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Hodegetria and Venetia Virgo : Giovanni Bellini’s San Giobbe Altarpiece Richardson, Joan Olivia 1979

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HODEGETRIA AND VENETIA VIRGO: GIOVANNI BELLINI'S SAN GIOBBE ALTARPIECE  by  JOAN OLIVIA RICHARDSON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR/THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (The Department of F i n e A r t s )  We accept to  THE  this  t h e s i s as conforming  the r e q u i r e d  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1979  ©  JOAN OLIVIA RICHARDSON, 1979  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  his  of  this  shall  agree  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  thesis  purposes  for  partial  freely  permission may  representatives.  written  for  of  University  financial  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  October 1 5 ,  1979  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  shall  that  not  be  the  requirements  reference copying  t h e Head  i s understood  Fine Arts of  of  extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department The  degree  scholarly  by  this  of  of  I  agree  and this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication my  ii  ABSTRACT  T h i s study f o c u s e s on a s i n g l e work, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s of the V i r g i n and C h i l d enthroned w i t h s a i n t s , p a i n t e d about a l t a r of Job i n the church of San Giobbe, i t s purpose  Venice  (now  i n the  altarpiece  1485  f o r the  Accademia);  i s to make more apparent B e l l i n i ' s i n v e n t i v e n e s s and  depth of h i s response  to V e n e t i a n i d e o l o g y and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s importance  the  thus to l e a d to a  fuller  to l a t e r p a i n t e r s not o n l y i n t e c h n i q u e  and s t y l e but i n i c o n o g r a p h i c a l m o t i f s . The p a i n t i n g has always been r e c o g n i z e d as a key work i n B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre,  i n the h i s t o r y of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g and  i n the development of an  important a l t a r p i e c e type, the monumental s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e .  Critical  a n a l y s i s of i t , however, has been mainly s t y l i s t i c and i t has r e c e i v e d o n l y l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s r e l i g i o u s iconography i c o n o l o g i c a l aspect as a u n i q u e l y V e n e t i a n work.  and no study o f i t s  The.San Giobbe:.altarpiece  i s a major V e n e t i a n work of a r t which can p r o f i t a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d i n a broader  context of r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n .  This i n q u i r y requires  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the unique V e n e t i a n q u a l i t y and- c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e and  of  the r e c r e a t i o n as f a r p o s s i b l e of i t s s i t e ,  the c o n t e x t of i t s commission, i t s d e v o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n and an  interpretation  of the p o s s i b l e i d e o l o g i c a l content of the work which would account c o n s i d e r a b l e contemporary fame and widespread In Chapter  Two  influence.  d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n r e v e a l s the r i c h and  iconography;'!' a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the formal' elements 1  for i t s  and  the  complex  total  a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s p a t i a l composition permits a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  iii  viewer/worshipper's  e x p e r i e n c e o f the a l t a r p i e c e i n s i t u .  Chapters  Three  and Four c o n s i d e r p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s o f the I t a l i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e t r a d i t i o n i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h a framework f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the b a s i c theme and f e a t u r e s o f the type o f s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e which became popular i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e .  L o c a l Venetian  traditions  w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d to e s t a b l i s h the V e n e t i a n o r i g i n . a n d c h a r a c t e r o f the type.  Chapter F i v e w i l l o u t l i n e the h i s t o r y o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n , major  b u i l d i n g phases and n a t u r e o f patronage  o f the church o f San Giobbe, as  w e l l as the s i t e , commission and d e v o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the a l t a r p i e c e . Chapter  S i x c o n s i d e r s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l content o f the a l t a r p i e c e which  meshes w i t h i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n .  The iconography and  meaning o f the a l t a r p i e c e w i l l r e c e i v e a t e n t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e i. l i g h t of t h e V e n e t i a n p r o p e n s i t y t o use r e l i g i o u s images to symbolize i d e a s of s t a t e and to determine  the " n a t i o n a l *  1  symbolism which t h i s  and p o s s i b l y t h i s type of a l t a r p i e c e , might have. a r t i n Venice i s r e l a t e d  altarpiece,  T h i s p o l i t i c a l use o f  to the n a t i o n a l c u l t o f the E v a n g e l i s t Mark and  the a s s o c i a t i o n of the s t a t e w i t h t h e s a i n t i n a g l o r i o u s d e s t i n y which p r o v i d e d r e l i g i o u s j u s t i f i c a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f the . ; state. The c h a r a c t e r of the V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e „type..centres around  the e l e v a t e d , " p u b l i c " enthronement o f the V i r g i n h e r a l d e d by  music-making a n g e l s housed i n a d i s t i n c t i v e s p a t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y contiguous w i t h t h e viewer's  space.  There a r e  s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i i s t h e i n v e n t o r o f t h i s type of s a c r a conversazione, .of which h i s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l statement.  I t s a t i s f i e s the requirements  (  o f the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e theme  iv  of i n t e r c e s s i o n and p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n i n i t s d u a l e f f e c t of the V i r g i n ' s simultaneous  d i s t a n c e and p r o x i m i t y to the s a i n t s and  E u c h a r i s t i c iconography.  the viewer and i n i t s  I n q u i r y i n t o the church .and patronage  suggests t h a t the a l t a r p i e c e , frame, a l t a r and p r o b a b l e tombslab of  contexts . of the donor  - B e l l i n i ' s p a i n t i n g , formed a f u n e r a r y ensemble e q u i v a l e n t to a b u r i a l  chapel.  F i n a l l y , t h i s study suggests t h a t w i t h i n the r e l i g i o u s theme  and f u n c t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e there a r e e x p r e s s i o n s of i d e a s about V e n e t i a n s t a t e as unique, p e r f e c t , enduring and are p o p u l a r l y known as the "Myth of V e n i c e " :  f i l l e d with virtue  the that  t h a t ongoing p r o c e s s of  p o l i t i c a l s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n and s t a t e p r o p a g a n d i z a t i o n i n which the v i s u a l arts  t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d a key r o l e .  artistic  traditions  Roman, r e f l e c t s  The remarkable  i n t e g r a t i o n of  i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , the B y z a n t i n e and  the two  two the  t r a d i t i o n s which were drawn upon i n the p e r i o d of  renewed s t a t e p r o p a g a n d i z a t i o n contemporary to the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e . The r e l i g i o u s m o t i f s o f the enthroned V i r g i n and symbolize i d e a s about  the music-making angels  the s a c r e d and harmonious n a t u r e of the V e n e t i a n  R e p u b l i c and i t s d i v i n e m i s s i o n to propagate  peace and  to d i s p e n s e  justice.  B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t the v i s u a l i n Venice  p l a y e d , as they had  i n the p a s t , an important r o l e i n t h e  o r c h e s t r a t i o n of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of r u l i n g members o f the s t a t e .  arts  the  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABBREVIATIONS OF JOURNALS CHAPTER ONE.  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER TWO.  DESCRIPTION OF THE ALTARPIECE  vi.. .  x xi 1 14  CHAPTER THREE. A FRAMEWORK FOR A CONSIDERATION OF THE VENETIAN SACRA CONVERSAZIONE ALTARPIECE  42  CHAPTER FOUR. THE SACRA CONVERSAZIONE ALTARPIECE IN LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY VENICE .  58  CHAPTER FIVE. HISTORY OF.-THE SITE, ANDiiDEVOTIONAL FUNCTION OF THE ALTARPIECE  71  Phase One Phase Two Phase Three CHAPTER SIX. THE DUAL HERITAGE OF ROME AND BYZANTIUM IN THE RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY OF THE VENETIAN STATE  106  The Roman -.Tradition i n F i f t e e n t h Century V e n i c e The B y z a n t i n e T r a d i t i o n i n F i f t e e n t h Century V e n i c e Strengthened P o l i t i c a l E x p r e s s i o n i n L a t e F i f t e e n t h Century Venice Two A r t i s t i c T r a d i t i o n s i n the San Giobbe A l t a r p i e c e S t a t e Iconography i n the San Giobbe A l t a r p i e c e The V i r g i n as an Emblem o f V e n i c e The Angels as an Emblem of the V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n Conclusion ILLUSTRATIONS  130  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  177  APPENDIX I . DATING  181  APPENDIX I I .  HISTORY OF THE LITERATURE AND DISCUSSION OF THE  A DOCUMENTED HISTORY OF THE CHURCH  196  vi  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  1. ' Jacopo d e ' B a r b a r i , San Giobbe i n Canareggio, d e t a i l o f map V e n i c e , 1500. V e n i c e , Mu'seo C i v i c o C o r r e r . 2. I n t e r i o r o f San Giobbe (photo: P. P a o l e t t i , L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a e l a s c u l t u r a d e l Rinascimento i n V e n e z i a , p i . 42) 3. A l t a r of Job, church of San Giobbe (photo: Ralph Lieberman) 4. Sanudo a l t a r , a l t a r o f Job, F o s c a r i a l t a r , San Giobbe, compo s i t e photo. 5. Coat of arms on a l t a r o f Job, d e t a i l o f B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e frame, San Giobbe. 6. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V e n i c e , Accademia, c. 1485 (photo: Bohm) 7. Photomontage o f B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e i n o r i g i n a l frame (G. Robertson, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , p i . LXVII) 8. B e l l i n i , V i r g i n and C h r i s t , d e t a i l of San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e (photo: Bohm) 9. Diagram P l a n o f A l t a r and A l t a r p i e c e , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , San V Giobbe (not to s c a l e ) 10. Cherub below C h r i s t i n G l o r y , c e n t r a l v a u l t , B a p t i s t e r y , San Marco, V e n i c e , c. 1350 (photo: R. P a l l u c c h i n i , L a P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l T r e c e n t o , f i g . 248) 11. B e l l i n i , A n g e l s , d e t a i l of San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e (photo: Bohm) 12. Paolo Veneziano, C o r o n a t i o n o f the V i r g i n , V e n i c e , Accademia, c. 1350 (photo: P a l l u c c h i n i , T r e c e n t o , f i g . 144) 13. P i e t r o Lombardo, p o r t a l of San Giobbe, 1470's (photo: P a o l e t t i , Rinascimento, p i . 40) 14. P. Lombardo, F r a n c i s and Job, d e t a i l of San Giobbe p o r t a l (photo: Bohm) 15. G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , Dominic, S e b a s t i a n , L o u i s o f Toulouse, d e t a i l o f San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e (photo: C o r r e r 6465) 16. Border of Bishop's Cope, d e t a i l of B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e (photo: C o r r e r 6465) 17. Frame of B e l l i n i ' d l o s t a l t a r p i e c e , SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e , e a r l y 1470's (photo: P a o l e t t i , Rinascimento, p i . 108) 18. G i o r g i o n e , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , C a s t e l f r a n c o , c. 1505 (photo: T e r i s i o P i g n a t t i , G i o r g i o n e , p i . 14) 19. P i e t r o L o r e n z e t t i , V i r g i n w i t h B a p t i s t and F r a n c i s , San F r a n c e s c o , A s s i s i , Lower Church, Chapel o f Napoleone O r s i n i , c. 1320 (photo: L. C o l e t t i , G l i A f f r e s c h i d e l l a B a s i l i c a d i A s s i s i , p i . 165) 20. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Masaccio's P i s a a l t a r p i e c e o f 1426 (John Shearman,"Masaccio's P i s a A l t a r - p i e c e : an A l t e r n a t i v e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , " BM 108 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : f i g . 7)  vii  21.  22.  23.  24.  25.  26.  27.  28.  29.  30. 31.  32.  33.  34.  35.  36.  F i l i p p o L i p p i , V i r g i n , Angels and S a i n t s , P a r i s , Louvre, 1437, from B a r b a d o r i Chapel, S. S p i r i t o , F l o r e n c e (photo: M. P i t t a l u g a , F i l i p p o L i p p i , F l o r e n c e , 1949, p i . 12) F r a A n g e l i c o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , F l o r e n c e , San Marco, 1437-1441 (photo: J . Pope-Hennessy, F r a A n g e l i c o , 1976, . p i . 48) Domenico Veneziano, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , F l o r e n c e , U f f i z i , mid 1440's, from S. M a r i a d e i M a g n o l i , F l o r e n c e (photo: E n c y c l o p e d i a o f World A r t , s.v. "Domenico Veneziano," p i . 233) Antonio V i v a r i n i , G i o v a n n i d'Allemagna, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h Four F a t h e r s o f the Church, V e n i c e , Accademia, 1446 (photo: R. P a l l u c c h i n i , I V i v a r i n i , f i g . 62) R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D o n a t e l l o ' s h i g h a l t a r , Santo, Padua, 14461450 (photo: G. F i o c c o , A. S a r t o r i , L ' a l t a r e Grande d i D o n a t e l l o a l Santo, 1961, p. 64) Andrea Mantegna, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , Verona, San Zeno, 1456-1459, h i g h a l t a r (photo: G. P a c c a g n i n i , Andrea Mantegna, Catalogo d e l l a Mostra, p i . 11) P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , V i r g i n w i t h A n g e l s , S a i n t s and Donor M i l a n , B r e r a , 1472-1474, from San Bernardino i n Urbino (photo: EWA, s.v. " P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , " p i . 166) M a r c e l l o F o g o l i n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, c . 1510 (photo: Berenson, Study and C r i t i e J . cism o f I t a l i a n A r t , S e r i e s I I I , 1916, p i . opp. p. 113) A n t o n e l l o da Messina, fragment of V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V i e n n a , K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Museum, 1475-1576, from San Cassiano V e n i c e (photo: Johannes W i l d e , "Die P a l a d i San C a s s i a n o . . . " Jahrbuch der K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen i n Wien,3 ( 1 9 2 9 ) : p l . V I I I ) R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f A n t o n e l l o ' s San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e (Wilde, "Die P a l a d i San C a s s i a n o , " f i g . 66) Lorenzo Veneziano, V i r g i n and C h i l d Enthroned, P a r i s , L o u v r e , 1372 (photo: L. T e s t i , L a S t o r i a d e l l a P i t t u r a Veneziana, I_, 1909, p i . V I I ) Antonio Rosso, V i r g i n a n d t C h i l d . Enthroned, V e n i c e , Accademia, 1460-1465 (photo: Berenson, I t a l i a n P i c t u r e s o f t h e R e n a i s sance, V e n e t i a n S c h o o l , v o l . 1, f i g . 328) Photomontage of B e l l i n i ' s l o s t a l t a r p i e c e (Zanotto engraving) ' w i t h o r i g i n a l frame i n SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e (Robertson, B e l l i n i , p i . XXXIX) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , f o r m e r l y SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e , 1470-1475, w a t e r c o l o u r copy (photo: R. F r y , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , 1900) Bartolomeo Montagna, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V i c e n z a , Museo C i v i c o , a f t e r 1484 (photo: F. B a r b i e r i , I I Museo C i v i c o d i Vecenza, V e n i c e , 1962, A l ) Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , C o n e g l i a n o , Duomo, 1493 (photo: L. C o l e t t i , Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , p i . VII)  viii  37. 38. 39.  40. 41.  42.  43.  44. 45.  46.  47. 48.  49.  50.  51.  52.  53.  54.  Photomontage of B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n o r i g i n a l frame (Hubala, Madonna M i t K i n d , 1969, f i g . 11) Masaccio, T r i n i t y , F l o r e n c e , S. M a r i a N o v e l l a , c. 1425 (photo: L. B e r t i , Masaccio, p i . 6) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , . V i r g i n w i t h Four S a i n t s , V e n i c e , S. M a r i a d e i F r a r i , 1488, S a c r i s t y (photo: Testi,Storia della P i t t u r a , v o l . 2, p. 141) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V e n i c e , San Z a c c a r i a , 1505 (photo: Robertson, B e l l i n i , p i . XCVIII) D e s i d e r i o da S e t t i g n a n o , Sacrament T a b e r n a c l e , F l o r e n c e , S. Lorenzo, 1461 (photo: Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n R e n a i s sance S c u l p t u r e , f i g . 45) Romanino, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , Padua, Museo C i v i c o , 1513 (photo: L. G r o s s a t o , I I Museo C i v i c o d i Padua, ;..-:*. w ~ V e n i c e , 1957, f i g . 165) A l v i s e V i v a r i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , ' f o r m e r l y B e r l i n , K a i s e r F r i e d r i c h Museu, 1493, from S. M a r i a d e i B a t t u t i , B e l l u n o (photo: P a l l u c c h i n i , V i v a r i n i , f i g . 259) Marco M a r z i a l e , C i r c u m c i s i o n , London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , 1500 (photo: D a v i e s , E a r l i e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , v o l . 2, pi.275) V i t t o r e C a r p a c c i o , P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n the Temple, V e n i c e , Accademia, 1510 (photo: M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Le G a l l e r i e d e l l ' A c c a d e m i a , 1955, no. 104) B o c c a c c i o B o c c a c c i n o , A n n u n c i a t i o n , Rome, C o l l . Boncompagni, (photo: L. V e n t u r i , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g of the Q u a t t r o c e n t o , P a r t I I , p i 27) Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V e n i c e , Accademia ( P a l a Dragan) (photo: C o l e t t i , Cima, no. 42) Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , B e r l i n , S t a a t l i c h e Museen, end of 15th. c, from S. M i c h e l e d i Murano (photo: C o l e t t i , Cima, no. 39) Marco M a r z i a l e , V i r g i n and S a i n t s , London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , ..-'1507 (photo: D a v i e s , E a r l i e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , v o l . 2, p i . 276) Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s . a n d Donors, Parma, G a l l e r i a N a z i o n a l e , c. 1507 (photo: C o l e t t i , Cima, no. 114) Lorenzo C o s t a , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , Bologna, S. P e t r o n i o , 1492 (photo: V e n t u r i , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g , P a r t I, p i . 73) G i o v a n n i B u o n c o n s i g l i o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , V i c e n z a , Museo C i v i c o , from O r a t o r i o d e i T u r c h i n i (photo: Heinemann, B e l l i n i e i b e l l i n i a n i , v o l . 2, . 1 f i g . 801) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , Mark P r e s e n t i n g A g o s t i n o Barbaro to the V i r g i n , Murano, S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , 1488 (photo: Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 2, f i g . 68) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i (with a s s i s t a n t s ) Donor P r e s e n t e d by John the B a p t i s t to the V i r g i n , V e n i c e , S. Francesco d e l l a Vigna, 1507 (photo: Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 2, f i g . 105)  i  ix  55.  Andrea R i c o , V i r g i n o f the P a s s i o n , Parma, G a l l e r i a N a z i o n a l e , mid 15th c (photo: G a l l e r i a N a z i o n a l e , Parma)  56.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , Madonna, F l o r e n c e , U f f i z i (photo: Coletti, Cima, no. 88) Giovanni B e l l i n i , V i r g i n and C h r i s t , d e t a i l of San Giobbe . . a l t a r p i e c e (photo: Bohm) Annunciate, A q u i l e i a , B a s i l i c a , mid 14th c (photo: W. W o l t e r s La s c u l t u r a v e n e z i a n a g o t i c a , 1976, v o l . 2, f i g . 59) Leonardo da V i n c i ( ? ) , A n n u n c i a t i o n , F l o r e n c e , U f f i z i , e a r l y 1470's (photo: L. Heydenreich, Leonardo da V i n c i , London, 1954, p i . 3) Vincenzo Catena, Mark P r e s e n t i n g Leonardo Loredan t o t h e V i r g i n , V e n i c e , C o r r e r , c . 1500 (photo: Robertson, Vincenzo Catena, 1954,r.no. 7) H a g i o s o r i t i s s a ( V i r g i n o f I n t e r c e s s i o n ) , marble r e l i e f , 11th c Washington, D.C. (photo::. M.E. F r a s e r , "Church Doors and the Gates o f P a r a d i s e , " Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973): f i g . 5) Masaccio, P i s a a l t a r p i e c e , c e n t r a l p a n e l , London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , 1425 (photo: Shearman, "Masaccio's P i s a A l t a r p i e c e , " f i g . 2) D e t a i l o f f o l i a t e c r o s s e s from bronze doors o f c e n t r a l a t r i u m of San Marco, V e n i c e , c. 1112 (photo: F r a s e r , "Church Doors," 1973, f i g . 11) , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s (photo: Bohm) V e n e c i a , r o u n d e l on P i a z z a facade o f Ducal P a l a c e , V e n i c e (photo: W o l t e r s , S c u l t u r a veneziana, v o l . 2, f i g . 843) J a c o b e l l o d e l F i o r e , A l l e g o r y o f J u s t i c e , V e n i c e , Accademia, 1421, f o r m e r l y Ducal P a l a c e (photo: Moschini-Marconi, Accademia, no. 31) Bartolomeo Bon, J u s t i c e , on P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a , Ducal P a l a c e , V e n i c e , 1441 (photo: W o l t e r s , S c u l t u r a v e n e z i a n a , v o l . 2, f i g . 843) F o l l o w e r of T i t i a n , V i r g i n w i t h S e b a s t i a n and Roch, B e r l i n , K u p f e r s t i c h k a b i n e t t , e a r l y 16th c (photo: D.F. v o n . . .„ Hadeln, V e n e z i a n i s c h e Zeichnungen d e r Hochrenaissance, p l . 35) G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n and C h r i s t , d e t a i l o f San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e (photo: Bohm)  57. 58. 59.  60.  61.  62.  63.  64. 65. 66.  67.  68.  69.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Debra P i n c u s f o r h e r e x p e r t guidance, c l e a r i n s i g h t and u n f a i l i n g sense o f humour, and f o r h e r generous o f f e r i n g o f i d e a s , v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e s , m a t e r i a l and photographs. I am i n d e b t e d to my mother, Mrs. Erma R i c h a r d s o n , f o r h e r encouragement and work on the t y p e s c r i p t . F i n a l l y , my h e a r t f e l t and optimism.  thanks  t o Hamish Mackenzie  f o r h i s c o n s t a n t support  xi  ABBREVIATIONS OF JOURNALS  Art B u l l e t i n : Art Journal: Art  Quarterly:  AB AJ AQ  B u r l i n g t o n Magazine:  BM  J o u r n a l of the Warburg and C o u r t a u l d Renaissance Q u a r t e r l y :  RQ  Institutes:  JWCI  1  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  Prima se vede i n b e l a maesta La Madre c o l Bambin: forma s i dota No f u mai v i s t a , o i d e a c u s i devota; Se p u o l ben d i r : L*e una d i v i n i t S ! Marco B o s c h i n i , 1660-'-  D a l l a p a r t e v e r s o P i a z z a s i vede V e n e t i a V e r g i n e , l a quale con l a sua i n c o r r o t t a p u r i t a , s i d i f e n d e d a l l ' i n s o l e n z a a l t r u i , & s'appoggla a l mondo, p e r c h e l l a sola f r a tutte l ' a l t r e £ restata incorrotta, & i n t a t t a da g l i a l t r u i b a r b a r i , & t i r a n n i c i I m p e r i j . 1  o  Francesco Sansovino,  1581  Marco B o s c h i n i wrote h i s p a n e g y r i c i n p r a i s e of the i m p r e s s i v e Madonna of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e which G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i p a i n t e d i n about  1485  f o r the a l t a r of San Giobbe,  to t h a t s a i n t i n V e n i c e .  church d e d i c a t e d  The Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d enthroned  s a i n t s and music-making angels beneath of a Renaissance  i n the monastic  the golden B y z a n t i n e apse mosaic  c h a p e l e x e m p l i f i e s a new  type of monumental V e n e t i a n  a l t a r p i e c e which became v e r y p o p u l a r i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the century i n V e n i c e and  the Veneto.  fifteenth  From the time of i t s e x e c u t i o n the  p a i n t i n g has been p r a i s e d as one of the h i g h achievements Renaissance  with  p a i n t i n g , and seems to d i s t i l  of V e n e t i a n  a uniquely Venetian  spirit  which has been v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n p i o u s , p o e t i c , or s t y l i s t i c  terms.  The i n t e g r a t i o n o f the s p a t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h the frame, the h i g h  and  2  narrow format,  the combination  of Renaissance  a r c h i t e c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e  m o t i f s w i t h the B y z a n t i n e mosaic of the apse v a u l t , the glowing  atmosphere  of s u n l i g h t r e c e d i n g i n t o warm shadow, the e x q u i s i t e harmony of the musicmaking a n g e l s , are d i s t i n c t i v e l y V e n e t i a n .  Above a l l ,  the Madonna,  d e p i c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as the imperious H o d e g e t r i a , massive i n her drapery, and as the Mother of Mercy, modest and i n v i t i n g i n mien, t i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d w i t h her r i g h t hand as she r a i s e s her l e f t unusual  dark  suppori n an  and e x p r e s s i v e g e s t u r e , i s the focus of the p a i n t i n g , indeed a  " d i v i n i t s t , " the o b j e c t of g r e a t and  ancient devotion i n Venice.  Mary f i g u r e d so l a r g e l y i n the c o l l e c t i v e  The  Virgin  t h e o l o g i c a l / p o l i t i c a l imagination  of V e n i c e t h a t the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of V e n i c e , " V e n e t i a V e r g i n e " assumed many of her g r a c e s , a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i t i e s . guide to h i s n a t i v e V e n i c e w r i t t e n i n 1581, metaphor used  to g l o r i f y the never-conquered  Francesco  r e c o r d s the  Sansovino,  in his  traditional  Venetian Republic:  the  " i n c o r r o t t a p u r i t S " of the V i r g i n Mary. The a l t a r p i e c e i s undated and no documentation s u r v i v e s . Appendix I c o n t a i n s a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e , of the work i n B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre,  and d a t i n g .  S a b e l l i c o and M a r i n Sanudo of about 1493 the a l t a r p i e c e by t h a t date, and  n o t i c e s by  Marcantonio  are evidence of the c o m p l e t i o n  r e c o r d i t s e a r l y r e p u t a t i o n as one of  o u t s t a n d i n g works of V e n e t i a n a r t . is  Two  position  u r b i s s i t u , Venice,  the  Both n o t i c e s appear i n works whose theme  the p r a i s e and g l o r i f i c a t i o n of V e n i c e . S a b e l l i c o ' s n o t i c e appears  of  i n h i s guide to V e n i c e , De  Venetae  1493:  V i s i t u r i n p a r t e a e d i s J o a n i i s B e l l i n i t a b u l a i n s i g n i s quam i l l e i n t e r prima a r t i s suae rudimenta i n apertum r e t u l i t . Whether h i s b r i e f n o t i c e i s i n t e r p r e t e d as p r a i s e of B e l l i n i ' s newly  3  mastered  o i l technique, or u n c r i t i c a l r e p e t i t i o n of popular b e l i e f i n  i m p l y i n g an e r r o n e o u s l y e a r l y date f o r the a l t a r p i e c e , S a b e l l i c o r e f l e c t s the prominence of the work i n V e n i c e  clearly  (Appendix I ) .  Sanudo's n o t i c e of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s found i n a  list  headed "Queste sono cosse n o t a b i l e i n d i v e r s e c h i e s i e " i n c l u d e d w i t h o t h e r lists  of i n f o r m a t i o n about V e n i c e r e l a t e d to a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d  "Laus u r b i s  venetae," of h i s work on V e n i c e known as the C r o n a c h e t t a , V e n i c e , 1493:^ A Santo Joppo uno a l t a r d i Zuan B e l l i n che d i l e b e l l e cose h a b b i f a t t o & bene. Sanudo's n o t i c e and i t s context a l s o underscore  the contemporary fame of  the a l t a r p i e c e w i t h r e g a r d to the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l achievement, which have been regarded not o n l y as a matured o i l t e c h n i q u e , but a l s o as a i m p r e s s i v e type of a l t a r p i e c e executed i n i t .  Together  may new  the two n o t i c e s  p r o v i d e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the fame of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n V e n i c e was  a t t a c h e d not o n l y to the p e r s o n a l achievement of the a r t i s t i n  m a s t e r i n g the o i l technique on a monumental s c a l e , but to the format theme of a p a r t i c u l a r type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e The f i r s t mainly s t y l i s t i c .  c r i t i c a l account we  and  (Appendix I ) .  p o s s e s s , t h a t of G i o r g i o V a s a r i , i s  In h i s p r e f a c e to P a r t I I I o f the L i v e s he e v a l u a t e s  B e l l i n i ' s s t y l e g e n e r a l l y as "dry, h a r d , and h a r s h , " u g l y i n f o r e s h o r t e n i n g and p e r s p e c t i v e , and l a c k i n g i n v i v a c i t y and harmonious b l e n d i n g of c o l o u r . Nonetheless, admires  i n h i s s p e c i f i c comment on the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e  i t s "molto  disegno e b e l l i s s i m o c o l o r i t o . "  the p i c t u r e e x c i t e d g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n when i t was p r a i s e d as a most b e a u t i f u l work, and  he  V a s a r i ' s remark t h a t  new,  and has always been  e s p e c i a l l y h i s i m p l i c a t i o n that i t  e s t a b l i s h e d B e l l i n i ' s name as an o i l p a i n t e r , l e a d i n g to h i s appointment by  4  the s t a t e , may and  r e f l e c t a l o c a l , V e n e t i a n fame which went beyond t e c h n i c a l  a r t i s t i c merit.  the a l t a r p i e c e but  Vasari implies  does not  g i v e evidence f o r an exact date of  t h a t the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e was  e a r l y or mid-point i n B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r . c e n t u r y , such as Marco B o s c h i n i ,  created  V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s of the  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to g l o r i f y  himself,  and  the f i r s t  great master of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g . ^  i n B e l l i n i ' s work p r e c i s e l y those q u a l i t i e s of p e r f e c t perspective, what he  v i v a c i t y , and  century p r e f e r r e d  G i o r g i o n e as the i n i t i a t o r of the modern s c h o o l o r d e r to e x p l a i n  the undeniable beauty and  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e the undated work was end  of B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre and  Raphael affirmed  draughtsmanship,  s u b t l e c o l o u r i n g which V a s a r i had  i n the e i g h t e e n t h  Venetian  They  a t t r i b u t e d to  termed the t h i r d phase or modern s t y l e of p a i n t i n g .  c r i t i c a l opinion  to see  A shift  of  Bellini's  pupil  of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g .  mastery e x h i b i t e d i n the  s h i f t e d by  an  seventeenth  the  s t a t e , p r a i s e d B e l l i n i as a Renaissance master r i v a l l e d o n l y by  at  certain critics  seen as evidence of the b r i l l i a n t  In  San  to  the  pupil's  Q  i n f l u e n c e on h i s aged master. t i o n of the e a r l y n o t i c e s by date of 1510, artist's  and  career  In the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y S a b e l l i c o and  i n antedating  reconsidera-  V a s a r i i n v a l i d a t e d the  proposed  the a l t a r p i e c e to an e a r l i e r p o i n t  s c h o l a r s were a b l e  in  to r e i n s t a t e B e l l i n i ' s r e p u t a t i o n  the for  Q  inventive  genius.  C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the San century has  been p r i m a r i l y s t y l i s t i c  aesthetic appreciation,  the  and  formal.  e s p e c i a l l y evident  r e f l e c t s i n p a r t a p e r s i s t e n t and great  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n the  Renaissance master who  defensive  i n the  efflorescence  Italian  of  literature,  v i n d i c a t i o n of B e l l i n i as  made an o r i g i n a l and  development df European p a i n t i n g .  An  present  a  decisive contribution  As noted above, a e u l o g i s t i c  to  5  t r a d i t i o n ' was  e s t a b l i s h e d by  seventeenth c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s .  At  times a s i m i l a r c h a u v i n i s t i c i n t e n t seems to u n d e r l i e more r e c e n t p r a i s e of B e l l i n i ' s p i o u s s p i r i t u a l i t y and harmony w i t h h i s environment. V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g has  hyperbolic  h i s h u m a n i s t i c v i s i o n of man  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , B e l l i n i ' s importance  always been seen as  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  technique of p a i n t i n g i n an o i l medium which was f e c t i o n by h i s p u p i l s G i o r g i o n e and  Titian.  contours of the  brought to luminous p e r -  Roger F r y ' s  tempera technique to the  attempt i n 1900  technique, contributed  to a new  primary task i n t h i s c e n t u r y has and  possible i n  by means of s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s and  Roberto Longhi p u b l i s h e d  connoisseurship.  an a r t i c l e which e s t a b l i s h e d  In  d i r e c t contact  at Pesaro may San  be  i n the a n a l y s i s of P i e r o ' s  at Rimini,  piece  1914  Bellini  i n f l u e n c e on  Bellini,  f o r which the C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n  e v i d e n c e , or i n d i r e c t l y ,  Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e p a i n t e d  scope  the importance of -  whether by  The  securely  P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a to the development of V e n e t i a n painting."' "'" s c h o l a r s h i p became i n v o l v e d  the  of d e f i n i n g the  development of the numerous oeuvre, i n which few works are  datable,  dis-  phase i n B e l l i n i s c h o l a r s h i p . - ^  been the complex one  to  within  f u s e d m o d e l l i n g and  s o l u t i o n of f i r m o u t l i n e to suggest atmosphere which was oil  to  new  c o d i f y a development i n B e l l i n i ' s s t y l e from the hatched m o d e l l i n g closed  in  through A n t o n e l l o  i n V e n i c e i n 1476.  The  San  da Messina's Giobbe a l t a r -  i s i n v a r i a b l y c i t e d as t h a t work which e x h i b i t s B e l l i n i ' s l i b e r a t i o n  from the l i n e a r i t y of Mantegna's s t y l e and technique and technique.  the  the mastery of modelled form and  The  oeuvre a c c o r d i n g  p a i n t i n g lends i t s e l f  r e s t r i c t i o n s of the  atmosphere i n the o i l  to a wide range of p o s i t i o n s i n  to the i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n  i n f l u e n c e on B e l l i n i and  tempera  the degree of precedence and  the  of the sources of independence  wishes to a s c r i b e to the master i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n and  he  development of o i l  6  painting i n Venice.  The major B e l l i n i e x h i b i t i o n which was  P a l a z z o Ducale, V e n i c e , i n 1949,  was  a unique  h e l d a t the  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s c h o l a r s to  work w i t h a major p a r t of the oeuvre i n a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . of the e x h i b i t i o n A. B r i z i o observed  an important  In her  r e s u l t was  review  the de-emphasis  of the debate c o n c e r n i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of o i l p a i n t i n g by A n t o n e l l o da Messina  or B e l l i n i , and a renewed a p p r e c i a t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s  independent  i n v e n t i v e g e n i u s , which f l o w e r e d i n those y e a r s i n which the San  Giobbe  a l t a r p i e c e was  passed  created.12  However, t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n has h a r d l y  beyond the a n a l y s i s of B e l l i n i ' s f o r m a l achievement and  the enumeration 1  of h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l m o t i f s , h i s l e g a c y to l a t e r V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r s . Although  c e r t a i n elements of iconography  o  J  i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e  have been commented upon, a comprehensive and p e n e t r a t i n g i c o n o g r a p h i c a l study and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the work has never been c a r r i e d  out.  The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f o r m a l f e a t u r e s of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , c o l o u r and critics  the i n t e r e s t i n d e c o r a t i o n and  s u r f i c i a l d e s i g n , have  i n t o a o n e - s i d e d , sometimes r e s t r i c t i v e , s t y l i s t i c  rich seduced  approach which  c h a r a c t e r i z e s V e n e t i a n s t y l e i n comparison and o p p o s i t i o n to a Tuscan paradigm.  Thus L u i g i C o l e t t i , i n h i s survey of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , d e s c r i b e s  V e n e t i a n s t y l e as spontaneous, n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l , and s t y l e which "speaks"  d i r e c t l y , without  "anti-classico," a  the i n t e l l e c t u a l r e f l e c t i o n of  Florentine painting: . . . p i t t u r a " p a r l a t a , " p i u t t d s t o che  "scritta"!^  Only r e c e n t l y have s c h o l a r s begun to a p p r e c i a t e V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g i n i t s broader  c o n t e x t s of r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n and  i n terms of h i s t o r i c a l i n an attempt  to study p a i n t i n g s  type, p h y s i c a l s i t e , r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n , and  to understand  the meaning which determines  form.  This  patron,  7  " i c o n o l o g i c a l " approach to V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , i n i t i a t e d by Panofsky area of T i t i a n s c h o l a r s h i p , i s b e i n g pursued  by David Rosand i n T i t i a n  s t u d i e s and i s w e l l s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s a r t i c l e on  Titian's  P r e s e n t a t i o n of the V i r g i n p a i n t e d f o r the S c u o l a d e l l a CaritS."'"^ students are a p p l y i n g t h i s approach to T i t i a n and a r t i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Giovanni B e l l i n i .  Rona Goffen has  identified  she has  Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y  demonstrated the importance  t r a d i t i o n i n V e n e t i a n Renaissance  the  religious  p a i n t i n g , which she s t u d i e s from the p o i n t of view of form, devotional function.  Rosand's  to o t h e r V e n e t i a n  i c o n o g r a p h i c type of the h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna i n B e l l i n i ' s  s i t e , and  i n the  iconography,  for B e l l i n i studies,  of the p r e v i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d  a r t , which stems from V e n i c e ' s  Byzantine historic  1 f)  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the E a s t .  J u l i a Keydel has made a f o r m a l study of  the  f u n c t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i and o t h e r major a l t a r p i e c e s  as  p a r t of the a r c h i t e c t u r e and d e c o r a t i o n of t h e i r church s e t t i n g s , and  pro-  v i d e s a b a s i s f o r broader religious  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of B e l l i n i ' s most  important  paintings.17  The more t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c a l approaches to V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g above, the predominance of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s themes i n B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre,  and  the g e n e r a l l a c k of documentary and  t e x t u a l sources of  noted extant  infor-  mation r e g a r d i n g commissions and r e l a t i o n s of the a r t i s t w i t h h i s patrons have s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l study of B e l l i n i ' s work.  However, a  r number of i s o l a t e d s t u d i e s have appeared a r e a of r e l i g i o u s  iconography  i n recent years.  Notable  are Goffen's study of the h a l f - l e n g t h  d e v o t i o n a l Madonna, c i t e d above, and M i l l a r d M e i s s ' a n a l y s i s of ability  i n the  Bellini's  to i n v e s t a n a t u r a l i s t i c component of the p a i n t e d c o m p o s i t i o n ,  as s u n l i g h t , w i t h r e l i g i o u s meaning by a r g u i n g t h a t B e l l i n i  manipulates  such  8  natural light  i n t h i s landscape i n o r d e r  to express the d i r e c t r e v e l a t i o n  1 8  of God  to S a i n t F r a n c i s .  iconographic We  Such s t u d i e s suggest a depth and  extent  of  i n v e n t i o n i n B e l l i n i ' s work which awaits e l u c i d a t i o n .  have o n l y an i n t i m a t i o n of a t h i r d a r e a of iconography,  i d e o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s of the V e n e t i a n  State.  Due  the  to the d e s t r u c t i o n by  f i r e of the c y c l e of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s i n the S a l a d e l Maggior C o n s i g l i o , Venice,  a major category  of B e l l i n i ' s work has  been almost e n t i r e l y  B e l l i n i commenced h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s v a s t and i n 1479 The  and  lost.  prestigious project  seems to have been engaged on i t f o r the b a l a n c e of h i s  career.  c y c l e c o n s i s t e d of episodes i n a p a r t l e g e n d a r y , p a r t h i s t o r i c a l  of V e n e t i a n  event  h i s t o r y i n which the Doge mediated a d i s p u t e between Pope  Alexander I I I and s p e c i a l favour  Emperor F r e d e r i c k B a r b a r o s s a i n 1177,  f o r the V e n e t i a n  i n s t a n c e of the famous V e n e t i a n r e l i g i o u s themes which was  s t a t e from the Pope. propensity  thereby  I t i s an  f o r expressing  obtaining important  i d e a s of s t a t e i n  observed by Roger F r y :  . . . r e l i g i o n was c u l t i v a t e d . . . f o r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which i t p r o v i d e d f o r s y m b o l i z i n g the i d e a s of the s t a t e . . . ^ As Robertson p o i n t s out,  the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s one  of a number of  works which show the e f f e c t s of B e l l i n i ' s work on the l a r g e - s c a l e canvases f o r the V e n e t i a n  state.  "freedom of e x e c u t i o n "  S u r e l y these e f f e c t s were not o n l y an and  " l u m i n o s i t y " i n technique,  but  increased  included  a  r e f l e c t i o n of those i d e o l o g i c a l themes and m o t i f s which were engaging  the  a t t e n t i o n of B e l l i n i and h i s p a t r i c i a n p a t r o n s at the time.^O The  r i c h and  complex iconography of the San  not  r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n i t m e r i t s .  has  not  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e has  Examination of i t s r e l i g i o u s meaning  gone beyond an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p i o u s  of the work to i t s f u n c t i o n as a r e l i g i o u s  expressions  and  suitability  image over the E u c h a r i s t i c  9  altar. In  Z 1  Lack of documentation has  discouraged i c o n o l o g i c a l  the most r e c e n t monograph on B e l l i n i ,  Robertson  interpretation.  o f f e r s a methodical  review of the problem of t e x t u a l s o u r c e s , w i t h o n l y a f l e e t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n of  the p o s s i b l e a l l u s i o n to the A n n u n c i a t i o n , as a theme of m e d i t a t i o n , i n  the V i r g i n ' s g e s t u r e and Robertson's  the v a u l t i n s c r i p t i o n s .  monograph on B e l l i n i ,  In h i s review of  David Rosand c r i t i c i z e s  as a " s e r i o u s  o m i s s i o n " the author's n e g l e c t of B e l l i n i ' s e a r l y i n t e r e s t  i n the  Byzantine  t r a d i t i o n s of V e n i c e , of which the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s "the monumental c u l m i n a t i o n " "as w e l l as b e i n g the f o u n d a t i o n f o r new  developments."  J u l i a Keydel p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e p r e l i m i n a r y groundwork f o r an i c o n o g r a p h i cal  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e i n her study of the r e l a t i o n of  a l t a r p i e c e to the p h y s i c a l context of i t s frame and church i n which i t was the i l l u s i o n i s t i c  situated.  the i n t e r i o r of the  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p l i e s a c o n t i n u i t y of  space and atmosphere of the p a i n t i n g w i t h the r e a l  and atmosphere of the church and  the  space  thus a c o e x i s t e n c e of the viewer w i t h  the  divine beings. ^ z  The r i c h n e s s of the symbolic m o t i f s and the a l t a r p i e c e i n d i c a t e t h a t a thorough-going be of v a l u e i n r e a c h i n g a f u l l e r and  the depth  understanding  c o m p o s i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of  i c o n o g r a p h i c a l study c o u l d of B e l l i n i ' s  inventiveness  of h i s response not o n l y to r e l i g i o u s themes, but  contemporary V e n e t i a n i d e o l o g y . the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e following i t s execution.  to  The a l t a r p i e c e became the p r o t o t y p e f o r  theme i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g f o r some t h i r t y The  years  type i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the e l e v a t i o n of the  V i r g i n on a marble throne e n r i c h e d w i t h a n t i q u e d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s , and  by  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space of a v a u l t e d b a l d a c c h i n o or c h a p e l which i s cont i n u e d more or l e s s i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y  by  the frame of the a l t a r p i e c e .  The  10  golden semi-dome and the l u t e - p l a y i n g angels a r e secondary m o t i f s which were f r e q u e n t l y repeated i n l a t e r V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g .  I t seems p r o b a b l e  t h a t the p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s type o f monumental s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i n V e n i c e was due i n p a r t to i t s symbolic resonance.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  circumstances i n which B e l l i n i ' s work was c o n c e i v e d might r e v e a l the p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e of i t s s a l i e n t i n a monastic  In t h i s r e s p e c t , i t s s i t e  church a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n  d u c a l patronage  and the d u a l sources o f imagery  Roman t r a d i t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d . Bellini's  features.  receiving  i n the Veneto-Byzantine and  T h i s i n q u i r y w i l l make more  i n v e n t i o n and the depth o f h i s response  a l l o w a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s importance  apparent  to V e n e t i a n i d e o l o g y and  f o r l a t e r p a i n t e r s such as  Vincenzo Catena, Lorenzo L o t t o , G i o r g i o n e , and Palma i l V e c c h i o , n o t o n l y i n technique and s t y l e , but i c o n o g r a p h i c m o t i f s . T h i s study focuses on a s i n g l e work, the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , i n an attempt  to r e c r e a t e , as f a r as i s p o s s i b l e , a c o n t e x t f o r the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s meaning.  The i n d i v i d u a l elements,  the t o t a l  a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s p a t i a l composition, and the worshipper's of the work i n s i t u w i l l be d e s c r i b e d .  The s p e c i f i c  experience  f e a t u r e s of the s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e v e r s i o n p o p u l a r i n V e n i c e w i l l be d e f i n e d by comparison the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e types developed Italy.  i n Tuscany and o t h e r areas o f  The h i s t o r y o f the f o u n d a t i o n , major b u i l d i n g phases,  of patronage  o f the C h i e s a d i San Giobbe w i l l be o u t l i n e d .  chapter w i l l c o n s i d e r the s p e c i f i c a l l y V e n e t i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s  and n a t u r e  The f i n a l intermeshing  w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l d e v o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the a l t a r p i e c e , which may account  f o r t h a t type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e of which the San Giobbe  a l t a r p i e c e was an exemplar.  with  11  NOTES  1.  Marco B o s c h i n i , La C a r t a d e l Navegar P i t o r e s c o , V e n i c e , 1660, E d i z i o n e C o r t i c a con l a "Breve I n s t r u z i o n e " premessa a l l e " r i c c h e minere d e l l a P i t t u r a Veneziana," ed. Anna P a l l u c c h i n i , V e n i c e , Rome, 1966, p. 28. " F i r s t a r e seen i n b e a u t i f u l majesty the Mother w i t h C h i l d : never has so g i f t e d a form been seen n o r an i d e a so devout; i t can t r u l y be s a i d : she i s a d e i t y ! "  2.  Francesco Sansovino, V e n e t i a C i t t H N o b i l i s s i m a e t s i n g o l a r e , d i s c r i t t a i n X I I I I L i b r i , (1581), ed. D. G. M a r t i n i o n i , V e n i c e , 1663, pp. 323-324. "On the s i d e towards the P i a z z a i s seen V e n i c e the V i r g i n , who w i t h h e r i n c o r r u p t p u r i t y , s h i e l d s h e r s e l f from the i n s o l e n c e o f o t h e r s , and l e a n s on the w o r l d , because she a l o n e among a l l o t h e r s remains i n c o r r u p t , and i n t a c t from b a r b a r i a n s and I m p e r i a l t y r a n t s . " D e s c r i p t i o n o f a p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n on the w a l l f a c i n g the P i a z z a i n the room p r e c e d i n g the A n t i c o l l e g i o i n the P a l a z z o Ducale, V e n i c e .  3.  Marcantonio  S a b e l l i c o , De Venetae u r b i s s i t u , V e n i c e , 1493.  4.  Marin Sanudo, "Queste sono cosse n o t a b i l e i n d i v e r s e c h i e s i e , " Museo C i v i c o C o r r e r , V e n i c e , MS. Cicogna 969, 24v-26r, p u b l i s h e d i n W. Stedman Sheard, "Sanudo's L i s t of Notable Things i n V e n e t i a n Churches and the Date o f the Vendramin Tomb," Y a l e I t a l i a n S t u d i e s 1 (1977):255-257, 233, 260, n. 9.  5.  G i o r g i o V a s a r i , Le v i t e d e ' p i u e c c e l l e n t i p i t t o r i , s c u l t o r i ed a r c h i t e t t o r i , 1568; ed. G. M i l a n e s i , 9 v o l . , F l o r e n c e , 1878-1885, v o l . 4, p. 10.  6.  I b i d . , v o l . 3, pp. 155-156.  7.  B o s c h i n i , L a C a r t a , (1660), 1966, p. 665. "Zambelin se p u o l d i r l a primavera D e l Mondo t u t o , i n a t o de P i t u r a : Perche da l u d e v i r a o g n i v e r d u r a , E senza l u l ' a r t e un inverno g i e r a . "  8.  See Appendix I .  9.  See Appendix I .  12  10.  Roger F r y , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , London, 1900, Fry, B e l l i n i ) .  p. 33  ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as  11.  Roberto L o n g h i , " P i e r o d e i F r a n c e s c h i e l o s v i l u p p o d e l l a p i t t u r a v e n e z i a n a , " L ' A r t e (Milan) 17 (1914):198-221, 241-256.  12.  A. M. B r i z i o , " C o n s i d e r a z i o n i su G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , " A r t e Veneta I I I (1949):32-35.  13.  T h i s i s the s u b j e c t of a work by F. Heinemann, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i e i b e l l i n i a n i , 2 v o l . , V e n i c e , 1962 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Heinemann, Bellini).  14.  L u i g i C o l e t t i , P i t t u r a Veneta d e l Q u a t t r o c e n t o , Novara, pp. V - V I I .  15.  David Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n of the V i r g i n i n the Temple and the S c u o l a d e l l a C a r i t a , " AB 58 (1976):55-56.  16.  Rona G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n : G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s H a l f - L e n g t h Madonnas," AB 57 (1975):487-514 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G o f f e n , "Icon Vision").  1953,  and  17.  J u l i a K e y d e l , "A Group of A l t a r p i e c e s by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i C o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to the Context f o r which They Were Made" (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1970) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as K e y d e l , " A l t a r pieces") .  18.  M i l l a r d M e i s s , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s S t . F r a n c i s i n the F r i c k P r i n c e t o n , 1964.  19.  F r y , B e l l i n i , p.  20.  G i l e s Robertson, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , Oxford, 1968, c i t e d as Robertson, B e l l i n i ) .  21.  G. A. M o s c h i n i , Guida per l a c i t t a  Collection,  4. pp. 81-83  di V e n e z i a V e n i c e ,  (hereafter  1815:  "Questa t a v o l a segue pur e s s a l ' o r d i n i d e l l ' a l t a r e , ed e veramente l u c i d a d i gran p r e g i . " L i o n e l l o V e n t u r i , Le O r i g i n i d e l l a P i t t u r a Veneziana, V e n i c e , 1906, p. 378:  1300-1500,  " . . . t u t t o p o r t a v a a l l ' i m p o n e n z a s u l l e masse d e i f e d e l i . Forse p o c h i q u a d r i a l mondo hanno p i u e p i u completamente e con maggior s i n c e r i t y a i u t a t o l a c h i e s a a mantenere i l suo p r e s t i g i o . " 22.  Robertson, B e l l i n i , p.  87.  13  23.  David Rosand, review of G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , by G. Robertson, (1970):72-74.  