the Western Peak; Looming d a r k l y , the stone palace reaches the sky. 7 Within, there l i v e s an o l d r e c l u s e . His beard and h a i r are the purest white. g S t a f f i n hand, he f o l l o w s i n my wanderings And teaches me- to f o r g e t mere words . Notes: X T h i s i s found i n the YFSC $f $ H ^ 53/7b. There are no o l d e r yueh-fu of t h i s t i t l e now extant. 2 & ^ , l i t e r a l l y , " r e a l man",., t h i s term was very e a r l y a part of the 'Taoist vocabulary. There Is a lengthy d e s c r i p -t i o n In the Chuang Tzu, Ta-tsung-shih P'HenK.%^^ 3/lb-2b, on the nature and a b i l i t i e s of ohen-jen. L a t e r , as the Immor-t a l i t y c u l t developed, ahen-jen became f a i r l y much synonymous with the term hsien-jenjtM /LThe term u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "immortal" . 3 £#l most e d i t i o n s read %h . Kuo Yun-p'eng apparently r e a d s g ^ . 4 it The Western Peak, a l s o known as Hua Mountainjp itt , was one of the f i v e sacred peaks. I t was s i t u a t e d i n Shensi. 5The YFSC reads ^ j?), , the YWLC reads ^ ^ . ^"Stone p a l a c e " ; . a n c i e n t l y i n h a b i t e d by an immortal c a l l e d Kuang-ch'eng-tzu Jfy-^r • 1 9 6 7 The YWLC does not have the c h a r a c t e r —~ . 8 ^ , the YWLC give s % . 9 T h i s must come from the Chuang Tz'u. In ^ Wai-wu P'len WW%9/6a., there i s a passage ^ /TpA £ , ^ | jr, ^ "Words are that which possess meaning. Once you have obtained the meaning you can f o r g e t the words." 197 XXI. T r a v e l l i n g Afar1 T r a v e l l i n g a f a r I reach the f o u r seas; A l l around I see the great waves. Huge f i s h , t h e i r backs l i k e mountains, Ride the waves and pass be f o r e me. D i v i n e t u r t l e s bear Mount Pang Chang on t h e i r heads; J The S p i r i t Peak i s rugged and severe.^ Immortals soar about the summit, Jade maidens f r o l i c on the s l o p e s . 5 The ah'iung t r e e ' s buds q u e l l my hunger g As I r a i s e my head to Inhale the morning m i s t . 7 I f i r s t l i v e d i n the K'un Lun Range, The c e n t r a l s t a t e s are not my home. g I am r e t u r n i n g now to see the Father of the E a s t : With one leap I w i l l t r a v e r s e the f l o w i n g sands.° Beatin g my wings I dance on the winds, My long c r i e s r i n g through the c l e a r r e f r a i n . Metal and stone are e a s i l y broken But my l i f e w i l l glow with the sun and moon. I f I could l i v e as long as heaven and e a r t h Why would I wish to r u l e a great s t a t e ? 1 0 Notes: 1 T h i s p i e c e i s contained i n the YFSC under the heading "Miscellaneous Song Words" 64/la-b. I t of course c a r r i e s the same t i t l e ( j j j i ) as a piece i n the Ch'u Tz'u a t t r i b u t e d to Ch'u Yuan and owes much to that p i e c e . 2The YFSC reads T|<^  r a t h e r than . Mount Fang Chang was one of the three mountains where immortals were b e l i e v e d to l i v e . According to legend those 1 9 8 mountains o r i g i n a l l y f l o a t e d f r e e l y on the sea. The Emperor?, of Heaven f e a r e d that they would f l o a t away so he ordered f i f -teen d i v i n e t u r t l e s to r a i s e t h e i r heads and h o l d them i n p l a c e . ^ I t o b e l i e v e s that " s p i r i t peak" <f^  r e f e r s s p e c i f i -c a l l y to Mount Fang Chang. 5 The ch'iung t r e e grew from jade. I t s f r u i t was a l l e g e d to bestow i m m o r t a l i t y when eaten. 6 W £ the YFSC gives i$fs%L . 7 The K'un Lun Mountains were b e l i e v e d to be a d w e l l i n g place of the immortals. Q Father of the E a s t ; a c c o r d i n g to the "Record of the Ten C o n t i n e n t s " , -f yMj |£j on top of the Fu Sang t r e e (see note # 1 0 to "Wandering as an Immortal) there was a. palace c a l l e d T'ai-ti-kung 3p ^ . T h e r e i n l i v e d and r e i g n e d T'ai-chen Tung-wang-fu ^ fejj^JL • ^ •JL ^ "Flowing sands", the immortals were b e l i e v e d to l i v e i n the mountain ranges to the west of the great d e s e r t s . 