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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Five collections of lyra viol music published by John Playford Pullen, Ginger Lee 1979

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F I V E COLLECTIONS OF LYRA V I O L MUSIC PUBLISHED BY JOHN PIAYFORD by GINGER LEE PULLEN B . M . , I t h a c a C o l l e g e , 1968 THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA June, 1979 © G i n g e r Lee P u l l e n , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e E-6 BP 75-5 1 I E ABSTRACT John Playford, the well known English music publisher, published at l e a s t f i v e d i f f e r e n t volumes f o r the l y r a v i o l be-tween the years 1651 and 1682. This was a period of intense musical a c t i v i t y among London's upper classes. The l y r a v i o l publications were a part of Playford's output designed to meet the amateurs' demands f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l material and f o r music geared to t h e i r i nterests and a b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t e d i t i o n , e n t i t l e d A M u s i c a l l Banquet, was a c o l l e c t i o n of vocal and i n -strumental music, one-third of which was devoted to the l y r a v i o l . The four subsequent editions were e n t i t l e d Musicks Rec-reation and were made up e n t i r e l y of material f o r the l y r a v i o l . A l l f i v e l y r a v i o l editions contain instructions and l y r a v i o l pieces. The music, on the whole, i s l i g h t , unpretentious and charming. There are l y r a v i o l arrangements of popular songs and o r i g i n a l dances fo r the instrument, many of the l a t t e r by the best composers of Playford's day, such as Charles Coleman, William Lawes, Simon Ives and John Jenkins. The body of music contained i n the f i v e editions i s s i z e -able. Despite s i m i l a r t i t l e s , the editions are not merely r e -p r i n t s . The musical contents vary considerably. Each succes-sive l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n retains a c e r t a i n number of pieces from the previous e d i t i o n ( s ) , but draws many new pieces from outside sources as w e l l . A l l t o l d , the editions contain 299 d i f f e r e n t pieces of music. This thesis i s a study of Playford's f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i -t i o n s . I t takes the form of an h i s t o r i c a l commentary, including an analysis of the music, and a series of appendixes. The com-mentary i s divided into f i v e chapters. In the chapters, the au-thor surveys Playford's career and publications, presents a h i s -tory of the dates of issue of the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , and d i s -cusses the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material within the ed i t i o n s , the types of music the editions contain, and the composers and arrangers contributing to the e d i t i o n s . One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g as-pects of the h i s t o r i c a l commentary appears i n the f i r s t chapter where some previously unknown facts are presented which lead to a r e v i s i o n of the commonly accepted date of issue f o r the ear-l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n of Musicks Recreation. Si x appendixes follow the h i s t o r i c a l commentary. Here, there are tables of contents f o r a l l the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , indexes arranged according to t i t l e and composer of a l l the music within the f i v e e d i t i o n s , complete bi b l i o g r a p h i c descriptions of each successive l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n , and f i f t y - o n e of Playford*s l y r a v i o l pieces i n transcribed versions. A thematic catalogue, one of the most important parts of the entire study, i s contained in the t h i r d appendix. The catalogue, which contains an entry for each of the 299 d i f f e r e n t pieces i n the ed i t i o n s , i s ar-ranged according to musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The catalogue i n -dicates concordances between the f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , c i t e s instances where the l y r a v i o l pieces appear i n other seventeenth-century sources, and gives cross-references to the other indexes and tables within the th e s i s . For reasons of format, accuracy, and a v a i l a b i l i t y , t h i s catalogue supercedes a l l e a r l i e r studies. i v -CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF EXAMPLES v i i INTRODUCTION . 1 CHAPTER I. BIOGRAPHY AND DATING 7 I I . THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL 26 I I I . CONTEMPORANEOUS ARRANGEMENTS . . . . 4 l IV. THE LYRA VIOL DANCES 74 V. THE COMPOSERS AND ARRANGERS . . . . I l l BIBLIOGRAPHY 142 APPENDIXES I. TITLE INDEX 150 I I . COMPOSER INDEX . . 160 I I I . THEMATIC CATALOGUE WITH CONCORDANCES 170 IV. TABLES OF CONTENTS (OF EACH LYRA VIOL EDITION) 254 V. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS . . . . 276 IV. SELECTED TRANSCRIPTIONS 286 v _ LIST OF TABLES Table I. Tunings Used i n the Lyra V i o l Editions . . . . 33 I I . Broadside Ballad Ayres i n P l a y f o r d 1 s Lyra V i o l Editions 52 I I I . Theater Music i n P l a y f o r d 8 s Lyra V i o l E d itions 57 IV. Country Dance Music i n Playford*s Lyra V i o l Editions 63 V. Professional Folk Dance Tunes i n Playford*s Lyra V i o l Editions 69 VI. Other Arrangements i n the Lyra V i o l Editions . 71 VII. Other Descriptive T i t l e s i n Playford's Lyra V i o l Editions 73 VIII. Divisions i n the Lyra V i o l Editions . . . . . 101 IX. Suites i n the Lyra V i o l Editions 104 X. Composers (or Arrangers) i n the Lyra V i o l Editions Ilk XI. Composers I d e n t i f i e d Through Concordant Sources 118 XII. C o n f l i c t i n g Ascriptions within the Lyra V i o l Editions 121 XIII. C o n f l i c t i n g Ascriptions with Other 17th-century Sources 122 v i LIST 0? EXAMPLES Example 1. "An Example to finde your Notes both f l a t and sharpe on the Basse V i o l . " . 29 2. "The Places of the Letters as they are stopt on the neck of your V i o l l . " 31 3. John Mosse, Almain, f i r s t s t r a i n (T# 72); Matthew Locke, F i f t h Entry Introductory Music, Cupid and  Death . 47 4. Anonymous, Maske, f i r s t s t r a i n 55 5 . John Jenkins, Ayre, fedfh (T# 109*) 77 6. John Jenkins, Almain, second s t r a i n , edfhf (T# 123*) 81 7. Anonymous, An Ayre, edfhf (T# 99) 82 8. Coleman, Coranto, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 270) . . . . 85 9. William Lawes, Saraband, i n c i p i t , fedfh (T# 233) . 86 10. Simon Ives, Corant, edfhf (T# 288*). . . . . . . . 87 11. Anonymous, Saraband, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 291) . . . 90 1 2 . Simon Ives, Saraband, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 256) . . 90 13. Charles Coleman, Saraband, defhf (T# 188) 90 14. Anonymous, Preludium, meas. 1^8, fdefh (T# 2). . . 93 1 5 . John Withie, Suite 1 Preludium, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 104); Almain, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 101); Almain, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T#124) 94 16. Thomas Bates, A J i g , fdefh (T# 184) 96 17. Charles Coleman, Almain with D i v i s i o n , beginnings of s t r a i n s A A' B B', edfhf (T# 113*) 99 1 8 . William Lawes, Suite: Almain, meas. 1-6, fedfh (T# 111); Coranto, f i r s t s t r a i n , fedfh (T# 278*) 108 • « v i i INTRODUCTION John Playford, the well known English music publisher, published at l e a s t f i v e d i f f e r e n t volumes f o r the l y r a v i o l be-tween the years 1651 and 1682. The f i r s t e d i t i o n , e n t i t l e d A M u s i c a l l Banquet, was a c o l l e c t i o n of vocal and instrumental mu-s i c , one-third of which was devoted to the l y r a v i o l . The four subsequent editions were e n t i t l e d Musicks Recreation and were made up e n t i r e l y of material f o r the l y r a v i o l . A l l f i v e l y r a v i o l editions contain i n s t r u c t i o n a l material and l y r a v i o l pieces. The music, on the whole, i s l i g h t , unpre-tentious and charming. There are l y r a v i o l arrangements of popular songs and o r i g i n a l dances f o r the instrument, many of the l a t t e r by the best composers of Playford*s day, such as Charles Coleman, William Lawes, Simon Ives and John Jenkins, The body of music contained i n the f i v e editions i s sizeable. Despite s i m i l a r or i d e n t i c a l t i t l e s , the four editions of Mu-sicks Recreation are not merely r e p r i n t s . While the i n s t r u c -t i o n a l material remains the same, or nearly so, i n a l l the e d i -tions, g i v i n g them a common i d e n t i t y , the musical contents vary considerably. Each successive l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n retains a cer-t a i n number of pieces from the previous e d i t i o n ( s ) , but draws many new pieces from outside sources as w e l l . A l l t o l d , the editions contain 299 d i f f e r e n t pieces of music. This thesis i s a study of Playford*s f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i -1 2 t i o n s . I t takes the form of an h i s t o r i c a l commentary, including an analysis of the music, and a series of appendixes. The com-mentary i s divided into f i v e chapters. In the f i r s t chapter, Playford*s career and publications are discussed, and an updated summary of h i s biography is given. Then the l y r a v i o l e ditions are considered from the standpoint of t h e i r dates of p u b l i c a t i o n . For t h i s section, some very i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s were unearthed which le d to a r e v i s i o n of the commonly accepted date of issue f o r the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Musicks Recreation. The second chapter concerns the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . The material i s examined i n i t s own r i g h t and i n connection with the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material i n Playford*s other publications. In addition, the material f r e -quently forms a backdrop f o r comments on the English amateur mu-s i c i a n i n the second h a l f of the seventeenth century, and Playford*s r o l e as t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . The l a s t three chapters deal with the musical portion of the e d i t i o n s . Chapter three deals with l y r a v i o l arrangements of music which i s , f o r the most part, o r i g i n a l l y non-instrumen-t a l . The music i s discussed according to i t s type, such as b a l l a d ayre, theater song* and f o l k dance, and the various types are viewed i n the context of seventeenth-century society. Chapter four concerns the l y r a v i o l dances. An a n a l y t i c a l survey of the most common dance forms i n the editions i s given, preceded by a discussion of the l y r a v i o l idiom and the factors which determine i t . In chapter f i v e , the indiv i d u a l s mentioned i n the e d i -3 tions* a s c r i p t i o n s , whether composers or arrangers, are discussed. Their contributions to the editions are considered c o l l e c t i v e l y , then each composer and h i s music i s discussed. Six appendixes follow the h i s t o r i c a l commentary. One ap-pendix contains one of the most important parts of the entire study» a thematic catalogue of a l l the music i n the f i v e e d i -tions, arranged according to musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The cat-alogue indicates concordances between the f i v e e d i t i o n s , c i t e s instances where the l y r a v i o l pieces appear i n other seventeenth-century sources, and gives cross-references to the other indexes and tables within the t h e s i s . While other Playford editions have been studied and t h e i r contents itemized or indexed, there has been no published catalogue of the music i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Two manuscript indexes of the contents of the e d i -tions existt one by Frank Trafi c a n t e * and one by Gordon J . 2 Dodd. Traficante has arranged the contents of the l y r a v i o l editions on three series of index cards without cross-references, and Dodd has compiled a thematic h a n d l i s t . Neither work i s as s a t i s f a c t o r y as the present study, f o r both were compiled with-out reference to the second part of the 1682 edition.-' Thus 1"A Thematic Index to the Music f o r Lyra V i o l Contained in Five Publications by John Playford," (Manuscript). 2"A Thematic Handlist of the Music i n Playford's Five Lyra V i o l E d i t i o n s , " (Manuscript). •^ The compilers evidently r e l i e d on the f a c s i m i l e of the 1682 e d i t i o n edited by Nathalie Dolmetsch, who inexplicably^ neglects to mention that the second part of the work was omit-ted (Henrichsen E d i t i o n Ltd., London, I960). t he c a t a l o g u e i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o r r e a s o n s o f f o r m a t , a c c u r a c y and a v a i l a b i l i t y , s u p e r c e d e s e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . B e s i d e s t he t h e m a t i c c a t a l o g u e , t he t h e s i s p r o v i d e s two i n d e x e s o f t h e m u s i c i n P l a y f o r d * s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s » one a r r a n g e d by t i t l e and one a r r a n g e d by compose r ; t h e r e i s a l s o an a p p e n d i x o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , i t e m i z e d l i s t s o f c o n t e n t s , and a s e r i e s o f b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each l y r a v i o l e d i -t i o n . V a r i o u s works p r o v e d v a l u a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o an e d i t i o n o f P l a y f o r d ' s The D a n c i n g M a s t e r (1651) by M a r g a r e t D e a n - S m i t h , ^ the a r t i c l e on J o h n P l a y f o r d i n D i e M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwar t by the same a u t h o r , a n d two a r t i c l e s c o n c e r n i n g P l a y f o r d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s t a t i o -n e r s ' company by N i c h o l a s T e m p e r l e y ^ were e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l f o r t h e P l a y f o r d b i o g r a p h y i n c h a p t e r o n e . Two d i s s e r t a t i o n s , one 7 by R u s s e l l C . N e l s o n on P l a y f o r d and E n g l i s h amateur m u s i c i a n s , ' and one by Ramon M e y e r on P l a y f o r d * s t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e , A n 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k , c o n t a i n e d much t h a t was ^ P l a y f o r d ' s E n g l i s h D a n c i n g M a s t e r 1651 ( L o n d o n 1 S c h o t t and Company, L t d . , 1957) • ^x, 13^-52. ^ " J o h n P l a y f o r d and t h e M e t r i c a l P s a l m s , " J o u r n a l o f the  A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , X X V , N o . 3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 331-78; and " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the S t a t i o n e r s ' Company," M u s i c and L e t t e r s , L I V ( A p r i l , 1 9 7 3 ) . 203-12. "' '"John P l a y f o r d and the E n g l i s h Ama teu r M u s i c i a n , " (unpub-l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , I966). o " J o h n P l a y f o r d * s A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 1 ) . 5 usef u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the second chapter of the t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , f o r the h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , andnnotation of the l y r a v i o l , two d i s s e r t a t i o n s , one by John E. Sawyer,^ and one by Frank T r a f i c a n t e , ^ were of great value throughout the entire study, as they are the only f u l l - l e n g t h studies on the i n s t r u -ment to date. Certain conventions are used throughout the t h e s i s . In references to e d i t i o n or composition t i t l e s , Playford's s p e l l i n g and punctuation are used (thus, Musicks Recreation i s l e f t with-out the apostrophe). However, modern s p e l l i n g s of composers' names have been adopted, and standard s p e l l i n g s f o r the dance form t i t l e s are used i n the thematic catalogue ( i . e . , prelude, almain, ayre, corant, saraband and j i g ) . A standard scheme fo r c a p i t a l i z i n g the composition t i t l e s i s followed throughout the thes i s : a l l nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs and adjectives are c a p i t a l i z e d . F i n a l l y , each reference to a l y r a v i o l piece i s accompanied by i t s thematic number, an i n d i c a t i o n (an asterisk) i f the piece appears i n the appendix of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , and i t s 11 l o c a t i o n ( e d i t i o n , page and composition number ) i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . 9"An Anthology of Music i n Oxford, Bodleian Library, Mus. Sch. MSS d 245-7" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Toronto, 1972). 1 0 , ,The Mansell Lyra V i o l Tablature," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Pittsburgh, 1965). 11 According to the following abbreviation systems P82/12/18 means Playford, Musicks Recreation, 1682, page 12, composition numbered 18. 6 In undertaking a work of t h i s nature, the author n a t u r a l l y is indebted to others f o r countless assistances. In p a r t i c u l a r , I wish to thank my thesis committee f o r t h e i r patience and en-couragement, the l i b r a r y s t a f f at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r answering numerous queries, and most of a l l , my advisor, John E. Sawyer, f o r his patience, understanding and advice, a l l of which were greatly appreciated. CHAPTER I BIOGRAPHY AND DATING John Playford was born i n Norwich i n 1623 , the son of another John Playford, a merchant. He evidently received musical t r a i n i n g as a c h i l d ; since his name does not appear i n the r e g i s t e r s of the Norwich grammar school, he probably-attended the Cathedral school where music was a standard part of the curriculum. Sometime a f t e r the death of his father, i n 1639 , the younger Playford traveled to London where he began a stationer's t r a i n i n g under John Benson, music publisher and bookseller i n St. Dunstan's Church-Yard, F l e e t Street. When he had completed h i s apprenticeship, i n A p r i l , 1 6 4 ? , he set up his own business " i n the Inner Temple, neare the Church Doore," and from that shop came v i r t u a l l y a l l of London's music p u b l i -1 cations f o r the next three and a h a l f decades. Curiously, Playford's f i r s t publications are not musical, but are accounts of the t r i a l and execution of King Charles I which he published 5„n conjunction with Peter Cole and Francis Tyton. R o y a l i s t t r a c t s did not f i n d favor with the Puritan government, and a warrant was issued f o r the arr e s t of the """Margaret Dean-Smith, ed., Playford's English Dancing  Master (London: Schott.and Company, Ltd., 1 9 5 7 ) » PP« x i - x i i . 7 8 three men i n November, 1.649. I t i s uncertain whether Playford was a c t u a l l y imprisoned, f o r there i s no further record of him u n t i l one year l a t e r , when, i n November, 1650 , he made an entry i n the stationers' r e g i s t e r f o r his f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of music, The English Dancing Master, a book which was not 2 released u n t i l the following March. Very soon thereafter, Playford turned almost e x c l u s i v e l y to music publishing. In 1651 he published A M u s i c a l l Banquet, which contained l y r a v i o l lessons, two-part dances f o r treble and bass v i o l , and catches and rounds f o r voice, prefaced by a section on the rudiments of music. There i s evidence that i n the same year he also released an e d i t i o n of lessons f o r c i t t e r n and guitar.-' In 1653 , Playford received an appointment as c l e r k to the Temple Church, a p o s i t i o n which e n t a i l e d d i r e c t i n g the 4 . parish clerks* choir p r a c t i c e s . 1653 also was the year of his marriage to the daughter of Benjamin and Hannah A l l e n , who were publishers l i k e Playford.^ Near the beginning of h i s career, Playford was l i v i n g i n Three Leg A l l e y , F e t t e r Lane, next door to the Red Lion.^ 2 3 Ibid., p. x i i i . ^Loc. c i t . , 4 Nicholas Temper-ley, "John Playford and the M a t r i c a l Psalms," Journal of the American Musicological Society, XXV, No. 3 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 355 , 3 5 7 . ^Dean-Smith, "Playford," Die Musik i n Geschichte und  Gegenwart, X, 1345 . ^Dean-Smith, Playford's English Dancing Master, p. x i v . .9 Although i t has been claimed, that Playford and his wife l i v e d over the shop i n the Temple Church courtyard a f t e r t h e i r marriage, i t now appears that the shop Playford rented did 7 not contain l i v i n g quarters.' Perhaps Playford and h i s wife resided at the Three Leg A l l e y address u n t i l 1655 when they o bought a house i n I s l i n g t o n . They resided at I s l i n g t o n , where Mrs. Playford kept a boarding school f o r g i r l s , u n t i l her death i n 1679* Then Playford put the house up f o r sale and moved to q a private house i n Arundel Street, near the Thames side. Playford was by then i n his l a t e f i f t i e s . The many years of hard work which his career had e n t a i l e d began to take t h e i r t o l l on his health. He suffered a prolonged i l l n e s s i n 1680 and thereafter gradually withdrew from his publishing a c t i v i t i e s . * 0 His only surviving son, Henry, who had undergone a stationer's t r a i n i n g , probably under John Carr, worked j o i n t l y with his. 11 father from 1680 u n t i l 168^. In that year, i n the preface to Choice Ayres and Songs, f i f t h book, Playford announced he was turning over h i s business to his son Henry and Richard Carr (son of the publisher, John Carr), promising to oversee t h e i r 7 'Dean-Smith, "A John Playford Advertisement," Royal  Musical A s s o c i a t i o n Research Chronicle, No. 6 (1966), p. 2, 8Dean-Smith, "Playford," c o l . 13^6. o 7Dean-Smith, Playford's English Dancing Master, p. x i v . 1 0 L . M. Middleton, "John Playford," Dictionary of National  Biography. XV, 1303. 11 Charles Humphries and William C. Smith, Music Publishing  i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s (2nd ed.; Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1970). p. 8. 10 work. However, John Playford evidently worked on two volumes 12 a f t e r t h i s , f o r his name appears on t h e i r imprints. Further-more, before his death, Playford may have done most of the preparation f o r another e d i t i o n , which was released i n Henry Playford's name.1-' The exact date of Playford's death has never been deter-mined because his w i l l , which was drawn up on November 5, 1686, was f o r some reason not proved u n t i l August, 1694. The t r a d i -t i o n a l assumption i s that Playford died towards the end of 1686, since an 'elegy' i n his honor by Nathan Tate, set to music by 14 Henry P u r c e l l , appeared i n 1687. Recently a more exact time of death has been suggested. Certain items i n the records of the Stationers' Company indicate that Playford's death occurred between December 24, 1686, when Henry signed f o r a stock d i v i -dend f o r h i s father, and February 7» 1687, when Playford's share i n t h i s stock passed into the hands of a n o t h e r . ^ Throughout his career, Playford appears to have been on excellent terms with English musicians, amateur and professional, 17 Pepys frequently patronized his shop, which was favorably 12 x These are The Dancing Master. (7th ed., 1686) and Catch that Catch Can (1684). ^ T h i s i s An Introduction to the S k i l l of Musick (11th ed., 1687). See F r a n k l i n B. Zimmerman, An Introduction to the S k i l l of Musick, by John Playford. The Twelfth E d i t i o n (New York: Da Capo Press, 1972), p. 19-14 1 4Middleton, "John Playford," p. 1303. ^Temperley, "John Playford and the Stationers' Company," Music and Letters, LIV, No. 2 (1973). 208. l 6 F r a n k Kidson and William C. Smith, "John Playford," Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, VI, 825. 1 7 l b i d . 11 1 R l o c a t e d t o a t t r a c t g e n t e l m e n f rom the Innw o f C o u r t . Some o f E n g l a n d ' s most eminen t composers were P l a y f o r d ' s p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s . These i n c l u d e H e n r y Lawes , who, i n 1657, s e r v e d as a g o d f a t h e r t o P l a y f o r d * s s o n H e n r y , and J o h n B l o w and H e n r y P u r c e l l , f o r whom money was s e t a s i d e i n P l a y f o r d ' s w i l l f o r 19 m o u r n i n g r i n g s . P l a y f o r d seems t o have d e s e r v e d the es teem E n g l i s h m u s i c i a n s had f o r h i m . P r o f i t was n e v e r P l a y f o r d ' s s o l e m o t i -v a t i o n . He f r e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d m u s i c o f h i g h q u a l i t y b u t l i m i t e d a p p e a l , s i m p l y f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a i d i n g i n i t s 20 p r e s e r v a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , he was g r a c i o u s , f o r he r e a d i l y a c k n o w l e d g e d and e f f u s i v e l y p r a i s e d the composers i n a l l h i s 21 p u b l i c a t i o n s . When he d i e d , s e v e r a l o f L o n d o n ' s most p r o m -i n e n t m u s i c i a n s and p o e t s were p rompted t o p u b l i s h e x p r e s s i o n s 22 o f r e g r e t . The p a r i s h c l e r k s * g u i l d , as w e l l , j o i n e d i n p u b l i c l y v o i c i n g t h e i r t h a n k s f o r t he l a b o u r P l a y f o r d had expended on t h e i r b e h a l f , t o improve t h e i r e x e c u t i o n o f 23 p s a l m o d y . J 1 R D e a n - S m i t h , P l a y f o r d ' s E n g l i s h D a n c i n g M a s t e r , p . x i v . " ^ C y r u s L . Day and E l e a n o r B . M u r r i e , " E n g l i s h Song B o o k s , 1651-1702, and T h e i r P u b l i s h e r s , " The L i b r a r y , 5th S e r i e s , XVI, N o . k (1936), p p . 37^-5-20 T e m p e r l e y , " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the S t a t i o n e r s ' Company ," p p . 211-12. 2 1 S e e p . 111-12. 2 2 M i d d l e t o n , " J o h n P l a y f o r d , " p . 1303. 2 3 T e m p e r l e y , " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the M e t r i c a l P s a l m s , " p . 257. 12 Playford held r o y a l i s t sentiments throughout h i s l i f e . These sentiments appear to have caused the only f r i c t i o n he encountered throughout his career i n his business dealings. During the Commonwealth, these sentiments evidently negatively influenced his promotion i n the ranks of the Stationers' Company. A f t e r the Restoration, although he secured the compa-ny's commission to p r i n t m e t r i c a l psalms, and was c a l l e d to the l i v e r y i n 1661, further advancement i n , and benefits from, the company were slow to mate r i a l i z e . A l e t t e r by Playford to the company from 1669 shows his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and only i n 1681, a r e s u l t of a roy a l mandate, was he elected to the company's 24 court of as s i s t a n t s . Industry and sound business sense were obviously among Playford's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This i s proven by the size of his l i s t of publications and the number of editions which each of these enjoyed. Two of the most popular of these were reissued every few years throughout his career; they were The Dancing  Master, containing country dance tunes and dance d i r e c t i o n s , and An Introduction to the S k i l l of Musick, a t h e o r e t i c a l pot  pourri which was a foundation i n the musical education of several generations of Englishmen. Playford's editions of metri-c a l psalms, e n t i t l e d The Whole Book of Psalmes (1661, 166?) and Psalmes and Hymns i n Solemn Musick (1671), were also widely used. These three publications remained i n c i r c u l a t i o n u n t i l Temperley, "John Playford and the Stationers' Company," pp. 203-10. 13 w e l l i n t o the n e x t c e n t u r y and a r e among the mos t w e l l known o f P l a y f o r d ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s t o d a y . A l s o v e r y p o p u l a r , e n j o y i n g s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s e a c h , were c e r t a i n o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n s o f songs and c a t c h e s , s u c h as S e l e c t  M u s i c a l l A y r e s and D i a l o g u e s (1652),2^ J o h n H i l t o n ' s C a t c h t h a t  C a t c h Can (1652), l a t e r e n t i t l e d The M u s i c a l Companion (1672), H e n r y L a w e s ' A y r e s and D i a l o g u e s (l653)i C h o i c e Songs and A y r e s (1673) and C h o i c e A y r e s and Songs (I675). B e s i d e s t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s , P l a y f o r d r e l e a s e d e d i t i o n s f o r v i r t u a l l y e v e r y i n s t r u m e n t p o p u l a r i n h i s d a y . These i n c l u d e A Booke o f New L e s s o n s f o r t he C i t h e r n and G i t t e r n (I652) and a l a t e r e d i t i o n f o r c i t t e r n a l o n e , e n t i t l e d M u s i c k ' s D e l i g h t  on the C i t h r e n (1666), C o u r t A y r e s . . . o f 2 P a r t s f o r V i o l s o r  V i o l i n s (1655). l a t e r e n t i t l e d C o u r t l y M a s q u i n g A y r e s (1662), two e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k ' s Handmaid . . . f o r V i r g i n a l s o r H a r p - s y c o n (I663, I678) and The D i v i s i o n V i o l i n ( 1 6 8 4 ) . I n s t r u m e n t a l t u t o r s r e l e a s e d by P l a y f o r d w h i c h went t o many e d i t i o n s a r e Thomas G r e e t i n g ' s The P l e a s a n t Compan ion f o r t he F l a g e o l e t (1667/ 6 8 ) , A p o l l o ' s Banque t f o r t h e T r e b l e V i o l i n (1669/70) and M u s i c k s  R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , the s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s whose v a r i o u s e d i t i o n s w i l l now be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . F i v e s u r v i v i n g P l a y f o r d p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n t a i n m u s i c f o r the l y r a v i o l . The e a r l i e s t , A M u s i c a l l Banque t ( 1 6 5 1 ) , i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s , o n l y one o f w h i c h c o n t a i n s l y r a v i o l m u s i c . The s u b s e q u e n t f o u r p u b l i c a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a r e w h o l l y d e v o t e d t o l y r a v i o l m u s i c and a r e , i n f a c t , s u c c e s s i v e 2<x •^Only the d a t e s o f t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n s a r e g i v e n . 14 (and d i f f e r i n g ) e d i t i o n s u n d e r the same t i t l e , M u s i c k s R e e r e - " a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l ( o r M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the V i o l , L y r a -Way;.) As t h e s e were r e l e a s e d a t i n t e r v a l s f rom 166[5] u n t i l 1682, i s i s a p p a r e n t t h a t P l a y f o r d and h i s c l i e n t e l e had a s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n s u c h m u s i c t h r o u g h o u t h i s p u b l i s h i n g c a r e e r . The l y r a v i o l s e c t i o n o f A M u s i c a l l Banque t was the f o r e -r u n n e r o f t he l a t e r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , a f a c t c o n f i r m e d by P l a y f o r d i n t h e P r e f a c e t o C o u r t A y r e s (1655). The re he s t a t e s t h a t he had r e s o l v e d t o " e n l a r g e e a c h o f t h e s e t r a c t s [ i . e . s e c t i o n s o f A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t ! and t o P r i n t them i n s e v e r a l l B o o k e s , " a m a t t e r w h i c h had now been a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h t he p r i n t -i n g o f C o u r t A y r e s . T h u s , by 1655, e ach s e c t i o n o f A M u s i c a l l Banque t had e v o l v e d i n t o a s e p a r a t e p u b l i c a t i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n , t he " L e s s o n s f o r t he L i r a V i o l , " was expanded i n t o M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l (1652 o r l653» no s u r v i v i n g c o p y ) , t he s e c o n d p a r t , e n t i t l e d M u s i c a K a r m o n i a , became C o u r t 26 A y r e s (1655) and the t h i r d p a r t , M u s i c k and M i r t h , became C a t c h t h a t C a t c h C a n (1652). F u r t h e r m o r e , t he s h o r t s e c t i o n o f r u l e s p r e f a c e d t o A M u s i c a l l Banque t was the e m b r y o n i c f o r m o f A B r e e f e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k (1654). 26 A n i t e m i n an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n A B r e e f e . I n t r o d u c t i o n  t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k ( 1 s t e d . , 1654) i n d i c a t e d t h a t P l a y f o r d o r i g i n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the t w o - p a r t dances i n C o u r t A y r e s t o be a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . The a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e a d s "A S e c o n d P a r t o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n [ c o n t a i n i n g A l m a i n s , ] A y r e s , C o r a n t s , and S a r a b a n d s , f o r a t r e b l e and a bas se v i o l , n e v e r b e f o r e p r i n t e d . . . [ i s ] S h o r t l y t o Come f o r t h . " Some-t i m e b e f o r e i t s r e l e a s e P l a y f o r d must have changed i t s t i t l e t o C o u r t A y r e s • 15 Of the f o u r s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , the e a r l i e s t i s e n t i t l e d Musicks R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l . The t i t l e was changed s l i g h t l y f o r the l a t e r t h r e e e d i t i o n s t o M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the V i o l , L y r a - W a y . D a t e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n a r e p r i n t e d on the t i t l e pages o f e ach o f t h e s e e d i t i o n s , as t h e y a r e on a l l P l a y f o r d ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s . F o r the f i n a l t h r e e e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , the p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e s a r e 1661, I669 and 1682. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e ca se o f t he e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , n e i t h e r o f the e x i s t i n g c o p i e s o f f e r s a c l e a r p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e . I n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y c o p y , t h e f i n a l d i g i t o f t he da t e i s n o t l e g i b l e - - t h e da t e r e a d s 165[?].2''' I n the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c c o p y , t he c o r n e r 28 o f t h e t i t l e page where t h e da te was p r i n t e d i s m i s s i n g . The c u r r e n t a c c e p t e d da t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n f o r t he e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n i s 1652. I t i s d a t e d 1652 i n numerous r e c e n t s o u r c e s , s u c h as R e p e r t o i r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l  des S o u r c e s M u s i c a l e s , The B r i t i s h U n i o n C a t a l o g u e o f E a r l y  Mu . i c , D o n a l d W i n g ' s A S h o r t T i t l e C a t a l o g u e and F r a n k T r a f i c a n t e ' s a r t i c l e " M u s i c f o r the L y r a V i o l : The P r i n t e d S o u r c e s . " 2 ^ The a u t h o r s and e d i t o r s o f the above w o r k s , a l t h o u g h t h e y may have examined the e d i t i o n p e r s o n a l l y , do n o t a p p e a r t o ^ L i b r a r y c a l l number K . ^ . b . l l . Upon r e q u e s t , M r . 0 . W, N e i g h b o r , a s s i s t a n t k e e p e r o f t h e m u s i c l i b r a r y , examined the da te on the e d i t i o n ' s t i t l e page and r e p o r t e d t h a t i t i s n o t v i s i b l e e v e n u n d e r u l t r a - v i o l e t l i g h t . 2 8 L i b r a r y c a l l number I . F . 1 4 . 2 9 T h e L u t e S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , V I I I (1966), 7 - 2 4 . have g i v e n any o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t t o t h e e d i t i o n ' s d a t e ; none i n d i c a t e s the t i t l e p a g e ' s l a c k o f c l a r i t y , o r s t a t e s the a u t h o r i t y f o r t he da t e 1652 . A p p a r e n t l y the a u t h o r s r e l i e d on e a r l i e r s o u r c e s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t he c a t a l o g u e o f p r i n t e d m u s i c i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , i n w h i c h the da te 1652 i s g i v e n , w i t h no q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and the b i n d i n g o f the c o p y i n the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c , on the s p i n e o f w h i c h i s s tamped " 1 6 5 2 . " The f i r s t c l e a r a s s i g n m e n t o f t he da te 1652 t o t h i s e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n o c c u r s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y 30 c a t a l o g u e c o m p i l e d by B a r c l a y S q u i r e and p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 2 . S q u i r e a l s o c o m p i l e d the c a t a l o g u e o f t he R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c ( 1 9 0 9 ) . b u t i n t h i s c a t a l o g u e he a s s i g n e d no da t e t o the e d i t i o n . The R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c copy had p r e v i o u s l y been i n the l i b r a r y o f t he S a c r e d H a r m o n i c S o c i e t y u n t i l l 8 8 2 when t h e e n t i r e l i b r a r y was a c q u i r e d by the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c . The S a c r e d H a r m o n i c S o c i e t y i s s u e d the f i n a l c a t a l o g u e o f i t s l i b r a r y i n 18?2 i n w h i c h the c o p y o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n was 30 J Wm. B a r c l a y S q u i r e , C a t a l o g u e o f P r i n t e d M u s i c P u b l i s h e d  be tween 148? and 1800 now i n the B r i t i s h Museum (2 v o l s . ; London : P r i n t e d by O r d e r o f t he T r u s t e e s , 1 9 1 2 ) , I I , 2 8 2 . - ^ S q u i r e , C a t a l o g u e o f P r i n t e d M u s i c i n the L i b r a r y o f  t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c ( L o n d o n : P r i n t e d by O r d e r o f the C o u n c i l , 1 9 0 9 ) , p . 2 4 8 . I n a copy o f t h i s c a t a l o g u e i n the P a r r y Room o f the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c , the da te 1652 has been added i n i n k t o the p r i n t e d e n t r y . T h i s was the work o f M i s s B a r b a r a B a n n e r , c h i e f l i b r a r i a n o f t he c o l l e g e , who added the da te sometime d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . M i s s B a n n e r c o n f i r m s t h a t the s o u r c e o f h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was the da t e s tamped on the s p i n e o f t he v o l u m e . ( I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f rom M i s s L i t t l e J o h n , a s s i s t a n t k e e p e r o f t he P a r r y Room, R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c . ) 17 t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t he d a t e o f 1656. F o r unknown r e a s o n s , S q u i r e r e j e c t e d t h i s d a t e . The b i n d i n g o f t h e copy may s tem f rom t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i f t he da t e "1652" s tamped on t h e s p i n e was added a t the t ime o f t he b i n d i n g , t h e n S q u i r e r e j e c t e d t h i s d a t e as w e l l . Howeve r , sometime b e t w e e n c a . 1909 ( o r e a r l i e r ) and 1912 he saw f i t t o a s s i g n t he i d e n t i c a l B r i t i s h L i b r a r y copy t o the y e a r 1652. No r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a s s i g n m e n t have been f o u n d . I t c a n now be c o n c l u s i v e l y shown t h a t t he e d i t i o n i n q u e s t i o n must have f i r s t been p u b l i s h e d i n 1655• F u r t h e r m o r e , i t c a n be shown t h a t P l a y f o r d p u b l i s h e d two e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s  R e c r e a t i o n i n the l650 's, t h e e a r l i e s t e d i t i o n , now l o s t , a p p e a r i n g somet ime i n the p e r i o d 1651-1653•"^ The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s comes f rom p r i n t e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f P l a y f o r d ' s w o r k s , f rom the p r e f a c e t o C o u r t A y r e s ( l655)» and f rom the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . J W i l l i a m H e n r y H u s k , C a t a l o g u e o f t he L i b r a r y o f t he S a c r e d H a r m o n i c S o c i e t y . A New E d i t i o n , Augmented ( L o n d o n , 1 8 7 2 ) , p . 175, n o . 157*K • ^ E a r l i e r w r i t e r s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e were two e d i t i o n s . W i l l i a m C . H a z l e t t (Handbook t o the P o p u l a r , P o e t i c a l and D r a m a t i c L i t e r a t u r e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n I L o n d o n : J o h n R u s s e l l S m i t h , l 8 6 7 j ~ p p . 411, 4 6 2 ) l i s t s ~ a ~ 1 6 5 3 and a I656 e d i t i o n . F r a n k K i d s o n ( B r i t i s h M u s i c P u b l i s h e r s , P r i n t e r s  and E n g r a v e r s , p . 98) speaks o f a 1652 e d i t i o n and a n o t h e r i n 1656. He n e g l e c t s t o m e n t i o n the 1656 e d i t i o n i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e , however ( " J o h n P l a y f o r d and S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y M u s i c P u b l i s h i n g , " The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I V , N o . 4 [1918], 5 2 4 ) . M i d d l e t o n , i n h e r a r t i c l e on P l a y f o r d i n the D i c t i o n a r y o f  N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y m e n t i o n s a 1652 and a 1656 e d i t i o n , as K i d s o n d o e s , and J e f f r e y P u l v e r d e c l a r e s t h e r e was a 1652 e d i t i o n w h i c h was r e p r i n t e d i n 1655 ( " M u s i c i n E n g l a n d D u r i n g the Commonwea l th , " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a , V I , F a s c . 4 [ 1 9 3 4 ] , 176). 18 The Evidence a. The e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n of Musicks R e c r e a t i o n . •. contains 103 pieces or " l e s s o n s . " P l a y f o r d , however, thought t h a t i t contained 102 l e s s o n s . The numbering of the lessons contains many v a g a r i e s , a f a c t P l a y f o r d a l l u d e s to on f o l i o A k v of the e d i t i o n where he says: "Reader, through the o v e r s i g h t of the P r i n t e r , the number of the Lessons are not f i g u r e d r i g h t , however you w i l l f i n d 102 Lessons i n t h i s Book." b. 1653 S e l e c t M u s i c a l l Ayres. On f. I i 2 v occurs an advertisement w i t h the f o l l o w i n g item: "Musicks R e c r e a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 117 Choice Lessons f o r the Lone Lyra V i o l l . " An ent r y f o r t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n occurs i n the r e g i s t e r s of the S t a t i o n e r s ' Company, dated 22 Dec. 1653.3^ c. [1653?] A Catalogue of a l l the Musick-Bookes . (Lbm, MS H a r l . 5936/421). This s i n g l e sheet catalogue of E n g l i s h music books i s b e l i e v e d to have been p r i n t e d i n 1653.35 Under the heading Music Bookes l a t e l y  P r i n t e d occurs the f o l l o w i n g item: "Musickes R e c r e a t i o n , or choice Lessons f o r the Lyra V i o l l to s e v e r a l l new t u n i n g s , composed by s e v e r a l l E x c e l l e n t Masters." d. 1655 Court Ayres. In the preface ( f . A2 V) . P l a y f o r d discusses the expansion of the s e c t i o n s of A M u s i c a l l  Banquet i n t o separate p u b l i c a t i o n s and says t h a t the l y r a s e c t i o n " . . . [was expanded i n t o ] ' Musicks R e c r e a t i o n , wherein i s 117 Lessons f o r the Lyra V i o l l . " e. 1655 An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S k i l l of Musick. An advertisement on f. EK v contains the f o l l o w i n g item: "Musicks R e c r e a t i o n on the Lyra V i o l l , c o n t a i n i n g 102 Lessons, w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the l e a r n e r s thereon." f. [1655?] There i s an advertisement of P l a y f o r d p u b l i c a t i o n s bound w i t h the Royal College of Music copy of the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n on Musicks R e c r e a t i o n . This a d v e r t i s e -ment i s not an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the book, but a s i n g l e ^ Of.the P l a y f o r d p u b l i c a t i o n s i s s u e d 1652-9. and p e r t i n e n t to the present d a t i n g problem, only S e l e c t M u s i c a l l  Ayres (1653) i s recorded i n A T r a n s c r i p t of the R e g i s t e r s of the W o r s h i p f u l Company of S t a t i o n e r s 1640-1708 A.D. (London: By the Author, 1913-14), ed. G. E. B r i s c o e Eyre. -'-'See W i l l i a m C. Smith, " P l a y f o r d , Some H i t h e r t o Unnoticed Catalogues," The M u s i c a l Times. LXVII ( J u l y , 1926), 638, and Lenore C o r a l , "A John P l a y f o r d Advertisement," Royal M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Research C h r o n i c l e , No. 5 (1965), 2~ 19 s h e e t bound a t the end o f t he e d i t i o n . The a d v e r t i s e -ment a p p e a r s t o have been p r i n t e d i n 1655 f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : i . t h r e e i t e m s m e n t i o n e d i n i t were r e l e a s e d i n 1655" C o u r t A y r e s , H e n r y L awes ' A y r e s and  D i a l o g u e s and the s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f A n I n t r o -d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k ; i i . t h e works l i s t e d a r e v i r t u a l l y t he same as t h o s e l i s t e d i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n A n I n t r o - d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k (1655)• The a d v e r t i s e m e n t l e a f and the e d i t i o n may have been i n i t i a l l y i s s u e d and bound t o g e t h e r i n 1655. T h e i r bound a s s o c i a t i o n c e r t a i n l y i s e a r l i e r t h a n the p r e s e n t , p r e s u m a b l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b i n d i n g , a f a c t s u g g e s t e d by t he d e c a y , r e p a i r s and s t i t c h i n g h o l e s p r e s e n t . F i r s t , t he decay s t a r t i n g on page 65 and e x t e n d i n g up t o and i n c l u d i n g t he a d v e r t i s e m e n t l e a f , i s u n i f o r m . S e c o n d l y , s t i t c h h o l e s f rom an e a r l i e r b i n d i n g a r e i n e v i d e n c e ; t h r o u g h o u t the e d i t i o n t h e r e a r e f o u r o f t h e s e on e v e r y l e a f . W h i l e o n l y one i s v i s i b l e on the a d v e r t i s e m e n t l e a f , r e p a i r s have been made t o the l e a f a t t he e x a c t p l a c e s where t he o t h e r t h r e e h o l e s w o u l d have been f o u n d . 3 6 One o f t he i t e m s i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t r e a d s " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a • V i o l l c o n t a i n i n g 102'Lessons w i t h p l a i n e and e a s i e d i r e c t i o n s f o r y o n g b e g i n n e r s . " g. 1656 Ma t thew L o c k e . H i s L i t t l e C o n s o r t o f Three P a r t s . On t he i n s i d e back ( o r i g i n a l ) c o v e r o f the B a s s u s t h e r e i s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i t e m : " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , c o n t a i n i n g 102 L e s s o n s , w i t h p l a i n and e a s i e D i r e c t i o n s f o r T u n i n g the V i o l , , and k e e p i n g T i m e . " h . 1659 S e l e c t A y r e s and D i a l o g u e s . A n a d v e r t i s e m e n t on f . A 2 V c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g i t e m : " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , C o n t a i n i n g 100 L e s s o n s , v i s . P r e l u d i u m s , A l m a i n s , C o r a n t s , S a r a b a n d s , and s e v e r a l new and p l e a s a n t Tunes f o r t he L y r a V i o l , w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r b e g i n n e r s : p r i n t e d 1656." i . 1661 M u s i c k s Re r e a t i o n on the V i o l , L y r a - W a y . T h i s e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s 123 l e s s o n s . 3 I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f rom M i s s J o a n L i t t l e J o h n , a s s i s t a n t k e e p e r , P a r r y Room, R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c , and D r . J o h n S a w y e r . 20 j . 1664 A B r e e f e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k . On f . L s v o c c u r s a n . ' a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i t e mi " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , c o n t a i n i n g 100 C h o i c e and P l e a s a n t L e s s o n s , w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r B e g i n n e r s . " k. 1666 A B r i e f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k . On f . L i ( . v o c c u r s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i t e m : " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , c o n t a i n i n g 100 C h o i c e and P l e a s a n t L e s s o n s , w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r B e g i n n e r s . " 1. 1667 A B r i e f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k . On f . LZjX o c c u r s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i t e m : " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a V i o l , c o n t a i n i n g 100 C h o i c e and P l e a s a n t L e s s o n s , w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r B e g i n n e r s . " I n the above e x t r a c t s , P l a y f o r d o n l y once s p e c i f i e s a da te o f p u b l i c a t i o n f o r an e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s . R e c r e a t i o n : 1656 ( i t e m h ) . When t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t he numbers o f p i e c e s m e n t i o n e d , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e may have been t h r e e e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n i n the l650 's: 1651-53 117 l e s s o n s ( i t e m s b and d) 1655 103 l e s s o n s ( i t e m s e , f , and g) 1656 100 l e s s o n s ( i t e m s h , j , k , and l ) C l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e v i d e n c e e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t t h e r e were d e f i n i t e l y t w o , and p r o b a b l y o n l y t w o , e d i t i o n s a p p e a r i n g i n the 1650's. The t h r e e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f an e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n w i t h 102 l e s s o n s f i t the s u r v i v i n g , u n d a t e d e d i t i o n e x a c t l y . W h i l e t h e r e a r e 103 l e s s o n s i n the l a t t e r , P l a y f o r d t h o u g h t t h e r e t o be 102, s i n c e he s p e c i f i e s t h i s number i n a n o t e a t the end o f t he p r e f a c e . T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t number o f l e s s o n s f rom t h a t m e n t i o n e d i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f rom 1653 and 21 1655—117—and s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h two d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s . The 103 l e s s o n e d i t i o n must have been i n p r i n t by 1655 s i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r i t a p p e a r s i n t h a t y e a r . I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t i t was p u b l i s h e d e a r l i e r t h a n 1655 f o r the l a s t r e f e r e n c e t o the 1 1 7 - l e s s o n e d i t i o n a l s o o c c u r s i n 1655 . i n C o u r t A y r e s . I n the l a t t e r , P l a y f o r d d i s c u s s e s the e v o l u t i o n o f t h e l y r a v i o l s e c t i o n o f A M u s i c a l l Banque t i n t o a s e p a r a t e b o o k , M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . I f he had a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d a s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t h i s book he u n d o u b t e d l y w o u l d have m e n t i o n e d the f a c t . The 1 1 7 - l e s s o n e d i t i o n must have f i r s t b e e n p u b l i s h e d sometime i n t h e p e r i o d 1 6 5 1 - 5 3 ; i t was o b v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d a f t e r A M u s i c a l l Banque t ( 1 6 5 1 ) , w h i l e the e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e t o i t i s i n 1 6 5 3 . 