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Institutions for the optimal planning policy process : application to British Columbia Eyre, Peggy Jane 1979

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INSTITUTIONS FOE THE OPTIMAL PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS: APPLICATION TO BRITISH COLOMBIA by PEGGY JANE EYRE B„A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGEEE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1979 (c) Peggy Jane Eyre, 1979 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that' the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cfimmunily Ci nA (\etj iom I P/dM/ny The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS i i ABSTRACT ( a) The Problem As a student of p l a n n i n g , one i s c o n s t a n t l y seeking to d e f i n e and s o l v e the problem of p l a n n i n g : What i s the plann i n g process?; What should i t be?; Is i t what i t should be ?; I f not, how does one make i t b e t t e r ? Such que s t i o n s are what prompted the l i n e of i n q u i r y of t h i s paper-The problem thus has f o u r dimensions; (1) d e f i n i n g the planni n g process; (2) d e f i n i n g the o p t i m a l planning process: (3) t e s t i n g an e x i s t i n g planning process t o see i f i t i s the optimal process; (4) suggesting means of making the process optimal should i t not be so. However, a process cannot e x i s t without s u b s t a n t i v e i n p u t s and outputs. Moreover, the attempt t o improve a s o c i a l process such as the pl a n n i n g process on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s i n v o l v e s the design of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s cannot e x i s t apart from the context of the s o c i e t y f o r which they are designed. Thus the problem has both t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l a s p e c t s . The e m p i r i c a l s e t t i n g f o r t h i s paper i s the Canadian province of B r i t i s h Columbia: the s u b s t a n t i v e i n p u t s and outputs which h i g h l i g h t the planning process are taken from an a c t u a l case study - the Burns Lake Native Development C o r p o r a t i o n . Although these e m p i r i c a l boundaries l i m i t the scope of the study to B r i t i s h Columbian i n s t i t u t i o n s , some gen e r a l a s p e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n emerge which have w i d e r g e o g r a p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Canada. (b) Method o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n In d e f i n i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( C h a p t e r I I ) an a t t e m p t i s made t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n d i v i d u a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . I t i s t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h w h i c h t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d . When t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s vie w e d a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e , s o c i e t a l l e v e l , r a t h e r t h a n f r o m t h e s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e o f an i n d i v i d u a l " p l a n n e r , " i t i s se e n as a c o n g r u e n t p r o c e s s t o t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The s e t o f norms which t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l meet i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s e t of d e m o c r a t i c norms o f t h e p l u r a l i s t i c , C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y ( C h a p t e r I I I ) . When t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s examined i n l i g h t o f i t s a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms, a s e r i e s o f t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a emerge ( C h a p t e r I V ) . An a c t u a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s would be j u d g e d o p t i m a l i f i t r e a s o n a b l y met t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , g i v e n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s which e x i s t t o a c h i e v i n g o p t i m a l i t y ( C h a p t e r V ) . In C h a p t e r V I , t h e c a s e o f t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n i s examined a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a b i l i t y t o meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a and overcome t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y . The Burns Lake p r o c e s s i s c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t i s j u d g e d t o be a "good" p r o c e s s and t h e r e f o r e t h e g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i s se e n t o be r e a l i z i n g i t s b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . C e r t a i n k e y c o n s t r a i n t s a r e f o u n d t o r e n d e r t h e Burns L a k e p r o c e s s l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l . i v l a C h a p t e r V I I a n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government i s d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y . The n o r m a t i v e framework i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m u l t i - p u r p o s e , d e c e n t r a l i z e d r e g i o n a l government i n w h i c h a l l e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n s a r e made j o i n t l y by an E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , and a l l l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n s a r e made j o i n t l y by t h e G e n e r a l Assembly o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . W h e n t h e Burns L a k e p r o c e s s i s t r a n s p o s e d t o t h i s new i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t , t h o s e key c o n s t r a i n t s which i n h i b i t e d o p t i m a l i t y a r e shown t o be e l i m i n a t e d o r m i n i m i z e d . ( c) G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n s Not o n l y would t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s have been i m p r o v e d had i t been c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h e r e g i o n a l g overnment model, b u t so would t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i n ge n e r a l . . However, a l t h o u g h t h e r e g i o n a l model would t e n d t o imp r o v e p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l government p e r f o r m a n c e , o p t i m a l i t y o f a l l p c l i c y p r o c e s s e s would r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m a t a l l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , f e d e r a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e t w e l v e a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n which a r e summarized i n C h a p t e r V I I I h i g h l i g h t t h e key f a c t o r s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n n e c e s s a r y t o promote o p t i m a l i t y i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . These a r e : D e c e n t r a l i z e d ; R e g i o n a l ; M u l t i -p u r p o s e ; E l e c t e d L o c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l L i n k e d t o C a b i n e t ; A l l D e c i s i o n s J o i n t ; O v e r l a p p i n g J u r i s d i c t i o n s ; V C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Web; R e s o u r c e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ; P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t ; Committee S t r u c t u r e ( n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a c y ) ; C o n t i n u o u s M o n i t o r i n g . Of t h e s e t w e l v e a s p e c t s , o n l y A s p e c t 2, " R e g i o n a l " does n o t f i t a l l p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t s , s i n c e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f an i n t e r m e d i a r y government i s d e p e n d e n t on p h y s i c a l and d e m o g r a p h i c s i z e . A l t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e a s p e c t s i n i s o l a t i o n ( e x c e p t p e r h a p s A s p e c t 2) may s e c u r e b e n e f i t s i f a p p l i e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n , o n l y when a l l t h e a s p e c t s a r e a p p l i e d a s a s y s t e m w i l l f u l l b e n e f i t s be r e a l i z e d . I f t h e n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government f o r B.C. were a d o p t e d , n o t o n l y would b e n e f i t s be r e a l i z e d i n t e r m s o f an i m p r o v e d p r o c e s s , b u t a l s o b e n e f i t s would be r e a l i z e d i n t e r m s o f b e t t e r p o l i c y o u t p u t . P r o c e s s and p r o d u c t a r e n o t d i s c r e t e a s p e c t s o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i s t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on "means" o r p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t " e n d s " ( p r o d u c t ) . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION: PROBLEM, APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 1 A. The P r o b l e m 1 B. The App r o a c h 2 C. M e t h o d o l o g y 4 I I . THE NATURE OF THE I PUBLIC PLANNING PEOCESS AND IT'S RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL PROCESS .... 13 I I I . THE DEMOCRATIC NORMS OF THE PLURALISTIC, CANADIAN SOCIETY 23 IV. THE OPTIMAL PLANNING/POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: DERIVATION OF ASSESSMENT CRITERIA .. 32 A. The O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n Of P u r p o s e I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System . 33 B. The O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n Of F u t u r e C h o i c e s I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System 36 C. The O p t i m a l A n a l y s i s Of F u t u r e C h o i c e s I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y S ystem 38 D. The O p t i m a l D e c i s i o n I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System 40 E . The O p t i m a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System 41 F. The O p t i m a l M o n i t o r i n g And R e a s s e s s m e n t P r o c e d u r e I n A D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System 43 G. As s e s s m e n t C r i t e r i a Of The O p t i m a l P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 V. THE CONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVING OPTIMALITY IN THE v i i PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS . . 48 V I . AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS IN THE B.C. INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF BURNS LAKE NATIVE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION . . - I i . i 56 A. I n s t i t u t i o n s F o r P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y Development I n B.C , - - 56 B. O v e r v i e w Of The E s t a b l i s h m e n t Of The B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDC) .... 68 C. The E v o l u t i o n Of The B u r n s Lake P r o j e c t J a n u a r y 1976 - J u l y 1979 ... 82 D. The Burns Lake P r o c e s s W i t h i n The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y C o n t e x t 86 E . A s s e s s m e n t Of The B u r n s Lake P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s . . . . a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 V I I . A NORMATIVE MODEL OF REGIONAL GOVERNMENT FOR B.C.: TOWARDS PROMOTING THE OPTIMAL PLANNING/POLICY /PROCESS 113 A. The P u r s u i t Of The O p t i m a l P r o c e s s ....113 B. A N o r m a t i v e Model Of R e g i o n a l Government F o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .......121 C. The N o r m a t i v e Model I n O p e r a t i o n : An Improved B u r n s Lake P r o c e s s 139 V I I I . ASPECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN REQUIRED TO PROMOTE 0PTIMALITY OF THE PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .-..,.......-.--....169 A. A s p e c t s Of I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e s i g n R e q u i r e d To Meet The G o a l S e t And M i n i m i z e C o n s t r a i n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 B. S y s t e m i c A s p e c t s Of The R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l v i i i Design . . . . . . . . . . ........<..........,.. .172 C. S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t s Of The R e g i o n a l Government D e s i g n .. ..175 D. G e n e r a l A p p l i c a b i l i t y Of The A s p e c t s Of I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e s i g n ..................178 E. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks ...................180 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY .... 183 OTHER SOURCES: PERSONAL INTERVIEWS ........186 i x L I ST-OF FIGURES 1. Phase 1 - D e f i n i n g P l a n n i n g ; Phase 2 - D e f i n i n g The O p t i m a l P r o c e s s ; Phase 3 - A s s e s s i n g The P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s . . 4 2. P h a s e 4 - P r o m o t i n g The O p t i m a l P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s . 10 3 . O v e r v i e w Of The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Framework 56 4. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s Of B.C. 57 5. R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committee R e g i o n s 58 6. A N o r m a t i v e Model Of R e g i o n a l Government F o r B.C. . . . . . . 1 2 3 X Acknowledgement T h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e h e l p and c o o p e r a t i o n o f numerous p e o p l e , e a c h o f whom c o n t r i b u t e d i n a u n i q u e way t o t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . I t was my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r I r v i n q K. F o x , who h e l p e d me d e f i n e t h e t o p i c and e s t a b l i s h t h e methodology o f t h e t h e s i s i n q u i r y . H i s h e l p , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , b u t e s p e c i a l l y h i s s u s t a i n e d e n t h u s i a s m and i n t e r e s t , were i m p o r t a n t i n p u t s t o t h e s t u d y . P r o f e s s o r Brahm Weisman, who was t h e s e c o n d r e a d e r o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y m a n u s c r i p t , o f f e r e d many c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s on how t o i m p r o v e t h e t e x t and t h e g r a p h i c s . The q u a l i t y o f t h e document u n d o u b t e d l y i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s . W i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f Mr. R o b e r t W i l l i a m s , t h e Burns Lake p o l i c y p r o c e s s c o u l d n o t have been e x p l o r e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . He s u p p l i e d t h e o n l y government f i l e m a t e r i a l which was a c c e s s i b l e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , a s w e l l a s d e v o t e d s e v e r a l h o u r s t o d i s c u s s i n g t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s and t o a n s w e r i n g my p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s . H i s c o o p e r a t i o n was, t h e r e f o r e , e l e m e n t a l t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . R e c o g n i t i o n must a l s o be g i v e n t o a l l t h o s e p e r s o n s who a g r e e d t o d i s c u s s t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s w i t h me. I n p a r t i c u l a r , I am g r a t e f u l t o : J o hn B a k e r , A l i s t a i r C r e r a r , Graham F a r s t a d , D a v i d F r a s e r , B i l l G i l g a n , J e a n G r e y , E r i k K a r l s e n , Mike M c K i n l e y , M a r g a r e t P a t r i c k , J i m P i e r c e , Nancy P l a s w a y , J e r r y P r e s l e y , George R i c h a r d s , Jo R i c h a r d s , Ruth T i b b i t s . O n l y a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r o j e c t w i t h a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e c o u l d t h e whole p r o c e s s be u n d e r s t o o d . 