24.  Keydel,  "Altarpieces."  i n AQ :33,  14  CHAPTER  DESCRIPTION OF THE  TWO  ALTARPIECE  G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe altarpiece-'- i s the f i r s t  extant  V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e of t h a t monumental, c e n t r a l l y - u n i f i e d  type  which was  late  so p o p u l a r i n V e n e t i a n and North  f i f t e e n t h and  I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g of the  e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . - The  s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e does not  form an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a s a c r e d dogma, the h o l y l i t u r g y , or a b i b l i c a l narrative.  An e t y m o l o g i c a l study of the term by Rona G o f f e n has  shown t h a t  it  s h o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g to modern usage r e f e r r i n g  to the a c t  of  c o n v e r s i n g , but r a t h e r t h a t i t s a n c i e n t b i b l i c a l  more a p p r o p r i a t e to the f i r s t  and p a t r i s t i c meaning,  Trecento adumbrations of the c o m p o s i t i o n ,  be t r a n s l a t e d as "holy community."  With the r i s e of l a t e  can  Mediaeval  s p i r i t u a l i s m p o p u l a r b e l i e f grew i n the a b i l i t y of s a i n t s , p i o u s  and  exemplary i n d i v i d u a l s p r i v i l e g e d i n t h e i r r e c e p t i o n of grace, to i n t e r c e d e w i t h C h r i s t on b e h a l f of the s u p p l i a n t worshipper t h e i r sponsorship. may  In the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  who  p l a c e d h i m s e l f under  the f i g u r e s of the  saints  r e p r e s e n t the v i s u a l e q u i v a l e n t of the esempi of v e r n a c u l a r Mendicant  sermons, p i o u s l i v e s t h a t are models to the worshipper o b t a i n grace;  they are a l s o q u a l i f i e d advocates  God, whose throne they approach so  in his effort  of the worshipper  to  before  closely.  The b a s i c theme of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i s the c o e x i s t e n c e of a group of s a i n t s w i t h the Madonna and C h i l d i n a transcendent community."  "holy  The f i g u r e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y speak among themselves  i n a shared s t a t e of contemplation and  but  are  r e v e l a t i o n , sometimes s u p p l i c a t i o n ,  15  u n i t e d by t h e i r common r e c e p t i o n o f grace from God. veys the s u p p l i c a t i o n s presented dispenses The  The V i r g i n Mary con-  by t h e s a i n t s to h e r son and i n t u r n  d i v i n e grace to the f a i t h f u l : she h e r s e l f i s the h i g h e s t  C h r i s t Child represents  Sacrament.  mediator.  the means of man's s a l v a t i o n , the i n c a r n a t e  The p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t y of the c o m p o s i t i o n  and the  immediacy o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n make the r e a l approach o f the s a i n t s to the throne  o f God c r e d i b l e to the viewer/worshipper and encourage him to f e e l  the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i r e c t conversazione  entrance  to the "holy community."  Thus the s a c r a  can f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y as an a l t a r p i e c e b u t a l s o , i n c o n j u n c -  t i o n w i t h a tomb, as a means f o r the donor/s to o b t a i n d i r e c t and p e r s o n a l i n t e r c e s s i o n to i n s u r e t h e i r admittance to t h e "holy community" which the p a i n t e d image embodies. In B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e the V i r g i n Mary, h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d seated on h e r r i g h t knee, i s e l e v a t e d on a marble throne antique seated  with  d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s which i s approached by t h r e e s t e p s , on which a r e three angels  playing musical  to e i t h e r s i d e o f the throne and  enriched  Job,  instruments  ( F i g . 6 ) . In f r o n t o f and  stand s i x s a i n t s , F r a n c i s , John the B a p t i s t  the t i t u l a r s a i n t o f the church and the s a i n t to whom the a l t a r  i s dedicated,  on the V i r g i n ' s r i g h t , and Dominic, S e b a s t i a n and L o u i s o f  Toulouse on h e r l e f t .  The f i g u r e s a r e s i t u a t e d i n the u n i f i e d space o f a  perspectively constructed  Renaissance c h a p e l c o n s i s t i n g o f c l a s s i c a l  columns and e n t a b l a t u r e , s u p p o r t i n g  a c o f f e r e d b a r r e l v a u l t and an apse  v a u l t e d by a half-dome f a c e d w i t h g o l d mosaic.  The p a i n t i n g cannot be  f u l l y comprehended apart from the o r i g i n a l marble frame i n the form o f a triumphal  arch from which i t has been separated  ( F i g . 3 ) . The a r c h i t e c -  t u r a l d e s i g n and s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n o f the columns, e n t a b l a t u r e , and  16  round a r c h of the frame are c o n t i n u e d p e r f e c t l y by the s p a t i a l and d e t a i l s of the p a i n t i n g  ( F i g . 7).  The u n i f i e d s e t t i n g i n which the h o l y  f i g u r e s commune appears as c o - e x t e n s i v e w i t h t h a t of the E l e v a t e d , c e n t r a l , f r o n t a l l y viewed, f i g u r a l composition ( F i g . 8 ) .  construction  viewer/worshipper.  the V i r g i n Mary dominates the  Her r e g a l enthronement combines the h i e r a t i c  majesty of the Queen of Heaven w i t h the g e n t l e n e s s of the Mother of Mercy. Her modesty and a u s t e r i t y are suggested by the low w h i t e wimple, which h i d e s her h a i r , and the heavy b l u e robe which p a r t s a t the t o r s o to a l l o w a d i s c r e t e glimpse of r i c h brocade. a s o l i d monumentality  While  the heavy f a l l  to her f i g u r e , the wide-spaced  of drapery  imparts  l a r g e eyes, narrow  nose, and s m a l l mouth, B y z a n t i n e a r t i s t i c c o n v e n t i o n s o f t e n used by  Bellini  i n h i s Madonnas, g i v e a c o n t r a s t i n g e t h e r e a l q u a l i t y to her f a c e . ^  She i s  serene, y e t a l e r t and r e s p o n s i v e : her a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d outward. and C a v a l c a s e l l e observed  Crowe  t h a t she i s " l o o k i n g forward as i f s t r u c k by some  e x t e r n a l event, y e t f u l l of calm benevolence."^  She appears  to l o o k o u t -  ward to her l e f t , over the v i e w e r , i n t o the i n t e r i o r of the church and  into  the l i g h t which f a l l s so b r i l l i a n t l y upon her f a c e , wimple, and r a i s e d hand. The d i r e c t i o n and meaning of the r a i s e d l e f t hand are an important a s p e c t of  the work, and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below i n Chapter  Five.  Supported by h i s mother's r i g h t hand as he s i t s u p r i g h t on her knee, the nude i n f a n t C h r i s t seems p h y s i c a l l y s m a l l and h e l p l e s s a g a i n s t the dark mass of the V i r g i n Mary's body ( F i g . 8 ) . in  Yet t h e r e i s something  t h i s p a t h e t i c and v i c t i m i z e d aspect of the C h r i s t C h i l d .  Eucharistic  Mary's hand  seems almost to frame the area of C h r i s t ' s s i d e t h a t w i l l r e c e i v e the l a n c e wound.  H i s own  l e f t hand i s c r o s s e d a g a i n s t h i s c h e s t as i f to i n d i c a t e  t h i s source of man's s a l v a t i o n .  The meaning of t h i s g e s t u r e i s underscored  17  by the p a r a l l e l g e s t u r e of S t . F r a n c i s , the A l t e r C h r i s t u s , to the wound i n h i s own  side.^  The C h r i s t C h i l d ' s r i g h t hand extends downward i n the  d i r e c t i o n o f Job's s u p p l i c a t i n g hands^ and h i s l i p s are p a r t e d as i f r e q u e s t i n g mercy from the Heavenly of the C h r i s t C h i l d was  Father on h i s s e r v a n t Job.  The s o l e m n i t y  p a r t i c u l a r l y noted by L i o n e l l o V e n t u r i when he  i d e n t i f i e d a type of B e l l i n e s q u e C h r i s t C h i l d h a v i n g an " e n e r g i a morale," r a i s i n g h i s eyes to the s k i e s i n an a c t of d e f e a t i n g a d v e r s i t y w h i l e the l i g h t s h i n e s on him. "Gesu prevede  In the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i t seemed to him  l e f u t u r e l o t t e , l e l e g g e n e l l ' a l t o ove guarda."^  C h r i s t appears almost to r i s e toward  the f a l l of b r i l l i a n t  that  Indeed,  l i g h t as he  gazes so i n t e n t l y ahead, up and over the viewer, i n t o the l o f t y v a u l t of the church. j o y and  He has a s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t which evokes both the sorrow and  triumph o f the I n c a r n a t i o n and The imposing marble  the R e s u r r e c t i o n .  throne on which the V i r g i n and C h r i s t C h i l d  seated enhances the majesty of the King and Queen of Heaven and t h e i r pre-eminence among the accompanying f i g u r e s v a t e d and ascended  (Fig. 8  )  I  are  emphasizes t  i s ele-  by a f l i g h t of t h r e e s t e p s , the lowest e x t e n d i n g the  width of the c h a p e l (diagram of c h a p e l p l a n , F i g . 9 ) .  The a n t i q u e m o t i f s  of the Lombardesque r e l i e f d e c o r a t i o n echo those of the columns and  the  a l t a r antependium i t s e l f , and r e c a l l d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s a p p e a r i n g on  the  frame of P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a ' s f r e s c o of Sigismondo S t . Sigismund  the  a t R i m i n i of c. 1450."'""'"  The crowning  Malatesta before  c o r n u c o p i a and  s c r o l l m o t i f s and the f l o r i a t e d d i s c are found i n Paduan works.  acanthus  The  rich  e f f e c t of the throne i s heightened by the red p a n e l of the throne back, and the polychrome stone of the s t e p s .  The throne and s t e p s do not appear  as  a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n occupying a d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n i n space, but  18  r a t h e r as a s i n g l e stepped, p i c t u r e plane. steps  and  No  p y r a m i d a l , geometric  shape, p a r a l l e l to  the  s p a t i a l r e c e s s i o n i s i n d i c a t e d f o r the throne or  the  the base of the steps i s e n t i r e l y obscured  standing before i t .  The  by the  e f f e c t i s of a frame completely  f i g u r e s of the V i r g i n Mary and  Christ Child  figures  e n c l o s i n g the  (except a t the p o i n t where the  V i r g i n Mary's head o v e r l a p s the crowning stone d i s c ) which tends  to deny  t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n a space s u b j e c t to the laws of v i s i o n . I n c l u d e d i n the p l a n a r zone of the throne and s t e p s a r e the crowning m o t i f s of d i s c and  i t s wide base of  cross ( F i g . 6).  supported by acanthus v o l u t e s , r o s e t t e s , and  The marble d i s c ,  c o r n u c o p i a , and d e c o r a t e d  in  r e l i e f w i t h a c e n t r a l r o s e t t e and a c o n c e n t r i c f l o r a l m o t i f , i s a r a r e and intriguing motif.  I t may  have been suggested  by  the s i m i l a r l y p l a c e d  i n Mantegna's S. Zeno a l t a r p i e c e of 1456-1459 although  disc  there i t i s a r t i c u -  1 3  l a t e d by a p i e r c e d t r a c e r y ( F i g . 26)i n Chapter  This motif i s discussed f u r t h e r  F i v e below.  The golden v a u l t of the apse appears as a dome of heaven which p r o v i d e s a c e l e s t i a l s e t t i n g f o r the communion of the h o l y (Fig. 6)."^  The  figures  c u p o l a d o r a t a became a f a v o u r i t e m o t i f i n V e n e t i a n  p a i n t i n g f o l l o w i n g the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , and may i n t r o d u c e d by B e l l i n i .  The m o t i f i s r i c h  indeed have been  i n symbolism.  Rosand d e s c r i b e d  B e l l i n i ' s use of the g o l d mosaic as the e x p r e s s i o n of c e l e s t i a l  light  through e m p i r i c a l l y comprehensible phenomena, m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f as a purer d i s t i l l a t i o n of n a t u r a l l i g h t or as the r e f l e c t i o n of golden m o s a i c . ^ K. Dorment sees a d d i t i o n a l V e n e t i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the use of the g o l d semi-dome, which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h  f u r t h e r i n Chapter  S i x below.  The semi-dome v a u l t i s f a c e d w i t h a mosaic d e s i g n of f i v e  ten-winged  19:  Byzantine cherubim  ( F i g . 6).  Cherubim, the second  of the n i n e o r d e r s of  a n g e l i c b e i n g s , are b e l i e v e d to be g i f t e d w i t h knowledge as the f i r s t 1  of  seraphim  order  ft  are g i f t e d with love.  B e l l i n i has  copied h i s motif  directly  from the mosaic of C h r i s t i n G l o r y Surrounded by Nine Orders of Angels i n the c e n t r e c u p o l a of the B a p t i s t e r y a t San Marco, V e n i c e , commissioned Doge Andrea Dandolo i n the mid-Trecento, an important  where the s o l i t a r y cherub  p o s i t i o n on an a x i s d i r e c t l y below the C h r i s t  by  occupies  ( F i g . 10)  L i k e the San Marco B a p t i s t e r y p r o t o t y p e , each cherub bears a r o u n d e l w i t h a Latin inscription.  In B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e the a r c h a n g e l G a b r i e l ' s  g r e e t i n g to the Annunciate,  AVE  GRATIA PLENA (Luke 1:28), i s repeated  each of the f i v e c h e r u b i c d i s c s .  as " H a i l thou t h a t a r e f u l l  In the Quattrocento 18  of g r a c e "  t h i s was  at  translated  which r e f l e c t s the p o p u l a r  t h a t the V i r g i n Mary, by v i r t u e of her m e r i t o r i o u s submission  on  belief  to God's w i l l  the moment of the A n n u n c i a t i o n , had been accorded a p o s i t i o n as supreme  mediatress.  The l o n g e r L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n above the row AVE VIRGINEI FLOS INTEMERATE PUDORIS -  of cherubim i s :  which can be r o u g h l y t r a n s l a t e d as " H a i l U n d e f i l e d Flower of V i r g i n Modesty,""*"^ and  i s a f u r t h e r a l l u s i o n to Mary's v i r t u e a t the A n n u n c i a t i o n .  The d e p i c t i o n of the cherubim  i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e not  o n l y a l l u d e s to d i v i n e knowledge, which i s u l t i m a t e l y knowledge of God's 20 p l a n f o r the d e s t i n y of the w o r l d ,  but a l s o c a r r i e s from the  B a p t i s t e r y s i t e an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the R e s u r r e c t i o n and  original  the r e b i r t h of  the i n d i v i d u a l , made p o s s i b l e by the A n n u n c i a t i o n and I n c a r n a t i o n r e f e r r e d to  i n the r o u n d e l i n s c r i p t i o n s .  F i n a l l y , the remarkably  Byzantine  c h a r a c t e r of the mosaics of the c e n t r e c u p o l a of the San Marco B a p t i s t e r y , observed by P a l l u c c h i n i , and  the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of the church  endow the emblematic cherubim w i t h potent  significance.  itself  20  The  appearance i n the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e of the c u p o l a  e s t a b l i s h e s an important m o t i f i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g . s t y l e motifs  found i n the Trecento and  v a u l t s of the s t a t e church of San after B e l l i n i .  This and  The  use  dorata  of B y z a n t i n e  e a r l i e r mosaic d e c o r a t i o n s  Marco c h a r a c t e r i z e s  i n t e r e s t could manifest i t s e l f  twining  vines  such as  the C r u c i f i x i o n , or dogmatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Venetian  of  the  painting  as a d e s i g n of i n t e r -  b i r d s , found i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r t , a B i b l i c a l such as  the  narrative,  Byzantine  Deesis.21 The  dark green, e i g h t s i d e d canopy w i t h i t s g o l d edged quinque-  p a r t i t e f r i n g e i s suspended from the c e n t r e v a u l t , d i r e c t l y over the V i r g i n Mary and and  disc.  The  and  r e a r of the c o f f e r e d b a r r e l  on a v e r t i c a l a x i s w i t h the  canopy i s a t r a d i t i o n a l and  ancient  accoutrement of  cross  the  22 a l t a r , an  "infallible  s i g n of the presence of the Supreme."  a symbol of s o v e r e i g n  I t was  a u t h o r i t y above the throne of a s e c u l a r r u l e r .  a d d i t i o n to s i g n a l l i n g the queenship of Mary, t h i s m o t i f may t i o n a l meaning i n V e n e t i a n i d e o l o g y  which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  D i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the canopy are t r e e or bush which may  be  have an  i s suspended.  considering and  at the h i g h e s t  point  fies  the new  life  Six. a  branches  from which unusual,  g a r l a n d s found i n the p a i n t i n g of Mantegna  the r e s t r i c t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n  to t h i s s i n g l e sheaf  i n the c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l a x i s which l i n k s the V i r g i n  Mary, the marble d i s c and s p e c i f i c function.  The  A l t h o u g h the appearance of i t i n t h i s work i s not  the Paduan s c h o o l ,  addi-  f o u r l e a f y branches of  t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as l a u r e l .  the p r o f u s e v e g e t a l  In  i n Chapter  appear to be bound above the apex of the canopy, to the c a b l e it  also  g o l d c r o s s , and  Generally, springing  the canopy, seems to i n d i c a t e a  evergreen f o l i a g e such as  from C h r i s t and  the l a u r e l  signi-  i s a symbol of r e s u r r e c t i o n  and  21  everlasting  life.  The y o u t h f u l and harmonious e f f e c t of the three music-making a n g e l s , p l a c e d i n a prominent p o s i t i o n a t the s p e c t a t o r ' s l e v e l of v i s i o n , has f r e q u e n t l y admired  ( F i g . 6, 1 1 ) . ^  Each i s i n d i v i d u a l i n p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s  and e x p r e s s i o n w h i l e u n i t e d w i t h the o t h e r s by a common s e r e n i t y and The  been  c e n t r a l a n g e l i s most d i r e c t l y l i n k e d  to the V i r g i n Mary and  C h i l d by h i s h i g h e r p o s i t i o n , f r o n t a l i t y , and  grace.  the C h r i s t  the c o r r e l a t i o n of h i s head 25  and r i g h t f o o t to the important B e l l i n i has  c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l a x i s of the  composition.  i n f a c t g i v e n t h i s angel the most d i v i n e q u a l i t y of the t h r e e  as i s seen i n the s i l k e n , p a r t e d h a i r , the b r i g h t l y l i t f o r e h e a d , and l a r g e raised  eyes.  The angel i s p l a y i n g a l u t e , the most p o p u l a r  instrument  9 c. of  the p e r i o d i n which the a l t a r p i e c e was  painted.  I t i s h e l d up to the  f u l l f a l l of l i g h t and d i s p l a y s a r o s e carved i n a b e a u t i f u l and geometric  d e s i g n of i n t e r l a c i n g s i x - p o i n t e d s t a r s .  intriguing  The a n g e l on the  more b o y i s h i n c h a r a c t e r , p l a y s a bowed instrument which may  left,  be a v i o l a or  97 a l i r a da b r a c c i o ,  a l s o a p o p u l a r instrument  of the p e r i o d .  The  third  a n g e l , p a r t l y obscured by the b l a c k robe of S t . Dominic, p l a y s a l u t e s i m i l a r to t h a t of the c e n t r e a n g e l and l o o k s downward, as i f absorbed the melody.  in  Groups of music-making angels appear f r e q u e n t l y i n Trecento  p a i n t i n g , r e g a l i n g the V i r g i n Mary i n d e p i c t i o n s of her triumphs, Assumption of the V i r g i n , and  the C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n ,  the  the  latter  b e i n g a f a v o u r i t e theme i n V e n i c e , as has been r e c e n t l y demonstrated (Fig.  12). ^ z  B e l l i n i ' s i n t e r e s t i n the p r e c i s e d e p i c t i o n of contemporary  m u s i c a l instruments and of s m a l l ensembles t h a t m i r r o r e d the most i n t i m a t e r e f i n e d i n s t r u m e n t a l music of h i s p e r i o d , r e s u l t e d  i n the b e s t known,  i d e n t i f y i n g m o t i f of the V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  altarpiece.  Indeed, angels c l e a r l y i n s p i r e d by B e l l i n i ' s m u s i c i a n s may  be seen i n the  22  a l t a r p i e c e which f l a n k e d  B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e i n the Church o f San Giobbe,  the P r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e Temple by V i t t o r i o C a r p a c c i o , 1510. function  The primary  o f t h e a n g e l s i n t h e p a i n t i n g , beyond t h e i r r o l e as h e a v e n l y  a t t e n d a n t s on the K i n g and Queen o f Heaven, i s t o evoke a h e i g h t e n e d r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g i n t h e worshipper.-^!  Music c o n s t i t u t e s  i n B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e t h e angels a r e p e r f o r m i n g a motet, a  m u s i c a l form newly i n t r o d u c e d to t h e church s e r v i c e and  part  x t i s tempting to  of the Mass, whether G r e g o r i a n chant or polyphony.^2 imagine that  an e s s e n t i a l  which was most o f t e n  i n the f i f t e e n t h century  composed i n honour o f the V i r g i n Mary, and f o r 33  which t h e v a u l t The  i n s c r i p t i o n s may p r o v i d e  s i x saints are depicted  lyrics.  as a group o f communing f i g u r e s i n  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e enthroned V i r g i n Mary and C h r i s t C h i l d ; each stands quietly, neither  a c t i v e n o r engaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n a s t a t e of common  grace and shared r e v e l a t i o n . s a i n t s are defined  In a d d i t i o n  to t h e i r psychological  as e x i s t i n g i n a s i n g l e moment and p l a c e by t h e u n i f i e d  space o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g .  They a r e s y m m e t r i c a l l y d i s p o s e d i n two  groups f a c i n g each o t h e r i n a s p a t i a l zone, d e f i n e d columns,  by the C o r i n t h i a n  p a i n t e d and stone, and the b a r r e l v a u l t which they s u p p o r t , some-  what forward of the V i r g i n Mary and C h r i s t C h i l d  (diagram o f c h a p e l  F i g . 9) who a r e somewhat i s o l a t e d by t h e i r p o s i t i o n the  entrance  to' t h e a p s e ,  further  a n d b y t h e ..en c l o s i n g  throne. Furthermore, there i s a s u b t l e view p o i n t  unity, the  effect  plan,  back at of the  d i s c o n t i n u i t y between the s c a l e and  of these two f i g u r e s and the o t h e r s .  Y e t the v i v i d l y  realistic  a r c h i t e c t u r a l space o f the c h a p e l , the b r i l l i a n t , u n i f i e d f a l l o f l i g h t and d i s t i n c t shadow ( f o r example, that  c a s t by the V i r g i n on the back o f h e r  t h r o n e , F i g . 8 ) , and above a l l , t h e glances and g e s t u r e o f John the B a p t i s t ,  23  Job  and  L o u i s toward the V i r g i n  t h e i r c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h and s a i n t s are withdrawn and s t i m u l u s as who  and  m e d i t a t i v e , not  the V i r g i n and  The  The  visionary  The  the worshipper, and buried  and  even the  i f g a z i n g on  an  outward  three  inner  saints  vision.  Child  are  been c a l l e d a " v e s t i b u l e , "  characterization  of o b t a i n i n g  by means of life,  grace and  o n l y p r o v i d e s models of m e d i t a t i o n and  to approach the K i n g and  The  response to an  physiognomy of each s a i n t ' s  to guide the worshipper, but  cation  saints.  s a i n t s occupy, i n t e r m e d i a t e between  mode of m e d i t a t i o n , h i s p e r s o n a l way d i v i n e knowledge not  affirm-  at the same time.34  colloquy.  butes, d r e s s , g e s t u r e and  lives  as  the enthronement apse, has  area of p e t i t i o n and  strongly  b r i g h t l y l i t Mother and  s p a t i a l zone which the  worshipper and  in active  C h r i s t appear to be,  look toward them seem a b s t r a c t e d  m y s t e r i o u s l y r e a l and  Child  t h e i r r e a l presence b e f o r e the  There i s a sense of w a i t i n g .  was  Christ  also  testifies  his  an  attri-  individual  receiving meritorious  to each s a i n t ' s  Queen of Heaven and  the  qualifi-  act as i n t e r c e s s o r s  most p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the donor of  for  the a l t a r p i e c e ,  who  nearby.  Job,  the s a i n t of  the a l t a r d e d i c a t i o n ,  i s r e p r e s e n t e d as an  old  3 7  man  i n robust h e a l t h  view of  the s a i n t and  Child contradict s i d e r i n g the  showing no marks of h i s a f f l i c t i o n . the  posed by  i n f a c t to be v e r y c l o s e  profile  d i r e c t i o n of h i s c l a s p e d hands toward the  the a c t u a l depth t h a t must s e p a r a t e the  distance  The  to the  the  flight  of 'Steps  C h r i s t C h i l d , who  two  (Fig. 9). makes h i s  Christ  figures, He  con-  appears  equivocal  g e s t u r e of acknowledgement towards Job.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n whether  h i s l i p s are p a r t e d i n s u p p l i c a t i o n but  h i s whole a t t i t u d e expresses humble  r e v e r e n c e and  an i n t e n t b e s e e c h i n g .  The  f a c t t h a t Job  i s naked as he  was  24  when i n s t e r q u i l i n i o (Job 2:7, 8) and y e t shows no sores o r o t h e r s i g n o f s u f f e r i n g suggests the t e x t u a l moment f o r h i s d e p i c t i o n may be the Theophany, when, f o l l o w i n g h i s s e r i e s o f a f f l i c t i o n s and torments, "the 38 Lord answered Job o u t o f the w h i r l w i n d " (Job 38:1) . is  A second  possibility  t h a t the p o r t r a y a l o f Job g a z i n g upon the C h r i s t C h i l d r e f e r s to h i s  prophecy o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n : For I know t h a t my redeemer l i v e t h , and that he s h a l l stand a t the l a t t e r day upon the e a r t h : And though a f t e r my s k i n worms d e s t r o y t h i s body, y e t i n my f l e s h s h a l l I see God. Job 19:25, 26 Not  only  i s Job g i v e n the s t r o n g e s t  intercessory  p o s i t i o n of the s i x  39  s a i n t s , b u t he r e p r e s e n t s a f u n e r a r y theme. The  y  pose o f Job i s s i m i l a r , a t l e a s t i n the upper body, to the  f i g u r e of Job i n the Lombardesque tympanum d a t i n g  to the 1470's, over the  entrance p o r t a l o f the church ( F i g . 13, 1 4 ) . ^ The pose e v i d e n t l y V e n e t i a n s f o r i t reappears a g a i n i n B e l l i n i ' s own Sacred A l l e g o r y Uffizi,^ cessors,  and i n the works o f h i s f o l l o w e r s ,  impressed i n the  as one o f the plague i n t e r -  Job o r S t . S e b a s t i a n ( F i g . 43). S t . John the B a p t i s t , the l a s t prophet and t h e p r e c u r s o r o f C h r i s t ,  appears almost i n v a r i a b l y i n a p l a c e Virgin i n Italian painting;  o f honour on the r i g h t hand o f the  i n V e n i c e he was c o n s i d e r e d a p o w e r f u l i n t e r -  c e s s o r and i s the s a i n t most f r e q u e n t l y  seen s p o n s o r i n g donors ( F i g . 6, 9 ) .  Here he r e t a i n s h i s honoured p r o x i m i t y t o the C h r i s t C h i l d , b e i n g i n depth; that i s , c l o s e s t to the s t e p s approaching the t h r o n e . awkwardly behind and between S t . F r a n c i s greater  authority  closest Appearing  and J o b , he seems t o be l e n d i n g  t o Job i n h i s s u p p l i c a t i o n o f the C h r i s t C h i l d and to  St. F r a n c i s who, although n o t as f r e q u e n t l y  as S t . John t h e B a p t i s t ,  also  25  appears as a p a t r o n s a i n t i n V e n e t i a n As St. F r a n c i s  painting.  the founder o f the monastic Order a t the church o f San Giobbe, stands w i t h the B a p t i s t and Job, the t i t u l a r s a i n t o f the  church, i n the honoured p o s i t i o n to the r i g h t o f the V i r g i n Mary and C h r i s t Child and  ( F i g . 6, 9 ) .  The p o r t r a y a l of S t . F r a n c i s , h i s r i g h t hand lowered  extended toward us d i s p l a y i n g  the s t i g m a t a , the l e f t p o i n t i n g  wound i n h i s s i d e , v i s i b l e through a r e n t of C h r i s t and r e c e p t i o n  z  i n h i s robe, r e c a l l s h i s v i s i o n  o f the s t i g m a t a e x p e r i e n c e d a t L a Verna as reward  f o r h i s a s c e t i s m and p e r f e c t at t h e C r u c i f i x i o n . ^  to the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the s u f f e r i n g of C h r i s t  The c r o s s  c a r r i e d by t h e B a p t i s t , an a t t r i b u t e o f  both s a i n t s , i s seen b e h i n d the head of S t . F r a n c i s , a f u r t h e r reminder o f h i s p i e t y and w i l d e r n e s s r e v e l a t i o n . confrontation  The d i r e c t n e s s  of t h i s s a i n t ' s  w i t h t h e viewer, h i s heavy-l.i.dded eyes g a z i n g out over our  heads w i t h a p e n s i v e , s u f f e r i n g e x p r e s s i o n , and of h i s d i s p l a y of the wounds o f the C r u c i f i x i o n a r e remarkable. B e l l i n i has g i v e n the g e s t u r e of the r i g h t hand i n p a r t i c u l a r a s t r i k i n g eloquence: i t may be compared w i t h t h a t o f the s a i n t ' s i n h i s possibly e a r l i e r F r i c k St. Francis, discussed type of g e s t u r e was f o l l o w e d Giorgione i n h i s Castelfranco  sacra  by M. M e i s s .  This  by l a t e r V e n e t i a n p a i n t e r s , most n o t a b l y by sacra  pose o f the San Giobbe S t . F r a n c i s of the C a s t e l f r a n c o  revelation  c o n v e r s a z i o n e ( F i g . 1 8 ) ^ where the appears r e v e r s e d .  Since the two s a i n t s  c o n v e r s a z i o n e have r e c e n t l y been i n t e r p r e t e d as  p o r t r a i t s o f the donor and h i s son, T u z i o and Matteo C o s t a n z o , ^ one wonders i f the type of S t . F r a n c i s  created  by B e l l i n i  i n h i s San Giobbe  a l t a r p i e c e a l s o arose as a r e s u l t of a p r i v a t e commission, i n which case i t may be t h a t S t . F r a n c i s ' g e s t u r e of r e v e l a t i o n i s l i n k e d w i t h the ,  26  b e l i e f i n h i s e f f i c a c y as an i n t e r c e s s o r i n a f u n e r a r y c o n t e x t , as w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r below. The of  first  s a i n t on the V i r g i n ' s l e f t  the Dominican Order,  (Fig'. 9, 15) .^6  He  i s engaged i n the form  m e d i t a t i o n f o r which he and h i s Order were known, the study of  s a c r e d s c r i p t u r e s and  philosophy.  two hands l i k e a p r e c i o u s o b j e c t .  He  Although  the  reads a h o l y book, h e l d c a r e f u l l y i n  His f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n i s s e r i o u s and  i n t e n t , suggesting that h i s a t t e n t i o n i s completely  engaged by the s u b j e c t  of  h i s reading.  in  an a l t a r p i e c e w i t h S t . F r a n c i s , i t i s not u n p r e c e d e n t e d . ^  St.  founder  i d e n t i f i e d by h i s t o n s u r e , c l e a n shaven f a c e , and  b l a c k and w h i t e Dominican robes of  i s S t . Dominic, the  i t does not seem u s u a l f o r S t . Dominic to appear The  type of  Dominic seen i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e seems to have been c r e a t e d  by A n t o n e l l o i n h i s San Cassiano wide fame i n V e n i c e  ( F i g . 29).  his  sacra conversazione  and  i t appears a f t e r the San  sacra conversazione The  a l t a r p i e c e , completed i n 1476 B e l l i n i may  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n G i o v a n n i  9).^  c l a s s i c a l l y posed nude body of S t . S e b a s t i a n  ( F i g . 34),  Buonconsiglio's  ( F i g . 6,  15) i s  p l a n e of the p a i n t i n g  Much p r a i s e d i n the past f o r i t s p e r f e c t i o n - * ^ i t s t i l l  the a t t e n t i o n of modern v i e w e r s , not the l e a s t on account  In the f i f t e e n t h century S t . S e b a s t i a n was  miraculous  and  two  r e v e r e d more f o r h i s  r e c o v e r y from arrow wounds than f o r h i s a c t u a l martyrdom, a  f a t a l b e a t i n g by c l u b s . St.  strikes  of the dreamy  e c s t a t i c h a l f - s m i l e which appears on the f a c e of a f i g u r e p i e r c e d by arrows.  in  f o r the O r a t o r i o d e i T u r c h i n i ( F i g . 5 2 ) . ^  p l a c e d w i t h S t . F r a n c i s i n the most forward (Fig.  enjoying  have used the f i g u r e f i r s t  a l t a r i n S a n t i G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , Venice  of 1502  and  S e b a s t i a n was  The arrow was  an emblem of the plague  invoked a g a i n s t the f r e q u e n t outbreaks  and  of p e s t i l e n c e to  27  which V e n i c e and o t h e r t r a d i n g c e n t r e s a l o n g the A d r i a t i c c o a s t of Italywere s u s c e p t i b l e . H e and S t . Roch, a l s o invoked a g a i n s t the plague whose r e l i c was  and  p r e s e r v e d i n the C o n f r a t e r n i t y d i San Rocco, V e n i c e , were  two of the most f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d s a i n t s i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g . s u b j e c t of S t . S e b a s t i a n gave the Renaissance r e p r e s e n t the nude male body al_ a n t i c a , and that a s i m i l a r i t y  i n theme suggested  as an A p o l l o - l i k e f i g u r e . ^  z  artist  the o p p o r t u n i t y to  i t is interesting  to c o n j e c t u r e  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n  In pagan b e l i e f , A p o l l o was  arrows of plague which he i n f l i c t e d  The  saint  invoked a g a i n s t .the  on mankind.  The pose of S t . S e b a s t i a n i n B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of the development of a type i n a s e r i e s of works by Andrea Mantegna, A n t o n e l l o da Messina, Bellini  and B e l l i n i - ^  and reappears  f o l l o w e r s , such as Cima da Conegliano  Montagna ( F i g . 35).  f r e q u e n t l y i n the work of  ( F i g . 47) and  Bartolomeo  , -  The i d e n t i t y of the y o u t h f u l Bishop s a i n t e n t e r i n g from the between the two saints  right columns  ( F i g . 6, 9 ) .  opening  i s l e s s c e r t a i n than t h a t o f the o t h e r  V a s a r i , 1568,  f o l l o w e d by Z a n e t t i , 1 7 7 1 . T h e  r e f e r s to him as Sant'Agostino and i s most f r e q u e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  now  g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , i s San L u i g i da Toulousa, t h a t i s , S t . L o u i s of Toulouse, the e l d e r b r o t h e r of King Robert of Naples, who  gave up h i s c l a i m  to  the throne to j o i n the F r a n c i s c a n Order, d y i n g as a young man  of  24.-^  j j appears e  a t the  age  f r e q u e n t l y i n F r a n c i s c a n a l t a r p i e c e s a l t h o u g h he does  not appear to r e c e i v e the same v e n e r a t i o n as Anthony of Padua or F r a n c i s himself.  The s a i n t wears a r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d cope over a w h i t e a l b r e a c h i n g  to h i s f e e t , and a w h i t e , undecorated w i t h h i s g l o v e d l e f t hand.  Although  m i t r e , w h i l e he h o l d s h i s c r o z i e r the brown F r a n c i s c a n t u n i c beneath  the  28  cope i s more common i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of S t . L o u i s of Toulouse, notes  t h a t he may  a l s o be  d e p i c t e d wearing the w h i t e a l b .  t h a t t h i s garment, which was intended  Kaftal  It i s possible  o c c a s i o n a l l y worn by c o n s e c r a t e d k i n g s , ^ i s  to emphasize S t . L o u i s ' d e n u n c i a t i o n of h i s r i g h t of r o y a l primo-  g e n i t u r e f o r adherence to the F r a n c i s c a n r u l e of p o v e r t y and s i c k and poor.->8  The b o r d e r of the b i s h o p ' s  of a t l e a s t two  The  appearance  F r a n c i s c a n s a i n t s h e l p s to c o n f i r m h i s i d e n t i t y as St. L o u i s .  of these, seen a t the lower edge of F i g . 16, may  S i e n a , who  s e r v i c e to the  cope i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a  s e r i e s of s a i n t s s t a n d i n g w i t h i n a e d i c u l e s ( F i g . 15, 16).  One  G.  be S t . B e r n a r d i n of  from the time of Doge C r i s t o f o r o Moro ( d i e d 1471)  t i t u l a r s a i n t of the church, and who  was  the second  appears i n a s c u l p t e d f i g u r e ,  together  w i t h S t . L o u i s and  S t . Anthony of Padua, over the entrance p o r t a l to the  church  On  ( F i g . 13).  the cope b o r d e r above S t . B e r n a r d i n i s Job, shown i n  the same pose, r e v e r s e d , as h i s l i f e - s i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t i n the p a i n t i n g . T h i s i s predominantly  a F r a n c i s c a n a l t a r p i e c e w i t h the emphasis on  t i t u l a r s a i n t of the church and The  absence (or p o s s i b l y reduced  the founding s a i n t of the church's presence  Order.  on S t . L o u i s ' cope) of S t .  B e r n a r d i n of S i e n a , a F r a n c i s c a n s a i n t important church,  the  i n the h i s t o r y of  the  i s notable. C e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the f i g u r e s i n the p a i n t i n g are g i v e n  importance by c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s , most e f f e c t i v e l y by the o r c h e s t r a t i o n of hands.  The most important  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t between Job and  C h r i s t C h i l d and Mary ( F i g . 6 ) . or by Mary and  Job's l o o k i s not r e t u r n e d by the  t h e i r gestures are not s t r o n g l y d i r e c t e d toward him.  ever, a s u b t l e d e n i a l of s p a t i a l r e c e s s i o n , noted e f f e c t of the throne, and  the Child How-  above, i n the p l a n a r  the pose of Job, a l l o w s a c o m p o s i t i o n a l l i n e  to  29  be  s e t up,  to the  on  the p i c t u r e p l a n e , e x t e n d i n g from Job's r a i s e d arms and  C h r i s t C h i l d ' s down-reaching arm  l a n c e wound i n h i s s i d e up a s p a t i a l reading,  may  of t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l  be  and  from there  to the area of  seen as turned out  l i n e includes  and  toward Job.  cessory  act.  by  backed up by Mary who  the composition.  r o l e may  the c e n t r e  i s s i t u a t e d some d i s t a n c e  secondary r e l a t i o n s h i p completes a t r i a n g l e formed by compositionally  Mary down through the hands and St. S e b a s t i a n ' s abdomen, and St.  mercy from  a l s o be and  implied  r i g h t angel  i n f r o n t of them ( F i g . 11).  A  Job-Mary-Sebastian.  a l i n e e x t e n d i n g from the r a i s e d hand of  book of St. Dominic to the arrow p i e r c i n g  emphasizes the obvious i n t e r c e s s o r y r o l e of  Sebastian. The  great  importance given  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e by and  by  Francis,  a i d s i n the i n t e r -  to t h e i r r i g h t , thus f u r t h e r emphasizing h i s importance  T h i s i s s e t up  extension  As noted above, i t i s  as Mediatrix,'  Reading s p a t i a l l y again,  to  h i s lowered r i g h t  l e v e l as r e q u e s t i n g  St. F r a n c i s ' p o s s i b l e i n t e r c e s s o r y  appear to l o o k toward Job who and  l e f t hand.  to i n t e r p r e t C h r i s t ' s a c t i o n on one f o r Job,  An  the sacramental gestures of S t .  hand c o u n t e r p o i s e d to Mary's u p r a i s e d  on h i g h  the  to the r a i s e d hand of Mary, which, r e v e r t i n g  t h a t of h i s l e f t hand p a r a l l e l i n g C h r i s t ' s l e f t hand and  possible  hands  by  the  to the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of the  large proportion  of the p a i n t i n g which i t o c c u p i e s  the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p a i n t e d w i t h the r e a l a r c h i t e c t u r e of the  frame i s l e s s e v i d e n t from i t s frame. of the h e i g h t  San  stone  i n the p r e s e n t cut s t a t e of the a l t a r p i e c e s e p a r a t e d  In i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e the  f i g u r e s o c c u p i e d only  of the p a i n t i n g , w i t h the upper o n e - t h i r d  b a r r e l v a u l t i n g ( F i g . 7). w i t h i t s stone frame, there  Because the p a i n t e d  one-third  almost e n t i r e l y  architecture i s  integrated  i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  altarpiece  30  and  the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f i t s p h y s i c a l , church s e t t i n g .  In i t s a i r y ,  lofty  h e i g h t , and deep space, and i n i t s s o f t l i g h t i n g and q u i e t calm, the Renaissance chapel i n which the f i g u r e s a r e s i t u a t e d harmonizes w i t h the i n t e r i o r o f the church i t s e l f .  The framing  its  two s t e p s , and the ascending  and  entablature.  u n i t i n c l u d e s the a l t a r ,  with  zones o f the marble frame: base, columns,  The marble i s a l i g h t , warm c o l o u r showing t r a c e s o f  g i l d i n g and polychromy.  The d e c o r a t i o n i s a Lombardesque v e g e t a l  s i m i l a r to that on the frame of B e l l i n i ' s d e s t r o y e d  relief  a l t a r p i e c e i n the 59  C h i e s a d e i S.S. Giovanni  e Paolo, Venice  ( F i g . 17).  The p e r s p e c t i v e  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g , i t s low v a n i s h i n g p o i n t a t the base l i n e , the steep  r e c e s s i o n o f the e n t a b l a t u r e have been o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n r e c e n t  analyses steps  o f the a l t a r p i e c e T h e  a t the f o o t o f the  to the a l t a r would be o f l o o k i n g i n t o the p a i n t i n g a t the l e v e l of  Bellini's cartelling  and thence- upward to the Madonna, the c r o s s , and up  i n t o the v a u l t overhead. two  viewer's e x p e r i e n c e  L i g h t seems to flow i n t o the p a i n t i n g through the  r i g h t columns, p a i n t e d and marble.  chapel extending common source  forward  The e f f e c t i s o f a l o f t y and deep  i n t o the a r e a o f the church,  of n a t u r a l l i g h t  the windows i n the entrance  i l l u m i n a t e d by a  from the upper r i g h t , presumably admitted  by  facade.  P e r s p e c t i v a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and c o n s i s t e n t i l l u m i n a t i o n c r e a t e a u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l space i n which the h o l y beings moment and p l a c e .  coexist i n a single  The r e a l i s m of t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the placement o f the  p e r s p e c t i v e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t r e l a t i v e to the viewer's p o s i t i o n b e f o r e the a l t a r and a l t a r p i e c e , the advancing e f f e c t o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e and the shared  f e a t u r e s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and of i l l u m i n a t i o n w i t h  the i n t e r i o r  of the church, would have c r e a t e d the s t r o n g i l l u s i o n o f the p h y s i c a l  31  c o n t i g u i t y o f the space o c c u p i e d viewer i n the church. coexistence, and  by t h e h o l y  community w i t h t h a t o f the  The stone frame, which i s c r u c i a l to t h i s e f f e c t o f  d e f i n e s a t the same time the l i m i t of the p a i n t e d  the entrance to i t .  that o f a p r o g r e s s i v e  sanctuary  The v i s u a l e f f e c t o f the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i s  movement  through a s e r i e s o f zones of i n c r e a s i n g  h o l i n e s s approaching the enthroned Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d ( F i g . 9 ) .  The  p r o b a b l e tombstone o f the donor of the a l t a r p i e c e would be l o c a t e d i n the t e r r e s t r i a l zone o f the viewer's immediate space. t h a t o f the a l t a r which leads opens on e i t h e r side.and two c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a i n t e d  The f o l l o w i n g zone i s  to the entrance of a v e s t i b u l e zone which  which i s d e f i n e d by the triumphal Corinthian p i l l a r s ,  p o s i t i o n of the s u c c e e d i n g zone, occupied  arch  frame, the  and the b a r r e l v a u l t .  The  by t h e C h r i s t C h i l d and Mary,  f u r t h e r back a t the entrance to the apse i s d e f i n e d by the p o s i t i o n o f the canopy suspended d i r e c t l y above the Madonna barrel vault.  from the r e a r a r c h of the  T h i s s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n i s ambiguous, t h e c h a p e l h a v i n g a  v i s u a l v a c i l l a t i o n between s h a l l o w and profound depth. l a t i o n may be the c o r o l l a r y of an i n c o n o g r a p h i c a l s e n t a t i o n o f the V i r g i n and C h r i s t C h i l d Chapters Three and F i v e .  This v i s u a l v a c i l -  v a c i l l a t i o n i n the r e p r e -  which i s d i s c u s s e d  below i n  The l a r g e s c a l e o f the Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d ,  which c o n t r a d i c t s a c o n s i s t e n t depth r e c e s s i o n , and t h e i r p l a n a r , s i t i o n a l l i n k s w i t h the s a i n t s , d e s c r i b e d t h e i r proximity  above, c r e a t e  the i m p r e s s i o n  to the group o f exemplary and i n t e r c e s s o r y s a i n t s .  other handj t h e i r a c t u a l d i s t a n c e  compoof  On the  from t h e s a i n t s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e  a r c h i t e c t u r e , the complete enframement by the throne, the somewhat d i f f e r e n t viewpoint placed  ( t h e Madonna seems t o be viewed from a v i e w p o i n t h i g h e r  than t h a t  a t the b a s e l i n e by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ) , and b r i l l i a n c e  32  of i l l u m i n a t i o n a l l s e t the C h r i s t C h i l d and V i r g i n a p a r t i n a s e p a r a t e zone behind the v e s t i b u l e  (Fig. 9).  The f i n a l  space of the g o l d e n apse and the c o f f e r e d the  figures  the  cross,  zone i s the atmospheric  b a r r e l v a u l t , which soar  f o r f u l l y one h a l f of the p i c t u r e  above  a r e a , and which c o n t a i n s o n l y  canopy, l a u r e l , and the designs of the apse mosaic.  33  NOTES  1.  The p a i n t i n g i s 4.71 x 2.58 m. and i s composed o f t r a n s v e r s e p a n e l s which have s e p a r a t e d s l i g h t l y i n the course o f y e a r s c a u s i n g some c r a c k i n g i n the p a i n t s u r f a c e (S. M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , G a l l e r i e d e l l ' A c c a d e m i a d i V e n e z i a , Opere d'Arte d e i S e c o l i XIV e XV, Rome, 1955, pp. 67-69, h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia). I t was c u t down a t the top by 55 cm., p o s s i b l y when i t was removed from i t s o r i g i n a l s i t e i n the church o f San Giobbe, V e n i c e , between 1814 and 1818 and framed and hung i n the Accademia, V e n i c e , where i t may be seen today ( E r i c h Hubala, Madonna M i t K i n d , d i e P a l a d i San Giobbe, S t u t t g a r t , 1969, p . 3 ) . See a l s o F. V a l c a n o v e r , G a l l e r i e d e l l ' A c c a d e m i a , Novara, 1970, r e g a r d i n g removal o f the t h r e e canvases by C a r p a c c i o , B e l l i n i , and B a s a i t i from San Giobbe to the Accademia; and M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, p. 68. I b i d . , p. 67, notes t h a t the p a i n t i n g was r e s t o r e d i n 1895 by S. C e n t e n a r i t o c o n s o l i d a t e the p a i n t s u r f a c e and to improve the connect i o n o f the p a n e l s . A l i m i t e d c l e a n i n g was conducted on the o c c a s i o n of the B e l l i n i e x h i b i t i o n i n 1949 by M. P e l l i c i o l i . The p a i n t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y accepted to have been executed i n the o i l medium although a mixture of o i l and tempera may have been used. J . A. Crowe, G. B. C a v a l c a s e l l e , The H i s t o r y of P a i n t i n g i n North I t a l y , 1871, ed. Tancred B o r e n i u s , 3 v o l . , London, 1912, v o l . 1, p. 163 (herea f t e r c i t e d as Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ) observe: " T e c h n i c a l l y he CBellini] had won the s e c r e t of h a l f impasto, o f l o c a l and d i v e r s e g l a z i n g . . . " C. W i l s o n , "Giovanni B e l l i n i ' s Pesaro A l t a r p i e c e , S t u d i e s i n i t s Context and Meaning," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1977), pp. 316-319, notes t h a t B e l l i n i ' s p r e c i s e technique has n o t y e t been determined. B e l l i n i appears t o have used o t h e r v e h i c l e s than o i l , such as v a r n i s h e s , t h a t a r e now d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y (Renato G h i o t t o , T e r i s i o P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa d i G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , M i l a n , 1969, p. 85, h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa). The a t t r i b u t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e to B e l l i n i i s secured by the s i g n a t u r e which appears on the c a r t e l l i n g a f f i x e d to the lowest o f the t h r e e s t e p s of the V i r g i n Mary's t h r o n e . There i s no evidence o f a date on t h i s c a r t e l l i n g ( M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, p. 68, and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , V e n i c e , May 1978). The p a i n t i n g i s now viewed i n the l o f t y Room I I o f the Accademia, V e n i c e , f l a n k e d by i t s companions from San Giobbe, The P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n the Temple, by V i t t o r i o C a r p a c c i o , 1510, and C h r i s t i n the Garden by Marco B a s a i t i , 1516 ( M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 104, p. 105, and no. 46, p. 4 8 ) . The p a i n t i n g r e c e i v e s n a t u r a l i l l u m i n a t i o n from a s k y l i g h t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e and s t r i k i n g e f f e c t as t h e g o l d d e t a i l s and the r a t h e r l a r g e a r e a o f g o l d used i n the apse mosaic r e a c t to the . changing l i g h t and passage of c l o u d s above. The a l t a r p i e c e was o r i g i n a l l y s i t u a t e d i n a monumental carved marble frame over the second a l t a r on the r i g h t i n t h e church of San Giobbe. D u r i n g the p e r i o d i n  34  which the a l t a r p i e c e was p a i n t e d San Giobbe was the l a r g e s t monastic i n s t i t u t i o n , next to the S e r v i , i n the S e s t i e r e of Cannareggio. It can be seen i n the map of Venice by Jacopo d e ' B a r b a r i , 1500, V e n i c e , Museo C i v i c o C o r r e r ( F i g . 1 ) . The a l t a r and a l t a r p i e c e frame may be seen i n the church today ( F i g . 2 ) , w i t h a s u b s t i t u t e d p a i n t i n g by L a t t a n z i o Quarena 1768-1853, scenographer a t the F e n i c e , V e n i c e , of the Theophany of S t . Job (F. F i n o t t o , San Giobbe, V e n i c e , 1971, pp. 20-21) ( F i g . 3 ) . B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e , d e d i c a t e d to the p a t r o n s a i n t of the church, was f l a n k e d on the r i g h t by B a s a i t i ' s C h r i s t i n the Garden over the F o s c a r i a l t a r , and on the l e f t by C a r p a c c i o ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n over the Sanuto a l t a r ( F i g . 4 ) . No documentation f o r the a l t a r p i e c e s u r v i v e s nor are there o t h e r t e x t u a l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p a t r o n and d a t e . The coat of arms which appears on each of the two bases of the columns of the marble frame of the a l t a r p i e c e i s p r o b a b l y t h a t of the f a m i l y of the p a t r o n , or p o s s i b l y of the c o n f r a t e r n i t y , who commissioned the work ( F i g . 5 ) . For d i s c u s s i o n of p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of the coat of arms, see Chapter F i v e , p. 82 and n. 47. 2.  R. G o f f e n , "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o i n C a e l i s E s t : O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Sacra Conversazione i n the T r e c e n t o , " AB (1979):199-201 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Goffen, "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o " ) . Goffen c i t e s P h i l i p p i a n s 3:20 as example of s c r i p t u r a l usage of the term: "For our c o n v e r s a t i o n i s i n heaven." See f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter Three below.  3.  I b i d . , p.  4.  R. G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 490  5.  Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e , North  6.  G o f f e n , "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " p. 201, n.  7.  S i m i l a r g e s t u r e s p o s s i b l y i n s p i r e d by B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe C h r i s t C h i l d are seen i n Lorenzo Costa, Madonna and Four S a i n t s , Bologna, San P e t r o n i o , F i g . 51, and F. B i s s o l o , Madonna w i t h S t . M i c h a e l , S t . V e r o n i c a and Two Donors, London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , reproduced i n Heinemann, B e l l i n i , f i g . 349.  8.  L. V e n t u r i , Le O r i g i n i , 1906, p. 376. V e n t u r i makes t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to the C h r i s t C h i l d i n the Madonna c o l Bambino Benedicente, by B e l l i n i , undated, now i n V e n i c e , Accademia ( M o s c h i n i M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 69, p l a t e 68).  9.  L. V e n t u r i , Le O r i g i n i , 1906,  10.  201. and n.  20.  I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g , v o l . 1, p.  p.  163.  26.  378.  Precedents f o r the throne i n B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre are found i n the C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n , Pesaro, Museo C i v i c o , c. 1475, and the Madonna A d o r i n g the S l e e p i n g C h r i s t C h i l d , e a r l y 1470's, V e n i c e , Accademia ( G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 68 and no. 73).  35  11.  P e t e r Murray, P i e r l u i g i de V e c c h i , The Complete P a i n t i n g s o f P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , New York, 1967, no. 9, f i g . 10, p. 89 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Murray, de V e c c h i , P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a ) .  12.  The s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n of r e c e s s i o n i n the e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e throne i s negated by the o v e r a l l p l a n a r e f f e c t .  13.  C. Gamba, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , M i l a n , 1937, p. 117: " I I trono marmoreo ha per f a s t i g i o un d i s c o reggente l a c r o c e , r e m i n i s c e n z a d e l Mantegna i n San Zeno."  14.  See f u l l p. 50.  15.  D. Rosand, AB 53 (1971):196-197 and 211.  c o l o u r r e p r o d u c t i o n i n V a l c a n o v e r , G a l l e r i e , 1970, p l a t e 34,  See D. Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s ' P r e s e n t a t i o n o f the V i r g i n i n the Temple' and the S c u o l a d e l l a C a r i t a \ " AB 58 (1976):66-68, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the iconography o f g o l d and mosaic. "Through c e n t u r i e s o f C h r i s t i a n a r t g o l d had s i g n i f i e d the l i g h t of heaven, t h e glow o f mosaics o r a p p l i e d g o l d l e a f always s y m b o l i z i n g a h i g h e r , s u p e r n a t u r a l i l l u m i n a tion." I b i d . , p. 66. See a l s o K. Dorment, "Tomb and Testament: A r c h i t e c t u r a l S i g n i f i c a n c e i n T i t i a n ' s P i e t a , " AQ 35 (1972):406. 16.  The C o n c i s e Oxford D i c t i o n a r y o f Current E n g l i s h , 5 t h ed. r e v . , 1964, s.v. "cherub."  17.  S. B e t t i n i , I M o s a i c i d i San Marco, Bergamo, 1944, p i . C V I I I ; R. P a l l u c c h l n i , L a P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l T r e c e n t o , V e n i c e , Rome, 1964, pp. 76-77, 276, f i g . 248; L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e , 1961, p. 210, i d e n t i f i e s the o r d e r o f the a n g e l i c f i g u r e as "Sciences (ten-winged a n g e l s ) , " " s c i e n c e s " b e i n g an a l t e r n a t e name f o r the a n g e l i c o r d e r g i f t e d w i t h knowledge. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the cherubim w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter S i x .  18.  H i l d a Graef, Mary: A H i s t o r y of D o c t r i n e and D e v o t i o n , London, 1963, p. 6. 'Ave P l e n a G r a t i a ' appears i n Costa's Bologna a l t a r p i e c e , F i g . 51.  19.  Robertson,  20.  D a n i e l 2:20-21; L. Bouyer, D i c t i o n a r y o f Theology, t r . Rev. C. U n d e r h i l l Green, New York, 1963, p. 463. See a l s o the V i r g i n ' s M a g n i f i c a t , Luke 1:52, 53.  21.  The mosaic semi-dome m o t i f i s used by B e l l i n i i n two l a t e r s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e s , the Pesaro t r i p t y c h , 1488, V e n i c e , S. M a r i a G l o r i o s a d e i F r a r i , ( F i g . 3 9 ) , and the San Z a c c a r i a a l t a r p i e c e , 1505, V e n i c e , San Z a c c a r i a , ( F i g . 4 0 ) . G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 134, p. 100, and no. 183, p. 106; and by Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , Madonna and S i x S a i n t s , Parma, G a l l e r i a N a z i o n a l e , ( F i g . 50); Lorenzo C o s t a , Madonna and Four S a i n t s , Bologna, San P e t r o n i o , ( F i g . 5 1 ) . The use o f g o l d mosaic and B y z a n t i n e d e c o r a t i o n  B e l l i n i , p. 87.  36  reaches an extreme i n the work of Marco M a r z i a l e ( F i g s . 4 4 , G i o v a n n i B u o n c o n s i g l i o ( F i g . 52). The Sacred S h r i n e , Boston  (1909) 1957,  p.  49)  and  22.  Yrp H i m ,  155.  23.  R. H a t f i e l d , B o t t i c e l l i ' s U f f i z i A d o r a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y , 1976, p. 41. In B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre a s i m i l a r p l a n t i s found i n the l o s t a l t a r p i e c e f o r SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e , of c. 1475, ( F i g . 3 4 ) , i n the form of a g a r l a n d spanning the l o g g i a , from which the V i r g i n Mary's c u r t a i n of honor i s suspended. In C a r p a c c i o ' s M i r a c l e of the Cross a t the R i a l t o , 1494-1501, V e n i c e , Accademia, the f o l i a g e i s a t t a c h e d to l a r g e p r o c e s s i o n a l candles ( M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 94, p l a t e 94). I t appears i n B o c c a c c i n o ' s A n n u n c i a t i o n ( F i g . 46).  24.  C a r l o R i d o l f i , Le m e r a v i g l i e d e l l ' a r t e ovvero l e v i t e d e g l i i l l u s t r i p i t t o r i v e n e t i e d e l l o S t a t o , ed. D. Von Hadeln, v o l . 1, B e r l i n , 1914, p. 66. "ne s i puo d e s c r i v e r e a pieno l a g r a t i a e l a b e l l e z z a d i t r e A n g e l e t t i , che siedono a p i e d i q u e l l a V e r g i n e , c h i d i l o r o t o c c a l a v i u o l a , i l l i u t o & i l v i u o l i n o : d ' a r i e c o s i g e n t i l i e d i movimenti c o s i s o a v i , che r a p i s c o n o g l i a n i m i , q u a l maniere d i f i g u r e destano somma d i v o t i o n e n e l l e mente d e ' f e d e l i . "  25.  See note  26.  E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1974  27.  See l a r g e c o l o u r d e t a i l s i n Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 1, p i . IX, X, of the head of t h i s a n g e l and of h i s instrument w i t h i t s t u n i n g head c r a f t e d as a g r o t e s q u e . The l i r a da b r a c c i o i s a pear shaped, bowed instrument w i t h round s h o u l d e r s , 3-5 s t r i n g s , and two bourdon s t r i n g s , which run o u t s i d e the f i n g e r b o a r d ( E n c y c l o p e d i a of World A r t , 1965 ed., s.v. " M u s i c a l Instruments," by Emmanuel W i n t e r n i t z , and Emmanuel Wint e r n i t z , "A L i r a da B r a c c i o i n G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s 'The F e a s t of the Gods'," AB 28 (1946):114-116. The instrument p l a y e d by the s o l i t a r y a n g e l i n B e l l i n i ' s San Z a c c a r i a a l t a r p i e c e ( F i g . 40), 1505, i s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as a l i r a da b r a c c i o . The i n s t r u m e n t i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s s m a l l e r and l a c k s the round s h o u l d e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l y an e a r l i e r form of the l i r a da b r a c c i o , which descends from the Medieval v i o l a , and u l t i m a t e l y from the B y z a n t i n e l y r e , "a type of medieval f i d d l e p l a y e d by E l d e r s i n s c u l p t u r e of the l a t e M i d d l e Ages and l a t e r by c o u n t l e s s angels up to the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y " ( I b i d . , p.  61 below. ed., s.v. "Music,  Western."  114).  28.  S. W i l k , " I c o n o l o g i c a l Problems i n the S c u l p t u r e of T u l l i o Lombardo," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1977), Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , 1977; W i l s o n , " B e l l i n i ' s Pesaro a l t a r p i e c e , " 1977.  29.  W i n t e r n i t z , " L i r a da B r a c c i o , " 1946,  p.  114.  37  "Giovanni B e l l i n i always rendered h i s m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h an accuracy and neatness...and w i t h a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the playing technique." 30.  M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no.  104.  31.  See note 24  32.  New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1967 ed., s.v. "The Roman Mass": "the sung l i t u r g y i s the h i g h e s t type of s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n , most capable o f moving the s o u l to f e r v e n t d e v o t i o n and g i v i n g f u l l a r t i c u l a t i o n to s o c i a l worship."  33.  H. W. A. Janson, D. J . Janson, J . Kerman, The H i s t o r y o f A r t and Music, Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1968, p. 231.  above.  The s p e c i a l r o l e which music p l a y e d i n V e n e t i a n r e l i g i o u s and c i v i c ceremony has been d i s c u s s e d by E. Rosand, "Music and the Myth o f V e n i c e , " RQ 30 (1977):511-537. See Chapter S i x below. 34.  G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " pp. 498-499.  35.  K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " p.  36.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t one or more of the s a i n t s i n the a l t a r p i e c e are onomastic s a i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g the donor and members of h i s f a m i l y . In B e l l i n i ' s t r i p t y c h i n the S a c r i s t y of the F r a r i , V e n i c e , the husband and t h r e e sons of the deceased, F r a n c e s c h i n a Pesaro, are r e p r e s e n t e d by the f o u r s a i n t s . G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 512. See f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter F i v e below.  24.  On the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the s a i n t s , F i l i p p o B a l d i n u c c i noted i n N o t i z i e d e ' p r o f e s s o r i d e l disegno da Cimabue i n qua., Ed con note ed a g g i u n t e d i Giuseppe P i a c e n z a , M i l a n o , 1811, v o l . 5, p. 489: "ciascheduno  molto propriamente  L. V e n t u r i , Le O r i g i n i , 1906,  p.  rappresentati." 378:  " e s e c u t o r i d e l l a l e g g e , che s i muovano i n v a r i a g u i s a i n d i p e n d e n t i . " A. V e n t u r i , S t o r i a , v o l . 7, p t . 4, p. 37.  330.  G. K a f t a l , S a i n t s i n I t a l i a n A r t , V o l . 3, Iconography of the S a i n t s i n the P a i n t i n g of North East I t a l y , F l o r e n c e , 1978, does not l i s t S t . Job, nor does he appear i n the two p r e v i o u s volumes. The i c o n o g r a p h i c a l type t h a t i s indexed f o r S t . Onuphrius i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of Job, f o r example, v o l . 3, no. 222, p. 796, an o l d h e r m i t w i t h l o n g w h i t e beard, hands j o i n e d i n p r a y e r ( d i e d c. 400). Compare S t . Onuphrius i n a p a i n t i n g of the Madonna w i t h two s a i n t s by Lorenzo L o t t o , Rome, Borghese G a l l e r y , P. B i a n c o n i , A l l The P a i n t i n g s of  38  Lorenzo L o t t o , t r . P. p. 38.  C o l a c i c c h i , New  York, 1963,  p t . 1, p i . 17,  and  S. Tramontin, A. N i e r o , G. M u s o l i n o , C. C a n d i a n i , C u l t o d e i S a n t i a V e n e z i a , Venice, 1965, p. 166, document the r i s e of St. Job's c u l t i n V e n i c e w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d i n 1389 f o r an o r a t o r y of St. Job i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the h o s p i t a l . M. E. Tabor, The S a i n t s i n A r t , London 1918, r e p r i n t D e t r o i t , 1969, p. 107, l i s t s S t . Job as the "Patron s a i n t of H o s p i t a l s and p r o t e c t o r a g a i n s t l e p r o s y , V e n i c e . " R i d o l f i , M e r a v i g l i e , 1648, v o l . 1, p.66, i s mistaken i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Job as p i a g a t o or s o r e - c o v e r e d . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of St. Job i n I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g i s r a r e . A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of Job's s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the a l t a r p i e c e f o l l o w s below, Chapter F i v e , 38.  The s u b s t i t u t i o n of L a t t a n z i o Quarena's Theophany of Job a f t e r B e l l i n i ' s p a l a was removed to the Accademia might r e f l e c t upon the s u b j e c t of B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e as i t was understood i n the n i n e teenth century.  39.  F i n o t t o , San  Giobbe, 1971,  p.  53:  " C o n n e s s i a l problema d e l d o l o r e vengono t o c c a t i magistralmente a l t r i argomenti, come l a r e s u r r e z i o n e d e l l a c a m e , l ' a t t e s a d e l M e s s i a , 1'onnipotenza e 1 ' o n n i s c i e n z a d i D i o . La l i t u r g i a usa con una c e r t a frequenza i l l i b r o d i Giobbe n e l B r e v i a r i o , n e l Messale e per i l passato l o uso s p e c i a l m e n t e n e l l e o f f i c i a t u r e f u n e b r i , " (my emphasis). 40.  Robertson, B e l l i n i , p. 66, notes a precedent f o r the p o r t a l Job i n Masaccio's S t o r y of Theophilus f r e s c o , 1427, B r a n c a c c i Chapel, S. M a r i a d e i C a r m i n i , F l o r e n c e (L. B e r t i , Masaccio, U n i v e r s i t y Park, Penn., 1967, f i g . 60-61, pp. 110-111).  41.  G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no.  42.  K a f t a l , S a i n t s , v o l . 3, 1978, no. 108, pp. 327-342. St. F r a n c i s founded three Order of F r a n c i s c a n M i n o r s , the C l a r e s , and the T e r t i a r i e s . He d i e d at A s s i s i on October 4, 1226, and was canonized i n 1228.  43.  M e i s s , B e l l i n i ' s St. F r a n c i s , P r i n c e t o n ,  44.  T. P i g n a t t i , G i o r g i o n e , London 1971, p. 97, f i g . 12, notes Longhi's p r o p o s a l of Lorenzo Costa's St. P e t r o n i u s w i t h S a i n t s F r a n c i s and Dominic at the P i n a c o t e c a , Bologna, as a source f o r G i o r g i o n e ' s St. F r a n c i s .  45.  T. P i g n a t t i , l e c t u r e on G i o r g i o n e ,  149,  p i . XLIV-XLV.  1964.  September 28,  1978,  i n which  he  39.  commented on papers p r e s e n t e d a t the Convegno G i o r g i o n e s c o a t C a s t e l f r a n c o , May 29-31, 1978, f o r t h c o m i n g i n a volume. See a l s o G. Robertson, "The Convegno G i o r g i o n e s c o a t C a s t e l f r a n c o , " BM 120 (1978):560-561. 46.  K a f t a l , S a i n t s , v o l . 3, 1978, no. 84, pp. 257-264. S t . Dominic d i e d i n Bologna on August 4, 1221 and was canonized by Pope Gregory IX i n 1234. In the absence of Dominic's u s u a l a t t r i b u t e of the l i l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s s a i n t might be Thomas Aquinas.  47.  R. P a l l u c c h i n i , I V i v a r i n i , V e n i c e , 1961, p i . 113, pp. 112-113, reproduces the p o l y p t y c h a t L e c c e , Museo P r o v i n c i a l e , by A n t o n i o and Bartolomeo V i v a r i n i , i n which the crowning p a n e l i s a T r i n i t y adored by S t . Dominic on the l e f t and S t . F r a n c i s on the r i g h t . A l a t e r work by F r a Bartolomeo (1472-1517) i s a drawing i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London, which i s a d e s i g n f o r an a l t a r p i e c e of the V i r g i n and C h i l d Adored by S a i n t s Dominic and F r a n c i s . The two s a i n t s k n e e l and embrace i n the foreground (H. R e i t l i n g e r , V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, A S e l e c t i o n of Drawings by Old Masters i n the Museum C o l l e c t i o n s , London, 1921, no. 10, p. 8 ) . On e x h i b i t a t the Museum, June, 1979.  48.  Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 1, p. 229. Now a t the Museo C i v i c o , V i c e n z a ; s i g n e d and dated 1502. Reproduced i n v o l . 2, f i g . 801.  49.  K a f t a l , S a i n t s , v o l . 3, 1978, no. 269, pp. 910-920. S t . S e b a s t i a n was a k n i g h t and m a r t y r . He d i e d i n Rome on 20 January 287, beaten to death w i t h c l u b s or maces.  50.  B o s c h i n i , La C a r t a ,  1660,  "De p i u ghe San B a s t i a n , m a r t i r e degno: E c h i no vede q u e l a p o s i t u r a , Non ha v i s t a dassegno una f i g u r a ; La xe de c a m e ; l'e" t u t a desegno." 51.  Anna Jameson, Sacred and Legendary A r t , 9th ed., London, 1883, pp. 412-424. -  v o l . 2,  M. M e i s s , P a i n t i n g i n F l o r e n c e and S i e n a a f t e r the B l a c k Death, 1st ed., 1951, p. 77, notes t h a t S t . S e b a s t i a n had been invoked a g a i n s t the plague s i n c e the 7th c e n t u r y , but t h a t h i s c u l t d i d not b e g i n i n Tuscany u n t i l a f t e r the B l a c k Death i n 1348. I t was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the plague was i n f l i c t e d by God as a punishment o f c o l l e c t i v e s i n . 52.  In e a r l i e r a r t S t . S e b a s t i a n was emblematic arrow.  53.  Jameson, Sacred A r t , 1883,  p.  d e p i c t e d as a k n i g h t h o l d i n g the  414.  40  54.  V e r s i o n s of S t . S e b a s t i a n by Mantegna are i n Vienna, K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Museum, i n P a r i s , Louvre, and i n V e n i c e , Ca' d'Oro (A. M a r t i n d a l e , N. G a r a v a g l i a , The Complete P a i n t i n g s of Mantegna, New York, 1967, no. 43, p i . X I - X I I I , no. 56, p i . XXVII-XXX, and no. 73, p. 114). Compare a l s o A n t o n e l l o da Messina's S t . S e b a s t i a n a t Dresden Gemaldegalerie, G. V i g n i , A l l the P a i n t i n g s of A n t o n e l l o da Messina, New York, 1963, pp. 28-30, p l a t e s 54-58, dated 1475-1476, which may have been seen by B e l l i n i i n the Church of San G i u l i a n a , V e n i c e . B e l l i n i may have developed h i s S t . S e b a s t i a n through a s e r i e s of a t t r i b u t e d , but s t i l l d i s p u t e d , works b e g i n n i n g w i t h the p a n e l of s a i n t s at M a t e l i c a , Museo P i e r s a n t i , 1445-1450, then the S t . S e b a s t i a n T r i p t y c h , V e n i c e , Accademia, 1460-1468(7), the S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r a l t a r p i e c e , V e n i c e , SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , 1464-68(7) ( G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 3, p. 85, no. 40, p. 90, and no. 57, P- 91).. A drawing of S t . S e b a s t i a n i n the B r i t i s h Museum, London, may be by B e l l i n i (A. E. Popham, P. Pouncey, I t a l i a n Drawings i n the Department of P r i n t s and Drawings, B r i t i s h Museum, London, 1950, no. 18 r e c t o , p i . XVI, p. 12).  55.  B o s c h i n i , La C a r t a , 1660, c a l l s him S a n t ' A l v i s e , V e n e t i a n d i a l e c t f o r S t . L o u i s . The s a i n t i s i d e n t i f i e d as San L u i g i da Toulousa by R i d o l f i , M e r a v i g l i e , 1648, p. 66; B a l d i n u c c i , N o t i z i e , 1681, v o l . 5, p. 489; Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e , North I t a l y , v o l . 1 p. 163; and M o s c h i n i Marconi, Accademia, p. 68.  56.  K a f t a l , S a i n t s , v o l . 3, 1978, no. 183, pp. 621-628. S t . L o u i s was the bishop of Toulouse. He d i e d on 19 August 1297 and was canonized i n 1317. F i n o t t o , San Giobbe, 1971, p. 20, i d e n t i f i e s him as the V e n e t i a n San Magno. T h i s i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t appears on the d e s c r i p t i v e card p l a c e d on the a l t a r , the former s i t e of the a l t a r p i e c e i n C h i e s a San Giobbe.  57.  The C o n c i s e Oxford D i c t i o n a r y of Current E n g l i s h , 5th ed., s.v., " a l b . "  58.  B e l l i n i d e p i c t s S t . L o u i s of white a l b i n a l a t e r a l panel the V i r g i n , c. 1475, Pesaro, Completa, no. 68, f i g . 68 I ,  1964,  Toulouse i n s i m i l a r dress of cope over of h i s a l t a r p i e c e of the C o r o n a t i o n of Museo C i v i c o ( G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera p. 93).  Antonio V i v a r i n i a l s o d e p i c t s the s a i n t wearing a white a l b i n a h a l f l e n g t h p a n e l a t Avignon which bears a L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r r i n g to S t . L o u i s ' contempt f o r w o r l d l y r u l e (R. P a l l u c c h i n i , I V i v a r i n i , V e n i c e , 1961, p l a t e 126).  41  59.  The framing u n i t c o n s i s t s of two low s t e p s approaching the a l t a r , the a l t a r i t s e l f , and s u c c e e d i n g zones of the frame: the v e g e t a l f r e i z e o f the base, the zone of the stemma, the columns w i t h t h e i r v e g e t a l stems; the C o r i n t h i a n d o l p h i n c a p i t a l s , the a r c h i t r a v e , dark f r e i z e and c o r n i c e , the a r c h w i t h i t s t h r e e f a s c i a e of f l o r i a t e d e c o r a t i o n and a r c h i v o l t r o s e t t e s , the s p a n d r e l s w i t h v e g e t a l d e c o r a t i o n , and the square pediment.  60.  Robertson, B e l l i n i , pp. 86-87: "...the e f f e c t . . . o f the whole s t r u c t u r e f r o n t e d by the marble frame p r o j e c t i n g i n t o the church, so t h a t the V i r g i n and her attendant s a i n t [ s i c ] and angels are gathered under a s o r t of B a l d a c c h i n o i n the body of the church i t s e l f . " Keydel, " A l t a r p i e c e s , " c h a p t e r 7, p. 154, sees the e f f e c t of a f u l l - s i z e d c h a p e l w i t h i n the c l o s e d i n t e r i o r o f the church, and pp. 159-160 d e s c r i b e s i t as "a s t r u c t u r e subsumed w i t h i n the l a r g e r e d i f i c e of the church environment and d i s t i n g u i s h e d from i t , " and "a s u b o r d i n a t e s a n c t u a r y space i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the environment of the church," w i t h a f u n c t i o n analogous to t h a t of a c i b o r i u m . See Hubala's d e s c r i p t i o n , Madonna M i t Kind 1969, pp. 7-10.  61.  The p o s i t i o n of the c a r t e l l i n g b e a r i n g G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s s i g n a t u r e at a p g i n t on the v e r t i c a l a x i s beneath the c e n t r e angel's r i g h t f g o t and at the viewer's l e v e l of v i s i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . Not o n l y does t h i s l o c a t i o n ensure the a r t i s t ' s commemoration but i t i m p l i c a t e s him i n the a s c e n d i n g movement of the c o m p o s i t i o n and may p o s s i b l y express h i s p e r s o n a l hope of s a l v a t i o n . G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " pp. 510-511, w r i t e s w i t h r e g a r d to B e l l i n i ' s type o f h a l f - l e n g t h Madonna behind a parapet, "In s i g n i n g h i s name on the c a r t e l l i n g a f f i x e d to the p a r a p e t , B e l l i n i bears w i t n e s s both to h i s f a i t h and to h i s p r o f e s s i o n . "  42  CHAPTER THREE  A FRAMEWORK FOR  A CONSIDERATION OF  THE  VENETIAN  SACRA CONVERSAZIONE ALTARPIECE  U n t i l r e c e n t l y the primary b a s i s f o r the d e f i n i t i o n of the s a c r a conversazione  a l t a r p i e c e has been formal  r a t h e r than  iconographic.  I t i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Madonna and  C h r i s t C h i l d with  attendant  s a i n t s and  angels  considered  to be  enthroned  which i s p l a c e d  w i t h i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c landscape or a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r i o r . s i v e and monumental form of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  Italian  The  most impres-  altarpiece i s generally  the North I t a l i a n a l t a r p i e c e i n which the enthronement i s  s i t u a t e d i n an e n c l o s i n g , p e r s p e c t i v a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  Renaissance a r c h i t e c - . .  ture.  has  with  In the p a s t , study of the s a c r a conversazione  been undertaken  the purpose of t r a c i n g the o r i g i n of t h i s mature form, by  reconstruc-  t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l development of i t s e n c l o s i n g , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Tuscan and North I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g . account of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  No  satisfactory iconographical  a l t a r p i e c e has been proposed, a l t h o u g h  i c o n o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been suggested f o r some of the works c o n s i d e r e d The  separate  important i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l development.^  apparent d i s c r e p a n c y  between the phrase " s a c r e d  representations  conversation"  and  the f i f t e e n t h century  of n o n - c o n v e r s i n g h o l y b e i n g s i t  has  been a p p l i e d to i n r e c e n t a r t h i s t o r i o g r a p h y l e d Rona Goffen  to probe  o  the s c r i p t u r a l and  p a t r i s t i c etymology of the term.  thereby to c l a r i f y  the b a s i c theme of t h i s a l t a r p i e c e type, by t r a n s l a t i n g  s a c r a conversazione  She  has  been a b l e  as the "holy community" which i n s p i r e d m e r i t o r i o u s  43  a c t i o n s and d e v o t i o n i n the w o r s h i p p e r , and which i n t e r c e d e d f o r h i s p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n w i t h the V i r g i n Mary and C h r i s t .  She suggests t h a t  the  thematic o r i g i n o f t h i s type of a l t a r p i e c e and of the b a s i c f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r i t s development i n I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g was  i n answer to the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l requirements of nascent mendicant, d e v o t i o n i n the e a r l y  p a r t i c u l a r l y Franciscan,  Trecento.  With her t h e m a t i c , r a t h e r than f o r m a l , d e f i n i t i o n G o f f e n  identifies  i n c i p i e n t s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e p a i n t i n g s i n the t i t u l a r F r a n c i s c a n church o f San Francesco i n A s s i s i ,  the e a r l y Trecento f r e s c o e s of the Madonna and  s a i n t s i n the Lower Church.  That the f o u r f r e s c o e s of the Lower  Church  which she c i t e s , and a l s o the Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i l u n e t t e f r e s c o A g o s t i n o , S i e n a , c. 1335,^ may  a l l have been commissioned  i n Sant'  by a p a t r o n  (patrons i n the case of the S i e n a f r e s c o ) w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f commemorat i o n and of i n v o k i n g i n t e r c e s s i o n , i s suggested by the appearance donor's  arms, h i s p o r t r a i t , or h i s p a t r o n s a i n t , and/or  w i t h an a l t a r and tomb. istic  of the  the a s s o c i a t i o n  In the A s s i s i f r e s c o e s Goffen notes the  e f f e c t s of the p a i n t e d framings which s u b t l y convey  illusion-  the i m p r e s s i o n of  a s i n g l e space, a k i n d o f l o g g i a , i n which the s a i n t s and Madonna s t a n d , t h e i r lower b o d i e s obscured by a b a l u s t r a d e ( F i g . 1 9 ) . the f i r s t  These works show  developments toward a u n i f i e d group of f i g u r e s , p l a c e d w i t h i n a  s i n g l e space contiguous w i t h t h a t of the viewer.  The i n t e r c e s s o r y theme  r e q u i r e s the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t y of the group  of s a i n t s w i t h  the Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d , which m a i n t a i n s the pre-eminence of the l a t t e r , and an immediacy of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the viewer/worshipper  which  c r e a t e s the sense of a p o t e n t i a l c r o s s i n g between temporal and  divine  realms.^  With these b a s i c c r i t e r i a ,  Goffen suggests a h i s t o r i c a l  44  development of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e from the T r e c e n t o , v e r t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d , h a l f - l e n g t h f i g u r e s p l a c e d against a g o l d ground, h a v i n g s u b t l e i n d i c a t i o n s of a u n i f i e d s p a t i a l environment  and of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l focus  on the Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d , to the f u l l  length figures e x i s t i n g i n a  group c e n t r e d i n the enthroned Madonna and scape or a r c h i t e c t u r a l Goffen has  Child i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c land-  setting.  d e f i n e d the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e as a d i s t i n c t  type, whose d i s t i n c t  o r i g i n i s the response i n v i s u a l a r t to the  "vocally  expressed hope f o r m e d i a t i o n " of the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  She  has  d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from the Maesta" and m a r i o l o g i c a l p o l y p t y c h t r a d i t i o n s which have been c o n s i d e r e d the sources of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e . ^ tightened c r i t e r i a  Her  thus exclude some o f the key works i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l  c o n s t r u c t of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e t r a d i t i o n .  The work of a r t i s t s  who  were c o n s i d e r e d important i n the u n i f i c a t i o n o f the p o l y p t y c h c o m p o s i t i o n i n t o the s i n g l e p a n e l s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , such as Masaccio  and  Fra  A n g e l i c o , f a l l out of the d i r e c t l i n e of development from the San Assisi,  frescoes.  a l t a r p i e c e of 1426  Francesco,  For example, Shearman's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Masaccio's ( F i g . 19) proposes  Pisa  a s i n g l e p a n e l whose pendant arches  p r e s e r v e the v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of the p o l y p t y c h , a format which i s p r e s e r v e d i n F r a A n g e l i c o ' s Annalena Domenico Veneziano's  a l t a r p i e c e , c. 1445-1455,  S t . Lucy a l t a r p i e c e , mid 1440's ( F i g . 23)  has not o n l y i l l u m i n a t e d  the importance  of Tuscan  the e a r l y Q u a t t r o c e n t o , whose s t r o n g f a s c i n a t i o n has  in  I f the f i r s t  Goffen  the theme and p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n of the s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e , but somewhat reduced  myopia.  and even i n  caused  painting i n some h i s t o r i c a l  examples of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e can be  the e a r l y T r e c e n t o , the h i s t o r y of the p e r s p e c t i v a l , c e n t r a l l y  identified unified  45  i n t e r i o r , which p r e v i o u s  s t u d i e s have v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e ,  can now  be  of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the type, Goffen,  devotional) An  seen as a somewhat l a t e r development  r e f l e c t i n g a s l i g h t iconographic  t r a d i t i o n i s Johannes Wilde who  which i s s t i l l  (for  change."^  important author of the c o n v e n t i o n a l  conversazione  the h i s t o r y  c o n s t r u c t of the  i n 1929  the b a s i s f o r most r e c e n t s t u d i e s  sacra  l a i d a framework H i s o u t l i n e of  h i s t o r i c a l development of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  was  made i n the  the  context  of a demonstration of the prime importance of a South I t a l i a n p a i n t e r , Antonello  da Messina, i n f l u e n c e d by  a Tuscan p a i n t e r , P i e r o d e l l a  i n the i n v e n t i o n of the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century  Francesca,  North I t a l i a n a l t a r p i e c e .  Wilde's i s a f o r m a l approach, i d e n t i f y i n g the problem as t h a t of p l a c i n g the enthroned Madonna and which r e p r e s e n t s conversazione  s a i n t s w i t h i n a completely  p a r t of a church i n t e r i o r .  The  h i s t o r y of the  T e n t a t i v e e f f o r t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n may  seen i n some l a t e M e d i e v a l works of the c a t e g o r i e s the s a c r a conversazione In  1  ( F i g . 22)  type had  from which Wilde b e l i e v e d  a r i s e n , the Maesta", and  Annalena a l t a r p i e c e and  the m a r i o l o g i c a l  San Marco a l t a r p i e c e , c. 1437-1441,  7 and  Domenico Veneziano's S t . Lucy definition.  a r c h i t e c t u r a l space i s f i r s t  Donatello,  be  the work of e a r l y Q u a t t r o c e n t o F l o r e n t i n e p a i n t e r s , F r a  sees i n c r e a s i n g s p a t i a l order and enclosed  unity  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r a l  i n t e r i o r of l i f e - s i z e s c a l e .  Angelico's  sacra  thus becomes the development of formal means to a c h i e v e  of p i c t o r i a l space and  polyptych.  enclosing architecture  a l t a r p i e c e ( F i g . 23) The  introduced  i d e a of a  Wilde  completely  i n s c u l p t u r e by a Tuscan,  i n h i s a l t a r f o r the Santo, Padua, 1446-1450 ( f o r e l e v a t i o n of  G. F i o c c o , P. A.  S a r t o r i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , see F i g . 25)  whose concept i s  46  t r a n s f e r r e d to p a i n t i n g by a North I t a l i a n p a i n t e r , Mantegna, i n h i s Zeno, Verona, a l t a r p i e c e , 1456-1459 ( F i g . 2 6 ) . ^ c o n s t r u c t the North it  Italians f a i l  San  F o l l o w i n g Wilde's  to r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l of the i d e a , and  i s P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , whose l e a d i n g and n e g l e c t e d r o l e i n I t a l i a n  p a i n t i n g had been so c o m p e l l i n g l y promoted by Roberto e a r l i e r , who  Longhi  i s the i n v e n t o r of the s o l u t i o n i n h i s s a c r a  fifteen  years  conversazione  p a i n t e d f o r F e d e r i g o da M o n t e f e l t r o of U r b i n o , 1472-1474 ( F i g . 27) John Shearman's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Masaccio's examination  of the cut edges and  Madonna ( F i g . 20) 1  c a s t shadows of the c e n t r a l p a n e l of  simply b r i n g s to l i g h t a f o r g o t t e n s t a g e i n Wilde's  Rather  than F r a A n g e l i c o , as proposed  as the f i r s t  by Wilde,  the con-  Shearman sees  F l o r e n t i n e p a i n t e r to a c h i e v e the u n i f i c a t i o n of  t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c p o l y p t y c h i n t o a s i n g l e p a n e l by means of the concepts  an  ft  struct. Masaccio  P i s a p o l y p t y c h by  of focused spade and  l i g h t , a n d  s p a t i a l s e t t i n g f o r the Madonna, s a i n t s and Masaccio's  "new  the c r e a t i o n of a u n i f i e d angels.  B a s i c elements of  composition are then developed by F r a A n g e l i c o , f o r example, the  pendant a r c h e s , which p r e s e r v e p o l y p t y c h - l i k e d i v i s i o n s , the  continuous,  l a t e r a l l y extending s t e p s , the manner i n which the s a i n t s are d i s p o s e d or b e f o r e the steps i n rows r e c e d i n g i n depth, and Shearman proposes  all  the  t h a t Masaccio's  i s the germinal work which  l a t e r s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e compositions  r e g a r d to iconography,  the u n i f i e d  lighting. presupposes 18  i n Italian painting.  Shearman notes the E u c h a r i s t i c and  on  With  redemptive  meanings w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work, but makes no comment on the meaning of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e as a theme, o t h e r than t h a t Massacio's i n n o v a t i o n a l l o w s the f i g u r e s to be shown i n a " s i n g l e moment and e x p e r i e n c e , even a s i n g l e  thought.""^  formal  47  c In h i s s e r i e s o f important s t u d i e s on P i e r o d e l l a M o n t e f e l t r o a l t a r p i e c e , M i l l a r d Meiss commences  from Wilde's b a s i c  of P i e r o ' s i n v e n t i o n o f t h e l o n g awaited Renaissance interior.20  Francesca's  A c c o r d i n g to Meiss, P i e r o i s the f i r s t  thesis  ecclesiastical I t a l i a n a r t i s t to  r e p r e s e n t t h e Madonna w i t h s a i n t s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f a church, which became t y p i c a l of a l t a r p i e c e s i n a l l North I t a l y . attempt  A possible e a r l i e r  Italian  a t t h i s e f f e c t might be N e r i d i B i c c i ' s f r e s c o of San G i o v a n n i  Gualberto and s a i n t s w i t h i n a k i n d of arched and v a u l t e d l o g g i a , i n t h e c l o i s t e r of San P a n c r a n z i o , F l o r e n c e , 1454-1455.  Convinced  of Flemish  i n f l u e n c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t o f Jan van Eyck, on P i e r o ' s i n v e n t i o n , Meiss sees t h e iconography o f the M o n t e f e l t r o Madonna as t h e M a r i a - E c c l e s i a iconography o f e a r l i e r F l e m i s h works where the V i r g i n i s d e p i c t e d w i t h i n a 22 church  interior. The most r e c e n t resume" o f the development o f the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  a l t a r p i e c e a v a i l a b l e to me i s that o f  Julia  Keydel i n h e r study o f the 23  r e l a t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e s to t h e i r o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n s .  Once  a g a i n , Wilde i s c i t e d as the b a s i c d i s c u s s i o n but Keydel attempts  to i n t r o -  duce a new i c o n o g r a p h i c f a c t o r which a r i s e s from h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the f u n e r a r y c o n n o t a t i o n s o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the V e n e t i a n type o f s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , and which a n t i c i p a t e s Goffen's proposed  theme o f m e d i a t i o n  and p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n . For Keydel the focus o f the development o f t h e s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e is s t i l l  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g .  However, she i n t r o d u c e s r e l i g i o u s  iconography as a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n a d d i t i o n t o the o l d e r n o t i o n of stylistic  evolution.  She argues  t h a t t h e Q u a t t r o c e n t o I t a l i a n p a i n t e r was  s u b j e c t to two s e t s o f demands t h a t were i n a sense c o n f l i c t i n g ; w h i l e  48  committed to p e r f e c t i n g the new requirements  p e r s p e c t i v e he had  to meet the  traditional  of the r e l i g i o u s p a i n t i n g : the d i s t i n c t i o n between the  s p i r i t u a l and the mundane, and  the p r o p a g a t i o n of f a i t h i n the p o s s i b i l i t y  of t r a n s c e n d i n g e a r t h l y b o u n d a r i e s .  On one hand, the concern was  a u n i f i e d image a c c o r d i n g to Renaissance  p r i n c i p l e s , the p e r f e c t  to c r e a t e illusion  of the c o e x i s t e n c e of h o l y b e i n g s , and of the viewer's a c c e s s to them. the o t h e r hand, r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n demanded t h a t the h i e r a r c h y of f i g u r e s be p r e s e r v e d and  the l e v e l s of approach  On  the  to the d i v i n i t y d e f i n e d ,  a t r a d i t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d i n B y z a n t i n e church a r c h i t e c t u r e and d e c o r a t i o n , whose d e f i n e d areas or zones i n c r e a s e i n h o l i n e s s w i t h p r o x i m i t y to the h i g h a l t a r and s a n c t u a r y . ^  The m e d i e v a l p i c t o r i a l d e v i c e s employed to  express the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a r t h to heaven, f o r example, p o l y p t y c h p a n e l s conveying  r e l a t i v e h i e r a r c h y of f i g u r e s , o r g o l d grounds r e p r e s e n t i n g the  realm of heaven, would i n e v i t a b l y d e f e a t the p r o j e c t i o n of depth c e n t r a l l y u n i f i e d image.  The v e s t i g i a l v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n o f the p i c t u r e  p l a n e which has been observed  i n Masaccio's  P i s a a l t a r w i t h i t s pendant  arches a l s o p e r s i s t s i n works by F r a A n g e l i c o ( F i g . 22) and Veneziano  ( F i g . 23).  in a  A more s u c c e s s f u l a l t e r n a t i v e was  Domenico  the development  of " i n t e r l o c k i n g s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " which s u b t l y break down the u n i f i e d p i c t o r i a l space i n t o a s e r i e s of s u b o r d i n a t e s p a t i a l u n i t s which express r e l a t i v e h i e r a r c h y . i n Masaccio's  Trinity  For example, the f i g u r e of God  can  the F a t h e r  ( F i g . 37) has a v i e w p o i n t which d i v e r g e s from  o t h e r w i s e r i g o r o u s s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as i f to emphasize he i s not  9 ject  to t e r r e s t r i a l law.  the sub-  ft  The same p r i n c i p l e seems to be o p e r a t i n g i n the  ambiguous s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d i n B e l l i n i ' s Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two,  p.  31, above.  San  However, beyond  49  these d e v i c e s , Keydel suggests  t h a t the c o n f l i c t between u n i t y and  b i l i t y on one hand and h i e r a r c h y and d i s t a n c e on the o t h e r was  accessi-  r e s o l v e d by  the development of a p l a t f o r m o r v e s t i b u l e area i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  set-  t i n g of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , whose i n t e n d e d e f f e c t  toward  the viewer/worshipper,  to make c o n t a c t and  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the h o l y f i g u r e s and  i s projection  to g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n of  a t the same time to i n t e r p o s e a zone,  w i t h i n a s p a t i a l l y u n i f i e d i n t e r i o r , between the viewer King and Queen of Heaven.  Furthermore,  and  she suggests v e r y  a n t i c i p a t i n g Goffen's r e c e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s a c r a theme, t h a t the enthroned  Madonna and  j e c t i n g v e s t i b u l e m o t i f , may  express  s a i n t s , and  the  enthroned  tentatively, conversazione  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p r o -  the theme of the " e v e n t u a l r e c e p t i o n  i n heaven of the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r commissioning Thus the meaning and  the  the a l t a r p i e c e . "  f u n c t i o n of the v e s t i b u l e a r e a i s to c r e a t e the  " i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a meeting between the h o l y f i g u r e s and  the worshipper  was  28 p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the environment of the c h u r c h . " of  the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  Renaissance the viewer ted  The  then becomes not j u s t  church a r c h i t e c t u r e , but  f o r m a l development  the e v o l u t i o n of a  the p e r f e c t i o n of the i l l u s i o n t h a t  i s i n c l u d e d , or p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the s a c r e d space  inhabit  by the h o l y b e i n g s , i n Goffen's words the "holy community." Keydel's  d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e f o l l o w s the now n i n g w i t h Masaccio's  f a m i l i a r sequence of F l o r e n t i n e works, b e g i n -  Pisa a l t a r p i e c e , with i t s i n c i p i e n t s p a t i a l u n i t y . Fra  F i l i p p o L i p p i ' s B a r b a d o r i a l t a r p i e c e , S. S p i r i t o , F l o r e n c e ,  1437  29 (Fig.  21)  may  adumbrate the v e s t i b u l e e f f e c t  and i t s commission by  a  p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l and s i m i l a r i t y of imagery to t h a t of the W i l t o n d i p t y c h , suggest  a theme of p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n .  The v e s t i b u l e e f f e c t  is first  truly  50  apparent i n Domenico Veneziano's S t . Lucy a l t a r p i e c e , mid  1440's, ( F i g .  where the s a i n t s appear to stand on a p l a t f o r m  i n t o the  space.  In P i e r o ' s  Montefeltro altarpiece  ding the donor have been p l a c e d  projecting  ( F i g . 27)  (as Meiss and  a l l the  Shearman have demonstrated) as  whose e f f e c t i s a c h i e v e d i n a n o v e l manner by  illusionistic  viewer.  of the a r c h i t e c t u r e  the  the  "vestibule"  aspect.30  r e c o n s t r u c t e d of  beyond the p i c t u r e p l a n e to encompass  t h e s i s of P i e r o ' s For her  the commission there i s v e r y l i k e l y  I t i s at t h i s p o i n t invention  of  by  the  the s a c r a  San  completion of  the  forward  a funerary  projecting  the a l t a r p i e c e , and  the  close  i t s church environment, which i s seen  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , i s the u l t i m a t e  f o r m a l requirements of the s a c r a the s t a t u s  from  conversazione a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g .  r e a l frame of  r e l a t i o n between the a l t a r p i e c e and in Bellini's  the  t h a t Keydel d e p a r t s from the t r a d i t i o n a l  the p l a s t i c , i l l u s i o n i s t i c  painted architecture  zone,  forward  Here a g a i n t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s l y commemorative aspect and  what can be  viewer's  figures i n c l u -  i n the nave of a church i n t e r i o r , which f u n c t i o n s  projection  23),  r e a l i z a t i o n of  the  c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e ; to g i v e the  of a p h y s i c a l presence w i t h i n  the  environment of the  to v i v i d l y . ^ c h a r a c t e r i z e the i d e a of the a v a i l a b i l i t y  church,  to the worshipper  image and of  31  the h o l y  figures. In s h o r t , Keydel's c o n t r i b u t i o n s  r e l i g i o u s iconography, and reception  to heaven of  define  the donor by  the  separation  presence and  s a i n t s and  the V e n e t i a n s a c r a  factor  angels.  She  of  the  distinguishes  conversazione a l t a r p i e c e ,  of spaces w i t h i n d i v i d u a l meaning i n o r d e r  approach to the V i r g i n Mary and  illusionistic  to emphasize the  to suggest a s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s theme,  the unique s p a t i a l e f f e c t of the B y z a n t i n e - l i k e  are  to  C h r i s t C h i l d whose c o m p e l l i n g l y  c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h b o t h the s a i n t s and  the  viewer  51  i s a c h i e v e d by Renaissance  p i c t o r i a l p r i n c i p l e s of focused space and l i g h t ,  a s p a t i a l e f f e c t which i s e p i t o m i z e d by B e l l i n i ' s  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e .  Longhi's m a r v e l l o u s i n t u i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l e f f e c t of A n t o n e l l o ' s dismembered San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e was Wilde's resounded  i n the minds of a r t h i s t o r i a n s  i n s p i r a t i o n and has  since:  In e s s a , f o r s e , una grande forma a r c h i t e t t o n i c a d e l i z i a t a d i colonne c i l i n d r i c h e , i n c l u d e v a un gruppo monumentale n e l t u t t o e i n o g n i p a r t e : e l e s f e r e d i P i e r o decoravano i m m o b i l i l o s p a z i o . . . A n t o n e l l o doveva insomma aver usato d e l l a s t e s s a c e n t r a l i t 3 p r o s p e t t i c a o r g a n i z z a t a per mezzo d i v e r e e p r o p r i e a r c h i t e t t u r e , che P i e r o aveva impiegato p e r intenti plastici e c o l o r i s t i c i . ^ 3  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s had l e d to a n e g l e c t o f the unique  Venetian character of  the monumental s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e , w i t h i t s combination o f B y z a n t i n e and Renaissance  s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s , as i t was r e a l i z e d i n the  work of G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i and h i s f o l l o w e r s i n t o the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and of the circumstances of V e n e t i a n a r t i n the l a t e Q u a t t r o c e n t o which favoured the m a t u r a t i o n of t h i s  type.  In 1929 W i l d e , p r o c e e d i n g from the t h e s i s of P i e r o d e l l a i n v e n t i o n of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a r c h i t e c t u r e conveyed  to V e n i c e by  A n t o n e l l o , drew a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dismembered San Cassiano ( F i g s . 29, 30). fragments  Francesca's  A l l t h a t was a v a i l a b l e to him were fragments  altarpiece  and c o p i e s of  o f the lower, f i g u r a l p o r t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e : an e n g r a v i n g o f  S t . George, the p a n e l and an e n g r a v i n g o f S t . N i c h o l a s , the c e n t r a l p a n e l of the V i r g i n ,  the p a n e l of S t . Dominic,  and a copy o f S t . S e b a s t i a n .  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the v a u l t i n g was c o n j e c t u r a l and based  His  on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of P i e r o ' s M o n t e f e l t r o a l t a r p i e c e , and on what appeared  to him to be r e f l e c t i o n s , both of the s a i n t s and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  scheme, i n l a t e r V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r A l v i s e V i v a r i n i ' s p i e c e from B e l l u n o , c. 1490-95, ( B e r l i n , d e s t r o y e d 1944; F i g . 4 3 ) .  3 3  altarWilde  52  b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i g u r e s i n P i e r o ' s M o n t e f e l t r o  a l t a r p i e c e ( F i g . 27)  s i t u a t e d i n a church i n t e r i o r , p a r t l y i n the b a r r e l v a u l t e d  are  choir,  and  p a r t l y i n the c r o s s i n g , whose foremost c l o s i n g a r c h i s s u p p l i e d by  the  viewer's i m a g i n a t i o n upper l e f t  and  the c r o s s i n g . tical  on  the b a s i s of the  c o r n i c e mouldings seen at  r i g h t , a l l t h a t i s v i s i b l e of the For W i l d e , t h i s was  architecture depicted The  two  two  foremost p i l l a r s  the f i r s t completely e n c l o s i n g e c c l e s i a s -  i n a s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e . 34  a r c h i t e c t u r a l scheme i d e n t i f i e d by Wilde i n P i e r o ' s  a l t a r p i e c e i s indeed t h a t which i s seen i n l a t e r V e n e t i a n s a c r e z i o n i , where the the apse.  f i g u r e s are p l a c e d  However, Meiss and  i n an apse, or i n one  Montefeltro conversa-  or two  bays  before  Shearman, t a k i n g account of the cut s i d e edges  and p o s s i b l y top edge of the p a n e l , have a n a l y s e d  the p e r s p e c t i v e  t i o n of the c o m p o s i t i o n , b r i n g i n g to l i g h t q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t effect.35  of  intended  A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p l a n of the church i n t e r i o r by  Jones shows t h a t the group of s a i n t s , a n g e l s ,  and  the s e a t e d  construc-  T.  G.  V i r g i n , and  the donor, are i n f a c t s i t u a t e d i n the nave of a l i f e - s i z e s c a l e church, not  i n the c h o i r or c r o s s i n g , which areas are much reduced i n s i z e due  the depth r e c e s s i o n of 45 apse.  f t . from the f i g u r e s to the r e a r w a l l of  to  the  J D  At l e f t and r i g h t s e c t i o n s of the nave w a l l s are v i s i b l e . . . the s m a l l s e c t i o n s of the nave w a l l s t h a t are r e p r e s e n t e d have, however, a powerful e f f e c t . They emerge i n f r o n t of the empty space of the t r a n s e p t s and they presumably move forward w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n beyond the frame. The o b s e r v e r senses t h a t he i s e n c l o s e d by them.37 Meiss has  made important o b s e r v a t i o n s  scheme, which he sees as n o v e l conversazione a l t a r p i e c e s .  on  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  i n I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g , to the V e n e t i a n  F i r s t , he  reminds us  of Wilde's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of A n t o n e l l o ' s  San  this  sacra  t h a t the upper a r c h i t e c t u r e  Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e , a l t h o u g h  53  sound and  c o n v i n c i n g , i s l a r g e l y c o n j e c t u r a l , and  t h a t A n t o n e l l o may  f o l l o w e d the i d e a of p l a c i n g the f i g u r e s i n the nave of a church, than i n an apse.  Secondly,  he notes  s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i on t h i s scheme.  example, the format i s much h i g h e r , and  the v i e w p o i n t  lower.  r e l a t i v e to the f i g u r e s .  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the Venetians  of a r c h i t e c t u r e e x t e n d i n g  forward,  p i e c e s which do d e p i c t one  but i t has  Venetian  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , f o r  ture i s more on the s c a l e of a c h a p e l r a t h e r than a church  p i c t u r e p l a n e , o f t e n s u p p l i e d by  rather  the l i m i t e d dependence of the In the San  have  The a r c h i t e c -  interior p i c k up  the i d e a  t e r m i n a t i n g members a t  the a c t u a l frame.  Those V e n e t i a n  altar-  or more bays of a c r o s s i n g o r nave b e f o r e  apse do not f u l l y r e a l i z e P i e r o ' s i d e a of a forward  the  the  moving, non-terminated,  encompassing a r c h i t e c t u r e (see f o r example, M a r c e l l o F o g o l i n o ' s  altarpiece,  Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, c. 1510,  Vittore  F i g . 28, Madonna and  C a r p a c c i o , P i r a n o , San Francesco,  1519,  B u o n c o n s i g l i o , Montagnana, M u n i c i p i o ) .  s a i n t s by  and Madonna and  38  s a i n t s by  T h i r d l y , Meiss observes  Giovanni that  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Madonna i n an apse o r under a t a b e r n a c l e was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y adopted by p a i n t e r s i n V e n i c e . ^ Shearman notes  a Venetian  i n a capp e l l e t t a  t r a d i t i o n f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Madonna  ( F i g s . 31,  32).  4 0  Finally, in fixing  the date of  M o n t e f e l t r o a l t a r p i e c e to 1472-1474, Meiss i s a b l e to s t a t e the of d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h church  the work, which was  t r a v e l l i n g n o r t h to V e n i c e , and by B e l l i n i ,  it  Antonello,  engaged on the C o r o n a t i o n  of  the  Pesaro. . Robertson's 1977  to Meiss,  likelihood  p r o b a b l y hanging i n the F r a n c i s c a n  of San Donato a s h o r t d i s t a n c e o u t s i d e U r b i n o , by both  V i r g i n at  the  study of the San  Cassiano  f o l l o w s the l i n e s of e n q u i r y Meiss had  altarpiece,  set up. ^ 4  He  dedicated  observes  i s not a t a l l c e r t a i n t h a t A n t o n e l l o i n t r o d u c e d the type of s a c r a  that  54  c o n v e r s a z i o n e common i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , due date of B e l l i n i ' s  to i t ( F i g . 3 4 ) . ^ ^  A re-examination  arguments i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of A n t o n e l l o ' s San C a s s i a n o  p i e c e shows t h a t the s i d e w a l l s of the apse may is  evidence o f s i d e l i g h t i n g .  z i o n e i n Amsterdam ( F i g . 28)  be  too deep and  of  altar-  that  there  A comparison w i t h F o g o l i n o ' s s a c r a c o n v e r s a suggests  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of A n t o n e l l o ' s compo-  s i t i o n b e i n g based on P i e r o ' s M o n t e f e l t r o a l t a r p i e c e scheme, w i t h advancing  the  f i r s t monumental s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e p a i n t e d f o r SS.  Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, r e l a t i v e Wilde's  to the u n c e r t a i n t y o f  toward the p i c t u r e p l a n e , a d m i t t i n g s i d e  In s h o r t , t h e r e are s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s i s not e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the format c o n v e r s a z i o n e , t h a t B e l l i n i may  columns  lighting.  that Antonello's a l t a r p i e c e  of the V e n e t i a n type of s a c r a  have e x p e r i e n c e d the i n f l u e n c e of P i e r o  d i r e c t l y , as w e l l as through A n t o n e l l o ' s work, and most i m p o r t a n t l y t h e r e i s a n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n behind  the development of the V e n e t i a n type of s a c r a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e , which i s r e f l e c t e d  i n the p r e d e l i c t i o n f o r the s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  a r c h i t e c t u r a l space o f a c h a p e l o r t a b e r n a c l e , r a t h e r than the of an e n t i r e church i n t e r i o r . t h a t was  implication  I t seems t h a t the type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  popular i n Venice i s i n f a c t d i s t i n c t  from  the b a s i c concept  P i e r o ' s M o n t e f e l t r o p a n e l , and has, on one hand, a l o c a l  of  t r a d i t i o n , as w e l l  as sources o t h e r than those i n d i c a t e d i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e development. and  S i x , i t may  be  Furthermore,  that circumstances  as w i l l be argued  i n Chapters  Five  of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g and patronage  in  the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y f a v o u r e d a unique V e n e t i a n e x p r e s s i o n of a s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e theme of p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n .  