3 ? T h a t i t w a s , i n f a c t , t he f i r s t l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d a g a i n f rom the p r e f a c e t o C o u r t A y r e s , where P l a y f o r d s t a t e s t h a t t h e l y r a s e c t i o n o f A M u s i c a l l  Banque t e v o l v e d i n t o a s e p a r a t e book o f l y r a l e s s o n s w i t h , s p e c i f i c a l l y , "117 l e s s o n s . " • ^No e v i d e n c e has been f o u n d s u p p o r t i n g 1652 as the y e a r o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The re i s no e n t r y f o r A M u s i c a l l Banque t i n A T r a n s c r i p t o f the R e g i s t e r s o f the W o r s h i p f u l Company•of  S a a t i o n e r s f rom 1 W O ' l o i ?Q 6 _ A . D " w h i l e the e n t r y f o r S e l e c t  M u s i c a l l A y r e s (1653) a p p e a r s t o w a r d t he end o f December , 1 6 5 3 ' Hence "both 1651 and 1653 a r e p o s s i b l e d a t e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n , j u d g i n g by the e v i d e n c e so f a r u n e a r t h e d . H o w e v e r , 1651 i s l e s s l i k e l y t h a n t he two s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s u n l e s s an immedia te p o p u -l a r i t y - o f ' A _ J ! u j i c a l J : _ B a n^u5t i s p e c i f i c a l l y t he l y r a v i o l s e c t i o n , p rompted P l a y f o r d t o r a d i d l y a s semble a t l e a s t n i n e t y new l y r a p i e c e s f o r M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . 22 The 117 - l e s s o n e d i t i o n seems t o have d i f f e r e d f rom the 103-lesson e d i t i o n n o t o n l y i n the number c f l e s s o n s b u t a l s o i n t h e absence o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o the e a r l i e r e d i t i o n f a i l t o m e n t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o the 103 and 100- lesson e d i t i o n s c o n s i s -t e n t l y emphas ize t he i n s t r u c t i o n s . A s we have s e e n , c o p i e s o f the 103- lesson e d i t i o n s u r v i v e ; t h e y c o n t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n s . P l a y f o r d ' s r e m a r k s i n the p r e f a c e t o t h i s e d i t i o n shed f u r t h e r l i g h t on the m a t t e r . He r e f e r s to the e d i t i o n ' s p r e d e c e s s o r , w h i c h a t l e a s t one w r i t e r assumes t o be A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t , and s a y s B e i n g now t o R e p r i n t t h i s Book o f L e s s o n s f o r the Lone L y r a V i o l l , I t h o u g h t i t good t o make an A d d i t i o n o f many new and e a s i e L e s s o n s , f o r the b e n e f i t and encouragement o f y o n g L e a r n e r s : and a l s o t o adde a few B r i e f e and n e c e s s a r y D i r e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r y o n g b e g i n n e r s , who l i v e i n the C o u n t r e y , and f a r f rom any M a s t e r o r T e a c h e r . P l a y f o r d c l e a r l y r e f e r s t o a b o o k , n o t a p a r t o f an e d i t i o n , and he d e s c r i b e s the a d d i t i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f p i e c e — easy p i e c e s d e s i g n e d f o r b e g i n n e r s - - r a t h e r t h a n an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f l e s s o n s . T h a t P l a y f o r d w o u l d have f a i l e d t o m e n t i o n the a d d i t i o n o f s e v e n t y - s i x p i e c e s , the number o f l e s s o n s by w h i c h the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n exceeds A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t , seems u n l i k e l y . The re i s one more i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t he e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l a f t e r t he p e r i o d 1651-53' A n e n g r a v i n g o f a v i o l and bow a p p e a r s on the ^ 8 T r a f i c a n t e , " M u s i c f o r the L y r a . V i o l : The P r i n t e d S o u r c e s , " p . 21. 2 3 t i t l e page of t h i s e d i t i o n . Along the f i n g e r b o a r d of the v i o l i s a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s and numbers i d e n t i f y i n g the f r e t s and p o s i t i o n s . As the f i g u r e s are at a n i n e t y degree angle to the other p r i n t i n g on the page, i t i s apparent t h a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n was designed f o r some other purpose. The o r i g i n a l purpose becomes c l e a r upon an examination of P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s r e l e a s e d before 1655 (the probable date of the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n ) : the i l l u s t r a t i o n appears w i t h i n A Breefe I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S k i l l of Musick ( f i r s t e d i t i o n , 1654). Here i t i s i n u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n opposite the s e c t i o n of " p l a i n e d i r e c t i o n s f o r the -ao Basse V i o l l . " J y Probably the i l l u s t r a t i o n was designed f o r the 1654 I n t r o d u c t i o n and l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n . This i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g e d i t i o n of Musicks R e c r e a t i o n was p r i n t e d i n or l a t e r than 1654 . From the above d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t there were a t l e a s t two e d i t i o n s of Musicks R e c r e a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n the l o 5 0's. That there was a t h i r d e d i t i o n w i t h 100 lessons p u b l i s h e d i n I656 seems much l e s s probable. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t a t e d number of l e s s o n s — 1 0 2 and 100--can r e a d i l y be a s c r i b e d to an e r r o r i n the composing of the advertisement i n S e l e c t Ayres and D i a -J " l n the 1661, I669 and 1682 e d i t i o n s of Musicks R e c r e a t i o n the same i l l u s t r a t i o n appears w i t h the a d d i t i o n , i n the l a t e r two e d i t i o n s , of a s t a f f showing the op e n - s t r i n g bass v i o l p i t c h e s . L i k e the other f i g u r e s on the engraving, the s t a f f i s sideways on the page. Since a s t a f f which shows the p i t c h e s of a v i o l i n standard t u n i n g i s not appropriate f o r volumes of l y r a v i o l music, i t was suspected t h a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n had been a l t e r e d f o r some p u b l i c a t i o n which was r e l e a s e d between 1661 and I669. This was indeed the case, as f u r t h e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n of e d i t i o n s of the I n t r o d u c t i o n showed: the a l t e r e d i l l u s t r a t i o n f i r s t appeared i n A B r i e f e I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S k i l l of Musick ( 1664) . 24 l o g u e s (1659). I n the l a t e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f 1664, 1666 and 1667. t he 1659 a d v e r t i s e m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n an a c t u a l p u b l i c a t i o n , was e v i d e n t l y u s e d as the s o u r c e , f o r i n 1661, a new e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n a p p e a r e d , w i t h 123 l e s s o n s . R a t h e r t h a n p roduce a new e d i t i o n i n 1656, P l a y f o r d p r o b a b l y r e i s s u e d t h e 1655 e d i t i o n . A p a r t f rom i t s r e f e r e n c e t o t he number o f p i e c e s ; the 1659 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s u i t s t he s u r v i v i n g 103-lesson e d i t i o n , f o r t he l a t t e r c o n t a i n s b o t h new l e s s o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t P l a y f o r d w o u l d have i n t r o d u c e d two new e d i t i o n s o n l y a y e a r a p a r t . S u c h a s w i f t r e - e d i t i o n was u n u s u a l , e v e n f o r P l a y f o r d ' s two most p o p u l a r s e r i e s , The D a n c i n g M a s t e r and A B r i e f I n t r o d u c -t i o n . F i n a l l y , the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the da te o f 1656 was s i m p l y a m i s t a k e i n the 1659 a d v e r t i s e m e n t c a n n o t be o v e r r u l e d . I n t h a t a d v e r t i s e m e n t , C a t c h t h a t C a t c h Can i s g i v e n the p u b l i c a t i o n da te o f 1651 when i n f a c t i t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1652. T h r o u g h o u t the r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s t h e s i s i t i s assumed t h a t P l a y f o r d p r o d u c e d two e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e 1650's1 one i n the p e r i o d 1651-531 now l o s t , and one i n 1655 w i t h a p o s s i b l e r e i s s u e i n I656, o f w h i c h two c o p i e s r e m a i n . The s e c o n d e d i t i o n w i l l be d a t e d l65[5] i n a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . Whe the r P l a y f o r d p u b l i s h e d o t h e r e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e -a t i o n t h a n the ones w h i c h s u r v i v e and the l o s t f i r s t e d i t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n . The w o r d i n g o f r e f e r e n c e s t o M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n i n P l a y f o r d ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e may have been a new e d i t i o n , o r p e r h a p s a r e p r i n t , i s s u e d be tween the y e a r s 1675 and I 6 7 8 . I n The M u s i c a l Companion (1673) and C h o i c e A y r e s (1675) 25 t h e r e a r e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r an e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n w i t h 152 l e s s o n s : i . e . , t he I 6 6 9 e d i t i o n . I n The D a n c i n g  M a s t e r ( l 6 7 5 ) i P l a y f o r d a d v e r t i s e s M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g the number o f l e s s o n s i t c o n t a i n s , s t i l l p r e s u m a b l y the I 6 6 9 e d i t i o n . T h e n , i n I 6 7 8 , t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t a p p e a r s i n M u s i c k ' s Handma id : " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . . . n e w l y r e p r i n t e d w i t h l a r g e a d d i t i o n s . " P e r h a p s M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n saw a n o t h e r r e p r i n t i n g a f t e r P l a y f o r d ' s b u s i n e s s p a s s e d on t o h i s s o n H e n r y . H e n r y ' s a d v e r -t i s e m e n t s i n d i c a t e the r e p r i n t i n g may have o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e I 6 9 I . I n H e n r y ' s The T h e a t e r o f M u s i c , f i r s t and s e c o n d books (1685 and 1686) and i n The Banque t o f M u s i c (1688) t h e r e a r e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n on the L y r a - V i o l c o n t a i n i n g [ a ] v a r i e t y o f new l e s s o n s , n e w l y r e p r i n t e d w i t h A d d i t i o n s . " These a d v e r t i s e m e n t s p r e s u m a b l y r e f e r t o the 1682 e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . T h e n , i n the I 6 9 I e d i t i o n o f A p o l l o ' s B a n q u e t , the f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e a p p e a r s , " I n s t r u m e n -t a l M u s i c n e w l y r e p r i n t e d f o r H e n r y P l a y f o r d . . . The book w i t h d i r e c t i o n s f o r l y r a - v i o l . " The f i n a l m e n t i o n o f M u s i c k s  R e c r e a t i o n known t o t h i s a u t h o r o c c u r s i n I 6 9 7 , i n a c a t a l o g u e i s s u e d by H e n r y P l a y f o r d ; ^ 0 the e n t r y r e a d s " M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , o r t he p l a i n e s t I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the L y r a - V i o l . " L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , MS H a r l . 5 9 3 6 / 4 2 2 - 4 2 8 . CHAPTER II THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL I t has ever been my opinion, that i f a Man made any discovery, by which an A r t or Science might be l e a r n t with less expence [ s i c ] of Time and Travel, he was obliged i n common duty to communicate the knowledge thereof to others. This maxim has not been my opinion only, but my p r a c t i c e . 1 Playford, Musicks Hand-maid. ( I 6 7 8 ) 1 Playford's understanding of the musical i n t e r e s t s of London's a f f l u e n t society underlies the lengthy success of 2 his music publishing business. Because of his understanding and h i s musical background, he was able to provide amateur musicians with the types of music they d e s i r e d — c a t c h e s , songs, country dances and short instrumental dances—and with directions on how to perform the music. An Introduction to  the S k i l l of Musick, which was continually revised and r e -issued throughout his career, was Playford's major e f f o r t i n the t h e o r e t i c a l vein. Many of Playford's other e d i t i o n s , i h p a r t i c u l a r the instrumental lesson books, include p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l information. Sometimes the information ^ o l . A 2 . o R u s s e l l C l a i r e Nelson, "John Playford and the English Amateur Musician," (unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Iowa, 1966), pp. 9. 13-26 27 appears to have been added as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of requests from Playford's customers. For instance, no ins t r u c t i o n s appear i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Musicks Hand-maid . . . f o r V i r g i n a l s or Harpsycon (I663). In the second e d i t i o n (1678), however, Playford adds i n s t r u c t i o n s , s t a t i n g , Many of those that bought of the former Impression of Musicks Hand-Maid were not well s a t i s f i e d , (espe-c i a l l y such who dwelt i n the Country remote from an Able Master) because she brought not with her some Rules and Directions f o r playing those Lessons contained therein.3 Three types of information might appear i n his p u b l i -cations of instrumental musict 1) information on the nota-t i o n used f o r the p a r t i c u l s r instrument, 2) information on the pitches the instrument produces, and 3) information on handling the instrument. In some of Playford's instrumental lesson books, such as A Booke of New Lessons f o r Cithern and  G i t t e r n (1652) and Musick's Delight on the Cithren (1666), he presents a l l three types of information. In others, such as Musicks Hand-maid and Musicks Recreation on the Lyra V i o l , he provides only the f i r s t two types. In a l l Playford's instrumental lesson books, h i s discussions of the f i r s t two types of information follow the same pattern. F i r s t he presents information which rel a t e s to the instrument* he discusses terminology, i l l u s t r a t e s the pitches the instrument produces, defines any ornaments used i n the e d i t i o n and, i n the case of s t r i n g instruments, gives tuning i n s t r u c t i o n s . 3 F o l . A 2. 28 Next he discusses rhythm, explaining the various note values and time signatures used i n the e d i t i o n . The complete discussion takes a r e l a t i v e l y small number of pages. In nearly a l l Playford's instrumental lesson books, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material, the t i t l e page and L the l e t t e r of dedication are relegated to the f i r s t gathering. Since almost a l l Playford's instrumental lesson books are printed i n quarto format,^ the space at his disposal was li m i t e d . A M u s i c a l l Banquet (1651), the f i r s t of Playford's editions to contain l y r a v i o l lessons, i s prefaced by "some few Rules and Directions f o r such as learne to sing, or to play on the V i o l . " ^ To s u i t the v a r i e t y of music i n A M u s i c a l l  Banquet ( l y r a v i o l lessons, two-part dances f o r v i o l s , catches and rounds), the instructions are of a general nature, c h i e f l y devoted to rudiments. The dire c t i o n s which apply to the instruments f o r which the e d i t i o n i s intended--viola da gamba, l y r a v i o l and v i o l i n — a r e very b r i e f and are r e s t r i c t e d to only the most obviously necessary. For the treble and bass v i o l , Playford simply mentions the pitches of the open s t r i n g s , then, on a tablature graph, indicates the pitches produced by L Often the advertisement, which Playford nearly always includes i n his e d i t i o n s , appears i n the f i r s t gathering as we l l . ^The exceptions appear to be Playford's two editions of c i t t e r n music (A Booke of New Lessons [1652] a n d Musick's  Delight [1666]) which are printed i n octavo format. A l i s t of most of Playford's editions with the format designated appears i n Donald Wing's A Short T i t l e Catalogue, 2nd ed., (New Yorks The Index Society, 1972), pp. 58-59; unfortunately Wing's l i s t i s incomplete. 6 F o l . A j . 29 stopping the s t r i n g s at the various f r e t s , as indicated i n Example 1. For the v i o l i n , he simply mentions the pitches t O 0 ) & Q) W ) u +> g C c d • . 3 • H g - p h t>> 0 ) - p a> .c t o t o .c *: ' H • p ffl C H jz\ t o Q> o EH d P V H O > D A E C Gamut DD Eb.,.,.. E -J F — B b P, r. r# —,F F#.. r. A "h c# ... n ^h G#— A „. P * P F.Eh EE _ Example 1. "An Example to finde your Notes both F l a t and sharpe on the Basse V i o l . " 7 o of i t s open s t r i n g s . F i n a l l y , f o r the l y r a v i o l , Playford gives almost no i n s t r u c t i o n s . There i s only one paragraph devoted to the instrument, i n which Playford simply names the tunings and explains the two 'graces* (the 'thump', or 9 left-hand p i z z i c a t o , and the slur) used i n the lessons. Playford e x p l i c i t l y states i n a M u s i c a l l Banquet that the beginner should seek out a teacher f o r lessons. At the close of the i n s t r u c t i o n s he advises h i s readers to secure the a i d of an 'able Master.' Teachers were p l e n t i f u l i n London at the time, as many musicians had l o s t t h e i r employment at court with the overthrow of the monarchyP Playford goes so f a r as to l i s t the names of musicians l i v i n g i n London who 7 F o l . A 2 V . 9 F o l . A 2. 8 I b i d . 1 0Nelson, "John Playford and the E n g l i s h Amateur Musician," p. 3°. 30 might be consulted.** Evidence suggests that the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Musicks Recreation ( l65[l, 2 or 3]) lacked i n s t r u c t i o n s . Perhaps a f t e r the release of the f i r s t e d i t i o n some protests were voiced s i m i l a r to those from the disappointed people who bought the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Musicks Hand-maid. The protests may have come from people who l i v e d outside London, since, i n the second e d i t i o n of both these works, Playford mentions that country people had a s p e c i a l need f o r instrumental i n s t r u c -ts t i o n s . J For the second e d i t i o n of Musicks Recreation, Playford compiled a body of information to s u i t the music. These di r e c t i o n s serve with very l i t t l e m odification f o r a l l the subsequent editions of Musicks Recreation. In Musicks Recre- at i o n ( l 6 5 [ 5 ] ) » Playford's remarks pertaining to the l y r a v i o l center around tablature and tuning. F i r s t he acquaints the beginner with the fundamentals of tablature notation by the use of the i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Example 2. He assigns the numbers 1 through 6 to the v i o l * s strings from highest to lowest, the l e t t e r s 'b' through 'h' to the f r e t s as they pro-ceed up the fingerboard, and the l e t t e r 'a', to the open s t r i n g s . Then he states that the l e t t e r s "being placed on these sixe Lines doe answer to the s i x strings on your V i o l l . " Next, Playford explains f u l l stops, the s l u r and the thump. According to Playford, f u l l stops are "the s t r i k i n g 1 1 F o l . Al*. 1 2See P- 22. *^See p . 21, n. 3, and Musicks Recreation ( l 6 5 f 5 l ) » f o l . A ^ 31 1-3 ro (9 O t o c+ 4 (D o 1 2 3 5 6 a b c d e f R h a b c d e f R h a b c d e f R h a b c d e f & h a b c d e f R h a b c d e f R h Example 2. "The places of the Letters as they are stopt on the neck of your V i o l l . " 1 ^ of three or foure strings with once drawing the bow" and are indicated by the l e t t e r s "mixt with other Letters one under another." Slurs are represented i n l y r a v i o l tablature by a dash ( ) under, the l e t t e r s and are "struck with the drawing of one Bow." A thump i s represented by the symbol S* and i s "the s t r i k i n g of the s t r i n g onely with the Finger of your l e f t hand" ( i . e . , left-hand pizzicato).*'' To the 1661 e d i t i o n Playford adds directions f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the l e t t e r s beyond the l e t t e r •h' f o r which there are no f r e t s — i , k, 1, m, n, o, p, etc. He states "these [ l e t t e r s ] are to be stopt according to the Exact distances [determined] by the Judicious Ear of the performer."*^ Playford recommends the same method of tuning the l y r a v i o l i n a l l the editions of Musicks Recreation and claims, i n l65[5]t that t h i s method i s the one which i s best f o r "yong beginners.' I t i s c a l l e d tuning by unisons and i s based on the p r i n c i p l e of "making two st r i n g s agree i n one sound." With t h i s method, „17 IK 15 Musicks Recreation (165[5])» f o l . A 3 . Ibid., f o l . A^v. *Slusicks Recreation (1661), f o l . A2 V. 1 7Musicks Recreation (165[5])» f o l . A3 V. 32 p i t c h i s not absolute. The player begins with the top s t r i n g which i s "raised up as high as i t w i l l conveniently bear with-out breaking." Then, a f t e r consulting a tablature graph of the desired tuning which indicates the i n t e r v a l s between the open s t r i n g s , the player tunes the remaining s t r i n g s . In the 165[5] e d i t i o n , Playford uses a tuning c a l l e d "Lyra-Way" whose tablature graph i s £ ^ to i l l u s t r a t e the procedure. — & q £ He explains F i r s t stop F on your second s t r i n g and make him agree i n sound with your f i r s t open* that done, stop your t h i r d i n E, and make him agree i n sound with your second open: then stop F on the fourth, and make him agree with the t h i r d open: then stop your f i f t h i n H and make him agree to your fourth open: Then stop your s i x t h i n F and make him agree i n sound with your f i f t h open. This exactly done your V i o l l i s tun'd.18 I t was important f o r the l y r a v i o l i s t to know a sure tuning method because playing 'lyra-way' e n t a i l e d frequent changes of the instruments tuning. The music i n Playford's l y r a v i o l editions requires s i x tunings, though not a l l are used i n every e d i t i o n . They are "Lyra-Way" ( f e f h f ) , "Harp Way Sharp" (defhf), "Harp Way F l a t " (edfhf), "High Harp Way Sharp" (fdefh), "High Harp Way F l a t " (fedfh) and "Bag Pipe" (fhn), a novelty tuning which uses only four s t r i n g s . The following table shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s i x tunings by e d i t i o n . In the introduction to the l 6 6 l l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n , Playford re f e r s to .the large number of l y r a v i o l tunings a v a i l a b l e , and 1 8 I b i d . 33 TABLE I TUNINGS USED IN THE LYRA VIOL EDITIONS 1651 165[5] 1661 I669 1682 Lyra-Way (26) f e f h f 10 16 • • • • • • • Harp Way Sharp (210) defhf 8 33 22 69 78 Harp Way F l a t (201) edfhf 9 41 64 48 39 High Harp Way Sharp (39) fdefh • • 5 11 23 • • High Harp Way F l a t (A-0) fedfh • • 7 21 12 • t Bag Pipe (6) fhn • • 1 5 • « • • T o t a l 27 103 123 152 117 states "There are many several v a r i e t i e s of Tunings, according to 19 the Inventions of several A r t i s t s or Composers of the Lessons. 7 However, Playford apparently held b e l i e f s s i m i l a r to those of Thomas Salmon ;and Thomas Mace, who encouraged conservatism i n the use of l y r a v i o l tunings. Salmon and Mace believed that experimentation with variant tunings caused a great deal of trouble to players and that the best tunings were already i n 20 existence. Playford, i n Musicks Recreation (1661), declares 1 9 F o l . A3. 20 Frank Traficante, "Lyra V i o l Tunings\ ' A l l Ways have been tryed to do i t , ' " Acta Musicologica, XLII (1970), pp. 193ff. 34 that the lessons are set only to the "most usual" tunings, Harp Way Sharp, Harp Way F l a t , High Harp Way Sharp and High Harp Way F l a t . 2 1 For the f i n a l l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n (1682), Playford declares that Harp Way Sharp and Harp Way F l a t are the most common tunings and that the "Collections of Lessons i n t h i s 22 Book are only to those two several Tunings." About h a l f of Playford's i n s t r u c t i o n a l material concerns rhythm. Playford claims to have presented only the information which i s necessary f o r playing the lessons i n h i s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , and thus to have spared the reader unnecessary labour. He mentions that i n l y r a v i o l tablature the rhythm symbols are placed "over the l e t t e r s , " he i d e n t i f i e s the various notes used i n the lessons (semibreve ^ , minim ^ , crotchet ^ , quaver J> and semiquaver ^ ) , he discusses the mensural moods which govern the subdivision of the notes, and he declares that though there are many moods i n use he w i l l explain only the two used i n the l y r a v i o l lessons* common (or semibreve) time [ ] and t r i p l e time [ 3 ] . Common time was "usual to Pavens, Allmans, Ayres, etc." T r i p l e time was "usual to Corants, Sarabands, Tunes or Jigges." Playford explains that every bar of common time has the value of one semibreve and every bar of t r i p l e time, the value of a "prick minim" (i?*) or sometimes two p r i c k minims. F i n a l l y he explains the subdivision of beats i n these two moods and the use of dots of augmentation. This material appears almost verbatim i n a l l editions of Musicks Recreation and i n a l l 2 1 F o l . ky 2 2 F o l . ky 35 Playford's instrumental lesson books. ' J To the 1661 l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n , Playford adds an i n t r o -ductory paragraph about the instrument's h i s t o r y . In t h i s para-graph he explains that the word l y r a i s derived from the L a t i n word l e r o , which means harp, and, i n the 1669 e d i t i o n s , he adds that l y r a " a l l u d [ e s ] to the various Tuning [ s i c ] , under the 24 name of Harp-way, &c." He mentions that playing the v i o l •lyra-way* was a recent invention, which developed when v i o l i s t s imitated the s t y l e of the lute and pandora. He c i t e s Daniel Farunt, Alphonso Ferabosco and John Coperario, three of the f i r s t composers to write f o r the l y r a v i o L and describes an unusual 25 l y r a v i o l invented by Farunt. This instrument was strung with wire strings running through i t s body which were tuned i n unison with the outer gut strings and vibrated sympathetically with the l a t t e r . Instruments of t h i s type were evidently fashionable f o r 26 a while but by 1661 were not often seen. For the f i n a l two editions of Musicks Recreation the histor-i c a l paragraph was revised. In 1669. Playford mentioned recent composers f o r the l y r a v i o l of whom he named eleven--William Lawes, Coleman, Jenkins, Ives, Hudson, Withie, Bates, L i l l i e , 2 3Musicks Recreation (165[5])» f o i s . A~ v-A,v, Musicks  Recreation (1661). f o i s . A3v-Aj., Musicks Recreation (1682) , f o i s . A^ v-A4. Pii, Musicks Recreation ( 1 6 6 9 ) , f o l . A 2. 2^Musicks Recreation (1661), f o l . A 2. 26 Robert Donington, "Lyra V i o l , " Grove's Dictionary of  Music and Musicians, V, 452. 27 Gregory, Moss and Wilson. A l l but one of the l i s t e d composers have pieces i n Musicks Recreation. In the 1682 e d i t i o n , Playford omitted the references to Farunt, Ferabosco and Coperario and replaced the names of Bates and L i l l i e with those 28 of John Esto and [Robert] Taylor. Esto has music i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , but Taylor, a l y r a v i o l composer from the f i r s t 2° h a l f of the century, 7 has none. Playford's l y r a v i o l i nstructions contain only one general rule about playing technique, which applies to any s t y l e of v i o l playing ( i . e . plain-way or lyra-way). He explains that lessons that begin with an anacrusis are to be struck "drawing the Bow towards you" ( i . e . with a down-bow) and lessons lacking an ana-crusis are to be struck "with putting your bow forward" ( i . e . with an up-bow).^° The lack of more playing advice i n the l y r a v i o l i n s t r u c -tions i s curious, since Playford included such advice i n his publications f o r c i t t e r n (A Booke of New Lessons and Musick's  Del i g h t ) . Yet both Playford's editions which concern playing the v i o l — M u s i c k s Recreation and An Introduction to the S k i l l of  Mu s i c k — l a c k d e t a i l e d playing advice. Playford uses his b e l e i f that music teachers are necessary as an excuse f o r the lack of instructions i n h i s Introduction (1655). In t h i s e d i t i o n , Playford states the same general rule regarding i n i t i a l up-bows 2 7 F o l . A 2. 2 8 F o l . A 2. 2 % . H. Cummings, "Robert Tailour," Grove's Dictionary of  Music and Musicians, VIII, 291. 3°Musicks Recreation (I65[5]) f f o l . A ^ \ 37 and down-bows, but declares he w i l l give no further advice since "the movements of the f i n g e r and Bow hand. . .cannot bee set 31 downe i n words, but must be done by the guiding of a Teacher."-v There i s no doubt that Playford wanted those who used his 32 books also to employ teachers. In A Musical 1 Banguet he i s emphatic on t h i s point. Even country people, the ones f o r whom Playford wrote the l y r a v i o l d i r e c t i o n s , must have seen teachers occasionally, since amateurs i n Playford's day were from the upper classes. They had the means to t r a v e l to London frequently. • 33 Indeed, they often spent the entire s o c i a l season t h e r e . J J Although Playford put f o r t h other reasons, the r e a l reason why he omitted d e t a i l e d playing advice i n Musicks Recreation and i n the editions of h i s Introduction which were released i n the l650's, may have been his l i m i t e d knowledge of the instrument. 34 Playford was a master p r i n t e r , not a 'master' of music. J His a b i l i t y as a musician lay more at the amateur l e v e l . As a musical author, h i s role was p r i m a r i l y to i n t e r p r e t and digest what others, 3 1 P . 50. 32 J A comment by Henry Playford i n the preface to Apollo's  Banquet ( 1 6 9 0 ) , f o l . A 2 , shows that people who did not employ teachers were i n the minority. As proof of the excellence of his father's i n s t r u c t i o n s , which were printed i n t h i s e d i t i o n without change, Henry states that he knew of several people who had "only by these Instructions, attained to play i n d i f f e r e n t l y well." -^Nelson, "John Playford and the English Amateur Musician," pp. 91-92. - ^ S i r John Hawkins, A General History of the Science and  Practice of Music (London, 1 7 7 6 ) , I I , 7 3 6 . 38 more s k i l l e d t h a n h e , had w r i t t e n . ^ F o r i n s t a n c e , i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n (1654), he w i l l i n g l y a d m i t s t h a t " t h e work as i t i s . . . i s n o t a l l my own, some p a r t o f i t was c o l l e c t e d o u t o f o t h e r men ' s w r i t i n g s . " - ^ I n the s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t he I n t r o d u c t i o n (l655)i he m e n t i o n s two o f the s o u r c e s he made use of« B u t l e r ' s The P r i n c i p l e s o f M u s i k i n S i n g i n g and S e t t i n g and M o r l e y ' s A P l a i n e and E a s i e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r a c t i c a l M u s i c k e . - ^ O t h e r i n s t a n c e s were P l a y f o r d ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r c i t t e r n . I n a p p e a r a n c e and c o n t e n t , P l a y f o r d ' s c i t t e r n i n s t r u c t i o n s b e a r a s t r o n g r e s e m -b l a n c e t o W i l l i a m B a r l e y ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s i n A New Booke o f T a b l i - t u r e . . . f o r L u t e , O r p h a r i o n , and B a n d o r a . 3 8 F o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , P l a y f o r d e v i d e n t l y t u r n e d t o e x i s t i n g s o u r c e s a l s o . Two o f t h e s e s o u r c e s a p p e a r t o have been Thomas R o b i n s o n ' s The S c h o o l e o f  M u s i c k e . . . f o r L u t e , P a n d o r a , O r p h a r i o n , and V i o l de Gamba  and B a r l e y ' s A New Booke o f T a b l i t u r e . T h e t u n i n g method 3c ^ F r a n k l i n B . Zimmerman, A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k , by J o h n P l a y f o r d The T w e l f t h E d i t i o n (New York» Da Capo P r e s s , 19?2~1, p . 11. • ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n (1654), p r e f a c e . - ^ ( L o n d o n , I636) and ( L o n d o n , 1597) r e s p e c t i v e l y . See P l a y f o r d ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n (1655), f o l . A3. ^ ^ ( L o n d o n , 1596). B e s i d e s B a r l e y ' s e d i t i o n , two o t h e r w o r k s were p u b l i s h e d a r o u n d the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y w h i c h c o n t a i n e d m a t e r i a l P l a y f o r d m i g h t have a d a p t e d f o r c i t t e r n s Thomas R o b i n s o n ' s The S c h o o l o f M u s i c k e ( L o n d o n , 1603) and R o b e r t D o w l a n d ' s V a r i e t i e o f L u t e L e s s o n s ( L o n d o n , 1610). See W i l l i a m Sherman C a s e y ' s " P r i n t e d E n g l i s h L u t e I n s t r u c t i o n Books 1558-1610" ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , i960). - ^ ( L o n d o n , I603) and ( L o n d o n , 1596) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Playford advocates appears i n both these e d i t i o n s . Playford's explanation of the method i s apparently based upon Robinson's and Playford's statement that t h i s i s the best method f o r begin-ners appears i n Barley's e d i t i o n . M a t e r i a l i n Barley's and Robinson's editions regarding tuning and left-hand technique could be adapted f o r l y r a v i o l , but neither editions contained explanations of the f i n e r points of l y r a v i o l technique. Both editions concentrate on the lu t e , and although Robinson c i t e s the v i o l on the t i t l e page, he does not give s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r playing the v i o l . Robinson merely ref e r s h i s readers to the edition's section on lute technique. I t appears, then, that Playford's instrumental i n s t r u c t i o n s lack descriptions of playing technique unless a printed source existed from which he could draw the descriptions. Evidently he knew of no source f o r v i o l technique before 1659• In t h i s year Christopher Simpson released The D i v i s i o n V i o l i s t , and a f t e r -wards Playford' s instructions f o r playing v i o l i n the Introduction were made more deta i l e d . The 1660 e d i t i o n contains a reference to Simpson's work and the 1664 e d i t i o n contains a paraphrased 42 version of Simpson's d i r e c t i o n s . However, a f t e r the release ^°Fol. C i j . ^*This i s Barley's 24th r u l e : he explains the two methods of tuning and states that the second, Playford's method, i s best f o r less experienced players. 42 Ramon E. Meyer, "John Playford's Introduction to the  S k i l l of Musick" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State University, 1961), pp. 50-51. 40 of Simpson's work, and even a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Thomas 43 Mace's Musick's Monument, J which described v i o l technique, Playford's l y r a v i o l i nstructions remained unchanged. Perhaps he beleived the instructions served t h e i r purpose just as they were. C l e a r l y Playford's aims f o r the l y r a v i o l i n s t r u c t i o n s were modest. He simply presented a few necessary rules as a guide f o r amateur l y r a v i o l i s t s . Since gaining mastery over these few points was necessary before any progress on the i n s t r u -ment could be made, Playford, by publishing them, did a service both to students, who could advance more quickly with t h e i r use, and to teachers, who no doubt found i t tiresome repeating these points f o r each new student. Although his aims were modest, Playford selected appropri-ate material and explained i t with conciseness and c l a r i t y . In compiling the l y r a v i o l i n s t r u c t i o n s , Playford served amateurs by presenting material i n a form which was e a s i l y understood, and served professionals by aiding, rather than competing, with them i n t h e i r teaching. On t h i s , at l e a s t i n part, Playford's reputation as a f r i e n d to London's musical community i s based. ^(London, 16?6). CHAPTER I I I CONTEMPORANEOUS ARRANGEMENTS The M u s i c S i x t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e the r e l e a s e o f P l a y f o r d ' s A M u s i c a l l  B a n q u e t , C h a r l e s B u t l e r , t he E n g l i s h t h e o r i s t , p r o p o s e d a s e t o f c i v i l , as opposed t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , u ses o f m u s i c . One o f t h e s e was t o r e c r e a t e t h e minds o f i n d u s t r i o u s men, when t h e y a r e now w e a r y e d w i t h l a b o u r , c a r e o r s t u d d i . . . Thus i n o l d t i m e , w i t h s i n g i n g and p l a y i n g upon s t r i n g - i n s t r u m e n t s , d i d t he w i s e and l e a r n e d P y t h a g o r e a n s , a f t e r i n v e n t i v e s t u d d i e s , r e v i v e t h e i r s p i r i t s . 1 P l a y f o r d was f a m i l i a r w i t h B u t l e r ' s w o r k . I n A n I n t r o d u c - t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k ( 1 6 5 5 ) , he c a l l s i t one o f o n l y two works i n E n g l a n d " w o r t h y o f P e r u s a l l , " the o t h e r b e i n g M o r l e y ' s 2 A P l a i n e and E a s i e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r a c t i c a l M u s i c k e ( 1 5 9 7 ) . I n a l a t e r i s s u e o f P l a y f o r d ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n ( 1 6 6 7 ) , he p r e s e n t s h i s own v e r s i o n o f B u t l e r ' s i d e a s , c a l l i n g them the " D i v i n e and C i v i l U s e s " o f m u s i c . A c c o r d i n g t o P l a y f o r d , one o f t he c i v i l u ses o f m u s i c was The P r i n c i p l e s o f M u s i k i n S i n g i n g and S e t t i n g ( L o n d o n , I 6 3 6 ) , p . 1 1 3 . 2 ( L o n d o n , 1 6 5 5 ) . f o l . A - . 41 52 f o r t he S o l a c e o f Men , w h i c h as [ m u s i c ] i s a g r e e a b l e u n t o N a t u r e , so i t i s a l l o w e d by God as a T e m p o r a l b l e s s i n g t o r e c r e a t e and c h e a r men a f t e r l o n g s t u d y and wea ry l a b o u r i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n s .3 A l t h o u g h he b e l o n g e d t o the g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r P l a y f o r d , R o g e r N o r t h , a v e r y k n o w l e d g e a b l e m u s i c a l d i l e t t a n t e , h e l d s i m i l a r i d e a s , and f u r t h e r m o r e p r e f e r r e d i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h p r o d u c e d c h o r d s , s u c h as t h e l y r a v i o l , f o r r e l a x a t i o n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o amusement, and r e l e i f o f an a c t i v e m i n d d i s t r e s s e d e i t h e r w i t h t oo much, o r t o o l i t t l e i m p l o y m e n t , n o t h i n g u n d e r the sun h a t h t h a t v e r t u e , as a s o l l o t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n t o M u s i c k e . I t i s a medec ine w i t h o u t any n a u s e a o r b i t t e r , and i s t a k e n b o t h f o r p l e a s u r e and c u r e . I t i s most c o n d u c i n g t o use such i n s t r u m e n t s as t o u c h the a c c o r d s , f o r t he h a r m o n i e y i e l d s more p l e a s u r e t h a n any s i n g l e - t o n e d i n s t r u m e n t c a n doe , and the e a r b e i n g once a c c u s t o m e d t o t a s t e t h a t , c a n n e v e r have e n o u g h . 5 The i d e a i s a g r e e a b l e enoughs m u s i c s e r v e s as an i n v i g -o r a t i n g t o n i c f o r i n c r e a s i n g o n e ' s e f f i c i e n c y i n the r e a l m o f more p r a c t i c a l e n d e a v o r s . The i d e a i s e m i n e n t l y s u i t e d t o the s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y amateur m u s i c i a n . I t r e f l e c t s the s e c o n -d a r y s t a t u s o f m u s i c i n h i s l i f e and i n the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i -g i o u s s e n t i m e n t s c u r r e n t a t the t i m e . The P u r i t a n s , who c o n -t r o l l e d the government a t t h e s t a r t o f P l a y f o r d ' s c a r e e r , a p -p r o v e d o f m u s i c when i t was u s e d as P l a y f o r d , B u t l e r and N o r t h 3 F o l . A 3 V . ^ J o h n W i l s o n , e d . , R o g e r N o r t h on M u s i c (Londons N o v e l l o and Company L t d , 1959). p.. 257, q u o t e d i n T r a f i c a n t e , "The M a n s e l l L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1965). p . 193- Pepys was o f the same o p i n i o n as N o r t h and h i s d i a r y abounds w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o p l a y i n g the l y r a v i o l f o r r e l a x a t i o n . ' See S a m u e l P e p y s , The  D i a r y , e d . by H e n r y B . W h e a t l e y (New Y c r k s C r o s c u p and S t e r l i n g C o . , 1900), q u o t e d i n T r a f i c a n t e , "The M a n s e l l L y r a V i o l T a b l a -t u r e , " p p . 193-5. 43 s u g g e s t e d . O n l y when i t was p e r f o r m e d on the S a b b a t h , o r when i t a c c o m p a n i e d rude o r l e w d b e h a v i o r , as i n t a v e r n s , t h e a t e r s and dance h a l l s , d i d the P u r i t a n s o b j e c t t o m u s i c . ^ A l l o f P l a y f o r d * s c o l l e c t i o n s o f m u s i c c a p i t a l i z e d on m u s i c ' s a b i l i t y t o s o o t h e and r e v i t a l i z e . By t h e i r v e r y t i t l e s , many o f h i s e d i t i o n s emphas i ze t h i s q u a l i t y : M u s i c k ' s D e l i g h t , M u s i c k ' s H a n d - m a i d , The P l e a s a n t C o m p a n i o n , The D e l i g h t f u l Com- p a n i o n and M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . P l a y f o r d f i l l e d h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s w i t h t h e t y p e o f m u s i c t h a t v/as s u i t e d f o r s o l i t a r y r e l a x a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e m u s i c i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s i s a l l f o r s o l o l y r a v i o l — t h u s amateurs were s p a r e d m a k i n g c o m p l i c a t e d p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r m u s i c a l g e t - t o g e t h e r s . The m u s i c i s n o t t e c h -n i c a l l y d e m a n d i n g — i t o f f e r s j u s t enough c h a l l a n g e t o be a d i v e r -s i o n , n o t a f r u s t r a t i o n , t o the a m a t e u r . The p i e c e s a r e s h o r t , l i g h t and p l e a s a n t , and r e q u i r e a minimum o f a e s t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d -i n g t o be a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , amateurs t h e n , as now, were i n -t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g t o p l a y f a m i l i a r p i e c e s ; P l a y f o r d c a t e r e d t o t h i s i n t e r e s t by i n c l u d i n g many l y r a v i o l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f p o p u l a r t u n e s . The A r r a n g e m e n t s The l y r a v i o l m u s i c p u b l i s h e d by P l a y f o r d c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s , a d i v i s i o n n o t w i t h o u t some o v e r l a p p i n g . The l a r g e r g r o u p , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e t o t a l , c o m p r i s e s s i x r e g u l a r movements o f t h e dance s u i t e : p r e l u d e , a l m a i n , ^ R u s s e l l C l a i r e N e l s o n , " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the E n g l i s h A m a t e u r M u s i c i a n , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , 1966), p p . 77-79. 44 a y r e , c o r a n t , s a r a b a n d and j i g . N e a r l y a l l o f t he m u s i c i n t h i s g roup a p p e a r s t o be o r i g i n a l l y r a v i o l m u s i c . The s m a l l e r s e c -ond g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f p i e c e s h a v i n g s o n g t i t l e s s u c h as r a n t , m o r r i s , m a r c h , f i g g a r y , t r u m p e t , and d e l i g h t , and t u n e s w i t h t i t l e s o f i m p o r t e d dances s u c h as the bo re ( b o u r s e ) , m i n u e t , and r o u n d - o ( r o n d e a u ) . The s e c o n d g roup c o n t a i n s many p i e c e s known i n o t h e r v e r s i o n s , w h i l e a few more p i e c e s , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s ( s u c h as t i t l e ) , a r e a l s o b e l i e v e d t o have had e x i s t a n c e s i n d e -penden t o f t h e l y r a s e t t i n g . I n most c a s e s , t he n o n - l y r a v e r s i o n s p r e d a t e t h e l y r a v e r s i o n s . The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a r r a n g e m e n t s : i . e . t he s e c o n d g r o u p o f p i e c e s p l u s the few p i e c e s f rom the f i r s t g roup w h i c h e x i s t i n a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n s . F o r c o n v e n i e n t r e f e r -ence t o t h e two g r o u p s the c o n t r a s t i n g te rms ' l y r a v i o l d a n c e s ' ( o r ' l y r a v i o l p r e l u d e s ' ) and ' a r r a n g e m e n t s ' w i l l be u s e d . ^ T h a t few o f t h e l y r a v i o l dances were f o u n d i n o t h e r s e t -t i n g s was c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n two r e c e n t w o r k s : M u r r a y L e f k o w i t z , W i l l i a m L a w e s 7 and R u s s e l l C . N e l s o n , " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the E n g l i s h A m a t e u r M u s i c i a n . " I n b o t h w o r k s the a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t P l a y f o r d ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s were f i l l e d w i t h s i m p l i f i e d a r r a n g e m e n t s o f p o p u l a r i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c . L e f k o w i t z has l o c a t e d s i m p l i f i e d a r r angemen t s o f some o f W i l l i a m L a w e s ' i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s o r t m u s i c i n P l a y f o r d ' s C o u r t A y r e s (1655). ^ • A r r a n g e m e n t s ' w i l l a l w a y s be con temporaneous w i t h P l a y f o r d ' s t i m e u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d . 7 ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , i960). ( U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , 1966). 55 Because C o u r t A y r e s c o n t a i n s a r r a n g e m e n t s , L e f k o w i t z s u s p e c t s t h a t o t h e r P l a y f o r d e d i t i o n s do a l s o . He s u g g e s t s t h a t many o f the i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e s a s c r i b e d t o Lawes i n P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s were composed f o r d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s be tween 1635 and 1652. 9 N e l s o n e x p r e s s e s a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y abou t t he l y r a v i o l m u s i c i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1682). N e l s o n c l a i m s t h a t most o f t he dances i n t h i s e d i t i o n a r e p r o b a b l y a r r angemen t s f rom s u i t e s t h a t were e x t a n t f rom o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s o r m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i o n s . A s he so o f t e n d i d , P l a y f o r d a p p a r e n t l y g l e a n e d t h e s e p i e c e s f rom l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was a l r e a d y known. G i v e n the n e c -e s s a r y s o u r c e s , one c o u l d p r o b a b l y t r a c e many o f t h e s e t u n e s t h a t a p p e a r i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n s as anonymous . 1 ° R e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s has c o n f i r m e d n e i t h e r N e l s o n ' s c l a i m n o r L e f k o w i t z * s s u s p i c i o n c o n c e r n i n g P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l m u s i c . W h i l e the scope o f t he c o n c o r d a n c e s e a r c h was t o o l i m -i t e d t o p e r m i t a d e f i n i t e c o n f u t a t i o n o f t h e s e c l a i m s , t he v e r y few n o n - l y r a a r r angemen t s f o u n d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s an o v e r w h e l m -i n g p r edominance o f o r i g i n a l l y r a v i o l m u s i c . * * From t h e f i r s t g r o u p , the ' l y r a v i o l d a n c e s , " o n l y two p i e c e s were f o u n d i n a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n s . H o w e v e r , one c o n c o r d a n c e , w h i c h i s somewhat t enuous ( l e t t e r b b e l o w ) , has a d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e i n some s o u r c e s so t h a t i t o v e r l a p s the s e c o n d g r o u p . ^ W i l l i a m Lawes , p p . 19, 150 and 15?. * ° N e l s o n , " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the E n g l i s h A m a t e u r M u s i c i a n , " p . 266, see a l s o p . 159. R e s e a r c h w i t h o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s was l i m i t e d t o the f i v e P l a y f o r d l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s p l u s a few s e l e c t e d l y r a v i o l manu-s c r i p t s and a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s . The s e a r c h f o r c o n c o r d a n c e s w i t h n o n - l y r a s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s : t h e m a t i c i n d e x e s , modern p u b l i c a t i o n s o f s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c and works s u c h as C l a u d e M . S i m p s o n ' s The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d  and i t s M u s i c , (New B r u n s w i c k : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966). 46 a . A n a l m a i n f o r l y r a v i o l by J o h n J e n k i n s a l s o a p p e a r s i n a s t a f f n o t a t i o n v e r s i o n i n a s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y manu-s c r i p t , a s o u r c e c o n t a i n i n g b o t h m u s i c f o r v i o l and 12 v i o l i n . Some o f the m a n u s c r i p t p i e c e s a r e c l e a r l y marked f o r v i o l , o t h e r s , f o r v i o l i n . H o w e v e r , f o r s e v -e r a l p i e c e s , i n c l u d i n g the p r e s e n t one , t h e r e i s no i n d i -c a t i o n o f w h i c h o f t he two was i n t e n d e d . T h a t t h e y were meant f o r a s o l o v i o l o r v i o l i n i s c l e a r f r o m the d o u b l e s t o p s ; t h a t t he v i o l i n i s t he more p r o b a b l e o f t he two emerges f r o m t h e c o n s i s t e n t use o f the t r e b l e c l e f and p i t c h r a n g e . J e n k i n s * a l m a i n i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o the t a b l a t u r e v e r s i o n o f P l a y f o r d , i n c l u d i n g d o u b l e and t r i p l e s t o p s , f e a s i b l e on b o t h i n s t r u m e n t s ( a n o c t a v e l o w e r on b a s s v i o l ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h r e e n o t e s o f t he t a b l a t u r e 1*3 v e r s i o n w h i c h d e s c e n d b e l o w g J a r e p u t an o c t a v e h i g h e r i n t he s t a f f n o t a t i o n v e r s i o n , s u g g e s t i n g a t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t he l y r a v i o l p i e c e f o r t h e v i o l i n . b . A n a l m a i n f rom the 1669 e d i t i o n , t h e r e a t t r i b u t e d t o J o h n 14 M o s s , r e s e m b l e s the f i f t h e n t r y i n t r o d u c t o r y m u s i c , composed by Mat thew L o c k e , f o r S h i r l e y ' s g r a n d masque 1 2 T # 33. O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n MS M u s . S c h . f 573. n o . 4 4 . T h i s c o n c o r d a n c e was d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h the c a t a l o g u e o f t he P l a y f o r d l y r a v i o l p r i n t e d m u s i c o f Commander G o r d o n J . D o d d . ^ A s s u m i n g the s t r i n g s o f t he v i o l a r e t u n e d d ' b g d G D (and t r a n s p o s e d up an o c t a v e i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n ) . T# 72. 57 C u p i d and D e a t h . ^ The s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t s i n the f i r s t s t r a i n o f t he two p i e c e s . I n the f i r s t two measures (Example 3), the m e l o d i e s o f t h e l y r a v i o l p i e c e and C u p i d and D e a t h a re a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , A l t h o u g h a f t e r t he s e c o n d measure the m e l o d i c s i m i l a r i t y d i s a p p e a r s , "both p i e c e s d i s p l a y s e q u e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t i n the c o n s e q u e n t p h r a s e o f t he f i r s t s t r a i n . P e r h a p s Moss u s e d the f i r s t s t r a i n o f L o c k e ' s p i e c e as the b a s i s o f an a r r a n g e m e n t f o r P l a y f o r d . Example 3. J o h n M o s s , A l m a i n , f i r s t s t r a i n (T# 72). -f r — ~0-~ -f—f- -0 •-1 -ty H- -1 Tf f f "^S^Hg I -i |> K : 1 w 1 > — -OBB-lS* 1 M a t t h e w L o c k e , F i f t h E n t r y i n t r o d u c t o r y m u s i c , C u p i d and D e a t h . B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , A d d i t i o n a l MS 17799, d a t e d 1659. 