1 CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION: PROBLEM, APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY A. The P r o b l e m As a " p l a n n e r " , one i s c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g t o d e f i n e p r o b l e m s and recommend s o l u t i o n s . The v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k o f s u g g e s t i n g s o l u t i o n s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h i s i n t u r n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h o s e who d e f i n e t h e p r o b l e m . P l a n n i n g i s , t h e r e f o r e , d e c i d e l y n o r m a t i v e . As a s t u d e n t o f p l a n n i n g , one i s c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g t o d e f i n e and s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g : What i s t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? ; What s h o u l d i t be?; I s i t what i t s h o u l d be?; I f i t ' s n o t what i t s h o u l d be, how does one make i t b e t t e r ? A g a i n , t h e s o l u t i o n (how one g e t s t h e r e ) w i l l depend on t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m (what i t s h o u l d be minus what i t i s ) . T h i s t o o i s a n o r m a t i v e t a s k . The p r o b l e m o f t h i s p a p e r , t h e r e f o r e , h a s f o u r d i m e n s i o n s : ( 1 ) d e f i n i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; ( 2 ) d e f i n i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; ( 3 ) t e s t i n g an e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o see i f i t i s o p t i m a l ; (4) s u g g e s t i n g means o f making t h e p r o c e s s o p t i m a l s h o u l d i t n o t be s o . A l l f o u r o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a r e n o r m a t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y a l l depend on t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e t o f norms o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . However, a p r o c e s s c a n n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i v e i n p u t s and o u t p u t s . M o r e o v e r , t h e a t t e m p t t o im p r o v e a s o c i a l p r o c e s s 2 s u c h a s t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s i n v o l v e s t h e d e s i g n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s c a n n o t e x i s t a p a r t from t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i e t y f o r which t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d . Thus t h e p r o b l e m h a s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l a s p e c t s . The e m p i r i c a l s e t t i n g f o r t h i s p a p e r i s t h e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i n p u t s and o u t p u t s w h i c h h i g h l i g h t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e t a k e n f r o m an a c t u a l c a s e s t u d y - t h e B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e e m p i r i c a l b o u n d a r i e s l i m i t t h e s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n emerge w h i c h have w i d e r g e o g r a p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Canada. B. The A p p r o a c h In d e f i n i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( C h a p t e r I I ) an a t t e m p t i s made t o : d i s t i n g u i s h between i n d i v i d u a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . I t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t what p l a n n i n g " s h o u l d be" i s r e l a t e d t o whether one i s s p e a k i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s t h e l a t e r p r o c e s s w i t h which t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d . A b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s g a i n e d i f one s t e p s back from t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r and v i e w s t h e p r o c e s s as a c o l l e c t i v e , s o c i a l p r o c e s s . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t i t i s t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s t h r o u g h which C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y has c h o s e n t o make i t s s o c i a l c h o i c e s . The o p t i m a l p u b l i c p l a n n i n g 3 p r o c e s s s h o u l d be synonoraous w i t h t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h i s p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l be d e f i n e d by t h e s e t o f C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c norms. The l i n k between t h e s u b s t a n t i v e p o l i c y o u t p u t s and t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t h e whole s y s t e m o f i n s t i t u t i o n s which c o o r d i n a t e s o c i e t a l d e c i s i o n s . I f t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n were shown t o be l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l when measured a g a i n s t t h e s e t o f a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s (which a r e d e r i v e d from t h e d e m o c r a t i c n o r m s ) , t h e n t h e n o r m a t i v e t a s k would i n v o l v e d e s i g n i n g a more a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework which would a l l o w t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e t o f g o a l s . The f a c t t h a t t h e s e g o a l s a r e p r o c e s s g o a l s and n o t s u b s t a n t i v e ( p r o d u c t ) g o a l s i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i t means t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n w i l l n o t be c o n s t r a i n e d by o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . Thus t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework which emerges i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l 1 and dynamic. The i n t e g r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s e c t o r a l p o l i c i e s i s c e n t r a l t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as a forum i n w h i c h t o make s o c i a l c h o i c e s and t r a d e - o f f s . I n s h o r t , t h e improvement o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s n o t o n l y a d e s i r a b l e end i n i t s e l f b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s , i t i s a l s o a means t o a c q u i r i n g b e t t e r p o l i c y o u t p u t s by way o f i m p r o v e d i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l 1 i . e . , m u l t i - s e c t o r a l and p o s s e s s i n g many component " p a r t s " or government o r g a n s . p r e f e r e n c e s and p o l i c y c h o i c e s . C. M e t h o d o l o g y FIGURE 1: Phase 1 - D e f i n i n q P l a n n i n g ; P h a s e 2 - D e f i n i n q The O p t i m a l P r o c e s s ; Phase 3 - A s s e s s i n g The  P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s T H E O R E T I C A L R E A L M E M P I R I C A L R E A L M 5 Phase 1: Defining The Public Planning Process Chapter II seeks to define the public planning process according to i t s so c i e t a l context. This task i s one of synthesizing procedural planning theory concepts according to the author's interpretation of planning theory and the nature of s o c i e t a l choices. The normative character of t h i s task i s made apparent. The public planning process i s seen to be a p a r a l l e l process to the democratic policy process at the s o c i e t a l level.(See Figure 1 - Phase 1.) Phase 2: Defining The Optimal;Planning/Policy Process Chapter III discusses i n more d e t a i l the normative position on which each phase of the thesis inquiry i s based. Again, the norms were derived through the author's interpretation of th e o r e t i c a l constructs. The acceptance or rejection of many of the points raised i n t h i s paper w i l l depend upon the acceptance or rejec t i o n of these norms. Chapter IV deals with the derivation of the assessment c r i t e r i a for the optimal planning/policy process. In deriving these c r i t e r i a , however, the optimal planning/policy process i s depicted ( i . e . , defined). These c r i t e r i a are a synthesis of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the planning/policy process as defined in Chapter I I , the democratic norms of the Canadian society as defined in Chapter I I I , t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on the process of poli c y formation, and the work of other researchers i n the f i e l d of assessing policy processes. 6 F i g u r e 1, Phase 2, i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms, and how t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s i s i n t u r n d e f i n e d by t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a -P h a s e ^ ^ A s s e s s i n g The P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s As soon as one moves from t h e r e a l m o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l t o t h e e m p i r i c a l , one must d e a l w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t r e a l i t y i m p oses on U t o p i a n c o n c e p t s . F i g u r e 1 t r i e s t o d e p i c t t h e l i n k s between t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e e m p i r i c a l . The c e n t r e l i n e s which r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and t h e e m p i r i c a l a r e n o t f i x e d , but may move o v e r t i m e as c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y change. The p l u r a l i s t i c , C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i s shown t o s u p p l y i n p u t t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s t h r o u g h t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms. The a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a r e m a i n on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e , but t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o an a c t u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e g u i r e s t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y be a c k n o w l e d g e d . N o t i c e t h a t t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n r e p r e s e n t s t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e a l m s : i t i s t h e l i n k w h i c h makes n o r m a t i v e c o n s t r u c t s o p e r a t i o n a l . U t o p i a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n s a r e n o t j u d g e d t o be o p t i m a l b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o n - o p e r a t i o n a l and t h e r e f o r e would be u n a b l e t o p r o d u c e a p r o c e s s w h i c h c o u l d meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . The whole p r o c e s s i s d y n a m i c , however, and what may be U t o p i a n a t one p o i n t i n t i m e , may be o p t i m a l a t a n o t h e r , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e c u l t u r a l i n p u t s t o t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms, and t h e s h i f t i n g o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s b o u n d a r y . 7 B e c a u s e o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l - e m p i r i c a l i n t e r f a c e , c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s must be a d d r e s s e d . C h a p t e r V summarizes t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s . The a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a c t u a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a b i l i t y t o meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a ( C h a p t e r VI) i s t h u s t e m p e r e d by t h e acknowledgement o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i o n . S i n c e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t can e i t h e r be a c o n s t r a i n t o r a means t o s a t i s f y i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s a l s o an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f ramework. F i g u r e 1 - Phase 3, i l l u s t r a t e s t h e method o f a s s e s s i n g an a c t u a l p r o c e s s f o r o p t i m a l i t y . I f t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s were t o be o p t i m a l , t h e " A c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " would be t h e " O p t i m a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e , " and t h e a r r o w now c o n n e c t i n g t h e " A c t u a l P r o c e s s " and t h e " A c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " would c o n n e c t t h e " A c t u a l P r o c e s s " w i t h t h e " O p t i m a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " (see F i g u r e 1 ) . Moving f r o m t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t e r i a t o e m p i r i c a l a s s e s s m e n t a l s o p o s e s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m o f m e t h o d o l o g y : t h e r e i s an i n d e f i n i t e number o f p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s w h i c h e x i s t , and not a l l a r e c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h p r e c i s e l y t h e same i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r amework. O b v i o u s l y , e m p i r i c a l b o u n d a r i e s must be drawn f o r t h e s a k e o f m a n a g e a b i l i t y . The q u e s t i o n i s how, t h e n , t o b e s t r e s t r i c t t h e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o p u r s u e t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . 8 S i n c e t h i s t h e s i s i n q u i r y grew o u t o f t h e d e s i r e t o a c q u i r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s and o ut o f t h e n o r m a t i v e ( p l a n n i n g ) c o n c e r n t o e x p l o r e how t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s c o u l d be i m p r o v e d , i t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o l o o k a t an example o f a p o l i c y p r o c e s s which i s o b v i o u s l y p o o r . T h a t t e l l s one l i t t l e a b out t h e d y n a m i c s o f a "good" p r o c e s s and t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e a b o u t how t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n p o l i c y p r o c e s s c h o s e n f o r c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n was t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s was c h o s e n f o r more d e t a i l e d s t u d y b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r e d t o be, i n g e n e r a l , o r " a t f i r s t g l a n c e , " a good p r o c e s s : i t was a p r o c e s s c o n d u c t e d by a c c o u n t a b l e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; i t i n v o l v e d m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s and t h u s d i d n o t promote " t y r a n n y o f t h e m a j o r i t y " ; i t was m u l t i - s e c t o r a l and i n v o l v e d g o a l t r a d e - o f f s . I t t h u s r e p r e s e n t e d an example where t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework was r e a l i z i n g i t s b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . I t a l s o had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e i n g a f a i r l y c o n t a i n e d p r o c e s s which c o u l d be examined i n some d e p t h w i t h i n t h e t i m e and d a t a c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e s t u d y . Much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s came f r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s a d v a n t a g e t o u s i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s as d a t a s o u r c e s . P e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o one's p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . T h e r e f o r e , many o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e Burns L a k e p r o c e s s would t e n d t o be f i l t e r e d o u t and i g n o r e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w e e a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o r h e r judgement of what was 9 r e l e v a n t . The a u t h o r t r i e d t o overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y by i n t e r v i e w i n g p e r s o n s w i t h a wide r a n g e o f p e r c e p t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a few o f t h e key a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w . M o r e o v e r , t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s began f i v e y e a r s ago, and some o f t h e d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f were s i m p l y f o r g o t t e n by t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d . Some o f t h e s e g a p s were f i l l e d by t h e r e v i e w o f a p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f i l e of t h e f o r m e r NDP M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , b u t t h i s f i l e was i n c o m p l e t e . The M i n i s t e r s o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , L a b o u r and Human R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , who a r e i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e c o m p l e t e s e t o f f i l e s , r e f u s e d t o a l l o w a c c e s s t o them. O t h e r gaps i n i n f o r m a t i o n were f i l l e d by a r e v i e w o f t h e l o c a l B u r n s L a k e newspaper between J a n u a r y , 1972 and J u l y , 1979. A l s o , c o p i e s o f t h e o v e r v i e w o f t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s { d e s c r i p t i v e p o r t i o n . C h a p t e r VI) were s e n t t o two p e r s o n s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s f o r comment on t h e f a c t u a l d e t a i l s . S t i l l , t h e i n a b i l i t y t o view t h e s e t o f government f i l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r o c e s s was a s e r i o u s i m p e d i m e n t t o d o c u m e n t i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o c e s s . T h e r e may s t i l l be c e r t a i n i n a c c u r a c i e s of d e t a i l ; h o p e f u l l y t h e s e a r e i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s . B e c a u s e t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an example o f a "good" p r o c e s s , i t meets t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a r a t h e r w e l l , b u t n o t c o m p l e t e l y . C e r t a i n key c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y emerge as f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f 1 0 a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . I f no major c o n s t r a i n t s had i n h i b i t e d o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework would have been j u d g e d as " o p t i m a l " o r " n e a r o p t i m a l " , and no a d j u s t m e n t s would h a v e been n e c e s s a r y . I n t e r m s o f F i g u r e 1 , t h e " O p t i m a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " and t h e " A c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " would have been t h e same (see F i g u r e 2 b e l o w ) , and t h e s t u d y would have ended. However, s i n c e c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s c o u l d have promoted a b e t t e r p r o c e s s , a n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government i s d e v e l o p e d and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Phase H . FIGUEE 2 : gh§_gj|_jizPrj)gojriPg The _ O p t i m a l . P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s THEORETICAL REALM EMPIRICAL REALM P u b l i c P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 1 P u b l i c P o l i cy P r o c e s s D e m o c r a t i c Norms A s s e s s m e n t C r i t e r i a 1 O p t i m a l P r o c e s s r PHASE 4 L llliliii C a n a d i a n C u l t u r e A c t u a l P r o c e s s C o n s t r a i n t s t o O p t i m a l i t y lllliilliiillll 1 1 Phase ft; P r o m o t i n g T h e _ Q p t i m a l P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s As F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e " O p t i m a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " f o r t h e " A c t u a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e " would i n d u c e t h e a c t u a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s t o meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a - T h i s would a t t a i n a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l ( n o r m a t i v e ) and t h e e m p i r i c a l . S i n c e t h e e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g o f a n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government i s beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e model i s i l l u s t r a t e d r a t h e r t h a n t e s t e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n C h a p t e r V I I , t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s i s t r a n s p o s e d t o t h e new r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e two p r o c e s s e s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government model. The d e s i g n o f t h e model i s b a s e d on t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o r m a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a t o t h e e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y o f C a n a d i a n and i n p a r t i c u l a r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n c u l t u r a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . In t h i s s e n s e , t h e B u r ns Lake p r o c e s s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t t h e m s e l v e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f and n e c e s s i t y f o r e m p i r i c a l i n p u t i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n i f new i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e t o be " o p t i m a l " and n o t " U t o p i a n " , t h e r e a r e a l s o e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d t o t h e s c o p e o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Thus t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i l e f e d e r a l and 12 m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s a r e o m i t t e d . The e m p i r i c a l c a s e s t u d i e d a l s o l i m i t e d s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o t h o s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l t h o u g h t h e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n , h o p e f u l l y , a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n Canada. C h a p t e r V I I I , t h e r e f o r e , makes t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s , t h e c e n t r a l theme. 13 CHAPTER I I : THE NATURE OF THE PUBLIC PLANNING PROCESS AND I T ' S RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL PROCESS T h e r e i s no c o m p l e t e t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g . 1 The b i t s and p i e c e s o f t h e o r y which do e x i s t do n o t f i t i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e whole, b u t i n s t e a d r e f l e c t b o t h t h e d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n o f t h o s e who a r e c a l l e d t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n , and t h e d i v e r s i t y o f r o l e s which t h e ' p l a n n e r ' has been c a l l e d t o f i l l . A l l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b o t h p r o c e d u r a l and s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s , and i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o f a v o u r one p r o c e d u r e o v e r a n o t h e r , o r one p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e o v e r a n o t h e r w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o one ' s s e t o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s i n o r d e r t o make t h a t c h o i c e . In t h i s s e n s e , t h e r e c a n r e a l l y n e v e r be any s c i e n t i f i c o r o b j e c t i v e t h e o r y o f p l a n n i n g . 2 Even F a l u d i ' s e s t e emed work P l a n n i n g T h e o r y b e g i n s w i t h t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a n n i n g i s t o promote human growth by t h e use o f r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s o f t h o u g h t and a c t i o n . 3 T h i s v a l u e judgement on F a l u d i ' s p a r t c o l o u r s h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e . o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r . Human growth i s a s u b s t a n t i v e o b j e c t i v e which i m p l i e s t h a t a " b e t t e r " s i t u a t i o n 1 i . e . , p r o c e d u r a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y 2 That i s , one c a n t a l k about a t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g , b u t n o t w i t h o u t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v a l u e s . 3 A n d r e a s F a l u d i , P l a n n i n g T h e o r y (Glasgow: B e l l and B a i n L t d . , 1973) , p. 35. 14 s h o u l d r e s u l t f r o m t h e p l a n n i n g / d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , w h i l e t h e p l a n n e r s u r f a c e s a s a key f i g u r e i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s o f human g r o w t h . No d o u b t , a s t h e p r o t e c t o r o f t h e " p u b l i c good" t h e p l a n n e r i n t h i s r o l e w i l l f e e l he o r she s h o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n c h o s e n . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f he had begun f r o m t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a n n i n g was t o promote t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f human o r s o c i a l c h o i c e s , F a l u d i would have d e p i c t e d t h e p l a n n e r i n a b a c k g r o u n d p o s i t i o n o p e r a t i n g t o promote t h e o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l c h o i c e 1 F a l u d i i s n o t t h e o n l y p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t who i n s i s t s on b e g i n n i n g h i s d i s c u s s i o n by a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a n n i n g . However, o t h e r t h e o r i s t s a d v a n c e o t h e r p u r p o s e s . F o r example, some s e e t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i v e f u n c t i o n a s t h e main r e a s o n f o r p l a n n i n g ( e . g . , D a v i d o f f ) , 2 w h i l e o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a n n i n g i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f government p o l i c y as a c o n t e x t f o r b e t t e r p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s ( e . g . , Mann, Kaufmann, K r u m h o l z ) . 3 I n t h i s l a t t e r r o l e , t h e p l a n n e r may work on t h e 1 John F r i e d m a n ' s " t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g " s t y l e i s an example o f t h e p l a n n i n g t h e o r y which may f o l l o w f r o m s u c h a p r e m i s e . See a l s o : M e l v i n M. Webber, "A D i f f e r e n c e P aradigm f o r P l a n n i n g , i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s - . P l a n n i n g T h e o r y i n The 1980's, (New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U,. P r e s s , 1978), pp. 151-162. 2 P a u l D a v i d o f f , "The R e d i s t r i b u t i v e F u n c t i o n i n P l a n n i n g : C r e a t i n g G r e a t e r E g u i t y Among C i t i z e n s o f C o m m u n i t i e s , " i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 69. 3 L. Mann, " P l a n n i n g B e h a v i o u r and P r o f e s s i o n a l P o l i c y m a k i n g A c t i v i t y , " i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 113; J . Kaufmann, "The P l a n n e r As I n t e r v e n t i o n i s t i n P u b l i c P o l i c y I s s u e s , " i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 179; Kr u m h o l z , C o g g e r and L i n n e r , "Make No B i g P l a n s . . . . P l a n n i n g i n C l e v e l a n d i n The 1970's," i n B u r c h e l l and S t e r n l i e b , e d s . , p. 29. 15 " i n s i d e " of government a s a p o l i c y a n a l y s t and a d v i s o r , o r on t h e " o u t s i d e " as an a d v o c a t e f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s . W h i c h e v e r t h e r o l e , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on a d v a n c i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f p o l i c y r a t h e r t h a n p r o m o t i n g t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . These e xamples r e p r e s e n t o n l y a few o f t h e p o s i t i o n s h e l d c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f p l a n n i n g : t h e number o f p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s i s i n d e f i n i t e . The u l t i m a t e c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e s t u d e n t o f p l a n n i n g f a c e d w i t h s u c h d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n i s t o d e v e l o p a p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f p l a n n i n g which complements h i s o r h e r own g o a l s and v a l u e s . I n t h i s p a p e r , many o f t h e q u e s t i o n s e x p l o r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f r e g i o n a l government and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p l a n n i n g a r e r o o t e d i n t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e p t o f p l a n n i n g . A l t h o u g h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f p l a n n i n g t h e o r y i s beyond t h e s c o p e of t h i s r e p o r t , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e t h e s i s i n q u i r y w i l l be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i f t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l r o o t s a r e o u t l i n e d f o r t h e r e a d e r . P l a n n i n g a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l i s a p r o c e s s o f a p p l y i n g f o r e t h o u g h t t o a c t i o n . I n t h i s s e n s e , p l a n n i n g i s a c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y w h i c h can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e human s p e c i e s . Those who p r a c t i s e p l a n n i n g i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s a r e presumed t o be a b l e t o b e t t e r c o n t r o l t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , 1 and t h e r e f o r e t o d e r i v e more b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n t h o s e who a c t on i m p u l s e . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l 1 Here t h e t e r m e n v i r o n m e n t i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 16 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f s i x i n t e r r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : p l a n n i n g i s p u r p o s e f u l , f u t u r e c r e a t i v e , s y s t e m i c , j u d g e m e n t a l , a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d and o n - g o i n g . i To say t h a t p l a n n i n g i s p u r p o s e f u l i s a k i n t o s a y i n g t h a t p l a n n i n g i s a c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y : t h e a c t o r p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t o be g a i n e d by t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h and c h o o s i n g t h e d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s which a r e p e r c e i v e d t o d e l i v e r t h e most b e n e f i t . The c h a n g e s which r e s u l t from d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t a k e n w i l l be m a n i f e s t o n l y a f t e r t h e a c t i o n i s t a k e n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s f u t u r e c r e a t i v e . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o c e s s o f c h o o s i n g t h e b e s t d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f m u l t i p l e and i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n q t o the s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g t a s k . B e c a u s e t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n c o n c e r n i n g one a s p e c t o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o i m p a c t i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e a n a l y t i c a l p h a s e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s f r o m a g i v e n d e c i s i o n , which a l s o l e a d s t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s , t h e r e f o r e , s y s t e m i c by n a t u r e . The emergence o f c h o i c e s r e s u l t s from t h e s y s t e m i c n a t u r e 1 Some o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was b a s e d on t h e work o f G a r y P a g e t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r Towards a T h e o r y F o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g ( S t u d e n t D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r , Number 2, F a c u l t y o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s , T o r o n t o , York 0. P r e s s , 1976.) The number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has been e x p a n d e d . 17 o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , but t h e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n c h o s e n i s not made a p p a r e n t by t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s a l o n e . The p l a n n i n g c h o i c e i s j u d g e m e n t a l s i n c e i t r e q u i r e s t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a l u e framework and t h e g o a l s ( p u r p o s e s ) o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f t h e f u t u r e and t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s a r e paramount t o t h e j u d g e m e n t a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I f t h e p r o c e s s ends a t t h e p o i n t o f c h o i c e o f t h e p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e p r o c e s s i s n o t a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , but m e r e l y a s p e c u l a t i v e p r o c e s s . A p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e g u i r e s t h a t a c t i o n be t a k e n , and t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s c o n s i d e r e d be r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e s w h i c h can be i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h o u t an u n r e a s o n a b l e amount o f r i s k f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a f f e c t e d , and w hich c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s o u r c e s . P l a n s w h i c h a r e i m p o s s i b l e t o i m p l e m e n t , o r which one has no i n t e n t i o n o f i m p l e m e n t i n g , a r e m e r e l y dreams. Even a f t e r a c t i o n i s t a k e n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g d o e s n o t s t o p . B e c a u s e o f t h e f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n , or t h e s y s t e m i c and j u d g e m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , c h a n c e s a r e t h a t t h e m a n i f e s t e d outcomes o f t h e c h o s e n a c t i o n can be i m p r o v e d , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e what were b e f o r e u n c e r t a i n t i e s now become knowns. The i n d i v i d u a l t h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u e s t o m o n i t o r , e v a l u a t e , m o d i f y o r change t h e c o u r s e o f h i s o r h e r d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . P l a n n i n g i s t h e n a c o n t i n u o u s , o n - g o i n g p r o c e s s . 