UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Literacy in mid-nineteenth century Devon and Suffolk Shahidullah, Kazi 1979

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LITERACY IN MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY DEVON AND SUFFOLK by KAZI SHAHIDULLAH M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f D a c c a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH March, 1979 ® K a z i S h a h i d u l l a h , COLUMBIA 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ' The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 History 3 E - 6 B P 75-5 I I E i i ABSTRACT In mid-nineteenth century, Devon and Suffolk were both a g r i c u l t u r a l counties and yet the l e v e l of l i t e r a c y d i f f e r e d considerably between them. This thesis undertakes an investigation of l i t e r a c y both between and within the two counties and i n the process attempts to resolve why Devon was so much more l i t e r a t e than Suffolk. The concept of l i t e r a c y i s s t i l l shrouded by a degree of vagueness and i t has only been possible to provide some tentative explanations for many of the problems involved. Nevertheless, t h i s thesis has succeeded i n locating some of the factors influencing the growth of basic l i t e r a c y i n the two counties. These factors were the extent of poverty, higher concentration of professional and commercial people, lower involvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l work, greater degree of urbanization and better communication f a c i l i t i e s . Also, some of the common assumptions of l i t e r a c y , e.g., schooling, demand for c h i l d labour and r e l i g i o u s allegiance of the people, has been challenged, and the doors for the most f r u i t f u l areas to pursue revealed for future scholars. Most of the work for t h i s thesis has stemmed from primary source material. The Parliamentary Papers i s a mine of information and has been extremely helpful for t h i s study. Even then, i t should be pointed out that the Parliamentary Papers, despite i t s usefulness, have certain l i m i t a t i o n s which r e s t r i c t s the scope of t h i s thesis. i i i C O N T E N T S P a g e A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s i v C h a p t e r 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2 . C o n t r a s t s 1 0 3 . A n a t o m y o f L o c a l R e g i o n s 2 6 4 . C o n c l u s i o n 4 9 A p p e n d i x 1 5 6 L i t e r a c y r a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t c o u n t i e s o f E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , 1 8 7 0 A p p e n d i x 2 5 7 P e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k b e l o n g i n g t o c i t i e s A p p e n d i x 3 5 8 N u m b e r o f P e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e m i l e i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n A p p e n d i x 4 5 9 N u m b e r o f P e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e m i l e i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k A p p e n d i x 5 6 0 O c c u p a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n , 1 8 7 1 A p p e n d i x 6 6 1 O c c u p a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k , 1 8 7 1 i v P a g e A p p e n d i x 7 6 2 P e r c e n t a g e o f p a u p e r s i n r e c e i p t o f r e l i e f t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n A p p e n d i x 8 6 3 P e r c e n t a g e o f p a u p e r s i n r e c e i p t o f r e l i e f t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k A p p e n d i x 9 6 4 D a t e o f o p e n i n g o f r a i l l i n e s i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n A p p e n d i x 1 0 6 5 D a t e o f o p e n i n g o f r a i l l i n e s i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k A p p e n d i x 1 1 6 6 S c h o o l i n g S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n A p p e n d i x 1 2 6 7 S c h o o l i n g S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k A p p e n d i x 1 3 6 8 P e r c e n t a g e o f C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a t t e n d e n t s t o t o t a l a t t e n d e n t s a t P u b l i c W o r s h i p i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n , 1 8 5 1 A p p e n d i x 1 4 P e r c e n t a g e o f C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d a t t e n d e n t s t o t o t a l a t t e n d e n t s a t P u b l i c W o r s h i p i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k , 1 8 5 1 A p p e n d i x 1 5 M a l e / F e m a l e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a g e d b e t w e e n 5 a n d 1 9 i n D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k N o t e s 7 4 B i b l i o g r a p h y 8 2 V L i s t of Tables Page 1. Area d i s t r i b u t i o n for d i f f e r e n t crops i n Devon and Suffolk, 1879-80 11 2. Land d i s t r i b u t i o n on a Suffolk farm 12 3. Farm holdings size i n Devon and Suffolk 17 4. Weekly cash wages i n Devon and Suffolk 2 0 5. Percentage of brides and grooms able to sign t h e i r names on Marriage, 1865-70 27 6. L i t e r a c y and Urbanization (Devon) 29 7. L i t e r a c y and Urbanization (Suffolk) 30 8. Li t e r a c y and Density (Devon) 32 9. Li t e r a c y and Density (Suffolk) 33 10. L i t e r a c y and Occupation (Devon) 35 11. L i t e r a c y and Occupation (Suffolk) 36 12. L i t e r a c y and Poverty (Devon) 37 13. L i t e r a c y and Poverty (Suffolk) 38 14. 'Literacy and Communication (Devon) 39 15. L i t e r a c y and Communication (Suffolk) 40 16. L i t e r a c y and Schooling (Devon) 42 17. L i t e r a c y and Schooling (Suffolk) 43 18. L i t e r a c y and Religion (Devon) 44 19. L i t e r a c y and Religion (Suffolk) 45 20. L i t e r a c y and Urbanization, 1861 46 21. L i t e r a c y and Occupation, 1871 46 22. L i t e r a c y and Poverty 47 23. L i t e r a c y and Schooling 47 v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l I g n a t i e f f f o r f i r s t i n t r o d u c i n g m e t o t h e f a s c i n a t i n g f i e l d o f V i c t o r i a n r u r a l e d u c a t i o n f r o m w h i c h h a s s t e m m e d t h i s t h e s i s . T h a n k s a r e a l s o d u e t o P r o f e s s o r J a m e s H u z e l f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e a r r a n g e m e n t , a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s . M y g r e a t e s t d e b t , h o w e v e r , i s t o m y S u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r J a m e s W i n t e r , n o t m e r e l y f o r h i s s t i m u l a t i n g l e c t u r e s a n d v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , b u t a l s o f o r t h e p a t i e n t k i n d n e s s a n d t o l e r a n c e w i t h w h i c h h e g u i d e d m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . A n d f i n a l l y , l i k e a l l m a r r i e d s c h o l a r s , I a l s o o w e a d e b t t o m y w i f e S h a m m i f o r h e r c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . -1-C h a p t e r 1  I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e h i s t o r y o f t h e g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , a n d o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , h a s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n f r o m h i s t o r i a n s a n d a w i d e n u m b e r o f s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m a d e c o v e r i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . S u r p r i s i n g l y , h o w e v e r , e d u c a t i o n i s t s h a v e d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g l i t e r a c y a n d f e w e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o a n a l y s e t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g l i t e r a c y . M o s t o f t h e w o r k o f e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s s i m p l y f o c u s o n s c h o o l r e f o r m s , p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l i n g , m e t h o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m , a t t e n d a n c e p r o b l e m s a n d s o c i a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n s . A m o n g t h e f e w t o l o o k o n s c h o o l i n g a s s i m p l y o n e a s p e c t o f t h e g e n e r a l s u b j e c t o f l i t e r a c y a r e W . P . B a k e r ' s s t u d y o f P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s a n d I l l i t e r a c y i n E a s t Y o r k s h i r e " * ' , W . B . S t e p h e n ' s , " A n a t o m y o f I l l i t e r a c y i n 2 M i d - V i c t o r i a n D e v o n " , a n d t h e r e c e n t d e b a t e b e t w e e n P r o f e s s o r S a n d e r s o n , P r o f e s s o r L a q u e r a n d P r o f e s s o r W e s t o n " L i t e r a c y 3 a n d t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n " . T h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f t h e d e b a t e w a s w h e t h e r t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n i t i a t e d o r r e -v e r s e d l i t e r a c y a n d n o a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o a c t u a l l y i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s p r o m o t i n g l i t e r a c y . P r o f e s s o r S a n d e r s o n , i n h i s s t u d y , t e n d e d t o m o v e f r o m f i g u r e s o f l i t e r a c y t o f i g u r e s o f s c h o o l i n g a n d w i t h o u t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s s u m e d t h a t t h e t w o a r e r e l a t e d . W h e t h e r s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n i s a l w a y s v a l i d r e m a i n s t o b e s e e n . L i t e r a c y i s a n i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c -2-b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s a n d c u l t u r e s , a n d i t s s t u d y i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . L i t e r a c y a c t s t o c r e a t e a n a w a r e n e s s o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n p a s t a n d p r e s e n t , a n d p r o m o t e s a s e n s e 5 o f c h a n g e a n d o f c u l t u r a l l a g . I t r a x s e s t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f p e o p l e a n d m a k e s t h e m m o r e a d a p t a b l e t o n e w c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d r e c e p t i v e t o n e w i d e a s . I t s s c o p e , t h e r e f o r e , t r a n s c e n d s t h a t o f m e r e f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g , a n d i t s e f f e c t s o n p o p u l a r m e n t a l i t i e s a r e p r o b a b l y m o r e p r o f o u n d t h a n i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n . P e r h a p s , o n e r e a s o n f o r i t s n e g l e c t b y h i s t o r i a n s h a s b e e n t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n i t s m e a s u r e m e n t , t h e i m p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f i t s m e a n i n g , a n d t h e p r o b l e m s i n w e i g h i n g t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g i t . E v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e l i t e r a c y o f E n g l i s h m e n b e f o r e t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s f r a g m e n t a r y a n d l i m i t e d . E v e n t h e n , L a w r e n c e S t o n e , u s i n g t h e P r o t e s t a t i o n O a t h R e t u r n s o f 1642 a n d m a r r i a g e m a r k s i n p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s , t e n t a t i v e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t b e t w e e n 1642 a n d 1840 t o w n s h a d a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f m a l e l i t e r a c y a s o p p o s e d t o t h e r u r a l a r e a s a n d t h a t l i t e r a c y r a t e f o r m a l e s h a d g o n e u p t o t w o - t h i r d s (66 p e r c e n t ) i n 184 0 f r o m a b o u t o n e - t h i r d (33 p e r c e n t ) i n 1642. T h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a c y p a t t e r n i n 184 0 s h o w e d t h a t , o u t s i d e L o n d o n t h e v e r y h i g h e s t r a t e s o f l i t e r a c y a r e r e c o r d e d b y t h e f a r n o r t h (81 p e r c e n t ) -N o r t h u m b e r l a n d , C u m b e r l a n d , W e s t m o r l a n d , D u r h a m a n d t h e E a s t a n d N o r t h R i d i n g s o f Y o r k s h i r e - a n d s o m e o f t h e v e r y l o w e s t b y a g r o u p o f c o u n t i e s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e n o r t h a n d e a s t o f L o n d o n (51 p e r c e n t ) - B e d f o r d s h i r e , H e r t f o r d s h i r e , H u n t i n g d o n -s h i r e , B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e , E s s e x , C a m b r i d g e s h i r e , S u f f o l k a n d - 3 -N o r f o l k , t h e f i r s t t w o h a v i n g t h e l o w e s t r a t e s i n a l l E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s • . T h e l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y w a s a l s o n o t e v e n l y s p r e a d a m o n g d i f f e r e n t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s . I n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , d e s p i t e i t s a d v a n c e d s t a g e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d u r b a n i z a t i o n , w a s l e s s l i t e r a t e t h a n S c o t l a n d , S w e d e n , P r u s s i a , S w i t z e r l a n d , H o l l a n d a n d p a r t s o f t h e A u s t r i a n E m p i r e . F r a n c e , h o w e v e r , w a s s t i l l l a g g i n g s l i g h t l y b e h i n d E n g l a n d . P r o f e s s o r S t o n e h a s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m M a r r i a g e R e g i s t e r s t h a t i n 1 8 5 5 , 6 8 p e r c e n t o f m a l e s i n F r a n c e w e r e l i t e r a t e a s o p p o s e d t o 7 0 p e r c e n t f o r E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s a n d 8 9 p e r c e n t f o r S c o t l a n d . T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R e g i s t e r G e n e r a l o f B i r t h s , D e a t h s a n d M a r r i a g e s f o r 1 8 7 0 s h o w e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l s o f l i t e r a c y f r o m o n e p a r t o f E n g l a n d t o a n o t h e r . I n 1 8 7 0 , 1 8 . 2 p e r c e n t o f b r i d e s a n d g r o o m s i n D e v o n s h i r e w e r e u n a b l e t o s i g n t h e i r n a m e s o n m a r r i a g e a s c o m p a r e d t o 2 6 . 6 p e r c e n t f o r S u f f o l k . T h e q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s a s t o w h y t h e r e s h o u l d b e s u c h a w i d e d i f f e r e n c e i n l i t e r a c y f i g u r e s b e t w e e n t w o c o u n t i e s w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e l i v e i n a r u r a l e n v i r o n -m e n t . T h e i s s u e b e c o m e s m o r e c o m p l e x a n d i n t e r e s t i n g w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b o t h D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k r e m a i n e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t i e s a n d n e i t h e r h a d d e v e l o p e d h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c e n t r e s . T h e a i m o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e a n d , i n t h e p r o c e s s , a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e g r o w t h o f b a s i c l i t e r a c y i n t h e s e t w o c o u n t i e s . T h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f l i t e r a c y i s a n e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d -4-task, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the very d e f i n i t i o n of l i t e r a c y s t i l l tends to be elusive. A degree of vagueness surrounds the concept. Speculation about a l l the possible inadequacies of any d e f i n i t i o n of i l l i t e r a c y i n a h i s t o r i c a l perspective could 7 go on forever . Nevertheless, Professor Schofield has convinc-ingly argued that for p r a c t i c a l purposes there i s one tes t of l i t e r a c y which s a t i s f i e s a l l the requirements of a universal, standard and d i r e c t measure, and that i s the a b i l i t y to sign q one's name . Thus, i n t h i s paper, l i t e r a c y has been treated i n this admittedly limited but straightforward way. The only p r a c t i c a l source for the measurement of l i t e r a c y i s provided by the marriage r e g i s t r a t i o n of the country. Since the passing of Lord Hardwicke 1s Marriage Act of 1753, signing of the marriage r e g i s t e r became binding for the contracting partie s . From 1839 onward the Register General of Births, Deaths and Marriages, began to include i n his annual report l i t e r a c y data for both men and women, derived from marriage 9 . . registers . Those who made a mark on the marriage r e g i s t e r instead of signing t h e i r names represent the i l l i t e r a t e s of the country. It should be pointed out here that the measurement of l i t e r a c y based on marriage r e g i s t e r s , though f a i r l y accurate, s t i l l suffers from several drawbacks"^: F i r s t , the reg i s t e r s refer only to the marrying population; second, the registers record the signatures of people as they get married, thereby providing figures heavily biased towards the age group between 2 0 and 2 9 years; t h i r d , children leaving school at the age of thirteen were l i a b l e to forget how to write by the time of -5-t h e i r marriage through want of use; fourth, i t i s often alleged that the registers do not adequately represent the a b i l i t y of the brides and grooms to sign t h e i r names because the solemnity of the occasion was such that the more timid among them made marks when they would o r d i n a r i l y have signed t h e i r names; and yet another common objection to the use of the marriage r e g i s t e r evidence has been that brides i n p a r t i c u l a r were l i k e l y to have made marks when they could well have signed out of a f e e l i n g of delicacy for t h e i r husband i f they saw that he had been unable to sign his name- A l l these weaknesses should be borne in mind throughout our