48 Example 3— C o n t i n u e d , « 4 h 5 2= P l a y f o r d r e l i e d h e a v i l y on a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r the l y r a v i o l f o r t he s m a l l e r s e c o n d g roup o f p i e c e s i n the e d i t i o n s . Much o f t h i s m u s i c seems t o he p o p u l a r o r f o l k m u s i c , s u c h as b a l l a d . a y r e s and c o u n t r y d a n c e s , o r c a t c h e s and s o n g s , some o f t h e l a t -t e r f rom d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s . T h i s m u s i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a c -c o r d i n g t o c a t e g o r y , a l t h o u g h the c a t e g o r i e s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . F o r e x a m p l e , b a l l a d a y r e s were u s e d as c o u n t r y dance tunes and v i c e v e r s a . P o p u l a r songs were f i t t e d w i t h new t e x t s by b r o a d s i d e p o e t s and became b a l l a d a y r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , b a l -l a d s were f r e q u e n t l y sung on s t a g e . T h u s , t o c l a s s i f y a l y r a v i o l t une i n one o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s does n o t e l i m i n a t e i t f rom o t h e r s , as w i l l be s e e n i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d s B r o a d s i d e b a l l a d s were d o g g e r e l v e r s e s w r i t t e n t o a p p e a l t o the masses by h a c k v e r s i f i e r s . The p e r i o d o f t h e i r g r e a t e s t p o p u l a r i t y was f rom the m i d - s i x t e e n t h t o the end o f t he s e v e n -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B r o a d s i d e b a l l a d s were p r i n t e d on s i n g l e s h e e t s ^ S i m p s o n , The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c , p p . x i - x i i i . 49 and were s o l d i n the s t r e e t s o f London and i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . T h e i r a p p e a l l a y i n t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w h i c h m i g h t be p o l i t -i c i c a l , m o r a l , ama to ry o r s e n s a t i o n a l . B a l l a d v e n d o r s a l l c l a i m e d t o have the l a t e s t s t o c k w h i c h r e p o r t e d e v e n t s o f u n d i s -p u t e d t r u t h . T h u s , i n c o n t e n t and i n p r o m o t i o n , b r o a d s i d e b a l -l a d s p a r a l l e l l e d the modern newspaper o r s c a n d a l s h e e t . B r o a d s i d e b a l l a d t e x t s were i n t e n d e d f o r s i n g i n g . E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s the t e x t s were c o n c e i v e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r me lody o r 19 a y r e i n m i n d . 7 B a l l a d v e n d o r s w o u l d o f f e r t o t e a c h the m e l o d i e s t o t h e i r c u s t o m e r s , b u t t h i s was n o t o f t e n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e the 2 0 m e l o d i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y . A l m o s t any p i e c e o f m u s i c w h i c h was w e l l known, r e g u l a r i n m e t e r , and r e p e t i t i v e w o u l d s e r v e f o r a b a l l a d . Dance t u n e s , s o n g s , and i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e s a l l were u s e d . S i n c e b a l l a d a y r e s were w e l l known, no p a r t i c u l a r c a r e was t a k e n on the b r o a d s i d e s h e e t t o r e c o r d the m e l o d y . The most u s u -a l i n d i c a t i o n i s a s i m p l e tune d i r e c t i o n — " t o the tune o f C u c k -o l d s A l l A - R o w . " Many b r o a d s i d e s g i v e vague tune d i r e c t i o n s , s u c h as " t o a new p l a y h o u s e t u n e . " O t h e r s g i v e no tune d i r e c -t i o n a t a l l . O n l y r a r e l y i s the a c t u a l a y r e n o t a t e d o n . t h e b r o a d s i d e s h e e t , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e headed w i t h a l i n e o f p s e u d o -17 ' I b i d . , p p . i x - x i . 1 8 H y d e r E . R o l l i n s , "The B l a c k L e t t e r B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d , " P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t he Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , X X X I V ( 1 9 1 9 ) , 2 6 5 . " 1 9 S i m p s o n , The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c , p . x i . 2 0 R o l l i n s , "The B l a c k L e t t e r B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d , " p . 3 1 2 . 50 m u s i c n o t a t i o n , u s e d s i m p l y f o r d e c o r a t i o n , and n o t t h e a c t u a l 21 n o t a t i o n o f t h e a y r e . I n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t the b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d p r a c t i c e , s c h o l a r s f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o l o c a t e the a y r e s f o r w h i c h the b a l l a d s were i n t e n d e d . P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s — T h e D a n c i n g M a s t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y , and the i n s t r u m e n t a l l e s s o n books as w e l l — a r e r i c h s o u r c e s o f t h e s e a y r e s . T w e n t y - f o u r t u n e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s 22 o f p i e c e s w h i c h h a d been u s e d as b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d a y r e s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p i e c e s a p p e a r i n A M u s i c a l l Banque t and i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1682). M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (165[5] and 1669) a l s o i n c l u d e a number o f b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d a y r e s , b u t most o f t h e s e have been r e t a i n e d f rom p r e v i o u s e d i t i o n s . The l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n r e l e a s e d i n 1661 c o n t a i n s the fev /es t b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d a y r e s . P l a y f o r d added o n l y two t o t h i s e d i t i o n and r e t a i n e d o n l y f i v e o f t he t w e l v e b a l l a d a y r e s w h i c h had a p p e a r e d i n the e a r l i e r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . D u r i n g the Commonweal th , l a w s e x i s t e d f o r s e n d i n g b a l l a d 23 mongers t o the p i l l o r y o r w h i p p i n g p o s t . J H o w e v e r , i t i s u n -c e r t a i n how s t r i c t l y the l a w s were e n f o r c e d . P e r h a p s the s m a l l number o f b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d a y r e s i n the 1661 l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e p r e s s i o n a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s e d the number o f b a l l a d a y r e s i n c i r c u l a t i o n . 21 S i m p s o n , The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c , p . x i . 22 D a t e s o f r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r e a c h t i t l e ( somet imes a p p r o x -i m a t e ) a r e g i v e n i n S i m p s o n ' s The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and  I t s M u s i c . 23 - ' L e s l i e S h e p a r d , The B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d ( L o n d o n : H e r b e r t J e n k i n s L i m i t e d , 1962), p . 56. 51 T a b l e I I p r e s e n t s t he t i t l e s o f the t w e n t y - f o u r l y r a v i o l p i e c e s w i t h p r i o r b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d a s s o c i a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l c o l u m n a r e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e l a t e r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s i n w h i c h the p i e c e s a p p e a r . T h e a t e r M u s i c T h r o u g h o u t t he s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , m u s i c was an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n E n g l i s h d rama. D u r i n g the f i r s t t h i r d o f t h e c e n t u r y a t c o u r t , and i n the 1650's i n p r i v a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t he masque 2k was the p r i m a r y v e h i c l e o f s p e c t a c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n . V o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c were as i m p o r t a n t f a c e t s o f t he masque as were d a n c i n g , p o e t r y and a c t i n g . D u r i n g the Commonweal th , p u b l i c s t a g e p l a y s were banned because o f p u r i t a n i c a l m o r a l j u d g e m e n t s , b u t i n 1656, d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s w h i c h were s e t t o m u s i c ( i . e . ope ra ) t r i u m p h e d o v e r the ban because o f a t e c h n i c a l i t y and t h e -2C> a t e r d o o r s were r e o p e n e d . J A f t e r t he R e s t o r a t i o n p l a y s were a l -l o w e d a g a i n , a l t h o u g h some m a j o r s e t - b a c k s o c c u r r e d i n the m i d -1660* s—the p l a g u e i n 1665, t he g r e a t f i r e i n 1666 and the a t t a c k 26 o f t he D u t c h f l e e t i n 1667. I n R e s t o r a t i o n drama c o n s i d e r a b l e 27 a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c . The re were i n s t r u -m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s t o the v a r i o u s a c t s and n u -2k M a n f r e d B u k o f z e r , M u s i c i n the Baroque E r a (New York» W. W. N o r t o n & Company, IncT, 1 9 4 7 ) , p p . 1 8 0 - 1 8 6 . 2 5 I b i d . , p . 186 . 2 ^ J a c k S t a n f o r d B e m i s , " R e s t o r a t i o n D r a m a t i c M u s i c , " ( u n -p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Eas tman S c h o o l o f M u s i c o f the U n i -v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 53« 2 ^ A l l a r d y c e N i c o l l , A H i s t o r y o f R e s t o r a t i o n Drama (2nd e d . : C a m b r i d g e : Cambr idge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 59« TABLE II BROADSIDE BALLAD AYRES IN PIAYFORD'S LYRA VIOL EDITIONS T# Title/Composer 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 21 Glory of the West X X • • X • • 55 Nightengale X X • i X X 67* A La Mode de France X X X X X 68 Bow B e l l s X • • • • • • • • 76* When the K[ing] Enjoyes &c. X X X X X 96* Colonel Gerards Time X X X X X 190 None S h a l l Plunder But I X X • • X • • 198* Over the Mountaines X X • • X • • 209 Blew Cap X X • • X « * 41* May Time • « X • • X X 135 Roome f o r Cuckolds • • X X • • • • 158 Simon the King • • X X • • • • 135 Hunt Is Up • • • • X • • • « 182 Vive lay Roy • • • • X X X 114* Ayr/[The B u i l d i n g ] : Simon • • • • • • X X Ives 159 The Merry Milkr-Maid • • • • • • X « • 163 Fr a n k l i n • • • • • • X X 185 The Kings Delight • • • • • • X X TABLE I I — C o n t i n u e d T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r 1651 165[5] 1661 I669 1682 141 166 194 195 222* 239* Come Boy F i l l U s , & c . M a r d i k e L e t O l i v e r Now Be F o r g o t t e n C u c k o l d s A l l A Row The Hobby H o r s e Dance F a r e w e l l F a i r A r m i d a •• •• X X X X X X 55 merous songs and dances p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the a c t s . P l a y g o i n g became v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h the u p p e r and m i d d l e c l a s s e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The re i s e v i d e n c e t h a t m u s i c was as much o f a d r a w i n g c a r d as the cos tumes and s c e n e r y , and t h a t somet imes 28 m u s i c e v e n r i v a l e d the drama i t s e l f . P l a y f o r d t u r n e d t o the p o p u l a r m e l o d i e s o f t he s t a g e as a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f m u s i c f o r h i s e d i t i o n s . A p i e c e v a r i o u s l y e n -t i t l e d "A M a s q u e , " "The Queens Mask" and " A n A y r e , " a s c r i b e d t o S imon I v e s , a p p e a r s i n the l a t e r t h r e e e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c -29 r e a t i o n . 7 I t c o n s i s t s o f two s i m i l a r s t r a i n s . I n the 1661 e d i -t i o n , t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s d i v i s i o n s on e a c h s t r a i n ; the d i v i s i o n s were o m i t t e d i n the I669 and 1682 e d i t i o n s . The p r o -d u c t i o n f rom w h i c h t h i s p i e c e was drawn has n o t been d i s c o v e r e d ; h o w e v e r , t he f i r s t s t r a i n o f a p i e c e w h i c h appea r s i n i d e n t i c a l 30 fo rm i n two s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s f o r k e y b o a r d ^ b e a r s a s t r o n g r e s e m b l a n c e t o the l y r a v i o l p i e c e (Example 4 ) . P e r -haps the k e y b o a r d v e r s i o n was a mode l u s e d by I v e s f o r t he l y r a v i o l s e t t i n g i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( 1 6 6 1 ) , t r a n s c r i b e d i n a p p e n -d i x V I . The f i n a l two e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e a r -rangements o f m u s i c b y , M a t t h e w L o c k e f rom t h r e e o p e r a s by W i l l i a m D ' A v e n a n t s t a g e d d u r i n g the Commonwealth and e a r l y 2 8 W i l l a r d T h o r p , Songs f rom the R e s t o r a t i o n T h e a t e r , ( P r i n c e t o n s P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 1 . 2 9 T # 5 1 * . 3 ° N e w Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y , MS D r e x e l 5 6 0 9 , f o l . 2 9 , n o . 3 6 , and L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , MS A d d i t i o n a l 1 0 3 3 7 , E l i z a b e t h R o g e r s ' V i r g i n a l B o o k , f o l . 2 4 v . 1660 's: M a c k b e t h (1663), The H i s t o r y o f S i r F r a n c i s Drake (1658 o r 59) and The C r u e l t y o f t he S p a n i a r d s i n P e r u ( l658).3 1 i n a d d i t i o n , b o t h l a t e r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s (I669 and 1682) c o n t a i n t h i r t e e n p i e c e s o f i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c f r o m R e s t o r a t i o n p l a y s . Ten o f the p i e c e s a r e f rom p l a y s f o r w h i c h s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n ( a u -t h o r , t i t l e , d a t e ) i s known, and t h r e e , w h i c h a r e s i m p l y e n t i t l e d " T h e a t e r T u n e , " a r e f rom unknown p r o d u c t i o n s . The p i e c e s a r e a l l anonymous i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , b u t f o r s e v e r a l , composers have been i d e n t i f i e d . J o h n B a n i s t e r , W i l l i a m T u r n e r and Thomas Fa rmer composed one e a c h , and H e n r y P u r c e l l composed t h r e e , t h e s e b e i n g among h i s f i r s t p i e c e s o f i n c i d e n t a l m u s i c f o r p l a y s . Example 4 . Anonymous , M a s k e , f i r s t s t r a i n . a—^ 2: P 3 = f S i n c e i t was c u s t o m a r y i n P l a y f o r d ' s day f o r p o p u l a r com-p o s i t i o n s t o be u s e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o Rosamund H a r d i n g , c o m p i l e r , A T h e m a t i c C a t a l o g u e o f the  Works o f Ma t thew L o c k e ( O x f o r d : B . H . B l a c k w e l l L t d . , 1972), p p . 51, 78. 56-f i n d some l y r a v i o l p i e c e s u s e d b o t h i n d r a m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s and as a y r e s f o r b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d s . A t l e a s t two s u c h compo-s i t i o n s a p p e a r i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s : " A m a r i l l i s " and "Bonny B r o w . " I t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r P l a y f o r d chose them b e -cause o f t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y as b a l l a d a y r e s o r as t h e a t e r m u s i c . B o t h p i e c e s were sung i n p l a y s p r o d u c e d i n the 1 6 6 0 ' s . 3 2 How-e v e r , n e i t h e r a p p e a r e d i n l y r a v i o l a r r angem en t u n t i l 1682 . E a c h o f t he t u n e s h a d b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d s a t t a c h e d t o them i n t h e 33 i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s . J J T h u s , i t m i g h t have been the more c u r r e n t b a l l a d a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h P l a y f o r d h a d i n m i n d . W h i l e i t r e m a i n s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o t h e r l y r a v i o l a r -rangements o f t h e a t e r m u s i c m i g h t be c o n c e a l e d i n P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s unde r the t i t l e s o f i n s t r u m e n t a l dance s u i t e movements , no p r o o f o f s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s has been d i s c o v e r e d . S i n c e l y r a v i o l dances o f the t y p e p u b l i s h e d by P l a y f o r d were p l e n t i f u l i n 32i t he s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t p r o b a b l y was n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r P l a y f o r d t o r e s o r t t o a r r a n g i n g e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e f o r o t h e r m e d i a . I n T a b l e I I I , a l l the p i e c e s w i t h t h e a t r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r composers a r e l i s t e d . When known, s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the p r o d u c t i o n i s l i s t e d i n the t h i r d c o l u m n . S u b s e q u e n t co lumns show the l a t e r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s i n w h i c h the p i e c e s a p p e a r . 32 J S i m p s o n , The B r i t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c , p p . 366-67, 17-18. 3 3 I b i d . 34 J L e f k o w i t z , W i l l i a m L a w e s , p . 152. TABLE I I I THEATER MUSIC IN PIAYFORD'S LYRA VIOL EDITIONS T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r P r o d u c t i o n 1661 1669 1682 4l* A Masque /The Queens M a s k / unknown A n A y r e S imon I v e s X X X 72 A l m a i n J o h n Moss ? James S h i r l e y , C u p i d and D e a t h (1653), 5th e n t r y — M a t t h e w Locke • a X X 114* A y r e [See the B u i l d -i n g ] S imon I v e s W i l l i a m Hemming, The Jewes T r a g e d y (1662), 4th a c t • • X X 130 The S i m e r o n s D a n c e / P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s Welcome [Ma t thew L o c k e ] W i l l i a m D ' A v e n a n t , The H i s t o r y o f S i r F r a n c i s Drake (1658 o r 59), 2nd e n t r y • c X X 225 A Dance i n M a c k b e t h [ M a t t h e w L o c k e ] W i l l i a m D ' A v e n a n t , M a c k b e t h (1663) • • X X 249* P r e t h e Love T u r n t o Me Anonymous W i l l i a m D ' A v e n a n t , The R i v a l s (1664?) X • • TABLE I I I — C o n t i n u e d T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r P r o d u c t i o n 1661 I669 1682 25 A S c o t c h Tune C a l l e d Sawney Anonymous Thomas D u r f e y , The V i r t u -ous W i f e (1679) • • X 64 Bonny Brow Anonymous Thomas D u r f e y , A Fond Husband (1667) • t X 69 A m a r i l l i s [ J o h n B a n i s t e r ] Thomas P o r t e r , The V i l -l a i n (1663) • • X 71 S i t t i n g Beyond t he R i v e r s i d e [Thomas F a r m e r ] A p h r a B e h n , S i r P a t i e n t F a n c y (1678) a • X 155 The Apes Dance i n the Ope ra [ M a t t h e w L o c k e ] W i l l i a m D ' A v e n a n t , The C r u e l t y o f the S p a n i a r d s i n P e r u (1658) • • X 78 165 194 A h C r u e l B l o o d y F a t e The M i r t i e Shade Now the F i g h t ' s Done [ a l l t h r e e by H e n r y P u r c e l l ] N a t h a n i e l L e e , T h e o d o s i u s (1680) t a \ • • • • • • X X X 221 The J o y o f A l l H e a r t s [ W i l l i a m T u r n e r ] Thomas S h a d w e l l , L i b e r -t i n e (1675) • • X TABLE I I I - - C o n t i n u e d T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r P r o d u c t i o n 1661 1669 1682 51 T h e a t e r Tune Anonymous Unknown • • • • X 214 T h e a t e r Tune Unknown X Anonymous 299 T h e a t e r Tune Anonymous Unknown x 60 C o u n t r y Dance Tunes C o u n t r y d a n c i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n r u r a l a r e a s when g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , o f t e n who le c o m m u n i t i e s , danced a t v i l l a g e c e l e b r a t i o n s 35 and May games. ^ Long b e f o r e P l a y f o r d ' s "time c o u n t r y d a n c i n g was p o p u l a r w i t h the u p p e r c l a s s e s . C o u n t r y dances were r e g -u l a r f a r e a t c o u r t b a l l s d u r i n g the r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h I , when t h e y were programmed a f t e r t he more f o r m a l , i m p o r t e d d a n c e s . 3 ^ A s t i m e p a s s e d , t he number o f p e o p l e who danced c o u n t r y dances i n c r e a s e d , f o r t h e y were t a k e n up by the m i d d l e c l a s s . The y e a r s o f the P u r i t a n d o m i n i o n n u r t u r e d the p o p u l a r i t y o f c o u n t r y d a n c i n g s i n c e , d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , p e o p l e s o u g h t e n t e r t a i n m e n t a t home, r a t h e r t h a n o u t s i d e where t h e i r s a f e t y was u n c e r t a i n . C o u n t r y d a n c i n g became a common p a r t o f e v e r y d a y l i f e — w h e n e v e r 37 r e c r e a t i o n was d e s i r e d and someone h a d an i n s t r u m e n t a t h a n d . ' P l a y f o r d ' s D a n c i n g M a s t e r , w h i c h i n c l u d e d o v e r the y e a r s more t h a n 900 d i f f e r e n t d a n c e s , 3 8 c a t e r e d t o t h i s p o p u l a r i t y . C o u n t r y dances a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f rom b a l l r o o m c o u p l e d a n c e s , because t h e y a r e danced by g roups o f p e o p l e . The g r o u p s o f d a n c e r s e x e c u t e ' f i g u r e s ' o r p a t t e r n s o f s t e p s w h i c h a r e r e -39 p e a t e d as the m u s i c c o n t i n u e s . 7 . 3 - * I o l o A . W l l i a m s , E n g l i s h F o l k Song and Dance ( L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n and C o . , 1935). p . 135 - ^ C h a r l e s Read B a s k e r v i l l , The E l i z a b e t h a n J i g ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 19297T r e p u b l i c a t i o n (New Y o r k : D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1965). p . 338. • ^ M e l u s i n e Wood, More H i s t o r i c a l Dances ( L o n d o n : The Impe-r i a l S o c i e t y o f T e a c h e r s o f D a n c i n g I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956), p . 102. 3 8 W i l l i a m s , E n g l i s h F o l k Song and Dance , p . 137. 3 9 D e a n - S m i t h , P l a y f o r d ' s E n g l i s h D a n c i n g M a s t e r 1651 ( L o n d o n : S c h o t t and Company, L t d . , 1957). p . x v i i i . 61 C o u n t r y dances r e q u i r e t h e same t y p e o f m u s i c as b r o a d s i d e b a l l a d s » m u s i c t h a t i s s i m p l e , r e p e t i t i v e and p o p u l a r . ^ ° Thus i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t b a l l a d a y r e s o f t e n s e r v e as c o u n t r y dance t u n e s and v i c e v e r s a . S e v e r a l p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f c o u n t r y dance t u n e s ; t h e y had a p p e a r e d i n The E n g l i s h D a n c -i n g M a s t e r (1651) w i t h dance d i r e c t i o n s f i t t e d t o them. Two o f t h e s e , " A Symphony" and " C o u n t r y C o l l , " a r e u n u s u a l f o r P l a y f o r d ' s a r r a n g e m e n t s because t h e y b e a r a t t r i b u t i o n s t o c o m p o s e r s . "A Symphony" i s a s c r i b e d t o C h a r l e s Co l eman and " C o u n t r y C o l l " t o W i l l i a m L a w e s . Whether Co leman and Lawes a r e the composers o r the a r r a n g e r s o f t he two p i e c e s i s u n c e r t a i n . T i t l e s o f a few o t h e r l y r a v i o l p i e c e s s u g g e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h c o u n t r y d a n c i n g . Three p i e c e s a r e c a l l e d d e l i g h t s , a t e r m w h i c h was f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n t o c o u n t r y dance t u n e s . E v i d e n t l y a name c o u p l e d w i t h the t e r m ' d e l i g h t ' i n d i c a t e d t he p e r s o n f o r whom the dance was composed o r t he d a n c i n g m a s t e r who c r e a t e d 42 the d a n c e . A n o t h e r l y r a v i o l p i e c e i s e n t i t l e d " C o u n t r y "Dance" and i s a s c r i b e d t o Thomas B a t e s . Because t h i s p i e c e i s p a r t o f a s u i t e o f dances by B a t e s , and b e c a u s e , i n one o f the I b i d . , p . x v i , 4l No i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t he c o n n e c t i o n o f Co leman o r Lawes w i t h t he two p i e c e s appea r s i n D e a n - S m i t h ' s P l a y f o r d ' s E n g l i s h  D a n c i n g M a s t e r , a l t h o u g h the e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s an a n n o t a t e d l i s t o f c o n c o r d a n c e s . She e v i d e n t l y was unaware t h a t "A Symphony" and " C o u n t r y C o l l " appea r i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , and t h a t the two p i e c e s b e a r a s c r i p t i o n s t h e r e . 42 D o u g l a s Kennedy , E n g l i s h F o l k D a n c i n g ( L o n d o n : G . B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1964), p p . ' 85-88. 62 l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s i t i s e n t i t l e d " J i g , " i t may be an a b s t r a c t l y r a v i o l d a n c e . Howeve r , s i n c e i t i s known t h a t B a t e s w o r k e d 43 as an a r r a n g e r , J the p i e c e may i n d e e d be an a r r angemen t o f a c o u n t r y dance t h a t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s u i t e . T a b l e I V i n c l u d e s a l l t he l y r a v i o l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f c o u n -t r y dance t u n e s a n d , p r e c e d e d by q u e s t i o n m a r k s , the p i e c e s w h i c h have t i t l e s s u g g e s t i n g c o u n t r y d a n c i n g ; t h e s e a r e a r -r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o e d i t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t co lumns i n d i c a t e t h e l a t e r e d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p i e c e s a p p e a r . P r o f e s s i o n a l F o l k Dance Tunes I n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , E n g l i s h f o l k d a n c e , o r dance w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the r u r a l l o w e r c l a s s , e x i s t e d on two l e v -44 e l s i 1) s o c i a l r u r a l c o u n t r y d a n c e , w h i c h was danced a t h o l -i d a y s and c e l e b r a t i o n s on v i l l a g e g r e e n s by men and women f o r p l e a s u r e , and 2) p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k d a n c e , w h i c h was a l s o danced on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s , b u t by s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d male d a n c e r s i n 45 costume f o r s p e c t a c l e o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k d a n c e s . w e r e e i t h e r team dances o r s o l o d a n c e s . Teams c o n s i s t e d o f s i x o r e i g h t d a n c e r s and t h e i r dances were b a s e d upon f i g u r e s , l i k e c o u n t r y d a n c e s . S o l o dances were danced by one s k i l l e d d a n c e r and were s t e p dances ^ S e e p p . 120, 123. ^ A s opposed t o u r b a n c o u n t r y d a n c e , o r t he v e r s i o n o f t he a c t i v i t y danced by L o n d o n ' s m i d d l e and u p p e r c l a s s e s . 45 J o h n S t r e e t e r M a n i f o l d , The M u s i c i n E n g l i s h Drama ( L o n d o n ! R o c k l i f f , 1956), p . 1 4 1 . The two l e v e l s s t i l l a p l y t o d a y and p r o b a b l y d i d l o n g b e f o r e P l a y f o r d ' s t i m e . Because f o l k d a n c i n g i s an u n r e c o r d e d t r a d i t i o n , no da te o f o r i g i n a t i o n e x i s t s . TABLE IV COUNTRY DANCE TUNES IN PIAYFORD'S LYRA VIOL EDITIONS T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 21 G l o r y o f t he West X X • • X • • 63* A S y m p h o n y / C h a r l e s X X X X X Coleman (1682) 67* A L a Mode de F r a n c e X X X X X l k 9 S t e p S t a t e l y X X • • * • • • 209 B l e w Cap X X • • X • • 161* ? M r . P o r t e r ' s D e l i g h t • • X X X X 186 ? C o u n t r y D a n c e / Thomas • • X X X X B a t e s 197* C o u n t r y C o l l / W i l l i a m • • X • • • • • • Lawes 218 The Boatman • • • • X X • • 185 ? The K i n g ' s D e l i g h t a • • • • • • X X a T # 185 a p p e a r s i n an e d i t i o n o f The D a n c i n g M a s t e r , b u t n o t i n the s e c t i o n o f c o u n t r y d a n c e s ; i t a p p e a r s i n an a p p e n d i x o f t r e b l e v i o l i n p i e c e s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y became A p o l l o ' s B a n q u e t . TABLE I V — C o n t i n u e d T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r 1651 165C5] 1661 1669 1682 159 250 The M e r r y M i l k - M a i d ? The Queens D e l i g h t • • • • • • • « • » • • X X • • • • 195 C u c k o l d s A l l A Row • • • • t • X 65 46 l i k e t h e h o r n p i p e and j i g . The re were two t y p e s o f dance teams? sword dance and m o r r i s dance t eams . The two t y p e s d i f -f e r e d i n the cos tumes and a c c o u t r e m e n t s t h e y u s e d , w h i c h i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d the dances p e r f o r m e d . Sword d a n c e r s c a r r i e d k n i v e s o r swords and b r a n d i s h e d them d u r i n g the d a n c i n g . M o r r i s d a n c e r s c a r r i e d s c a r v e s and wore b e l l s s t r a p p e d t o t h e i r l e g s . T h e i r d a n c i n g i n v o l v e d e l a b o r a t e i n t e r w e a v i n g w i t h s c a r v e s c o n n e c t i n g the d a n c e r s , and f o o t movements w h i c h m a x i m i z e d the e f f e c t o f the b e l i s . ^ Groups o f c h a r a c t e r s who a c t e d as w e l l as danced were a s u b s i d i a r y p a r t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k dance t r a d i t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r s v a r i e d f rom v i l l a g e t o v i l l a g e : s t o c k f i g u r e s were the f o o l o r c l o w n , the m u s i c i a n , t he mock mayor o r k i n g and queen , the hobby h o r s e ( a man i n h o r s e ' s cos tume) and the t r e a -48 s u r e r . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s , s u c h as the hobby h o r s e and the c l o w n , were known f o r t h e i r d a n c i n g a b i l i t y . B e s i d e s p e r f o r m i n g a s o l o d a n c e , t he c l o w n m i g h t a l s o s e r v e as a m a s t e r o f ce r emo-n i e s and c o m e d i a n . ( H i s t r a d i t i o n a l o p e n i n g r e m a r k t o the a u d i -ence i s "Here we b e , m a s t e r s , s i x f o o l s [he i n d i c a t e s the m o r r i s team] and one d a n c e r [he i n d i c a t e s h i m s e l f ] ! ^ 9 ) O t h e r members o f t he g roup e n a c t e d s k i t s o r d ramas , the m u s i c i a n p l a y e d f o r 46 C e c i l J . S h a r p and H e r b e r t C . M a c i l w a i n e , The M o r r i s B o o k , P a r t I ( L o n d o n : N o v e l l o and Company, L t d . , 1912)", p . 4 8 . ^ 7 I b i d . , p p . 14-15. W i l l i a m s , E n g l i s h F o l k Song and Dance , p p . 148-50. ^ S h a r p and M a c i l w a i n e , The M o r r i s B o o k , I , 2 8 . 66 the d a n c e r s and the t r e a s u r e r p a s s e d the money b o x . - * 0 D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , one p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t -i n g m o r r i s f e s t i v a l t o o k p l a c e a t A b i n g d o n , a l o c a l i t y m e n t i o n e d i n t he t i t l e o f one o f t he l y r a v i o l t u n e s — " A b i n g t o n J i g . " T h i s T h a m e s - s i d e t o w n , e i g h t m i l e s s o u t h o f O x f o r d , h e l d a t h r e e 51 day c e l e b r a t i o n w h i c h began on the n i n e t e e n t h day o f J u n e . The f e s t i v i t i e s commenced w i t h the e l e c t i o n o f a mock m a y o r , w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by a p a r a d e . The pa rade was l e d by a h o r n b e a r e r who c a r r i e d a p a i r o f o x ' s h o r n s mounted on a s t i c k , s a i d t o be f rom an a n i m a l r o a s t e d i n the v i l l a g e i n the y e a r 1700. The mayor f o l l o w e d i n s p e c i a l c o s t u m e , w i t h sword and money b o x . Then came the e x - m a y o r c a r r y i n g a wooden c h a l i c e w i t h a s i l v e r h e a r t b e a r i n g the da te 1700. N e x t the f o o l , the m u s i c i a n and the s i x m o r r i s d a n c e r s a p p e a r e d . Because the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h o f June were f a s t d a y s , d a n c i n g d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l the t w e n t y - f i r s t . The f i r s t dance t o o k p l a c e a t 7 a . m . i n f r o n t o f t he m a y o r ' s h o u s e . A f t e r t h i s , t h e d a n c e r s p a r a d e d t h r o u g h the town s t o p p i n g a l o n g the way t o p e r f o r m i n f r o n t o f shops and h o u s e s , u n t i l 4 p . m . when t h e y s t o p p e d f o r d i n n e r . The y e a r 1700, m e n t i o n e d t w i c e i n the above d e s c r i p t i o n , i s s i g n i f i c a n t ; the v i l l a g e r s a t A b i n g d o n c l a i m t h i s i s t he y e a r i n w h i c h the f e s t i v i t i e s b e g a n . A t l e a s t one a u t h o r i t y on E n g l i s h f o l k d a n c i n g , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e s the f e s t i v i t i e s may ^ ° W i l l i a m s , E n g l i s h F o l k Song and Dance , p p . 148-50. - ^ D e t a i l s a r e f rom S h a r p and M a c i l w a i n e , The M o r r i s B o o k , I I I ( L o n d o n : N o v e l l o and Company, L t d . , 1924), p p . 110-113. 67 e x t e n d b a c k t o an e a r l i e r d a t e . - ' The e x i s t e n c e o f t he t i m e " A b i n g t o n J i g " i n P l a y f o r d ' s 1682 l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n seems t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f . A l t h o u g h the p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t he p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k d a n c e r s were u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r v i l l a g e ' s s p r i n g t i m e c e l e b r a -t i o n s , the m o r r i s d a n c e r s and c h a r a c t e r s t r a v e l e d abou t and a p -p e a r e d a t o t h e r t i m e s . J u s t s u c h an appea rance o f t he team from A b i n g d o n was w i t n e s s e d i n I783 by F r a n c i s G o d o l p h i n W a l d r o n . He w r o t e I n the summer o f 1783i t he E d i t o r saw a t R i chmond i n S u r r e y , a Company o f M o r r i c e - D a n c e r s f rom A b i n g t o n , a c c o m p a n i e d by a F o o l i n a m o t l e y j a c k e t , & c , who c a r -r i e d i n h i s hand a s t a f f o r t r u n c h e o n , a b o u t two f e e t l o n g , h a v i n g a b l o w n - u p b l a d d e r f a s t e n e d t o one end o f i t w i t h w h i c h he e i t h e r b u f f e t e d the c rowd t o keep them a t a p r o p e r d i s t a n c e f rom the d a n c e r s , o r p l a y e d t r i c k s f o r t h e s p e c t a t o r s d i v e r s i o n . The D a n c e r s and the F o o l were B e r k s h i r e - H u s b a n d - m e n , t a k i n g an a n n u a l c i r c u i t , c o l l e c t i n g money f rom whoever w o u l d g i v e them a n y : and ( I apprehend) had d e r i v e d the appendage o f the b l a d d e r f rom cus tom i m m e m o r i a l : n o t f rom O l d P l a y s o r t he com-m e n t a r i e s t h e r e o n . 5 3 C e c i l S h a r p w r o t e o f a team t h a t w o u l d a l l o w an e x t r a two o r t h r e e weeks when i t came t i m e t o make the h a r v e s t i n g c i r c u i t 54 so t h a t t h e y c o u l d j o u r n e y t o London t o d a n c e . They w o u l d spend s e v e r a l days i n the c i t y , on each one e n t e r t a i n i n g a d i f -f e r e n t d i s t r i c t . . Just s u c h an i t i n e r a n t g roup m i g h t have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f " A b i n g t o n J i g " and o t h e r ^ W i l l i a m s , E n g l i s h F o l k Song and D a n c e , p . 151. -* 3 Ben J o h n s o n , The S a d Shephe rds o r a T a l e o f R o b i n Hood ( L o n d o n , 1 7 8 3 ) , p . 255. Quo ted i n S h a r p ' s The M o r r i s B o o k , I I I , 113. 5 i + I b i d . , I , 22. 68 t u n e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n l y r a v i o l a r r a n g e m e n t s i n P l a y f o r d ' s p u b -l i c a t i o n s . P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s c o n t a i n s e v e r a l p i e c e s b e -s i d e s " A b i n g t o n J i g " whose t i t l e s s u g g e s t the p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k d a n c e , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the m o r r i s dance t r a d i t i o n . The re a r e two l y r a m o r r i s e s and a h o r n p i p e w h i c h m i g h t be a r r a n g e m e n t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k dance t u n e s . The l y r a v i o l p i e c e s "Hobby H o r s e Dance" and " I Have Been a P i p e r " s u g g e s t two c h a r a c t e r s who a c c o m p a n i e d t h e team, the hobby h o r s e and t h e m u s i c i a n , whose t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t was the p i p e and t a b o r . " O x f o r d T u n e , " a p i e c e w h i c h appea r s i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( 1 6 8 2 ) , may a l s o be an a r r a n g e m e n t o f a m o r r i s dance t u n e . The O x f o r d d i s -t r i c t was the h e a r t o f t he m o r r i s t r a d i t i o n and " O x f o r d Tune" appea r s on t h e same page as " A b i n g t o n J i g , " w h i c h s u g g e s t s a common s o u r c e . A l l the p o s s i b l e l y r a a r r a n g e m e n t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l f o l k dance t u n e s a r e l i s t e d on t a b l e V . O t h e r T r a n s c r i b e d M u s i c B e s i d e s the p i e c e s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , s e v e r a l more a r r a n g e -ments o f m u s i c f o r o t h e r m e d i a a p p e a r i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . A b o u t h a l f o f t h e s e a r r angemen t s were o r i g i n a l l y f o r v o i c e ( songs ansl; c a t c h e s ) and appea r i n o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l e a s e d by J o h n P l a y f o r d . The r e s t a p p a r e n t l y a r e p o p u l a r m e l o d i e s and a p p e a r i n m a n u s c r i p t s e t t i n g s f o r o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . These a r -" ^ K e n n e d y , E n g l i s h F o l k D a n c i n g , p . 98. TABLE V PROFESSIONAL FOLK DANCE TUNES IN PLAYFORD'S LYRA VIOL EDITIONS T i t l e / C o m p o s e r 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 P [ r i n c e ] R u p e r t s M o r r i c e X • * • • • t 93 219* M o r r i s / Co leman C a v a l i e r s H o r n p i p e • • • • X X • • • • • • X • t f • 213 I Have Been a P i p e r • • • • X • t • • 18 152* 222* O x f o r d Tune A b i n g t o n J i g Hobby H o r s e Dance • • • • • • • t • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 X X X ?o rangements a r e l i s t e d i n t a b l e V I ; o t h e r s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o u r c e s i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r may be f o u n d i n t h e t h e m a t i c c a t -a l o g u e . P l a y f o r d p r o b a b l y drew more h e a v i l y on a r r a n g e d m u s i c f o r the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s t h a n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s u g g e s t s . Many more p i e c e s w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e s a p p e a r i n the e d i t i o n s . P e r h a p s t h e s e , t o o , a r e a r r a n g e m e n t s . I f one were t o c o n s u l t s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o u r c e s d i r e c t l y many o f t h e s e p i e c e s m i g h t be f o u n d i n o t h e r v e r s i o n s . T a b l e V I I l i s t s a l l t he r e m a i n i n g p i e c e s c o n t a i n e d i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s w h i c h have d e s c r i p -t i v e t i t l e s . TABLE VI OTHER ARRANGEMENTS IN THE LYRA VIOL EDITIONS T# Title/Composer Sources 3 - 1651 165[5] 1661 I 6 6 9 1682 60 P[rince] Ruperts March/Anonymous Lbm—2 set- x tings • • • • • • • • 26 70 220* Glory of the North/ Anonymous Gather Your Rose-buds/[William LawesJ A Boat, a Boat/' >; [John Jenkins] PMD66, Lbm, NYpl PCG52, PSM52 PCC52, PMB51 X X X • • • 0 • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • 0 100* 164 168 2 3 2 The I t a l i a n Rant/ [Giuseppino] The Scots March/ Anonymous Parthenia/ Anonymous Come Jump to My Cousin and K i s s / Anonymous PCG52, PDM62-65, PMH78 NYp3 NYpl NYpl, Pel • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • X X X X X X X X TABLE VI '—-Cont inued T# T i t l e / C o m p o s e r S o u r c e s 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 13 G e n e r a l M o n k ' s M a r c h / Anonymous PDM65 * • • • • • X 120 C o u l d Man H i s W i s h 0 b t a i n / [ J a m e s P a i s i b l e ] P C A S 8 3 , P P C 8 3 • • • • • • X 204* Sweet J a n e / [ J o h n B a n i s t e r ] P C C 6 7 , . . PMC 7 3 • • • • • • X 239* F a r e w e l l F a i r A r m i d a / PCAS73,75, • • t • • • X [ R o b e r t S m i t h ] 76, PPC73 a T h e s o u r c e s ' a b b r e v i a t i o n s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the t h e m a t i c c a t a l o g u e , p p . 1 8 0 - 1 8 5 . TABLE V I I OTHER DESCRIPTIVE TITLES IN PLAYFORD'S LYRA V I O L EDITIONS T# T i t l e Composer 1651 165C5] 1661 1669 1682 29 Maydens R a n t A n o n . X • • X X 39 B r a n g l e D e v i l a g e A n o n . X X X X 56 The A p o l l o A n o n . X • * • • • • 171 I r i s h R a n t A n o n . X • • • • • t 191 G i l l i F l o w e r S i m o n I v e s X X X X 211 L a C l o c h e S imon I v e s X X X X 216 L e s l e y e s M a r c h A n o n . X • • • • • • 37 T o l l , T o l l G e n t l e B e l l A n o n . • • X • • 40 The P l e a s a n t Dream A n o n . • • X X 43 L a C o c k l e y A n o n . • • X X 52 The P r i n c e o f C o n d i e s A n o n . • • X • • M a r c h 110 The New F i g g a r y A n o n . • • X X 147 The M y r t l e G r o v e A n o n . • • X • • 180 F o l l o w Me K a t e A n o n . • • X * • 210 M o n t r o s s e s M a r c h A n o n . • • 1 X • • 259 G l o r y o f H a c k n e y A n o n . • • X X 6 The Granadees M a r c h A n o n . • • X 22 New M u t t a r A n o n . X 57 Dragoons M a r c h A n o n . • • X 73 M r . F a r m e r s Trumpet A n o n . X 215 The E a r l o f S a n d w i c h ' s A n o n . • • X F a r e w e l l CHAPTER I V THE INSTRUMENTAL DANCES A b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e l y r a v i o l p i e c e s c o n t a i n e d i n P l a y f o r d ' s f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l dances ( i . e . a b s t r a c t m u s i c ) . The most numerous t y p e s i n c l u d e a l m a i n s , c o -r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s . I n a d d i t i o n , a few p r e l u d e s and j i g s a p -p e a r . * 2 The l y r a v i o l i d i o m d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f t h r e e f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f a c t o r was the d e s i r e on the p a r t o f composers and p l a y e r s f o r t h e l y r a v i o l t o f u n c t i o n i n a s o l o c a p a c i t y , l i k e the l u t e , r a t h e r t h a n as a member o f a c o n s o r t . - ' T h u s , l y r a A few o t h e r dance t y p e s a p p e a r i n t h e e d i t i o n s , s u c h as . the m i n u e t , b o r e ( b o u r e e ) , g a l l i a r d , c h i c o n a ( chaconne ) and c a -n a r i e s , b u t , as t h e s e a r e n o t numerous , t h e i r m u s i c a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d . 2 The member o f t he v i o l f a m i l y c a l l e d t he l y r a v i o l was s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n the t e n o r v i o l , b u t was c o n s i d e r e d a v a r i -a n t o f t he bas s s i n c e i t p l a y e d i n the same r a n g e . I t s b r i d g e and f i n g e r b o a r d were o n l y s l i g h t l y c u r v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e p l a y i n g c h o r d s . O t h e r w i s e , i t was v e r y s i m i l a r t o the o t h e r members o f the v i o l f a m i l y . I t was n o t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d e -f i n e d t he l y r a v i o l i d i o m , and p l a y i n g v i o l ' l y r a - w a y ' d i d n o t mean p l a y i n g on t h i s i n s t r u m e n t o n l y . A n y member o f t he v i o l f a m i l y c o u l d be p l a y e d ' l y r a - w a y . * The s t y l e , n o t the i n s t r u -ment , was the i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . See J o h n S a w y e r ' s " A n A n t h o l o g y o f L y r a V i o l M u s i c i n O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , M u s . S c h . MSS d . 245-7," PP« 189-91. and F r a n k T r a f i c a n t e ' s " M u s i c f o r t h e L y r a V i o l s : The P r i n t e d S o u r c e s , " p p . 8-9. -%ee S a w y e r ' s " A n A n t h o l o g y o f L y r a V i o l M u s i c , " p . 51. and T r a f i c a n t e ' s "The M a n s e l l L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e , " p . 16. 74 75 v i o l m u s i c c o n t a i n s b o t h c h o r d s and p o l y p h o n y , as opposed t o the s t r a i g h t m e l o d i c s t y l e o f c o n s o r t p l a y i n g . A s e c o n d f a c t o r was the r e s t r i c t i o n p l a c e d on the p o l y p h o n i c , o r c h o r d a l , s t y l e by t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f p l a y e r and i n s t r u m e n t . The l i m i t a -t i o n s c e n t e r e d on b o w i n g as the means o f t one p r o d u c t i o n and c h o r d a l f i n g e r i n g . B o w i n g p r o d u c e d the most r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t a s p e c t o f t he i d i o m , an a n g u l a r m e l o d i c l i n e . U n a b l e t o s u s t a i n more t h a n two p i t c h e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t he p l a y e r o f t e n must e x -e c u t e the n o t e s o f t he v a r i o u s p o l y p h o n i c p a r t s s u c c e s s i v e l y , r a t h e r t h a n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The l i s t e n e r must a s s i m i l a t e bowed and r i n g i n g p i t c h e s t o p e r c e i v e t h e p o l y p h o n y . Thus l y r a v i o l p o l y p h o n y i s a mannered and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e e l e m e n t o f t he i d i o m . The p r o b l e m o f c h o r d a l f i n g e r i n g was one t h a t c h a l l a n g e d v i r t u o s o s . M u s i c i a n s w i t h l e s s e r a b i l i t y f o u n d p l a y i n g c h o r d s t h a t were v e r y f a r removed f rom the t o n i c k e y an e x t r e m e l y d i f -f i c u l t , i f n o t i n s u r m o u n t a b l e , o b s t a c l e . Thomas Sa lmon gave t h i s c o l o r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he p r o b l e m s s u c h p l a y i n g p r e s e n t e d . V i o l i s t s , he s a i d , were f a c e d w i t h t he odd i n c o n v e n i e n t s i t u a t i o n o f t he N o t e s . . . w h i c h w i t h t h e i r C o n c o r d s l i e so c r o s s l y , t h a t . . . [ t h e v i o -l i s t ] i s f o r c e d t o p l a y the s i n g l e N o t e s o n l y , o r e l s e unde rgo v e r y d i f f i c u l t s t o p s . V a r i a n t t u n i n g s were the means by w h i c h v i o l i s t s a t t e m p t e d t o s i m p l i f y c h o r d a l f i n g e r i n g s . When the open s t r i n g s o f a t u n i n g \ n E s s a y t o the Advancement o f M u s i c , q u o t e d i n T r a f i c a n t e ' s " L y r a V i o l T u n i n g s : ' A l l Ways have been t r y e d t o do i t ' , " p . 1 9 3 . 76 c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the f r e q u e n t l y u s e d p i t c h e s i n a p i e c e , f i n g e r -i n g became l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d . E v e n t u a l l y i t was s een t h a t t u n i n g the m a j o r i t y ( o r a l l ) o f t h e open s t r i n g s t o the k e y o f t he p i e c e s i m p l i f i e d the f i n g e r i n g o f c h o r d s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the t o n i c k e y . S a l m o n was i n f a v o r o f t h i s . He wan ted t o p l a y i n some p l e a s a n t L y r a t u n i n g , t h a t t he most f r e q u e n t N o t e s be a l w a y s s t r u c k open , t h a t t h e i r C o n c o r d s may be t h e i r n e a r e s t n e i g h b o r s , and a t l a s t t he w h o l e V i o l , w i t h an u n s t o p * t f r e e d o m , may eccho f o r t h a f u l l C o n s o r t - s t r o k e , u s u a l l y the k e y o f t he Lesson. -5 T h i s was the b e s t s o l u t i o n f o r t he a m a t e u r , and P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s r e l y a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t r i a d i c t u n i n g s . U n -f o r t u n a t e l y , t r i a d i c t u n i n g s e x e r t an i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e on the h a r m o n i c a d v e n t u r e s o m e n e s s o f t h e m u s i c and t h i s i s v e r y o b v i o u s i n t h e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . The t h i r d f a c t o r w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o the l y r a v i o l i d i o m i s t h e t e n d e n c y composers had t o camouf l age t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h the f r e q u e n t use o f c h o r d s and open s t r i n g s . Composers a t t e m p t e d t o f i l l o u t t he sound o f a p i e c e t o compen-s a t e f o r t h e l a c k o f r e a l and s u s t a i n e d p o l y p h o n i c w r i t i n g . P l a y e r s a l s o h a d a t e c h n i q u e f o r m a x i m i z i n g the i m p r e s s i o n o f p o l y p h o n y . I t c o n s i s t e d o f h o l d i n g the f i n g e r down on s t r i n g s w h i c h s h o u l d c o n t i n u e r i n g i n g . Thomas Mace, d i s c u s s e d t h e t e c h -n i q u e i n h i s M u s i c k ' s Monument, and t e r m e d i t t he ' h o l d . ' ^ I n summat ion , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l y r a v i o l i d i o m ^ I b i d . ^ ( L o n d o n , I676), p . 250. The p l a y e r ' s t e c h n i q u e , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t have h a d much e f f e c t on the i d i o m . 77 a r e 1) an a n g u l a r m e l o d i c l i n e , 2) a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d r e s t r i c t e d h a r m o n i e s , and 3) an o v e r a l l r e s o n a n t , r i n g i n g sound c a u s e d by s y m p a t h e t i c v i b r a t i o n and the f r e q u e n t use o f c h o r d s i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l o r a l l u n s t o p p e d s t r i n g s (known as " c o n s o r t - s t r o k e s " ) . Example 5 i l l u s t r a t e s the l y r a v i o l i d i o m as i t a p p e a r s i n one o f P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l p i e c e s . A n " A y r e " by J o h n J e n k i n s has b e e n c h o s e n because i t e x h i b i t s p o l y p h o n y t o as g r e a t a d e -g ree as any o f t h e p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . On the u p -p e r s t a f f , t h e t a b l a t u r e i s r e p r o d u c e d . On t h e l o w e r s t a f f , a t r a n s c r i p t i o n a p p e a r s w h i c h s u g g e s t s the c o m p o s e r ' s p o l y p h o n i c i n t e n t i o n s . A l l t he c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t he l y r a v i o l i d i o m a r e a p p a r e n t i n t h i s p i e c e . The a n g u l a r s t y l e , c a u s e d by the bow j u m p i n g be tween the v a r i o u s p o l y p h o n i c p a r t s , a p p e a r s i n measures 3 t h r o u g h 6, 9 t h r o u g h 11, and measure 16. A r e s t r i c t e d ha rmon-i c scheme i s e v i d e n t i n the p i e c e , w h i c h i s i n a m i n o r k e y . The f i r s t s t r a i n d w e l l s on the r e l a t i v e m a j o r , t h e n c o n c l u d e s on the d o m i n a n t ; t he s e c o n d s t r a i n d w e l l s on the d o m i n a n t , t h e n r e t u r n s t o t h e t o n i c . A g l a n c e a t t he t a b l a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t open s t r i n g s and " c o n s o r t - s t r o k e s " a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d . Example 5. J o h n J e n k i n s , A y r e , f e d f h (T# 109*). 78 Example 5— C o n t i n u e d . —b—[r—1 A-A C. 3 5 1 ( 7 ) 1 v 1 •C5I i 3E T I T ( J O ) ^ 1 m i T f - l r - *n \\ CL J- J J ^ A £ A A A (13) 31 r 79 Example 5 — C o n t i n u e d . 1. J> • J C V -g « iff n A l m a i n s and A y r e s The re a r e s e v e n t y - f i v e a l m a i n s and a y r e s i n t h e s e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . These two dances s h a r e many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. I n d e e d , t he s i m i l a r i t y be tween a l m a i n s and a y r e s i s so g r e a t t h a t P l a y f o r d h i m s e l f had d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them; o f t e n the same p i e c e b e a r s t h e t i t l e " A l m a i n " i n one l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n 7 and " A y r e " m a n o t h e r . I n h i s M u s i c k 1 s Monument, Thomas Mace d e s c r i b e d the two dances i n t h e same p a r a g r a p h . A l m a i n s , he w r o t e , a r e L e s s o n s v e r y a y r e y , and L i v e l y ; and G e n e r a l l y o f two s t r a i n s o f t h e Common o r F l a i n e t i m e . A y r e s a r e , o r s h o u l d b e , o f the same t i m e , ( y e t many make them T r i p l a ' s , and c a l l them s o ; ) o n l y t h e y d i f f e r f rom A l l m a i n e s , by b e i n g commonly s h o r t e r , and o f a q u i c k and n i m b l e p e r -f o r m a n c e . 8 G e n e r a l l y M a c e ' s comments s u i t P l a y f o r d ' s p i e c e s , a l t h o u g h two p o i n t s r e q u i r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n . F i r s t , Mace c a l l s a l m a i n s 7 T h i s o c c u r r e d e l e v e n t i m e s . 