55  NOTES  1.  For example, J . Shearman, "Masaccio's P i s a A l t a r p i e c e : an A l t e r n a t i v e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , " BM 108 (1966):449-455; M. Meiss, "Once A g a i n P i e r o d e l l a Francesca's M o n t e f e l t r o A l t a r p i e c e , " (and T. G. J o n e s ) , AB 49 (1967):203-206.  2.  G o f f e n , "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " pp. 198-222. The term f i r s t appears i n an I t a l i a n a r t h i s t o r i c a l context i n the l a t e 18th c e n t u r y and was p o p u l a r i z e d by Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ( G o f f e n , "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " pp. 198-199).  3.  Goffen,  4.  I b i d . , f i g . 10,  5.  I b i d . , p. 221, " . . . m y s t i c a l s u p p l i c a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s a i n t s f o r m e d i a t i o n seems to r e q u i r e t h e i r communion w i t h the Mother and Son a sacra conversazione."  "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " 1975, S i e n a , S. A g o s t i n o ,  pp.  200-201.  mid-1330's.  in  6.  I b i d . , p.  220.  7.  I b i d . , pp.  8.  J . Pope-Hennessy, F r a A n g e l i c o , I t h a c a , New pp. 28-29, p i . 96-97.  9.  M. Salmi, Paolo U c c e l l o , Andrea d e l Castagno, Domenico Veneziano, P a r i s , 1937, p i . CLXXXI, pp. 134-135; tempera, 2,09 x 2,16 m., p a i n t e d f o r C a p e l l a B i g a l l o , S. M a r i a d e i M a g n o l i , F l o r e n c e , c. 1448.  218-219. York, 2nd  ed.,  19 74,  10.  G o f f e n , "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " p. 220. She observes t h a t the d e v e l o p ment of a r e a l environment i s contemporary w i t h an emerging humanist c o n c e p t i o n of the s a i n t s as exemplary i n t h e i r l i v e s , r a t h e r than their miracles.  11.  J . Wilde, "Die 'Pala d i San C a s s i a n o ' von A n t o n e l l o da M e s s i n a , " Jahrbuch der K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen i n Wien, v o l . 3, 1929, pp. 57-72.  12.  Pope-Hennessy, F r a A n g e l i c o , 1974,  13.  G. F i o c c o , A. S a r t o r i , L ' a l t a r e Grande d i D o n a t e l l o a l Santo, Padova, 1961, pp. 58, 64; p o s s i b l y a t a b e r n a c l e w i t h a v a u l t e d b a l d a c c h i n housing s t a t u e s of the enthroned V i r g i n w i t h S a i n t s .  pp.  24-25, p i . 48-55.  56  14.  G. P a c c a g n i n i , e t . e l . , A. Mantegna, Catalogo d e l l a Mostra, 1961, no. 6, - f i g . 11-14.  15.  Murray, de V e c c h i , P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , no. 29, o i l , 1,70 x 2,48 m., p r o b a b l y commissioned by F e d e r i g o da M o n t e f e l t r o , Duke of U r b i n o , f o r h i s b u r i a l p l a c e i n San B e r n a r d i n o , U r b i n o .  16.  Wilde, op. c i t .  17.  Shearman, "Masaccio's  18.  I b i d . , p. 455, "... i t seems i n e s c a p a b l e t h a t the t u r n i n g - p o i n t towards the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e came e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h Masaccio's P i s a a l t a r p i e c e . . . In l a t e r s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i Masaccio's i n f l u e n c e i s n a t u r a l l y l e s s obvious...but no l e s s important i n i t s g e n e r a l e f f e c t . "  19.  Ibid.  20.  M. M e i s s , "A Documented A l t a r p i e c e o f P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , " AB 23 (1941):62-65; "Ovum S t r u t h i o n i s , Symbol and A l l u s i o n i n P i e r o d e l l a Francesca's M o n t e f e l t r o A l t a r p i e c e , " S t u d i e s i n A r t and L i t e r a t u r e f o r B. da Costa Green, P r i n c e t o n , 1954, pp. 92-101; "Addendum Ovologicum," AB 36 (1954):221 f f . , "Once A g a i n P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a ' s M o n t e f e l t r o A l t a r p i e c e , " (and T. G. J o n e s ) , AB 48 (1966):203-206.  21.  See Meiss, "Once A g a i n P i e r o , " 1966, p. 209, f i g . 4. Neri di B i c c i , San G i o v a n n i G u a l b e r t o , S a i n t s and B l e s s e d , F l o r e n c e , San P a n c r a n z i o , 1454-1455, P a a t z , Die K i r c h e n Von F l o r e n z , • F r a n k f u r t am Main,. 1952-. 1955, v o l : .IV, p. 570, and p. 584, n. 43  22.  M e i s s , "Once A g a i n P i e r o , " 1966,  23.  K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " 1969,  24.  I b i d . , pp. 9-14. Church images propagate " t h a t f a i t h i n the power to t r a n s c e n d the a p p a r e n t l y f i x e d boundaries o f mundane e x p e r i e n c e , " ( i b i d . , p. 9 ) . The r e l i g i o u s theme i s a s c a f f o l d i n g w i t h i n which to make d i s t i n c t i o n s between l e v e l s of content w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r of a u n i f i e d image, ( i b i d . , p. 14). V  25.  I b i d . , p.  26.  U. S c h l e g e l , "Observations on Masaccio's N o v e l l a , " AB 45 (1963):23, n. 30.  27.  K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " 1969,  28.  I b i d . , p.  29.  G. M a r c h i n i , F i l i p p o L i p p i , M i l a n , 1975, no. 11; The V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h angels and s a i n t s , P a r i s , Louvre, tempera p a n e l , 2,17 x 2,44, w i l l e d b y G h a r a r d o B a f b a d o r i , d. 1429, f o r the B a r b a d o r i Chapel i n S. S p i r i t o and commissioned i n 1437.. .  P i s a A l t a r p i e c e , " 1966,  p.  p.  Venice,  455.  203.  pp. 6-32,  222-225.  9.  p.  T r i n i t y F r e s c o i n Santa M a r i a  19.  32.  57  30.  Meiss, "Once A g a i n P i e r o , " 1966, pp. 204-206, and M. A. L a v i n , " P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a ' s M o n t e f e l t r o A l t a r p i e c e : A Pledge of F i d e l i t y , " AB 51:367-371.  31.  Paraphrase  32.  L o n g h i , " P i e r o d e i F r a n c e s c h i , " 1914,  33.  P a l l u c c h i n i , V i v a r i n i , 1961, no. 259, p. 137. A l v i s e V i v a r i n i , The V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s (George ( L i b e r a l e ? ) , P e t e r , C a t h e r i n e , Mary Magdalene, Jerome, S e b a s t i a n ) , o i l p a n e l , 3,85 x 2,31 m., p a i n t e d f o r S. M a r i a d e i B a t t u t i d i B e l l u n o , once i n B e r l i n , K a i s e r F r i e d r i c h Museum, d e s t r o y e d 1944. Probably commissioned by a P r o c u r a t o r of San Marco, G i o v a n n i Corner d i Andrea, d. 1493, f o r h i s tomb.  34.  W i l d e , "Die P a l a , " p. 71, " d i e nach a l i e n S e i t e n g e s c h l o s s e n e c h i t e k t u r i n Form e i n e s monumentalen Kirchenraumes."  35.  Meiss, "Once A g a i n P i e r o , " 1966, p. 203, f i g s . 2, 3; J . Shearman, "The L o g i c and R e a l i s m of P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a , " F e s t s c h r i f t U l r i c h M i d d e l d o r f , B e r l i n , 1968, pp. 180-186, p i . XCVII-XCVIII.  36.  M e i s s , .loc. c i t .  37.  Loc. c i t .  38.  P. van T h i e l , e t . a l . , A l l the P a i n t i n g s of the Rijksmuseum i n Amsterdam, Dept. of P a i n t i n g s of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1976, p. 229; canvas, 2,66 x 1,95 m., s i g n e d , undated. B. Berenson, I t a l i a n P i c t u r e s of the Renaissance, V e n e t i a n S c h o o l , London, 1957, v o l . 1, f i g s . 490, 518.  39.  Meiss,  40.  Shearman, " L o g i c and R e a l i s m , " 1968,  41.  G. Robertson, "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l S e t t i n g of A n t o n e l l o da Messina's San Cassiano A l t a r p i e c e , " S t u d i e s i n L a t e M e d i e v a l and Renaissance P a i n t i n g i n Honor of M i l l a r d M e i s s , ed. I . L a v i n , J . Plummer, 2 v o l . , New York, 1977, v o l . 1, pp. 368-372, v o l . 2, pp. 120-121, f i g s . 1-5.  42.  Ghiotto, P i g n a t t i ,  of K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " pp. 222-223.  "Once A g a i n P i e r o , " 1966,  p.  Opera Completa,  p.  218.  Bildar-  204. p. 181, n.  no.  75, p.  9.  95.  58  CHAPTER FOUR  THE  SACRA CONVERSAZIONE ALTARPIECE IN LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY VENICE  The monumental, c e n t r a l l y u n i f i e d a l t a r p i e c e o f the V i r g i n  enthroned  w i t h s a i n t s popular i n North I t a l y i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y was developed  i n V e n i c e i n t h e mid-1470's.  I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d as a type by the  l o c a t i o n o f the enthronement i n an e n c l o s i n g , p e r s p e c t i v a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n which a h i e r a r c h y o f s p a t i a l the u n i f i e d space  first  Renaissance  zones a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d w i t h i n  to a c h i e v e the dual e f f e c t s o f the V i r g i n ' s  simultaneous  p r o x i m i t y and d i s t a n c e , and to c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n o f the viewer's  ( o r the  deceased  donor's) c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h and p o t e n t i a l entrance to the h o l y com-  nunity.  The V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e type i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s h i g h ,  narrow format  (dimensions  range roughly between 3,5 x 1,5 to 4,0 x 2,0 m.)  and i t s low v i e w p o i n t r e l a t e d to the s p e c t a t o r ' s eye l e v e l , and by t h e placement  o f the f i g u r e s w i t h i n a church apse, o r i n one o r two bays b e f o r e  an apse, which has the s c a l e o f a b a l d a c h i n o r chapel r a t h e r than t h a t o f a f u l l - s i z e d church i n t e r i o r .  L a t e r a l arches o r e n t a b l a t u r e s extend  forward  to be terminated a t the p i c t u r e p l a n e by p a i n t e d members o r i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y by the frame i t s e l f ,  so that the p i c t o r i a l space of the " c h a p e l " i s r e l a t e d  to the i n t e r i o r space of i t s church l o c a t i o n . posed and  s y m m e t r i c a l l y around  The f i g u r e s a r e always  dis-  the f r o n t a l l y seated Madonna, who h o l d s h e r son  r a r e l y g e s t u r e s , and the C h r i s t C h i l d , who o f t e n b l e s s e s w i t h h i s r i g h t  hand.  The mood o f t h i s type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i s c e r e m o n i a l , solemn  59  and m u s i c a l ; the a n g e l musicians appear f r e q u e n t l y , evoking a m u s i c a l harmony which pervades  the warm atmosphere.  The a r c h i t e c t u r e may be one of two forms: to ,the sky, which has been d e s c r i b e d a "cuba,"  the v a u l t e d l o g g i a , open  a tabernacle, or a baldacchino,  and tie second,  the c l o s e d and v a u l t e d apse whose e f f e c t i s t h a t o f a c h a p e l  or s a n c t u a r y .  The type o f open, c r o s s - v a u l t e d t a b e r n a c l e i s t h a t seen i n  Giovanni B e l l i n i ' s f i r s t  s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a t SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo o f the  mid-1470's, which i s known o n l y through an e n g r a v i n g by Zanotto and by a w a t e r c o l o u r reproduced  i n Fry, B e l l i n i ,  1900 ( F i g . 3 4 ) .  The V i r g i n i s  e l e v a t e d on a h i g h and o r n a t e throne above a throng o f s a i n t s and t h r e e music making p u t t i , w i t h i n a c r o s s - v a u l t e d l o g g i a which opens t o the sky. The forward e x t e n d i n g arches p r o b a b l y corresponded w i t h the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the stone frame which remains t h a t Zanotto's engraved  i n t h e church, a l t h o u g h Robertson has found  copy does n o t f i t i t s dimensions  G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , F i g . 17; photomontage, F i g . 33) .-^  (frame i n SS.  I t seems p r o b a b l e  that  a s i n g l e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t f e l l on t h e b a s e l i n e . Bellini's  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e  ( F i g . 37) e x e m p l i f i e s t h e second  v a r i e t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g , the c l o s e d apse. statement  o f the V e n e t i a n type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e : the s i n g l e bay,  c l o s e d and v a u l t e d , viewed  c e n t r a l l y from a low p o i n t , completed  t i c a l l y by the frame ( F i g s . 39, 4 0 ) .  illusionis-  Both i t and the Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e  s e t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c grand dimensions lofty  I t forms an a r c h e t y p a l  and h i g h format w i t h i t s e f f e c t o f  space. The  two v a r i e t i e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g , open and c l o s e d , appear  i n v a r i o u s combinations  i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g o f the l a t e r f i f t e e n t h and  s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , w i t h the open type appearing as t h e e a r l i e r  development  60  g i v i n g way  somewhat i n p o p u l a r i t y to the c l o s e d type a f t e r B e l l i n i ' s  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e .  San  The square p l a n , round arched and c r o s s v a u l t e d t a b e r -  n a c l e , open to a landscape, i s seen a g a i n i n the Enthroned  V i r g i n with  s a i n t s by Bartolomeo Montagna, V i c e n z a , Museo C i v i c o , c. 1485-1490 ( F i g . 35).^  T h i s open a r c h i t e c t u r e i s f a v o u r e d by Cima da  whose f i r s t v e r s i o n , i n f l u e n c e d by B e l l i n i ' s l o s t a l t a r p i e c e , i s the Enthroned Conegliano  ( F i g . 36).  Conegliano,  SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo  V i r g i n and s a i n t s dated 1493  f o r the Duomo a t  In B e l l i n i ' s San Z a c c a r i a a l t a r p i e c e of  1505  ( F i g . 40)^ s t r i p s of landscape are v i s i b l e a t each s i d e of the c l o s e d  apse.  The c l o s e d apse format of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by Romanino i n h i s s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a t Padua, c. 1513  ( F i g . 42).  The San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s a m a g i s t e r i a l statement whose b a s i c scheme and severe s o l e m n i t y and c l a r i t y  re-echo  f r e q u e n t l y i n a d i l u t e d and overworked manner. of B e l l i n i ' s  The many s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i  f o l l o w e r s c u l l m o t i f s from the o u t s t a n d i n g examples, A n t o n e l l o ' s  San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e , 1476, Giobbe,  i n Venetian p a i n t i n g ,  c. 1485  and B e l l i n i ' s  Z a n i p o l o , c. 1475  a l t a r p i e c e s , h i s F r a r i t r i p t y c h , 1488,  Z a c c a r i a a l t a r p i e c e , 1505, c o n v e r s a z i o n e ( F i g . 43)  ( F i g . 40).  and  ( F i g . 39)  San  and  San  A l v i s e V i v a r i n i ' s Belluno sacra  i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y obvious p a s t i c h e of m o t i f s borrowed  from both A n t o n e l l o and B e l l i n i ,  f o r example, the S t . George i s borrowed  from  the San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e , and  the pose of S t . S e b a s t i a n i s taken from  Job  in B e l l i n i ' s  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e .  The b a s i c scheme of the s a c r a conver-  s a z i o n e , the monumental, v a u l t e d and c e n t r a l l y u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l  space,  e x t e n d i n g forward to the p i c t u r e p l a n e and o f t e n to a completing frame, w i t h the v a n i s h i n g p o i n t a t a low l e v e l on the c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l a x i s i n accordance w i t h the p o s i t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e above the viewer, i s c o n s i s t e n t . ^  61  I t i s h i g h l y probable c o n v e r s a z i o n e was  t h a t the b a s i c scheme of the V e n e t i a n s a c r a  i n v e n t e d by B e l l i n i .  Although  the l o s s of A n t o n e l l o ' s  San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e p r e c l u d e s s o l u t i o n of the debate over A n t o n e l l o ' s o r B e l l i n i ' s precedence,  v a r i o u s i n d i c a t i o n s support the l a t t e r .  the scheme of the Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e shows a dependence on  First,  Venetian  t r a d i t i o n , i n the h o u s i n g of the V i r g i n i n a v a u l t e d b a l d a c c h i n , and "cuba" form of a r c h i t e c t u r e . ^  Secondly, B e l l i n i had  i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g on A n t o n e l l o , f o r example, Meiss  i n the  access to the same  suggests  that both  saw  P i e r o ' s M o n t e f e l t r o a l t a r p i e c e and both appear to have been i n f l u e n c e d by Q  advances i n the s c u l p t u r e of R i z z o and  the Lombardi.  It is quite possible  that the Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e dates b e f o r e the 1475-1476 San Cassiano p i e c e and  i n f a c t B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e of c. 1485  shows f a r more  e v i d e n t i n f l u e n c e i n technique and m o t i f of A n t o n e l l o ' s s a c r a than does the Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e .  The  altar-  conversazione  Zanipolo a l t a r p i e c e i s painted i n  tempera w h i l e the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e shows a mature o i l technique i n f l u e n c e d by A n t o n e l l o ' s sense of volume and m o d e l l i n g , and placement of o warmly i l l u m i n a t e d form a g a i n s t deep shadow. a l t a r p i e c e S t . Dominic, and  the V i r g i n ' s brocaded  p r i a t i o n s from A n t b n e l l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e of the Z a n i p o l o V i r g i n  Furthermore,  i n the San  d r e s s , are d i r e c t  ( F i g s . 8, 15, 29).  appro-  T h i r d l y , the  throne  (not repeated i n l a t e r V e n e t i a n s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i )  i s a d i s t i n c t l y V e n e t i a n type, comparable w i t h t h a t of Bartolomeo Enthroned  Giobbe  Vivarini's  V i r g i n w i t h S a i n t s , Naples, Museo N a z i o n a l e , 1465,"*"^ and  G e n t i l e B e l l i n i ' s Enthroned  V i r g i n , London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , a f t e r  with 1469.^  Thus B e l l i n i ' s development of a V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e scheme seems to be based on the u n i f i c a t i o n of a V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the enthroned  V i r g i n w i t h new  p r i n c i p l e s of Renaissance  architecture  and  62  p i c t o r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and s c u l p t u r a l concepts m o d e l l i n g and the approximation  of l i g h t  of form made p o s s i b l e by  e f f e c t s i n the newly i n t r o d u c e d o i l  technique. There i s a t r a d i t i o n i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Madonna i n an e n c l o s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e h a v i n g t h e e f f e c t of a t a b e r n a c l e , ciborium or r e l i q u a r y . P a r i s , Louvre,  In Lorenzo  1372 ( F i g . 31)  Veneziano's  s i g n e d and dated Madonna,  t h e Madonna i s s e a t e d w i t h i n a s m a l l - s c a l e ,  square, c e n t r a l - p l a n b a l d a c c h i n , open on f o u r s i d e s , whose wide p o i n t e d arches and columns support a canopy i n t h e form of a church facade  (complete  w i t h b a l c o n i e s , arched window, r o s e t t e and p i n n a c l e s ) .  attempt  There i s an  a t p e r s p e c t i v e r e c e s s i o n i n the G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms, b u t the view o f the v a u l t i n g i s e x t e r i o r , and the s c a l e o f t h e t a b e r n a c l e i s g r e a t l y  reduced  i n r e l a t i o n t o the f i g u r e s . In h i s p a n e l of the V i r g i n Enthroned, ( F i g . 32)13 A n t o n i o Rosso da Cadore attempts t u r e , c o n c e i v e d i n a Renaissance tion.  V e n i c e , Accademia, c. 1460-1465, to s u b j e c t a s i m i l a r  architec-  formal v o c a b u l a r y , t o p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s t r u c -  The V i r g i n i s s e a t e d i n a throne d e c o r a t e d w i t h symbols o f t h e  e v a n g e l i s t s i n a square,  c e n t r a l - p l a n s t r u c t u r e w i t h a c r o s s - v a u l t supported  by f o u r round a r c h e s , t h e foremost  opening  a t the p i c t u r e plane.  The l i n e s  of the p i l a s t e r s and o f the s p a n d r e l s a r e f l u s h w i t h t h e edges o f the p a n e l , b r i n g i n g t h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e forward  to the p i c t u r e p l a n e .  The m u s i c i a n  angels,  however, a r e d e p i c t e d i n f r o n t o f the columns, on t i n y p l a t f o r m s t h a t appear to p r o j e c t forward f o r the worshipper.  from  the p i c t u r e p l a n e , and d e f i n e an area of approach  The view of the i n t e r i o r o f the c r o s s - v a u l t i n g  below i s more r e a l i s t i c , b u t , as i n Veneziano's dwarfed i n r e l a t i o n t o the f i g u r e s .  from  panel, the a r c h i t e c t u r e i s  The s t r u c t u r e opens onto a landscape  63  v i s t a which l i e s  f a r below i n the d i s t a n c e .  These two works appear to p r o v i d e sources f o r the open type of V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e scheme f i r s t sacra conversazione of  seen i n G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s  ( F i g . 33), which i s now  Zanipolo  c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g to the laws  p e r s p e c t i v e and l i f e - s i z e s c a l e , p r o v i d i n g a r e a l i s t i c  space  f o r the  figures. There was  a t r a d i t i o n i n North I t a l i a n a r t of the e a r l i e r  fifteenth  century f o r the c e n t r a l l y - u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g , c o n s t r u c t e d p e r s p e c t i v a l l y on a low view p o i n t , f o r the V i r g i n s e a t e d on a h i g h T h i s i s seen i n Mantegna's h i g h a l t a r f o r San  throne.  Zeno ( F i g . 26) w i t h i t s u n i -  f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e , low v i e w p o i n t and h i g h enthronement, and  illusionistic  framing a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Renaissance  columns and  The v a u l t e d c o u r t c o n s i s t s of f u l l y  e n t a b l a t u r e extending  forward  to the p i c t u r e p l a n e to be com-  p l e t e d i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y by the framing a r c h i t e c t u r e . a church i n t e r i o r appears for  Because the i d e a of  to be abandoned, Mantegna's a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the V i r g i n and s a i n t s i s g i v e n o n l y t r i b u t a r i a l importance  v e n t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t of the h i s t o r y of the I t a l i a n s a c r a Mantegna's scheme was  preceded  setting  by the  con-  conversazione.^  i n V e n i c e by the t r i p t y c h p a i n t e d f o r the  S c u o l a d e l l a C a r i t a by Antonio V i v a r i n i and G i o v a n n i d'Allemagna, V e n i c e , Accademia, 1446  ( F i g . 24)",^ where the V i r g i n i s  throne between attendant angels and  seated  in a  canopied  the Four F a t h e r s of the Church.  The  e f f e c t of t h i s u n i f i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e , a l t h o u g h open to a garden which i s v i s i b l e beyond the p i n n a c l e d w a l l s , i s of a church c h o i r , l i n e d w i t h  clergy  stalls.  altar  (Fig.  Both works may  have been i n s p i r e d by D o n a t e l l o ' s Santo h i g h  25) which p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t e d of a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  housing  s t a t u e s of the enthroned  V i r g i n and  saints.^  architecture  64  A second l i n e of Tuscan i n f l u e n c e on the V e n e t i a n conversazione ( F i g . 27)  i s t h a t of P i e r o d e l l a Francesca's  as d i s c u s s e d above.  San Cassiano  type of s a c r a  Montefeltro  altarpiece  I f Robertson's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t A n t o n e l l o ' s  a l t a r p i e c e f o l l o w e d P i e r o ' s scheme of a c o n t i n u o u s l y  extending nave i n t e r r u p t e d by the frame, then the i l l u s i o n i s t i c  forward  completion  of the a r c h i t e c t u r e by the frame i n B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e s , preceded Mantegna's San  Zeno a l t a r p i e c e , i s a V e n e t i a n development.  i n f l u e n c e then i s l i m i t e d ward extending, and  to the Renaissance  by  Piero's  form of a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h  r o s e - c o f f e r e d a r c h e s , seen i n B e l l i n i ' s  Zanipolo  for-  altarpiece,  c l o s e d apse, seen i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e . Masaccio's  T r i n i t y f r e s c o i s a much c l o s e r a n t i c i p a t i o n of  a r c h i t e c t u r a l e f f e c t of B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e 38).  Although  present  Bellini's  f a t h e r Jacopo was  t h e r e f o r p e r i o d s i n 1423,  1424  the  (compare F i g s .  37,  a p p r e n t i c e d i n F l o r e n c e and  was  and p o s s i b l y 1 4 2 5 , ^ i t does not  seem t h a t he c o u l d or would have t r a n s m i t t e d Masaccio's no journey by B e l l i n i to F l o r e n c e i s r e c o r d e d . P i e t r o Lombardo, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Renaissance  i d e a to Venice  Robertson  suggests  s c u l p t u r e and  and  that  architectural  d e s i g n a t San Giobbe, c o u l d have brought a s k e t c h of the T r i n i t y  from  18 Florence. Masaccio's North  S c h o l a r s who f r e s c o as an  have r e c e n t l y emphasized the importance of " U r b i l d " f o r the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e and  I t a l i a n s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i are U. S c h l e g e l (1963) , G.  (1960, 1968), E. Hubala (1969) and J . F r e i b e r g (1974). conversazione,  Robertson  Although  the " t r i a n g u l a r f i g u r e - g r o u p r i s i n g i n t o an  The  two works share a s i m i l a r square,  s i d e openings i n d i c a t i n g l a t e r a l ante-chambers  not a s a c r a  illusionistic  a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g " i s "the u l t i m a t e p r o t o t y p e of the V e n e t i a n t i o n s . 19  later  composi-  c e n t r a l - p l a n chamber w i t h (note the entrance of S t .  65  L o u i s from the r i g h t i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e  (Fig. 9), a coffered  b a r r e l , v a u l t , monumental framing a r c h i t e c t u r e , c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g to r i g i d p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h a v a n i s h i n g p o i n t near the base of the p i c t u r e . V a s a r i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the T r i n i t y evokes  the San Giobbe  altarpiece:  A vault...drawn i n such e x c e l l e n t p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i t seems as though a h o l e were broken i n the w a l l . 2 0 E. Hubala suggests t h a t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g o f the V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i s a combination of a t r a d i t i o n a l V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l which he c a l l s by Masaccio.  the "cuba" w i t h new  Renaissance form and p e r s p e c t i v e  The Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e p r e s e r v e s more of the  V e n e t i a n a s p e c t than the more p r o g r e s s i v e San Giobbe  form  inspired  traditional  altarpiece.  In h i s Z a n i p o l o and San Giobbe a l t a r s B e l l i n i has c r e a t e d h i s p i c t o r i a l form on the b a s i s of the works o f I t a l i a n Renaissance p a i n t e r s and t h e r e i n has a l l o w e d the o l d V e n e t i a n h o u s i n g , the "cuba," to be renewed a g a i n i n modern dress.22 U r s u l a S c h l e g e l , i n her study of Masaccio's T r i n i t y  f r e s c o , adduces  s o u r c e s , important f o r the North I t a l i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , which  fall  o u t s i d e the c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three above.  She  suggests t h a t Masaccio's i l l u s i o n i s t i c , B r u n e l l e s c h a n c h a p e l i s the p r o t o type f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of monumentally c o n c e i v e d f i g u r e s i n a e n c l o s e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l space, adapted i n f u n e r a r y c h a p e l s t a b e r n a c l e s b e f o r e adopted  complete  and i n s c u l p t e d  i n the s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i p o p u l a r i n the V e n e t i a n  23 r e g i o n ( F i g s . 41, 42).  She sees Masaccio's scheme as i d e a l f o r the r e p r e -  s e n t a t i o n o f a v i s i o n of d i v i n e b e i n g s w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c , w o r l d l y s e t t i n g , which  i n t h i s case i s i d e n t i f i e d as the Chapel o f Golgotha i n the Holy  S e p u l c h r e , Jerusalem.  Her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a f u n e r a r y iconography suggests  a b a s i s f o r the V e n e t i a n i n t e r e s t , i n p a r t i c u l a r Masaccio's scheme, as d i s c u s s e d by Keydel.2^  t h a t of B e l l i n i , i n  Furthermore,  Schlegel  correctly  66  c h a r a c t e r i z e s Masaccio's T r i n i t y scheme as a d i v i s i o n of u n i f i e d space  into  zones s y m b o l i z i n g the t r a n s i e n t and the e t e r n a l , by means o f the e n c l o s i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s frame which s t r i c t l y d e f i n e the t r a n s i t i o n from  fore-  ground to background. I t may  be t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to the s u i t a b i l i t y o f Masaccio's  archi-  t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g to express a theme of p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n through immediacy to the  the viewer and the c o n t i g u i t y of d e p i c t e d space w i t h the r e a l space of viewer i n the church w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a d i v i s i o n o f the space  into  symbolic zones, the a r c h i t e c t u r e had a more p r e c i s e form and meaning which were of i n t e r e s t  i n Venice.  Jack F r e i b e r g i d e n t i f i e s the i n t e r i o r view of  a v a u l t e d space w i t h s u b s i d i a r y chambers as the a n c i e n t schema origin for  of B y z a n t i n e  f o r d e p i c t i n g Solomon's Temple, adapted as an i d e a l s a c r e d  a Eucharistic subject  (here the combined  Throne o f Grace and  emphasizing the human i n c a r n a t i o n and s a c r i f i c e of C h r i s t ) ( F i g . scheme i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e . suggests t h a t the p l a n of Masaccio's c h a p e l may  container  Crucifixion 41) .  This  Furthermore,  he  be an a d a p t a t i o n of the  B y z a n t i n e E u c h a r i s t i c s a n c t u a r y , c o n s i s t i n g of a c e n t r a l space f l a n k e d by two s m a l l l a t e r a l chambers known as p a s t o p h o r i a which open i n t o the a l t a r  25 area but not i n t o the church i t s e l f . of  the forward p r o j e c t i n g , p l a s t i c a l l y  V e n e t i a n s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i was  Perhaps  the unique s p a t i a l  extended c l o s e d apse s e t t i n g i n  i n t e n d e d to approximate t h i s e f f e c t of an  e n c l o s e d a l t a r a r e a w i t h i n the l a r g e r church space which of  Byzantine sanctuaries.26  effect  is characteristic  K e y d e l observes o f the San Giobbe  altarpiece:  With r e s p e c t to the way i n which i t e x i s t s i n the environment of the church, the a l t a r ensemble at San Giobbe c a l l s to mind the d i s c r e t e , p a r t i a l c e n t r e s which occur w i t h i n B y z a n t i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e .27 The reasons f o r the remarkable, but n e g l e c t e d , V e n e t i a n i n t e r e s t i n  67  B y z a n t i n e a r c h i t e c t u r e and v i s u a l a r t , and the more s p e c i f i c s u i t a b i l i t y of Masaccio's E u c h a r i s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e to the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e a r e d i s cussed i n Chapters F i v e and S i x .  The V e n e t i a n s e n s i t i v i t y  to B y z a n t i n e  s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was not o n l y a c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e b u t a d i r e c t  reflection  of the s t r o n g B y z a n t i n e Greek component  century  Venice.  of d a i l y l i f e  An a d a p t a t i o n of B y z a n t i n e a r t i s t i c  in fifteenth  schema would be i n t e n t i o n a l and  c o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h V e n e t i a n d e v o t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  interests.  68  NOTES  1.  F. Zanotto, P i n a c o t e c a Veneta, o s s i a r a c c o l t a d e i m i g l l o r i d i p i n t i d e l l e c h i e s e d i V e n e z i a , 2 v o l , , V e n i c e , 1858-1860. For Robertson's d i s c u s s i o n see h i s B e l l i n i , p. 59. The l o s t B e l l i n i a l t a r p i e c e has been r e p l a c e d w i t h one by a f o l l o w e r , F. B i s s o l o o r an unknown f o l l o w e r of Marco B a s a i t i (Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 1, p. 303). Regarding v a n i s h i n g p o i n t , see Robertson, B e l l i n i , p. 65, n. 2.  2.  F. B a r b i e r i , I I Museo C i v i c o d i V i c e n z a , D i p i n t i e s c u l t u r e d e l XIV a l XV s e c o l o , V e n i c e , 1962, v o l . 1, pp. 153-161; the V i r g i n enthroned w i t h S a i n t s John the B a p t i s t , Bartholomew, A u g u s t i n e , and S e b a s t i a n , tempera on canvas and p a n e l , 4,60 x 2,40 m., s i g n e d , undated, p a i n t e d f o r the c h o i r of San Bartolomeo, V i c e n z a , above and b e h i n d the a l t a r i n a frame, a f t e r enlargement and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c h o i r i n 1484.  3.  L . . C o l e t t i , Cima da Conegliano, 2nd ed., V e n i c e , 1960, c o l o u r p l a t e V I I , p. 77; p a n e l , 2,02 x 3,45, dated 1493, commissioned by the canons of the S c u o l a d e i B a t t u t i (Cima made a d o n a t i o n by r e d u c i n g the p r i c e and i n c r e a s i n g the number of s a i n t s r e p r e s e n t e d ) .  4.  G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 183, p. 106; V e n i c e , San Z a c c a r i a , o i l , 5,00 x 2,35 m., p a i n t e d i n memory of P i e t r o C a p p e l l o .  5.  The c l o s e d apse o r p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d apse was the most p o p u l a r s e t t i n g f o r the V e n e t i a n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e and was used o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r o t h e r s u b j e c t s such as C a r p a c c i o ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Temple, F i g . 44, Marco M a r z i a l e ' s London C i r c u m c i s i o n , 1500, F i g . 45 (M. D a v i e s , The E a r l i e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , London, 1951, no. 803, p. 267; canvas, 2,22 x 1,51, v a u l t arches i n s c r i b e d w i t h Luke 11:'29, donated by j u r i s t and poet Tommaso Raimondi, d. 1510, to h i g h a l t a r S. S i l v e s t r o , Cremona) and B o c c a c c i o B o c c a c c i n o ' s A n n u n c i a t i o n , F i g . 46, i n the Boncompagni c o l l e c t i o n , Rome (A. V e n t u r i , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g of the Q u a t t r o c e n t o , New York, (1931), 1974, p a r t I I , p i . 27). The v a u l t e d b a l d a c c h i n o i s l e s s f r e q u e n t , f o r example, Cima's Dragan a l t a r p i e c e , F i g . 47, i n the Accademia, V e n i c e ( C o l e t t i , Cima, 1960, no. 42, p. 79) . The type of v a u l t i n g i s v a r i e d , i n c l u d i n g c r o s s , b a r r e l , dome and combinations. The column o r square p i l a s t e r supports are c l a s s i c a l , almost always b e a r i n g C o r i n t h i a n c a p i t a l s , and o f t e n d e c o r a t e d w i t h f l o r a l or v e g e t a l m o t i f s . Arches or e n t a b l a t u r e s extend forward to the p i c t u r e p l a n e and appear to be completed by the frame i n those cases where the p a i n t i n g may s t i l l be viewed i n i t s o r i g i n a l frame, f o r example, V i v a r i n i ' s B e l l u n o a l t a r p i e c e , F i g . 43 (frame not shown)  69  and Romanino's S. G i u s t i n a a l t a r p i e c e i n Padua, F i g . 42 (L. G r o s s a t o , I I Mus eo C i v i c o d i Padua, D i p i n t i e s c u l t u r e d a l XIV a l XIX s e c o l o , Venice , 1957, no. 165, pp. 71-76; o i l on p a n e l , 4,00 x 2,62, s i g n e d , o r i g i n a l frame, 6,77 x 4,03, commissioned by B e n e d i c t i n e monks i n 1513 f o r o l d c h o i r o f S. G i u s t i n a , Padua). Recurrent f e a t u r e s are the music-making angels ( d i s c u s s e d above Chapter Two, and below, Chapter S i x , pp. 120-121) and the mosaiced v a u l t which r e f e r s , o f t e n e x p l i c i t l y , to the g r e a t mosaic v a u l t s a t the s t a t e church of San Marco, Cima's V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , F i g . 48, B e r l i n , S t a a t l i c h e Museen, from San M i c h e l e d i Murano near V e n i c e ( C o l e t t i , Cima, 1960, no. 39, p. 78; 1,35 x 2,06, s i g n e d , thought to be commissioned by Commisaria of P i e t r o d i Benedetto P r i u l i i n 1511 f o r Chapel of the Madonna, but C o l e t t i dates b e f o r e 1495), where the mosaics are taken from the Genesis c y c l e i n the a t r i u m o f San Marco, and Marco M a r z i a l e ' s C i r c u m c i s i o n , F i g . 44 (see above) and Enthroned V i r g i n w i t h S a i n t s , London, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , F i g . 49 (Davies, E a r l i e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , 1951, no. 804, p. 268; p a n e l , 2, 205 x 1,42 m., s i g n e d , 1507, from h i g h a l t a r of S. G a l l o , Cremona, sentence on v a u l t i n g i s E a s t e r antiphon: (Regi)NA . CELI . LET(a)RE . ALELVIA . 0 ( ? ) . 6.  Robertson's d i s c u s s i o n "The e a r l i e r work o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , " JWCI 23 (1960) :55. I f we accept Crowe and C a v a l c a s e l l e ' s d a t i n g of B e l l i n i ' s l o s t Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e (which they were a b l e to observe i n the o r i g i n a l ) b e f o r e the Pesaro C o r o n a t i o n o f the V i r g i n as Robertson does, and i f we a c c e p t the d a t i n g of the C o r o n a t i o n to 1471-1474 as proposed i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s of i t s h i s t o r i c a l evidence (summarized by G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, s.v. " C o r o n a t i o n o f the V i r g i n , Pesaro") the Z a n i p o l o a l t a r p i e c e c o u l d precede A n t o n e l l o ' s a l t a r p i e c e by as much as f i v e y e a r s .  7.  See below t h i s c h a p t e r , p.  8.  See p. 6, n. 12, Chapter  9.  See Robertson's d i s c u s s i o n s i n " E a r l i e r work," 1960, idem., B e l l i n i , pp. 59-66, 78.  65.  One.  no. 150,  p. 119;  pp. 53-58;  10.  P a l l u c c h i n i , V i v a r i n i , 1961, s i g n e d , dated 1465.  p a n e l , 1,21  x 1,21  11.  D a v i e s , E a r l i e r I t a l i a n S c h o o l s , 1951,  12.  L. T e s t i , La S t o r i a d e l l a P i t t u r a Veneziana, P a r t 1, Le O r i g i n i , Bergamo, 1909, pp. 225-226, p i . V I I ; P a l l u c c h i n i , P i t t u r a Veneziana d e l T r e c e n t o , 1964, f i g . 548, pp. 177, 181; p a n e l 1,24 x 0,50 m., dated 1372.  13.  M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 164, p. 149; p a n e l , 1,06 x 0,69., once i n O r a t o r i o d i Casa Zamberlani a t P i e v e d i Cadore, s i g n e d , 14601465. See a l a t e r s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e by Rosso i n Berenson, V e n e t i a n S c h o o l , 1957, v o l . 1, f i g . 329,  p. 38; p a n e l , s i g n e d , a f t e r  m.,  1469.  70  14.  Wilde, " P a l a d i San C a s s i a n o , " 1929, p. 71: "...was aber d i e Aufmerksamkeit von der k i r c h l i c h r e p r a s e n t a t i v e n Bestimmung d i e s e r B i l d g a t t u n g etwas a b l e n k t . "  15.  M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 36, p. 37; t r i p t y c h , canvas, 3,38 4,80 m. , s i g n e d and dated 1446.  16.  See L i o n e l l o P u p p i , I I T r i t t i c o d i Andrea Manegna per l a B a s i l i c a d i San Zeno Maggiore i n Verona, Verona, 1972, f o r comparison w i t h Donat e l l o ' s h i g h a l t a r a t the Santo, Padua. See Chapter Three, n. 13.  17.  Robertson, B e l l i n i , pp.  18.  Robertson, " E a r l i e r Work," 1960, pp. 57-58; idem., B e l l i n i , pp. 61, 65-66; Hubala, Madonna M i t K i n d , 1969, pp. 10-12, d i s c u s s e s the F l o r e n t i n e precedents f o r B e l l i n i ' s monumental s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i , but i m p l i e s t h a t B e l l i n i had d i r e c t , unmediated c o n t a c t w i t h F l o r e n t i n e ideas.  19.  Robertson, " E a r l i e r Work," 1960,  20.  Loc. c i t .  21.  Hubala, Madonna Mit K i n d , 1969,  22.  I b i d . , p.  23.  S c h l e g e l , " O b s e r v a t i o n s , " 1963,  24.  For Masaccio's T r i n i t y as the Chapel of Golgotha, i b i d . , pp. 19-33, and Chapter F i v e , n. 66. Keydel sees sources f o r the Renaissance v o c a b u l a r y of B e l l i n i ' s s a c r e c o n v e r s a z i o n i a t Z a n i p o l o and San Giobbe i n V e n e t i a n f u n e r a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e , p r i m a r i l y the Lombardi's b u r i a l chapel f o r Doge Moro i n San Giobbe, c. 1470. See Chapter F i v e , p. 83 and n. 52.  25.  S. W i l k , " I c o n o l o g i c a l Problems i n the S c u l p t u r e of T u l l i o Lombardo," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1977), pp. 119-120 and J . F r e i b e r g , "The 'Tabernaculum D e i ' : Masaccio and the P e r s p e c t i v e Tabernacle A l t a r p i e c e , " (M.A. t h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1974) p. 19. An example, l a t e r than the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , i s the p l a n o f the BernabS Chapel i n San G i o v a n n i Crisostomo, V e n i c e , a f t e r 1497, and the p l a n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of T u l l i o Lombardo's C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n r e l i e f i n the same c h a p e l . W i l k d e f i n e s the p a s t o p h o r i a as "the E u c h a r i s t i c c h a p e l s on each s i d e of the a l t a r where the E u c h a r i s t i s prepared and v a r i o u s l i t u r g i c a l equipment i s k e p t . "  26.  W i l k notes the B y z a n t i n e i n s p i r e d d e c o r a t i o n of t r a m e z z i and c h a n c e l b a r r i e r s i n l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e , pp. 138-140. The i d e a of the t a b e r n a c l e h o u s i n g h o l y b e i n g s w i t h i n the l a r g e r church space i s of course seen i n D o n a t e l l o ' s h i g h a l t a r f o r the Santo, Padua.  27.  K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " p.  x  5-6.  p.  57.  p. 9  12.  159.  pp. 30-33.  71  CHAPTER FIVE  HISTORY OF THE SITE, AND DEVOTIONAL FUNCTION OF THE ALTARPIECE  Bellini's of  the V e n e t i a n type of s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  argued  i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was most l i k e l y  f u n c t i o n , to adorn and  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s a key work i n the development altarpiece.  As i t w i l l be  commissioned to f u l f i l  the a l t a r near the donor's b u r i a l p l a c e i n the church,  to v i s u a l l y embody h i s hope of e t e r n a l l i f e .  Its illusionistic  t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g i s i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h one of the f i r s t Renaissance  a funerary  unified  i n t e r i o r s i n V e n i c e , which arose i n a context of p u b l i c  F r a n c i s c a n p i e t y , and d u c a l propaganda.  archi-  relief,  The h i s t o r y of the c o m p a r a t i v e l y  young church of San Giobbe from i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n 1390 to i t s r e - c o n s e c r a t i o n i n 1493, f a l l s i n t o three phases. founded  the h o s p i t a l  Giovanni C o n t a r i n i , a Venetian  and then the church  i n a p e r i o d of peace and expansion, u l t i m a t e l y under s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n .  soon a f t e r the wars w i t h Genoa,  as a v e h i c l e of a r i s t o c r a t i c  Siena.  i n the e a r l y 15th  The church gained p r e s t i g e and repute f o r s a n c t i t y , augmented by  the o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t s of  charity  A v i g o r o u s p e r i o d of growth commenced  w i t h the a r r i v a l of the F r a n c i s c a n Order o f Observants century.  patrician,  of the most powerful Mendicant p r e a c h e r ,  The second phase i n the l i f e of the church, monastic  and a s s o c i a t e d houses of r e l i e f  begins i n the 1450's when Doge  St. Bernardin community Cristoforo  Moro undertook e x t e n s i v e b e n e f a c t i o n of the f o u n d a t i o n and c u l t i v a t e d i t s p r e s t i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S t . B e r n a r d i n whose famous prophecy had g i v e n  72  Moro's assumption of d u c a l o f f i c e a k i n d of d i v i n e s a n c t i o n . time, as a r e s u l t  of Moro's humanist i n t e r e s t s ,  Renaissance c h a r a c t e r .  By  transforming  t h a t the church  dedicated  Moro v i r t u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e d the f o u n d a t i o n of San s t a t e monument i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  1471,  ecclesiastical  the t r a d i t i o n  original I t was  tradition.  of a r i s t o c r a t i c  importance and  of  chapel,  Giobbe as a p e r s o n a l of V e n e t i a n  and  poli-  F o l l o w i n g the demise of the doge i n patronage, as opposed to d u c a l , and to San  the  Giobbe were r e a f f i r m e d .  then t h a t the unknown donor commissioned B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e and  by  of the r e b u i l d i n g programmes i n i t i a t e d by Moro  the r e c o n s e c r a t i o n of the church  i n 1493,  i t was  i n p l a c e over  the  altar  Job. The  church  of San  Giobbe i s famous as one  of the f i r s t  Tuscan i n s p i r e d Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Venice.-'" church  i s wide and  which culminates  l o f t y space, an open, a i s l e - l e s s  i n the s t a t e l y  c u p o l a of the c h a n c e l  The  i n t e r i o r of  The  stone of the pavement and antependia.  The  light-filled  grey marble i s s e t o f f agaiist the warm,  tombslabs and  the r e d and  c h a n c e l , which i s the b u r i a l  B e r n a r d i n of S i e n a , of the c h i e f b e n e f a c t o r C r i s t o f o r o Moro (1462-1471), was a l t a r p i e c e was p i e c e was  started.  the F o s c a r i f a m i l y , and  probably  green stone  i n the red i n the  altar  c h a p e l , d e d i c a t e d to S t .  of the church  complete b e f o r e  and monastery the San  i n the church,  f l a n k e d by  the f i r s t  the t h i r d a l t a r of the Sanudo f a m i l y .  Doge  Giobbe  Framed i n marble columns and pediment, the  the second on the r i g h t  the  b a s i l i c a , cross-vaulted,  t r i u m p h a l a r c h and h o v e r i n g ,  ( F i g . 2)•  examples of  l i g h t c o l o u r of the w a l l s and v a u l t s , w i t h b r i g h t e r c o l o u r notes  of  this  to S t . B e r n a r d i n , Doge  the p r o c e s s e s  d e d i c a t i o n of the church  the time of the completion and  at  received i t s  the h i g h a l t a r i n t o a b u r i a l  decorated w i t h h i s d u c a l coat of arms, and  t i c a l and  I t was  The  altaraltar three  73  a l t a r s and a l t a r p i e c e frames a r e r e l a t e d i n dimension and form an i m p r e s s i v e facade  and g e n e r a l format  ( F i g . 4 ) . A s e r i e s of Renaissance  chapels  p r o j e c t outwards from the n o r t h w a l l of the church o p p o s i t e the t h r e e monumental  altars.  Of these the f i r s t  c h a p e l , and the second,  from the e n t r a n c e on the l e f t ,  the Grimani  the M a r t i n i c h a p e l , may have been complete  l e a s t under c o n s t r u c t i o n  i n the p e r i o d o f B e l l i n i ' s  or at  altarpiece.  The atmosphere o f the church i s sombre and shadowy due to the l i m i t e d n a t u r a l i l l u m i n a t i o n admitted by the s m a l l , h i g h l y p l a c e d windows. than those o f the chapels to  the Renaissance  of  the south w a l l .  t h e r e a r e s m a l l c i r c u l a r windows, p r o b a b l y d a t i n g  p e r i o d o f the b u i l d i n g , s i t u a t e d above the c o r n i c e l e v e l Each o f the t h r e e a l t a r s has been p l a c e d beneath  these b u t they p r o v i d e no d i r e c t l i g h t i n g .  a r e now a major source of n a t u r a l l i g h t period of b u i l d i n g .  4  one o f  The entrance facade of the church  has been remodelled and i t s two h i g h l y p l a c e d  the Renaissance  Other  r e c t a n g u l a r windows, which  f o r the i n t e r i o r , date from  after  However, i n view o f the c o n s c i o u s  i n t e g r a t i o n o f B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e w i t h t h e church i n t e r i o r i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s , the f a l l to  o f l i g h t from the upper r i g h t i n t h e p a i n t i n g was p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d  c o i n c i d e w i t h the n a t u r a l i l l u m i n a t i o n of the c h u r c h .  Phase One The h i s t o r y o f the f o u n d a t i o n , b e n e f a c t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the h o s p i t a l , church and convent  o f San Giobbe makes i t c l e a r  e s t a b l i s h m e n t was p r i m a r i l y a v e h i c l e o f p u b l i c r e l i e f ,  a d m i n i s t e r e d by the  s t a t e and i t s l a y c i t i z e n s through a r e l i g i o u s framework. h o s p i t a l - * was f i r s t  that t h i s m u l t i p l e  Indeed the  to be e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e s i t e and i t was n o t u n t i l 12  y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1390, t h a t t h e o r a t o r y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t .  The founder  was a member of the V e n e t i a n p a t r i c i a t e o f whose p u b l i c c a r e e r l i t t l e i s  74  known, but that he was (1275-1280) and was  probably a d i r e c t descendant  of Doge Jacopo  accepted i n t o the Maggior C o n s i g l i o i n 1354.^  r e v e r e d as a p i o u s man  who,  Contarini He  was  h a v i n g made o t h e r s i m i l a r endowments upon the  c i t y , entered the p r i e s t h o o d i n h i s o l d age.  In h i s l a s t  testament he  a l l h i s goods to the h o s p i t a l and church and s t i p u l a t e d the d a i l y  left  celebra-  t i o n of Mass and a y e a r l y c e l e b r a t i o n i n honour of the B l e s s e d V i r g i n Mary.^ C o n t a r i n i ' s d e d i c a t i o n of the f i r s t  o r a t o r y ( s m a l l church)  to Job,  Q  unprecedented  i n Venice,  must have been i n r e l a t i o n to the f u n c t i o n of the  h o s p i t a l to a l l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s of the i l l and p r o p e r t y were r e s t o r e d by God.  and d e p r i v e d as Job's h e a l t h  As a model o f C h r i s t i a n f a i t h t r i e d  w o r l d l y d i s a s t e r and p a r t i c u l a r l y by an i l l n e s s whose symptoms those of the plague, Job was and 111.9 t h a t my  Furthermore,  a qualified  i n t e r c e s s o r w i t h God  as the prophet of the R e s u r r e c t i o n  redeemer l i v e t h . . . , " Job 19:25) and a man  appear (Job 38:1)  he was  a s a i n t who  and hope to the g r a v e l y i l l  and  by  resembled f o r the poor  ("For I know  b e f o r e whom God  could o f f e r great s p i r i t u a l  chose  to  comfort  destitute.  The combined f o u n d a t i o n s were  except f o r the v e g e t a b l e  gardens  e n t i r e l y dependent upon p u b l i c d o n a t i o n f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d and houses,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new  b u i l d i n g s , f u r n i s h i n g of the c h u r c h ,  p r o v i s i o n f o r the d a i l y needs of both the f r i a r s and ospedale.  and  the r e c o v e r a t i of the  T h i s dependence meant s t a t e and l a y c o n t r o l throughout  the h i s t o r y  of the s i t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of V e n e t i a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l independence Rome.  from  The major form of f i n a n c i a l support seems to have been the l e g a c y of  the wealthy  c i t i z e n a d m i n i s t e r e d by a body of V e n e t i a n c i t i z e n s  by the deceased,  known as a C o m m i s a r i a P u l l a n  observes  that  appointed the  P r o c u r a t o r i of San Marco were i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these  75  l e g a c i e s , ensuring  t h a t a l l the c h a r i t a b l e s t i p u l a t i o n s o f the b e n e f a c t o r  were adhered t o T h e  j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the s t a t e i n most m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g  to the c h a r i t a b l e community of San Giobbe seems to have been u l t i m a t e and i n d i r e c t l y e x e r c i s e d , except and  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  1453).  i n decrees  p e r m i t t i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d  o f a c o n f r a t e r n i t y (Appendix I , e n t r y 4, 1389, and  When p a p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n was e x e r c i s e d , as i t was i n 1441 when two  prominent V e n e t i a n must be p r e s e r v e d  c l e r i c s decided  t h a t the o r i g i n a l o r a t o r y a t San Giobbe  from d e m o l i t i o n ,  i t was c u s t o m a r i l y through the agency  of d e l e g a t e d V e n e t i a n  citizens.  