subsequent discussion of l i t e r a c y . Since l i t e r a c y or the lack of i t i s a c r u c i a l factor i n the general culture of a society or a group within i t , any attempt to examine the causes of changes necessarily involves almost a l l aspects of that culture and i t s environment. Such an enormous task cannot be attempted here. In an attempt to f i n d some controls I have therefore, selected two counties i n the southern half of England where the c u l t u r a l and environmental facts, while d i f f e r e n t , are not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . Then I have selected those factors which are most commonly pointed to as causes of change in rates of l i t e r a c y or factors that have commonly been supposed to be most important or that occur most readil y to common sense. Comparisons between Devon and Suffolk should then make i t possible to say something about the r e l a t i v e importance of the factors selected. F a c i l i t i e s for formal schoolingare commonly assumed to be c an essential part of any study of l i t e r a c y . Indeed i t i s d i f -f i c u l t to imagine that l i t e r a c y would not have been affected by - 6 -c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L a n c a s t r i a n a n d N a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s e a r l y i n t h e c e n t u r y , b u t i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e t o d o u b t t h a t i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y s c h o o l s m i g h t n o t h a v e b e e n t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r . I h a v e t r e a t e d e d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e , s i m p l y a s o n e o f m y v a r i a b l e s a n d h a v e k e p t a n o p e n m i n d a b o u t i t s r e l a t i v e w e i g h t . A n o t h e r c o m m o n s e n s e a s s u m p t i o n o f t e n t h o u g h t t o b e c r u c i a l i s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l i t e r a c y a n d t h e d e m a n d f o r c h i l d l a b o u r . T h i s , t o o , I h a v e d e c i d e d t o t r e a t s e p a r a t e l y a s a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f , i n f a c t , w o r k a n d l i t e r a c y w e r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . A l s o , t h e r e i s a p r i m a f a c i e c a s e t h a t t h e r e a r e m o r e i l l i t e r a t e s i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t h a n i n u r b a n a r e a s , i n p o o r a r e a s t h a n i n w e a l t h y o n e s , a m o n g s t p e a s a n t s o r u n s k i l l e d w a g e l a b o u r e r s t h a n a m o n g c r a f t s m e n ^ " ' " . I h a v e t h e r e -f o r e , u s e d n a t u r e o f e m p l o y m e n t , s t a t e o f p o v e r t y , a n d d e g r e e o f a c c e s s t o t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e ( r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s ) a s s o m e o f m y o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . I h a v e a l s o u s e d r e l i g i o n a s a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e , s i n c e i t c o u l d b e a s s u m e d t h a t n o n - c o n f o r m i t y m a j o r i t y a r e a s m i g h t p u t a h i g h e r v a l u e o n B i b l e r e a d i n g . I h a v e c a l c u l a t e d l i t e r a c y f i g u r e s f o r a p e r i o d o f 6 y e a r s f r o m 1 8 6 5 t o 1 8 7 0 a n d h a v e n o t r e l i e d e n t i r e l y o n t h e f i g u r e s f o r t h e o n e p a r t i c u l a r y e a r o f 1 8 7 0 . T h e d e c i s i o n t o f o c u s m y w o r k o n t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h r e e f a c t o r s : F i r s t , s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r a s s e s s i n g l i t e r a c y f o r t h e p e r i o d s p r e c e d i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e -1 2 t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e l i m i t e d , a n d t h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o w a y -7-f o r m e t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n a n e a r l i e r p e r i o d ; s e c o n d , t h e c l o s i n g y e a r s o f t h e 1850's a n d t h e e n t i r e 1860 ' s m a r k e d t h e g o l d e n p e r i o d o f B r i t i s h a g r i c u l t u r e a n d b o t h D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k h a d t h e i r s h a r e o f t h i s p r o s p e r i t y . T h e p e r i o d a f t e r 1870 h o w e v e r , w a s a n e r a o f a c u t e d e p r e s s i o n f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t i e s b u t i t s e f f e c t o n D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k w a s n o t u n i f o r m . S u f f o l k w a s h i t m u c h h a r d e r t h a n D e v o n . T h i s , I f e e l , w i l l s o m e w h a t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t l i t e r a c y r a t e s f o r S u f f o l k . M y p l a n i s t o s t u d y t h e t w o c o u n t i e s t h r i v i n g u n d e r s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d h a v e t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o c o n f i n e m y w o r k t o t h e 18 6 0 ' s . T h i r d , t h e p e r i o d a f t e r 1870 w a s a l s o a m o m e n t o u s e r a f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n . T h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1870 p l e d g e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o m a k e e d u c a t i o n a c c e s s i b l e t o e v e r y E n g l i s h h o m e . F r o m t h a t d a t e o n w a r d s t o t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y , P a r l i a m e n t a p p r o v e d v a r i o u s o t h e r b i l l s d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e c h i l d e m p l o y m e n t , m a k e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e c o m p u l s o r y , w a i v e s c h o o l f e e s , a n d i m p r o v e t h e g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p o s t 1870 e r a h a s b e e n w e l l a t t e n d e d t o b y s c h o l a r s a n d a l a r g e a m o u n t o f w o r k h a s b e e n d o n e o n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e p e r i o d . H o w e v e r , r e l a t i v e l y f e w s t u d i e s h a v e f o c u s s e d o n t h e 1860 ' s a n d I h a v e t h e r e f o r e , d e c i d e d t o c o n -c e n t r a t e o n t h a t p e r i o d . T h i s t h e s i s , t h u s , a n a l y s e s t h e s i t -u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s , a n d l e a v e s o p e n t h e p e r i o d o f t h e 1870 ' s a n d 1880 ' s f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . M o s t o f t h e w o r k f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s b a s e d m a i n l y o n t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s . T h e P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s o f 1851, 1861 a n d 1871, t h e E d u c a t i o n a l C e n s u s f o r 1851, a n d t h e R e g i s t e r -8-General's s t a t i s t i c s for the years 1865 - 70 of brides and grooms unable to sign t h e i r name at marriage has been p a r t i -c u l a r l y useful. The reason for looking at 1851 reports i s obvious. By the end of the 1860's the mean marriage-ages of men and women were 28 and 26 and, i t can be said that many of those who had had any schooling would have received i t 13 to on T 1 3 21 years e a r l i e r . In the course of my research investigation i t became f a i r l y c lear that a l l questions concerning l i t e r a c y could not be explored e f f i c i e n t l y at the county l e v e l . The county as a unit has i n some parts of the country a degree of homogeneity but i t i s sometimes defective as a s t a t i s t i c a l unit because most counties contain diverse areas - c i t i e s , towns, mining d i s t r i c t s , farming communities - which are l i k e l y to cause 14 wide variations within the county boundaries . In Suffolk for the period 1865 - 1870, for example, an average of 30.2 per cent i l l i t e r a c y on marriage includes Risbridge with 48.6 per cent and Ipswich with only 15.4 per cent. I have, there-fore, decided to take a close look at the pattern of l i t e r a c y e xisting within the counties themselves. This I have been able to do because the census material allowed me to break some county s t a t i s t i c s down to the census d i s t r i c t l e v e l . Even then, I should point out that t h i s work has to some extent been handicapped by the fact that I did not have access to the l o c a l Devon and Suffolk publications and the various publicat-ions of the B r i t i s h Education Department. I have endeavoured to do the best I could from the available sources and, i n a l l -9-f a i r n e s s , would l i k e to make c l e a r a t the o u t s e t t h a t i t has not been p o s s i b l e on my p a r t to pr o v i d e more than t e n t a t i v e and p r o v i s i o n a l answers to many of the problems i n v o l v e d . -10-Chapter 2  Contrasts Nineteenth century Suffolk and Devon had s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a c y rates and yet were similar i n many respects: Both were predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l counties with l i t t l e i n d u s t r i a l strength; both had urban centres but none of them were major c i t i e s ; the railway arrived about the same time i n both counties, Devon i n 1844 and Suffolk i n 1846; and the wage l e v e l i n both places were simi l a r . The systems of farming pursued i n the two counties however, were r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . Both counties had t h e i r own d i s t i n c t system of agriculture shaped by the physical properties of i t s environment, e.g., climate, s o i l and topography. The question to be examined here i s whether these differences and the e f f e c t they had on l i v i n g conditions can explain s a t i s f a c t o r i l y why so many more people i n Devonshire learned at least minimum s k i l l s i n reading and writing. To do so, we must have some understanding of the a g r i c u l t u r a l systems and how they changed or did not change from the beginning of the century. The wide variety of s o i l s p r e v a i l i n g i n the two counties materially influenced the farming of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t regions. Strong clays constituted more than two-thirds of Suffolk and the remainder was formed of common mixed s o i l s and l i g h t chalk lands. In Devon, carboniferous formation covered about 41 per cent, the rest was made up of old redstone, new red sandstone, old red sandstone, granite, poor sands and gravels. The -11-v a r y i n g c h a r a c t e r o f s o i l a n d c l i m a t e l e d t h e D e v o n s h i r e f a r m e r t o p r a c t i c e , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s l o c a l i t y , n e a r l y e v e r y a g r i c u l -t u r a l a r t : D a i r y , t i l l a g e , o r c h a r d s , i r r i g a t e d m e a d o w s , t h e b r e e d i n g a n d f e e d i n g o f s t o c k , a n d t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f w a s t e l a n d " * " . T h e h e a v y c l a y s o f S u f f o l k , t o o , f o l l o w e d a m i x e d h u s b a n d r y : S h e e p a n d c a t t l e w e r e f a t t e n e d , a n d a f o u r c o u r s e r o t a t i o n u s e d o n t h e a r a b l e o f c l e a n f a l l o w o r t a r e s , m a n g o l d o r t u r n i p s , f o l l o w e d b y b a r l e y , f o l l o w e d b y c l o v e r o r p u l s e s 2 a l t e r n a t e l y , f o l l o w e d b y w h e a t . T h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l t i v a t e d a r e a u n d e r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f 3 c r o p s i n D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k i n 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 w a s : T a b l e 1 . A r e a d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t c r o p s i n D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k ( 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 ) P e r c e n t a g e f o r S u f f o l k D e s c r i p t i o n P e r c e n t a g e f o r D e v o n 3 9 . 3 A r e a u n d e r C o r n c r o p s 1 5 . 7 4 1 6 . 9 A r e a u n d e r p e r m a n e n t 4 3 . 7 3 P a s t u r e : S o u r c e : C o m p i l e d f r o m t h e R e p o r t s o f t h e A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s -i o n e r s , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n A g r i c u l t u r e , M r . L i t t l e ' s  R e p o r t : D e v o n ; a n d M r . D r u c e ' s R e p o r t : S u f f o l k , B P P , A g r i c u l t u r a l I n t e r e s t s ; X I X , 1 8 8 0 . T h i s t a b l e s h o w s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e s u b s t a n c e t o t h e p o p u l a r i m p r e s s i o n t h a t S u f f o l k i s a c o r n c o u n t y a n d D e v o n a p a s t o r a l o n e . T h i s h a d n o t a l w a y s b e e n t h e c a s e . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e s y s t e m o f f a r m i n g i n S u f f o l k v a r i e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d i v e r s i t y o f t h e s o i l . T h e n , C e n t r a l S u f f o l k w a s m a i n l y a d a i r y i n g d i s t r i c t a n d w a s w e l l k n o w n f o r -12-i t s cheese and butter products, the western sands supported a sheep and barley husbandry, the eastern sands made good corn land when improved with marl, the unimproved heaths were sheepwalks, while the coastal marshes were used for c a t t l e feeding grounds^. This system of farming underwent a gradual change following the Napoleonic war. The sharp r i s e i n grain prices convinced Suffolk landowners and farmers of the need to substitute for dairy pastures the more p r o f i t a b l e corn crops. Henceforth, conversion from dairy pastures to arable cropping was lar g e l y practised and Suffolk, which had been celebrated at the beginning of the nineteenth century for i t s d a i r i e s , was by the middle of the century noted as a major corn growing county. The following summary of the accounts of a Suffolk landowner (farming 253% acres) i l l u s t r a t e s c l e a r l y the degree to which the conversion of pasture into arable land had been effected: The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the land on t h i s farm since 1780 has been: Table 2. Land d i s t r i b u t i o n on a Suffolk farm. Land and buildings 1780 1870 1880 1895 Acres Acres Acres Acres Arable 52 154 160% 120 Pasture 150 48 41% 82 Woods and Waste 40 40 40 40 Buildings, garden etc. 11% 11% 11% 11% Source; Royal Commission on Agriculture: Report by Mr. Wilson  Fox (Asst. Commissioner) on the County of Suffolk, BPP, v o l . 31, session 1894-95, p. 49. -13-The gradual reversal of t h i s pattern which takes place after 188 0 no doubt indicates that the eff e c t s of the a g r i -c u l t u r a l depression were giving farmers and landowners second thoughts about the wisdom of continuing with arable farming and persuading some to revert back to pasture. In contrast, Devonshire farmers throughout the nineteenth century followed a system of mixed farming with p a r t i c u l a r stress on dairying. The wet climate of Devon was detrimental to the growth of corn and favourable for the c u l t i v a t i o n of roots and green crops. This explains why so much attention and c a p i t a l were devoted to the rearing of c a t t l e , for which the abundance of grass and other green food offered singular inducements. Even during the period of 'high farming 1 (1840 - 80), Devon did not show many signs of change i n i t s general outline. Here as elsewhere there were a few outstanding farmers, mainly engaged i n breeding the famous Red Devon Cat t l e , but t h e i r r a t i o to the t o t a l was not high and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive that farmers i n the county were p a r t i c u l a r l y affected by the propoganda of the day which was i n the main directed towards the improvement of arable farming by the introduction of the 4 - course system 5 to l i g h t lands . The picture that emerges reveals c l e a r l y that the two counties were i n mid-nineteenth century pursuing widely d i f f e r e n t farming systems. Whereas Devonshire farmers stressed dairying, Suffolk farmers were relying on arable farming for t h e i r pros-peri t y . The problem now i s to determine the extent to which the d i f f e r i n g farming systems created demands for c h i l d labour. I t -14-i s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a n d t o t h e r e l a t i o n t h i s f a c t o r m i g h t h a v e t o t h e e x t e n t o f l i t e r a c y t h a t w e n o w t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n . f t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t h e a v y l a n d r e q u i r e s m o r e l a b o u r t h a n l i g h t ; a r a b l e l a n d m o r e t h a n p a s t u r e ; a n d a d i s t r i c t t h a t p r o d u c e s c o r n m o r e t h a n a d i s t r i c t t h a t p r o d u c e s b u t t e r a n d c h e e s e ^ . I t w o u l d f o l l o w f r o m t h i s t h a t S u f f o l k f a r m i n g r e q -u i r e d m o r e l a b o u r t h a n D e v o n b u t , o b v i o u s l y , d e m a n d f o r l a b o u r n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e d e m a n d f o r c h i l d l a b o u r . T h e c o m m o n a g e f o r c h i l d r e n t o b e g i n w o r k w a s 8 b u t m a n y s t a r t e d a s e a r l y a s 6. T h e k i n d o f o u t d o o r l a b o u r d o n e b y t h e m w a s s i m i l a r i n b o t h c o u n t i e s : B i r d s c a r i n g , w a t c h i n g c a t t l e i n t h e f i e l d s , t a k i n g c a r e o f t h e p o u l t r y , l e a d i n g h o r s e s a t p l o u g h , g a t h e r i n g c r o p s , w e e d i n g , t w i t c h i n g , a n d h a r v e s t w o r k . F u r t h e r -m o r e , i n S u f f o l k , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t d a m a g e t o t h e l a n d b y h o r s e s a n d c a r t s , t h e e n t i r e c r o p w a s f r e q u e n t l y t a k e n o f f t h e 7 f i e l d b y h a n d , o b v x o u s l y c r e a t i n g a d e m a n d f o r c h i l d l a b o u r . T h e e x i s t e n c e o f ' o r g a n i z e d ' l a b o u r k n o w n a s ' a g r i c u l t u r a l g a n g s ' i n S u f f o l k s e e m s t o t e s t i f y t o o t h a t t h e r e w a s a g r e a t e r d e m a n d f o r c h i l d l a b o u r i n t h a t c o u n t y . I n n o p a r t o f D e v o n d o w e c o m e a c r o s s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e g a n g s y s t e m . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h e c e n s u s r e p o r t f o r 1851 p r o v i d e s u s w i t h t h e m e a n s t o m e a s u r e t h e n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n e n g a g e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r i n t h e t w o c o u n t i e s . T h e c e n s u s f i g u r e s s h o w t h a t i n 1851, 4.93 p e r c e n t o f a l l S u f f o l k c h i l d r e n a g e d b e t w e e n 5 t o 14 w e r e e n g a g e d i n o u t d o o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r a s o p p o s e d t o 1.50 p e r c e n t f o r D e v o n . D e v o n , h o w e v e r , o n a c c o u n t o f i t s r e l i a n c e o n d a i r y i n g , s h o w e d a m u c h h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f -15-indoor farm servants. 4.43 per cent of a l l children aged between 5 to 14 were indoor farm servants i n Devon as compared to 0.74 per cent for Suffolk. On the whole 5.68 per cent of a l l children aged between 5 and 14 i n Suffolk were involved i n a g r i c u l t u r a l q work as compared to 5.94 per cent for Devon . It appears now that Devon had a s l i g h t l y higher degree of c h i l d employment i n a g r i c u l t u r a l work and yet a higher rate of l i t e r a c y than Suffolk. This does not prove that c h i l d labour and l i t e r a c y are not connected but i t does show that the quantity of demand cannot be the v i t a l factor i n explaining the difference i n l i t e r a c y between the two counties. There does seem to be, however, a strong p o s s i b i l i t y that the qual i t y or nature of that employment might be important. Indoor farm servants, by vi r t u e of th e i r regulated job would not have to face the seasonal occupational hazard of the outdoor labourer and th e i r schooling consequently would be less episodic than those working under the 'gang' system. In 'agri-c u l t u r a l gangs', children of both sexes from the age of 6 to 13 were employed along with young persons and women, and worked under the supervision of the gang master. They usually had to tr a v e l long distances to get to th e i r work s i t e and were often worked so hard, that by the time they returned home they could hardly stand on t h e i r feet. There i s general agreement that the gang system was a major obstacle to education: "The interference with education i s not limited to the actual requirement of the work. If children attended school whenever they are not wanted i n the gang, a con-siderable amount of education might be received; but when they are taken to work, though for short times, - 1 6 -t h e h a b i t o f s c h o o l g o i n g i s b r o k e n , a n d l o s e s i t s f o r c e , t h e c h i l d r e n a r e t h r o w n b a c k a n d d i s c o u r a g e d i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g , a n d r e t u r n , i t i s s a i d , w h e n t h e y r e t u r n a t a l l , w i t h l e s s o r d e r l y h a b i t s , o w i n g t o t h e d e f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e a t t h e i r w o r k " 9. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n d e p e n d s n o t m e r e l y o n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o r a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d b u t o n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l i n g a n d t h e s u p p o r t t h e t e a c h e r s w i l l r e c e i v e f r o m t h e f a m i l i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , o r i n t h i s c a s e , s u r r o g a t e f a m i l i e s . M a n y y o u n g i n d o o r f a r m a n d d o m e s t i c w o r k e r s m u s t h a v e l i v e d i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h l i t e r a t e p e o p l e : T h e f a r m e r , h i s w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n . T h e i n d o o r s e r v a n t / m a s t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p m a y n o t , e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h a v e b e e n t h e c l o s e , a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p p i c t u r e d b y t h o s e w i t h n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e w o r l d w e h a v e l o s t b u t i t m u s t h a v e a l l o w e d f o r m o r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a n s e r v i c e u n d e r a n u n s c r u p u l o u s g a n g m a s t e r . P r o f e s s o r C i p o l l a h a s l i n k e d d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e w i t h h i g h l i t e r a c y . D e v o n ' s h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d o o r f a r m s e r v a n t s c o u l d b e o n e r e a s o n f o r i t s h i g h e r l i t e r a c y r a t e . T h e p o i n t i s n o t p r o v e d b u t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y s e e m s h i g h . A l s o , s i n c e g a n g l a b o u r i n E a s t A n g l i a s e e m s t o h a v e h a d a v e r y l o n g h i s t o r y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s f a c t o r m a y h a v e h a d a c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t . C i p o l l a c o m m e n t s t h a t i t i s o f t e n a s s u m e d t h a t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f l a r g e f a r m s o r o f s m a l l o n e s n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t s t h e r a t e o f l i t e r a c y o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s " * " ^ . H e d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , e l a b o r a t e a b o u t w h a t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o r h o w i t w o r k s , a l t h o u g h h e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e l a r g e r t h e u n i t , t h e h i g h e r - 1 7 -t h e l i t e r a c y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a l o o k a t t h e s i z e o f h o l d i n g s p r e v a i l i n g i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y S u f f o l k a n d D e v o n . I h a v e o n l y m a n a g e d t o p r o c u r e s t a t i s t i c s f o r 1 8 8 0 a n d w e w i l l h a v e t o r e l y o n t h a t a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f h o l d i n g s i z e i n t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e b e t w e e n D e v o n , S u f f o l k a n d E n g l a n d , o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f a c r e a g e o f t h e v a r i o u s s i z e d f a r m - h o l d i n g s i n 1 8 8 0 : T a b l e 3 . F a r m h o l d i n g s s i z e i n D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k . C l a s s o f h o l d i n g s % o f t o t a l % o f t o t a l % o f t o t a l a c r e a g e a c r e a g e a c r e a g e i n D e v o n i n S u f f o l k i n E n g l a n d U n d e r 5 0 a c r e s 1 3 . 4 2 F r o m 5 0 a c r e s t o 1 8 . 2 1 1 0 0 a c r e s F r o m 1 0 0 a c r e s t o 5 4 . 8 1 3 0 0 a c r e s F r o m 3 0 0 a c r e s t o 1 1 . 7 4 5 0 0 a c r e s F r o m 5 0 0 a c r e s t o 2 . 2 4 1 0 0 0 a c r e s A b o v e 1 0 0 0 a c r e s . 0 8 9 1 3 4 3 1 9 1 4 1 4 1 3 4 1 1 8 1 1 S o u r c e : C o m p i l e d f r o m t h e R e p o r t s o f t h e A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s -i o n e r s , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n A g r i c u l t u r e , M r . L i t t l e ' s  R e p o r t : D e v o n ; a n d M r . D r u c e ' s R e p o r t : S u f f o l k , B P P , A g r i c u l t u r a l I n t e r e s t s ; X I X , 1 8 8 0 . T h e s e f i g u r e s s h o w t h a t f a r m h o l d i n g s i n t h e t w o c o u n t i e s h a d b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . H o l d i n g s o f 1 0 0 t o 5 0 0 a c r e s c o n s t i t u t e d 6 6 . 5 5 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l a c r e a g e i n D e v o n a s -18-compared to 62 per cent for Suffolk, not a wide difference. Suffolk, however, had a much larger proportion of farms above 3 00 acres. Thus, i f large holdings tended to produce more l i t e r a t e people, then Suffolk should have had the advantage, and that of course, was not the case. To make a confident judgement on t h i s matter i t would be necessary to know much more than we now know about family strategies on the small holdings i n both counties. Also, i t i s possible that the pattern of holding size within the counties might have varied s i g n i f i c a n t l y enough to influence l i t e r a c y i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t , but unfortunately the s t a t i s t i c s necessary to tackle that problem are not available. Therefore, a l l that can be said here i s that one must be s c e p t i c a l about C i p o l l a ' s generalization when dealing with the English s i t u a t i o n . One common complaint voiced frequently i n the nineteenth century was that the wages earned by a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers were not s u f f i c i e n t to allow them to send t h e i r children to school. Many of the Commissioners investigating poor attendance of children i n r u r a l schools reported that labourers getting high wages usually preferred to send t h e i r children to school rather than to work. Tremenhere 1s report on the Employment of Women and Children i n Agriculture (1867) showed that "the counties where the fewest children under 10 years of age were employed i n farm work were for the most part those i n which the t o t a l earnings of the a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers i n permanent employ were high". In North Northumberland, where the earnings of farm labourers (nearly a l l being engaged by the year) amounted i n -19-value to from 15s. to 18s. a week, the parents allowed t h e i r children to remain at school u n t i l the age of 11 or 12, and then only sent them to work i n the summer up to the age of 14"'""''. It i s therefore necessary to examine the wage structure of Devon and Suffolk, not with the intention of ascertaining the ov e r a l l poverty l e v e l of the two counties, but only to determine whether either county had any d i s t i n c t advantage. It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to calculate accurately wages of nineteenth century a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers because of the system of making payments i n kind as well as i n cash, and i t i s possible only to make approximate estimates. In the 1840's the average wage of an ordinary labourer i n Devon was about 8s. to 9s. a week, with 2 to 3 quarts of cider d a i l y . In the 1870's, the lowest wage was about l i s . a week, i n addition to which i n most cases a cottage and garden was provided rent free. In Suffolk i n the 1840's, i t was customary to adjust wages according to the price of wheat, and H. Raynbird gives us the 12 following scales : When wheat was 5s. per bushel and under 6s., wages paid were 8s. a week. When wheat was 6s. per bushel and under 7s., wages paid were 9s. a week. When wheat was 7s. per bushel and under 8s., wages paid were 10s. a week. A. Wilson Fox investigated a g r i c u l t u r a l wages i n England and Wales during the l a s t f i f t y years of the nineteenth century and he gives the following p a r t i c u l a r s r e l a t i n g to weekly cash wages of ordinary a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers employed on a farm i n Suffolk and i n a farm i n Devon: -20-Table 4. Weekly cash wages in Devon and Suffolk SUFFOLK " DEVON Year Rates of Weekly Cash Year Rates of Weekly Cash Wages i n Wages i n June 1851 8s. 1856 12s, 1861 l i s , 1866 10s, December 8s. 12s. l i s . 12s. 1851 1856 1861 1866 June 9s. 10s. l i s . 12s. December 9s. 10s. l i s . 12s. Source: A. Wilson Fox, 'Agricultural wages in England and Wales during the l a s t half century', Royal  S t a t i s t i c a l Society Journal; LXVI, 1903, p. 326 and p. 330. The above table makes clear that the wage l e v e l i n both 13 counties were nearly the same . Reports of inspectors confirm too that the dwellings and l i v i n g conditions of a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers i n both places were equally unsatisfactory. It appears then that neither Devon nor Suffolk could claim an advantage i n wage level s or degrees of domestic comfort. Professor C i p o l l a has calculated that persons engaged i n i n d u s t r i a l work were more l i t e r a t e than those involved i n 14 agriculture . The common assumption that a l i t e r a t e labour force i s relevant for the economy i s open to question and i n recent years has been the subject of energetic debate. Professor Sanderson examined l i t e r a c y i n i n d u s t r i a l Lancashire over the period 1754 - 1815 and concluded that l i t e r a c y was 16 i r r e l e v a n t to both i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l mobility -21-He l i s t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c h i l d labour as one of the factors hindering the growth of basic l i t e r a c y . Professor West, on the other hand, has made a reasonable case that the In d u s t r i a l Revolution did not depress l i t e r a c y and asserted that the date of d i s t i n c t improvement i n the national l i t e r a c y trend coincided 17 with the beginnings of the large-scale factory system . Thus, we must wait for the dust to s e t t l e before we can be sure whether optimist or pessimist i s correct. Neither Sanderson nor west give us much insight into why factory production should put more or less pressure on the population to become l i t e r a t e , nor do they t e l l us systematically what types of manufacture would require more or less l i t e r a c y . And so f a r , no one has done a study, showing which of the domestic industries needed or promoted l i t e r a c y and which did not. Nevertheless i t i s necessary to provide some idea of the i n d u s t r i a l sector i n order to complete our examination of the comparative demand for c h i l d labour i n the two counties. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century Devon was well established as a centre of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . The Devon serge industry and the Honiton hand-made lace industry both enjoyed a high national reputation. The serge industry reached a peak about 1720 and then, within a short period, under the combined impact of competition from other woollen fabr i c s at home and the collapse of markets overseas, i t entered upon a 18 long and l i n g e r i n g decline . In the 1830's there were s t i l l about 40 woollen m i l l s i n Devon and some 3000 looms employed in weaving serges; but many of these ceased production l a t e r i n - 2 2 -t h e c e n t u r y . T h e H o n i t o n l a c e i n d u s t r y w a s f o r a t i m e i n g r e a t d e m a n d a n d e n j o y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e m a r k e t i n L o n d o n . T h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f m a c h i n e - m a d e n e t l a c e s o u n d e d t h e d e a t h k n e l l o f t h e H o n i t o n i n d u s t r y a n d b y t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t w a s p r a c t i c a l l y o u t o f o p e r a t i o n . D e v o n h a d a l s o a s u b s t a n t i a l p a p e r i n d u s t r y , m a n u f a c t u r i n g m a i n l y w r a p p i n g p a p e r . T h e r e w e r e a b o u t 4 8 p a p e r m i l l s i n o p -e r a t i o n a r o u n d 1 8 2 0 , b u t f r o m t h e 1 8 3 0 ' s o n w a r d s t h e n u m b e r o f p a p e r m i l l s i n t h e S o u t h W e s t w a s i n e x o r a b l y r e d u c e d b y t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n b a s e d u p o n t h e m a c h i n e a n d t h e s t e a m e n g i n e , t h e g r o w t h o f l a r g e p a p e r - m a k i n g u n i t s e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t a i n - e s p e c i a l l y n e a r L o n d o n a n d i n s o m e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e g i o n s - a n d t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m , j 2 0 i m p o r t e d p a p e r L e a t h e r a n d t a n n i n g i n d u s t r y , l i m e - k i l n s , a n d q u a r r y i n g a n d m i n i n g h a d a l l f l o u r i s h e d i n D e v o n d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l l o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s e n t e r e d u p o n a p e r i o d o f d e c l i n e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d b y t h e e n d o f t h e c e n t u r y m o s t o f t h e m h a d d i s a p p e a r e d . S u f f o l k ' s t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y a l s o u n d e r w e n t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d g r o w t h f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s i n t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e w o o l s p i n n i n g a n d c l o t h w e a v i n g i n d u s t r y a t t a i n e d i t s h i g h e s t d e v e l o p m e n t a r o u n d t h e e n d o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d t h e n s t a r t e d d e c l i n i n g . I t s p l a c e w a s t h e n t a k e n u p b y t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f y a r n a n d d r a p e r i e s , b u t b y 1 8 4 0 , t h i s i n d u s t r y t o o d i e d o u t . I n t h e 1 8 4 0 ' s s i l k w e a v i n g t h r i v e d i n S u f f o l k a n d b y t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h -23-century was employing some two thousand people, two-thirds of whom were women and g i r l s . About the middle of the nineteenth century, two new branches of t e x t i l e manufacture