1 0 L i t e r a l l y , "How could ten thousand c h a r i o t s be h i g h -l y regarded?" A n c i e n t l y , s t a t e s were ranked a c c o r d i n g to the number of war c h a r i o t s they c o u l d muster. A ten thousand c h a r i o t country was c o n s i d e r e d a l a r g e country. XXII. Alas'. A l a s ! The tumbling weed, Why do you alone s u f f e r t h i s f a t e ? So f a r removed from your r o o t s and stem From morning ' t i l n i g h t you f i n d no repose. East and west you cross From north to south you Then meeting a whirlwind And are blown a l o f t amid the seven highways, overpass the nine byways. you r i s e the c l o u d s . Just when you t h i n k you are on the road to heaven You are suddenly cast down a deep abyss. S t a r t l e d gales meet you as you ascend, As you r e t u r n t o l i v e i n the f i e l d s . S t a r t i n g south then t u r n i n g north;. Going east and r e t u r n i n g to the west, 5 Amid such vastness what can you r e l y on? Abruptly you p e r i s h and then r e t u r n to l i f e . Tossed and blown, you c i r c l e the e i g h t marshes, F l y i n g and s w i r l i n g , you cross the f i v e mountains Flowing, t u r n i n g , there i s nowhere you l i n g e r ; Who knows of your b i t t e r hardship? You would r a t h e r be l i k e the grassnof the f o r e s t That are ravaged by the w i l d - f i r e s of autumn. Though to be reduced to ashes would be p a i n f u l You would p r e f e r to be u n i t e d with your r o o t s . " 200 Notes: i , "'"This i s recorded In the category of " C l e a r Melodies" |J»] w • I t was supposed to have^been w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of the standard tune " B i t t e r Cold" "ft $ H . YFSC 3 3 / l l a - b . The note by P'ei Sung-chih i n the WC 19/21b c a l l s t h i s piece a "Lute Song", f ^ %t % . 2 5<g The WC reads . 3The YWLC 42/755 reads ^ f o r ^  . ^ JL. 3 the WC reads <>0 . Huang b e l i e v e s that the WC i s c o r r e c t and that i s an a l t e r a t i o n made durin g T'ang due to the taboo on the c h a r a c t e r ;jfj( . 5 £ £ > t h e W C r e a d s * £ ' ^The e i g h t marshes were famous bogs s i t u a t e d i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s around China proper.. 7 The " f i v e mountains" were probably the " f i v e sacred peaks" 3i-%X mentioned i n note #4 to " B a l l a d of B i t t e r Thoughts 8 the WC gives jj^ . ,, - . ^The YFSC reads f o r Jtf^ . The WC reads f o r 201 XXIII. Duckweed1 2 Duckweed.lying on the c l e a r water ^ ^ Follows the wind f l o w i n g east and west. ' On becoming a woman I l e f t my parents To come to be a gentleman's mate. Though r e s p e c t f u l and a t t e n t i v e from morning ' t i l l n i g h t .I was f a u l t e d f o r a mistake never made.5 Formerly I r e c e i v e d h i s kindness and grace, g Our happiness was l i k e the p l a y i n g of l u t e s . Now, f o r no reason, that has a l l been destroyed; We are estranged l i k e two d i s t a n t s t a r s . 7 The dogwood has a fragrance of i t s own Yet i t can't compare with the c a s s i a or o r c h i d . Although h i s new woman i s p r e t t y g She doesn't please him l i k e the one of o l d . 9 The s h i f t i n g clouds w i l l come back sometime. Perhaps my l o r d ' s grace may a l s o r e t u r n . So d i s c o n t e n t e d , I look to the heavens and s i g h . .10 How can I express my heartAs d i s t r e s s ? -The sun and moon don't t a r r y f o r l o n g : 1 1 Man's l i f e i s as b r i e f as a sojo u r n . 2 13 A sad wind enters through my c u r t a i n s ; Tears drop l i k e f a l l i n g dew. 14 15 I w i l l b r i n g out my basket and make new c l o t h e s , ' C u t t i n g and s t i t c h i n g the f i n e g l o s s y s i l k . 