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Institutions for the optimal planning policy process : application to British Columbia Eyre, Peggy Jane 1979

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INSTITUTIONS  FOE THE OPTIMAL  APPLICATION  PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS:  TO BRITISH COLOMBIA  by  PEGGY JANE B„A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  EYRE  of British  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL THE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASTER OF  Columbia,  FULFILMENT  THE DEGEEE  1976  OF  OF  ARTS  in THE (The  School  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  o f Community  We a c c e p t to  this  and R e g i o n a l  t h e s i s as  the required  THE UNIVERSITY  STUDIES Planning)  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  OCTOBER  (c) Peggy J a n e  1979  Eyre,  1979  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that' the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Cfimmunily  Ci  nA  The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS  (\etj iom I P/dM/ny  ii  ABSTRACT  ( ) a  The P r o b l e m As  a  student  of  planning,  d e f i n e and s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m process?; how the  What s h o u l d  does line  problem  planning  should  of t h i s has  planning  prompted  dimensions;  (1)  defining  process  means  the  process:  (3)  t o see i f i t i s t h e o p t i m a l  of  making t h e p r o c e s s  optimal  i t n o t be s o .  However, a p r o c e s s and  outputs.  such  as t h e p l a n n i n g  design apart  q u e s t i o n s a r e what  paperfour  suggesting  planning  be ?; I f n o t ,  (2) d e f i n i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g  an e x i s t i n g (4)  the  i t b e ? ; I s i t what i t s h o u l d  thus  process;  process;  o f p l a n n i n g : What i s  make i t b e t t e r ? Such  of inquiry  The  testing  one  one i s c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g t o  of from  designed.  cannot e x i s t  without  Moreover, the attempt process  institutional the  context  Thus  the  substantive  t o improve  a social  on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s  inputs process  involves  s t r u c t u r e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s cannot of  problem  the  society  has b o t h  for  which  theoretical  they  the exist are  and e m p i r i c a l  aspects.  The province which case  setting  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a : t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i n p u t s and  highlight study  Although to  empirical  - the  these  British  the Burns  for  planning Lake  this  process Native  e m p i r i c a l boundaries  Columbian  paper  are taken  the  Canadian outputs  from an a c t u a l  Development  limit  institutions,  i s  Corporation.  the scope o f t h e study  some  general  aspects of  institutional significance  (b)  Method  In made  with  the planning  distinguish  which  this  paper  i s viewed  seen  as a c o n g r u e n t  norms, IV).  which  Chapter  VI,  The  to  be  institutional performance. Lake  the public  planning  level,  a  case  i s examined  criteria  Burns  Lake  "good"  framework  of  and  seen  and to  C e r t a i n key c o n s t r a i n t s are  process  less  than  optimal.  be  judged  given the  Native  constraints  chosen  because  realizing found  criteria  Lake  therefore be  satisfy  to i t s ability  the  i s  the  (Chapter V ) .  Burns  overcome  to  criteria,  according  process  process i s  the  process  the public  would  optimality  i t i s  of  assessment  process  than  process.  norms  ability  met t h e a s s e s s m e n t  the  policy  I I I ) . When  of thirteen  policy  rather  "planner,"  democratic  of i t s  to achieving  Corporation  optimality. judged  An a c t u a l  exist  t h e assessment  i n light  and  process  planning/policy  (Chapter  a series  i f i treasonably  Development  When  i s  planning  societal  of  I I ) an a t t e m p t  public  the optimal  society  i s examined  (Chapter  In  the  t o the democratic  which  Canadian  democratic  constraints  Burns  process  i s , t h e r e f o r e , the s e t  optimal  geographical  organizational  p e r s p e c t i v e o f an i n d i v i d u a l  meet  process  (Chapter  i s concerned.  s e t o f norms  emerge  meet  I t i s  The  pluralistic,  the  wider  individual,  at the collective,  the single  policy  have  process  between  processes.  from  will  which  of Investigation  planning  process  emerge  i n Canada.  defining  to  public  design  to  the  to to  i t i s given  i t s best render  the  iv  la designed  Chapter  VII a normative  model  t o meet  the assessment  criteria  constraints  to  essentially in  which  the  a multi-purpose, a l l executive  Executive jointly  optimality.  Council,  by t h e G e n e r a l  Burns  context,  Lake  those  c  General  Not had  would  conducted  government However,  improve  reform  at  are  a l l  purpose; to  are  an made  representatives..When  to this  new  inhibited  Lake  the  regional  municipal  processes  levels  process  b u t so would  and  of  the twelve  summarized  process.  design These  Elected Local  Cabinet;  decisions  by  institutional  optimality  are  have  been  context  the policy model  require  government,  of  the  process i n  would  government  would  improved  tend  to  performance, institutional  federal  government  included.  institutional  policy  government  jointly  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  model,  although  Nevertheless,  of  within  of a l l pclicy  institutions  which  made  i s  minimized.  t h e Burns  provincial  optimality  regional  of elected  i s transposed  framework  the  Conclusions  i t been  general..  are  key c o n s t r a i n t s which  only  regional  minimizing  normative  decentralized  Assembly  process  while  a l l legislative  shown t o be e l i m i n a t e d o r  ( )  The  decisions  and  o f r e g i o n a l government i s  aspects  i n Chapter necessary are:  of  VIII  highlight  t o promote  Decentralized;  Representatives;  A l l Decisions  institutional  Joint;  t h e key  optimality Regional;  Executive  Overlapping  Council  design factors i n  the  MultiLinked  Jurisdictions;  V  Communications Secretariat; Continuous  and  Committee  does of  not  an  Although 2)  design, full  would  when  product  for  not  of  aspects  aspects,  only  contexts,  i s dependent  aspects I f the  discrete  on  of  Analysis  Aspect  2,  since on  the  physical  not  to  policy  policy  democratic  policy  in  order  system of  will  regional  benefits  also  output.  of  process  a  would  but  perhaps  institutional  model  only  process,  better  (except  a p p l i e d as  normative  aspects  of  applied  are  adopted,  "means" o r  (product).  in isolation  i f  improved  i n terms  emphasis  "ends"  twelve  provincial  benefits  an  feature  correct  Policy  (non-hierarchical bureaucracy);  government  were  distinguishing placed  the  a l l the  B.C.  realized  are  a l l  realized.  i n terms  be  of  secure  b e n e f i t s be  realized  these  Participation;  size.  may  government  Of  f i t  each  only  for  Structure  intermediary  demographic  Aspect  Resources  Monitoring.  "Regional" necessity  Web;  benefits  Process  development. formation to  be  is  determine  and A the the  vi  TABLE  I.  II.  INTRODUCTION:  CONTENTS  APPROACH  AND METHODOLOGY  1  A.  The P r o b l e m  1  B.  The A p p r o a c h  2  C.  Methodology  4  T H E NATURE  OF THE I P U B L I C  RELATIONSHIP III.  PROBLEM,  OF  PLANNING  TO T H E DEMOCRATIC  T H E DEMOCRATIC  PEOCESS  POLITICAL  AND I T ' S  PROCESS  NORMS OF THE P L U R A L I S T I C ,  . . . . 13  CANADIAN  SOCIETY IV.  THE OPTIMAL DERIVATION A.  23 PLANNING/POLICY OF A S S E S S M E N T  B.  C.  Planning/Policy  In A 36  Choices  In A  System  38  In A Democratic  System  40  Planning/Policy  System  Assessment  Criteria  41  And R e a s s e s s m e n t  A Democratic Planning/Policy  Process V.  Choices  System  Of F u t u r e  The O p t i m a l M o n i t o r i n g In  G.  Of F u t u r e  The O p t i m a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e I n A Democratic  F.  . 33  Planning/Policy  D. T h e O p t i m a l D e c i s i o n  E.  Of Purpose I n A Democratic  Planning/Policy  The O p t i m a l A n a l y s i s Democratic  . . 32  System  The O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n Democratic  PROCESS:  CRITERIA  The O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n Planning/Policy  DEVELOPMENT  Procedure  System  Of The O p t i m a l  Planning/Policy  ..........................................  THE CONSTRAINTS  43  TO A C H I E V I N G O P T I M A L I T Y I N T H E  45  vii  PLANNING/POLICY VI.  AN  ASSESSMENT  B.C.  OF  THE  ..  PLANNING/POLICY  I N S T I T U T I O N A L CONTEXT:  NATIVE A.  PROCESS  DEVELOPMENT  Institutions  THE  PROCESS  C A S E OF  CORPORATION  For Planning/Policy  Native  The  -  July  Burns  Policy E.  Establishment  Development  Evolution  1976 D.  Of The  Of The  Burns  A  i  Development  Lake  In -  ....  Project  68  January ...  Process  Within  The  Of  NORMATIVE  82  Provincial 86  The B u r n s  Lake .  MODEL OF  PROMOTING  56  Lake  Context  Assessment  TOWARDS  (BLNDC)  Lake  56  -  1979  Process VII.  .  O f The B u r n s  Corporation  THE  LAKE  ,  B. O v e r v i e w  The  IN  BURNS  .. - I i  B.C  C.  48  REGIONAL  THE  .  .  Planning/Policy .  a  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  GOVERNMENT  OPTIMAL  .  .  .  .  .  FOR  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  90  B.C.:  PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS /  113 A.  The  Pursuit  B.  A Normative British  C.  The  ASPECTS  OF  A.  Of  Regional  .......121  Model  In Operation:  Improved 139  I N S T I T U T I O N A L DESIGN OF  An  Process  THE  R E Q U I R E D TO  PLANNING/POLICY  PROCESS:  S e t And  PROMOTE SUMMARY  .-..,.......-.--....169  A s p e c t s Of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Goal  ....113  Government For  CONCLUSIONS  The B.  Optimal Process  Columbia  Lake  0PTIMALITY AND  Model  Normative  Burns VIII.  Of The  Design Required  Minimize Constraints  S y s t e m i c A s p e c t s Of  The  Regional  To  Meet  . . . . . . . . . . . . 171  Institutional  viii  Design C.  ..........  Synergistic Design  Effects  Applicability  OTHER  Concluding  Government  Of The Aspects Of  Design  Remarks  BIBLIOGRAPHY  SOURCES:  .172  ..175  Institutional  SELECTED  Of T h e R e g i o n a l  ..  D. G e n e r a l  E.  ........<..........,..  PERSONAL  ..................178 ...................180 . . . . 183  INTERVIEWS  ........186  ix  LIST-OF  1.  Phase  1-Defining  Process; 2.  Phase  3.  Overview  4.  The  5.  Regional  6.  A  Phase  Planning;  3-Assessing  4-Promoting Of  Regional  The  Phase The  Optimal  Districts  Of  The  Regional  Optimal  Planning/Policy Process  Framework  . . 4 .  10 56  B.C.  Management  Model Of  2-Defining  Planning/Policy Process  Institutional  Resource  Normative  The  FIGURES  57  Committee  Regions  Government  For  B.C.  58 ......123  X  Acknowledgement  This thesis would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e h e l p a n d c o o p e r a t i o n o f n u m e r o u s p e o p l e , e a c h o f whom c o n t r i b u t e d in a u n i q u e way t o t h e f i n i s h e d product.  It was my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r I r v i n q K. F o x , who h e l p e d me d e f i n e t h e t o p i c and e s t a b l i s h t h e methodology of the thesis inquiry. His h e l p , encouragement, but e s p e c i a l l y h i s s u s t a i n e d e n t h u s i a s m and i n t e r e s t , were i m p o r t a n t i n p u t s t o t h e s t u d y .  P r o f e s s o r B r a h m W e i s m a n , who was t h e s e c o n d r e a d e r of the p r e l i m i n a r y m a n u s c r i p t , o f f e r e d many c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s on how to improve the t e x t and t h e g r a p h i c s . The q u a l i t y of t h e document u n d o u b t e d l y improved because of these s u g g e s t i o n s .  W i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f Mr. R o b e r t Williams, the Burns Lake policy p r o c e s s c o u l d not have been e x p l o r e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . He s u p p l i e d t h e o n l y g o v e r n m e n t f i l e m a t e r i a l w h i c h was accessible for examination, as w e l l as devoted s e v e r a l hours to d i s c u s s i n g t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s and t o a n s w e r i n g my probing questions. His cooperation was, t h e r e f o r e , e l e m e n t a l t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n of the p r o j e c t .  R e c o g n i t i o n must a l s o b e g i v e n t o a l l those persons who a g r e e d t o d i s c u s s t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s w i t h me. In p a r t i c u l a r , I am g r a t e f u l t o : J o h n B a k e r , A l i s t a i r C r e r a r , Graham F a r s t a d , David Fraser, Bill Gilgan, Jean Grey, Erik Karlsen, Mike McKinley, Margaret Patrick, Jim P i e r c e , Nancy Plasway, J e r r y P r e s l e y , George R i c h a r d s , Jo R i c h a r d s , Ruth T i b b i t s . Only after discussing t h e p r o j e c t w i t h a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e c o u l d the whole p r o c e s s be understood.  1  CHAPTER  A.  I : INTRODUCTION:  PROBLEM,  APPROACH  AND  METHODOLOGY  The Problem  As  a  problems  "planner",  and recommend  suggesting  solutions  the  and t h i s  problem  who  define  the  one  i s  constantly  solutions. i s  The v e r y  related  i n turn  problem.  seeking nature  Planning  define  of the task of  to the original  i s related  to  perception of  t o t h e values  of  i s , therefore,  those  decidely  normative.  As define  a student and  process?; not  what  solution the  The (1)  normative of  (what  norms  i s  constantly  of planning:  i t b e ? ; I s i t what b e , how  (how o n e g e t s  there)  i tshould  does  What  seeking  i s the planning  i tshould  be?; I f  o n e make i t b e t t e r ?  will  depend  be minus  on t h e  what  to  i t ' s  Again, the  perception  i tis) . This  of  too i s a  task.  problem  of this  the  process;  should  paper,  planning (3)  i t  because  testing  outputs.  therefore, has four (2)  process;  an e x i s t i n g  (4) s u g g e s t i n g  they  a l l depend  a process Moreover,  cannot  of these  process  to  the process  dimensions are of  the set  society.  exist  the attempt  planning  on t h e a c c e p t a n c e  Canadian  dimensions:  defining the optimal  means o f m a k i n g  n o t be s o . A l l f o u r  of the democratic  However, and  should  i fi ti s optimal;  optimal  one  t h e problem  i tshould  defining  planning see  solve  What  problem  normative  of planning,  without  t o improve  substantive a  social  inputs process  2  such  as  the planning  process  design  of institutional  apart  from  designed.  the  Thus  on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s  structures.  context  of  t h e problem  Institutions  the  society  has both  involves the cannot  for  which  theoretical  and  exist  they a r e empirical  aspects.  The  empirical  province  setting  of British  Columbia;  which  highlight  the planning  case  study  the  Although to  -  these  British  institutional  B.  The  In made  distinguish  :  be"  better  with  and  outputs  from  an  actual  Development  limit some  which  Corporation.  the scope general  have  planner  and views  this  democratic to  process  between  o f t h e study  principles  wider  (Chapter  individual,  I t becomes  related  to  which  this  perspective of  i f  chosen  Native  t h e Canadian  inputs  are taken  of  geographical  evident  whether  one s t e p s  back  policy  process  the  from  the process  perspective,  paper  one  i t  that i s  what  public  planning  of the  I t i sthe  process  social  becomes  that  evident  which  i s  of the individual  as a c o l l e c t i v e ,  choices.  planning  speaking  process.  and  concerned.  the perception  through  make i t s s o c i a l  i s  I I ) an a t t e m p t i s  organizational  organizational or public planning  gained  From  emerge  processes.  i s  process  A  Lake  defining the planning  individual, later  process  i s  i n Canada.  planning  "should  the substantive  institutions,  design  paper  Approach  to  public  Burns  this  e m p i r i c a l boundaries  Columbian  significance  for  Canadian  The o p t i m a l  process. i t  i st h e  society  public  has  planning  3  process This  should  be  synonoraous  policy/planning  Canadian  democratic  The policy  link  is  coordinate  societal  formation  were  against  the  (which  set  are  normative  of  relating  to  be  defined  from  policy  system  be  assessment  the  than  criteria the  which  of  by  process. the  set  optimal  f o r the  designing allow  and  process  democratic  would  outputs  of  the  institutions  actual  less  involve  framework  fact  to  that  these  (product)  goals  design  specific  emerges  various  the  whole  decisions. If  would  institutional  which  will  policy  of  the  policy  when  measured  optimal  process  norms), a  which  more  then  the  appropriate  realization  of  the  and  not  goals.  substantive  of  of  optimal  substantive  the  shown  task  The  the  the  derived  institutional set  process  the  norms.  between  process  with  goals  will  not  institution  as  be  a  forum  1  the and  i s central i n which  to  goals  because  constrained  f u n c t i o n s . Thus  policies  process  i s significant  i s multi-dimensional  sectoral  are  i t means by  objectives  institutional  framework  dynamic.  The  to  functioning  the  make  social  that  integration of  choices  and  trade-offs.  In a  d e s i r a b l e end  the  democratic  policy  1  s h o r t , the  outputs  in  improvement itself  of  because  the  i t is also  by  of  i.e., multi-sectoral government organs.  and  process  i t represents  values, way  policy  a  improved  possessing  means  to  only  satisfaction acquiring  integration  many  i s not  component  of  of  better social  "parts"  or  preferences C.  and p o l i c y  choices.  Methodology  FIGURE  1:  Phase  1-Defininq  Optimal  Process;  Planning/Policy  THEORETICAL  REALM  Planning; Phase  Phase  2-Defininq The  3-Assessing  Process  EMPIRICAL  REALM  The  5  Phase 1: D e f i n i n g The P u b l i c Planning Chapter according  II  to  synthesizing the author's  seeks  to  define  i t s societal procedural  Process the p u b l i c planning  context.  planning  This  task  i s one  process  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p l a n n i n g theory and the nature of  The to  of  theory concepts a c c o r d i n g to  s o c i e t a l c h o i c e s . The normative c h a r a c t e r of t h i s task apparent.  process  i s made  p u b l i c planning process i s seen t o be a p a r a l l e l  the democratic  policy  process  at  the  societal  l e v e l . ( S e e F i g u r e 1 - Phase 1.)  Phase 2: D e f i n i n g The O p t i m a l ; P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y Chapter on  which  norms  Process  I I I d i s c u s s e s i n more d e t a i l the normative p o s i t i o n  each phase of the t h e s i s i n q u i r y i s based. Again, the  were  theoretical  derived  through  constructs.  the  author's  The acceptance  interpretation  of  or r e j e c t i o n of many of  the p o i n t s r a i s e d i n t h i s paper w i l l depend upon the  acceptance  or r e j e c t i o n of these norms. Chapter  IV  deals  with  the  d e r i v a t i o n of the assessment  c r i t e r i a f o r the optimal p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y these  process.  In  deriving  c r i t e r i a , however, t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y process i s  depicted  ( i . e . , d e f i n e d ) . These c r i t e r i a  characteristics  of  are a s y n t h e s i s of the  the p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y  Chapter  I I , t h e democratic  defined  i n Chapter  norms  of  process as d e f i n e d i n  the Canadian  society  as  I I I , t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on the process of  p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n , and the work of other r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d of  assessing policy  processes.  6  Figure are  derived  process  Phase  from  the  is in  Phase^^  turn  soon  as  empirical,  imposes  on  and  the  one  one  fixed,  may  but  change.  The  input  the  The  to  constraints  Notice synthesis link  to  to  of  which  The the  process point  to  an  the  the  changes shifting  of  time  the the  and  how  criteria  the  optimal  criteria-  Process  realm  of  the  theoretical  constraints  that  to  reality  and  could  actual be  are  lines  represent  be  the  empirical  constraints culture  through on  the  to  i s  the  the are  not  optimality  shown  to  supply  democratic  norms.  theoretical side,  process  institutional and  reguires  judged  the and  c u l t u r a l inputs  to  design  empirical  constructs  optimal  constraints  and  planning  therefore meet  which  theoretical  but that  acknowledged.  not  however,  may  the  as  remain  normative  designs  l i n k s between  Canadian  optimal  makes  time,  in  the  theoretical  i s dynamic, in  the  theoretical  optimality  which  the  centre  over  non-operational  process  depict  criteria  that  assessment  assessment  with  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts  institutional are  deal  pluralistic,  application  norms,  the  from  the  concepts.  move  assessment  their  moves  empirical. between  by  how  Planning/Policy  must  1 tries  interface  illustrates  democratic  The  Utopian  Figure  2,  defined  Assessing  As the  1,  to  would  at the  boundary.  realms:  be be  optimal unable  may  to  another,  they  produce  Utopian depending  democratic  the  Utopian  because  criteria. be  the  i t is  operational.  assessment what  represents  norms,  The  a  whole  at  one  upon  the  and  the  7  Because interface, must  be  meet  the  addressed. of  the  the  institutional  to  satisfying  is  institutional  actual  "Optimal the  1  -  assessment  the  each  either  indefinite  all  are  and  If  the  (see  a  of  is  to  i t s  thus  tempered  by  which  criterion.  constraint the  The  ability  constraints  the  of  the  or  Since  a  assessment operation  The  and  means of of  the the  the  assessing  process  arrow  were  would now  to  be  be  the  connecting  Institutional with  an  Structure"  the  "Optimal  to  empirical  1).  Figure  problem  criteria of  methodology:  processes  precisely  the  boundaries question  investigation  of  Structure"  Process"  empirical  manageability.  method  actual  "Actual  policy  through  empirical  the  theoretical  another  number  Obviously,  study.  be  process  constraints.  assessment  illustrates  the  poses  conducted  the  VI)  criteria,  assessment  "Actual  from also  framework.  these  according  (Chapter  Institutional  Structure"  an  this  of  optimality.  Process"  Institutional  restrict  process  Institutional Structure,"  Moving  planning/policy  particular  can  3,  "Actual  connect  of  Phase  for  the  "Actual  would  the  an  theoretical-empirical  summarizes  assessment  also  the  framework.  process  optimal,  V  criteria  context  of  optimal  policy  of  the  process  Figure  the  achievement  the  policy  to  actual  assessment  the  dynamics  Chapter  acknowledgement  influence  sake  the  constraints  assessment to  of  to  is  which same must  be  how,  pursue  the  there  exist,  and  is not  institutional drawn  for  then,  to  purposes  the best of  8  Since  this  thesis  inquiry  an  understanding  and  out o f t h e normative  policy at  process  an example  tells  one  of the nature  could  of a  little  contributed  for  closer  process.  because  accountable  was  and thus  i t s best  a  fairly  depth  within  Much came  interviews  sources.  one's  personal Lake  and  Lake  process  and data  with  in  general, a  would  according  i t  goal  and  "at  first  conducted  It  many  was  had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f be e x a m i n e d  Burns  personal  i n some  study.  Lake  process  the  t o be f i l t e r e d  There  interviews  are essentially of  thus  framework  involved i n the process.  to using  by  minority  trade-offs.  could  the  detailed  of the majority"; i t  I t also  which  chosen  Development  involved  institutional  perceptions  tend  That  framework  or  process  "tyranny  regarding  Therefore,  look  process  f o r more  constraints of the  people  to  process  Native  chosen  was  the  policy  was  involved  where  Personal  process  interviewee  i t  disadvantage  values.  of a "good"  representatives;  contained  a significant  be,  performance.  the time  data  the  to  the  poor.  institutional  Burns  process  of the information  from  Burns  This  how  value  i s obviously  Columbian  was t h e  t o explore  process  process.  d i d n o t promote  an example  being  o f the  process:  multi-sectoral  realizing  the  British  political  represented  is  good  which  to acquire  formation  i t i s of l i t t l e  dynamics  how  i t appeared  a  interests  the  examination  glance,"  the  to the quality  Corporation study  process  about  Accordingly,  concern  be i m p r o v e d ,  about  out of the desire  of the policy  (planning)  policy  little  therefore  grew  related  details  of  o u t and i g n o r e d  t o h i s or h e r judgement  of  what  as to the by was  9  relevant.  The  interviewing  author persons  Nevertheless, unavailable  a  of  few  details  by t h o s e  the  review  NDP  M i n i s t e r of Lands, was  and  Human  local  gaps Lake  copies  {descriptive actively details. files  Still,  documenting  difficulty  of  actors  by  perceptions.  i n the process  Because of well,  the  were  ago,  were  the  in  simply  were  filled  file  of t h e  former  but  were  overview  the  Credit s e to f  the  were  was  sent  the a  a  process,  factors  i s  persons  set  of  government  may  Lake  s t i l l these  to  t h e assessment key  inhibit  be are  process.  considered  Certain which  two  on t h e f a c t u a l  There  o f t h e Burns  completely.  process  hopefully  i t meets  1979.  s e r i o u s impediment t o  process.  process  the  Lake  to  f o r comment  detail;  Lake  of  Burns  process  of  review  of  view  the  by a  1972 a n d J u l y ,  process  t h e Burns  as  Social  January,  to  of  Labour  of the complete  filled  VI)  t o the analysis  "good"  present  this  t o them.  between  the  and  gaps  Resources,  possession  access  the i n a b i l i t y  emerge  Water  years  itself  of these  the  i n  newspaper  but not  process  Some  for  are  to  five  correspondence  i n information  of  began  The M i n i s t e r s o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ,  inaccuracies  optimality  key  F o r e s t s and  the details  inconsequential  example  this  range  process  p o r t i o n . Chapter  relating  rather  who  involved  certain  Lake  Resources  Burns  Also,  the  of a personal  refused t o allow  Other  overcome  wide  about  incomplete.  administration, files,  a  interviewed.  by  file  of  t h e Burns  the  forgotten  with  to  f o r interview.  Moreover, some  tried  be  an  criteria  constraints  to  the attainment  of  1 0  assessment  criteria.  If  optimal  performance, the  judged  as  have  "optimal"  been  necessary.  Institutional Structure" the  study  changes of  would could  have have  have  "near In  2 :  constraints  and the  ended. promoted  framework  optimal",  terms  been  government  major  institutional  Structure"  would  regional  FIGUEE  or  no  of  same  1 ,  Public Planning Process  since  1  2  a  REALM  llliliii  Assessment  Criteria  Canadian  Culture  1 Optimal  r  PHASE  L  below),  Actual  Process  4  Constra i nts to O p t i m a l i t y  lllliilliiillll  Process  would  and  institutional model  i n Phase H .  The _ O p t i m a l . P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y  EMPIRICAL  been  "Optimal  normative  illustrated  Public P o l i cy Process  Norms  have  Institutional  certain  process,  i s d e v e l o p e d and  REALM  Democratic  the  "Actual  Process  THEORETICAL  would  inhibited  adjustments  (see F i g u r e  better  gh§_gj|_jizPrj)gojriPg  no  Figure  the  However, a  and  had  11  Phase  ft; P r o m o t i n g  As  Figure  2  Institutional Structure"  Structure"  the  operation  of  Accordingly,  in  transposed  to  differences  in  the  beyond  of  design  new two  of  the  assessment  criteria  to  particular  British  Columbian  environments.  the  design  of  Because into  context the  of  and  the  In  the  not  of  to  institutions.  Thus  scope  regional  normative of  the  the  of  the  model  of  researcher,  rather  Burns  sense,  than  Lake  the  tested.  process context  highlighted  to  is  and  the  emphasize  model.  based  on  reality  the  the  of  cultural,  synthesis  the  of  Burns  Canadian  contributed  Lake to  and  in and  process  the  of  normative  institutional  and  necessity  i f  new  "Utopian",  imposed  and  meet  and  aspects  of  institution.  constraints  provincial  to  synthesis  application  themselves  design  the  is  empirical  this  nature  a  government  the  regional  institutional  "optimal"  and  a  institutional  are  model  literature  institutional  the  processes regional  of  control  regional  theoretical  physical  attain  "Optimal  Institutional  process  illustrated  VII,  the  the  empirical.  the  is  of  "Actual  policy  testing  Chapter  the  advantages  The  would  model  the  the  This and  Process  substitution  actual  is  the  the for  empirical  government  Planning/Policy  the  (normative)  Since  the  induce  criteria-  theoretical  regional  illustrates,  would  assessment  The_Qptimal  scope of  this  empirical  institutions  there  the  for  are of  also  the  thesis  institutions,  are  while  to  be  empirical  design is  input  of  limited federal  the to and  12  municipal studied  institutional  also  limited  Columbia,  although  hopefully,  are  reforms  specific the  VIII,  t h e r e f o r e , makes t h e  rather  than  the  Burns  Lake  omitted.  The  considerations to  general  a p p l i c a b l e to  are  aspects  other aspects  process,  of  British  institutional  design,  the  the  in  those  case  of  provinces of  empirical  Canada.  institutional  central  theme.  Chapter design,  13  CHAPTER  I I : T H E NATURE  OF  THE P U B L I C  R E L A T I O N S H I P TO T H E  There  i s no c o m p l e t e  pieces  of theory  whole,  but instead  those  who  diversity All  reflect  and i t i s v i r t u a l l y  referring  or  t o one's  one  a  the  of  diversity  planning  both  opinion  called  procedural  and  to favour  values  over  and  comprehensive  profession,  alternative  set of personal  PROCESS  bits  has been  impossible  policy  The  1  do n o t f i t i n t o  the  have  PROCESS AND I T ' S  POLITICAL  planning.  the 'planner'  activities  another,  of  both  to  which  DEMOCRATIC  theory  do e x i s t  called  of roles  planning  aspects, over  are  which  PLANNING  and t h e to  f i l l .  substantive  one  procedure  another  i n order  of  without  t o make  that  choice.  In  this  objective Planning  theory Theory  planning  i s  procedures  part  process  and  2  3  there  of  begins  to  of  Faludi's  substantive  1  sense,  can r e a l l y  planning. with  promote  thought colours  the  human  his of  o b j e c t i v e which  i . e . , procedural  the  and  role  2  planning  Even  Planning  esteemed  the  of  value  implies that  Human  work of  rational  judgement  the. optimal  planner.  or  purpose  by t h e u s e o f This  3  planning  growth  a  "better"  of  planning,  on  i s  a  situation  theory  That i s , one c a n t a l k about a theory without the i n t r o d u c t i o n of values. Andreas F a l u d i , 1973) , p . 3 5 .  that  growth  concept  be any s c i e n t i f i c  Faludi's  premise  action.  the  never  Theory  (Glasgow:  Bell  and  but  Bain  not  Ltd.,  14  should the of the  result  planner human  growth.  or  social  position  the p o l i t i c a l  beginning  of as  some  planning planning  3  of s o c i a l  by  a  i s t o encourage f o r better  In this  2  latter  who of  other  that  o f human i n  a  performance  insists  others  purposes.  For reason  b e l i e v e the purpose of government  (e.g.,  the planner  on  the purpose of  f u n c t i o n a s t h e main  t h e development  role,  a  action  t h e planner  theorist  public decisions  have  1  advance  while  of  good"  the premise  the optimal  statement  theorists  Davidoff),  from  depicted  choice  planning  course  the development  t o promote  see the r e d i s t r i b u t i v e (e.g.,  a context  Krumholz).  other  have  process  he o r s h e s h o u l d  had begun  t o promote  operating  discussion  feel  this  while  of the "public  alternative  i f he  F a l u d i would  process  However,  the  was  i s not the only his  planning.  on  will  process,  i n directing  as the protector  role  hand,  of planning  choices,  Faludi  for  this  influence  purpose  example,  doubt,  On t h e o t h e r  background of  No  i n  significant  the  the planning/decision-making  s u r f a c e s as a key f i g u r e  planner  chosen.  from  may  Mann, work  policy  Kaufmann, on  the  1  John Friedman's " t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g " s t y l e i s an example o f t h e p l a n n i n g t h e o r y w h i c h may f o l l o w f r o m s u c h a premise. See a l s o : M e l v i n M. W e b b e r , "A D i f f e r e n c e P a r a d i g m f o r P l a n n i n g , i n Burchell and Sternlieb, e d s - . P l a n n i n g T h e o r y i n The 1980's, (New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U,. P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p p . 1 5 1 - 1 6 2 .  2  Paul Davidoff, "The Redistributive Function i n Planning: Creating Greater Eguity Among Citizens of Communities," in B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 69.  3  L . Mann, "Planning Behaviour and Professional Policymaking A c t i v i t y , " i n B u r c h e l l a n d S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 113; J . K a u f m a n n , "The Planner As Interventionist i n Public Policy Issues," i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , eds., p. 179; Krumholz, Cogger and Linner, "Make No Big Plans.... Planning i n C l e v e l a n d i n The 1 9 7 0 ' s , " i n B u r c h e l l a n d S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 2 9 .  15  "inside" the  of  government  "outside"  as  alternatives. the  Whichever  policy  These  positions  the  i s indefinite.  The  goals  philosophy  and v a l u e s .  concerning  the  relationship  to  the scope  will  outlined  Planning forethought activity the lives  at  human are  environment, environment  ultimate  of  o r on policy  advancing  promoting  the  of t h i s  the  number  f o r the  student  i s to develop  complements  h i s or her  of the questions  and  i n the author's  the purpose  of  a own  explored  government  i f these  held  of possible  i t s  concept  discussion of planning  report,  understood  positions  of opinion  many  are rooted  the  theoretical  of  theory thesis  roots  are  reader.  the i n d i v i d u a l  Those  presumed  to  those  level  sense,  who  be  and t h e r e f o r e  Here the term environment.  on  than  of the  regional  can be a t t r i b u t e d  than  i s  challenge  which  paper,  species.  1  few  planning:  t o a c t i o n . In t h i s  which  a  a comprehensive  be b e t t e r  f o r the  only  of planning  planning  is  rather  diversity  structure  Although  beyond  such  In t h i s  planning.  inquiry  1  with  of specific  the emphasis  policy  represent of  faced  and a d v i s o r ,  process.  purpose  planning  personal  of  formation  analyst  f o r the adoption  the role,  aspects  examples  concerning  of  an a d v o c a t e  substantive  optimal  as a p o l i c y  planning  i s  practise planning to  to derive  environment  process  of a  to the i n t e l l e c t u a l  able  who  i s a  act  on  better more  i s not r e s t r i c t e d  conscious capacity of  in their control  benefits  impulse.  applying  This  from  daily their their  individual  to the physical  16  planning  process  can  characteristics: systemic,  To  is  that  i s a  and  benefit.  The  taken  will  Therefore,  factors task.  be the  the  the  planning  consideration course.  The  only  the  are  given of  planning  future  creative,  to  perceives  to  from  saying  and  that  there  choosing  deliver  the  d e c i s i o n s and  the  that  action  the most  actions  i s  taken.  i s future creative.  of  choosing of  the  best  multiple  and  substantive  aspects  concerning  confined  to  environment, include  impacting the  which  decisions  process  i s ,  decisions  the  and  planning  aspect that  analytical of  also  actions  of  an  particular phases  the  leads  therefore,  and  interrelated  of  one  contemplation  decision,  alternative  interrelated  on-going.i  actor  after  taken  not  six  i s akin  perceived  analysis to  the  result  process  process a  are  process  individual's  from  of  t h i n k i n g through  which  actions  life  of  of  the  purposeful  by  which  the  pertaininq  area  gained  planning  requires  individual's  i s  manifest  the  terms  purposeful,  activity:  changes  Because  events  be  actions  Moreover, actions  planning  to  is  in  a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d and  conscious  something  decisions  understood  planning  judgemental,  say  planning  be  chain to  as  a  of of the  matter  systemic  by  nature.  The  1  emergence  of  choices  results  from  the  systemic  nature  Some o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the planning process was based on t h e w o r k o f G a r y P a g e t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n paper Towards a Theory For E n v i r o n m e n t a l Planning (Student Discussion Paper, Number 2, F a c u l t y o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Studies, Toronto, Y o r k 0. P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 . ) T h e n u m b e r o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has been expanded.  17  of  the  made  planning apparent  choice  according  by  analytical  and to  individual. involved quality  the  the  in  speculative  unreasonable which  be  individual's  i s not  the  no  The  i s  courses  paramount  of of  (purposes)  future  and  to  the  action of  the  the  not  planning  evaluation  goals  a  choice  planning  process  for  Plans  of  the  risks  judgemental  intention  choices  individual the  are  of  preferred  but  merely  action  considered  implemented  within which  the  reguires that  be the  of  process,  alternative  implemented  has  the the  can  risk  resources.  one  and  point  planning  of  alone.  alternative  of  the  which  amount  can  which  at  therefore, that choices  a c t i o n chosen  process.  process A  of  process  decisions are  ends  process.  realistic  of  framework  planning  the  course  i t r e q u i r e s the  uncertainties  process  alternative,  and  value  certain  the  the  since  the  disadvantages  The  of  If  or  but  i s judgemental  advantages  taken,  process,  a be be  without  an  affected,  and  constraints  impossible  to  implementing,  of  the  implement, are  merely  the  process  dreams.  Even of the  planning  now  does  systemic  chances can  after  be  are  and  not  the  knowns.  evaluate,  decisions  and  by  Because  The modify  since  the  of  aspects  manifested  especially  monitor,  process.  stop.  judgemental  that  improved,  become  a c t i o n i s taken  individual,  the of  future the  outcomes what  individual or  change  actions. Planning  i s then  were  orientation,  planning of  the  before  therefore the a  course  or  process,  chosen  action  uncertainties continues of  continuous,  his  or  to her  on-going  18  The  six  characteristics  have  been  discussed  his  or  her  process  own  process  {or  on  they  choices  becomes an  individual  as  external  behalf  characteristic  planning  activity,  someone must  the  decisions-  i s charged  of  which  the  pertain to  and  group)  of  that  soon i s ,  as  there  added  as  to  the  thus  who  the  planning  the  is  as  an  planning  a  list:  far  makes  soon  conducting  else,  be  individual  As  with  process  seventh  planning  is  process  is  transactive.*  This  transactive characteristic  interrelated  with  the  transactions  take  definition  purpose,  the  of  conseguences  situation analyse the  certain  development may  be  making play  or  the a  final  larger whatever  does  not  choice role the  planning  has  firms)  will  contribute (with in  the  specific  constitute  the  of  the  futures  and  decision,  be to  while  the  planning  the  in  the  consultant  communications  analytical role  a  Thus  process:  example,  outside  more  advice)  the  For  possibilities, any  the  alternative  hired  plus  described.  