were introduced into the county, s t i l l depending on handlooms: The weaving of 21 horse-hair and of coconut f i b r e . These two industries gave employment to many of the handloom weavers who had been d i s -placed by the use of machinery i n other branches of the t e x t i l e industry. In the work of straw p l a i t i n g about 2200 women and 22 g i r l s were employed i n 1851 and around 2335 i n 1871 . Stay and corset making was another of the important cottage industries of Suffolk, the work being done mainly by women in t h e i r homes. The making of a g r i c u l t u r a l implements, and of agriculture and m i l l i n g machinery, including the manufacture of road engines and other locomotives, was the most important modern industry of Suffolk, whether measured by the number of men employed, the 23 amount of c a p i t a l invested, or the extent of the market served This industry was concentrated i n the eastern towns of Suffolk and i t made improvements on the d r i l l and developed harvesting and threshing machinery. Apart from these, a number of other l o c a l industries flourished i n Suffolk. One was brewing and small maltings existed i n nearly every v i l l a g e . Fishing was also an important industry and a good number of boys, men and women found employ-ment on shore i n dealing with the f i s h caught. The manufacture of boots and shoes was car r i e d on as a domestic industry and par t l y i n f a c t o r i e s , and the t o t a l number of males and females given as engaged i n shoe - making i n 1851 was 6,238 -24-The i n d u s t r i a l picture of Devon and Suffolk shows no dramatic contrasts. Small scale domestic industries were the prevalent practice of the two counties. In both places, t e x t i l e industry had once played the key role but had become i n s i g n i -f i c a n t by the middle of the nineteenth century. There was no operation of the large scale factory system except for Suffolk's a g r i c u l t u r a l implement manufacturing industry. The i n d u s t r i a l environment i n both counties appear to have been s i m i l a r . Does that mean that c h i l d labour (with i t s possible e f f e c t on school attendance and therefore l i t e r a c y ) was also similar? An answer can be worked out from the Census Report 25 of 1851 . Census figures show that i n 1851, 3.07 per cent of a l l Devon children aged between 5 to 14 were engaged i n i n d u s t r i a l work as opposed to 2.46 per cent for Suffolk. Such a small percentage and the small difference between them implies that the demand for c h i l d labour could not have been an import-ant l i t e r a c y factor i n Devon and Suffolk. However, since the industries were not spread uniformly a l l over the two counties, i t i s possible that the concentration of some industries i n a p a r t i c u l a r area might have influenced l i t e r a c y for that d i s t r i c t . On the whole, the two counties present a rather uniform picture with the proportion of children engaged i n i n d u s t r i a l work being nearly the same. This chapter has been a general county-wide comparative study of some of the relevant factors of l i t e r a c y . Contrary to popular assumption, the demand for c h i l d labour appears not to be the c r u c i a l place to look i n making our comparison. Devon -25-had a higher rate of l i t e r a c y and yet a s l i g h t l y higher degree of c h i l d employment i n both the i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l sector. The i n d u s t r i a l environment and wage structure i n both counties tended to be similar but Suffolk appeared to have had a s l i g h t advantage i n the category of land-holding si z e . The conclusions drawn, therefore, are negative ones - showing what appear not to be s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n explaining the s t r i k i n g l i t e r a c y difference - but none the less useful for being negative. The one p o s i t i v e factor, the much higher number of farm servants and domestics l i v i n g - i n i n Devon, does suggest a p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l l i n e for future research. But there i s another p o s i t i v e relationship not yet mentioned. Professor C i p o l l a expects urban areas to be more l i t e r a t e than r u r a l ones and the Census Report confirms that Devon and Suffolk conformed c l e a r l y and p o s i t i v e l y to t h i s pattern. The census figures showed that i n 1861, 52.4 per cent of Devon's population were l i v i n g i n towns as opposed to 35.2 per cent for Suffolk. Density and the urban environment deserves, therefore, careful attention. Fortunately the s t a t i s t i c s available allow us to examine t h i s question, not on the broad county l e v e l , where so many confusing variables are mixed together indiscriminately but within each county, at the more manageable l e v e l of the census d i s t r i c t . - 2 6 -C h a p t e r 3  A n a t o m y o f L o c a l R e g i o n s B e c a u s e b o t h c o u n t i e s c o n t a i n s u c h d i v e r s i t y , c o u n t y a v e r a g e s h a v e o n l y l i m i t e d u s e . T h e y c a n a i d u s i n d e c i d i n g w h a t f a c t o r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e m o s t c a r e f u l l y , b u t t h e y d o n o t l e a d u s t o a n y f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e t h e p a t t e r n o f l i t e r a c y e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e t w o c o u n t i e s w i t h t h e h o p e t h a t s u c h a s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e u s w i t h p o s i t i v e c l u e s f o r s o l v i n g t h e m y s t e r y o f D e v o n ' s h i g h e r l i t e r a c y . T a b l e 5 s h o w s t h e a v e r a g e l i t e r a c y r a t e f o r t h e c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n a n d S u f f o l k o v e r t h e s i x y e a r s 1 8 6 5 - 7 0 . T h e t a b l e c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e w i d e v a r i a t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e t w o c o u n t i e s . R i s b r i d g e , w h i c h f i g u r e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e l i t e r a c y s c a l e i n S u f f o l k , h a d t h r e e t i m e s a s m a n y i l l i t e r a t e s a s I p s w i c h ; a n d s i m i l a r l y f o r D e v o n , T o r r i n g t o n w a s t w o a n d a h a l f t i m e s m o r e i l l i t e r a t e t h a n E x e t e r . F o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y , I h a v e d i v i d e d t h e t w o c o u n t i e s i n t o a r e a s o f h i g h l i t e r a c y , m e d i u m l i t e r a c y a n d l o w l i t e r a c y . I h a v e a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d t h e t o p s e v e n l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s i n D e v o n a s r e p r e s e n t i n g h i g h l i t e r a c y , t h e n e x t s e v e n c o n -s t i t u t e m e d i u m l i t e r a c y , a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r l o w l i t e r a c y . S i m i l a r l y , f o r S u f f o l k I h a v e t a k e n t h e f i r s t s i x a s a r e a s o f h i g h l i t e r a c y , t h e n e x t s i x f o r m m e d i u m l i t e r a c y a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s r e p r e s e n t l o w l i t e r a c y . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a r e a s o f h i g h , m e d i u m a n d l o w l i t e r a c y , I -27-Table 5. Percentage of brides and grooms able to sign t h e i r  names on Marriage, 1865 - 70. Devon (Census D i s t r i c t s ) Exeter Newton Abbot St. Thomas Stoke Damerel Barnstaple Totnes Bideford Kingsbridge Plymouth 88.0 86.7 85.3 85.3 83.3 82.9 82.5 81.2 80.8 Plympton St. Mary 7 9.1 South Molton 78.2 Tiverton 77.5 Honiton 7 6.3 Okehampton 75.7 Crediton 7 5.2 Tavistock 75.0 Axminster 74.4 East Stonehouse 73.8 Holsworthy 73.3 Torrington 70.7 Average 8 0.4 Suffolk (Census D i s t r i c t s ) Ipswich 84.5 Bury St. Edmunds 83.9 Mutford 7 8.5 Samford 77.2 Woodbridge 73.9 Wangford 7 3.8 Plomesgate 73.8 Stow 71.6 Thingoe 71.6 Blything 69.6 Milden Hall 65.7 Bosmere 64.8 Sudbury 62.4 Hartismere 61.3 Hoxne 6 0.7 Cosford 60.0 Risbridge 51.3 Average 71.4 National average (England and Wales) 75.2 Source: Calculated from the Reports of the Register General of  Births, Deaths and Marriages, BPP, 1867, XIX; 1868 -69, XVI; 1870, XVI; 1871, XVI; 1872, XVII. -28-have computed corresponding average figures for my chosen variables: Degree of urbanization, l e v e l of poverty, occupational structure, extent of schooling, communication f a c i l i t i e s and r e l i g i o u s composition of the population. Professor Lawrence Stone, using the Protestation Oath Returns of 1641 - 42, has suggested that r u r a l areas had a lower l i t e r a c y rate than towns and Professor C i p o l l a has shown that i n I t a l y i n 1881 l i t e r a t e adults were 56 per cent i n the urban population and 35 per cent i n the r u r a l popul-2 ation . The question that automatically comes to one's mind i s how do we actually divide the inhabitants of a country into urban and rural? Obviously, such a d i v i s i o n can only be roughly approximate, because in the f i r s t place, the terms urban and r u r a l themselves have no very precise meaning, and secondly, because many places which must indisputably be rec-3 koned as urban have no d i s t i n c t boundaries . The census report for 1881 stated: "the method of d i v i s i o n usually adopted i s to select those r e g i s t r a t i o n d i s t r i c t s and s u b - d i s t r i c t s i n which are situated the chief towns, and to consider the inhabitants of these as representing the urban population, while the inhabitants of a l l the other d i s t r i c t s and s u b - d i s t r i c t s are considered to be of r u r a l character. The urban population, as thus determined, consists of the inhabitants of the chief towns and t h e i r immediate neighbourhood, while the r u r a l population includes the inhabitants of the smaller towns as well as of the s t r i c t l y country parishes" 4 . Following t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n and using s t a t i s t i c s provided by the 18 71 census report, I have worked out approximately the percentage of people l i v i n g i n the towns and r u r a l areas of -29-t h e c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s i n t h e two c o u n t i e s . They a r e as f o l l o w s : T a b l e 6. L i t e r a c y and U r b a n i z a t i o n (Devon) . P e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s b e l o n g i n g t o towns i n 1871. More t h a n 5 0% Between 2 5 and 50% E x e t e r ( H L ) * P l y m o u t h (HL) S t o k e D a m e r e l (HL) Newton A b b o t (HL) E a s t S t o n e h o u s e (LL) T i v e r t o n (ML) P l y m p t o n S t . Mary (ML) B i d e f o r d (HL) B a r n s t a p l e (HL) T o t n e s (HL) H o n i t o n (ML) S t . Thomas (HL) L e s s t h a n 25% T a v i s t o c k (LL) C r e d i t o n (LL) T o r r i n g t o n (LL) S o u t h M o l t o n (ML) Okehampton (ML) K i n g s b r i d g e _l_(ML) A x m i n s t e r (LL) H o l s w o r t h y (LL) *HL i n d i c a t e d H i g h L i t e r a c y , ML Medium L i t e r a c y and L L Low L i t e r a c y . S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f r o m C e n s u s R e p o r t 1871, BPP, P o p u l a t i o n , XV/ A p p e n d i x A, T a b l e 32. I t i s f a i r l y c l e a r f r o m t h e t a b l e t h a t t h e h i g h l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s i n g e n e r a l had a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n t h e towns t h a n low l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s . The most s t r i k i n g v a r i a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d by E a s t S t o n e h o u s e , a low l i t e r a c y a r e a b u t h a v i n g a h i g h d e g r e e o f town p o p u l a t i o n . The two l o w e s t l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s had l e s s t h a n t w e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e towns as o p p o s e d t o t h e two h i g h e s t w h i c h had more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t . T h i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n s t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t u r b a n a r e a s i n Devon were more l i t e r a t e t h a n r u r a l a r e a s . - 3 0 -T a b l e 7 . L i t e r a c y a n d U r b a n i z a t i o n ( S u f f o l k ) . P e r c e n t a g e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s b e l o n g i n g t o t o w n s i n 1 8 7 1 . M o r e t h a n 5 0 % B e t w e e n 2 5 a n d 5 0 % L e s s t h a n 2 5 % I p s w i c h ( H L ) W o o d b r i d g e ( H L ) B u r y S t . E d m u n d s ( H L ) S t o w ( M L ) M u t f o r d ( H L ) S u d b u r y ( L L ) W a n g f o r d ( H L ) B l y t h i n g ( M L ) C o s f o r d ( L L ) H a r t i s m e r e ( L L ) T h i n g o e ( M L ) S a m f o r d ( H L ) B o s m e r e ( M L ) H o x n e ( L L ) M i l d e n h a l l ( M L ) P l o m e s g a t e ( M L ) R i s b r i d g e ( L L ) * H L i n d i c a t e s h i g h l i t e r a c y , M L m e d i u m l i t e r a c y a n d L L l o w l i t e r a c y . S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f r o m C e n s u s R e p o r t 1 8 7 1 , B P P , P o p u l a t i o n , X V , A p p e n d i x A , T a b l e 3 2 . O n c e a g a i n t h e s a m e p a t t e r n e m e r g e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S a m f o r d a n d W o o d b r i d g e , t h e o t h e r f o u r h i g h l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s w e r e t h e o n l y o n e s t o h a v e h a d m o r e t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b e l o n g i n g t o t h e t o w n s . O n e o t h e r t r e n d i s c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e S u f f o l k s t a t i s t i c s . O u t o f a t o t a l n u m b e r o f s e v e n t e e n c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s , t h i r t e e n h a d -31-l e s s than twenty f i v e per cent of the people l i v i n g i n the towns, demonstrating c l e a r l y t h a t the environment i n S u f f o l k was e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l . In c o n t r a s t , the p o p u l a t i o n of Devon was more evenly spread between urban and r u r a l . I do not have the necessary s t a t i s t i c s t o break up a c c u r a t e l y urban and r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s f o r each census d i s t r i c t i n d i v i d u a l l y and am t h e r e f o r e unable to weigh the r e l a t i o n -s h i p of the medium l i t e r a c y S u f f o l k d i s t r i c t s and u r b a n i z a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s t a t i s t i c s f o r the two c o u n t i e s does i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between hi g h l i t e r a c y and high urban-i z a t i o n . Devon's s i g n i f i c a n t l e a d over S u f f o l k i n t h i s r e s p e c t c o u l d then be an important e x p l a n a t i o n of i t s higher l i t e r a c y r a t e . Another f a c t o r , r e l a t e d to u r b a n i z a t i o n , and o f t e n l i n k e d to l i t e r a c y , i s d e n s i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . Although 'urban' i m p l i e s d e n s i t y , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s to have a high d e n s i t y too. For example, Sudbury i n S u f f o l k had l e s s than 25 per cent of the people l i v i n g i n the towns and yet had a higher d e n s i t y than the h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d d i s t r i c t of 7 Ipswich . I t i s commonly assumed t h a t densely populated areas, whether r u r a l or urban, would tend to show a higher l i t e r a c y r a t e because such p l a c e s have a g r e a t e r degree of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and a s t r o n g e r need f o r schools and commercial a c t i v i t e s . T ables 8 and 9 t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . -32-T a b l e 8 L i t e r a c y and D e n s i t y (Devon) Number o f p e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e m i l e i n r e g i s t r a t i o n d i s t r i c t s i n 1851: 250 p e r s o n s and above Between 150 and 250 p e r s o n s P l y m o u t h (ML)* E a s t S t o n e h o u s e (LL) S t o k e D a m e r e l (HL) E x e t e r (HL) Newton A b b o t (HL) S t . Thomas (HL) T o t n e s (HL) A x m i n s t e r (LL) H o n i t o n (HL) K i n g s b r i d g e (ML) B i d e f o r d (HL) P l y m p t o n S t . Mary (ML) B a r n s t a p l e (HL) C r e d i t o n (LL) * HL i n d i c a t e d h i g h l i t e r a c y , ML medium l i t e r a c y , LL low l i t e r a c y . S o u r c e : C e n s u s R e p o r t 1851, BPP, P o p u l a t i o n , V I , p. 241. L e s s t h a n 150  p e r s o n s T i v e r t o n (ML) T o r r i n g t o n (LL) T a v i s t o c k (LL) S o u t h M o l t o n (ML) Okehampton (ML) H o l s w o r t h y (LL) The f i r s t t h i n g I s h o u l d p o i n t o u t h e r e i s t h a t t h e t a b l e d o e s n o t f a i r l y p o r t r a y t h e a c t u a l e x t e n t o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n Devon. F o r example, P l y m o u t h had 2 0,4 41 p e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e g m i l e whereas H o l s w o r t h y had o n l y 84'. However, t h e t a b l e does i n d i c a t e t h a t i n g e n e r a l h i g h l i t e r a c y a r e a s t e n d e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h h i g h d e n s i t y and t h e two h i g h e s t l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s o f E x e t e r and Newton A b b o t were much more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d t h a n t h e two l o w e s t l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s o f T o r r i n g t o n and H o l s w o r t h y . E a s t S t o n e h o u s e was a g a i n t h e o n l y m a j o r e x c e p t i o n t o t h e p a t t e r n , h a v i n g a d e n s i t y o f 19,913 p e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e m i l e - 3 3 -a n d y e t w a s p l a c e d t h i r d f r o m t h e b o t t o m i n l i t e r a c y r a t e . T a b l e 9 . L i t e r a c y a n d D e n s i t y ( S u f f o l k ) N u m b e r o f p e r s o n s t o a s q u a r e m i l e i n r e g i s t r a t i o n d i s t r i c t s i n 1 8 5 1 : 2 5 0 p e r s o n s a n d a b o v e B e t w e e n 1 5 0 a n d 2 5 0 L e s s t h a n 1 5 0 p e r s o n s p e r s o n s M u t f o r d ( H L ) * S t o w ( M L ) T h i n g o e ( M L ) B u r y S t . E d m u n d s ( H L ) B l y t h i n g ( M L ) M i l d e n h a l l ( M L ) W a n g f o r d ( H L ) H a r t i s m e r e ( L L ) S u d b u r y ( L L ) C o s f o r d ( L L ) I p s w i c h ( H L ) R i s b r i d g e ( L L ) H o x n e ( L L ) B o s m e r e ( M L ) S a m f o r d ( H L ) W o o d b r i d g e ( H L ) P l o m e s g a t e ( M L ) * H L i n d i c a t e s h i g h l i t e r a c y , M L m e d i u m l i t e r a c y , L L l o w l i t e r a c y . S o u r c e : C e n s u s R e p o r t 1 8 5 1 , B P P , P o p u l a t i o n , V I , p . 