8 P . 129. 80 • a y r e y and l i v e l y ' i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s l o w e r , l e s s r e g u l a r move-ments s u c h as p a v a n s , p r e l u d e s and f a n t a s i e s . I n P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s , t h e a l m a i n s a r e the w e i g h t i e s t p i e c e s , as h i s o t h e r dances a r e f a s t e r s t i l l . S e c o n d l y , a l t h o u g h t r i p l e - m e t e r a y r e s may have been common i n the s e c o n d p a r t o f t he s e v e n t e e n t h c e n -t u r y , t he l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s c o n t a i n o n l y t w o . B o t h a p p e a r i n the 165[5] e d i t i o n , b o t h a r e i n m i n o r mode and b o t h have no a n a -o c r u s e s . They a r e i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom P l a y f o r d ' s s a r a b a n d s . M a c e ' s comments r e g a r d i n g l e n g t h a r e b o r n o u t by the l y r a v i o l p i e c e s . A s he i n d i c a t e s , t he s t r a i n s o f a l m a i n s t e n d t o be l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e o f a y r e s . Some a l m a i n s have s t r a i n l e n g t h s o f s i x t e e n t o e i g h t e e n m e a s u r e s , whereas t h e l o n g e s t s t r a i n l e n g t h o f P l a y f o r d ' s a y r e s i s t w e l v e m e a s u r e s . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e , n o t m e n t i o n e d by M a c e , i s e v i d e n t i n P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l a l m a i n s and a y r e s s s t r a i n l e n g t h s o f t he a l m a i n s a r e l e s s r e g u l a r t h a n t h o s e o f t he a y r e s and o f t e n c o n s i s t o f odd numbers o f m e a s u r e s , whereas t h o s e o f a y r e s t y p i c a l l y a r e m u l t i p l e s o f f o u r m e a s u r e s . M e l o d i c a l l y , r h y t h m i c a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y , the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f a l m a i n s and a y r e s a r e s i m i l a r , t he d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g more o f degree t h a n o f k i n d . The f o l l o w i n g a r e some t y p i c a l t r a i t s o f a l m a i n s . a . A l m a i n s a r e more p o l y p h o n i c t h a n the o t h e r m u s i c i n the e d i t i o n s . The a n g u l a r m e l o d i c l i n e d i s c u s s e d as a p a r t o f t he l y r a v i o l i d i o m i s v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e i n t h e s e p i e c e s . T h u s , as a g r o u p , t h e y a r e t e c h n i c a l l y the mos t demanding p i e c e s i n the e d i t i o n s . b . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c r hy thms employed i n the a l m a i n s a r e 9 T#s 284 and 254. 81 j . > ) . > . J JI J n m i i . ym K I T H >J b e i n g a l m o s t as common a s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e b e a t as S i x t e e n t h n o t e pa s sages a r e n o t common e x c e p t i n d i v i s i o n s upon t h e s t r a i n . A l m a i n s o f t e n employ m e l o d i c sequence as c a n be s een i n example 6. H e r e , t h r e e s e p a r a t e m o t i v e s r e c e i v e s e q u e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t . Example 6. J o h n J e n k i n s , A l m a i n , s e c o n d s t r a i n , e d f h f (T# 123*) 1 f \.—r*~—Z-B 1 ^ — i — j * e « 3^ - — : — j y.) J - i 5 £ i a c. c\ c 2* c a r .*. T r 4 14 T f 82 Example 6 T - C o n t i n u e d . <x c A c i t 1 i l l —<s = —& iWlA O r o,. * f The l y r a v i o l a y r e s , t he m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h a r e i n m a j o r mode, a r e l e s s homogeneous as a g r o u p t h a n the a l m a i n s . I n the e d i t i o n s , t h e t e r m a y r e encompasses p i e c e s o f a more d i s p a r a t e r ange o f t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t y t h a n t h e t e r m a l m a i n . The mos t c o m p l e x a y r e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom t h e a l m a i n s . They have the same r h y t h m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and employ the same p o l y p h o n i c d e v i c e s . O t h e r s a r e s i m i l a r , b u t somewhat l e s s p o l y -p h o n i c and c h o r d a l , and f i n a l l y , some a r e v e r y s i m p l e , b e i n g a l -most p u r e l y m e l o d i c w i t h o n l y the o c c a s i o n a l c h o r d . Example ,7, an anonymous " A y r e , " i s one o f t h i s l a s t t y p e . Example 7. Anonymous , A n A y r e , e d f h f (T# 9 9 ) . J . > i . J > 1 . J > j . > CK C s 3 ^ * ° S e e example 5» p p . 77-79» o r T# 23 i n t h e a p p e n d i x o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . 83 Example 7 — C o n t i n u e d . J . } i i . > i r c x . «* c X a \ ,\ c CA r 3fc 5 5 J . > 1. J> J — * * • Q i i T Two o f the m e l o d i c a y r e s have p r o s e t i t l e s i n c e r t a i n e d i -t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e t e r m somet imes s i g n i f i e d a p i e c e on a v o c a l m o d e l s u c h as a p o p u l a r tune o r a b a l l a d a y r e . 1 1 A n i m b l e r , q u i c k e r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n t h a t g i v e n t o l l r I # 40, "The P l e a s a n t D r e a m , " and T# 43, " L a C o c k l e y . " 84 12 the a l m a i n s , as Mace s u g g e s t e d , w o u l d s u i t t h e s e p i e c e s . C o r a n t s and Sa rabands The two most common t r i p l e - t i m e dances i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s a r e the c o r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s . The re a r e f o r t y - t w o c o -r a n t s and f i f t y - s i x s a r a b a n d s . L i k e the a l m a i n s and a y r e s , t he c o r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s a l s o have many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. A p p a r e n t l y P l a y f o r d f o u n d i t e a s i e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h the c o r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s s i n c e t h e r e a r e o n l y two p i e c e s i n the d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n where t h e s e t i t l e s have been i n -13 t e r c h a n g e d . y I n h i s M u s i c k 1 s Monument, Thomas Mace r e l i e d upon t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s , f o r he u sed one as a f o i l a g a i n s t w h i c h t o e x p l a i n the o t h e r . C o r a n t s , he w r o t e , a r e L e s s o n s o f a s h o r t e r c u t [ t h a n G a l l i a r d s ] and o f a q u i c k e r t r i p l e t i m e ; commonly o f two s t r a i n s , and f u l l o f s p r i g h t -f u l n e s s , and v i g o u r , l i v e l y , b r i s k and c h e e r f u l . 1 ^ S a r a b a n d s , a newer dance a p p a r e n t l y t a k e n up by E n g l i s h composers i n the 1 6 3 0 ' s when t h e y were p o p u l a r i n c o u r t masques,15 a re d e f i n e d b y Mace as a s o r t o f w h i m s i c a l v a r i a n t on the c o -r a n t . I n h i s w o r d s , s a r a b a n d s a r e " o f the s h o r t e s t t r i p l e t i m e ; b u t . . . more t o y i s h and l i g h t t h a n the C o r a n t o e s ; com-1 2 I n a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g a y r e s may be s een i n the a p -p e n d i x o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s t T#s 1, 14 , 53. 83, 8 6 , 10? and 1 0 9 . 1 3 T # s 231 and 2 4 4 . 14 M u s i c k ' s Monument, p . 129. *-\Tean E l i z a b e t h K n o w l t o n , "Some Dances o f the S t e w a r t M a s q u e , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 4 9 . 85 v 16 mon ly o f two s t r a i n s . " M a c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s p o i n t o u t o n l y the mos t r e a d i l y a p p a r -e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e s e d a n c e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y s u i t t he c o -r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s i n P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . F o r exam-p l e , P l a y f o r d ' s c o r a n t s and s a r a b a n d s a r e s i m i l a r d a n c e s , s i n c e b o t h a r e i n t r i p l e m e t e r and have two s t r a i n s . A s m i g h t be e x -p e c t e d o f l i g h t , b r i s k dances s u c h as t h e s e , n e i t h e r t y p e i s v e r y p o l y p h o n i c . I n s t e a d t h e y a r e e i t h e r m e l o d i c o r c h o r d a ! w i t h a s i m p l e , s l o w - m o v i n g b a s s l i n e s k e t c h e d i n on i m p o r t a n t b e a t s . The b a s s l i n e o f t e n i s r e a l i z e d by l a r g e l e a p s , o f more t h a n an o c t a v e , o c c u r i n g w i t h i n the measure o r o v e r t h e b a r l i n e , as i n examples 8 and 9« These l a r g e l e a p s , a p a r t o f t he l y r a v i o l i d i o m , a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e s e d a n c e s . Example 8. C o l e m a n , C o r a n t o . i n c i p i t , e d f h f (T# 270). ' > J 3 X X J . J j J a s : 3E A 4-E p i 1 u s i c k ' s Monument, p . 129. 86 A Example 9. W i l l i a m Lawes , S a r a b a n d , i n c i p i t , f e d f h (T# 233). i 3 S I I n two r e s p e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the c o r a n t and the s a r a b a n d i s t he same as t h a t be tween the a l m a i n and the a y r e , One r e g a r d s s t r a i n l e n g t h i , C o r a n t s t r a i n s commonly c o n s i s t o f odd numbers o f measures and a r e s l i g h t l y l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e o f s a r a b a n d s . S a r a b a n d s t r a i n s a r e t y p i c a l l y made up o f m u l t i p l e s o f f o u r measures ( e i g h t i s the mos t common l e n g t h ) . The o t h e r p e r t a i n s t o t i t l e s j u s t as c o n c o r d a n c e s t o some a y r e s b e a r d e -s c r i p t i v e t i t l e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , so do c o n c o r d a n c e s t o c e r t a i n s a r a b a n d s — f o r e x a m p l e , "The G l o r y o f H a c k n e y " and " L a C l o c h e . " 1 7 P e r h a p s b o t h t e r m s , a y r e and s a r a b a n d , were a p -p l i e d t o i n s t r u m e n t a l v e r s i o n s o f l i g h t v o c a l m u s i c . C o r a n t s t e n d t o be more c o m p l e x t h a n s a r a b a n d s , b o t h r h y t h m i c a l l y and m e l o d i c a l l y . They use the r h y t h m i . J* J"l and h e m i o l a f i g u r e s c o n s i s t e n t l y . The m a j o r i t y o f c o r a n t s a r e i n m a j o r k e y s , and a b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s have a n a -1 7 T # s 211 and 259. 87 18 c r u s e s . Example 10 i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t y p e . Example 10. S imon I v e s , C o r a n t , e d f h f (T# 2 8 8 * ) . C 1 €. c: g . 1 5 z±: 3L: 4 3E ... r ' , r ~ j > j J.) A 5 fcfc w 7 & T T I n a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g c o r a n t s a p p e a r i n t h e a p p e n d i x o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : T#s 167, 238, 278 and 2 8 6 . 8 8 Example 1 0 — C o n t i n u e d . 'J ' J . ) j " > : > A W A I r fcfc I JHR- —"sac" IT" T T f - « . — « . — * h u k l e a A c T f\ c — 4 --h b 1 1 •J- J J i i — ! i y L — f -1 ^J- 4- — L J - H — 3 ' j > 1 J i J 1 e: T f.e. i 1 1 . J - j - r i > > r*. >~_ A e f , g, A a -P ic^ 89 Example 1 0 — C o n t i n u e d . OL a .if s r f r 9 a. i \ . i i 1 =ff f 111 1—1 S a r a b a n d s , b e i n g q u i c k e r t h a n c o r a n t s , a r e l e s s c o m p l e x r h y t h m i c a l l y , and u s u a l l y move i n h a l f and q u a r t e r n o t e s . They a r e a b o u t e q u a l l y d i v i d e d be tween m a j o r and m i n o r k e y s , t h e y o f t e n have p h r a s e s w h i c h end i n f e m i n i n e cadences a n d , i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , l a c k a n a c r u s e s . Sa r abands a r e more o f t e n c h o r d a l , whereas c o r a n t s a r e u s u a l l y m e l o d i c . The c l e a r m e t r i -c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t he s a r a b a n d i s o f t e n e m p h a s i z e d by a r e g u l a r h a r m o n i c r h y t h m i c u n i t o f one b a r . F u r t h e r emphas i s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a . h i g h l i g h t i n g the f i r s t b e a t o f e ach b a r by a c h o r d o r a s k i p t o t h e b a s s r e g i s t e r , and b . g i v i n g the s e c o n d and t h i r d b e a t s the same p i t c h , p l a y i n g b o t h w i t h down bows . E x a m p l e s 11 and 12 i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e f e a t u r e s , w h i l e example 13 19 i s t y p i c a l o f P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l s a r a b a n d s . 7 7ln a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g s a r a b a n d s may be s e e n i n the a p p e n d i x o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s » T#s 142 , 1 ? 7 , 178 , 2 2 8 , 230, 2 6 3 , 280 and 2 9 8 . 90 Example 1 1 . Anonymous , S a r a b a n d , i n c i p i t , e d f h f (T# 2 9 1 ) . J J — C A c c r r Example 12. S imon I v e s , S a r a b a n d , i n c i p i t , e d f h f (T# 256) tx a a c C C : «^* 1 ^ 1 7 T r t . T Example 13. C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , S a r a b a n d , d e f h f (T# 1 8 8 ) . f X c\ y > J 71 1 —fc—A ? * s — 1 i 12 ^  b > Q  5 r X 91 Example 1 3 — C o n t i n u e d . J _ % w ^ — * - A > c. * — <\ i a —• -... c— ^ c\ d J ^ B ^ — l 1 4 — n i v>. i . • $ — r i ^ 1 r — — — **** # * 1 J b P ex r 5 ) 1 , , 1 1 T f r > P r e l u d e s Thomas M a c e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a p r e l u d e as a " p i e c e o f c o n -f u s e d - w i l d - s h a p e l e s s - k i n d o f i n t r i c a t e p l a y w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s a 20 s e t o f l e s s o n s " i s a c t u a l l y t o o e x t r a v i g a n t t o s u i t mos t o f t h e l y r a v i o l p r e l u d e s . O n l y one p r e l u d e i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , a 20, M u s i c k ' s Monument, p . 128 . 92 p i e c e by S imon I v e s , f i t s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s f a i r l y l o n g ( twenty>-s ix measu re s ) and i s t e c h n i c a l l y the most demanding p i e c e i n the e d i t i o n s . A f t e r a s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t o f a theme i n -v o l v i n g f i f t h s and o c t a v e s , i t b r e a k s i n t o a m e d l e y o f t o c a t t a -21 l i k e p a s s a g e s w h i c h a re b o t h c o m p l e x and a t t r a c t i v e . The re a r e e i g h t o t h e r p r e l u d e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , a l l much s i m p l e r t h a n t h e one by I v e s . These n i n e p r e l u d e s , as a g r o u p , have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. A l l a r e i n d u p l e m e t e r , a l l l a c k a n a c r u s e s and n e a r l y a l l a r e i n one s t r a i n 22 o n l y , u s u a l l y o f an uneven number o f measures ( t h i r t e e n b e i n g the mos t common l e n g t h ) . S i x a r e i n m a j o r , and t h r e e a r e i n m i n o r k e y s . The p r e l u d e s a r e f u n c t i o n a l movements , s e r v i n g t o s e t t h e mood and e s t a b l i s h the t u n i n g o f a s u i t e o r o f a s e c t i o n o f an e d i t i o n . Two e l e m e n t a r y p r e l u d e s s e r v e the l a t t e r f u n c t i o n , 2 3 w h i l e t h e o t h e r s e v e n p r e l u d e s a l l i n t r o d u c e s u i t e s o f d a n c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e f o u r o t h e r p i e c e s , a c t u a l l y e n t i t l e d " A l m a i n , " " A y r e " o r " L e s s o n , " w h i c h f u n c t i o n as p r e l u d e s t o s u i t e s and have m u s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e named p r e l u d e s . H o w e v e r , a l l f o u r have two s t r a i n s , as opposed 2 1 T # 10*. 22 Two p r e l u d e s a r e e x c e p t i o n s t o the o n e - s t r a i n s t r u c t u r e . T# 75 i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p h r a s e s o f 3/3/2/1/5 m e a s u r e s — a c t u -a l l y a s e r i e s o f warm-up e x e r c i s e s ; T# 10* i s i n two s t r a i n s o f 9 and 17 measures i n two o f the e d i t i o n s , and i n one s t r a i n o f 26 measures i n a n o t h e r e d i t i o n . 23 ^These a r e the o p e n i n g p i e c e s o f t he 1669 and 1682 e d i -t i o n s o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , T#s 74 and 75. 93 Zh t o the o n e - s t r a i n s t r u c t u r e o f t he p r e l u d e s . The two e l e m e n t a r y p r e l u d e s c o n s i s t s i m p l y o f s c a l e s and o c t a v e s and s e r v e t o a c q u a i n t t h e b e g i n n e r w i t h the n o t e s on the v i o l . The r e s t o f the p r e l u d e s a r e m u s i c a l l y more i n t e r e s t i n g . W h i l e some a l s o emphas ize s c a l e s and o c t a v e s , t h e y i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o a p l e a s i n g c o m p o s i t i o n , w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g m e l o d i e s and r h y t h m s . Example 14 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s t y p e . I t s f i r s t e i g h t measures a r e s i m p l y an e l a b o r a t i o n o f the D m a j o r s c a l e . Example 14 . Anonymous , P r e l u d i u m , measures 1-8, f d e f h (T# 2) J TX Ti C £ j C I _ i £ e -^ * i _ — « , S A O JL C C\ C — . a : C 6 S £ C- £ C P. C <\ 3 5 1 r T T r T#s 16 , 8 2 , 83* and 112 . 94 Others move i n a series of eighth notes, often incorpora-t i n g melodic and harmonic ideas encountered i n subsequent move-ments of the s u i t e . One such prelude introduces a suite by John Withie which appears i n the 1661 e d i t i o n . The angular s t y l e of the prelude i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to that of the l y r a polyphony i n the two subsequent almains, as seen i n example 15. Example 15. John Withie, Suite. Preludium, i n c i p i t , edfhf (T# 104). J 95 Example 1 5 — C o n t i n u e d . A l m a i n . i n c i p i t , e d f h f (T'# 101). —, „ „, ,—c\ =c •e A — 2" * ^ ^ * —__ _ -V " X , 1 1—C\ C—Ok -i ^  c * , — t f - 1 1 % W ± ? w — ^ gj-p ^ > 0-A l m a i n . i n c i p i t , e d f h f (T# 1 2 4 ) . r A ' S a, r - X - ^ £ } -A " ' f -1 r — — — — f f ' J i s s T h i r t e e n p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s a r e e n t i t l e d " J i g . " Ten a r e i n t r i p l e o r compound-duple m e t e r , and t h r e e a r e i n d u p l e m e t e r . 2 ^ The t e n t r i p l e m e t e r j i g s , w h i c h a r e the t y p -2 5 T h e t h r e e d u p l e m e t e r j i g s <T#s 20, 31 and 98*) r e s e m b l e two o t h e r p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s c a l l e d " J i g A l m a i n s " (T#s 32 and 106). J i g A l m a i n s a p p a r e n t l y a r e v a r i a n t s on the a l m a i n f o r m . They d i f f e r f rom a l m a i n s i n t h a t t h e y a r e c o n s i s -t e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o J T ^ and J*J=3 r h y t h m s . 96 i c a l j i g s , w i l l be considered i n t h i s section. They are not chordal or polyphonic, but are l i g h t tuneful pieces. A l l are in two s t r a i n s , usually of equal length, which are made up of multiples of four measures, The majority are i n major mode, begin with an anacrusis, and have as t h e i r basic rhythm J * punctuated by J a . Occasionally, f o r var i e t y , these rhythms are broken into dotted patterns such as J , J > J and J • J , j> . This l a t t e r rhythm sometimes encompasses a large upward leap sugges-26 t i v e of the Sc o t t i s h 'snap,* and the l y r a v i o l idiom. Example 27 16 i l l u s t r a t e s most of these features. ' Example 16. Thomas Bates, A J i g , fdefh (T# 184). > j i J i ' I y X i i i i O : L 1 CK A CL '4 to George S. Emmerson, Rantin' Pipe and Tremblin 1 S t r i n g :  A History of S c o t t i s h Dance Music, (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1971), p. 144. 2 ^ I n addition, the following j i g s appear i n the appendix of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : T#s 146, 152 and 235. 97 Example 16—Continued. I 0. J i J i i i J J H — A I -P i ? 1 e. r. * r v r. r F. -C f4. K g<r f - r - r - y 98 Example 16—Continued. •I — 1 T~ \ c\ ON > Si- » T Two j i g s have t i t l e s which suggest associations with f o l k 28 or country dance. One of these, "Abington J i g , " was discussed 29 i n chapter three as a possible morris j i g . 7 Certain of i t s mu-s i c a l features suggest i t might "not be an abstract instrumental dance. I t i s s l i g h t l y more complex rhythmically than the t y p i c a l l y r a v i o l j i g and i t i s not part of a s u i t e . The other, e n t i t l e d "Country Dance" i n the f i r s t four editions of Musicks Recreation, i s e n t i t l e d " J i g " i n the l a s t . Musical evidence suggests that th i s piece, which i s ascribed to Thomas Bates, probably i s a l y r a v i o l dance since i t concludes a suite by Bates i n each of the e d i t i o n s . 30 D i v i s i o n s Tablature notation could express the d i v i s i o n s t y l e of playing, as w e l l as the chordal s t y l e , and interspersed among Playford's l y r a v i o l editions are several pieces which include 28, T# 152*. 29, See pp. 66-68. 3°T# 186. However, Bates i s known to have worked as an arranger, and may have incorporated a f o l k tune into a s u i t e . See 99 d i v i s i o n s . D i v i s i o n i s a m e l o d i c t e c h n i q u e o f v a r i a t i o n w h e r e -by t h e r h y t h m i c v a l u e s o f t h e s t r a i n a r e s u b d i v i d e d , r e c e i v i n g m e l o d i c e l a b o r a t i o n . I n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , d i v i s i o n s o c c u r on t h e s t r a i n s o f a l m a i n s , a y r e s and s a r a b a n d s . U s u a l l y the s t r a i n i s i m m e d i a t e l y v a r i e d , as i n t h e f o r m u l a A A ' B B * , where • A ' r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t s t r a i n and ' B ' , t h e s e c o n d . A n e x c e p -t i o n t o t h i s o c c u r s i n one a l m a i n by C o l e m a n . ^ I t s two s t r a i n s a r e p l a y e d t h r o u g h b e f o r e the d i v i s i o n s b e g i n — A B A ' B ' . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e two p i e c e s i n t h e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , an anonymous a y r e and a s a r a b a n d by J o h n E s t o , 3 3 i n w h i c h d i v i s i o n o c c u r s o n l y on the s e c o n d s t r a i n — A B B * . Example 17 p r o v i d e s a good i l -l u s t r a t i o n o f t he d i v i s i o n s t y l e . Example 17. C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , A l m a i n w i t h D i v i s i o n , o p e n i n g s o f - s t r a i n s A , A ' , B , B ' , e d f h f (T# 113*)• J i J A > J J> 3 W i l l i A p e l , " D i v i s i o n , " H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c , ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p . 214. 3 3 T # s 47 and 178*. T# 113* 100 Example 17—Continued. WW | <\ ^ ' p p } J> J> Although Playford's l y r a v i o l t i t l e s sometimes indicate whether the piece contains d i v i s i o n s (eg. "Almain with D i v i s i o n " ) , t h i s i s not h i s consistant p r a c t i c e . Some pieces, appearing i n several e d i t i o n s , have such an e x p l i c i t t i t l e i n only one e d i -t i o n ; i n others thay are c a l l e d by the form t i t l e alone ("Almain"). Other pieces with d i v i s i o n s are c o n s i s t a n t l y given only the dance form t i t l e . The following table l i s t s a l l the 101 TABLE VIII DIVISIONS IN THE LYRA VIOL EDITIONS a T# T i t l e Composer Ed./p,/no. form/no. of meas. 11* Almain John Jenkins Almain with D i v i s i o n P5[5]/68/75 P61/66/85 P69/90/119 A 8 A« 8 . B V • 11 B 8 11 47 Ah Ayr Anon. P69/21/34 P82/43/58 A 4 B 4 B ' 4 53* An Ayr William Gregory P69/35/51 A 4 A' 4 B 4 B ' 4 102 Almane with John Esto D i v i s i o n An Ayre Almain P5[5]/50/53 P61/26/34 P69/72/IOI P82/76/26 A 6 A' 6 B 7 B ' 8 113* Almane with Coleman D i v i s i o n P5[5]/36/49 A 6 B 6 A* 6 B ' 6 140 Saraband Jenkins P69/96/124 A 8 A' 8 B 8 B ' 8 178* Saraband John Esto P69/38/55 A 8 B 8 B ' 8 230* Saraband John Withie P5[5]/66/73 CO > 00 > B 8 A' 8 Saraband with D i v i s i o n P61/82/82 P69/I17/148 CO > 00 > B 8 B ' 8 For each piece, only when the t i t l e , composer or form d i f f e r s from the f i r s t entry i s further i n d i c a t i o n made. pieces i n which d i v i s i o n s occur. Suite Grouping In Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , the dance movements d i s -102 cussed i n t h i s chapter are frequently grouped into s u i t e s . The suites are p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the f i r s t three editions of Musicks Recreation. There are fourteen suites i n the l65[5] e d i -t i o n , twenty-four i n the 1661 e d i t i o n , and twenty-four i n the I669 e d i t i o n . By contrast, only four suites appear i n the 1682 •3k e d i t i o n . In the f i r s t three editions of Musicks Recreation, the dances which appear outside the bounds of suites are d e f i -n i t e l y i n the minority. For example, of the thirty-one almains and t h i r t e e n ayres i n Musicks Recreation (1661), only f i v e almains the three ayres are not part of s u i t e s . In the 1682 e d i t i o n , there are about twice as many non-suite dance movements as there are dances i n suites; but another f a c t o r must be taken into consideration. In th i s f i n a l e d i t i o n , the t o t a l number of dances, whether i s o l a t e d or part of a su i t e , i s much smaller than i n the previous three. Playford a l t e r e d the nature of Musicks Recre- , ation i n 1682 by decreasing considerably the percentage of standard dance forms and increasing that of arrangements of vo-c a l music and other types. The majority of Playford's l y r a v i o l suites consist of three movements 1 an almain or ayre, a corant, and a saraband. Less frequently, preludes and j i g s are included i n the s u i t e s , 3 5 framing the core movements: P, A, C, S, 3 »JJ Some minor and occasional variants on t h i s basic suite design are as follows: 3N?here i s one l y r a v i o l suite i n A M u s i c a l l Banquet. I t was not considered i n t h i s comparison beacuse of the proportion-a t e l y smaller number of l y r a lessons i n th i s e d i t i o n . 3^P=prelude, A=almain or ayre, C=corant, S=saraband, and J=jig. 103 1) the presence of a less common movement, such as a rant, i n a s u i t e , 2) the doubling of one of the core movements, as i n the following formula: A, A, C, S, or 3) "the omission of one of the core movements: A, C, J , f o r example. Since most suites contain movements a l l by the same com-poser, i t seems probable that the composers, rather than Playford (or his e d i t o r ) , were responsible f o r the grouping of i n d i v i d -ual items i n the s u i t e s . But only i n a few instances i s t h i s c e r t a i n . Lacking external evidence, thematic unity becomes the only sure c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g grouping by composers. And i n only a few instances i s thematic unity i n evidence. On the other hand, there i s evidence that Playford had at l e a s t an oc-casional hand i n the grouping. Some suites, composite suites, contain the work of more than one composer. Other suites pass from one e d i t i o n to the next, but i n al t e r e d form. Both of these conditions strongly suggest at l e a s t a p a r t i a l e d i t o r i a l grouping. A l l t o l d there are twelve composite suites i n the f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . 3 ^ Nine of these appear as such on t h e i r 37 f i r s t , and sometimes only a p p e a r a n c e , t w o are the r e s u l t of 38 subsequent a l t e r a t i o n s to an o r i g i n a l l y composer u n i f i e d s u i t e , D and one i s the r e s u l t of a l t e r a t i o n s to an o r i g i n a l composite s u i t e . 3 ^ As examples of the f i r s t type, we may consider two 3 6 S u i t e s no. 6, 14, 16, 19. 22, 14*, 32, 3 k , 38, 39, 33', and 15'. See table IX. 3 7 S u i t e s no. 6, 14, 16, 19, 22, 32, 34, 38, and 39. 3 8 S u i t e s no. 33' and 15'. 3 9 S u i t e no. 14*. 104 TABLE IX SUITES IN THE LYRA VIOL EDITIONS3, Ed. Suite P A C S J JA 0 Composer No. 1651 1 • • 66 217 131 . . . . Ives 165C5] 1' 10* 66 217 131 Ives 2 12 169 189 . . . . Ives 3 46 137 224 Coleman 4 95 122 270 268 .. Coleman 5 113* 127 • • 282 Coleman 6 85 288* 241 248 Ives 263* 248-Gregory 7 • • 80 102 • • • • • • Esto 8 88 • • 253 235* Esto 9 91* 238* 298* • • • • Hudson 10 48 199 172 • • • • Hudson 11 34 208 186 • • 0 • .. Bates 12 111 278* 233 • • * • Lawes 267 230) 13 77 272 • • • • Withie 14 33 11* 162 145 138 . Jenkins 138-Ives 1661 1' 10* 66 217 131 • • • Ives 2 .. 12 169 189 • • • Ives 15 95 127 • • 282 • • • Coleman 16 103* • • 244 • • • Young 90 268 103*-Lilly 4' 122 270 • • • .. Coleman 8 88 • • 253 235* Esto 17 115 79 285 241 t • • Esto 9 91* 238* 298* • • • . .. Hudson 10 48 199 172 • • • Hudson 11 34 208 186 • • • Bates 18 105* 258 271 248 Gregory 86* 286* 6' 85 288* 241 • • • 265 Ives 19 81 92 267 255 Jenkins 267-anon. 20 112 276 266 • • • Lawes ,105 TABLE IX--Continued Ed. Suite No. JA Composer 1661 21 104 101 • • 2 9 2 108 Withie 124 22 84 246 2 7 5 • • • • • • Simpson 126 84-Goter 14' 1* 162 145 • • • • •. • Jenkins 11* 1-Young 2 3 • • 11 1 3 3 177* • • • • • • Jenkins 2k 3 6 • * 1 7 3 • • t • • • Jenkins 25 1 0 9 * 247 2 7 7 9 t • • • • Jenkins 128 281 13' 8 3 * 2 7 2 2 3 0 * • • • • • • Withie 77 12 111 2 7 8 * 2 3 3 • • • • • • Lawes 2 6 7 7 2 6 118 94* • • 280* • • • • • • S imps on 196 2 7 • • 82 289 2 9 4 • • • • • • Esto 119 1669 28 41* 2 0 6 189 • • • • • • Ives 1 • • 66 217 1 3 1 • • • • • • Ives 2 9 • • 8 • • 151 • • • • • • Hudson 35 3 0 • • 53* 153 175 • • • • • • Gregory 3 1 • • 44 157 144 20 Ives 3 2 24 • • I 8 3 193 Anon. 24-Hudson 33 28 7 2 2 2 9 192 31 Moss 15 95 12? 282 • • • • • • Coleman 3k • • 9 0 244 291 • • • • • • Young 291-Ancn. 9 • • 91* 2 3 8 * 298* • t • • • • Hudson 11 • • 34 208 186 • • • • ! • • Bates 35 • • 80 2 7 9 2 7 4 2 3 5 * Esto 117 3 6 • • 102 252 263* • • • • • • Esto 18* • • 105* 286* 271 248 .. .. Gregory 37 • • 87 2 9 5 269 98* Moss lk' • 2 11* 162 145 • • • • • • Jenkins 38 • • 33 • • 140 • • • • • • Jenkins 43 43-Anon. 106 TABLE IX—Continued Ed. Suite p A C S J JA 0 Composer No. 1669 39 • • 4 • • 139 • • • • • • Withie 4 0 15 2 0 5 4-Jenkins • t 19 179 148 • • • • Bates 41 • • 14* 1 3 2 • • 184 • • • • Bates 42 • • 2 3 2 2 3 228* • • 3 2 • • Moss 2 7 • • 82 2 9 0 2 9 4 • • • • • • Esto 119 1 3 ' • • 8 3 * 2 7 2 2 3 0 * • • • • • • Withie 77 43 • • 89 242 264 • t 106 • • Moss 1682 28' • • 41* 167* 189 • • • • • • Ives 2 0 6 r 1 0 * 66 217 131 • • • • • • Ives 3 3 . • • 7 2 2 2 9 192 1 5 0 • • • • Moss 150-Anon. 1 5 ' 95 1 2 7 • • 282 • • • • • • Coleman 2 5 9 2 5 9 - A n o n . The movements are l i s t e d by t h e i r thematic numbers. As-te r i s k s a f t e r the thematic numbers indicate the pieces appear i n the appendix of t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . 107 s u i t e s f rom the 165[5] e d i t i o n . The f i r s t s u i t e c o n s i s t s o f an a l m a i n , a c o r a n t , and a s a r a b a n d by I v e s , and a j i g by 40 G r e g o r y . The s e c o n d c o n s i s t s o f two a l m a i n s , a c o r a n t , and a 41 s a r a b a n d by J e n k i n s , f o l l o w e d by a j i g by I v e s . Two example s o f t h e s e c o n d t y p e o c c u r i n the 1682 e d i t i o n . One c o n s i s t s o f an a y r e , a c o r a n t , and a s a r a b a n d by M o s s , f o l l o w e d by an a n o n -42 ymous j i g s the o t h e r c o n s i s t s o f a p r e l u d e , an a y r e , and a s a r a b a n d by C o l e m a n , f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r s a r a b a n d , t h i s a n o n -ymous. J The s i n g l e example o f the t h i r d t y p e o c c u r s i n the 1661 e d i t i o n . H e r e the s u i t e , w h i c h i n l65[5] had c o n s i s t e d o f move-ments by J e n k i n s and I v e s , now c o n s i s t s o f an a y r e by Y o u n g , and 44 an a l m a i n , a c o r a n t , and a s a r a b a n d by J e n k i n s . I n t r y i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween e d i t o r i a l and composer g r o u p i n g , t he most ambiguous c a s e s o f a l l a r e t h o s e s u i t e s w h i c h r e a p p e a r i n a l t e r e d fo rm b u t a r e s t i l l m u s i c a l l y u n i f i e d . S e v -e r a l s u i t e s a r e changed i n s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s s i m p l y by h a v i n g 45 a movement o r two added o r s u b t r a c t e d . J A more c o m p l i c a t e d r e a r r a n g e m e n t o c c u r s i n a s u i t e by Co leman w h i c h a p p e a r s f i r s t i n t he 165[5] e d i t i o n . O r i g i n a l l y i t c o n s i s t e d o f a p r e l u d e , an 46 a l m a i n , a c o r a n t , and a s a r a b a n d . I n the n e x t e d i t i o n , t h e s e f o u r dance movements r e a p p e a r i n two s e p a r a t e s u i t e s , b o t h by 47 C o l e m a n ; t he a l m a i n , c o r a n t and s a r a b a n d fo rm one s u i t e , ' f o r a n o t h e r , the p r e l u d e i s combined w i t h an a y r e and a n o t h e r s a r a -^ ° S u i t e n o . 6. ^ S u i t e n o . 14. ^ S u i t e n o . 33 •. ^ 3 S u i t e n o . 15'. ^ S u i t e n o . 14'. ^ S u i t e s n o s . 1', iy , 18', 14", and 28*. ^ S u i t e n o . 4. ^ S u i t e n o . 4'. 108 48 b a n d . . * 0 For most compositions i n these suites, the musical r e l a -tionships are l a r g e l y confined to harmonic s i m i l a r i t i e s . Judg-ing by the i n c i p i t s , only a few suites display melodic resem-49 blances between c e r t a i n movements. 7 One suite i n which melodic resemblances are p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i s by William Lawes.^° A l l movements of t h i s suite i n D minor (an almain, a corant, and two sarabands) are permeated by two three-note patterns: d e f, and f g A. In addition, there i s a correspondence of more d i s -t i n c t melodic motives i n the f i r s t two movements. Example 18 presents the portions of these two movements where the melodic resemblances are most evident. Example 18. William Lawes, Suite. Almain, meas. 1-6, fedfh (T# 111). y >i > . ) ) J > > A -PU ? £ 5 48; 49 50 Suite no. 15. Suites nos. 4, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 2?, and 15'. Suite no. 12. .110 Example 18—Continued. 1 A ^ A C , ) J . ) J r +' I ft" ~k _^_! 1 — - * 5 . 1 • f > j , } 1* < V U CHAPTER V THE COMPOSERS AND ARRANGERS One can determine who composed about two-thirds of the pieces i n Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . A s c r i p t i o n s within the editions i d e n t i f y the composers i n most of these cases. The authorship of several more has been ascertained by other means, c h i e f l y through concordant sources. This chapter w i l l concen-trate upon the composers i d e n t i f i e d by the l y r a v i o l a s c r i p t i o n s , and i n so doing, w i l l be i n d i r e c t l y concerned with the i n s t r u -mental dances,* since these are the pieces f o r which the vast majority of Playford's l y r a v i o l a s criptions occur. In a l l h i s publications Playford was notably conscien-tious about c r e d i t i n g the composers. The following quotation, from the preface to Choice Ayres, i n d i r e c t l y pertains to t h i s . Playford declares I s h a l l not apologize f o r [the pieces'] Excellency, the Authors names, which you w i l l f i n d added to most of them, are s u f f i c i e n t to declare i t ; and f o r those that want the Reputation of t h e i r Authors, whose Names (through ignorance) are omitted, the Esteem given them by the most s k i l f u l Musicians, supplies that defect. *As opposed to l y r a v i o l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of songs, b a l l a d ayres and country dances. 2Choice Ayres and Songs, (London, I679). 11.1 112 From t h i s q u o t a t i o n , P l a y f o r d ' s p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g a s c r i p t i o n s seems c l e a r ; he p r i n t e d the c o m p o s e r s ' names u n l e s s he s i m p l y d i d n o t know them. A l s o a p p a r e n t i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n i s P l a y f o r d ' s w e l l known r e g a r d f o r E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s . Ke n e v e r t i r e d o f e x -t o l l i n g t h e i r v i r t u e s . I n the d e d i c a t i o n t o A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t (1651), he d e s c r i b e s the composers o f t he l e s s o n s as " t h e most Famous and E m i n e n t Men t h a t e v e r l i v e d i n t h e i r T i m e , f o r t he A r t o f M u s i c k . i n t he p r e f a c e t o M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1-66-9 and 1682) , he l i s t s abou t a dozen "famous M a s t e r s " who a p p l i e d t h e i r L " e x c e l l e n t I n v e n t i o n s and S k i l l " t o w r i t i n g f o r t he l y r a v i o l . S i m i l a r comments appea r i n P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r . W h e t h e r , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r a i s e , P l a y f o r d gave t h e s e com-p o s e r s any f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n f o r t h e i r l a b o u r s i s u n c e r t a i n . ' ' B u t , a t t he c l o s e o f the p r e f a c e t o A M u s i c a l l Banque t he d i d ^A M u s i c a l l Banque t (1651), f o l . A v . **Fo l s . A 2 and A 2 V . ^The o n l y t r a c e o f e v i d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o P l a y f o r d ' s f i n a n -c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the composers whose works he p u b l i s h e d emerges f rom t h e d e d i c a t i o n i n H e n r y Lawes ' S e l e c t M u s i c a l l  A y r e s and D i a l o g u e s (1652). I n t h i s d e d i c a t i o n , H e n r y s t a t e s t h a t " t h e q u e s t i o n i s n o t w h e t h e r my songs s h a l l be p u b l i c k , b u t w h e t h e r t h e y s h a l l come f o r t h f rom me o r f rom a n o t h e r h a n d . " H e n r y i s r e f e r r i n g t o a p u b l i s h i n g p r a c t i c e , common i n h i s d a y , o f p r i n t i n g m u s i c w i t h o u t t he c o m p o s e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n . The g a i n H e n r y r e c e i v e d by h a v i n g the m u s i c i n S e l e c t M u s i c a l l  A y r e s p r i n t e d by P l a y f o r d l a y i n o v e r s e e i n g the p r i n t i n g , r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g f a u l t y c o p i e s o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s i n c i r c u -l a t i o n . From t h i s i t appea r s H e n r y r e c e i v e d no f i n a n c i a l g a i n f rom P l a y f o r d f o r t h i s m u s i c , a c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d by F r a n k K i d s o n . (See " J o h n P l a y f o r d and S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y M u s i c P u b -l i s h i n g , " The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I V , N o . 4 (1918), 523.) How-e v e r , w i t h e d i t i o n s such as M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , w h i c h p r o b a b l y were more p r o f i t a b l e t h a n L a w e s 1 e d i t i o n , composers may have been r e i m b u r s e d f o r t h e i r l a b o r s . 113 promote t h e b u s i n e s s o f many f o r m e r c o u r t m u s i c i a n s who were o u t o f w o r k d u r i n g the I n t e r r e g n u m by p r i n t i n g a l i s t o f L o n d o n ' s t e a c h e r s f o r v o i c e , v i o l and v i r g i n a l . Some o f t h e composers o f p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , s u c h as C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , S imon I v e s , J o h n J e n k i n s , C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n and W i l l i a m Lawes , were h i g h l y es teemed i n t h e i r d a y . O t h e r s , a l t h o u g h p r o m i n a n t i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , were o f l e s s e r s t a t u r e as composers? J o h n M o s s , J o h n E s t o , George H u d s o n , J o h n W i t h i e and Thomas B a t e s . Some o f the l y r a v i o l p i e c e s by t h e s e composers a r e a t t r a c t i v e , b u t t he m a j o r i t y l a c k i n s p i r a t i o n . The l y r a v i o l m u s i c o f t h e s e composers a p p e a r s t o c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e i r o u t p u t . H o w e v e r , t he b e t t e r known composers were p r o l i f i c i n a v a r i e t y o f m e d i a . T h e i r l y r a v i o l p i e c e s , w h i l e i n t e r e s t i n g m u s i c , r e p r e s e n t o n l y a m i n o r , r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r t o t a l o u t p u t . T a b l e X l i s t s the names o f a l l the composers i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . A f t e r e ach c o m p o s e r ' s name, the t o t a l number o f u n i q u e p i e c e s a s c r i b e d t o h i m ( f rom a l l f i v e e d i t i o n s ) i s g i v e n . The s u b s e q u e n t co lumns l i s t i n f o r m a t i o n abou t the number o f p i e c e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l e d i t i o n s . E a c h co lumn i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , (a) and ( b ) , as f o l l o w s : a t h e number o f p i e c e s w h i c h make t h e i r f i r s t appea rance i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n , and b t h e t o t a l number o f ^ p i e c e s by the composer i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n . P i e c e s w h i c h may be anonymous i n the p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n , b u t w h i c h b e a r a s c r i p t i o n s i n a t l e a s t one o f the f i v e e d i t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s number . TABLE X COMPOSERS (OR ARRANGERS) MENTIONED IN THE LYRA VIOL EDITIONS 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 (a) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) Jenkins, John 30 4 7 10 15 25 2 12 2 5 Esto, John 25 • • 7 • • 7 15 6 14 5 10 Ives, Simon 24 4 12 16 2 16 6 14 12 (Ives, Simon Junior) 2 • • 2 • • 2 • • 1 1 J. Coleman, Charles 17 2 14 15 • • 8 1 6 5 Moss, John 17 • • • • 17 • • 3 Hudson, George 14 2 6 8 • • 8 6 11 4 Withie, John 12 3 6 9 3 9 • • Bates, Thomas 11 3 • • 3 8 11 2 Gregory, William 9 1 5 6 3 7 • • Lawes, William 9 6 3 7 Simpson, Christopher 7 • • •v 7 TABLE X—Continued 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 (a) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) Young, William 3 2 2 1 3 • • 2 • • 2 L i l l i e , John 2 1 1 1 2 • • 2 • • 1 Banister, John 2 2 • • Paget, William 1 1 1 1 • • 1 • • 1 Alward 1 • • 1 Goter 1 1 Baptist 1 1 • • 116 This writer has discovered the composers of some anonymous pieces by a v a r i e t y of means. The t i t l e s sometimes provide clues. While many t i t l e s indicate known r o y a l , m i l i t a r y or no-ble personages (the King, the Queen, Prince Rupert, General Monk, the Countess of Exeter, e t c . ) , the t i t l e of one piece, "Mr. Farmer's Trumpet," 7 probably indicates the musician and composer, Thomas Farmer. Farmer (b. ?, d. 1688) was a London wait and a graduate of Cambridge. He played the v i o l i n and sang in the King's music from 16?1 u n t i l 1688. Also, he composed mu-o s i c f o r eleven Restoration plays; a piece from one play i s i n -cluded anonymously i n Musicks Recreation (1682).^ I t appears that Playford published at l e a s t one more piece by Farmer: "Mr. Farmer's Magot," i n Apollo's Banquet.* 0 The t i t l e of another piece, "Lesleys March,"** may also indicate a composer» Norman Lesley (or L i s t e r ) , a musician i n the service of Charles I, who was mentioned i n the records of the King's music i n 1612 and 12 I625. However, some uncertainty exists about t h i s . According to William Chappell, the t i t l e r e f e r s to a m i l i t a r y f i g u r e , "the 7T# 73-^Willard Thorp, Songs from the Restoration Theatre, p. 95. 9T# 71; see also table XI. *°William H. Husk and A l f r e d Loewenberg, "Thomas Farmer," Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, I I I , 3 2 « **T# 216. * 2Henry Cart De Lafontaine, The King's Musick, (London: Novello and Company, Limited, [1909J), pp. 50, 59. 117 famous Scotch General i n the C i v i l War,"^presumably Alexander L e s l i e , F i r s t E a r l of Leven. Perhaps one other t i t l e , " F i l l 14 Porters Rant," indicates a composer, although no reference to a seventeenth-century musician by t h i s name has been discovered. Another means of i d e n t i f y i n g composers of anonymous l y r a v i o l pieces was to examine concordant sources. A l l the compos-ers so i d e n t i f i e d are l i s t e d i n Table XI. A l l the pieces l i s t e d i n t h i s table were very popular, judging from the number of seventeenth-century sources i n which they appear. 1^ A l l except one were o r i g i n a l l y f o r other media and subsequently transcribed f o r l y r a v i o l . Apparently these pieces, because of t h e i r popu-17 l a r i t y , were f a i r game f o r arrangers ' who set them f o r l y r a v i o l and l e f t them anonymous. Such instrumental arrangements of popular music (without acknowledgement) are probably an ex-tention of the t r a d i t i o n , common among English v i r g i n a l i s t s from the f i r s t part of the century, of u t i l i z i n g popular music i n ^P o p u l a r Music of the Olden Time, (London: Cramer, Beale, & Chappell, [1859], I I . 615. l 4T# 161*. ^See appendix I I I , the thematic catalogue. l oThomas Ford's piece, "A P i l l to Purge Melancholy," (T# 62)j though t h i s piece was written f o r l y r a v i o l , an arrangement fo r Playford's e d i t i o n i s involved, since, i n i t s o r i g i n a l form i t was set i n another tuning f o r two l y r a v i o l s . 1 7 0 r f o r Playford, who, since he wrote the introductions f o r the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , had s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of l y r a v i o l tablature to do the arrangements himself. 118 TABLE X I COMPOSERS IDENTIFIED THROUGH CONCORDANT SOURCES 3" Composer T i t l e T# A l d r i c h , Henry- Oh t h e Bonny C h r i s t - C h u r c h B e l l s 30 B a n i s t e r , J o h n A m a r i l l i s 69 •i Sweet Jane 204*' F a r m e r , Thomas S i t t i n g Beyond the R i v e r s i d e 71 F o r d , Thomas A P i l l t o Pu rge M e l a n c h o l y 62 G i b b o n s , O r l a n d o 0 S a r a b a n d 201 G r e g o r y , W i l l i a m J o c k e y Went t o the Woods 136 100* G i u s e p p i n o The I t a l i a n R a n t J e n k i n s , J o h n A B o a t , A B o a t 220* Lawes , W i l l i a m G a t h e r Y o u r Rosebuds 70 L o c k e , M a t t h e w The S i m e r o n s Dance 130 •I The Apes Dance i n the Ope ra 155 M a c k b e t h 225 P e a s i b l e , James C o u l d Man H i s W i s h O b t a i n 120 P u r c e l l , H e n r y A h C r u e l B l o o d y F a t e 78 II The M y r t l e Shade 165 ti Now the F i g h t ' s Done 156 S m i t h , R o b e r t " F a r e w e l l F a i r A r m i d a 239* T u r n e r , W i l l i a m The J o y o f A l l H e a r t s 221 Woodson, Thomas S a r a b a n d 154 Three more l y r a v i o l p i e c e s b e a r a s c r i p t i o n s i n c o n c o r -d a n t s o u r c e s : "The N i g h t e n g a l e " (T# 54), " C o l o n e l G e r a r d s Tune" (T# 96), and "Hun t I s Up" (T# 134). The t h r e e p i e c e s a r e b a l l a d a y r e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n numerous s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o u r c e s , u s u a l l y a n o n y m o u s l y . I n i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s the names H e n r y L o o s e m o r e , Thomas H e a r d s o n , and R . C r [ e i g h t o n ] , r e s p e c -t i v e l y , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he se p i e c e s . A l l t h r e e names a p -p e a r on k e y b o a r d v e r s i o n s o f the m u s i c . T h e i r names have n o t been i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e X I because t h e y p r o b a b l y were a r r a n g e r s , n o t c o m p o s e r s , o f the p i e c e s . ^ A n o t h e r p i e c e i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , " A S c o t c h Tune C a l l e d S a w n e y , " (T# 25), may have been composed by F a r m e r , b u t some u n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t s abou t t h i s . See S i m p s o n ' s The B r i t i s h  B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c , p . 632. °An anonymous " P r e l u d i u m " (T# 2) i n t he l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s may a l s o be by G i b b o n s . The r e s e m b l a n c e be tween i t s i n c i p i t and t h a t o f a p i e c e c a l l e d "The I t a l i a n Ground" by G i b b o n s i n a m a n u s c r i p t s o u r c e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . Whe the r the r e s e m b l a n c e e x t e n d s beyond the o p e n i n g measures i s u n c e r t a i n , f o r the manu-s c r i p t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n . See R o b e r t Lee Adams, "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a K e y b o a r d I d i o m i n E n g l a n d D u r i n g the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e , " I I I , 251. 119 1 ft t h e i r own compositions. For a l l the pieces l i s t e d i n Table XI the arrangers remain anonymous. For several other pieces i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , i t appears the arrangers are indicated by Playford's a s c r i p t i o n s . In the seventeenth century, musicians were i n the habit of sign-ing t h e i r names to t h e i r l y r a v i o l arrangements of pieces by other composers—even when t h e i r arrangement amounted to nothing more than s e t t i n g the piece into a d i f f e r e n t tuning. Proof of t h i s practice e x i s t s i n the Manchester l y r a v i o l tablature i n the form of entries by one unusually honest scribe who signed some pieces i n the following manner--'Thomas Goodge or trulye W i l l [ i a ] m Lawes.'*^ In Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , evidence that some as c r i p t i o n s indicate arrangers i s of two typesi 1) asc r i p t i o n s appearing on transcribed l y r a v i o l pieces, and 2) c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s . An example of the f i r s t type of evidence i s the a s c r i p t i o n of the b a l l a d ayre "See the Building," which appears i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t ions e n t i t l e d simply "Ayre," and which i s ascribed to 20 Simon Ives. Since t h i s piece was a b a l l a d ayre, we know that Ives simply arranged the l y r a v i o l version. Perhaps he arranged the piece s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r Musicks Recreation, f o r a l l the other l y r a v i o l settings of t h i s piece examined during the course of *^Manfred Bukofzer, Music i n the Baroque Era, (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), p. 72. ^Manchester, Central Public Library, Watson C o l l e c t i o n , MS 832 Vu 51, PP. 199 and 200. 2 0T# 114*. 120 t h i s s t u d y d i f f e r e d f rom t h e one used i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . By the same r e a s o n i n g , J o h n M o s s , t o o , may be an a r r a n g e r , i f , 22 as was s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , h i s " A l m a i n " i s an a r r a n g e m e n t o f m u s i c f rom C u p i d and Dea th by Mat thew L o c k e . Example s o f c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s , t he s e c o n d t y p e o f e v i d e n c e , a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e s X I I and X I I I . The c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s a r e o f two t y p e s : c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s among c o n c o r d a n c e s w i t h i n P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s ( T a b l e X I I ) , and c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s be tween P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l p i e c e s and c o n c o r d a n c e s w i t h t h e s e p i e c e s i n o t h e r s o u r c e s ( T a b l e X I I I ) . I n c a s e s o f c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s , s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r -m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s e t t i n g i s the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n and w h i c h m u s i c i a n i s t h e compose r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r most o f t h e examples i n t h e s e two t a b l e s , t he e v i d e n c e o b t a i n e d t o d a t e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween the o r i g i n a l and t h e a r r a n g e d v e r s i o n . F o r o n l y one p i e c e , t he " A y r e " by B a t e s , c a n i t be s a i d w i t h some c e r t a i n t y t h a t t he a s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s an a r r a n g e r . 21 F o r c o n c o r d a n c e s , see the t h e m a t i c c a t a l o g u e . These were a l l anonymous, e x c e p t f o r one i n the M a n c h e s t e r l y r a v i o l t a b l a t u r e a s c r i b e d t o R [ i c h a r d ] S [ u m a r t e ] . The M a n c h e s t e r t a b l a t u r e i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e known t o t h i s a u t h o r where S u m a r t e ' s name a p p e a r s . I n i t a r e some o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s , t he q u a l i t y o f w h i c h shows h i m t o be an a m a t e u r . A p p a r e n t l y he a r r a n g e d s e v e r a l p i e c e s f o r t h i s m a n u s c r i p t , among t h e s e "See the B u i l d -i n g . " F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the i d e n t y o f S u m a r t e , see J o h n M . W a r d , "The L u t e Books o f T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n : I I : M S . D . 