18 The s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h u s f a r h a v e been d i s c u s s e d as t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who makes h i s o r h e r own c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s - As s o o n as t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s becomes an e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t y , t h a t i s , as soon as an i n d i v i d u a l {or group) i s c h a r g e d w i t h c o n d u c t i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on b e h a l f o f someone e l s e , t h e r e i s a s e v e n t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h must be added t o t h e l i s t : p l a n n i n g i s t r a n s a c t i v e . * T h i s t r a n s a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d . Thus t r a n s a c t i o n s t a k e p l a c e a t a l l p h a s e s o f t h e p r o c e s s : t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p u r p o s e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s and t h e c o n s e g u e n c e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s , t h e d e c i s i o n , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and t h e m o n i t o r i n g . F o r e x ample, i n t h e s i t u a t i o n where a b u s i n e s s p e r s o n has h i r e d a c o n s u l t a n t t o a n a l y s e c e r t a i n i n v e s t m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between t h e c l i e n t and p l a n n e r p l u s any o u t s i d e a c t o r s ( e . g . , d e v e l o p m e n t o r c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r m s ) w i l l be f r e q u e n t . The c l i e n t may be c a l l e d on t o c o n t r i b u t e more t o d e f i n i n g p u r p o s e , or making t h e f i n a l c h o i c e ( w i t h a d v i c e ) w h i l e t h e c o n s u l t a n t may p l a y a l a r g e r r o l e i n t h e a n a l y t i c a l phase o f t h e p r o c e s s . However, w h a t e v e r t h e s p e c i f i c r o l e o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t , t h a t r o l e a l o n e d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The whole 1 Note: An i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s may be t r a n s a c t i v e i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h o o s e s t o seek a d v i c e or i n f o r m a t i o n . However, t h i s i s n o t a n e c e s s a r y o r r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as i t i s i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e p l a n n i n q s i t u a t i o n . 19 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s a l l t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n , w h i l e t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m i n c l u d e s a l l t h o s e p e o p l e o r f i r m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . The same i s t r u e o f any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l s t u c t u r e . T h a t i s , t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m i s c o m p r i s e d o f numerous government and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n s t i t u t e s a l l t h o s e t r a n s a c t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n . No one p e r s o n o r a g e n c y c o n t r o l s t h e e n t i r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . U n d o u b t e d l y , b o t h government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e f i r m s have a l w a y s made c o n s c i o u s and c a l c u l a t e d d e c i s i o n s and t h e r e f o r e p l a n n i n g has a l w a y s been u n d e r t a k e n -even b e f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f p l a n n i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n . I t would be r e s t r i c t i n g t o e x p l o r e p l a n n i n g t h e o r y i n t e r m s o f what p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s do, s i n c e p l a n n i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n i s n o t d e v e l o p e d t o i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . S i n c e p l a n n i n g i s so u n i v e r s a l an u n d e r t a k i n g , i t would seem t h a t p l a n n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d a d e s i r a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g , t h a t i s , t h a t t h e p r o c e s s of r e f l e c t i v e and p u r p o s e f u l d e c i s i o n -making i s a d e s i r a b l e p r o c e s s , n o t t h a t what p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s c u r r e n t l y do i s a l w a y s d e s i r a b l e . However, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a p e r c e i v e d need t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ) , which i n t u r n i m p l i e s t h a t many o f t h e d e c i s i o n s t a k e n o r p r o g r a m s a d v a n c e d have h a d outcomes which were l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l . Means and ends a r e n o t s e p a r a t e , b u t i n t e r r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i s t h a t an 20 improvement i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d l e a d t o an improvement i n t h e s u b s t a n t i v e outcome o f t h e p r o c e s s . The o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e b e s t d e c i s i o n s p o s s i b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e . An i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g t a s k 1 i s t h e r e f o r e t o seek means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t r a n s a c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e s a l l t h o s e g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n . 2 The o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r o p e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s i n t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . But t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f an " o p t i m a l " p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s t h a t v a l u e j u d gements be made, and t h e q u e s t i o n i s : Which s e t o f v a l u e s c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y be used t o e v a l u a t e t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? S i n c e t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 3 i s u n a v o i d a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , t h i s c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , which i s i t s e l f v a l u e l a d e n , c a n n o t be i g n o r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The v a l u e s w i t h w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s 1 T h i s would be a " m e t a - p l a n n i n g " t a s k i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t s . 2 C h a p t e r IV w i l l f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e how t h e s e v e n p r i n c i p l e s o f p l a n n i n g a r e r e l a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 3 i . e . , p u b l i c a s oppo s e d t o p r i v a t e s e c t o r p l a n n i n g . 21 c o n c e r n e d a r e t h e r e f o r e t h o s e o f a d e m o c r a t i c , p l u r a l i s t i c and C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . 1 In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , b e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g s y s t e m i s c o n t a i n e d by t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g s y s t e m and t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t system a r e t h e same. The o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s a r e a l s o c o n g r u e n t . P r o j e c t and program p l a n n i n g a r e n o t d i s t i n c t f r o m p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t b u t a r e r a t h e r s p a t i a l and s e c t o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e o n l y "means" t h a t e x i s t t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s on any k i n d o f s y s t e m a t i c and r e g u l a r b a s i s a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s . An i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i s d e f i n e d as an " i n t e r r e l a t e d s e t o f r u l e s ( l a w s , r e g u l a t i o n s , customs) and e n t i t i e s ( o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s ) w h i c h d e t e r m i n e what d e c i s i o n s a r e made and a c t i o n s t a k e n i n a s p e c i f i e d a r e a o f human a c t i v i t y . " 2 I f i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e means and n o t ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y c a n o n l y be j u d g e d e i t h e r by how w e l l s a t i s f i e d p e o p l e a r e w i t h t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y p r o d u c e , o r by how w e l l t h e p r o c e s s " t h r o u g h which d e c i s i o n s a r e made and a c t i o n s t a k e n " meet c e r t a i n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , i t i s 1 These v a l u e s w i l l be d e f i n e d i n t h e s u b s e g u e n t c h a p t e r . 2 I r v i n g K. Fox, "The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Framework f o r R e g i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management," u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , J u l y , 1972, p.1. 22 t h e l a t e r method o f a s s e s s m e n t which i s r e l e v a n t . The f i r s t s t e p i n d e s i g n i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework which w o u l d promote t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t o examine t h e v a l u e s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c , p l u r a l i s t i c , B.C. s o c i e t y and f r o m them d e r i v e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . 23 CHAPTER I I I : THE DEMOCRATIC NORMS OF THE PLURALISTIC, CANADIAN SOCIETY In C h a p t e r I I i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o p t i m a l p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n t a i n m e n t by t h e s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t , was a p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o j u d g e one p r o c e s s b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r , i t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a v a l u e s y s t e m t o t h e p r o c e s s was i n e v i t a b l e . The most l e g i t i m a t e s e t o f v a l u e s t o a d o p t when a s s e s s i n g a p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t h u s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d e m o c r a t i c , p l u r a l i s t i c , C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . F o r e a c h o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f a d e m o c r a c y , t h e r e i s an u n d e r l y i n g i d e a l o r v a l u e t o j u s t i f y i t . H.B. Mayo, i n An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y 1 i d e n t i f i e s f o u r i n t e r r e l a t e d o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s of a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . These p r i n c i p l e s c a n be e x p l a i n e d b o t h i n o p e r a t i o n a l and n o r m a t i v e f o r m s , so t h a t t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e i t s e l f r e f l e c t s t h e d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e when e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f what s h o u l d b e . 2 The f i r s t o f t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s i s t h e p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e ' s a b i l i t y t o remove t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r from o f f i c e i f he o r s h e does 1 See H.B. Mayo, An I n t r o d u c t i o n - t o D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y (U.S.A.: O x f o r d U. P r e s s , 1960), pp. 60-244. 2 Mayo, pp. 67. 2 4 not adequately represent or advance those p o l i c i e s of p r i o r i t y to the elecorate. In a country such as Canada which i s large both in geographic and demographic terms, t h i s representative form of democracy necessarily replaces the. dir e c t form of democracy in which c i t i z e n s vote on actual policy issues. In normative terms, there should be popular control of polic y -makers: decision-makers should be accountable to the electorate. The second p r i n c i p l e of democracy i s p o l i t i c a l equality. Each adult c i t i z e n i s e n t i t l e d to one vote which counts egually, that i s , votes are not weighted according to one's s o c i a l or economic s i g n i f i c a n c e . This process allows the popular control of policy-makers. Again, in the Canadian context of representative democracy, i t i s often impossible to ensure that each vote counts equally. However, continual adjustment and reform of government i n s t i t u t i o n s would be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a democratic society seeking to attain the goal of p o l i t i c a l equality. The t h i r d i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e of democracy i s p o l i t i c a l freedom or effectiveness of popular control. This p r i n c i p l e refers to the a b i l i t y of a democracy to maintain popular control over policy-makers and to ensure p o l i t i c a l equality. It refers to the tolerance within a democracy for other p o l i t i c a l viewpoints but i t also refers to the maintenance of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the system which operate to deter minority control of policy decisions. Such i n s t i t u t i o n s include the freedom to vote without coercion v i a secret b a l l o t , the choice of at l e a s t two candidates for varyinq policy choices, etc. In normative terms, 25 t h e r e f o r e , a democracy s h o u l d be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n open d e b a t e and d i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n , w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o r o b s e r v a n c e o f c o n v e n t i o n o f t h o s e who l o s e o u t o r a r e compromised i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s . The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e of democracy s t a t e s t h a t when t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s _ a r e d i v i d e d , t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e m a j o r i t y p r e v a i l s . The m a j o r i t y r u l e p r i n c i p l e c a n be d e f e n d e d on e f f i c i e n c y g r o u n d s i n t h e name of e x p e d i e n c e , b u t i t i s b e t t e r d e f e n d e d i d e o l o g i c a l l y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i f e a c h v o t e c o u n t s e q u a l l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e v o t e s must be worth more t h a n t h e m i n o r i t y . I f t h e m a j o r i t y does n o t r u l e , t h e n some s o r t o f m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t must p r e v a i l . However, t h e m a j o r i t y r u l e p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t o p e r a t e i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s of a democracy, and i t i s t h u s t empered by i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s . S i n c e p o l i c y - m a k e r s must r e l y on t h e p o p u l a r v o t e f o r s u p p o r t , t h e d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s t o l e r a t e d by t h e s y s t e m must be n o t o n l y h e a r d b u t c o n s i d e r e d i f t h e d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e . I n n o r m a t i v e t e r m s , t h e r e f o r e , m a j o r i t y r u l e s h o u l d be t h e p r e f e r r e d d e c i s i o n r u l e t o m i n o r i t y r u l e , b u t t h i s s h o u l d n o t p e r m i t t h e t y r a n n y o f t h e m a j o r i t y o v e r m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s . I n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e q overnment, m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t s may o r may n o t manaqe t o e l e c t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l e q i s l a t u r e and t h e r e f o r e i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t s p e c i f i c p o l i c y d e b a t e s do n o t r e m a i n s o l e l y w i t h i n t h e qovernment l e q i s l a t u r e . A p a r t from t h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e f o u r 26 p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o c r a c y , t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e whole o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m and which f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y f r o m i t s o p e r a t i o n . The ' v a l u e s r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a r e t h o s e i n h e r e n t i n t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f , t h o s e w h i c h make democracy p r e f e r r e d o v e r any o t h e r s y s t e m o f government e v e n when s u b s t a n t i v e b e n e f i t s f r o m a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e same. Mayo has a d v a n c e d one g e n e r a l and s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c v a l u e s a s b e i n g i n h e r e n t i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . T h e s e v a l u e s i n c l u d e : Democracy i s f o r t h e p e o p l e , ( g e n e r a l v a l u e ) ; Democracy a l l o w s t h e p e a c e f u l a d j u s t m e n t o f d i s p u t e s ; Democracy a s s u r e s p e a c e f u l c h a n g e i n a c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y ; Democracy p r o v i d e s t h e o r d e r l y s u c c e s s i o n o f r u l e r s ; Democracy u t i l i z e s a minimum o f c o e r c i o n ; Democracy promotes d i v e r s i t y ; Democracy a t t a i n s j u s t i c e ; e t c . 