2 4 1 . D e n s i t y i n S u f f o l k w a s m o r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h a n i n D e v o n , t h e h i g h e s t f i g u r e b e i n g 3 6 4 p e r s o n s f o r M u t f o r d a n d o t h e l o w e s t 1 0 8 i n M i l d e n h a l l . T h e o v e r a l l p i c t u r e a p p e a r s t o b e m i x e d . T h e l o w l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s o f R i s b r i d g e , C o s f o r d a n d S u d b u r y w e r e q u i t e h i g h i n d e n s i t y a n d i t w a s t w o m e d i u m l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , T h i n g o e a n d M i l d e n h a l l , w i t h t h e l o w e s t d e n s i t y . H o w e v e r , a s i n D e v o n , m o s t o f t h e h i g h l i t e r a c y -34-d i s t r i c t s continued to show a high degree of density. Comparison for the average density figure for the two county shows remarkable s i m i l a r i t y . Suffolk was s l i g h t l y ahead of Devon with 239 persons per square mile as opposed to Devon's 236 "^. This suggests that density could not have been a s i g n i f i c a n t factor a f f e c t i n g l i t e r a c y for the two counties although i t did tend to influence l i t e r a c y within the census d i s t r i c t s . Obviously, on the county l e v e l , other factors came into play which disturbed the l i n k s between density and l i t e r a c y . So far our figures confirm the expected pattern: Density and urban environment promoted l i t e r a c y . I t i s however odd that few scholars have ventured to investigate what levels of density and what sort of urban environment i s needed for l i t e r a c y . Why, for example, was East Stonehouse so i l l i t e r a t e and why does Exeter show a higher l i t e r a c y than Ipswich? Not a l l the questions one might raise about th i s can be s a t i s f a c t -o r i l y answered with the information available. But some important features can be i s o l a t e d . One i s - did the urban areas have a comparatively large proportion of professional people? Professor C i p o l l a , using the French National Census of 1901, has shown that the professions c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y linked with l i t e r a c y are generally concentrated i n the urban areas''""'". Tables 10 and 11 refer to the occupational structure of Devon and Suffolk 1 2 . -35-Table 10. Literacy and Occupation (Devon). Occupations of males and females 20 years and upwards i n 1871. Literacy l e v e l Percentage of Percentage of Percentage of Professional I n d u s t r i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l and Commercial Class Class Class High Literacy 13.3 24.9 11.2 (7 d i s t r i c t s ) Medium Literacy 10.3 23.8 16.3 (7 d i s t r i c t s ) Low Literacy 8.7 24.4 20.0 (6 d i s t r i c t s ) Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1871, Population Abstracts: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces of the People, BPP, Population, England and Wales, 1871, XVIII. There i s a clear association between high l i t e r a c y areas having a large professional and commercial class and a low proportion of a g r i c u l t u r a l workers. Conversely, low l i t e r a c y areas have a high proportion of a g r i c u l t u r a l workers and a much smaller number of professional and commercial people. In d u s t r i a l workers were more or less evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n a l l three categories. A comparison of the average for the two highest 13 and the two lowest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s confirm the pattern Even then, there were some in d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s , the most 14 s t r i k i n g being that of East Stonehouse In Suffolk too, high l i t e r a c y areas had a greater share of professional and commercial people, a high proportion of i n d u s t r i a l workers and a very low percentage of a g r i c u l t u r a l -36-Table 11. Literacy and Occupation (Suffolk). Occupations of males and females 20 years and upwards i n 1871: Literacy l e v e l Percentage of Percentage of Percentage of Professional Industrial A g r i c u l t u r a l  and Commercial Class Class Class High l i t e r a c y 9.8 25.5 14.1 (6 d i s t r i c t s ) Medium Literacy 4.7 15.4 29.6 (6 d i s t r i c t s ) Low l i t e r a c y 3.9 22.1 28.9 (5 d i s t r i c t s ) Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1871, Population Abstracts: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces of the People, BPP, Population, England and Wales, 1871, XVIII. workers. There were in d i v i d u a l variations but none as s t r i k i n g 15 as East Stonehouse i n Devon . Ipswich and Bury St. Edmunds, the two highest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , averaged 10.8 per cent i n the professional category and 3.7 per cent i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector. The corresponding figures for Risbridge and Cosford, the two lowest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , were 3.9 and 29.0 respect-i v e l y . If we compare Exeter and Ipswich, the highest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s i n Devon and Suffolk respectively, we f i n d that Exeter had a s l i g h t l y higher professional and i n d u s t r i a l class 16 and a lower a g r i c u l t u r a l class . This could explain why more of i t s residents could read and write than those of Ipswich. The pattern i s c l e a r l y established and C i p o l l a ' s generalization apparently holds true for both Devon and Suffolk. Comparison between Exeter and Ipswich makes clear that i s i s not just the -37-amount of urban people that matter but the kind of urban people. Real income levels w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from one urban area to another and investigations confirm that where there i s 17 poverty and insecure employment there i s low l i t e r a c y . C a l -culation of wealth i s extremely d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y since rates of unemployment or underemployment are not available. What we can examine, as a rough indicator, are the numbers on poor r e l i e f . I have calculated the percentage of paupers i n receipt of r e l i e f i n the two counties as an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent of poverty, although only an indic a t i o n , since poverty and pauperism are not the same things. Table 12. Literacy and Poverty (Devon) Literacy Level % of t o t a l population of paupers on r e l i e f i n 1860 High Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) 4.2 Medium Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) 6.6 Low Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) 5.7 Source: Calculated from BPP, Poor Law, 1868 - 69, LI I I . High l i t e r a c y i s associated with low poverty but the medium and low l i t e r a c y areas do not conform to the pattern. 18 Once again East Stonehouse i s the p r i n c i p a l offender . Poor l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s l i k e Holsworthy and Tavistock too had a f a i r l y low degree of poverty. In general, however, the higher l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s l i k e Stoke Damerel, Totnes, Exeter and Newton Abbot were much wealthier than the other d i s t r i c t s . - 3 8 -O n e p o i n t t o b e n o t e d h e r e i s t h a t p o o r l a w p o l i c y v a r i e d f r o m o n e d i s t r i c t t o a n o t h e r . T h u s , s t a t i s t i c s b a s e d s o l e l y o n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p a u p e r s i n r e c e i p t o f r e l i e f m a y p r o v i d e o n l y r o u g h i n d i c a t o r s o f p o v e r t y . T a b l e 1 3 . L i t e r a c y a n d P o v e r t y ( S u f f o l k ) . L i t e r a c y L e v e l % o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f p a u p e r s o n r e l i e f i n 1 8 6 0 . H i g h L i t e r a c y ( 6 D i s t r i c t s ) 5 . 8 M e d i u m L i t e r a c y ( 6 D i s t r i c t s ) 6 . 8 L o w L i t e r a c y ( 5 D i s t r i c t s ) 8 . 1 S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f r o m B P P , P o o r L a w , 1 8 6 8 - 6 9 , V o l . L I I I . S u f f o l k s h o w s a m o r e c l e a r a n d p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l i t e r a c y a n d p o v e r t y . I n a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , l i t e r a c y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e p o v e r t y l e v e l . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s . C o s f o r d , f o r e x a m p l e , h a d a f a i r l y l o w p o v e r t y l e v e l a n d y e t w a s a n e x t r e m e l y 1 9 i l l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t . H o w e v e r , e x c e p t i o n s w e r e o b v i o u s l y n o t n u m e r o u s e n o u g h t o a f f e c t t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n . T h e p o i n t i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a v e r a g e p o v e r t y f o r t h e t w o h i g h l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s o f I p s w i c h a n d B u r y S t . E d m u n d s w a s o n l y 5 . 7 p e r c e n t a s c o m p a r e d t o 7 . 3 p e r c e n t f o r R i s b r i d g e a n d C o s f o r d . I t i s g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t e d t h a t d i s t r i c t s w i t h a g o o d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m w o u l d t e n d t o h a v e h i g h l i t e r a c y b e c a u s e s u c h p l a c e s h a v e a s t r o n g e r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d a n d - 3 9 -a g r e a t e r n e e d f o r e c o n o m i c a n d c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . G r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t o w n s p r o m o t e s g r e a t e r u r b a n a w a r e n e s s i n r u r a l 2 0 a r e a s a n d o f t e n e n d s r u r a l i s o l a t i o n . N o t o n l y w e r e t h e r a i l w a y s t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c i n n o v a t i o n i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u t , c o n v e n i e n t l y f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e r a i l n e t w o r k w a s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g b u i l t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y w h e n o u r e x a m i n a t i o n o f l i t e r a c y t a k e s p l a c e . W e w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , u s e t h e o p e n i n g d a t e o f r a i l l i n e s i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s a s o u r i n d e x f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l i t e r a c y a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T a b l e 1 4 . L i t e r a c y a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( D e v o n ) D a t e o f o p e n i n g o f r a i l l i n e s i n c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s 2 1 B e f o r e 1 8 5 0 B e t w e e n 1 8 5 0 a n d 1 8 6 0 C r e d i t o n ( L L ) B a r n s t a p l e ( H L ) B i d e f o r d ( H L ) T a v i s t o c k ( L L ) E x e t e r ( H L ) * N e w t o n A b b o t ( H L ) S t . T h o m a s ( H L ) T o t n e s ( H L ) P l y m o u t h ( M L ) S t o k e D a m e r e l ( H L ) P l y m p t o n S t . M a r y ( M L ) E a s t S t o n e h o u s e ( L L ) T i v e r t o n ( M L ) * H L i n d i c a t e s h i g h l i t e r a c y , M L m e d i u m l i t e r a c y a n d L L l o w l i t e r a c y . A f t e r 1 8 6 0 O k e h a m p t o n ( M L ) T o r r i n g t o n ( L L ) H o n i t o n ( M L ) H o l s w o r t h y ( L L ) K i n g s b r i d g e ( M L ) A x m i n s t e r ( L L ) S o u r c e : W . G . H o s k i n s , D e v o n , L o n d o n , 1 9 6 4 , p . 1 6 1 , -40-There seems to be a clear connection between high l i t e r a c y and good communication. Exeter (1844) and Newton Abbot (1846) , the highest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , were the f i r s t two d i s t r i c t s to be connected by railway whereas l i n e s reached both Torrington 22 and Holsworthy, the lowest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , after 1870 The most s t r i k i n g v a r i a t i o n i s again East Stonehouse which had the railway i n 1848. Table 15. Literacy and Communication (Suffolk) Date of opening of r a i l l i n e s i n census d i s t r i c t s : Before 1850 Between 1850 and 1860 • After 1860 Ipswich (HL)* Wangford (HL) Risbridge (LL) Bury St. Edmunds (HL) Woodbridge (HL) Hartismere (LL) Stow (ML) Blything (ML) Mildenhall (ML) Mutford (HL) Plomesgate (ML) Samford (HL) Cosford (LL) Sudbury (LL) * HL indicates high l i t e r a c y , ML medium l i t e r a c y and LL low l i t e r a c y . Source: David St. John Thomas, gen. ed., A Regional History  of the Railways of Great B r i t a i n , 5 vols. (Newton Abbot: David and Charles Ltd., 1968), v o l . V: The Eastern Counties, by D.I. Gordon. In Suffolk too, railways generally came f i r s t to the more l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s . Ipswich and Bury St. Edmunds, the 23 two highest l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s , were both connected i n 1846 Some of the low l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s appeared to have had the -41-r a i l connection f a i r l y early; Cosford being connected i n 1847 and Sudbury i n 1849. Risbridge and Hartismere, however, did not see trains before 1865 and 1867 respectively. I have not been able to trace the opening date of l i n e s i n Bosmere, Thingoe and Hoxne, and believe that these d i s t r i c t s were by-passed by the railway l i n e . In spite of some varia t i o n s , the two counties present a similar picture: High l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s were usually the f i r s t to get r a i l connection. The d i s t r i c t s to be by-passed by the railway were medium and low l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s . There seems then to be a connection between better communication f a c i l i t i e s and l i t e r a c y . High density and the urban setting should, at least by mid-century, have provided the resources and c l i e n t e l e to support more schools than r u r a l and low density areas. I t can be argued that f a c i l i t i e s for formal schooling are an essential part of any study of l i t e r a c y because the structure of education probably largely determines the nature of 24 l i t e r a c y s k i l l s that can be acquired . The common assumption i s that better school provision w i l l r e s u l t i n higher l i t e r a c y . This assumption i s worth investigating to see i f i t i s always the case. The figures i n table 16 do not convincingly demonstrate the expected strong relationship between l i t e r a c y and schooling. Although high l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s did have a higher proportion of day school children than medium and low l i t e r a c y areas, the difference i n a l l three categories was rather small. The -42-Table 16, Literacy and Schooling (Devon) Level of l i t e r a c y % of children % of children % of day High Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) Medium Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) Low Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) on books of day schools to t o t a l population 1851 12.51 10.42 10.27 on books of Sunday schools to t o t a l population 1851 9.49 10.11 11.29 school children in private schools 43.22 37 . 98 34 . 55 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Education, England and Wales: Reports and Tables (1854) , BPP, Population, XI. table also i l l u s t r a t e s that low l i t e r a c y areas r e l i e d more on Sunday schools than the high and medium l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s . A p o s i t i v e relationship i s evident between l i t e r a c y and private schooling. Averages for the two highest and the two 25 least l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s confirm the general pattern . S t i l l , i n d i v i d u a l figures do present cer t a i n puzzles. For example, Torrington (LL) had a better school r a t i o than Plymouth (ML), Tavistock (LL) nearly equalled Newton Abbot (HL) and St. 2 6 Thomas (HL) was placed behind East Stonehouse (LL) Suffolk (table 17) presents us with a much more complex picture.than Devon. Medium l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s had a s l i g h t l y better proportion of children i n day schools than high l i t e r a c y areas but both enjoyed marginal advantage over low l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s . Sunday schools again showed to have been less -43-Table 17. Literacy and Schooling (Suffolk) Level of l i t e r a c y % of children on books of day schools to t o t a l population 1851 of children % of day on books of Sunday schools to t o t a l population 1851 school children i n private schools High Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) 12. 61 8. 