of  choices,  person  construction to  of  monitoring.  planner  on  phases  discussion  the  business  and  a l l  alternative  investment  called  However, alone  a  the  six characteristics at  the  and  where  client  place  of  implementation,  1  other  of  between  actors  frequent.  The  to  (e.g., client  d e f i n i n g purpose, the phase  consultant of  the  consultant, process.  or may  process. that  The  role whole  N o t e : An i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s may be t r a n s a c t i v e i f the individual c h o o s e s t o seek a d v i c e or i n f o r m a t i o n . However, t h i s i s not a necessary or r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the individual p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as i t i s i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e p l a n n i n q situation.  19  planning the in  process  planning the  system  same  of  entire  before  have  to  developed  i t s full  to  Since seem  that  is,  that  making  planning planning the  i s  a  planners  exists  a  of  firms  involved  implies  had not  process.  so  the which  logical  and been  the  agencies  calculated undertaken  p r o f e s s i o n . I t would  theory  a  in  as  a  terms  of  be  what  profession i s  but  undertaking,  desirable  reflective  i s  and  not  that  always  not  to  improve  planning  less  than  interrelated  extension  of  these  or  that  purposeful decisionwhat  professional However,  indicates that planning  process),  d e c i s i o n s taken were  the  i t would  undertaking,  desirable.  profession itself  need  separate,  always  a  is and  controls  government  conscious  as  agencies  agency  both  has  system  c o n s t i t u t e s a l l those  or  planning  process, do  of  private  u n i v e r s a l an  of  public  outcomes  The  since  planning  the many  made  i s considered  perceived  that  person  planning  within  potential.  process  a  and  planning  do,  desirable  (particularly  are  or  while  undertaken  the  process  planning  i s  currently  development  of  process  i s ,  planning  explore  planners  one  always  advent  professional  have  people  Undoubtedly,  therefore  the  restricting  No  process.  private firms  That  planning  undertaken.  and  planning  government  the  planning  decisions  any  stucture.  and  transactions  of  numerous  individuals,  even  i n c l u d e s a l l those  i s true  governmental  comprised  and  t r a n s a c t i o n s undertaken,  process.  The the  i n c l u d e s a l l the  which  programs  optimal. aspects  observations  a  there  process in  turn  advanced  Means and of  the  ends  planning i s that  an  20  improvement  in  the  planning  improvement  i n  the  substantive  optimal  planning  possible task  for  i s  1  a  process  should  particular  therefore  process  to  should  outcome  result  of  in  circumstance.  seek  means  lead  to  an  the process.  the  best  decisions  An i m p o r t a n t  of improving  The  planning  the  planning  process.  As  was  p r e v i o u s l y noted,  transactive  and  those  and i n d i v i d u a l s  groups  situation. by  2  therefore  The o p t i m a l  the proper  of the i n d i v i d u a l s  the  recognition  judgements could  of  b e made,  legitimately  an  public  concerned  system  would  of the i n t e r e s t s  and groups  to  be  characterized  system.  requires that  Which  evaluate  planning  and c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f  process i s :  i s  constitutes a l l  i n the planning  "optimal"  used  process  i n a particular  process  and t h e q u e s t i o n be  planning  the planning  planning  integration  each  the  set  of  the p u b l i c  But value  values planning  process?  Since the  socio-political  cultural by  the public planning  context,  processes  which  the investigator.  process  i s itself  The v a l u e s  1  T h i s w o u l d be a " m e t a - p l a n n i n g " planning theorists.  2  Chapter planning  3  of  3  a  particular  value  with  task  i s unavoidably  laden,  which  this  linked  region,  cannot  be  this  ignored  study i s  i n the terminology  of  IV w i l l f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e how t h e s e v e n p r i n c i p l e s are related i n the p u b l i c planning process.  i . e . , p u b l i c as opposed  to private sector  to  planning.  the  of  21  concerned Canadian  In is  are t h e r e f o r e those  society.  planning and  the  optimal  planning  process  process  are also  congruent.  distinct  from  sectoral  manifestations  basis  are  An set  policy  of  rules  made  the  context  system  optimal  development of  the  the only on  but  any k i n d  which  the  system  a r e t h e same. policy  The  development  planning  are rather  policy  "means"  in  system  planning  P r o j e c t and program  (laws,  actions  If  2  are not  spatial  and  development/planning  that  exist  t o improve  of systematic  people  are  with  process  "through  certain  with  t h e means  values  taken  can only  i s d e f i n e d as  regulations,  institutions  they  meet  framework  and i n d i v i d u a l s )  and  themselves,  These  and  planning  the public  development  process  institutional  activity."  and  the  and r e g u l a r  institutions.  (organizations are  the public  conducted,  policy  Essentially,  because  socio-political  i s being  planning/policy  2  the  public  process.  1  analysis,  by  process  pluralistic  1  the f i n a l  contained  of a democratic,  be  which i n  a  are judged  assessment  criteria.  of improving  will  determine specified  b y how  made  Since  not  decisions  well  of  well the  i s  i n the subseguent  taken"  concerned  the planning/policy process,  be d e f i n e d  in  satisfied  actions  study  human  ends  o r b y how  and  this  entities  area  either  produce,  and what  and  decisions are  "interrelated  customs)  means  the s e r v i c e s they which  an  i t i s  chapter.  Irving K. Fox, "The Institutional Framework for Regional Environmental Management," u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , J u l y , 1972, p.1.  22  the  later  The which  of  first  step  would  examine and  method  the  from  promote values them  planning/policy  assessment  in  the  derive process.  designing  optimal  of the  which  i s relevant.  an  institutional  planning/policy  democratic, assessment  process  pluralistic, criteria  for  B.C. the  framework i s  to  society optimal  23  CHAPTER  I I I :  THE DEMOCRATIC  NORMS OF  THE  PLURALISTIC,  CANADIAN  SOCIETY  In planning  Chapter  II  i t  was  process,  because  of  political public  context,  policy  process  most  For  underlying  operating  the  operating  value  when  expressed  2  first  of  socio-  judge  one  noted  that  the  was  inevitable.  assessing  from  of  to  a  the  of a democracy,  to  justify  Theory a  The  public  democratic,  itself  o f what  interrelated  ability  t o remove  This  the policy-maker  four  system.  and  be.  principles  from  to  office  An I n t r o d u c t i o n - t o D e m o c r a t i c 1960), pp. 60-244.  an  interrelated  normative  should  i s  M a y o , i n An  These  reflects  refers  there  i t . H.B.  identifies  1  democratic  i n terms  of policy-makers.  pp. 67.  able  when  the  public  t o the process  also  derived  principle  control  Mayo,  was  i n operational  of these  S e e H.B. Mayo, O x f o r d U. P r e s s ,  be  t o adopt  principle value  principles  that  The  1  or  both  to  i t  by  process  t o the process  thus  t o Democratic  be e x p l a i n e d  the optimal  culture.  operating  ideal  Introduction  In order  system  i s  Canadian  each  parallel  s e t of values  process  that  i t s containment  another,  of a value  pluralistic,  can  than  legitimate  planning  a  development.  better  application  was  concluded  principles forms,  the  so  democratic  2  i s the  the  popular  electorate's  i f he o r s h e does  Theory  (U.S.A.:  24  not adequately to  the  r e p r e s e n t or advance those p o l i c i e s  elecorate.  both i n geographic form  of  In  and  democracy  terms,  demographic  necessarily  there  makers: decision-makers The second  terms,  is,  should  are  the. d i r e c t  actual  be  policy  democracy  not weighted  policy-makers.  form  issues.  is  political  vote  counts  vote which counts e g u a l l y ,  a c c o r d i n g t o one's s o c i a l or  Again,  in  the  popular  Canadian  control  context  equally.  However,  society  seeking  to  of that  c o n t i n u a l adjustment  reform of government i n s t i t u t i o n s would be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c democratic  In  equality.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy, i t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o ensure each  of  popular c o n t r o l of p o l i c y -  economic s i g n i f i c a n c e . This process allows the of  representative  should be accountable t o the e l e c t o r a t e .  p r i n c i p l e of  votes  this  replaces  Each a d u l t c i t i z e n i s e n t i t l e d to one that  priority  a country such as Canada which i s l a r g e  democracy i n which c i t i z e n s vote on normative  of  attain  the  g o a l of  of  and a  political  equality. The t h i r d i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e of democracy i s freedom  or  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of popular c o n t r o l .  r e f e r s t o the a b i l i t y over policy-makers to  the  tolerance  This  political principle  of a democracy t o maintain popular  and to ensure within  a  p o l i t i c a l equality. democracy  for  It  other  control refers  political  viewpoints but i t a l s o r e f e r s to the maintenance of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the system which operate t o deter minority c o n t r o l of  policy  d e c i s i o n s . Such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e the freedom t o vote  without  coercion  via  secret  ballot,  the  choice  of  at  least  c a n d i d a t e s f o r v a r y i n q p o l i c y c h o i c e s , e t c . In normative  two  terms,  25  therefore, and  a  democracy  diversity  support  or  opinion,  observance  compromised  The  of  prevails.  The  efficiency  grounds  the  minority. minority  isolation thus  values.  from  support,  to  only  does  not  other  the  but  rule  three  must  rely  opinions  considered  support  of  i f the  the  rule,  this  should  not  the  majority  of  minority  the  leqislature  that  within  qovernment  the  Apart  from  specific  the  but  i t  i f each  worth  are  when  the  majority  not  on  i s  better  vote  counts  more  does of  on  may and  policy  a  than  some  the  sort  the  or  operate  democracy,  with  the  of  other  popular  by  the  In  permit  vote  system  may  a  not  manaqe  do  not  be are  terms,  tyranny  of  rule the  representative  therefore i t i s debates  for  must  normative  In  i t  democratic  institutions  the  in  and  preferred decision  interests.  interests  important  or  defended  then  electorate.  to  majority  out  the  be  democratic  be  but  of  rule,  tolerated  should  qovernment,  be  i t s interrelationship  rule  over  that  principles  majority  majority  can  principle  therefore, minority  lose  the  prevail.  diverse  heard  maintain  majority  policy-makers  the  grounds must  by  debate  maintain  states that  expedience,  votes  majority  the  who  decision  principle  the  to  open  situations.  the  must  tempered Since  of  those  the  name o f on  maintain  democracy  rule  i n the  the  interest  of  choice  of  to  continuing  divided,  majority  However, the  not  policy  majority  If  able  convention  ideologically  equally,  be  while  principle  representatives_are  is  of  in specific  fourth  defended  should  to  elect  particularly remain  solely  leqislature.  values  associated specifically  with  the  four  26  principles  of democracy,  the  whole  from  i t s operation.  inherent  of  in  preferred  perceived several  the democratic  the  over  substantive  system  from  values  values  values  associated  and which  follow  referred  to  those  which  system  of  here  as  has  advanced  being  are  government  those  democracy  even  when  processes  are  general  and  one  inherent  with  logically  make  alternative political  t o be t h e s a m e . Mayo  Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy etc.  system  itself,  other  benefits  These  a r e other  The ' v a l u e s  any  specific  system.  there  i n the democratic  include:  i s f o r the people, (general value); allows the peaceful adjustment of disputes; assures p e a c e f u l change i n a changing s o c i e t y ; provides the orderly succession of rulers; u t i l i z e s a minimum o f c o e r c i o n ; promotes d i v e r s i t y ; attains justice;  1  These are, of  values,  for  this  t h e most  thesis,  part,  since  i s i n operation.  people"  i n a democracy  should  dictator the  claim  within  are manifested  F o r example, can only  be p o p u l a r  could  present  not of specific  they  system  there  be  that  democratic  concern only  culture  t o the purpose  when  a  government  justified  c o n t r o l over that  a  democratic i s "for the  on t h e g r o u n d s  policy-makers,  h e o r s h e was g o v e r n i n g  that  since on b e h a l f  any of  people.  There  i s , of c o u r s e ,  intermingling political  1  although  of  system  means i s  F o r more d i s c u s s i o n Mayo's book.  another and  only  of this  very  ends a  aspect  i n a democratic  part  topic  important  of  refer  the  larger  t o pages  to  the  system: the cultural  211-243 o f  27  environment of  popular  majority unique  i t operates.  control,  rule,  political  althouqh  for  persons  such  a  prior  t o the franchise  whom  in  retract  the vote  a  Thus  ideology,  move  from  t o be  narrower  franchise  Canadian  standards.  The values  point  behind  must  culture.  aspects  which  are  procedural  aspects  interrelated,  pluralism  find  The p r i n c i p l e  of popular  o f t h e government  identifies  as  here  development  to operate  when as  i n  "universal" to  those  the  importance  of the Canadian  the  social  Columbia,  i n light those  There  Canadian of  f o r the  of the cultural across  influenced  system.  by  which  t o be h e l d  have  a  advancing the  criteria  and s t a t e d here  have  democratic"  assessment  the democratic  the  "less  to  considering  process i n British  and  cultural  C o u n t r i e s which  o f democracy  interested  of  the  without  i s that,  interpreted  parties  made  by  possessing  f o r democracy  considered  t o develop  dimensions  (diversity)  will  undemocratic.  principles  of  ignored:  democracies,  population  sufficiently  political  be  the  made  are  democratic  cannot  would  also  be  We  and  be i m p o s s i b l e f o r C a n a d i a n s  be u s e d  values  freedom,  i t  be  these  political  to control system  the p r i n c i p l e s  but having  are  planning/policy  reason  f o r women,  half  public  1  i t was p o s s i b l e  the four  Canadian  refers  somehow  to  legitimately  again  i n a l l  the c u l t u r a l  mandate.  change  can  equality,  present  instance,  those  such  For t h i s  expression i n various cultures.  control,  1  i n which  are three,  culture individual;  system;  the  and  which the the  A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e m o c r a c y d o e s i n t u r n mean t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e some c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n s -  I  unique  Canadian  The  the  history.  oriqin  individual  of  tradition,  more  traditions  other  the  origin  is  expressed  that  of this  qovernment concept  to  be  Columbia  expression  those  prevalent  by o t h e r  entitled  i t h a s been value  instances  in this  the  value  European  Canada,  of  privately,  belief  a n d human a s by  expressed have  in  the riqht  of law, and i n Riqhts  statute  Code.  does  not  of the individual  i t  i s  and  publicly  racial  the  of  a  value  to  which  a l l institutional  of  of  i n Canada North  French  support various  American  to  undoubtedly the  i s a  product native  and E n g l i s h i n t o  immigration  prejudice  Canadians  expression  exists  of  amalgamation  encouragement  Although  cultural  i s  i n t h e Human  debate  p l u r a l i s m which subjugation  our  and our  country.  the  as well  a l l persons  but  value  province.  cultural  culture,  alone,  This  freedoms  provincial  Whatever  of the belief i n  t o due p r o c e s s  i n a  policy  one.  individuals  expressed  Judeo-  o r i n one o r  to include  This  - that  the  today.  extention  a set of personal  justice  a l l substantive  The  and  i s only  freedom  themselves.  are  of t h i s  specific  design  has  i n  law t r a d i t i o n ,  the  of the  the importance of  rooted  democracy  by  importance  that  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the importance  permeates  of  and  i s  i t remains  be o b s e r v e d  of n a t u r a l  heard  isolate  value,  institutions  the  The  o f which  the  be a r g u e d  culture  politically  must  on  i n t h e common  individual  which  British  I t could  e q u a l i t y and p o l i t i c a l  the  rights  emphasis  i n Canadian  Christian  political  our  i s unclear.  individual  28  cultural  groups  of  build s t i l l  one this  exists  development people.  The  29  inherent  value  richness  to  politically the  the  equal the  of  minorities  are  those  procedural  the  are  system  before  of  their  various  groups,  and  bound  minority  although  cultural  which  influenced  has  and  considered  adequate  position  will  democratic  norm.  Finally,  one  ignore  the  way  the  principles  are  expressed-  roots  the  Canadian  it  of  also  r e f e r s to  environment, system  time.  political  institutions  in  other  of  legislative,  increasing  emphasis  supremacy  in  an  combined  with  History  human,  and  belief  participants  in  democratic  using  as  the  a  not  people  are  law),  the  the  the  only over  process  of meant  sum  of  the  but  total that that from  total  of  marriage  powers of  the  time,  many w a y s  The  of  when  to  their  has  representative  importance  yet  democratic  evolution  notion  as  history  with  judicial  value  realization  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , the and  system  Canadian  full  in  Therefore,  there  nations.  complex in  the  different in  democratic  statute  the  refers  this  expression  Unfortunately,  Canadian  the  the  of  of  the  of  executive  on  of  i t s evolution  are  regional  procedurally,  aspects  and  dynamism  increasingly the  here  recognize  heard.  the  unique  and  institutions  federalism  the  the  culture  The  Canadian  inhibit  normative  and  be  ideology,  i n t e r a c t i o n of  physical  over  Canadian  the  skill  i s recognized  Canadian  cannot  that  adds  expressed  which  rights  aspects  and  this  i s  Canadians.  knowledge  d e f i c i e n c i e s which  opinion  value  but  have  reguire  institutional  discussing  to  political  and  programs  French  and  diversity the  This  policies  institutional  culture  culture  culture.  English  and  have  d i v e r s i t y of  many  needs  to  system  a  Canadian  through  special  cultural  i s that  (via  an  parliamentary democracy, individual,  30  cultural have  pluralism,  led  policy  to  issues  where t h e  the  at  public of  i s insulated  the  filter  be  that  legislature,  participation in  from  held  of  of  administrative  beginning  functioning  can  Norms  for  control  resentment  cultural  system  Democratic  popular  demand  a  outlined  behind  democratic U n i v e r s a l  and  this  principles norms  popular  policy-maker  With  or  and  popular  before of  the  this  the  specific  regulation  control.  four  chapter,  Canadian,  1  democratic the  values  pluralistic,  identified. C u l t u r a l  F i l t e r  CANADIAN DEMOCRATIC NORMS  1  In this paper i t is asserted that the demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s i n c r e a s i n g , and therefore t h a t t h e c o r r e c t s e t of C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c norms s h o u l d include values associated with participation in the policy process. Because of many factors (e.g., the increasing number and complexity of p o l i c y problems; the c o n f l i c t of resource uses; a higher level of education i n general; improved communications and i n f o r m a t i o n s systems) the process of electing political r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s an i n a d e q u a t e means o f e x p r e s s i n g preferences for various public policies. The democratic institutions ( i n c l u d i n g c o n v e n t i o n s ) must a d a p t t o m e e t t h e d e m a n d s of this new social environment so that public participation i s incorporated i n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s between e l e c t i o n s as well. T h i s t r a n s i t i o n has not been c o m p l e t e d yet.  Because of the lag between the public demand for p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the institutional adaptation necessary to accommodate i t , many p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s i n C a n a d a may be s h o w n t o f a l l s h o r t o f t h i s n o r m . One could also say that there are politicians who have not as y e t a c c e p t e d t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , b u t e v e n t h o s e p o l i t i c i a n s w o u l d be h e s i t a n t t o a d m i t t o a p u b l i c demanding an a u d i e n c e t h a t t h e y d i d not hold this value. In s h o r t , t h e demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a norm (what should be) central to the d e s i g n o f new planning/policy institutions.  31 These democratic  norms may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s :  1. There should be popular c o n t r o l over  p o l i c y makers.  2. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l a f f e c t e d encouraged i n each p o l i c y i s s u e .  groups s h o u l d be  3. There s h o u l d be p o l i t i c a l  e q u a l i t y of each  vote.  4. T o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l e l i g i b l e v o t e r s i n c l u d i n q m i n o r i t y qroups should be encouraged. 5. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of popular c o n t r o l and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be ensured. 6. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t s should be r e s p e c t e d and guarded. 7. M a j o r i t y r u l e should be tempered by m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e l e c t i o n s and i n the p o l i c y development p r o c e s s . If  these  democratic  norms  political  are  held  as  the  system i n B r i t i s h  u l t i m a t e g o a l s of the  Columbia, the design  performance of the B.C. government i n s t i t u t i o n s to  as  great  an  extent  are  also  optimal  the  norms  should meet them  as p o s s i b l e given r e a l i s t i c  f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e i r which  i f  fully  p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y development  temporal,  attainment.  met, should  process.  and  These  produce the  32  CHAPTER  I V : THE  OPTIMAL  DERIVATION  Having Canadian  context,  done  by  individual to  the  the  quality  the  like. give  the  process  o f each  democratic about  Turning  nature aspect  norms what  the  the positive  a s e t o f assessment  norms  c a n now  relevant to the  of  the  optimal  be d e r i v e d .  This  of the s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to a collective of public  met.  The  public  process  planning)  of the process  were  PROCESS:  CRITERIA.  criteria  process  each  DEVELOPMENT  democratic  assessment  translating  planning  ASSESSMENT  the  development  transactive  statements  OF  extrapolated  planning/policy be  PLANNING/POLICY  outcome  will  be  of the  (according interpreting  as i t would  planning  statements  and  can  be  i f a l l  a series  of  should  be  process  to interrogative  ones  will  criteria. Optimal Public PIanni ng/Poli cy Development Process  Interrelated Characteri sties of T h e I n d i v i d u a l Planning Process  Interrelated Characteri s t i cs of The P u b l i c Planning Process  Interrelated Set o f Uemocrati c Norms  1. P u r p o s e f u l  Transactions  Democratic  Norms  =  Optimal D e r i v a t i o n of Purpose  2. F u t u r e C r e a t i v e  X  Transaction's  X  Democratic  Norms  =  Optimal D e r i v a t i o n of Future C h o i c e s  3. S y s t e m a t i c  X  Transactions  ^  Democratic  Norms  =  Optimal A n a l y s i s of Future Choices  4.  X  Transactions  X  Democratic  Norms  =  Optimal Decision  5. A c t i o n - o r i e n t e d X  Transactions  ^  Democratic  Norms  =  Optimal Implementation Procedure  6.  Transactions  X  Democratic  Norms  Judgemental  On-going  X  —  O p t i m a l Monitor1ng+ Reassessment Procedure  33  A.  The Optimal  D e r i v a t i o n of Purpose  Planning/Policy  her  The  purpose  and  requires  democratic  seeks  to  system  i s obvious:  a  in  office  In  either  2  case,  goal  process.  In a democratic  their  present  level.  Under  brought  into  context, our  t h e realm  act  will  In  a  qovernment  purposes  which  i t  planning/policy  satisfied?  campaign  promises,  the  politicians  on  issues  and  most  political  are s e t as a r e s u l t  of a  political  this  of however,  secure  those  attention.  them  directly  current  else.i  magnitude t o warrant  priorities  system  be  t o him o r  qroup,  has impressed  will  system,  mandate  or  political  which  priorities  planning  planning/policy  from  perceive  anyone  f o r t h e whole  should  of s u f f i c i e n t  Thus  The  goals  i s clear  individual,  problem  or issue  they  to  s e t of goals  politicians  which  given  each  develop  support.  been  2  may  problem  establishing  1  The Whose  as b e i n g  problems  however,  satisfy.  planning  justification  h a s i t s own  policies  from  no  society,  or firm  or  System  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  aqency  New  i n _ a Democratic  i s a legitimate  means  since elected o f f i c i a l s from  purpose  i s not operating  of p o l i t i c a l  a  have  the electorate.  establishing  system,  of  problem  perception  in  a t an  optimal  o r an i s s u e only  i f  a  a  may  be  group  This statement endorses the concept that planning i s a c o n s c i o u s , g o a l s e e k i n g , and t h e r e f o r e r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s i s not to s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l l human a c t i o n s a r e c o n s c i o u s a n d r a t i o n a l . T h o s e human p r o c e s s e s w h i c h a r e n o t conscious, goal seeking processes are not considered i n this paper t o be planning processes. A problem  i s seen  as a negative  manifestation  of a  goal.  34  is  large  enough  or  organized w e l l enough to demand p o l i t i c a l  a t t e n t i o n . In such a system, many i s s u e s are never responded u n t i l they become grave problems and cannot be i g n o r e d . For reason, to  the p o l i t i c a l system i s o f t e n accused  problems  rather  than  actually  the  elected  optimal  public  representatives  " p l a n n i n g " i n the sense of  responsibility  of  resources  avenues  and  planning/policy  would  establishing  still  be  of  be  problems. situation,  charged  priority  of  the  with  the  purpose,  but  f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l i n t e r e s t e d  groups and i n d i v i d u a l s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r should  this  of only " r e a c t i n g "  a c t i n g so as t o a v o i d the development of c e r t a i n In  to  problems  and  needs  made a v a i l a b l e . In order to ensure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l groups, i n c l u d i n g m i n o r i t y groups, these  avenues f o r e x p r e s s i n g v a r i o u s g r i e v a n c e s and institutionalized  (that  discontinuous)  they should be p u b l i c i z e d  and  is,  the o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e participation  is  clear.  they  and  Thus  should  so the  that  needs not  severest  in  problems  might  severe problems of overlooked  as  various  minority they  can  the  procedure  of  could in ' a  i s s u e s of v a r i o u s  the  province.  not  be  situation  monitoring  efficient  of  The  but  so  where  the Also,  p u b l i c g r i e v a n c e s and needs w i l l allow more  c h a n n e l i n g of government resources on  lower  priority  items i n t o those p o l i c y areas which seem to have most support which  seem  to  the  easily  p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y development process i s l e s s than o p t i m a l . the  for  optimal  d i c t a t e the p r i o r i t i e s ,  groups be  hoc or  p o l i t i c i a n , i n the  regions  still  ad  be  so t h a t people know  s i t u a t i o n , should be aware of the problems and groups of people,  be  should  be  potential  future  problem  areas  or  should  35  government r e s o u r c e s f a i l to be channeled The f i r s t process  can  assessment therefore  criteria  be  in their  of  expressed  the  direction.  optimal  as: Are  planning  there_sufficient  channels and o t h e r - r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s groups t o communicate t h e i r problems ..and-needs t o political Once  the  priority however,  problem action  area  cannot  has be  problem u n t i l i t has been d e f i n e d i n more the  accountable  officials?  politically,  from  and  viewpoint  of  been  identified  taken to r e s o l v e the specific  terms,  a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who  and  will  a f f e c t e d by the p o l i c y a c t i o n taken. The s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n the  problem w i l l a f f e c t the means chosen t o overcome i t ,  a democratic an  s o c i e t y , the problem d e f i n i t i o n should r e s u l t  interactive  (transactive)  process.  The  second  be of  and i n from  assessment  c r i t e r i a of the o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y process i s t h e r e f o r e : Do the v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of a l l ^ i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d group.s._and i n d i v i d u a l s enter i n t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the  1  problem?  1  S e v e r a l of these assessment criteria were a l s o part of an unpublished paper w r i t t e n and c i r c u l a t e d by I r v i n g K. Fox to h i s P o l i c y Planning c l a s s a t U.B.C.  36  B  • The-Optimal • D e r i v a t i o n - of ..Future-Choices - i n a Democratic Planning/Policy The  System  planning/policy  development process i s f u t u r e c r e a t i v e  i n the sense that the d e c i s i o n s and to  change  a  policy  a c t i o n s taken  change,  also  reguires  the  which i s of course r e l a t e d t o the the present In  agencies.  ideal of  In  individuals,  future  original  should  be,  conception  goals  held  system  which  respects  a  there  which  is  no  responsibilities  the  electorate  what  because  of  has  the  opinions  non-political  political chosen  of  the and all  way  to  process i s  the  to  resolve  the  choices.  are  so  c o n s u l t and  dispersed,  objectives.  process,  because government  government  agencies  i n t e r a c t with numerous other  as well as p r i v a t e agencies with conflicting  of  by i n d i v i d u a l s , groups  justifiable  In the e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y  to  future,  not be consensus  again  priority  conflicts in social  obliged  enacting  imaging of the d e s i r e d  examine a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s , s i n c e the by  of  The  problem i s .  on what the  means  "means"  a democratic p o l i c y system, there w i l l  diversity  intended  e x i s t i n g at the time of the d e c i s i o n .  development of the p o l i c y content, or the the  are  The  overlapping  policy  are  government  jurisdictions  or  content and a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  t h e r e f o r e , develop only a f t e r a process of n e g o t i a t i o n . Because the should  planning/policy  development  process  be t r a n s a c t i v e , t h i s process of i n t e r a c t i o n should  replaced  is not  with pat t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o problems which, i n  and be any  37  case,  will  often  implemented. be  be  opposed  The o p t i m a l  process  would  fostering the  viewpoints also  future.  can then  affected  and i n t e r e s t e d  met, are  i t  situation of  instead  to  get  be  as  many  of  the  open  conducive of  optimal  to  molding planning  perceptions  of a l l  an^,,individuals determine the  that  a wide  I f  this  variety  criteria  of  i s  alternatives  considered.  However, sufficient. solutions  simply There  t o welcome may  overlooked do  be  or  not  resources  t o undertake  democratic  values  minority  various  have  the  control  and  public  participation  majority  rule  should  be  there  should  participation  b e ample  tempered  thus:  Are resources  differing  perceptions  The  fourth  allocated  have  sufficiently  a  that  had the^ o p p o r t u n i t y  of alternative  proposals?  Since the popular and t h a t  participation, such  that  other  of  be ensured,  assessment  t o ensure  and  proposal.  minority  provision to ensure  i s secured.  formulation  by  not  are not  effectiveness should  i s  innovative)  financial  and submit  that  proposals  (and a l s o  groups  sufficient  a study  insist  alternative  many  because  organized  the  should  i n the process  are considered?  be a s s u r e d  to  most  a s : Do_,the_varYing  groups  that  three  about  as p o s s i b l e . T h i s  process  creativity  be posed  policies  should  a  criteria  process  alternative  on  and  Assessment  are  and by an a t t e m p t  be t h e t y p e  innovation  they  planning/policy process  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by openness  alternative  when  wide  spread  criteria  a l l groups  i s with  to participate in  38  C.  The  Optimal  A n a l y s i s _gf_ F u t u r e  Planning/Policy  Once  the  process, the  choice  the  must  the  individual  his he  of  or or  her she  process  usually  choices life  uncertain  aspects  perfectly  known  a  submitted  by  different  goal  In  a  for  of  and  meet  of  the  chooses  be  the  each  of  future.  There  because  repurcussions will  concerted to  be  a  effort advance  there  will  each  proposal  by  the  groups  thus  of  adopting  which  light  i s a  which  systemic  aspects will  of  the  of  also  future  of  the  be  some  cannot  be  have  be  part by  the  task  have  been  which  have  somewhat  biased  in  the  proposal.  "pre-evaluated"  the  proposal  supposedly  negative been  proposals  coalitions  the by  of  considered  proposal. the  development  the  process,  submitting  narrowed  policy  be  or will  has  i t s proposal  undoubtedly  course,  alternative This  the  the  group  has  on  of  groups  somewhat  in  Each  proposal  held  the  and  made. O f  r a m i f i c a t i o n s each other  simple.  Each  values  before  i t happens.  so  sets.  planning  alternative  goals.  the  the  alternatives in  on  analysis  in  each can  the  those  have  individuals,  Inevitably,  proposal  goals  considering  before  themselves,  evaluation  a  evaluates  the  posed  alternative  best  in to  been  evaluation  will  i s not  the  sense,  systemic  a -Democratic  transactive, public planning/policy  evaluation  favour  to  involves  individual's  of  an  have  preferred  perceives  alternative  In  be  o b j e c t i v e s or  which  in  System  alternatives  there  Choices  bias  of  group  discrediting or  However,  situation  each  positive  overlooked  a l l the this  the  group.  there  will  submitting others.  of  the  i t s  Indeed,  ramifications  because  be  of  biases  39  of  each group, and because o f the systemic and complex nature of  the p o l i c y process process welcome  development  process.  The  optimal  policy/planning  would t h e r e f o r e take f u l l advantage of t h i s of p o l i c y from  interactive  a n a l y s i s . Comments on each proposal should  every  interested  group or i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o ,  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e between the groups i s e s s e n t i a l . this  d i a l o g u e a s h o r t s e t or a modified s e t of proposals  emerge.  The  fifth  planning/policy varying  assessment  development  be  criteria  process  of  would  p e r c e p t i o n s of . a l l a f f ected..and  then  the  From should  optimal  be:  Are the  i n t e r e s t e d groups,  agencies j, and i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the e v a l u a t i o n process? And system  a g a i n , because our democratic of  institutional  values  arrangements  p a r t i c i p a t i o n be secured, i n c l u d i n g  insist  ensure  participation  that  that of  the  maximum minority  groups, resources should be a v a i l a b l e t o those who a r e unable t o participate  otherwise.  Some  groups may become i n v o l v e d i n the  p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y process a t t h i s l a t e r opposed  to  indifferent  a  stage  because  they  are  p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e , whereas before they were  when  the  problem  definition  and  the  call  for  proposals was being made. The s i x t h assessment c r i t e r i a i s thus: Are r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d to_ensiire - t h a t a l l groups with  differing  p e r c e p t i o n s have i n f a c t had_the opportunity : , t o - p a r t i c i p a t e i n :  the e v a l u a t i o n of alternatelye_jrjrgposals? Within  the  government s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f , agency b i a s e s may  i n a d v e r t e n t l y dominate the process of generating and alternatives.  Therefore,  the  evaluating  i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement  itself  40  should  provide  democratic therefore might  checks  and b a l a n c e s  process.  The  on b i a s  seventh  t o ensure  assessment :  inadvertently  dominate  optimal  criteria  be: A r e there_ checks^on-.government _agency  otherwise  the  might  biases  which  the planning/policy  process?  0«  The O p t i m a l  In with  an  D e c i s i o n _ i n _ a .Democratic  individual  the individual.  number  of possible  and  balanced  the  final  In  This  the  i s a matter  collective, and r i s k s  many  as  uncertainties eliminate the  worth  taking  The to  this  which  may  may o f t e n and which  final  have  i t  i t s own  agencies  will  be  s e t , which  a  weighed  means  that  context,  but  there  The process  there  i s  the various  i n their  number  possible  groups  opinion  also  of i n v o l v i n g as  the no  are  way t o  involved  o f which  of  i n  risks are  remains  a governmental  one and  may b e made  by an i n d i v i d u a l o r c o m m i t t e e  preferences  i n the matter.  to  of government.  there be  representatives  which  the electorate,  has been  delegated  Although  legislature affect  which  minimize  or choice  democracy,  responsibility  remains  are not.  decision  extent,  representative more  will  differ  choice  b e made i n t h e f a c e . o f  and r i s k s  t o be t a k e n .  risks,  final  System  o f i n d i v i d u a l judgement.  a l l o f them. I n f a c t ,  process  will  societal  possible  and  process,  the individual's goal  uncertainties groups  choice  uncertainties  against  decision  planning  Planning/Policy  In  a tendency to  the  a  f o r more a n d  administrative  i ti s understandable  cannot  possibly  the optimal  make  situation  complex  that  the  a l l decisions i s  f o r the  41  decision to  to  be  taken  popular  E  •  The  a  the  planning, must  also  decision  whole  point  to  public  pluralistic  to  alternative  views  encourage  creative  suggestions  on  how  on  how  to  and  simultaneously  evaluated best  while are  to  subject  the  optimal  choices„made  by  Democratic  more  b e n e f i t s by about  take  of  action  of  on  the  at  to  and  the  times,  m o d i f i c a t i o n s of  implement  the  the  or  individual his  this  or  her  time  of  again  the  becomes  transactive  system the  on  might  policy  be  may  the in take  alternative  i f the  reserved  would  included  of  the  an of  Sometimes  implementation  proposed, be  again  encouraging  a  ideas.  