1 " Notes: "'"Duckweed,,which f l o a t s on ponds and streams without f i x i n g i t s r o o t s to anything,had become a stock symbol of I n s e c u r i t y and r o o t l e s s n e s s by Ts'ao Chih's time. In Wang Po's 202 "Nine Longings (Han Dynasty), we f i n d t h i s passage: H ^ '*% 1%> >^ i t  J5 & $J> "How sad the duckweed, f l o a t i n g aoout with no r o o t s . " 2The YWLC 41/742 gives jtfL i n p l a c e of 4 ^ l i t e r a l l y ; '."tying up h a i r " . The t y i n g ;up of one's h a i r was pa r t of the coming-of-age ceremony i n an c i e n t China. For women t h i s took plac e at age 15 and f o r men i t took plac e at the age of 20. 4 o2 l i t e r a l l y : "severe r e l a t i v e " . In contempor-ary usage t h i s r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the f a t h e r . I have f o l -lowed Yu Kuan-ylng's suggestion i n t a k i n g t h i s to r e f e r to both p a r e n t s , however. 5The YWLC reads <f ^  1% r a t h e r t h a n ^ i-% tfji 2f> . ^This seems to owe something to a passage i n the Shih Ching which reads : ^  4 J& "The l o v i n g union of wives and c h i l d r e n i s l i k e the music of drums and l u t e s . " Legge 252 . * # , $ 34/64/7 . ^ l i t e r a l l y , "the Shang and Shen". These were two s t a r s at opposite ends of the sky. There i s a _story i n the Tso Chuart- • about two brothe r s (sons of Kao H s i n ^ ^ ) who were sent, to l i v e i n a f o r e s t t o g e t h e r . They c o u l d not abide with each other and c o n s t a n t l y fought. This d i s p l e a s e d the Emperor Yao and he sent one of them to be the s p i r i t of the Shang s t a r and the other to be the s p i r i t of the Shen s t a r . See Jl/\% Legge p. 580. TJje YWLC and a Sung e d i t i o n make t h i s passage read: $L.fl\%^ . The YTHY and YFSC give i n , p l a c e of ^ . The f a c t ' that the YWLC v e r s i o n of t h i s l i n e i s sup-ported by a Sung e d i t i o n makes i t tempting to adopt i t as be-ing c o r r e c t . However, the v e r s i o n g i v e n by Huang_is r e l a t e d to a couplet In an "Old Poem" which reads : fjf 0 % 4$ A- m~ , "Although h i s new woman i s s a i d to be p r e t t y , she's s t i l l not as b e a u t i f u l as the one of o l d " . See CHS 9 The YWLC gi v e s . 1 0 JJ^^The YTHY gives # 2/39 • 1 1 'ff The YTHY reads ^ . 1 2 T h e Sung e d i t i o n and YFSC read/t>^ ^  . I p r e f e r t h i s as i t has a p a r a l l e l i n the "19 Old Poems", #14', which reads : A_ y% ^ , " L i f e i s as s w i f t as a sojo u r n . 1 3 T h e YFSC reads "H_ f o r 'Hi . l 2 | ' f ^ . T h e YFSC gives ^  . I p r e f e r t h i s . 2 0 3 ^ I J f i c The YFSC gives !£. jk. . "^The a s s o c i a t i o n of new c l o t h e s with an abandoned wife i s unusual. Yu has suggested that perhaps the l a s t two l i n e s r e f e r to the new wife r a t h e r than the o l d one. See p. 8 3 -204 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary sources and traditional sinology T h i s l i s t of Primary sources i s arranged a c c o r d i n g to the t i t l e , of the work i n q u e s t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of Secondary sour-ces Is arranged a c c o r d i n g to the author's name. T r a n s l a t i o n s of Primary sources have been l i s t e d a f t e r the t i t l e of the o r i g i n a l work as a general r u l e . Chao-mei chan-yen $a 2 1 chiian by Pang Tung-shu ( 1 7 2 2 - 1 8 5 1 ) . 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Fairbank, ed., Chinese Thought and Institu-tions Chicago, 1 9 5 7 , ' PP. 3 1 0 - 3 1 9 . Yeh Chi a-ying $>% , Chia-ling fan shih \M ik. ^ , ,? vol,. 1 , San-min shu-chu 5- ^^/i) T a i p e i , 1 9 7 0 , 1 5 5 pp. Yoshikawa K o j i r o .Yoshikawa Kojiro senshu %} £ J Cnikuma sh©DO ^J%^A > Tokyo, ' 1 9 6 8 , 20 v o l s . Yu Kuan-ying Han Wei Liu-ch'ao shih hsuan *JJL%$i± 7-$j &4 }^ __ Jen-min Wen-hsueh, Peking, 1 9 5 1 , 3 4 3 pp. 2 1 2 Ean Wei Liu-ch'ao shih lun ts ' ung '% ?%L ^ ~ 7 9 *ft »& -fa. Chung Hwa, Shanghai, 1 9 6 2 , 1 7 3 pp. San Ts'ao shih hsuan it Jen-min ch'u-pan she A_ & $, )tK'1±. Peking, 1 9 5 7 , 1 2 3 pp. "Ts'ao Chih Tseng Pai-ma wang Piao ping hsu c'hien 'cheng, & ,j| ftft*^^^ ; i n , Esin-ya Esueh-pao jfjf & $j> $ # 1 2 , August, 1 9 7 7 , Hong Kong, pp. 337-/J04. Chinese Texts & i? s i m m tt 'i ft ff' BS . 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