The pious b e n e f a c t i o n o r l e g a c y to a c h a r i t a b l e r e l i g i o u s t i o n such as San Giobbe was an important  institu-  means o f p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c r e l i e f  f o r the c i t y a t a time when p u b l i c commissions f o r such s e r v i c e had n o t y e t 13 come i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  Although  the g r e a t F r a n c i s c a n preachers  t h e r e was a growing awareness, prodded by  o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o f the importance  of w e l l - b e i n g and moral r e c t i t u d e among the populace f o r the success Venetian  s t a t e i n i t s s t r u g g l e s w i t h t h e Turks,"'"  4  of t h e  there was a l s o a growing  b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of a c t s o f c h a r i t y i n g a i n i n g s p i r i t u a l grace f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and d i v i n e f a v o u r f o r , and i n t e r v e n t i o n i n , the a f f a i r s o f the s t a t e as a w h o l e . ^ gated  the b e l i e f  Furthermore, the growing humanist movement p r o p a -  t h a t c i v i c v i r t u e c o u l d be e x e r c i s e d through wealth  much as through p o l i t i c a l o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e  as  by means o f p r i v a t e l y  f i n a n c e d p u b l i c works. In 1428 L u c i a D o l f i n , the daughter o f G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i , who c a r r i e d on h e r f a t h e r ' s b e n e f i c e n c e the h o s p i t a l and church  to the h o s p i t a l o f San Giobbe, e n t r u s t e d  t o the care o f a convent o f F r a n c i s c a n Observants  1  (Appendix I I , e n t r y no. 8 ) .  ft  The c h o i c e o f t h i s r e l i g i o u s Order to care  76  f o r the m e d i c a l and s p i r i t u a l needs of the i n s t i t u t i o n was s u i t a b l e i n a number of r e s p e c t s . the i l l ,  First,  the Observants were famous f o r t h e i r d e v o t i o n to  e s p e c i a l l y i n time o f p l a g u e .  e s s e n t i a l to any community s u b j e c t virulent disease.  T h i s a l o n e rendered them almost  as Venice was t o r e c u r r e n t a t t a c k s o f  Secondly, the Observant p r e a c h e r s were a c t i v e and e f f e c -  t i v e promoters o f c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . z a t i o n o f poor r e l i e f  P u l l a n notes t h a t the r e o r g a n i -  from the middle of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n I t a l y was  " c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s o f Observant F r a n c i s c a n p r e a c h e r s , " to t h e i r " d i r e c t i f crude eloquence" i n promoting c h a r i t a b l e  projects.1^  F i n a l l y , the r e p u t e d s a n c t i t y and e f f i c a c i o u s p r a y e r o f the Observants ° and t h e i r moral, p a c i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e on c i v i c s t r i f e , made them p o p u l a r among the people and gained the f a v o u r and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f c i v i c  authori-  19 ties.  F o r these reasons m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t was v i r t u a l l y 20  guaranteed to any  i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h which the Observants were a s s o c i a t e d .  Phase Two The i n f l u e n c e o f the g r e a t Observant p r e a c h e r S t . B e r n a r d i n o f S i e n a on C r i s t o f o r o Moro was a major f a c t o r i n t h e i n i t i a t i o n of the second phase of r e b u i l d i n g and expansion o f the church and convent o f San Giobbe.  The  l i f e and c a r e e r o f t h i s s a i n t e x e m p l i f i e s the b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e F r a n c i s c a n Observants.  He was famous f o r h i s extreme d e v o t i o n t o the B l e s s e d  V i r g i n Mary and f o r h i s c a r e o f plague v i c t i m s .  He spent 26 y e a r s as an  i t i n e r a n t Observant p r e a c h e r , p u r s u i n g the " M i n i s t r y o f the Word," drawing l a r g e crowds everywhere i n I t a l y w h i l e he denounced l u x u r y and c i v i c feuding.21  A f t e r r i s i n g t o V i c a r General o f the Order i n 1437, he made t o u r s  of i n s p e c t i o n t o Observant convents to ensure adherence  to the Rule o f  p o v e r t y , and i s thought to have preached and lodged a t t h e convent o f San  77  Giobbe i n 1443,  the y e a r b e f o r e h i s death a t A q u i l a .  f u l i n f l u e n c e on the populace  St. Bernardin's  l e d to h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h important  f i g u r e s i n c l u d i n g the V e n e t i a n s G a b r i e l e Condulmer (Pope Eugenius  power-  political IV)  and  C r i s t o f o r o Moro. Before 1450  the combined f o u n d a t i o n s of San Giobbe were e s s e n t i a l l y  the endowment of the C o n t a r i n i f a m i l y . and h o s p i t a l poor and  t h e r e was  no  The  church was  important  s m a l l , the  convent  r e l i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  church.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t had e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r the s a n c t i t y of i t s f r i a r s , and  the h i g h rank of v i s i t i n g c l e r i c s and  crowds of w o r s h i p p e r s .  By 1434  the c a p a c i t y of the church and  citizens.  the f r i a r s the f i r s t  felt  The church  attracted  the need to g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e  programme of r e b u i l d i n g  enlargement p r o b a b l y began some time a f t e r  and  1441.  Moro's e x t e n s i v e b e n e f a c t i o n to the church of San Giobbe was c a t e d to S t . B e r n a r d i n i n remembrance of t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p w h i l e Moro capitaro of Padua and  dediwas  of the s a i n t ' s famous p r e d i c t i o n of h i s f u t u r e doge-  22 ship.  Moro's e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the s a i n t ' s c u l t d i d enhance the p r e s t i g e  of the church and was  probably an important  donations on which the i n s t i t u t i o n r e l i e d . was  an unprecedented  opportunity  due  factor i n attracting  the p u b l i c  What i s s t r i k i n g i s t h a t here  to the r e c e n t f o u n d a t i o n of the  and i t s l a c k of r e l i c s or o t h e r s a c r e d h i s t o r i c c o n n e c t i o n s  church  f o r a Venetian  doge to v i r t u a l l y t r a n s f o r m and e l e v a t e a s a c r e d i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was 23  to  be h i s s i t e of b u r i a l and a testament  first  to h i s c h a r i t y .  Moro was  doge to be b u r i e d i n San Giobbe and he chose the most prominent the c a p e l l a maggiore, f o r h i s tomb.  position,  T h i s l o c a t i o n would have been i m p o s s i b l e  i n the customary s i t e s of d u c a l b u r i a l i n Venice of Cosimo de' M e d i c i i n San Lorenzo,  the  F l o r e n c e (d.  and  i s r e m i n i s c e n t of t h a t  1464)  78  In  1451, s h o r t l y a f t e r the c a n o n i z a t i o n o f S t . B e r n a r d i n  (1450),  Moro began t h e works i n t h e church and convent which were f i n a n c e d and d i r e c t e d by him and c o n t i n u e d a f t e r h i s death i n 1471 i n accordance his  l a s t testament  (Appendix  I I , e n t r y 18).  with  He undertook the r e b u i l d i n g o f  the c h a n c e l w i t h i t s two l a t e r a l chapels as h i s b u r i a l c h a p e l d e d i c a t e d t o St.  B e r n a r d i n , f o r which he o b t a i n e d s p i r i t u a l  i n d u l g e n c e s from the Pope.  I t was commissioned i n the newest, most spendid Renaissance  2 from P i e t r o Lombardo and h i s workshop.  style,  probably  5  I n 1470 the tomb was completed,  a  s l a b marking i t s p o s i t i o n a t the f o o t o f the h i g h a l t a r , i n t h e c e n t r e o f the c h a n c e l d e d i c a t e d to S t . B e r n a r d i n , t h e t r i u m p h a l e n t r a n c e a r c h above d e c o r a t e d w i t h the Moro arms and the d u c a l corno  (Fig. 2).  Whether or n o t S t . B a r n a r d i n a c t u a l l y d i d s t a y a t the convent o f San Giobbe i n 1443, t h i s s a c r e d c o n n e c t i o n was c l a i m e d .  To e l e v a t e t h e  s t a t u s o f the church and to s t r e n g t h e n h i s p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s a i n t , Moro s t r o v e d i l i g e n t l y 1453  the C o u n c i l of Ten passed  to promote the c u l t o f S t . B e r n a r d i n .  In  the decree a l l o w i n g - t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a  c o n f r a t e r n i t y a t San Giobbe i n honor of S t . B e r n a r d i n who was made t h e 27 second  t i t u l a r s a i n t o f t h e church b e s i d e Job. When Moro was e l e c t e d Doge i n 1462, thereby f u l f i l l i n g S t .  Bernardin's p r e d i c t i o n , h i s personal connection with the s a i n t acquired a new dimension  o f d i v i n e s a n c t i o n - n o t o n l y o f h i s p e r s o n a l d u c a l power  a l s o o f the s t a t e i t s e l f  o f which the Doge was the symbolic  1470  the Senate to a c c e p t S t . B e r n a r d i n as one o f  Doge Moro persuaded  embodiment.  but In  the minor p a t r o n s a i n t s o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , w i t h San Teodoro and San Magno, e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s c u l t as an annual V e n e t i a n c e l e b r a t i o n . ^ 8 obtained o f f i c i a l  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance  j j thus e  of h i s patron saint i n  79  V e n i c e , a t the same time s t r e n g t h e n i n g the c o n n e c t i o n of the church of Giobbe w i t h the s t a t e . may  This i n t e r e s t  l i e behind Moro's attempt  San  i n making the church a s t a t e monument  to endow the church w i t h the d i s p u t e d r e l i c  of S t . Luke the E v a n g e l i s t i n a manner which r e c a l l s the l e g e n d a r y  founda-  t i o n of the s t a t e and d u c a l church of V e n i c e as the s h r i n e of the E v a n g e l i s t Mark.29  The r e l i c , which i s s a i d to have been t r a n s p o r t e d i n grand d u c a l  p r o c e s s i o n from the g a l l e y which brought  i t from B o s n i a , was  declared l e g i t i -  mate by C a r d i n a l B e s s a r i o n h i m s e l f , a l t h o u g h the judgement was (Appendix  I I , e n t r y 16).  The importance  later  waived  of S t . Luke to Moro's concept  of the church i s a t t e s t e d to by the prominence of h i s d e p i c t i o n , pendant w i t h t h a t of S t . Mark, i n a r o u n d e l on the r i g h t p i l l a r arch entrance to Moro's c h a p e l chapel  on  the  left  in  of the t r i u m p h a l  and by the d e d i c a t i o n of  the  church  to  St.  Luke.  the The  ;  first message  of Moro's c h a p e l and h i s c u l t i v a t i o n of s a c r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the church seems to be the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d u c a l and s t a t e power. The concept o f c h a r i t y and  the s a l v a t i o n of the s o u l i s the b a s i s of  patronage a t San Giobbe and Moro's b e l i e f  i n the e f f i c a c y of c h a r i t a b l e works  i n o b t a i n i n g grace i s expressed i n h i s testament. s t i p u l a t e s p r a y e r s and d i v i n e o f f i c e s to be r e c i t e d he expected the f r i a r s who  The  testament r e p e a t e d l y  f o r "mea  anima."  Clearly  were b e n e f i t i n g so g r e a t l y from h i s l a r g e s s e to OA  l a b o u r on h i s b e h a l f w i t h God.  I t i s p o s s i b l e that he purchased a  of F r a t e r n i t y " f o r he requested h i s body to be b a r e f o o t and Franciscan habit f o r b u r i a l . ^ 3  and convent  "Letter  clothed i n  The r e b u i l t and e n l a r g e d church, h o s p i t a l  form an enduring v i s u a l testament a t the s i t e of Moro's b u r i a l  to h i s C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y as the amor d e i and amor p r o x i m i f i g u r e s on the tomb of Doge N i c o l a s Tron t e s t i f y to the c h a r i t y of Moro's s u c c e s s o r .  o9  80  Moro was Venice.  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the growing humanist  movement i n  Sheard notes t h a t the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r h i s f u n e r a l c h a p e l seems to  d e r i v e from F l o r e n c e r a t h e r than the n a t i v e V e n e t i a n t r a d i t i o n s of tomb monuments, p o s s i b l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r Marin Sanuto's  apparent i n a b i l i t y  to  O O  r e c o g n i z e the Moro c h a p e l as a tomb monument.  The s i m i l a r i t y of the b u r i a l  s i t e to t h a t of Cosimo d e ' M e d i c i i n F l o r e n c e , San Lorenzo, has been noted. Perhaps  Moro's more b a s i c motive of patronage has a humanist  demonstration of c i v i c v i r t u e s such as " l i b e r a l i t y , " "magnanimity" promulgated the f i r s t  by the humanist  aspect, a  " m a g n i f i c e n c e , " and  a p o l o g i s t Giovanni C a l d i e r a i n  of h i s t r i l o g y of moral p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r e a t i s e s , De  w r i t t e n i n 1464  and d e d i c a t e d to Doge Moro  who  Virtutibus,  i s p r a i s e d throughout  the  body of the w o r k . ^ Moro may  have i n t e n d e d to c u l t i v a t e a commemorative image of h i m s e l f or  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l d u c a l r o l e of " p r o t e c t o r of r e l i g i o n and p o s s i b l y to overcome a poor contemporary  justice"  r e p u t a t i o n which i s r e f l e c t e d i n  the remarks of V e n e t i a n h i s t o r i a n s Domenico M a l i p i e r o and M a r i n Sanudo, and i n the a s s a s s i n a t i o n attempt  of 1470.  M a l i p i e r o and  Sanudo p r e s e n t a l e s s  than f l a t t e r i n g p i c t u r e o f an u n p r e p o s s e s s i n g f i g u r e , s h o r t i n s t a t u r e , c r o s s - e y e d , who  employed a f l a t t e r i n g ,  devious s t y l e of diplomacy,  d e c e i t f u l , v i n d i c t i v e and a v a r i c i o u s and who  was 37  i n d u l g e d a l o v e o f pomp.  Moro's patronage a t San Giobbe and h i s f u n e r a l c h a p e l i n p a r t i c u l a r  do ."  seem to express s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n and the primacy of d u c a l power.  In the  l a t t e r h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century i n c r e a s i n g power of the doge,-.which c u l m i n a t e d i n the I m p e r i a l s t a n c e of A g o s t i n o B a r b a r i g o (1468-1501) , caused an opposing r e a c t i o n among the a r i s t o c r a t i c r u l i n g class,  who  by a n c i e n t  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n were the major s o u r c e of p o l i t i c a l power i n  81  Venice.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r example, t h a t i n 1471, the y e a r o f Moro's  demise, the d i s p l a y o f stemme w i t h t h e d u c a l c o m o o u t s i d e  the Ducal P a l a c e  39 was p r o h i b i t e d ducal,  (Appendix I I ) .  or a t l e a s t d y n a s t i c  Perhaps a f t e r Moro's death t h e t h r e a t o f a  c o n t r o l of San Giobbe, provoked a r e a s s e r t i o n  of the o r i g i n a l t r a d i t i o n of p a t r i c i a n as opposed to d u c a l patronage and o f the primacy o f the t i t u l a r s a i n t Job over S t . B e r n a r d i n . ^ 4  Phase Three The  commission o f an a l t a r p i e c e f o r the a l t a r o f Job f a l l s  t h i r d phase o f the h i s t o r y of the church. in  i n t o the  The undated p a i n t i n g was executed  the mid-1480's a f t e r P i e t r o Lombardo and h i s workshop had completed Moro'  c h a p e l and e i t h e r d u r i n g Chapel opposite. "'" 4  evidently entry  or a f t e r construction  Not much i s known o f the t h i r d b u i l d i n g phase which  ended w i t h the r e c o n s e c r a t i o n  24) .  o f the Tuscan s t y l e M a r t i n i  o f the church i n 1493 (Appendix I I ,  There i s no documentation o f the o r i g i n a l s i t e o f the a l t a r ,  which appears t o have been d i s m a n t l e d and reassembled a t some time. the p o s s i b l e  a l l u s i o n i n S a b e l l i c o ' s 1493 n o t i c e  of the c h u r c h of the a l t a r .  4 3  the contemporary n o t i c e s  to i t s l o c a t i o n on one s i d e  do n o t d i r e c t l y i n d i c a t e the s i t e  The o r d e r i n which Sansovino (1581) d e s c r i b e s  t h e three  a l t a r s o f the F o s c a r i f a m i l y ,  o f Job, and o f the Sanudo f a m i l y  w i t h the p r e s e n t s e q u e n c e .  I t seems most l i k e l y t h a t  structed  44  f i r s t by the L o m b a r d i . ^ 4  corresponds  the frame was con-  I f the p o s i t i o n o f B e l l i n i ' s  i s o r i g i n a l , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t as the f i r s t which had only  Beyon  altarpiece  use o f the r i g h t , " s o u t h " w a l l  r e c e n t l y been completed, b l o c k i n g  the p r e - e x i s t i n g  Gothic  4ft windows. two  I t i n i t i a t e s a s e r i e s of w a l l  decorations,  most i m p o r t a n t l y  f l a n k i n g a l t a r s w i t h a l t a r p i e c e s by C a r p a c c i o and B a s a i t i d a t i n g  the  after  82  1500 which correspond g e n e r a l l y a l t a r p i e c e frame ( F i g . 4 ) . architecture  t o the h i g h , stone arched format o f t h e Job  The i l l u s i o n i s t i c  correspondence o f the p a i n t e d  to t h a t of the frame has the e f f e c t of c r e a t i n g a f u l l  c h a p e l , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the s e r i e s o f r e a l chapels on the o p p o s i t e , wall. its  The C a r p a c c i o a l t a r p i e c e i m i t a t e s  painted  (Fig.  45). The  architecture  does not f o l l o w  this i l l u s i o n i s t i c  sized "north"  e f f e c t , although  t h a t of the frame so p e r f e c t l y  The B a s a i t i a l t a r appears t o open outwards onto a l a n d s c a p e . only  clue  to the i d e n t i t y o f the donor o f the a l t a r p i e c e i s t h e  coat of arms b e a r i n g a b r i d l e d h o r s e rampant which i s r e p e a t e d on t h e two bases o f the framing a r c h i t e c t u r e  o f the p a i n t i n g  (Fig. 5 ) . ^  There i s a  tomb s l a b i n the pavement o f the church a t t h e f o o t o f the s t e p s t o the altar.  It i s possible  t h a t i t belonged to the f a m i l y  o f the donor, a l t h o u g h  i t now bears the name C o s t a n t i n o B e l l o t t o , and the date 1728 (Appendix I I , entry  26).  E . A . Cicogna suggests t h a t i t c o u l d have been taken over by  another f a m i l y a t a l a t e r d a t e . have been a s s o c i a t e d  That t h e tomb o f a p r i v a t e donor  could  w i t h the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s r e i n f o r c e d by the  correspondence o f f a m i l y  tomb s l a b s  to the coats o f arms which appear i n 48  the same l o c a t i o n on the frames o f the two f l a n k i n g It i s possible  that  altarpieces.  the a l t a r p i e c e , a l t a r and tomb s l a b  form a s i n g l e  f u n e r a r y complex.  The p i c t o r i a l space o f the a l t a r p i e c e c r e a t e s  illusion  s i z e c h a p e l on the south w a l l o f the church  (Fig.  of a f u l l  37, and Chapter Two).  interior  The a l t a r p i e c e frame, a l t a r and s t e p s form  an a r c h i t e c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e  u n i t which i s c o n t i n u e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l  and  decorative  u n i t which i s c o n t i n u e d by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  and  decoration  o f the p a i n t e d  v i s u a l e f f e c t created  the strong  chapel.  construction,  As observed i n Chapter Two, t h e  by the a l t a r p i e c e i n i t s framing u n i t i s o f a r e a l  83  c h a p e l space p r o j e c t i n g forward church. ^  xhe  4  correspondences  p e r s p e c t i v e , and Renaissance  from the w a l l i n t o the i n t e r i o r of  the l i g h t i n g  of  the  with  the  the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms, the altarpiece  s t y l e of the Church, the viewpoint  spatial  frame, the Tuscan  of the s p e c t a t o r , and  the  n a t u r a l i l l u m i n a t i o n of the Church i n t e r i o r , c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n of a r e a l c h a p e l space , c o e x t e n s i v e i n time and p l a c e w i t h t h a t of the viewer before i t .  standing  The i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a t i a l e x t e n s i o n of the c h a p e l i n c l u d e s by  i m p l i c a t i o n the tomb of the donor i n the pavement b e f o r e the a l t a r . o t h e r words, the viewer's  a x i s of s i g h t i n c l u d e s the tomb s l a b , a l t a r ,  c h a p e l space of the a l t a r p i e c e , a v e s t i b u l e area e n t e r e d by a arch  In and  triumphal  i n which s a i n t s i n t e r c e d e i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the L a s t Judgement  .before  the enthronement of C h r i s t and Mary i n the apse, as can be seen i n diagram combining the r e a l p l a n of the a l t a r w i t h the f i c t i v e p l a n of the  pictorial  space ( F i g . 9 ) . The i l l u s i o n i s t i c  c h a p e l c r e a t e d by the Job a l t a r ensemble may  i n t e n d e d to c r e a t e the e q u i v a l e n t , reduced chapel.  be  i n a c t u a l a r e a , of a b u r i a l  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the commission and  f u n e r a r y f u n c t i o n of  B o t t i c e l l i ' s U f f i z i A d o r a t i o n of the Magi i n S. M a r i a N o v e l l a , F l o r e n c e , Rab  H a t f i e l d i m p l i e s t h a t the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e f i n i t i o n of a b u r i a l  chapel i s f u n c t i o n a l  r a t h e r than  architectural:  Any arrangement i n which a l t a r and tomb were combined might be c a l l e d a c h a p e l . A n t o n e l l o ' s San Cassiano P i e t r o Bon  may  p a i n t e d f o r the  patrician  have had a f u n e r a r y or at l e a s t commemorative f u n c t i o n .  K e y d e l has noted a l t a r p i e c e and  sacra conversazione  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the San  Giobbe  i t s frame to the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the t r i u m p h a l archway to  Moro's b u r i a l c h a p e l , and  suggests  t h e r e may  be a " c o n n e c t i o n  between the  84  environment of b u r i a l chapels and  the s e t t i n g of a Sacra  Conversazione  52 (compare F i g s . 2, 3 and 17).  Moro's c h a p e l i s an ensemble of a l t a r p i e c e  d e d i c a t e d to h i s p a t r o n s a i n t , a l t a r , and  tomb, w i t h i n a Renaissance  archi-  t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g c a r r y i n g t r i u m p h a l meaning.53 Other formats, had similar.  s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e s by B e l l i n i , of  f u n e r a r y f u n c t i o n s to which the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e may  The contemporary v o t i v e p a i n t i n g , dated 1488,  B a r b a r i g o b e i n g p r e s e n t e d by S t . Mark to the V i r g i n and c o n s i s t i n g of f u l l (Fig.  differing  53),5^ was  of Doge A g o s t i n o Christ  Child,  l e n g t h f i g u r e s i n a l o g g i a a g a i n s t a landscape  donated  be  vista  to the h i g h a l t a r of S. M a r i a d e g l i A n g e l i , Murano,  w i t h the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t the s i s t e r s of the convent were to pray f o r B a r b a r i g o ' s s o u l and life.55  xhe  the s o u l s of a l l h i s f a m i l y who  t r i p t y c h of the V i r g i n Enthroned  V e n i c e , a l s o dated 1488, a r c h a i c form of framing  had passed  from  w i t h S a i n t s a t the  i s a sacra conversazione notwithstanding ( F i g . 39).5^  s l a b of F r a n c e s c h i n a Tron Pesaro, endowed the a l t a r p i e c e and  this  Frari, the  i t i s p l a c e d on an a l t a r over the tomb  i n whose memory her husband and sons had  c h a p e l of the F r a r i s a c r i s t y . 5 7  I n v o c a t i o n of  Mary as the "Sure Gate of Heaven" i n the v a u l t i n s c r i p t i o n expresses  the  hope of s a l v a t i o n f o r F r a n c e s c h i n a and her male r e l a t i v e s who are r e p r e s e n t e d 58 i n the a l t a r p i e c e by t h e i r onomastic s a i n t s . A second s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e 59 p a i n t e d by B e l l i n i  i n 1507  d e l l a V i g n a , V e n i c e , was accordance  f o r Giacomo D o l p h i n s c h a p e l  Francesco  a l s o p l a c e d on an a l t a r over the donor's tomb, i n  w i t h the s t i p u l a t i o n s of h i s testament  I t may  i n San  ( F i g . 54).  be t h a t F l o r e n t i n e t r a d i t i o n , whose i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n t both  i n the Lombardesque a r c h i t e c t u r e and d e c o r a t i o n a t San Tuscan M a r t i n i chapel and  Giobbe, i n the n o t a b l y  i n the u n d e r l y i n g concept of Moro's b u r i a l  chapel.  85  provides  a precedent f o r B e l l i n i ' s  funerary  ensemble i n Masaccio's  germinal  62 Trinity  fresco  s k e l e t o n and  ( F i g . 38).  The  presence of the two  donors and  i n s c r i p t i o n below i n d i c a t e the f u n e r a r y  of  theme of the  the fresco.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s theme might f o  have f u n e r a r y meaning. of the we  Recent s t u d i e s have proposed the f u n e r a r y  f r e s c o i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a detached a l t a r and  l a c k f i r m documentation of the e x i s t e n c e  a tomb s l a b .  I t seems p o s s i b l e  4  t h a t not o n l y the a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms of Masaccio's T r i n i t y might  funerary  context,  Although  of t h i s ensemble, i t would have  conformed to a t r a d i t i o n of F l o r e n t i n e tomb monuments.^  meaning s u i t a b l e to a f u n e r a r y  function  but  t h a t i t was  carry  i n f a c t p a r t of a  complex that c o u l d have been a precedent f o r B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e . I t can be  argued t h a t B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e has  theme, t h a t of the R e s u r r e c t i o n d o c t r i n e s of the I n c a r n a t i o n Eucharist  mystery, which i s expressed i n the  of C h r i s t and  i n t o h i s r e a l body.  an eminently  According  funerary two  of the t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of  to  the  Schiller:  Western theology sees an extremely c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between I n c a r n a t i o n and the d o c t r i n e of redemption...From the l a t e t w e l f t h century onwards t h e s e two c l o s e l y l i n k e d a r t i c l e s of f a i t h — t h e I n c a r n a t i o n of God and Redemption of man through C h r i s t ' s expiatory death—came i n c r e a s i n g l y conspicuously to occupy a prominent p o s i t i o n i n both t h e o l o g y and art."-* From the time t h a t the A n n u n c i a t i o n to Mary was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the moment of C h r i s t ' s I n c a r n a t i o n ,  i t was  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the most important date i n ft f  C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y , the b e g i n n i n g of God's new The  Annunciation/Incarnation  of the C h r i s t i a n Church.  The  and  covenant w i t h mankind.  the R e s u r r e c t i o n  form the c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e  t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n doctrine,which  under d i s c u s s i o n i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , ^  i s considered  m y s t e r i o u s , a c t u a l re-enactment of the I n c a r n a t i o n , and  e f f i c a c i o u s presence of C h r i s t i n the  Eucharist.  to be  was the  emphasizing the fiR  still  living  86  The most important  exponent of t h i s theme i s the C h r i s t C h i l d him-  s e l f , whose r e p r e s e n t a t i o n combines a l l u s i o n s to the I n c a r n a t i o n , P a s s i o n and  Resurrection.  S m a l l , naked, p a t h e t i c , he i s enveloped  by the massive  d r a p e r i e s of Mary i n whose womb he r e c e i v e d m o r t a l l i f e ; p o i n t i n g to h i s 69 f u t u r e wound, C h r i s t  the C h i l d i s the s a c r i f i c e o f f e r e d by the  Hodegetria,  the s a c r i f i c e which i s c e l e b r a t e d i n the Mass, and he i s thus the lent  to the Host,  animation and The  the h o l y r e l i c of the c o n s e c r a t e d a l t a r . ^  t r a n s f i g u r e d e x p r e s s i o n evoke the triumph  Her  His erectness,  of R e s u r r e c t i o n .  themes which converge i n the C h r i s t C h i l d are expressed  elements of the p a i n t i n g . theme.  equiva-  i n other  The d e p i c t i o n of Mary r e i n f o r c e s the I n c a r n a t i o n  enthronement i n an apse i s an a n c i e n t symbol of the I n c a r n a t i o n  which i s found i n e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e a r t . ^  The  Annunciation  r e f e r e n c e of the i n s c r i p t i o n s and of the V i r g i n ' s g e s t u r e are more e x p l i c i t indications.  The g e s t u r e of Mary's l e f t hand i s unprecedented 72  singly close i n effect response  to a g e s t u r e of b l e s s i n g  to the f a l l of b r i l l i a n t  ( F i g . 57).  surpri-  It i s a  l i g h t , an acknowledgement of Job's p r a y e r  and a r e f e r e n c e to the A n n u n c i a t i o n and to t h a t of an Annunciate  and  Incarnation.  The g e s t u r e i s s i m i l a r  type found i n V e n e t i a n s c u l p t u r e (compare F i g s .  73 58)  and a l s o appears  A n n u n c i a t i o n , which may ( F i g . 59) J * 1  Uffizi  have been p a i n t e d by Leonardo i n the e a r l y 1470's  The d e s c r i p t i o n by a mendicant p r e a c h e r of the  c e n t u r y , F r a Roberto state,  i n F l o r e n t i n e A n n u n c i a t i o n s , such as the  fifteenth  C a r a c c i o l o of the c o n c e p t i o n as the f i f t h  emotional  "meritatio,"  when the V i r g i n Mary c o n c e i v e d C h r i s t her s o u l r o s e to such l o f t y and sublime contemplation of the a c t i o n and sweetness of d i v i n e t h i n g s t h a t , i n the presence of the b e a t i f i c v i s i o n , she passed beyond the e x p e r i e n c e of every o t h e r c r e a t e d b e i n g . . . P r o b a b l y , i n her profound h u m i l i t y , she r a i s e d her eyes to heaven and then lowered them,75  57,  87  i s remarkably  c l o s e to the e f f e c t of B e l l i n i ' s Mary.  The importance  of  the A n n u n c i a t i o n theme i n V e n e t i a n tomb iconography i s noted by Sheard, observes  who  that  The A n n u n c i a t i o n i s one of the o l d e s t and most p e r v a s i v e themes of V e n e t i a n tomb s c u l p t u r e . ^ As the Sedes S a p i e n t i a e , the throne of Mary r e f e r s to the made i n c a r n a t e i n C h r i s t , and  to the majesty of the r e s u r r e c t e d Redeemer.^7  However, i t s s t r o n g e s t r e f e r e n c e s i n B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e appear the E u c h a r i s t i c aspect of C h r i s t . l i t e r a r y , and v i s u a l ,  Logos,  to be to  In C h r i s t o l o g i c a l iconography, both  " a l t a r , " "tomb," and  " t h r o n e " are v i r t u a l l y  synonymous  symbols of C h r i s t ' s death, r e s u r r e c t i o n and l i v i n g , c o n t i n u i n g presence i n the E u c h a r i s t . ^ e a r t h because  In C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f  the a l t a r i s the h o l i e s t p l a c e on  i t r e c e i v e s the body of C h r i s t i n the E u c h a r i s t , and i s the  s i t e of God's r e a l presence and communion w i t h the w o r s h i p p e r . ^  The most  b a s i c meaning of the a l t a r , one which i s connected w i t h i t s h i s t o r i c is  t h a t of b u r i a l , and  s a i n t r e l i c s , was Furthermore  origins,  the a l t a r , a s i d e from i t s f r e q u e n t f u n c t i o n of h o u s i n g  seen as the tomb of C h r i s t and  the s i t e of h i s R e s u r r e c t i o n .  d e v o t i o n to the c o n s e c r a t e d Host as the Corpus,  and i t s d i s p l a y  on the a l t a r , l e a d to r e v e r e n c e of the a l t a r as the "throne of the Royal Body" and i n Greek metaphor "God's throne and mercy s e a t . "  on  In r e l i g i o u s  iconography the image of the V i r g i n h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d i s an  analogue  01 of the appearance imagery  o f the Host on the a l t a r .  a r e Masaccio's  1426  A  Two  examples o f t h i s  conflated  P i s a p o l y p t y c h where the s t r i g i l a t i o n s on  the  base of Mary's throne r e c a l l a n t i q u e s a r c o p h a g i ( F i g . 62) and Mantegna's Dead C h r i s t , a t Copenhagen, where C h r i s t ' s tomb assumes the a s p e c t of a Q O  throne.  In B e l l i n i ' s own  the E u c h a r i s t i c imagery  oeuvre  t h e r e i s an example of a throne b e a r i n g  of the a l t a r : i n the U f f i z i  Sacred A l l e g o r y Mary's  88  throne i s decorated by object.  grapes  hanging from a c o r n u c o p i a above a  E u c h a r i s t i c imagery may  a l t a r s , as can be  be  i n s p i r e d by  seen i n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e s by  lower, Cima da Conegliano ( F i g . 48). by a s i m i l a r use such as The  decoration  of antique  the r e l i e f  motifs  decoration  f l o r a l stems on  E u c h a r i s t i c symbol.  be  t h a t Cima was  i n B e l l i n i ' s San  emphasized by.the s t r i k i n g m o t i f  expression.^  the a l t a r b e a r i n g  of d i s c and  c r o s s which surmounts i t .  the n a t u r a l l i g h t f u r t h e r a c c e n t u a t e them.  metal, i t r e c a l l s  I t may  against  be  design  intended  gold  The  disc  i n s p i r e d by  the  frequently  L i g h t and  shade d e f i n e  the  usual  of the E u c h a r i s t i c p a t e n , to r e p r e s e n t  the e l e v a t e d  the c i r c u l a r wafer which a t the moment of e l e v a t i o n and  believed  century  be  Although of marble, not  the c o n c e n t r i c lobed  the v e s s e l of the H o s t . ^  was  orb of C h r i s t ' s dominion.  a l t a r s w i t h i t s companion v e s s e l the ewer.  The  T h e i r meaning goes  of a l i t u r g i c a l v e s s e l , and may  i t s shallow s a u c e r - l i k e d e p r e s s i o n .  itself,  gold cross  s a c r i f i c i a l v e s s e l , the p a t e r a , a m o t i f which appears  on a n t i q u e  of  C h r i s t as the Host i s  d e l i c a t e l y a p p l i e d touches of r e a l  beyond t h a t of the f a m i l i a r c r o s s and  antique  cornucopia.  4  f a l l of p i c t o r i a l l i g h t s i l h o u e t t e s the marble d i s c and the dark shadows of the apse and  fol-  influenced  c o r n u c o p i a i s a f a m i l i a r symbol of C h a r i t y ,  That the throne r e p r e s e n t s  i s strongly reminiscent  Bellini's  throne i n c l u d e heads of wheat, a  which C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e i s the d i v i n e  caught by  antique  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e ,  of f l o r a l stems, palmettes and  the s i d e s of the The  I t may  of  chalice-like  to become the r e a l body of C h r i s t and which i n the  was  the o b j e c t of the f e r v e n t c u l t of the Corpus  The  c r u c i f i x i s the c e n t r a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l  and  Host  consecration fifteenth  Christi.  iconographical  point.  89  of the a l t a r p i e c e , l o c a t e d at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l h o r i z o n t a l axes of the p a i n t i n g .  and  I t i s l i t u r g i c a l a l s o i n the sense t h a t  the c r u c i f i x i s the p r i n c i p a l ornament of the a l t a r and i t must be v i s i b l e to a l l who c e l e b r a t e the Mass.8? The  c r o s s has  a d i s t i n c t i v e form which can be i d e n t i f i e d as the  Byzantine  " f o l i a t e c r o s s " of s a l v a t i o n which i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e c o r a t i o n  of  Byzantine  Fraser's  church doors i n both Byzantium and  r e c e n t study  Italy  ( F i g . 63).  M.  of the f o l i a t e c r o s s i n the d e c o r a t i o n of the c e n t r a l and  south  a t r i u m doors of San Marco demonstrates i t s meaning of i n t e r c e s s i o n and v a t i o n . 88  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  the e u c h a r i s t i c d i s c , i t s t r e s s e s the  power of the Host, the e t e r n a l l y l i v i n g body of C h r i s t and  sal-  living  the r e a l i t y  of  salvation.89 The  a r c h i t e c t u r a l space of the a l t a r p i e c e i s a k i n d of s a c r e d  space,  90 a s h r i n e to house the mystery of the E u c h a r i s t .  I t p a r a l l e l s the  i n g f u n c t i o n of Mary who  i s the pre-eminent s h r i n e or t a b e r n a c l e of  Incarnate  a r c h i t e c t u r e of the San  Christ.^1  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h a t of Masaccio's T r i n i t y , may which F r e i b e r g has  i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s study  containthe  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , i n i t s c a r r y the E u c h a r i s t i c meaning  of the i n f l u e n c e of Masaccio's 92  f r e s c o on the sacrament t a b e r n a c l e i n I t a l i a n s c u l p t u r e  i n which he  f i e s the a r c h i t e c t u r a l form of a c e n t r a l v a u l t e d chamber w i t h  two  lateral  chambers as the tabernaculum d e i , an i d e a l c o n t a i n e r f o r the I n c a r n a t e The  use of p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  identi-  God.  furthermore,  i n i t s p a r a d o x i c a l c a p a c i t y to t r a n s f o r m images i n t o i n t a n g i b l e r e a l i t i e s , o f f e r s a v i s u a l analogue to the m i r a c l e of t r a n s u b . 9 3 stantxation. J  Because of the e q u i v a l e n c e  of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and  s a c r e d c o n t a i n e r s of the I n c a r n a t e  human " e n c l o s u r e s "  as  C h r i s t Masaccio's a r c h i t e c t u r a l form i s  s u i t a b l e not o n l y to sacrament t a b e r n a c l e s , but a l s o to l a r g e s c a l e  90  a l t a r p i e c e s with  a E u c h a r i s t i c theme, such as the A n n u n c i a t i o n  Enthroned V i r g i n and  Saints.  An  by a B e l l i n i f o l l o w e r , B o c c a c c i o  and  example of the former i s the Boccaccino  the  Annunciation  whose a r c h i t e c t u r e r e c a l l s  that  Q A  developed by B e l l i n i  i n h i s sacre conversazioni  ( F i g . 46).  In the  San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e the area of the p a i n t i n g i n which E u c h a r i s t i c iconography has been i d e n t i f i e d enclosed by  forms a r e c t a n g u l a r u n i t of the h o l y b e i n g s  the throne,  surmounted by a l i t u r g i c a l d i s c and  d i v i s i o n of zones i n the a l t a r p i e c e i s compared w i t h t a b e r n a c l e such as the 1461 Lorenzo, F l o r e n c e  completely  cross.  t a b e r n a c l e by D e s i d e r i o da S e t t i g n a n o  in  t a b e r n a c l e door  behind  c r o s s correspond  w i t h a zone of the t a b e r n a c l e f r e q u e n t l y r e s e r v e d  for  S. E g i d i o , F l o r e n c e ,  which i s s t o r e d the c o n s e c r a t e d  The  the Host.  The  the b e l i e f  theme of R e s u r r e c t i o n i s emphasized ( F i g . 8) who  the s i g h t of the r e s u r r e c t e d C h r i s t b e f o r e  as an Old Testament type  foreshadowing the s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t of the  f i f t e e n t h century  popular  c u l t of Mary and  devotion  by  indeed  commentary and  c u l a r accorded  f o r the  tabernacle  Furthermore, i n b i b l i c a l  The  d i s c and  i n the l i v i n g , m i r a c l e power  the presence of the prophet of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , Job t r a n s f i x e d by  the  i n the sense of i n d i v i d u a l s a l v a t i o n i s  l i n k e d to that of the E u c h a r i s t by  appears to be  The  San  96  theme of R e s u r r e c t i o n  of C h r i s t ' s r e l i c ,  Host.  c h a l i c e , as i n Bernardo R o s s e l l i n o ' s 1450.  the  t h a t of a sacrament  ( F i g . 41),^5 the r e c t a n g u l a r u n i t corresponds to  d e p i c t i o n of the Host and  If  Job was  him.  regarded  Franciscan devotion  Passion. in  e f f i c a c y of the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l and the f o r g i v e n e s s of s i n .  Mary was  its  The own  F r a n c i s c a n s b e l i e v e d i n the a c t i o n i n obtaining merit  both a model f o r the s p i r i t u a l  life  9  parti-  her an e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n as supreme mediator on the b a s i s of  her redemptive r o l e at the A n n u n c i a t i o n .  9  and that  91  earned m e r i t , and an i n t e r c e s s o r w i t h God on b e h a l f o f the i n d i v i d u a l . S t . B e r n a r d i n o f S i e n a , c o n s i d e r e d by Graef  to be the author o f the worst  m a r i o l a t r o u s e x a g g e r a t i o n s , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f i n a l s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o f Mary took p l a c e a t the A n n u n c i a t i o n and t h a t h e r consent m e r i t e d h e r a l l g r a c e , world dominion, and p e r f e c t knowledge, and a p o s i t i o n s u p e r i o r i n some 99  r e s p e c t s to t h a t o f C h r i s t . V i r g i n suggests  The Annunciate  g e s t u r e o f B e l l i n i s San Giobbe  t h a t moment, " m e r i t a t i o , " i n which knowing consent  t o both  the I n c a r n a t i o n and s a c r i f i c e o f h e r son earned h e r t h e p o s i t i o n o f co-redemptress."'"^  The importance  of Mary i n p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by  metaphors o f her as t h e s o l e p o r t a l to heaven, mentioned above, f o r example, the "Sure gate o f heaven" i n v o c a t i o n i n the v a u l t i n s c r i p t i o n o f B e l l i n i ' s F r a r i triptych."'"^"'" The i n v o c a t i o n o f i n t e r c e s s i o n i s the major purpose o f t h e d o n a t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e and the f u n c t i o n o f i t s iconography. two a s p e c t s to the d o n a t i o n : p u b l i c and p r i v a t e .  There appear to be  The d e d i c a t i o n o f an a l t a r  to Job w i t h an a l t a r p i e c e i n which he i s g i v e n an u n u s u a l l y prominent  posi-  t i o n i n s t r o n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C h r i s t C h i l d and Mary s t r e s s e s h i s importance  as the t i t u l a r s a i n t o f the church  and h i s power to i n t e r c e d e w i t h C h r i s t , through  the V i r g i n , on b e h a l f of t h e  102 hospital.  He and to a g r e a t e r degree,  S t . S e b a s t i a n , r e p r e s e n t an ....  i n v o c a t i o n a g a i n s t the plague which f r e q u e n t l y s t r u c k V e n i c e , and o f which 103  t h e r e was a s e v e r e outbreak  i n 1485,  c l o s e to the date o f t h e a l t a r p i e c e .  The p u b l i c aspect o f the d o n a t i o n i s then to honour the t i t u l a r  s a i n t of the  h o s p i t a l and church and to invoke the i n t e r c e s s i o n of both s a i n t s w i t h t h e V i r g i n concerning p u b l i c welfare.  The p r i v a t e aspect o f the d o n a t i o n , the  p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n o f the donor, i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a p a t r o n  92  saint.  The  prominent p o s i t i o n of S t . F r a n c i s  confrontation  i n the a l t a r p i e c e , h i s d i r e c t  w i t h the viewer, the downward g e s t u r e of h i s r i g h t hand,  his representation  as the A l t e r C h r i s t u s ,  and  i n a d d i t i o n to the p o p u l a r b e l i e f  i n h i s e f f i c a c y as an i n t e r c e s s o r , suggest t h a t he of the s i x s a i n t s i s most l i k e l y to r e p r e s e n t the d o n o r . versazione type.in  I  her  n  s  t u d y of the g e n e s i s of the s a c r a  the T r e c e n t p j G o f f e n suggests t h a t  i t s theme, o r i g i n a t i n g  i n the context of Mendicant d e v o t i o n , i s i n t e r c e s s i o n . a l t a r p i e c e , reunited the s a c r a include  the w o r s h i p p e r , and The  a sacred  Giobbe  awaits L a s t  The  sacra  express the f u n e r a r y theme of  i t s invocation  context of a f u n e r a r y ensemble, p l a u s i b l e y e t tomb, and  under the p o s s i b l e  another of the s i x s a i n t s , t h e r e may s a l v a t i o n i n the commission of the  be  the p l a g u e .  c o n j e c t u r a l , of  In  altarpiece.  titular  the  altarpiece,  s p o n s o r s h i p of S t . F r a n c i s a p r i v a t e a s p e c t of  of  The  a p u b l i c a s p e c t i n i t s homage of the  f o r i n t e r c e s s i o n against  to  Resurrection.  c o n v e r s a z i o n e format c a r r i e s the i d e a of i n t e r c e s s i o n .  d o n a t i o n of the a l t a r p i e c e has  of  Judgement.  E u c h a r i s t i c iconography of the Madonna's enthronement and  tabernaculum d e i a r c h i t e c t u r e  a l t a r and  San  space t h a t extends forward  the deceased who  the  s a i n t and  The  w i t h i t s frame, p e r f e c t l y r e a l i z e s the requirement  c o n v e r s a z i o n e to c r e a t e  con-  or  personal  93  NOTES  1.  P a o l e t t i , P., L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a e l a s c u l t u r a d e l Rinascimento i n V e n e z i a , R i c e r c h e S t o r i c o - a r t i s t i c h e , V e n i c e , 1893, v o l . 2. p. 74, w r i t e s t h a t a t San Giobbe the a r t of the Renaissance " s i m a n i f e s t a d e l t u t t o l i b e r a da o g n i v i n c o l o d e l l ' a r t e o g i v a l e . " On p. 191 he speaks o f the "nuova s t i l e a c u i i l Doge Moro, l'amico d e i P a p i P i o I I e Paolo I I ( P i e t r o Barbo veneziano) e d i a l t r i g r a n d i mecenati d e l Rinascimento, ha l ' o n o r e d i aver f i n a l m e n t e dato i n V e n e z i a l ' i m p u l s o r i s o l u t i v o . "  2.  I b i d . , pp. 190-194.  3.  I b i d . , p. 194; E. A. Cicogna, D e l l e I n s c r i z i o n i Veneziane, V e n i c e , 1824-1853, Bologna, 1969, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, Document 1, p. 723: "La t e r z a e d i f i c a t i o n e comenza d a l l a C a p p e l l a M a r i n i [ s i c ] v e r s o l ' a c q u a . . . : and i n s c r i p t i o n 34, p. 603 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i ) , K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " 1969, pp. 152, 156. Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a , V e n i c e , 1976, p. 110, suggests t h a t the asymmetrical d e s i g n of the church may be due to the c l o i s t e r wing once s i t u a t e d a g a i n s t the south w a l l which p r e c l u d e d the e x t e n s i o n of chapels on t h a t s i d e of the church.  4.  I b i d . , pp. 109-110.  5.  The words " o s p i z i o " and " o s p e d a l e " are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , see e n t r i e s 3 and 6, Appendix I I . Giuseppe B o e r i o , D i z i o n a r i o d e l d i a l e t t o v e n e z i a n o , 2 ed., V e n i c e , 1856, l i s t s " o s p i z i o " and " o s p i t a l e " as synonyms: " P l a c e where s t r a n g e r s are lodged w i t h o u t payment or which g i v e s s h e l t e r to the poor f o r c h a r i t y . "  6.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p.  7.  I b i d . , p. 755, f o r e x t r a c t s of the w i l l of G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i , Appendix I I , e n t r y 6.  8.  Tramontin, C u l t o d e i S a n t i , 1965, p. Venezia f i g u r a t r a i p i u r e c e n t i d e i i l 21 dicembre 1389..." The c u l t o f l i n k e d w i t h the E a s t e r n Church, l o c . e n t r y 4.  703. and  166: " I I c u l t o d i codesto santo a v e c c h i o t e s t a m e n t a r i , documentato Job i n Venice does not seem to be c i t . See a l s o Appendix I I ,  Perhaps the c h o i c e o f Job r e f l e c t s the s p i r i t u a l i d e a l of p o v e r t y and r e n u n c i a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l w o r l d , f o r which G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i h i m s e l f was r e v e r e d . For example, Beato G i o v a n n i d a l l e C e l l e of F l o r e n c e . c o u n s e l l e d Colombini of Siena and h i s s u p p o r t e r s t h a t p o v e r t y i s the o n l y way to s a l v a t i o n , i n the words of the G o s p e l s , Job and Seneca,"  94  (M. Meiss, P a i n t i n g i n F l o r e n c e and Siena a f t e r the B l a c k Death, P r i n c e t o n , N.J., 1951, p . 85). Tramontin suggests t h a t the V e n e t i a n s a y i n g "povero g i o p o " r e f e r s to the impoverished circumstances of the h o s p i t a l o f San Giobbe and t h a t t h i s i s the source o f the V e n e t i a n p l a c e name " s . Agiopo," Tramontin, l o c . c i t . See Chapter Two, note 37. 9.  Tramontin, l o c . c i t . The l a t e M e d i e v a l view o f Job i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r below, p . 90, n. 98.  10.  " m i e i Commessarii" i n the Testament o f G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i and "mia commissaria" i n the Testament o f C r i s t o f o r o Moro. The t h r e e s u b s t a n t i a l l e g a c i e s to San Giobbe i n the f i r s t century o f i t s h i s t o r y were those of G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i , h i s daughter L u c i a D o l f i n , and Doge C r i s t o f o r o Moro. The Testament o f Moro i s p u b l i s h e d by C i c o g n a , I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, pp. 728-732. E x t r a c t s from C o n t a r i n i ' s Testament appear pp. 755-756.  11.  B. P u l l a n , R i c h and Poor i n Renaissance V e n i c e , The S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s of a C a t h o l i c S t a t e , to 1620, Oxford, 19 71, pp. 209-210. F o r the h i s t o r i c o r i g i n and the powers of the P r o c u r a t o r i a , see 0. Demus, The Church of San Marco i n V e n i c e , Washington, D.C., 1960, p. 53. :  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t C r i s t o f o r o Moro was a p r o c u r a t o r o f San Giobbe and i n v o l v e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E l i s a b e t t a Bragadin's d o n a t i o n of l a n d to the church (Appendix I I , e n t r y 13; C i c o g n a , I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 533). 12.  See Appendix I I , e n t r y 10. The V e n e t i a n Pope Eugenius IV a p p o i n t e d San Lorenzo G i u s t i n i a n i , Bishop o f C a s t e l l o , Tommaso Tommasini, Bishop of F e l t r e , and F a n t i n o Dandolo, P r o t o n o t a r i o A p o s t o l i c o , the matter b e i n g d e c i d e d i n the absence o f Tommasini ( F l a m i n i o Corner, N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e d e l l e Chiese e M o n a s t e r i de V e n e z i a , e d i T o r c e l l o , Padua, 1758, p. 285).  13.  P u l l a n , R i c h and Poor, 1971, p. 219. The f i r s t permanent m a g i s t r a c y i n charge o f p u b l i c ' h e a l t h was s e t up i n 1486, p o s s i b l y i n response to the outbreak o f plague i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . I n the Cinquecento t h e r e were a t l e a s t 40 s m a l l , independent h o s p i t a l s o f M e d i e v a l o r i g i n i n V e n i c e ( i b i d . , p . 207). The h o s p i t a l o f San Giobbe was one o f the l a r g e r , more important o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s .  14.  I b i d . , p. 213. In r e l a t i o n to c h a r i t a b l e donations made i n V e n i c e d u r i n g the T u r k i s h Wars o f the 1470's P u l l a n remarks: "The need to earn d i v i n e f a v o u r , which might b r i n g success i n t h i s h o l y war, i n s p i r e d the c i t y to good works: a s t a t e , l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l person, c o u l d c o l l e c t i v e l y a c q u i r e m e r i t i n the s i g h t o f God," (see note 15 below).  15.  I b i d . , p. 214 and note 50 c i t e s the d e c l a r a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e a p p e a r i n g i n a decree o f the Maggior C o n s i g l i o recommending f i n a n c i a l support o f  95  h o s p i t a l s , dated March 12,  1503:  The c h i e f and most s a l u t a r y means of o b t a i n i n g d i v i n e favour f o r a s t a t e and r e p u b l i c , j u s t as f o r p r i v a t e p e r s o n s , i s the maintenance of the poor, i n whom the person of our Lord Jesus C h r i s t i s r e p r e s e n t e d , and hence the c h i e f ornament of every most n o b l e c i t y i s , and always has been some e x c e l l e n t h o s p i t a l f o r f e e d i n g the poor. 16.  The F r a t i M i n o r i O s s e r v a n t i were a branch of the F r a n c i s c a n Order which p r a c t i s e d s t r i c t observance of S t . F r a n c i s ' Rule of Poverty ( J . R. Moorman, A H i s t o r y of the F r a n c i s c a n Order, Oxford, 1968, p. 375). The Observants were e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d growth d u r i n g the f i f t e e n t h century due to t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r s a n c t i t y , t h e i r d e v o t i o n to the B l e s s e d V i r g i n Mary, and to the powerful i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r g r e a t i t i n e r a n t preachers ( i b i d . , p. 373). An i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s growth i s the i n c r e a s e i n convents of 35 i n 1416 to 230 i n 1444 (death of S t . Bernardin).  17.  P u l l a n , op.  18.  The Observants were known f o r t h e i r f e r v e n t d e v o t i o n V i r g i n Mary as supreme M e d i a t r i x .  19.  Moorman, op. c i t . , 1968, pp. 517-518, "the sermon became an event of great importance i n c i t y l i f e . " C i t y c o u n c i l s p a i d l a r g e sums f o r v i s i t s by p r e a c h i n g f r i a r s , to promote c i v i c peace. Popes and c i v i c l e a d e r s attempted to harness the power of the preachers to promote their p o l i t i c a l interests.  20.  Large numbers of g i f t s , l e g a c i e s were made to the Observants i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y : "...people on the whole b e l i e v e d t h a t they c o u l d h e l p them. Nor was t h i s c o n f i n e d to the i g n o r a n t and poor, but i n c l u d e d people of substance and many of the b e t t e r educated laymen i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y " ( i b i d . , p. 516). A common p r a c t i s e was f o r the b e n e f a c t o r to r e c e i v e a " L e t t e r of F r a t e r n i t y " : "For a sum of money, l e f t n o r m a l l y to a t h i r d p a r t y to a d m i n i s t e r on b e h a l f of the f r i a r s , a layman or laywoman c o u l d a c q u i r e the p r i v i l e g e of b e i n g b u r i e d i n the F r a n c i s c a n h a b i t and of b e i n g prayed f o r by the f r i a r s , " ( i b i d . , p. 120).  21.  I b i d . , pp.  22.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, pp. 574-575, 583 and n. 2, S t . Bernardin's p r e d i c t i o n of Moro's dogeship probably took p l a c e i n 1442 when Moro was c a p i t a n o of Padua (p. 583, n. 2) and became a w e l l known l e g e n d . S t . B e r n a r d i n and Moro had e s t a b l i s h e d a f r i e n d s h i p and one day the s a i n t t o l d the c a p i t a n o t h a t he would be doge a f t e r the death of Francesco F o s c a r i . Moro maintained h i s f a i t h i n the p r e d i c t i o n when Pasquale M a l i p i e r o became doge, s i n c e F o s c a r i had been deposed and was s t i l l l i v i n g . When the p r e d i c t i o n was f u l f i l l e d i n 1464 a f t e r the death of M a l i p i e r o , Moro's f a i t h i n and d e v o t i o n to S t . B e r n a r d i n  c i t . , pp.  202-213. to the  Blessed  455-465.  96  i n c r e a s e d . Moro commemorated the p r e d i c t i o n , which was i n e f f e c t a d i v i n e s a n c t i o n of h i s dogeship, w i t h a p a i n t i n g i n which the s a i n t shows a d u c a l crown to Moro, w i t h the words "ECCE CORONABERIS," "Behold, you w i l l be crowned." The p a i n t i n g was s t i l l i n the monastery of San Giobbe i n 1744. The a r t i s t and p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n are unknown. 23.  