especially  and  advantages  evaluation  may  are  proposals,  policy  those  policy  one.  ahead,  implement  implement  interaction the  so,  decision,  are  innovative  with other  As  a  else  process.  best  implement  or  speculative  alternatives,  policy  how  follow  thinking  to  democratic  consider.  a  doing  how  planning  the  must  merely  consciously  alternative  proposals  in a  planning/policy process  factor  encouraging  of  i n the  aspects  proposals,  of  final  made, a c t i o n  process,  consideration  aspect  important  been  carefully  an  place  Are  Procedure  planning  secure  ways  the  has  a  The  important  i s therefore:  i s not  think  the  criteria  i s  System  alternative  In  eighth  Implementation  i s to  decisions.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who  ;  process  Since  An  process  Planning/Policy  the  elected  representatives_or by-the public-generally?  Optimal  Once  an  control.  planning/policy accountable  by  alternatives dialogue  t i l l  after  over the  42  policy  has  includes groups the  been  a s many  decided. alternatives  and a g e n c i e s principle  again,  evaluation  criteria  process  i s  therefore:  arrangements individuals  proposed  the  development innovative should  solutions better  have  which  known  experimental  of  the uncertainties  with in  higher ah  s t i l l  with  optimality  a  yet greater  A  , process  U£g§£.t§inties .are  fairly  planning/policy implementation  criteria  solutions  but  which  risk.  By  of action  to  be  best f o r might  are  taking  of policies,  I f the policy  proves  and  o f more c o n v e n t i o n a l  subject;to experimentation numerous?  creative  innovative  course  t h e t h e next  tenth  groups,  planning/policy  to involve less  of the planning/policy process  implementation  representative.  benefits,  factor.  actual  process?  i n favour  benefit  setting,  implemented.  implementing  various  the  particular  a minimum r i s k  risk  on  optimal  to the implementation  about  the  encourages  a s many  many  i n  public  problems,  not y i e l d  approach  experimental be  for  of and  and a r e p e r c e i v e d  an  uncovered  process  t o be r e j e c t e d  may  the  the  incorporate  Are a l t e r n a t i v e  transactive  solutions  not  for  by  process  even  the accountable  involved- i n the  optimal  i s  decision  and analYsed_bY_the  and a g e n c i e s  Since  final  with  A ninth  may  participation  The  rests  the optimal  a s c a n be s u g g e s t e d  public  process.  arrangements,  case,  i n v o l v e d , some o f w h i c h  of  implementation  In either  can  many be  alternative unsuccessful  alternative  can  assessing  the  then  be: I s t h e  where  43  F..  The  Optimal  Democratic  Monitoring_and Planning/Policy  A planning action  is  success the  process  underway, of  a  future,  Reassessment  does  and  so  that  not  end  after  individual  so t h a t the  in  a  Systgm  since the  decision  Procedure  good  mistakes aspects  the  will  chosen want  to  made c a n b e of  the  course  of  assess  the  avoided  in  d e c i s i o n can  be  reproduced. Too  often  planning  is  in  over  implemented.  the  when t h e  Because process  occur,  will  this  Moreover,  inefficient  may  absence  complaints  of  continue them  to  are  does  the  policy  "good"  revision  scarce  financial  The  optimal  continual monitoring  be n e g a t i v e  other  create  should  for  adapting  p o l i c i e s to  and  experimentation.  some  feedback are  on  the  lack  continual  leads  to  feedback  will  the  the  the  or  of even  of  the  policies  being  may  aspects Only  updating. from  form  basis  outcry.  far  been the  negative  a public  that  of  in  Such  certainly of  has  mediocre  and  then  Such optimal,  monitoring  inefficient  of  use  a or and of  resources.  policy/planning and  that  public. until  assumed  chosen  revision  undoubtedly and  the  change  process i s The  which  is  character  successful just  to  i t  interactive  inevitable  from  large  process  alternative  policies  undergo  monitoring system  is  without  planning.  policy  it  judged  sufficiently  policy/planning even  be  exist  the  usually  complaints.  policy  policy  of  policy/planning but  public  process  revision also  be  of  This  policies.  coupled  conditions means  is  with  revealed that  the  characterized The  design  explicit through design  of  by the  provision experience of  the  44  implementation policy  alternative  process two  arrangements  of  criteria  planning  continuous  well  indicate  which  process:  assessment  of  are  these  arrangements  results  other  perceptions policy.  dominate the  also  implementing offices,  not  readily  reguired  final  the  There  are  aspect  of  the  for  the  provision_for implementing  content i n the  which  to  the  assessment  therefore:  the  process  are  of  of  from  and  groups  and  optimal  also  of  this  institutional of  how  assessment checks  such their  to  should  a l l interested  monitoring  the  on  to  but  viewpoints  procedure  technical,  the  by  the  bias  Part  condition  policy,  by  through  monitored,  intergovernmental  monitoring input  criteria Are  the  private  component  a  the  f o r agency  non-governmental of  for  are  include  conducted  procedure.  optimal  these  with  of  and  like  affected  are  tendency  process,  and  agencies  information  monitoring  available  and  of  successes  of  transactive  type  policy  provision  results  that  provision  planning  the  supplemented  design  the  a  However,  and  of  be  seven.  include  chosen  effectiveness_of  may  bias  The  the  arrangements  agency  be  this  explicit  there  only to  be  persons  on  policy.  is  a l l those  overcome  problems  a  of  phase  should  be  criteria  to  t o _ a d a B t _ p o l i c i e s and  monitoring  will  checks  the  the  adjustments  bias  the  i s continuous.  Is_there explicit  assessments  phases,  If  government  of  recognition  related  and  design  accordingly?  However, the  the  the  I s .there  ijgBJ:§rcgBting . a r r a n g e m e n t s ? ; utilizing  as  p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y development  assessment  optimal  should  as  must  on  the  modify  the  therefore  groups.  Where  reports should  be  comments  be  phase  of  should  planning.  planning/policy  The  process  varying- perceptions_of_.all_affgcted  and  45  interested  i n d i v i d u a l s and,groups  assessment  and  G.  Assessment  i n c l u d e d as  inputs  to  the  modificatign:_procedure?-  Criteria  According  to  of,_the i O p t - i i a l . . P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y  our  set  of  planning/policy  development  its  to  meet  are  expressed  ability  criteria,  which  statement  of  what  democratic  norms,  p r o c e s s c a n be j u d g e d  thirteen  "should be",  as  assessment  Process the  optimal  according  criteria.  interrogatives  of  the  These  normative  are:  1. A r e t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t c h a n n e l s a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups t o communicate t h e i r p r o b l e m s and needs t o a c c o u n t a b l e p o l i t i c a l officials? 2. Do t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l i m m e d i a t e l y g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n problem?  affected of the  3., Do t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s determine the a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s that are considered? 4. A r e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s have the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formation of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? 5. A r e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o r porated into the evaluation process? 6. A r e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s have i n f a c t had t h e opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e v a l u a t i o n of alternative proposals? 7. A r e t h e r e c h e c k s on g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y b i a s which might otherwise i n a d v e r t e n t l y dominate the process? 8. A r e f i n a l c h o i c e s made b y a c c o u n t a b l e t i v e s or by the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y ?  to  representa-  9. A r e a l t e r n a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n arrangements p r o p o s e d and a n a l y s e d by t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s , i n d i v i d -  46  uals  and a g e n c i e s  10. I s t h e imentation  involved  in  the  process?  implementation process subject where u n c e r t a i n t i e s are f a i r l y  to expernumerous?  11. I s t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s assessment of r e s u l t s and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the implementation arrangements? 12. I s t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s t o adapt p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n arrangements a c c o r d i n g l y ? 13. A r e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e d as i n p u t s to the assessment and m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ?  These ideal  criteria,  conditions  process  is  not  always  empirical  point  possibility evaluation outlined  of  the  any  the  into  normative  the  of  If  Of  very or  absolute  a complex  and  i n Canada  level.  Indeed,  several  from  eliminate  process meeting constraints,  r e a l problems in  does an  significant  which  minimized  or  planning/policy  course,  are  These  eliminated  a l l  these  which  which  the  the  are  must  pursuit  be of  process.  assessment  themselves, process,  which  constraints  may were  b e met to  be  although should  c r i t e r i a of  c r i t e r i a represents  process  the  are  the  optimality  policy/planning  assessment  planning/policy degrees.  there  constraints  of  of  V,  the  s u c h a s we h a v e  planning/policy  policy/planning  parameters  set  if  "optimal"  achievement  Chapter  However,  The  the  view,  and e i t h e r  optimal  the  democracy at  of  of  in  represent  prevail  c r i t e r i a completely.  confronted the  form  to  must  met,  be c o n s i d e r e d o p t i m a l .  operate  constraints  perfectly  which  to  representative  if  the  the or  significant  not  be  optimal  goals  of  missed  incorporated  built  process. the  to into  ideal varying these  47  assessment  criteria,  be  undermined,  For  this  the  parameters  elements  of  system to  the  concept of  change  constraints  planning/policy  as  normative  positive  reason, the  adjustable than  and  the  (reform)  to the are  optimality would  optimal  considered  planning/policy  the assessment  criteria  set  be  would  inhibited-  performance  of  separately  as  process, (goals).  rather  48  CHAPTER  V:  THE  CONSTRAINTS  PLANNING/POLICY  For  each  there  will  the  policy  aspects  It  There  constraints  to  may  The process  well of  related with  optimality  constraints a l l  those  negotiations  the  salaries  consultants);  processing  THE  in  aspects as  t o the  the  financial;  planning procedural  this  into  of  general  the  which  task  paper  which  is these  planning/policy temporal;  human;  participating government  to achieving direct  planning/policy  costs.  transactions  i n which  These c o s t s  will  generating  information  from  of  various  the  These  For  of  and t e m p o r a r y  individuals  costs costs  are not  constraints  transaction  government  permanent  both  at large;  process  to  of  f i n a n c i a l resources temporal  costs  planning  transactions.  the costs  groups.  the optimal  and other  communications  as t h e p u b l i c  The  as  categories  classified:  financial include  include  well  be  planning/policy  aspects  process  five  achieving  IN  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l .  completing  (e.g.,  to the procedural  are  OPTIMALITY  to the substantive  i s the set of c o n s t r a i n t s  concerned.  technical;  the  considered,  of the planning/policy  process  of  specific  alternatives related  ACHIEVING  PROCESS  aspect  be c o n s t r a i n t s  constraints process.  substantive  TO  to  include instance,  politicians  not  of are  staff  f o r and  and groups  as  supporting  various  constraints'  because  unlimited. achieving only the  direct  the but  indirect  of  policy  number  (especially  optimal  Cabinet  ministers)  49  can  participate  is  policy  development  groups  included  policy/planning delays  in  limited increases  in  the  process-  policy direct  costs  indirect  costs  in  constraints  of  and  can  inhibit  optimality  the  behavioural  as  being  of  form  of  time  and  time  of  of  these  and  the  number  required  each  phase  foregone  the  contribute  to  and  well  as  benefits  and  of  implementation, as  for  individuals  factors  transactions  process  thus  to  increased  from  delays  in  easy  to  of  one  the  definition  is  around  objectives  process,  who  situations  environment However,  are  the  be b e s t  proceed  who d o  but  at  and  anticipate  view  constraints process.  groups and  which  These  which  minimize,  a  as a c o n s t r a i n t that  not  rational  seen  be  to  meet  react  in  enhance to  are  as  well  are  also  best  solution  the  societal  in  at  as a c t i n g  a  their  or  groups planning  and  in  or  human  those organized  a  rational Even  manner  positve  their own  an i n d i v i d u a l The  and the  "rational"  threaten  level.  optimal  objectives.  a negative  in  the  and a g e n c i e s  those  or  react  Granted, process,  groups  viewed  participate  instead which  may  to  individuals  utility.  non-governmental  they  individuals  to  personal  and  if  human  planning/policy  expectation  governmental  manner  the  individuals  could  maximize  common  to  relatively  defined.  to by  the  difficult  process  act  money a r e  compared  in  aspects  instance,  planning  not  Both  minimize  more  precisely For  to  the  transactions  of  the  anticipate  will  with  Also,  implementation.  The  less  time-  decisions  increased  policy  by  in  the the  manner  lifestyle  or  self-interest. group  level  may  constraint  to  50  achieving  the  diversity such  a  of  constraint  of to  expectation "maximize  to  the  the  personal  If  and  to  process,  policy  becomes  individuals  unreasonable  because they  h a v e come t o  individuals  as  rather  collective, societal level, On  the  other  individuals to  involved  compromise.  It  comparatively strong  hand,  leadership.  depend  on  the  in  is  more  it  is  the  fact,  within  any  planning/policy  given  some b e h a v i o u r a l  will  view  partners  a common  process. that  in  the  for  the  abilities  a particular  group.  of The  process w i l l  constraints  may  be  of  sometimes groups  in  what  or  or  have  possesses group  more  may  respected  s p e c i f i c dynamics  be d i f f e r e n t ,  anticipated,  at  refuse  to  it  an e n t i r e one  i s ,  will  group if  and  groups  process  process  reaction  prophesy:  some  one  self-  constraint  and  as  to  people  own  other  the  try  assumes t h a t their  the  human  always  defensive  possible  persuasive  individuals  rather  i s a dominant  possible  influence In  than  to  process i s  planning/policy  also  can l e a d The  beyond  become  the  groups:  a self-fulfilling  and  the  do  not  policies.  since i t  expectation  it  rivals,  utilized,  look  is  "non-rational"  individuals  utility",  this  if  process  innovative  optimal  unwilling  context.  planning  groups  a n d more  groups  and  and/or  viewpoints,  achieving that  unable  groups  of  better  their  interested  planning/policy  "rational"  diversity  development  are  optimal  and  of  while  others  remain  which  inhibit  unforse en. Two public  of  the  most  participation  anticipated.  These  important in  are  the  human  constraints  planning/policy  a shortage  of  community  process level  can  be  leadership  51  and  limited  community  process.  The  dynamics  instance,  that  the  be  the  guarantee  by  that  at  large.  At  the  community  temporal  and  difficulty  of  self their  the  involved block  1  in  opinions  in  will  be  instances  policies.  the  be  public  process  an  mass  by  the  i f only  policy  is  no  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of from  despite the  policy  groups in a  may  community  impractical  of  for  community  there  participation in  community  level  the  However,  aspect  policy  mean,  community  supported  perspective.  i t is  can  default,  the  the  community a l l  by  most  consideration:  unpopular  or  involving  policy  factors  in  time,  process,  the  two  in  i n d i v i d u a l s become  appointment,  incorporating  demands  these  these  financial  planning/policy which  If  same  will  participate  participants  processes.  spokepersons  of  to  same i n d i v i d u a l s a t  principal  development  energy  the  public  development  will  negative  a  become manner  to  1  The c o n s t r a i n t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e taken from the point o f view o f t h e " g o v e r n m e n t . " From the " p u b l i c ' s " p o i n t o f view, a l l these constraints are present, but from a quite different perspective.  For i n s t a n c e , from the " p u b l i c ' s " p o i n t of view, t h e r e are two major c o n s t r a i n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n : (1) the.high transaction c o s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and (2) l a c k o f a n a l y t i c a l r e s o u r c e s for participation. Transaction costs are so high that any one i n d i v i d u a l can p a r t i c i p a t e i n only a small fraction of the issues that affect him or her. Thus an individual limits p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o h i g h p r i o r i t y i s s u e s . From the "government's" p o i n t o f view, t h i s l i m i t i n g of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o p r i o r i t y issues is seen as a human constraint t o o p t i m a l i t y i n the form of " l i m i t e d community energy for p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " In the final analysis, however, i f the c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y from the government's p o i n t of view are eliminated or minimized, the public's constraints of high transaction costs and l a c k o f resources w o u l d be m i n i m i z e d a s w e l l . T h e n e t r e s u l t should be m o r e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n on m o r e i s s u e s .  52  The  problems  of i n c o r p o r a t i n g  planning/policy  process  constraints  achieving  Because  we  to have  participation  in  policy  issues  local  leaders  region  specialists  may  within  and  planning a level  n o t posess.  to  the  involving  complex the  also  participate  highly process  to  concerned  As t h e s i z e  process.  of  t h e community  increases,  with  specific which  o f t h e community o r policy  finding  these  but the  in  society,  expertise  specific  members  technical  specialized  of technical  in  the  planning/policy  possibility  a l l community  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i nthe  related  the optimal  can reguire  defined  increases,  of  a  i s  public  issues technical  possibility  the planning  process  decreases.  Within problem of  1  the  governmental  of ensuring  the political  made  by t e c h n i c a l  has  made  that  process  structure  social and do  experts.  specialization  1  choices not  there  also  remain  within  become  The c o m p l e x i t y necessary.  exists  the realm  technical  of our social  I t would  a  choices system  be i m p o s s i b l e f o r  The d e s i r a b i l i t y of ensuring that elected representatives are actively involved i n the policy process i s also related to the necessity of accommodating public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Since public participation i n specific policy issues involves only those g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e d e s i g n a t e d that issue a personal priority, at no time will every a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l become involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r policy process. Because one f u n c t i o n o f the elected representative i s to keep i n touch with the preferences of h i s or her constituency m e m b e r s , he o r s h e i s responsible f o r taking these preferences into account and f o r acting on a policy i s s u e i n view o f t h e b a l a n c e o f i n t e r e s t s which e x i s t . F o r t h i s reason, i t i s t h e e l e c t e d representative and not the t e c h n i c a l expert o r even the p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups who s h o u l d make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . T h u s a n o p t i m a l s y s t e m i s open to public p a r t i c i p a t i o n , helps defray t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e c o s t s f o r t h o s e who g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y t o an issue (i.e., those participating) but assures f i n a l decisions a r e made b y a c c o u n t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s .  53  every  politician  (or  every  planning/policy  process  policy  The  issues.  therefore  will  which  are  be l i m i t e d  of  these  related  to  the  groups  and i n d i v i d u a l s  optimal problem  number  complexity  action  of  of  coordination process  the  its  of  constraint  which  deal  with  Institutional  policy  optimal  policy  directly devised For  (but for  the  of  all  advisor  is  by  any  technical of  the of  exerted  the  to  technical  one  opinions  transactive  The  to  is  is  also  the  inversely) optimal  constraint.  if  needs  as  the  by  problem the  lack  best  and of  optimal of  dealing  the  process.  scale  the  of  policy  with  the  scale  on  the  related  of  the  institutions  have  not  the  means  to  would  B.C. of  society attaining  constraints the  process  is  optimality  of  institutional  There  turn  issues.  exist  are  bias  policy  of  find  to  the  planning  agency  aspect  in  the  achieving  to  constraints  process,  in  are  to  participation  thwarted  crucial  f i t  the  increases,  specific policy  to  of  increases,  optimality  constraints  process  phases  issue  institutions  instance,  institutional  control  the  achievement  changed  Because  understanding  course  a constraint  been 1979.  of  participants  p r o c e s s can  or  the  in  technical  number  various  planning/policy adapted  of  integration  at  implementation.  tehnical to  the  planning/policy  c a n become  since or  the  dimensions  the  the  by  in  complete  of  amount  participant)  process.  achieving  As  have  the  considered  policy/planning Both  to  necessity  undisputed;  advisor  public  assessment  (Chapter be  a natural  will  of the be  criteria  IV) . considered  an  tendency  an  for  54 individual goals a  agency  for  desirable  aspect  of  in  the  system  public  inhibit  in  doing  of  certain  these  so,  goal  for  the  there  is  no need  which  might  arise.  the  and  than  therefore  These a  variable  tend  to  assessment  who  such  in  criteria).  are  adjustable  private  the  may  be  agencies,  planning/policy  and  access  involves  to  social  the  agency the  bias  forum  goals  in  is  transferred  are  inversely  discussed  each  of  the  to  and  favour to  the  normally  set  of  the  of  policy  output.  Chapter  each  specific policy  the  achievement  parameters to  they  criteria of a  the  but  are  of  because  the  design  framework  doing  so  can  be p r e s e n t  process  and  process  which  process  institutional  in  they  goals  are  not  to will  (i.e.,  separately  planning/policy  society  with  V will  they  IV,  however,  policy  treated  to  constraints  institutional  process,  However,  a  existing  the  in  Chapter  constraints,  associated  policy  outlined  in  related  possible  conduct  the  assessment  challenge  to  This  choices,  of  bias  situations,  quality  frustrate  normative  agencies  process  tries  goal  extent  the  social  This  elaborate  constraints  the  The  optimal  the  frustrate the  where  constraints  process  cannot  lower  of  weighting  loyal  well.  that  In  also  as  process  They c a n be s i g n i f i c a n t  framework. only  the  be  i s employed.  by l i m i t i n g  groups.  to  policy-maker  different  purpose in  to  she  sphere  trade-offs  level  or  planning  institutional  set  he  trade-offs  clientele  Because the  the  distorting  decisions-making  otherwise)  which  single  forum f o r  can  or  planning  crosses  political  to  servant  the  but  of  (public  from  fixed  but  process.  seeks  to  achieve  55  optimality  i n every  policy/planning  institutional  context  for  achievement  the  s e t by  optimality. assess of  the  policy  of  The given  goal first  policy  task  institutional  formation  which  process  i s  formation  minimizing i n addressing framework  i s considered  to  design  an  which  permits  the  the  constraints  this  challenge  via assessing t o be  a  "good"  a  to  i s to  process  process.  56  CHAPTER  A.  V I : AN THE  B.C.  LAKE  NATIVE  Institutions  FIGURE  3:  A S S E S S M E N T OF  THE  PLANNING/POLICY  INSTITUTIONAL  Overview  C O N T E X T : T H E C A S E OF  DEVELOPMENT  f o r Planning/Policy  PROCESS  CORPORATION  Development  o f ..The. I n s t i t u t i o n a l  i n B.C.  Framework  Legi s i a t u r e  Cabinet  • • • Deputy  Ministers^  5  5  Ministers {i^LbC-jj  • 6-_ijL;jj _ 6 r^_^~ ""^T&~& J&j  Affairs  (ii) ELUC Secretari at  \t > ) \\ (  {  l.  66o cSochbbcb56W>S5b  £5fc ( M u n i c i p a l  5bchm5bb  Affairs)  /  Provincial Staff  L  Municipal  Ll  ( i i i ) E x e c u t i ve Departments  L  |  s-f_..y._.'  !  !  _i_  "S (v)TPC'  JF  T _ . K.  :  6  !  i  i  l  i~ &  Municipal Staff Member  \  bi r e c t o r . . A t of Planning  (vii) Local Counci1 Members  (iv) Regional District *| B o a r d  XXX  Rural Electbral Reps  IN  BURNS  The Regional D i s t r i c t s  A l b e r n i - C l a y o q u o t tfulkley-Nechako C a p i t a l C a r i b o o  \  C e n t r a l  Coast  C e n t r a l  F r a s e r  *"> V a l l e y j  C e n t r a l  Kootenay  8.  C e n t r a l  Okanagan  9.  Co 1 u m b i a - S h u s w a p  10. 11.  Cowichan  12.  uewdney-Al  13.  East  14.  F r a s e r  15.  F r a s e r  16.  G r e a t e r  17.  Ki t i m a ' t - S t i k i ne  I'd. 19. 20.  vjjg^  V a l l e y ouette'  Kootenay Cheam Fort-George^ Vancouver  Kootenay Mt.  Waddington  Nanaimo  21  North  22  O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n  23  Peace  24  Powell  25  Skeena-Queen  26  Squami  Okanagan R i v e r - L i a r d R i v e r C h a r l o t t e s  s h - I i 1 1 o o e t  27  Sti  26.  S u n s h i n e  29.  h  C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a  k i ne Coast  T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a  of B.C.  59  (i) The  The E n v i r o n m e n t Environment  committee Land  and Land  created  formally  Use A c t as a forum  resource (1969)  and  use.  which  Affairs;  was  Health;  Water  It  Water  department Social  was  Credit  Environment  1971  Environment the  Act  into  conflicts  over  Use  Forestry  (Municipal  Forests  1976  the  and  when  and Environment  whereupon  Forests  Agriculture)  Lands,  until  Committee  Lands,  and Commerce;  the  b y t h e new  Minister  provided  of  the  for the establishment (ELUTC)  m i n i s t e r s o f t h e same d e p a r t m e n t s .  Development  Corporation  office  at  the  (ii)  The E n v i r o n m e n t  The  Environment b y t h e NDP  Environment  and Land  Land  Use  government  line  this  Democratic Lake  (NDP) Native  therefore  p r o c e s s t o be d i s c u s s e d .  Use A c t . I t  the  However,  when t h e B u r n s  Committee  Secretariat  Committee  S e c r e t a r i a t was  in  1973,  pursuant  was t o be t h e s u p p o r t  and Land Use Committee. to  of an  comprised  e s t a b l i s h e d , and i s  and_Land_Use  and  established  b y t h e New  time  was b e i n g  no c o n c e r n t o t h e p l a n n i n g  responsibilites  and  Resources;  committee  was n o t u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y  Environment  Environment  ministers  The M i n i s t e r o f  the  also  in  the  Trade  Cabinet  chairperson.  government  of  same  and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee  deputy  committee  interagency  the  administration,  became  The  of  of Health.  split  B.C.  i s a  t h e u n o f f i c i a l Land  Industry,  chaired  (ELUC)  t h e 1971  M i n e r a l and P e t r o l e u m  Resources;  Resources  under  to resolve  composed  Committee  Use C o m m i t t e e  succeeded  minus t h e M i n i s t e r  of  and:_Land^Use  to staff  The S e c r e t a r i a t  departments,  but  i s  the for  h a s no  directly  60  accountable  (iii)  Each  t o ELUC.  Government  Departments-  of the ministers oversees  administrative  department,  an h i e r a r c h i c a l l y  including  those  members  o f ELUC.  Many  of the departments  located  staff,  and  especially  found to  i t necessary,  employ  regional  Affairs,  which  recently  when  The  in a  province  staff.  had  no  does  responsibilities,  A  was  but  these  as B r i t i s h  in  the  an o f f i c e  other  i s Municipal  i n Prince with  members  have  Columbia,  regions  staff  staff  regionally  departments  exception  located  employ  some  resource  as l a r g e  given  m i n i s t e r s who a r e  have  notable  staff  one p l a n n e r  Ministry  the  structured  are  until George.  regional located  in  VictoriaCiv)  Regional  There Regional District  the  are twenty-eight Districts  Board  districts they  i n  are technically delivery  Honourable  of and  Dan  functioning  B.C.,  as t h e prime  are loosely  settlements,  1  Districts  each  to  functional  services  to  1  at  as  units  non-functioning)  which  has  body.  a  Regional  Although  these  "regional  governments",  established  to coordinate  municipalities,  surrounding  Campbell's "'  The m i n i s t e r i n o f f i c e c o n c e p t was adopted.  of  decision-making  referred  the  (one  rural  own  words,  the  time  unincorporated  population. the Regional  the  Regional  In  the  District  District  61  concept  i s "a  political a  board  device  amalgamation.  is established  jointly.  Regional  appointed  by in  Regional  Municipal  all  those  B.C., Concept  not in  a  which  administer  composed  number  of  number  of  of  of  elected  function; to  the  from from  they  of  been  them  Directors  incorporated representatives  rural  and  directors votes  of  no  to  every  each  other  on  each  carries  patent two  of  the  Regional to  therefore,  participation  in  into  Minister of Municipal (Victoria, 1968).  B.C.  the  powers  is  District are  of  Municipal  Ministry are  The  i s the  voluntary  of  restricted  governments..  only  land  use  and  created  Regional" D i s t r i c t .  Hence,  Districts  functions  Ministry  the  under  local  Regional  the  under  District  functions  speaking,  input  created  Regional  limited  of  were c r e a t e d  other  letters  are  children  available  function  Generally  1  and  encompass  the  are  alone,  powers  functions  excluded  is  plus  The  and  having  Because  functions  exempt  services  Councils  which  Districts  Affairs  obligatory  the  district,  Board  Affairs,  1965.  pursuant  is  population.  Municipal  planning  the  populations.  Regional  to  It  f u n c t i o n a l amalgamation  undertake  areas  District  on  in  to  from  the  electoral  unincorporated  Act  It i s a  functions.  D i s t r i c t . Board  and  municipalities  based  combining  1 1 1  The  from  for  of  are  local  resource  Affairs,  Districts  management policy  The  yet  government.  Regional  resource  identical,  and  are can  be  development.  Regional  District  62  Technically,  however*  there  to  or  Regional  whether  land  use  planning  tendency  for  regional  land  interests  the  aspect  the may  responsibility  point  to  institutions policy  included  the  which  in  affect  policy likely  to  groups. regional  place  only  to  do  agency  District  grants  with  the  some  District  to  those  of  representatives  on  the  have  the  below)  rezoning are  a  not  Districts  minor They or  Councils  are  role are  the  likely  rarely  the to  be  decisions course  region  or  very  in  zoning  a given  is  applications approved.  made i n  within  Board  agree  of  veto  process.  Municipal  Affairs  various  planner  Regional  be  For  the  policy"  must  purely  has  regional  play  mean  equal  (discussed  that  provincial  modifications  not  a  that  changes.  instances,  provincial  for  presume  to  withhold  they  as  is  Municipal  qualifications  Participation through  of  when l o c a t i o n a l  territory  to  could  require  such  often  development  Regional  interests.  that  made i s  which  district  take The  be  process  development.  the  "provincial  to  provincial  In  Committee  ensuring  counter  The weak  of  yet  or  if  provincial  Planning  are  plan.  agencies  Ministry  statutes  There  legislative  or  plans,  professional  the  district.  subordinate  as  the  the  responsibility  "interests"  well by  in  have  the  are  Districts  employee,  Similarly,  Technical  which  community)  have  in  reject  District's  provincial  power.  as  to  Regional  of  planner the  (and  Districts  where  employed  ability  settlement from  matters  ambiguity  government  policies  policies,  some  lands  various  planners  the  crown  use  or  instance,  of  the  administrative  have  not  is  is  other the  of more  local  focus  of  63  The  Regional  affecting time  of  the  the  a  some n o t i o n  of  the  but  regional  in  had  of  regional  involved  Lake,  no  community  development  Corporation,  was  District  the  Bulkley-Nechako  of  Burns  the  land  did  use  nature  of  the  The  mill  in  the  Director  Health Lands and  mill's  Service, Public  Affairs  designated purpose policies  other  mentioned,  restrictive The except members  context  the  are  the  Service,  Service, Mines  regional TPC  Planning  regional  District,  employee,  the  Fish and  and  crown  land  use  tend  to  land  tend  Resources,  use  Their  planning  policies. to  form  As a  policy. be  Director. but  Parks,  agencies.  municipal level  policies  from  Highways  Wildlife,  Petroleum  of  Medical  representatives  District  staff,  the  Agriculture,  federal  Regional  the  (TPCs)  Regional  provincial  Regional often  Committees  and/or  of  or  Committees  Housing,  for  intimately  Corporation.  p r o v i n c i a l and  the  members  for  Forest  coordinate  with  had  composed  provincial  i s to  it  are  for  which  powers,  of  mill  municipal  and  District's  Because  the  Resources  Works,  location.  Burns  process concerning either  Planning  Water  site  was  be  Planning  one  new  there  should  Planning  Officer,  Municipal  was  of  the  Regional  Development  Technical  Development  District  the  Technical  the  Regional  in  (v)  Native  At  The  involved  Native  4 ) .  policy.  a " r e g i o n a l government"  Lake  Lake  Figure  district  therefore  as  policy  (see  the  and  d i s c u s s i o n over on t h e  is  exist  focus  Burns  Lake  Burns  plan  no i n f l u e n c e  restricted  of  the  junior The  staff  members  resource  agency  participant  from  the  64  Ministry often  of  Municipal  travel  great  representative Prince  whether  (vi)  in  to attend  Victoria  meetings-  Columbia  has  and  must  Recently, the  been  located  in  applications  Agriculture,  Resource senior  Management level  rezoning  to  comment  or c o n f l i c t  with  Resources,  Municipal  (The  Branch, and  participants  1974  although  between  Committees  and  and  Control  Branch,  are  from  several  ministries  of  Housing  Parks  the  and  various  the  Rights  and  have  of and  from  Water  same now  branches  with  Mines  Branch  the  are  Ministry  Works,  Branch,  essentially  (RRMCs)  the  Public  Affairs  Pollution  Wildlife  Committees  officials  Highways  Fish  in  process  representatives  conform  Managgment  Health,  Management  Service.  to  policy.  of  Petroleum  meetings  r e s o u r c e agency  Regional Resource  comprised  around  routine  rezoning  Regional  Branch,  are  Provincial  departmental  were  distances  f o r northern B r i t i s h  meetings  applications.  Land  i s located  George.  Most  on  Affairs  Forest  as  they  been  moved  governmental  reorganizations.)  There (RRMCs)  are  and  resolve  Regions  resource  "integrated level  Regional  (see F i g u r e conflicts  r e s o u r c e management  (ELUC  committees various  seven  being  were  the  5)  agencies  were  function  to  plans"  and  Management  whose  and  legislative  being formed,  resource  Resource  eventually at  level  of  the  Committees i t  i s  to  formulate  administrative  integration).  common  boundaries  for  being  delineated  in  These the 1974  65  simultaneous  to  bureaucratic  committees  engage Burns  i n t h e kinds Lake  No the the  Burns  by  would  planning  District  only.  cuts  Nechako  Regional  District  i n  appears  to  Municipal  Affairs  person  between  wonder  there  i s  i n Prince  travel  great  enough  Committee  meetings  they  regional  are land  decentralized the  policy  are  land  use  i s supposed  to  employee  Affairs  i s no  have  to  and i t i s o f t e n Planning  of administrative  have  logic  the  Clearly,  recently  they  Moreover,  responsibilities  District.  liason  i t i s no  Technical  t o the overload  represent  the  f o r one p e r s o n  t o do i n V i c t o r i a .  to  I f the  Municipal  t o attend  there  be  There  provincial  District,  meetings,  1  not  Bulkley-  policy.  RRMC  people  do  of  of  t o attend  policy  f o r t h e Regional  integration  (except  meetings o f  direction.  Victoria;  t o the regions,  provincial  north-south  i n  required use  t h e middle  and t h e Regional  attend  i s a member o f  a n d , a s c a n be s e e n i n  located  f o rthese plus  to the  boundaries  communication.  and  George),  difficult  work  little  distances  a  provincial  RRMCs  were  are  t h e mandate t o  central  District  RRMC  through  poor  representative the  representatives hired  therefore, with  were  boundaries,  boundary  policy  which  have  ERMCs  d i r e c t o r s may a t t e n d  5, t h e RRMC  resource  The  not  the Regional  invitation  t o Regional  be,  project.  process.  from  RRMC a n d r e g i o n a l  Figure  which  planning/policy  committees  Lake  of n e g o t i a t i o n s  representative  conform  1  the  been i n  voice  where,  "Semi" because provincial representatives settlement p l a n s b e f o r e t h e y become "official".  since the semi-  reguiring  o f land use as  must  i n the  approve  66  Regional  Districts,  urban  areas,  offs  in  or  the  how  the  belong  in  uses  any  Regional  assume  use  establishing  resource  comprehend  land  land  use  for  certain  has  policy  been  extended  must  involve  areas.  It  administrative institution  District  via  a  responsibility the  planning  planning  for  political  these  forum,  can  as be  societal  not  in  non-  trade-  i s difficult  such  staff  to  an  the  to  RRMC  expected  choices  to  which  administrative  committee.  (vii)  The  Municipal  municipal  course,  the  roughly  1300  Lake  and  that  this  were  severe  to  the  Instltutions-  government  Village in  the  of  1971.  economic  grew and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of of  interest  Lake  which  However, t h e  surrounding  population  development  Burns  of  Burns  area much  between  Babine  Lake  this a  1971  population  Native  and  problems  Forest  study  i s , of  population  4,000-5,000.*  unemployment  the  had  estimated  was  to  It  is  of  of  Burns  unlikely  1974  since  there  i n the  area  prior  Products  Development  mill  and  the  Corporation  in  1974.  A significant people  i n the  population, unemployed and  i  three  Burns Lake  and in  factor  a  note  area  is  that  represent  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number  1974.  reserves  AVG Management L a k e . A r e a o f The 1974) , p . 3 .  to  There  are  four  bands  within  the  boundaries  the  about of  40  Native  Indian  percent  of  the  these  people  were  of  Indians  i n the  area,  of  the  village.  Each  S c i e n c e L t d , Soc-io-Economic- Impact_on_The Babine F o r e s t P r o d u c t s - M i l l (September  of  Burns 16,  67  the  bands  because  of  has  an  the  special  status  Act,  the  municipality  regulate  the  use  national  Indian  the  to  power  lands*  The  created  elected  municipal pursuant  membership people  does  include  who  live  on  association  with  the  establishment It  of  is possible,  the  Municipal  (viii)  The  the  project  Temporary  was  to (e.g.,  Babine-Burns  Lake  ensure  other  the  representatives  Labour, from task  Burns  Lake  lands,  nor  population.  