1.21 ( t he S o - C a l l e d B a l l e t L u t e B o o k ) , " The L u t e S o c i e t y J o u r -n a l , X ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 18 , n . 6 . 2 2 S e e p p . 4 6 - 4 8 . 2 3 T # 14* . 121 TABLE X I I CONFLICTING ASCRIPTIONS WITHIN THE LYRA V I O L E D I T I O N S a T# Composer T i t l e E d i t i o n T u n i n g 3 George Hudson A n A l m a i n 1651 d e f h f A n o n . A y r e 165[5] 11 George Hudson A l m a i n 1669 11 S i m o n I v e s The E c c h o 1682 11 A l m a i n 103* L i l l y A n A l m a i n 1651 e d f h f II I I 165[5] 11 n w 1661 it II A y r e 1669 it J e n k i n s A l m a i n 1682 M 12? A n o n . A y r e 165C5] e d f h f II 1661 (#24) 11 J e n k i n s n 1661 (#31) C h a r l e s •I 1669 11 Coleman n 1682 n 241 A n o n . S a r a b a n d 165L51 e d f h f E s t o 1661 (#48) 11 S i m o n I v e s II 1661 (#65) it 293 Coleman A C o r a n t o 1651 e d f h f J o h n J e n k i n s II I669 11 a T h e r e a r e c o n c o r d a n c e s t o t h r e e o f t h e s e p i e c e s (T#s 3, 103* and 293) i n the M a n c h e s t e r L y r a V i o l t a b l a t u r e . The re t h e y a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o H u d s o n , L i l l y and C o l e m a n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . H o w e v e r , t h i s m a n u s c r i p t c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d an a u t h o r i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g composers i n the ca se o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s , f o r much o f i t appea r s t o have been c o p i e d f rom an e a r l y e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . 122 TABLE X I I I CONFLICTING ASCRIPTIONS WITH OTHER 17th-CENTURY SOURCES 3 -T# Composer T i t l e L o c a t i o n P l a y f o r d e d . / M S ( S ) T u n i n g 14* Thomas B a t e s A y r e 1669 f e d f h G r e g o r i e [Thomas G r e g o r i e ] Sumar te T [homas ] G [ r e g o r i e ] 11 M r . Thomas G r e g o r i e s E i g h t s Almane A y r e Dm LAuc Mp WGb i« f h f h f n 11 63* A n o n . H n 11 Coleman A Symphony n •1 n 11 1651 165C5] 1661 1669 1682 d e f h f 11 n 11 u R [ i c h a r d ] S [ u m a r t e ] 11 Mp f f e f h a A p o s s i b l e c o n s o r d a n c e t o one o t h e r p i e c e , " S a r a b a n d " by Co leman (T# 188) , b e a r s a c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n . T h i s a p p e a r s i n Pc MS R e s . 1185, e n t i t l e d " A n A y r e " by B e n j a m i n C p s y n . The i n c i p i t s o f t h e s e p i e c e s r e s e m b l e one a n o t h e r , b u t t he m a n u s c r i p t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n . See Adams, "The Deve lopmen t o f a K e y b o a r d L i t e r a t u r e , " I I I , 214. ^ E x a c t l o c a t i o n s o f t he p i e c e s ( i n c l u d i n g page and number r e f e r e n c e s ) a p p e a r i n the t h e m a t i c c a t a l o g u e , a p p e n d i x I I I . Dm=Dubl in , A r c h b i s h o p M a r s h ' s L i b r a r y , MS Z 3.4.13. LAuc=Los A n g e l e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , W i l l i a m Andrews C l a r k e M e m o r i a l L i b r a r y , The Manse11 L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e . Mp=Manches t e r , C e n t r a l P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Wa t son C o l l e c t i o n , MS 832 V u 51, The M a n c h e s t e r L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e . WGb=Woodford G r e e n , E s s e x , The J o h n Brown B a n d o r a and L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e , i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f R o b e r t S p e n c e r . 123 TABLE XIII--Continued Composer T i t l e Location Tuning 122 Coleman Almain II 165[5] 1661 edfhf •I W i l l [ i a ] m Young Un t i t l e d Mp edfed 131 Anon. •i Simon Ives Anon. Saraband it n il il 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 edfhf •i II II •i Thomas Bates S[imon] l[ves II ] Mp (Variant) Mp II I I 151 George Hudson Saraband 1669 defhf Simon Ives II Mp (Variant) •I The piece i s at t r i b u t e d to Thomas Gregory, an older and more well known musician, 2** i n numerous other l y r a v i o l sources, and i n most of these sources, d i f f e r e n t arrangements and a d i f f e r e n t tuning are involved. One i s drawn to the conclusion that Bates simply arranged Gregory's piece, probably s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . For the other examples, less c l e a r evidence e x i s t s , but ce r t a i n p r o v i s i o n a l statements can be made. For example, one musician whose name appears i n the c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s with 25 other seventeenth-century sources i s known to be an arranger. 2k Sawyer, "An Anthology of Lyra V i o l Music," p. k3, 2 5 S e e p. 120, n. 21 124 This i s Richard Sumarte whose name appears on Gregory's "Ayre" and on "A Symphony." While i t appears to be usual that one a s c r i p t i o n indicates a composer and the other an arranger, both ascriptions f o r "A Symphony" evidently indicate arrangers. For the following reasons, Coleman, l i k e Sumarte, appears to have arranged, not composed, t h i s piece: 1) the piece was very pop-26 ular and appeared i n numerous seventeenth-century sources, a l l of which, except the one ascribed to Sumarte, are anonymous. These settings are f o r various media; one i s f o r a consort of v i o l s with keyboard, two are for solo keyboard, one i s f o r l y r a v i o l duet, and the version ascribed to Sumarte i s f o r solo v i o l i n s t a f f notation. A d i f f e r e n t tuning i s used i n the l y r a v i o l s e t t i n g; 2) i n the f i r s t four l y r a v i o l editions the piece i s anonymous. Coleman's name appears only i n the f i n a l e d i t i o n . I f he were the composer, his name probably would have appeared i n an e a r l i e r e d i t i o n . The remaining examples of c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s , espe-c i a l l y those occurring within the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , are very enigmatic. Unlike the c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s with other seven-teenth-century sources, f o r which d i f f e r e n t tunings or d i f f e r e n t musical settings reinforce the idea that arrangements are i n -27 volved, ' the f i v e pieces involving c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s i n the l y r a v i o l e ditions are musically i d e n t i c a l . One would be tempted to say that p r i n t e r ' s or publisher's errors caused 26 See the thematic catalogue. 2 7T#s 122, 131, and 151. 125 these i f the pieces were not a l l parts of suites by the composers indicated i n each e d i t i o n i n which they appear. (The other 28 movements of the suites d i f f e r . ) Lacking any conclusive evidence, i t may t e n t a t i v e l y be suggested that musicians of l e s s e r stature arranged pieces by more famous composers? f o r example, Hudson, 2^ B a t e s , 3 0 and 31 Esto^ probably arranged pieces by Ives ( e s p e c i a l l y since Bates is known to have arranged an almain by Gregory), and L i l l y , 3 2 a piece by Jenkins. The remaining examples couple Coleman's name with those of Jenkins and Young. A l l three men are well known composers. Perhaps Coleman, since his name i s coupled i n four c o n f l i c t i n g 33 a s c r i p t i o n s , ^ ^ i s an arranger. This indicates that Jenkins may have composed the ayre and the corant, 3** and Young, the almain. 3-* F i n a l l y , the composers named i n Playford's l y r a v i o l as-c r i p t i o n s (those l i s t e d i n Table X) obviously were the ones most d i r e c t l y connected with the conception of the e d i t i o n s . 3 ^ 28 This may be v e r i f i e d i n Appendix IV, "Tables of Contents." 29 7 I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t that the names Hudson and Ives are coupled twice i n the l y r a v i o l c o n f l i c t i n g a s c r i p t i o n s (on T#s 3 and 151). The two pieces appear side by side i n Musicks  Recreation (1669) among a group of pieces ascribed to Hudson. If Hudson did arrange the pieces and Ives composed them, perhaps other pieces i n t h i s group (T#s 8, 35» and 129) are by Ives as well. 3°T# 131. 3 1T# 241. 3 2T# 103*. 3 3T#s 63*. 122, 127, and 293- 3^T#s 127 and 293. 3 5T# 122. 36 D As opposed to those l i s t e d i n Table XI, which were iden-t i f i e d through concordant sources. 126 I t a p p e a r s P l a y f o r d o b t a i n e d the l y r a v i o l m u s i c v / i t h a s c r i p -t i o n s ( c h i e f l y , t he i n s t r u m e n t a l dances ) f rom t h e s e composers d i r e c t l y . T h i s i s l i k e l y because d u r i n g the y e a r s i n w h i c h t h e s e composers c o n t r i b u t e d new p i e c e s t o the e d i t i o n s , t h e y were a l l l i v i n g ( e x c e p t f o r Lawes) and r e s i d e d i n , o r r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e t o L o n d o n . Thus P l a y f o r d c o u l d have c o n t a c t e d them p e r s o n a l l y . A f t e r t h e i r d e a t h s , o r when t h e y were o u t o f the c o u n t r y , 3 ' ' 7 a p -p e a r a n c e s o f new p i e c e s by them a re e x c e p t i o n a l . I f P l a y f o r d was g e t t i n g the m u s i c f rom m a n u s c r i p t , o r o t h e r i n d i r e c t s o u r c e s , ' he w o u l d have p r e s u m a b l y c o n t i n u e d t o b r i n g o u t new p i e c e s a f t e r t he composers d i e d . J o h n J e n k i n s ( b . 1592 , d . 1 6 7 8 ) . Of a l l the c o n t r i b u t o r s t o P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , J o h n J e n k i n s was the mos t p r o -l i f i c . The e d i t i o n s c o n t a i n a t o t a l o f t h i r t y o f h i s p i e c e s w i t h new ones a p p e a r i n g i n each e d i t i o n . Though J e n k i n s was e v i d e n t l y n o t r e s i d i n g i n L o n d o n d u r i n g the 1650 ' s , 3 8 P l a y f o r d s t i l l may have o b t a i n e d l y r a v i o l m u s i c f rom h i m p e r s o n a l l y d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . P l a y f o r d ' s w e l l known f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h E n g l i s h m u s i c i a n s d o u b t l e s s e x t e n d e d t o s u c h an e m i n e n t composer as J e n k i n s , and he may have s o u g h t h i m o u t j u s t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . 3 7 A s i n the ca se o f W i l l i a m Y o u n g . See p p . 137-38. 3 ^ P l a y f o r d does n o t i n c l u d e J e n k i n s * name i n the l i s t o f L o n d o n ' s m u s i c t e a c h e r s p r i n t e d i n A M u s i c a l l Banque t ( 1 6 5 1 ) . J e n k i n s e n j o y e d p a t r o n ' s s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e t i m e , and he p r o b a b l y was r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e the c i t y w i t h one o f t h e s e w e a l t h y f a m i l i e s d u r i n g the Commonweal th . See W i l l i a m H . Husk and R o b e r t D o n i n g t o n , " J o h n J e n k i n s , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f  M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , IV, 6 1 0 . s -12 7 I f P l a y f o r d was n o t i n c o n t a c t w i t h J e n k i n s d u r i n g the f i f t i e s , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y he was by 1660. W i t h the r e t u r n o f C h a r l e s I I i n t h a t y e a r , J e n k i n s resumed a p o s i t i o n a t c o u r t 39 i n t h e K i n g ' s m u s i c . 7 T h i s u n d o u b t e d l y gave h i m c l o s e r t i e s w i t h L o n d o n , and g r e a t e r p r o x i m i t y t o P l a y f o r d ; a l a r g e number o f h i s p i e c e s a p p e a r , many o f them f o r the f i r s t t i m e , i n M u s i c k s  R e c r e a t i o n (1661). A t a l e n t e d p e r f o r m e r on many i n s t r u m e n t s , J e n k i n s was known p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r h i s l y r a v i o l p l a y i n g . 2 1 0 A l t h o u g h h i s m u s i c i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s i s no more demanding t e c h n i c a l l y t h a n t h a t o f o t h e r c o m p o s e r s , h i s p i e c e s t e n d t o be b o t h l o n g e r and more i n t e r e s t i n g m u s i c a l l y t h a n mos t p i e c e s i n the e d i t i o n s . J o h n E s t o ( f l . 1651-1682). B e s i d e s b e i n g one o f t he mos t p r o l i f i c c o n t r i b u t o r s t o M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , J o h n E s t o i s one o f the few composers c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t s t o a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P l a y f o r d o v e r the y e a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , E s t o i s a v e r y o b s c u r e f i g u r e , and the c o n n e c t i o n c a n o n l y be s u r m i s e d . P e r c y S c h o l e s v e n t u r e d t h a t E s t o m i g h t be a r e l a t i o n t o Thomas E s t e , t he p u b l i s h e r , and M i c h a e l E s t e , t he composer (who 41 may be the p u b l i s h e r ' s s o n ) , b u t p r o v i d e d no e v i d e n c e . E s t o was a m u s i c t e a c h e r d u r i n g the Commonweal th , f o r h i s name o c c u r s i n P l a y f o r d ' s l i s t o f t e a c h e r s i n A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t . He was 39i ' i b i d . , p . 458. T>e L a f o n t a i n e , The K i n g ' s M u s i c , p . 114. 4o, 4 l The P u r i t a n s and M u s i c , ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 4 1 9 . 12 8 apparently not i n the King's service e i t h e r before or a f t e r the Restoration, f o r his name does not appear i n the records. Playford l i s t s him among the l y r a v i o l composers i n Musicks Re-creation (1682). Perhaps the l y r a v i o l was the only instrument f o r which he composed, f o r no music ascribed to him appears i n other Playford publications. Esto's music i s among the most pleasant i n the l y r a -viol e d i t i o n s . A l l his pieces are dance movements, two of which i n -42 elude d i v i s i o n s . One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g features of Esto's music i s i t s phrasing. He breaks his dance s t r a i n s into smaller units which are pleasantly i r r e g u l a r i n length, and d i s -t i n c t from one another i n motif. His music i s t e c h n i c a l l y de-manding, a f a c t that suggests a high personal p r o f i c i e n c y on the instrument. Simon Ives (b. 1600, d. 1 6 6 0 ) and Simon Ives, Junior  ( f l . 1655-1669). Twenty-four pieces i n the l y r a v i o l editions are ascribed to Simon Ives and two to Simon Ives, Junior. The pieces ascribed to Simon Ives occur i n the f i r s t four e d i t i o n s , those to Simon Ives, Junior, i n the 165[5] e d i t i o n . There i s some confusion of authorship between the two Ives, father and son, i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . F i r s t , a piece which appears i n four editions (l65[5] through 1682) bears the as-43 c r i p t i o n "Simon Ives Junior" only i n the f i r s t two. J In the 4? T#s 102 and 178*. ^ 3T# 189. 12 9 f i n a l two e d i t i o n s the a s c r i p t i o n i s changed t o S imon I v e s . S e c o n d l y , e i g h t new p i e c e s a s c r i b e d t o S imon I v e s a p p e a r a f t e r the d e a t h o f the e l d e r I v e s (when i t was t y p i c a l i n the e d i t i o n s t h a t a f t e r a c o m p o s e r ' s d e a t h , f ew , i f a n y , new p i e c e s a p p e a r e d ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t some o r a l l o f the p i e c e s a s c r i b e d t o S imon I v e s a f t e r 1660 m i g h t be the work o f t he s o n . P e r h a p s , a f t e r h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , the s o n shed the d i s t i n c t i o n , " J u n i o r . " The e l d e r I v e s was r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s c o m p o s i n g and p e r -f o r m i n g a b i l i t i e s . H i s r e p u t a t i o n as a composer was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1633 when he and W i l l i a m Lawes c o - d i r e c t e d m u s i c f o r S h i r l e y ' s masque, The T r i u m p h o f P e a c e . B e f o r e the I n t e r r e g n u m , I v e s was a v i c a r c h o r a l a t S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h i n L o n d o n , and o r g a n i s t a t UK C h r i s t - C h u r c h , N e w g a t e . J A c c o r d i n g t o A n t h o n y a Wood, he was " e x c e l l e n t on the l y r a v i o l , and i m p r o v e d i t by e x c e l l e n t i n -v e n t i o n . " ^ I n 1651 he t a u g h t v o i c e and v i o l p r i v a t e l y i n L o n d o n . I v e s , S e n i o r , no doub t was a v i r t u o s o on the l y r a v i o l , f o r some o f h i s p i e c e s a r e t e c h n i c a l l y the most demanding i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h r e e p i e c e s abound i n s i x -t e e n t h - n o t e p a s s a g e s and w r i t t e n - o u t e m b e l l i s h m e n t s , o r d i v i -s i o n s . ^ 7 A l l t h r e e p i e c e s appea r i n the f i r s t t h r e e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e a r e mos t l i k e l y the work o f I v e s , S e n i o r . ^ S e e p p . 125-126. ^ W i l l i a m H . H u s k , " S i m o n I v e s , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f  M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , I V , 560-61. 46 Quoted i n S c h o l e s * The P u r i t a n s and M u s i c , p . 288. ^ ^ s 10*, 41* and 66. 130 Since one piece i n the l y r a v i o l editions which i s ascribed 48 to Ives was seen to be an arrangement, perhaps others are too. kg "A Masque" 7 may be an arrangement, since descriptive t i t l e s so often f a l l into t h i s category. Charles Coleman (b. ?, d. 1664). Charles Colemen, a com-poser who, l i k e Jenkins and Ives, was well established before the s t a r t of Playford's career, made a sizeable contribution to the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Seventeen pieces are ascribed to him, most of them i n Musicks Recreation (i65[5])« Coleman's l i f e i s quite well documented. He served Charles I as a l u t e n i s t , singer, and composer of music f o r masques. During the Commonwealth, he taught p r i v a t e l y , earned a doctorate at Cambridge ( i n July, 1651), and composed stage music. Pieces of h i s are included i n Playford's publications throughout the l650's and e a r l y l660's. A f t e r the Restoration, he was appointed to the King's service, f i r s t as a v i o l i s t , then as a composer. A l l his pieces i n the l y r a v i o l editions have dance t i t l e s except one, "A Symphony," a piece which Coleman evidently arranged fo r Playford. I t i s possible that Coleman v/orked frequently as an arranger, f o r h i s name i s involved i n three cases of con-52 f l i c t i n g ascriptions.-^ ^ 8See pp. 119-120. 4 % 41*. ^°Husk and Donington, "Charles Coleman," Grove's Dictio- nary of Music and Musicians, I I , 369, 5 lT# 63*. See pp. 123-124. 5 2 S e e Tables XII, XIII, and p. 125. 1.31 C o l e m a n ' s l y r a p i e c e s c o n t a i n more m u l t i p l e s t o p s t h a n most m u s i c i n t h e e d i t i o n s , and s e t h i m a p a r t f rom I v e s , who r e l i e d more on t h e d i v i s i o n s t y l e . J o h n Moss ( b . ? , d . a f t e r l 6 8 k ) . J o h n Moss c o n t r i b u t e d more p i e c e s t o a s i n g l e e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n t h a n any o t h e r o f P l a y f o r d ' s l y r a v i o l c o m p o s e r s ; s e v e n t e e n p i e c e s by h im a p p e a r i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1669). The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o Moss as a m u s i c i a n o c c u r s i n 1663, 5 3 when some o f h i s k e y b o a r d p i e c e s a p p e a r i n M u s i c k s H a n d m a i d . J I n 1669 . t h e same y e a r i n w h i c h h i s l y r a v i o l p i e c e s a p p e a r i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , Moss i s m e n t i o n e d i n the r e c o r d s o f t h e K i n g ' s m u s i c i n a l i s t o f men t o be app rehended f o r t e a c h i n g , p r a c t i c i n g and e x e c u t i n g m u s i c i n companies o r o t h e r w i s e , w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o b a t i o n o r l y c e n c e o f t he M a r s h a l l and C o r p o r a t i o n o f m u s i c k , i n con tempt o f h i s M a j e s t y ' s a u t h o r i t y and the power g r a n t e d t o the M a r s h a l l and C o r p o r a t i o n . 5 k N e i t h e r t h e cause n o r t h e outcome o f t h i s a r e known. Soon a f t e r w a r d s , i n l 6 ? l , Moss r e l e a s e d one o f t he l a s t books o f l y r a v i o l m u s i c p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e c e n t u r y . M o s s ' e d i t i o n , e n t i t l e d L e s s o n s f o r t he Bas se V i o l , c o n t a i n s none o f t h e same p i e c e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n the 1669 e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . Though Moss was s t i l l a c t i v e as a v i o l i s t - ^ T h u r s t o n D a r t , " J o h n M o s s , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c  and M u s i c i a n s , V , 9 1 0 . ^De L a f o n t a i n e , The K i n g ' s M u s i c k , p . 2 1 ? . - ' - 'Frank T r a f i c a n t e , " M u s i c f o r t h e L y r a V i o l s : The P r i n t e d S o u r c e s , " The L u t e S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , V I I I (1966), p . 2 2 . 132 and composer i n 1682, s e r v i n g C h a r l e s I I f rom 1678 t o 1684,-^ he c o n t r i b u t e d no new p i e c e s t o P l a y f o r d ' s f i n a l l y r a v i o l e d i -t i o n . George Hudson ( b . ? , d . b e f o r e 1672) . George H u d s o n , one o f t he l e s s e r known composers r e p r e s e n t e d i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d f o u r t e e n p i e c e s w h i c h f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n 1651, 165[5] and I669. Hudson s e r v e d C h a r l e s I as a l u t e n i s t and s i n g e r i n 1642. D u r i n g the Commonweal th , he t a u g h t , composed i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c f o r t he o p e r a The S e i g e o f Rhodes (1656), and s e r v e d C r o m w e l l . I n 1660 he was a p p o i n t e d a composer t o C h a r l e s I I and i n 1665, became a member o f t he t w e n t y - f o u r v i o l i n i s t s . ^ ' P l a y f o r d l i s t s h i m among the l y r a v i o l composers i n h i s 1669 and 1682 e d i t i o n s . H u d s o n ' s l y r a v i o l p i e c e s a r e a l l dance movements . M u s i -c a l l y , t h e y a r e among the l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g p i e c e s i n the e d i t i o n s t o E v i d e n c e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r - ^ i n d i c a t e s t h a t Hudson may have w o r k e d p r i m a r i l y as an a r r a n g e r f o r P l a y f o r d , r a t h e r t h a n as a compose r . J o h n W i t h i e ( f l . 1630-1669). J o h n W i t h i e , a r e l a t i v e l y unknown compose r , l i k e E s t o , has t w e l v e p i e c e s i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . A l l t h a t i s known abou t h i s l i f e i s t h a t he came f r o m - * ° D a r t , " J o h n M o s s , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c and M u s i -c i a n s , V, 9 1 0 . A l f r e d L o e w e n b e r g , "George H u d s o n , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y  o f M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , I V , 397. 5 8 S e e p . 125, n . 29. 133 59 a musical family, 7 and has music i n manuscript sources, some 60 of which date from the l630's. His name i s not included i n the r e g i s t e r s of the King's music e i t h e r brfore ar a f t e r the Restoration, and he i s not l i s t e d as a teacher i n A M u s i c a l l  Banquet. Withie's pieces i n the l y r a v i o l editions are a l l dance 62 movements, one of which contains d i v i s i o n s . Though t h i s piece appears i n three e d i t i o n s , the d i v i s i o n s are only present i n the l a s t two. This indicates some co l l a b o r a t i o n with Playford be-tween 1669 and 1682. Compared to the r e s t of Playford's l y r a v i o l music, Withie's is not out of the ordinary. Perhaps h i s fame rested more on h i s performing than on h i s composing.^ 3 Thomas Bates (b. ?, d. 1679). Thomas Bates contributed eleven pieces to Musicks Recreation (l65[5] and 1669) L i t t l e i s 64 known about Bates except that he served i n the R o y a l i s t army, taught during the Commonwealth, and was a v i o l i n i s t i n the King's private music from 1660 u n t i l 1 6 7 9 I n the 1669 l y r a Janet Richards, "A Study of Music f o r Bass V i o l Written i n England i n the Seventeenth Century," (unpublished B . L i t t . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Oxford University, 196l), pp. 136-37. ^°Sawyer, "An Anthology of Lyra V i o l Music," p. 88. ^However, Richards believes he was among the m u l t i i s a l i i s to whom Playford ref e r s at the end of the l i s t . See "A . Study of Music f o r Bass V i o l , " p. 137. 6 2T# 230*. 6 3 I b i d . , p. 151. ^*In De Lafontaine's The King's Musick he i s r e f e r r e d to as Captain Thomas Bates, p. 491. 6 5 I b i d . , p. 336". 134 v i o l e d i t i o n , Playford includes h i s name i n the l i s t of l y r a v i o l composers. Perhaps t h i s i s the only instrument f o r which Bates composed, f o r he has no music i n any other of Playford's e d i t i o n s . Bates' l y r a v i o l pieces, which a l l are dance movements, are quite ordinary. He, and Hudson, as well, may have been em-ployed by Playford as arrangers f o r the l y r a v i o l editions.°^ William Gregory (b. ?. d. a f t e r 1687). William Gregory has nine instrumental dances i n the f i r s t three editions of Musicks Recreation. Two seventeenth-century musicians had the name William Gregory. The Gregory i n the l y r a v i o l e ditions was the younger of the two, and he composed f o r , as well as 67 played, the l y r a v i o l . He was teaching i n 1651, served Cromwell during the Common-wealth, and Charles II a f t e r the Restoration as a v i o l i n i s t . A seventeenth-century account describes him as being "eminently s k i l f u l at the Lyra V i o l , " and a teacher who shared with his 68 students " a l l v a r i e t i e s of rare tunings." Gregory's songs, keyboard pieces, and other instrumental music appear i n Playford's editions from the l650*s to the I670's.°^ He was not a g i f t e d composer, however, and his l y r a 6 6See pp. 120 and 123. 6 7James R i l e y , "The Identity of William Gregory," Music  and L e t t e r s . XLVIII, No. 3 (1967). 240-44. 68 Scholes, The Puritans and Music, p. 160, quoting Batc h i l e r ' s biography of Susanna Perwich (ca. l 6 6 l ) . 6 9 R i l e y , "The Identity of William Gregory," p. 240. 135 * v i o l m u s i c d i s p l a y s no o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e . W i l l i a m Lawes ( b . l602, d . 1645). There a r e n i n e p i e c e s a t t r i b u t e d t o W i l l i a m Lawes i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Of a l l the composers who c o n t r i b u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f p i e c e s t o the e d i t i o n s , Lawes was the o n l y one t o d i e b e f o r e 1651, the da te o f t he r e l e a s e o f A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t . He f o u g h t i n the R o y a l i s t a rmy, and was k i l l e d a t t he s i e g e o f C h e s t e r i n 1 6 4 5 . 7 0 P e r h a p s P l a y f o r d o b t a i n e d L a w e s ' l y r a v i o l m u s i c f rom h i s b r o t h e r , " the compose r , H e n r y L a w e s , w i t h whom P l a y f o r d was on i n t i m a t e 71 t e r m s . W i l l i a m was v e r s a t i l e , c o m p o s i n g s o n g s , m u s i c f o r masques and the t h e a t e r , and i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n s o r t m u s i c . P l a y f o r d ' s r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n f o r W i l l i a m Lawes a r e o b v i o u s . Many o f h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s f e a t u r e L a w e s ' m u s i c , s u c h as C a t c h t h a t C a t c h Can (I652 and 1657), C o u r t A y r e s (1655), and the s e c o n d p a r t o f A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t . The r e s p e c t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s t o o . D e s p i t e Lawes h a v i n g been dead f o r a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y , P l a y f o r d p l a c e s h i s name f i r s t i n the l i s t o f l y r a v i o l composers b o t h i n 1669 and 1682, e v e n t hough t h e s e e d i t i o n s c o n t a i n no p i e c e s by h i m . P e r h a p s P l a y f o r d ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h H e n r y Lawes f o s t e r e d t h i s r e s p e c t t o some d e g r e e , t hough W i l l i a m Lawes was i n d e e d a g i f t e d c o m p o s e r . 7 ° M u r r a y L e f k o w i t z , W i l l i a m Lawes ( L o n d o n i R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , i960), p . 19. 71 H e n r y Lawes was a g o d f a t h e r t o P l a y f o r d ' s s o n , H e n r y . See C y r u s L . Day and E l e a n o r . B . M u r r i e , " E n g l i s h Song Books and T h e i r P u b l i s h e r s , " The L i b r a r y , 4 th S e r i e s , V o l . X V I , N o . 4 (1936) , p p . 370, 375. 136 Lawes* music i n the l y r a v i o l editions i s noteworthy i n that his suites are v i r t u a l l y the only ones to display thematic u n i t y . 7 2 Christopher Simpson (b. 1605. d. 1669). Christopher Simpson, the author of the well known t r e a t i s e The D i v i s i o n  V i o l i s t (I659), contributed seven pieces to the 1661 e d i t i o n of Musicks Recreation. One might wonder what prompted the appearance of Simpson's pieces i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , when Simpson's s p e c i a l t y was the d i v i s i o n s t y l e of playing, not the 'lyra-way.' I t i s doubt-f u l he was seeking recognition from having the pieces i n p r i n t ; his reputation was well established by 1661. Simpson's s k i l l was such that he, l i k e Jenkins, received patrons' support through-out h i s career. Furthermore he received an income from the sale 73 of h i s books.' J Perhaps Playford secured the seven pieces because of a friendship with Simpson. A friendship might have begun i n 1660, when Playford h e a r t i l y recommended Simpson's t r e a t i s e to the 74 readers of h i s Introduction (1660). Simpson's l y r a v i o l pieces are i n t e r e s t i n g ; some are im-pressive compared to the other pieces i n the e d i t i o n s . They con-s i s t of two su i t e s , one of which exemplifies a feature apparently 7 2See pp. 10 8-110. 7 3Margaret Meredith, "Christopher Simpson and the Consort of V i o l s , " (Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Wales, 1969), p. k . 74 An Introduction to the S k i l l of Musick (London, 1660), p. 7 0 . 137 t y p i c a l of Simpson: repeating movements of the same type. 7-' Oddly enough, none of h i s l y r a v i o l pieces include d i v i s i o n s . One of h i s almains uses some imitation i n that the treble and bass a l t e r n a t e l y repeat a rhythmic motive. 7^ William Young (b. ?, d. 1671). William Young, a composer of some note, i s not heavily represented i n the l y r a v i o l e d i -tions. There are only three pieces ascribed to him. Two of these were contributed to the 1651 e d i t i o n , the other, to the 1661 e d i t i o n . At the s t a r t of Playford's career, Young was established as a composer and instrumentalist. Soon afterward, i n l653» he received a post abroad, serving Archduke Ferdinand K a r l at Innsbruck. While there, he published eleven v i o l i n chamber so-natas. In 1661, he returned to England, taking up an appoint-77 ment at court as a f l a u t i s t and v i o l i n i s t . Young's a b i l i t y as a composer inspired Frank Kidson to c a l l him "the most important figure i n the period immediately before P u r c e l l . " 7 8 Given his a b i l i t y , i t i s unfortunate that no more compositions appear i n Musicks Recreation. Young's de-parture f o r Innsbruck must have stopped him from contributing any pieces to Musicks Recreation (l65[5])« I t remains uncertain why ^Meredith, "Christopher Simpson and the Consort of V i o l s , " p. 37. 7 6T# 94*. 7 7 F r a n k Kidson, "William Young," Grove's Dictionary of  Music and Musicians, IX, 386-7. 7 8 I b i d . 138 he c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y one more p i e c e t o the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s when he r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d a f t e r the R e s t o r a t i o n . One o f Y o u n g ' s p i e c e s , an a l m a i n , r e s e m b l e s C o l e m a n ' s mu-s i c i n t h a t i t r e l i e s on m u l t i p l e s t o p s more t h a n i s u s u a l i n the e d i t i o n s . ' 7 J o h n L i l l y ( b . ? , d . 1 6 7 8 ) . The re a r e o n l y two p i e c e s a s -c r i b e d t o J o h n L i l l y i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s t an a l m a i n and a s a r a b a n d . The a s c r i p t i o n on the a l m a i n i s changed t o J o h n J e n k i n s i n the f i n a l e d i t i o n o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n . L i l l y i s n o t a w e l l known m u s i c i a n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e n u -merous r e f e r e n c e s t o h i m i n the r e c o r d s o f the K i n g ' s m u s i c f rom 1660 t o I678. These p o i n t t o a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween h i m and J e n k i n s . Though L i l l y ' s name i s i n P l a y f o r d ' s l i s t o f l y r a v i o l composers i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( 1 6 6 9 ) . he a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t work e x t e n s i v e l y as a compose r . He i s known p r i m a r i l y as a m u s i c c o p y i s t , a v i r t u o s o on the l y r a v i o l , and a m u s i c i a n who was p a -80 t r o n i z e d by t h e N o r t h f a m i l y . Because f o r the mos t p a r t , L i l l y w o r k e d i n o t h e r a r e a s o f m u s i c t h a n c o m p o s i n g , and because he knew J o h n J e n k i n s w e l l , t h e 81 h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , t h a t L i l l y ' s " A l m a i n " i s an a r -90. A t e n d e n c y t o w a r d a t h i c k t e x t u r e i s a p e r s o n a l t r a i t o f Y o u n g a c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d s . See " A S t u d y o f B a s s V i o l M u s i c , " p . 221. fin P a m e l a W i l l e t s , " J o h n L i l l y , M u s i c i a n and M u s i c C o p y i s t , " B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y R e c o r d , V I I ( F e b . , 1967). 307-9-8 l S e e p . 125. 139 rangement o f a p i e c e by J e n k i n s , seems l i k e l y . P e r h a p s the " S a r a b a n d " i s a l s o an a r r angemen t o f one o f J e n k i n s ' p i e c e s s i n c e i t i s p a i r e d w i t h the " A l m a i n " i n b o t h e d i t i o n s i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r s . J o h n B a n i s t e r ( b . c a . 1625. d . 1 6 7 9 ) . The f i n a l l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n i s t he o n l y one t h a t i n c l u d e s m u s i c by J o h n B a n i s t e r . There a r e two t e c h n i c a l l y undemanding , t u n e f u l p i e c e s a s c r i b e d t o B a n i s t e r i n the e d i t i o n . 8 3 B a n i s t e r was n o t p r i m a r i l y a v i o l i s t o r l y r a v i o l c o m p o s e r . H i s fame l a y i n o t h e r a r e a s . F o r a t ime he s e r v e d C h a r l e s I I , and was a p p o i n t e d l e a d e r o f the K i n g ' s band o f t w e n t y - f o u r v i o -l i n s i n 1662. L a t e r he was d i s m i s s e d f rom t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r d i s p u t i n g the K i n g ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r I t a l i a n , r a t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h , mus i c . He composed f o r t he s t a g e , w r i t i n g m u s i c f o r many p r o d u c -t i o n s i n the l 6 6 0 ' s and l 6 7 0 ' s . P r o b a b l y he i s mos t famous t o d a y f o r h o l d i n g E n g l a n d ' s f i r s t p u b l i c c o n c e r t s , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n h i s home be tween the y e a r s 1672 and 1678. W i l l i a m P a g e t , M r . A y l w a r d , M r . G o t e r and M r . B a p t i s t . 8 2 T # 2 6 2 . 8 3 B e s i d e s the two a s c r i p t i o n s , t he 1682 e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s two p i e c e s d i s c o v e r e d t o have been composed by B a n i s t e r t h r o u g h c o n c o r d a n t s o u r c e s : " A m a r i l l i s " and "Swee t J ane" (T#s 69 and 2 0 4 * ) . ok Edward G . R i m b a u l t , A l f r e d Loewenbe rg and B a r c l a y S q u i r e , " J o h n B a n i s t e r , " G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , I , 4 0 0 - 1 . 8 ^ S c h o l e s , The P u r i t a n s and M u s i c , p . 4 6 . 140 I t appears the connection these musicians had with Playford's l y r a v i o l editions was small i f any existed at a l l . The editions conatin only one a s c r i p t i o n to each composer. Paget's contribution i s to A M u s i c a l l Banquet, and Aylward's to Musicks Recreation (l65[5])« For the following reasons these two men are probably arrangers, rather than composers. F i r s t , t h i s author i s aware of no other references to Paget, and only 86 one to Aylward, as composers. Paget taught during the Common-wealth, and both he and Aylward 8 7 served as v i o l i n i s t s i n the King's music a f t e r the Restoration. Secondly, the piece ascribed to Paget appears i n a l l f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Paget's name appears only i n the l a s t e d i t i o n . I f he were the composer, i t seems at l e a s t one other of the editions would have included his name. Mr. Goter, whose piece appears i n Musicks Recreation (1661), is Jacques Ga u l t i e r , the composer and l u t e n i s t who served i n the King's music from I637 to 1647. Goter i s the a n g l i c i z e d form of 88 his name. The a s c r i p t i o n to Baptist i s on a minuet which appears i n Musicks Recreation (1682). Whether the a s c r i p t i o n indicates L u l l y or Draghi, both of whom had the C h r i s t i a n name Baptist, i s 86 The other a s c r i p t i o n to Aylward appears i n Greeting's The Pleasant Companion (l673)« 8 7 T h i s assumes that Aylward i s the same person as W[illiam] Ayleworth [or Aleworth], who i s l i s t e d i n the r e g i s -ters of the King's music. 0 0 Traficante, "The Mansell Lyra V i o l Tablature," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Pittsburgh, 1965), pp« 155-56. 141 89 uncertain. 7 Ascriptions to a Baptist and a Baptista appear i n other Playford e d i t i o n s , such as The Pleasant Companion (l6?3), and Choice Ayres (I683). Apparently the same musician i s i n -tended, though again, i t i s uncertain which one. Thus, the survey of Playford's l y r a v i o l composers and the entire study of the f i v e l y r a v i o l editions i s concluded. A l -though the publications do not contain music of great depth, they are of much i n t e r e s t today from many standpoints: that of the society which c a l l e d them into existence; that of Playford who responded to the society's appetite f o r music; that of the music they contain and the composers who wrote i t ; and f i n a l l y , that of the l y r a v i o l . The editi o n s , being c o l l e c t i o n s of l i g h t , a t t r a c t i v e pieces f o r amateurs, are further testimony to the healthy state of amateur music making i n Playford's day, to the consistently high q u a l i t y of Playford's work, and to the charm of popular music i n the second h a l f of the seventeenth century. We are fortunate today to have the record the editions preserve. yJohn Manifold, The Music i n Engl i s h Drama (London; R o c k l i f f , 1956), p. 152. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography only l i s t s works from which material was drawn f o r the f i v e chapters of h i s t o r i c a l commentary. A complete l i s t of works consulted f o r the thematic catalogue (Appendix III) appears i n the introduction to the catalogue. Adams, Robert Lee. "The Development of a Keyboard Idiom i n England During the English Renaissance." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, i960. Apel, W i l l i . " D i v i s i o n . " Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, p. 214. Arber, Edward, ed. The Term Catalogues, 1668-1709. 3 v o l s . London: By the Author, 1903. Barley, William. A New Booke of Tabliture .... . f o r Lute,  Orpharion, and Bandora. London, 1596. B a s k e r v i l l , Charles Read. The Elizabethan J i g and Related Song  Drama. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : U niversity of Chicago Press, 1929. Republication, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965. Bemis, Jack Stanford. "Restoration Dramatic Music: A Compar-ative and S t r u c t u r a l Analysis of Selected Works." Un-published Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Eastman School of Music of the U n i v e r s i t y of Rochester, I96I. Butler, Charles. The P r i n c i p l e s of Musik i n Singing and S e t t i n g . London, 1636. Casey, William Sherman. "Printed English Lute I n s t r u c t i o n Books 1558-1610." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Uni-v e r s i t y of Michigan, i960. Chappell, William. Popular Music of the Olden Time. 2 v o l s . London: Cramer, Beale, & Chappell, |_1859J« Clarke, Henry Leland. "John Blow (1649-1708) Last Composer of an Era." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard Univer-s i t y , 1947. 142 143 C o r a l , L e n o r e . "A J o h n P l a y f o r d A d v e r t i s e m e n t . " R . M . A . R e - s e a r c h C h r o n i c l e . N o . 5 (1965), 1-12. C o x o n , C a r o l y n . 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" P u b - l i c a t i o n s o f the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , X X X I V (1919) , 258-339. ' ~"~ R u f f , L i l l i a n . " A S u r v e y o f J o h n P l a y f o r d ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c . " The C o n s o r t , X X I I (1965), 36-49. S a w y e r , J o h n E . " A n A n t h o l o g y o f L y r a V i o l M u s i c i n O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , M u s . S c h . MSS d 245-7." P h . D . d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1972. " M u s i c f o r Two and Three L y r a - V i o l s . " C a n a d i a n A s s o -c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l s o f M u s i c , I , N o . 2 ( F a l l , 197D, 71-96. S c h n a p p e r , E d i t h B . , e d . B r i t i s h U n i o n C a t a l o g u e o f E a r l y M u s i c . L o n d o n : B u t t e r w o r t h ' s S c i e n t i f i c P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957. S c h o l e s , P e r c y A . The P u r i t a n s and M u s i c . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. S h a r p , C e c i l J . , and M a c i l w a i n e , H e r b e r t C . The M o r r i s B o o k . 2nd e d . 5 v o l s . L o n d o n : N o v e l l o and Company, L t d . , 1909-24. S h e p a r d , L e s l i e . The B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d . L o n d o n : H e r b e r t J e n k i n s L i m i t e d , 1962. S i m p s o n , C h r i s t o p h e r . The D i v i s i o n V i o l i s t . L o n d o n , 1659• S i m p s o n , C l a u d e M i t c h e l l . The B r i s t i s h B r o a d s i d e B a l l a d and I t s M u s i c . New B r u n s w i c k ! R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. S m i t h , W i l l i a m C . " P l a y f o r d , Some H i t h e r t o U n n o t i c e d C a t a -l o g u e s . " The M u s i c a l T i m e s , L X V I I ( J u l y and A u g u s t , 1926), 636-39, 701-4. S q u i r e , W. B a r c l a y , c o m p i l e r . C a t a l o g u e o f P r i n t e d M u s i c i n  the L i b r a r y o f the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c . L o n d o n : P r i n t e d by O r d e r o f the C o u n c i l , 1909. , c o m p i l e r . C a t a l o g u e o f P r i n t e d M u s i c F u b l i s h e d be tween 1487 and 1800 . Now i n the B r i t i s h Museum. 2 v o l s . L o n d o n : By O r d e r o f the T r u s t e e s , 1912. . " J o h n P l a y f o r d . " M u s i c and L e t t e r s , I V , N o . 3 (1923), 261-65. 148 T e m p e r l e y , N i c h o l a s . " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the M e t r i c a l P s a l m s . " J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . X X V , N o . 3 (1972), 331-78. . " J o h n P l a y f o r d and the S t a t i o n e r s ' Company." M u s i c and L e t t e r s , L I V , N o . 2 ( A p r i l , 1973), 203 - 2 1 2 . T h o r p e , W i l l a r d . Songs f rom the R e s t o r a t i o n T h e a t r e . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. R e p r i n t e d , New Y o r k : Da Capo P r e s s , 1970. T r a f i c a n t e , F r a n k A . " L y r a V i o l T u n i n g s : ' A l l Ways have been t r y e d t o do i t . ' " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a , X L I I (1970), 183-205. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ "The M a n s e l l L y r a V i o l T a b l a t u r e . " P h . D . d i s s e r t a -t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1965. . " M u s i c f o r the L y r a V i o l : The P r i n t e d S o u r c e s . " The L u t e S o c i e t y J o u r n a l . V I I I (1966), 7 - 2 4 . . " A T h e m a t i c I n d e x t o the M u s i c f o r L y r a V i o l C o n -t a i n e d i n F i v e P u b l i c a t i o n s by J o h n P l a y f o r d . " (Manu-s c r i p t ) . W a r d , J o h n M . "The L u t e Books o f T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n : I I : M S . D . 1 . 2 1 . ( t he S o - c a l l e d B a l l e t L u t e B o o k ) . " The L u t e  S o c i e t y J o u r n a l , X (1968), 15-32. W e s t r u p , J . A . "Amateu r s i n 17C E n g l a n d . " M o n t h l y M u s i c a l  R e c o r d , L X I X , N o . 811 (1939). 257-63-. " D o m e s t i c M u s i c Under the S t u a r t s . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t he M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 68th s e s s . (1941-42), 1 9 - 5 4 . W i l l e t s , P a m e l a J . " J o h n L i l l y , M u s i c i a n and M u s i c C o p y i s t . " • B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y R e c o r d , V I I ( F e b . , 1967 )1 3 0 7 - 1 1 . W i l l i a m s , l o l o A . E n g l i s h F o l k Song and D a n c e . L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n and C o . , 1935• W i l s o n , John , e d . R o g e r N o r t h on M u s i c . L o n d o n : N o v e l l o and Company L t d . , 1959. W i n g , D o n a l d , c o m p i l e r . A S h o r t T i t l e C a t a l o g u e o f Books P r i n t e d i n S c o t l a n d , I r e l a n d , W a l e s , and B r i t i s h A m e r i c a  and o f E n g l i s h Books P r i n t e d i n O t h e r C o u n t r i e s . , l 6 4 l - 1700. 2 n d . e d . New Y o r k : The I n d e x S o c i e t y , 1972. Wood, M e l u s i n e . More H i s t o r i c a l D a n c e s . L o n d o n : The I m p e r i a l S o c i e t y o f T e a c h e r s o f D a n c i n g I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1956 . 149 W o o d f i l l , W. L . M u s i c i a n s i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953' Zimmerman, F r a n k l i n B . , e d . A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f  M u s i c k , by J o h n P l a y f o r d . The T w e l f t h E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : Da Capo P r e s s , 1972. . " P u r c e l l * s M u s i c a l H e r i t a g e : A S t u d y o f M u s i c a l S t y l e s i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d . " U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1958. APPENDIX I TITLE INDEX Introduction This index i s arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y according to the t i t l e s of Playford's l y r a v i o l pieces. A l l the pieces are i n -cluded except those simply bearing the following s i x dance form t i t l e s : prelude, almain, ayre, corant. saraband and j i g . In addition to t i t l e s , the following information i s given for each piece: Column 1 Thematic number (see Appendix I I I ) . 2 Location (edit i o n , page and composition number) in the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , arranged chronolog-i c a l l y . 3 T i t l e : the piece i s c l a s s i f i e d according to i t s t i t l e i n the e a r l i e s t l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n , unless, on i t s f i r s t appearance, i t bears one of the s i x dance form t i t l e s mentioned above. When thi s occurs, the chronological arrangement i n column 2 i s altered, and the t i t l e by which the piece i s c l a s s i f i e d appears f i r s t . 4 Composer, i f known. The name appears i n brackets i f i t was discovered through an outside source. I f one has no other information about a piece than i t s t i t l e , t h i s index may be used to locate i t i n the l y r a v i o l e d i -tions, and, i f i t appears there, to trace i t to the thematic catalogue where any further information discovered appears. 