41 34.29 Medium Literacy 12.82 12.89 36.51 (6 D i s t r i c t s ) Low Literacy 11.00 12.03 32.36 (5 D i s t r i c t s ) Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Education, England and Wales: Reports and Tables  (1854), BPP, Population, XI. important for l i t e r a c y and the impact of private schooling i s less clear. Reference to in d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s present 27 us with a number of puzzles . Bury St. Edmunds was actually below the county average for children at school and Ipswich had a lower proportion of both Day school and Sunday school children than highly i l l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s l i k e Cosford and Sudbury. It follows from the tables that the relationship between schooling and l i t e r a c y i s blurred and unclear. Although there was some association i n Devon, the pattern did not hold for Suffolk. Low l i t e r a c y areas i n both counties tended to depend more on Sunday schools for t h e i r education and apparently did not gain much l i t e r a c y i n the process. The most powerful stimulus to education i n the early nineteenth century was provided by r e l i g i o n . The r i v a l r y of -44-the various C h r i s t i a n churches and sects for control of men's minds did more to promote education i n the West between 1550 2 8 and 1850 than any other single factor . A l l the d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s sects did not respond equally to the idea of promoting education and Professor C i p o l l a ' s analysis for Ireland i n 1871 showed that Methodists were the most l i t e r a t e , 29 followed by Presbyterians, Anglicans and Catholics . We w i l l now proceed to analyze the general r e l i g i o u s allegiance of the people i n the two counties and see what pattern emerges. The census of 1851 gives us the information regarding the number of churches and chapels i n each parish, the number of ' s i t t i n g s ' i n each church and chapel, and the number of people who attended each service on census Sunday. However, i t should be noted that the census figures do not r e a l l y enable us to estimate the r e a l t o t a l of the attendants, since we do not know how many who attended i n the afternoon or evening had also been present at an e a r l i e r service Table 18. Literacy and Religion (Devon) Literacy Level % of Church of England attendants calculated from t o t a l attendants on March 30, 1851. High Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) 58.6 Medium Literacy (7 D i s t r i c t s ) 57.3 Low Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) 52.8 Average 57.1 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Religious Worship, England and Wales: Reports  and Tables, BPP, Population, X. -45-In Devon, i t appears that there was some kind of a f r a g i l e relationship between high l i t e r a c y and a higher proportion of Church of England attendants, but i n a c t u a l i t y t h i s assumption may be misleading. There was a wide degree of v a r i a t i o n with some high l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s having a low proportion of Anglicans and some low l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s having a high propor-31 t i o n of Anglicans . The figures, therefore, do not permit accurate generalization. Table 19. Literacy and Religion (Suffolk) Literacy Level % of Church of England attendants calculated from t o t a l attendants on March 30, 1851. High Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) 57.0 Medium Literacy (6 D i s t r i c t s ) 55.4 Low Literacy (5 D i s t r i c t s ) 58.6 Average 56.9 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Religious Worship, England and Wales: Reports  and Tables, BPP, Population, X. Suffolk, too, presents a varied and diffused picture. Here also, i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t figures show a complete mix up with some low l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s having a high proportion of 32 Anglicans and vice-versa When compared side by side, county averages present a similar picture with Devon having 57.1 per cent of Anglicans as opposed to 56.9 for Suffolk. With differences being so small, l o g i c a l conclusion would be that the r e l i g i o u s -46-a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t o p e r a t e a s a n a d v a n t a g e o u s f a c t o r i n p r o m o t i n g l i t e r a c y i n e i t h e r c o u n t y . A s t u d y o f t h e c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e t w o c o u n t i e s h a s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h a t i n b o t h p l a c e s : l i t e r a t e d i s t r i c t s w e r e t h e o n e s w i t h l a r g e t o w n s , l o w e r p o v e r t y , b e t t e r c o m m u n -i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a n d a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e . R e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s h a d a p p a r e n t l y l i t t l e b e a r i n g w h i l e t h e i m p a c t o f s c h o o l i n g o n l i t e r a c y w a s u n c l e a r . W e w i l l n o w p r o c e e d t o a p p l y t h e s e f a c t o r s t o t h e t w o c o u n t i e s a s a w h o l e a n d s e e i f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n h o l d s b e t w e e n t h e c o u n t i e s . T a b l e 20. L i t e r a c y a n d U r b a n i z a t i o n (1861) P e r c e n t a g e o f t o w n p o p u l a t i o n P e r c e n t a g e o f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n D e v o n 52.4 47.6 S u f f o l k 35.2 64.8 S o u r c e : C e n s u s o f E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , 1861, A p p e n d i x t o R e p o r t , B P P , P o p u l a t i o n , X V , p . 124 - 125. T a b l e 21. L i t e r a c y a n d O c c u p a t i o n (1871) D e v o n S u f f o l k S o u r c e : P e r c e n t a g e o f P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d C o m m e r c i a l C l a s s 11.5 6.6 P e r c e n t a g e o f I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s 24.5 21.3 P e r c e n t a g e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l C l a s s 14. 4 23.2 C a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e C e n s u s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1871, P o p u l a t i o n A b s t r a c t s : A g e s , C i v i l C o n d i t i o n , O c c u p a t i o n s a n d B i r t h p l a c e s o f t h e P e o p l e , B P P , P o p u l a t i o n , E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , 1871, X V I I I . -47-Table 22. Literacy and Poverty. % of t o t a l population of paupers on r e l i e f (1860) Devon 5.3 Suffolk 6.8 Source: Calculated from BPP, Poor Law, 1868 - 69, v o l . LIII. Table 23, Literacy and Schooling 33 % of children on books of day schools to t o t a l population (1851) % of children on books of Sunday schools to t o t a l population (1851) % of day school children i n private schools (1851) Devon Suffolk 11.4 12. 2 10.0 11.1 40.0 34.6 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Education, England and Wales: Reports and Tables  (1854), BPP, Population, vol XI. Tables 20, 21, 22 and 23 i l l u s t r a t e c l e a r l y that Devon's higher l i t e r a c y was influenced, no doubt, by i t s greater degree of urbanization, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l of poverty, larger provision of private schools, much higher concentration of professional and commercial people and smaller involvement in a g r i c u l t u r a l work. Early railway f a c i l i t i e s could possibly have been another factor, Devon being f i r s t connected i n 1844 and Suffolk i n 1846. Surprisingly, however, schooling c l e a r l y does not conform to the expected pattern and could not therefore, have been the c r u c i a l factor. Even i n 1858 i t was reported that one i n 10.5 of Suffolk's population was enrolled i n public day -48-s c h o o l s as o p p o s e d t o one i n 12.5 f o r Devon . The common a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s c h o o l i n g c o n s t i t u t e d t h e m a i n b a s i s f o r l i t e r a c y c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y a c c e p t e d and we o u g h t t o be s c e p t i c a l o f i t s e f f e c t s i n o t h e r a r e a s as w e l l . Sunday s c h o o l s a g a i n do n o t a p p e a r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i t e r a c y . Sunday S c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y e m p h a s i z e d m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . The o n l y l i t e r a r y s k i l l t h a t was t a u g h t was a 35 l i t t l e r e a d i n g . The f i g u r e s c o n f i r m t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Sunday s c h o o l s on l i t e r a c y , a t l e a s t i n Devon and S u f f o l k , was m i n i m a l . - 4 9 -C h a p t e r 4  C o n c l u s i o n Our s t u d y o f l i t e r a c y i n Devon and S u f f o l k has c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h a t i n m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y v a r i e d n o t o n l y f r o m one p a r t o f E n g l a n d t o another"*", b u t a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h i n c o u n t y b o u n d a r i e s . I n b o t h c o u n t i e s , l i t e r a c y a p p e a r e d t o have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n o f p o v e r t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n and c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , and r u r a l a r e a s were g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t o be i n f e r i o r i n l i t e r a c y t o towns. A r e a s o f u r b a n o r r u r a l d e n s i t y t e n d e d t o be l i t e r a t e , n o t b e c a u s e o f b e t t e r s c h o o l p r o v i s i o n , b u t b e c a u s e income was h i g h e r and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m o b i l i t y g r e a t e r . V i c t o r i a n r e f o r m e r s a p p a r e n t l y had t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s wrong i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f l i t e r a c y was t h e p r o b l e m o f s c h o o l i n g o r c h i l d l a b o u r and i t a p p e a r s t h a t e v e n t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d modern commentators o f t o d a y a l s o t e n d t o make t h e same m i s t a k e . However, t h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t s c h o o l i n g o r t h e demands o f v a r i o u s k i n d s o f i n d u s t r i a l and d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y o r a g r i c u l t u r e a r e u n i m p o r t a n t o r i r r e l e v a n t . The p r o b l e m i s , we have no s y s t e m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n as t o what f o r m s o f i n d u s t r y o r a g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e o r s t i m u l a t e l i t e r a c y . F o r example, Devon had a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d o o r f a r m s e r v a n t s t h a n S u f f o l k b u t we do n o t know f o r c e r t a i n t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h a t f a c t f o r l i t e r a c y . S i n c e schooling was n o t t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Devon's i n d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t c o u l d -50-have been i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r i t s h i g h e r l i t e r a c y . Much more r e s e a r c h n e e d s t o be done b e f o r e we c a n a t t e m p t t o draw f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . E f f o r t s s h o u l d a l s o be made t o know more i n t i m a t e l y t h e a c t u a l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n s c h o o l s . The e d u c a t i o n a l c e n s u s o f 1851 g i v e s us o n l y an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d on s c h o o l b o o k s . I t does n o t p r o v i d e t h e v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f how many a c t u a l l y a t t e n d e d s c h o o l s and f o r what l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e y r e m a i n e d i n s c h o o l . The m a s t e r i n c h a r g e o f t h e B o r o u g h Road S c h o o l i n London, w h i c h was t h e m odel s c h o o l o f t h e L a n c a s t r i a n s y s t e m , r e c k o n e d t h a t i t t o o k t w e l v e months t o t e a c h a c h i l d t o r e a d and between t h r e e 2 and f o u r y e a r s t o t e a c h him t o w r i t e w e l l . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c r u c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o know t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e s p e n t by c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s . S c h o o l i n g , i s a l s o l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u p p l y and q u a l i t y o f t e a c h e r s . E f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s and a l s o t o a s c e r t a i n t h e r a t i o o f t h e number o f t e a c h e r s t o t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . P r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n Devon t e n d e d t o have a h i g h e r l i t e r a c y , b u t i t i s w i s e r n o t t o comment f o r c e f u l l y on t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h o u t i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . I n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were o f t e n l i t t l e more * t h a n 'dame s c h o o l s ' o r ' b a b y - s i t t i n g ' i n s t i t u t i o n s whereas p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n t h e towns were g e n e r a l l y o f a s u p e r i o r c h a r a c t e r w i t h b e t t e r q u a l i t y t e a c h e r s and f a c i l i t i e s . The -51-fact that Risbridge and Holsworthy had a greater proportion of private school children than Ipswich and Exeter and yet a much lower l i t e r a c y rate was probably on account of the d i f f e r i n g character of private schools. Professor C i p o l l a observed that one of the most relevant backward l i n k s of l i t e r a c y i s the proportion of a country's 3 economic resources devoted to education . Although i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to calculate such expenditure, i t might nevertheless be possible to get some in d i c a t i o n by examining charitable endowments and voluntary subscriptions of wealthy parishioners. I t ought to be remembered too that formal schooling does not necessarily constitute the only opportunity for education. In many s o c i e t i e s , at many times, i t i s under the parental roof and by the parents that the c h i l d i s taught the values 4 and s k i l l s required to f i t him into society . In the d i s t r i c t of Bogorodsk, a province of Moscow, i n 1883 - 84, 7,123 l i t e r a t e factory workers learned to read and write i n the following 5 ways : 3 8 per cent learned to read i n v i l l a g e , town and d i s t r i c t schools. 36 per cent learned to read outside school. 10 per cent learned to read i n factory schools. 9 per cent learned to read with clergy. 7 per cent learned to read during m i l i t a r y service. It i s evident from the figures that a sizeable proportion learnt to read outside of schools and t h i s fact should be remembered in any discussion of schooling and l i t e r a c y . - 5 2 -T h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p a r e n t s t o w a r d s t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l s i s i m p o r t a n t i f s c h o o l i n g i s t o b e e f f e c t i v e . T e a c h e r s o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d t h a t : " p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n w h o a t t e n d o u r n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . , t o o o f t e n v i e w t h e s c h o o l a t b e s t a s a c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e t o w h i c h t h e y m a y s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n o u t o f t h e w a y , t i l l t h e y a r e o l d e n o u g h t o d o s o m e t h i n g t o w a r d s e a r n i n g t h e i r b r e a d b y t h e s w e a t o f t h e i r b r o w , a n d t h e t e a c h e r a s a p e r s o n p a i d t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n : O n e o n w h o m t h e y a r e c o n f e r r i n g a g r e a t f a v o u r b y s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l , o n e w h o m t h e y a r e a t l i b e r t y t o a b u s e , i n s u l t o r s p e a k o f i n l a n g u a g e w h i c h a m a s t e r w o u l d r a r e l y e m p l o y t o w a r d s h i s s e r v a n t . I n s h o r t , t h e y d o n o t v a l u e t h e s c h o o l , n o r t h e t e a c h e r " 6. E v e n i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , R o b e r t R o b e r t s n o t e d t h a t i n t h e h o u s e s o f t h e l o w e r w o r k i n g c l a s s o n e w o u l d n o t f i n d a b o o k o f a n y s o r t a n d t h a t p a r e n t s o f t e n f o r b a d e a l l b o o k s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e y k e p t w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n 7 f r o m t h e i r t a s k s a n d d e v e l o p e d l a z y h a b i t s . A f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e i s o b v i o u s l y a s i m p o r t a n t a s i t i s d i f f i c u l t , d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e a n s w e r s l i e w i t h i n t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e h o m e . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y p a t t e r n e m e r g e s o n c e a g a i n w h e n w e c o n s i d e r t h a t p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s m a i n l y c o n d u c t e d a n d d o m i n a t e d b y s p i n s t e r s a n d b a c h e l o r s c h o o l m i s t r e s s e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y s p i n s t e r s a n d y o u n g b a c h e l o r s i n m a n n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l m a c h i n e i n m a n y c o u n t r i e s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e p r i m a r y l e v e l s , i t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t e i t h e r a n u n b a l a n c e d s e x r a t i o _ _ w i t h m o r e m a r r i a g e a b l e w o m e n t h a n e l i g i b l e m e n , o r a p a t t e r n o f e i t h e r l o w n u p t i a l i t y o r a v e r y l a t e m a r r i a g e a g e , o r b o t h , h a v e o f t e n b e e n a n -53-important factor i n the growth of mass education • Clearly, our available s t a t i s t i c s do not enable us to measure the quality of education provided by the schools of Devon and Suffolk and a l o t more laborious research i s needed before we can comment with authority on the nature of the actual re l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a c y and schooling. The Newcastle Commission Report was based on an investigation of the state of popular education i n England and Wales and should be a useful but, unfortunately, highly biased source. The 9 Report was strongly selective i n the evidence i t used and should therefore, be viewed with caution. Our study has shown that urban areas are more l i t e r a t e than r u r a l areas. While c i t i e s and dense areas are probably l i t e r a t e mainly because they are less poor, there i s obviously more to i t than that. A l l c i t i e s are not a l i k e . Further research might show why, for example, Bury St. Edmunds i s di f f e r e n t i n l i t e r a c y rate than Exeter. East Stonehouse needs careful examination. Its performance i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the categories was high and yet i t showed an unusually low degree of l i t e r a c y . I can o f f e r no sa t i s f a c t o r y answer for t h i s puzzle. Professor Stephen's explanation that East Stonehouse was a c u l t u r a l l y deprived poor area of the port containing the docks needs more q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n view of the fact that t h i s area had r e l a t i v e l y few paupers, a high proportion of women and a high proportion of professional people. Future scholars i n the area should keep an eye open to solving the mystery of East Stonehouse. -54-Another largely unexplored area i s the e f f e c t of sex on l i t e r a c y . Examination of Appendix 15 suggests that d i s t r i c t s with a higher female population tended to be more l i t e r a t e . Why t h i s should be so i s c l e a r l y a f i e l d for further research. Paternalism i s another neglected area. There i s a need to investigate the presence of resident landlords i n the two counties. The resident landlord was alleged to have made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to the educational l e v e l of the parish. The point was stressed i n the Parliamentary report of 18611(: "the fact that makes a l l the difference i n the educational, and almost every other condition of a parish, i s the residence of the owners of the land ..... The school i s a picturesque feature on the outskirts of the park. It i s an expected feature - one which v i s i t o r s w i l l l i k e to see, and w i l l be sure to ask after .... But rare indeed are the instances of landowners who, wherever they have property, seem to f e e l i t a f i r s t duty to do something for the s o c i a l amd moral elevation of the people". However, i n Devonshire, the Duke of Bedford had some estate in Tavistock which, as we know, was a low l i t e r a c y area. Much more work needs to be done before we can determine as to whether attitudes of landlords were actually important for l i t e r a c y . Religion did not seem to be of great importance for l i t e r a c y i n Devon and Suffolk. I t should be noted that the census figures did not r e a l l y enable us to estimate the r e a l t o t a l of Church attendents and i t i s possible that i f those figures could be obtained, then, perhaps, some s i g n i f i c a n t trends might be evident on questions of causes of l i t e r a c y . -55-A detailed study of the state of schooling, family structure and land ownership pattern i n the two counties has to be undertaken before a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation for l i t e r a c y differences can be attempted. It i s also important to know how the two counties had fared at the beginning of the nineteenth century. This would require careful work with parish r e g i s t e r material and episcopal v i s i t a t i o n s and i n q u i r i e s . I t i s possible that such an inquiry might show that Devon had a s i g n i f i c a n t lead from the very beginning, which could then form an important explanation of i t s superior position i n the 1860's. However, such a finding, despite i t s importance, would not i n any case undermine the value of t h i s study. This thesis has not only been an investigation of l i t e r a c y difference between the two counties, but more importantly, i t has also provided an intimate picture of the wide variations existing within the counties. In the process, some of the factors promoting l i t e r a c y i n the region and some of the important questions that scholars must ask have been i d e n t i f i e d . C l e arly much more work remains to be done and i t i s up to future scholars, with better source material at t h e i r disposal, to pursue the issues raised. - 5 6 -A p p e n d i x 1 L i t e r a c y r a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t c o u n t i e s o f E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s , 1 8 7 0 P e r c e n t a g e s o f b r i d e s a n d g r o o m s a b l e t o s i g n t h e i r n a m e s o n m a r r i a g e . S u r r e y * 8 8 . 0 R u t l a n d 8 7 . 3 W e s t m o r l a n d 8 7 . 2 M i d d l e s e x * 8 6 . 1 S u s s e x 8 5 . 1 H a m p s h i r e 8 4 . 5 K e n t * 8 3 . 4 N o r t h u m b e r l a n d 8 2 . 9 O x f o r d s h i r e 8 2 . 7 L i n c o l n s h i r e 8 2 . 5 D e v o n s h i r e 8 1 . 8 E a s t R i d i n g Y o r k s h i r e * * 8 1 . 8 G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e 8 1 . 5 B e r k s h i r e . 8 1 . 4 N o r t h R i d i n g Y o r k s h i r e 8 0 . 5 D o r s e t 8 0 . 1 C u m b e r l a n d 7 9 . 5 W i l t s h i r e 7 9 . 4 N o r t h a m p t o n s h i r e 7 9 . 0 E s s e x 7 8 . 5 S o m e r s e t 7 8 . 2 * E x t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n * * I n c l u d i n g t h e C i t y o f Y o r k D e r b y s h i r e 7 6 . 8 L e i c e s t e r s h i r e 7 6 . 0 H e r e f o r d s h i r e 7 5 . 5 C h e s h i r e 7 5 . 4 B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e 7 5 . 3 H u n t i n g d o n s h i r e 7 4 . 3 W a r w i c k s h i r e 7 4 . 3 S h r o p s h i r e 7 3 . 8 N o r f o l k 7 3 . 5 S u f f o l k 7 3 C o r n w a l l 7 3 N o t t i n g h a m s h i r e 7 3 C a m b r i d g e s h i r e 7 3 , W o r c e s t e r s h i r e 7 3 H e r t f o r d s h i r e 7 3 W e s t R i d i n g Y o r k s h i r e 7 2 . 0 L a n c a s h i r e 7 1 . 1 D u r h a m 6 9 . 6 B e d f o r d s h i r e 6 6 . 0 S t a f f o r d s h i r e 6 0 . 0 M o n m o u t h s h i r e 5 9 . 7 N o r t h W a l e s 6 5 . 8 S o u t h W a l e s 6 1 . 5 L o n d o n 8 8 . 4 N a t i o n a l a v e r a g e 7 8 . 1 S o u r c e ; R e p o r t o f t h e R e g i s t e r G e n e r a l o f B i r t h s , D e a t h s  a n d M a r r i a g e s , A b s t r a c t s f o r 1 8 7 0 , B P P , 1 8 7 2 , X V I I . -57-Appendix 2 % of Population i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Devon and Suffolk belonging to c i t i e s , boroughs, having defined municipal or parliamentary l i m i t s . *Devon 1871 **Suffolk 1871 (Census D i s t r i c t s ) (Census D i s t r i c t s ) Newton Abbot 70.5 Mutford 69. 8 Bideford 57.9 Wangford 59. 5 Barnstaple 46.9 Cosford 20. 9 Tiverton 44.9 Woodbridge 19. 6 Totnes 35.4 Stow 19. 5 Honiton 34. 0 Sudbury 19. 3 St. Thomas 26. 9 Blything 17. 4 Tavistock 24.7 Hartismere 14. 3 Crediton 21.7 Torrington 21.6 South Molton 21.0 Okehampton 9.9 * Exeter, Stoke Damerel, Plymouth, Plympton St. Mary and East Stonehouse had more than 75% people l i v i n g i n the towns but I have not been able to calculate the exact figure. ** S i m i l a r l y , Ipswich and Bury St. Edmunds had more than 75% people l i v i n g i n towns but I have been unable to determine the exact figure. Source: Calculated from Census Report 1871, BPP, Population, XV, Appendix A, Table 32. -58-Appendix 3 Number of Persons to a Square mile i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Devon. (Arranged according to Density) D i s t r i c t Persons to a Square mile Plymouth 2 0,441 East Stonehouse 19,913 Exeter 11,670 Stoke Damerel 10,266 Newton Abbot 2 85 St. Thomas 24 0 Totnes 221 Axminster 210 Honiton 18 9 Kingsbridge 188 Bideford 171 Plympton St. Mary 167 Barnstaple 163 Crediton 151 Tiverton 140 Torrington 137 Tavistock 117 South Molton 107 Okehampton 103 Holsworthy 84 Source: Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, BPP, Population, VI, p. 241. Appendix 4 Number of Persons to a Square mile i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of (Arranged D i s t r i c t Mutford Bury St. Edmunds Wangford Sudbury Ipswich Stow Hartismere Cosford Risbridge Blything Hoxne Bosmere Woodbridge Plomesgate Samford Thingoe Mildenhall Suffolk, according to Density) Persons to a Square mile 364 303 256 252 250 244 225 220 216 194 192 190 185 183 159 148 108 Source: Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, BPP, Population, VI p. 241. -60-Appendix 5 Occupation structure i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Devon, (1871). % of occupations of males and females aged 20 years and upwards in the following categories: Professional Domestic A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i a l  & Commercial Class Class Class Class Stoke Damerel 33.6 40.5 0.6 20.6 East Stonehouse 29.9 44. 9 0.5 18.4 Plymouth 18.5 44.1 2.0 26.6 Exeter 11.9 42.4 2.7 35.6 Plympton St. Mary 10.1 47.8 18.2 17.1 Newton Abbot 9.3 48.1 11.1 25.0 Bideford 9.3 43.4 16.6 25.5 Totnes 8.7 45. 0 16.0 22.5 St. Thomas 8.6 42. 8 17.6 24.6 Kingsbridge 6.8 44.6 25.4 18.7 Barnstaple 6.7 44.3 18.2 22. 9 Tavistock 6.3 42.7 16.7 26.6 Axminster 6.1 39.3 22. 6 27.0 Honiton 5.3 37.7 22.0 28.2 Tiverton 4.8 41.2 22.8 26.4 Crediton 4.3 41.6 26.5 20.9 Torrington 3.9 32.5 25.9 32.3 South Molton 3.8 39.7 28.9 20.5 Okehampton 3.3 40.3 30.4 20.7 Holsworthy 3.3 41.5 34.8 15. 9 Source: Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1871, Population Abstracts: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces  of the People, BPP, Population, England and Wales, 1871, XVIII. -61-Appendix 6 Occupation structure i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Suffolk, (1871). % of occupations of males and females aged 2 0 years and upwards in the following categories: Professional Domestic A g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i a l  & Commercial Class Class Class Class Mutford 13.5 44.3 14.3 21.8 Ipswich 11.2 43.7 3.4 34.0 Bury St. Edmunds 9.2 43.8 4.6 34.7 Woodbridge 6.3 45.8 27.0 16.1 Plomesgate 6.3 46.1 26.4 16.5 Samford 6.1 45.9 31.0 11. 5 Wangford 5.9 44 . 7 20.7 24. 8 Blything 5.4 45.0 27.6 17.7 Stow 4.7 44.9 26.9 18. 4 Sudbury 4.3 34. 9 24.6 32.5 Cosford 3.9 44. 7 29.3 16.4 Risbridge 3.8 38,3 28.7 23.4 Hartismere 3.8 45.9 31.3 14.9 Bosmere 3.5 45. 0 32.5 12. 9 Mildenhall 3.4 46.1 32.8 11.1 Thingoe 3.3 45.3 35.4 11.2 Hoxne 2.9 45.1 35.1 12.2 Source: Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1871, Population Abstracts: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces  of the People, BPP, Population, England and Wales, 1871, XVIII. - 6 2 -A p p e n d i x 7 P e r c e n t a g e o f p a u p e r s i n r e c e i p t o f r e l i e f t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f D e v o n : Y e a r e n d e d L a d y D a y % o f p a u p e r s t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n S t o k e D a m e r e l 1 8 6 0 2 . 7 E a s t S t o n e h o u s e 1 8 6 0 2 . 8 T o t n e s 1 8 6 0 3 . 9 N e w t o n A b b o t 1 8 6 0 3 . 9 E x e t e r 1 8 6 0 3 . 4 H o l s w o r t h y 1 8 6 0 4 . 4 T a v i s t o c k 1 8 6 0 4 . 2 S o u t h M o l t o n 1 8 6 0 5 . 8 B a r n s t a p l e 1 8 6 0 5 . 0 P l y m p t o n S t . M a r y 1 8 6 0 4 . 8 S t . T h o m a s 1 8 6 0 5 . 6 P l y m o u t h 1 8 6 0 5 . 4 K i n g s b r i d g e 1 8 6 0 6 . 2 B i d e f o r d 1 8 6 0 6 . 0 O k e h a m p t o n 1 8 6 0 6 . 7 T o r r i n g t o n 1 8 6 0 6 . 6 C r e d i t o n 1 8 6 0 8 . 2 A x m i n s t e r 1 8 6 0 7 . 5 H o n i t o n 1 8 6 0 8 . 6 T i v e r t o n 1 8 6 0 8 . 8 S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f r o m B P P , P o o r L a w , 1 8 6 8 - 6 9 , L I I I . - 6 3 -A p p e n d i x 8 P e r c e n t a g e o f p a u p e r s i n r e c e i p t o f r e l i e f t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  i n t h e C e n s u s D i s t r i c t s o f S u f f o l k " ; Y e a r e n d e d L a d y D a y % o f p a u p e r s t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n M u t f o r d 1 8 6 0 4 . 3 I p s w i c h 1 8 6 0 5 . 5 B l y t h i n g 1 8 6 0 5 . 8 S a m f o r d 1 8 6 0 5 . 7 B u r y S t . E d m u n d s 1 8 6 0 6 . 0 S t o w 1 8 6 0 6 . 4 W a n g f o r d 1 8 6 0 5 . 9 P l o m e s g a t e 1 8 6 0 6 . 9 B o s m e r e 1 8 6 0 6 . 7 C o s f o r d 1 8 6 0 6 . 4 H a r t i s m e r e 1 8 6 0 7 . 2 W o o d b r i d g e 1 8 6 0 7 . 6 M i l d e n h a l l 1 8 6 0 8 . 7 T h i n g o e 1 8 6 0 7 . 9 H o x n e 1 8 6 0 9 . 2 S u d b u r y 1 8 6 0 9 . 1 R i s b r i d g e 1 8 6 0 8 . 2 S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d f r o m B P P , P o o r L a w , 1 8 6 8 - 6 9 , L I I I . Appendix 9 Date of opening of r a i l l i n e s i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Devon. Exeter Newton Abbot St. Thomas Totnes Plymouth Stoke Damerel Plympton St. Mary East Stonehouse Tiverton Crediton Barnstaple Bideford Tavistock Axminster Okehampton Torrington Honiton Holsworthy Kingsbridge South Molton by passed Year 1844 1846 1846 1847 1848 1848 1848 1848 1848 1851 1854 1855 1859 1868 1871 1872 1874 1879 1893 by railway l i n e . Source: w. G. Hoskins, Devon, London, 1964, p. 161. -65-Appendix 10 Date of opening of r a i l l i n e s i n the Census D i s t r i c t s of Suffolk. Year Ipswich 1846 Bury St. Edmunds 1846 Stow 1846 Mutford 1847 Samford 1847 Cosford 1847 Sudbury 18 4 9 Wangford 1854 Woodbridge 1859 Blything 1859 Plomesgate 1859 Risbridge 1865 Hartismere 1867 Mildenhall 1885 Bosmere Thingoe Hoxne Source: David St. John Thomas, gen. ed., A Regional History  of the Railways of Great B r i t a i n , 5 vols. (Newton Abbot: David & Charles Ltd., 1968), v o l . V: The Eastern Counties, by D. I. Gordon. -66-Appendix 11 Schooling S t a t i s t i c s for the Census D i s t r i c t s of Devon. No. of day % of children % of children % of day  schools on books of on books of school day schools Sunday schools children to t o t a l to t o t a l belong-population population ing to 1851 1851 private schools 1851 Exeter 114 14.76 6.43 43.80 Bideford 65 13.57 17. 08 35.77 Stoke Damerel 103 13.42 9.47 49.09 Totnes 125 13.32 12.68 51. 28 Newton Abbot 168 12.60 7. 96 39.79 Tavistock 68 12.43 12.40 32.95 South Molton 68 12.12 13.02 29.48 Tiverton 92 11. 69 11.36 27.07 Kingsbridge 83 11. 59 11. 51 58.85 Barnstaple 126 11.29 11.75 39.23 Axminster 66 11. 23 12.56 38.75 East Stonehouse 18 10.73 5.74 30.79 St. Thomas 146 10.16 6.17 41.24 Torrington 49 9. 99 14.23 33.44 Honiton 61 9.80 10.62 23. 80 Plympton St. Mary • 54 9.72 7.46 34.18 Okehampton 52 9.47 8.85 55.17 Crediton 55 9.32 8 .89 31. 39 Plymouth 96 9.23 8.70 43. 61 Holsworthy 21 5. 08 12.18 50.25 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Education, England and Wales: Reports and Tables (1854), BPP, Population, XI. -67-Appendix 12 Schooling S t a t i s t i c s for the Census D i s t r i c t s of Suffolk. No. of day % of children % of children % of day  schools on books of on books of school  day schools Sunday schools children to t o t a l to t o t a l belong-population population ing to 1851 1851 private schools 1851 Cosford 65 14.61 12.42 29.65 Blything 90 13.71 13.05 39. 52 Mutford 63 13.40 9.41 36.36 Stow 84 13. 40 14.15 41. 02 Samford 50 13.33 9.79 29.41 Thingoe 69 13.19 10.32 26.23 Plomesgate 77 13.12 12. 04 39.17 Woodbridge 82 13. 08 10.77 37.13 Wangford 63 13.40 9.41 36.36 Sudbury 87 12.63 12. 65 29.98 Ipswich 82 12. 35 4 . 91 32.69 Mildenhall 30 11.24 17.48 29. 98 Bosmere 61 10.83 12.21 37. 35 Bury St. Edmunds 23 10. 51 8 . 03 34 . 26 Hartismere 59 9.24 10. 00 30.45 Hoxne 51 9.04 10. 88 34.42 Risbridge 51 8.21 13.71 43. 65 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Education, England and Wales; Reports and Tables (1854), BPP, Population, XI. -68-Appendix 13 Percentage of Church of England attendants i n the Census  D i s t r i c t s of Devon calculated from the number of t o t a l  attendants at Public Worship on Sunday March 30, 1851, (including Sunday Scholars). St. Thomas 76.3 South Molton 68.0 Honiton 65.5 Axminster 65.1 Crediton 64. 9 Exeter 64.7 Plympton St. Mary 64.3 Newton Abbot 60.0 Okehampton 59.6 Totnes 58.4 Tiverton 56. 9 Barnstaple 55.4 Kingsbridge 53.8 Torrington 49.2 Plymouth 44.4 Tavistock 43. 