Native  the  tax  these  Act  whose  Those  no  native  formal  prior  to  neither  corporation  Development  peoples  under  to  Municipal  government  and  has  a  therefore,  staff,  legal  to  the  Corporation.  incorporate  under  or  might  which have  community  the  formalized the  been  Human  Northern  Lake  task  were  as  force"  a  task  Canada  Manpower.  the  Burns  Lake  The  project  of  the  and  the to  details  Education,  Economic  from  spin-off  Housing,  Resources*  well  was  included  of  as  of  an  force  Departments  Affairs,  of  project,  informed  This  was  which  result  Corporation well  development There  administration  Development  the  Burns  provincial  conducted.  planning)  development.  B.C.H-I.S.- a n d and  major  "intergovernmental  from  Health,  Committees  the  departments  Affairs,  force  people  therefore  had,  through  Native  project's  Municipal  is  native  coordinate  developments  of  are  temporary  that  of  native  Lake  Planning  institutions  established  native  reserve  provincial  for  management  Act.  either  additional  the  Burns  a  provincial  reserves  however,  preceding  government  of  the  and  of  government to  not  council  as  a  link was  Development, representative between through  this the  68  Secretariat.  B.  Overview  of  Development  As  was  planning  Corporation  mentioned  in  economic  The - E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  British  depression  election.  particularly  among  morale to  which  the  fact,  the  the  a  spatial  priority  Since forest  of  the  economy  whether  companies  timber  harvesting  sale  supply  were crown  in  the  NDP  area  were  the  other  socio-economic that  the  very  high, low  had  led  problems.  In  general  federal a  severe  won  conditions  in  and  government  in  for  subseguent  social  B.C.  the  was  government  and  of  by  institutions  rates  (DREE),  the  northwest  NDP  government  the  region  which  in  were  possession up  was  Harvesting  of  of  Lake  desparate  and  portion  of  the  Licences  timber  Native  had  been  Department  of  provincial  study  conditions  in  Burns  Lake  of the  should  be  area.  Harvesting  of  a l l such  region"  i n d i c a t e d to  potential  Timber  the  alcoholism  distribution  industry,  timber  Burns  people,  Expansion  production  the  the  when  native  "depressed  Economic  northwest a  the  Lake  d i s c u s s i o n of  Unemployment  northwestern  considered Regional  1972  accompanies  compounding  the  Columbia,  provincial  Burns  (BLNDG)  during  in  The  to beinq  Sale  in the  reevaluated  and about  of  dependent  to  to  It  expire  licences became  Lake  which  could  be  area.  However,  appeared  issued.  determine had  kept  the on  that  additional  180,000  officially  Sale  apparent  that  the  forestry  Timber  these  levels.  the  on  examined  u n d e r u t i l i z e d , and  Licences  Burns  timber  quota  i s  cunits  notice  of  August  10,  69  1973  was  not  the  indicated  that  Resources  intended  in  the  forest  The  that  of  a  proposals  the  best  criteria  and  Six  of  proposals Lumber  Ltd.  Quesnel;  of  Fraser  Timber  Vancouver; Three  of  Ltd.,  because  detailed  The a  were  meet  they  of  must  instead  and  to  and  in  the  Water  development  of  employment,  to  year  for  Lake  area,  and  proposals  timber "offering  benefits,  In  the  pertaining  soil  social  social  12  proposal  reguirements  added).  with  (a  Burns  water,  given  (emphasis  timber  include a  plant  be  submitted  Lake  B.C.  were  short,  wood  economic  considerations  Babine  Ltd.,  a  Lands,  opinion Washington  Ltd.  Forest  for  Fraser  from  Forests a  before  Fraser  the  Indians  and  forest arriving  Sawmill  Lake;  the  Ltd.  of  (BCANSI). Lumber  Sawmill  Ltd.)  set  of  specified  somewhat  more  made.  Water  Resources  manaqement e x p e r t at  West  (Carrier  required be  2,1973):  Products  Lake  meet  could  (Nov.  Wiere's  rejected  proposals  choice  of  Non-Status  adequately three  deadline  George;  immediately  Sawmill to  the  Sawmills  A s s o c i a t i o n of  remaininq  M i n i s t e r of  by  Prince  Quesnel;  failed  The  of  Lake  to  evaluation before  University  Forests  approach  provincial  Ltd. of  proposals  final  Burns  was  Fraser  Wiere's  objectives.  the  balanced  Co.  Co.  and  the  Lands,  but  northwest.  protection,  be  notice,  proposals.  Carrier  for  "must  of  innovative  tenders  revenue" to  of  manufacturing  Preference  were  evaluation  Co.  that  combination  utilization  an  i n the  environmental  management."  take  sale of  specified  sort  Minister  to  sector  establishment  to  the  notice of  licence)  and  traditional  a  final  asked at  the  decision.  70  Both  the  West  Fraser  towards  emphasizing  province  would  Babine  stated  should  be  the  initial  be  greater  i f their  local,  of  well  under  Babine  benefits were  considered  Babine less  mill  heavily  Burns  Lake  and  included  revenue  than  In  the  fact,  i t s responsibility  sophisticated  the  proposal  more  should  w o r k f o r c e , and  as  leaned  adopted.  government's  unskilled  as  the  i t  the  of the  employed  proposal  proposal  that  while  design  a  Babine  economic  utilization  accommodate to  the  the  clearly  economic  However, the  gain  and  the to  under  be  social.  provision  for  equipment  to  overall  number  the province the  West  was  Fraser  bid.  An  acceptance  positive  spin-off  stability  of  the  would  own  26  would  hold  the  of  effect  percent other  Eurocan  The Status  and  they  Indians  economic  ones.  people  in  cooperation undertaking. resources  Cancel's  other  BCANSI  had  Profits  f o r the  to the  also  overall  by  the  met  economic  each  Products  Ltd.,  (Weldwood  experiencing  extreme  shortage to  of  which  were  problem  improve  B.C.  social would  (including  to  would  the  the  secured)  from  mill  the  social  and  Association  objectives  have  already  further  the  Cancel,  were  able  have  be be  economic  mills.  proposal  area  chip  be  (BCANSI)  the  would  I f the consortium's proposal  submitted  Their  Forest  percent),  would  of their  proposal  Babine  48  accepted,  performance  of c o n t r i b u t i n g  of  difficulties.  and  proposal  n o r t h w e s t . E u r o c a n and  economic  solved  Babine*s  would  involved status in  a  Non-  better  than  a l l  native  Indians  whose  major  provide  economic  of  the  economic financial  development  of  the  71  native  peoples  in  proposal  relied  and  there  was  and  assemble  mill  was  and  heavily  competent  smaller  than  employment  When  was  with  Fraser,  government.  proposal  Babine's  was  in  group's  this  the  two  a  team.  West  for  i t s  the  or  revenues  the  native  realization,  ability  Moreover,  Fraser  have  i t is to  one,  to  about  to  the  find  proposed  Babine  mill,  have  been  would  the  same  likely  that  the  to  was  allow  as  any  undertaking.  objections  government  had  come  of  than  rather  indicated  sort  the  initial  beneficial  had  some  the  However,  Fraser's  proposal  native  alliance  provincial  the  less  negotiating for  in  West  in  the  problems.  as  evaluated joint  consortium  50-50  consortium's  group, to  eliminate  this  and  native  proposal  Also,  Babine  Babine  management  the  been  the  share  would  technically had  that  joint  were  this  proposal.  preference  evident  preferred  that  which  since  the  funds  provincial  made  The  might  proposal  late,  the  argued  province  and  However,  federal  management  either  became  proposal  BCANSI  on  BCANSI.  less.  i t  West  through  l e s s confidence a  appreciably  with  B.C.  too i t s  agreement  participation  in  the  mill.i  On  4,  1S74,  Resources  announced  proposal  and  share  *  April  in  the  said mill  the that  the  Minister  of  Lands,  acceptance  of  the  group  " i f they  native wished".  In  the  Babine  could  the  Forests  same  have  and  Water  consortium's an  press  8  percent release,  Babine agreed to native participation subject to several c o n d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e s e p o i n t s r e q u i r e d n e g o t i a t i o n b e f o r e an a g r e e m e n t a m e n a b l e t o b o t h p a r t i e s c o u l d be made.  72  the of  minister Labour  a n d Human  involvement as  well  that  emerge  On  23 t o  April  non-status  met w i t h i n  economic  participation.  a social  at  this  representatives weeks  time  representatives discuss Following of  the  Human  Lake  from  operations f o r new  group  jobs  was  given  Public  a  from  meeting,  Resources  of  that  a  the  local  should  Yield  meet  i n  of native the native  who a g r e e d  government  t o fund  percent they  t o harvest  the  I t  was  included  approximately task  i n more  met w i t h  the  the expenses  a  force of  departments,  participation group  group  n o t met,  which  interdepartmental  relevant  8  Unit.  committee  and  native  the  were  and  Forests  the  any a t t e m p t s  Sustained  government a l l  for  conditions  block  of the status  of Lands,  Leaders be p a r t  or  a l l bands  dimensions  this  programs  native  the Minister  I f certain  meeting  with  t o see native  logging  representatives  package  frustrate  i n t h e Burns  agreed  training The  Victoria.  that  timber  special  t h e Department  anxious  and independent  1974, n i n e  demanded  to  with  decide.  Indians  threatened  h e was a l s o  i n the region.  9,  Resources  i n cooperation  Resources,  i n sub-contract  April  Water  that,  as i n arranging  would  until  indicated  to  detail. Minister  o f t h e two  committees.  The of  A Sawmill  Products force  Complex  L t d ."  on A p r i l  intensive the  "Conditions  Precedent At  were  Lake,  presented  17, 1974. T h i s  negotiations  government.  Burns  t o The C o n s t r u c t i o n  was  to follow  B.C.,  By  and  Operation  Babine  Forest  to the interdepartmental  task  just  the  the  between  beginning  the native  of  people and  73  There to that  the the  were  ten  design  of  government  "Conditions the  native  Precedent"  participation  were  elemental  p r o j e c t . These  were  should:  1..Provide core funding Development P r o j e c t ;  for  a  Burns  2.,Provide the i n i t i a l funding to Native Development C o r p o r a t i o n ; 3. P r o v i d e Fund;  which  f o r the  establishment  Lake  the  of  Community  proposed  a  Native  Burns  Lake  Economic  4. P r o v i d e f o r t h e r i g h t o f f i r s t r e f u s a l t o p r e s e n t Burns Lake a r e a r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g a l l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g b o t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n a l phase of t h e p r o p o s e d s a w m i l l ; 5. P r o v i d e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n of t h e p r o p o s e d B u r n s L a k e a l l - p u r p o s e t r a i n i n g centre; 6. P r o v i d e f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e B u r n s L a k e a r e a as a p r i o r i t y a r e a under the N a t i o n a l Housing Act s e c t i o n s concerning the neighbourhood improvement p r o g r a m , r e n o v a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m a n d S e c t i o n 40 c o n c e r n i n g l o a n s ; 7. P r o v i d e f o r p u r c h a s e , on b e h a l f o f t h e n a t i v e people of Burns Lake, the i n i t i a l 8 percent e q u i t y a n d d e b t s e c u r i t y p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d by Babine; 8. P r o v i d e f o r a r e o p e n i n g o f t h e shareholder's a g r e e m e n t among t h e members o f B a b i n e t o p r o v i d e for the on-the-job t r a i n i n g programs the content of w h i c h was t o be d e t e r m i n e d by B a b i n e ; and f o r t h e s a l e o f c h i p s t o B a b i n e members; 9. P r o v i d e f o r t h e s a l e o f t h e a s s e t s o f B a b i n e for t h e sum o f one d o l l a r t o t h e p r o p o s e d B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e 12 y e a r T S H L l i c e n c e ; 10. P r o v i d e f o r t h e u n d e r w r i t i n g o f a l l c o s t s i n c u r r e d by and on b e h a l f o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e i n their a c t i v i t i e s related to negotiations.  On  April  Resources,  29,  the  the  Minister  Minister  of  of  Lands,  Highways,  and  Forests the  and  Water  Minister  of  74  Industry,  Trade  discuss  various  participation was  held  concept  in  to  of  and  the  northern  taking  place  plans  for  mill  the  and  are  about  likely  dislike Lake  the  to  of  Other  the  conducted and  one-half  by  Burns  native  native  meeting  government's  the  of  so  which  natives.  the  The  people  non-native Undoubtedly, as  vocal  at  racists, the  were  public  receiving  However,  i s shared  the  April  Burns  final of  by  many  the Burns  of  Forest  29,  Lake  the  and  Water  details  Native  of  the  Development  p r o v i n c i a l - n a t i v e agreement  the  were  rest  Lands,  on  the  communications  the  and  prejudiced.  of  Lake  Director  (the  the  classified  spending  native  public  surfaced.  the the  the  negotiations  some  be  was  to  negotiations.  be  aid  of  and  months  of  Council  racist.  design  the  during  Lake  a of  the  would  among  not  members  handouts"  Minister  to  (BLNDC)  S e c r e t a r i a t . These  spread  April  over  through  various  approximately to  the  two  beginning  J u l y ) ...  Although of  are  financial  procedures  of  been  evening,  province  could  who  financial  visit  Corporation were  program  Burns which  of  resentment  those  who  than  Resources' and  the  generous government  residents  legal  and  "government  have  the  proceeding  the  the  furthermore,  meeting  and  were  the of  community  between  towards  disliked  In  development  meeting,  population some who  the  with  one  sawmill.  inform  the  met  matters,  were  At  Commerce  the  four  status  dominated  the  meetings,  no  negotiating  Indian  negotiation  bands  as  process.  representatives  from  group well In the  was  acting  as fact, status  on  BCANSI, at  some Indians  behalf BCANSI crucial were  75  present  and t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  the  Burns  who  was h i m s e l f  Of  the  {rights Lake  Lake  Indian  a member  Development  date)  was  Indians  d i d not push  Condition  policy be  of  pursued.  agreed that  to i t  this  although  This  would  Lake  residents  was i n f a c t  employment  ratio  composition  o f t h e two g r o u p s  Condition essentially committment  10  Economic and of  8  negotiation  these  60-40,  Fund),  training,  for  i t  by  was  Burns TSHL  the minister.  t o the minister  The  agreed  of  (right  in principle  that  a s much a s p o s s i b l e introduced  keep  the  which  to  also  of  employment  about  a  should  Babine  who  the fact  non-native-native  was t h e r a t i o  negotiation  of the  the  costs)  previous  of  7  (purchase  of the 8 percent  group. the  17)  Resources.  (funding  chip  had  (April  2  agreement)  the Minister  and t h e native  to  9  i n t h e community.  o f Human  conditions  between  conditions:  to  satisfied  Development  (on-the-job  resources  least  of the Minister  Essentially,  to  f o r $1.00 a f t e r  was d i s c u s s i o n  (funding  been  condition  Babine  residents  the minister  desirable at  (BLNDC)  unacceptable  i t . There  be  representative  point.  local  concept  pursue  Lake  of  unacceptable  Burns  employing  communicated t o  negotiated,  and s a l e  Corporation  totally  to  opportunities),  Precedent"  t o TSHL  4 was a l s o  refusal  Burns  were  o f BCANSI.  refusal  expiry  first  v i athe  ten "Conditions  of f i r s t  Native  bands  o f t h e meeting  BLNDC),  were  o f Lands,  The m i n i s t e r details  of  3  (Native share)  t h e main  Forests  and  had agreed amounts,  points Water  t o meet  repayment  76  schemes,  etc.  assembled  i t s own  province  and  arrangement  The of  which  Community  not  of  to  with  dealt  and  what be;  the  settled. the  Except  Water  Project  the  housing  directly  aspect  with  the  of  these  Environment  and  Use  Committee  not  setting  up  department on  the  responsible  staff  part  project  Land  such  of  (BLNDC)  While  centre, the  most  package They  insisted  the  on  behalf  of  the  insisted  1),  the  and  the  There the  the  centre matters  departments  members the  of  the  Secretariat details  of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the  was  The  also  economic  development  that  were  and  therefore  be  that  6)  were  would  Minister  training  (condition  ministers.  group  of  their to  Minister  of  on  the  Minister  key  nature  of  the  proposal. that  the  aspects  the  little  to  the  Community  priorities, reject  Community  Secretariat  made  respect  press  the  this  points,  these  social  to  of  the  of  ministers  ministers.  that  threatened  i f this  wanted  the  with  important  BLNDC. T h e y  between  couple  ministers  Director  native  point  they  had  the  feeling  aspects should  of  the  remain  separate.  the  Director's  these the  and  distinguishably  to  programs of  government  a  (condition  Neither  was  on  Resources,  concerned.  staff  The  relationship  Secretariat,  and  Development 5)  on  be  challenged.  Forests  (condition  to  should  Director  Lands,  be  ideas  BLNDC was  had  a l l  Development Lands, of It  objection  housing Development  even  more  other Project  Forests  and  Human R e s o u r c e s was  the  chairman  of  and  opinion the  important  not  Water the of  native  of  was than the  provided. Resources  importance the  the  training  Project  elements was  to  and  Director  committee  was  77  in  fact  prepared  to reject  BLNDC  i f the s o c i a l  package  was  not  delivered.  The the  Minister  stance  Minister native  that  ministers.  must  have  of  of  the  Municipal  who  Project,  decision  funding  the  spent  negotiations  2)  of  as  group,  the  July  and the  planning  providing  on  native  at a  July  Project 4,  group  an and  so  ensuring  up  a  to that  i n the  the  (e.g.,  Community  have  been  making  project.  the time point  and  had  an By  money  not  which  been would  basis.  been  given  three  satisfactory  Cabinet  of  the  meeting  "Agreement  process  approached the  1974  not  and  Department  10,  was  the  for  continued  Human  were  i n ELUC,  development  of  the  but  group  not  the  Human R e s o u r c e s  funds f o r programs  June  "mutually  Minister  Development  between  also  S e c r e t a r i a t had  Community 2,  and  was  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on  the  of  he  community  between  activities  funding would  point  with  native  a  the  involved  when  for  undoubtedly  ministers  cooperation  the minister  to arrive at a  agreement  become  the  the  of  project,  planning  t o fund  well  native  native  Director July  as  Minister  upheld  megotiate with  a t some  various  have  Resources  although  community  project,  nothing,  The  the  Lake  Resources  isolated  reinforce  was  Water should  discussed  for their  Human  Development  for  may  Therefore,  of  on  been  Burns  Affairs'  Highways).  group  Housing, Labour, the  o f t h e need  Minister  native  and  Resources d i r e c t l y ,  ministers  because  Forests  Indeed, not only  aware  Ministers other  the  o f Human  stance  already  o f Lands,  the  weeks  (until  agreement."  Resources secured  with  to  fund  formally  in Principle" ministers  The  was  the until  signed  involved.  78  Although details  an "Agreement  of the l e g a l  programs  and  Development  documents  implementing Project  with  each  be  finalized  final  A press  complementary  government  support  the  (BLNDC).  of Under  Burns  the final  to  the  and  project, which  Native  as were  the  up, a n d t h e  the  Community  Three  Contracts  a n d BLNDC  o f September  programs Lake  for  be d e s i g n e d -  nature  reached,  t o be drawn  and Cancel  the  release  of  had been  arrangements  Eurocan  regarding  details  remained  remained  o f Weldwood,  participation. the  i n Principle"  also  extent  of  had  native  16,  1974  well  as o u t l i n e d the  being  announced  launched  Development  T h e I n d i a n p e o p l e w e r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e $14 m i l l i o n sawmill p r o j e c t being developed by B a b i n e Products L t d .  Forest  The n a t i v e g r o u p , i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e o f B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n , were i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Weldwood o f C a n a d a , E u r o c a n a n d C a n c e l , a n d were to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s of Babine F o r e s t p r o d u c t s a t e v e r y l e v e l , up t o a n d i n c l u d i n g membership on t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s . T h e BLNDC by way o f a f o r g i v a b l e l o a n ( e s t i m a t e d a t $425,000) f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government ( f u n d e d through t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t ) was t o p u r c h a s e a n 8 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t i n B a b i n e . T h i s l o a n was t o be i n t e r e s t f r e e f o r f i v e y e a r s , was t o b e a r i n t e r e s t a t 3 p e r c e n t t h e r e a f t e r , a n d was t o be f o r g i v a b l e o r r e p a y a b l e a t a r a t e o f 12 1/2 p e r c e n t e a c h y e a r s t a r t i n g i n 1980. BLNDC was t o r e c e i v e b y way o f g r a n t s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e (Economic Development), o p e r a t i n g funds for f i v e years ( e s t i m a t e d maximun $ 5 1 4 , 0 0 0 ) . T h e p r o v i n c e , o n b e h a l f o f B L N D C , was t o p r o v i d e a bank g u a r a n t e e ( e s t i m a t e d a t $720,000) f o r 8 p e r c e n t o f B a b i n e ' s bank i n d e b t e d n e s s together with 8 percent of Babine's c o s t overruns. t o Babine's  in  Corporation  agreements:  BLNDC was t o a p p o i n t o n e d i r e c t o r ten person Board o f D i r e c t o r s .  to  79  BLNDC was a p p o r t i o n e d 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i p p r o d u c t i o n t o s e l l when a n d w h e r e i t saw f i t . The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water Resources h a d a r r a n g e d f o r a n e x p o r t p e r m i t t o be p r o v i d e d so t h a t t h e s e c h i p s c o u l d be s o l d on t h e w o r l d market. BLNDC was t o r e c e i v e , b y way of l o a n from the p r o v i n c e ( a g a i n , t h r o u g h the Department of E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t ) , an e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p ment f u n d o f $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 . T h i s l o a n was t o be i n t e r e s t f r e e f o r f i v e y e a r s , was t o b e a r 3 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t t h e r e a f t e r , a n d was t o be r e p a y a b l e out o f income, over t e n y e a r s , c o m m e n c i n g i n 1 9 8 0 . T h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y an advance a g a i n s t p r o f i t s which would enable BLNDC t o f u n d a n d d e v e l o p s u b s i d i a r y a n d support i n d u s t r i e s i n the Burns Lake area. The B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m s u p p o r t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of p r e f e r e n t i a l h i r i n g o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s p r i o r to s a w m i l l s t a r t - u p . Babine a l s o agreed t o employ a l o c a l Native Assistant Personnel Officer for a p e r i o d o f one y e a r d u r i n g t h e s a w m i l l s t a r t - u p p e r i o d . T h e c o s t o f t h i s o f f i c e r was t o be b o r n e b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h BLNDC. A second l e g a l e n t i t y c a l l e d the Burns Lake C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n (BLCDA) was c r e a t e d under the S o c i e t i e s Act t o implement t h e f o r t h c o m i n g s o c i a l p r o g r a m s f u n d e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Human R e s o u r c e s . B L C D A was t o b e f u n d e d f o r f i v e y e a r s , and t h e programs i t o f f e r e d w e r e t o be f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e w h o l e community, not j u s t the n a t i v e people. Programs were i n i t i a l l y e x p e c t e d t o be g e a r e d t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g support programs (e.g., t r a i n i n g programs) t o promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e mill labour force.  Aside  from  complementary  The principle  these  support  Minister of  more  formal  programs  were  of  Labour  preferential  sawmill  and  promised  to  programs  were n e c e s s a r y  hiring develop  to  agreements,  Burns  whatever  f u l f i l l  number  of  promised.  indicated of  a  this  his Lake  support  for  residents in  education objective.  and  the the  training On-the-job  80  training Eurocan These  programs were  were  Canada  be  a  cooperation  central  i n addition  to  f e a t u r e of  the  regular  Minister  under  of  Housing  Section  40  of  the  cost  acguisition  of  projects  i n the  The the  area  the  and  were,  in  Lake  be  impact  Although  and  support*  available  through  provided  approved on  another  board  were  and  p r e s i d e n t of  BLNDC  has  certain  This i s , perhaps, group  organization matters.  skills  Both  operated  Between 1974)  and to  of  BLNDC out  the the  time mill's  accomplish.  of  as  of  a  priority  in  order  to  the  capital  native  housing  CDA same  the  that  way by  as  the  BLNDC  logging  minimize  native  to  and  to  plans  people.  underwrite  entities,  twins",  since  several  also  on on  the the  in a  key  board CDA  for  board  small  leadership  a  they  of  the  BLCDA,  from  time  community. and  p l a y e r s i n many  maintained  the  BLCDA.  legal  been  the  A  community community  small support  staff  office.  signing  opening  BLCDA  Act  and  agreed  possessing  and  of the  as  separate  inevitable  people emerge  of  "Siamese  BLNDC  time.  a  managed  were  on  the  the  rural  government  BLCDA  sense,  of  assurance  o r g a n i z i n g expenses  and  Lake  sharing  i n such  traplines  provincial  BLNDC  Burns  area.  directors  much  programs  cost  construction  Service  would  Finally, negotiating  and  Burns  Forest  environmental  which  Cancel  minister's  N a t i o n a l Housing  75-25 f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  to  Weldwood,  the  designated  provide  for  with  Manpower.  The area  to  in  of  i n June  activities  agreements  1975,  included  BLNDC a n d the  (September BLCDA  had  establishment  81  of  a Basic  Skills Lake  Training  Program.  Native  loans  BLNDC  set  Logging L t d .  advanced  funding  and S k i l l s  with  by  which  the  federal  Department  the  Department  to  three  native  Lake  provincial could  obtain  of Regional  of I n d i a n  Affairs.  people  Program  up t w o s u b s i d i a r y  and Burns  the BLNDC  Development  to  and a L o g g i n g  companies:  Native  Trucking.  government  provided  additional  money  Economic Funds  enable  Burns  seed  through  E x p a n s i o n , ARDA,  were  also  them  made  The  and  available  t o purchase  logging  trucksLater formed  i n 1975, t h e B u r n s  to  build  native  Lake  houses  Native with  Construction the  L t d - was  a i d o f CMHC's  AHOP  funding.  There part of  a p p e a r s t o have  o f some  funds  fact  which  that  some  Construction) the  concern.  who who  disliked  managerial BLNDC  were  resentment concerning  receiving.  Moreover,  companies  o f BLNDC  were  financial  difficulties  expressed  by l o c a l  experiencing  Resentment having  t o compete  their  of  was  was a l s o  money  financial with  with  various  as low i n t e r e s t  difficulties,  respect  dissatisfied  to  with  the  native  (Logging  the  the and  added t o  businessmen businessmen  government  plus  on  t h e amount  of the subsidiary  decisions  itself  a continued  i n t h e community  BLNDC a n d BLCDA  had r e c i e v e d  Because  1  individuals  been  loans.  1  a number o f p o o r  logging  subsidiary,  i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . The  result  T h i s r e s e n t m e n t was e x p r e s s e d t o t h e m a n a g e r of BLNDC during the local meeting of t h e Chamber o f Commerce a t w h i c h t h e m a n a g e r h a d b e e n g u e s t s p e a k e r . T h i s was r e p o r t e d i n t h e Lakes D i s t r i c t News, t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r ( F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1975) .  82  of  this  dissatisfaction  members Burns  i n December,  Lake  Native  Despite  the  was  1975, i n c l u d i n g  "growing  project,  support  f u n c t i o n , produced  months  and  of the mill's  Babine  was  a 40 p e r c e n t  was  lower  native  were  In  i s , the  labour  amongst  rates  in  the  During  a nine  turnover  rate  i n general,  local  1975, t h e r e  Party  sawmill.  lost.  to  be d e t e r m i n e d  by a S o c i a l  C.  The E v o l u t i o n , o f t h e B u r n s  i t was  sawmills  was  This  than  month  period, but  year.)  rate  t h e nonlabour  1  election  the future  there  the  amongst  i n the f i r s t  first  employed  had e x p e r i e n c e d  a provincial  left  native  the  148 o f t h e 3 0 0 p e r s o n s  people  the  participation-BLNDC-CDA  Over  the native  BLNDC,  and s u s t a i n e d . l e v e l o f  o f u p t o 300 p e r c e n t  Democratic  by  people.  (Other  December,  staff  and t h e head o f  experienced native  a high  operation,  native  workers.  turnover  New  that  pains"  participation  by  t h e manager  BLNDC  Construction Ltd.  entire  interest  the resignation of three  and  o f BLNDC  the  a n d CDA  Credit administration.  Lake_Pro'ject  January  1976 -  July  1979  In tabled  1  March before  1976, t h e new  some  concern  which  h a d no e c o n o m i c  entirely  on  BLCDA,  Second  over  grants  Annual  when Social  the  Credit  the future assets from  Report  annual  of  report  o f BLNDC-CDA  administration,  of the project, i t s own,  but  there  particularly which  was CDA  depended  t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s .  , p.3.  was  The  83  president will with  of  BLNDC  probably CDA's  wrote of  continue"  to  that  in  July,  have the  m i l l i o n s of  continued  to and  the  local  that  the  newspaper  minister  that  was  "CDA  "impressed"  work-  However, reported  reported  been  1976,  critical  minister dollars in  support  the  subject  had  Minister  of  CDA.  "major  BLNDC a n d to  three  of  The  Human  Lakes  concerns CDA."  District  over  The  1  Resources  the  was News  management  minister  promised  conditions:  - t h a t a d d i t i o n a l members be a d d e d t o d i r e c t o r s o f CDA to ensure a broader existed;  the board of representation  than  - t h a t members o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n team e x a m i n e CDAs f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s a t l e a s t f o u r t i m e s p e r year; - t h a t the minutes to the minister-  of  a l l board  meetings  be  forwarded  1  There the  were  native  conditions. minister Four  This  people The  and  one  of  1  resigned  as  because  they  The, L a k e s  and  exchanges  were people  three  members  which  was  was of  board  a  were  members  resented  News  and the  a l l no  in  to  the  compromise  from  the  the  6  1976),  accepted.  member  native  representative.  several  from  and  with  November,  government's  ( J u l y 28,  minister  pleased  appointed  conditions, withdrew  the  were r e l u c t a n t l y  added  government  new  between  at  gained  announced the  District  not  conditions  board  decision  implementation  who  native the  non-native  board,  meetings  1976. native  Upon people  participation in interference  p. . 1. _  in  CDA an  84  organization  which  During structure was  it  of  loses  BLNDC  applying had  Credit  the  There  are  service) native  70  the  is  felt that  the  of  by  is  same  persons  The  with  one  these  of  to  Native this  native  the  project people  the  being jointly  the  Council  the  Social  and  the  memory  minds  of  most  employment (a  On  any  coming  mill  single  and  i t s  funded  day,  both  going.  is  management e x p e c t s  now  up  foreman, to  Officer  proved  of  services.  a l l l e v e l s except  officer  most  federally  employment  Employment  obtain  has  extremely  been useful  employees.  persons had  1975,  are  which  board,  in  office.  the  to  about  which  workers  at  BLNDC  granting.  and  the  the  continued  concentrating  seen  of  quotas  but  in  made i n  Council  joint  is  are  which  because  decisions  cutting  fading  Outreach  objective  whole  many o f  the  participation is  Babine  except  with  the  company  licence  opposed  changes  subsidiary  government  participation in  future.  communicating  All  out  and an  farm  counselling  few  non-native  near  retained in  working  is  of  own.  major  Municipal  NDP  their  no  and  association  a  as  logging  result  the  expansion  The  the  tree  Forests  board  native  a  the  education,  percent this  by  view  were  "marginal",  operating  also  and  The  but  s t i l l  on  as  municipal  of  to  construction  approached  people.  resources  The  although  (1979)  the  forced  come  there  1978  promised  is  native  in  and  during  Minister  CDA  to  1978,  has  for  been  had  BLNDC, CDA.  is currently  met.  of  1977,  liquidated,  sustain  they  interviewed  been  initially  a  said  that  they  good  one,  despite  the  fact  did  not  approve  of  the  85  amount  o f government  The this  present  position  renewed  responsible Finance)  a  agreement  BLNDC  loans.  of  relationship BLNDC  should  under  be  close  the  structured.  The  supervision  appointees will  how  (one  review  how  from  of the each  of  t h e government  spent.  contract i s ,i n  In b r i e f ,  ministers  however,  involved)  has  Credit  was  concept,  ministries  government  The S o c i a l  contract  different  the  The  year  with  Development,  brings  and  five  agree  Economic  of three  i s managed  BLNDC-GDA.  (Labour,  A committee  money  on  BLNDC  government. three  spent  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must  1979 f o r 13 y e a r s .  corporation-provincial new  was b e i n g  Credit  the i n i t i a l  f o r funding have  which  Social  since  i n March  funds  decided  financial  terms,  t o advance  grants  generous, instead of  and  the  forgivable  t h e agreement i n v o l v e s :  -doubling the capital $1 million;  loan  fund  to a total  - a n n u a l g r a n t s o f $360,000 p e r y e a r (grants are equivalent t o 9 percent o f $4 m i l l i o n ) ;  o f more  f o r 13 y e a r s i n t e r e s t on a  - t r a i n i n g grants f o r 5 years starting and i n c r e a s i n g t o $40,500 i n 1984.  a t $25,000  than  loan  i n 1979  1  At  t h e e n d o f 13 y e a r s ,  corporation,  completely  BLNDC  separate  should  from  be  a'  self-sufficient  t h e government.  86  D.  The B u r n s  Policy many  Lake  development  levels,  each  implementing  development  are  themselves  of the policy  o f one a d m i n i s t r a t o r  t o the achievement level  into  the statute  and t h e r e f o r e  also  process  i s  points not  these  become  level).  out the f a c t  always  decision  appear  Over  The  associated  the with  the  which i f  the  particularly  policy  output  may  be  the  existence  that  time,  t o be  on  on  necessitated  criteria  criteria  policy  Thus  have  of the desired  of policy,  provincial  may  Context  can exist  other.  of administrators.  legislated  policy"  process  Policy  which  the  of specified  the policies  (i.e.,  process  influencing  the  level  -The P r o v i n c i a l  i s a complex  o f a number  criteria  instrumental  Within  level  phase  the  decision  Process  of  written  legislated  of " l e v e l s  policy  of  development  the introduction  of a  statute.  Moreover, time.  At  any  policies,  seeks  attempting waiting  simply  forest forest a  t o study  i n time  mature  t o b e made "the  and  there at  here  the  i s that policy policy  evolves  will  exist  various  policies  completed  assess  and  over mature  stages  are not closed the  of to  researcher  process" process  before will  be  indefinately.  From as  find  i s dynamic  and p o l i c i e s  but even  The p o i n t to  point  policies,  between,  modification.  process  particular  nacent  development  who  the policy  one p e r s p e c t i v e , one i s o l a t e d  policy. sector  higher  level  From  t h e Burns  incident  another  - that  process  c a n be  i n the implementation  perspective,  i n B . C . was i t s e l f of p o l i c y  Lake  the development  the implementation of  of  socio-economic  phase  viewed B.C. of the of yet  development  87  for  northwest  precedent a  setting  corporate  beginning  intended Since  isolate  must  be  process:  or  subsequent  The possesses  and  The  in  to  of  the  Lake  explore  the  glance"  or  of  be  a  how  does  assessed?  specific  policy  process,  aspects  (or d e f i n i t i o n to  choice of  had  communities.  complex,  mechanisms  the  of  of  the  problem);  satisfy  mechanism  the  and  i t s  1  despite  i t s  localized  nature,  2  characteristics.  selection  theoretical  of  concepts  generalized, since  numerous  a  to  was  government  B.C. so  of  socio-economic  NDP  essential  purpose  problem;  process,  these  original  isolate  assessment  and  process  the  The  the  partners  government  other  dynamic  policy  as  towards  concept  implementation.  a l l of  policy  identify  rectify  Burns  provincial  so  perspective,  native people  i n B.C.  i n order to  another  peoples  are  establishment  purpose  of  the  particular  able  identification  examine  this  processes  Essentially, one  and  native  the  yet  provincial  expand  these  from  participation  new of  to  And  giant  of  development  one  B.C.  examples  a  case  of  this  there  was  in detail  study thesis  through had  to  insufficient  before  selecting  which be  to  "first  time  to  one.  The  1  Or, in Ranney's terminology, the policy process can be identified as having the f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : an o b j e c t t o be a f f e c t e d ; a desired course of events; a selected l i n e of a c t i o n ; a declaration of intent; an implementation of i n t e n t . . See: Austin Ranney, ed.. P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and P u b l i c Policy ( C h i c a g o : Markham Pub. Co., 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 7.  2  The t e r m " l o c a l i z e d " instance, since the from the p r o v i n c e .  i s preferred to final decisions  "decentralized" in this w e r e t a k e n by a u t h o r i t i e s  88  author  was  "good" the  specifically  realizing several  institutions  their  of  be  the  research.  examined  (discussed  "integrated"  Minister  of  the  The  the  Lands,  and  be  considered  intent  was  Columbia  when  The  Lake  Burns  i t s  Burns  to  examine  they  were  process  selection  a  for  had more  to  The  f o r the  time  access  a  localized,  i t  constraints  of  to  information  Water  multi-dimensional  since social,  guided  policy  the  whole  This  c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the  c o n s t r a i n t s to  or  economic  approach  Resources.  policy  was  who  appeared  policy  process.  the  people,  process  what  short,  was  reduced.  and  a  to  Burns  of  not,  the  high  were,  who  and  of  the  provides  face  optimality  often  processes, could  "tyranny  there  decision-makers  the  of  development,  native  i n many  Fourthly,  within  represented  Forests of  process  of  high  of  the  process-  Lake.  allowing  were  process  the  group  policy  detail  transaction cost  Thirdly, minority  the  considerations  planning/policy  In  I)  examination  temporal  the  the  favoured  constraints  approach  environmental  in  which  in fair  i n Chapter  Secondly,  as,  British  performance.  a l l , because  could  well  in  since  might  examination.  First  as  best  characteristics  detailed  in  f o r what  planning/policy process,  planning  for  looking  were  neglected  actively  involved criticized  majority".  