150 151 APPENDIX I T I T L E INDEX T# (1) Ed./p./# (2) T i t l e (3) Composer (4) 152* P82/54/74 A b i n g t o n J i g • • 67* P 5 1 / 3 A P5 [ 5 ] / V 8 P61/3/6 P69/3/6 P82/7/10 A L a Mode de F r a n c e 78 P82/20 / 28 A h C r u e l B l o o d y F a t e [ H e n r y Puree11J 69 P82/51/69 A m a r i l l i s [ J o h n B a n i s t e r ] 155 P82/11/16 Apes Dance i n the O p e r a , The [ M a t t h e w L o c k e ] 56 P5[ 5 ] / 2 9 A o A p o l l o , The • * 209 P51/1/2 P5[5]/5/9 P69/3/5 B l e w - C a p 220* P5[5]/7/l4 B o a t , a B o a t , A [ J o h n J e n k i n s ] 218 P61/93/96 Boatman , The 64 P82/36/50 Bonny Brow 58* P82/36A9 B o r e 68 P51/10/12 Bow B e l l s 39 P5L51/77/86 P6l/lo/l4 P69/20/32 P82/9/13 B r a n g l e D e v i l a g e A F r e n c h A y r 187 P5[5 ] /28/39 C a n a r i e s • • 152 APPENDIX I--Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) 219* 203 211 43 96* 141 232 120 85 197 186 P69/24/38 P5[5]/17/26[A] P61/11/16 P 5 [ 5 ] / 2 9/4l P61/11/15 P69/16/27 P82/34/47 P82/52/71 P69/95/123 P51/24/27 P5[5 ] / 4 o / 5 1 P 6 1 / 2 1 / 2 9 P 6 9 / 5 4 / 7 7 P82/59/5 P82/56/76 P6 9 / 8/I6 P82/8/11 P82/64/11 P5[5]/46/57 P61/48/63 P5[5]/10/18 P5 [ 5 ] / 5 9 / 6 5 P61/43/56 P 6 9 / 6 7 / 9 5 P82/88/40 Cavaliers Hornpipe S c o t t i s h Hornpipe Chicona Cloche, La Second Lesson with a Thump Saraband Cockley, La An Ayr Colonel Gerards Tune Gerard's Mistress n 11 Come Boy F i l l Us, etc. Come Jump to My Cousin and Kiss Come Kiss Me My Sweet Kate Coranto La Vinione See "Vinione, La" Could Man His Wish Obtain Countess of Exeter's Almane Countrey C o l l Countrey Dance A J i g g Simon Ives Simon Ives [James Pea-s i b l e ] Simon Ives William Lawes Tho[mas] Bates 153 APPENDIX I—Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) 195 P82/15/21 225 P69/7/13 P82/10/15 57 P82/39/53 215 P82/32/43 P82/26/37 P51/13/16 P5[5]/26/36 P6I/12/17 P69/ 3 3 A 9 239* P82/68/17 [Matthew Locke] 180 P69/19/31 16 P69/17/29 P82/34/46 I63 P69/13/23 P82/44/60 Simon Ives George Hudson Anon. George Hudson Cuckolds A l l A Row Dance In Mackbeth, A Mackbeth Dragoons March E a r l of Sandwich's Farewell, The Eccho Almain, The An Allman Ayre Almaine Fain I Would See "May Time" Farewel F a i r Armida [Robert Smith] Figary, The See "New Figary, The" F i l l Porter's Rant See "Porters Rant" F i r s t Lesson, With a Thump See "Thumping Almaine, The" Follow Me Kate Fourth Lesson, With .. a Thump Ayre Fr a n k l i n A Tune French Ayr, A See "Brangle Devilage" 240 P69/57/81 G a l l i a r d , The 154 APPENDIX I—Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) 70 P5[5]/7/13 Gather Your Rosebuds [William Lawe s] 13 P82/14/19 General Monk's March Gerard's Mistress See "Colonel Gerards Tune" • • 191 P5[5]/77/85 P61/10/13 P69/23/37 P82/27/28[38] G i l l i - f l o w e r Simon Ives 259 P69/53/75 P82/59/4 Glory of Hackney Saraband 26 P5[5]/8/l6 Glory of the North 21 P51/16/19 P69/54/76 Glory of the West 6 P82/20/29 Granadees March, The 170 P69/IO/I8 Green Goose F a i r 222* P82/14/20 Hobby-Horse Dance, The •• 134 P61/95/98 Hunt Is Up 213 P61/94/97 I Have Been a Piper 171 P5[5]/3/6 I r i s h Rant 100* P69/51/73 I t a l i a n Rant, The [Giuseppino] 32 P69/I10/140 J i g Almain, A John Moss 106 P69/120/152 J i g Almain, A John Moss 136 P82/19/27 Jockey Went to the Wood [William Gregory] 221 P82/50/68 Joy of A l l Hearts, The [William Turner] 155 APPENDIX I—Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) King Enjoyes His Own, The See "When the King Enjoys &c." 185 P69/5/10 P82/4/7 King's Delight, The 216 P5[5]/12/20 P69/IO/19 Lesleyes March 194 P82/56/77 Let O l i v e r Now Be Forgotten Mackbeth See "Dance In Mackbeth, A" 29 P5C51/28/38 P69/7/14 P82/55/75 Maids Rant 166 P82/42/56 Mardike 41* P61/4/7 P 69/2 6/40 P82/23/33 Masque, A Queens Mask, The An Ayre 59 P5L5V1/1 P69/1/2 P82/2/2 May Time Fain I Would 251 P5[5]/l5/24 Merry Hogh, A 159 P69/I8/30 Merry Milk-Maid, The 176 P82/38/52 Minuet 226 P82/41/55 Minuet 207* P82/63/10 Minuet 243 P82/65/12 Minuet 296 P82/66/13 Minuet 73 P82/40/54 Mr. Farmer's Trumpet Simon Ives Ba p t i s t 156 APPENDIX I--Continued (1) (2). (3) (4) Mr. Porter's Delight See "Porters Rant" Montross March See "Scots March, The" 210 P69/12/22 Montrosses March • • 93 P5[5]/76/83 Morris Coleman 147 P69/5 8/82 Myrtle Grove, The « • 165 P82/22/31 Myrtle Shade, The [Henry P u r c e l l ] 110 P82/70/20 New Bore, A • • 27* P69/56/80 P82/61/7 New Figary, The Figary, The 200 P82/19/26 New Minuet • • 160 P82/35/48 New Minuet • • 22 P82/53/72 New Muttar New Rant See "Porters Rant" • • 54 P51/8/11 P5[5]/l4/22 P69/24/39 P82/12/18 N ightengale t t 190 P51/15/18 P5[5]/13/21 P69/12/21 None S h a l l Plunder but I Prince Rupert's March • • 156 P82/22/32 Now the Fight's Done [Henry P u r c e l l " 30 P82/18/25 Oh the Bonny C h r i s t -Church B e l l s [Henry A l d r i c h ] 198* P51/6/8 P5[5]/2/4 P 6 9/2 / 3 Over the Mountaines • • APPENDIX I—Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) 18 P82/54/73 168 P 6 9 / V 7 P82/lo/ l 4 62 P5[5]/6/ll 40 P 69/11/20 P 82/2/3 265 P61/50/66 161* P5[5]/l6/25 P61/3/5 P69/6/11 P82/6/9 249* P69/55/78 52 P 69/14/2 4 60 P51/5/6 17 P51/6/7 250 P69/56/79 108 P61/60/77 135 P5[5]/5/l0 P61/96/99 Oxford Tune Parthenia P i l l to Purge Melan- [Thomas Ford] choly, A Pleasant Dream, The An Ayr P o l l , A Simon Ives Porters Rant New Rant F i l l . Porter's Rant Mr. Porter's Delight Prethe Love Turn to Me Prince of Condie's March, The P[rince] Ruperts March Prince Pupert's March See "None S h a l l P l i n d e r but I" P[rince] Rupert's Morrice Prince Ruperts Welcome See "Simerons Dance, The" Queens Delight, The Queens Mask, The See "Masque, A" Rant, A John Withie Room f o r Cuckolds 158 APPENDIX I—Continued (1) (2) (3) (4) 9 245 25 164 74 130 158 71 149 204* 63* 214 299 51 P82/42/57 P82/68/16 P82/l6/[22] P69/9/17 P82/12/17 P 6 9 / l / l P69/6/12 P82/5/8 P5[5]/80/89 P61/93/95 P82/21/30 P51/2/3 P5 [ 5 ] / 3 / 5 P82/37/51 P51/8/10 P5C51/9/17 P6I/16/22 P69/22/35 P82/l6/[23] P82/62/9 P82/66/14 P82/67/15 Round 0, A Round 0, A Scotch Tune C a l l e d Sawney, A Scots March, The Montross March Sc o t t i s h Hornpipe See "Cavaliers Hornpipe" Second Lesson, With a Thump See "Cloche, La" Short Prelude, A Simerons Dance, The Prince Rupert's Welcome Simon the King S i t t i n g Beyond the Riverside Step S t a t e l y Sweet Jane Symphony, A Theater Tune Theater Tune Theater Tune [Matthew Locke] [Thomas Farmer] [John Banister] Charles Coleman 159 (1) (2) APPENDIX I—Continued (3) (4) 231 50 37 143 182 287 76< P69/I6/28 P5C5W12 P82/33/45 P5L51/17/26 P51/1/1 P61/1/1 P69/15/26 P82/32/44 P69/14/25 P82/52/70 P61/2/4 P69/5/9 P82/3/5 P51/22/26 P5[5]/22/26 P61/23/32 P69/52/74 P82/60/6 P51/4/5 P5[5]/4/7 P61/2/3 P69/4/8 P82/4/6 Third Lesson, With a Thump Coranto Saraband Thumping Almane, The An Allmaine Almain F i r s t Lesson, With a Thump Almain T o l l , T o l l , Gentle B e l l , etc. Tune, A See "Franklin" Tune Vive l e Roy Vinione, La Coranto La Vinione 11 11 La Vinione When the King Enjoyes &c. The King Enjoyes His Own When the King Enjoys His Own Banister Will[iam] Paget APPENDIX II COMPOSER INDEX Introduction This index i s arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y according to the l a s t names of the composers mentioned i n Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Under each composer's name, a l l the pieces ascribed to him, and any other of h i s compositions i n the l y r a v i o l e d i -tions discovered through outside sources, are l i s t e d i n thematic order. Footnote commentaries indicate the instances where pieces bear c o n f l i c t i n g a s criptions i n the various l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . For each entry the following information appears? Column 1 Thematic number, 2 T i t l e t i f the composer was discovered through an outside source the abbreviation "anon." appears a f t e r the t i t l e , 3-7 Location (page and composition number) i n the p a r t i c u l a r l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n . I f one i s dealing with music by a p a r t i c u l a r composer, thi s index w i l l indicate whether Playford's l y r a v i o l editions contain any of the composer's music, and i f so, w i l l d i r e c t the reader to the thematic catalogue where i n c i p i t s and any further information discovered about the piece appear. 160 161 APPENDIX I I Composer I n d e x COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 1 6 5 [ 5 ] 1661 I669 1682 AYLWARD 65 BANISTER 61 69 143 204* BAPTIST 207* A y r e J o h n A y r e A m a r i l l i s ( a n o n . ) Tune Sweet Jane ( a n o n . ) M i n u e t B A T E S , Thomas 14* A y r 19 A y r 34 A y r e 42 A l m a i n 132 C o r a n t 148 S a r a b a n d 179 C o r a n t 184 A J i g 186 C o u n t r e y Dance 202 S a r a b a n d 208 C o r a n t o COLEMAN, C h a r l e s 46 Almane 63 A Symphon 93 M o r r i s 95 P r e l u d i u m 78/87 58/63 42/54 59/65 58/64 30/42 9/17 76/83 33/45 4 3 / 5 6 42/ 5 5 16/22 17/23 104/134 IOO/129 65/93 102/132 105/135 102/131 101/130 I O 6 / 1 3 6 67/95 103/133 66/94 2 2 / 3 5 49/70 50/67 5 1 / 6 9 5 2 / 7 0 3 7 / 5 1 6 3 / 1 0 8 7 / 3 9 88/40 I6 / 2 3 5 7 / 1 162 APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 (Coleman) 113* 116 122 127 137 188 224 236 254 268 270 282 293 Almane . . 36/49 . • w i t h D i v i s i o n A y r e . . 74 /81 . . Almane . . 34 /46 28/36 A y r e l . . 38/50 18 /24 50/71 58/2 C o r a n t o . . 31/43 •• •• A S a r a b a n d . . . . . . 22/36 17 /24 S a r a b a n d . . 32/44 J i g g e . . 73/80 A y r e . . 75 /82 S a r a b a n d . . 36 /48 29/38 C o r a n t o . . 35/47 28/37 S a r a b a n d . . 38/51 18/25 50/72 58/3 A C o r a n t o ^ 17/20 . . ESTO, J o h n 7 A l m a i n 79 Almane 80 Almane 82 A l m a i n e 88 Almane 97 A y r e 102 Almane w i t h D i v i s i o n 115 Almane 117 A l m a i n 119 A l m a i n 178* S a r a b a n d 235* A J i g g e 49/52 52/55 50/53 53/57 36 /46 32 /41 90 /91 33 /42 26/34 35/45 91/92 34/44 37/54 68/96 111 /141 72/101 69 /97 112 /142 38/55 7 1 / 1 0 0 7 4 / 2 4 83/33 76/26 80/[30] * T h i s p i e c e a p p e a r s a s econd t ime i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1661)--p . 2 2 , n o . 3 1 - - a s c r i b e d t o J o h n J e n k i n s . T h i s p i e c e a l s o appea r s i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( l 6 6 9 ) - - p . 8 2 , n o . I l l - - a s c r i b e d t o J o h n J e n k i n s . 163 APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 ( E s t o ) 241 Saraband3 252 C o r a n t 253 S a r a b a n d 257 S a r a b a n d 263* S a r a b a n d 273 S a r a b a n d 274 S a r a b a n d 279 C o r a n t 285 C o r a n t o 289 C o r a n t 290 C o r a n t o 294 S a r a b a n d GOTER 84 A l m a i n 48/59 53/56 51/54 • » » a 37/48 34/43 27/35 * • 36/47 92/93 92/94 61/79 73/102 • • 74/103 71/99 70/98 113/143 114/144 78/28 77/27 79/29 85/36 75/25 GREGORY, W i l l i a m 53* 86* 105* 136 153 175 248 258 A n A y r A y r e A l m a i n J o c k e y went t o the Woods ( a n o n . ) C o r a n t S a r a b a n d A J i g g e C o r a n t o 48/60 44/[58] 44/57 47/62 45/59 35/51 75/104 36/52 36/53 78/107 19/27 t • • • 3 T h i s p i e c e appea r s a s e c o n d t i m e i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l66l)--p . 50, n o . 65 - - a s c r i b e d t o S i m o n I v e s . 164 APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 ( G r e g o r y ) 271 S a r a b a n d • • 286* C o r a n t o • • HUDSON, George 3 A n A l l m a n ^ 13/16 8 A n A y r • • 24 A l m a i n • • 35 A n A l m a i n • • 48 Almane • • 55 A n A y r • a 91* Almane • • 129 S a r a b a n d 14/17 151 S a r a b a n d • • 172 S a r a b a n d • • 181 S a r a b a n d • • 199 C o r a n t o • • 238* C o r a n t o • • 298* S a r a b a n d • • I V E S , S imon 3 A n Allman5 10* P r e l u d i u m 20 A J i g 41* A Masque ,44 A n A y r 11/13 66 A n A l l m a i n e 85 C o u n t e s s e • • of E x e t e r s Almane 26/36 56/60 54/57 27/37 57/62 56/61 54/58 55/59 26/36 18/2 7 20/28 46/57 47/61 46/60 12/17 40/52 38/49 13/18 41/53 4o/[52A] 38/50 39/51 6/9 4/7 8/10 48/63 77/107 76/106 33/49 30/56 42/62 31/47 41/60 63/90 34/50 32/48 41/61 64/91 64/92 40/59 26/40 39/56 28/43 48/65 86/38 49/66 26/37 28/39 23/33 30/40 T h i s p i e c e a l s o a p p e a r s i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( l682 ) - -p . 26, n o . 3 7 - - a s c r i b e d t o S imon I v e s . " 'Th i s p i e c e a l s o appea r s i n A M u s i c a l l Banque t (1651) and M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1661 and l669 ) - -p . 13. n o . 16; p . 12, n o . 17; and p . 33, n o . 49 r e s p e c t i v e l y - - a s c r i b e d t o George H u d s o n . 165 APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 I669 1682 ( I v e s ) 10?* 114* 131 138 144 157 I67* I69 174 191 203 206 211 217 241 256 288* A y r e A y r S a r a b a n d A J i g g e S a r a b a n d C o r a n t C o r a n t o C o r a n t o C o r a n t o G i l l i -f l o w e r C h i c o n a C o r a n t L a C l o c h e C o r a n t o , S a r a b a n d " S a r a b a n d C o r a n t o 12/15 1 2 / 1 4 76 /84 21/30 72/78 • • 23/32 24/34 22/31 77/85 17/26[A] 29 /41 21/29 48/59 47/58 9/12 5 /8 14 /21 • • 10/13 11 /16 11/15 9 /11 50/65 6 4 / 8 2 4 9 / [ 6 4 ] 60/86 29/45 40/58 39/57 23/37 2 6 / 4 1 1 6 / 2 ? 29/44 6 1 / 8 7 84/35 31/42 24/34 • « 27/T38] 25/35 34/47 31/41 86/37 IVES JUNIOR, S i m o n 12 189 A y r e S a r a b a n d 24/33 25/35 14 /20 15/19 27/42 25/36 J E N K I N S , J o h n 4 A l m a i n 5 A y r e ;11* Almane w i t h D i v i s i o n 33 A lmane 36 A y r e 68/75 66/74 74/93 66/85 70/88 [73]/[92] 97/125 90/119 94/122 ^ T h i s p i e c e appea r s a s e c o n d t ime ' i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l66l) p . 37, n o . 4 8 - - a s c r i b e d t o J o h n . E s t o . 166 APPENDIX I I — C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 ( J e n k i n s ) 45 A y r e • • 81 A l m a i n e 92 A l m a i n e • • 103* A n A l l m a i n ? • • 109* A y r e • • 121 A y r e • * 123* Almane t * 125 A y r e . 20/23 127 A y r e ° a • 128 A l m a i n * • • 133 C o r a n t o • • 140 A S a r a b a n d • a 145 S a r a b a n d • . 162 C o r a n t o a a 173 S a r a b a n d a a 177* S a r a b a n d a a 220* A B o a t , a a a B o a t ( a n o n . ) 237 S a r a b a n d 21 /24 247 C o r a n t o 255 S a r a b a n d 260 C o r a n t 277 S a r a b a n d 281 C o r a n t o 283 S a r a b a n d 293 A C o r a n t o 9 297 C o r a n t o 42/53 44/55 38/50 71/77 70/76 7 / 1 4 4 5 / 5 6 43/54 71/89 51/67 52/68 76/75 22/30 24/32 30/39 18 /24 22/31 77/76 72/90 69/87 68/86 75/94 72/91 31 /40 78/77 53/70 79/79 78/78 25/33 8 3 / 1 1 2 80/110 96 /124 93 /121 92 /120 82/111 84/113 72/22 73/23. a • a a 7 1 / 2 1 70/19 7 T h i s p i e c e a l s o a p p e a r s i n A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t (1651), and M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (165[5]. 1661 and l 6 6 9 ) ~ p . 22, n o . 25; p . 4 1 , n o . 5 2 ; p . 19, n o . 2 6 ; and p . 62, n o . 88, r e s p e c t i v e l y — a s c r i b e d t o J o h n L i l l y . o T h i s p i e c e a l s o a p p e a r s i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (I669 and 1682)--p . 5 0 , n o . 71; and p . 58, n o . 2 — a s c r i b e d t o C h a r l e s C o l e m a n . no ^ T h i s p i e c e a l s o a p p e a r s i n A M u s i c a l l Banque t (1651)—p. 17, 2 0 - - a s c r i b e d t o C h a r l e s C o l e m a n . 16? APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 LAWES, W i l l i a m 70 G a t h e r Y o u r R o s e -buds ( a n o n . ) I l l Almane 112 A l m a i n e 146* A J i g g e 197* C o u n t r e y C o l l 233 S a r a b a n d 266 S a r a b a n d 267 C o r a n t o 276 C o r a n t o 278 C o r a n t o 7/13 61/67 11 /19 10 /18 64/70 63/69 6 2 / 6 8 r 8 ^ 8 3 [54]/71 8 6 / 8 6 [56]/73 8 5 / 8 5 55/72 8 4 / 8 4 L I L L Y , J o h n 103* A l i m a i n 1 0 262 S a r a b a n d MOSS, J o h n 23 A l m a i n 28 P r e l u d i u m 31 A J i g 32 A J i g A l m a i n ] 72 A l m a i n 87 A l m a i n 89 A l m a i n 98* A J i g 106 A J i g A l m a i n 41/5: 19/26 6 4 / 8 3 62/88 62/89 107/137 44/65 48/69 110/140 45/66 85 / 114 1 1 8 / 1 4 9 88/117 120/152 45/61 * ° T h i s p i e c e a l s o appea r s i n M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1682)-—p. 73. n o . 2 3 - - a s c r i b e d t o J e n k i n s . 168 APPENDIX I I — C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 1682 (Moss) 192 223 A S a r a b a n d A C o r a n t 228* S a r a b a n d 229 A C o r a n t 242 C o r a n t 264 S a r a b a n d 269 S a r a b a n d 295 A C o r a n t 47/68 1067138 109/139 46/67 119/150 120/151 8 7 / H 6 86/115 46/62 PAGET, W i l l [ i a m ] 287 C o r a n t o L a 2 2 / 2 6 60/66 23/32 52/74 60/6 V i n i o n SIMPSON, C h r i s t o p h e r 94* A l m a i n e 118 P r e l u d i u m 126 A l m a i n e 196 S a r a b a n d 246 C o r a n t o 275 S a r a b a n d 280* S a r a b a n d 8 8 / 8 8 8 7 / 8 7 62/81 90/90 6 2 / 8 2 63/82 8 9 / 8 9 WITHIE, J o h n 15 A y r 77 Almane 83* A y r e 101 A l m a i n e 104 P r e l u d i u m 108 A R a n t 124 A l m a i n e 139 S a r a b a n d 205 S a r a b a n d 230* S a r a b a n d w i t h D i v i s i o n 272 C o r a n t o 292 S a r a b a n d 65/71 66/73 65/72 8 1 / 8 1 [ 8 0 ] / 8 0 58/75 57/74 60/77 59/176] 8 2 / 8 2 8 1 / [ 8 1 A ] 60/78 9 8 / 1 2 6 115/146 114 /145 7 9 / 1 0 8 99/127 100/128 117/148 116/147 80/109 169 APPENDIX I I - - C o n t i n u e d COMPOSER T# T i t l e 1651 165L5] 1661 1669 1682 YOUNG, W i l l i a m 1* A y r e . . . . 6 5 / 8 4 90 A l l m a i n e 18 /21 3 9 / 5 2 20 / 2 7 5 8 / 8 3 81 / 3 1 244 S a r a b a n d 19 /22 4 0 / 5 0 2 1 / 2 8 5 9 / 8 4 82 / 3 2 APPENDIX I I I THEMATIC CATALOGUE WITH CONCORDANCES Introduction The following thematic catalogue contains entries f o r each of the 299 d i f f e r e n t pieces i n John Playford's f i v e volumes of l y r a v i o l music published between 1651 and 1682. The purpose of the catalogue i s to give the student of seventeenth-century music quick access to the contents of these e d i t i o n s . For t h i s purpose, transcribed i n c i p i t s of a l l these tablature l y r a v i o l pieces are arranged according to t h e i r musical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as indicated i n the following outline i I. Duple Meter A. Major Mode B. Minor Mode I I . T r i p l e Meter A. Major Mode B. Minor Mode Usually, determining the catagories of meter and mode i s s t r a i g h t -forward. The few ambiguous instances involve mode. In these cases, the predominant mode of the i n c i p i t , rather than that of the whole piece, determines the catagory. 170 171 Within these larger d i v i s i o n s the arrangement i s according to melodic contour. (When there are chords involved the melody-i s reckoned from the uppermost note.) I n i t i a l l y the.order i s determined by the scale degree upon which the f i r s t complete bar begins.* Pieces which begin on the tonic, or f i r s t , degree are f i r s t ; those which begin on the second degree ( i f any) are next, and so on, preceeding through the t h i r d , fourth, f i f t h , s i x t h and seventh scale degrees. Subsequent arrangement i s by i n t e r v a l s between successive 2 notes of the melody s t a r t i n g with the f i r s t complete bar. Pieces with an i n i t i a l descent of an octave appear f i r s t . These are followed by pieces beginning with a descending seventh, and so on, up to descending seconds, then ascending seconds and a l l subsequent ascending i n t e r v a l s up to an octave. J Further order-ing within each of these groups i s according to the second i n t e r -v a l , using the above mentioned sequence from descending to ascend-ing i n t e r v a l s . The same process i s then applied to the t h i r d , and subsequent i n t e r v a l s , as necessary. Anacruses are ignored i n ordering the i n c i p i t s . Some-times a piece containing an anacrusis i n one source lacks i t i n a concordant source. Because of t h i s , ignoring anacruses s i m p l i -f i e s the use of the catalogue. 2 Repeated pitches are ignored. ^Compound int e r v a l s are grouped with t h e i r simple forms. "*Only two i n c i p i t s (T#s 74 and 75) e x h i b i t no melodic divergence. They are arranged chronologically according to the dates of the editions i n which they appear. 1?2 The f i r s t step towards discovering whether a p a r t i c u l a r piece i s contained i n Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , i s to analyze i t s i n c i p i t according to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and consult the catalogue f o r an i d e n t i c a l entry. I f the piece i s not located by t h i s means, melodic variants, which can change a piece*s l o c a t i o n considerably i f they occur i n the f i r s t few n o t e s , m u s t be considered. There are two main factors which may occasion these melodic variants. The f i r s t , written-out embel-lishments, are more l i k e l y to occur i n the concordant sources, fo r , as a r u l e , highly embellished melodies do not appear i n Playford's e d i t i o n s . I f the reader suspects he i s dealing with an ornamented version of a tune, he should imagine the ornamentation stripped away, analyze the p l a i n version as outlined above, and consult the catalogue again. Secondly, melodic variants may occur because l y r a v i o l music c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y contains many chords. From the standpoint of the pieces' i n c i p i t s , these chords are most l i k e l y to occur on the f i r s t downbeat and to consist of a tonic harmony. Even though the p i t c h of the melody appears to be contained within the chord, the piece i s catalogued according to the uppermost p i t c h . To locate t h i s type of variant i n the catalogue, the reader must imagine the non-lyra melody beginning on other pitches of the chord. For instance, a tune which begins on the t h i r d of a tonic chord and descends a second, i n the l y r a JThe catalogue i s cross-referenced to accomodate con-cordant i n c i p i t s which vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y . See p.17 k, "Column 173 v i o l e d i t i o n s , may begin on the f i f t h of the chord and descend a fourth. F i n a l l y , i f r e s u l t s are not obtained by the above means, entire appropriate major d i v i s i o n s of the catalogue should be consulted. For the purpose of t h i s catalogue, the author has scrupu-lously noted concordances within the f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . To t h i s end, two manuscript indexes of these editions,made by Frank Traficante and Gordon J . Dodd, were very valuable,^ serving as references against which the present work could be checked. In addition, considerable work was expended l o c a t i n g as many other seventeenth-century concordances as possible through secondary sources. These concordances provided insights into the nature and make-up of the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . The catalogue presents a l l the information derived from the f i v e l y r a v i o l editions i n columnar format as outlined i n the l i s t , Columnar Information. Concordances i n other seventeenth-century sources, both l y r a v i o l and non-lyra v i o l , and commentary are presented separately, below the columnar entries f o r each item. These concordances and commentaries are categorised accord-ing to numbering and abbreviation systems as given i n the l i s t , Supplementary Concordances and Commentary, and i n the l i s t s of sources. "Traficante,"A Thematic Index to the Music f o r Lyra V i o l Contained i n Five Publications by John Playford," (Manuscript); and Dodd, "A Thematic Handlist of the Music i n Playford's Five Lyra V i o l E d i t i o n s , " (Manuscript). 17 k Columnar Information Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Thematic number of t h i s catalogue. T i t l e as given by Playford. Composer or arranger as given by Playford. When there i s evidence that the name i s that o f an arranger, t h i s evidence i s noted i n the commentary. Location i n the Playford l y r a v i o l e ditions; the editions are l i s t e d chron-o l o g i c a l l y . P6l/6/#9 means Playford, John, Musicks Recreation on the V i o l , Lyra Way, 1661, p. 6, piece numbered 9* Tuning, below. See the numbered l i s t of tunings Columns 2-5 The t i t l e , composer and tuning are always given f o r the e a r l i e s t l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n l i s t e d . When any of these three items d i f f e r i n subsequent ed i t i o n s , the changed information i s given on the same l i n e as that of the subse-quent e d i t i o n . When the information i s the same as the i n i t i a l entry, the appropriate space i s l e f t blank. Column 6 Tablature i n c i p i t . Column 7 S t a f f notation i n c i p i t . The c l e f i s to be understood f o r each entry! the l i s t of tunings, below, gives the pitches adopted f o r each tuning. A l i t e r a l tran-s c r i p t i o n of the tablature i s made; the pitches are given i n the ryhthm indicated by the tablature, with no attempt to suggest polyphony. When i n c i p i t s of the same piece vary i n d i f f e r e n t editions the i n c i p i t of the e a r l i e s t e d i t i o n i s always adopted. When the variants a f f e c t the placement i n the catalogue, separate entries are made. The e a r l i e s t version receives the thematic number, while the l a t e r variants are cross-referenced. Columns 6-7 Each i n c i p i t consists of the piece's f i r s t twelve notes including i t s anacrusis. 175 Supplementary Concordances and Commentary Supplementary concordances and commentaries are l i s t e d according to the numbers one through three to indicate the type of information involved. 1. Concordances i n l y r a v i o l sources. 2. Concordances i n non-lyra v i o l sources. 3'. Commentary. A l l supplementary concordances were found through secondary sources. Seventeenth-century sources, except f o r one,? were not examined d i r e c t l y ; references to them were v e r i f i e d only as circumstances suggested and permitted. Therefore, i n the catalogue, the symbol f o r the secondary source i s given f i r s t , followed, i n parentheses, by the symbol f o r the primary source(s) c i t e d i n the former. Thus, A9/212 (Lb/431") s i g n i f i e s secondary source A9, p. 212, which c i t e d a concordance i n primary source Lb", f . 43r. The number a f t e r the slash refers to a page or f o l i o unless preceeded by the symbol #, i n which case the reference i s to a composition numbering system. I f both page and compo-s i t i o n numbers are given, the page number appears f i r s t , then the composition number, preceded by the symbol #, as before. Thus PCC/45 means Source PCC, page 45 PCC/#45 means Source PCC, number 45 PCC/45/#45 means Source PCC, page 45, number 45 In t h i s thesis the author has been concerned with exam-in i n g John Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , and the sources f o r t h i s music. This being the case, concordances with sources l a t e r than 1687, the year of John Playford's death, while valuable i n themselves, were not relevant to t h i s study, and thus were excluded from the catalogue. For each concordance, the t i t l e , composer, and tuning ( i n l y r a v i o l sources) are given only i f they d i f f e r from those i n Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . 'John Moss, Lessons f o r the Base-Viol, (London, 1671); t h i s e d i t i o n contained no concordances with Playford's l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . 176 T u n i n g s Number C h a r t Name P i t c h e s u s e d i n t h i s c a t a l o g u e 1 2 f e f h f d e f h f e d f h f f d e f h f e d f h f h n H a r p Way S h a r p H a r p Way F l a t L y r a Way e ' b g d G D d ' b g d G D d ' b b g d G D d ' a f#d A D d ' a f d A D d ' a d D H i g h H a r p Way S h a r p H i g h H a r p Way F l a t B a g p i p e T u n i n g 5 6 S e c o n d a r y S o u r c e s 8 F o r ease o f r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n the c a t a l o g u e , d i f f e r e n t a b b r e v i a t i o n sys t ems a r e a p p l i e d t o the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f s o u r c e s . A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l the s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s b e g i n w i t h a c a p i t a l i z e d l e t t e r • A . " A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l P l a y f o r d ' s e d i t i o n s b e g i n w i t h a c a p i l a l i z e d l e t t e r * P . ' The l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , w i t h w h i c h t h i s c a t a l o g u e i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d s i m p l y by t h e l e t t e r ' P ' f o l l o w e d by t h e l a s t two d i g i t s o f t h e e d i t i o n ' s da te o f p u b l i c a t i o n . P l a y f o r d ' s o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the l e t t e r ' P * f o l l o w e d by c a p i t a l i z e d i n i t i a l s o f t he i m p o r t a n t words i n the e d i t i o n ' s s h o r t e n e d t i t l e ( i . e . , PAB f o r A p o l l o ' s  Banque t on the T r e b l e V i o l i n ) . A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t e d i t i o n s employ b o t h c a p i t a l i z e d and l o w e r ca se l e t t e r s ( i . e . , Cfm f o r C a m b r i d g e , F i t z w i l l i a m Museum), and a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r o t h e r s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s ( n o n - P l a y f o r d ) b e g i n w i t h the l e t t e r '2.' The i n c i p i t s o f the p r e s e n t c a t a l o g u e were a l s o t h o r o u g h l y c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t he f o l l o w i n g f o u r w o r k s , w h i c h c o n t a i n e d no c o n c o r d a n c e s w i t h them. Andrew A s h b e e , e d . , J o h n J e n k i n s t  C o n s o r t M u s i c o f F o u r P a r t s , v o l , 26 o f M u s i c a B r i t a n i c a , p u b l i s h e d f o r t he R o y a l M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , ( L o n d o n i S t a i n e r and B e l l , 1951- )» t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , D r . Ashbee i n d i c a t e d he d i d n o t b e l i e v e J e n k i n s ' p i e c e s i n t h e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s were a r r a n g e m e n t s o f m u s i c by h im f o r o t h e r m e d i a . H e n r y L e l a n d C l a r k e , " J o h n B l o w (1649-1698) i L a s t Composer o f an E r a , " V o l . I l l s " T h e m a t i c I n d e x " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 K 7 ) . M a r g a r e t M e r e d i t h , " C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n and the C o n s o r t o f V i o l s , " V o l . I I » " S u i t e s , D a n c e s , D i v i s i o n s and M i s c e l -l a n e o u s P i e c e s f o r V i o l s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r -s i t y o f W a l e s , 1969)« Andrew J . S a b o l , e d . , Songs and Dances f o r  t he S t u a r t Masque ( P r o v i d e n c e i Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959). 177 Adams, Robert Lee. "The Development of a Keyboard Idiom i n England during the English Renaissance." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Washington Uni-v e r s i t y , St. Louis, Missouri, I960. Volume III of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s the "Thematic Index of English V i r g i n a l Music." Its alph a b e t i c a l arrangement according to composer, and then according to t i t l e i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . This i s because almost h a l f the pieces i n the catalogue are anonymous, and a great many are u n t i t l e d . A musical arrangement would have been better. Chappell, William. Popular Music of the Olden Time. 2 volumes; London: Cramer, Beale, & Chappell, [1859]. . , and Wooldridge, H. E l l i s . Old English Popialar Music. 2 volumes; London: Chappell & Co. Ltd., [1893]. Coxon, Carolyn. "John Jenkins: A C r i t i c a l Study of his Instrumental Music." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Edinburgh, 1969. Volume II i s an e d i t i o n of Jenkins" music. The only concordances found i n i t were among t h i r t y -s i x ayres by Jenkins from the Manchester l y r a v i o l tablature. These concordances had been discovered already i n John Sawyer's card index of the Manchester tablature (A13). Day, Cyrus L., and Murrie, Eleanor B. English Song  Books, 1651-1702: A Bibliography with a F i r s t - Line Index of Songs. London: Oxford University Press, 19 k0. Dean-Smith, Margaret, ed. Playford's English Dancing  Master 1651. London: Schott and Company, Ltd., 1937^  Dodd, Gordon J . "A Thematic Handlist of the Music i n Playford's Five Lyra V i o l E d i t i o n s . " (Manuscript). This handlist, as a reference to Playford's l y r a v i o l editions, i s not nearly as comprehensive as the present catalogue. I t does not include 178 i n c i p i t s or extensive outside concordances. The arrangement of the entries i s only p a r t i a l l y thematically consistant, having been undertaken without the r e a l i z a t i o n that a second part to the 1682 e d i t i o n e x i s t s . The eighteen pieces which only appear i n t h i s part of the 1682 e d i t i o n are added to the end of the han d l i s t without regard to t h e i r thematic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Harding, Rosamund. A Thematic Catalogue of the Works  of Matthew Locke. Oxford t Blackwell, 1972. Meyer, Ramon E. "John Playford's An Introduction to the  S k i l l of Musick." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State University, 1961. Nelson, Russel l C l a i r e . "John Playford and the En g l i s h Amateur Musician." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Iowa, 1966. Sargent, George Quimbly. "An E d i t i o n of E l i z a b e t h Rogers' V i r g i n a l Book (B.M. Add. MS 10337)." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana University, 1965. Sawyer, John E. "An Anthology of Lyra V i o l Music i n Oxford, Bodleian Library, Mus. Sch. MSS d. 245-7." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Toronto, 1972. A thematic index of the l y r a v i o l contents of these -manuscripts i s contained i n Appendix I I I . . "a Card Index of the Music i n the Manchester Lyra V i o l Tablature (Manchester, Public Library, Watson C o l l e c t i o n MS 832 Vu 51)." (Manuscript). . "A Card Index of the Music i n Dublin, Arch-Bishop Marsh's Library, MS Z 3.5.13." (Manuscript). Simpson, Claude M i t c h e l l . The B r i t i s h Broadside Ballad and Its Music. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1966. Thorpe, W i l l a r d . Songs from the Restoration Theater. Princeton University Press, 1934. Trafi c a n t e , Frank. "The Mansell Lyra V i o l Tablature." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Pittsburgh, 1965. 179 Part 2 contains an e d i t i o n of the contents of t h i s manuscript, and a l i s t of concordances with i t s music. A18 . "A Thematic Index to the Music f o r Lyra V i o l contained i n Five Publications by John Playford." (Manuscript). Because of i t s form (index cards without a numbering system), Traficante's index i s not as convenient to use as the present catalogue and i t i s not as accessible. I t only l i s t s concordances within the f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , and* l i k e Dodd's handlist, i t i s arranged without the pieces which only appear i n the second part of the 1682 e d i t i o n . A19 Ward, John M. "Appropo The B r i t i s h Broadside Ballad  and i t s Music." Journal of the American Musi-c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y T V o l . XX (1967). PP. 28-86. A20 Zimmerman, F r a n k l i n B. Henry P u r c e l l 1659-1695» An A n a l y t i c a l Catalogue of his Music. Londont MacMillan& Co. Ltd., 1963. Playford's Lyra V i o l Editions . P51 A M u s i c a l l Banquet . . . The F i r s t Part . . .Lessons  f o r the Lyra V i o l . TZ5T, RISM B:l 16516 [A separate symbol, PMB, i s adopted f o r the t h i r d part of t h i s e d i t i o n , as indicated under 'Playford's Non-Lyra V i o l Sources']. P5[5] Musicks Recreation: On the Lyra V i o l . 165[5]» RISM B»l 1652/.9 P6l Musicks Recreation, on the V i o l , Lyra-Way. 1661. RISM B«l l 6 6 l V P69 Musicks Recreation on the V i o l , Lyra-Way. I669. RISM B J I 1669°. ^The date of t h i s e d i t i o n i s uncertain; f o r a discussion of t h i s matter see pp.17-24. 180 P82 Musick's Recreation on the V i o l , Lyra-Way. 1682. RISM B:l fo"8~2T: Playford's Non-Lyra V i o l Sources While most of Playford's publications went through several edi t i o n s , only those editions mentioned i n the catalogue are l i s t e d here. References to s p e c i f i c editions include the f i n a l two d i g i t s of the year of pub l i c a t i o n a f t e r the source symbol. Thus, PDM57 refers to the 1657 e d i t i o n of The Dancing Master. PAB Playford, John. Apollo's Banquet f o r the Treble  V i o l i n . 1 6 7 0 ,iu 1677, i682, 1684, I687 . RISM B t l 16877. PCAS RISM • Choice Ayres and Songs. I679, 1681, 1683. VI B t l 1679''. 1681L, I68p. PCA . Court Ayres . . . of 2 Parts, f o r V i o l s or V i o l i n s ^ 1 6 5 5 . RISM B t l 1655^. PCC H i l t o n , John. Catch that Catch Can. 1652, 1658, 1663. RISM B i l I 6 5 2 i u , 1658^, I6636. PCG Playford, John. A Booke of New Lessons f o r Cithern  and G i t t e r n . 1652. PCM . r Courtly Masquing Ayres. 1662. RISM B«1 I 0 T 2 8 . P D M ' The Dancing Master. 1651, 1652, 1657, supplement to the t h i r d e d i t i o n c. 1662, 1665, 1670, 1675. 16791 supplement to the 1679 e d i t i o n , 1686. 1 1 PDV . The D i v i s i o n V i o l i n . 1685. RISM B i l l o ^ i O T " ~ ~ ~ ~ PIM . An Introduction to the S k i l l of Musick f o r Song and V i o l . 1655, 1660, 1662, 1664. RISM BiVI, pp. 657-8. The preliminary pages of th i s e d i t i o n are missing; - secondary sources date i t variously as 1669 or 1670, or r e f e r to i t as Dr. Rimbault's copy. **In the catalogue, supplements are indicated by an *s' a f t e r the edition's symbol1 PDM62s, f o r example. 181 PMB . A M u s i c a l l Banquet . . . The Third Part . . V Choice Catches or Rounds"! 1651. RISM B«1 16516. " ' ~~~ PMC . The Musical Companion. (A continuation of Hilton's Catch that Catch Can). 1667, 1672, 1673. supplement to the 1673 edition,12 1685. RISM B i l I6676, 16725, 167T, 1685^ '. . Musick's Delight on the Cithrsn. 1666. RISM B i l 1666^. PMD PMH . Musick's Handmaid . . . Lessons f o r V i r g i n a l s or Harpsycon. 1663, 1678~ RISM B i l T663V, I 6 7 8 6 . PPC Greeting, Thomas. The Pleasant Companion f o r the  Flageolet. 1672, 1673, 1680, 1682, 1683. RISM B i l 16735, 16827. PSA Playford, John. Choice Songs and Ayres. I673. RISM B i l 1673^ PSM . Select M u s i c a l l Ayres and Dialogues. 1652. RISM B i l 16520. ~ Seventeenth-Century Manuscript Sources Abbreviations f o r the seventeenth-century manuscripts use the l i b r a r y symbols adopted i n RISM ( i . e . c a p i t a l i n i t i a l ( s ) f o r the c i t y , lower case i n i t i a l ( s ) f o r the l i b r a r y ; when there i s no RISM symbol, one i s invented based upon the RISM system. Numbers are appended to the symbols to d i f f e r e n t i a t e sources housed i n the same l i b r a r y . Be Bedford, County Record c i t t e r n O f f i c e , MS D.D7/2. Cfm Cambridge, F i t z w i l l i a m Museum, voice and MS Mu. Ms. 118. v i o l Ctc Cambridge, T r i n i t y College, lute MS 0.16.2. Cu Cambridge, University L i - " brary, MS Dd.3.18. 1 2See note 11. 182 Cul Cu2 Cu3 Cu4 Cu5 Cu6 Dm Dml Dtc Dtcl Dw En Enl En2 E n 3 En4 En5 _, MS Dd.4.23. , MS Dd.6.48. , MS Dd.14.24. . MS Nn.6.36. , Hengrave Depository, MS 77(1). Classmark MR 340 c 90 I, Anne Cromwell's Manuscript. Dublin, Archbishop Marsh's Library, MS Z 3.4.13 ( f i r s t part of a set of l y r a v i o l duos; the second part i s l o s t ) . , MS Z 3.5.13. Dublin, T r i n i t y College, MS D1.21, The B a l l e t Lute Book. , MS 412 (F.5.13). Dundee, Wighton Library, Transcripts from tv/o seventeenth-century l y r a v i o l manuscripts. (Manuscript). Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Adv. MS 5.2.15. The Skene Manu-sci*i*p"b« . Adv. MS 5.2.17, The Agnes Hume Manuscript. , Adv. MS 5.2.19, The Leyden Manuscript, trans, by G. F. Graham. (Manu-sc r i p t ) . , MS Acc. 2764, Edward M i l l a r ' s Manuscript. ' MS 3296, Margaret c i t t e r n l y r a v i o l c i t t e r n l y r a v i o l keyboard l y r a v i o l lute and l y r a v i o l voice l y r a v i o l S inkier's Manuscript. , Panmure MS 7.14 mandore v i o l i n l y r a v i o l l y r a v i o l [unknown]*3 v i o l i n -'The secondary source which c i t e d t h i s manuscript gave no i n d i c a t i o n of the media, and, to date, subsequent research has not revealed i t . 14 The Panmure manuscripts are on loan to the National Library of Scotland from the E a r l of Dalhousie. 183 En6 En? Eu lAuc Panmure MS 8, Lady Lbm Lbml Lbm2 Lbm3 Lbm4 Lbm5 Mp NHy NYp NYpl NYp2 NYp3 Ob Obi 0b2 0b3 0b4 Jean Campbell's Manuscript Book. , Panmure MS 11. Edinburgh, University L i -brary, MS De l .69. Los Angeles, University of Cal i fornia , William Andrews Clarke Memorial Library, The Mansell Lyra V i o l Tablature. London, Br i t i sh Library, MS Add. IO337, Elizabeth Rogers' Manuscript Virg ina l Book. . MS Add, 11608. . MS Add. 189^0-4. keyboard c i t t ern [unknown] lyra v i o l MS Add. MS Add. 31432. 36661. MS Egerton 2046. Manchester, Central Public Library, Watson Col lect ion, MS 832 Vu 51, The Manchester Lyra V i o l Tablature. New Haven (Conn.), Library of the School of Music, Filmer MS A.l6 . a . New York, New York Public Library, MS Drexel 4257, John Gamble's Manuscript Commonplace Book. , MS Drexel 5609. , MS Drexel 5611. MS Drexel 5612. Oxford,. Bodleian Library, Mus. Sch. D 245. , Mus. Sch. MS D 246. _ _ _ _ _ _ Mus. Sch. MS F 573. keyboard voice 4 v io ls and keyboard voice keyboard lute lyra v i o l voice voice keyboard lyra v i o l , Mus. Sch. MS F 575. ', Mus. Sch. MS G 640. v i o l (staff notation) lyra v i o l voice Och Oxford, Christ Church, MS 431. keyboard 184 Ochl 0ch2 Och3 Pc Pel PLp WGb Ws M S 437. M S 1175. M S 1236. k e y b o a r d 11 P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e du C o n -s e r v a t o i r e n a t i o n a l de t M u s i q u e , MS Re's. 1185. MS Re's. 1186. P o u l t o n - L a n e e l y n , C h e s h i r e , P r i c i l i a B u r n b u r y • s M a n u -s c r i p t B o o k , i n t h e p o s s e s -s i o n o f R o g e r L a n c e l y n G r e e n . Woodfo rd G r e e n , E s s e x , The J o h n Brown B a n d o r a and L y r a V i o l M a n u s c r i p t , i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f R o b e r t S p e n c e r . W a s h i n g t o n ( D . C . ) , F o l g e r S h a k e s p e a r e L i b r a r y , MS V.a.159 (MS 448.16). l y r a v i o l l u t e O t h e r ( N o n - P l a y f o r d ) S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P r i n t e d S o u r c e s Z l Z2 23 Z4 25 Z6 Z7 Z8 A C h o i c e C o l l e c t i o n o f 180 L o y a l Songs . . .  t o w h i c h i s added , the M u s i c a l N o t e s t o  each Song^ L o n d o n , 1685. RISM Bt1 1685°. D [ a v i d s o n ] , T [ h o m a s ] . C a n t u s , Songs and F a n c i e s . A b e r d e e n , 1662. RISM B«l 1662?. C a n t u s , Songs and F a n c i e s . A b e r d e e n , 1666. RISM B s l 16663. . C a n t u s , Songs and F a n c i e s . A b e r d e e n , lolfe. RISM B « l 16825. F o r d , Thomas. M u s i c k e o f S u n d r i e K i n d s . L o n d o n , 1607. RISM F 1503. v. M a c e , Thomas. M u s i c k ' s Monument . L o n d o n , I676. RISM BiVI, p p . 523-4. M a t t h e w , R i c h a r d . The L u t e ' s A p o l o g y . [ L o n d o n , 1652], Mennes , S i r J o h n ; S m i t h , James , e t a l . W i t and D r o l l e r y , J o v i a l Poems. ~j~London"J7~ 1682. 185 Z9 R o b i n s o n , Thomas. New C i t h a r e n L e s s o n s . L o n d o n , 1609. Z10 S a l t e r , Humphry . The G e n t e e l Companion . . . f o r t he R e c o r d e r . London, I 6 8 3 . RISM B t l LoFJT". Z l l S t a r t e r , J . J . F r i e s c h e L u s t - H o f . A m s t e r d a m , 1621. Z12 Taubman, M a t t h e w . A n H e r o i c Poem . . . w i t h Some C h o i c e S o n g s . L o n d o n , 1682. RISM B i l 1682&. Z13 V a n E y k , J a c o b . P e r F l u y t e n L u s t - H o f . Ams te rdam, 1654. Z14 Y o u t h ' s D e l i g h t on the F l a g e l e t t he S e c o n d P a r t . |_ London J , I 6 8 3 . O t h e r Symbo l s Used i n t h i s C a t a l o g u e / n o t t h e same as l v l y r a v i o l s s u p p l e m e n t ( see p . 1 8 0 , n . 11). T#(s) t h e m a t i c number ( s ) u s e d i n t h i s c a t a l o g u e (1) (2) (3) W (5) (6) (7) I. Duple Meter  A. M a j o r Mode 1. Tonic 1* Ayre Preludium William Young P6l/65/#84 Anon. P69/[89]/#li8 3. S i m i l a r to Al/251 ( L b m V W # l 4 , The I t a l i a n Ground, G i b b o n s ) . An Almain Ayre Almain The Eccho Almain George Hudson Anon. George Hudson Simon Ives P51/13/#16 P5[5l/26/#36 P6l/12/#17 P69/33/#49 P82/26/#37 1. A13 (Mp/l27/#2, Allmain, George Hudson) 3. George Hudson may be the arranger of T# 3; see chapter V, pp. Almain John Jenkins P69/97/#125 ft .to — J . J > IT ^.—, 6 C a . - K -At— CO. a C at M i (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5 Ayre John Jenkins P6l /7V#93 The Granadees March Anon. P82/20/#29 3. See A15/279- Simpson believes T# 6 may be a discant version to the ball a d ayre "Grenadier's March." 7 Almain John Esto P69/37/#5k 1. A14 (Dml / 6 6 V#l, u n t i t l e d , anon.). 8 An Ayre George Hudson P69/30/#46 Anon. P82/48/#65 9 A Round 0 Anon. P82/42/#57 10* Preludium Simon Ives 1. A7/#245 (0b3/20v). P5[5l/18/#27 P6l/6/#9 P82/28/#39 (6) (7) ft b ft ft, ft ^- ft c <x — ft ft .C. ft , — f t b Ito b C\ •3 © s i >-C a. I 1 — _ — — ...-.I— 4 + 4 <A a . c c a a, a • C ft ftC co ft a 1 & ^ C C — I — 0 i 9s ^ 4 4 - - 4 -— •1—1 -kl —i — v \ C £ C C \ 3= (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 11* Almain John Jenkins Almain with D i v i s i o n P5[5]/68/#75 P6l/66/#85 P69/90/#119 1. A13 (Mp / l43/#8)t A7/#P243 (Ob3/ 8 5 r ) . 3. Although the t i t l e s vary, both P 5 L 5 ] and P6l have d i v i s i o n s . J 4 ^ " « 1 ¥ - J r J 12 Ayre Simon Ives Junior P5[5 ] / 2V#33 P6l / lV#20 13 General Monk's March Anon. P82/14/#19 2. A15/309, n. 1 (PDM62sj PMH78). 3 ^ 4^- a £ s i CO 1— ex 1—4 k lk* Ayre Thomas Bates P 6 9/l0V# 1 3 k k 1. A7/#P21-3 (WGb/4lr, T[homas] G[regory], fhfhf; £ 2—Dm/I5 v, Gregorie): A I 2 / 3 3 I , 333 (Ob/56/#2, Alman, defhfj a 2—Ob/153, fhfhf; 2nd pt. Obl / 1 7 8 )i A13 (Mp/77/#6. Almane, Sumarte, f h f h f ) : A17/109 (IAuc/ 25V, Mr. Thomas Gregories Eights, f h f h f ) . 3 . The d i f f e r e n t tuning and composer a t t r i -butions i n e a r l i e r sources suggest that Thomas Bates simply arranged t h i s piece i n a d i f f e r e n t tuning. UJJ 1 > )} %.—9—> |<* « ft * & c« . <* (1) (2) (3) (4) 15 Ayre John Withie P69/98/#126 16 Fourth Lesson, With Anon. P69/l7/#29 a Thump Ayre P82/ 3 V# k6 1? P[rince] Ruperts Anon. P5l/6/#7 Morrice 18 Oxford Tune Anon. P82/5V#73 19 Ayre Bates P69/l00/#129 20 A J i g Simon Ives P 6 9 / W # 5 9 (5) (6) (7) I s 1 <»a c /Tar tec 4 » to at C.g 1 „ ,A , .Jr-P T N t o 1 ' r * 1 1 » & ft C S . a c M * 1 8 ; j i s J CD - V O 5^: * f f# f f 11. 4 J J J > > J J Ok C . £ C, X a, & 1ft a : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 21 22 Glory of the West Anon. P51/16/#19 3 » J \ > J > . P5[5]/8/#15 1 P69/5V#76 3 2. A6/79 (PDM51-86} PCG52; PMH78)» A15/ #161 (PMD66)i A19/44 (Z7/#4). 3. Accoring to Ramon Meyer, the statement i n A6 that T# 21 appears i n PIM54 and l a t e r editions of PIM i s inco r r e c t . See A9/57, n. 1. New Muttar Anon. P82/53/#72 3. A7/#P210 Cu2/21 r, Nue Muttar). 1 • r f ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ « b y AT 4H m o 23 Almain 24 Almain John Moss P69/107/#137 George Hudson P69/42/#62 4CV 5 ^ & to a (1) (2) (3) ( k) (5) (6) (7) A Scotch Tune Called Sawney 2. A2/II, 618: A15/#Ml (Cfm/3; PCAS8l/9$ PDM79s; PDM86; PAB87; Thomas Durfey, The Virtuous Wife, 1697). 3. A2 suggests that Thomas Farmer may be the composer of T# 25. i i i i i-J*d* i i - i I ^ a /*—c—A A — - l - j — 1 — ^ CA C fc C tA £ c a cx la. Anon. P82/l6/#[22] 2 26 Glory of the North Anon. P5[5]/8/#l6 2. A1/4? (NYpl/45/#67)« A2/II, 422: A3/ I, 323: All/212 (Lbm/43r; PMD66/16). i J> i > J.» I \o 27* The New Figgary The Figary Anon. P69/56/#80 P82/6l/#7 . a b<v 5 r 28 Preludium John Moss P6Q/44/#65 > RV> fl.jp C C A C £ 29 Maydens Rant The Maids Rant Anon. P5[5]/28/#38 P69/7/#l k P82/55/#75 n i > i i 5 3 l 3 * _ i s : u <! IV 192 2* \ HI 3 1 - c = 9 J l ^11 6< 17 CM CM CA vA CM C O CM C O >i—1 G o d) 'H 1 1 1 3 H 4: O J-i l O o pq CO .c 4-> o CO r-t rH (1) *H CO \ o w g CAK O -o — g C A K co w o P-. CM PH C A \ l 0 V A O N V A O CM «H V A iH ON NO CO \ O N N O PL. to to 0 S 0 O PP CM W) •H •"3 O o ON N O CO CO O s O *~3 •H cd < •H O N V A N O N O P« PM PU CO C •rH CU o >-3 •H cd 6 0) >> •4--3--3" CM O O \ O N px,co w C L , <A\ I CM CA N O CACN \vTNONCA co=fe5tfcr»5 \ C M V A O -I—T-^- N O C O O N CM V A N O N O C O PL, P-, p L , PL, CO CD +> C<3 pq to cd S O x: 6-t CD u >> < O CA CM CA CA CA CA (1) (2) (3) (4) 35 An Almain George Hudson P69/31/#4? 36 Ayre John Jenkins P6l/65[73]/ #84[92J 37 T o l l , T o l l , Gentle Anon. P69/W#25 B e l l 1. A 7 / # P 2 0 0 (Cu2/I5 v). 38 Ayre Anon. P82/4V#59 39 Brangle Devilage Anon. P5[5]/77/#86* P6l/10/#14 A French Ayre P69/20/#32 P82/9/#13 k0 The Pleasant Dream Anon. An Ayre P69/ll/#20 P82/2/#3 (5) (6) (7) »1 M - h JL > 3 * 1—f i — * ^ -i i J i i D J J 1 J > . ± egg vO i i J> i . > J J a : [ 2 ] J i J J J 1 -H-4 ± t t 4 tea (1) (2) (3) (4) 4 l * A Masque The Queens Mask An Ayre Simon Ives P6l / V#7 P69/26/#40 P82/23/#33 3. S i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between T# 41 and a keyboard piece which appears i n NYpl/29/#36 (Maske, anon.) and Lbm/24v (Maske, anon.). See A1/65 and All/188. 42 Almain Thomas Bates P69/l02/#132 43 An Ayre La Cockley Anon. P69/95/#123 P82/52/#71 44 An Ayre Simon Ives P69/39/#56 45 Ayre John Jenkins P61/7l/#89 (5) (6) (7) M i l 3, ft ft. £«> 4 i j j ].». a t A f t Q C U C S . f.C. fe. 1 T *5; A , 4 f t & ^ . . A ft J2t (1) (2) (3) (4) 46 Almain Coleman P5[5]/30/#42 1. A13 (Mp/l3V#13). 4? An Ayre Anon. P69/2l/#34 P82/43/#58 1. A7/#P2H (Cu2/23V). 48 ALmain George Hudson P5[5]/56/#60 P6l/40/#52 49 A Prelude Anon. P69/20/#33 2. Third 50* An Almain Anon. P 5 l/l/#l The Thumping P5L5J/17/#26 Almain (continued) (5) (6) (7) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Almain F i r s t Lesson, With a Thump Almain P6l/1/#1 P69/15/#26 P82/32/W 1. A?/#P280 (Cu2/3V, defhf; Ob3/89v, defhf)i A13 (Mp/71/#1, Thump, efhfh) 51 Theater Tune Anon. P82/67/#15 52 The Prince of Anon. P69/lV#24 2 Condie's March 53* An Ayre William Gregory P69/35/51 5 k Nightengale Anon. P5l/8/#ll P5[5]/1V#22 P69/2V/39 P82/12/#18 1. A13 (Mp/21/#12, R[ichard] S[umarte], A. ft rTi F H = \ = -*—-—s*-i c # 4 = i i 1 J > U>J J , A 5 fa: (L A, — v \~~f « 1 -A—OX. ^ c j — | ~w (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) efhfh). Al/270 (NYpl/l40/#l85» Henry Loosemore)» A10/266 (Z6/I/201): All / 1 5 8 (Lbm/9 r)s A15/#323 (NYp3/l47, 150; Pcl/35 v» 62v, Henry Loosemore; Och3/l50; Cu3/l9; Bc/ l 6 ; En; PCG52/#6; PPC73/#3 Z12/I/33V and ZI2/II/33V), A19/59. / A6/53 (PDM51, Chirping of the Night-ingale) . 55 An Ayre George Hudson P69/ kl/#60 56 The Apollo 57 Dragoons March 58* Bore Anon. P5[5]/29/#40 Anon. P82/39/#53 Anon. P82/36/#49 ft fte.cicet^. ft p r o (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 59 May Time Maying Time Fa i n I Would Anon. P5[5Vl / # i P69/l/#2 P82/2/#2 2. Al5/#306 (PCG52)* A19/58. 3. / A15/#134 and 135. F a i n I Would i f I Could. 1 2 N K A - " 1- F T T Vr M ^ 9 ex ex ^ p ft £ 7 to f— -& 60 P[rince] Ruperts March Anon. P5l/5/#6 2. Al l /148 (Lbm/4r, Prince Ruperts Martch and Lbm/32r, A Scotts Tuen). 3. / A 6/49 (PDM51, Prince Ruperts March). 2 i ) ) > i i 3. F i f t h 61 Ayre 62 A P i l l to Purge Melancholy Banister P82/50/#67 [Thomas P5[5]/6/#ll Ford] 1. A12/326 (Cu4/l5v/#2; Dtc/39/#2 and P. I flal^—A fc t — | - —4 i t i k ft, <\ ICS (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Dtc/57/#3; 2~0bl/34/#3; 2nd pt. Ob/3V#3i Z5/sig. M2V#18, A P i l l to Purge Melancholy or Mr. Richard Martins Thumpe); A13 (Mp/43/#12, Thumpe, T[horaas] Martin. 63* A Symphony Anon. Coleman P5l/8/#10 P5C5]/9/#17 P6l/l6/#22 P69/22/#35 P82/l6/#[23] 2. A6/62 (PDM51-86, Aye Me, or the Sim-phony; PCG52--2 settings; PMD66)1 All/149 (Lbm/4v, One of Y e Symphonies): A7/#P230 (Lbm4/52r; NYp3/27-» A Mask, var.; Lbm2/lOv, Charles Coleman; a 2— Ob/211, u n t i t l e d ; 2nd pt. Obl/229; Mp/Il/4, R[ichard] S[umartel; PCA/#188). 3. The a t t r i b u t i o n i n A7 of Ob/211 and Obi/ 229 to Ives i s doubtful, and the claim that T# 63 i s part of VJ. Lawes* music f o r The Triumph of Peace i s incorrect. ei j ! » . > J » J 64 Bonny Brow Anon. P82/36/#50 2 1. A15/#233 (Enl/#50; Dw/#80 and #94, In 4. (1) (2) (3) O) (5) (6) (7) January La s t ) . 2. Al5/#233 (PAS79/46; PPC80; P A B 8 7 — t i t l e varies; Thomas D'Urfey, A Fond Husband, 1667; Otway, Friendship i n Fashion, 1678, Act I I I ) . 65 Ayre 66 An Almain Ayre Aylward P5[5]/78/#87 [2] Anon. Simon Ives Anon. P51/11/#13 P5[5]/20/#28 P6l/8/#10 P69/28/#43 P82/30/#40 J . ) J > J > . - > J . > 11 2 J ) > J . ) ro o o 1. A7/#P231 (Cu2/27 r , The G i l l i f l o w e r ; 0b3/21v)t A13 (Mp/l32-3/#10). 67* A La Mode de France Anon. P5l/3/#k P 5 [ 5 W # 8 P6l/3/#6 P69/3/#6 P82/7/#10 1 2 l ^ r & > \ A f t V a P i -f a H >--4—SI fflitf a V 1 -1. A15/#32? (Cu2/13, A l l the mode i n (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 2. A6/42 (PDM51-86): Al5/#327, Nonesuch (PCG52/#40 and #1; PMD66/#7). 68 Bow B e l l s Anon. P51/10/#12 1. A13 (Mp/37/#2). 2. A15/#4l (PCG52, 2 settings; PMD66/#32; PMH78)« A19/31 (Z7/20). 69 A m a r i l l i s [John Banister] P82/5l/#69 ; 2. A15/#12 (PDM65-86/#4l; PMD66; PAB70; PPC73. J[ohn] B f a n i s t e r ] ; Thomas Porter, The V i l l a i n . 1666, Act I I ) . 3« 4 A5/#l44, Amaryllis tear thy h a i r . i J . > J J > ) . > i U — 1 r o - fe - i - ± — t , . . rffl-r Ok V v\ -« CA O L C ft ft •#«**"-a. ^ A — B ex. m J 70 Gather Your Rosebuds [William P5[5]/7/#13 Lawes] 2. A5 /#1109« A15/#155 (Lbm3/33 . William, Lawes' autograph; Eu/89; NYp/#l4l, i n £ meter; PCG52j PSM52, William Lawesj PIM55l PMD66; PCC67)« A19/44 ( E n 5 / l k ) . (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 71 S i t t i n g Beyond the Riverside [Thomas P82/2l/#30 Farmer] 2 . A 5 / # 2 9 9 2 i A l 5 / # 4 3 3 ( P C A S 7 9 / 3 5 » Thomas Farmeri Aphra Behn, S i r Patient Fancy, 1 6 7 8 ) . 4u See T# 59 P82/2/#2 ro o ro Almain An Ayre John Moss Anon. P 6 9 A 5 / # 6 6 P82/45/#6l 2 }}.> 3 . T# 72 resembles A8/#59-22[a] and #146 (PCM62/#275» Ayre, Matthew Locke; Cupid and Death, 5 t h Entry Introductory Music, Matthew Locke). See T# 59 P69/l/#2 •2 ] i J i > J 73 Mr. Farmer's Trumpet Anon. P82/4o/#54 2 J ) i JJ> CK O.C.JX 3 ^ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 74 A Short Prelude Anon. P69/l/#l 75 A Prelude of the Anon. P82/l/#l Notes Ascending and Descending 76* When the K[ing] Enjoyes &c. Anon. P51/V#5 P5[5W#7 P6l/2/#3 P 6 9 / V / 8 P82/4/#6 1. A15/#511 (Cu2/ 2 2 v ) . c , 2. A1/140 (NYpl/5/#10; Pc/252/#69)« A2/ 11/434i A3/l/210« All/151 (Lbm/5 y )» A15/#5H (PGG52; PMD66). 1 2 i - J J J J cvcre a 5= X " * " m J "> J> J ro o 4. Sixth 7 7 Almain Ayre John Withie P5[5]/65/#71 P6i/81/#81 P69/H5/#146 ^ d b ft (1) (2) (3) O) (5) (6) (7) 78 Ah Cruel Bloody Fate [Henry P82/20/#28 Puree11J 2 J>J>JJJJ> 2. A5/#35« A15/#3 (PCAS81/29? PPC83; PAB87? Z7? Z8; Nathaniel Lee, Theodosius, 1680, Act V, Henry P u r c e l l ) : A20/#607.9. -.•Iff iViuMTli B. Minor Mode 1. Tonic 79 Almain 80 Almain John Esto P6l/36/#46 John Esto P5[5]A9/#52 P6l/32/#4l P69/68/#96 P82/7V#24 1. A7/#P244(0b3/77r)« A13 (Mp/ll9/#17) o J > J 81 Almain An Ayre Almain John Jenkins P6l/51/#67 P69/83/#H2 P82/72/#22 1. A13 (Mp/l25/#27). (1) (2) (3) (k) (5) (6) (7) 82 Almain 1. A13 (Mp/153/#D. John Esto P6l/90/#91 P 6 9 / [ l l l ] / # l k l A ft ft a ftC. e\ _CA_ See T# 81 83 Ayre Almain 84 Almain P69/83/#U2 3 P82/72/#22 John Withie P6l/90[80]/#80 P69 / l lV#l k 5 Goter P6l/6l/#79 1. A13 (Mp/lll / # 5 . Preludin, anon.)» A17/104 (LAuc/7 r i G a l t i e r e ) . 2. A 1 / 9 (En6 / 5 v / # 5 , anon.). 85 Countesse of Simon Ives P5 [5 ] A 6 /#57 Exeters Almain . P6l/48/#63 1 2 1 fX tX (X ft # ft \ ft. ftl ftlX b ro o 3 : 8 £ f t * f t - £ . I 3 z 1 " 1. A13 (Mp/l22/#22). 1) (2) (3) (k) 86* Ayre William Gregory P6l/44/#[58] 1. A13 (Mp/120/#19, Almaine, v a r . ) . 87 Almain John Moss P69/85/#llk 88 Almain John Esto P5[5]/52/#55 P6l/33/#k2 1. A13 (Mp/l2l/#20). 89 Almain John Moss P69/118/#l k9 90 Almain William Young P5l/l8/#21 P5[5]/39/#52 P6l/20/#27 P69/58/#83 P82/8l/#31 1/ A13 (Mp/ll8/#l k). (6) (7) f - f c f 1 ^ — * | p f ft j J J.> J J J . H J , • ft. , , — * £ * , b<i ft - L , cH — H F i P J J J J J . » - 1 - ^ "•^vp. 1 t t f - f k J J — S-— H 1 — R - V — (1) (2) (3) (4) 91* Almain George Hudson P5[5]/54/#57 P6l/38/#49 Ayre P69/63/#90 P82/86/#38 92 Almain Jenkins P6l/52/#68 93 Morris Coleman P5[5]/76/#83 94* Almain Christopher P6l/88/#88 Simpson 95 Preludium Charles Coleman P5[5]/33/#45 P6l/l7/#23 P69A9/#70 P82/57/#l (5) (6) (7) * ft c A . < \ A : _c q > i J r f PI -b 4— • + - - f - f -ro o 3 f e ft . v c ft C ^ j . ftft.ec A<ft > i : (1) (2) (3) (4) 96* Colonel Gerards Anon. P5l/2V#2? Tune Gerards M i s t r i s s e P5[5]Ao/7?51 P6l/2l/#29 P69/5V#77 P82/59/#5 1. A15/#158 (Cu2/I8 v). 2. A1/260 (NYp2/50/#30, Gerrards Tune, Thomas Heardson) t A15/#158 (Dtcl/104; PCG52—2 settings; PMH?8)« A19/44 (Z7/#12).. 