5 Bideford 43.2 Holsworthy 42.2 East Stonehouse 39.7 Stoke Damerel 38.7 (Average) 55.6 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Religious Worship, England and Wales: Reports  and Tables, BPP, Population, X. -69-Appendix 14 Percentage of Church of England attendants i n the Census  D i s t r i c t s of Suffolk calculated from the number of t o t a l  attendants at Public Worship on Sunday March 30, 1851, (including Sunday Scholars). Thingoe 81.3 Sudbury 72.2 Mutford 71.1 Samford 62.3 Bury St. Edmunds 61.8 Plomesgate 60.3 Cosford 56.8 Ipswich 56.1 Bosmere 54.9 Blything 53.9 Woodbridge 52.7 Hoxne 52.3 Risbridge 52.1 Hartismere 51.0 Stow 4 4.4 Wangford 4 2.6 Mildenhall 37.6 (Average) 56.6 Source: Calculated from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Religious Worship, England and Wales: Reports and Tables, BPP, Population, X. Appendix 15 Male/Female Composition of the Population aged between 5 and 19 i n Devon and Suffolk. From the Census Report of 1851, I have calculated the percentage of females to the t o t a l population aged between 5 and 19 i n the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s of Devon and Suffolk. The figures c l e a r l y show that i n both counties, d i s t r i c t s with a greater proportion of females tended to be more l i t e r a t e . Once again, i n Devon, the p r i n c i p a l challenge to the pattern comes from East Stonehouse. The most s t r i k i n g exception of the pattern i n Suffolk i s provided by Samford, a high l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t , but showing an. extremely low proportion of females as compared to the other d i s t r i c t s . However, i t should be noted that the only three Suffolk d i s t r i c t s with a higher proportion of females than males were a l l high l i t e r a c y d i s t r i c t s . - 7 1 -Ages of Males and Females between 5 and 19 enumerated  March 31st, 1851 (Devon D i s t r i c t s ) 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 % of female years years years to t o t a l population between 5 & 19 E a s t S t o n e h o u s e M - • 6 5 3 - 4 7 2 - 4 1 1 - 5 4 . 1 (L. L. F-• 7 0 2 - 5 4 5 - 5 6 4 S t o k e D a m e r e l M - • 2 0 6 0 - 1 6 8 2 - 1 1 9 0 - 5 3 . 7 ( H . L. F-• 2 0 8 8 - 1 7 4 1 - 1 8 8 9 E x e t e r M - • 1 7 4 6 - 1 5 4 9 • - 1 4 4 3 - 5 1 . 8 ( H . L. F-• 1 6 4 7 - 1 6 2 5 - 1 8 1 4 T o t n e s M - • 1 9 6 6 - 1 7 4 6 - 1 5 4 5 - 5 1 . 4 ( H . L. F-• 2 0 1 0 - 1 8 7 0 - 1 6 8 1 P l y m o u t h M - • 2 7 4 1 - 2 3 4 1 - 2 4 6 6 - 5 1 . 0 ( M . L. F-- 2 7 1 8 - 2 5 2 4 - 2 6 4 0 N e w t o n A b b o t M - - 2 9 9 9 - 2 6 2 0 - 2 3 2 5 - 5 0 . 8 ( H . L. F-- 2 9 1 4 - 2 7 0 4 - 2 5 8 5 B i d e f o r d M - - 1 2 3 6 - 1 1 0 2 - 9 6 7 - 5 0 7 ( H . L. F-- 1 2 5 6 - 1 0 9 5 - 1 0 4 6 S t . T h o m a s M - - 2 8 0 4 - 2 5 7 1 - 2 2 2 2 - 5 0 . 1 ( H . L. F-- 2 7 5 6 - 2 4 9 7 - 2 3 7 6 A x m i n s t e r M - - 1 2 1 3 - 1 1 1 0 - 1 0 3 8 - 5 0 . 0 (L. L. F-- 1 2 0 0 - 1 0 8 7 - 1 0 7 4 B a r n s t a p l e M - - 2 2 4 8 - 2 2 4 4 - 1 9 1 4 - 4 9 9 ( H L. F-- 2 2 5 3 - 2 0 9 8 - 2 0 1 9 H o n i t o n M - - 1 4 2 0 - 1 4 0 7 - 1 2 1 5 - 4 9 . 5 ( M L. F-- 1 4 4 3 - 1 2 4 7 - 1 2 7 7 P l y m p t o n S t . M - - 1 2 9 8 - 1 0 9 5 - 9 8 0 - 4 9 2 ( M L. M a r y F-- 1 2 5 8 - 1 1 1 6 - 8 9 9 T o r r i n g t o n M - - 1 0 7 8 - 9 6 1 - 9 2 0 - 4 9 2 (L L. F-- 9 9 3 - 9 2 3 - 9 4 6 K i n g s b r i d g e M - - 1 4 1 8 - 1 2 9 7 - 9 6 9 - 4 9 1 ( M L. F-- 1 3 5 4 - 1 1 9 3 - 1 0 0 9 T i v e r t o n M - - 2 4 8 7 - 2 2 2 1 - 2 0 3 8 - 4 9 . 1 ( M ,L. F-- 2 4 7 2 - 2 0 9 1 - 1 9 4 5 S o u t h M o l t o n M - - 1 2 5 1 - 1 1 8 2 - 1 0 8 8 - 4 8 . 4 ( M .L. F-- 1 2 3 8 - 1 1 0 2 - 9 6 0 O k e h a m p t o n M - - 1 2 3 0 - 1 1 4 3 - 1 1 2 6 - 4 8 . 2 ( M .L. F-- 1 2 2 5 - 1 0 9 6 - 9 4 6 H o l s w o r t h y M - - 6 9 0 - 6 8 5 - 6 5 2 - 4 8 . 0 (L .L. F-- 7 3 2 - 5 9 1 - 5 4 6 -72-Tavistock M-1789 - 1463 - 1544 - 47.8 (L.L.) F-1701 - 1419 - 1277 Crediton M-1360 - 1193 - 1137 - 47.3 (L.L.) F-1288 - 1063 - 963 * L.L. Indicated Low Literacy, M.L. Medium Literacy, H.L. High Literacy. Source: Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Population Tables: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations and B i r t h -place of the People, BPP, 1852-53, VIII. - 7 3 -A g e s o f M a l e s a n d F e m a l e s b e t w e e n 5 a n d 1 9 e n u m e r a t e d M a r c h 3 1 s t , 1 8 5 1 ( S u f f o l k D i s t r i c t s ) B u r y S t . M u t f o r d I p s w i c h M i l d e n h a l l S t o w S u d b u r y W a n g f o r d P l o m e s g a t e B l y t h i n g R i s b r i d g e H a r t i s m e r e W o o d b r i d g e T h i n g o e C o s f o r d B o s m e r e H o x n e S a m f o r d * H . L . 5 t o 9 y e a r s E d m u n d s M - 7 6 2 F - 8 1 7 M - 1 2 1 1 F - 1 1 8 6 M - 1 7 1 4 F - 1 7 5 6 M - 6 5 7 F- 6 8 9 M - 1 3 6 0 F - 1 3 8 7 M - 1 9 2 6 F - 1 8 7 0 M - 7 6 1 F- 7 9 3 M - 1 3 5 9 F - 1 3 5 0 M - 1 7 3 8 F - 1 7 4 3 M - 1 1 8 5 F - 1 1 5 2 M - 1 1 6 4 F - 1 1 8 9 M - 1 4 4 3 F - 1 3 8 0 M - 1 2 6 0 F - 1 2 1 6 M - 1 0 8 9 F - 1 0 3 8 M - 1 0 6 3 F - 1 1 2 3 M - 9 6 7 F- 9 2 9 M - 8 1 1 F- 7 1 5 1 0 t o 1 4 y e a r s 7 7 2 7 9 6 1 1 1 8 1 1 5 3 1 5 9 5 1 5 7 0 5 7 2 5 5 9 1 1 6 6 1 1 9 2 1 6 6 1 1 7 1 4 8 7 8 7 7 5 1 2 7 1 1 2 0 0 1 6 2 0 1 5 3 9 1 0 5 5 1 0 0 9 1 1 0 5 1 0 5 0 1 3 0 3 1 2 3 0 1 0 5 8 1 0 6 2 1 0 3 3 1 0 1 6 9 8 4 8 9 0 9 3 5 8 7 2 6 9 8 6 5 2 1 5 t o 1 9 y e a r s 6 4 8 6 8 5 8 4 6 0 3 3 1 5 2 2 1 7 5 1 5 3 3 5 1 3 1 0 6 7 9 6 9 1 5 8 1 1 5 2 8 6 8 8 7 1 2 9 9 4 9 8 0 1 2 8 1 2 2 0 9 0 8 8 8 9 1 0 2 0 9 2 8 1 1 0 9 1 0 3 6 9 6 1 8 0 2 1 0 0 8 8 8 4 9 3 2 7 5 4 8 5 7 7 6 1 5 9 5 5 2 4 % o f f e m a l e t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n 5 & 1 9 5 3 . 4 5 1 . 5 5 1 . 2 4 9 . 9 4 9 . 7 4 9 . 7 4 9 . 5 4 9 . 3 4 9 . 2 4 9 . 2 4 9 . 1 4 8 . 6 4 8 . 4 4 8 . 4 4 8 . 2 4 8 . 1 7 . 3 H . H . H . M . M . L . H . M . M . L . L . H . M . L . M . L , L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . L . H . L . i n d i c a t e s H i g h L i t e r a c y , M . L . L o w L i t e r a c y . S o u r c e r C e n s u s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1 8 5 1 M e d i u m L i t e r a c y ' , L . L . , P o p u l a t i o n T a b l e s : A g e s , C i v i l C o n d i t i o n , O c c u p a t i o n s a n d B i r t h - P l a c e o f t h e  P e o p l e , B P P , 1 8 5 2 - 5 3 , V I I I . -74-N o t e s C h a p t e r 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1. W . P . B a k e r , ' P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s a n d I l l i t e r a c y i n E a s t Y o r k s h i r e ' , E a s t Y o r k s h i r e L o c a l H i s t o r y  S o c i e t y , X I I I , 1961. 2. W . B . S t e p h e n s , ' A n a n a t o m y o f i l l i t e r a c y i n m i d - V i c t o r i a n D e v o n " , i n J e f f r e y P o r t e r , e d . , E d u c a t i o n  a n d L a b o u r i n t h e S o u t h - W e s t , U n i v e r s i t y o f E x e t e r , 1975. 3. M i c h a e l S a n d e r s o n , ' L i t e r a c y a n d S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n E n g l a n d ' , P a s t a n d  P r e s e n t , L V I , 1972. T h o m a s W . L a q u e r , ' L i t e r a c y a n d S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n E n g l a n d ' , P a s t a n d  P r e s e n t , L X I V , 1974. M i c h a e l S a n d e r s o n , ' L i t e r a c y a n d S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n E n g l a n d 1 , P a s t a n d  P r e s e n t , L X I V , 1974. E . G . W e s t , ' L i t e r a c y a n d t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ' , E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y R e v i e w , X X X I , 1978. 4. R . S . S c h o f i e l d , ' T h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f L i t e r a c y i n P r e -I n d u s t r i a l E n g l a n d 1 , i n J a c k G o o d y , e d . , L i t e r a c y i n T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t i e s , C a m b r i d g e , 1968, p . 311. 5. J a c k G o o d y a n d I a n W a t t , ' T h e C o n s e q u e n c e s o f L i t e r a c y ' , i n J a c k G o o d y , e d . , L i t e r a c y i n T r a d i t i o n a l  S o c i e t i e s , C a m b r i d g e , 1968, p . 49. 6. L a w r e n c e S t o n e , ' L i t e r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d 164 0 -1900', P a s t a n d P r e s e n t , X X X X I I , 1969, p . 122 7. C a r l o M . C i p o l l a , L i t e r a c y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e W e s t , L o n d o n , 1969, p . 13. 8. S c h o f i e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 319. 9. S t o n e , o p . c i t . , p . 118. 10. S c h o f i e l d , o p . c i t . , p . 321. 11. C i p o l l a , o p . c i t . , p . 18. 12. I b i d . , p . 15 -75-13. G. R. Lucas, 'The d i f f u s i o n of l i t e r a c y i n England and Wales i n the 19th century', Studies i n Education, I I I , 1960 - 61, p. 247. 14. Stephens, op. c i t . , p. 8. -76-Chapter 2  Contrasts 1. James Caird, English Agriculture i n 1850 - 51, London, 1967, p. 48. 2. Joan Thirsk and Jean Imray, Suffolk Farming i n the nineteenth century, Suffolk, 1958, p. 27. 3. Reports of the Assistant Commissioners, Royal Commission on Agriculture, BPP, 1880, XIX, Mr. L i t t l e ' s Report on Devon, p. 92; and Mr. Druce 1s Report on Suffolk, p. 410. 4. Thirsk and Imray, op. c i t . , p. 18. 5. G. E. F u s s e l l , 'High Farming i n South Western England 1840 - 1880', Economic Geography, XXIV, 1948, p. 70. 6. F i r s t Report of the Royal Commission on the Employment of Children, Young Persons and Women i n  Agriculture, BPP, 1867-68, XVII; Rev. J. Fras e r 1 s Report, p. 36. 7. Thirsk and Imray, op. c i t . , p. 27. 8. I have calculated percentages from the Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Population Abstracts: Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and Birthplaces  of the People, BPP, 1852-53, VIII. 9. Children's Employment Commission, Sixth Report of the Commissioners on Organized A g r i c u l t u r a l  Gangs, BPP, 1867, XVI. 10. Carlo M. C i p o l l a , Literacy and Development i n the West, London, 196 9, p. 75. 11. Second Report of the Royal Commission on the Employment of Children, Young Persons and Women i n  Agriculture, BPP, 1868 - 69, XIII, Mr. Tremenhere's Report, p. i x . 12. H. Raynbird, 'On the Farming of Suffolk' Journal of the Royal A g r i c u l t u r a l Society, VII, 1847, p. 323. 13. It should be noted that indoor farm servants were often provided with free accommodation. Devon's indoor farm workers, therefore, probably had an advantage over Suffolk labourers i n this respect. -77-14. C i p o l l a , op. c i t . , p. 76 15. Michael Sanderson, 'Literacy and Social Mobility i n the Ind u s t r i a l Revolution i n England', Past and Present, LVI, 1972, p. 89. 16. Ibid., p. 102. 17. E. G. West, 'Literacy and the Industrial Revolution', Economic History Review, XXXI, 1978, p. 382. 18. W. E. Minchinton, 'Economic history since 1700', in Frank Barlow, ed., Exeter and i t s  Region, Exeter, 1969, p. 178. 19. A. H. Shorter, W. L. D. Ravenhill and K. J. Gregory, South West England, London, 1969, p. 161. 20. Ibid., p. 164. 21. William Page, ed., The V i c t o r i a \ History of the County of Suffolk, I I , London, 1907, p. 251. 22. Ibid., p. 253. 23. Ibid., p. 253. 24. Ibid., p. 254. 25. Census of Great B r i t a i n , 1851, Population Abstracts; Ages, C i v i l Condition, Occupations, and  Birthplaces of the People, BPP, 1852-53, VIII. The census report does not c l e a r l y class occupations under industries. I have used persons engaged i n art and mechanic production, persons working and dealing i n animal matters, persons working and dealing i n matters derived from the vegetable kingdom and persons working and dealing i n minerals, as representing i n d u s t r i a l work. -78-Chapter 3 Anatomy of Local Regions 1. Lawrence Stone, 'Literacy and Education i n England 1640-1900', Past and Present, XXXXII, 1969, p. 100. 2. Carlo M. C i p o l l a , Literacy and Development i n the West, London, 1969, p. 75 3. Census of England and Wales, 18 81, General Report, BPP, 1883, IV, p. 22. 4, 5, Ibid. 22 I have calculated town population from the Census Report 1871, BPP, Population, XV, Appendix A, Table 32. Those census d i s t r i c t s which did not show any towns i n t h i s appendix, has been taken to represent areas with less than 25 per cent urban population. Appendix 2 shows the census d i s t r i c t s for which I have been able to determine urban and r u r a l population. Appendix 4 shows in d i v i d u a l density figures for the census d i s t r i c t s of Suffolk. 8. See Appendix 3 for i n d i v i d u a l density figures of Devon d i s t r i c t s . 9. See Appendix 4. 10. These figures have been given i n the Census of England and Wales, 1871, General Report, BPP, 1873, XV, p. 302. 11. C i p o l l a , op. c i t . , p. 75. 12. Professional Class denotes persons engaged i n the general or l o c a l government work, persons engaged i n the defense of the country and persons engaged i n the learned professions or i n l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , and science (with th e i r immediate sub-ordinates). Commercial Class denotes persons engaged i n the conveyance of men, animals, goods, and messages, and persons who buy or s e l l , keep or lend money, houses, or goods of various kinds. Industrial Class represents persons working and dealing i n food and drinks, i n animal substances, i n vegetable -79-substances and i n minerals. A g r i c u l t u r a l Class represents persons possessing or working the land, and engaged in -growing grain, f r u i t , grasses, animals and other products. 13. Exeter and Newton Abbot averaged 10.2 per cent Profess-ional and Commercial people, 28.6 per cent in the Ind u s t r i a l category and only 8.2 per cent were engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l work. In contrast, the corresponding figures for Torrington and Holsworthy were 3.7, 26.3 and 29.1 respectively. 14. Appendix 5 gives d e t a i l s of i n d i v i d u a l Devon d i s t r i c t s . 15. Appendix 6 gives d e t a i l s of Suffolk d i s t r i c t s . 16. Exeter had 11.9% of Professional and Commercial people, 35.6% I n d u s t r i a l and 2.7% were engaged in A g r i c u l t u r a l work. Ipswich showed 11.4% i n the Professional category, 34.0% in the Industrial sector and 3.4 per cent were involved i n A g r i c u l t u r a l work. 17. C i p o l l a , op. c i t . , p. 75. 18. Appendix 7 gives complete picture of i n d i v i d u a l Devon d i s t r i c t s . 19. See Appendix 8 for in d i v i d u a l figures of Suffolk d i s t r i c t s . 20. David St. John Thomas, gen. ed., A Regional History of the Railways of Great B r i t a i n , 5 vols., Newton Abbot, v o l . V: The Eastern  Counties, by D. I. Gordon, p. 23. 21. South Molton was by-passed by the r a i l l i n e . 22. Appendix 9 gives date of opening of r a i l l i n e s i n Devon d i s t r i c t s . 23. Appendix 10 shows opening dates for i n d i v i d u a l Suffolk d i s t r i c t s . 24. R. S. Schofield, 'The Measurement of Literacy i n Pre-Industrial England', i n Jack Goody, ed., Literacy i n T r a d i t i o n a l Societies, Cambridge, 1968, p. 315. -80-25. Exeter and Newton Abbot averaged 12.5% children i n Day-schools, 9.5% i n Sunday schools and 43.2% i n Private schools. In comparison, Torrington and Holsworthy had 8.1% Day school children, 13.4% children i n Sunday schools and 37.6% children i n Private schools. 26. See Appendix 11 for complete d e t a i l s of Devon d i s t r i c t s . 27. Appendix 12 gives d e t a i l s of schooling figures of Suffolk d i s t r i c t s . 28. Stone, op. c i t . , p. 81. 29. C i p o l l a , op. c i t . , p. 73. 30. Alan E v e r i t t , 'Non-conformity i n the V i c t o r i a n Country-side', i n T. G. Cook, ed., Local Studies  and the History of Education, London, 1972, p. 60. 31. See Appendix 13 for i n d i v i d u a l Devon d i s t r i c t figures. 32. Appendix 14 l i s t s figures for each Suffolk d i s t r i c t . 33. I have also calculated the t o t a l percentage of children aged between 5 and 14 i n the two counties and have worked out t h e i r r a t i o to children on books of Day schools and Sunday schools. Suffolk s t i l l showed a higher percentage than Devon. 34. W. B. Stephens, 'Regional Variations i n Education during the Industrial Revolution 1780-1870', Educational Administration and History, Monograph No. 1, Leeds, 1973, p. 30. 35. Schofield, op. c i t . , p. 316. -81-Chapter 4  Conclusion 1. See Appendix 1 for l i t e r a c y figures of d i f f e r e n t counties in 1870. 2. R. S. Schofield, 'The Measurement of Literacy i n Pre-Ind u s t r i a l England,' i n Jack Goody, ed., Literacy i n T r a d i t i o n a l Societies, Cambridge, 1968, p. 317. 3. Carlo M. C i p o l l a , Literacy and Development i n the West, London, 1969, p. 24. 4. Lawrence Stone, 'Literacy and Education i n England 1640 -1900', Past and Present, XXXXII, 1969, p. 94. 5. C i p o l l a , op. c i t . , p. 25. 6. Asher Tropp, The School Teachers, London, 1957, p. 34. 7. Robert Roberts, The C l a s s i c Slum; Salford l i f e i n the f i r s t quarter of the century, Manchester, 1971, p. 166. 8. Stone, op. c i t . , p. 95. 9. Tropp, op. c i t . , p. 77. 10. The State of Popular Education i n England, ...BPP, 18 61, XXI, p. 70. -82-B i b l i o g r a p h y P r i m a r y S o u r c e s : ( P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s = P . P . ) A g r i c u l t u r e , F i r s t a n d S e c o n d R e p o r t s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e E m p l o y m e n t o f C h i l d r e n , Y o u n g P e r s o n s a n d W o m e n i n , P . P . 1867-68 X V I I ; 1868-69, X I I I . A g r i c u l t u r e , R e p o r t s o f t h e A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r s , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n , P . P . 1880, X I X . A g r i c u l t u r e , R e p o r t o f A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r W i l s o n F o x o n t h e c o u n t y o f S u f f o l k , P . P . 1895, X X X I . B i r t h s , D e a t h s a n d M a r r i a g e s , R e p o r t o f t h e R e g i s t r a r G e n e r a l o n , 1865-70, P . P . 1867, X I X , 1868-69, X V I ; 1870, X V I ; 1871, X V I ; 1872, X V I I . C h i l d r e n ' s E m p l o y m e n t C o m m i s s i o n , S e c o n d R e p o r t o f , P . P . 1843, X I V . C h i l d r e n ' s E m p l o y m e n t C o m m i s s i o n , S i x t h R e p o r t o f , P . P . 1867, X V I . P o p u l a t i o n , C e n s u s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1851, T a b l e s : A g e s , C i v i l C o n d i t i o n , O c c u p a t i o n s a n d B i r t h -p l a c e o f t h e P e o p l e , P . P . 1852-53, V I I I . P o p u l a t i o n , C e n s u s o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1851, E d u c a t i o n , E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s : R e p o r t s a n d T a b l e s , P . P . 1854, X I . 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