degree  most  cases,  a  high  level  Lake  a  t h e r e f o r e , be  in  be  are  process  of  accountability  Cabinet of  local  appeared  "at  ministers,  of as  participation  first  glance"  89  to  meet  many  process  outlined  represent  to  be  meet  i t  in  of  Chapter  i s more  assessed any  the  IV.  likely  as f a l l i n g  o f t h e norms  absolutely. are  criteria  optimal  However,  " a b s o l u t e s " , and s i n c e t h e r e  attainment, will  of the  that  and  applied  i n their  between  "yes",  "no" and  "somewhat",  falling  i n t h e "somewhat"  category  their process  between a b s o l u t e l y  failing  to achieve  c r i t e r i a - developed  interrogative  norms  planning/policy  succeeding  When t h e a s s e s s m e n t  since these  are constraints to  any  somewhere  planning/policy  form, with  and  a l l  of  i n this  t h e answers  the majority  reguiring  them paper  fluctuate of  answers  more  detailed  discussion.  Such  an  quantifiable said  t o be  developed process  between  an  The  thirteen  assessment  optimal  criteria  meeting  - o r among  thirteen  the rationale as  in this  paper,  process  i s an  of  are  Lake  identify  the  t o meet  are also  policy  i s  criteria one  the  comparison the  process  optimal  where  a l l  met.  the Burns  to  process  the approach i s  and  1  "imaged"  non-  f o r preferring  process  criteria  i s  assessment  policy  and e l a b o r a t e d  actual  i s , one  actual  failed  t h e norms  The  that  process  i s sought),  assessment  which  policy  process  f o l l o w s attempts  process the  Where,  improved  process.  which  another.  an  the  i n nature,  IV p r o v i d e  another.  (i.e.,  The  1  b e t t e r than  to  of  and comparative  i n Chapter  normative exists  assessment  planning/policy  the optimal  i n Chapter discussed.  processes  IV.  key  elements  process The  process of  as d e f i n e d  constraints  In the subsequent  the by to  chapter.  90 attention  is  adjustment  of  institutional  E.  then  given  constraint framework  A s s e s s m e n t . o f ..Th e  (1)  Were t h e r e available their  to  promoting  parameters  for  Burns  policy  and  introducing  Lake..Planning/Policy  and  a l l indiyiduals.and  problems  and_nee.ds._tG>  process  by  the  a  new  formation.  sufficient_channels for  a better  Process  other-resources groups  to-communicate  accountable  political  representatives? Somewhat. Resources in  the.  was h i m s e l f various  undertaking the  needs  of  the  was  first  people,  step many  and  was o n e  of  Moreover,  much  the  more  The  B.C.  these  the  been what  emerged  consultant's  this  minister needs  stepped  Association  of  forward  of  took the to  Non-Status  groups. however,  which  of  there  limited not  the  policy  removed of  he h a d  which  detailed  determine  Water  specifically  regions  Because  and  development  province,  more  municipalities  model  politicians relatively  elections.  to  communiciation,  bureaucratic  the  of  the  extent,  constraints  provincial-local  the  problems.  of  northwest.  groups  certain  institutional  traditional  was t h e  Forests  socio-economic  One  before  trying  their  a  even  Lands,  determine  were.  towards  (BCANSI)  To  regions  to  of  in  regions  studies  region  begun  articulate Indians  the  Minister  interested  lagging  various  as a p r i o r i t y study  Because the  the  from  were  this least  process  of  which  development their  was  which  electorate  bureaucratic  numerous of the kept  between  decision-making  91  was  centralized  personnel Lands, task  located  Forests  certain  Moreover,  development  the  Lake  been  the might  a  exception,  rather  have  Lake  had been  acquired  of  with the  t h e magnitude  have  the case.  a s one o f  the of  and  from  leadership v i a  these  exceptional  t o the communication  l e d to the oversight Burns  Lake  the  m i l i t a n t , and i f  o f competent Without  the  socio-economic  attention  organized  i s  of  of  native  therefore  the  the rule.  Did the_var^incj_EerceEtions-_of _all. groups  faced  problems:  cited  less  constraints  might  than  not r e a l l y  s p e c i a l nature of native  the institutional  as i s so o f t e n  the Minister  communicated  representative.  needs  had  attention.  BCANSI h a d n o t been  and  department  result,  was  these  the  determined because  although Burns  BCANSI  resources,  (2)  Resources  when  had n o t had t h e advantage  local  problems  As  demanded  needs  i f  problems  regionally.  and o r d e r i n g  regions,  minister  even  had a l r e a d y  problems  priority  Victoria,  and Water  of assessing  priorities  Burns  in  :  immediately affected  and i n d i v i d u a l s . e n t e r i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n -  of the  problem?  Somewhat. represents general terms  The  BCANSI  t h e communication  sense.  depended  How  of a  of Lands,  province,  the native  Forests  to  problem  problem  on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s  Minister  Generally  that  proposal  was  or  need  defined  representatives,  Resources  the  sawmill  i n  i n more  (transactions)  and Water  speaking, the n a t i v e s  build  a  very  specific  between  on b e h a l f  the  of the  and t h e Babine c o n s o r t i u m .  wanted  the  sawmill,  the  92  minister  did  natives  not  but  thought  development. with  West  of  somewhat figure  to  what  was  a  well  percentage  had  Babine  less  economic  the  development  advanced  this  social  dimension  There  was,  definition Lake  in  were  the  the  their  problem  general.  the  one and  perceptions  the  people  people  i n Burns  From between  the the  should  However,  and  the  group  of  were  that the  was plans  and  to  r e l e a s e s , these  into who  of the  the  be  to the  60  s i d e by  were social of  sawmill need  for  problem.  left  out  community  of  general  public  percent of  of  the  Burns  participation  communications  definition  lived  they  to  perception  for native the  percent although  should  group  the  8  was  prepared  mill,  the  be  the  holistic  critical  Council  The  were  his  parties.  definition  exchanges.  these  but  expressed  press  entered  consortium,  native  and  never  the  Precedent"  meeting  population  for  thus  their  not  was  development  with  mill  was  accept,  in  the  participation  "Conditions  Although to  Babine  to  the  proposal  position  native  i n the  however,  communicited  public way  of  by  in  percent  participation  a l l three  i n keeping  Thus  the  would  of  50  Fraser  participation  nature  competition  minister's concept  this  to  for  West  with  modified  the  development.  the  TSHL  participate  vied  m i n i s t e r . The  than  that  as  but  the  should  participate  somewhat  concerned  award  they  compromise  natives  to  n a t i v e s next  the  more  accepted  as  to  people  concept  the  The  Fraser,  favourable native  want  the  via  were  a  one  non-native problem,  side  with  perception,  the  the  yet  native  Lake.  ministerial native  level  people  and  of  the  province  agreement  represented  a  93  contract  between  perception voice the  of  assumes the  Indian  that  general  the  of  they  do  not  representative  of  their  statement  are,  representative right  to  specific or  non-native  opinion  the  participation forest native  and  of  Lake  but  Burns the had  interests. correct  for  to  a  either  such  the  a  subsequently  a  involved  by  tree  way  change  in  business  gesture the  of  farm  this in  have  our the  p o l i c y of of  a  native  i t i s  ignore  where way  to  not  public  to  a  evoke  o f f e r i n g the  do  the  the  philosophy  in about  native  implement local of  non-  Lands,  municipality  mayor  necessary  Forest  change  the  to  Minister  l i c e n c e . The  satisfying was  policy  innovative  of  consultant  there  in  an  part  Resources  before  as  parallel  the  finished  the  to  being  1  viewed  a  as  However, do  of  native  of  Therefore,  government  be  municipal  of  position  issues.  could  a  that  the  provincial forest  Water  status  people  the  because  aspects  guarantee  of  was  that  degree.  native  i s no  on  Both  This  represents  p r o v i n c i a l government  level  requirements  becoming  the  elections.  licence, paid not  see  represent  p a r t i c i p a t i o n on  and  constitutional  there  expedient  policy, there  Forests  population,  democracy,  will  populations.  the  populations  between  At  of  and  minister  non-Indian  p r o v i n c i a l government  course,  form  vote,  politically  for  of  and  non-Indian  p a r t i c u l a r nature  peoples,  1  the  Act's  applied planning, red  tape  governments  and  municipalities  ventures.  The MLA f o r B u r n s L a k e i n 1972-75 seat because the S o c i a l C r e d i t vote Conservatives.  was had  NDP, b u t h e h a d won been split with  his the  94  Dealing community  by  processes grow  how  The  1  development  native  encouraging  since  the  economic  involving  i s  wider.  level  with  problem  part  to  be  problem  native-non-native  in  non-native sectors  the r i f t  has  of the  and  problems  between  the  defined  at  which  cultures  do  needs  and  a  in  two  should  separate  cultures  the  t o be  small  to  community  expressed  relate  to  i s  each  other.  Of public  course,  i n the planning  involving time: was  there  a  wide  Babine  had  completed  granted  and  Village  of  proceeded available.  process.  number to  plans Burns  until  the  for  There  mill  of the  group  to  needed  a  first  major Burns  before  wait local  sense  of  also  of  to  process  was  negotiations  t h e TSHL  while  general  constraints  could  would  continue;  be the  a l l negotiations  employment  urgency  the  Lake  phase  construction  had  much  was  the  native  Lake  the  One  to involving  of people i n the  wait  with  before  are constraints  would  which  b e . made  permeated  the  process.  The  minister's  time  was  provincial  context.  Even  though  Secretariat  conduct  group,  he  had  to  decisions  make  point  of  project,  1  view, nor  Burns Lake has Society" which cultures..  to  some keep  when  of the abreast  he  of  necessary.  the  From  should  been.  and  efficiency  dominated  and  the  native prepared equity  negotiations  were  society called the "Bridge the to promote communication between  Gap the  i t was,  the  be  of  Lake  As  by  the  the  Burns  i t have  be  an  in  Director  with  the s i t u a t i o n  not  local tries  had  valuable  negotiations  h i s time could  a  very  95  spread to  over  about  nine  months  t h e s i g n i n g of t h e agreements  There  was  also  involving  non-native  the  Lake  Burns  extremely  a  strained  the  i n noted  group.  Furthermore,  this  According  the  to involving  non-native  follow  a constraint  should  was  however,  that  and  have  as  an  uni-  native  predictable.  relations  participation.  be viewed  by  the  been  native-non-native  constraint  situation  was a g g r a v a t e d  government should  to  to participants i n  be p o s s i b l e ,  persons  stress  t o b e made i s t h a t  process  constraint  native-non-native  by t h e s e  between  that  behavioural  1 9 7 4 . I t may  negotiations  of the  i n S e p t e m b e r , 1974.  participation.  lateral  point  the beginning  possible  process,  some o f t h e s t r e s s  The  from  were  a  I t should not insurmountable  obstacle.  (3)  Did the varying groups that  were  local  Minister the  the  Although  Babine  normative  studies  policies  were  participation i n determined  Resources, Reources,  and t h e n a t i v e group,  the process  assessment  criterion,  local  groups  of the localized  proposals  were  from  aspect  nature  again  of  the Minister of fails  because  t o meet of  the  the process.  of the policy  of the  necessary  by t h e  the Director  t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human  of the non-technical and  of native  development  F o r e s t s a n d Water  of non-native  Because because  the specifics  socio-economic  Secretariat,  exclusion  :  considered?  o f Lands,  Labour,  of a l l affeeted and .interested  and i n d i v i d u a l s _ d e t e r m i n e the , a l t e r n a t i v e  Somewhat. the  perceptions  policy*  t o inform  process, no  and  lengthy  a l l negotiating  96  p a r t i e s of the proposals no  clearly  defined  and  set  and  finally  partnerships. technical  input  interaction which can  as  policy  may  a l t e r n a t i v e s i f the  compromises  legal  Even  process optimal  point  drawn which  to do  by  point  cement  the  reguire  more  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high  of  process may  would be.  level  The a l t e r n a t i v e s  a l s o be a s h o r t e r set of a during the  exchange between  process.  For the sake of from  a  of  wider range of a l t e r n a t i v e s explored  generated  is  produce a c l e a r l y decernable l i s t  emerge from the process  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  on  agreements processes  not  an  Hence, there  of a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i a b l e - j u s t a  s e r i e s of n e g o t i a t i o n s and basis,  counter-proposals.  the  illustration,  some  Burns Lake process  of  the  might be  alternatives conceptualized  as: - n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i a 8 percent ownership plus comprehensive t r a i n i n g programs to ensure p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a l l l e v e l s of employment; -the above p l u s an added BLNDC economic arm of beginning s u b s i d i a r y companies;  capable  -the above p l u s a Community Development P r o j e c t support f u n c t i o n . Within  these  numerous  broad  points  for  categories  of  negotiation.  alternatives, These  encourage  Indians  native  participation  in  the  mill  would  the  agree  only i f the  would agree t h a t n a t i v e workers would r e c e i v e no s p e c i a l  p r i v i l e g e s over non-native workers. The the  exist  p o i n t s determine  d e t a i l s of the p o l i c y output. For i n s t a n c e , Babine to  there  initial  Forests and Secretariat.  alternative  preferred  by  second  alternative  the M i n i s t e r of Lands,  Water Resources on the a d v i c e of the D i r e c t o r of It  was  only  because  of  was  the  high  level  the of  97  participation entered  into  In  the  short,  process  the  the  not  development  the groups  and  the  aspects  of  concept  range  optimal  even  to  falls  the  had  included,  from of  a  the  a  broader  and  of  listing of  being  the  participated  generation the  native  alternatives  native  of  groups  and  from  number  generation  short  local  been  the  planning  involve  problem  purely  p e r s p e c t i v e , but  perspective, included  contributing  non-native  defined  the  instead i t should  no  local  been  but  of  third  counting  because  definition If  involve  process  in  have  simply  Lake  process  the  of  Burns  optimal  alternatives.  that  possibilities.  groups  The  group  c o r r e c t assessment  of  alternatives.  not  of  documented,  number  the  native  range  should  alternatives the  of  of  problem  may  socio-economic  community  generated  non-native  based  would  have  socio-economic  development.  Of  course,  there  were  again  the  c o n s t r a i n t s of  human b e h a v i o u r  discussed  p r e v i o u s l y which  participation.  In  policy  appear way  to  of  be  a  Were  the  of  i n Burns costs  could  be  Lake),  could  ensuring  also  limit  :  of  an  the  alternat-ive  criterion optimal  against  (although  financial  and  of  broad  i t did  not  constraints  by  the  of  amount  accommodated.  p e r c e p t i o n s have  This  situations  allgcatgdr_to _ensnre:t h a t  formation  Somewhat. aspect  which  resources  differing in  factor  transaction  participation  (4)  some  worked  time  a l l groups  opportunity-to  with  participate  proposals?  i s related  to  the  institutional  planning/policy process,  and  i t is  98  related  directly  ensuring  effectiveness  As  there  such,  funds or  or  was  However,  funds  would  process,  There amount  of  enable limits  that  have  been  would  have  obvious  funds  and  be  s e t . On  participants the  resources  native from  participation  is  encourage  provide  nor  which  legal to  other  had  to  be  a  of  agreed  to  included  groups  support  travelling  expenses.  No  groups  they  been  in  this  had  participant  organized  and  doubt  militant:  no  extended.  constraints  r e s o u r c e s which  the  other  was  available  participation  Sesources  become  not  of  themselves.  to  the  group  the  Clearly,  the  and  in  s i l l  other  making  financial  other  participation  procedure  extended  i n order  of  (see C h a p t e r I I ) .  Human  expenses,  norm  participation  participation  f o r o p i n i o n s were  are  must  of  cultural-democratic  enable  finance  native  However,  invitations  to  to  Minister  of  a group  public  staff  consulting  included.  many  the  of  combined  formalized  unable  expenses  expenses,  the  no  technical  individuals  the  to  policy hand,  need  to  since  can  which be  process. one be  they  the  extended  to  Obviously,  some  remember  that  must  supported may  limit  to  have  the  extent  access  to  sources.  largest  outmoded the  constraint  government channels  to  institutions  for  encouraging which  participation.  neither  99  Were t h e  (5)  groups,  varying agencies  and  evaluation  process?  Somewhat.  Again,,  alternatives  is  alternatives. personal implies  that  requires  The  that  form  of  differing  may  among reports of  process  of  of  party  open and  has  has  process  policy  generating  a certain  interactive  the  specific  alternative occurred.  A  therefore,  so t h a t  other  can e v a l u a t e  the  perspecti v e s .  processes  points  interested  alternatives,  planning/po l i c y  evaluation  evaluative  vari o u s  the  evaluation  the  for desiring  of  and  evaluation  persona1 evaluation  in  circulated  of  each n e g o t i a t i n g  p r o c e s s be  policy  knowledge,  formal  that  the  from  f r om  affected  incorporated..into  process  discrete  evaluation  proposals  report  the  fact  all  i n d i v i du a l s  (objectives)  some  participants  In  not  reasons  rigourous  of  p e r c e p t i o n s of  require  which t o be  have  done  p a r t i c ipants. should not  view  expert  by  hired  experts  EveE  then,  the  constitute  t he p r o c e s s i s  if  technical  the  and  number  total  truly  a of  number  open  and  interactive. In native  Burns  adjourn  would and  Each  negotiations.  discussion  then  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  alternatives. at  Lake,  be be  amongst  for  a set  intragroup accepted,  on t h e  points  group Each the  evaluation  its legal  group  groups  time  which  would  wou I d  the  p o i n t s which would  alternative to  the  present  three  the  be c o m p r o m i s e d  was  their  weeks).  not  be  of  points; would  There  points  of  present  meeting  compromise would  forms  qeneration  counsel which  occur;  (e . g . ,  period  d i s c u s s i o n on on t h e  the  simultaneous  done had  of  would which  compromised,  subject  to  certain  100 conditions  or  would  reached  be  which  would  apart,  in  group.  form  of  perceptions the  be  the  limited  was  new  factors  need  to  process. to  have lack  of  perceptions  again  was  and  Water  Forests  participation,  However, i f the  the  device  to  Were  alternatives  resources  differing  than  i n the  like  institutional  aspects  of  become  the  of  have  of  criterion ensuring  evaluation  the  On  the  process.  and  a  wide  of  itself  costly  way  to  experts.  groups with :  opportunity  to  proposals?  relates  case  side  alternatives,  varying the  of  range  i s seen  less  the  which  financial  consulting  four,  In  process,  technical  alternative  that  which  Minister  evaluate  had  process  assessment  experts,  outside  in fact  Lake  into  participation  process  to  varying  process.  ensure - that - a l l  evaluation  This,  part  to  of  efficient  i s hiring  allocated  perceptions  participate  Somewhat.  i s an  then  the  the  prohibiting  and  group,  participation  hire  interaction  in  evaluation  time. to  factor  generate  n e g o t i a t i o n approach  multiply  (6)  first  a  Burns  especially  need  evaluations. a  be  -  discussion  that  met  optimal  Resources'  could  the  amount  the  incorporated  entering the  the  time  i f groups  were  non-native  the  agreement  again,  ensured  completely of  some  enter  discussed,  however,  number  necessary,  would  parties  the  c o n s t r a i n t to  meeting,  process  Again*  constraints  as  be  participating  i t i s associated with  Lands,  new  of  major  because  a  because  the  The  At  evaluation  considered  criterion  of  of  evaluation  cannot  and  subseguently  then  This  concessions.  to  the  perceptions of  Burns  Lake  101  where  the  same  alternatives, six  the  is identical  The  reason  generate  participants degree  to  the  for  would  development  which  require  technical  initial  the  process  where  the  be  more  of  be  nature  expectations,  i t  is  direction  only  were entry  and  the  of  after  has  they  now  see  touched  policy  longer  and  off  groups  proposals  change  some g r o u p  their  as  their  change  on  in  process  adjust  a  to  after  later  policy  that  to  evaluate of  closed  participants conceivable  to  last  four.  funds  level  interactive  problem  entirely  which  the  an  and  become' i n v o l v e d  policy  In  the  progress  to  process,  criterion  funds  to  funds  criterion  allocating  higher  expected  blocked. of  in a  evaluated  meets  i t meets  allocating  be  and  process  between  apparent  the  the  which  studies. If  negotiations  wish  and  could  stage would  to  distinguishing  alternatives  the  which  degree  alternatives  more  to  generated  may  in  the  sphere  i f  interest.  One again,  important that  constraint  financial  mentioned  before,  resources  have  be  meeting  resources  there  to  to  i s  no  are  not  reason  unlimited, since  this  to  not  criterion  unlimited. believe  every  one  i s ,  As  that  will  was the  require  them.  The A  second,  closed  supply  most groups  most  bureaucratic  many  process,  and  points  and  these  important and  of  important model  entry  channels  resources  individuals  who  of  for of  policy  communication could to  be  institutional.  development  participation  that seek  constraint i s  are,  in  after  allocated  participate.  the  to  does  not  policy all,  the  various  102  (7)  Were; t h e r e otherwise  c h e c k s , on have  inadvertently  Somewhat. T h i s which  maintain  the  alternatives  cultural  should  arrangements  of  be  the  process  one  perspective Lake,  of  of  policy  development  in  the  political  there  was  not  bureaucratic  agency.  The  of  Cabinet.  loyalty  one to  development Secretariat  level,  of and  avoiding  and  they  minister, the  Land  are  the  with  one  i s seen  staff  resolving which  of  respect  the  was  Use  of  the  any  one  to  over  agency  resource  should  the  supply  agency  to  for  the  bias. of type  The the of  i s  the  (ELUC)  of  ELUC  and  not  have  no  agency.  They  are,  preference  for  the  i s why  the  This  should  policy  Burns  bureaucratic  Secretariat  conflicts  In  Secretariat  line  the  limited  special  another.  which  a  Committee  the  of  Director  a  Committee  Land  the  responsible directly  resource as  Use  and  objectives  unbiased of  with  Environment  Because  therefore,  process  the  problem  itself  widely  remained,  than  Secretariat  Environment  arm  any  the  for  involved.  rather  was  policy  institutional  with  arena  participant  in  domination  agency  process  and  to  specialized  the  the  Secretariat,  the  five  democratic-  have c h a n n e l s  choices  bureaucratic  staff  system  and  determine  The  requires that  social  major  three  participation  means p r e v e n t i n g  much  might  should  evaluated.  of  part  the  criteria  range  where  arena,  by  to  that  democratic  which  dominated^the-process?  and  ensured  This  bias  participation  states  participations  policy  most  intergroup  which  agency  relates  generated  development  based  criterion  that  value  qovernment  at  coordinate  the  advice  the  administrative on  resource  103  conflict  issues  then,  Director  to  the  the  to  the  of the  ministers  committee  of  Secretariat  was  of t h e committee  Cabinet.  and  Theoretically,  directly not  responsible  t o any  one  minister  individually.  In  p r a c t i c e , however*  with  the  Water  Resources, since  through was  chairman  responsible on  Municipal  closely  with but t h e  result  of the  defining  d i d not  In  sawmill  Department  of Lands,  mandate  ELUC  and  economic  concerns,  Resources  and  or  the  the  development  of  more  was  and i n  Forests  the  minister  late to in  slightly  arm  than  t o the  of  and  Burns  Lake  worked  The  than  Minister of  slightly Water  a  i t was  in  Economic  but  again,  process.  involvement  in  favour  of  Resources. Insofar  entry  either  as  of  BLNDC,  of  with  natural  the  involve  the  i n favour  o f economic was  arm  given  of the  of  senior  biased  was the  as  the  resource-  Minister  the negotiations  task  growth  operation,  ELUC-Secretariat  social  Director  ELUC,  accommodating  more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  economic  the  the intergovernmental  the S e c r e t a r i a t deals  failure  process  and  initiated  i n the  p o l i c y development  biased  and  interministerial  part  i n the f i n a n c i n g  was  more  Forests  was  and progress  which  f a r as t h e  the process  the  p o l i c y . However*  construction  concerned,  of Lands,  process  interagency  was  interacting  forest  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  of  Minister  participation.  so  was  Lake  points  involved  short,  result,  the  Secretariat  concern  was  Director  Burns  Affairs,  native  Development  of  the  the  force,  a  the  for  process.  staff  ELUC,  implementation  communications  he  of  the  the  Human level policy  concerns.  to the project.  design  As of  104  The  major  depoliticizing  policy  agency process,  institutional  constraints  there  was  committee  had  Cabinet  development  Were by  final  the  Yes. in  no  The  Burns  the  i n the  Usually which  and  Minister ensuring  of  to on  avoided.  avoiding which  came  by  been  there  a l l agency  bias:  and  the  1  i s ,  Still  social  together;  that  economic  Secretariat  2  accountable  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , or  general?  Lake  process  Cabinet  there  are  their  usually  delegated  had  domination,  of  perhaps  represents the  policy-makers  ministers  in a  themselves  ultimate  parliamentary were  involved  process.  inhibit  issues,  made  accountability  because  directly  in  bias  orientation.  choices  public  securing  system  be  problems  a physical-economic  (8)  2  the  of  were  resource  1  cause  to  constraints  intimate  some  others.  Lands,  B.C.  severe  F o r e s t s and  citizens  had  the  involvement  decision-making The  on  NDP  in  and  Resources,  access  localized  to  minister subseguently  must  especially  was  the  committed  their became  time  policy  responsibilities  government,  Water  ministers'  representatives.  The  Although an ad established, this  hoc intergovernmental task force was n o t t h e m a j o r d e c i s i o n arena.  to  political  involved in  had  a  been  This is not to say that ELUC and t h e S e c r e t a r i a t were n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s . I n d e e d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e TSHL add and t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o i n v o l v e a group concerned with social problems in an economic pursuit is proof to the c o n t r a r y . H o w e v e r , ELUC and the Secretariat simply did not have the m a n d a t e t o a c t i n some o f t h e a r e a s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h e n t e r e d i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n cf the problem through the n a t i v e group.  105  number  of  localized  Despite details  of  themselves groups  minister's w i l l i n g n e s s to  the  process,  through  process  by  No.  Most  of  the  economic  a  although  the  design  aspect  interactions legal to a  relationship  other  in  manifested Burns  associated  the  with  Lake native  be  were  of  on  between  province Board  of  of  and  Director of  Only  one  owned  either had  arrangements  native participation  details  and  proposed  individuals  implementation  the  native  the  debated  the  the  (BLNDC)  entirely  the  -arrangements  process?  of  counsultant.  few  example,  BLNDC member  h i s time  of  the_various,groups,  i n v o l v e d ia„.the  of  involved  1  analysed  institution  1  policy  be  c o n s t r a i n t s on  non-involvement  agencies  result  For  the  Here;alternative imBlementation  and  and  the  the  participation.  for  processes.  the  in  9.  policy  form was  of  the of  Directors  of  implementing considered  provincial-native  compromised  initially  the  Secretariat  actually  the  was  or  decided Babine  conceded.  that  the  one  should  be  The m i n i s t e r d i d h a v e various meetings with the mayor and Council members of Burns Lake concerning the l o c a t i o n of a s a w m i l l i n o r near Burns Lake (this was an aspect of using forest policy t o s a t i s f y r e g i o n a l development p o l i c y problems) and concerning the municipal tree farm licence (another localized p o l i c y g u e s t i o n w h i c h grew o u t o f i m p l e m e n t i n g forest p o l i c y ) . H o w e v e r , a t no t i m e was t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m licence p r o j e c t a n d t h e BLNDC p r o j e c t i n t e g r a t e d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l via wider c i t i z e n group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e i t h e r of these p r o c e s s e s . Furthermore, the time constraints on the minister's p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e e v e n more a p p a r e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m licence p r o c e s s : t h i s was s o m e t h i n g o f f e r e d t o t h e C o u n c i l , b u t l e f t t o r e g u l a r c h a n n e l s of a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  106  appointed or  by t h e government  while  i ts t i l l  more i n t e r e s t i n BLNDC, b u t t h e  insist  that  native  group  BLNDC d i d have  disagreement  The  this  too  little  with  native  development  should a  group  consultant,  structure  as  up  able  to  Although the was  no  o f BLNDC.  Development  what  percent  there  a key f a c t o r  Association  e s s e n t i a l l y at the last  to  5  was  nominee-  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was, however,  set  debate  the  financial  o f t h e Community was  native  appoint  the general  controlled  alternatives  i n the  (CDA),  minute  might  but  and  have  with been  considered.  Be c a u s e of  Huma n  never  as  t o both  constraints  to including  implementing  behavio u r a l  and  further B u r ns  the need a  f or  time  elaboration Lake  process  numerous  f u l l range  various  arrangements  constraints  were  discussed  at this again  a l t e r n a ti v e s w i t h , and  dealt  which  could not  groups  are  fail  previously  f i n a n ci a l ,  with  n e g o t i at i n g  and  reguire  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  emphasizes, inputs  i n d e t e r m in i n g  those  associated  point.  and d i v e r s e  of relevant  e c o n omic  parties.  alterna tive  These  institution  Water  r e s t r icted  of  of  had e s s e n t i a l l y been  and  and  because  and e v a l u a t i o n  Minis t e r  aspects o f the  of the social  finally,  the  Forests  the socio-economic  And  was a n i m p l e m e n t i n g  process es.  o f Lands,  no c o m b i n a t i o n s  disagreements  be a c c e p t a b l e  Th e  met t o d e b a t e  i n the generation  all  the r e sult  a t t h e e n d , and b e c a u s e  considered.  partici pation stages,  added  and t h e M i n i s t e r  a unity,  were  aspects  to  was  Resources  R e s o u r c es project  CDA  constraints  into  the policy  a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t o be  no  p h a se o f  aside,  the  p r o c e ss i f  considered.  107  (10)  Was  the  where  Yes. which  uncertaities  The  BLNDC—CDA  emerged  from  ; -  new  Furthermore,  autonomous,  had  of  problems  native  also  mistakes  learning  process  programs  through  less  the  of  structures  may  to  the  native  experiments  socio-economic  themselves,  with  they  departmental  native  experiment  arise  since  regarding  themselves  being  and  respect  adapt  to  the  projects.  This  were  as  seen  development.  structure  would  semito  details  structure part  of  the  Delivery  of  have  been  far  flexible.  The  fact  indicates of  concept  capacity which  were  socio-economic development  tolerated  to experimentation  : -  structures  a  the  process subject  w^re f a i r l y numerous? -  development  unforseen  that  that  innovative  require  a  procedures  1  implementation  the  the  within  was  p r o c e s s meets  departments  management  project  the  constraints  overcome.  amount  administrative outside  Lake  institutional  policies certain  Burns  There  this  criterion  the  generation  on  is  a  of  uniformity  and  o t h e r government  purposes.  departmental  Keeping  structure  in  tendency  to  administration  the  agencies  for  Burns  Lake  avoided this.  1  I t might have o c c u r r e d as a matter of course, because the necessity for the development of a l e g a l e n t i t y (BLNDC) , t h a t t h e economic a s p e c t of the p r o c e s s would remain simi-autonomous. However, t h i s would have been f a r l e s s p r o b a b l e i n t h e case of CDA.  108  (11)  Was of  there  explicit  results  provision  foe the continuous  and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  assessment  implementation  arrangements?  Somewhat. provide  a series  provide  To  begin  years  BLNDC  were  that  monies  was  with, was  to  would $25,000  CDA  with was  could  evaluated  carefully  of  i n  designed.  contract  geographic  for  local  which  approved  by  to  for  fund  B.C.  by  ensure  projects.  the loan  the  was  advanced  radius  self-help  from  effect  paternalistic  i n 1979. A l l l o a n s  be a d v a n c e d  and  s e t up s o a s t o  would  minimum  BLNDC  to a certain used  was  which  a  less  be r e v i e w e d  be  o f BLNDC  and balances  the original  restricted  over  concept  regulation  interference.  five  it  entire  of checks  internal  government  amount  The  No  until  Development  Corporation.  The  money a d v a n c e d  forgivable in  loans.  the years  t o BLNDC  The f i r s t  thereafter,  charged.  No  therefore  required before  owing  would  after  1979  payments  be i f  performance. three  person  appointee, This BLNDC  That  of  either  monitoring  were 3  o f performance board  made  or  was  and  to  be was  per year  level  of  was t o b e d e f i n e d  by a  of  one upon  the incentive  without  but  interest  percent  certain  but  free,  principal  sum  and one a g r e e d  to provide  efficient  up  grant,  interest  o f 12 1/2 a  of  percent  interest  maintained  was i n t e n d e d  economically  of  at a rate  one n a t i v e a p p o i n t e e ,  arrangement  years  1979. The p r i n c i p a l  had  level  five  interest  forgiven BLNDC  was n o t b y way  requiring  provincial appointee. to  keep  constant  109  government  On because  the  not  of  Human  programs a  but  very  other  have  than  little  despite  i t s  guidance  should  internal, checks  the  the  lack  of  the  of  the on  be  no  of to  form  the  for  CDA  the  Department  of  to  structure  revenue.  of  from  The  minitoring  association.  learn  input,  was  of  structure  written  of  should  report  dependent  generate  reguired  monitoring  the  programs  more  i t s  Human  provide  of  There  mistakes, Resources,  any  positive  arise.  uniformity  thus,  to  negative  need  balances  designed  capacity  for  institutional  be  a  annual  BLNDC, t h e  could  was  Resources  capacity  most  CDA  capacity  depending  and  1  hand,  tremendous  Because  1  other  i t did  Minister  was  supervision.,  into  of  the  constraints avoided.  specifically  in  more e f f e c t i v e i n  policy  BLNDC,  financial which  Thus the  response the  implementation  to  longer  CDA  and  arrangements  tend  was the of  to  promote  BLNDC-CDA  programs  native  needs,  and  run.  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o monitoring the continuous development of the policy output has been a b a n d o n e d by t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t ministers responsible (Labour, Economic Development, Finance) in favour of the more p a t e r n a l i s t i c approach of e x t e n d i n g grants i n s t e a d of f o r g i v a b l e l o a n s , and o f k e e p i n g d i r e c t and close government supervision over p o l i c y development of the corporation.  110  (12)  Was  there  explicit  assessments  to, adapt  arrangements  Somewhat. the  CDA  provided programs phased  out  as  with  native  both  learn  and  province  only  to  to  person  to  base  implicit of  policies  implementating  The requires  continuous a  with  team  members,  criterion,  only  the  respect  to  a  arrangement,  by  1979,  a  for a  working-  the of  and  policies  but  also  and the  experience  reports) on  and  province  p r o j e c t s . CDA  basis  team  corporation  BLNDC,  annual as  be  could  design  development  assessments  could  after  native  nature, relevant  programs  provided  the  not  (i.e.,  on  provided for  the  to  adapt  which  arrangements.  adaptation  continuous  the  meant  BLNDC  useful information  native  provision  The  monitoring  on  This  irrelevant  that  utilization and  and  changed.  ideas  meets  semi-autonomous  needs.  meant  gathering  program  their  between  i t s  future  of  exist  arrangements be  implementation  meeting i t .  local  needs  This  change  would  and  arangement  of  provincial  arrangement  implementing  which  and  1  short  developed  three  province.  BLNDC  because  community  for a  the  fall  be  providing  and  the  adaptation  could  learning  1  Again,  institutions, for  policies  these  accordingly?  arrangement  Both  Erovisio__for_utilizinq  two-way  of  policies  information  to  ensure  flow  which,  relevance in  a  large  I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h i s t h r e e p e r s o n b o a r d h a s b e e n s e t up by the S o c i a l C r e d i t M i n i s t e r s of Labour, Economic Development and F i n a n c e , b u t t h a t t h i s board i s now entirely formed of government appointed overseers (one f r o m e a c h m i n i s t r y ) and the mutual exchange aspect i s l o s t .  111  and  complex s o c i e t y may be a very c o s t l y undertaking  on  a  policy  context-  by  p o l i c y b a s i s w i t h i n the present  Technical  analysing  the  constraints  sheer  volume  of of  generating,  information  i f required institutional  gathering which  generated w i t h i n each government department c o u l d be constraint.  The  would  and be  a  serious  BLNDC-CDA models manage t o be adaptive  without  such problems because o f t h e i r d e c e n t r a l i z e d and semi-autonomous nature.  (13)  Were t h e v a r y i n g perceptions- of a l l a f f e c t e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n c l u d e d as i n p u t s t o the assessment and  m o d i f i c a t i o n procedure?-  Somewhati The Board of D i r e c t o r s f o r both came from the n a t i v e community at l a r g e , decides in  touch  with  an  process  has  lives  range  of  modification  allowed  were  whose p e r c e p t i o n s  1  CDA  were tapped. T h i s may  community  keep  result  p e r c e p t i o n s e n t e r i n g the  procedure  i f the  entire  policy  f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n t e r e s t e d groups  from the s t a r t - In Burns Lake there were some community whose  CDA  community sentiment. But i t was e s s e n t i a l l y the  adequate  assessment and  and  and as the board which  the p o l i c y o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the BLNDC and  n a t i v e community whose p e r c e p t i o n s in  1  BLNDC  impacted  members  from the p o l i c i e s of BLNDC—CDA but  d i d not enter i n t o the  process  at  all,  let  The S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n expanded the board o f CDA by f o u r non-native members i n 1976. The board now r e p r e s e n t s n a t i v e and non-native p e r c e p t i o n s i n p o l i c y . . Although i n i t i a l l y , the native people recoiled a t the forced i n t r u s i o n o f the government, they have now gotten over some of t h a t resentment.  