The p r o h i b i t i o n of p e r s o n a l monuments i n Venice l e d to the e r e c t i o n of m a g n i f i c e n t f u n e r a r y monuments o f t e n w i t h a commitment to c o n t r i b u t e to the c o n s t r u c t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g , or d e c o r a t i o n of the church o r c l o i s t e r . Monuments of p e r s o n a l commemoration were c r e a t e d under the a e g i s of religious benefaction.  24.  Paatz, K i r c h e n von F l o r e n z , v o l . 2, p. 495, and notes 178-179. The son of Cosimo de'Medici ( d i e d 1464) P i e r o d e ' M e d i c i , commissioned a tomb s l a b from V e r r o c c h i o i n 1465-1467, d i r e c t l y beneath the c u p o l a over the c r o s s i n g and b e f o r e the h i g h a l t a r , s e a l i n g a s h a f t to the c r y p t below, i n which the remains of Cosimo were i n t e r r e d . L i k e Moro, Cosimo i s b u r i e d i n the most prominent p o s i t i o n of a church which was r e b u i l t by h i s f a m i l y . (See a l s o G. Passavant, V e r r o c c h i o : S c u l p t u r e , P a i n t i n g s and Drawings, London, 1969, pp. 170-71 and C. Seymour, The S c u l p t u r e of V e r r o c c h i o , Greenwich, C o n n e c t i c u t , 19 71, p. 161) .  25.  J . Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance 2nd e d i t i o n , 1971, p. 339.  26.  Cicogna,  27.  I b i d . , p. 530 and i n s c r i p t i o n 109, p. 705. Cicogna, op. c i t . , p. 724, reproduces a h i s t o r y of the b u i l d i n g of the church of San Giobbe. I t r e p o r t s t h a t Moro wished to change the t i t l e of the church and t h a t i t s h o u l d be c a l l e d San B e r n a r d i n o , and t h a t he removed the a l t a r p i e c e , which had been t h a t of the o l d church, from the h i g h a l t a r of the new church, and put one of S t . B e r n a r d i n i n i t s p l a c e . H i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the f r i a r s s h o u l d beg i n the name of S t . B e r n a r d i n appears to have met r e s i s t a n c e , and the f r i a r s r e t u r n e d to m e n d i c a t i o n i n the name of Job who had had h i s own r e p u t a t i o n i n the o l d church.  28.  I b i d . , p. 530 and n. 13, c i t i n g F. Amadio Luzzo, L a V i t a d i S. Bernardino d i S i e n a , V e n i c e , 1744, pp. 254, 361.  29.  Demus, San Marco, 1960,  S c u l p t u r e , London, New  I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, pp.  pp.  3-19  and  York,  710-711.  Chapter  S i x , pp.  107-108.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 534. Cicogna r e c o r d s t h a t the f i f t e e n t h century wooden chest d e c o r a t e d on the f r o n t w i t h r e l i e f f i g u r e s of S t . Luke between two winged l i o n s of S t . Mark, s i t u a t e d on the a l t a r of the S a c r i s t y c h a p e l , c o n t a i n s the remains of the a l l e g e d r e l i c of S t . Luke. F i n o t t o , San Giobbe, 1971, however, i d e n t i f i e s the e v a n g e l i c a l symbols as the winged ox of S t . Luke. The importance of S t . Luke to the fame of San Giobbe i s i n d i c a t e d by S a b e l l i c o ' s n o t i c e ( d i s c u s s e d above, p. 2 ) which b e g i n s : "ad lob fundamenta per oram ducunt . h i e Lucae c o n d i t o r i u m " ( c i t e d by Cicogna, op. c i t . , p. 531).  97  30.  I b i d . , Document 5, pp.  728-732.  31.  I b i d . , p. 728, and see note 20 above. T h i s request was made a l s o by Cosimo de'Medici f o r h i s b u r i a l i n San Lorenzo, F l o r e n c e , a F r a n c i s c a n church (G. H. Gombrich, "The E a r l y M e d i c i as Patrons of A r t , " Norm and Form: S t u d i e s i n the A r t of the Renaissance, London, 1966, pp. 49 f f . ) .  32.  D. P i n c u s , "A Hand by Antonio R i z z o and the Double C a r i t a s Scheme o f the Tron Tomb," AB 51 (1969):246-257. These two f i g u r e s demonstrate the symbiosis o f r e l i g i o u s and c i v i c i d e a l s i n V e n e t i a n c h a r i t y .  33.  W. Sheard, "The Tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin i n V e n i c e by T u l l i o Lombardo," (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971), p. 195, n. 8 (p. 425): " i n c l o s e touch w i t h c u r r e n t humanist t h i n k i n g Moro had planned the t r i u m p h a l a r c h and C a p e l l a Maggiore as h i s mausoleum, w i t h o n l y a simple tomb s l a b . " See a l s o K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " pp. 77-79, n. 3, p. 239. Sheard c o n t i n u e s : "Moro's scheme f o r S. Giobbe d i f f e r e d d r a m a t i c a l l y from the t y p i c a l V e n e t i a n program of doges' monuments, and more c l o s e l y resembled the a b s t r a c t g l o r i f i c a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon o n l y a few images which had a r i s e n as a h a l l m a r k of humanist • f u n e r a r y a r t w i t h the B r u n i and M a r s u p p i n i tombs i n F l o r e n c e . " In her a r t i c l e "Sanudo's L i s t of Notable Things i n V e n e t i a n Churches and the Date of the Vendramin Tomb," Y a l e I t a l i a n S t u d i e s 1 (1977) :233, Sheard g i v e s t h i s as the reason f o r Sanudo's f a i l u r e to mention Moro's tomb i n h i s o t h e r w i s e complete l i s t of d u c a l tomb monuments of the f i f t e e n t h century.  34.  M. L. K i n g , " P e r s o n a l , Domestic, and R e p u b l i c a n Values i n the M o r a l P h i l o s o p h y of G i o v a n n i C a l d i e r a , " RQ 28 (1975):547, n. 35, 568, n. 88. The v i r t u e o f " m a g n i f i c a n c e " f o r example i s possessed by the wealthy p a t r i c i a n whose s p l e n d o r appears " i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of homes, f o r t r e s s e s and c i t i e s , which are i n t e n d e d to endure p e r p e t u a l l y ; and a l s o s i m i l a r l y i n the b u i l d i n g of churches, i n w h i c h ^ d i v i n e o f f i c e s (are to be performed) w i t h the g r e a t e s t d e v o t i o n . "  35.  Demus, San Marco, 1960, p. 50. A m e d a l l i o n minted i n the dogeship of Moro bears a p r o f i l e head of Moro on the obverse and on the r e v e r s e , w i t h i n a g a r l a n d o f f l o w e r s , "RELIGIONIS ET JUSTICIAE CULTOR," ( C i c o g n a , I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 584). T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n Cicogna's p r a i s e of Moro's " p i e t a v e r s o la p a t r i a e v e r s o l a r e l i g i o n e , " ( i b i d . , p. 578). The p r i n c i p l e i s p e r s o n i f i e d by the two "amor" f i g u r e s of the Tron tomb.  36.  I b i d . , p. 579, c i t e s D. M a l i p i e r o , G l i . A n n a l i , who.- r e p o r t s t h a t a man was executed a f t e r p l o t t i n g a g a i n s t the doge and h a v i n g said:."Vegnimo d i e s e a consejo domenega che v i e n e t l e c o r a z z i n e s o t t o l e v e s t e a amazzemoli,•comenzando dalquesto. becco de C h r i s t o f o l Moro."  37.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 578, quotes M. Sanudo: "Mori son c a t t i v a fama d ' i p o c r i t a , d i v e n d i c a t i v o , d i doppio, d'avaro. Era mal.voluto dal.popolo."  98  38.  D. S. Chambers, The p. 90.  I m p e r i a l Age  39.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 580 (1581) 1663, L i b . XI, p. 188.  40.  I t was not u n t i l 100 year l a t e r that the second and l a s t d u c a l b u r i a l took p l a c e i n San Giobbe ( P i e t r o Loredan, 1567-1570) C i c o g n a , op. c i t . , i n s c r i p t i o n no. 57, p. 639. The r e i n s t a t e m e n t of Job may be h i s t o r y of San Giobbe (see no. f r i a r s r e t u r n e d to mendication havuto l a r e p u t a t i o n sua n e l l a  of V e n i c e , 1380-1580, London,  c i t e s Sansovino,  1970,  Venetia  r e f l e c t e d i n the statement i n the 1501 27 above) t h a t upon Moro's death the i n the name of Job a l o n e " q u a l havevano chiesa vecchia."  41.  Appendix I f o r d a t e of p a i n t i n g ; note 3 t h i s chapter  42.  P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , May  43.  S a b e l l i c o , De Venetae U r b i s S i t u , 1493:  44.  Sansovino, V e n e t i a  45.  Robertson, B e l l i n i , 1968, p. 61 and 85, b e l i e v e s the frames of the SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo a l t a r p i e c e and the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e to have been executed by the Lombardi. See a l s o K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " pp. 117-118, 157. The common p r a c t i s e was f o r the frame to be c o n s t r u c t e d f i r s t (R. H a t f i e l d , B o t t i c e l l i ' s U f f i z i A d o r a t i o n , A Study i n P i c t o r i a l Content, P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y , 1976, p. 30; L. B. P h i l i p , The Ghent A l t a r p i e c e and the A r t of Jan Van Eyck, P r i n c e t o n , 1971, p. 47). Hubala, Madonna M i t K i n d , 1969, pp. 11-12, does not b e l i e v e the two frames were executed by the same hand, and that the source of s i m i l a r i t y l i e s i n the commissions or i n B e l l i n i ' s own c o n c e p t i o n s . See P a o l e t t i , Rinascimento, 1893, v o l . 2, p l a t e 108, f o r the SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo frame.  46.  I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 191  47.  The stemma c o n s i s t s of a s h i e l d b e a r i n g a r e a r i n g h o r s e , b r i d l e d , w i t h s h o r t t a i l (see a l s o Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 563). I was unable to see the t a i l or s i g n of any o t h e r d e v i c e on the s h i e l d ( p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , May 1978). Cicogna d i s m i s s e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the house of C a v a l l i , i n whose stemma the horse has a l o n g t a i l and i s c r o s s e d by a band b e a r i n g three s t a r s ( C a s i m i r o Freschot, La N o b i l t a Veneta..., V e n i c e , 1707, Ristampa, Bologna, 19 70, p. 287). See the prominent d e p i c t i o n of the C a v a l l i arms i n an A l t i c h i e r o f r e s c o at Verona of Members of the C a v a l l i f a m i l y b e i n g p r e s e n t e d to the V i r g i n Mary i l l u s t r a t e d i n P a l l u c c h i n i , T r e c e n t o , 1964, f i g . 456, p. 149. Cicogna a l s o r u l e s out the Ronsoni f a m i l y , on whose stemma the horse stands on f o u r f e e t and has a l o n g t a i l . The unusual m o t i f of the d o l p h i n which appears i n the c a p i t a l s , observed by Hubala, op. c i t . , pp. 10-12, and which he suggests might be i n t r o d u c e d to  1978.  (1581) 1663,  and  for M a r t i n i chapel.  pp.  " i n parte aedis."  155-156.  f i g . 84.  99  V e n i c e by a F l o r e n t i n e p a t r o n , might r e l a t e d to the founder of San Giobbe church i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  i n d i c a t e ' the D o l f i n f a m i l y , and important patrons of the'  Cicogna r e c o r d s the i n s c r i p t i o n of C o n s t a n t i n o B e l l o t t o , 1728, which was a t one time v i s i b l e " s u l pavimento a p p i e d i d e ' g r a d i n i d e l l ' a l t a r e d i S. Giobbe." At a l a t e r date the f a m i l y of B e l l o t t o c o u l d have taken over the tomb b e l o n g i n g to the f a m i l y whose coat of arms appears on the a l t a r frame and who p r o b a b l y commissioned the a l t a r p i e c e by B e l l i n i (Cicogna, op. c i t . , p. 563.) 48.  I b i d . , i n s c r i p t i o n no.  49.  See Chapter  50.  H a t f i e l d , U f f i z i A d o r a t i o n , 1971,  51.  Sheard, "Marin Sanudo's L i s t , " 1977, p. 266, "Another i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t of Sanudo's r e f e r e n c e to A n t o n e l l o ' s p a l a i s i t s c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to a f u n e r a r y , or at l e a s t commemorating f u n c t i o n , p r o v i d i n g an a s s o c i a t i o n of the Sacra Conversazione type w i t h s e p u l c h r a l f u n c t i o n i n g which p e r haps deserves e x p l o r a t i o n . "  52.  K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " pp. 223-224, b e l i e v e s t h a t both the SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo and the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e s ' a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g s may i n c o r p o r a t e f u n e r a r y v o c a b u l a r y d e r i v e d from Moro's c h a p e l at San Giobbe, San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a , the M a r s u p p i n i tomb i n F l o r e n c e , and p o s s i b l y the C a r d i n a l P o r t u g a l Chapel i n San M i n i a t o , F l o r e n c e , v i a the Tuscan s t y l e M a r t i n i Chapel o p p o s i t e B e l l i n i ' s a l t a r p i e c e i n San Giobbe. The r e l a t i o n of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e s e t t i n g to the realm c r e a t e d i n a f u n e r a r y monument deserves f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  53.  The 1501 h i s t o r y of the church of San Giobbe (n. 27, t h i s chapter) r e f e r s to an a l t a r p i e c e d e d i c a t e d to S t . B e r n a r d i n s e t up by Moro i n the new c a p e l l a maggiore (Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 724). The t e r r a c o t t a b u s t of S t . B e r n a r d i n which bears Moro's coat of arms, . now i n the S a c r i s t y of San Giobbe, was moved from the h i g h a l t a r i n 1609 : (Cicogna, op. c i t . , p. 707, n o t i c e of September 15, 1609, conc e r n i n g the C o n f r a t e r n i t y of S t . B e r n a r d i n which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the maintenance and d e c o r a t i o n of the c a p e l l a maggiore, d e d i c a t e d to that s a i n t ) .  54.  G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 135, p. 101; Robertson, B e l l i n i , pp. 90-91; canvas, 2,00 x 3,20, s i g n e d , dated, now i n Murano, Church of S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e .  55.  R. G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 511, n. 143. The p a i n t i n g was to be d i s p l a y e d "sopra 1 ' a l t a r grando d i q u e l d e v o t i s s i m o et r e l i g i o s o monasterio l e q u a l semo c e r t o che i n o g n i tempo l e h a b i a a p r e g a r e I d i o per l'anima n o s t r a e de t u t i l i n o s t r i che sono p a s s a t i da questa vita."  Two,  note  13, p. 561,  and no. 15, p.  563.  60. p.  20.  100  56.  G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, no. 134, p. 101, Robertson, B e l l i n i , p. 88; wood, c e n t r a l p a n e l 1,84 1,15 x 46, s i g n e d , dated, i n the F r a r i S a c r i s t y .  57.  Goffen, "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 512,  58.  I b i d . , p. 513,  59.  L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e , 1961,  60.  G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 513, n. 952. She notes t h a t the p l a c e ment of B e l l i n i ' s Pesaro and D o l f i n a l t a r p i e c e s i s "comparable to the many examples of s c u l p t e d b u r i a l monuments." Robertson, B e l l i n i , p. 122; B e l l i n i and a s s i s t a n t s , wood, 90 x 1,45, s i g n e d , dated, the donor i s r e p a i n t e d , s t i l l i n the church.  61.  See note 33  62.  See  63.  S c h l e g e l , " O b s e r v a t i o n s , " pp. 19-33, i d e n t i f i e s the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g of Masaccio's T r i n i t y as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the double chapel of Golgotha i n the Church of the Holy S e p u l c h r e , Jerusalem, i n which chapel "one awaited the L a s t Judgement...Masses of the Dead f o r eminent persons were c e l e b r a t e d , " ( i b i d . , p. 26), the purpose b e i n g to commemorate the p l a c e of s a l v a t i o n as w e l l as the donors ( i b i d . , p. 28).  n.  and  n.  and c o l o u r p l a t e s . x 79, s i d e p a n e l s  149.  150. p.  380.  above.  d i s c u s s i o n of T r i n i t y iconography Chapter Four, p.  66.  J . F r e i b e r g , "The 'Tabernaculum D e i ' ," 1974, o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t " , cogent argument t h a t the f u n c t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r e i n c o n t a i n i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a E u c h a r i s t i c theme, the T r i n i t y , i s analogous to the f u n c t i o n of the sacrament t a b e r n a c l e i n e n s h r i n i n g the Host. The E u c h a r i s t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s of the a r c h i t e c t u r e are a p p r o p r i a t e to a f u n e r a r y context s i n c e the l a t e M e d i e v a l c u l t of the Host was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i d e a of p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n ( H a t f i e l d , B o t t i c e l l i , 1977, p. 49, c i t i n g Gregory, Dix, The Shape of L i t u r g y , London, 1945, pp. 598 f f . ; see f u r t h e r below p. 88, n. 86). 64.  J . C o o l i d g e , " F u r t h e r O b s e r v a t i o n s on Masaccio's T r i n i t y , " 48 (1966): 382-384, suggests t h a t "the p a i n t i n g must have been o r i g i n a l l y one component i n a t h r e e - p a r t complex c o n s i s t i n g of a f r e s c o , an i n c i s e d f l o o r s l a b and an a l t a r , " which was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the F l o r e n t i n e tomb monument t r a d i t i o n (p. 381). C. Dempsey, "Masaccio's T r i n i t y : A l t a r p i e c e or Tomb?" AB 54 (1972): 2 79-281, s t a t e s t h a t "the imagery of Masaccio's f r e s c o i s u n i q u e l y s u i t e d to the tomb of a l a y donor," and t h a t i t i s i n e f f e c t a p a i n t e d tomb monument f o l l o w i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of tomb monuments combining r e a l s c u l p t e d and a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements w i t h mosaic and f r e s c o . However, he r e j e c t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of an a s s o c i a t e a l t a r . E. Panofsky, Tomb S c u l p t u r e , 1964 , New York, p. 66, says t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the donor as a corpse i s r a r e i n I t a l y and t h a t  101  Masaccio's s k e l e t o n must be seen as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of death r a t h e r than a p o r t r a i t . T h i s would make i t d i f f i c u l t to a s s o c i a t e the T r i n i t y w i t h the t r a d i t i o n of double e f f i g y tombs as Dempsey, op. c i t . , p. 280, does. 65.  G. S c h i l l e r , The Iconography of C h r i s t i a n A r t , t r . J . Seligman, Greenwich, C o n n e c t i c u t , 1971, v o l . 1, p. 5.  66.  Y r j o H i r n , The Sacred S h r i n e , A Study of the P o e t r y C a t h o l i c Church, Boston, 1957, pp. 294-295.  67.  R. H a t f i e l d , l o c . c i t .  68.  A. Grabar, C h r i s t i a n Iconography, A Study of i t s o r i g i n s , P r i n c e t o n , 1968, pp. 134-135.  69.  S. B e t t i n i , La P i t t u r a d i i c o n e c r e t e s e - v e n e z i a n a e i madonneri, F l o r e n c e (1931), p. 20, n. 2, f o r o r i g i n of t h i s type, and Goffen, "Icon and V i s i o n . " p. 492, n. 29. The " i n d i c a t i n g " hand of the H o d e g e t r i a has a P a s s i o n s i g n i f i c a n c e i n I t a l o - B y z a n t i n e iconography as can be seen i n Andrea Rico's Madonna d e l l a P a s s i o n e i n the G a l l e r i a , Parma, d i s cussed by B e t t i n i , l o c . c i t . , F i g . 55, where the C h r i s t C h i l d grasps Mary's thumb w h i l e l o o k i n g at the instruments of the P a s s i o n , a gesture which appears i n a Renaissance a d a p t a t i o n , r e v e r s e d , i n Cima's Madonna at the U f f i z i , F l o r e n c e , F i g . 56 ( C o l e t t i , Cima, 1960, no. 88). I am g r a t e f u l to Dr. D. P i n c u s f o r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n .  70.  I b i d . , p. 501 d i s c u s s e s B e l l i n i ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the C h r i s t C h i l d as s a c r i f i c e .  71.  Grabar, l o c . c i t . ; I . H u t t e r , 1971, p. 68.  72.  The u p r a i s e d l e f t hand of the V i r g i n enthroned appears to be unprecedented i n the immediate i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The l a c k of the u s u a l d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n of the V i r g i n w i t h a s u p p l i c a n t makes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s a c t i o n as b l e s s i n g u n c e r t a i n s i n c e the V i r g i n , i n her d o c t r i n a l l y d e f i n e d r o l e as the support or s h r i n e of C h r i s t , a v e h i c l e of s a l v a t i o n r a t h e r than i t s source, i s never d e p i c t e d i n an i s o l a t e d g e s t u r e of b l e s s i n g as C h r i s t o f t e n i s . As observed i n Chapter Two, the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s remarkable i n t h a t n e i t h e r the C h r i s t C h i l d nor the V i r g i n b l e s s e s d i r e c t l y nor l o o k s at the main s u p p l i c a n t , Job. This i s underscored by the adaptations' by B e l l i n i f o l l o w e r s of the V i r g i n and C h r i s t to more e x p l i c i t b l e s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s , f o r example, the v o t i v e p a i n t i n g of S t . Mark p r e s e n t i n g Doge Loredan to the V i r g i n i n which Vincenzo Catena turns the C h r i s t C h i l d toward the b l e s s i n g as i f , t o i n t e r c e d e and r e i n f o r c e , F i g . 60 (G. Robertson, Vincenzo Catena, Edinburgh, 1954, c a t . 7 ) . That the San Giobbe V i r g i n ' s g e s t u r e may have i n t e r c e s s o r y meaning i s suggested by i t s s i m i l a r i t y to a B y z a n t i n e type of i n t e r c e d i n g V i r g i n the H a g i o s o r i t i s s a of which t h e r e i s an example at Dumbarton Oaks, F i g . 61 (M. E. F r a s e r , "Church Doors and the Gates of P a r a d i s e , Bronze B y z a n t i n e Doors i n I t a l y , " Dumbarton Oaks  E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and  and  A r t of  the  B y z a n t i n e A r t , London,  102  Papers 27 (1973):48, n. 7) and i t s I t a l o - B y z a n t i n e c o u n t e r p a r t , the Madonna Avvocata. The q u e s t i o n of the V i r g i n ' s r i g h t and l e f t hand gestures r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. 73.  W. W o l t e r s , La s c u l t u r a v e n e z i a n a g o t i c a (1300-1460), 2 v o l . , V e n i c e , 1976, c a t . 21, p. 157; A q u i l e i a , B a s i l i c a , r i g h t t r a n s e p t , has been dated c . 1400, Wolters dates to c. 1330.  74.  L. G o l d s c h e i d e r , Leonardo da V i n c i , London, 1959, p. 165, p i . 59-62; p a n e l , 98 x 2,17 m., unsigned, undated, f o r Convent of Monte O l i v e t o .  75.  F r a Roberto C a r a c c i o l o , P r e d i c h e V o l g a r i , F l o r e n c e , 1491, quoted i n R. B a x a n d a l l , P a i n t i n g and E x p e r i e n c e i n F i f t e e n t h Century I t a l y , Oxford, 19 72, p. 55.  76.  Sheard, "Tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin," 19 71, p. 191  77.  Schiller,  78.  G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " pp.  79.  J . T a y l o r , On the Reverence Due to the A l t a r , c. 1637-1640, ed. Rev. V. S t a l e y , Oxford, 1899, quotes the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n author Chrysostom: "Let us honor the a l t a r indeed because i t r e c e i v e s the Body of the Lord."  80.  The New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , New T a y l o r , op. c i t . , pp. 52 and 53.  81.  H a t f i e l d makes t h i s p o i n t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the E u c h a r i s t i c meaning of B o t t i c e l l i ' s U f f i z i A d o r a t i o n , op. c i t .  82.  F. H a r t t , " C a r p a c c i o ' s M e d i t a t i o n on the P a s s i o n , " AB and f i g . 9.  83.  S. J . Delaney, "The Iconography of G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s Sacred A l l e g o r y , " AB 59 (1977) :334, n. 25. Scenes of s a c r i f i c e may appear on the base of the t h r o n e . P. V e r d i e r , " L ' a l l e g o r i a d e l l a M i s e r i c o r d i a e d e l l a G i u s t i z i a d i Giambellino,." A t t i d e l l ' I s t i t u t o veneto d i s c i e n z e , l e t t e r e ed a r t i , 19.53,pp. 97-116, i d e n t i f i e s the throne as the Sedes Solomonis of the mother of the i n c a r n a t e C h r i s t , the Theotokos. Robertson, B e l l i n i , pp. 99-102 suggests the s u b j e c t of t h i s much d i s cussed and enigmatic work i s a M e d i t a t i o n on the I n c a r n a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be pendant to C a r p a c c i o ' s M e d i t a t i o n on the P a s s i o n , New York, Metrop o l i t a n Museum of A r t ( H a r t t , op. c i t . ) .  84.  Delaney, op. c i t . , p. 332. of the Sacred A l l e g o r y .  85.  C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , New York, 1907-1912 ed., s.v. "Paten": "The e u c h a r i s t i c v e s s e l known as the paten i s a s m a l l s h a l l o w p l a t e or d i s c of p r e c i o u s metal upon which the element of bread i s o f f e r e d to God at  Iconography, 1971,  v o l . 1, pp.  She  and n. 13,  52.  23-26.  501-505.  York, 1966  ed., s.v.  22  "Altar."  (1940):33,  i d e n t i f i e s c h a r i t y as the c e n t r a l theme  103  the O f f e r t o r y o f the Mass and upon which the c o n s e c r a t e d Host i s a g a i n p l a c e d a f t e r the F r a c t i o n . " The formula f o r the c o n s e c r a t i o n o f the v e s s e l speaks o f the v e s s e l as b l e s s e d as "the new s e p u l c h r e o f the Body and Blood o f Jesus C h r i s t . " The m o t i f appears to have been i n t r o d u c e d by Mantegna, p o s s i b l y from the a n t i q u e p a t e r a , i n h i s San Zeno a l t a r p i e c e ( F i g . 26). A f u l l understanding o f the m o t i f i n B e l l i n i ' s p a i n t i n g would depend on a n a l y s i s o f Mantegna's use o f i t , y e t to be done. 86.  In the Middle Ages the Host came to be c o n s i d e r e d the l i v i n g God, was t r e a t e d l i k e a r e l i c and was housed i n r e l i q u a r i e s and s h r i n e s . The monstrance which d i s p l a y e d the Host on the a l t a r a t c e r t a i n times d e r i v e d from the s a i n t r e l i q u a r y . H i r n , Sacred S h r i n e , 1957, p. 148: " J u s t as the e u c h a r i s t i c God was o f t e n spoken o f by Roman C a t h o l i c authors as a k i n g , so the monstrance was compared to a throne...a "throne o f g r a c e . " See H a t f i e l d ' s condensed d i s c u s s i o n o f Host d e v o t i o n i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h good b i b l i o g r a p h y (op. c i t . , pp. 48-50). See a l s o C o l i n E i s l e r ' s important remarks on t h e c u l t o f the Host i n f i f t e e n t h century I t a l y and the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y , p r o b a b l y u n p a r a l l e l e d i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f e u c h a r i s t i c concerns i n C h r i s t i a n a r t , " (C. E i s l e r , "The Golden C h r i s t o f Cortona and the Man o f Sorrows i n I t a l y , " AB 51 (1969):236, pp. 235-240. H a t f i e l d notes the extreme forms t h a t a d o r a t i o n of the Host c o u l d take, e s p e c i a l l y a t the moment of e l e v a t i o n d u r i n g the c o n s e c r a t i o n i n the Mass (op. c i t . , . p . 4 5 ) . S t . F r a n c i s was a devout worshipper o f the Host ( H i r n , op. e x t . , p. 113).  87.  Catholic Encyclopedia, crucifix."  88.  F r a s e r , "Church Doors," 1973, pp. 145-162. The bronze church doors on which t h e f o l i a t e c r o s s appears bear iconography o f i n t e r c e s s i o n f o r p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n o f the donor who may be r e p r e s e n t e d by i n s c r i p t i o n or i n e f f i g y . The f o l i a t e c r o s s r e p r e s e n t s the c r o s s o f c r u c i f i x i o n , the instrument o f s a l v a t i o n . I t and the a s s o c i a t e d imagery o f these doors i s d e r i v e d from d e c o r a t i o n of entrances to the s a n c t u a r i e s o f Byzantine churches. The f o l i a t e c r o s s i s found on c h a n c e l b a r r i e r s of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine churches, i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and i n Ravenna. The c e n t r a l nave p o r t a l o f San Marco was commissioned by Leo da M o l i n o , p r o c u r a t o r , i n 1112, from a V e n e t i a n a r t i s t i n s p i r e d by the B y z a n t i n e south door., c. 1080. Da Molino i s p r e s e n t e d by S t . Mark to C h r i s t . B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r f o l i a t e c r o s s g i v e n p. 148, n. 10.  89.  E i s l e r c i t e s the t e x t o f the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the r i t e of E u c h a r i s t , 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 11:26 as the b a s i s o f "The combination of the e l e v a t i o n of the Host w i t h the L a s t Judgement..." (op. c i t . , p. 246).  90.  H i r n , Sacred S h r i n e , 1957, passim.; K e y d e l , " A l t a r p i e c e s , " p. 158; Goffen, "Icon and V i s i o n , " p. 500: "Hence the s p a t i a l aspects o f B e l l i n i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e a l s o have the e f f e c t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e p i c t u r e space i n t o a s h r i n e . "  New York, 1907-1912 ed., s . v . " A l t a r ,  altar-  104  91.  I b i d . , p. 505 quotes S t . Lorenzo G i u s t i n i a n i , the f i r s t P a t r i a r c h of V e n i c e , who has the V i r g i n say of h e r s e l f : "Et q u e l l o che mi ha c r e a t o , s'e r i p o s a t o n e l mio t a b e r n a c o l o . " H i r n , Sacred S h r i n e , 1957, p. 164.  92.  See  93.  F r e i b e r g , l e c t u r e based on The  94.  V e n t u r i , North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ,  95.  Pope-Hennessy, Renaissance S c u l p t u r e ,  96.  I b i d . , p. 277, f i g . 44. Mary i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to as p o r t a l , the window of heaven ( H i r n , Sacred S h r i n e , 1912 ed., p. 343 f f . ; i n s c r i p t i o n of F r a r i t r i p t y c h , see note 61 above) . C h r i s t i s the door to s a l v a t i o n (John 10:9, 14:6). See a l s o W i l k , • " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, p. 106.  97.  See  98.  For the l a t e M e d i e v a l view of Job see H a r t t , " C a r p a c c i o ' s M e d i t a t i o n , " 1940, pp. 25-35, and G. von der Osten "Job and C h r i s t , " JWCI 14 (1953): 153-158. H a r t t proposes t h a t the r e p r i n t i n g of the M o r a l i a of S t . Gregory, an e a r l y M e d i e v a l commentary on the Book of Job, i n V e n i c e i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h e l p e d to r e v i v e Job's r o l e s as the type of the s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t and the prophet of the R e s u r r e c t i o n and A s c e n s i o n .  99.  Graef, Mary, 1963,  Chapter Four,p. 66,  Chapter Two,  n.  25. "Tabernaculum D e i , " (1931), 1974, 1971,  p.  1974.  part I I , p i .  27.  285.  p. 23-24.  p.  318.  100.  See p. 87 , n. 78 t h i s c h a p t e r . A p o s s i b l e B y z a n t i n e V i r g i n u n d e r l y i n g B e l l i n i ' s V i r g i n i s mentioned i n n.  101.  See  102.  The appearance of Job i n an a l t a r p i e c e such as t h i s i n such a p r e eminent p o s i t i o n i s u n u s u a l , perhaps unique i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g to t h i s time. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the a l t a r p i e c e commission r e p r e s e n t s a d e s i r e to r e i n s t a t e the honor of Job i n the church a f t e r Moro's p e r s o n a l promotion of S t . B e r n a r d i n . The 1501 h i s t o r y of the church c i t e d i n n. 27, t h i s c h a p t e r , may be a r e c o r d of t h i s . See n. 8, 100 t h i s c h a p t e r .  103.  P u l l a n , R i c h and Poor, 1971, p. 219, l i s t s See a l s o Delaney, "Sacred A l l e g o r y , " 1977,  104.  Goffen, "Nostra C o n v e r s a t i o , " p. 216. S t . F r a n c i s ' d i s p l a y of h i s wounds emphasizes the e f f i c a c y of h i s i n t e r c e s s i o n which i s due to h i s p e r f e c t emulation of C h r i s t . The f i g u r e of S t . F r a n c i s i n some i n s t a n c e s i n d i c a t i n g h i s wound i n a manner s i m i l a r to t h a t of B e l l i n i ' s S t . F r a n c i s , appears i n a f u n e r a r y c o n t e x t p o i n t i n g to the tomb of the donor i n the f r e s c o e s i n the Lower Church of San Francesco i n A s s i s i which G o f f e n i d e n t i f i e s as the e a r l i e s t examples of the s a c r a  n. 99,  intercessory 75.  t h i s chapter.  y e a r s of plague i n V e n i c e . p. 335, n. 29.  105  conversazione. See f o r example P i e t r o L o r e n z e t t i s Madonna and C h i l d w i t h S a i n t s F r a n c i s and John the B a p t i s t i n the n o r t h t r a n s e p t of the Lower Church, F i g . 19, and Simone M a r t i n i ' s F i v e F r a n c i s c a n S a i n t s a l s o i n the n o r t h t r a n s e p t . See a l s o the S t . F r a n c i s b l e s s i n g a donor w i t h h i s wounded r i g h t hand i n B e l l i n i ' s D o l p h i n s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e at S. Francesco d e l l a V i g n a , F i g . 54. 1  106  CHAPTER SIX  THE  DUAL HERITAGE OF ROME AND BYZANTIUM IN THE RELIGIOUS ICONOGRAPHY OF THE VENETIAN STATE  Roger F r y , quoted i n Chapter One above, noted the V e n e t i a n use o f r e l i g i o n to symbolize i d e a s o f s t a t e .  John Ruskin a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the  n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e which a r e l i g i o u s image c o u l d have i n V e n i c e i n the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e : The throned Madonnas o f V i v a r i n i and B e l l i n i were to V e n i c e what the s t a t u e o f Athena i n the Brazen House was to Athens...symbols, by h e l p o f which they c o n c e i v e d the presence w i t h i n o f a r e a l Goddess.1 The s a c r e d n a t u r e and framework o f s t a t e i s a Western M e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n which had an e x c e p t i o n a l l y l o n g s u r v i v a l i n V e n i c e . S. S i n d i n g - L a r s e n has demonstrated,  i t survived at least  into  I n f a c t , as the h e i g h t o f  the V e n e t i a n Renaissance as the i d e a l i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r the s e r i e s o f r e l i g i o u s and h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t i n g s i n the Ducal P a l a c e to r e p l a c e the l o s s e s o f the 1574-1577 f i r e s .  o  commissioned  Paolo P r o d i observes  that  Venice...remained...apart from the p r o c e s s which had transformed c h u r c h - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s . . . through the G r e g o r i a n reforms o f the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y and the I n v e s t i t u r e c o n t e s t . 3  Robert Benson has c i t e d  the symbolic i n v e s t i t u r e o f the doge by S t . Mark as  a s u r v i v a l o f the C a r o l i n g i a n which views  " d u a l i s t " concept o f church and s t a t e power  the s e c u l a r h i e r a r c h y and c l e r i c a l h i e r a r c h y as p e r f e c t l y  and p a r a l l e l , and i n which the s e c u l a r r u l e r r e c e i v e s a u t h o r i t y  equal  directly  from God, i n d e p e n d e n t l y from the Pope, j u s t as the V e n e t i a n doge was c l a i m e d  107  to do A  The concept o f d u a l church and s t a t e power which was the b a s i s o f  the r e l a t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n s t a t e to the church and which u n d e r l a y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symbiosis o f s a c r e d and p o l i t i c a l  institutions  i s r e l a t e d to  the h i s t o r i c o r i g i n s o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c i n the e a r l y M i d d l e Ages. As an emerging s t a t e i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c had to e s t a b l i s h i t s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l freedom and power.  legitimacy  and a s s e r t i t s  The development o f a n a t i o n a l c u l t around the E v a n g e l i s t  Mark and h i s legendary c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the n o r t h A d r i a t i c was an important p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s and p r o v i d e d a r e l i g i o u s j u s t i f i c a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n of the a s p i r a t i o n s o f the s t a t e .  The t r a n s f e r r a l of the r e l i c s o f S t . Mark  from A l e x a n d r i a to R i a l t o i n 829-830 and t h e i r enshrinement i n a c h a p e l a d j a c e n t to the Ducal P a l a c e was a means o f c l a i m i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and u l t i m a t e l y d i v i n e s a n c t i o n f o r the s t a t e . ^  The t h r e e important  of S t . Mark's s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to V e n i c e , the T r a n s l a t i o of S t . Mark's r e l i c s ) . , the A p p a r i t i o ( t h e m i r a c u l o u s  legends  (the t r a n s l a t i o n  r e d i s c o v e r y o f the l o s t  r e l i c s i n 1094) and the P r e d e s t i n a z i o n e ( C h r i s t ' s prophecy of the g l o r i o u s d e s t i n y t o g e t h e r o f S t . Mark and V e n i c e ^ were recounted i n l a t e r c h r o n i c l e s as h i s t o r i c  fact.  Venetian  The p r e d e s t i n a z i o n e i n p a r t i c u l a r was i n v e n t e d  i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y to demonstrate the d i v i n e r i g h t o f V e n i c e to the p o s s e s s i o n o f the r e l i c s and the p r e o r d a i n e d s i t e o f the s e p u l c h r a l church and  thus the preordainment  of Venice i t s e l f . ^  V e n i c e claimed the s p e c i a l Q  p r o t e c t i o n of S t . Mark much as Rome claimed the patronage  of St. Peter,  a p o s t o l i c c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the e a r l y Church, d i v i n e s a n c t i o n and an antiquity.  extended  The m y s t i c a l union o f the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c w i t h S t . Mark i n a  shared g l o r y , p r e d e s t i n e d by God, i s symbolized by the s t a t e Church o f San Marco:^  108  Da quando i l corpo d e l Santo, p e r dono d i v i n o e v o l o n t a umana v e n i v a deposto a l l ' o m b r a d e l sorgente s t a t o , l a l u n g a , d i f f i c i l e b a t t a g l i a p e r 1 i n d i p e n d e n z a e r a v i n t a , e v i n t a i n modo d e c i s i v o . 1 0 1  With the d e f e a t o f C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n 1204 Venice c l a i m e d to be n o t o n l y t h e d i v i n e l y p r o c l a i m e d g u a r d i a n of the A p o s t l e Mark's r e l i c s , b u t a l s o the s u c c e s s o r o f the E a s t e r n C h r i s t i a n Empire o f Byzantium.-'--'-  I t thereby  c l a i m e d d i v i n e l y s a n c t i o n e d a u t h o r i t y , l e g i t i m a c y and independence and s p e c i a l d i r e c t access o f the V e n e t i a n people and government to God, r e p r e s e n t e d by C h r i s t and Mary. and  The s a c r e d i d e n t i t y o f the V e n e t i a n  state  the symbiosis o f s t a t e and church were s u s t a i n e d by t h e m y s t i c a l ,  s a c r e d and B y z a n t i n e n a t u r e o f V e n e t i a n c l a i m s f o r both s e c u l a r l e g i t i m a c y and power.  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and  The i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s and  the c i v i c i s seen i n a l l a s p e c t s o f V e n e t i a n d e v o t i o n and c u l t u r e , i n l i t u r g y , and i n c e r e m o n i a l p r o c e s s i o n s c e l e b r a t i n g g r e a t events of V e n e t i a n history.12  P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s had r e l i g i o u s frameworks a t a l l l e v e l s  of s o c i e t y and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was f i r m l y r e t a i n e d by t h e government.  Important  dates i n V e n e t i a n h i s t o r y ,  beginning  w i t h the date o f f o u n d a t i o n on A n n u n c i a t i o n day,-*-^ and m i l i t a r y and d i p l o matic v i c t o r i e s were made to c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e g r e a t r e l i g i o u s  days.-^  Otto Demus has s t u d i e d the V e n e t i a n use o f r e l i g i o u s imagery f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes  i n an a n a l y s i s o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e and d e c o r a t i o n o f the  s t a t e church o f San Marco, which i s reviewed most r e c e n t l y by E. Muir as .the b a s i s f o r h i s i n q u i r y i n t o images o f power c r e a t e d by a r t and pageantry i n Renaissance  Venice.^  Demus shows how the Venetians  f o r g e d documents of  the o r i g i n o f the V e n e t i a n p a t r i a r c h a t e w i t h S t . Mark, f a b r i c a t e d  legends  c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f S t . Mark to V e n i c e , and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s a i n t ' s s e p u l c h r a l church as a s t a t e church w i t h A p o s t o l i c t r a d i t i o n and  109  divine pre-ordination. r e l i q u a r y , founded Apostoleion.1-7  The  church of San Marco was  i n e f f e c t a monumental  on a s i x t h c e n t u r y B y z a n t i n e model, C o n s t a n t i n e ' s  The use of a r t to a r t i c u l a t e , document and propagate  s e l f - i m a g e of the s t a t e and  i t s claims manifests  itself  as the  the  collection,  r e s t o r a t i o n , copying and a l t e r a t i o n of works of a r t of e a r l i e r p e r i o d s other  and  cultures. The awareness of V e n e t i a n s of t h e i r s t a t e and government b e i n g some-  how  unique, p e r f e c t , d u r a b l e and  f u l l of v i r t u e was  expressed  i n a s e t of  b e l i e f s about the R e p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g i t s d i v i n e o r i g i n , s a n c t i o n and d e s t i n y , its  o r i g i n a l l i b e r t y , i n n e r concord and s t a b i l i t y , and i t s h i s t o r i c  of  peace and j u s t i c e .  These b e l i e f s are r e f e r r e d  of  V e n i c e , " which can be seen as an ongoing  to l o o s e l y as the "Myth  p r o c e s s of p o l i t i c a l  d e f i n i t i o n and s t a t e p r o p a g a n d i z a t i o n i n which the v i s u a l a r t s , s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e . w i t h the t r a d i t i o n s of the s t a t e accounts V e n e t i a n conservatism.19  I t was  mission  The involvement  selfarchitecture,  of the a r t s  f o r what has o f t e n been seen  a fundamental tendency  as  of the V e n e t i a n  t r a d i t i o n to draw on o t h e r c u l t u r e s and eras to l e g i t i m i z e i t s c l a i m s to independence and power, and because of the p o l i t i c a l use of a r t i n Venice " a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e u n c o r r e l a t e d c u r r e n t s c o u l d and d i d e x i s t s i d e by  side."  The r e t e n t i o n of M e d i e v a l B y z a n t i n e s t y l e and m o t i f s a l o n g s i d e newer Renaissance  i d e a s i n f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , f o r example  B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , s h o u l d . n o t , grade.  By 1500  the myth of V e n i c e had  t h e r e f o r e , be seen as  experienced  two major p e r i o d s of  e l a b o r a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to two major p e r i o d s of growth and ambition.  The  first  p e r i o d saw  retro-  imperial  an emphasis on the B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e of  Venice i n the thirteenth:, century, f o l l o w i n g the d e f e a t of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e  110  (1204, noted above) and  the expansion of V e n e t i a n maritime power.  c i d e n t w i t h the m i l i t a r y and economic expansion was of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and a growing  an important  Coin-. period  p o l i t i c a l s e l f - a w a r e n e s s among  21 the a r i s t o c r a c y .  In t h i s f i r s t  i m p e r i a l age ^ a r t i s a n s i m i t a t e d  s t y l e and iconography of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e r e l i e f , and i l l u m i n a t i o n .  The s t a t e church was  the  mosaic  surrounded by a r t i f a c t s  brought  as s p o i l and s y m b o l i z i n g the t r a n s f e r of a u t h o r i t y from d e f e a t e d s t a t e s to 22 Venice.  The s t y l e of a "new  Ravenna" evoked  the l a s t g r e a t age of  E a s t e r n and Western u n i t y , the s i x t h c e n t u r y empire  of J u s t i n i a n .  In the second p e r i o d of V e n e t i a n expansion on the I t a l i a n  mainland  a f t e r the wars w i t h Genoa, ending 1379-1380, the emphasis s h i f t e d  to  23 a n c i e n t Rome. The Roman T r a d i t i o n i n F i f t e e n t h Century  Venice  In the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e as a newly emerging adopted what Chambers c a l l s express i d e a s about  mainland  "neo-Roman" imagery, both to f o r m u l a t e and  the n a t u r e and p e r f e c t i o n of i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n and to  c l o a k the i m p e r i a l ambitions of the s t a t e i n h e r o i c i d e a l s of c i v i c 24 and j u s t i c e a t home, and the defense of l i b e r t y and peace Although t h e r e was  power  abroad.  a proto-humanism i n t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e  S a x l has shown) i t was  not u n t i l c e n t r e s of humanist  duty  (as F r i t z  l e a r n i n g and  areas  c o n t a i n i n g Roman remains were annexed by V e n i c e that V e n e t i a n s developed a broad i n t e r e s t i n a n t i q u i t y .  In the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i d e a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  i m p e r i a l Rome, r e p u b l i c a n freedom, defense o f l i b e r t y i n a u n i f i e d  Italy,  p r e s e r v a t i o n of j u s t i c e and peace, became important components of the myth of V e n i c e , p a r t l y i n response to the p o l i t i c a l polemics of the m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y when V e n e t i a n i m p e r i a l i s t i c i n c u r s i o n s on the I t a l i a n  mainland  Ill  provoked b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m .  However, t h e new Roman frame o f r e f e r e n c e  a l s o p r o v i d e d a renewed e x p r e s s i o n o f f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( p o s s i b l y o l d e r ) i d e a s about  t h e uniqueness,  p e r f e c t i o n and d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e V e n e t i a n  c o n s t i t u t i o n which was thought  to e x e m p l i f y a b a l a n c e d combination of  the three forms o f good government f a m i l i a r to M e d i e v a l p o l i t i c a l  thought.  25  The V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n was compared i n humanist w r i t i n g w i t h t h e g r e a t 26 governments o f a n t i q u i t y , Athens and Rome, greater.  Chambers observes  and d e c l a r e d to be equal o r  that i n a r t t h e e v o c a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n o f  a n t i q u i t y and the commemoration o f the splendours of "new Rome", V e n i c e , was even more eloquent than xn l i t e r a t u r e . The i n f l u x of Renaissance a r t i s t i c i d e a s to V e n i c e i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h e v i s i t s o f a s e r i e s of Tuscan a r t i s t s t o V e n i c e o r i t s immediate r e g i o n , Andrea d e l Castagno and Paolo U c c e l l o i n V e n i c e , and D o n a t e l l o i n Padua, f o r example, i n t h e 1440's .and 1450's. sance s t y l e f i r s t Conducci's and  appears  A mature R e n a i s -  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the 1460's, f o r example,  S. M i c h e l e i n I s o l a , 1468-1469, and then i n s c u l p t u r e , w i t h R i z z o  the Lombardi,  a l l immigrants  d i t i o n , and f i n a l l y  fusing outside ideas w i t h Venetian t r a 28 i n p a i n t i n g w i t h the work o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i .  The B y z a n t i n e T r a d i t i o n i n F i f t e e n t h Century The prominent  Venice  Byzantine character of f i f t e e n t h century Venetian  c u l t u r e and c a i l y l i f e  stemming from i t s s t r o n g and l o n g s t a n d i n g c o n n e c t i o n s  w i t h the B y z a n t i n e Greek e a s t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h i t s o r i g i n as a B y z a n t i n e province  and s u s t a i n e d by commercial  Greek immigrants,  has been n e g l e c t e d .  r e l a t i o n s and p e r i o d i c i n f l u x e s o f /  Wilk i d e n t i f i e s  t r a d i t i o n o f V e n i c e as an important source of iconography Lombardo's s c u l p t u r e .  z 9  the B y z a n t i n e for Tullio  Her argument o f a "Byzantine r e v i v a l "  dominating  112  l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n a r t tends to b l u r the f a c t t h a t t h e B y z a n t i n e 30 t r a d i t i o n was continuous i n V e n e t i a n a r t , e s p e c i a l l y i n p a i n t i n g , it  and t h a t  c o - e x i s t s and harmonizes w i t h the newer Roman t r a d i t i o n which Chambers  p r e f e r s to see as dominant. The  two t r a d i t i o n s , the Roman and the B y z a n t i n e , were b o t h f a c e t s o f  a s i n g l e process o f d e f i n i n g and p r o p a g a n d i z i n g century.  the state i n the f i f t e e n t h  The f a m i l i a r o p p o s i t i o n of these two t r a d i t i o n s may be a modern  distortion i n perspective.  S e r g i o B e t t i n i observes  the u n i n t e r r u p t e d Byzan-  t i n e t r a d i t i o n o f V e n i c e , reminding us t h a t i t i s o n l y now, a t g r e a t 31  h i s t o r i c a l d i s t a n c e , t h a t we can d i s t i n g u i s h between Rome and the O r i e n t . The o r i e n t a l i s m o f V e n i c e had i t s o r i g i n i n a v e r y s t r o n g attachment Roman Empire.  In the e a r l y M i d d l e Ages C o n s t a n t i n o p l e was o n l y a new Rome,  a new c e n t r e o f empire, was  to the  and i n f i g h t i n g  to succeed C o n s t a n t i n o p l e V e n i c e  c l a i m i n g to be the h e i r o f Rome: L a fedelta" romana e b i z a n t i n a d i V e n e z i a , che s i r i s o l s e e s t e r i o r m e n t e n e l suo conservatorismo tenace, f u appunto un'arma, e non d i poco v a l o r e , i n questa l o t t a . - ^  Furthermore,  B e t t i n i , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the a c t i v i t y o f the Greek i c o n  workshops i n f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e , notes the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which B y z a n t i n e m i r a c u l o u s and s a c r e d i c o n s might have i n a t t e s t i n g  to the a n t i 33  q u i t y o f the s t a t e and of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s who owned them. Strengthened  P o l i t i c a l E x p r e s s i o n i n L a t e F i f t e e n t h Century  Venice  In the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was a s t r e n g t h e n e d z a t i o n o f V e n i c e , q u a s i - o f f i c i a l and encouraged and by the doges.  J  by the r u l i n g  propagandiaristocracy  Whether due to s e r i o u s m i l i t a r y l o s s e s and t h r e a t to  V e n e t i a n commerce and dominion,  to i n c r e a s i n g i m p e r i a l a m b i t i o n s , o r to new  p o l i t i c a l s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , or a l l t h r e e f a c t o r s , s t i m u l i were p r e s e n t f o r a  113  new  e l a b o r a t i o n o f the myth of V e n i c e , drawing  on the two major  traditions.  W i l l i a m Bouwsma notes the p r e s s u r e i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y to articulate political beliefs.  In these y e a r s the f i r s t b e g i n n i n g o f an  o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y take p l a c e w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s t o r y of V e n i c e .  Chambers observes  Sabellico's  t h a t t h i s p e r i o d sees a h e i g h t of  "neo-Roman" p r e t e n s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the p a r t o f doges Marco and  Agostino  Of.  Barbarigo.  At the same time, a n c i e n t c l a i m s to the s a c r e d a u t h o r i t y o f  the s t a t e , drawing t i n e Empire,  upon the c u l t of S t . Mark and  the h e r i t a g e of the Byzan-  are a l s o r e v i v e d , p o s s i b l y i n response  to p o l i t i c a l  conflicts  which c h a r a c t e r i z e d Venice's r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Roman Papacy i n the  fifteenth  37 century. The d u a l aspect of the myth of V e n i c e i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y as the h e i r to the empires  of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n the e a s t and Rome i n the west  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a r t s by a unique a n t i q u e Roman imagery gateway, 1460,  i n t e g r a t i o n of B y z a n t i n e Greek and  and iconography.  Robertson w r i t e s of the A r s e n a l  that i t  seems designed to a s s e r t the p o s i t i o n of V e n i c e as h e i r to the Roman h e r i t a g e of the B y z a n t i n e Empire, perhaps w i t h a c o n s c i o u s r e f e r e n c e to the gates of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e Those a r t i s t s who Renaissance  are c o n s i d e r e d most important  to the m a t u r a t i o n o f V e n e t i a n  s t y l e show a marked i n t e r e s t i n the B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n which  becomes more pronounced.  For example, C o d u c c i , the d e s i g n e r of a church  p r a i s e d by Paolo D o l p h i n as "a temple which not o n l y evokes a n t i q u i t y , but a c t u a l l y surpasses i t , ^ employs B y z a n t i n e church p l a n s i n l a t e r works, such 3  as S. G i o v a n n i C r i s o s t o m o T h e  Lombardi,  who  Pope-Hennessy d e s c r i b e s as  the i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between F l o r e n t i n e i d e a s and V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , showed marked B y z a n t i n e i n t e r e s t s as demonstrated  by Wilk. -'4  Not  also only  was  114  Venice  the c e n t r e of the most important  p a i n t i n g i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i c o n o g r a p h i c a l types such as G i o v a n n i  Two  Artistic  t h e r e was  techniques  Bellini.  no l i t t l e  interest  in  Byzantine  on the p a r t of more p r o g r e s s i v e  painters  4 z  T r a d i t i o n s i n the San  These two The  and  s c h o o l of I t a l o - B y z a n t i n e i c o n  Giobbe A l t a r p i e c e  t r a d i t i o n s are i n t e g r a t e d i n the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e .  a l t a r p i e c e i s a m a s t e r f u l , p e r f e c t l y i n t e g r a t e d s y n t h e s i s of the  B y z a n t i n i z i n g t r a d i t i o n with antique sance and  imagery, and  s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , which correspond  the myth of Venice  of B y z a n t i n e with  ( F i g . 64).  i n f l u e n c e s , l i e p r i m a r i l y i n the v a u l t e d B r u n e l l e s c h a n to s t r i c t  pediment and  Renais-  the e f f l o r e s c e n c e i n  The Roman r e f e r e n c e s i n the p a i n t i n g , the product  according  and  local  of Tuscan  chapel  constructed  perspective p r o j e c t i o n with i t s triumphal  Corinthian columns  echoing  arch,  Moro's c h a n c e l a r c h .  