97 Ayre Esto P82/83/#33 98* A J i g John Moss P69/88/#117 99 An Ayre Anon. P82/69/#18 (5) (6) (7) 3 ) ) • > ' > J ro o 00 3 ).)>.) J J j>.) Ok a c A. i-I f 2 J . > ^ . g g H A 1 T - W 1—1 r 4 - ^ , £ * £ C Ow 0 J i t * IT—(— f — — * (1) (2) (3) (4) £00* The I t a l i a n [Giuseppino] P69/5l/#73 Rant 2. A15/527 (Pc/331/#H0, ffuge; Barbara MS, Fuggi fuggi da questo c i e l o , Giuseppino; PCG52/6—-guitar se t t i n g , Fugga, Fugga or the I t a l i a n Rant; PDM62s/#31; PDM65/#l4; PMH78/#29). 101 A l m a i n John W i t h i e . P6l /58/#75 P69/79/#108 102 Almain with D i v i s i o n An Ayre Almain John E s t o P5[5]/50/#53 P6l/26/^34 P69/72/#101 P82/76/#26 103* An Almain Ayre Almain John L i l l y P51/22/#25 P5[5]/4l/#52 P6l/l9/#26 P69/62/#88 Jenkins P82/?3/#23 1. A13 (Mp/ll8/#15, L i l l i e ) . (5) (6) (7) J > J J* ex. £ . , j . 1.. ^j f l i l t f f lA •9T- 7 - * ro o VO J * i >[J]J (X £ cX f* ]<xe\ | 4 --1-OV f. / <x ft./ 1 1 T 4-— ~T. 1 * l * f t ] CX , ^ A U 1 f ^ r 1^- c - -e CX «\c A<\ M 4 h 4' (1) (2) (3) ( k) 10k Preludium John Withie P6l/57/#7k 105* Almain William Gregory P6l/kk/#57 P69/75/#10k 106 A J i g Almain John Moss P69/l20/#152 107* Ayre Simon Ives P5[5]/76/#8k 108 A Rant John Withie P6l/6o/#77 2. Third (6) (7) g- a l a c gfc, fpT ja a cS iS.e a, l i > J § 1 a~\» A 5 p i a z : A A a I aA,*& £ Aft V> Q> a - " f t t c if. a (1) (2) (3) (k) (5) 109* Ayre Jenkins P6l/?6/#75 110 A New Bore Anon. P82/70/#20 111 Almain • William Lawes P5[5]/6l/#6? P6l/83/#83 1. A13 (Mp/165/#19). 112 Almain William Lawes P6lA5[5 k]/#71 3 1. A13 (Mp/200/#4, Thomas Tayler or trulye W i l l [ i a j m Lawes, edfed). 3. F i f t h 113* Almain with D i v i s i o n Coleman P5[5]/36/#k9 3 (6) (7) «— °- L—l A 8 h ? , It? ' P , , -H J . > J > . » ) > • > • , c n l , 8 b 1 — i t , — T f-y i r i — <> J m \ J J J J > J > rt ft £ k ^ - l -4- — — R B A > — —J f = r L 1 1—— t 4-^ i > (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 114* Ayre Simon Ives P69/6o/#86 3 P82/84/#35 1. A13 (Mp/I19/#10, The Buildings, R[ichard] S[umarte], f f e f f , var.): A17/109 (IAuc/27r, The Building, anon., f h f h f ) : A12/333 (1 2—-Ob/154, See the Building, anon., fhfhf; 2nd pt. Obl/178). 2. Al/90 (0chl/4/#4, u n t i t l e d , anon.): A15/#4l4 (0ch/4v; PLp/#21 and #30; Ctc/136; PCG52/#53; William Hemming, The  Jewes Tragedy. 1662, Act IV). 115 Almain John Esto P61/35/#45 3 116 Ayre Coleman P5[5]/74/#8l 3 117 Almain John Esto P69/69/#97 3 P82/80/#24[#30] (6) (7) a t \ - — 3 * . , (3 <>-1 CX CA \ tb-Zfrr^-: • 1 : 1 j 9^ -7 ^ r o r o <x G L £ ex e x C A I C , § b t i <K ^ ^ CX ^ 1 I <-J E . — i #^ ^# . CA — A A a . (1) (2) (3) O) (5) * 118 Preludium Christopher P6l/87/#87 5 S impson 119 Almain Ayre John Esto P6l/9l/#92 5 P69/H2/#l42 120 Could Man His [James P82/ 6 V#H 3 Wish Obtain Paisible] 2. A5/#7^3« A15/#85 (Cfra/55; PCAS83, James Peasiblej PPC 83; PAB87; Z9). 121 Ayre Jenkins P6l/22/#30 122 Almain Coleman P5[5]/3V#46 P6l/28/#36 1. A13 (Mp/198/#1, Will[ia]m Younge, edfed). (6) (7) J J i > J r — -- g — Ok. hP>—-r o> — h ^ H + » r 1 1 — 1 1 0 S» 4fl» 1 (ft £. C-1 ^ — A M *V -Hrr-5 1 \ A. ... ... , L. riSM A 1 V 1 ^ -<x a 0 a — ft r b - M A - , w —A ^ A cxc —|H ?-A r l ^ 1 9 Li 0 1 > J > J . > J . ) ft a . & 3, (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 123* Almain 1. Jenkins P5[5]A2/#53 P6l/2V#32 P69/80/#110 A12/ (Ob/202/#l, anon.; WGb/20r, v a r . ) t A13 (Mp/ll2/#6, anon.)« A17/103 (IAuc/6 v, u n t i t l e d , anon.). 2. A7/#P259 (0b2/53» Ayre, anon.). -4 <Ma ftft _ f t J L . 5". 13 124 Almain • John Withie P6l/59/#75[76] 3 J J ).)> j.) 125 Ayre 1. A13 (Mp/l24/#25). Jenkins P5l/20/#23 P5[5]/44/#55 P6l/30/#39 126 Almain Christopher P6l/62/#81 Simpson a, e r o 3 J > j> J «4 * f. ft. C \ .C fc_-_ . 4 Ap f (1) (2) (3) ( k) 127 Ayre Anon* P5r5]/38/#50 P6l/l8/#24 Jenkins P6l/22/#31 Charles Coleman P69/50/#71 P82/58/#2 128 Almain John Jenkins P6l/77/#76 I I . T r i p l e Meter  A. Major Mode 1. Tonic See T# 135 P6l/96/#99 129 Saraband George Hudson P5 l/lV# 1 7 Anon. P5[5]/27/#37 George Hudson P6l/13/#18 P69/3V/50 Anon. P82A9/#66 1. A13 (Mp/l32/#9). (5) (6) (7) 5 : J ) J i i J ) . > ) J J J J J (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 130 The Simerons Dance Prince Rupert's Welcome [Matthew P69/6/#12 Locke] P82/5/#8 2 J 2. A1/69 (NYpl/l59/#213, Moncks country dance, anon.)» A8/#100, 150 (PCM62/ #179, Matthew Locke; PMH63/#38; PMH78/ #38; PDM65AV#33; PAB70/#51; William D'Avenant, The History of S i r Francis  Drakei 1658, 2nd Entr y ) . 131 Saraband Anon. Simon Ives Anon. P51/12/#15 P5[5]/2l/#30 P6l/9/#12 P69/29/#45 P82/3l/#42 1. A13 (Mp/l3l/#8, Thomas Bates, var.; Mp/135/#15. S[imon] l [ v e s ] ) . 132 Corant Thomas Bates P69/l05/#135 4 9 rf r l -F F 1 — f t r 2 ; i j j j i J U > ro ON i 4 4 f Q, c ,& 4 J J J J J. J 3 133 Corant John Jenkins P6l/72/#90 5 - * J (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 13 k Hunt Is Up Anon. P6l/95/#98 2. A1/89 (NYpl/lk3/#182t untitled) i A15/ #205 (Pcl/59v» untitled, R. Cr[eighton]j Ws/12**; Lbm5/32r; Cu/4 and 13v; C u l / k v ! Cu3/lirj PMD66; 29; Z l l ) . 135 Roome for Cuckolds Anon. P5[5]/5/#10 1 P6l/96/#99 6 2. A15/#399. Room for C ompany (Ctc/132). 136 Jockey Went to [William P82/l9/#27 the Wood Gregory] 2. A15/#2k9 (PCAS79/12, William Gregory). 137 Corant Coleman P5[5]/3l/#k3 2 1. A13 (Mp/l3 k-5/#l k). 138 A J i g Simon Ives P5[5]/72/#78 4 (6) (7) i 1 J.>J i > 1— • - l , ,1 ] 1 1 | - c — u " f t . 0 . l £ » - * 1 * — ^ " 4 n " S T . ro ->3 J > J J.) J J> J T V 3 3 3 a 3 ^ 4^7 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 139 Saraband John Withie P69/99/#127 4 1. A13 (Mp/l46-7/#13» Coranto). 140 A Saraband Jenkins P69/96/#124 4 141 Come Boy F i l l Anon. P82/56/#76 2 Us, &c. 2. A5/#6lli A15/#73 (PPC83; PAB87} Z12/8). 142* Saraband Anon. P5[5]/79/#88 2 143 Tune Banister P82/52/#70 2 144 Saraband Simon Ives P69/4o/#58 2 (6) (7) ft- '''-All c, & to to tt 3fc ft ft ft <x i i i - i i i J i J . i i J J j •rf- ft , C ft, , ^  & *— i to fa ft ift a ^ t o f t ^ f t > V * f t > J*_ 9 —( *-r t r ^ i i 1 1 1 — 1 — 7 1 1 i i) i . > i i ift^ f t l b |.i|L_^_ f t A ft \ 1—f— iLilL 4-) J J J J JJ<JJJ->J £ c CA, I bl ft I*. ftto a (1) (2) (3) (4) See T# 131 P5[5]/21/#30 P6l/9/#12 145 Saraband Jenkins P5[5]/7l/#77 P6l/69/#87 P69/93/#121 1. A13 (Mp/149/#16). 146* A J i g William Lawes P5[5]/ll/#19 147 The Myrtle Grove Anon. P69/58/#82 148 Saraband Thomas Bates P69/l02/#131 (6) (7) 4 t. a e « i J * c 1 — - — 0— t> -' h-- — 9 - C T — ^ ~ 4V , 4 J J J ' J J J J 3 ) J ' „ ! - — < ? -ft <- * t ._L - I - raj f - # - i —1—c* H I - i 1 JiJJJJ-JUJ J.) •' * i . * o 3 !* » 1 hh f [ A - 4— ( i ) (2) (3) (k) (5) l k 9 Step S t a l e l y Anon. P5l/2/#3 P5[5]/3/#5 2. A6/8 k (PDM51-86; PCG52, guitar setting} PIM62; PMD66)t A15/# k k8 (PIM60). 150 A J i g Anon. P82/k7/#6k 151 Saraband George Hudson P69/32/#k8 2 1. A13 (Mp/136/#18, Simon Ives, var.). 152* Abington J i g Anon. P82/5k/#7k 2 153 Corant W. Gregory P69/36/#52 15k Saraband Anon. P5l/7/#9 1 P69/8/#15 2 P82/3/#k (6) (7) i J . J j ' j J> <IA A t i l i A t=F±tR! > iJJii J J * £ Cft . f t . . . £ ^ 1 *1 3 * 14-H1 A 1 4 9 1 i->i JJ J.JJ A3 Aha bAift 1 c H). I. J i i - f- 6 i &- & C-> J & a it - £ - « " -#--5 ^—H J 1 *. >i J > rer-tt ac ( a. s & 1 > JJ * • a £ • i B - M y»*\fc \—— H H ~ i f f t i f (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 1. A13 (Mp/3"l/#27i Thomas Woodson, f f e f f ) . 3. In P51 and P69, the 2nd strain of T# 154 is repeated with divisions. In P82, the divisions are omitted 155 The Apes Dance [Matthew. P82/ll/#l6 2 i n the Opera Locke] 2. A6/xxiv (PDM75/159, The Opera): A8/#l42 (PCM62/#27i, Matthew Locke; PDM65/38/#15. v i n . s e t t i n g ; PAB70/#93, var.; William D'Avenant, The Cruelty of the Spaniards  i n Peru. 1658, 6th Entry). J a. —Tr 1 . 1 A a 0^  ft A —|—i-i % j 3LJ to 156 Now the Fight's [Henry P82/22/#32 Done P u r c e l l ] 2. Al5/#333 (Ob4/39; PAS81/41I Zl/62; Z l l / l O ; Nathaniel Lee, Theodosius, 1680. a f t e r Act I, Henry P u r c e l l ) : A20/#606.5 (214). ; J . ) J w A u \ X — « r 3 f — 1 y v r - 4 — •gr 1 A 5 3 c ft O Qi 0 . 1 Ok Q ^ £ 1 ' » 1 - , -157 Corant Simon Ives P69/39/#57 2 i J . J U J J . i i i - k i t A p. a >c ft ft - A _ ^ I 0' 1 r •4—( ft" A A- -G.—1— 4- ~ 1 1 " •4- 1 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 158 Simon the King Anon. P5[5]/80/#89 P6l/93/#95 2. Al5 / # 3 ^ 7 Pc1/1/23; PDM79s, var; PDM86; PDV85/#4, var.; PAB87J Z 1 0 / 3 8 , var.). 159 The Merry Milk-Maid Anon. P69/l8/#30 1. 2. 3. A15/#309 (Cu2/l4 v ). A6/29 (PDM51-86)-t A15/#309 (NYp3/l80j Pcl/36, A dance)* A 1 9 / 5 8 ( C u 6 A 2 - 3 l E n V l O ) . / C u 6 / 2 6 , The meiry Milke-Maide, accord-ing to A 1 9 / 5 8 . ftfl" ft fcg a • -.1 ro rV~s ro ro 160 New Minvet 161* Porters Rant New Rant F i l l . Porter's Rant Mr. Porter's Delight (continued) Anon. P82/35/#48 Anon. P5[5]/l6/#25 P6l/3/#5 P69/6/#ll P82/6/#9 ft C ftg, 3Z£ ft/' C ft ft ft 1 a. >- s i (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 1. A7/#P3 (Cu2/l2V| Ob3/87 r). 2. A2/6l4t All/215 (Lbm/45r, P h i l l . Porters Lamentation). 162 Corant Jenkins P5[5]/70/#76 P6l/68/#86 P69/92/#120 1. A7/#P101 (0b3/8kv), A13 (Mp/l46/#12) J J . ) J <\C£, «• 1' r i a q%—-_v • H - 1 u p 163 Franklin A Tune Anon. P69/l3/#23 P82/44/#60 2. A15/#l46 (PAB70/#67; 213, 0 hone); A19/41. 3. According to A15, T# 163 is an orna-mented version of the ballad ayre, "Franklin is Fled Away;" see p. 232, 2 J . 4&E-fr A a d a ? i =1^ + 1 r H J -« ^ ft ft 0. 164 The Scots March Montross March Anon. P69/9/#17 P82/12/#17 2. A1/50 (NYp3/ 48/#36, The Highlanders March). 2 J <U j . ) ) J . J a s A ai A (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 165 The Myrtle Shade [Henry P82/22/#31 P u r c e l l ] 1. A19/45 (En2/57). 2. A15/#178 (PCAS81; Z9; Z13; Nathaniel Lee, Theodosius, 1680, Act I I I , Henry P u r c e l l ) i A20/#606.8 (210). < * A C ) J i J J J . ) J TP ft a a ^ a. ft 9 C\ Pi — J 1 S' I. 5 • 6 166 Mardike Anon. P82/42/#56 2. A15/#304 (PDM62/#43, treble v l n . set-t i n g ; PDM65/#20; PMD66; PAB70). 167* Corant Simon Ives P5[5]/23/#32 P6l/5/#8 P82/24/#34 1 ii).^ l.»).)J A: 2 I S 1. A13 (Mp/l29/#5). 168 Parthenia Anon. P69/4/#7 P82/10/#14 2 J J)'JUi'.J.>Ui 2. Al/56 (NYpl/l60/#215, The Kings Delight). ^Ml 1 " f t b l (1) (2) (3) (4) 169 Corant Simon Ives P5[5]/24/#34 P6l/l4/#21 170 Green Goose F a i r Anon. P 6 9 / 1 0 / # 1 8 171 I r i s h Rant Anon. P5[5]/3/#6 1. A7/#P11 (0b3/88v, 2 s e t t i n g s — fefhf and defhf). 172 Saraband George Hudson P5[5]/57/#62 P6l/4l/#53 173 Saraband John Jenkins P6l/75/#94 174 Corant Simon Ives P5[5]/22/#31 (6) (7) §5 3 ? 5fe A « u r r ^ ^ \ \ I 1 f 1 A £ ft a V C a : — » — U L — ^ - j -i 1—n 1 r H J <= r o r o j J J J. ft i g . ft £ a * v ^ o\ a- o\ 2 : J j.» <A\ ft 5\C 2 2 3 ± (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 175 Saraband William Gregory P69/36/#53 176 Minvet Anon. P82/38/#52 177* Saraband John Jenkins P6l/72/#91 a ,. CA ***** » ~ a flltr: C A 1 >—* 5 -Ok. A -£3 m r o r o ON See T# 201 P69/2/#4 178* Saraband John Esto P69/38/#55 179 Corant Thomas Bates P69/l0l/#[l]30 4 i J.J»J J SI # 7 ex g. < e. £ < c x 1 1 — — (1) (2) (3) (4) 180 Follow Me Kate Anon. P69/l9/#31 181 Saraband George Hudson P69Al/#6l 182 Vive l a y Roy Anon. P6l/2/#4 P69/5/#9 P82/3/#5 1. A7/#P28 (Ob3/89 r). 2. Al5/#489 (Lbm5/53v; PCG52; PMD66). 183 Saraband Anon. P69A3/#63 184 A J i g Thomas Bates P69/l06/#136 (5) (6) (7) j J i J i J J i i i 1—^ \ — i - i r .A- a a Ok. rtk -4-*-! 4 J • J J J.JJ J . J r o r o i i j j j i j j J . •WT 1 \'W\\\l\\ *4 4 f i > 4 f . ^c.g. 3 * (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 185 The Kings Delight Anon. P69/5/#10 P82/V#7 1. A15/#265 (Cu2/l v and 8^). 2. Al/56 (NYpl/l57/#210)« Al5/#265 (PIM64, treble v l n . j PDM65/#32; PMD66? PAB70; PPC73; PMH78)t A19/56 (Enl/3 V). iJJJ J.WJJ1JJ. <X ft. O . £ 2 : 186 Countrey Dance A J i g Thomas Bates P5[5]/59/#65 P6l/43/#56 P69/67/#95 P82/88/#40 JJJjJJ i J J ^ a s£ A o> » A, 4 A oo 187 Canaries 188 A Saraband Anon. P5[5]/28/#39 • 2 ] J . J > ] J i f i ] m , f t , • a — , „ Anon. P69/22/#36 Coleman P82/l7/#24 1. A7/#P30 (Ob3/89r). 3. Resembles Al/21 k (Pc/319/#101, An Ayre, Benjamin Cosyn). a a A j p S w a 2 i J . ) j j J i J (1) ( 2 ) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 189 Saraband Simon Ives, P5[5]/25/#35 Junior P6l/15/#19 Simon Ives P69/27/#42 P82/25/#36 1 . A 1 3 ( M p / 1 2 7 / # 1 , Simon Ives Junior). J J J J J J J J - > 190 None Shall Plunder Anon, but I Prince Pupert*s March P51/15/#18 P69/12/#21 2. A15/#325 (PCG52/#35, var.; PMD66/#26, var.). 3. / A6/49 (PDM51, Prince Ruperts March) ) l > i J j J J 191 Gilli-flower Simon Ives P5[5]/77/#85 P6l/10/#13 Anon. P 6 9 / 2 3 / # 3 7 r n Simon Ives P82/27 /#28[38] 1. A 7 / # P 7 5 (Cu2/4V; 0b3/87v)i A13 (Mp/137/#20). r A X 192 A Saraband John Moss P69/47/#68 Anon. P82/46/#63 4 , f. . Qt b A QLE ftC_ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (?) 193 A J i g 2. Second Anon. P69A3/#64 2 liujiijjjjjj fl,Cft4 or 4 -194 Let Oliver Now Be Forgotten Anon. P82/56/#77 2. A5/#1985« A15/#202, Let Oliver Now Be Forgotten or How Unhappy Is Phyllis in Love (Zl; ZIO'i Z12/9). E C I * - 1 *a a' l $ 195 Cuckolds A l l a Row Anon. P82/15/#21 2. A6/56 (PDM51-86; PCG52i guitar setting)« Al5/#95. v. 1 3. Third 196 Saraband Christopher P6l/90/#90 Simpson A a t C ex Al a ft (1) (2) (3) ( k) (5) (6) (7) 197* Countrey C o l l 2. A6/67 (PDM51-86, anon.). William P5[5]/l0/#l8 Lawes •s-a- a A r 1*) i . 198* Over the Moun-taines Anon. P5l/6/#8 P5[5]/2/#4 P69/2/#3 1 2 1. A19/57 (En3/72). 2. Al/104 (NYpl/136/#l67) • A5/#2651 (Z3/#k5): A15/#295. Love W i l l Find Out the Way (Bc/4; Ctc/135; PCG52, c i t t e r n s e t t i n g i n common time, guitar setting; PMD66/#5. i n common time; 22/#k8; Z k/ #45)« A19/57 (En7Al- klv). 199 Corant 200 New Minvet George Hudson Anon. P82/l9/#26 »b A A L _ _ ft *\ f l * ft p-1 1 ^ W -S 5 )\ > < 1: A * f t C , A OL.b. » 8 ro 2 ft fc. a . i t 17 (1) (2) (3) CO (5) 201 Saraband Anon. P6l/l'/#2 P69/2/#4 P82/8/#l T# 201 strongly resembles the follow-ing: A1/122, 253. 256 (En6/7/#8, Gibbons; NYp2/llO/#68, Gibbons; 0ch2/ 6/#6, anon.; 0ch3/l9» Gibbons, with d i v i s i o n s ) . 202 Saraband Thomas Bates P69/103/#133 See T# 163 P82/44/#60 2 203 Chicona Simon Ives P5[5]/l?/#26[A] 2 P6l/ll/#l6 1 . A 1 3 (Mp/133/#12). (6) (7) CX p-1 1?-A. A— * r j r 1 i ro ro J.J. i J J- j.. a CKC ££, ex , (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 204* Sweet Jane [John P82/37/#51 Banister] 2 j JJiU-WAJiij 2. A5/#3H9 PMC67/176-7. Banister; PMC73/ 97. Banist e r ) . 205 Saraband John Withy P69/l00/#128 1. A13 (Mp/139/#D. 206 Corant 1. A7/#P82 (0b3/88v). Simon Ives P 6 9/26/#4l P82/25/#35 a V » 1 q - r # - &- \ 1 • 4-# 33 i t : 0 . S 4-"K C . C X „ . < & %—rt£ _0k_ 3fc 2 JL>) JJ.> .UJ.>J r o <\ V> A A b a 207* Minvet Baptist P82/63/#10 1 J J yii cx Qs iacx 208 Corant Thomas Bates P5[5]/58/#64 P61/42//55 P69/66/#94 -44 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 2 0 9 Blew Cap Anon. P5l/l/#2 1 P5 [ 5 V 5/#9 P69/3/#5 2 1. A7/#P110 (Cu5/2l4, e f f f [ e ] ) . 2. A6/7 (PDM51-86; PCG52, cittern setting): A15/#29 ,(NYp3/l81i En/1; NYp/#5l and #74; Bc/1). 1 1 Jl-JJiU..v a a A aft a c r y 5 44 210 Montrosses March Anon. P69/l2/#22 ac 4. Fourth 211 La Cloche Second Lesson with a Thump Saraband Anon. Simon Ives Anon. P5[5]/29/#4l P6l/il/#15 P69/l6/#27 P82/34/#47 1. A7/#P139 (Cu2/2v; 0b3/l2r), A13 (Mp/ 133/#lli La Cloche, Simon Ives). fe, a oi c •'• a— a ee a. 5. F i f t h (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 212 Saraband Anon. P5[5]/l/#2 ex CX etc.  stxex 213 I Have Been a Piper 214 Theater Tune Anon. P6l/9V#97 Anon. P82/62/#9 215 The E a r l of Sand-wich's Farewell Anon. P82/32/#43 2. A15/184 (PMH78/#75» Digby's Farewell). 3. T# 215 i s not one ayres l i s t e d i n A15 f o r the broadside, "Digby's Farewell." However, Simpson believes T# 215 (arid T# 239, "Farewel F a i r Armida") may be alternate ayres f o r t h i s ballad; see A15/184. ft^ft ±6 (1) (2) (3) (k) (5) (6) (7) 216 Lesleyes March Anon. P5[5]/l2/#20 P69/10/#19 3. A tune by the same t i t l e i s mentioned i n A2/II/615. ft ac: 1 3 g. P i * 217 Corant Anon. P 5 l / l 2 / # l k P5[5]/2l/#29 Simon Ives P6l/9/#ll P69/29/W Anon. P82/3l/#4l i i J AJJ , a /1 /* to 1 - H - 4 - -« . 0 ft p-0 . ~ f l i t ro ON 218 The Boatman Anon. P6l/93/#96 2. A3/308; A6/8 (PDM51-86). 219* Cavaliers Horn-pipe Sc o t t i s h Hornpipe 220* A Boat, a Boat 2. Anon. P5[5]/l5/#23 P69/2V#38 [John P5[5]/7/#lk Jenkins A5/#39l PMB51/7, Jenkins; PCC52/71; PCC58; PCC63; PMC67; PMC72; PMC73; HVID66). 6 !ii J J JUiJi-W 2 i J J l <J-AiJ A A a aA 4 A A a a \ o ? - — « -— /"v. • k , 4= rf - i — — H - H 1 " r H - 1 CA ft ft ftftft C ft ft, 237 ---<r<> f. A G a < 6<Si 6* u) iJCJCid set < 0 CI 4 0 CM CM CM CM co VO «s o \ CM CO P« cd U •H 0 ) •H 3 3: &H H iH <J <H O ra >>-P o •-3 cd CO co « J5 cd O > > H O rH h> <i> o cd ON - - \ t-l $-|VO H d) r l ON « - N O - S V A CO Cd CV < THVO O H H CM H ^•H -^ 9J co C ON ••H (M Dl-P c n - p k \ cd JO VT\ CO «H <J W IH* CM O CM CM CO P4 o <D W Li O W >» cO JO Q) O o co a 00 I o o -cq c n o -.s p p . Y/N. -C^ NO \ v o CM P o K CM CM ON ON 00 CN. rH 00 o ON VO P , to co O S § o I CM O o -3-CM cn i i * n Put s s v H O O § cd U cd CO O-r H on ft •s cn rH on rH \ ON VO P r v n rH CO P r co a> o - p + » cd 2 •H -4-> 0 O Xi P S J5 •P co 44 O cd 3 I a> ra c o x : - p O ca H ft cn ja o ON 00 P« o -CM CM * CM CM CM cn CM CM - 3 " CM CM CM CM (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) . t i n g ) . 2. A8/#108, #114 (PMD66/#65, Matthew Locke; PPC72/#7, Matthew Locke; PPC8o/#7; PPC82/#7; William D'Avenant, Mackbeth, 1663). 226 Minuet 227 Saraband Anon. P82/4l/#55 2 J J j J j. Anon. P5[5]/2/#3 a ftC.ft. .. cvfc, fc, ,4- r-Jjr— ' " " V , /J"l If ro co * n *- 1 A \A / -O I * ' 4 1 4 228* Saraband John Moss P69/l09/#139 4 J . ) J J j>) j ! 229 A Corant John Moss P69/46/#67 Anon. P82/46/#62 «> OL C. . ft c I cx V* ex y> to ft ^ \<x~^ft I *-j J .>J> ).>>.)j> ftb b " l i p ? 6. Sixth (1). (2) (3) ( k ) (5) (6) (7) 230* Saraband John Withie P5[5]/66/#73 5 Saraband with P6l/82/#82 D i v i s i o n P69/117/#148 3. There are no di v i s i o n s i n P5[5]. 7. Seventh 231 Corant Anon. P5[5]/6/#12 1 Third Lesson with P69/l6/#28 2 a Thump Saraband P82/33/#45 1. A12/326 (Dtc/58, f e f h f ; a 2~0bl/ 3 k/#2, f e f h f ; Z5 /#17i A Snatch and away, f e f h f j 2nd pts.--0b/3V#2 and Z5/#17) • 'o3. P5[5] contains a varied repeat of the 2nd s t r a i n which P69. P82 and Z5 lack. 232 Come Jump to My Anon. P69/8/#l6 2 Cousin and Kiss Come Kiss Me My P82/8/#ll Sweet Kate J J - > J J J . > J m-Abo —?f\ ==Ft:: : z f rF — C -a—4--—4 iJ JiJ i AJ a A b » q =#: * 1 1 1 c A— 1~ J i J J J J J J J J->J 1 1 ^ F.C.ik. * V 2. Al/ 3 5 » 55 (NYpl / l3V#l63f Dumpe at my (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) cozen; Pcl/7l/#125» Jump at my cozen). 3. / A5/#660, Come jump at thy cousin and k i s s . B. Minor Mode 1. Tonic 233 Saraband William Lawes P5[5]/6V#70 P6l/86/#86 4: I S * l a r o o AM. 234 Corant 235* A J i g 236 J i g Anon. P6l/52/#69 John Esto P5[5]/53/#57 P6l/3V#44 P69/71/#100 Coleman P5[5]/73/#80 3 A i * i ft / a 9 e • • r-—K- g T T U ] 1 — T * CX CX Aft ex — - v - X 1 1 -1—4-— | i l 1 na 1) am _A C I E ; q.4 a EE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 237 Saraband Jenkins 1. A13 (Mp/l25/#28). P5l/2l/#24 P5[5]/45/#56 P6l/3l/#40 238* Corant George Hudson P5[5]/5V#58 P6l/38/#50 Anon. P69/6V#91 a. , 4 a A . ja. a c g . E3S J J . > J j.> 3 a . a . t .£,-£, flai 239* Farewel F a i r Armida [Robert P82/68/#17 Smith] 2. A5/#962i A15/#118, Digby's Farewell (PPC73. The E a r l of Sandwich Farewell; PAB87, The E a r l of Sandwich Farewell; P S A 7 3 / I O , Robert Smith). 240 The G a l i i a r d Anon. P69/57/#8l J J . J ) J J a ,446,,Ok era .acT^Z a , ^ l v -^"fe 4 : a o &-241 Saraband Anon. P5[5]/48/#59 Esto P6l/37/#48 Simon Ives P6l/50/#65 J J 1->J 1. A13 (Mp/l24/#26, Simon Ives). a b o-c-a c 1 frf* p-9 0 1 a a — 1 1 • ^ 1 --4- i (1) (2) (3) (4) 242 Corant John Moss P69/119/#150 243 Minuet Anon. P82/65/#l2 244 Saraband Corant Saraband Young Anon. William Young P5l/l9/#22 P5[5]/40/#50 P6l/2l/#28 P69/59/#84 P82/82/#32 1. A13 (Mp/I17/#13, Saraband, v a r . ) . 245 A Round 0 Anon. P82/68/#l6 246 Corant Christopher Simpson P6l/62/#82 (5) , (6) (7) a . — j — » 0 ft ft 1 — r • ) • / ««« V J r r H r^1 ) J J i J J J J > ro ro ft ~g~~~~ ft c o, ^ -6-9 %3- j f t _ 1 9 f A ft e. A . ft * ft a A . ft. ft. r —h 2-"-I 3 i — * © • & -ft L O-ro (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 247 Corant John Jenkins P6l/78/#77 5 J J J J J J . J i ]•) 248 A J i g William Gregory P5[5l/48/#60 3 P6l/47/#62 P69/78/#107 249* Prethe Love Turn to Me Anon. P69/55/#78 2. A15/#315 (PDM65. °n the Cold Ground, tre-ble vin.; PMD66, On the Cold Ground; PAB70/#138; William D'Avenant, The  Rivals. 1664, Act V). A C <\ C Q a, a £ a c a -A, free* { w : I J J j J U c U i J j e - t -W-r - r — i " P ' l * -0—t-CX £ — I ^- 4*4 ex C X a g C A CCA —C- C X — f * -LA 1—L. H M — 4-1— ro 250 The Queens Delight Anon. P69/56/#79 g . < \ X e . a g £ I cx *HT,li> 251 A'MerryHogh Anon. P5[5]/l5/#24 2 J. J . j j j J. -w—ex. p a P3- 9 -(1) (2) (3) (4) 252 Corant John Esto P69/73/#102 P82/78/#28 1. A13 (Mp/ll6/#ll). 253 Saraband John Esto P5[5]/53/#56 P6l/3V#^3 1. A13 (Mp/120/#18). 254 Ayre Charles Coleman P5[5]/75/#82 255 Saraband Jenkins P6l/53/#70 256 Saraband Anon. P6l/64/#82 P69/6l/#87 Simon Ives P82/86/#37 257 Saraband Esto P82/77/#27 (5) (6) (7) i J . ) 3 Uiii)->ii) f-f-f-j CX n fc+"> ___| H- -U J- 1_ i iJJ JJJ t* cA ± 3 = ro f A -t l> a . — f t * C ft -a t-A C A— —rrr ex 1 — £ r -h " H — 1 Aft AO. g C I ft. O T — / ^ y. ^ — _ji_c4 ftft c. ft f l I ex. J l.» J » J . ft a S^lcx ± a C.CA i s : (1) (2) (3) (k) 253 Corant William P6l/45/#59 Gregory 259 The Glory of Hackney Saraband Anon. P69/53/#75 P82/59/#k 260 Corant Jenkins P82/?l/#21 261 Corant Esto P82/8V#3k 262 Saraband Anon. John L i l l y P6l / 6 V#83 P69/62/#89 263* Saraband John Esto (5) (6) (7) 3 ) J 3 J J - > J J JiJ ft C,ft t> P i s a r.ft C ft 7 •» A. A. p , I 5 . <J L f »• J A. * c =fc " 3 ) J.» J> J.J>J ^ £. 1 & c n . 1 . d,^ „ — 1 r. I A / r _ « A ) — f t J.>J > J J *2t r A A f. J.> ft* ft - f t — _ } . «v ft c e . j j U J c ft/ J'> F-« /'ft c a CV A J . • —>J-- » 4 — ^ A ) J * A - . . A ft a A / A V» te a a, £ s ft ft <x * • ft • u ,-b-b-ft A. r ft A . A A (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 264 Saraband John Moss P69/120/#151 5 ft, ft I te C A , 265- A P o l l Simon Ives P6l/50/#66 266 Saraband William Lawes P6l/66[56]/#73 3 1. A13 (Mp/200-l/#5, Thomas Goodge or trulye Will[ia]m, Lawes, edfed). 267 Corant 268 Saraband William Lawes P5[5]/63/#69 P6l/85/#85 Coleman P5[5]/36/#48 P6l/29/#38 "7< 1 ft ? + ^ ^ - f3 4 ^ — A i ft c J )•> i J. > 4 * 5IJS ^ — * a ro O N , ft c. £ft Cft ft ( X * ft -b ft ft 0 9, ti 0 , 269 Saraband John Moss P69/87/#H6 ^ 1 ft Ax: ftJL (1) (2) (3) (4) 270 Corant Coleman P5[5]/35/#k7 P6l/28/#37 271 Saraband Anon. P6l/ k7/#6l William Gregory P69/77/#107 See T# 298 P69/6V#92 2. Third 272 Corant. Anon. P5[5]/65/#72 John Withie P6l/8l/#[8lA] P69/il6/#l k7" 1. A13 (Mp/163/#17). 273 Saraband - Esto P82/85/#36 (5) (6) (7) 3 > i i U '"' -1 1 *-An 1 I P ' 1 1 1 , J J J J - J a. t ft C \' V <* t 1° J * ft • -4-1 . A A — A . f l f t . v — 5 . A c.  . rf-f i 3 J i i J - 9 — . a c . J—*) J — ^ a C ft-i •a. I> i f f If! % A. 1 ft • r CD (2) (3) (4) 274 Saraband John Esto P69/7l/#99 275 Saraband Christopher P6l/63/#82 Simpson 276 Corant William Lawes P6l/55/#72 1. A13 (Mp/l99/#3» Roger Read or trulye W i l l [ i a j m Lawes, edfed). 277 Saraband John Jenkins P6l/79/#79 See T# 270 P6l/28/#37 278* Corant William Lawes P5[5]/62/#68 P6l / 8 V#84 (5) (6) (7) J<JJ iJ J » <U l a 1 C A d f t t rrrr 1 b \ j C 1 $ ^ 3 c c c >• <xi cx 1 e.1 ^ U>J.JJ.}J.J.> ro — 00 a . C £ o \ a l t A ft 1. j J J J J a i J . J J-> a c " £ 3 ^ > J;>Ji i J. . / , ftC. , £ C C V , x : fll-| rll.ffttTflT (1) (2) (3) (4) 279 Corant John Esto P69/70/#98 3. F i f t h 280* Saraband Christopher P6l/89/#89 S impson 1. A13(Mp/l65/#20). 281 Corant Jenkins P6l/78/#78 282 Saraband Charles Coleman P5[5]/38/#51 P6l/18/#25 P69/50/#72 P82/58/#3 1. A17/102 ( l A u c / l v ; 0b3/l91 v» anon.). 3. Dodd states i n c o r r e c t l y that T# 282 appears i n IAuc/2 r and 21**; see A7/#P78. (5) (6) (7) J J . > J J . > | > C C Q l i l J J i l J J A „ ft 4 i s t )A.i.> ).)«}. 1 r o L. fit < £====? 3_ 21 r 3 )•' )•>; j f. g £ SBL. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 283 Saraband 284 Ayre Jenkins P82/70/#19 Anon. P5[5]/73/#79 3 .ft ft .-4- 4.AJ-L a. b_A-e e Lft i<\ o> A > j i. > j i. > .4- . . . ,A .A_b-f.gft 285 Corant J . Esto P6l/36/#47 t ft 4 r*V-fc 1 M i 1 J-i C L C C ft. w 1 -—5 * — 286* Corant William Gregory P6l/46/#60 P69/76/#106 287 La Vinione Coranto l a Vinione Will[iam] Paget Anon. La Viviuone [ s i c ] 3 . P5l/22/#26 P5[5]/60/#66 P6l/23/#32 P69/52/#74 P82/6o/#6 P82 lacks a varied repeat of the 2nd s t r a i n contained i n the four previous e d i t i o n s . 3 J J . J J . J j j . i C ft 3 iJJJJ.>JJJ J ft-. ft— ft-, ft C ft  £ c a a • 9 1 1—1 ft— » — 1 C\ a. \ * — 1 = H (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 288* Corant Simon Ives 1. A13 (Mp/l22-3/#23). 289 Corant John Esto 290 Corant Esto 1. A7/#P295 (Ob3/78 v). P5[5]A7/#58 P6i/49/#44[64] 3 >•> J . J . U»Ji P6l/92/#93 P69/ll3/#l k3 P82/75/#25 e, Ac A -A3 iftC<i c n .a .ftC . f-.-fV —i-ft ft ATT Ok f. 1 _ J U i i J i . J . 1 7 291 Saraband Anon. P69/60/#85 P82/62/#8 J J J J J J 292 Saraband 293 A Corant John Withie P6l/6o/#78 P69/80/#109 Coleman P5l/l7/#20 John Jenkins P69/82/#lll 1. A13 (Mp/I17/#12, Charles Coleman). i i i J i i ft at t I A &~ V? A i ft (1) (2) (3) ( k) 294 Saraband John Esto - P6l/92/#9k P69 / l l V # l k k 1. A13 (Mp/162/#15). 295 A Corant John Moss P69/86/#115 296 Minvet Anon. P82/66/#13 297 Corant John Jenkins P5[5]A3/#5 k P6l/25/#33 P69/8V#U3 298* Saraband George Hudson ?5[5']/55/#59 P6l/39/#51 P69/64/#92 See T# 256 P82/86/#37 (5) (6) (7) -a \ | A c A c A r ft ft 9 * * ft " * A C £ 4-^ ft?! 9-, H -' 4+ -ft % f- ?- n . M-H : 1 , r J J J J.) ro ro ft* £ 4 n to . 9 *. a T T e r * h f - / ~ * n rh ^ 8*1 \ -jr\ -4 J J . J . J i J ' J . J • ft.A ,-&fie* ,J- A j b T A Z 1 A _ A C fi—• o > 2! 3 J J . H l i i i J - f t 7 g ~ J J i t«J^  - f t A •Aft - f t . A _ 2X a : ( i ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 4. Seventh 299 Theater Tune Anon. P82/66/#l4 5 X A t : ro APPENDIX IV TABLES OF CONTENTS Introduction This appendix presents tables of contents f o r the l y r a v i o l portion of A M u s i c a l l Banquet (1651) and f o r a l l the music i n Musicks Recreation (l65[5] through 1682). For each piece i n every e d i t i o n , the following information i s given» Column 1 Thematic number, 2 Location (page and composition number) i n the p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n , 3 T i t l e , i n the p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n , k Composer a s c r i p t i o n ( i f any) i n the p a r t i c u l a r e d i t i o n ; i f the composer's name was discovered i n one of Playford's other l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , i t appears i n parentheses; i f a further, con-f l i c t i n g , a s c r i p t i o n was discovered i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s , t h i s appears i n brackets. 5 Tuning, according to the following codei Number Chart Name  1 f e f h f Lyra Way 2 defhf Harp Way Sharp 3 edfhf Harp Way F l a t 4 fdefh High Harp Way Sharp 5 fedfh High Harp Way F l a t 6 fhn Bagpipe Tuning 6-9 Location i n the other four Playford l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Parentheses and square brackets used i n these columns correlate the information i n column 4 with the e d i t i o n from which i t was taken. 254 APPENDIX I V TABLES OF CONTENTS T# P./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g l65[5] 1661 1669 1682 A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t (1651) 50* 209 149 67* 76* 60 17 198* 154 63* . 54 68 66 217 131 3 129 190 21 293 90 244 125 237 103* 287 l / l 1/2 2/3 3 /4 4/5 5 /6 6 /7 6 /8 7 /9 8 /10 8 /11 10 /12 11/13 12 /14 12/15 13/16 14 /17 15/18 16/19 17/20 18 /21 19 /22 20/23 2 1 / 2 4 22/25 2 2 / 2 6 A n A l l m a i n e B l e w Cap S t e p S t a t e l y A L a Mode de F r a n c e When the K [ i n g ] E n j o y e s & c . P F r i n c e ] R u p e r t s M a r c h P [ ] r i n c e J R u p e r t s M o r r i s O v e r the M o u n t a i n e s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S a r a b a n d • • 1 A Symphony (Coleman) 2 N i g h t e n g a l e • • 2 Bow B e l l s • • 1 A n A l l m a i n e ( S i m o n I v e s ) 2 C o r a n t o ( S i m o n I v e s ) 2 S a r aband (S imon I v e s ) 2 A n A l l m a n George Hudson 2 S a r a b a n d G e o T r g e ] Hudson 2 None S h a l l P l u n d e r 2 b u t I G l o r y o f t he West 3 A C o r a n t o Coleman 3 A l l m a i n e Young 3 S a r a b a n d Young 3 A y r e J e n k i n s 3 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s 3 A n A l l m a i n L i l l y 3 L a V i n i o n e W i l l [ i a m ] P a g e t 3 17/26 5/9 V> 4/8 V 7 2/4 9/17 14/22 20/28 21/29 21/30 26/36 27/37 13/21 8/15 39/52 40/50 44/55 45/56 41/52 60/66 1/1 3/6 2/3 16/22 ( 8 / 1 0 ) ( 9 / 1 1 ) ( 9 / 1 2 ) 12 /17 13 /18 20/27 21/28 30/39 31/40 19/26 23/32 15/26 3/5 3/6 4/8 2 / 3 8/15 2 2 / 3 5 2 4 / 3 9 ( 2 8 / 4 3 ) (29 /44) (29 /45) 3 3 / 4 9 34/50 12 /21 5 4 / 7 6 8 2 / 1 1 1 5 8 / 8 3 5 9 / 8 4 62/88 52/74 32/44 7/10 4/6 3 /4 (l6/[23]) 12/18 • • 30/40 31/41 31/42 26/37 49/66 8 1 / 3 1 82/32 73/23 60/6 APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d p . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 165C5] 1661 1669 1682 96* 24/ 27 C o l o n e l G e r a r d s Tune 3 40/51 21/29 54/77 59/5 M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l65f5l) 1651 1661 1669 1682 59 212 227 198* 149 171 76* 67* 209 135 62 231 70 220* 21 26 63* 197* 146* 216 190 54 l / l 1/2 2 / 3 2 / 4 4 / 7 4 / 8 5 /9 5/10 6/11 6/12 7 /13 7 /14 8/15 8/16 9 /17 10 /18 11 /19 1 2 / 2 0 . 13 /21 14 /22 May Time 1 • • S a r a b a n d 1 S a r a b a n d 1 • • O v e r the M o u n t a i n e s 1 6 /8 S t e p S t a t e l y 1 2 / 3 I r i s h R a n t 1 The K [ i n g ] E n j o y e s & c . 1 4/5 A L a Mode d ' F r a n c e 1 3/4 B l e w Cap 1 1/2 Roome f o r C u c k o l d s 1 • • A P i l l t o Purge 1 • • M e l a n c h o l y C o r a n t o 1 • • G a t h e r Y o u r Rosebuds 1 t t A B o a t , a B o a t 1 * • G l o r y o f the West 1 16 /19 G l o r y o f t he N o r t h 1 • • Simphony (Coleman) 2 8/10 C o u n t r e y C o l l W i l l i a m Lawes 2 t • A J i g g e W i l l i a m Lawes 2 • • L e s l e y e s M a r c h ' 2 • • None S h a l l P l u n d e r 2 15/18 b u t I N i g h t i n g a l e 2 8/11 2/3 3 /6 9 6 / 9 9 16/22 1/2 * • 2/3 4/8 3/6 3/5 16 /28 • * 5 4 / 7 6 2 2 / 3 5 10/19 12 /21 2 4 / 3 9 2/2 t o ON 4/6 7/10 33/45 (l6/[23]> 12 /18 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# p./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 1661 1669 1682 219* 15/23 C a v a l i e r s H o r n p i p e 2 • • • a 24/38 • a 251 15/24 A M e r r y Hogh 2 • • • a a a a a 161* 16/25 P o r t e r s R a n t 2 • • 3/5 6/11 6/9 50* 17 /26 The Thumping Almane 2 1/1 1/1 15/26 32/44 203 17 /26QA] C h i c o n a S imon I v e s 2 • a 11/16 a a a a 10* 18/27 P r e l u d i u m S imon I v e s 2 • • 6/9 a a 28/39 66 2 0 / 2 8 Almane (S imon I v e s ) 2 11/13 8/10 (28/43) 30/40 217 21/29 C o r a n t o (S imon I v e s ) 2 12 /14 (9 /11) (29/44) 31/41 131 21/30 S a r a b a n d (S imon I v e s ) 2 12/15 (9 /12) (29/45) 31/42 174 2 2 / 3 1 C o r a n t o S imon I v e s 2 • • • * a a a a 167* 23/32 C o r a n t o S imon I v e s 2 5/8 • a 24/34 a • 12 24/33 A y r e S imon I v e s , J u n i o r 2 • • 14/20 a a a a 169 24/34 C o r a n t o S i m o n I v e s 2 14/21 • a a a 189 '25/35 S a r a b a n d S i m o n I v e s , J u n i o r 2 • • 15/19 27/42 25/36 3 26/36 A y r e (George H u d s o n ) / [ S i m o n I v e s ] 2 (13/16) ( 1 2 / 1 7 ) 33/49 [26/37] 129 27/37 S a r a b a n d (George Hudson ; 2 ( 1 4 / 1 7 ) (13 /18) (34/50) 49/66 29 2 8 / 3 8 Maydens R a n t 2 a a 7 /14 55/75 187 28/39 C a n a r i e s 2 a a a a a a 56 29/40 The A p o l l o 2 • • a a • a 211 29/41 L a C l o c h e (S imon I v e s ) 2 ( 1 1 / 1 5 ) 16/27 34/47 46 30/42 Almane Coleman 2 a a a a a a 137 31/43 C o r a n t o Coleman 2 a a a a a a 224 32/44 S a r a b a n d Coleman 2 • a a a a a 95 33/45 P r e l u d i u m Coleman 3 17/23 49/70 57/1 122 34/46 Almane Coleman 3 28/36 • • a • 270 35/47 •Coran to Coleman 3 28/37 a « • « 268 36/48 S a r a b a n d Coleman 3 29/38 a a a a 113* 36/49 Almane w i t h Coleman 3 a a • • a • D i v i s i o n APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d T# 1 P - / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 1661 1669 1682 127 38/50 A y r e ( C o l e m a n ) / 3 J e n k i n s ] 282 38/51 S a r a b a n d Coleman 3 90 39/52 Almane Young 3 2 4 4 4 0/50 S a r a b a n d Young 3 96* 4 0 / 5 1 G e r a r d s M i s t r i s s e 3 103* 41/52 A n A l i m a i n J o h n L i l l i e / 3 ( J e n k i n s ) 123* 4 2/53 Almane J e n k i n s 3 297 43/54 C o r a n t o J e n k i n s 3 125 44/55 A y r e J e n k i n s 3 '237 45/56 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s 3 85 4 6/57 C o u n t e s s e o f S imon I v e s 3 E x e t e r s Almane 288* 47/58 C o r a n t o S imon I v e s 3 2 4 1 4 8/59 S a r a b a n d ( E s t o ) / [ l v e s ] 3 2 4 8 48/60 A J i g g e W i l l [ i a m ] G r e g o r y 3 80 49/52 Almane Jo hn E s t o 3 102 50/53 Almane w i t h . * Jo _hn~ E s t o 3 D i v i s i o n 263* 51/54 S a r a b a n d J o [ h n ] E s t o 3 88 52/55 Almane E s t o 3 253 53/56 S a r a b a n d Jo "hn" E s t o 3 235* 53/57 A J i g g Jo _hn" E s t o 3 91* 54/57 Almane George Vi .udson 3 238 54/58 C o r a n t o a . Hudson 3 298* 55/59 S a r a b a n d G. Hudson 3 4 8 56/60 Almane George Hudson 3 199 56/61 C o r a n t o George Hudson 3 172 57/62 S a r a b a n d G . Hudson 3 18/21 19/22 24/27 22/25 2 0/23 2 1 / 2 4 1 8 / 2 4 [ 2 2 / 3 1 ] 18/25 2 0/27 2 1 / 2 8 21/29 1 9 / 2 6 24/32 25 / 3 3 30 / 3 9 31/ 4 0 4 8/63 4 9 / 4 4 [ 6 4 ] ( 3 7 / 4 8 ^ [ 5 0 / 6 5 ] 4 7 / 6 2 32/ 4 1 2 6 / 3 4 27 / 3 5 3 4 / 4 3 3 4 / 4 4 3 8 / 4 9 38/50 31/51 40/52 40/[52A] 4 1 / 5 3 (50/71) (58/2) 50/72 5 8 / 8 3 5 9 / 8 4 5 4/77 62 / 8 8 80/110 84/113 78/107 68/96 72/101 71/100 63/90 6 4/91 64/92 58/3 81/31 82/32 59/5 (73/23) ro VjN 00 7 4 / 2 4 76/26 74/103 79/29 86/38 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# p . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 166-1 I669 1682 34 58/63 A y r e Tho _mas_ B a t e s 3 208 5 8 / 6 4 C o r a n t o Tho _mas_ B a t e s 3 186 5 9 / 6 5 C o u n t r e y Dance Tho mas B a t e s 3 287 60/66 C o r a n t o L a V i n i o n e (W i l l i a m 3 P a g e t ) 111 61/67 Almane W i l l i a m Lawes 5 278* 6 2 / 6 8 C o r a n t o W i l l i a m Lawes 5 267 63/69 C o r a n t o W i l l i a m Lawes 5 233 64/70 S a r a b a n d W i l l i a m Lawes 5 77 6 5 / 7 1 Almane J W i t h i e 5 272 65/72 C o r a n t o ( J o h n W i t h i e ) 5 230* 66/73 S a r a b a n d J o h n W i t h i e 5 33 6 6 / 7 4 Almane Jo hn J e n k i n s 4 11* 6 8 / 7 5 Almane Jo hn" J e n k i n s 4 162 70/76 C o r a n t o J e n k i n s 4 145 7 1 / 7 7 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s 4 138 72 /78 A J i g g e S imon I v e s 4 284 7 3 / 7 9 A y r e • a 3 236 73 /80 J i g g e Coleman 3 116 74 /81 A y r e Coleman 3 254 75 /82 A y r e C h a r l e s Coleman 3 93 7 6 / 8 3 M o r r i s Coleman 3 107* 7 6 / 8 4 A y r e S imon I v e s 3 191 7 7 / 8 5 G i l l i - f l o w e r S i m o n I v e s 2 39 77 /86 B r a n g l e D e v i l a g e • • "2" 65 7 8 / 8 7 A y r e A y l w a r d "2" 142* 79 /88 S a r a b a n d a a "2" 158 8 0 / 8 9 S i m o n the K i n g a a 6 (22/26) 42/54 42/55 43/56 23/32 83/83 8 4 / 8 4 8 5 / 8 5 8 6 / 8 6 81 /81 ( 8 l / [ 8 1 A ] ) 82 /82 70/88 6 6 / 8 5 68 /86 69/87 65/93 66/94 67/95 52/74 115/146 (116/147) 117 /148 94/122 90/119 92/120 93/121 10 /13 1 0 / 1 4 93/95 23/37 20/32 8 7 / 3 9 8 8 / 4 0 60/6 2 7 / 2 8 [ 3 8 ] 9 /13 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d p . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 •165C5] 1669 1682 M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n ( l 6 6 l ) 50* 1/1 A l m a i n • • 2 201 1/2 S a r a b a n d • « 2 76* 2/3 When the K i n g E n j o y s , E t c . 2 182 2 /4 V i v e l a y Roy • • 2 161* 3/5 New R a n t • • 2 67* 3/6 A L a Mode d ' F r a n c e • • 2 41* 4/7 A Masque S i m o n I v e s 2 167* 5/8 C o r a n t S i m o n I v e s 2 10* 6/9 P r e l u d i u m S . I v e s 2 66 8/10 A l m a i n e S i m o n I v e s 2 217 9/11 C o r a n t o S imon I v e s 2 131 9/12 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s 2 191 10/13 G i l l i e - F l o w e r S imon I v e s 2 39 10/14 B r a n g l e D e v i l a g e • • 2 211 11/15 L a C l o c h e S i m o n I v e s 2 203 11/16 C h i c o n a S imon I v e s 2 3 12/17 A l m a i n e George H u d s o n / 2 (S imon I v e s ) 129 13/18 S a r a b a n d George Hudson 2 12 14/20 A y r e S imon I v e s , J u n i o r 2 I69 14/21 C o r a n t o S i m o n I v e s , J u n i o r 2 189 15/19 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s , J u n i o r 2 63* 16/22 A Symphony (Coleman) 2 95 17/23 P r e l u d i u m C h a r l e s Co leman 3 1/1 4/5 3A 11/13 12/14 12/15 13/16 14 /17 • • 8/10 17/26 4/7 16/25 4/8 23/32 18/27 20/28 21/29 21/30 77/85 77/86 29/4l r _ 17/26[A] 26/36 27/37 24/33 24/34 25/35 9/17 33/45 15 /26 2 / 4 4 / 8 5 /9 6 /11 3 /6 2 6 / 4 0 28/43 29/44 29/45 23/37 20/32 16/27 33/49 34/50 27/42 22/35 49/70 32/44 8/12 4/6 3/5 6/9 7/10 23/33 24/34 28/39 30/40 31/41 31/42 27/28[38] 9/13 34/47 (26/37) 49/66 25/36 (l6/[23]) 57/1 APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d P - / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1 6 5 1 165C5] 1669 1 6 8 2 127 1 8 / 2 4 1 A y r e (Coleman) 3 • • 38/50 (50 / 7 1 ) ( 5 8/2) 2 8 2 18/25 S a r a b a n d Coleman 3 • • 3 8 / 5 1 50/72 5 8/3 103* 1 9 / 2 6 A [ n A l i m a i n ] J o h n L i l l y / 3 22/25 41/52 62/88 ( 7 3/23) ( J e n k i n s ) 90 2 0/27 A l m a i n e Young 3 1 8 / 2 1 39/52 5 8 / 8 3 8 1 / 3 1 2 4 4 2 1 / 2 8 S a r a b a n d Young 3 19/22 40/50 5 9 / 8 4 82/32 96* 2 1/29 G e r a r d s M i s t r e s s e 3 c , 2 4/27 40/ 5 1 5 4/77 5 9/5 1 2 1 22/30 Ayre . . J e n k i n s 3 .„ • t • • • • § • 127 22/31 A y r e J e n k i n s / 3 38/50 • » (50 / 7 1 ) ( 5 8/2) (Coleman) 2 8 7 23/32 C o r a n t o L a V i n i o n e ( W i l l i a m P a g e t ) 3 (22/26) 60/66 52 / 7 4 6 0/6 ' 123* 24/32 . A l m a i n e J e n k i n s 3 • • 4 2 / 5 3 8 0 / 1 1 0 • * 297 25/33 C o r a n t o J e n k i n s 3 t • 4 3 / 5 4 8 4 / 1 1 3 * « 1 0 2 2 6 / 3 4 Almane w i t h D i v i s i o n J o [ h n ] E s t o 3 • • 50 / 5 3 72 / 1 0 1 76/26 263* 27 / 3 5 S a r a b a n d J o [ h n ] E s t o 3 51 / 5 4 74/103 79/29 1 2 2 28/36 A l m a i n e Coleman 3 • • 3 4 / 4 6 270 2 8 / 3 7 C o r a n t o Coleman 3 • • 3 5 / 4 7 2 6 8 29/38 S a r a b a n d Co leman 3 • • 3 6 / 4 8 125 30 / 3 9 A y r e J e n k i n s 3 20/23 44/55 237 31/40 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s 3 2 1 / 2 4 4 5 / 5 6 68/96 7 4 / 2 4 8 0 32/ 4 1 A l m a i n e J o [ h n ] J e n k i n s 3 • • 49/52 •••Note t h a t P61 /18 /24 and P61/22/31 a re the same p i e c e (T#127) and t h a t i n the v a r i o u s l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s t h i s p i e c e i s sometimes a s c r i b e d t o Coleman and somet imes t o J e n k i n s . APPENDIX IV--Continued T# p./# T i t l e Composer Tuning 1651 165[5] 1669 1682 88 253 235* 115 79 285 241 91 238* 298* 48 199 172 34 208 186 105* 86* 258 286* 271 248 85 33/42 34/43 34/44 35/45 36/46 36/47 37/48 38/49 38/50 39/51 40/52 40/L52A] 41/53 ' 42/54 42/55 43/56 44/57 44/58. 45/59 46/60 -47/61 47/62 48/63 Almaine Saraband A J i g g Almaine Almaine Coranto , Saraband' Almane Coranto Saraband Almane Coranto Saraband Ayre Coranto Countrey Dance Almaine Ayre Coranto Coranto Saraband A J i g g Jo_hn_ Esto Jo_hn_ Esto J o h n " Esto Jo_hn~ Esto Jo[hnJ Esto J . Esto Esto George Hudson George Hudson George Hudson George Hudson George Hudson George Hudson Tho Tho Tho mas mas mas Bates Bates Bates 288* 49/44[64] The Countess of Exeters Almaine Coranto W. Gregory W i l i r i a m ] Gregory W i l l [ i a m J Gregory W. Gregory ( W i l l i a m Gregory) W i l l i a m Gregory S imon Ive s Simon Ives 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 52/55 53/56 53/57 48/59 54/57 54/58 55/59 56/60 56/61 57/62 58/63 58/64 59/65 48/60 46/57 47/58 71/100 63/90 64/91 64/92 65/93 66/94 67/95 75/104 76/106 (77/107) 78/107 86/38 ro CN ro 87/39 88/40 Note t h a t P61/37/48 and P61/50/65 are the same piece (T#24l) and that i t i s v a r i o u s l y a t t r i b u t e d to John Esto and Simon Ives. APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d T# P . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165C5] 1669 1682 241 265 81 92 267 255 112 276 266 104 101 124 108 292 84 126 246 275 256 262 1 11 162 145 33 45 50/65 50/66 51/67 52/68 52/69 53/70 t 45L54]/71 55/72 t 66L56]/73 57/74 58/75 59/75[76] 60/77 60/78 61/79 6 2 / 8 1 62/82 63/82 6 4 / 8 2 64/83 65/84 66/85 68/86 69/87 70/88 71/89 S a r a b a n d ^ A P o [ l ] A l m a i n e A l m a i n e C o r a n t o S a r a b a n d A l m a i n e C o r a n t o S a r a b a n d P r e l u d i u m A l m a i n e A l m a i n e A R a n t S a r a b a n d A l m a i n e A l m a i n e C o r a n t o S a r a b a n d S a r a b a n d S a r a b a n d A y r e A l m a i n e C o r a n t o S a r a b a n d A l m a i n A y r e S imon I v e s S imon I v e s J o [ h n ] J e n k i n s J e n k i n s • • J e n k i n s W i l l i a m Lawes W i l l i a m Lawes W i l l i a m Lawes J o h n W i t h i e J o h n W i t h i e J o h n W i t h i e J o h n W i t h i e J o h n W i t h i e G o t e r C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n C h r [ i s t o p h e r ] S i m p s o n S imon Ives_ _John L i l l y _ W i l l i a m Young J o h n J e n k i n s J e n k i n s J e n k i n s J o h n J e n k i n s J o h n J e n k i n s 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 48/59 83/112 72/22 68/75 70/76 71/77 66/74 1 t 79/108 80/109 • • 61/87 [62/89] 90/119 92/120 93/121 94/122 [86/37] See n o t e 2. APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d T# P - / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 1*515^ 1669 1682 133 7 2 / 90 C o r a n t o J o h n J e n k i n s 4 177* 7 2 /91 t S a r a b a n d J o h n J e n k i n s 4 36 • • 6 5 [ 7 2 ] / A y r e J o h n J e n k i n s 4 8 4 [ 9 2 ] 5 7 4 / 9 3 A y r e J o h n J e n k i n s 4 173 7 5 / 9 k S a r a b a n d J o h n J e n k i n s 4 1 0 9 * 7 6 / 7 5 A y r e J e n k i n s 5 128 7 7 /76 A l m a i n J o h n J e n k i n s 5 247 78/ 7 7 C o r a n t o J o h n J e n k i n s 5 281 78 /78 C o r a n t o J e n k i n s 5 277 7 9 / 7 9 S a r a b a n d J o h n J e n k i n s 5 8 3 * 9 0 [ 8 0 ] / fin A y r e J o h n W i t h i e 5 77 ou 8 1 / 8 1 A l m a i n e J o h n W i t h i e 5 272 8 1 / [ 8 1 A ] C o r a n t o J o h n W i t h i e 5 2 3 0 * 82 /82 S a r a b a n d w i t h J o h n W i t h i e 5 D i v i s i o n 111 8 3 / 8 3 A l m a i n e W i l l i a m Lawes 5 2 7 8 * 8 4 / 8 4 C o r a n t o W i l l i a m Lawes 5 267 8 5 / 8 5 C o r a n t o W i l l i a m Lawes 5 233 8 6 / 8 6 S a r a b a n d W i l l i a m Lawes 5 118 8 7 / 8 7 P r e l u d i u m C h r i s t o p h e r 5 8 8 / 8 8 S i m p s o n 9 4 * A l m a i n e C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n 5 280* 8 9 / 8 9 S a r a b a n d C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n 5 196 9 0 / 9 0 S a r a b a n d C h r [ i s t o p h e r ] 5 9 0 / 9 1 S impson 82 A l m a i n e J . E s t o 5 119 91/ 9 2 A l m a i n J . E s t o 5 290 9 2 / 9 3 C o r a n t o J . E s t o 5 65/71 6 5 / 7 2 66/73 61/67 6 2 / 6 8 63/69 64/70 114 /145 115/146 116/147 117/148 [ l l l ] / l 4 l 112/142 I I 3 / 1 4 3 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# p . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1669 1682 294 92/94 S a r a b a n d J . E s t o 5 • • 1 1 4 / 1 4 4 158 93/95 Simon the K i n g 6 80/89 218 93/96 The Boatman 6 • • 213 94/97 I Have Been a P i p e r 6 • • 134 95/98 Hunt I s Up 6 • • 135 96/99 Room f o r C u c k o l d s 6 5/10 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1669) 74 1/1 A S h o r t P r e l u d e 2 t • • • • t • • 59 1/2 M a y i n g Time 2 • • • • 2/2 198* 2/3 Over the M o u n t a i n s 2 6/8 2/4 • * 201 2/4 S a r a b a n d 2 • • • • 1/2 8/12 209 3/5 B l e w - C a p 2 1/2 5/9 • • 67* 3/6 A L a Mode d ' F r a n c e 2 3/4 4/8 3/6 7/10 168 4/7 P a r t h e n i a 2 • • • • 10/14 76* 4/8 The K i n g E n j o y e s H i s 2 4/5 4/7 2/3 4/6 . Own 182 5/9 V i v e l a Roy 2 . . 2/4 3/5 185 5/10 The K i n g s D e l i g h t 2 • • 4/7 161* 6/11 F i l l . P o r t e r ' s R a n t 2 16/25 3/5 6/9 130 6/12 The S i m e r o n s Dance 2 • • 5/8 225 7/13 . A Dance i n M a k b e t h 2 • * • • 10/15 29 7 /14 The M a i d s R a n t 2 28/38 • • 55/75 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# p . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 154 8/15 A S a r a b a n d 232 8/16 Come Jump t o My C o u s i n and K i s s 164 9/17 The S c o t s M a r c h 170 10/18 G r e e n - G o o s e F a i r 216 10/19 L e s h l e y ' s M a r c h 40 11/20 The P l e a s a n t Dream 190 12/21 P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s M a r c h 210 12/22 M o n t r o s s e s M a r c h 163 13/23 F r a n k l i n 52 1 4 / 2 4 The P r i n c e o f C o n d i e ' s M a r c h 37 14/25 T o l l , T o l l , G e n t l e B e l l , & c . 50* 15/26 F i r s t L e s s o n , w i t h a 16/27 Thump 211 Second L e s s o n , w i t h 16/28 a .Thump 231 T h i r d L e s s o n , w i t h 17/29 a Thump 16 F o u r t h L e s s o n , w i t h a Thump 159 18/30 The M e r r y M i l k - M a i d 180 19/31 F o l l o w Me K a t e 39 20/32 A F r e n c h A y r 49 20/33 A P r e l u d e 47 21/34 A n A y r 63* 22/35 A Symphony (Co 188 22/36 A S a r a b a n d (Co 191 23/37 The G i l l y - F l o w e r (S imon I v e s ] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7/9 15/18 1/1 • • 8/10 12/20 13/21 17/26 1/1 [29 /41] [11/15] 6/12 77/86 • a a a 9/17 (77/85) 10/14 a a 16/22 (10/13) ro O N O N 3/4 8/11 12/17 a • 2/3 a a a a 44/60 • a a a 32/44 34/47 33/45 34/46 a a 9/13 43/58 (l6/[2 3]) (17 /24) (27/[38]) APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# P - / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 219* 24/38 S c o t t i s h H o r n p i p e 2 54 24/39 The N i g h t e n g a l e 2 41* 26/40 The Queens Mask S imon I v e s 2 206 26/41 C o r a n t I v e s 2 189 27/42 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s 2 66 28/43 A l m a i n S imon I v e s 2 217 29/44 C o r a n t S i m o n I v e s 2 131 29/45 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s 2 8 30/46 A n A y r George Hudson 2 35 31/47 A n A l m a i n George Hudson 2 151 32/48 S a r a b a n d George Hudson 2 3 33A9 A n A l m a i n George H u d s o n / 2 (S imon I v e s ) 129 3 V 5 0 S a r a b a n d George Hudson 2 53* 35/51 •• A n A y r W i l l i a m G r e g o r y 2 153 36/52 C o r a n t W. G r e g o r y 2 175 36/53 S a r a b a n d W i l l [ i a m ] G r e g o r y 2 7 37/54 A l m a i n J o h n E s t o 2 178* 38/55 S a r a b a n d J o h n E s t o 2 44 39/56 A n A y r S imon I v e s 2 157 39/57 C o r a n t S i m o n I v e s 2 144 40/58 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s 2 2o 40/59 A J i g S imon I v e s 2 55 4 l /6o A n A y r George Hudson 2 181 • 4 1 / 6 1 S a r a b a n d George Hudson 2 24 42/62 A l m a i n George Hudson 2 183 43/63 S a r a b a n d • • 2 193 43/64 A J i g • • 2 28 44/65 P r e l u d i u m J o h n Moss 2 72 45/66 A l m a i n J o h n Moss 2 229 46/67 A C o r a n t J o h n Moss 2 8/11 11/13 12/14 12/15 13/16 14/17 15/23 14 /22 25/35. 20/28 21/29 21/31 26/36 27/37 4/7 15/19 8/10 9/11 9/12 12/17 13/18 12/18 23/33 25/35 25/36 30/40 31/41 31/42 48/65 (26/37) 49/66 45/61 46/62 APPENDIX IV--Continued T# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 192 31 95 127 282 100* 287 259 21 96* " 249* 250 27* 240 147 90 244 291 114* 256 103* 262 91* 238* 298* 34 208 47/68 48/69 49/70 50/71 50/72 51/73 52/74 53/75 54/76 54/77 55/78 56/79 56/80 57/81 58/82 58/83 59/84 60/85 60/86 61/87 62/88 62/89 63/90 64/91 64/92 65/93 66/94 A S a r a b a n d A J i g A P r e l u d e A y r J o h n Moss J o h n Moss C h a r r l e s ] Co leman ChaLrlesI Co lemar / ( J e n k i n s ) S a r a b a n d C h a [ r l e s ] Coleman The I t a l i a n R a n t C o r a n t L a v i n i o n ( W i l l [ i a m ] P a g e t ) The G l o r y o f Hackney The G l o r y o f the West G e r a r d ' s M i s t r e s s P r e t h e Love T u r n t o Me The Queens D e l i g h t The New F i g g a r y The G a l l i a r d The M i r t l e Grove A l m a i n C o r a n t S a r a b a n d A y r S a r a b a n d A y r S a r a b a n d A y r C o r a n t S a r a b a n d A y r C o r a n t W i l l i a m Young ( W i l l i a m Young) S i m o n I v e s (S imon I v e s ) J o h n L i l l y / ( J e n k i n s ) J o h n L i l l y George Hudson (George Hudson) George Hudson Thomas B a t e s Thomas B a t e s 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (22/26) 16/19 24/27 18/21 (19/22) 22/25 33/45 38/50 38/51 60/66 8/15 40/51 39/52 (40/50) 41/52 54/57 (54/58) 55/59 58/63 58/64 17/23 18/24 £ 22/31) 18/25" 23/32 21/29 20/27 (21/28) 64/82 19/26 64/83 38/49 (38/50) 39/51 42/54 42/55 46/63 57/i 58/2 58/3 60/6 59/4 59/5 • • 61/7 81/31 (82/32) 62/8 84/35 (86/37) (73/23) 86/38 87/39 CN CO APPENDIX IV—C o n t i n u e d P./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 186 67/95 A C o u n t r e y Dance Thomas B a t e s 3 80 68/96 A l m a i n J o h n E s t o 3 117 69/97 A l m a i n J o h n E s t o 3 279 70/98 C o r a n t J o h n E s t o 3 274 71/99 S a r a b a n d J o h n E s t o 3 235* 71/100 A J i g J o h n E s t o 3 102 72/101 A n A y r J o h n E s t o 3 252 73/102 C o r a n t J o h n E s t o 3 262* 74/103 S a r a b a n d J o h n E s t o 3 105* 75/104 A l m a i n W i l l i a m G r e g o r y 3 286* 76/106 C o r a n t W i l l i a m G r e g o r y 3 271 77/107 S a r a b a n d W i l l i a m G r e g o r y 3 248 78/107 J A J i g W i l l i a m G r e g o r y 3 101 79/108 A l m a i n J o h n W i t h i e 3 292 80/109 S a r a b a n d J o h n W i t h i e 3 123* 80/110 A l m a i n J o h n J e n k i n s 3 293 .82/111 A C o r a n t J o h n J e n k i n s / 3 ( C h a r l e s Coleman) 81 83/112 A n A y r J o h n J e n k i n s 3 297 84/113 C o r a n t J o h n J e n k i n s 3 87 85/114 A l m a i n J o h n Moss 3 295 86/115 A C o r a n t J o h n Moss 5 269 87/116 S a r a b a n d J o h n Moss 3 98* 88/117 A J i g J o h n Moss 3 2 [89]/U8 P r e l u d i u m « • 4 11* 90/119 A l m a i n w i t h J o h n J e n k i n s 4 D i v i s i o n 162 92/120 C o r a n t J o h n J e n k i n s 4 145 93/121 S a r a b a n d J o h n J e n k i n s 4 33 94/122 A n A y r J o h n J e n k i n s 4 (17/20) 59/65 49/52 53/57 50/53 51/54 48/60 • • 42/53 • • 43/54 68/75 70/76 71/77 66/74 43/56 32/41 34/44 26/34 27/35 44/57 46/60 47/61 47/62 58/75 60/78 24/32 51/67 25/33 66/85 68/86 69/87 70/88 88/40 74/24 80/24[30] 76/26 78/28 79/29 ro ON VO 72/22 APPENDIX IV—C o n t i n u e d T# P./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 43 95/123 A n A y r 4 140 96/124 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s 4 4 97/125 A l m a i n J o h n J e n k i n s 4 15 98 /126 A y r J o h n W i t h i e 4 139 99/127 S a r a b a n d J o h n W i t h i e 4 205 100/128 S a r a b a n d J o h n W i t h i e 4 19 100/129 A y r B a t e s 4 179 101/130 C o r a n t Tho _mas_ B a t e s 4 148 102 /131 S a r a b a n d Tho _mas" B a t e s 4 42 102/132 A l m a i n Tho Lmas_ B a t e s 4 202 103/133 S a r a b a n d Tho _mas_ B a t e s 4 14* 104/134 A y r T iomas B a t e s 4 132 105/135 C o r a n t Tho mas] B a t e s 4 184 106/136 A J i g T iomas B a t e s 4 23 107/137 A l m a i n J o h n Moss 4 223 108/138 A C o r a n t J o h n Moss 4 228* 109/139 S a r a b a n d J o h n Moss 4 32 110/140 A J i g A l m a i n J o h n Moss 4 82 [ l l l ] / l 4 l A l m a i n J o h n E s t o 5 119 112/142 A y r e J o h n E s t o 5 290 113/143 C o r a n t J o h n E s t o 5 294 114 /144 S a r a b a n d J o h n E s t o 5 83* 114 /145 A l m a i n J o h n W i t h i e 5 77 115/146 A y r e J o h n W i t h i e 5 272 116/147 A C o r a n t J o h n W i t h i e 5 230* 117/148 S a r a b a n d w i t h J o h n W i t h i e 5 D i v i s i o n 89 118 /149 A l m a i n J o h n Moss 5 52/71 90/91 91/92 92/93 90[80]/80 65/71 8 1 / 8 1 65/72 8 l / [ 8 1A] 66/73 8 2 / 8 2 v.. APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d P./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1682 242 264 106 119/150 120/151 120/152 C o r a n t S a r a b a n d A J i g A l m a i n J o h n Moss J o h n Moss J o h n Moss 5 5 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1682) 75 l / l A P r e l u d e o f t he N o t e s A s c e n d i n g and D e s c e n d i n g 59 2/2 F a i n I Would 40 2/3 A n A y r 154 3/4 A S a r a b a n d 182 3/5 V i v e l e Roy 76* 4/6 The K i n g E n j o y s H i s Own 185 4/7 The - K i n g ' s D e l i g h t 130 5/8 P r i n c e R u p e r t ' s Welcome 161* 6/9 M r . P o r t e r ' s D e l i g h t 67* 7/10 A L a Mode de G r a n c e 232 8/11 Come K i s s Me My Sweet K a t e 201 8/12 S a r a b a n d 39 9/13 A F r e n c h A y r e 168 10/14 P a r t h e n i a 225 10/15 M a c k b e t h 155 11/16 The Apes Dance i n the O p e r a 164 12/17 M o n t r o s s M a r c h 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7/9 V 5 • • 3/i 1/1 V 7 16/25 4/8 77/86 1/2 2/4 2/3 3/5 3/6 1/2 1 0 / 1 4 11/20 8/15 5/9 4/8 5/10 6/12 6/11 3/6 8/16 2/4 20/32 4/7 7/13 ro 9/17 APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d P - / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 54 12/18 The N i g h t e n g a l e 2 8/11 14/22 24/39 13 14/19 G e n e r a l M o n k ' s M a r c h 2 • • a a • a 222* 14/20 The H o b b y - H o r s e Dance 2 • a • a « * 195 15/21 C u c k o l d s A l l a Row 2 • a a . • • 25 l6/[22] A S c o t c h Tune C a l l e d Sawney 2 • • a a a a. 63* l6/[23] A Simphony Coleman 2 8/10 9/17 16/22 22/35 188 17/24 S a r a b a n d Coleman 2 22/36 30 18/25 Oh the Bonny C h r i s t -C h u r c h B e l l s 2 a • 200 19/26 New M i n u e t 2 a a 136 19/27 J o c k e y Went t o the Wood 2 • a 78 20/28 A h C r u e l B l o o d y F a t e 2 a a 6 20/29 The Granadees M a r c h 2 a • 71 21/30 S i t t i n g Beyond the R i v e r s i d e 2 a a 165 22/31 The M y r t l e Shade 2 a • 156 41* 22/32 Now the F i g h t ' s Done 2 4/7 23/33 A n A y r e S imon I v e s 2 23/32 26/40 167* 24/34 C o r a n t S imon I v e s 2 5/8 a a 206 25/35 C o r a n t S imon I v e s 2 • a a a a 2 6 / 4 1 189 25/36 S a r a b a n d S imon I v e s 2 (13/16) 25/35 15/19 27/42 3 26/37 The E c c h o S imon I v e s / A l m a i n < (George Hudson) 2 26/36 (12/17) (33/49) 191 27/28[38] The G i l l i f l o w e r S imon I v e s 2 • • 77/85 10/13 23/37 a • 10* 2 8 / 3 9 P r e l u d e S imon I v e s 2 • a I8/27 6/9 66 30/40 A y r e (S imon I v e s ) 2 11/13 20/28 (8/10) (28/43) 217 31/41 C o r a n t (S imon I v e s ) 2 12/14 21/29 ( 9 / U ) (29/44) 131 31/42 S a r a b a n d (S imon I v e s ) 2 12/15 21/30 (9/12) (29/45) 215 32/43 The E a r l o f S a n d - 2 • a • a • a a a w i c h ' s F a r e w e l l APPENDIX I V - - C o n t i n u e d P . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 '50* 32/44 A l m a i n 231 33/45 S a r a b a n d 16 34/46 A y r e 211 34/47 S a r a b a n d 160 35/48 New M i n u e t 58* 36/49 B o r e 64 36/50 Bonny Brow 204* 37/51 Sweet Jane 176 38/52 M i n u e t 57 39/53 Dragoons M a r c h 73 40/54 M r . F a r m e r ' s Trumpet 226 41/55 M i n u e t 166 42/56 M a r d i k e 9 42/57 A Round 0 47 53/58 A n A y r e 38 44/59 A y r e I63 44/60 A Tune 72 45/61 A n A y r e 229 46/62 C o r a n t 192 46/63 S a r a b a n d 150 47/64 A J i g g 8 48/65 A n A y r e 129 49/66 S a r a b a n d 61 50/67 A y r e 221 50/68 The J o y o f A l l H e a r t s 69 51/69 A m a r i l l i s 143 52/70 Tune 43 52/71 L a C o c k l e y (S imon I v e s ( J o h n Moss) ( J o h n Moss) ( J o h n Moss) • « (George Hudson) (George Hudson) B a n i s t e r B a n i s t e r 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/1 17/26 6/12 l / l (29/41) (11/15) (14/17) 27/37 (13/18) • • • * 15/26 16/28 17/29 16/27 21/34 13/23 (45/66) (46/67) (47/68) (30/46) (34/50) ro 95/123 APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# p./# T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 22 53/72 New M u t t a r 2 • a 18 54/73 O x f o r d Tune 2 a a 152* 54/74 A b i n g t o n J i g g 2 a a 29 55/75 The M a i d s R a n t 2 28/38 l 4 l 56/76 Come Boy F i l l U s , &c • • • 2 • • 194 56/77 L e t O l i v e r Now Be F o r g o t t e n 2 a a 95 57/1 A P r e l u d e C h a r l e s Coleman 3 33/45 17/23 49/70 127 58/2 A n A y r e C o l e m a n / 3 38/50 18/24 50/71 ( J e n k i n s ) 38/51 (22/31) 282 58/3 S a r a b a n d Coleman 3 18/25 50/72 259 59/4 S a r a b a n d a • 3 24/27 a • a a 53/75 96* 59/5 G e r a r d ' s M i s t r e s s • a 3 40/51 21/29 54/77 287 60/6 L a V i v i u o n e ( W i l l i a m Page t ) 3 (22/26) 60/66 23/32 52/74 27* 61/7 The F i g a r y a « 3 56/80 291 62/8 S a r a b a n d • • 3 60/85 214 62/9 T h e a t e r Tune a • 3 207* 63/10 M i n u e t B a p t i s t 3 120 64/11 C o u l d Man H i s W i s h a a 3 O b t a i n 243 65/12 M inue t a a 3 296 66/13 M i n u e t a a 3 299 66/14 T h e a t e r Tune a a 3 51 67/15 T h e a t e r Tune a a 3 245 68/16 A Round 0 a a 3 239* 68/17 F a r e w e l F a i r A r m i d a a a 3 99 69/I8 A n A y r e a • 3 283 70/19 S a r a b a n d J e n k i n s . .3 110 70/20 A New Bore a • 3 260 71/21 72/22 C o r a n t J e n k i n s 3 81 A l m a i n J e n k i n s 3 51/67 83/112 103* 73/23 A l m a i n J e n k i n s / 3 (22/25)' (41/52) (19/26) (62/88) ro APPENDIX I V — C o n t i n u e d T# P . / # T i t l e Composer T u n i n g 1651 165[5] 1661 1669 80 74/24 A l m a i n 289 75/25 C o r a n t 102 76/26 A l m a i n 257 77/27 S a r a b a n d 252 78/28 C o r a n t 263* 79/29 S a r a b a n d 117 80/24[30] A l m a i n 90 81/31 A l m a i n 244 82/32 S a r a b a n d 97 83/33 A y r e 261 84/34 C o r a n t 114* 84/35 A y r e 273 85/36 S a r a b a n d 256 91* 86/37 S a r a b a n d 86/38 A n A y r e 34 87/39 A n A y r e 186 88/40 A J i g g E s t o E s t o E s t o E s t o E s t o E s t o E s t o W i l l i a m Young W i l l i a m Young E s t o E s t o S imon I v e s E s t o S i m o n I v e s G [ e o r g e ] H[udson~ nomas homas a t e s a t e s 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 18 /21 19 /22 49/52 32/41 68/96 50/53 26/34 72/101 • • • • • • • • 73/102 51/54 27/35 74/103 • • • • 69/97 39/52 20/27 58/83 40/50 21/28 • • 59 /84 ^ • • • • 60/86 54/57 6 4 / 8 2 61/87 38/49 63/90 58/63 42/54 65/93 59/65 43/56 67/95 APPENDIX V BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS 1. A MUSICALL BANQUET. L o n d o n , 1651. A / M u / i c a l l B a n q u e t , / s e t f o r t h i n t h r e e c h o i c e V a r i e t i e s o f M V S I C K . / [ r u l e ] / The f i r / t P a r t p r e / e n t s y o u w i t h E x c e l l e n t new L e / / o n s f o r t he L i r a V i o l , / e t t o Vevera l l / New T u n i n g s . / [ r u l e ] / The / e c o n d a C o l l e c t i o n o f New and Choyce A l l m a n s , C o r a n t s , a n d - S a r a b a n d s f o r one / T r e b l e and Ba/"/e V i o l , compo/ed by M r . W i l l i a m Lawes , and o t h e r E x c e l l e n t A u t h o u r s / [ r u l e ] / The t h i r d P a r t C o n t a i n e s New and Choyce C a t c h e s o r Rounds f o r t h r e e o r f o u r e / V o y c e s . To w h i c h i s added /ome few R u l e s and D i r e c t i o n s f o r / u c h as / l e a r n e t o / i n g , o r t o p l a y on the V i o l . / [ r u l e ] / [ d e v i c e : a l u t e , an open book o f m u s i c , a v i o l and a bow w i t h i n an o v a l b o r d e r b e a r i n g the words • LAETIFICAT COR M V S I C A , ' 37.5 x 48 mm.] / [ r u l e ] / LONDON, / P r i n t e d by T[homas] H [ a r p e r ] f o r J o h n B e n / o n , and J o h n P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be fold a t t h e i r Shops i n / D u n s t a n s C h u r c h - Y a r d , and i n the I n n e r Temple , n e a r e the C h u r c h D o o r e , 1651. [ N o t e : The s e c o n d and t h i r d s e c t i o n s have t h e i r own s e c t i o n t i t l e p a g e s , t r a n s c r i b e d b e l o w , b u t the f i r s t s e c t i o n , f o r t h e l y r a v i o l , does n o t . ] RT] A - D k v « [ n o n e ] E v - G i j , v : T r e b l e [ $ v e r s o s ] B a s s u s [ $ r e v e r s e d r e c t o s ] H v - l 2 v « Rounds o r C a t c h e s f o r t h r e e V o y c e s . s e c t i o n t i t l e , E ] MUSICA HARMONIA: / OR, / C h o i c e A l m a n s , C o r a n t s , and S a r a b a n d s , f o r one T r e b l e & B a / / e , / By t h a t R a r e and a c c o m p l i / h e d M a / t e r i n M u / i c k , / M r . WILLIAM  IAWES, D e c e a / e d : / And by / e v e r a l l o t h e r E x c e l l e n t M a / t e r s i n M u f i c k , now l i v i n g . / [same d e v i c e as on the t i t l e p a g e ] / [ r u l e ] / LONDON, / P r i n t e d by T[homas] H f a r p e r ] f o r J o h n B e n / o n and J o h n P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be /old a t t h e i r Shops i n / D u n s t a n s C h u r c h - Y a r d , and i n t h e I n n e r T e m p l e , n e a r e the C h u r c h D o o r e , / Anno  D o m i n i . 1651. s e c t i o n t i t l e , H ] M u / i c k and M i r t h , / PRESENTED / I n a c h o i c e C o l l e c t i o n o f Rounds o r C a t c h e s f o r t h r e e V o y c e s : / C o m p o / e d by / e v e r a l l E x c e l l e n t A u t h o u r s , and p u b l i / h e d f o r t he C i v i l l R e c r e a t i o n / o f a l l L o v e r s o f MUSICK. / [ r u l e ] / [ m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n and t e x t f o r the r o u n d ' N o n 276 277 N o b i s D o m i n i . ' ] / [ r u l e ] / LONDON, / P r i n t e d by T[homas H [ a r p e r ] f o r J o h n B e n / o n , and J o h n P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be 7 o l d a t t h e i r Shops i n / Duns tans C h u r c h - Y a r d , and i n the I n n e r T e m p l e , n e a r e the C h u r c h D o o r e , / Anno D o m i n i . 1651. C o l l i 4° o b i . i A-l3 ( _ i,i3) [$3(-A, E , H) s i g n e d : m i s p r i n t i n g D as B ] , 34 l e a v e s * p p . [8] 1-24, 1-24, 1-12. C o n t e n t s ! A t t i t l e . A v « [ u n d e r a t r i p l e row o f o r n a m e n t s ] •To a l l L o v e r s o f the A r t o f M u / i c k . ' S i g n e d , ' Y o u r  / e r v a n t t o t h e u tmos t o f h i s p o o r E n d e a v o u r s , / J o h n P l a y f o r d . * A2« [ u n d e r a t r i p l e row o f o r n a m e n t s ] ' D i r e c t i o n s . 1 A 2 - A ^ v : t he d i r e c t i o n s . Au vi 'The T a b l e t o the f i r / t P a r t , * e r r a t a t o the s e c o n d p a r t , and ' T h e T a b l e t o the l a / t P a r t . ' B - D ^ v i the l y r a v i o l l e s s o n s . D ^ v : [_half-way down the p a g e ] ' T h e / e v e r a l l T u n i n g s / t o t h e / e L e / / o n s . ' ' F I N I S . ' Et s e c t i o n t i t l e •MUSICA HARMONIA.• E v-Gu Yi the t r e b l e and bas s v i o l l e s s o n s . G 4 V : ' F I N I S . ' H : s e c t i o n t i t l e ' M u / i c k and M i r t h . ' H V - I ^ v , the c a t c h e s . I 2 V » ' F I N I S . ' CW ( i n f i r s t g a t h e r i n g o n l y ) ] A 2 E x a m p l e . [ A n E x a m p l e ] A 2 V The A3 E x a m p l e . A 3V There A u The I The I. T y p i ( B - D ^ v ) 4 t a b l a t u r e s t a v e s p e r page , 125 (127.5) x l4l (156) mm. ( B ) . O r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s a r e u s e d o n l y on f . A v . The c a p i t a l * M ' o f ' M i r t h ' (H) a p p e a r s t o be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e t y p e s y m b o l s : a ' V s u r r o u n d e d by two s t r a i g h t p i e c e s o f t y p e . A l l c a p i t a l i t a l i c ' J ' s ' i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n f o r A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t , and i n the f o l l o w i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , a r e swash l e t t e r s . The d e v i c e u s e d on the t i t l e and s e c t i o n t i t l e pages o f A M u s i c a l l Banque t was q u i t e o l d i n 165.1. I t had been used on Thomas C a m p i o n ' s A New Way o f M a k i n g C o u n t e r p o i n t ( L o n d o n , 1610).1 P l a y f o r d d e c o r a t e d the t i t l e pages o f A h I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S k i l l o f M u s i c k w i t h i t u n t i l 1664, and a l s o u sed i t on v a r i o u s o t h e r e d i t i o n s . RISM I-16516 W i n g 2489 L o c a t i o n o f c o p i e s : 1. One copy r e s i d e s i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y (Douce H.H.203). F o l l o w i n g the f i n a l g a t h e r i n g o f t h i s copy i s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t l e a f b e a r i n g the h e a d i n g ' M u / i c a l l Bookes / o l d by J o h n P l a y f o r d , a t h i s Shop i n M a r g a r e t D e a n - S m i t h , " P l a y f o r d , " D i e M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e  und G e g e n w a r t , X , c o l . 1351. 278 the Inner Temple, neare the Church Doore,11 2, One copy resides i n the Henry E. Huntington Library (14232). This copy lacks the f i n a l gathering. Variants: C v (p. 10) s t a f f 3, meas. 7 CL (p. 15 s t a f f 1, meas. 2 Huntington L i -brary  Bodleian L i -brary  V (p. 16) s t a f f 1, meas. 2 W 4 J. ) J W W [ s;c]) [ J On f o l . A o of the Huntington Library copy, the catchword •Example* appears to be missing. However, t h i s i s not a variant: a close examination reveals i t has been cut of f ; the top of the c a p i t a l *E' i s v i s i b l e . Notes: Part I of A M u s i c a l l Banquet contains 27 pieces f o r l y r a v i o l which are set i n three tunings: f e f h f , defhf, and edfhf. Composers named i n the l y r a v i o l a s c r i p t i o n s are [Charles] Coleman, George Hudson, [John] Jenkins, [William] L i l l y , Will[iam] Paget and [William] Young. 2. MUSICKS RECREATION. . . London, l65[2 .or 3]. n No surviving copies; see the discussion on pp. 17-24. 3. MUSICKS RECREATION ON THE LYRA VIOL. London, l65[5]. Mu/icks Recreation: / ON THE / LYRA VIOL. / Being a choice C o l l e c t i o n of New and E x c e l l e n t Le//ons f o r the Lyra V i o l , both eafie and d e l i g h t - / f u l l f o r a l l yong P r a c t i t i o n e r s . To which i s added /ome few p l a i n Directions as a Guide / f o r Beginners. / [engraving within single rules: a v i o l r e s t i n g on i t s side with a bow above i t ; on the fingerboard, the f r e t s are l e t t e r e d B-H and num-bered 1-7, 68 x 127 mm.] / London, Printed f o r John  Playford, and are to be / o l d at his Shop i n the Inner Temple, l65[?]. 279 C o l l i 4 ° o b i . : A-If*" [$3 ( - A , A 2 ) s i g n e d ] , 44 l e a v e s , p p . [ 8 ] 1 -80 . C o n t e n t s : A , A v : b l a n k . A ? : t i t l e . A 2 V : b l a n k , ky. launder a row o f o r n a m e n t s ] ' T o a l l L o v e r s and P r a c t i t i o n e r s  i n M u / i c k . / A P r e f a c e by way o f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the L y r a V i o l . ' A o - A ^ i t he p r e f a c e , s i g n e d ' A D e v o t e d  S e r v a n t / J . P . ' A t f o o t ki±vi e r r a t a . B - L j j . v : the l y r a v i o l l e s s o n s . L/+ v : F I N I S . CW ( f i r s t g a t h e r i n g o n l y ) ] A ~ t h r o u g h A o v [ n o n e ] ki± F o u r t h l y , A ^ v [ n o n e ] . T y p : 4 t a b l a t u r e s t a v e s p e r page , 125 (133> x 175 (178) mm. (B) . The l e s s o n t i t l e s b e g i n w i t h o r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s o r l a r g e b l a c k c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . See p p . 22-23 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t he t i t l e p a g e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n . RISM 1-1652? See p p . l ? - 2 4 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e d i t i o n ' s d a t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . W i n g 2494 L o c a t i o n o f c o p i e s : 1. One copy r e s i d e s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y ( K . 4 . b . l l ) . 2 . One copy r e s i d e s i n the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c ( I . F . 1 4 ) . T h i s copy c o n t a i n s an a d v e r -t i s e m e n t l e a f bound a f t e r t h e l a s t page o f t he t e x t . N e i t h e r c o p y ' s t i t l e page e x h i b i t s a c l e a r da t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n . V a r i a n t s : A2 ( t i t l e page) " f o r b e g i n n e r s " B r i t i s h L i b r a r y s i t u a t e d on t o p o f t he frame s u r -r o u n d i n g the i l l u s t r a t i o n R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c l y i n g w i t h i n the frame ( i . e . t he i l l u s t r a t i o n i s h i g h e r on the page i n r e l a t i o n t o the t e x t : i m p l i e s a p r i n t i n g by d o u b l e i m p r e s -s i o n D3 ( p . 21) b o t h s t a v e s a r e Some o f the f u r n i -s t a v e s 1 and 2 n o r m a l t u r e a p p e a r s t o have come l o o s e . The t y p e i s d roop-i n g on the l . h . s i d e o f the page ; t h e t i t l e a p p e a r s " C o r a n t o ; " a n d the 2nd s t a f f i s o u t o f a l l i g n m e n t , 280 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y - R o y a l C o l l e g e o f M u s i c G q ( p . 45) s t a f f 1, meas . 4 K (p. 65) s t a f f 2, meas . 2 u j | J O J 1 |m>m> N o t e s : The re a r e 103 l e s s o n s f o r l y r a v i o l i n M u s i c k s  R e c r e a t i o n (165[5])» 22 o f w h i c h a p p e a r i n A M u s i c a l l  B a n q u e t , as w e l l . The p i e c e s a r e s e t i n the f o l l o w i n g t u n i n g s : f e f h f , d e f h f , e d f h f , f d e f h , f e d f h and f h n . Composers named i n the e d i t i o n ' s a s c r i p t i o n s a r e [ W i l l i a m ] A y l w a r d , Tho[mas] B a t e s , C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , J o [ h n ] E s t o , W i l l [ i a m ] G r e g o r y , George H u d s o n , S i m o n I v e s , S i m o n I v e s J u n i o r , J o [ h n ] J e n k i n s , W i l l i a m L a w e s , J o h n L i l l y , J o h n W i t h i e and [ W i l l i a m ] Y o u n g . Though he i s n o t i d e n t i f i e d i n the e d i t i o n ' s i m p r i n t , Thomas H a r p e r , who p r i n t e d f o r P l a y f o r d be tween 1648 and 1656, p r e s u m a b l y i s t he p r i n t e r o f M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (165[5])« I n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s the p r i n t i n g r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t , w h i c h was done by H a r p e r : the a d v e r t i s e m e n t l e a f i s p l a c e d a t t he e n d , t h e r e a r e no r u n n i n g t i t l e s ( t h e l y r a v i o l l e s s o n s i n A M u s i c a l l Banque t had n o n e ) , and the f i r s t t h r e e l e a v e s o f e v e r y g a t h e r i n g a r e s i g n e d . 4. MUSICKS RECREATION ON THE V I O L , LYRA-WAY. L o n d o n , 1661. [ w i t h i n d o u b l e r u l e s ] M u / i c k s R e c r e a t i o n / O N . / The V I O L , L y r a - w a y . / B e i n g A C o l l e c t i o n o f New LESSONS L y r a - w a y . To w h i c h i s added a PREFACE, / C o n t a i n i n g ome b r i e f R u l e s and I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r young P r a c t i t i o n e r s . / [ r u l e ] / _same i l l u s t r a t i o n as on the l65[5] e d . , 68 x 127 mm.] / " r u l e ] / L o n d . P r i n t e d by W [ i l l i a m ] G [ o d b i d ] f o r J . P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be / o l d a t h i s Shop i n t h e T e m p l e . 1661. R T ] A 2 V - A ^ : I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r t he LYRA V I O L . B-N4V* L e / / o n s  f o r t he LYRA V i o l . C o l l : 4° o b i . : A - N k [$2 ( - A 1 , C 2 , D 2 , G 2 , H 2 , M) s i g n e d ] , 52 l e a v e s , p p . [8] 1-53 45 55 66 57-72 65 74-79 90 81-96. C o n t e n t s : A : t i t l e . A v : b l a n k . A 2 * [ u n d e r a row o f D e a n - S m i t h , P l a y f o r d ' s E n g l i s h D a n c i n g M a s t e r , 1651. ( L o n d o n : S c h o t t and Company, L t d . , 1957). P« x x i i . 281 o r n a m e n t s ] ' T o a l l L o v e r s o f MUSICK. / [ r u l e ] / A P r e f a c e  by way o f I n t r o d u c t i o n . ' A 2 - A 2 1 : the p r e f a c e , s i g n e d ' A D e v o t e d S e r v a n t / to a l l L o v e r s o f MUSICK, / J o h n P l a y f o r d . ' Ai^x ' A C a t a l o g u e o f MUSICK Books /old by J o h n P l a y f o r d at . h i s Shop / i n the Temple . ' / [ r u l e ] / [ i n two c o l u m n s ] •Books f o r V o c a l MUSICK. Books f o r I n / t r u m e n t a l MUSICK. / [ r u l e ] ' B - N i , v : t he l e s s o n s . N J i ' [ r u l e ] / F I N I S . • CW ( f i r s t g a t h e r i n g o n l y ) ] A2 F i r / t , A2 V Somet imes A3 T h i r d l y , A 3 V T h e / e k i± [ n o n e ] A ^ v [ n o n e ] . T y p i 4 t a b l a t u r e s t a v e s p e r page ( N 4 V has t h r e e ) , 108 (121) x 149 (153) mm. ( B 2 > . The l e s s o n t i t l e s b e g i n w i t h o r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s o r l a r g e b l a c k c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . RISM 1-1661^ W i n g 2495 L o c a t i o n o f C o p i e s * 1. One copy r e s i d e s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y ( K . 4 . b . l 2 ) . The pages o f t he t h i r d g a t h e r i n g o f t h i s copy a r e o u t o f o r d e r , and t h u s the l e s s o n s a r e a l s o o u t o f o r d e r . The pages a r e numbered 9 14 15 12 13 10 11 16, and the l e s s o n s , 11 12 20 21 19 17 18 13-I6 2 2 . T h i s o r d e r p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d f rom one s i d e o f the f o r m b e i n g p r i n t e d u p s i d e down. 2 . One copy r e s i d e s i n the L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . (M 1 4 2 . L 9 P ) . V a r i a n t s : D 2 (p. 19) D 2 (p. 19) B r i t i s h L i b r a r y L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s p i e c e i s e n t i t l e d " A " t he 6th l i n e o f •: s t a f f i s m i s s i n g a p i e c e o f t y p e ; t h e 1st b a r l i n e has s h i f t e d t o the l e f t be tween the 5th and 6th l i n e s p i e c e i s e n t i t l e d " A y r e " "page i s n o r m a l H 3 ( p . 53) s t a f f 2 , meas . l) J J - > o.-.ff j )[)];. c: I n t he B r i t i s h L i b r a r y copy o f t h i s e d i t i o n , t h e r e i s no number f o r t he 5 8 t h l e s s o n ; i n the L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s c o p y , o n l y the number 8 a p p e a r s . N o t e s : M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l66l) c o n t a i n s 123 p i e c e s , 55 o f t h e s e a p p e a r i n g f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The p i e c e s 282 a r e s e t i n the f o l l o w i n g t u n i n g s : d e f h f , e d f h f , f d e f h , f e d f h , and f h n . Composers named i n t h e e d i t i o n a r e Tho[mas] B a t e s , C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , Joj_hn] E s t o , G o t e r [ G a u l t i e r ] , W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , George Hudson , S i m o n I v e s , S i m o n I v e s J u n i o r , J o h n J e n k i n s , W i l l i a m L a w e s , J o h n L i l l y , C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n , J o h n W i t h i e and W i l l i a m Y o u n g . MUSICKS RECREATION ON THE V I O L , LYRA-WAY. L o n d o n , I669. [ w i t h i n d o u b l e r u l e s ] M u / i c k s R e c r e a t i o n / ON / The V I O L , L y r a - w a y . / B e i n g a new C o l l e c t i o n o f LESSONS L y r a - w a y . To w h i c h i s added a PREFACE, / C o n t a i n i n g /ome B r i e f R u l e s and I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r young P r a c t i t i o n e r s . / [ r u l e ] / [same i l l u s t r a t i o n as on the p r e v i o u s two e d i t i o n s , t o w h i c h a s t a f f s h o w i n g the open s t r i n g p i t c h e s D G c e a d* has been a d d e d , 68 x 128 mm. / [ r u l e ] / L o n d o n , P r i n t e d by W [ i l l i a m ] G o d b i d , f o r J o h n P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be S o l d a t h i s Shop i n the T e m p l e . 1669. R T ] A 2 V - A K ) I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r the L Y R A - V I O L . ( B - Q ^ ) L e / / o n s f o r t he LYRA V i o l . C o l l : 4° o b i . : A - Q K [$2 ( - A ) s i g n e d ] , 64 l e a v e s , p p . [ 8 ] 1-48 [49] 50-88 [89] 90-110 [111] 112-120 (unnumbered pages a r e p a r t t i t l e s ) . C o n t e n t s : A : t i t l e . A v : b l a n k . A ? : [ u n d e r a d o u b l e row o f o r n a m e n t s ] ' T o a l l L o v e r s o f MUSICK. / [ r u l e ] / A P r e f a c e by way o f I n t r o d u c t i o n . ' A 2-Azj .s t he p r e f a c e . A t b o t t o m A ^ : s i g n e d ' Y o u r W e l l - w i / h e r , and H o n o u r e r o f  a l l t r u e L o v e r s o f MUSICK, / J O H N PLAYFORD, P h i l o - M u / I c a e . ' A / + V ; ' A C a t a l o g u e o f the l a t e P r i n t e d M u / i c k B o o k s . S o l d by J o h n P l a y f o r d a t h i s Shop i n the T e m p l e . / [ 2 c o l u m n s ] Books f o r V o c a l MUSICK. Books f o r I n / t r u m e n t a l MUSICK. [ a t b o t t o m ] Books w h i c h a r e now f i t t e d f o r the P r e / s . ' B : ' S h o r t AYRS and TUNES f o r B e g i n n e r s . / Ha rpway , s h a r p T u n i n g by U n i s o n s ' H : ' [ r u l e ] / The S e c o n d PART. / The T u n i n g H a r p - w a y f l a t * N : ' [ r u l e ] / The T h i r d PART. The T u n i n g H i g h Harp -way S h a r p ' Pkt ' [ r u l e ] / The F o u r t h PART. / H i g h H a r p - w a y f l a t ' Q ^ V : ' F I N I S . ' CW ( f i r s t g a t h e r i n g o n l y ) ] A 2 F i r / t . A 2 V Somet imes A3 T h i r d l y , A 3 V The /e A ^ [ n o n e ] . T y p : 4 t a b l a t u r e s t a v e s p e r page , 130 (144) x l ? i (179) mm. ( B 2 ) . A l l t he l e s s o n t i t l e s b e g i n w i t h o r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t he a d d i t i o n t o the t i t l e p a g e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n appea r s on p . 23 283 RISM 1 - 1 6 6 9 ° W i n g 2496 L o c a t i o n o f c o p i e s : 1. One copy r e s i d e s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y ( K . l . c . 2 ) . 2. One copy r e s i d e s i n the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y (Douce P.P.193). 3. One copy r e s i d e s i n the H . E . H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y ( 8 1 6 2 1 ) . The b o t t o m r u l e o f t he d o u b l e - r u l e frame s u r r o u n d i n g the t i t l e p a g e ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n has been c u t o f f i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y and the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y c o p i e s . V a r i a n t s : see p . 2 8 4 . N o t e s : M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (I669) c o n t a i n s 152 p i e c e s , 82 o f w h i c h make t h e i r f i r s t appea rance i n t h i s e d i t i o n . The p i e c e s a r e s e t i n the f o l l o w i n g t u n i n g s : d e f h f , e d f h f , f d e f h , and f e d f h . The composers named i n the e d i t i o n ' s a s c r i p t i o n s a r e Thomas B a t e s , C h a [ r l e s ] C o l e m a n , J o h n E s t o , W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , George H u d s o n , S i m o n I v e s , J o h n J e n k i n s , J o h n L i l l y , J o h n M o s s , J o h n W i t h i e , and W i l l i a m Y o u n g . M U S I C K ' S RECREATION ON THE V I O L , LYRA-WAY. L o n d o n , 1682 . [ w i t h i n d o u b l e r u l e s ] M u A c k ' s R e c r e a t i o n / ON / The V I O L , L y r a - w a y : / B e i n g a c h o i c e C o l l e c t i o n o f LESSONS  L y r a - w a y . To w h i c h i s added a PREFACE, / C o n t a i n i n g /ome B r i e f R u l e s and I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r young P r a c t i t i o n e r s . / [ r u l e ] / The Second E d i t i o n , E n l a r g e d w i t h A d d i t i o n a l  New LESSONS. / I r u l e | / 1 same i l l u s t r a t i o n as on the 1669 e d i t i o n ] / [ r u l e ] / L o n d o n , P r i n t e d by A [ n n e ] G [ o d b i d ] and J [ o h n ] P [ l a y f o r d , the y o u n g e r ] f o r J . P l a y f o r d , and a r e t o be S o l d a t h i s Shop n e a r the Temple C h u r c h . 1682 . R T ] ( A 2 v - A i r ) I n / t r u c t i o n s f o r the L Y R A - V I O L . (B v-Ml> v) L e / / o n s f o r the LYRA V I O L . C o l l : 4 ° o b i . : A - M ^ [ $ 2 ( - A ) s i g n e d ] , 48 l e a v e s , p p . [ 8 ] 1 -88 . C o n t e n t s : A : t i t l e . A v : b l a n k . A 2 : [ u n d e r a row o f o r n a m e n t s ] ' T o a l l LOVERS OF MUSICK. / [ r u l e ] / A PREFACE by way o f I n t r o d u c t i o n . ' A2-A4: t h e p r e f a c e . A t b o t t o m Alj.: ' Y o u r W e l l - w i / h e r , and H o n o u r e r / o f a l l  t r u e L o v e r s o f MUSICK, / J . P . ' A j , v : ~ 'MUSICK Books  P r i n t e d f o r J o h n P l a y f o r d , a t h i s Shop n e a r the T e m p l e -C h u r c h , / [ r u l e ] . • B : [ u n d e r d o u b l e r u l e s 1 ' S h o r t and  e a / i e L e s s o n s o r Tunes f o r the LYRA V I O L . / H a r p - w a y S h a r p / T u n i n g . ' A t b o t t o m H ^ : 'The E n d o f the F i r / t P a r t , ' I i [ u n d e r d o u b l e r u l e s ] 'The Second PART. / H a r p - w a y F l a t / T u n i n g . ' A t b o t t o m M ^ v : F I N I S . . Variants (Musick's Recreation [ l 6 6 9 ] ) » C 2 (p. ID s t a f f 2, meas. 3 B r i t i s h Library Bodleian Library iX -J3> Huntington Library same as the Bodleian Library copy C? (p. 11) s t a f f 3. l i n e 2 meas. 1 a f t e r the time signa-ture, the l i n e consists of 2 short pieces of type the l i n e consists of a single long piece of type same as the Bodleian Library copy V (P. 40) s t a f f 3, meas. 3 I v (p. 58) s t a f f 3» meas K (p. 65) a s c r i p t i o n K 2 V (p. 68) s t a f f 2, meas. 1 George Hudson same as the B r i t i s h Library copy same as the B r i t i s h Library copy ) same as the Bodleian Library copy Georga Hudson same as the B r i t i s h Library copy The following variants e x i s t i n regard to the numbering of the lessons: i n the B r i t i s h Library copy, the number 5 i s upside down? i n the B r i t i s h Library and the Bodleian Library copies, the number 130 i s printed as 30j and i n the Huntington Library copy, the number 121 i s printed as 21. 285 CW ( f i r s t g a t h e r i n g o n l y ) ] A 2 F i r / t , A 2 V Somet imes A3 T h i r d l y A ^ v T h e / e A ^ [ n o n e j ^ T y p : 4 t a b l a t u r e s t a v e s p e r page ( M ^ v has 3), 126 (142) x 164 (172) mm. ( E 2 ) . O r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s a r e u sed f o r a l l t he l e s s o n t i t l e s . RISM I-1682 9 W i n g 2497 L o c a t i o n o f c o p i e s : 1. One copy r e s i d e s i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y ( K . I . e . 3 ) . On the f l y l e a f o f t h i s copy a p p e a r s the n o t e , " T h i s copy b e l o n g e d t o T [homas ] O l i p h a n t , whose n o t e s a r e appended he re b e l o w , w i t h one o r two r emarks by J [ u l i a n ] M [ a r s h a l l ] . " The i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r b e a r s t h e b o o k p l a t e o f J u l i a n M a r s h a l l . The n o t e s a r e i n t e r -l e a v e d t h r o u g h o u t the v o l u m e . 2. One copy r e s i d e s i n the Durham C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y (MUS C96) . A f a c s i m i l e o f P a r t by H i n r i s c h e n I o f M u s i c k ' s R e c r e a t i o n (1682) has E d i t i o n , L t d . ( L o n d o n : i 9 6 0 ) . e x p l a n a t i o n , t he e d i t o r , N a t h a l i e D o l m e t s c h , the f a c t t h a t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n i s n o t o f the e d i t i o n . The f a s c i m i l e appea r s t o be o f t he b r a r y c o p y . been p u b l i s h e d W i t h o u t c o n c e a l s c o m p l e t e Durham L i -V a r i a n t s : C ( p . 9) s t a f f 1, meas . 6 C v ( p . 10) i n i t i a l ' M ' D v ( p . 18) s t a f f 3, meas . 7 B r i t i s h L i b r a r y o n l y t r a c e s a r e v i s i b l e J •s : Durham L i b r a r y -X-n o r m a l The l a s t two v a r i a n t s a p p a r e n t l y were c a u s e d by i n s u f f i c i e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n k t o the f o r m , r a t h e r t h a n by the use o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s y m b o l s . N o t e s : 55 o f w h i c h and e d f h f . M u s i c k ' s R e c r e a t i o n (1682) c o n t a i n s 117 l e s s o n s , a r e new. O n l y two t u n i n g s a r e u s e d : d e f h f A s c r i p t i o n s i n the e d i t i o n s n a m e t h e _ f o l l o w i n g compose r s : [ J o h n ] B a n i s t e r , B a p t i s t , T[homas] B [ a t e s ] , C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , [ J o h n ] E s t o , G [ e o r g e ] H [ u d s o n ] , S imon I v e s , [ J o h n ] J e n k i n s , and W i l l i a m Y o u n g . APPENDIX VI Introduction This appendix contains a representative sampling of music drawn from each of Playford's f i v e l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . There are f i f t y - t w o compositions i n the appendix, roughly 10fo of the t o t a l number of pieces i n the e d i t i o n s . Each composition ap-pears i n a tablature version and i n a s t a f f t r a n s c r i p t i o n . In the tablature reproductions, the barring has been reg-u l a r i z e d and obvious errors have been corrected. Footnotes explain the occasional more extensive a l t e r a t i o n , except f o r one composition, "A Masque" by Simon Ives from the 1661 e d i t i o n . * This piece was selected because i t displays more ornamentation than any other composition i n the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s . Unfortu-nately, the rhythm and barring i n Playford's tablature are f u l l 2 . of e r r o r s . The errors are so extensive that the footnotes r e -quired to explain e d i t o r i a l changes would be exceedingly cumber-some. Rather than r e s o r t to extensive footnoting f o r rhythmic d i f f i c u l t i e s , the tablature f o r the piece appears exactly as printed by Playford. A l l changes made appear i n the accompa-nying t r a n s c r i p t i o n . *T# 41. 2 Luckily, the piece could be reconstructed by comparison to a concordance i n the subsequent l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n . The l a t e r version i s rhythmically accurate, but stripped of i t s ornamen-t a t i o n . 286 , 28? F o r t he s t a f f t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , the p i t c h e s a s s i g n e d t o the v a r i o u s t u n i n g s a r e the same as t h o s e u s e d i n t h e t h e m a t i c c a t -a l o g u e i C h a r t f e f h f d e f h f e d f h f f d e f h f e d f h Name L y r a Way H a r p Way S h a r p H a r p Way F l a t H i g h H a r p Way S h a r p H i g h H a r p Way F l a t P i t c h e s u s e d i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s e ' b g d G D d ' b g d G D d ' b b g d G D d ' a f#d A D d ' a f d A D The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s s u g g e s t p o l y p h o n y whenever i t a p p e a r s e v i d e n t i n t he l y r a v i o l p i e c e s by the use o f d i r e c t i o n a l n o t e s t e m s . 238 T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Squa re b r a c k e t s a r o u n d a c o m p o s e r ' s name i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h an o u t s i d e s o u r c e ; p a r e n t h e s t h a t i t was d i s c o v e r e d i n one o f the l y r a v i o l e d i t i o n s A M u s i c a l l B a n q u e t (1651) Anonymous , A n A l l m a i n e (T# 50) . . . Anonymous , When the K [ i n g ] E n j o y e s & c . (T# 76) ( C o l e m a n ) , A Symphony (T# 63) . . . M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l65[5]) Anonymous, A L a Mode de F r a n c e (T# 67). [ J o h n J e n k i n s ] , A B o a t , A B o a t (T# 220) W i l l i a m L a w e s , C o u n t r e y C o i l (T# 197) . W i l l i a m Lawes , A J i g g e (T# 146) . . . . C h a r l e s C o l e m a n , Almane w i t h D i v i s i o n (T# 113) J o h n L i l l y , A [ n A l l m a i n e ] (T# 103) . , George H u d s o n , C o r a n t o (T# 238) . . . . W i l l i a m L a w e s , C o r a n t o (T# 278) . . . . S i m o n I v e s , A y r e (T# 107) Anonymous, S a r a b a n d (T# 142) . . . . , M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (l66l) Anonymous , New R a n t (T# 161). . S i m o n I v e s , A Masque (T# 41) J o h n J e n k i n s , A l m a i n e (T# 123) J o h n E s t o , A J i g g (T# 235) . . George H u d s o n , S a r a b a n d (T# 298) W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , A y r e (T# 86) . Simon I v e s , C o r a n t o (T# 288) . W i l l i a m Y o u n g , A y r e (T# 1). . . J o h n J e n k i n s , S a r a b a n d (T# 177) J o h n J e n k i n s , A y r e (T# 109) • • C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n , A l m a i n e (T# 94) C h r i s t o p h e r S i m p s o n , S a r a b a n d (T# 280) M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (I669) Anonymous, Ove r the M o u n t a i n s (T# 198) Anonymous, S c o t t i s h H o r n p i p e (T# 219) • • W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , A n A y r (T# 53) J o h n E s t o , S a r a b a n d (T# 178) [ G i u s e p p i n o ] , The I t a l i a n R a n t (T# 100) . Anonymous, P r e t h e Love T u r n t o Me (T# 249) Simon I v e s , A y r (T# 114) W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , A l m a i n (T# 105) . . . . W i l l i a m G r e g o r y , C o r a n t (T# 286) . . . . 290 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 298 299 300 302 303 304 305 306 309 309 310 312 314 316 317 318 321 322 323 324 325 3 2 7 328 329 331 332 289 M u s i c k s R e c r e a t i o n (1669)—Continued J o h n M o s s , A J i g (T# 98) . . . 334 J o h n J e n k i n s , A l m a i n w i t h D i v i s i o n (T# 11) . . 335 Thomas B a t e s , A y r (T# 14) . 338 J o h n M o s s , S a r a b a n d (T# 228) 339 J o h n W i t h i e , A l m a i n (T# 83) 34l J o h n W i t h i e , S a r a b a n d w i t h D i v i s i o n (T# 230) . 342 M u s i c k ' s R e c r e a t i o n (1682) Anonymous , The Hobby H o r s e Dance (T# 222). . . 344 Simon I v e s , C o r a n t (T# 167) 345 Simon I v e s , P r e l u d e (T# 10) 347 Anonymous , B o r e (T# 58) 350 [ J o h n B a n i s t e r ] , Sweet Jane (T# 204) 351 Anonymous , A b i n g t o n J i g (T# 152) 352 Anonymous , G e r a r d ' s M i s t r e s s (T# 96) 353 Anonymous , The F i g a r y (T# 27) 354 B a p t i s t , M i n u e t (T# 207) 355 Anonymous , F a r e w e l F a i r A r m i d a (T# 239) . . . 356 J o h n E s t o , S a r a b a n d (T# 263) 357 George H u d s o n , A n A y r e (T# 91) 358 290 A Musicall. Banquet (16.51) Anonymous, An Allmaine, f e f h f (p. 1, no. 1). T# 50 3., P i P-fefr*e <g' • <* — ^ — * ~ - 1 ^ c A A c | S a, i t% ffi <^  3 S <1 r"1 -^r r t r ' s i- > J. i t s : H 1 J. H j T Anonymous, When the K[ing] Enjoyes & c , f e f h f (p. 4, no. 5). T# 76 •31 ~2T =5 0 T 291 353 A. C a a: i s : •EC 34=H-tnni.j.> r n IJTT J " > " J J > " > r r-( C h a r l e s C o l e m a n ) , A Symphony, d e f h f ( p . 8 , n o . 1 0 ) . T# 63 <i fc. C <\ C f 1 G>- C\ \ <A. * i t i j I r ^ f z i p ; j f 1; U T J 0 1 1 f r 292 ft ft J 3 1 ^ T C - 9 Musicks Recreation (l65[5]) Anonymous, A l a Mode de France, f e f h f (p. 4, no. 8) J J 3. > J J , A I—A a, \p t\ 1 a d, c o>: T# 6? J- J A i A a V> d 1 $ £ j J 1 7 & F 1 r -4 v—c 293 J - > J J I J J J. >j A rx 1 <* AO to CX _ .._ . ... . Ox — o> CA • ¥ * — J \ 1 ] |—1 IT X 0 * \=&=4 John Jenkins, A Boat, a Boat, f e f h f (p. 7, no. 14) T# 220 J J e x . J J. > J j J J J J J i-A cx ^ A A CX, c \ c x c . c . m - C V - O - cx c c\: CX C K _ 5 : -JCV-ht T3? ^4 4  p 1 ^ r ft A <\ % TV—' 351 £ 1 -A ^_ 294 William Lawes, Countrey C o l l , defhf (p. 10, no. 18) T# 197 j J i- J 1 J- U J J . JVJ ^ 3 J J J . Q. ta. j . J J . J> J u j j j j r» ha ex - £ e. A f. A rv 1 *- n, • a 1 r T t c ar 3SI hiv*—i—a • 1 1 1 i r \— l —1 1 1 \r> £ > = < 1 1 * • s~> } — - J — s _^ f. , k s c . -P j . / J J J i J J a b < a _ i b a . to—_apr-2L -flk j o 1 J i*1 i f ].H - f h M R—«—^  § C4.! I 1 ——9 i h tir — t — i « i = F = £ ^ —=1 William Lawes, A Jigge, defhf (p. 11, no. 19) T# 146 J J J J J J . > J J J J. j> J i i J J A -C q 4" A"" V? A A V>: A. C I ) 1 i J r ; j j j j j J J j J J d J i J J A £ * 9 OS -Ov-3 E $ r ' I X -P A A c\ * * * « » a 1 _Lt _^  l _ J i 1 — r - f ' g f f> r - »• f > j — n i j J i ^ in ^ f — I F — J -296 J J J A CX -f h , ft a, 2 ^ r — — % r . — w r— ^ 5 J. > ) J 1 1 J. j> "']' C- o> ex A 111 ^ f r Charles Coleman, Almane with D i v i s i o n , edfhf (p. 36, no. 49). T# 113 J J J J J> J J J > J " -£ £ - g ^ , CX - h H f ) f ^ v -• a 1 > y I. a , G. A -f A -f A A — ^ — . - ^ $ V • f A - f ft i ~ * — — c _ C - a • 1 J « , n i .11. 1 4 ' w : f 3 v T 297 A b A cx : ft ft £ g. - T g ft f. > i ft c e. - f -, A V?—ex e <\ ft I as. C £ - f t _ > > g\ g A , -f h L h _h. t g c. £ ex O — .————fc*—C j . . ex Q ~_ j _ f t ^ _ - N f XJ~ > h - T P i 1 - - -1 f ^ 4)TTJ fesw" 4 -P n f -f K ft _ -P \ -P f~ ~ i 9~ — f h f . f - f — it UIIIHIIMII 1 . | mta4 298 A b A. c\ h ft & CI CA, f. C X-_cx_ P—n,— -^-s—P f, -£ -f cx John L i l l y , A[n Allmain], edfhf (p. 41, no. 52) T# 103 3 3 Z t 4 ? i 1 i : 2 5 y I K -c\ c. A_ o. I F, 3E ^ \ . . . . . . . ^ . ~ c 5 T t I T •6—0-299 J. > > J- J . > £ 4 r. <^  1 C. A t i a, .. <?k fc^ * 1 ' f y 5 f ^  * H c5 George Hudson, Coronto, edfhf (p. 54, no. 58). T# 238 J J . > ^ A CX T <\ c j £ c <* ? c-^ ^ k i t - 3 j , I )^7L _a fr*—H r—-— 1 k * " b \ er~crT r I w . — f ' ^ — H " ^ — > i ' > > i . ' > J A i c—c—e r b 3 F = F = 300 • -J J . > > J J ] . J> ^ — — f . rx r. /x r K *> 1 " C  4^-f JL J J . > j " ft £ :£ o • IE - O H -r William Lawes, Coranto, fedfh (p. 62, no. 68). T# 278 J I. > ex c . A c q . h -P 3 «- « \7LS T 5 i n ^ A S 301 J J A c fe. \r ]) I- 1 \— —\—W-Y u T 1 1 J J j . J5 y) J A a. > s h-j i » J . i ^ 1 - — f 1 ; r 1 -r i J> I Hi J J> A A V » \ F . ... . \« ^ i i T ) n 1 L .]_.. f l A / H t -»> A . f . r ; - 1 S I f f 1^—1 1 i_ *_ A A flia <A V» A v ^ r 7 H i T - l - l l - k 1 i j .> J . i j 3 0 v >• J . y J . C ft. O-r. a A. F f f -=r. V- r Simon Ives, Ayre, edfhf (p. 76, no. 84). J J . > J . ) J . > > T# 107 h U U % 1 zt 7 £—1 —j*— n —p £ 4 — ! Ok—AJSL—C - 4 - * ^ r - — b  fc y 0 j e£ r r r ' ' r ' f T — r A A A * 1, ^ c ^ 1 flAfA—TTr-± ft-f A S 3 f f. f t f f -t t Ov Cv 1 1 303 Anonymous, Saraband, defhf (p. 79, no. 88). T# 142 i ) • J) > • i: J> J J. i ^ — a £ . <N . — , \ . v-,-—,—__. , - f — a C, *1 ex ^ ^- ^ i c f cx \ ex _ _.. : 1 " t = i n n n i i > \T±*=±= -A "1 p v—-i. M > j a » « — — f r .J " > J > 1 j>'~~ —*——^ —» a Ow CA a. f v * ^ » * 1 U j l ^ r h j o r J i > i.j> „ i b A — a |p ft I A J J J i - J -_ A . C A c\ c. c. r. c ex $ & * i i s 14 A14- i j M i L H L r L I) ft . ex. C * -CX £ C\ C. <x ]. > J > J J-• f a c v , i c v . . . . . . h ...to Pv b c\ . ex a <x ^  C ex • • • Tf- • * | h ] 1 i O -ex cx cx • i . P r — < " ^ — 304 Musicks Recreation (1661) Anonymous, New Rant, defhf (p. 3, no. 5). T# 161 •X (\ ft t t, m 3 1 1 n ^ C <K \ ' : 1 1 1 .1 J i n . 1 - i n i t f b v \ a O. F. 1 A ft i l - n ^ - i — * — ^ 1 f A £ J ? f l | " - A - J L * — 4 — —\ it anil- I ' f r n i f ^ 1 - — C J . n  '-^1 ^ '11 = fcEU) H 1 1 1 " > W — » n _ 11  305 Simon Ives, A Masque, defhf (p. 4, no. 7). ] J. > J . > > . > > . ) ] • > > J A A q , ,C C Q> P 11 P ^ ^ E x ) ^ f T g & & ^~A: ^ * c a_ i t 3 H ^ f f A, - f b A QTT 5: >J J J- > >. >>. Ji J. f • a.-1. > A )p a> A-f 306 >) y J . j> J . ) J J . > J > •P rx a r. m P. A p. <a . , * + h b cx P A < X f . t c o \ ( A - £ CX c \-P ^ =£. i f T a f - P h - P h ^ f t a f . c P . - F c ^ r g g. cX_ cx- ex. f r John Jenkins, Almaine, edfhf (p. 2k, no. 32). ) J .> i . > J J J > J i T# 123 IE 27 5 i ' J- * J. * _ <» A 1 i / > __—o> b ,—A—=f—A—c—«X-c. . i a -i T — « * * p f ~ T J > J y * * * r 307 J . J>• J. • f , K a . ± = 6 : J J. J> j J> l b ] > J > a — C A 3 f «C fc. f c 1 c-A 2 » A > 1 a. j ^ — i r — ^ n ~ F £ —# ~ 3 c m i * * 1 _ ~3 J > J> J J> J J. J> te <\ i. > A <*. 3 T 308 )V>.' a * A * | > J J. i f i . A • g5v5 f 1 i -• <c% j " f r — — A r. o. o In a. /x, — c as <• C 1 E C « a 1 I f A C fc - i & J 4 3= J J J - > 1 1= ~ K K  7^ a J) 1 { r ^ r — 3? ^ — Y — r 309 John Esto, A Jigg, edfhf (p. 34, no. 44). • J J J J J 1 j j J -j i J £ . a ^ , a T# 235 3 £ C 3 u f j 1 t}. > ex \ c a . • 1 ex. y • r 1 a i - ; > T" j . . > . J . J > a c f. c. a c c <*• c cx, > CX ' T George Hudson, Saraband, edfhf (p. 39, no. 51). T# 298 • J J . > i i > 1 J j J 1. > 1 t b ^A b c\ e\ - 3 „ "•. ^ = A. . 1 » ' > \ 4-4^4-- a — » r 310 J J J J J J I P A . \ 1 1 "3—<* Lf 1 I * V * i — V \ * : = « William Gregory, Ayre, edfhf (p. 44, no. [ 5 8 ] ) . T# 86 <} > 1. > —f i -P § - P • i < • n \ -n—^—*4— V 1  F . . -P fl, 111 > H 11 f = — • — * l — ^ 1 1" > K t c\ - f A -p h t - L ( ^ A A b A_ cx i ? - ^ 1 -L-A h A b a a . T t 1 te U f. , 1 d W 1 — 1 f 5 * \ ^ — ^ 1 * i L _ j a 311 . j j -j. ) y i". > > i & - - — j — \ — f e *.—V*— h > '• >. ,: 11 i _ b * — M j 1 J .pq —% e— !^— . i 'T ! 1 T 1 , ^—b A a. b ex „ — CA c cx - 4 — f - 4 f ! f-p i . 1 J . * r A p_ A 1 c* m 1 - ...a ex to j^..(h^- cx— ( ( ) p r * • — t — * 312 Simon Ives, Coranto, edfhf (p. 49, no. 44[64]). T# 288 i . > •* ^ c 1 * 1 f a h -P A J - c ^ J . J J-^ -f , A -CK-• 4 i ^ j ; T r J J. ^ a , 5 Z £ Z r r Ok CK CA A C Q A 1\ A J f T t f 313 3 = f c J . > > ) J j 1 J -h -P A c A Ac. g , , f , d a icrcz i ) J J J J " J J> _A V> \ A j 1 if fi.i n^n^ CN. c £, c\ c £ 1 -cv-• f. A a ^"5: 1 0 i t — ^ •f f C ft f. K i A c cx c I ex -GL-FT f 314 William Young, Ayre, fdefh (p. 65, no. 84). J > J J > J . J> T# 1 I V. ' ^ 6 A . o. £ & +• I i j> J a t r r J 3 f t •f X . c o* . i C Pi J t °> . —a_ P ft. a. A . — O s — _ — f?—— a—=~=" £ <1 £ C ay s r t T f o 315 : c e o . » c. o _ , - f g, <*- £• C A -P f. f. I E. -e ^ 3 d r r ex. I ex. „ r. | g le £ c S > I r £ ^ _ C A g— S , a ^ ^ ^ a . r\ 1 cx r o a cx 1 -B-i - 6 0 -O <3> 316 John Jenkins, Saraband, fdefh (p. ?2, no. 91). T# 1?? J I > J J J . e g h k h - P e - P h c c ^ , e. g -P ^ »^ <V j — !=- , . — r l * A l 1 , - A i fr) 4 •ii' 1 ' A j . > j. C £ c. ft, „ h -P a- L ^ — \-f J h. a ^ '11' , j ^ 1 i \ , — « - f - ^ ? —-rr - x — ^ — £ — - ^ - ^ — 1 > A l n -1 U —j J J 1 J % — >^ Y f>' V J P W £ s^~~ l 1 1 1 V f -^f A J> J J o — ; t k I, k b / ^ f t r v r A k — : — k ~ ¥ k 1 \ * — = ^ t — A - \ '-r 317 John Jenkins, Ayre, fedfh (p. 76, no. 75). T# 109 cV ,—A C - t y - Vi C c\ f _ c . C\ c\ 4 V — A tx 'c c\ £ g q i l l 1 b r i . J J > C^w C ft . , CX £ fc. c x r i cx. 1 IL ^ ^ * ^ c^ ^ _£—„_4—fi. I S ! 3 E — t > J . * J > . i 1- > > H J . > cx, A CX A c 0 ? & • . . . cx cx — 3 f \Vut T 318 «wf—r J . > A. c a. A a. c x ... 1 <\ -c h c.—a-1^ Christopher Simpson, Almaine, fedfh (p. 88, no. 88). > . > > . * m >•>.') J >. > T# 94 I—a—8 " A - r " . i . + ^ t ^ * a, - J - ^ L j j J i 1 Ht-^-g 1 f (J a. •£ A » c*-: : ; A h a J 3 _ i 1 ni f 319 V» cx b cx cx_ t\ a cx O Q, 6 r u , a If 1 » f u h * k 1 > i " " J A b cxZ I A b A ft^ J f r r i . J> t p 1 r j - > _ t £ A c cx J 320 A 2 ^ + a. r A K -f A -f h A. =£-— - r t H — F a j * — ^ — 1 ^ l K J - r — \ a a. :> i « r r A -f h i h. -3 r 1 i . I 3 4 f c. A, -f A, , c A -f h CK c g i t 1 i t T O T T a rrf 321 Christopher Simpson, Saraband, fedfh (p. 89, no. 89). J J J J J J J ej i <J J -t» c . A T# 280 cx A V> c\ ~3 Q ^ k 1 1 cx i 5 I , 1 ^ — ~ J J. A> 1 ^ c C t *\ j i. > J ex. cx c y r~ £ C I <£ - a s - c r 55 r ; F n r r X T r c A £ , K 1 4 ? 1 1 cx \ A A 1 I T 7 f 322 Musicks Recreation (1669) Anonymous, Over the Mountains, defhf (p. 2, no. 3). T# 198 J A cx c & C c \ cx, cx 1 p pro i i r 1—n: 5 —^  cs, c ex cx c f. A £ CX ^ " 1 > J J. > J . r 323 Anonymous, S c o t t i s h Hornpipe, defhf (p. 24, no. 38). T# 219 A cX A I A Q>1 a b _a, „c\.. f==1=F J " J J J J > J J J . > J J J b A A , a , rt-C C . E . C ^ - V v £ c — | ft ' • - C — e d Q — r r-——— £ - ~ H - { — ^ — —c. 1— J r 1 ^ H J = r - ? — H =4= ^ 4 ^ = t=i= — w ^—^— 1 ^ ^ ' V wj 3 ' J J i i J. > J J I j ! C . C F„ C — ^ ; I X — 4 J 11 J i i i i r < U i . 324 William Gregory, An Ayr, defhf (p. 35, no. 51). T# 53 * — V C o. g. £ ~, Ol 7 • ? J. •'} J. > > A, A I Vv cx 1 * c f ex. cx cx f-r r T f r — j. -» A C CX . Ci . d A C C X _ C C X C C - - —E. - . CA A to <A V> C X C X h i r u 1 > J . > J > j " > . > . > i . 'J> i c e. a _cx_ cx f. C. > <\ -CX_ »~aC r 325 c\ -P ex -ON. C O v _£ C.. CX_ I SPSS r o — X r -P c, -P =F_ T T f T ex ex _cx A d T ; 5T John Esto, Saraband, defhf (p. 38, no. 55). J J . J> J J T# 178 % " K1 cx J l i 5 1 0 1 — — L ' If 1 r 1. ) i J 1 b F. -ft. \ -f 1* F c. -r- \ O- -f T 1 1  ex. f r J J 326 J . J> J . > J 1 cx ISC e. cx rr > > 1 r x c x W A CA c X b c x 1 I c x ft c \ 1 t- \ r c\ r y a - c x i 1 C X • cx —— _ c{ c CX P £ 4- \ 4. p x a t 1 -C \ N fc F * r — r — t — r - i y^agf it — 0 327 [Giuseppino], The I t a l i a n Rant, edfhf (p. 51. no. 73). T# 100 I C <l *P A H H T T £ -F € ^ A A J. >J C o. <« A g> PC -A-fc C=5 3 w> wfc w% a^j. w» , t - i . U j i i . i « • » r - r. M i 1 1 r. R ° c S ft )>.) > > • J >• > , , » f t ? " J >> J . — J WuUUH 1 HE 328 J > . > J IJ >. ) ) i J t!_ y. ex CK f Anonymous, Prethe Love Turn to Me, edfhf (p. 55» no. 78). T# 249 i J J J - J J J . J J J . J> J J J i i -4 cx r J . J J d J J< ^ J d ' i - «^  <J % C CA C — £ — * !  CX 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 . Si \ 1 J - > J J J — ^ A a r -'. Ck -S 6—^—g <^ ? - r -* h * * » j — a ^>J? : P_ r 1 j * _ ^ L _ 329 _^ 1 e 21 r <x & ft zee -Ou-i 5 T Simon Ives, Ayr, edfhf (p. 60, no. 86). J. J> i J . i i . — , £ 3 — -f . jj, £ b_ A A <\ T# 114 J < s M — 6 — JTi . &i— 1 ] pi' J i. ) h ^ i 1 1 3 \ , -0 hf 1 fey 1 • • E ^ t r — 1 J.J>. [ J ] J . J 1 ] . > On 1 r 7 330 - P -P a c. t | —• *f P P * * • T J . > -A 1 ^ 1 ' U t l W I I I M I I W J J . > j i J J> J h CK £ h r - i ^ b , a ^ ^ -f f. -P •1 -— - A -i— I — T ^ 4 r il ~tcr * ft ) u cx L 1 CA 1 i 1 c—r—a> W -m 331 William Gregory, Almain, edfhf (p. 75. no. 10k), T# 105 1 S Z E Z Z E : ^ . J . i n i s : T T rr a, fx 1 J. J> J J> J A c _fc> i : t E E C .—± CK -£—&C W a a b \ C SA ~\ — f i \ C b a l i r a — l 332 fc- C E , - E g . C <a H I t L h f <2w ^ ^ ^ ^ j n > ) . > I I " S T "27 .William Gregory, Corant, edfhf (p. 76, no. 106). T# 286 A . J J 4 « w fc 1 - 333 . •x. J j . i j j J J . y _ £ - \ . 4- j cx — — _ CK : it I 1 r -J J. I J J - > J J .J J) =£ A , jg_ 4 & b- ex :K c a J. ) 1 i- J i J E. C E. c cx a - 1 1 > Is r 1 _ J . —$ ^ 4-^ r t • i . > ) J. > j r — * i cx c o\ \ rK 1 CX CA J 4L-C** 1 r 5 .2. *Was 33^ John Moss, A J i g , edfhf (p. 88, no. 11?). T# 98 ^ « r 1 - s ^ — & >» £ H T J J c a ^ -r-. : & 4 — : — \ i , j> y .A. • ! • A ^ — \ — V s A A. 3 _ - A -f r [ 1 f f _ck _ _ cx £. c » cx a 1 e- ' e cx ex. I I 3 3 : 335 John Jenkins, Almain with D i v i s i o n , fdefh (p. 90» T# 11 no. 119). L £ .... s» C_g t-\ ^ 3 g A : ore, \ % cjfc, r g — ^ 5 J. ) J i C tA 3SI 1^1 %4 <s* — 5 T 1 1 j r u 336 £ t Ox Q, fa.. icx: 5 f c a: 0 <x c L - c ; C ft . — * r4—H—1— ^ £ 4 - ^ f ^ — 6 ) ! i ^ i - 1 > "A J> C g. -f £ „ . C CX c c or F. C ^ > 337 i J A c & c ty tx BE A O . 1 J Ou i 1 T — g BE i f ^ <x C £ £. f f. C. CX ^ C. J > " j > i > hf. , £ OS •f £ c~ac T A I tcij'fttx 338 2 S Thomas Bates, Ayr, fdefh (p. 104, no. 134). T# 14 I r- ft ^ c ri r > J . J> = T , § \ J > Ok £X 1 - 7 T & : i 1 A 1 ,. 1.—1M—I—, — — — , 0r^ 3—-S j * f-f— ~ p J T - ^ f — f — i " i - > > h f i. c i r T a c E. A X a c. <sz T=crT r t J> i . J> J J — 2 ¥ '• 1 1 r. 1 i T. ? I ? f /John Moss, Saraband, fdefh (p. 109, no. 139). T# 228 J. J> i J >. > >> ) J I M cx CX |C I A - A cx cx a 15 e — » — \ CX >, P *V j, — —W^ - C ^~r~" - i c  _ & c £t» Z M — ^ , ^ J — * j ; if r^-fT ^ or r -3^ 0 •3: : & -A-i t * X c k c A (rt c c. pn ~ ••••Si L i 4 A. & C c V T T -f-341 John Withie, Almain, fedfh (p. 114, no. 145) ^» ^ ^ J T# 83 ± a. cx c!. A C :cx 351 r r r r C X C C X A h cx cx -JCX-5 4 T t l x c A c c t _ -CX_ C ft a 32. t f ^ ^ ^ J i • J) J ZSx--XX- cx A. CX_ r 342 > J J J -<X-c o, ) , 1 ret O" f T f r a <\ c: i s : r r John Withie. Saraband with D i v i s i o n , fedfh (p. 117, no. 148). T# 230 J 1- J 1 ' j 4 b Q\ c a -r V 1 1 J J o. J i J . 3 5 : A : 3^3 > - C ? l — C A.—CX. CL C X — C X — c * > J . " J J . J •— n 1 /V < \ c x £ r x \ C r » b _ , c x 1 I i J 1 1 ,. I T T - f ft3iC h - f i h 0 , ' f , A - f i n CA J S C 1 4 T T J J 344 r * ^ — s i 1 3 M i«« s w » — — b a — . A , 1 = *»A. 1 — — 1 * » » J -F . A a c A, -£ A C CSk, — * Z Musick*s Recreation (1682) Anonymous, The Hobby Horse Dance, defhf (p. 14, no. 20). T# 222 J J. > J J,) J J j J J J J J. > J >— <5k- c. a. e 1 £4. A . f J 3 J J 345 I S <%. A <\ CK « ? - — -j j j J. <r. g. c. r r r r i f f ^ | S c c * U 1 A 1 n b* J 1 & t 4 — — — 1 pi J . f j . '1 Simon Ives, Corant, defhf (p. 24, no. 34). T# 167 J J J ^=5 i s : ' r 5 346 | W ^ 3 r'g' ^ V -$r—c E ° > — A ^ _ . — f r _ 4*—^4-4^ k ;  - J — - 4 - + - 1 — ^ — < J j^ J ——k—& -J . J > J J . "> - ^ - 4 r ^ ft VT AJg ws» — a* —— \ \ Hi —^—^  i ^ J—*0 r ^ ^»—: ^ ) 1} J I S 1 J . > I2t — i — — . — ) j : > " i . > J i J V <a>V ( ^ te: 3^ 7 3JC IS.: .j 1 1 cx 1 4 1 ^ 1 1 X 1 ^ j ^ | ^ 1 ow >) i . r 7 T . Simon Ives, Prelude, defhf (p. 28, no. 39). -r T# 10 > ) > J i Tim 1 WJ a  <« & r -w-1> > J l ' > 348 I < & . < x <v 351 -3-3-f J > 1 — ^ f \ \ Ji 4 » V l A a - ' - C - i U . ^ C f a c t . f t c a 349 } &es Caress: 3 5 1 & & > > 3 > J > A C g, C •ft**. I 47 ; 4 f. Cff, -f - A . f . ^ X_ I - T Z ft 4 4 4-— W T 350 e c A A A -&~ArA. -6 £. C Ck z: * < aoaeBBi • b v r a n i i y WJanaasEH jpnnquway j J . J J J > £ 5 r Anonymous, Bore, defhf (p. 36, no. 49). T# 58 J . J J J J J i - J l - > J J J a k A 4» ft 1 -A -a, 1E San * " ' J J J J - J J J 5* £ h -grgr 4 -A a t -»w*-f 351 -tfw-r<3 i ^ h k e t ft •£ — ^ i t St. 1 * ; — [John Banister], Sweet Jane, defhf (p. 37, no. 51). T# 204 J J J J J J .JJ J J J T V J -c 3 1 a <\ 33Z i t 352 § § 6 * i i n r ~ g r _X3> a| I J * l ( i i J a J i ^•'^•jl- I JO*-ft ft j , J J J |.Ji ] ^f^H-H r 7 1 0 Anonymous, Abington J i g , defhf (p. 54, no. 74). T# 152 ~^HP" r A V> t * . 3 3 : 353 - c A - T K ^ I A - * » 1 T J J « S J J j J i J J J J J K n l i j «A ^ X £ j A l» a _JC^ < 4? A -p-^ - J — 1 1 i ft A—I. L L^ 1 4 = 1 L f L J _ — — 2T Anonymous, Gerard's Mistress, edfhf (p. 59. no. 5)• T# 96 zE=E£ 3: _JSk L J* X ^  d- 3 5 * 5*—;1 ,4 ' —p—7*—~X X r A-—1——^ />——5s——\—f£—A J»-— <3t t3t ' _ 4^ N _ & r — — e * > c» K. t % i C- £ C. C i A, 1 <-A j — j ^ o_ r j . > > . > ) . > > - > > }.) y> j Anonymous, The Figary, edfhf (p. 61, no. 7). T# 27 I S I S F A - ^ h i U t . £4 W4 % OL ck 444A <* ^A^> 3E =3 •0^ A <y, S A 4: 355 3E 1 1 —~£> ' 9 » u^4 - x Mi-, f ' I & 1 1 - 1 - 4-^j=^ J i J i J. J- J J J 3SI 3E-^ 1 i J U l l 1 H 1 — 1 - i - = j £ K L A y, a  ^ A 3 f c B E Baptist, Minuet, edfhf (p. 63, no. 10). T# 207 J J J 3 £ -rr T" ^ I J J 3 5 6 \ <x •£ (L A a, - A -4 0 4 , i - -1 i J—t k •• f — 4 = ^ r f y. J J . ) J J J J J . J JJJ > J J J . _ : fc» . C. C T C 1 C ft I C C f. a 1 L_ \ £L_C c. c cx et. i-1 £% j ^ i j \>\ = f a = rHl|Ut|JJ.i4^to 1 1 ' r i ^ y Anonymous, Farewel F a i r Armida, edfhf (p. 68, no. 17) . T# 2 3 9 ~~ J J n % J > J > > J J J & A £ V J J . \ — f f » 3 £ J J-> J J j j J •> J J J pr-" 351 M#WVT-^ J J i ft ft ft TT JJ>) } J ) 357 79—A—!L £_ £ £ 1 * £. — A p — — / » *"4i P f f — ' — : C C < V j f — < V T — k j — u k i — f t * **• T h — _ J : , 1 p 1 I 1 £4 B T John Esto, Saraband, edfhf (p. 79, no. 29). " J " J J . J . ) J . J J T# 263 J i 1 LJ-Xi I r v - - ^> <%. tx •p* ^ J J . > J J J J " J I2t J) J . J IS! ±UJ\.\._ i?i-,M—w-j r 5 ^ T 358 George'Hudson, An Ayre, edfhf (p. 86, no. 38). T# 91 _ A _ d 2fc 3 S I a : ^ y T C!J-3 > J' CI, ~ . i b >j J > J . > c e t C <X ft 

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