112  alone  the  To via  assessment  a  the  certain extent,  various  populations. but  as  the  records  local  on  such  more  with  one  another.  constraint, in  Burns  populations on  Lake,  the  deadlines)  could  been  the  native to  be  board for  the  also NDP  despite  this  is  keep  a  development  costs  or  at  CDA  first,  i t s  own  there  may  operating  the  board be  to  between of  native  not  the  two vs  groups  of  Human  that  general.  CDA  Resources was  cooperate  personalities, and  non-native  and  non-native which  must  arrangements. with  majority)  the  particular  predictable difficulty implementing  at  the  constraints  very  native  and  limit  i s done,  do  a  misunderstandings.  fact  financial  i n d i v i d u a l s and  consensus  in  process to  enter  non-native  Behavioural  would  cooperation  Minister  community  did  and  evaluation  of  tensions  cause  the  policy  great-  designing  (e.g..,  began  surveys  specific  same.board  rules  of  i f members  where  when  i t  which  not  d i f f e r e n c e s between  decision  why  are  on  native  assessment  transaction  from  existed, the  considered  cultural  level  Usually,  depending  both  formal  extensive  relevant  perceptions  programs.  higher  costs  be  be  of  perspectives  level  to  matured,  constraints of of  members  a  a  c o n s t r a i n t s of  may  but  not  evaluations  financial  number  was  non-native  offered  organization  and  temporal  programs  This  Although be  procedure.  and  respect time  The to  (e.g.,  This  may  have  opted  for  an a l l  technically  supposed  113  CHAPTER  VII:  A  NORMATIVE  TOWARDS  MODEL OF  REGIONAL  PROMOTING  THE  GOVERNMENT  OPTIMAL  FOR  B.C.:  PLANNING/POLICY  PROCESS  A.  The  P u r s u i t _ o f The  Although are  if  the  the  to  evaluator and  Burns  and  of  It  of  should  have  this  paper  undertake  outputs  of  the  Chapter  III)  Assessing done  with  process.  process. i s  on  a  than  of  the  Development  participation output"  of  which  view  to  process, to  the  who  economic  Corporation mi11-BLNDC-CDA  Burns  Lake  of  methodological  should  I t i s not  have the  process,  benefited purpose  of  task.  to  given  there  i n the  myriad  i f anyone?  However,  referring  policy a  i s  respect  p r o j e c t i n terms Native  a  their  shortsighted  attention i s given  formation  one  such  of  be  i s to  lost,  misleading  i t would  judge  who  very  With  who  and  policy  not  be  government  assumptions.  a  case,  can  policies  of  aware  presents  any  process  Lake  use  of  fully  that  In  less  are  aspects  of  they  value  the  "policy  problems.  Much  efficiency  reviewer  total  c o n s t i t u t e s the  to  substantive  p r o j e c t , f o r example,  the  evaluating  the  inherent  Burns  i s  the  otherwise),  the  success  performance (BLNDC).  and  their  Lake  evaluate  which  determining  ( f i n a n c i a l and  limitations to  e v a l u a t i o n s of  useful for  resources  Optimal-Process  assessing to  assessing  in assessing the  is  set  almost like  improving  the  of  a  consensus  future  of  substantive  planning/policy  democratic  assessing the  the  process  policy  norms in  (see  Canada.  output,  is  planning/policy  114  There  are  two  planning/policy -a  reasons  why  one  would  want  to  improve  the  process:  better process  should  result  in better policy  - a b e t t e r p r o c e s s i s an e n d i t s e l f s a t i s f i e s the values inherent i n a of government (see C h a p t e r III).  outputs,  1  i n the sense t h a t i t democratic system  2  As  was  policy  discussed  process  institutional assessment  criteria  optimality  the  key  be  elemental  For  time.  be  to  designed  promote  process  Because  of  was  the  locations  one  could  result  was  the  to be  with  the  to  of  the  key  of  with  to  not  the  limit  the  i t  must  "utopianw" Lake  Thus  process  will  design  process.  to on  the the  issues  m i n i s t e r s had  attention  thirteen  institutional  policy  policy  the  the  empirical constraints  Burns of  the  while  optimal,  limitations  local  much  meet  constraints  which  r e c e i v e as  the  improving  reform.  be  the  aspects  strict  myriad  of  to  " o p t i m a l " and  the  the  tendency  designed is  problems  of  "means"  minimize  optimality  provincial process  be  i t  suggesting  i n s t a n c e , one  Lake  should  i f i t i s to  to  the  institutional  i f  c o n s t r a i n t s or  necessary  Burns  through  framework  simultaneously to  is  earlier,  as  policy  i t  optimal  ministers' in to  various deal,  should.  process  to  as  no The few  1  I t does not f o l l o w , however, t h a t a p o l i c y which i s agreed by most t o be " g o o d " i n s u b s t a n t i v e t e r m s i s n e c e s s a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f a g o o d p r o c e s s . I t may j u s t h a p p e n t h a t t h e r e i s s o much p u b l i c consensus t h a t a p o l i c y succeeds despite a lack of debate. However, a good p r o c e s s r e d u c e s p o l i t i c a l r i s k s t h a t a p o l i c y w i l l b e u n p o p u l a r when u n c e r t a i n t i e s a r e g r e a t a n d t h e r e i s l a c k of c o n s e n s u s - which i s most o f the t i m e .  2  Obviously, substantive  however, a policies.  process  can  never  exist  without  115  participants manageable prevented  as within  the  This  British  Columbia  long  as  the  Burns  goals.  as  possible  Cabinet  responsibilities  Decreasing Cabinet  also never  that be  i f an  optimal  number  of  could or  be  the  regionally  elected  ministers  were  frustrated  (as  were  in  p a r t i c i p a t i o n from  i t  would  unwieldy.  responsibilities would  therefore  If  the  local  level  met,  but  making  In  the  be  the  decision in  prevent  first  to  be  The would  of  place,  promote  the  have be  achieved.  of  each  executive  of  would  because  and for  of  to  Cabinet s t i l l the  be high  t e c h n i c a l problems  to  such  Moreover, an  division optimal  of  fewer  delegated  number  extent of  of the  as  to  decision  policy  process  option.  were  decentralized  participation  local  goals  volume  of  be  distance.  of  optimality of  a  in  responsibility  goals  the  expanded  associated  to  number  the  Lake)  a  processes  such  i s  could  mode  Columbia,  participation  therefore  the  If  such  This  specialized ministers  issues  and  time.  responsibilities  or  decentralized  problems  have  total  responsibilities  British  other  would  which  to  process  participation  process  the  negotiation  have  meet  decision  Burns  coordinating  the  meeting  participation  costs  render  of  ministers'  must  policy  policy  expanded,  the  continue  representatives.  they  itself  to  number  transaction  Cabinet  able  increased,  local  render  provincial policy  means i n c r e a s i n g Either  to  from  Decision-makers  decision-makers.  regionalized  on  process  ministers  the  minister  departments  Lake  will  order  constraints  suggests  responsibilities.  in  with the  this  goals  scale  of  planning/policy  governments  do  to  the  could  be  decisionprocess.  not  have  116  sufficient natural the of  areal  perspective  resource  decisions  interaction view the  the  sawmill  have  should  local  sufficient  nor  could  decision  local  i n  and  s o many  of a local  delegated  ever  ministers  of could  with  local  the point  governments  themselves  the  where would  decision-making  n o t be d e c e n t r a l i z e d  either  agencies.  the  Since  policy i n  which  must  around  process social  not  to  have  handle the  be d e c e n t r a l i z e d ,  to  duplicate  the  necessary  These  factors  suggest  that the  are best  decentralized  two  institutional  bureaucratic be  to  a  regional  the optimal  design  agencies; to  option  options  responsibilities  capabilities  delegated  bureaucratic  criteria,  t h e Burns  do  resources  decision-making  could  structured  hope  general  decentralization of decision  to regional  accountability  in  technical  locations-  again,  responsibilities  offs  on t h e b a s i s o f  a s from  among  of the  level.  are,  regions:  the  many  responsibilities  responsibilities  associated  As  as well  many  of the municipalities  governments  financial  There  be  t o b e made  decided  Many  Therefore,  the province  resources  the  be l o c a t e d .  making  For instance,  n o t have  of Cabinet  of decision  instead  have  their  governments.  Secondly,  volume  could  i t .  responsibilities to  preferences-  northwest  wanted  which  of e c o l o g i c a l systems  of social  in  t o warrant  or  could  be  decision-making  regionally does  to  elected  not satisfy the  institutional  design  would  elected.local representatives.  Lake  process  illustrated,  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were choices.  For instance,  at various  reguired  phases i n  t o make  the native  group  tradehad t o  117  accept but  a  more  modest  they  were  willing  program clear  needs  t o the  economic with  were  economic t o do  met.  Director  acquiring  so  In  that  social  However,  mandate  did  Minister  o f Human  R e s o u r c e s had  process.  His late  entry  Association.  beginning,  the  Had  BLNDC—CDA  than  with and  ELUC's  designed  have  and  i n the  involved  r e l a t i o n s h i p might  were  securing  development,  involved  been  i t became  more c o n c e r n e d  Secretariat  in a hastily he  social  priorities  were  programs  program  hoped,  perceived  (whose  t o become  resulted  at f i r s t  negotiations,  people  the  social  had  their  during  development  participation.  Development  i f  the native  include  they  Secretariat  economic  not  than  only  fact,  of the  development)  role  the  policy  Community from  been  the  designed  differently.  The social  dynamics choices  facilitate  and  of the requires  integrate  ideally,  decision-makers  involved  i n the  is  t o be  not  charged purpose joint  with  process  process  that these  from  than  decisions  choices.  than  among  institutional  design  also  sectors  the optimal  made  by  means  should  be  that, jointly  i f policy  development  regional  institution  responsibilities  single-purpose,  rather  trade-offs  This  the beginning  Thus  decision—making  making  the optimal  in a l lpublic  "lopsided."  rather  of  would  be  and  a l ldecisions  the  individual  multiwould  be  executive  representatives.  The Columbia the  presence would  citizens  bringing  a  alter  of the  of the  elected  governments  p r o v i n c i a l government's  regions.  provincial  regional  No  longer  perspective  would to  the  in  British  relationship to  the  province  regions  via  be the  118  regionally  based  provincial  perspectives  would of  require  the  bureaucracy,  close  region  and  maximum  optimal  Other pay  close  wide  of  attention model of  range  in the  the  and in  organized  Lake  process  less  and  information  well  in  the  jurisdictional  access  in  discrete  to to  or Since  resources,  promoting  as  i t was  well  depends of  as on  of  order Lake  to  the  a  the  generation  the  number  of  and  clear of  of  a  groups  among  groups  also  noted  (financial, institutional  a l l  except  rendered  provision for  to  regional  that  existing  to  need  the  the  the Burns  optimal  resources_for  ensure  access  to  participation.  eliminate  process  seen  Therefore,  include  the  constraints  the  optimal.  the  H o w e v e r , i t was  BCANSI),  to  of  interaction  participation  channels  suggest  operation  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - web as  Burns  of  instance,  (i.e.,  will  a  process  resource  the  than  participation,  Moreover,  executive  governments.  conducive  process.  and  groups  design  present  policy  blocked  institutional  as  For  informational)  B.C.  most  details  amount  institutional  framework  Lake  alternatives  participating  technical,  Burns  preferences  and  the  to  the  either  maximum more  the  itself.  social of  the  to  participating  that  be  and  process-  aspects  definition  between  provincial  are  regional  Policy integration  respect can  requires  jurisdictions-  government  links  With  r e g i o n a l and  participation  policy  integrated.  jurisdictions  between  overlapping  be  instead,  communications  Cabinet.  responsibilities, overlapping  would  but  at  the the  physical-economic bureaucratic  level  bias of  1.19  government,i should  be  executive  a  whole, r a t h e r  mandate  than  unit  Cabinet.  regional  policy  avoid  agency  further  bias  would  minimize  the  the  preference  Forests Resources  influence  Water  i n  committee  probability  that  one  with  a  aspects  a  policy  bias  i n the  a l l aspects  Burns  i n the  o f many the  various  existing  interdepartmental and  bureaucratic  and s o c i a l  extends  The joint decisions political level.  of  the  i t  the  to  such  aspects  Minister  in  would as the could  aspect (task  the  native Lands,  o f Human Lake.  the  the policy builds force)  regular  eliminate  A  members on  increase  entering  structure  executive  of  Burns  would  This  include  of  the Minister  and opinions  committee  committee  process,  e s p e c i a l l y where  side.  to  C l e a r l y , the Director's  disciplines,  perceptions  intended  feature  Lake  negotiation  of bureacuracy,  a r e from  design  to include  of  design  key i n d i v i d u a l ,  d i d not encourage  from  Lake,  Use  regional  the best  non-hierarchical, This  the economic  process  Burns  the  Resources  structure  committee  the  agency  the  Land  providing  of  d i r e c t i o n of the process.  separate  and  of  against  aspect  bureaucracy.  f o r keeping  development  and  to  Committee  upon  thus  ensuring  be  of the Secretariat  on  and b u i l d s  a complementary  of regional  have  responsible  aspect  design,  government  process.  structure  Director  regional  t o a Cabinet  This  borrows from  and  of the  an E n v i r o n m e n t  responsible  the existing institutional  Similarly,  1  than  design  analysis  the  aspect  Analysis .Secretariat  Secretariat  government of  Policy  as a  Committee narrower  the Secretariat  bias  upon in  use o f  at the  120  committees  within  Finally,  i t was  reevaluation Lake  the  of  seen  policy  depended  the  specific  itself.  continuous  implementation  the  process.  are  Secretariat  that  and  upon  implementation adjustment  Policy  arrangements  institutional  Since  assessment  design  c o n t i n u a l assessment  assessment the  criteria  policy  process  must  meet,  optimal  policy  formation  must  i n c o r p o r a t e the  which  institutional principle  in  Burns  of  the  and  the  and  policy optimal  design  of  for  continuous  monitor i n g .  To  summarize,  constraints the  to  thirteen  designed  be  as  to  the  model  the will  first  r e g i o n a l model  improved  of  of  be  the  aspects  policy  process  a  i n the  used the  minimize  while  following  a l l decisions  web;  to  institutional  regional;  design  elected  local  joint;  executive  resources  Analysis  monitoring.  framework  twelve  jurisdictions; Policy  of  framework  this  d e s c r i b e d and  Burns  Lake  been  to  illustrate  process  then  process  had  the  principles  in place.  Although  the  points  are  in general.  regional  may  The  government  according  process  to  have  occurred i f  the  Burns  made, t h e  intended  model  Columbia.  illustrated  which  for  Secretariat;  These  for British  chapter,  the  meeting  d e c e n t r a l i z e d , r e g i o n a l government  r e g i o n a l government  policy  the  the  continuous  remainder  changes  is  i n order  overlapping  institutional  the  example  on  communications  design  optimal  In  that  criteria,  multi-purpose;  structure;  the  the  based  Cabinet;  participation;  lead  say  decentralized;  representatives;  committee  of  assessment  should  to  could  optimality  principles:  linked  one  to  Lake  normative  promote  manifested  an as  a  121  result  of  the  specifically is  imaged  t h e r e f o r e the  process would  are  also  their  Model  designed  according  outlined  i n the  decentralized, not  sectors  Districts,  public limit of  The  in  place  c o n s t r a i n t s to the  i n order  is  assessment c r i t e r i a  to indicate with  the  of Regional_Ggyernment  model  level  mass  of  how  and  optimal  the  model  achievement  but a l s o  regional  rather than  and  of  render  government  The  of this  flexible  and  dynamic,  changes  i n public  to  be  the model  open  given  and  therefore and  which  policy  would  a be  within a l l  actively  (e.g..  and  in  model  Regional  sensitive  to  t h e c o n s t r a i n t s which  issues.  t o the  the  design  essentially  The  combination  coupled  representative  sensitive  i s  them.  communications  attitudes  i s  for participation  agencies, and  to  as  elected  f o r B.C.  r e g i o n a l government  added  in a l lpolicy  numerous  officials,  model  The  Columbia  institutional  participating  possible  channels  of  institutions  be  designed as  British  government  regional  of  current  i s also  For  r e g i o n a l government  formulating  participation  electorate.  The  processes.  involvement  processes  aspects  policy  RRMCs),  resources  regional  section.  multi-purpose, only  model  of  to the twelve  participation  active  process.  previous  replace  The  being  a l lthirteen  interference  of government,  provincial would  meet  discussed  normative  capable  government's  criteria.  A Normative  The  to  optimal  minimize  assessment  B.  regional  public  preferences,  in  preferences  links  capable  with  of or  the  policy of i t s  between  the  make t h i s  model  evolving  with  with  changes  in  122  the  will  constraints to  In  this  be  first  the  model  institutional become  the  section*  optimal  the  outlined,  design  familiar  with  will the  process.  s t r u c t u r e of  while  according  policy  to  the each  be organs  regional  d i s c u s s i o n of of  reserved of  the  the  the  twelve  until model.  the  the  government  operation  of  aspects  of  reader  has  123  (1)  Structure  FIGURE  6:  A-Normajtive._Model  General  Assembly  •  •  •  •  •  • •  •  •  • •  •  of  Regional  Government  For  B.C.  Representatives  •  •  •  •  •  •  la •  •  •  •  •  Provi nci al Cabi net  (b)  P o l i cy A n a l y s i s Secretariat  •  —~f— Regional  Execu'tive 3*  *  Departments (  o  )  Provincial StaJi  Monitoring _  124  (i)  General  The  regional  legislative  some  of  (e.g.,  before  eligibility  Burns  Lake  and  representative  within  elected  the  would  areas  of  be c h a r g e d  regional  area  with  would  There  could  would  requirement  be  established.  have  an  elected  Assembly.  regional which  policy would  according  formation include the  to  regional  debate and p a s s by-laws  in  be a  constituencies  basis.  would  policies  policy  from  would  regional residency  jurisdiction,  Assembly  Assembly  population  i n the General  provincial  The  formalized  year)  immediate  of regional  implementation  by  t o s i t i n the Assembly  sitting  body  priorities.  five  General officials  on a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  minimum  This  government's  body  designated be  Assembly  the  various  areas  which  of  i t s  a  party  jurisdiction.  (i i )  The E x e c u t i v e _  Whether political were,  not,  o r n o t t h e Assembly  basis  the party  Assembly  Assembly,  officials.  be  leader  Executive  would with  like  head  jointly.  should further  then  could  would  the Cabinet,  a department, i s  elected  each  be  Council. by t h e  If  General  Council  members.  paid,  full-time  member  but, a l l major  possible  If i t  of the General  the Executive be  on  consideration.  by t h e E x e c u t i v e  members  This  be o r g a n i z e d  be c h a i r p e r s o n  forming  Council  Council  Much  would  taken  f o r  and t h e c h a i r p e r s o n  Executive  Council  i s a point  and be c h a r g e d  the  Council  because  of the  Executive  decisions the  would  number o f  125  decisions  which  substantially responsible  (iii)  The  executive less  The E x e c u t i v e  departments  would  unit  of  for a  egual cost  The  membership  to or less  than  of maintaining  to  coordinate  Membership basis.. its  broadest  as  1  resource terms)  Council.  "minor"  at  the  would  be  Cabinet  ministers  staff  for  from  i n  i n the General the decrease  the  left  provincial  monitoring a particular  Assembly  itself)  would  not  used  on  be  be d e f i n e d (where  many  a  members should  i n p r o v i n c i a l employees.  be r e f e r r e d  Of c o u r s e ,  as  staff  implementation  conflicts  (the  of the region),  regional  would  would  the  Assembly.  members  dominating  bureaucracy  committees  staff  employees  staff  bias  increase  would  the  make  by t h e G e n e r a l  regional  become  agency  on t h e c o m m i t t e e  Major  Executive  could  government  Interdepartmental basis  facing  provide  provincial  regional  to  Departments  few p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d  process.  (including  number  have  province.  would  employees  t o check  policy  the  would  the p o l i c y advanced  replace  provincial except  than  f o r t h e whole  implementation They  members  of on  "resource"  t o and d e a l t  resource level  of  The  increase.*  a  regional a  be  regular policy.  sub-regional i s defined i n with  conflicts perception  by  the  classified would  be  This i s not to suggest that the p r o v i n c i a l staff functions would be r e p l a c e d on a one t o one b a s i s i n t h e r e g i o n . Q u i t e t h e c o n t r a r y , some r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s may h a v e m o r e o r f e w e r s t a f f members t h a n t h e c o m p a r a b l e p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t . T h i s p o i n t i s made o n l y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t model does not call f o r t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f , but i n s t e a d t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f them.  126  "major"  at  committees resource  body  be  outside  and would analysis  the policy  committees  on  the  direction.  make  the  The  field  of  conducting  periodic  Executive  Council  impleme n t a t i o n .  i n touch  would  studies)  field  policy with  persons  provincial of  this  departmental  be  process.  Secretariat someone This  operations,  changes  just would  i n policy  serve  and i n f o r m i n g .  who  would  committees  be c h a r g e d w i t h  by  the  line  and r e p o r t i n g  t o ensure that the  would  basis,  as  They  aids do n o t  own.  also  policy  being  The  t h e committees  advising  on t h e i r  with  touch  Council.  Members  policy.  on  however,  Council,  decisions  for  and  regional  development  in  cases,  on  committee  operators  Secretariat  responsible  analysis  consultants,  etc.).  of  staff  I n both  implementation  staff,  participate  staff  policy  sometimes  (e.g.,  department  Executive  policy  unit  i n the policy  some  when  be on a c o m m i t t e e  on t h e c o m m i t t e e  implementation  the Secretariat  for  would  the departmental  involved  Council  d i r e c t l y t o the Executive  and research  also  i n the  including  to  report  department  might  participant  departmental  Secretariat  responsible  analysis  regional  Secretariat  been  would  participants  officials,  regional  arose.  This  some  The  d i r e c t l y to the Executive  Analysis  with  keep  report  The: P o l i c y  policy  as  would  level.  {iv)  All  keep  regional  conflicts  coordination  had  the  process  elected of  monitoring  agencies  (e.g.,  the findings  to  representatives  policy  formation  the by the  remain and  127  Finally, with  the  Secretariat  communications  elected  representatives  representative would  would  communicate  generated would  be  member  of  analysed, the  problems  of  problems.  in  the  This  generation  would  more  would  and  resources  creative  the  avoid  also  be  them pattern  with  a v a i l a b l e on the  a  policy  which  The  public  information  and  reported  whole  region to  Council  informed  of  each on  the  This  enable  unit  administering basis  of  the to  a  major  distribution  s i t u a t i o n s and  regular  the  citizens  the  of  charged  with  for  policies.  charged  in  ideas.  Executive  crisis  be  Each  through  links  and  keep  and  Assembly.  processed  relevant  participation  of the the  funds  encourage  process.  Operation  (i)  As to  and  would  transactions  office,  needs  to  help  Secretariat other  an  Assembly  order  thereof)  General  communication  region  of  the  organized,  General  basis  of have  these  unit  information  problems,  through  regular  (2)  and  (or  take  Regional  discussed on  the  substantially ministers.  The  previously,  number  and  reduce  Therefore,  regional  twenty-nine  Districts)  because larger  of  burden  regional  government  duplicated  necessitate  range  the a  local  would  responsibilities of  outlined  (the  financial  and  populations  to  support  on  model  is  here  could  current staff  be  number  to  Cabinet  preferred.  of  reguirements such  unable  necessary  responsibilities  government  model  times  governments  not  be  Regional would  governments.  The  128  boundaries  chosen  physical  and  the  area  is  to  include  process  regional  multi-functional in a  fact  a  heterogeneous  would  dialectic  be  governments  rationale  "region".  i s characterized  environments rural  for  The  region  population  by  lively  included  i s c e n t r a l to  so  1  to  the  the  as  to  would  be  ensure  have  some  ensure  that  large  enough  that  the  policy  Both  urban  and  rural  region,  since  the  urban-  debate.  in  would  concept  of  the  functional  region.  Although government of  the  i s beyond  northwest  more t o  the  rather  than  the  best  Burns  establishing  the  the for  would  the  be  of  boundaries this  Regional  would  Resource  District  "capital"  approximately  of  the  have  region.  miles  regional  areal to  extent  correspond  Management  boundaries.  the  100  of  t h e s i s , the  government  Regional  from  Region  Smithers  2  This  means  the  centre  is  that of  government.  (ii)  Decentralized,  The  regional  provincial  that  extends the  Multi-purpose  government  perspective  jurisdiction essential  scope  regional  of  to  centre  Lake  regional  size  the  the  and  i s decentralized  multi-purpose  through  actual  model  a l l  in  the  government  decision-making  sense  from that  sectors.  capabilities  be drawn on management).  the  basis  the i t s  It  is  within  1  i.e., boundaries would not function (e.g., water resources  of  one  2  This is not to imply that RRMC districts should be the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s o r any o t h e r r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . O t h e r more p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s c o u l d be s m a l l e r i n a r e a l extent.  129  regiona 1  jurisdictions  provinc i a l  Cabinet  m ust  they  it  i s b<e y o n d  which  would  those  p owers  Fo r  the scope be  a  with  regional  the human  within  areas  regional  program s  such  been  areas  power  o f re s o u r c e ,  the  would  policy  the reqional  as w e l l ,  timber  would s t i l l  have  government  i n  the  jurisdiction.  i t would  and s o c i a l with  have  been  (but i n  whil e  the  o f pro p o s a l s ,  Moreover,  jurisdiction  The  northwest  undertaking  and c h o i c e  would  p o l icy-  government),  review  associated  the  forest  provincial  have  a l t h o ugh  example,  forest  of a  regional  a s were  every  governments, i n g e n e r a l ,  Lake  regional  economic  policy  Although  delays,  itemize  implementing  cunits  bids,  government  resource  and f u n d  and  for  been  wide  with  the  to  issues  local regiona1  "red tape"  and i n c l u d e  Burns  have  of  relieve  to  etc. policy.  responsibility,  s t i l l  a d v e r t i sement h ave  the  o f t h e 180,000  consult ation  would  i n  charged  would  region  economic,  as  expedient  paper  broad  so  myriad  to regional  f o r province  provincial  a l l o t t m ent  the  promote  of this  be q u i t e  instance,  been  have  to  delegated  would  respons i b i l i t y been  and  from  u n h i n d e r e d by e x c e s s i v e  education,  social,  decentralized  ministers  resolve  d e v e l o p ment,  be  because  i n economic  and  a b l e t o' d e v e l o p  development  agen c i e s  t h e development of  or  BLNDC  BLC DA.  (iii)  The  A l l  Decisions  Executive  designed  to  decisions  would  Joint-  Council  a c t as a  unit  be j o i n t  of the regional and t h e r e f o r e  ones.  Th i s  government a l l important  provides  model  i s  regional  f o r the integration  130  of  policies  choices  the  the  been  Human  the  Burns  Resources  Executive  would  the beginning  the  policy  economic  The  output  reqional  they  would  would  concern  level  policies  while  letting  support  might  participation  Thus  the  as  charge  Resources  as  right  aspects  attention  of  of  as t h e  t o Cabinet -  possessing  setting  the  autonomous  determine  standards In a  sense,  regional  structure  The  broader  be a s e t o f g o a l s  governments  policies  substantial  of the province."  provincial policy,  standards,  the best to  the regional but  province  provincial  or  according  on  would  government  the  regional  sense,  choose  means  regional  p o l i c y . Although  i n the broadest  since  i t i s  to  i f t h e r e g i o n a l government  there  ignore  had the  i n the region.  also a  government  i n  social  a s much  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  model  social  i n the process  of Forest  n o t be c o m p l e t e l y  be f o r m u l a t i n g  regional  member  as involved  although  often  provincial  o f t h e people  This  could  and p r i o r i t i e s .  that  override  Linked  the regional  would  i n  of the project.  more w i t h  an h i e r a r c h i c a l power  unlikely or  which  Council  acquired  be " c r e a t u r e s  itself  trade-offs  had t h e r e g i o n a l  i n charge  governments,  be implementing i t  been  have  aspect  powers,  the  preferences  is  would  s t i l l  meeting  level,  member  Executive - Council  decision-making  would  have  of the process.  development  ( i v)  example,  the Executive  Council  of  level.  Lake  i n place,  from  of  accommodation  at the political  In model  and  provides  representative  for of  regional the  government  non-participating  131  regional  groups and  provincial is  level  a political  links  between  interaction  constituent  policies.  of  Because  institution,  region  and  members  in  the  the regional  the communication  province  the Executive  would  Council  be  and  formation  government and  model  participation  through  Cabinet  of  the  direct  (see F i g u r e  6  -  link (a)).  In have of  the  been  timber  regional setting are  Burns  which  the guota  be  the  have  to the  with  cunit  Cabinet.  proposals  to  of  or  guota  forestry  staff  would  need  guota.  However,  regional  would  The  then  final  the timber  the staff  of  guota  evaluating  would  to  communicate  choice  accepting,  of  staff  preceding  who  the  i n the process  analysis  of  harvest  standard  and  Council  task  i t would  the  the regional  ministers.  The  involved  most  surveys  Executive  Cabinet  been  TSHL  although  i n the northwest region,  Because  region,  180,000  with  choosing  would  offered.  by  of the  directly  for instance,  harvested  i n the t e c h n i c a l  report  remains  could  government  participate  would  process,  provincial r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to set the  employed  setting  Lake  be  a  and  regional  responsibility.  The therefore best  provincial-regional a  interest  functioning much  complementary to  well,  support  is.  percentage  and  as they  Financially, a  ensure  one. that  therefore need  o f t h e income  be  regional  to offer  i n the  is  province's  governments  regional  governments  are as  well.  governments  tax c o l l e c t e d ,  t o keep  relationship  I t would  to function  the regional  I t i s not desirable  government  regional  would much  be  supported  as t h e  governments  by  province  financially  132  weak  since  regional income  this  would  governments  taxes  hinder would  (within  their  also  a limit)  policy-making  be  given  to allow  abilities-  the a b i l i t y  to  for flexibility  The  increase  i n policy  d e v e l o p ment.  Besides  these  equalization areas  of  grants  B.C.  areas.  ministries  now  of  grants.  These  or  desirable.  The Assembly Council already  This  (e.g.,  t h e more  need  i s  ministerial  be  grants  staff would  also  be keep  on p a y r o l l t o b e e m p l o y e d regions. may  be  sufficient  Elected  Local  elected and  Over  or  p o s i t i o n . The been  representative  populated the  some  of the  be  necessary  bureaucracies  a small  b y t h e more  population  more  administration  longer  employed  t o warrant t h i s  representative may  not  duties  discussed; as a  within  provide  when  small.  needed.  The  technical staff remote  and  redistribution program  of  less t o the  unnecessary.  .Representative  local  may  time,  no  t o keep  can  to  in their  would  also  or less  equal  recognized  Affairs)  taken  would  remote  opportunities  Municipal  government  populated  (v)  have  technical  provincial  regions  that  attempt would  Additional  experts  so  could  populated  Every  arrangements, the province  general  of the  sits  i n  be chosen t o f i l l the  Executive  function  of  purpose r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  the an  General Executive  Council the  have  elected  i s dealt  with  here.  The  most  important  role  that  the  elected  representative  133  plays in  i s t o debate  existing policy  is  presumed  to  and vote by-laws.  have  o n new  p o l i c y by-laws  In this  knowledge  function of  preferences  of h i s or her constituent  stance  an  on  policies  would  Assembly. which  issue. be  New  i t  i s  the representative  meetings  of  the  by  majority  not simply  has o c c a s i o n  whole  f o r the Executive  Assembly  the  representatives policy would the  policy  t o express  formation. be kept  local  invited  In a d d i t i o n ,  posted  office  i n  only  the immediately  participate  represents  freguent such  this  wide  inform  constituent  groups,  on p o l i c y  as  listen  to  communicate the  these  Secretariat,  of the  general  members,  their  (2)  and  of  the  problems,  to  through be  members a t processes,  be l i k e l y  regional  General (b)  to  extent  may  Assembly  to  i n Figure  6  relationship.)  representative  government  bodies,  policy  needs  Executive  in  would  policy  would  purpose  or pending  purpose  representatives  they  (Link  the  stage  constituent  Assembly  local  provide post  early  localized  of  would to  stage  Monthly  of p o l i c y issues  {1) t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and  an  purpose  of their  general  development  to  at  participation.  Executive-General  i s t h e duty  views  policies  meetings  General  f o r the general  representative  while  the  members  a  i n existing  of  Assembly  and  In very  affected  directly,  more  accommodate  the process.  taking  participate.  representative,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e on b e h a l f  point  It  the  changes  to  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of  any  require  their  before  vote  Council  issues,  balanced the  at the legislative  General  opportunities on  and  changes  representative  t o have  members  policies  passed  However,  and  the  o r on  and  changes ideas  processing Council  to  and  local  as  well  and  centre members  to of when  134  complaints and  are specific  (d) i n F i g u r e  (vi)  In specific would  6 illustrate  Resources  policy  issues, financial,  resources  invite  the participation  words,  a  new  policy  are also considered  be  to participate  (e)  and  (f) i l l u s t r a t e  t e c h n i c a l and s t a f f  resources  i s  resources being  a specialized  directly  this  members  Local  group  would  Web  Aside  from  and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e  information  be  essential  criteria. between  and channels elements  The  and  government  meeting web  regional model  process. 6.  needs,  and o v e r l a p p i n g governments  to  assessment jurisdictions  ensure  these  access  are considered  participation  provides  Links  that  the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s on a  basis.  Local  government  members  may  general  purpose  receive  information  progress  in  which  Jurisdictions-  f o r participation  communications  provincial  regional regular  financial  there are  formulated.  i n Figure  Overlapping  regular  simply  Communications  K  know  i n the policy  relationship  on a  are not  (vii)  to  the  groups i n  the constituent  governments invited  (c)  of local  available for participation; when  Links  relationships.  a v a i l a b l e t o residents of the region  other  allotted  debate.  For P a r t i c i p a t i o n -  to  In  policy  these  order  b e made  basis.  to a current  bodies,  local  or communicate  representative they  receive  of regional policy  groups  and l o c a l  information  (link  processes  through  (c) i n F i g u r e  would  constituent  6) .  be  concerned  (links  (g) a n d  the  local  Some with  (d) ) ,  of the  while  135  some of  of the information general  The  needs,  latter  type  constituency by (d)  and  office  maximizes access provides  checks  resources on  the  i n t h e whole  availably  has been  gathered  are  region.  after and  Secretariat  an  open and  aspect  to  the  policy  mistakes  thereof)  agency  Council  (link  various  fields  the  processed  (see  links  of design  which  make.  citizen  processes,  which  might  Analysis  one  or  seeking and  which  the  other  1  and would  of perceptions  might  also  this  approach  bias  in policy  members  a  range  Members  agency*  Executive  specialists in  basis  on  and t h e r e f o r e  Non-secretariat  committees. or i n t h i s  policy  on t h e c o m m i t t e e s  of disciplines  problems.  multi-purpose  the  be  committee  on t h e p o l i c y  i s t o avoid  to  would  processes.  of p o l i c y  be i n c l u d e d  directly  work on a  policy  represent  range  Secretariat i s a  responsible  (h)). Staff  in specific  A unit  1  jurisdictions  regional Policy  also  pattern  Policy.Analysis.Secretariat  bureaucratic  analysis  the  6) .  (or agency  (viii)  about  i s  unit of the regional  public  government  would  information  t h e number o f a v e n u e s  to  The  and problems  information  (c) i n F i g u r e  Overlapping  be i n f o r m a t i o n  preferences of  the information  would  One  case  a  members  purpose  of  "discipline"  analysis.  o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t would  See: Mark S p r o u l e - J o n e s , "An P u b l i u s , V o l . 4. F a l l , 1974.  also  Analysis  be  responsible  of Canadian  for  Federalism,"  136  processing  and  Communications and  for  transferring  Web  ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s (c) , (d)  dispensing  applicants  (link  Finally,  financial,  a  unit  of  for  according  directives  reporting (n)  in  which would  the  6).  would  work  and for of the the  (ix)  Committee  the  the  Executive  the  various  of  with  the  departmental  i s  of  the  It  of  for  (h)  and unit  agencies  the  who  data-  of  design  of  any  the  government  Analysis  Staff  would  members  responsibilities  allows  and  for  ideas  into  design  could  participation  structure  and  associated  be in  itself.  the  executive  operate  would  the  domination  innovative  Secretariat  r e g i o n a l government  which  department,  maximun  to  provincial  without  institutional  accommodating  of  feature  one and  regional  alternative  implementation  aspect  the  characteristic  i s a  perception  within  of  chosen  design  principle.  