square  This  i n f l u e n c e i s seen a l s o i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n the d o l p h i n  capitals,  whose source Hubala t r a c e s to the c a p i t a l s i n the c o u r t y a r d of the  Palazzo  Pazzi, F l o r e n c e antique aspect  4 3  and  i n the V i r g i n ' s throne which i s r e m i n i s c e n t  a l t a r w i t h i t s r o s e t t e and  cornucopia  decoration.  The  an  Renaissance  of the work i s seen i n the d i s p o s i t i o n of f i g u r e s w i t h i n a d e f i n e d ,  u n i f i e d space, i n a c o n s i s t e n t atmospheric i l l u m i n a t i o n , and of volume and balanced  weight.  means of a p p r o p r i a t e age, sense of b a l a n c e d unified  of  physiognomy, dress and  c h a r a c t e r are d e p i c t e d gesture.  There i s a  harmony, of rhythmic v a r i e t y w i t h i n a symmetrical  composition.  above a l l by  I n d i v i d u a l i t y and  the d e p i c t i o n  the three  The  g r a c e f u l harmony and  angels.  4 4  s e n s u a l beauty are  by  general  and exemplified  115  Giuseppe F i o c c o sees t h i s harmony d i f f e r e n t l y : An a n c i e n t c l a s s i c a l harmony c o n t r o l s and o r g a n i z e s the whole i n t o a solemn B y z a n t i n e i c o n o g r a p h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The same rhythm, so o f t e n mistaken f o r h u m a n i s t i c r e t u r n to a n t i q u i t y , i s found i n the m a g n i f i c e n t Madonna d e g l i A l b e r e t t i . . The composition of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e may spatial sensibility  r e f l e c t a Byzantine  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the d i v i n e by means of d e f i n e d s p a t i a l  areas which are g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l meaning a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the deity:  the s u b o r d i n a t e zones w i t h i n the u n i f i e d p i c t o r i a l space, and  the  i l l u s i o n i s t i c s a n c t u a r y space of the p a i n t i n g w i t h i n the a c t u a l space of the church  interior.  church,  The  e f f e c t i s of a b a l d a c h i n or t a b e r n a c l e w i t h i n the  the entrance d e f i n e d by the r e a l stone a r c h l e a d i n g to a v e s t i b u l e  a r e a i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y p r o j e c t i n g toward the viewer w i t h an  architectural  p l a n a d a p t i n g t h a t of the B y z a n t i n e s a n c t u a r y w i t h E u c h a r i s t i c s i d e c h a p e l s and  c e n t r a l sacred a l t a r area.  polychromed-revetment  46  zones of the p a i n t i n g :  and  The mosaiced apse i s B y z a n t i n e , w i t h i t s  the a p p l i c a t i o n of r e a l g o l d i n the most s a c r e d  the mosaic, the c o f f e r e d b a r r e l v a u l t and  the  47 cross.  The  t i n e m o t i f and  cherubim, as observed the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n  above, are a d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n of a Byzanthey bear may  have a B y z a n t i n e a s s o c i a -  48  t i o n -.since the western melody of "Ave p l e n a g r a t i a ' has a Greek o r i g i n . C a r l o Gamba notes the B y z a n t i n e h i e r a t i c i s m o f t e n seen i n B e l l i n i ' s f i g u r e s who  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n "calm and c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t i t u d e s " "always b r e a t h i n g a  49 great v i t a l i t y . "  G o f f e n i n t e r p r e t s B e l l i n i ' s B y z a n t i n e i n t e r e s t as a  s p i r i t u a l r a t h e r than l i t e r a l e v o c a t i o n of Byzantium which can be  sensed,  f o r example, i n a mood of s o l e m n i t y and a u s t e r i t y . I n  Giobbe  h i s San  a l t a r p i e c e , f r o n t a l i t y and h i e r a t i c i s m d i s t i n g u i s h the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d i v i n e b e i n g s , the Madonna and C h r i s t C h i l d , and Byzantine  the u n d e r l y i n g  type of the Madonna has been noted above i n Chapters  Two  116  and  Five. The San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s a p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n of B y z a n t i n e  h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s p a t i a l zones w i t h i n a p e r s p e c t i v a l l y Renaissance we  a r c h i t e c t u r a l space.  see a combination  unified,  I f the p r e c e d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s are  correct,  of the a n t i q u e t r i u m p h a l a r c h w i t h the m o d i f i e d p l a n  of a B y z a n t i n e s a n c t u a r y .  W i t h i n t h i s i s a combination  of a  Renaissance  treatment of the human f i g u r e and e x p r e s s i o n o f human psychology and  indivi-  d u a l i t y w i t h B y z a n t i n e i c o n o g r a p h i c a l types and mood and o f a d e l i b e r a t e of the a r c h a i c p i c t o r i a l  technique o f g o l d a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h a c o m p l e t e l y  i l l u s i o n i s t i c o i l technique.^  The angels themselves,  so e v o c a t i v e of the  ephebi of a n t i q u i t y - ^ " r e i n s t a t e an o l d B y z a n t i n e m o t i f " i n form.53  i  n  use  a d d i t i o n to t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of two  artistic  Renaissance  t r a d i t i o n s which  are drawn upon i n the p r o c e s s of p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n and s t a t e propagand i z a t i o n known as the myth of V e n i c e , t h e r e a r e more s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to s t a t e iconography  S t a t e Iconography  i n the a l t a r p i e c e .  i n the San Giobbe A l t a r p i e c e  The s t r o n g e v o c a t i o n of the i n t e r i o r of the s t a t e church of San Marco c r e a t e d by the mosaiced  apse w i t h i t s polychrome revetment,  g o l d mosaic and  golden l i g h t s l i p p i n g i n t o shadow has been n o t i c e d i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s : i n the V e n e t i a n c o n t e x t , mosaic s e t t i n g s f o r h o l y f i g u r e s evoke not o n l y Byzantium i n g e n e r a l , but S. Marco i n p a r t i c u l a r . These p a i n t e d r e m i n i s c e n c e s of the b a s i l i c a were combined by B e l l i n i w i t h the s p e c i a l ambience of S. Marco - as Theodore H e t z e r has w r i t t e n , w i t h "the warm brown of the w a l l s , the golden t w i l i g h t o f the apses and cupolas"...The aura of S. Marco transforms t h e s e . . . s a c r e convers a z i o n i , endowing them w i t h i t s m u l t i - l e v e l e d i m p l i c a t i o n s , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l . "5^ The use of r e a l g o l d r e c r e a t e s the a c t u a l e f f e c t of l i g h t v a u l t , not c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n a photograph,  striking a  mosaiced  and i n a manner s i m i l a r to the  117  B y z a n t i n e mosaic technique d e s c r i b e d by Demus i n which l i g h t  i s manipulated  to p l a y on the concave g o l d ground i n such a way as to s i l h o u e t t e and emphasize important Furthermore,  imagery, here  the cherubim, canopy and i t s f o l i a g e .  the B y z a n t i n e angel d e s i g n appears  v a u l t of t h e B a p t i s t e r y o f San Marco as noted  t o be taken from the c e n t r a l  above ( F i g . 1 0 ) . The r e f e r e n c e  to the i n t e r i o r o f San Marco evokes t h e legends  c o n c e r n i n g the d i v i n e p r e -  d e s t i n a t i o n o f Venice as the s i t e o f the s a i n t ' s r e l i c s , and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l  a u t h o r i t y o f the s t a t e , v e s t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y i n t h e doge,  whose c h a p e l San Marco was. The prominent m o t i f o f the canopy a l l u d e s n o t o n l y t o r o y a l and  presence  to the E u c h a r i s t ( i n which t h e K i n g o f Heaven i s b e l i e v e d to be p r e s e n t )  but i t a l s o r e c a l l s trionfo,  t h e c e r e m o n i a l u m b r e l l a c a r r i e d by t h e Doge i n t h e  the o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s i o n of t h e V e n e t i a n government which i s r e p r e -  sented by t h e Doge and the S i g n o r i a .  The i n s i g n i a borne i n t h i s p r o c e s s i o n  were b e l i e v e d to document p r i v i l e g i g r a n t e d to V e n i c e i n 1177 on t h e o c c a s i o n of h e r a l l e g e d m e d i a t i o n o f a d i s p u t e between the Pope and the Holy Roman E m p e r o r . T h e d u c a l u m b r e l l a i s a c o n c i s e symbol o f the e v e n t s - ^ which formed the s u b j e c t o f h i s t o r i c a l d e c o r a t i o n s i n the Ducal P a l a c e and r e f e r s to the p o l i t i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l independence, and u n i v e r s a l l y power of the V e n e t i a n s t a t e which q u a l i f i e d i t as a mediator between world powers. demonstration umbrella  For Venetians  recognized  i n a dispute  t h e events o f 1177 were an h i s t o r i c a l  o f the R e p u b l i c ' s e i r e n i c i s t  r o l e i n world peace.^9  The d u c a l  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v a u l t a l l u s i o n s to San Marco a r e a b b r e v i a t e d  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the d u a l c e n t r e s o f V e n e t i a n power.  118  The V i r g i n as an Emblem of V e n i c e W i t h i n t h i s m a n i f e s t l y V e n e t i a n s e t t i n g i s the throne of the V i r g i n Mary ( F i g . 64).  I t i s now  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the V i r g i n Mary had a  p o s i t i o n i n Venetian ideology.  There was  special  an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n of d e v o t i o n  to the V i r g i n i n V e n i c e which seems to have been p a r t of the B y z a n t i n e  heri-  tage.  and  The V i r g i n Annunciate  was  claimed as a p a t r o n s a i n t of Venice  the legend of the f o u n d a t i o n of V e n i c e on March 25, 421, o r i g i n of the R e p u b l i c and V i r g i n ' s acceptance  i t s r e c e p t i o n of an h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n w i t h  of the I n c a r n a t i o n of C h r i s t . ^  h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n was  a s s o c i a t e d the  The  i d e a of V e n e t i a n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the V i r g i n i n another way  by the  c u r r e n c e of the g r e a t n a t i o n a l ceremony of the Sensa commemorating s t a t e - g l o r i f y i n g events of 1177 A s c e n s i o n of Mary.  (mentioned  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n may  the C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n , the event as a theme i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g .  the  above) w i t h the day of  con-  the the  h e l p to e x p l a i n the p o p u l a r i t y of f o l l o w i n g h e r A s c e n s i o n to heaven,  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the C o r o n a t i o n theme  i n the d e c o r a t i o n of the government b u i l d i n g s , the Ducal P a l a c e , S i n d i n g L a r s e n observes  t h a t the V i r g i n ' s patronage  of Venice was  related  to the  ft ? 1  c o n c e p t i o n of the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c as an Some V e n e t i a n iconography  institution.  of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i m p l i e s a c l o s e  a s s o c i a t i o n of the V i r g i n Mary and her q u a l i t i e s w i t h the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of V e n i c e , V e n e t i a . ^  3  The n a t i o n a l c u l t of the V i r g i n o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r the s y m b o l i z a t i o n of i d e a s about the mythic  o r i g i n , sacred nature,  and  p e a c e f u l m i s s i o n of the V e n e t i a n s t a t e , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y about  the  government as an i n s t i t u t i o n of j u s t i c e .  justice  iconography  Recent s t u d i e s s t r e s s the  of the e x t e r i o r of the Ducal P a l a c e which expresses  the V e n e t i a n h e r i t a g e of Solomonic wisdom.^  4  the i d e a of  A number of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s  119  of J u s t i c e appear i n e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e  ( F i g s . 65, 66,.67).  The  most e x p l i c i t i s the p a i n t i n g by J a c o b e l l o d e l F i o r e , f o r the M a g i s t r a t o d e l P r o p r i o i n the Ducal P a l a c e which crowned J u s t i c e , enthroned  ( V e n i c e , Accademia, 1421, F i g .  6 6 ) i n  on the l i o n s o f S t . Mark, b e a r i n g a sword  and s c a l e s , r e c e i v e s d i v i n e c o u n s e l conveyed by t h e a r c h a n g e l s M i c h a e l and Gabriel.  The i d e n t i t y o f J u s t i c e as V e n e t i a i s made c l e a r i n a second  v e r s i o n of i t i n a r o u n d e l on the P i a z z e t t a facade o f the D u c a l P a l a c e where it  i s l a b e l l e d Venecia  ( F i g . 6 5 ) . ^ Bartolomeo Buon's f i g u r e o f J u s t i c e  o c c u p i e s a prominent p o s i t i o n above the P o r t a d e l l a C a r t a , and viewed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the f i g u r e o f the A n n u n c i a t i o n G a b r i e l on t h e c o r n e r o f the P a l a c e near  i t , r e p e a t s the i d e a o f the d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d J u s t i c e  by the J a c o b e l l o d e l F i o r e a l l e g o r y  represented  ( F i g . 67)  The q u a l i t i e s shared by V e n i c e and J u s t i c e , v i r g i n i t y , wisdom r e c e i v e d from God, and the imagery o f crown and throne, p a r t a k e o f f a m i l i a r Marian  imagery.  Furthermore,  the a t t r i b u t e s o f D i v i n e Wisdom who i s p e r s o n i -  f i e d i n the a p o c r y p h a l Wisdom of Solomon and E c c l e s i a s t i c u s and i n the Book ft R  of Proverbs were e v e n t u a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d  to the V i r g i n Mary.  I n a r t the  theme o f D i v i n e Wisdom i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e V i r g i n as Sedes Sapientiae.69  Not o n l y does the Sedes S a p i e n t i a e r e f e r  throne o f j u s t i c e ,  t h a t i s , the V i r g i n as the s e a t o f t h e Logos I n c a r n a t e ,  C h r i s t the new Solomon, b u t i n Marian  c u l t and e s p e c i a l l y F r a n c i s c a n ,  Mary was b e l i e v e d to have r e c e i v e d omniprescience Annunciation^ The  a  n  Q  W  to the Solomonic  a t the moment of. the  a s h e r s e l f a r e c e i v e r and d i s p e n s e r o f wisdom.^1  comparison of a d i v i n e b e i n g such as Mary w i t h a f u n c t i o n o f s e c u l a r  government such as J u s t i c e was an outcome o f the r e l i g i o u s mode o f p o l i t 19 ical thought i n the Middle Ages which Kantorowicz terms " p o l i t i c a l t h e o l o g y . "  120  In f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n a r t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Mary w i t h V e n e t i a i s i m p l i e d by shared i d e a s and imagery r a t h e r than s t a t e d o u t r i g h t .  However,  an e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y drawing by a f o l l o w e r of T i t i a n u n e q u i v o c a l l y u n i t e s the two enthroned  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : the V i r g i n Mary h o l d i n g the C h r i s t C h i l d i s  between two  important V e n e t i a n s a i n t s , Roch and  S e b a s t i a n , on  the  V e n e t i a n l i o n throne of j u s t i c e f a m i l i a r from e a r l i e r p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of Venetia ( F i g . 6 8 ) ,  7 3  are the most e x p l i c i t Sapientiae. ( F i g . 69)  7 4  D. Ros and observes  that B e l l i n i ' s  enthroned  Madonnas  examples i n V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g of the V i r g i n as Sedes  Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the enthroned  evoking  Virgin  the a n c i e n t s a c r e d and B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s of the s t a t e ,  s i t u a t e d i n a s e t t i n g r e c a l l i n g the d u c a l c h a p e l of San Marco and P a l a c e , approached by a t r i u m p h a l a r c h , may  the Ducal  a l l u d e to the d i v i n e s a n c t i o n  and p r o t e c t i o n of the s t a t e and p e r s o n i f y J u s t i c e of good government i n Venice?  The Angels The  as an Emblem of the V e n e t i a n  t h r e e angels s e a t e d a t the s t e p s of the V i r g i n ' s throne  c e l e s t i a l harmony, sounding we  Constitution  the music of the spheres  symbolize  on t h e i r instruments  as  see i n Paolo da Venezia's C o r o n a t i o n of the V i r g i n i n the Accademia,  Venice  ( F i g s . 11, 12).  of p o l i t i c a l s t a t e s was  The use of m u s i c a l metaphor f o r the c o n s t i t u t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d by P l a t o i n h i s R e p u b l i c , IV, and i s an  e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a i n Western p o l i t i c a l the l u t e i n p a r t i c u l a r was cosmos, and  n  the f i f t e e n t h  century  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A p o l l o , the p e r f e c t r u l e r of  i s the symbol of the d i s t r i b u t i v e component of  V e n i c e the analogy a n g e l s , and  t h o u g h t . i  of the s t a t e w i t h cosmic  o r d e r and  the  j u s t i c e . I n  the h i e r a r c h y of  the  the consonance of i t s governmental system w i t h m u s i c a l harmonies  a r e f r e q u e n t i n l a u d a t o r y and i d e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g s about the V e n e t i a n s t a t e . 7 7  121  In p a r t i c u l a r , the concept o f the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n as a combination or symbiosis o f the t h r e e forms of good government, r u l e o f monarchy, r u l e of  the optimates, and r u l e o f the people, i n a p e r f e c t  counterbalance  found  78 e x p r e s s i o n i n the metaphor o f m u s i c a l harmony. Sansovino  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Jacopo  I t i s used by Francesco  Sansovino's  logetta i n Piazza  San Marco: . . . t h i s R e p u b l i c by v i r t u e o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f i t s laws, i t s u n i t y and i t s u n c o r r u p t e d l i b e r t y , i s unique i n the w o r l d , r u l e d w i t h j u s t i c e and w i t h wisdom...from the u n i o n o f t h e m a g i s t r a c i e s combined w i t h equable temperament t h e r e a r i s e s an unusual harmony, which perpetuates t h i s admirable government... 1^ The b a l a n c e d , t r i a n g u l a r group o f t h r e e m u s i c i a n a n g e l s , d e p i c t e d as t h r e e d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l and p h y s i o g n o m i c a l of  types, and t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s , the l u t e  the uppermost a n g e l made prominent  by t h e b r i l l i a n t  i l l u m i n a t i o n , seems  emphasized by i t s p o s i t i o n near the p e r s p e c t i v e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t viewer's  l e v e l o f v i s i o n and may form an emblem o f the unique  harmony o f the t r i - p a r t i t e governmental e n v i e d by the p o l i t i c a l l y so, we see w i t h i n  turbulent  system  states  and b e a u t i f u l  that was so admired and  o f mainland  t h e r e l i g i o u s theme and f u n c t i o n  a l t a r p i e c e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e r f e c t  a t the  Italy.  If this i s  o f the San Giobbe  and enduring V e n e t i a n  constitu-  t i o n which i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d J u s t i c e p e r s o n i f i e d by a Madonna who combines the B y z a n t i n e H o d e g e t r i a and the V i r g i n majestically  enthroned  i n a B y z a n t i n e and Roman s a n c t u a r y a l l u d i n g to the  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l power o f the s t a t e . h i m s e l f had p r e d i c t e d  Annunciate,  S t . B e r n a r d i n o f Siena  that  the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c would endure as l o n g as J u s t i c e r e i g n e d . i n Venice.^0  122  Conclusion The San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s the f i r s t s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e which was early sixteenth centuries.  p o p u l a r i n Venice i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h  d e c o r a t i o n s a t the Ducal P a l a c e and be due  and  I t i s a c a t e g o r y of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g which  f o r Venetians r i v a l l e d and perhaps  importance may  example of the type of  e q u a l l e d the importance  of the  official  the h i s t o r y c y c l e s of the S c u o l e .  This  to the s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of the two major  i d e o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n V e n i c e to express both a d e v o t i o n a l theme and i d e a s about  the s a c r e d and  s y n t h e s i z i n g Renaissance  t r i u m p h a l n a t u r e o f the V e n e t i a n s t a t e .  p r i n c i p l e s and imagery  c a r r y i n g ideas of a  In "new  Rome" w i t h the B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n and i t s a s s o c i a t e d i d e a s of the s a c r e d and d i v i n e m i s s i o n of the s t a t e B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t , as i n the t h i r t e e n t h and  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the v i s u a l  a r t s i n f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y Venice p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n o r c h e s t r a t i n g the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of the r u l i n g members of the s t a t e .  123  NOTES '.1.  John Ruskin, Guide to the P r i n c i p a l P i c t u r e s i n the Academy of F i n e A r t s a t V e n i c e , London, 1891, p. 9.  2.  S. S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l , S t u d i e s i n the R e l i g i o u s Iconography of the V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , I n s t i t u t u m Romanum Norvegiae, A c t a ad Archaeologiam e t A r t i u m H i s t o r i a m P e r t i n e n t i a , v o l . 5, Rome, 1974 ( c i t e d h e r e a f t e r as S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l ) .  3.  Paolo P r o d i , "The S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Church i n Renaissance V e n i c e , " J.R. H a l e , ed., Renaissance V e n i c e , Totowa, N.J., 1973, p. 411.  4.  Robert L. Benson, The B i s h o p - E l e c t , A Study i n M e d i e v a l E c c l e s i a s t i c a l O f f i c e , P r i n c e t o n , N.J., 1968, a c l a s s i c study of the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s a c e r d o t i a and regnum i n the Middle Ages, and l e c t u r e "Iconography of the Two Powers i n the M i d d l e Ages," November 16, 1978.  5.  G. P a v a n e l l o , "San Marco n e l l a Leggenda e n e l l a S t o r i a , " R i v i s t a M e n s i l e d e l l a c i t t 3 d i V e n e z i a 7 (1928): 293-324; Gina F a s o l i , " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " S t u d i s t o r i c i i n onore d i G i o a c c h i n o V o l p e , F l o r e n c e , 1958, pp. 451-452; Demus, San Marco, 1960, pp. 3-19.  6.  P a v a n e l l o , "San Marco," 1928, 1977, p. 45, n. 30-32.  passim, and W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo,"  7.  P a v a n e l l o , "San Marco," 1928,  p.  8.  Fasoli,  9.  F a s o l i , l o c . c i t . , and she c i t e s Roberto C e s s i as the author of the expression "chiesa nazionale veneta."  315.  " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " 1958,  p.  p.  452.  10.  P a v a n e l l o , "San Marco," 1928,  306.  11.  Otto Demus, "Renascence of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t i n T h i r t e e n t h Century V e n i c e , " L a t e C l a s s i c a l and M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s i n Honor of A l b e r t Mathias F r i e n d , J r . , P r i n c e t o n , 1955,'pp. 356-357; Hugo B u c h t a l , H i s t o r i a T r o i a n a , S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of M e d i e v a l S e c u l a r I l l u s t r a - . . • t i o n , London, 1971, p. 58.  12.  Fasoli,  13.  See Chapter F i v e and P r o d i , "Church i n Renaissance V e n i c e , " 19 73.  " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " 1958,  pp. 476-477.  124  14.  S i n d l n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t I n the C o u n c i l H a l l , p. 143;:at l e a s t from t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , March 25, 421 AD was accepted as t h e date o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f V e n i c e . See a l s o W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, p. 112, n. 62.  15.  Sheard, "Tomb o f Doge Andrea Vendramin," 1971, p. 224, n. 18.on• p. 248; E l l e n Rosand, "Music i n t h e Myth of V e n i c e , " RQ 30 (1977): 516.  16.  Edward Muir, "Images o f Power: A r t and Pageantry i n Renaissance V e n i c e , " The American H i s t o r i c a l Review 84 (1979): 18, 40.  17.  A. Grabar, "Byzance e t V e n i s e , " V e n e z i a e l ' E u r o p a , A t t i d e l XVIII Congresso I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , V e n i c e , 1956, p . 47.  18.  Demus, "Renascence of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , " 1955, and idem., San Marco, 1960, p. 179.  19.  W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, Chapter Three and pp. 47-54, d i s c u s s e s the g e o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s of V e n e t i a n "eclecticism"."  20.  Demus, "Renascence o f E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , " 1955, p. 360.  21.  F.C. Lane, "Medieval P o l i t i c a l Ideas and the V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , " Venice and H i s t o r y , The C o l l e c t e d Papers o f F r e d e r i c C. Lane, B a l t i m o r e , 1966, pp. 285-308; David Robey, John Law, "The V e n e t i a n Myth and t h e 'De R e p u b l i c a Veneta' o f P i e r Paolo V e r g e r i o , " Rinascimento, R i v i s t a d e l l ' I s t i t u t o N a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i s u l Rinascimento, s e r i e s 2, v o l . 15, F l o r e n c e , 19 75, p. 5.  22.  Demus, San Marco, 1960, p. 113.  23.  D.S. Chambers, The I m p e r i a l Age o f V e n i c e , 1380-1580, London, 1970,  24.  I b i d . , p. 12.  25.  Lane, " V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n , " 1966, pp. 288-294 a n a l y z e s the c o r r e s pondence- of f e a t u r e s of the V e n e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h A q u i n a s ' p o l i t i c a l theory.  26.  F e l i x G i l b e r t , "The V e n e t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n i n F l o r e n t i n e P o l i t i c a l Thought," F l o r e n t i n e S t u d i e s , P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y i n Renaissance F l o r e n c e , ed. N. Rubenstein, London, 1968, pp. 463-500; S i n d i n g l a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l , pp. 134-149.  27.  Chambers, I m p e r i a l Age, 1970, p. 166.  28.  R. P a l l u c c h i n i , P i t t u r a Veneta d e l Q u a t t r o c e n t o , I I G o t i c o I n t e r n a z i o - ... n a l e e g l i i n i z i d e l Rinascimento, l e c t u r e s ed. M.A. N o v e l l i , Bologna, 1956, pp. 172-191; Robertson, B e l l i n i , pp. 3-8.  :  ~ .'  125  29.  Wilk d i s c u s s e s the V e n e t i a n t i e s w i t h Byzantium, the s t r o n g l y B y z a n t i n e q u a l i t y of f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n l i f e , and what she c a l l s a " B y z a n t i n e r e v i v a l " i n V e n e t i a n a r t (Wilk, " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, pp. 123-143.  30.  Grabar, "Byzance e t V e n i s e , " 1956, V i s i o n , " pp. 487-489.  31.  B e t t i n i , Madonneri, 1932,  32.  I b i d . , p.  11.  33.  I b i d . , p.  12.  34.  W i l l i a m J . Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defense of R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , Renaissance Values i n the Age of the Counter Reformation, B e r k e l e y , L.A., 1968, p. 53.  35.  F e l i x G i l b e r t , "Biondo, S a b e l l i c o and the b e g i n n i n g s of V e n e t i a n o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " F l o r i l e g i u m H i s t o r i a l e , Essays p r e s e n t e d to Wallace K. Ferguson, Toronto, 1971, p. 275 f .  36.  Chambers, I m p e r i a l Age,  37.  P r o d i makes t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of post-1509 V e n i c e . See W i l k ' s t h e s i s of l o n g s t a n d i n g V e n e t i a n h o s t i l i t y toward the Pope and Rome, pp. 108111, 144, i n her " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977.  38.  Robertson,  39.  John Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance 1958, p. 107.  S c u l p t u r e , 1 s t ed., London,  40.  W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977,  132, n.  41.  I b i d . , pp. 137-144.  42.  Grabar, "Byzance et V e n i s e , " 1956, p. 55: " l e s V i e r g e s des i c o n e s , l e s mosaiques de San Marco c o n t i n u e n t a i n s i a v i v r e . . . c h e z B e l l i n i surtout."  43.  Hubala, Madonna M i t K i n d , 1969,  44.  B o s c h i n i , La C a r t a , 1660,  45.  G. F i o c c o , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , M i l a n , 1960,  46.  Grabar,  47.  W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, p. 136: "...the type of v a u l t e d mosaiced space was meant t o be r e c o g n i z e d as ' B y z a n t i n e ' . "  B e l l i n i , p.  pp.  1970,  pp. 53-55; G o f f e n , "Icon  and  7-12.  p.  90.  7.  pp. 119,  106.  pp. 10-11.  p . 29 .  "Byzance e t V e n i s e , " 1956,  p.  p.  18.  49.  126  48.  Deno J . Geanokoplos, B y z a n t i n e East and L a t i n West: Two Worlds o f Christendom i n Middle Ages and Renaissance, O x f o r d , 1976, p. 42: "...the western melody o f 'Ave (Maria) p l e n a g r a t i a ' has been shown to be connected d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e Greek Pope S e r g i u s o f t h e seventh century and was o r i g i n a l l y sung t o t h e Greek t e x t ' c h a i r e Keharitomene'." I t appears as a v a u l t i n s c r i p t i o n over t h e V i r g i n i n Costa's s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e i n Bologna, F i g . 51.  49.  C. Gamba, G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , M i l a n , 1937, p. 19.  50.  G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " pp. 509-510.  51.  Note t h a t t h e Madonna's g o l d brocade  52.  V a s a r i r e f e r s to the angels as " p u t t i " , quoted i n Appendix I I , p. 185 and n. 15 ( V a s a r i , Le v i t e , (1568) 1878-1885).  53.  P h i l i p p e Hendy, Ludwig G o l d s c h e i d e r , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , London, 1945, p. 28.  54.  G o f f e n , "Icon and V i s i o n , " c i t e s T. H e t z e r , A u f s a t z e und V o r t r a g e , 2 v o l , L e i p z i g , 1957, v o l . 1, p. 21.  55.  Otto Demus, B y z a n t i n e Mosaic D e c o r a t i o n , London, 1948, p. 35, d e s c r i b e s the " i n c l u s i o n o f s h i n i n g and r a d i a t i n g m a t e r i a l . . . e s p e c i a l l y g o l d , which i s so arranged...as to l i g h t t h e s p a t i a l icon...The c e n t r e s of i c o n o g r a p h i c i n t e r e s t and those o f f o r m a l c o m p o s i t i o n , which i n c l a s s i c a l B y z a n t i n e a r t a r e i d e n t i c a l , a r e s t r e s s e d by t h e s t r o n g e s t l i g h t , " and " r e f l e x i o n s on t h e golden s u r f a c e from which t h e f i g u r e s stand out i n s i g n i f i c a n t s i l h o u e t t e , " (my emphasis).  i s painted  illusionistically.  Dormentj " T i t i a n ' s P i e t a , " 1972, p. 406: " B e l l i n i used the p a i n t e d golden semi-dome to evoke both the golden dome o f heaven and t h e r i c h n e s s of V e n i c e ' s B y z a n t i n e h e r i t a g e , most c o n s p i c u o u s l y d i s p l a y e d i n the i n t e r i o r o f San Marco." 56.  F o r the p o l i t i c a l meaning o f San Marco see Demus, San Marco, 1960, pp. 5.4, 59. "...the p o l i t i c a l p o i n t o f view had such g r e a t importance f o r the Venetians t h a t any d e t a i l of the d e c o r a t i o n o f t h i s s t a t e church c o u l d , and d i d , take on a p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t . . . " "As a monument n o t o f p o p u l a r p i e t y , b u t o f " o l d - s t y l e " p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o s i t y i t was shaped...by the c o n s c i o u s w i l l o f a r u l i n g c a s t e whose r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s wanted i t t o be the v i s i b l e symbol and the programmatic embodiment of t h e i r i d e a s . "  127  57.  F a s o l i , " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " 1958, pp. 464-466; S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l , pp. 156-159; and L i n a Padoan Urban, "La F e s t a d e l l a Sensa n e l l e A r t i e n e l l ' I c o n o g r a f i a , " S t u d i V e n e z i a n i 10 (1968) :295297, g i v e s an o u t l i n e of the l e g e n d .  58.  The u m b r e l l a i s a "simbolo d i potenza e d i g i u r i s d i z i o n e , " ( i b i d . , p. 272, n. 8, and see a l s o p. 296). In her f i g . 7, Urban reproduces a m i n i a t u r e from the Cronaca d e l Monastero d e l l e V e r g i n i , of the f i r s t h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y (MS I Museo C o r r e r d i V e n e z i a ) "La pace d i V e n e z i a , " i n which the d e p i c t i o n of t h r e e l e a d e r s w i t h umbrellas under the g r e a t c e n t r a l p o r t a l of San Marco forms an i c o n o g r a p h i c a l compression of the c u l m i n a t i n g events of the 1177 pace. The u m b r e l l a i s the s t a t e i n s i g n i a p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the doge ( S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l , pp. 157-158, n. 1 ) . Chambers, I m p e r i a l Age, 1970, f i g . 45, reproduces a d e t a i l of a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y c a p i t a l from the C o r t i l e d e i s e n a t o r i , i n the Ducal P a l a c e , V e n i c e , which shows the canopy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a m e d a l l i o n p r o f i l e of Doge A g o s t i n o B a r b a r i g o (1486-1501) who e x c e l l e d i n the "new s t y l e of p r i n c e l y pomposity," (p. 90).  59.  F a s o l i , " N a s c i t a d i un m i t o , " 1958, p. 466, quotes the H i s t o r i a ducum venetorum i n which we f i n d the i m m o r t a l i t y of V e n i c e l i n k e d to the m i s s i o n of b r i n g i n g peace: "0 quam b e a t i e s t i s , q u i a t a n t a pax apud vos p o t u i s t i r e f o r m a r e : hoc quidem e r i t memoriale nominis n o s t r i i n eternum'." I t i s t h i s sense of V e n i c e f o l l o w i n g D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e which e x p r e s s i o n i n the P r e d e s t i n a t i o n l e g e n d . " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977,  p. 114,  n.  found  60.  Wilk,  71.  61.  See n. 14 t h i s c h a p t e r ; G a l l i c c i o l l i , D e l l e memorie venete, v o l . 1.1. no. 22-50, 430-431: "...La v e r g i n e a n n u n z i a t a s i a da immemorabili a n n i l a p r i n c i p a l e Padrona d e l l o s t a t o n o s t r o . . . " ( c i t e d by W i l k , " T u l l i o Lombardo," 1977, p. 113, n. 67). The A n n u n c i a t i o n and I n c a r n a t i o n a r e e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e s t i n y of V e n i c e by Bernardo G i u s t i n i a n i i n h i s H i s t o r y of the O r i g i n of V e n i c e , V e n i c e , 1493: "...He Who, on t h a t day, i n c h o o s i n g the V i r g i n f o r the redemption of the whole human r a c e , looked e s p e c i a l l y towards her h u m i l i t y , as she h e r s e l f c o n f e s s e d , wished a l s o t h a t on t h a t same day, i n a most humble p l a c e and from most humble men, a s t a r t s h o u l d be made towards the r a i s i n g up of t h i s p r e s e n t Empire, a b e g i n n i n g of so g r e a t a work." ( T r a n s l a t e d by P.H. Labalme, Bernardo G i u s t i n i a n i , A V e n e t i a n of Q u a t t r o c e n t o , Rome, 1969, p. 267; see her comment, p. 272).  the  62.  S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the C o u n c i l H a l l , p.  49.  63.  T h i s i s the name which i s found on the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of V e n i c e i n a  128  r o u n d e l on t h e P i a z e t t a facade of t h e Ducal P a l a c e , F i g . 65, (Wolters, S c u l t u r a v e n e z i a n a g o t i c a , 1976, c a t . 49); a l t h o u g h Pope-Hennessy dated i t c . 1420 w i t h which S i n d i n g - L a r s e n c o n c u r s , Wolters dates i t to b e f o r e 1355. I t seems s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Sansovino i d e n t i f i e d t h i s f i g u r e as J u s t i c e . In a d d i t i o n to the V e n e c i a i n s c r i p t i o n , t h e r o u n d e l bears t h e f o l l o w i n g : FORTIS / TRONO / FURIAS / MARE / SUB / PEDE / PONO 64.  Chambers, I m p e r i a l Age, 1970, pp. 94 f f ; D. Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n , " 1976, pp. 78-79, n. 135. Ralph Lieberman has worked s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h i s q u e s t i o n , f o r example, h i s paper "The Doges' P a l a c e as an E v o c a t i o n o f t h e Temple and P a l a c e o f Solomon," C o l l e g e A r t A s s o c i a t i o n of America, meeting 65, 1971, p. 40.  65.  M o s c h i n i - M a r c o n i , Accademia, no. 26; S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n t h e C o u n c i l H a l l , pp. 55-56, n. 2.  66.  See n . 62 t h i s  67.  Wolters, S c u l t u r a veneziana  68.  D. Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n , " p. 68, n. 74.  69.  S c h i l l e r , C h r i s t i a n A r t , 1971-19 72, v o l . 1, pp. 23-25; I . H. F o r s y t h , The Throne o f Wisdom, P r i n c e t o n , pp. 1 f f . , 22 f f .  70.  Graef, Mary, 1963, p. 296.  71.  D. Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n , " 1976,  72.  E r n s t Kantorowicz, The King's Two B o d i e s , A Study i n M e d i e v a l P o l i t i c a l Theology, P r i n c e t o n , 1957, pp. 100-101. The r o l e o f Mary i n V e n e t i a n s t a t e iconography i s a f i e l d o f study y e t to be f u l l y e x p l o r e d .  73.  D. von Hadeln, V e n e z i a n i s c h e Zeichnungen der Hochrenaissance, B e r l i n , 1925, p l a t e 35 and H. T i e t z e , E . T i e t z e - C o n r a t , The Drawings o f the V e n e t i a n P a i n t e r s i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , New York, 1970, A. 1293; r e d c h a l k , 2,04 x 1,96 cm., B e r l i n , K u p f e r s t i c h k a b i n e t t . S c h i l l e r , C h r i s t i a n A r t , 1971-1972, v o l . 1, p. 25, notes t h a t s m a l l l i o n s e i t h e r on Mary's seat o r near to h e r , i n both Madonna and A n n u n c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a l l u d e to the throne of Solomon.  74.  D. Rosand, " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n , " 1976,  75.  S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n t h e C o u n c i l H a l l , p. 59.  76.  E r n s t Kantorowicz, "On T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f A p o l l i n e E t h i c s , " S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , L o c u s t V a l l e y , New York, 1965, pp. 399-408.  77.  E. Rosand, "Myth," 1977, pp. 512-513, p o i n t s out t h e importance o f music i n p o l i t i c a l thought i n V e n i c e . See a l s o S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , C h r i s t i n the  chapter. g o t i c a , 19 76, no. 240.  p. 78, n. 134.  p . 68, n . 74.  129  C o u n c i l H a l l , pp. 137 f f . , p. 152. 78.  The most f a m i l i a r i s Gasparo C o n t a r i n i ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the f i x e d and temperate c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the V e n e t i a n s t a t e , quoted i n E. Rosand, "Myth," 1977, p. 512, n. 4, from La r e p u b l i c a e i m a g i s t r a t i d i Venegia, V e n i c e , 1548, p. x x x i i i and x x x i i i i . .  79.  Sansovino, V e n e t i a , (1581), 1663, pp. 307 f f . and E. Rosand, "Myth," 1977, p. 513, n. 6.  80.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 584.  130  F i g . 2.  I n t e r i o r of San Giobbe  131  F i g . 4.  Sanudo a l t a r , a l t a r of  Job,  Foscari  altar  132  F i g . 5.  Coat of arms  ft  Fig.  6.  Giovanni B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  |  7.  || •  * M * f the V OM» I W - • • • r f '•' -nil KI DM . liurL Ii  ""S""  1  Photomontage o f B e l l i n i ' altarpiece i n original frame  134  F i g . 8.  B e l l i n i , V i r g i n and C h r i s t , d e t a i l of San Giobbe altarpiece  135  STEPS  o  ANGEL  PROJECTED PLAN OF ALTARPIECE SETTING  IMPLIED LATERAL CHAMBER  WALL OF CHURCH  TOMB SLAB FIGURE 9  DIAGRAM PLAN OF ALTAR AND ALTARPIECE  136  F i g . 10.  Cherub below C h r i s t i n G l o r y , B a p t i s t e r y , San Marco  137  F i g . 12.  Paolo Veneziano, the V i r g i n  C o r o n a t i o n of  F i g . 14.  P. Lombardo, F r a n c i s and Job  140  F i g . 16.  Border of Bishop's Cope  141  Fig.  17.  Frame of B e l l i n i ' s l o s t a l t a r p i e c e , SS G i o v a n n i e Paolo, V e n i c e  142  F i g . 18.  Giorgione, V i r g i n with Saints  Enthroned  F i g . 19.  Pietro Lorenzetti, V i r g i n with Baptist F r a n c i s , A s s i s i , S. Francesco  and  144  Fig.  21.  F i l i p p o L i p p i , V i r g i n , Angels Saints  and  145  F i g . 22.  Fra Angelico, V i r g i n with Saints  Enthroned  146  F i g . 23.  Domenico Veneziano, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  148  F i g . 26.  Andrea Mantegna, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , Verona, San Zeno  MAKI KI.I.O KOCOI.INO  F i g . 27.  Piero d e l l a Francesca, V i r g i n w i t h A n g e l s , S a i n t s and Donor  F i g . 28.  Marcello Fogolino, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  150  F i g . 29.  A n t o n e l l o da Messina, fragment with Saints  of V i r g i n  Enthroned  151  F i g . 31.  Lorenzo Veneziano, V i r g i n and Enthroned  Child  F i g . 32.  A n t o n i o Rosso, V i r g i n and Enthroned  Child  Fig.  33.  Photomontage of B e l l i n i ' s l o s t a l t a r p i e c e w i t h o r i g i n a l frame i n SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e  M M N l A ( , N , \ B A A T O U »MI<>  On  F i g . 34.  Giovanni B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , f o r m e r l y SS. G i o v a n n i e P a o l o , V e n i c e  F i g . 35.  Bartolomeo Montagna, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  154  F i g . 36.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  . 37.  Photomontage o f B e l l i n i ' s San Giobbe altarpiece i n o r i g i n a l frame  Fig.  38.  Masaccio, T r i n i t y , Florence, S. M a r i a N o v e l l a , 1425  156  F i g . 39.  Giovanni B e l l i n i , V i r g i n w i t h S a i n t s , F r a r i , 1488  Four  157  F i g . 40.  G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s , San Z a c c a r i a  F i g . 41.  D e s i d e r i o da S e t t i g n a n o , ment Tabernacle  Sacra-  F i g . 42.  Romanino, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h Saints  159  F i g . 43.  Alvise Vivarini, Virgin with Saints  Enthroned  F i g . 44.  Marco M a r z i a l e , C i r c u m c i s i o n  F i g . 45.  V i t t o r e Carpaccio, Presentation of C h r i s t i n t h e Temple  161  F i g . 46.  Boccaccio Boccaccino,  Annunciation  F i g . 47.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  F i g . 48.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n throned w i t h S a i n t s  En-  163  F i g . 49.  Marco M a r z i a l e , V i r g i n and  Saints  F i g . 50.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s and Donors  F i g . 51.  Lorenzo C o s t a , V i r g i n with Saints  Enthroned  165  F i g . 52.  Giovanni Buonconsiglio, V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  166  g. 54.  Giovanni B e l l i n i , to V i r g i n  Donor P r e s e n t e d by  Baptist  Fig.  55.  Andrea R i c o , V i r g i n o f Passion  the  F i g . 56.  Cima da C o n e g l i a n o ,  Madonna  168  169  F i g . 60.  Vincenzo Catena, Mark P r e s e n t i n g Leonardo Loredan to the Virgin  170  F i g . 61.  H a g i o s o r i t i s s a , marble 11th c e n t u r y  relief,  171  F i g . 62.  Masaccio, P i s a c e n t r a l panel  altarpiece,  172  F i g . 63.  D e t a i l of f o l i a t e c r o s s e s from bronze doors o f c e n t r a l a t r i u m of San Marco, V e n i c e , c. 1112  173  F i g . 64.  Giovanni B e l l i n i , V i r g i n Enthroned w i t h S a i n t s  174  F i g . 65.  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Robey, David, and Law, John. "The V e n e t i a n Myth and the 'De R e p u b l i c a Veneta' o f P i e r Paolo V e r g e r i o . " Rinascimento: Rivista dell'Istituto N a z i o n a l e d i S t u d i s u l Rinascimento. Second s e r i e s , v o l . 15. " : F l o r e n c e , 1975, pp. 3-59. Rosand, D a v i d . " T i t i a n ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n i n t h e Temple and the S c u o l a d e l l a C a r i t a . " A r t B u l l e t i n 58 (1976):55-84. Rosand, E l l e n . "Music i n t h e Myth o f V e n i c e . " (1977):511 f f .  Renaissance  Q u a r t e r l y 30  Sansovino, F r a n c e s c o . V e n e t i a Citta" N o b i l i s s i m a e t s i n g o l a r e d i s c r i t t a i n XIIII L i b r i . V e n i c e , 1581. E d i t e d by D. G. M a r t i n i o n i . Venice, 1663. S c h l e g e l , U r s u l a . "Observations on Masaccio's T r i n i t y F r e s c o i n Santa N o v e l l a . " A r t B u l l e t i n 45 (1963):19-33. Sheard, Wendy S. Lombardo."  Maria  "The Tomb o f Doge Andrea Vendramin i n V e n i c e by T u l l i o Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971.  180  . "Sanudo's L i s t of Notable Things i n V e n e t i a n Churches and the Date o f t h e Vendramin Tomb." Y a l e I t a l i a n S t u d i e s 1 ( 1 9 7 7 ) :  Shearman, John. "Masaccio's P i s a A l t a r - p i e c e : An a l t e r n a t i v e tion." B u r l i n g t o n Magazine 108 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 4 4 9 - 4 5 5 .  reconstruc-  Sinding- Larsen, Staale. C h r i s t i n the Council H a l l , Studies i n the R e l i g i o u s Iconography o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c . I n s t i t u t u m Romanum Norvegiae, A c t a ad Archaeologiam e t A r t i u m H i s t o r i a m P e r t i n e n t i a , v o l . 5. Rome, 1 9 7 4 . Tramontin, S.;- N i e r o , G; M u s o l i n o , a Venezia. Venice, 1965.  C; and C a n d i a n i , C.  Culto d e i Santi  Venezia e l'Europa: A t t i d e l XVIII Congresso I n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i S t o r i a dell'Arte. Venezia, 1956. W i l d e , Johannes. "Die P a l a d i San Cassiano von A n t o n e l l o da M e s s i n a . " Jahrbuch d e r K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e n Sammlungen i n Wien 3 ( 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 2 - 7 2 . Wilk,  Sarah. " I c o n o l o g i c a l Problems i n t h e S c u l p t u r e of T u l l i o Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 7 .  W o l t e r s , Wolfgang. La s c u l t u r a v e n e z i a n a Venice, 1976.  gotica., (1300-1460) .  Lombardo."  2r-.v6.ls.  181  APPENDIX I  HISTORY OF THE LITERATURE, AND  DISCUSSION OF DATING  Literature  The s u c c e s s i o n o f n o t i c e s o f the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e from the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y and of the g e n e r a l l y h i g h esteem i t r e c e i v e d from c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n .  I t has always  been seen as a m a s t e r p i e c e and a p i v o t a l work not o n l y i n the development of G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre but i n the development of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g . The p r e v a i l i n g e v a l u a t i o n of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s s t a t e d by Terisio  Pignatti:  . . . l a p a l a d i San Giobbe e uno d e i r a g g i u n g i m e n t i c a p i t a l i d e l B e l l i n i maturo,- e segna i l punto i n c u i i l suo s t i l e , dopo l e e s p e r i e n z e p i e r f r a n c e s c a n e , sembra q u a s i v o l e r r i e n t r a r e n e l grande a l v e o d e l l a t r a d i z i o n e piu' propriamente v e n e z i a n a , q u a s i a c o s t i t u i r e un p r o t o t i p o che p o i dovra s e r v i r e d i esempio per m o l t i decenni.-'Marc Antonio S a b e l l i c o ' s n o t i c e appears i n h i s guide to V e n i c e , De Venetae u r b i s s i t u , V e n i c e , 1493  2  (see Chapter One, p. -2, above) which  I have t r a n s l a t e d a s : On one s i d e o f the church i s seen G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i ' s remarkable p a i n t i n g which he e x h i b i t e d among h i s f i r s t attempts i n the technique f o r which he was known. The d i f f i c u l t y  of exact t r a n s l a t i o n l i e s  i n the phrase "prima a r t i s  rudimenta," which s c h o l a r s i n the p a s t have most f r e q u e n t l y  suae  interpreted  as a r e f e r e n c e to the e a r l y p o s i t i o n of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n  182  Bellini's  c a r e e r , and have thus e i t h e r c i t e d i t i n support of an i m p o s s i b l y  e a r l y date, o r have i g n o r e d i t as u n r e l i a b l e . c o r r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n of " a r s " as " s k i l l "  However, c o n s i d e r i n g the  or " t e c h n i q u e , " Robertson's  argument t h a t " a r t i s suae" p r o b a b l y r e f e r s more p r e c i s e l y to the of o i l p a i n t i n g , mastered by B e l l i n i  toward the mid-point  recent  technique  of h i s c a r e e r ,  4 i s convincing. S a b e l l i c o was  not a n a t i v e V e n e t i a n .  on the Roman h i s t o r i a n L i v y , and  His h i s t o r y w r i t i n g ,  modelled  f o l l o w i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l form of  r h e t o r i c a l d i d a c t i c p r a i s e of the V e n e t i a n s t a t e , was the myth of V e n i c e ' s s p e c i a l s t a t u s , l i b e r t y and to m a i n t a i n h i s o f f i c i a l patronage.  designed  to b u t t r e s s  c i v i c prudence i n order  The n o t a b l e s i g h t s which he  selected  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a l a u d a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n of V e n i c e would be those commonly h e l d to c o n t r i b u t e to the g l o r y of the V e n e t i a n s t a t e .  The  uninformed  and  l a u d a t o r y n a t u r e of S a b e l l i c o ' s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y suggests  t h a t he c o u l d not  have formed an o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n of e i t h e r the a l t a r p i e c e o r i t s p o s i t i o n i n B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r , and of the a l t a r p i e c e i n V e n i c e .  t h a t he p r o b a b l y echoes the popular fame  Indeed, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the monumental  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , e r e c t e d i n what was location Bellini  a t t h a t time a prominent  (to which " i n apertum" must r e f e r ) , was to s t r i k e the p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . 6  rudimenta"  may  one of the f i r s t works by  In t h a t case, S a b e l l i c o ' s  indeed g i v e the a l t a r p i e c e an e r r o n e o u s l y e a r l y  "prima  position,  r e f l e c t i n g a g e n e r a l ignorance i n Venice of the a r t i s t ' s p r e v i o u s c a r e e r . The prominence which the work had  i s underscored  by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s  only one o t h e r a l t a r p i e c e mentioned by S a b e l l i c o , the c l o s e l y s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e p a i n t e d i n o i l by A n t o n e l l o da Messina the church of San  Cassiano.^  related  i n 1476  for  183  Marin Sanudo's n o t i c e list  of the  San  headed "Queste sono cosse n o t a b i l e  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e occurs i n a i n diverse  c h i e s i e , " one  l i s t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n about V e n i c e i n s e r t e d between the parts 969  of De  l a t e d the  second and  o r i g i n e , s i t u et m a g i s t r a t i b u s u r b i s venetae, MCV,  (known as C r o n a c h e t t a ; see  Chapter One,  p.  3  above).  5  of  47  third  MSS.  Cicogna  I have  trans-  notice:  At San Giobbe an a l t a r by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i which i s among h i s b e a u t i f u l , w e l l made works.8 The  manuscript i n c l u d e s  August 1493 t i a t e d by and  and  a dedication  to Doge A g o s t i n o B a r b a r i g o dated  t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y accepted date f o r the work i s s u b s t a n -  Sheard.  The  notice  indicates  the  the prominence o f t h i s a l t a r p i e c e w i t h i n  n a t u r e of Sanudo's d e s c r i p t i o n  fame o f B e l l i n i ' s the oeuvre.9  paintings  The  general  of V e n i c e , r i v a l l i n g S a b e l l i c o i n i t s  attempt to p r a i s e V e n i c e i n a manner f l a t t e r i n g to the together w i t h h i s immediate theme " p r a i s e of the h i s s e l e c t i o n of s i g h t s which r e f l e c t  glory  r u l i n g class"*"^  c i t y of V e n i c e , " govern  i n some way  on  the  Venetian  s t a t e , a l t h o u g h h i s knowledge of V e n i c e i s much wider and  his  more o r i g i n a l than S a b e l l i c o .  commemorated  deeds of i n d i v i d u a l s who emphasis i n h i s n o t i c e i n t e n t i o n was  to p r a i s e  Sanudo's i n t e r e s t i n the  have c o n t r i b u t e d  on  record  renowned San  a l s o appear i n both works, i n S a b e l l i c o ' s  evaluation.  i n Sanudo's as  as  the  Cassiano  only other  the  his artist.  altarpiece altarpiece  the a l t a r p i e c e r e c e i v i n g most d e t a i l e d  I t i s a s t r i k i n g f a c t that  s i d e r e d worthy of mention by  a l t a r p i e c e suggests  the p e r s o n a l achievement of the  N o t i c e s of A n t o n e l l o ' s e q u a l l y  mentioned, and  to V e n e t i a n g r e a t n e s s , and  the making of the  and  observation  the o n l y two  S a b e l l i c o , and  that  two,  altarpieces or p o s s i b l y  conthree,  184  of the f o u r a l t a r p i e c e s  selected  new type o f monumental s a c r a  by Sanudo, a r e important examples o f a  c o n v e r s a z i o n e a l t a r p i e c e developed by 12  A n t o n e l l o and, p r i m a r i l y , by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i indications the  that  These a r e  the fame o f the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n V e n i c e , f o r which  contemporary n o t i c e s  p r o v i d e s t r o n g testimony, was a t t a c h e d not only  to the p e r s o n a l achievement of the a r t i s t on  i n Venice.  i n m a s t e r i n g the o i l technique  a monumental s c a l e , but to the format and theme o f a p a r t i c u l a r type  of sacra  conversazione a l t a r p i e c e . Francesco Sansovino, w r i t i n g  i n 1581, seems to base h i s comment on  S a b e l l i c o when he r e f e r s to the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e as the f i r s t  picture  done i n o i l which he showed i n p u b l i c : . . . s i vede una N o s t r a Donna con San Sebastiano d a l l a d e s t r a & San l o b d a l l a s i n i s t r a , f u d i p i n t o da Gian B e l l i n o , & f i i l a prima t a v o l a f a t t a a o l i o , c h ' e g l i mettesse f u o r i e s i come a l l o r a f u s t i m a t a molto da i b u o n i m a e s t r i , c o s i a l p r e s e n t e per l a sua molta e c c e l l e n z a e t e n u t a i n gran p r e z z o . ^ Sansovino's n o t i c e "i  indicates  the fame o f the a l t a r p i e c e among  painters,  buoni m a e s t r i , " i n h i s own time as w e l l as a t the time the a l t a r p i e c e  first  appeared.  