committee  of  be  and  multi-discipline  aspect  the  policy  This  Policy  committee  to  outputs  (links  a  numerous p e r c e p t i o n s  departments  Council  be  of  process  policy  also  injection  means  would  Council  actual collection  bureaucracies.  process.  on  Executive  structure  bureaucractic  the  resources  data  the  policy  staff  Structure  design  the  6) ,  analysing  by  as  in Figure  Secretariat  process  Both  to  for  coordination  policy  (g)  the  regional  the  the  would  committee  federal the  from  closely  responsible  viewed the  This  be  hierarchical  and  findings to  institutional  t e c h n i c a l and  the  gathering  Figure  The  and  through  (e)) .  responsible to  information  thus with  according be  assigned  either  the  137  analysis of  the Secretariat  policy the  or implementation  issues  Executive  committees conflict to  Council  which  arose  during  Secretariat  staff  of Figure  as  may  policies  the  with  are being  person  has  professionsl  responsibility  departmental  responsibilities  Member.  Thus  change  suggestions  Council  Council procedural member  discussion  Only  any m i n o r  would  basis.  be  with  Any  referred  Executive  new  to  departmental  Council committee  Secretariat policies,  and  departmental  implemented  (relationship  with  member  could  Executive  e t c .and specialized  associated  single  change,  but policy  t h e whole  a  emerge  or  any  from  major  changes  the  Council policy  the professional directly  (relationship  be d e c i d e d  with  Executive  be r e p o r t e d  i n charge  changes  alone,  i s  would  regularly  a r e employed  simultaneous  of  might  are  "economists",  which  member  members  f u n c t i o n s , they  a  procedural  which  of the s t a f f  Minor  of  as t h e  directly  departmental  s i t  staff  "socialworkers",  each  Executive  The  sub-regional  departmental  "foresters",  judgement  the  to  i n s u b - r e g i o n a l committees  therefore  6).  by  development  s i t  be f o r m e d  sub-regional  implementation  invited  committees  6) .  Although involved  a  The  report  6) .  6). A t t i m e s ,  the  when new  on  directly  be  would  (h) i n F i g u r e  i n policy  would  b u t would  committees  organized  with  committees  (i)  (link,  (j) i n F i g u r e  members  committees  n o t be f i x e d  These  be  dealt  (relationship staff  arose.  would  and  would  of regional policies.  by  would  (k) the  to  the  i n Figure Executive  be a m a t t e r f o r  Council.  one D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t  and  one  Director  of  138  the  executive  purely  administrative:  reviewing level.  staff  The  assigning Council Figure  departments i s necessary.  role  regional  Analysis  would  be  responsible for  to  the  include  informing  political  hiring  the  etc. (relationship  of  provincial  informed  provincial  regional  regional  staff,  Executive  (1)  and  (m)  of  ministry  would  would  provincial  and  aspect  of  staff  be  in  6);  regional  would policy  located  of  would staff  the  Policy  replace  most  member  from  i n the region  staff,  to participate  report  report  and on  committees. information  any  directly  staff  administrative  unit  model  provincial  would  Figure  (n)) .  departmental  field  regional  to  developments. Information  for resolution  6). Provincial  of  provincial  invited  or  provincial  staff  to be  Secretariat  the Cabinet  regional  policy  monitoring  monitoring  monitoring  government  single  i n V i c t o r i a , they  regional  a  staff, a  available staff  by  (o)  (relationship  of the r e g i o n a l  freely  regional  output  Secretariat  field  provincial  (relationship  policy  the  to the continuous  design:  policy  provincial  Fiqure  i t  would  Monitoring  parts  government  Although  to  the Directors  requirements,  a r e two  monitoring  and  n o t - be  forwarding  responsibilities,  Continuous  government  staff  would  positions  6) .  There  be  before  of  staff of s t a f f  (x)  each  work  directors  These  (links  major  keep would  sometimes  one  of  the  Although to  the  provincial  conflicts  between  to the Executive  Council  (p) ,  (q)  would, n o t h a v e decisions.  The  and  veto  (a)  power  provincial  in over  staff  139  offices  would  provincial  The  important (see  monitoring  to  reporting  the  only  provide  but  i t  unit  findings  also  according  constraints  to  on  Normative  Model  the  agency for  of  access  in  on  in Operation:  for  would  not  implementation,  continuous  policy  be  outputs  C o u n c i l , and  policy  societal  would  policy  Council. This  bias i n  to  6)-  Executive  the  the  public  regional Secretariat  Executive  changes  optimality  for  a n a l y s i n g data  the  allow  to  the  from  to  f o r checks  centres  ( r ) , Figure  of  directives  would  policies  link  f o r g a t h e r i n g and  according  The  be  resources  responsible  C.  also  adjustment  preferences  of  or  in  process.  An  Improved  Burns  Lake  Process  Since  the  regional  government  maximize  the  satisfaction  minimize  the  constraints to  transposed  to  the  process.  For  on  transposed  the  new  of  the  model has assessment  optimality,  institutional  illustration  purposes,  process  as  been  the  is  i t i s more  i t  criteria  Burns  context  designed  to  and  Lake  process  the  optimal  useful  compares  to  to  the  comment original  process.  For output  illustration as  (a  purposes  result  of  should  also,  changes  mentioned.  The  reader  to  how  thg._policy_: o u t p u t  suggest  Changes  in  participants happened,  policy  output  i n the  process;  least  of  a l l an  p o s s i b l e changes  i n the  note  that should  reflect no  policy  one  can  outsider to  process)  i t . i s not have- been  the  values judge  the  in  the  process.  might  be  intention  changed. .  and  what  policy  goals should  of  the have  140  The policy only  reader  process  and  suggesting  result  will  participated a  specific  in  and  Burns  being  Lake  less  and  should  committee  1  the  be  policy  leaders  have  changed,  one  is  of  removes  the  human  Other  optimal  of  the  Since  resources  a  than the  specified  a  different  groups  would  are  have  indicated  character  neither  that  of  of  the  several  of  can  such their  the  of  the  lack  processes  process  optimal  exceptional  participants  of  constraints to  could  leadership,  optimality  may  be  be  (e.g.,  too  subject  leadership the  joint  meet  for  participation).  to  framework on  one  decisions,  opportunities  to  of  frustrated.  heavily  via  in  process*  institutional  relying  maximize  web,  and  possibility  policy  the  forward  within  note  because  step  achieving  process.  should  and  the  predicted,  n e c e s s i t y of  structures),  how  process  leadership capabilities  communications  1  the  related  design  minimize  individual's  that  other  process.  the  policy  cannot  optimal  suggesting  individuals  visionary capabilities process  when  Clearly,  more  reader  c o n s t r a i n t s , and  However,  would  actual process.  groups  than  policy  these  the  that  probability  d e f i n i n g the  the  and  motivation the  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  leadership  outputs  increased.  of  Finally,  the  that  context,  study  individuals  a l s o note  policy  be  institutional  by  should  challenge  so  (e.g.,  The principal actors in the transposed process are held regional c o n s t a n t . P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s a r e assumed t h e n t o be officials.  141  {1)  Mould  there  available their  b e s u f f i g i e n t c h a n n e l s and o t h e r  f o r a l l individuals_and_groups  problems  and  resources  to  communicate  needs^tg_acgountable-political-  officials?  Improved.  The model  systematic  monitoring  the  General  Assembly  of  information  regional  of  government.  institutional  purpose  i n  any  overcome  range  from  politician.  include  the  the  aspect  process.  ignorance  Such  on t h e p a r t  institutional  bureaucratic  which  has t i r e d  o f e x p e n d i n g s o much  to receive  so l i t t l e  i n return.  regional  example,  representative's  Lake  would  and  the  Status  have  Burns  participation completely  would  of  on  office  the  n o t have  attention Lake  communications  B.C.  been  important  so  between i n  to  the Burns  to participate,  Association a  o f Non-  factor  in  to t h e s p e c i a l socio-economic problems o f  Indians.  In short,  i n economic the  organized  of  on t h e  energy  office  population  of  elected  attitude  channel  and t h e band  encouraged t h e native  existence  Indians  attracting the  the  defeatest  to  part  For  the accompanying  buffer  and  constraints  and  participate  the  constraints  representatives of a public  of  derivation  human  t o apathy  of  arms o f  t o m i n i m i z e t h e human  to the optimal  Existing  f o rthe  dissemination  and t h e v a r i o u s  institutional  i s intended  constraints  provides  through the o f f i c e  and f o r  municipal  the planning/policy  specific  opinion  The f o r m a l i z e d  channels  exist  government  representative,  existing  might  public  to provincial,  communiciations  which  of r e g i o n a l  t h e whole  development  existence  would  question n o t have  of a minister  open  of  native  depended  to  so  innovative  142  policies inertia  (2)  and  the  existence  of  the  native  Would  the  varying  groups  and  of  BCANSI  population.  to  overcome  the  conditioned  1  perceptions  of  a l l immediately  affected  i n d i v i d u a l s enter--.into_the d e f i n i t i o n _ . o f „the  problem?  Improved. government groups web"  There  which  and  are  would  ensure  individuals:  which  would  keep  well  the  of  financial  who  local of  wish  General  those  to  can  Assembly  not  aspects  public  communicate and  of  other  of  p u b l i c needs  participate  government  to  to the  through  interested  of  resources  regional  "communications  informed  representative to  of  the  participate formally;  wishing  the  participation  existence  the  as  those  as  the  the  undertakings existence  three  government; ensure  that  existence  which  the  formally  of  a  opinions can  be  communicated.  In in  the  Burns  Lake,  process,  and  the  i t can  participate  as  constituents.  Although  involvement  was  local  a  not  MP  was  be  said  representative part  political  of  the  only  peripherally involved  that  at  of  the  reason  incompetence,  2  any  time views  of  his  lack  for  i t i s  did  no  small  he his of  factor  1  However, p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures cannot overcome all policy problems associated with native p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The m a t t e r o f r e v i s i n g t h e f e d e r a l I n d i a n A c t has t o be dealt with at the f e d e r a l p o l i c y level.  2  This is not other matters. capabilities.  to say He s i m p l y  that did  this not  i n d i v i d u a l was i n c o m p e t e n t i n posess political leadership  143  t h a t he l i v e d 40 miles or so from Burns Lake. I f r e g i o n a l government its  own  the  model  had been i n p l a c e . Burns Lake would have had  General Assembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . On t h i s s m a l l e r  there i s almost no  of  way  that  the  representative  scale  could  avoid  becoming i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e he or she, as a member of the community, would a l s o be p e r s o n a l l y For  political  support,  the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would depend  upon the whole of the Burns Lake p o p u l a t i o n , i s native  the  initiating  m i l l , the i n i t i a l  just  action  for  one  responsible  n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  member)  refused of  the  member  f o r the Department o f F o r e s t Resources. The  percent  preferred  proposal)  n a t i v e population  and  the  Executive  neqotiated  with  Babine  p r i o r t o the o f f e r of 8 percent. to t h i s point i s  that  the  The non-  of Burns Lake would be aware of (a) the BCANSI  (b) the qovernment's o f f e r , by way of the communications the  close  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , who, informed  on  constituency. joined  Council  Council  r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the process  web  Executive  the b i d but o f f e r e d an e q u i t y  share would a l s o have had to have been  b i d and  was  phase of n e g o t i a t i o n s might have remained much  share on the recommendation  (the  of which  t o b u i l d the sawmill  the same: the n a t i v e s b i d f o r the m i l l ; (not  40 percent  Indian.  Assuming t h a t the BCANSI proposal still  involved.  the  contact as  all At t h i s process  a  with  matter  aspects point, and  the of  of  l o c a l General Assembly course,  development  other  local  in  groups  be his  kept (her)  might  have  demanded e i t h e r an equal share i n the  m i l l or a p a r t of what the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n would only have had to  would  approach  the  local  was r e c e i v i n g . They representative  to  144  become  involved  minister.  On  anything  but  that  the other  any  definition  been  defined  native  The  1974  not negate  might  have  dealing  only  travelled involving  are more  possibility  communicating  The removed  of  would  have  Lands,  Forests  departments forever,  intensive demands, would  dealing  have  that  communications,  there to the  joined  in  might  have  rather  than  might  have  negotiations of the free  would  fewer  process.  model.  i t s time  the possibility  who  could  to  also  each  be to  existed  group,  time,  but  would  The E x e c u t i v e than  weekly,  province could  or  condensed  be  Council  d i d the Minister  had t h r e e  be  with  other.  negotiations  for  than that  to deal have  There  with  to the  fact  It  constraints  of the minister's  Resources,  negotiations  be  participation  participation.  time  which  separately  government on  joint  joint  more  would  to oversee. Certainly,  but with  had  the problem  but i n view  o f one group  demands  and Water  point i s  contribute  and l o n g e r  distances  constraint,  fewer  done  are  constraints  o f such  i n the policy  by t h e r e g i o n a l  to  i n the m i l l ,  there  the ideas  major  wish  native-non-native  that  groups  The  participation  (behavioural)  native  less,  with i n t e r e s t .  have  socio-economic development  more  and  not  a Cabinet  development.  Council  matters,  might  I f non-native groups  to limit  with  groups  group  share  human  required  had t o approach  invite  the possibility  Executive  such  or  socio-economic  in  other  which  as community  that  n o t have  the s i t u a t i o n  an e g u a l  fact  existed  the  observe  o f the problem.  demanded  the  hand,  individual  and  does  would  the opportunities  should  as  , they  of  wide  n o t go on  even into  daily, a  much  145  reduced the  time  span-  regional  Would  and  policies  Improved. "opened  in  the  Because  the process  there  stepped  forward  asked  (or  would  process,  could  not  and  to  purposes  aligned,  participation residents  have  representatives. been would  a  key  servant  The in  actor  always  Burns  brought  number Lake  have  process  perceptions.  process  might  had  to  i t  was  only  elect  Assembly this  a  could of  demand the  been for  as  i f  f o r the  Burns  Lake  group would  although was  who  funds  appeared a  of  on  have  small  he (she)  actors  number  representative  activity,  that  he  the  of have  or  she  public  non-native constituents.  which  depended  with  the  when  of  Depending  dispensation  stance  and  which  If  groups  the  asked  of a l t e r n a t i v e s  the  indefinite. the  government  extended cast  certainly,  or, i f there  alternatives varying  the  an  coalitions  the  freguent,  alternative  the regional  been  native  would  been  been  i n organizing  of  and -  determine the  under  reason,  General  more  of_ a l l , a f f e c t e d  non-native population,  The  existence  allowed  local  maintain  of both  to  form  of the  could  have  the  negotiations.  although  via  participation) were  have  f o r what  coaxed  have  individuals  considered?  Lake  participants  drawn-out  and  process,  would  are  up",  Burns  Lake  perceptions  groups  that  model  less  the^yarying  interested  is  the Burns  government  more i n t e n s i v e ,  (3)  In  by  the  emerge  been  would  upon  have  t h e number  participants from  open  been of  plus  Lake,  perceptions  t h e number  the i n t e r a c t i o n  i n Burns  considered  four  of  of  groups  additional  146  groups  might  have  stepped  forward  at  v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n the  process  t o p a r t i c i p a t e and change the a l t e r n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d :  -a l o c a l non-native group which demanded a share m i l l as w e l l ;  i n the  -a l o c a l n a t i v e group which would not have i n s i s t e d so r i g i d l y on a s t r i c t l y n a t i v e Community Development P r o j e c t i f i t meant l o s i n g the BLNDC o f f e r ; -a l o c a l business a s s o c i a t i o n group concerned about the n a t i v e competition not being "equal" i n the sense t h a t Indians would r e c e i v e low i n t e r e s t loans throuqh BLNDC; -the board members o f t h e newly created Burns Lake Community Resources S o c i e t y who had been t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i t as t h e o f f i c i a l community-wide s o c i e t y with the mandate t o organize, a c q u i r e fundinq f o r , and c o o r d i n a t e v a r i o u s community development programs. (The formation of these s o c i e t i e s had been encouraged by a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the Department of Human Resources.)  I f these groups had stepped forward, a l t e r n a t i v e s considered  the number of  would have been g r e a t l y expanded. They  might have i n c l u d e d , f o r example:  (1) - n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i a x percent, p a r a l l e l non-native p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i a x p e r c e n t , plus comprehensive t r a i n i n g programs on a l l l e v e l s of employment; 1  (2) - n a t i v e and non-native p a r t n e r s h i p i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i a x percent, plus comprehensive t r a i n i n g programs to ensure p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a l l l e v e l s of employment; (3) -(1) p l u s an added BLNDC economic arm t o begin subs i d i a r y companies, and a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e f o r nonnatives ;  1  Non-native p a r t i c i p a t i o n could have been secured e i t h e r by e n a b l i n g l o c a l Burns Lake r e s i d e n t s t o form a separate c o r p o r a t e body, o r by a l l o w i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o hold t h e shares.  147  - (2) p l u s an of formation  (4) the  (5) - e i t h e r r a t es;  (1 ) ,  eco sub (2)  (1 ) , (2) (6) - e i t h e r b e i n g on a s t r i c t l y l o a n (not f o r g i v a b l e but at below market i n t e r e s t r a t e s ; (7) - e i t h e r support f o r  (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), t h e c o m m u n i t y - w i d e Human  loan)  basis,  o r (6) p l u s financial Resources Society;  (8) - e i t h e r ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , o r (6) p l u s financial s u p p o r t f o r a community-wide Community D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t t o be f o r m e d f r o m t h e n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e populations. These see  alternatives  how  the  are  perceptions  affected  and  considered  in  Again,  expanded the  Burns  the  previously  structure  of  the  with  groups,  and  financial  because  of  the  decreased  the  travel  of  length  of  time  overcome  costs of  but  the  groups  reader  can  would  have  that  were  policies  process.  and  because  human of  government.  for  proximity  various  alternative  Lake  are  hypothetical, the  regional  associated  the  of  constraints  discussed  of  strictly  both  staff  the  regional  the  total  and  salaries  time  decentralized  Transaction  government  of  the  behaviour  non-government are  government reguired  costs  minimized and  to  because complete  negotiations.  1  1  i . e . , a s o c i a l p r o g r a m , b u t one w h i c h i s d e f i n e d differently a n d h a s d i f f e r e n t o r more f u n c t i o n s t h a n w o u l d a C o m m u n i t y Resources Society.  148  (4)  Would  resources  differing in  the  other  that  the  formation,of  the  This  this  seriously  In groups This  Burns  would  obtained greater  at  not and  or  poorly  funded  ensures groups  is or  the  majority  planning/policy  process  by  any  one  group,  alternative  policies  the  number  of  would  have  been  native  The  distance  between  of  the  advice,  forgone  for  was  especially  by  the  local  and  as  well.  the  case  lawyers  been  in in  as  one  but  Burns place,  costs  s t i l l  could  from  i t might  would  have  have  had been  had  which  to  draw.  (and  often  the  happens  necessity  Vancouver,  Lake.  and  who  expertise  for their  at  groups  possible  reduces  from  fees,  may  non-native  the  might  headquarters  lodging  whenever  group)  hourly  expense  advice  possessing  to  participate.  groups  resources  resources  individual  their  model  some  available to  government  that  expertise  made  wished  overnight  Although  negotiating  fees  and  who  high  of  local of  a  some  consultants  only  alliance such  i f the  to  government  financial  r e g i o n a l government  involved  expert  pool  This  of  of  funds  the  locally,  employing  availability  tyranny  unnecessary.  cost  belong  the  have  utilization no  to participate  the  i s q r e a t l y reduced  have . been  The  than  not  Lake  employ  with  proposals?  unorganized  limit  Lake,  expect.  Burns  opportunity  of  either  a l l groups  considered.  other  first  of  of  model  avoid  the  would  the  alternative  i n the  i s to of  have  inclusion  participation  domination  since  to  The  resources  secured.  a l l o c a t e d to-ensure  perceptions  Improved. and  be  and, travel  Had have  the  of  a  to of  paying  expenses  regional  insisted  that  1 4 9  legal  and consulting  minimize in  resources  transaction  Burns Lake, t h e  Rupert,  or  even  alternatives. certain  costs.  be  I f such  communities Prince  obtained  of  George  The r e g i o n a l  would  i t s employ  which  could  certain  Vancouver  based  organization  consulting  advice  i n Vancouver. This  Victoria,  but i t  government  The which  most  encouraged  rather  (5)  than  i s  interested  Improved.  model  the  process  under that  thus  of  As  was  of regional would  at  a  and  better were i n  a l l i f the  a r e g i o n a l one.  i n the Burns the  to  Lake  regional  process  government  would  have  participating  been  groups.  as a positive  to swift  input,  decision-making.  of a l laffected  and i n d i v i d u a l s  and  be. i n c o r p o r a t e d  process?-  previously,  alternatives alternatives. government,  have  the  a  made  was  officials  sense  harnessed  mentioned  policy  be  BCANSI  been  best  had  i t s legal  participation  allotted  groups, agencies  of generating  the  were  perceptions  the evaluation  obtained  no  endured as a c o n s t r a i n t  the varying  evaluation  made  manifest  was,  might have  difference  i s  i t  government  the process  structure  participation  into  have  by t h e r e s o u r c e s  Would  process  been  As  which  that  important  have  institutional  Public  would  conducting  would  instances..  Prince  the next have  i n  considers  Terrace, been  to  unavailable  also  available  one  region  would  of  i f  in  have  the were  Smithers,  number  choice  resources  government  experts  in  been  i s Since,  not i n  t h e number  greater,  then  the  process  discrete the  the  from the  presence  o f groups  of  of  entering  process  of  150  evaluation and  of  alternatives  rigourous.  subject  to  This  the  is  the  preferred  alternative  resulting  from  In  the  sense,  choices  emerges  from  to  be  is  alternative rather  either  those Again,  the  terms what  (1),  (2),  to  be  the  of  minister.  have  been  of  whom  each  have  been  a  The  hybrid  one,  trade-offs,  and  (3),  to  can to  Council,  such been  whereas the  transaction  the  (7), of  for  time  another  and  more  i t was  the  an  as  either  but  i t  one  is or  groups  have  concession.  of  are  again  alternatives.  time  Burns  of  accepted  from  costs  more  the  number  (8),  a l l the  these  interest  the  aspects  evaluation  has as  what  actual  or  which  of  identified  which  optimal  have  occupying  Financial  series on  government  would  (6),  traded-off  processes  process  that  as  considers  each  Therefore,  (5), a  i f one  under  strictly  of  nature  participation,  list.  (4),  the  out  see  be  previously  "hybrid"  However,  worked  transaction  inhibit  regional  duties  or  of  this  percentage one  conceded  to  be  to  suggested  process.  alternatives  constraints  likely  to  composed  those  agreed,  Lake  thorough  perspective.  compromises,  reflect  great  likely  Executive  realm  and  not  specifically Burns  of  evaluation  i s too  of  The  different  alternatives  charged),  likely  several  a  more  would  groups,  probably  series  themselves  (e.g.,  alternatives policy  from  much  alternative  several  would  the  the  details  alternatives rate  been  granted.  a  the  have  each  of  alternative  possible  all  because  scrutiny  approached  concessions  would  Lake  usual  exceptional  concern  of  the  costs,  as  explained,  to  devote  process.  The  business  of  case  provincial are  in  the  Cabinet reduced  151  because  of reduced  regional groups  resources.  government  the beginning  The  fact  sense, the  groups  between  can  will  behave  (6)  Would  alternatives  phase,  nature  process  i n total  resources  populations.  I n one  at least.  be  aspect  a l l groups  with  the opportunity to proposals?  the  of  'the  for participation This  which  Lake  o f n e g o t i a t i o n s , and i n s o d o i n g  of  provision  of  i s that for  those entry  because the  shift  cross  the  evaluation  provides  could  process  between  i s essential  process  amongst they  drawn  and  This  that  i n the Burns  phase  of the p o l i c y  aggravated  behaviour  have  relieve human  actually  of  and  as  the expectation  could  a t any p o i n t ,  to  cited  initially  i n fact  the important  other  the  open  much  to ensure-that  line  alternatives  and d i r e c t i o n  a result  t h e two  from  been  done  frequently  are continuously available.  the  have  i t was e v i d e n t  dividing  of  of  a decrease  i n the eyaluation„of_alternatiye  Although  or  number o f  design  have  types  be a l l o c a t e d  perceptions.would  generation  into  certain  manner.  no d i s t i n c t  resources  also  cultures,  i n a certain  and  the  would  so  produced  Improved.  of  enabled  between  two  that  resources  financial  would  be  participate  i n the actual  province-native process  actually  differing  that  process  tensions  the  out the f a c t  have  local  t o t h e end o f n e g o t i a t i o n s .  cooperation  the partisan  rift  points  to  aspects  s t i l l  the  native-non-native  and t h e use of  the increase  t o any one g r o u p  constraints  as  would  that  travelled  these  from  impartial the  Despite  participating,  regional time  distances  any  the sphere  time of  152  interest  of  For  some o t h e r  instance,  group.  i n  Burns  Human R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y  group  became  the  apparent  approval been who been her  f o r t h e Community  apparent was  that  fully  review  informed  enough  the  great  Department  Human  have  depended  for  instance,  an  evaluation  proposed  by  proposal staff  reports  the  experiencing  participation  progress  of  the  on  Resources.  of  a  (community  of their  group.  involved  development housing  As  when  i t  secure  would  have  would  posting the  alone since  have  i n h i s or  process.  would i t  funding  A  have  been  had  been  through  the  the  type  of  Resources Society  would  not  althouqh  i t could  participation Community  i t  to  representative,  instance,  funds,  particular  the native  f o r money  of  only  This  of  Society  o f t h e Human  aspect  and  progress  this  the  the process  obtaining In  the provision  i f an  of  Precedent"  difficulty  that  likely  Assembly  newspapers  Resources  required  counsellors,  the  was  Project.  General  likely  entered  group  Development  "Conditions  to involve  of  on  have  native  f o r informing  summary  of  would  because the l o c a l  responsible office  L a k e , i t i s more  was,  had  Program  native  p r i m a r i l y t h e employment w o r k e r s , employment  coordinator,  required  Development the  group's  of  and  economic  have,  trained  education development  coordinator) .  The  limit  resources  to  financial  for participation  Not  a l l groups  will  lack  of  to  access  constitute  the  the  need  i s also  funds  information  resources  constraints illustrated  of by  to participate and  necessary  political to stimulate  this  extending example.  sometimes  i t i s  audience  which  participation.  153  In  less  likely be  localized to  be  borne  would  a  by  not  policy  processes  where  technical input  requirement  of  participation,  the  in  general,  region  constitute a  barrier  to  and  those  on  extending  a  per  is  more  costs  would  capita  basis  resources  for  public  participation.  (?)  Would  there be  checks  :  on  otherwise  inadvertently  Improved.  The  Policy  Analysis  Council  rather  model  of  government dominate  the  regional  a  environmental  and  would  that,  not  regional  be  biased  not  be  in  favour  biased  possibility  of  discipline  or  the  regional  committees economic Lake  in  only of  bias  which  the  as  resource  any  being  possible.  the  ELUC  at  ministers  departments.  This  that  favour from  staff  would  they  of  the  S e c r e t a r i a t brought  the to  the  their  design  of  work  in  members  remove  not  should  a l l . Moreover,  in  i s removed  This  to  department,  a  Executive  S e c r e t a r i a t members  biased  ensuring  have  whole  only  use  department  interest  by  land  would  physicalthe  Burns  process.  With  respect  to  line  details  of  regional  institutional  cannot are  of  of  government much  one  members*  areas  as  would  any  favour  staff  to  Secretariat responsible  with  might  process?  Secretariat responsible  than  bias, which  government  concerned mean  agency  political  supersede  explored  Executive  on  a  Council  the  agency  decisions design other  committee for  staff  i s  in  taken, to  areas  basis  r e s o l u t i o n by  who  are the  ensure of  and  administering objective that  overlap. then  accountable  one  These  reported  of  the the  agency conflicts to  the  representatives.  154  Monitoring field  staff  decisions  In  does  socio-economic  require  when  administrative  level  departments;  arena,  thereby  building". that of  this  form  was  (b)  by  interdepartmental  has  the l e g i s l a t i v e fewer  geographical  the others,  agency  Burns  Lake  a  keeping  task  minister  to  made  act  i n  becomes  would  force  level,  bias  jointly,  This  and there  isolation.  New  at  i n the  the  non-  political "empire design i s  standard  instead  1  Council  i s  small  of i t s restricted  means  that  i s no need  policy  of  (a) b y t h e  including  situation.  the Executive  extent.  extent  bureaucratic  be  more  i n the process  the process  approach  a  regional  o f t h e r e g i o n a l government  and d e m o g r a p h i c  c a n be  localized  overcome:  a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s t o make b e c a u s e  decisions  participation  of agency was  policy  since the  a  bias  with  the problem  of  institutional  of l o c a l  opportunities f o r  advantage  of  essentially  intergovernmental  removing  The  and  than  e x c e p t i o n a l as i t i s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l  At and  o f an  i n  provincial  outputs.  of the bureaucracy  I n any c a s e ,  ELUC  obvious  policies  participation  policy  advantage  Administrative  implementation.  establishment  this  development  variable  more  less  a n d by  the administering  in distorted  of the type  process.  significant  that  process,  been  establishment  political  1  Lake  have  by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t  ensures  not r e s u l t  would  actual  agencies  doubly  t h e Burns  design  in  of line  would  a l l policy  f o r any be  one  initiated  i.e.. These intergovernmental task forces are part of the S e c r e t a r i a t ' s " c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n " approach which i s reserved for situations which cannot be handled through the usual channels.  155  jointly;  administrative  Executive which  Council  case,  matters  member  unless  i t  becomes  a  consider.  The  Burns  Lake  dimensional  to require  Council. a  Therefore,  result  process had  been  have  probably  attention  arise, i n  council  sufficiently  to  multi-  Executive  the physical-economic  bias  which  e x i s t e d as  been  removed  just  been  of  avoided  the process: been  the  domination of  Burns  Lake  i f t h e r e g i o n a l government  model  Burns  would  "tacked  on"  Department  involved  from  design  Project  Lake  the  at  the  end.  the beginning  and implemented  have  Council  had  been  o f t h e p r o j e c t would not  responsible  would  project design  Executive  aspect  o f and implementation  Development evaluated,  i f the  t h e CDA  member  Instead,  with  f o r t h e Human of  the  the  Resources  policy  process,  a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e Community been  according  carefully,  t o agreements  negotiated, arrived  a t by  negotiating groups.  With  more  was  whole  one  whole  Council  to  process  the  should  by  the  Executive  the  for  with  of  problem  have  conducting  the  dealt  i n place.  Another  have  the  be  some c o n f l i c t  matter  of the ELUC-Secretariat would  may  t h e whole  devote  to  directly  Resources  committee  involved  to  This of  i n  could  sessions.  Secretariat aibsence.  conducting  Labour)  negotiation  Executive  the  policy  I t would  have  processes,  been  meant,  present  phases  that  Analysis  been  given  more  the council  (e.g...  n o t have  various  Policy  i n general  negotiations have  conduct  would  Council  necessary  of staff  Secretariat  would  Human  a l l of the  of the process  i n terms  members  Forests, during  time  f o r the i n their input, have  a  been  156  employed into of  to  analyse  more  not  viewpoints and  have  creative control  removal  The  only  the  the  of  bias  agency  of  government  designed  bureaucracy.  The  considered limited detached  policy  formation  Would  final  or  the  the  by  i s an  is  the  person's  them  injection policy  process  would  perceptions.  way  while  the  alternative  since  of  This  tapping  maintaining  institutional  the  political  can  a  of  from  choices  one  without  the  purposes life  :  of  unto  be_made .by  that a  bureaucracy  by  solution.  institutional  the  with  means  the  acguire  itself,  i s possibly  decision-making  minimized  regional  this  efficiently  the is  manageable  that  operate  and  constraint in  institutional  ensuring  regional extent  and  synthesize  meant  of  efficient staff  constraint  is  have  r e g u i r e s an  great  that  rather volume  deal  means the  fact  a  the  bodies  of  that  political  the  small  of  cases  red  tape,  i t  cannot  aspects  of  itself.  accountable  representatives  public generally?-  Within  important  decisions in  accountable  one  and  process.  Onchanged.  General  any  very  system  size  become  all  by  bureaucracy This  would  arrangements,  bias  balance  themselves.  (8)  of  policy  agency  and  the  generation  possible constraint to  size  be  the  constitutes a  over  the  also  dominated  resources  Since  checks  to  proposals  This  implementing  been  arrangement  and  various  counterproposals.  proposals  to  the  political  Assembly  and  the  context Burns  of  the  Lake  regional  would  representatives, since the  Executive  Council  have the are  government, been  members  taken of  e l e c t e d by  by the the  157  regional population. Moreover, the c o n s t r a i n t s which  usually  prevent  on  their  provincial  involvement  in  s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s i s removed i n  a  government.  members  The  Executive  Council  down  with  <a)  such  formation,  they are not bogged  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a huge department  a l l a s p e c t s of p o l i c y formation i n every c o r n e r of  (9)  regional  have more time to policy  phases, because  Would a l t e r n a t i v e implementation  time  localized,  decentralized  become i n t i m a t e with a l l aspects of r e g i o n a l i n c l u d i n g the implementation  ministers'  and  (b)  B.C.  arrangements be  proposed  and analysed,by the v a r i o u s groups, i n d i v i d u a l s  and  agencies i n v o l v e d i n the process?Improved. Again* because and  channels  for  of the high access to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the problem  e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e implementing been  overcome.  This  information  of g e n e r a t i o n and  arrangements  would  have  was not the case i n the a c t u a l Burns Lake  Process. The  one  alternative  economic  arm  of  and  a l t e r n a t i v e was accommodate  the  of  two  lawyer  examined because  native  arrangement  for  the p r o j e c t , although c a r e f u l l y designed,  e s s e n t i a l l y the product Secretariat  implementing  demands.  men  -  for  the  i t was  I t was  the  Director  province.  the was  of  the  Only  one  e s s e n t i a l l y designed  t h e r e f o r e accepted  to  without  dispute. The one  alternative  implementating  arrangement  for  the  158  social was  arm o f t h e p r o j e c t  "tacked  With to  access  ensured  the Council  Department  arms the  would of  the  design  cooperative  early  ELUC  implemented  through  one  non-native,  while  money a n d human  previously.  no  two s e p a r a t e  the  of  of and  significant  Alternatives  the  Resources the social  factor in might  have  separating  the  t o c o n s i d e r i n g some  form  arrangement. might  c o r p o r a t i o n s , one  range  would  process.  Human  of the project  The whole  the  implementing  the economic  ownership  aspect  need  model  Lake  completely  the social  access  into  recommendation  a less  aspect  resources  participation  that  corporate  t h e economic  the start.  i s  the  to  Burns  of  of the project,  rather than  by l i m i t e d  the  arrangement.  fusing  and o t h e r  alternative  charge  separate  designed.  government  continued  i n  remain  been  from  i n  Secretariat  aspects  hand,  of  rendered  other  ensuring  and  member  the  There  and b e c a u s e i t  of perceptions  regional  considered  completely  socio-economic  restricted  either,  channels  range  range  o f t h e BLNDC—CDA  from  venture  the  wider  have  of the project  ranged  of  a  were  Furthermore,  o f a wide  process,  that  arrangements  Director  to participation  the input  planning/policy  Executive  not debated  o n " a t t h e e n d , i t was n o t s o c a r e f u l l y  encourage  have  was  might of  have  On have  native,  been  a  joint  possibilities  was  to participation-  to  elaborate the constraints of  behaviour  which,  participation.  This  again, aspect  inhibit has  the been  time,  goal  of  discussed  159  (10)  Would  the implementation  experimentation  Unchanged. account Nothing  the  where  that  i s  happen.  to  there  might  into  the decision-making  aspect  A  of  uncertainties basis. and  This  the  way  deal  Burns  Lake,  of  be  and  numerous:?  judgement,  irrespective  project  challenge  therefore,  on  can  goes  1  associated an  be  with  experimental  of institutional  itself  in  process.  risks  policies  into  ( p r e d i c t i o n s ) about  of the policy  new  takes  uncertainties.  the  guesses  minimizing  i s t o implement c a n b e done  fairly  always  happens  educated  what  tactical  will  i t  make  A great  were  planning/policy process  c a n b e known u n t i l  policy-making  be s u b j e c t t o  uncertainties  The o p t i m a l  fact  process  stucture,  considered  an  experiment.  However, associated  another  with  uncertainties  starting  new  Resources  had n o t been  ways  tactical  ones.  an i n d i v i d u a l  Although  no one order  experimentation, institutional policies  For stucture,  will  policy  arrangement be implemented  i n s t a n c e , under  implementation  process  particular that  open  which  never  model  maximizes  policies  would policy  i s  begun.  i s  be s u b j e c t t o exemplifies  an that  basis.  government be v e r y  have  f o r new  the p o s s i b i l i t y  on a n e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  and Water  arrangement  implementatnon  the r e g i o n a l  of p r o v i n c i a l  Forests  institutional  risks  policies  to suggestions  would  t h e r e g i o n a l government  provincial  minimizing  I f the M i n i s t e r o f Lands,  t h i n g s , t h e BLNDC  in  of  i s t o avoid changing  of doing  requited  way  institutional  broadly  regional  framed, and policy.  The  160  process matter  of  implementing  f o r uniform  bureaucracybecomes  model  regional policy  described  participatory, vary  ultimate  result  policies.  experimental  in  this  wide of  not  by  become  a  provincial  provincial  through  the  paper  would  process.  region that  These  province  does  policy  process.  process  region-wide  from  policy  implementation  regional policy  as  would  implementation  Instead,  the  The  provincial  to  no  region  two  regional  dynamics i n the  regions  policy  implementating  The  r e g i o n a l government  arrangements  an  open,  of  this  process  province,  would  processes  be  have  can  from  with  the  identical  thus  be  seen  as  the  provincial  level.  For policy  instance,  and  Suppose  the  also  allotting be  northwest  that  Timber  evaluated  on  then  enter  Sale  process  because  Harvesting  like  New of  ideas access  to  i s structured in  policy  accountable  implementation  itself. different  Each  time  (except  a  new  perhaps  is  part  sawmill  Executive  proposals meet  when should  multiple the  prompted  to  constantly entering  the  i n the  such  place.  were  If this be  information  kept  in  forest  northwest  to  and  channels  Executive  way  as  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . In  process a  that  objectives.  be  are  the  ability  would  the  of  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s would  Decisions are  control  provincial  policy  Licences  their  participation. bureaucracy  the  policy  environmental  and  proposals.  both  general  b a s i s of  and  BCANSI  that  regional forest  i t i s the  the  socio-economic case,  suppose  of  Council,  and  under  the  be  s h o r t , the the  i s built, Council  to  the  to  policy actors  members)  regional process will and  be the  161  output  of  process  of  process, would  have  the  (11)  process  implementing i t  The is  the  i s  been  only  only  achieving this  be of  be  provide that  order  institutionalized  must  manner  i t  i f  been  implemented  have  had  to  bureaucracy,  experiments  BLNDC  .  assessment  f o r the  s t i l l i s  to  for for  I t was t h e d e s i g n o f prevented the Burns criterion completely.  the  of  criterion  continuous  BLNDC  some  managed  way.  gathering be be  a  to  and  continuous. creation  monitoring  the  CDA Lake  meet  i s that  Even  of  be  of  center  processing  of  itself  of  some  new  i s  a  monitored  would  institution  monitored  an  institutional  which  within  1  i t must  monitoring  project a  criterion.  is  processing  A  results.  continuous,  when  in  of  this  BLNDC  government implementing  assessments to  accommodated  the  regional  establishment  continuous  however,  without  provide  lack  f o r assessment  in  the  and  policy  itself.  the  prevent  shown  information  the  arrangements?-  which  task,  of  each  :  not  In  part  since  r e s u l t s _ a n dt h e e f f e c t i y e n e s s _ o f ^ t h e  Again,  does  such  explicit ^provision  is significant,  technical  1  structure  Thus,  therefore experimental.  to  i t was  institution.  and  constraint  Improved.  What  and  a  many  implementation  Indeed,  is itself  of  assessment  arrangements  different.  one  there  institutions  be  policy  unique,  institutional  Would  will  the  have would  regular  information  which was less than optimal and p r o c e s s from meeting t h i s assessment  162  through  the  continuous the  assessment.  channels,  in  The dynamism  order  must  to  therefore  maintain  exist  within  institutions.  It  i s  "plugged person  significant  into"  what  board.  performance  Most  policies  corporate  bureaucracy.  results  to  be  This  t o monitor  built  the  into  planned  to  via a  t o standards  be  three  responsible  performance"  for  o f BLNDC  set.  monitoring  arrangements  This  of  the  of the p r o j e c t .  not  implemented  institution,  but instead  through the  order  a l l policy  means t h a t  in  monitored,  themselves,  principles  be  continuous  are  continuously  institutions  would  according  the  was  institutions  "satisfactory  for  government  BLNDC  board  o f t h e implementing  semi-autonomous regular  This  performance  allows  that  government  constituted  f o r assessing  arrangement  also  provincial  monitoring  deciding and  appropriate  of  these  operation  and  f o r  through  i n order  objectives  a  f o r the must  be  of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  structure.  This  i s  what  the  design  accomplishes,  The  agencies  essentially  government  model  overlapping  committee  is  monitored  agencies. policies  This  government*  open  through  and  provide  t h e ag e n c i e s  with  f o r not  t he  as w e l l  to assessing  p a r t i c i p atory  i n conjunction  i t s design,  amount s  the  a s by  of  the  up v i a agencies  provincial  the  output  the  "communiciations  only  of  on a c o n t i n u o u s  aspect  regional  a r e hooked  the performance  r e g i o n a l ag e n c i e s  essentially  delivered  The  of  by o t h e r  s t r u c t u r e s and  of  basis.  regional  web"  continuous  of  aspect  informal  163  assessment the  of  the  continuous  implementing When not  arrangements  met  institution  These the  itself  Burns  Human  Resources  programs  of  General  Assembly  at  informally,  least  for  the  project  The again,  (12)  CDA,  only  while  needs  society  an  impediment  government link  structure been  public  whether  CDA  structure, the  are that  realization  keeping  as  of  the  the  Department  of  of  would  terms  into  the  monitored  the  in  closely  track  office  not  design,  more  insofar  opinion  or  to  the  society.  regional  have  of  institutional  output  through  have  of the  indicated,  implementing  arrangement  satisfactory.  to  meeting  this  assessment  the  existing  institutional  Would  t h e r e be  e x p l i c i t , provision_,f or  to  the  collective  Canadian  constraint  assessments  of  the  representative's  was  for  themselves.  p r o c e s s , would  would  effectiveness  also  institutions  given  institutional  but  government  aspects of Lake  the  policies,  -  a  of  government  of  becomes  norms  two  government  that  through  democratic  of  assessment  i t i s apparent being  the  success of  adapt  policies  framework  and  criteria i s ,  itself.  utilizing  implementing  these arrangements  accordingly?  Improved. policies, design used  there  to  ensure  i n  a  autonomous ensures  In  order  f o r assessments  must  be  that  the  productive institution,  that  i t  will  some  mechanism  information manner.  has  a  adapt  t o be  i n the  gathered  BLNDC,  and  because  self-regulating i t s  utilized  policies  to  adapt  institutional processed i t i s a  mechanism accordingly.  is  semiwhich This  164  mechanism well,  i s economic  i t will  This  since  autonomous  failure those  i f the  (a)  economic change  financial  output the  results  in  of  of  system, of  i s  and  the  a  politically  achieve  development, be  assessed  lesson  from  a as  making  i t s  according  policies  for  the  government  structure fail  process,  by to  to to  withdrawing  show  of  the  for  at  designing  implementing  responsive  least  was  to  the  the  change public  assessment  of  of  implementing institutions",  assessments  arrangements  to  adapt  is a  matter  institutions.  implementing  institutions  agencies)  in  "dynamic  these  BLNDC  decision  continuous  effectiveness  utilizing  organized  because  Therefore,  seem  hierarchically  to  an  arrangements  furthermore,  regulatory  up  not  institutional  however:  one.  the  matter  also  somewhat,  and  set  not  valuable  (b)  provision  and  but  perform  performance.  policy  for  would  corporation  i s this,  the  provision  semi-autonomous  than  adapt  political  policies  would  societies,  a  while  policies  designing  It  should  be  a  corporate  government  must  explicit  not_only  the  i t was  mistakes  the  to  i t s economic  a  not  overstated  socio-economic  learned  failure  e s s e n t i a l point  arrangements the  and  backing,  policy  policy  BLNDC  dissolve  improvement  The  for  does  semi-autonomous,  native  financial  i s  Because  Nevertheless,  success or  yet.  corporation  mistakes.  provide  only  as  with of  BLNDC  mechanism  is  corporation  number  i f  exist.  BLNDC  associated  certain  to  self-regulating  however,  goals  cease  incentives:  that  one  i s that  government  advantage (e.g.,  such  of  choosing  corporations,  structures,  bureaucracies,  rather  are  more  165  capable  of  and  circumstances would  also  because  seem  responsive  likely  that  to  adapt  they  such  are  hierarchical  government-agency  (corporation)  "half  i t i s because  government"  arises.  The  institutions but  sets  to of  this  purpose  changing  select  conditions.  that  single  to adapt  responsible  open  and  participatory  i t remains  adaptable.  one  agency nature  politically  bias, of  the  as  implementing own  see  policies, with  and  the  two  how  is  model  such  set of  (a)  as  would i s  i s  regional  semimulti-  BLNDC)  and  i s  policies  representative  of  (not  more  to  modify i t s  meet  changing  level the  likely to  government policies  just  and  electorate  regional  provincial  are  interest  government  (such  (institutions) the  can  In  directions.  and  whole  of  i n agreement  regional  total  correct  agencies  the  government  i s therefore  d e s i g n of  b a l a n c e s on  policy,  (b)  to i t s  and  be  purpose the  the  established.  set their  should  the  and  structures The  to  regional  While  i f  conflict of  new  politically  implementing a  to  However, i t  less  not  that  "government",  i t i s responsive to  checks the  than  group)  are  i n opposite  the  conditions,  client  implementing  lead  of  able  mandate  government  could  be  nature  policies  i t i s s t i l l  more  politically  private"  the  problem.  rather  therefore  "half  these  adoption  autonomous,  that  as  purposes  overcome  links  semi-autonomous  them  higher l e v e l  The  to  gives  can  bureaucracies  semi-autonomous  inasmuch  adapt  and  policies  self-regulating.  structures  than  essence,  their  also as  regional  web,  government  r e s p o n s i v e , dynamic,  and  ensures  well.  communications  a  The and  ensures  therefore  166 It want  i s true,  however,  t o implement  conditions  some  become web  constitute  a  sufficient  objective.  In  would  have  than  they  political  one  would  to  i t operates*  i n which  local  sectoral  level  Affairs  alone).  under  the  implementing through  incorporate  the  regional  government  might  such  way  lpcal  the  of  the  type  would  Nevertheless, governments of from  I f such a  and  well  within  groups as  such  (where well)  t o meet  this  delegate  since  Even  the  situation operate  existed other  on of  would  might have  be been  of  and  would a  be  multi-  Municipal  i n Burns  Lake,  alternative  i m p l e m e n t i n g CDA i t  regional  environment i n  the Ministry had  these  responsive  knowledgeable cultural  some  government  politically  model, as  not  regional  would  The  would  institutions.  more  government  governments  the  more  situation  arrangements,  to  the optimal  as  process.  response  context  be  that  government  power  governments,  present  a  policy  regional  socio-economic  regional  native  into  nevertheless,  itself  (instead  municipal  in  t o BLNDC—CDA  the  the  a  institutional  local  be,  in  process  of  absence  to  are  sensitive which  aspect  to resort  institutions  1  input  communications  responsibilities  even  policies  an  the  that  policies  possible  to  considered.  1  The native situation i s a u n i q u e o n e , h o w e v e r . Some a m e n a b l e a g r e e m e n t n e e d s t o be worked o u t amongst f e d e r a l and provincial governments and the native peoples which w i l l a l l o w f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e two c u l t u r e s w i t h o u t further subjugating the native c u l t u r e t o white c u l t u r e .  167  (13)  Would  the  varying  interested the  individuals  assessment  Improved-  perceptions  The  number  and  institutions  i s usually  such  as  clientele  native  and  CDA  is  services  for  "the  working  CDA,  in  Although,  to  into  those  with  the  of  perception  needy", the  of  according  to  to  i t s 1976 into  number  Special  implementing  of  their  can  i t s  monitoring  incorporate  there to  agencies  of  agencies  form  groups  the  implementing  perceptions  non-native  and  i s  an  influence  such  as  CDA,  that  i s ,  i t provides  social  number  of  perceptions  which  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  clientele.  Policies  defined  into  the  theoretically,  the  problems  go  and  institution.  of  as  which  policies  perceptions  problems  includgd^as .inputs  varying  single-purpose,  enter  perception  the  s t r u c t u r e of  because  restricted  the  f o r a l l n a t i v e and and  of  and-  procedure?-  perceptions  process.  policies  actually  by  groups.  non-native  modification  the  served  be  perceptions  restricted  incorporate  native  opportunity  of  modification  groups  BLNDC  groups  andmodifigation:  monitoring  clientele  and  of . a l l a f f e c t e d  the  by  could  policies  clientele change  these  and  tends  to  the  people  according  groups,  restrict  but  be  a  to  the  limited  solutions  and  modifications.  Again,  a  politically  multi-purpose  and  socially  implementing  agency  contribute  the  not  be  to  restricted  receiving  for  sensitve  benefits  and  government  serves  provincial  assessment to  regional  as  policies.  a,  perceptions  or  dealing  of  with  those the  up  to  be  multi-purpose  Perceptions  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  the  set  policies  which would  clientele  directly  government  agency.  168  Therefore, not  be  a  between  to  closed  but  involve  be  the  timber  administrative  whole  Of  the  to  an  range  permitted  institutions wider  in  powers,  of  again a  not  only  were  well  non-native efforts  to  to  designed  involving  industry,  political  numerous  clientele  (the  unless  that  social  a  whole  ensure  range  of  the  adaptable, could  regional  local but  cooperate  with  policies  a  would  rather  than  model  could  not  of  implementing  governments  guestions  matters  sensitive regional that  would  goals  municipal  constitutional  more  and  a  which  group.  government  the  clientele  associated  likely  would  negotiations  process  trade-offs  i s more  regional  unless  cultures promote  the  Lake  native-non-native  much  It  instance,  substantially d i f f e r e n t choice  and  However,  and  social  these  the  Burns  formally.  procedure  open  of  balance  purposes  course,  licences, for  bureaucracy  licencing decision.  serve  with  of  instead  modified  have  issuing  provincial  group),  single  the  also and  socio-economic  associated  were  government  institutions to join  show  had  settled might  do  (BLNDC-CDA)  that  together  development.  nativein  their  169  CHAPTER  VIII:  ASPECTS  OF  INSTITUTIONAL  PROMOTE O P T I M A L I T Y SUMMARY  Lake the  AND  Chapter  VII,  was  examined  i n terms  within  an  the  process of  how  institutional  context f o r B.C.  to  meet  criteria,  the  assessment  However, l i m i t a t i o n s realize  the  systemic  nature  policies  and  the  policy  remain  unintegrated  least  in  a  government,  but  federal  the  i n which  and  i t  optimal. optimal Rather  policy they  Somewhat beyond  the  process,  are  matters  less  scope  i t s  of  been a  exist  the  Indian  provincial of  should be  not  be  negotiated  from  thesis  the  to  Act)  might  because  of  the  context.  The  institutions  the  might  accepted and  at be  regional  cooperate.  Also,  distinctly  limit  are be  designed considered  a l l c o n s t r a i n t s to as  the  obstacles.  adjusted.  provincial  inquiry  imaged  governments  government  policies  what  i s  model  framework,  through  of  process.  regional  obligation  goals  conducted  process  optimal  federal  Burns  normative  government  constraints, like  limiting this  TO  PROCESS:  in  the  institutional  federal  no  (e.g.,  to  the  of  programs  i s under  these  had  process  The  irrespective  However,  met  r e g i o n a l government  r e g i o n a l and  implemented  as  ability  of  manner-  statutes  i t  featured  Canadian  the  implement  various way  with  i f  formation  have  i t i s the  policy  whole  policy  Insofar  the  processes  formal  to  on  optimal of  PLANNING/POLICY  i t might  which  r e g i o n a l government  persuaded  of  planning/policy process  of  to  THE  REQUIRED  CONCLUSIONS  In  optimal  OF  DESIGN  i s the  perspective, whole  question  but of  170  adjusting the  provincial  goals  local  of  system  to  devote  provincial  Despite Canadian  regional  of their  level  the  fact  look,  i n terms  satisfies,  and which  at  the  the  operation  about design.  of  powers.  reforming  the  criteria.  previous  to participating  federal  The  workload,  i n the  process  effects  and l o c a l  restrict  aspects  the ability  of  of the  optimality i n a l l planning/policy  policy  in  assessment  which  policy  aspects  Moreover,  each  overcomes,  a r e manifested  aspect and  then  as a r e s u l t  indicate  of the aspects  a  of the regional  criteria  will  formation  c a n be a c h i e v e d i f  Columbia.  aspect  as a whole,  applicability  the  outputs  in British  c o n s t r a i n t s each  o f t h e system  the general  involve  of their  the individual  o f which  synergistic  much  improvement  i s adopted  government  scope  taxing  assessment  framework  i n many  at  Adjusting  and a d j u s t i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c  these  t o promote  first  realize  formation.  institutional  r e g i o n a l model  they  the  their  might  relevant  that  a substantial  broadening  reforming  time  policy  and t h e r e f o r e  closer  and  f r e e d from  government  processes, process  most  involve  the  so that  planning/policy process.  committees  meet  ministers,  institutions  institutions  of legislative  Cabinet could  might  provincial  institutions  the  optimal  jurisdiction  Adjusting  the  the  institutions  municipal  of  and l o c a l  of  of  something  institutional  171  A  -  Aspects of I n s t i t u t i o n a l and  Minimize  6oals  Participation  Aspect  Goal Goals  Goals  of  Oesign.  Constraints  (8)  Technical:  (2.3,5,9.13)  Implementation+Monitoring Resource  Constraints  Met  Accountability  Design Required t o Meet The Goal Set  1.  Difficulty Integrating Policies Difficulty Handling Information Volume D i f f i c u l t y Coping with Participation  Technical:  DECENTRALIZED  (10,11,12)  Technical:  (4,5) Financial: Temporal:  (4,6)  2. REGIONAL ( v s  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Goals (2,3,5,9,13) Agency B i a s Goal (7) Implementation+Monitoring (10,11,12)  3. MULTI-PURPOSE  Resource  Goals  Accountabi1i ty Communications  Goa1 Goal  A c c o u n t a b i l i t y Goal (8) agency B i a s Goal (7) Implementation+Monitoring  ELECTED  (10,11  ,12)  (10,11,12)  Communications Goal (1) Agency B i a s Goal (7)  Communications  Goal  Resource  (4,6)  Goals  Goals  Communications  Goal  Resource  (2.4)  Goals  Participation  Goals  Agency  Bias  Goal  (Through  REPRESENTATIVE  5. COUNCIL -CABINET  LINKED  DECISIONS Executive  TO  JOINT Council)  3  WRISDICT.ONS  S c a r c i t y of Resources . (human, financial, efc )  Technical:  Difficulty Policies  Technical:  D i f f i c u l t y Coping Participation  Technical:  Difficulty Poli ci e s  8. COMMUNICATIONS  WEB  (2,3,5,9,13)  (1)  RESOURCES  FOR^PARTICIPATION  (financial,  technical, etc.)  Integrating  with  Integrating  Technical: Human:  Difficulty Integrating Policies E f f o r t s to C o n t r o l Policy by M o r e Aggressive  Jffftjff]  j j^jj ( i . e . ,  (1)  of.Resources prov.  can  help)  Technical:  Difficulty Integrating Policies Technical: Difficulty Handling Participation Human: A p a t h y , Resentment of P u b l i c  Technical: Human:  Lack of Resources f o r Participation Resentment, Refusal to C o o p e r a t e on p a r t o f P u b l i c  (2,3,5,9.13)  Communications Goal (1) Agency B i a s Goal (7) Implementation+Monitoring  Goal  EXECUTIVE  OVERLAPPING  Communications Goal (1) Agency B i a s Goal (7)  Communeicatlons  LOCAL  Transaction Costs Decision Delays  Technical:  local)  4.  (8) (l)  Implementation +M o n i t o r i n g A c c o u n t a b i l i t y Goal (8) Communications Goal (l)  Participation  Minimized  POLICY  (10,11,12)  SECRETARIAT  11. COMMITTEE STRUCTURE ' (non-hierarchical bureaucracy)  12. CONTINUOUS MONITORING ( P r o v . and r e g i o n a l interagency links)  (1)  (7)  Implementation+Monitoring  10. ANALYSIS  (10,11,12)  Techn 1c a l :  Accountabi1ity Expert Dilemma  vs  Technical: Human:  Difficulty Integrating PolIcies Bureaucratic In-fighting, Personal Stagnation  Technical:  Difficulty Integrating Policies H u m a n : • • , Emp1 r e B u i l d i n g I n •;• B u r e a u c r a c y  172  B. Systemic  Aspects of The R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l  Design  As can be seen from the preceding summary of the aspects of the r e g i o n a l number  two  government (Regional  design,  no  one  aspect,  except  aspect  vs L o c a l ) * meets more than one g o a l , and  many aspects overcome more than Moreover,  each  aspect  one  meets  constraint  in  doing  so.  a l l the g o a l s , and even when  s e v e r a l a s p e c t s are taken together* they do  not  meet  all  the  goals p l u s overcome a l l the c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y . In s h o r t , the  aspects  interrelated For normative  of the design of the r e g i o n a l government model are and  make up an i n s t i t u t i o n a l system.  instance, model  decentralization  of  regional  as  government  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y g o a l because decision-makers a c c e s s i b l e t o the p u b l i c . But s t r i c t l y and  visibility  accountability. normative the  an is  of  seen to meet the  speaking,  alone  are  not  However,  the  decentralized  sufficient  one  model  are  and  accessibility conditions  quality  of  model does serve t o help ensure a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the  the  are more v i s i b l e  qovernment i s simultaneously e l e c t e d and  isolate  aspect  for the  because  d e c e n t r a l i z e d . The  interdependent:  one  cannot  or more a s p e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l desiqn and  expect  to promote the o p t i m a l process. The present r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n B.C.  and c o u l d not meet the e n t i r e set of assessment c r i t e r i a certain  essential  aspects  do  because  of the optimal i n s t i t u t i o n a l  design  are i g n o r e d . The Regional D i s t r i c t s , f o r example, although decentralized i n s t i t u t i o n s ; are  delegated  powers  only  are not r e a l l y within  the  multi-purpose; jurisdiction  not  of  semithey the  1 7 3  Ministry  of  they  incapable  are  Municipal  population resource  in  use  of  any  or  District  structure,  the and  policies  with  concept  of  region.  The  is of  of  the  single  means  purpose  that  must  of  the  resource  provincial  jurisdiction  of  attainment and  the  policies.  that  and  Regional  the  policies  the  of  from  District  procedural  a  no  of  the thus with  structures  utility  Goals"  of  those  is  associated  in  fall  to  partially  1 0 , 1 1 and  institutions  goals  the  District  committee  Monitoring  there  Regional  their  committee serves  with  goals  of  coordinate i t s  agencies;  of  use  Aside  "Implementation  region  natural  nature  the  The  region.  since  regional  with  not  the  the  associated  (TPC),  the  satisfying  drawback  Committee  narrow  obvious  Again,  major  interests  questions  jurisdiction  integrating  coordinate  is a  Technical Planning  decentralization  meeting  policy  those  frustrates  This  representing the  allocation.  Regional  province  Affairs.  1 2 ,  very  democratic  i t  short  Canadian  society.  The not  be  Regional viewed  structure Cabinet-i  the  They  major model  provides as  economic  merely  from  of  the of  the  that  i s ,  they  to  membership  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as  of  model,  the  i t i s for  except  RRMCs.  rule;  to  regional  that the  resolve  government  concerns  restricted  of  "Committee  i s the only  social  i s not  government  the  meet  Furthermore,  should  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arm  r e g i o n a l government  for representation the  the  comparable  (RRMCs)  provincial  r e g i o n a l government  conflicts.  well:  Committees  the  represent  somewhat  exception,  resource  committees and  are  aspect  the  Management  isolation  they  aspect  committee  RRMCs a r e  in  since  Structure"  Resource  to  on  the  resource  174  Even in  i f t h e RRMC i n t h e n o r t h w e s t  1974,  policy  i t could  process  mandate  to  provincial RRMCs  which  begin  funds  are,  provincial  took new  i s  not  agencies  do  development.  Although  they  level  policy policy  making  as well  less  decision-making  government, regional of  accountable,  government policies less  generated  responsive  interests  of  overcome,  would  to  but  merely  could  conduct  certain  Nevertheless, the  model  tend  needs,  agencies'  to  extent,  as  RRMCs of  be  biased  clientele.  the  which  the  less  Thus,  have  regional the  comprised regional  i s that, r e g i o n a l  a n d more  decision-making  new  decision-  are not  and they  effect  policy  make o r i n f l u e n c e  1  do h a v e  than  similar  influence to  representatives  public  and  not have,  would  o f some  RRMCs  bias  b y RRMCs  some  no  project.  physical-economic  net  the  decentralization may  a  that  they  capacities.  The  to  has  or to allocate  governments,  unlikely  as they  capacity  be.  i t  BLNDC-CDA  significantly  are  insofar  elected  would  say  processes,  have  governments  to  not  as a d v i s o r y  they  the  of i n t e r a c t i v e  for  i t s own,  as  established  structures.  bureaucratic  regional  such  Lake,  a l l ,not accountable  this  level  on  well  the type  i n Burns  projects  bureaucratic  provincial  conducted  place  to projects  after  However,  1  n o t have  had been  level  innovative, toward  the  although  c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a RRMC  technical  constraint  of  "Could" i f RRMCs met f r e g u e n t l y . M o s t o f t h e " r e g i o n a l p o l i c y " i s made b y a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g s i n g l y , not as part of t h e RRMC. Most r e g i o n a l l e v e l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s u n c o o r d i n a t e d .  175  coordinating sufficient  policies,  c o n d i t i o n of  of  the  C.  Synergistic Effects  optimal  Because parts the  greater  of_The  regional  of  design)  b e n e f i t gained  cumulative  the  the  than  termed  institutional  planning/policy  (aspects  total  decentralization  the  effects  the  of  the  synergistic  mean  that  reduced,  the  and  to  model  the  are  system  the  adoption  the  parts.  effects. the  own  meet  Government  government  i s not  the  a  goals  to  achievement  i s a  the  These  terms  the of  of  the  be  positive  which the  and  would  the  could  be  performance  effects  optimal the  system,  model  are  operation  In  Design  interrelated,  of  synergistic  constraints  the  i t s  process.  system's  r e g i o n a l government,  design  Regional  from  sum of  of  on  of  essentially  process  normative  are  further  criteria  is  enhanced.  For  instance,  decentralized, the  regions  would  be  region would  and  tend  of  aspect  of  process  by  achievement  on  the  the  population  development further of  otherwise)  the  and  and  would would  optimal  the  would  a  to  resource  process.  available,  As  net the  the  the  various  effect  of  regional  of  to  activity  the  resources  quality  in  time,  constraints  more  the  Over  is  Victoria  demand  between  enhance  on  regional  population.  The  model  relocated  focused  increased  reduced.  be  be  creates  resources be  government  now  This  more  reducing  become  employees  regions.  attract  province  regional  procedures  personnel  to in  the  government approval  for skilled  regions  and  many  refocused  disparities  because  to  this  policy the  (personnel the  policy  176  output  from  Not  only  resources but  there  of  human  of  regional  processes  would  because would  the  be  resources  increased  there  of  also  would  be  also  a  increase  a v a i l a b l e to  participation,  of in  the  job  further  quantitative  miqration  an  be  increase  resources the  to  quantity  policy  enhanced.  the  satisfaction  region*  and  process  quality  as  and  in  a  result  leadership  opportunities.  Once the  the  regional  confidence  cooperation,  of  the  rather  than  regional  residents  be  and  wasted  incorporated about  Similarly,  once  also  (not  through  itself), region the  will  energies  i f  bureaucracy approach  in  the  energy  will they  and  will  access  and  they  become  of  the  the  opportunities,  policy  of  not  be  seriously  less  apathetic  process,  General  policy  is but  Assembly  individuals  public  such  will  participation  elected  capabilities  When  briefs.  for  the  gain  encourage  expend  fact  preparing  to  i t would  participation.  in  opportunity  available to  these  citizen  the  establishment  in  the  process.  individuals will  In  direct  elsewhere.  much  considered  disappear  meetings  operating,  population  views  through  become of  that  design,  leadership  Likewise, often  only the  the  absence  their  policy  public  presented  conflict  their  attending  was  regional  realize  that into  government  as  the were  of  the  petty  inevitable  oppressive substituted  c e n t r a l to  b i c k e r i n g and  the  bureaucratic  and by  model  empire  building,  behaviour,  militaristic  would  hierarchy  the  non-hierarchical,  of  regional  in  committee  government.  This  177  aspect,  coupled  encourage  new  with and  the  innovative  bureaucracy  itself-  would  challenging  even  become at  the  In which  short,  could  government or  junior  be  more  staff  would  moment  in  framework  might  expression of to  Burns Lake effect  of  to  the  the  regional  i t  the  which  were  the  opportunities,  often  Burns  present  of  of  many o f  Lake,  of  opportunities  likely  would  an  that  government  because that  of  the  human  givens  emerged some  at  policy  institutional of  such  opportunities  offered the  by  exceptional  shortage  the  attract  regional  leadership,  which  possible  regional  as  the  because  i t i s  the  accepted  satisfaction  approach  retained  government  of  positions  during  human  for the  resources  demand.  entirely  avoided.  kind  are  In  i s more  operation  an  the  synergistic effects  operation  successful  general be  career  would  within  bureaucratic  disappearance  personal  the  conditions  been some  the  had  produced  economic  the  p o l i c y process  meet  have  for  less  aspect  surface  significant  Although  within  and  the  Although  have  be  resources,  necessary  most  from be  time.  conducted  course  government  p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  processes  self  the  enthusiasm  of  to  Web"  level.  constraints  and  combination  human  of  ideas  satisfying  deterministic.  creativity  that  and  expected  behavioural  the  Regional  one  model  "Communications  of  for the  to  illustration  of  the  If  Burns  strategy.  been  native  development,  development purposes,  r e g i o n a l government  different had  regional  Lake the  in  people had,  For  place, in  the  Burns  might  model  net  might  instance,  nevertheless,  policy  the  in  i f  near  crisis  Lake  might  been  slated  have  taken  a  178  direction There to  might  guide  Burns a  the  What regional problems  project  can  the  mill.  policies  output  of  the  establishment  of  policy  way,  tailored  of  a  advocacy  concern  that but  to  the  operation  i s that  given of  linear  of  policy  regional  policies  should  be  maintains  particular  Design  of  the  are  the  and  uni-  tendency and  aspects  substantive  a  neither  a n a l y s i s the  institutional  i t also  the  as  Institutional  i s  ignore which  policy  that  environment  the  are  so  solution.  government evolved  to  in  model an  policy  open output  f o r which  i t is  evolved.  tailored will  same to  the  i s  true  f i t the  operate.  Canadian  The  British  of  norms,  constraints  new  norms  and  to  environment  common  relating  to  to  the  model  overcome  human a n d  constraints to be  institutions:  r e g i o n a l government  Columbian  the  will  of  socio-political  democratic  Most the  the  simplistic,  substantive aspects  the  the  in  success  of  i s explored  t h e r e f o r e the  the  does  The  to  i n the  regional or  contributed to  s o l u t i o n s be  often  the  interactive  being  the  Too  to  be  development,  model  and  should  have  general  government  procedural  and  may  native  more  increasing clear  on  express  of  some  participation  i s becoming  concentrate  only  been  local  policy.  dimensional.  Not  enabling  A p p l i c a b i l i t y ,of ,:.The; A s p e c t s  nor  important  have  process  wide  General  than  also  Lake  region  D.  other  in  which  i s designed  constraints  physical  should  to  process,  a l l provinces,  except  the  the  they meet  environments.  policy  of  be  particular  optimal  size  the  they  province,  the  like  technical topography  179  and  the  is  a  distribution very  government  and  significant institutions process  British  i s a  Columbia  example the  and  long  distances  interactive which is be  a  could limit  be  to  provinces, would  as  boundaries  small  Island, would in  of  i f one  appropriate.  size  than  and  normative  P.E.I. aspects to  the  to of  as  that These  most  i f one  limited  the  the  to  conduct  the  number  the  same t i m e ,  which  of  the  for  groups there  which  a  can very  regional  larger  what  an  have  Canadian  institutions  geographical  should  a  plus  need  In  yet  m i n i s t e r s ' time  determine  size  the  plus  specific  be.  seek  to  New  Brunswick  improve  the  policy  process  or  Prince  Edward  government  are  regional the  Local").  Lake  r e g i o n a l government  institutions  geographically governments  provincial  "regional"  regional  provincial  The  provinces  considers  vs  responsibilities  intermediary  B.C.  be  At  optimal  Burns  travelled  emerges.  regions  such  the  although  to  the  the  this  regional  diverse,  As  governments  s t i l l  were  i t i s unlikely  be  applied  sizes  provinces  Nevertheless, N.B.  will  promote  province.  perspectives.  appropriate  whether  "Regional  process.  or  However,,  geographically  increased  be  However, in  of  intermediary  and  -  be  i n the  intermediary  density  2  severely  such  also  population  an  to  municipal  geographical  institution  had  number to  to  c o n s t r a i n t s on  involved  the  necessary  populated  the  population.  i n determining  large,  process  decentralized  limited  very  which  policy  the  (Aspect  unevenly  illustrated,  of  factor are  planning/policy  modestly  size  institutional  would  governments  government,  government  smaller  then  model  framework  of  a l l the  could in  be.  order  be to  180  improve  E.  the  policy  Concluding  The and  1  Remarks  increased environmental  early  approach  1970's  was  in social  "holistic concepts river  process.  manifested  has  Committees  planning."  in  British  The  resulted  "integrated resource  basin  i n an  science theory.  approach" as  awareness of  applied  i n the  are  or  form  1960's systems of  this  popularization of  Regional  Columbia  late  ecological  management"  The  the  and  such  "coordinated  Resource  Management  manifestations  of  this  master  plans  approach.  Early  planners  instinctively their  reguired  to  and  on  nature  committee  coordinate,  1  However,  compiled the  product to the  facilitate  interactive the  on  efforts  coordination  of  recognized  emphasis  professional  who  of  much  merit  comprehensive of  i n s t e a d of criticism.  formation  of  coordination the  approach  an  holistic process The  approach, subjected  to  their  c u r r e n t emphasis  institutions recognizes  integrate,  on  or  committees  the  essential  planning/policy process. is  but  or  The  purpose  at  least  management d e c i s i o n s .  both  the  old  and  the  new  approach  to  1  The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d t h e n be t h e r e f e r e n c e respect to such aspects as " D e c e n t r a l i z e d " and Jurisdictions".  1  "Integrate" implies that there exists various elements can be integrated. without a view t o "the whole".  integration  point with "Overlapping  "a whole" i n t o which t h e Coordination can occur  181  silently  tolerate  process.  Efforts  administrative of  t h e most  social  t o improve  bodies,  the  Canadian  formation  process.  to  therefore policies can  to  towards  this  Management  Any  policy  meeting  the  norms  not  towards  some of  than  the  has  and i t i s  process  would  i s  not  design  t h e r e f o r e be  optimal  objective  of  integration  institutional  the  to  policy  integration  of p o l i c y  of  democratic overcoming  of the optimal  policy  the  of  regional  necessary  process  society  use,  true  process of  led  that  policy i n  the  multi-purpose,  rather  lack  The p u r s u i t  Columbia  framework  that  change  design  government  as  for integrated regional  administrative  a the  policy  Regional  Resource  democratic  norms o r  Committees.  when  the s e t of c u l t u r a l l y  s e t of c o n s t r a i n t s changes  choices.  on  integration  i s the democratic  resource  democratic  the  British  institutional development  process  constraints alone.  i n  in  improve  decentralized,  reguire  election  the planning  process  The o b v i o u s  the  should.  process,  integration  the  as  ignore  to the true  that  this  i t s trade-offs  that  as i t  necessary  Only  are focused  and thus  such  lead  as a whole  I t i s through  through  mean  operating  process  could  the position  society  c a n be a c h i e v e d .  policy  principles,  which  has taken  make  only  only  geared  design  formation  choices.  paper  chosen  of the policy  institutional  basic democratic  This for  aspects  or bureaucratic i n s t i t u t i o n s  decision-making of  the political  adjustment  i n order  The  incongruence  to  will  defined  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  continue of  the  to  framework  integrate  present  B.C.  social policy  182  institutions such  an  with  adjustment  the set  of  i s overdue.  democratic  norms  indicates  that  183  SELECTED AVG  BIBLIOGRAPHY  M a n a g e m e n t S c i e n c e L t d . 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