His notice  i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t i n i n d i c a t i n g the two  f i g u r e s o f the p a i n t i n g which were admired and c o p i e d by p a i n t e r s , the nude f i g u r e s o f the aged Job and t h e - y o u t h f u l " S t . S e b a s t i a n . The that  first  .  c r i t i c a l account o f the a l t a r p i e c e t h a t we possess i s  o f a Tuscan r a t h e r  than a V e n e t i a n , G i o r g i o  Sansovino, i n 1550 and 1568.  In h i s V i t e he a s s i g n s B e l l i n i  phase o f h i s three-phase h i s t o r y o f p a i n t i n g , c o r r e c t but overworked drawing and p e r s p e c t i v e , grace i n t r o d u c e d to p a i n t i n g  Vasari, writing  before  to the second  as showing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . lacking  by Leonardo da V i n c i .  14  the v i v a c i t y and  W i t h i n these  185  r e s t r i c t i o n s , however, he p r a i s e s the drawing and  c o l o u r of the San  a l t a r p i e c e , notes i t s continuous fame and  that i t established  implies  B e l l i n i ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a master of the o i l medium and  Giobbe  l e d to h i s s t a t e  appointment. N e l l a c h i e s a d i Sant'Iobbe d i p i n s e i l medesimo, a l l ' a l t a r d i esso Santo, una t a v o l a con molto disegno e b e l l i s s i m o c o l o r i t o : n e l l a quale f e c e i n mezzo, a sedere un poco a l t a , l a N o s t r a Donna c o l p u t t o i n c o l l o , e Sant'Iobbe e San B a s t i a n o n u d i : ed appresso, San Domenico, San F r a n c e s c o , San G i o b a n n i e S a n t ' A g o s t i n o ; e da basso, t r e p u t t i che suonano con molta g r a z i a : e questa p i t t u r a f u non s o l o l o d a t a a l l o r a che f u v i s t a d i nuovo, ma e s t a t a s i m i l m e n t e sempre dopo, come cosa b e l l i s s i m a . V e n e t i a n w r i t e r s of the seventeenth century mastery of the o i l technique and  c a l l e d him  Venetian painting i n i n t e n t i o n a l opposition Vicentine  C a r l o R i d o l f i wrote i n 1648,  the f i r s t  l a maniera u s a t a  per  great master of  to V a s a r i ' s judgement;  as i f i n r e p l y to V a s a r i ' s  of B e l l i n i ' s s t y l e as "secco e crudo e t a g l i e n t e " ...ridusse  praised B e l l i n i ' s .  l ' a d i e t r o , che  The criticism  that"Bellini teneva d e l s e c c o ,  ad un p i u e s q u i s i t o e soave s t i l e , c o l quale unicamente i m i t o l a Natura: arrecando a l l e Imagine de' S a n t i c e r t a n o b i l e p u r i t a " e d i v o t i o n e , onde con r a g i o n e o t t i e n e i l t i t o l o d i celeberrimo 17 tra g l i scorsi P i t t o r i . . . R i d o l f i ' s n o t i c e i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t i s the f i r s t where the i n t e g r a t i o n of the p a i n t e d  one  I have found  a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h the frame i s  selected for praise: ...una t r i b u n a s o s t e n u t a da n a t u r a l i s s i m i p i l a s t r i c o s i ^ s o m i g l i a n t i a q u e l l i dell'ornamento, che paiono s c o l p i t i . S i m i l a r p o i n t s of p r a i s e are r e i t e r a t e d i n B o s c h i n i ' s exaggerated eulogy of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g where he e x a l t B e l l i n i as the " s p r i n g - t i m e " to V a s a r i , s t a t e d as such ("per  explicitly  of u n i v e r s a l p a i n t i n g . ^  responder a l V a s a r i " ) , he  rather  s e t s out  to  In h i s r e p l y  chose the  San  186  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e as the work e x e m p l i f y i n g B e l l i n i ' s mastery of sance p r i n c i p l e s .  He p r a i s e d the p e r s p e c t i v e ("ha  c o l fondamento d e l a P r o s p e t i v a . . . " ) and and  Renais-  forma cose p e r f e t e ,  the i n t e g r a t i o n of the p a i n t e d  r e a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , the a u t h e n t i c p o r t r a y a l o f the d i v i n i t i e s  quelo E ' l r e t r a t o d i v i n d e l Redentor"),  the a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n of the  s a i n t s , the gay e f f e c t of the a n g e l s , and c o l o u r , and  ("certo  i n g e n e r a l , the i n v e n t i o n ,  drawing.^  In the N o t i z i e of the F l o r e n t i n e F i l i p p o B a l d i n u c c i , 1681-1728, we  f i n d the b a s i c elements of what had become a s t a n d a r d i z e d  account  of B e l l i n i .  Ridolfi's,  critical  H i s summary e v a l u a t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s s t y l e echoes .  t h a t B e l l i n i .with his-new and b e a u t i f u l manner of c o l o u r i n g 21  i n c r e a s i n g l y l e f t behind  "il  secco e duro modo d e g l i a l t r i . . . "  He  r e p e a t s the p o p u l a r b e l i e f , g i v e n an a n e c d o t a l account by R i d o l f i i n  1648,  t h a t B e l l i n i l e a r n e d the t e c h n i q u e of o i l p a i n t i n g from A n t o n e l l o da Messina,  who  i n t r o d u c e d i t to V e n i c e when he p a i n t e d the San 22  a l t a r p i e c e of 1476.  Cassiano  The prominence of the s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e  altar-  p i e c e i n B a l d i n u c c i ' s s e l e c t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s o u t s t a n d i n g works, next the h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g s a t the P a l a z z o Ducale,  suggests  p i e c e was  (the San Giobbe, F r a r i ,  c o n s i d e r e d a h i g h form of p a i n t i n g  Z a c c a r i a , San Francesco are n o t e d ) .  t h i s type of  d e l l a Vigna and S. G i o v a n n i Crisostomo  to  altarSan  altarpieces  He notes B e l l i n i ' s fame as a p a i n t e r of s a c r e d images  "alle  q u a l i diede m a r a v i g l i o s a d i v o z i o n e , " and r e p e a t s the . by then  familiar  i d e a of B e l l i n i as the f a t h e r of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g who  " i n the  founded  23 s o u l of T i t i a n the f i r s t  i d e a s of p e r f e c t work."  Thus, B a l d i n u c c i sums  up a t r a d i t i o n which accorded B e l l i n i an honored p o s i t i o n i n V e n e t i a n  187  painting, his excellence In the e i g h t e e n t h  as a p a i n t e r and  h i s a c t i v i t y as a t e a c h e r .  c e n t u r y more s y s t e m a t i c  attempts were made to  t r a c e the development of V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g , adumbrated by to f i t B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r w i t h i n s t y l i s t i c progression Veneziana, 1771,  t h i s development  w i t h i n h i s oeuvre.  affirmed  A. M.  and  earlier  to f i n d a  writers,  logical  Zanetti in Della Pittura  the p o s i t i o n of B e l l i n i as the  father  of  V e n e t i a n p a i n t i n g : " P r i n c i p e d e l l a P i t t u r a n o s t r a n e l l a prima eta*." He was 1796,  followed who  by L u i g i L a n z i  wrote t h a t i n the V e n e t i a n s c h o o l B e l l i n i was  beauty, grace, and and  i n h i s h i s t o r y of I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g ,  expression.25  However, B e l l i n i ' s  the development of h i s oeuvre were d i s t o r t e d by  popularity  to h i s p u p i l , G i o r g i o n e .  Venetian p a i n t i n g colour,  and  G i o r g i o n e was  b e a u t i f u l form.  q u a l i t i e s , Z a n e t t i and  To  given  career-by dating  C a r p a c c i o and  i t w i t h the  critical  schema of the h i s t o r y of s t y l e of  light,  i n these  i m p l i c a t i o n of an e a r l y  the San  of  genius  the s h i f t of  c r e d i t f o r the new  L a n z i , i g n o r i n g the  father  inventive  account f o r i t s e x c e l l e n c e  i n the contemporary n o t i c e s , p l a c e d of B e l l i n i ' s  In a new  the  1795-  dating  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e at the  two  flanking altarpieces  end  by  Marco B a s a i t i , 1510^°  . . . i n o g n i p a r t e d i essa t a v o l a s i trovano molte b e l l e z z e d e l nuovo s t i l e G i o r g i o n e s c o , ch'era a l l o r a n e l maggio f i o r e , e mai p i u i l B e l l i n o non s i a c c o s t S tanto a q u e l l o , quanto i n quest',opera. 7 z  Even here, however, the San evaluation  as a key  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e r e c e i v e s  i t s traditional  or t r a n s i t i o n a l work i n the development of V e n e t i a n  painting. The reconsidered  e a r l i e s t n o t i c e s by i n the  general  S a b e l l i c o , V a s a r i , and  Sansovino were  renewed i n t e r e s t i n a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l  and  188  documents of the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h  century.  to an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n the a r t i s t ' s  at the Accademia, V e n i c e ,  antedating  the a l t a r p i e c e  c a r e e r s c h o l a r s were a b l e to r e i n s t a t e  B e l l i n i ' s r e p u t a t i o n f o r i n v e n t i v e genius. read  In  i n 1812,  F. A g l i e t t i ,  i n an  address  significantly entitled  "Elogio  s t o r i c o d i Jacopo e Giovan B e l l i n i , " s t r e s s e d the importance of the e a r l y n o t i c e s and  considering  t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n of an e a r l y d a t i n g f o r the  altar-  28 piece. He was  He  p r a i s e d the San  Giobbe a l t a r as a "canon" f o r V e n e t i a n  f o l l o w e d by G. A. M o s c h i n i  who  expressed the o p i n i o n  art.  that t r u t h  i s to -be found i n the testament of those c l o s e r to the a l t a r p i e c e i n time, t h a t B e l l i n i was  a g r e a t e r master than had  opened the path of p a i n t i n g to h i s two Giorgione  and  been b e l i e v e d , and  greatest d i s c i p l e s ,  that  he  that i s ,  Titian.  Ma siccome convien dare maggio'fede a'contemporanei, che non a p o s t e r i o r i s t o r i c i , i q u a l i pit3 v o l t e v o g l i o n o che a l l e l o r c o n g h i e t t u r e ceda i l f a t t o s t e s s o ; c o s i v o r r a d i r s i , che i l B e l l i n i f u p i u gran maestro che non s i crede, e c h ' e g l i medesimo aperse l a nuova v i a p i t t o r i c a a d u e sommi s u o i d i s c e p o l i . 2 9 1  1  The  advances i n s c h o l a r s h i p were given a comprehensive summary by  J . A. Crowe and Italy,  first  G.  B.  C a v a l c a s e l l e i n the H i s t o r y of P a i n t i n g i n North  published  somewhat on V a s a r i and  i n 1871.  Although t h e i r r i g i d  prejudiced against  a e s t h e t i c s , based  c o l o u r i s m , were not  sympathetic  to B e l l i n i ' s a r t , they judged the San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e to be  "crowning t r i a l "  p o i n t i n h i s c a r e e r , " showing a  and  "the  culminating  mastery of the o i l technique i n e l e v a t e d agreed w i t h A g l i e t t i ' s  antedating  on the e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s  to i t as one  Bellini's  and n o b l e composition.30  They  of the a l t a r p i e c e / (see below) based of B e l l i n i ' s  f i r s t works i n o i l  on V a s a r i ' s l o c a t i o n of i t p r i o r to the S a l a d e l Maggior C o n s i g l i o  and  189  commissions.  They found B e l l i n i ' s  e s s e n t i a l l y h i s own"  e x p r e s s i o n o f devout f e e l i n g "by means  a p a r t i c u l a r l y V e n e t i a n c o u n t e r p a r t to the " e c s t a t i c  s t y l e of Angelico" i n F l o r e n c e . ^ 3  The r e c o g n i t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to new i n n o v a t i v e a b i l i t y was  ideas.,- and h i s  a b a s i c premise o f the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s oeuvre  which was'begun i n the l a t e r - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by Bernard.Berenson and M o r e l l i , who wrote t h a t B e l l i n i was  f i n a l l y b e i n g seen i n h i s own  r a t h e r than always i n r e l a t i o n to h i s i l l u s t r i o u s  followers.  dous development which took p l a c e over h i s l o n g c a r e e r was  The  to e s t a b l i s h a s t y l i s t i c  tremen-  recognized:  In t u t t a l a s t o r i a d e l l ' a r t e non v i ha f o r s e a l t r i , da R a f f a e l l o i n f u o r i , che a l par d i l u i a s i a dato p a s s i p i u p r o g r e s s i v i , d a l c o m i n c i a r e d i sua c a r r i e r a f i n o a l i a f i n e . The main requirement was  right  3 z  framework spanning  B e l l i n i ' s l o n g c a r e e r and some i n t e r p r e t i v e c r i t e r i a on which to base attributions.  F o r t h i s reason c r i t i c i s m has remained p r i m a r i l y  and f o r m a l r a t h e r than i c o n o g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n to t h i s day.  One  stylistic  s i n c e some problems have r e s i s t e d  criterion i s B e l l i n i ' s technical  development  from the l i n e a r i t y and hatched m o d e l l i n g o f the tempera t e c h n i q u e to the mastery o f modelled form.and atmosphere  i n the o i l t e c h n i q u e .  The scheme  which F r y o u t l i n e d  1900, i s based on t h i s  development  i n Giovanni B e l l i n i ,  from one medium to the o t h e r , and the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s seen as a key t r a n s i t i o n a l work i n t h i s  development:  In the S. Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e , which we may a s s i g n to about 1486 o r 1487, a new i d e a b e g i n s to be f e l t — t h e c o n c e p t i o n of e n v e l o p i n g forms i n atmosphere by means o f a s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of the l i m i t i n g c o n t o u r s of the f i g u r e s . 3 3  Another aspect has been the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d a t i n g of the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i o u s p a i n t e r s upon B e l l i n i ' s d e v e l o p i n g s t y l e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h h i s f a t h e r  190  Jacopo,  h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w Mantegna, and then P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a and  A n t o n e l l o da Messina,  and the s c u l p t o r P i e t r o Lombardo.  a r t i c l e e s t a b l i s h i n g the importance  Roberto  Longhi's  o f P i e r o d e l l a F r a n c e s c a to V e n e t i a n  p a i n t i n g was p u b l i s h e d i n 1914, and P i e r o ' s i n f l u e n c e on B e l l i n i ' s o i l technique, whether d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t , was a s s e s s e d by B e l l i n i s c h o l a r s . The  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s g e n e r a l l y assumed to d i s p l a y the i n f l u e n c e  of P i e r o ' s v o l u m e t r i c form and f u s e d m o d e l l i n g , i n h e r i t e d A n t o n e l l o da Messina's  San Cassiano a l t a r p i e c e p a i n t e d i n Venice i n 1476,  to which B e l l i n i makes h i s unique  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e n v e l o p i n g atmosphere.  However, the u n c o n v i n c i n g d a t i n g s produced the danger o f imposing The  through  a rigid stylistic  by both F r y and C o l e t t i r e v e a l  framework on B e l l i n i ' s  t h i r d d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i o n has been the c r i t i c ' s  oeuvre.^5  i n t u i t i o n of a  d i s t i n c t l y B e l l i n e s q u e s p i r i t o f c r e a t i v i t y which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y and p r o f o u n d l y d e v o t i o n a l .  T h i s was b e s t expressed  problems of a t t r i b u t i o n and oeuvre by P a l l u c c h i n i .  i n r e l a t i o n to the  In a n t i c i p a t i o n o f  d e f i n i t i v e r e s u l t s from the major B e l l i n i e x h i b i t i o n h e l d i n the P a l a z z o Ducale, V e n i c e i n 1949, P a l l u c c h i n i wrote i n the c a t a l o g u e o f the e x h i b i t i o n t h a t some g e n e r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s had been r e q u i r e d to reach an oeuvre which p r e s e n t e d B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r as a continuous development and which kept  and unbroken f o r m a l  intact  . . . 1 ' i n t i m i t a d e l suo sentimento, sua c o s i profonda s p i r i t u a l i t y .  i l potenziale della  T h i s e x h i b i t i o n was the o c c a s i o n f o r a comprehensive a p p r a i s a l o f the B e l l i n i oeuvre as i t had been r e c o n s t r u c t e d to t h a t p o i n t .  An important  r e s u l t o f the e x h i b i t i o n was a r e - a f f i r m a t i o n o f B e l l i n i ' s  independent  c r e a t i v i t y , w i t h the debate c o n c e r n i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o i l p a i n t i n g  191  to V e n i c e by A n t o n e l l o In the l a s t regarding  da Messina or B e l l i n i assuming l e s s e n e d  f o r t y years  the p o s i t i o n and  of s c h o l a r s h i p t h e r e has  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the San  been a consensus  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n  B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre as a p i v o t a l work which marks h i s m a t u r i t y technique, and  Venetian  p a i n t i n g i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  so f a r been e v a l u a t e d c h a r a c t e r has aspects,  as a s t y l i s t i c and  of a new  B e l l i n i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n has  t e c h n i c a l one.  such as B e l l i n i ' s r e c e p t i o n of new  His  O  unique  Other important  iconographical ideas, possibly  and h i s i n v e n t i o n of new  w e l l as h i s s e l e c t i v e use  painting,  s t y l e of  been i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e l i g i o u s p r o f u n d i t y .  through h i s p a t r o n s ,  been  i n the o i l  e x e m p l i f i e s h i s o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to V e n e t i a n  i s a convenient "landmark" f o r the b e g i n n i n g  importance.  compositional  motifs,  of e s t a b l i s h e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s have  Q  neglected. There have been a number of important d i s c u s s i o n s of the  San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i n the l a s t decade.  In h i s monograph on B e l l i n i ,  G i l e s Robertson g i v e s a m e t h o d i c a l and  u s e f u l review of the t e x t u a l  sources and  stylistic  T h i s study, however, i s marred by  o f i c o n o g r a p h i c a l problems.  The  simplistic  theory  basic thesis i s a conservative  of s t y l e i n which B e l l i n i ' s achievement i s to  a d i a l e c t i c of Tuscan space c o n s t r u c t i o n and  Flemish  Robertson's view of B e l l i n i as a " u n i f i e r "  p r e v e n t s him  uniquely  Venetian  1968,  evidence i n an attempt to s e t t l e the problem of  d a t i n g more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .  any  as  c o n t r i b u t i o n the a r t i s t may  b r i e f l y on the r e l i g i o u s iconography of the San  l i g h t and from  have made.^  i t s neglect somewhat synthesize atmosphere. recognizing He  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e  comments sug-  g e s t i n g t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the V i r g i n as the Annunciate r a t h e r than  192  the Mother of God  indicates  a "celebration  of the  incarnation"  as  the  theme. In her  doctoral  d i s s e r t a t i o n on  the p h y s i c a l  altarpieces,  J u l i a Keydel o f f e r s a groundwork f o r an  pretation  the  of  space c r e a t e d by of the  altarpiece. the  She  altarpiece  a n a l y s e s the  of the  t u r a l elements i n o t h e r p a r t s of the suggests t h a t  space of  the  the  altarpiece  the  illusionistic  church i n t e r i o r .  the  i n t e n d e d t o , on  makes the  c o n v e r s a z i o n e theme o f Madonna and the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c e p t i o n altarpiece.  relation  the  one  Christ  hand,  distinguish  C h i l d and,  on  may  to heaven of the  be  i n t e n d e d to  the  to the  important s u g g e s t i o n t h a t  saints  she  architectural  o t h e r , to a l l o w the worshipper a sense of r e a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y Furthermore, she  architectural  In doing so  illusionistic  s u p e r n a t u r a l presence of the Madonna and  figures.  Bellini's  t o t a l c h a p e l e f f e c t to a r c h i t e c - : ...  e f f e c t s of the  are  of  iconographical i n t e r -  i n i t s church s e t t i n g and  a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements and  strongly  settings  the  holy sacra  represent  person commissioning  the  4 3  Dating  As ture,  the  a s i g n e d work of c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t i o n , w e l l San  Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e has  s t r u c t i o n of B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre. 1476,  the  The  two  generally  and  church of San  4 4  and  1493,  the  date of  the  Sanudo, d i s c u s s e d above, and Giobbe (Appendix II) . \  The  two  work i n the  literarecon-  a c c e p t e d termina  year i n which A n t o n e l l o completed h i s San  conversazione, Sabellico  always been a key  noted i n the  Cassiano  sacra  contemporary n o t i c e s  of the  are  c o n s e c r a t i o n of  dates a s s i g n e d by modern  by the scholars  193  have ranged  even beyond these l i m i t s ,  from 1470  to 1500.  s t y l e of the p a i n t i n g combines a l i n e a r treatment  Because the  of contour, d e t a i l ,  and  some of the m o d e l l i n g , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l i e r stages of B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r , w i t h a broad, harmonious c o l o u r i s m , and mature, monumental s p a t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s l a t e r c a r e e r , the a l t a r p i e c e lends to v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n the oeuvre a c c o r d i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e s on B e l l i n i and n i c a l and s t y l i s t i c  development.  critic's  the phases o f h i s t e c h -  However, the p o s i t i o n of the  as an e x p r e s s i o n of B e l l i n i ' s mature, independent h i s c a r e e r , foreshadowing  itself  altarpiece  s t y l e a t a mid-point  in  h i s f u t u r e achievements r e c e i v e s g e n e r a l  consensus. The  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s preceded  V e n i c e , Accademia w h i c h e a r l y 1480's. ^ 4  and  The  ca'n  be  dated.in  by the C o n t a r i n i Madonna, the  1470's  or'  C o n t a r i n i C h r i s t C h i l d i n h i s p h y s i c a l type,  age,  f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , and h i s mood of h i e r a t i c s o l e m n i t y , i s markedly  s i m i l a r to t h a t of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e . probably New  late  The  San Giobbe a l t a r i s  contemporary t o , o r s h o r t l y l a t e r than, the F r i c k S t . F r a n c i s ,  York, and  the T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n , Naples, Museo N a z i o n a l e , both  usually  p l a c e d i n the e a r l y 1480's, and whose l i n e a r i t y of technique  is similar  to t h a t of the San Giobbe s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e .  a close  P a o l e t t i saw  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the San Giobbe Madonna and C h i l d w i t h the Madonna of the T r e e s , V e n i c e , A c c a d e m i a . ^ c o n s i d e r e d to precede  The  San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e i s g e n e r a l l y  the t r i p t y c h a t the F r a r i , and  at S. P i e t r o M a r t i r e , Murano, both dated 1488. y e a r s , from 1479  to 1488  and a f t e r ,  the B a r b a r i g o v o t i v e  It i s precisely  t h a t we have n o t i c e s of  work on the d e c o r a t i o n s of the Maggior C o n s i g l i o , P a l a z z o  f o r these  Bellini's  Ducale.  194  Zanetti's  (1771) v e r y l a t e date of 1510 was  satisfactorily  dis-  missed i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h century by a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of V a s a r i ' s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the a l t a r p i e c e l e a d to B e l l i n i ' s appointment  (which took p l a c e i n 1479).  However t h i s d a t i n g was  forward to the 1480's. p a r t l y on the b a s i s of the new s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre by P a o l e t t i  (1903, 1929).  official pushed  c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and  by F r y (1900), Gronau (1903),  Although h i s source is.unknown, P a o l e t t i ' s  t a t i o n as a student of documents l e n t credence-to h i s - d a t e of 1 4 8 7 ^ has become p o p u l a r w i t h I t a l i a n c r i t i c s B o t t a r i , and P i g n a t t i ) .  and  (Longhi, B r i z i o ,  repuwhich  Pallucchini,  G i l e s Robertson i n h i s r e c e n t study o f problems  i n B e l l i n i ' s oeuvre, proposes  1480-1485 on the b a s i s o f S a b e l l i c o ' s  p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e to an e a r l y p o s i t i o n i n B e l l i n i ' s c a r e e r , and of an h y p o t h e s i z e d . i n f l u e n c e of the l a r g e s c a l e P a l a z z o Ducale o i l p a i n t i n g s B e l l i n i ' s o i l technique and s t y l e i n the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e . argument f o r an e a r l i e r d a t i n g o f 1475-1480, immediately  A  following  on  cogent the  SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e , i s o f f e r e d i n a r e c e n t study o f B e l l i n i problems by Huse i n which the author i n t e r p r e t s as response  to demands of commission  chronological development.^  change i n s t y l e  and s u b j e c t matter r a t h e r than to  T h i s e a r l i e r d a t i n g would agree w i t h  S a b e l l i c o ' s n o t i c e \ .in the sense of b e i n g "among h i s f i r s t works," would c o i n c i d e w i t h the p e r i o d of r e b u i l d i n g at S. Giobbe f o l l o w i n g Moro's death, and might  account  f o r the s i m i l a r i t y  of the frames o f the  G i o v a n n i e Paolo and the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e s . too d r a s t i c a l l y  However, the date departs  from the c o n v e n t i o n a l scheme o f B e l l i n i ' s  development to be e a s i l y a c c e p t e d . ^  9  SS.  stylistic  L i k e w i s e , Heinemann's (1962) l a t e  195  date o f 1490, based on what he sees as a s t y l i s t i c advance from the F r a r i and B a r b a r i g o a l t a r p i e c e s of 1488, i s d i f f i c u l t . "'^  U n t i l more  conclusive  documentary evidence comes to l i g h t - , the f i r s t h a l f o f the 1480's, and possibly  1485-1487, would appear as the most l i k e l y p e r i o d  s i o n and e x e c u t i o n of the San Giobbe a l t a r p i e c e .  f o r the commis-  196  APPENDIX ONE  NOTES  1.  T. P i g n a t t i , D i z i o n a r i o B i o g r a f i c o d e g l ' I t a l i a n i , Rome, 1960 ed., s.v. " B e l l i n i , G i o v a n n i . "  2.  Marcus Antonius S a b e l l i c u s , Opera omnia, B a s l e , 1506. A d a t i n g i n the e a r l y 1490's i s g e n e r a l l y accepted f o r t h i s work. R. Weiss g i v e s 1491-1492, c i t i n g G. M e r c a t i , 1939, i n The Renaissance D i s c o v e r y o f A n t i q u i t y , London, 1969, p. 123. G. Robertson i n B e l l i n i , 1968, p. 84 and note 4, a r r i v e s a t 1493.  3.  My t r a n s l a t i o n .  Robertson, l o c . c i t . ,  translates:  In p a r t o f the church i s seen the famous p i c t u r e by G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i which he e x h i b i t e d among the rudiments of h i s a r t . See a l s o the I t a l i a n t r a n s l a t i o n o f L. Fauno i n F. Biondo, Le h i s t o r i e d e l Biondo, 2 v o l . , V e n i c e , 1547-1550. 4.  However, Robertson's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f "prima rudimenta" as a r e f e r e n c e to the o i l p a i n t i n g s B e l l i n i was e x e c u t i n g a t the P a l a z z o Ducale depends on a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the oeuvre which i s s t i l l conjectural.  5.  F o r S a b e l l i c o ' s o f f i c i a l appointment see F. G i l b e r t , "Biondo, S a b e l l i c o , and the B e g i n n i n g o f V e n e t i a n O f f i c i a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " F l o r i l e g i u m H i s t o r i a l e , ed. J . G. Rowe, Toronto, 1971, p. 280. F o r e v a l u a t i o n s o f S a b e l l i c o as h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r see M. F o s c a r i n i , D e l l a l e t t ' e r a t u r a v e n e z i a n a , V e n i c e , 1854, p. 250, n. 1; W. J . Bouwsma, V e n i c e and the Defense o f R e p u b l i c a n L i b e r t y , B e r k e l e y , L.A., 1968, p. 90; O l i v e r Logan, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n V e n i c e , 1470-1790, London, 1972, pp. 71, 116; F. G i l b e r t , op. c i t . , pp. 285-286; and W. Sheard, "Marin Sanudo's L i s t o f Notable Things i n V e n e t i a n Churches and the Date o f the Vendramin Tomb," Y a l e I t a l i a n S t u d i e s 1.(1977): 247, n. 14.  6.  T h i s i s a l s o i m p l i e d i n V a s a r i ' s n o t i c e , d i s c u s s e d below.  7.  Robertson, B e l l i n i ,  8.  F o r the d a t i n g see Sheard, op. c i t . , p. 240; f o r the d e d i c a t i o n , p. 245, n. 8. Sheard a l s o d i s c u s s e s the n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f the l i s t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the second p a r t o f the C r o n a c h e t t a , "Laus u r b i s v e n e t a e , " op. c i t . , pp. 226, 240, 245, n. 9. The l i s t i s  1968, p. 84, n. 6.  197  reproduced p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y i n h e r d i s s e r t a t i o n "The Tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin i n V e n i c e by T u l l i o Lombardo," (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971), see v. 1, p. 277, f o r the San Giobbe n o t i c e . Sheard, "Sanudo's L i s t , " 1977, pp. 232-233, d i s c u s s e s the n o t i c e and n o t e s , p. 241, t h a t i n l i g h t of Sanudo's i n f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e to works of a r t , the San Giobbe n o t i c e i s e x c e p t i o n a l p r a i s e . Of the 61 items i n churches i n l i s t no. 13, o n l y f o u r are a l t a r p i e c e s . 9.  I b i d . , p. 233.  10.  As noted above, the manuscript was d e d i c a t e d to Doge A g o s t i n o Barbarigo. I b i d . , p. 247, no. 14, suggests r i v a l r y and ambition as two motives behind Sanudo's work.  11.  On the n a t u r e of Sanudo's h i s t o r i o g r a p h y and a comparison w i t h S a b e l l i c o see i b i d . , pp. 223, 224, 247, n. 14.  12.  Sheard i d e n t i f i e s the a l t a r p i e c e mentioned i n the item on the church of SS. G i o v a n n i e Paolo as B e l l i n i ' s l o s t s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e ( F i g . 34) which was probably r o u g h l y contemporary to A n t o n e l l o ' s 1476 s a c r a c o n v e r s a z i o n e ( I b i d . , p. 233).  13.  Sansovino,  14.  G. V a s a r i , Le V i t e ,  15.  I b i d . , v o l . 3, p. 155 and n. 3.  16.  I b i d . , v o l . 4. p. 10.  17.  C. R i d o l f i , Le M a r a v i g l i e d e l l ' a r t e ovvero l e v i t e d e g l i i l l u s t r i p i t t o r i v e n e t i e d e l l o S t a t o , 1648, ed. D. von Hadeln, v. 1, B e r l i n , 1914, v . 2, B e r l i n 1924, v . 1, p. 63.  18 .  I b i d . , p. 66.  19.  Quoted i n Chapter One, n. 7.  20.  B o s c h i n i , La C a r t a , 1660, pp. 2 7-31.  21.  F. B a l d i n u c c i , N o t i z i e de' p r o f e s s o r ! d e l disegno ed. G. P i a c e n z a , M i l a n , 1811, v o l . 5, p. 488.  V e n e t i a (1581), 1663, pp. 155-156. (1568), 1878-1885, v o l . 4, p. 10.  ^ da Cimabue i n qua,  22. I b i d . , p. 489. 23.  I b i d . , p. 488.  24.  A. M. Z a n e t t i , D e l l a p i t t u r a veneziana e d e l l e opere v e n e z i a n i m a e s t r i , V e n i c e , 1771, v o l . 5, p. 46.  p u b b l i c h e de'  198  25.  L. L a n z i , S t o r i a p i t t o r i c a d e l l a I t a l i a d a l Risorgimento d e l l e b e l l e a r t i f i n p r e s s o a l f i n e d e l XVIII s e c o l o , Bassano, 1795-1796, v o l . 2, p. 28.  26.  The B a s a i t i a l t a r p i e c e i s i n f a c t dated 1516. Accademia, 1955, no. 46, p . 4 8 ) .  27.  Zanetti,  28.  F. A g l i e t t i , " E l o g i o s t o r i c o d i Jacopo e G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , " D i s c o r s i l e t t i n e l l a I.R. Accademia d i B e l l e A r t i d i V e n e z i a i n o c c a s i o n e d e l l a d i s t r i b u z i o n e de'premi d e g l i a n n i 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, V e n i c e , 1815, p. 57.  29.  G. M o s c h i n i , ed., C. R i d o l f i , V i t a d i G i o v a n n i B e l l i n o , 1831, p. 176.  30.  Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e ,  31.  I b i d . , p. 163.  32.  P. S e l v a t i c o , S t o r i a e s t e t i c a - c r i t i c a d e l l e a r t i d e l d i s e g n o , 1856, c i t e d by G h i o t t o , P i g n a t t i , Opera Completa, 1969, p . 10.  33.  Fry, B e l l i n i ,  34.  L o n g h i , " P i e r o d e i F r a n c e s c h i , " L ' A r t e , 1914.  35.  C o l e t t i , P i t t u r a Veneta,  36.  Noted by Crowe, C a v a l c a s e l l e , p. 163.  37.  R. P a l l u c c h i n i , G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , Catalogo I l l u s t r a t o d e l l a Mostra, P a l a z z o Ducale, V e n e z i a , 12 Giugno-5 O t t o b r e , 1949, V e n i c e , 1949, p. 19.  38.  F. Gibbons, review o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , by G. Robertson, i n RQ 23 1970, pp. 175-175: "Giovanni B e l l i n i , f o r example, i s among the h a l f dozen most i n v e n t i v e and h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a i n t e r s o f the Quattrocento..."  39.  Robertson,  Bellini,  40.  Robertson,  "The e a r l i e r work," 1960, p. 45.  41.  Both D. Rosand, review o f G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , by G. Robertson (1970): 73-74 and J . S t e e r i n h i s review o f the same p u b l i c a t i o n , BM 112 (1970): 115-117, c r i t i c i z e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f Robertson's n e g l e c t o f " s p e c i f i c a l l y V e n e t i a n f a c t o r s " o f B e l l i n i ' s work.  42.  Robertson,  (Moschini-Marconi,  P i t t u r a , 1771, v o l . 5, p. 53.  North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ,  Venice,  (1871), 1912, pp. 155-163.  1900, p . 35.  Bellini,  1953, pp. LXVI-LXIV. North I t a l i a n P a i n t i n g ,  (1871), 1912,  1968, p. 2.  p. 87.  199  43.  Keydel, " A l t a r p i e c e s , "  passim.  44.  The a l t a r p i e c e was removed from i t s s i t e by the seventeenth c e n t u r y and i s known i n a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by Johannes Wilde based on two fragments i n Vienna and r e p r o d u c t i o n s of two o t h e r segments of the work ( F i g . 30). The a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g , the grouping of the s t a n d i n g s a i n t s around an e l e v a t e d throne, the o i l t e c h n i q u e , and v o l u m e t r i c m o d e l l i n g a n t i c i p a t e s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s i n the San Giobbe altarpiece. A n t o n e l l o ' s f i g u r e of S t . Dominic and the Madonna's red brocade d r e s s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , are c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by B e l l i n i (Wilde, " P a l a d i San C a s s i a n o , " 1929, pp. 52-72).  45.  Moschini-Marconi,  46.  Robertson,  47.  I b i d . , p. 68, and Robertson,  48.  N. Huse, S t u d i e n zu G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , B e r l i n , New  49.  G. Robertson, review of S t u d i e n zu G i o v a n n i B e l l i n i , by N. Huse, BM 118 (1976) :33-34."  50.  Heinemann, B e l l i n i , v o l . 1, pp.  Accademia, 1955,  no.  69.  B e l l i n i , p. 92 and p i . LXXI1I, s i g n e d and dated B e l l i n i , 1968,  40-41.  p.  1487.  84. York,  1972.  200  APPENDIX I I  A DOCUMENTED HISTORY OF THE CHURCH  S t a t e o f documentation  o f the  Church o f San Giobbe  The a r c h i v e s o f the Church o f San Giobbe a r e now housed i n the State Archives o f Venice.  I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to these papers da Mosto^  does not i n d i c a t e what these comprise.  Cicogna, I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6,  p a r t 1, p. 532, l i s t s h i s documentary sources as " I n d i c e de' Testamenti conformato di  n e l 1778," " B i l a n c i o o s i a I n c o n t r o de' l e g a t i d e l l a  S. Giobbe,"  Sagrestia  v a r i o u s " P r o c e s s i " numbered p r o g r e s s i v e l y , among which was  an e x t r a c t dated 1708 o f the h i s t o r y and summary o f w r i t i n g s and books o f the S c u o l a d i San B e r n a r d i n o , which was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e church o f San Giobbe.  Cicogna l i s t s  a l l the i n s c r i p t i o n s  found i n the church and  e n v i r o n s the g r e a t e r p a r t o f which he observed p e r s o n a l l y . of  The testaments  b e n e f a c t o r s o f the church and convent, and p a p a l decrees and V e n e t i a n  Senate  decrees p e r t a i n i n g t o San Giobbe a r e o f major importance.  Paoletti  notes t h e l o s s o f the documents f o r c o n t r a c t s and expenses o f works comm i s s i o n e d by the church's g r e a t e s t b e n e f a c t o r , Doge C r i s t o f o r o Moro. These papers had been i n the p o s e s s i o n o f t h e S c u o l a d i San B e r n a r d i n o : "Giacomo Ronco f u n o s t r o Guard. Questo ha o c c u l t a t o i l n o s t r o G i o r n a l d e l L i b r o Maestro V e c c h i o perche non s i possa v i v e d e r l a sua a m i n i s t . d i a n n i 52..." 11 October 1529. 11  n e  3  201  F r e q u e n t l y c i t e d works: E. A. Cicogna, D e l l e I n s c r i z i o n i Veneziane,  Venice,  1853.  F. Cornaro, N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e d e l l e Chiese e M o n a s t e r i d i V e n e z i a , e d i T o r c e l l o , Padua, 1758. F. F i n o t t o , La C h i e s a d i San Giobbe,  Venice,  1971  P a o l e t t i , L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a e l a s c u l t u r a d e l Rinascimento V e n i c e , 1893.  i n Venezia,  F. Sansovino, V e n e t i a Citta* N o b i l i s s i m a et S i n g o l a r e D e s c r i t t a i n X I I I I L i b r i , ed. D. G. M a r t i n i o n i , V e n i c e , 1663.  1.  Andrea da Mosto " I n t r o d u z i o n e a l i a r a c c o l t a d i g l i s c r i t t i p r o v e n i e n t i da S. Giobbe" A r c h i v i o d i S t a t o , V e n e z i a , pp. 132-133.  2.  C i c o g n a , I n s c r i z i o n i , v o l . 6, p a r t 1, pp. 530-531.  3.  P a o l e t t i , Rinascimento,  1893,  p.  191.  202  1.  DATE  EVENT  SOURCE AND CITATION  1378  Giovanni C o n t a r i n i acquires l a n d i n the p a r i s h o f San Geremia, Canareggio, Venice.  "do, vendo, atque t r a n s a c i o v o b i s D. I o a n n i Contareno de c o n f i n o S. P a n t a l e o n i s " Instrument o f s a l e o f l a n d by B e r u c c i a Benado t o G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i dated 13 January. Cornaro, E c c l e s i a e Venetae, v o l . X I I , p. 94, c i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, pp. 702-703.  2.  1380  Construction buildings.  of h o s p i t a l  ...ONDATOR M.CCC.LXXX 10 CT PAVPERV S. I0B Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #106, p. 700.  3.  1380  Construction buildings.  of h o s p i t a l  10ANN. CONTARENO FONDATOR DOMVS ET HOSPITALIS S. IOB MCCCLXXX I0ANNIS MARCELLO PRIORIS TEMPORE RESTAVRATVM M.D.XXXVIIII I n s c r i p t i o n over an a r c h o f the C a l l e d e l l ' O s p i z i o on the Fondamenta S. Giobbe, b e f o r e the b r i d g e o f San Giobbe. Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #105, p. 400.  4.  1389  Purchase o f l a n d f o r o r a t o r y o f San Giobbe.  "in  c o n t r a t a C a n a r e g l i s e u S. I e r e m i a "  A c t o f Senate dated December 21, a l l o w i n g purchase o f l a n d near hospital. Cornaro, E c c l e s i a e Venetae, X I I , p. 94. 5.  1390  G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i founds an o r a t o r y d e d i c a t e d to San Giobbe, and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h o s p i t a l .  "Contiguo a l i a casa d i c a r i t a f u p e r o r d i n e d e l Fondatore f a b b r i c a t o un Oratorio sotto 1'invocazione d e l P r o f e t a San Giobbe...ed i l P o n t e f i c e B o n i f a z i o IX...permise che i n esso s i p o t e s s e r o c e l e b r a r l a Messa.. .concedendo s p i r i t u a l i i n d u l g e n z e . . . d a l l A p o s t o l i c o Diploma segnato i n Roma n e l giorno XXII d i Settembre d e l l ' a n n o 1390." 1  203  SOURCE AND  EVENT  DATE  CITATION  Cornaro, N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e , pp. 1407  G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i bequeaths h i s e s t a t e to the h o s p i t a l and o r a t o r y o f San Giobbe to be adm i n i s t e r e d ; by-' a commission of a p p o i n t e d c i t i z e n s . -  283-284.  "Item v o g l i o et o r d i n o e t aggiungo che t u t t o q u e l l o che d i s o p r a l a s s o a l d e t t o luogo d i San Giob s i a c o n d i z i o n a t o per modo che...debbasi perpetamente conservar, c r e s c e r , e m o l t i p l i c a r per i l medesimo luogo et ospedal." L a s t w i l l and testament o f G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i dated 30 August. Processo X L I I I Giobbe.  dell'Archivio di  C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t Document 15, pp. 754-755. 1407  Death o f G i o v a n n i Contarini.  San  1  HIC IACET 01 SANTITATE 9SPICVS NOBIL'7 VENERABIL' PSBIT DNS IOHANES 9TARIN0 9DAN DM LVCE FONDATOR HVIVS ECLE' 7 LOCI SCI IOB Q OBIIT AN M CCCCVII DIE V I I I MESIS SEPT AIA EIVS REQVIESCAT I PACE AM. E p i g r a p h i n c i s e d i n G o t h i c l e t t e r s on b o r d e r s of G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i ' s tomb s l a b dated 8 September 1407, o r i g i n a l l y l o c a t e d i n the o r a t o r y founded by him, and i n 1750 moved to the Chiesa d e l l a P i a Opera C o n t a r i n i . Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #104, pp. 699-700 and F i n o t t o , San Giobbe, pp. 26-27.  8.  1417  End  of Schism,  Pope M a r t i n  1428  L u c i a D o l f i n , the daughter of G i o v a n n i C o n t a r i n i , e n t r u s t s the h o s p i t a l and o r a t o r y of San Giobbe to a f a m i l y of F r a n c i s c a n Observants.  V. "...concesse a L u c i a D e l f i n a f a c o l t a d i consegnar l a C a p p e l l a d i San Giobbe a Marco Q u e r i n i , ed a g l i a l t r i R e l i g i o s i M i n o r i dell'.Osservanza. .." Papal permission,  14  May.  Cornaro, N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e , p.  285.  204  DATE  EVENT  SOURCE AND CITATION  1431  Pope Eugene IV.  1434  L u c i a D o l f i n cedes h e r l e g a l "Siccome p o i L u c i a s ' e r a r i s e r v a t o i l j u r i s d i c t i o n to the j u s p a d r o n a t o , v o i l e s p o g l i a r s i anche Franciscans. d i questo a f a v o r e d e ' f r a t i ; e n e l 2 gennjo 1434 c e d e t t e l o . . . " Cornaro, E c c l e s i a e Venetae, v o l . X I I , p. 84 and 103 f o r document. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 530 and p. 533, note 7.  1434 10.  V e n e t i a n s must study a t U n i v e r s i t y i n Padua.  1441 Pope Eugenius IV p r o h i b i t s the f r i a r s from d e s t r o y i n g the o l d o r a t o r y p r i o r to c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the new church which presumably proceeds from t h i s date.  "...decisero n e l giorno VII d e l susseguente O t t o b r e (1441) che 1'Orat o r i o i l l u s t r e p e r l a p i e t a d e l suo Fondatore, e p e r avere i n esso c e l e b r a t a messa m o l t i C a r d i n a l ! . . . d o v e s s e s u s s i s t e r e i n v i o l a b i l e , angi fosse o b b l i g o de'Commissarj i l r e f a r c i r l o e ristaurarlo." Cornaro, N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e , p.  11.  1443 Sojourn o f S t . B e r n a r d i n of S i e n a i n V e n i c e where he may have lodged and preached a t the new convent of San Giobbe.  285.  " r i e s c e c r e d i b i l e . . . a b i t a s s e n e l nuova convento d i S. Giobbe, p i c c o l o e povero, e d i s o l i t u d i n e , e che i n una a s s a i grave m a l a t t i a , che ebbe, f o s s e i n questo luogo c u r a t o d a l Medico... P i e t o r Tomasi." Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #109, p. 711, c i t i n g F. A. Luzzo, V i t a d i S. B e r n a r d i n o da S i e n a , V e n i c e , 1744.  1444  12.  The death o f S t . B e r n a r d i n e of Siena.  1447 The death o f L u c i a D o l f i n and b u r i a l i n the church of San Giobbe.  MCCCCXLVII. ADI X. OTVBRIO.QVA IAXE LA VENERABEL DONA. MADONA LUCIA DOL...N DA S 10...E MADONA CECILIA BEMBO... REQVIESCANT T PACE. On the ground i n the c l o i s t e r a l o n g the s i d e o f t h e c h u r c h .  205  SOURCE AND  EVENT  DATE  CITATION  C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #77, pp. 662-663. See  13.  1450  The  C a n o n i z a t i o n of S t . B e r n a r d i n  1451  E l i s a b e t t a Bragadin, w i f e of Bartolomeo B r a g a d i n , donates l a n d to the church of San Giobbe.  a l s o F i n o t t o , San Giobbe, p. of S i e n a by Pope N i c h o l a s  55. V.  "...tantum de t e r r e n o vacuo d i c t e Isabette p o s i t o post ecclesiam S a n c t i Job...ut f r a t r e s i p s i u s M o n a s t e r i i p o s s i n t e t v a l e a n t ipsam e c c l e s i a m elargare et d i l a t a r e . . . " Processo Giobbe.  X L I I I d e l l ' A r c h i v i o d i San  C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, F o g l i o A, pp. 533-534. He adds t h a t E l i s a b e t t a B r a g a d i n donated o t h e r l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y , f o r the b u i l d i n g o f the C h o i r of the church. 14.  1451  Senator C r i s t o f o r o Moro undertakes the b u i l d i n g a t h i s own expense of the C a p e l l a Maggiore, d e d i c a t e d to St. B e r n a r d i n , the two l a t e r a l c h a p e l s , and the enlargement of the monastery.  " v o i l e a propre spese i n a l z a r g l i d e l l a C h i e s a d i San Giobbe una m a g n i f i c a C a p p e l l a , e d i l a t a r e p o s c i a con aumento d i nuove f a b b r i c h e l e r i s t r e t t e a b i t a z i o n i d e l Monastero." Cornaro,  N o t i z i e S t o r i c h e , p.  286.  See a l s o P a o l e t t i , Rinascimento, p.893, p. 190, and Pope-Hennessy, I t a l i a n Renaissance S c u l p t u r e 2nd ed. , London, 1971, p. 351. 1453  15.  The of  a  F a l l of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . C o u n c i l of Ten p e r m i t e s t a b l i s h m e n t C o n f r a t e r n i t y of S t . B e r n a r d i n a t San Giobbe by Moro. "  1454  Senator Moro o b t a i n s s p i r i t u a l i n d u l g e n c e s Chapel o f S t . B e r n a r d i n .  1457  Pasquale  1458  Bequest of G i o v a n n i D o l f i n , son of L u c i a and E n r i c o D o l f i n , to the h o s p i t a l of San Giobbe.  from the Pope f o r the  M a l i p i e r o e l e c t e d Doge. "Item v o l o ac d i m i t o supra d i c t o h o s p i t a l i S. l o b terrenum vacuum super quo ponunt harundines quod tenent Saraxa et a l i i , i l l u d s i t d i c t i hospitalis."  206  DATE  EVENT  SOURCE AND CITATION Testament o f G i o v a n n i D o l f i n 19 October.  dated  Processo XLVIII d e l l ' A r c h i v i o d i San Giobbe. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #108, p. 702.  16.  1462  C r i s t o f o r o Moro e l e c t e d Doge.  1463  C r i s t o f o r o Moro d e s i r e s to honor the church of San Giobbe w i t h the body o f St.. Luke the . E v a n g e l i s t brought from'Bosnia, a l though i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y i s never d e c i d e d .  " . . . c o l bucintore fosse t o l t o i l detto corpo santo d a l l a g a l e r a . .. A n d o w i i l doge c o l l a s i g n o r i a , e s m o n t a t i a San Gerema con p r o c e s s i o n e d e l c l e r o e d e ' f r a t i f u p o r t a t o a San Giobbe..." 17 December 1463, as r e p o r t e d by Marin Sanuto, 14 C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, F o g l i o A, p. 534.  17.  1464  Moro's d e p a r t u r e to Ancona a g a i n s t the Turks, and death o f Pope Pius I I .  1470  Completion o f Moro's tomb and p r o b a b l y o f c h a p e l .  CHRISTOPHORVS MAVRVS PRINCEPS MCCCCLXX MENSIS SEPTEMBIS I n s c r i p t i o n engraved i n the pavement tomb s l a b o f Moro s i t u a t e d i n the middle o f the p r e s b y t e r y , t h a t i s , the C a p e l l a Maggiore, i n the church of San Giobbe. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #23, p. 573. T h i s date c o i n c i d e s w i t h the f i r s t date o f Moro's testament, September 1, 1470. An a d d i t i o n to the testament i s dated October 29, 1471. Moro d i e d November 9, 1471.  18.  1471  Doge Moro s p e c i f i e s h i s wishes f o r b u r i a l i n San Giobbe and makes a c o n s i d e r a b l e -bequest to the convent.  "Item l a s s o e v o j o c h e l mio corpo s i a posto i n l a g i e x i a de ms. S. B. e S. Jopo i n l a r c h a mo f a c t a f a r e d a v a n t i l a l t a r d e l d i t o S.B....vestido d i l a b i t o suo s o r a d i t o e s c h a l z o . . . "  207  EVENT  DATE 1471  (continued)  SOURCE AND  CITATION  "Item l a s o de l i d u c a t i Xm...per l a v o r a r i n l a g. de ms. S.B. et S. Io et i n tuto e l m o n a s t i e r e per l o v i v e r e v e s t i r e bexogni de t u t i l i frari...dispensato i n lavorar creser et ordenar l a d i t a g i e x i a . . . " " . . . t r a t o s i a compito l o p e r a comenzada de l a g i e x i a de S.B. i n l o n g a r l a e f a r l e capele segondo e l bixogno e per q u e l o , manchase a l g i o s t r o d o r m i t o r i o che se l a v o r a t u t o s i a compito con o g n i l a v o r o l i hochorese f a r i n hornamento de d i t a g i e x i a e m o n e s t i e r . " "Item v o i o et ordeno che l a g i e x i a de ms. S. B.nardino cum l e c a p e l l e siano cum q u e l l a s o l i c i t u d i n e s a r a p o s i b e l compida e t f o r n i d a segondo l o r d e n e d a t o . . . i l a v o r i de l e q u a l se debiano f o r n i r per m a i s t r o a n t o r i o t a j a p i e r a de s. z a c h a r i a over per quelo de s. severo..." The l a s t w i l l and testament of Doge C r i s t o f o r o Moro dated 1 September 1470 and 29 October 1471. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t Document 5, pp. 728-732.  1,  1471  I t was p r o h i b i t e d t h a t a doge c o u l d have h i s i n s i g n i a or arms p a i n t e d or s c u l p t e d w i t h the d u c a l Corno anywhere o u t s i d e the P a l a z z o Ducale (Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 580).  1473  The Senate approves a g i f t of food p r o v i s i o n s to the f r i a r s of the monastery of San Giobbe on the o c c a s i o n of the Chapter, at which 200 f r i a r s were expected to a t t e n d .  " . . . s i n t p a u p e r r i m i q u i a v i v u n t de e l e e m o s i n i s , s o l v i debeat per nostrum dominium datium duodecim anforarum v i n i (and o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s ) . . . s i c u t a l i a s factum f u i t ut hac p i i s s i m a eleemosina f e r y e n t i o r e s f i a n t i n eorum o r a t i o n i b u s . " Dated 5 A p r i l 1473,  Cod.  C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, F o g l i o A, p. 535.  Grad. part  1,  208  DATE 20.  1478  EVENT Death and b u r i a l i n San Giobbe of A l i d e a Tron, the w i f e of. Moro's s u c c e s s o r , Doge N i e o l o Tron (14711473).  SOURCE AND  Deae r a r i s s . m u l i e r i s i l l u s t r i s s . Dom. N i c o l a i T h r o n i I n c l i t i Ducis Venetiarum c o n i n g i s , h u m i l i hoc i n l o c o corpus i u s s u suo conditum e s t animum vero e i u s p r o p t e r v i t a e v i r t u t u m & morum s a n c t i t a t e m , ad coelestem p a t r i a m aduolasse credendum est. Ann. S a l u t i s . MCCCCLXXVIII. In  cloister.  Recorded p. 156. 21.  1480  Bartolomeo B r a g a d i n bequeaths a l l h i s goods to the h o s p i t a l o f San Giobbe,  CITATION  i n Sansovino, V e n e t i a ,  "Item v o i o e t ordeno che t u t t i b e n i havero over dovero haver d a l luogo de S. l o b . . . " L a s t w i l l and testament o f Bartolomeo B r a g a d i n dated 16 June 1480. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #108, pp. 701-702.  22.  1481  The testament of G i o v a n n i Veruti specifying his b u r i a l i n San Giobbe and bequest to the church.  "Corpus meum s e p e l i r i v o l o apud e c c l e s i a m S a n c t i Job..." The l a s t w i l l and testament of G i o v a n n i V e r u t i , dated 10 May 1481. Processo LXVIIII d e l ' A r c h i v i o d i S. Giobbe, c i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, F o g l i o A, p. 535.  23.  1482  The C o u n c i l o f Ten e x i l e s c e r t a i n f r i a r s o f the Church o f San Giobbe who observe the excommunication o f V e n i c e by S i x t u s IV and r e f u s e to perform the d i v i n e o f f i c e s .  1485  A p o s s i b l e terminus ante quern f o r the c o m p l e t i o n o f work c a r r i e d out by P i e t r o Lombardo f o r Doge Moro i n the church o f San Giobbe i s p r o v i d e d by a mention of Pietro's "statues."  " E d u c i t h i e e t i a m v i v o s de marmore vultus. Cujus s t a t u a s i n d i v i l o b aede p r i d i e sum plurimum m i r a t u s . Sed de hoc a l i a s l o n g i u s . Debeo enim ubicumque s i t v i r t u t i . " L e t t e r w r i t t e n by C o l a c c i o to C r i s t o f o r o and Lorenzo da L e n d i n a r a p r i n t e d i n P h i l o l o g i c a Opuscola, V e n i c e , 1486.  209  DATE  EVENT  SOURCE AND CITATION C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 531, and by Pope-Hennessy, p. 351.  24.  1493  C o n s e c r a t i o n o f the church of San Giobbe.  CONSECRATIO HVIVS ECCLESIAE CELEBRATVR DIE X I I I I MENSIS APRILIS. I n s c r i p t i o n on the w a l l between the second and t h i r d chapels on the l e f t of the Church. There was a p p a r e n t l y a second i n s c r i p t i o n under the c l o c k r e c o r d e d i n Processo L d e l l ' A r c h i v i o d i San Giobbe. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #1, p. 539.  25.  1494  N o t i c e o f the church of San Giobbe and a l t a r of Job .  "...ad l o b fundamenta p e r oram ducunt. h i e Lucae c o n d i t o r i u m : opus ipsum vetus : sed Mauri p r i n c i p i s imensa instauratum : h i e et ipse s i t u s e s t : v i s i t u r i n parte aedis ioannis b e l l i n i t a b u l a i n s i g n i s quam i l l e i n t e r prima suae a r t i s rudimenta i n apertum r e t t u l i t : sacrorum curam f r a n c i s c i gymnopodes habent..." S a b e l l i c o , De s i t u U r b i s , V e n i c e , 1493. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, p. 531.  26.  1587  R e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f church o f San Giobbe.  14 A p r i l . Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #1, p. 539.  1728  B u r i a l of Constantino B e l l o t t o a t the f o o t o f the a l t a r of Job.  "...SEPVULCRVM HOC VIR NOB. CONSTANTINVS BELLOTTO PROVIDE PARAVIT ANNO MDCCXXVIII I n s c r i p t i o n a t the f o o t o f the s t e p s of the a l t a r o f Job which i s second on the r i g h t ' when e n t e r i n g the church of San Giobbe. C i t e d by Cicogna, v o l . 6, p a r t 1, #14, p. 562.  

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