1 These v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h p r e s e n t w i t h i n a d e m o c r a t i c c u l t u r e a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , n o t o f s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s , s i n c e t h e y a r e m a n i f e s t e d o n l y when a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m i s i n o p e r a t i o n . F o r example, t h a t government i s " f o r t h e p e o p l e " i n a democracy c a n o n l y be j u s t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o v e r p o l i c y - m a k e r s , s i n c e any d i c t a t o r c o u l d c l a i m t h a t he o r she was g o v e r n i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e p e o p l e . T h e r e i s , of c o u r s e , a n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f means and ends i n a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m : t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i s o n l y a p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l 1 F o r more d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t o p i c r e f e r t o p a g e s 211-243 o f Mayo's book. 27 e n v i r o n m e n t i n which i t o p e r a t e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f p o p u l a r c o n t r o l , p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m , and m a j o r i t y r u l e , a l t h o u q h p r e s e n t i n a l l d e m o c r a c i e s , w i l l f i n d u n i q u e e x p r e s s i o n i n v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . 1 The p r i n c i p l e o f p o p u l a r c o n t r o l , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e f e r s t o c o n t r o l o f t h e government by t h o s e p e r s o n s whom t h e c u l t u r a l s y s t e m i d e n t i f i e s a s p o s s e s s i n g s u c h a mandate. Thus i t was p o s s i b l e f o r democracy t o o p e r a t e p r i o r t o t h e f r a n c h i s e f o r women, but h a v i n g made t h e c u l t u r a l change i n i d e o l o g y , i t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r C a n a d i a n s t o r e t r a c t t h e v o t e f r o m h a l f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g s u c h a move t o be somehow u n d e m o c r a t i c . C o u n t r i e s w h i c h have a n a r r o w e r f r a n c h i s e a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d " l e s s d e m o c r a t i c " by C a n a d i a n s t a n d a r d s . The p o i n t t o be made h e r e i s t h a t , when a d v a n c i n g t h e v a l u e s b e h i n d t h e f o u r p r i n c i p l e s o f democracy a s t h o s e w h i c h c a n l e g i t i m a t e l y be u s e d t o d e v e l o p a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e s e v a l u e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d and s t a t e d i n l i g h t o f t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d h e r e i n t h o s e c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s w h i c h a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y " u n i v e r s a l " t o be h e l d a c r o s s d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e t h r e e , a g a i n i n t e r r e l a t e d , d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e which c a n n o t be i g n o r e d : t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e p l u r a l i s m ( d i v e r s i t y ) o f t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s y s t e m ; a n d t h e 1 A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e o f democracy d o e s i n t u r n mean w i l l be some c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between d e m o c r a t i c t h a t t h e r e n a t i o n s -I 28 u n i q u e C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . The o r i q i n o f o u r e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s u n c l e a r . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e i s r o o t e d i n t h e J u d e o -C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , i n t h e common law t r a d i t i o n , o r i n one o r more o t h e r t r a d i t i o n s o f which democracy i s o n l y one. Whatever t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s v a l u e , i t r e m a i n s p r e v a l e n t t o d a y . T h i s v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d p o l i t i c a l l y by t h e e x t e n t i o n o f t h e b e l i e f i n p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y and p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m t o i n c l u d e t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s a s e t o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m s and human r i g h t s which must be o b s e r v e d by o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s a s w e l l a s by qovernment i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c o n c e p t of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e - t h a t a l l p e r s o n s have t h e r i q h t t o be h e a r d and a r e e n t i t l e d t o due p r o c e s s o f law, and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t has been e x p r e s s e d i n t h e Human R i q h t s Code. The e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s v a l u e i n a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e does n o t i s o l a t e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h o s e s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s a l o n e , b u t i t i s a v a l u e which p e r m e a t e s a l l s u b s t a n t i v e p o l i c y d e b a t e and a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m w h i c h e x i s t s i n Canada i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e E u r o p e a n s u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n n a t i v e c u l t u r e , o f our am a l g a m a t i o n o f F r e n c h and E n g l i s h i n t o one Canada, and o u r encour a g e m e n t o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o b u i l d t h i s c o u n t r y . A l t h o u g h r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e u n d o u b t e d l y s t i l l e x i s t s p r i v a t e l y , p u b l i c l y C a n a d i a n s s u p p o r t t h e c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . The 29 i n h e r e n t v a l u e i s t h a t a d i v e r s i t y o f c u l t u r e and o p i n i o n adds r i c h n e s s t o t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . T h i s v a l u e i s e x p r e s s e d p o l i t i c a l l y t h r o u g h many p o l i c i e s and programs which r e c o g n i z e t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s , b u t p r o c e d u r a l l y , t h e c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have r i g h t s o f e x p r e s s i o n e q u a l t o t h o s e o f E n g l i s h and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p r o c e d u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m a r e c u l t u r e bound and r e g u i r e t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s y s t e m have a d e q u a t e knowledge and s k i l l i n u s i n g t h e s y s t e m b e f o r e t h e i r m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n w i l l be h e a r d . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s r e c o g n i z e d as a C a n a d i a n v a l u e which h a s i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , t h e r e a r e as y e t i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s w h i c h i n h i b i t t h e f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c norm. F i n a l l y , one c a n n o t i g n o r e t h e u n i q u e C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y when d i s c u s s i n g t h e way t h e n o r m a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e e x p r e s s e d - H i s t o r y h e r e r e f e r s n o t o n l y t o t h e r o o t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e and i t s e v o l u t i o n o v e r t i m e , but i t a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h t h e i r t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , p h y s i c a l and human, and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h a t s y s t e m o v e r t i m e . The dynamism o f t h i s p r o c e s s has meant t h a t C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i n many ways from i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n s . The sum t o t a l of C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m and r e g i o n a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , t h e m a r r i a g e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e and j u d i c i a l powers ( v i a an i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on s t a t u t e l a w ) , t h e n o t i o n o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y supremacy i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y , combined w i t h t h e b e l i e f i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , 30 c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m , and p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o f t h a t l e g i s l a t u r e , h a v e l e d t o p o p u l a r demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s and a r e s e n t m e n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n where t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r i s i n s u l a t e d f r o m p o p u l a r c o n t r o l . 1 W i t h t h i s c u l t u r a l f i l t e r h e l d b e f o r e t h e f o u r d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e v a l u e s o r norms b e h i n d t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n , p l u r a l i s t i c , d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m c a n be i d e n t i f i e d . U n i v e r s a l D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s C u l t u r a l F i l t e r CANADIAN DEMOCRATIC NORMS 1 In t h i s p a p e r i t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s i n c r e a s i n g , and t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e c o r r e c t s e t o f C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c norms s h o u l d i n c l u d e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . Because o f many f a c t o r s ( e . g . , t h e i n c r e a s i n g number and c o m p l e x i t y o f p o l i c y p r o b l e m s ; t h e c o n f l i c t o f r e s o u r c e u s e s ; a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ; i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n s systems) t h e p r o c e s s o f e l e c t i n g p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s an i n a d e q u a t e means o f e x p r e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s f o r v a r i o u s p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . The d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g c o n v e n t i o n s ) must a d a p t t o meet t h e demands o f t h i s new s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t so t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s between e l e c t i o n s a s w e l l . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n has n o t been c o m p l e t e d y e t . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a g between t h e p u b l i c demand f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate i t , many p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s i n Canada may be shown t o f a l l s h o r t o f t h i s norm. One c o u l d a l s o s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e p o l i t i c i a n s who have not a s y e t a c c e p t e d t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , but e v e n t h o s e p o l i t i c i a n s w ould be h e s i t a n t t o a d m i t t o a p u b l i c demanding an a u d i e n c e t h a t t h e y d i d n o t h o l d t h i s v a l u e . I n s h o r t , t h e demand f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a norm (what s h o u l d be) c e n t r a l t o t h e d e s i g n o f new p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y i n s t i t u t i o n s . 31 These democratic norms may be stated as follows: 1. There should be popular c o n t r o l over policy makers. 2. Public p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l affected groups should be encouraged i n each policy issue. 3. There should be p o l i t i c a l equality of each vote. 4. Total p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l e l i g i b l e voters i n c l u d -inq minority qroups should be encouraged. 5. The effectiveness of popular control and public p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be ensured. 6. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s rights should be respected and guarded. 7. Majority rule should be tempered by minority p a r t i c i p a t i o n in elections and i n the po l i c y de-velopment process. If these norms are held as the ultimate goals of the democratic p o l i t i c a l system in B r i t i s h Columbia, the design and performance of the B.C. government i n s t i t u t i o n s should meet them to as great an extent as possible given r e a l i s t i c temporal, f i n a n c i a l and tech n i c a l constraints on t h e i r attainment. These are also the norms which i f f u l l y met, should produce the optimal planning/policy development process. 3 2 CHAPTER I V : THE OPTIMAL PLANNING/POLICY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: DERIVATION OF ASSESSMENT CRITERIA. H a v i n g e x t r a p o l a t e d t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms r e l e v a n t t o t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s c a n now be d e r i v e d . T h i s can be done by t r a n s l a t i n g e a c h o f t h e s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r a n s a c t i v e n a t u r e o f p u b l i c p l a n n i n g ) and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f e a c h a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s as i t would be i f a l l t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms were met. The outcome w i l l be a s e r i e s o f s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t what t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be l i k e . T u r n i n g t h e p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t o i n t e r r o g a t i v e o n e s w i l l g i v e a s e t o f a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . I n t e r r e l a t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i e s o f T h e I n d i v i d u a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s I n t e r r e l a t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T h e P u b l i c P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s I n t e r r e l a t e d S e t o f U e m o c r a t i c No r m s  O p t i m a l P u b l i c P I a n n i n g / P o l i c y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s  1. P u r p o s e f u l T r a n s a c t i o n s D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s = O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n o f P u r p o s e 2. F u t u r e C r e a t i v e X T r a n s a c t i o n ' s X D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s = O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n o f F u t u r e C h o i c e s 3. S y s t e m a t i c X T r a n s a c t i o n s ^ D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s = O p t i m a l A n a l y s i s o f F u t u r e C h o i c e s 4. J u d g e m e n t a l X T r a n s a c t i o n s X D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s = O p t i m a l D e c i s i o n 5. A c t i o n - o r i e n t e d X T r a n s a c t i o n s ^ D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s = O p t i m a l I m p l e m e n t a -t i o n P r o c e d u r e 6. O n - g o i n g X T r a n s a c t i o n s X D e m o c r a t i c N o r m s — O p t i m a l M o n i t o r 1 n g + R e a s s e s s m e n t P r o c e d u r e 33 A. The O p t i m a l D e r i v a t i o n o f P u r p o s e i n _ a D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System The p u r p o s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p l a n n i n g i s c l e a r t o him or h e r and r e q u i r e s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o anyone e l s e . i I n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , however, e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , q r o u p , qovernment aqency o r f i r m has i t s own s e t o f g o a l s o r p u r p o s e s w h i c h i t s e e k s t o s a t i s f y . The p r o b l e m f o r t h e whole p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y s y s t e m i s o b v i o u s : Whose g o a l s s h o u l d be s a t i s f i e d ? New p o l i c i e s may d e v e l o p f r o m p o l i t i c a l campaign p r o m i s e s , o r f r o m a p r o b l e m 2 o r i s s u e w h i c h has i m p r e s s e d t h e p o l i t i c i a n s i n o f f i c e as b e i n g o f s u f f i c i e n t m a g n i t u d e t o w a r r a n t a t t e n t i o n . I n e i t h e r c a s e , p o l i t i c i a n s w i l l a c t on t h o s e i s s u e s and p r o b l e m s which t h e y p e r c e i v e w i l l s e c u r e them most p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t . Thus g o a l p r i o r i t i e s a r e s e t as a r e s u l t o f a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . I n a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m , t h i s i s a l e g i t i m a t e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s s i n c e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s have been g i v e n t h e i r mandate d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e e l e c t o r a t e . The p r e s e n t system o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p u r p o s e i n a p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y c o n t e x t , however, i s n o t o p e r a t i n g a t an o p t i m a l l e v e l . Under o u r c u r r e n t s y s t e m , a problem o r an i s s u e may be b r o u g h t i n t o t h e r e a l m of p o l i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n o n l y i f a group 1 T h i s s t a t e m e n t e n d o r s e s t h e c o n c e p t t h a t p l a n n i n g i s a c o n s c i o u s , g o a l s e e k i n g , and t h e r e f o r e r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y , however, t h a t a l l human a c t i o n s a r e c o n s c i o u s and r a t i o n a l . T hose human p r o c e s s e s which a r e n o t c o n s c i o u s , g o a l s e e k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s p a p e r t o be p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . 2 A p r o b l e m i s s e e n as a n e g a t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a g o a l . 3 4 i s large enough or organized well enough to demand p o l i t i c a l attention. In such a system, many issues are never responded to u n t i l they become grave problems and cannot be ignored. For t h i s reason, the p o l i t i c a l system i s often accused of only "reacting" to problems rather than actually "planning" in the sense of acting so as to avoid the development of certain problems. In the optimal public planning/policy s i t u a t i o n , the elected representatives would s t i l l be charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of establishing p r i o r i t y of purpose, but resources and avenues for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l interested groups and individuals i n expressing t h e i r problems and needs should be made available. In order to ensure the effectiveness of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l groups, including minority groups, these avenues for expressing various grievances and needs should be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (that i s , they should not be ad hoc or discontinuous) and they should be publicized so that people know the opportunity i s available and so that the procedure for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s clear. Thus the p o l i t i c i a n , in the optimal s i t u a t i o n , should be aware of the problems and issues of various groups of people, i n various regions of the province. The severest problems might s t i l l dictate the p r i o r i t i e s , but the severe problems of minority groups could not be so e a s i l y overlooked as they can be i n ' a s i t u a t i o n where the planning/policy development process i s less than optimal. Also, the monitoring of public grievances and needs w i l l allow more e f f i c i e n t channeling of government resources on lower p r i o r i t y items into those policy areas which seem to have most support or which seem to be potential future problem areas should 35 government resources f a i l to be channeled i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . The f i r s t assessment c r i t e r i a of the optimal planning process can therefore be expressed as: Are t h e r e _ s u f f i c i e n t channels and other-resources available for a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to communicate the i r problems ..and-needs to accountable p o l i t i c a l o f f i c i a l s ? Once the p r i o r i t y problem area has been i d e n t i f i e d p o l i t i c a l l y , however, action cannot be taken to resolve the problem u n t i l i t has been defined i n more s p e c i f i c terms, and from the viewpoint of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who w i l l be affected by the policy action taken. The s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of the problem w i l l a f f e c t the means chosen to overcome i t , and i n a democratic society, the problem d e f i n i t i o n should r e s u l t from an i n t e r a c t i v e (transactive) process. The second assessment c r i t e r i a of the optimal planning/policy process i s therefore: Do the varying perceptions of all^immediately affected group.s._and individ u a l s enter into the d e f i n i t i o n of the problem? 1 1 Several of these assessment c r i t e r i a were also unpublished paper written and c i r c u l a t e d by Irving Policy Planning class at U.B.C. part K. Fox of to an his 36 B • The-Optimal • Derivation - of ..Future-Choices - i n a Democratic Planning/Policy System The planning/policy development process i s future creative in the sense that the decisions and actions taken are intended to change a policy e x i s t i n g at the time of the decision. The development of the policy content, or the "means" of enacting the change, also reguires the imaging of the desired future, which i s of course related to the o r i g i n a l conception of what the present problem i s . In a democratic policy system, there w i l l not be consensus on what the i d e a l future should be, again because of the d i v e r s i t y of p r i o r i t y goals held by i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and agencies. In a system which respects the opinions of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , there i s no j u s t i f i a b l e n o n - p o l i t i c a l way to examine alternative futures, since the p o l i t i c a l process i s the means by which the electorate has chosen to resolve the c o n f l i c t s in s o c i a l choices. In the e x i s t i n g planning/policy process, because government r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are so dispersed, government agencies are obliged to consult and interact with numerous other government as well as private agencies with overlapping j u r i s d i c t i o n s or c o n f l i c t i n g objectives. The policy content and alternatives, therefore, develop only a f t e r a process of negotiation. Because the planning/policy development process i s and should be transactive, this process of i n t e r a c t i o n should not be replaced with pat technical solutions to problems which, i n any 37 c a s e , w i l l o f t e n be o p p o s e d when t h e y a r e a b o u t t o be i m p l e m e n t e d . The o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s s h o u l d i n s t e a d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by op e n n e s s and by an a t t e m p t t o g e t as many a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s on a s i t u a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e . T h i s open p r o c e s s would a l s o be t h e t y p e o f p r o c e s s most c o n d u c i v e t o f o s t e r i n g i n n o v a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m o l d i n g t h e f u t u r e . A s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a t h r e e o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c an t h e n be p o s e d a s : Do_,the_varYing p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d and i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s a n ^ , , i n d i v i d u a l s d e t e r m i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d ? I f t h i s c r i t e r i a i s met, i t s h o u l d be a s s u r e d t h a t a wide v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . However, s i m p l y t o welcome a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . T h e r e may be many m i n o r i t y (and a l s o i n n o v a t i v e ) s o l u t i o n s o v e r l o o k e d b e c a u s e v a r i o u s g r o u p s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y o r g a n i z e d o r do n o t have s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y and s u b m i t a p r o p o s a l . S i n c e t h e d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s i n s i s t t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p o p u l a r c o n t r o l and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be e n s u r e d , and t h a t m a j o r i t y r u l e s h o u l d be te m p e r e d by m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d be ample p r o v i s i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t s u c h wide s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s e c u r e d . The f o u r t h a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a i s t h u s : A r e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s have had the^ o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? 3 8 C. The O p t i m a l A n a l y s i s _gf_ F u t u r e C h o i c e s i n a - D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System Once t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s have been posed i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e r e must be an e v a l u a t i o n o f each a l t e r n a t i v e b e f o r e t h e c h o i c e o f t h e p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e can be made. Of c o u r s e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l u s u a l l y e v a l u a t e s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n l i g h t o f h i s o r h e r o b j e c t i v e s o r g o a l s and c h o o s e s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h he o r s h e p e r c e i v e s t o b e s t meet t h o s e g o a l s . T h i s i s a s y s t e m i c p r o c e s s which i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s e a c h o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s w i l l have on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e i n t h e f u t u r e . T h e r e w i l l a l s o be some u n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s t o t h e a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e f u t u r e c a n n o t be p e r f e c t l y known b e f o r e i t h a p p e n s . In a t r a n s a c t i v e , p u b l i c p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h e t a s k o f e v a l u a t i o n i s n o t so s i m p l e . Each o f t h e p r o p o s a l s have been s u b m i t t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s o r c o a l i t i o n s which have d i f f e r e n t g o a l s e t s . Each p r o p o s a l w i l l be somewhat b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e v a l u e s h e l d by t h e g r o u p s u b m i t t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l . I n a s e n s e , e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s has " p r e - e v a l u a t e d " t h e p r o p o s a l f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and has t h u s s u p p o s e d l y c o n s i d e r e d a l l t h e s y s t e m i c r e p u r c u s s i o n s of a d o p t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l . However, t h i s e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be somewhat na r r o w e d by t h e b i a s o f t h e g r o u p . I n e v i t a b l y , i n a p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s i t u a t i o n t h e r e w i l l be a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f e a c h g r o u p s u b m i t t i n g i t s p r o p o s a l t o a d vance i t s p r o p o s a l by d i s c r e d i t i n g o t h e r s . I n d e e d , t h e r e w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y be n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f e a c h p r o p o s a l w h i c h h ave been o v e r l o o k e d b e c a u s e o f t h e b i a s e s 39 of each group, and because of the systemic and complex nature of the policy development process. The optimal policy/planning process would therefore take f u l l advantage of t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e process of policy analysis. Comments on each proposal should be welcome from every interested group or i n d i v i d u a l , but also, opportunity for dialogue between the groups i s e s s e n t i a l . From t h i s dialogue a short set or a modified set of proposals should emerge. The f i f t h assessment c r i t e r i a of the optimal planning/policy development process would then be: Are the varying perceptions of . a l l a f f ected..and interested groups, agencies j, and i n d i v i d u a l s , incorporated into the evaluation process? And again, because our democratic values i n s i s t that the system of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements ensure that maximum pa r t i c i p a t i o n be secured, including p a r t i c i p a t i o n of minority groups, resources should be available to those who are unable to participate otherwise. Some groups may become involved in the planning/policy process at t h i s l a t e r stage because they are opposed to a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e , whereas before they were i n d i f f e r e n t when the problem d e f i n i t i o n and the c a l l for proposals was being made. The sixth assessment c r i t e r i a i s thus: Are resources allocated to_ensiire - that a l l groups with d i f f e r i n g perceptions have i n fac t had_the : opportunity :,to-participate in the evaluation of alternatelye_jrjrgposals? Within the government structure i t s e l f , agency biases may inadvertently dominate the process of generating and evaluating a l t e r n a t i v e s . Therefore, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i t s e l f 40 s h o u l d p r o v i d e c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s on b i a s t o e n s u r e t h e o p t i m a l d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . The s e v e n t h a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a might t h e r e f o r e be: A r e t h e r e _ checks^on-.government :_agency b i a s e s w h i c h might o t h e r w i s e i n a d v e r t e n t l y d o m i n a t e t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s ? 0« The O p t i m a l D e c i s i o n _ i n _ a . D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y S ystem In an i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , f i n a l c h o i c e r e m a i n s w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s c h o i c e w i l l be made i n t h e f a c e . o f a number o f p o s s i b l e u n c e r t a i n t i e s and r i s k s w h i c h w i l l be weighed and b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g o a l s e t , which means t h a t t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s a m a t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l judgement. In t h e c o l l e c t i v e , s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t , t h e r e a r e a l s o u n c e r t a i n t i e s and r i s k s t o be t a k e n . The p r o c e s s o f i n v o l v i n g as many g r o u p s a s p o s s i b l e w i l l m i n i m i z e t h e number o f u n c e r t a i n t i e s and r i s k s , b u t t h e r e i s no p o s s i b l e way t o e l i m i n a t e a l l o f them. I n f a c t , t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s may o f t e n d i f f e r i n t h e i r o p i n i o n o f which r i s k s a r e worth t a k i n g and which a r e n o t . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n o r c h o i c e r e m a i n s a g o v e r n m e n t a l one and t o t h i s e x t e n t , i t may be made by an i n d i v i d u a l o r c o m m i t t e e w h i c h may have i t s own p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e m a t t e r . I n a complex r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy, t h e r e has been a t e n d e n c y f o r more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be d e l e g a t e d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s o f government. A l t h o u g h i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a n n o t p o s s i b l y make a l l d e c i s i o n s w h ich a f f e c t t h e e l e c t o r a t e , t h e o p t i m a l s i t u a t i o n i s f o r t h e 41 d e c i s i o n t o be t a k e n by an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who i s s u b j e c t t o p o p u l a r c o n t r o l . An e i g h t h c r i t e r i a o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e : A r e f i n a l c h o i c e s „ m a d e by a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s _ o r b y - t h e ; p u b l i c - g e n e r a l l y ? E • The O p t i m a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e i n a D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y System Once a d e c i s i o n h a s been made, a c t i o n must f o l l o w o r e l s e t h e p r o c e s s i s n o t a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , m e r e l y a s p e c u l a t i v e one. S i n c e t h e whole p o i n t o f c o n s c i o u s l y t h i n k i n g ahead, or p l a n n i n g , i s t o s e c u r e more b e n e f i t s by d o i n g s o , t h e i n d i v i d u a l must a l s o t h i n k c a r e f u l l y a b o u t how t o i m p l e m e n t h i s o r her d e c i s i o n s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h i s t i m e o f a l t e r n a t i v e ways t o t a k e a c t i o n on t h e d e c i s i o n , a g a i n becomes an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s t h e t r a n s a c t i v e and p l u r a l i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m a r e a g a i n an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r . As a r e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f e n c o u r a g i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s , e n c o u r a g i n g a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s on how t o b e s t implement a p o l i c y would e n c o u r a g e c r e a t i v e and i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s . Sometimes t h e s u g g e s t i o n s on how t o i m p l e m e n t a p o l i c y m i g h t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o p o s a l s and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n may t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s , w h i l e a t o t h e r t i m e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s e v a l u a t e d a r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h o s e p r o p o s e d , t h e d i a l o g u e o v e r how b e s t t o implement t h e p o l i c y may be r e s e r v e d t i l l a f t e r t h e 42 p o l i c y has been d e c i d e d . I n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s as many a l t e r n a t i v e s as can be s u g g e s t e d by t h e many g r o u p s and a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d , some o f which may even i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n on i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , a g a i n , r e s t s w i t h t h e a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A n i n t h e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e : Are a l t e r n a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o p o s e d and a n a l Y s e d _ b Y _ t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s , i n d i v i d u a l s and a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d - i n t h e p r o c e s s ? S i n c e t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s o f p u b l i c p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s t r a n s a c t i v e and e n c o u r a g e s c r e a t i v e and i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s f o r p r o b l e m s , t h e i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s s h o u l d n o t have t o be r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f more c o n v e n t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s which may n o t y i e l d a s many b e n e f i t s , b u t w h i c h a r e b e t t e r known and a r e p e r c e i v e d t o i n v o l v e l e s s r i s k . By t a k i n g an e x p e r i m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s , many o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n can be u n c o v e r e d w i t h a minimum r i s k f a c t o r . I f t h e p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h h i g h e r r i s k y e t g r e a t e r b e n e f i t p r o v e s t o be u n s u c c e s s f u l i n ah e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g , t h e t h e n e x t b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e can s t i l l be i m p l e m e n t e d . A t e n t h c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s m i g h t t h e n be: I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , p r o c e s s s u b j e c t ; t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n where U£g§£.t§inties .are f a i r l y numerous? 43 F.. T h e O p t i m a l M o n i t o r i n g _ a n d R e a s s e s s m e n t P r o c e d u r e i n a D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y S y s t g m A p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d o e s n o t e n d a f t e r t h e c h o s e n c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i s u n d e r w a y , s i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l w a n t t o a s s e s s t h e s u c c e s s o f a d e c i s i o n s o t h a t m i s t a k e s made c a n b e a v o i d e d i n t h e f u t u r e , a n d s o t h a t t h e g o o d a s p e c t s o f t h e d e c i s i o n c a n b e r e p r o d u c e d . T o o o f t e n i n t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t p l a n n i n g i s o v e r w h e n t h e p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e c h o s e n h a s b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t s o m e f e e d b a c k w i l l o c c u r , b u t t h i s w i l l u s u a l l y b e n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k i n t h e f o r m o f c o m p l a i n t s . M o r e o v e r , p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e m e d i o c r e o r e v e n i n e f f i c i e n t may b e j u d g e d s u c c e s s f u l j u s t o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e a b s e n c e o f c o m p l a i n t s f r o m t h e p u b l i c . S u c h p o l i c i e s may c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t w i t h o u t c h a n g e u n t i l t h e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e m a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o c r e a t e a p u b l i c o u t c r y . O n l y t h e n d o e s t h e p o l i c y u n d e r g o r e v i s i o n a n d u p d a t i n g . S u c h a p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c e r t a i n l y f a r f r o m b e i n g o p t i m a l , o r e v e n " g o o d " p l a n n i n g . T h e l a c k o f c o n t i n u a l m o n i t o r i n g a n d p o l i c y r e v i s i o n u n d o u b t e d l y l e a d s t o t h e i n e f f i c i e n t u s e o f s c a r c e f i n a n c i a l a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . T h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c o n t i n u a l m o n i t o r i n g a n d r e v i s i o n o f p o l i c i e s . T h e d e s i g n o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m s h o u l d a l s o b e c o u p l e d w i t h e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r a d a p t i n g p o l i c i e s t o c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e 44 i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s a s w e l l as t h e d e s i g n o f t h e c h o s e n p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n t i n u o u s . T h e r e a r e two a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a which a r e r e l a t e d t o t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : I s . t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t o f r e s u l t s and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s _ o f ijgBJ:§rcgBting . a r r a n g e m e n t s ? ; I s _ t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n _ f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s t o _ a d a B t _ p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g l y ? However, t h e m o n i t o r i n g phase o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , l i k e t h e o t h e r p h a s e s , s h o u l d be t r a n s a c t i v e and i n c l u d e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l t h o s e p e r s o n s and a g e n c i e s a f f e c t e d by t h e p o l i c y . I f i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h government o f f i c e s , t h e r e may be a t e n d e n c y f o r a g e n c y b i a s t o d o m i n a t e n o t o n l y t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n m o n i t o r e d , but a l s o t h e a d j u s t m e n t s t o p o l i c y c o n t e n t and p r o c e d u r e . P a r t o f t h i s b i a s w i l l be overcome i n t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s by i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h e c k s on agency b i a s which a r e a c o n d i t i o n o f a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a s e v e n . However, t h e s e i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c h e c k s must a l s o be s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l v i e w p o i n t s on t h e p r o b l e m s and s u c c e s s e s of t h e p o l i c y , and on how t o m o d i f y t h e p o l i c y . The d e s i g n o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r i n p u t f r o m a l l i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s . Where t h e r e s u l t s o f m o n i t o r i n g a r e t e c h n i c a l , s u c h r e p o r t s s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o p r i v a t e g r o u p s and t h e i r comments s h o u l d be a r e g u i r e d component o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g phase o f p l a n n i n g . The f i n a l a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t h e r e f o r e : A r e t h e v a r y i n g - p e r c e p t i o n s _ o f _ . a l l _ a f f g c t e d and 45 i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a n d , g r o u p s i n c l u d e d a s i n p u t s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t a n d m o d i f i c a t i g n : _ p r o c e d u r e ? -G . A s s e s s m e n t C r i t e r i a o f , _ t h e i O p t - i i a l . . P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s A c c o r d i n g t o o u r s e t o f d e m o c r a t i c n o r m s , t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s c a n b e j u d g e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a b i l i t y t o m e e t t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . T h e s e c r i t e r i a , w h i c h a r e e x p r e s s e d a s i n t e r r o g a t i v e s o f t h e n o r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f w h a t " s h o u l d b e " , a r e : 1. A r e t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t c h a n n e l s a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d n e e d s t o a c c o u n t a b l e p o l i t i c a l o f f i c i a l s ? 2. Do t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m ? 3., Do t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s d e t e r m i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d ? 4. A r e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? 5. A r e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o r -p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s ? 6. A r e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e i n f a c t h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? 7. A r e t h e r e c h e c k s on g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y b i a s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e i n a d v e r t e n t l y d o m i n a t e t h e p r o c e s s ? 8. A r e f i n a l c h o i c e s made b y a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s o r b y t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y ? 9. A r e a l t e r n a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o p o s e d a n d a n a l y s e d b y t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s , i n d i v i d -4 6 u a l s a n d a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s ? 10. I s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s s u b j e c t t o e x p e r -i m e n t a t i o n w h e r e u n c e r t a i n t i e s a r e f a i r l y n u m e r o u s ? 11. I s t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t o f r e s u l t s a n d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s ? 12. I s t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s t o a d a p t p o l i c i e s a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g l y ? 13. A r e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e d a s i n p u t s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ? T h e s e c r i t e r i a , i f p e r f e c t l y m e t , r e p r e s e n t t h e a b s o l u t e o r i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h m u s t p r e v a i l i f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d o p t i m a l . O f c o u r s e , a c o m p l e x a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r m o f d e m o c r a c y s u c h a s we h a v e i n C a n a d a d o e s n o t a l w a y s o p e r a t e a t t h e " o p t i m a l " l e v e l . I n d e e d , f r o m a n e m p i r i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f o p t i m a l i t y w h i c h e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n y p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s m e e t i n g a l l t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a c o m p l e t e l y . T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i c h a r e o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r V , a r e v e r y r e a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h m u s t b e c o n f r o n t e d a n d e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d o r m i n i m i z e d i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , s h o u l d n o t b e b u i l t i n t o t h e n o r m a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a o f t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . T h e s e t o f a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t s t h e g o a l s o f t h e i d e a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w h i c h may b e met o r m i s s e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . I f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s w e r e t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s e 47 a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , t h e n o r m a t i v e c o n c e p t o f o p t i m a l i t y would be u n d e r m i n e d , and p o s i t i v e change ( r e f o r m ) would be i n h i b i t e d -F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y s y s t e m a r e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y as a d j u s t a b l e p a r a m e t e r s t o t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , r a t h e r t h a n as e l e m e n t s o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a s e t ( g o a l s ) . 4 8 CHAPTER V : THE C O N S T R A I N T S TO A C H I E V I N G O P T I M A L I T Y I N THE P L A N N I N G / P O L I C Y PROCESS F o r e a c h s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y t a s k t h e r e w i l l b e c o n s t r a i n t s s p e c i f i c t o t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d , a s w e l l a s g e n e r a l c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s t h e s e t o f c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i t h w h i c h t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d . T h e r e a r e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g o p t i m a l i t y i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s may b e c l a s s i f i e d : f i n a n c i a l ; t e m p o r a l ; h u m a n ; t e c h n i c a l ; a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l . T h e f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e d i r e c t c o s t s t o g o v e r n m e n t o f c o m p l e t i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s a n d o t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n s . T h e s e c o s t s w i l l i n c l u d e t h e s a l a r i e s o f b o t h p e r m a n e n t a n d t e m p o r a r y s t a f f ( e . g . , c o n s u l t a n t s ) ; t h e c o s t s o f g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a n d p r o c e s s i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s a s w e l l a s t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e ; t h e c o s t s o f s u p p o r t i n g v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s . T h e s e c o s t s a r e c o n s t r a i n t s ' b e c a u s e g o v e r n m e n t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e n o t u n l i m i t e d . T h e t e m p o r a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i n c l u d e n o t o n l y d i r e c t b u t i n d i r e c t t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e n u m b e r o f p o l i c y t r a n s a c t i o n s i n w h i c h p o l i t i c i a n s ( e s p e c i a l l y C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s ) 49 c a n p a r t i c i p a t e i s l i m i t e d b y t i m e - A l s o , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s o f e a c h p h a s e o f t h e p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s - B o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o d e l a y s i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d t h u s t o i n c r e a s e d d i r e c t c o s t s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s a s w e l l a s i n c r e a s e d i n d i r e c t c o s t s i n t h e f o r m o f f o r e g o n e b e n e f i t s f r o m d e l a y s i n p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e a n d m o n e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a n t i c i p a t e a n d m i n i m i z e c o m p a r e d t o t h e h u m a n c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h c a n i n h i b i t o p t i m a l i t y i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h e s e a r e t h e b e h a v i o u r a l a s p e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s w h i c h a s w e l l a s b e i n g m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o a n t i c i p a t e a n d m i n i m i z e , a r e a l s o l e s s p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , o n e c o u l d v i e w a s a c o n s t r a i n t t o t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s w i l l a c t t o m a x i m i z e p e r s o n a l u t i l i t y . G r a n t e d , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b y d e f i n i t i o n i s a r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , a n d t h o s e g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l g r o u p s a n d a g e n c i e s o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d common o b j e c t i v e s may b e v i e w e d a s a c t i n g i n a r a t i o n a l m a n n e r i f t h e y p r o c e e d t o m e e t t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s . E v e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who d o n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a " r a t i o n a l " m a n n e r i n t h e p r o c e s s , b u t who i n s t e a d r e a c t i n a n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t v e m a n n e r t o s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h e n h a n c e o r t h r e a t e n t h e i r l i f e s t y l e o r e n v i r o n m e n t a r e s e e n t o r e a c t i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t . H o w e v e r , t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n a t a n i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p l e v e l may n o t b e b e s t a t t h e s o c i e t a l l e v e l . T h e h u m a n c o n s t r a i n t t o 50 a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s n o t t h e d i v e r s i t y o f " r a t i o n a l " g r o u p s a n d / o r " n o n - r a t i o n a l " g r o u p s : s u c h a d i v e r s i t y o f v i e w p o i n t s , i f u t i l i z e d , c a n l e a d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b e t t e r a n d m o r e i n n o v a t i v e p o l i c i e s . T h e human c o n s t r a i n t t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s r a t h e r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l a l w a y s t r y t o " m a x i m i z e t h e i r p e r s o n a l u t i l i t y " , s i n c e i t a s s u m e s t h a t p e o p l e a r e u n a b l e a n d u n w i l l i n g t o l o o k b e y o n d t h e i r own s e l f -i n t e r e s t e d c o n t e x t . I f t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s a d o m i n a n t c o n s t r a i n t t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t b e c o m e s a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e s y : g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s d o b e c o m e d e f e n s i v e a n d s o m e t i m e s u n r e a s o n a b l e b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e c o m e t o v i e w o t h e r g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s a s r i v a l s , r a t h e r t h a n a s p a r t n e r s i n w h a t i s , a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e , s o c i e t a l l e v e l , a common p r o c e s s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s o m e g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l r e f u s e t o c o m p r o m i s e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r o n e g r o u p t o h a v e c o m p a r a t i v e l y m o r e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s i f i t p o s s e s s e s s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p . I n f a c t , t h e r e a c t i o n o f a n e n t i r e g r o u p may d e p e n d o n t h e p e r s u a s i v e a b i l i t i e s o f o n e o r m o r e r e s p e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p . T h e s p e c i f i c d y n a m i c s o f a n y g i v e n p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l b e d i f f e r e n t , a n d w h i l e s o m e b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s may b e a n t i c i p a t e d , o t h e r s r e m a i n u n f o r s e e n . Two o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t h u m a n c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h i n h i b i t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s c a n b e a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e s e a r e a s h o r t a g e o f c o m m u n i t y l e v e l l e a d e r s h i p 5 1 and l i m i t e d community e n e r g y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The d y n a m i c s of t h e s e two f a c t o r s c a n mean, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e community l e v e l may be t h e p r i n c i p a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l community p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s . I f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s become t h e community s p o k e p e r s o n s by s e l f a p p o i n t m e n t , o r by d e f a u l t , t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s w i l l be s u p p o r t e d by t h e community a t l a r g e . At t h e same t i m e , i n v o l v i n g t h e mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e community w i l l i n most i n s t a n c e s be i m p r a c t i c a l f r o m a t e m p o r a l and f i n a n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . However, d e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , i t i s an a s p e c t o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t which demands c o n s i d e r a t i o n : community g r o u p s w i l l become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i f o n l y i n a n e g a t i v e manner t o b l o c k u n p o p u l a r p o l i c i e s . 1 1 The c o n s t r a i n t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e " government." From t h e " p u b l i c ' s " p o i n t o f v i e w , a l l t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e p r e s e n t , b u t from a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r i n s t a n c e , from t h e " p u b l i c ' s " p o i n t o f view, t h e r e a r e two m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n : ( 1 ) t h e . h i g h t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and (2) l a c k o f a n a l y t i c a l r e s o u r c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s a r e so h i g h t h a t any one i n d i v i d u a l c a n p a r t i c i p a t e i n o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s t h a t a f f e c t him o r h e r . Thus an i n d i v i d u a l l i m i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o h i g h p r i o r i t y i s s u e s . From t h e " g o v e r n m e n t ' s " p o i n t o f v i e w , t h i s l i m i t i n g o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o p r i o r i t y i s s u e s i s s e e n as a human c o n s t r a i n t t o o p t i m a l i t y i n t h e f o r m o f " l i m i t e d community e n e r g y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , however, i f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o i n t o f view a r e e l i m i n a t e d o r m i n i m i z e d , t h e p u b l i c ' s c o n s t r a i n t s o f h i g h t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s and l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s would be m i n i m i z e d as w e l l . The n e t r e s u l t s h o u l d be more p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n on more i s s u e s . 52 The p r o b l e m s of i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . B e c a u s e we have a complex and h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s o c i e t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s c a n r e g u i r e a l e v e l o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e w hich l o c a l l e a d e r s may n o t p o s e s s . As t h e s i z e o f t h e community o r r e g i o n d e f i n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s i n c r e a s e s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g t h e s e t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n t h e community i n c r e a s e s , b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n v o l v i n g a l l community members i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e c r e a s e s . W i t h i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e t h e r e a l s o e x i s t s a problem o f e n s u r i n g t h a t s o c i a l c h o i c e s r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s and do not become t e c h n i c a l c h o i c e s made by t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s . 1 The c o m p l e x i t y o f o u r s o c i a l s y s t e m has made s p e c i a l i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y . I t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r 1 The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f accommodating p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S i n c e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s i n v o l v e s o n l y t h o s e g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s who have d e s i g n a t e d t h a t i s s u e a p e r s o n a l p r i o r i t y , a t no t i m e w i l l e v e r y a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l become i n v o l v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p r o c e s s . B e c a u s e one f u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s t o keep i n t o u c h w i t h t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f h i s o r h e r c o n s t i t u e n c y members, he o r she i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s i n t o a c c o u n t and f o r a c t i n g on a p o l i c y i s s u e i n view o f t h e b a l a n c e o f i n t e r e s t s w h i c h e x i s t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and n o t t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t o r ev e n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s who s h o u l d make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . Thus an o p t i m a l s y s t e m i s open t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , h e l p s d e f r a y t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e c o s t s f o r t h o s e who g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y t o an i s s u e ( i . e . , t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) b u t a s s u r e s f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e made by a c c o u n t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s . 53 e v e r y p o l i t i c i a n ( o r e v e r y p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t ) i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s t o h a v e c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l p o l i c y i s s u e s . T h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r i s t h e r e f o r e u n d i s p u t e d ; t h e a m o u n t o f c o n t r o l e x e r t e d b y a n y o n e a d v i s o r w i l l b e l i m i t e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f t e c h n i c a l o p i n i o n s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t r a n s a c t i v e p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . B o t h o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s a r e i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s a t v a r i o u s p h a s e s i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . A s t h e n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r e a s e s , a s t h e s c a l e a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p o l i c y i s s u e i n c r e a s e s , t h e p r o b l e m o f c o o r d i n a t i o n c a n b e c o m e a c o n s t r a i n t t o a c h i e v i n g t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s s i n c e i t s a c h i e v e m e n t i s t h w a r t e d b y l a c k o f p o l i c y a c t i o n o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e t e h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t t o o p t i m a l i t y i s t o f i n d t h e b e s t s c a l e on w h i c h t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s c a n a l s o e x i s t i f i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e n o t b e e n a d a p t e d o r c h a n g e d t o f i t t h e n e e d s o f t h e B . C . s o c i e t y o f 1 9 7 9 . B e c a u s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e t h e m e a n s o f a t t a i n i n g t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l b e d i r e c t l y ( b u t i n v e r s e l y ) r e l a t e d t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a d e v i s e d f o r t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( C h a p t e r IV) . F o r i n s t a n c e , a g e n c y b i a s w o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t . T h e r e i s a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y f o r a n 54 i n d i v i d u a l ( p u b l i c s e r v a n t o r o t h e r w i s e ) t o b e l o y a l t o t h e g o a l s o f t h e a g e n c y f o r w h i c h h e o r s h e i s e m p l o y e d . T h i s may b e a d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , b u t i n t h e p u b l i c p l a n n i n g s p h e r e w h e r e t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y s y s t e m c r o s s e s s i n g l e p u r p o s e a g e n c i e s a n d i n v o l v e s t h e p o l i t i c a l f o r u m f o r t r a d e - o f f s i n s o c i a l c h o i c e s , a g e n c y b i a s c a n i n h i b i t t h e s e t r a d e - o f f s by l i m i t i n g a c c e s s t o t h e f o r u m a n d i n d o i n g s o , d i s t o r t i n g t h e w e i g h t i n g o f s o c i a l g o a l s i n f a v o u r o f c e r t a i n c l i e n t e l e g r o u p s . T h i s b i a s i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n s - m a k i n g l e v e l a s w e l l . B e c a u s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s a r e i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e g o a l s e t f o r t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I V , t h e r e i s n o n e e d t o e l a b o r a t e e a c h o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h m i g h t a r i s e . T h e y c a n be s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t r a i n t s , h o w e v e r , t o t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r who t r i e s t o c o n d u c t a p o l i c y p r o c e s s d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h a t p r o c e s s n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e s i g n a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e g o a l s e t o f t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k . I n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k c a n n o t o n l y f r u s t r a t e t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , b u t i n d o i n g s o c a n a l s o l o w e r t h e q u a l i t y o f p o l i c y o u t p u t . T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r V w i l l b e p r e s e n t t o a v a r i a b l e e x t e n t i n e a c h s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s a n d t h e y w i l l t e n d t o f r u s t r a t e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f p r o c e s s g o a l s ( i . e . , a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a ) . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e n o r m a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t f i x e d b u t a r e a d j u s t a b l e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h e c h a l l e n g e t o a s o c i e t y w h i c h s e e k s t o a c h i e v e 55 o p t i m a l i t y i n e v e r y p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o d e s i g n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e g o a l s e t by m i n i m i z i n g t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y . The f i r s t t a s k i n a d d r e s s i n g t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s t o a s s e s s t h e g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework v i a a s s e s s i n g a p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a "good" p r o c e s s . 56 CHAPTER V I : AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS IN THE B.C. INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF BURNS LAKE NATIVE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION A. I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y Development i n B.C. FIGURE 3: O v e r v i e w o f ..The. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Framework L e g i s i a t u r e C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r s • • • • 6 -_ i jL; j j D e p u t y M i n i s t e r s ^ 5 5 6 r^ __ ~^ ""^T&~& L lJ&j { i ^ L b C - j j | M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ( i i i ) E x e c u t i ve D e p a r t m e n t s L l . 66o cSochbbcb56W>S5b 5bchm5bb £5fc \t (> {) \\ ( i i ) ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t ( M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) / P r o v i n c i a l s - f_..y._.' : T _ . K. J F i S t a f f L ! i ! ! _ i _ l "S 6 i~ ( v ) T P C ' & M u n i c i p a l S t a f f \ Member . . A t b i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g ( i v ) R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t *| B o a r d ( v i i ) L o c a l C o u n c i 1 Members XXX R u r a l E l e c t b r a l Reps The Regional D i s t r i c t s of B.C. A l b e r n i - C l a y o q u o t tfulkley-Nechako C a p i t a l C a r i b o o \ * " > C e n t r a l C o a s t C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y j C e n t r a l K o o t e n a y 8 . C e n t r a l O k a n a g a n 9 . C o 1 u m b i a - S h u s w a p vjjg^ h 1 0 . C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a 1 1 . C o w i c h a n V a l l e y 1 2 . u e w d n e y - A l o u e t t e ' 1 3 . E a s t K o o t e n a y 1 4 . F r a s e r C h e a m 1 5 . F r a s e r F o r t - G e o r g e ^ 1 6 . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r 1 7 . K i t i m a ' t - S t i k i n e I'd. K o o t e n a y 1 9 . M t . W a d d i n g t o n 2 0 . N a n a i m o N o r t h O k a n a g a n O k a n a g a n - S i m i l k a m e e n P e a c e R i v e r - L i a r d P o w e l l R i v e r S k e e n a - Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e s S q u a m i s h - I i 1 1 o o e t S t i k i n e 2 6 . S u n s h i n e C o a s t 2 9 . T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 59 ( i ) T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d : _ L a n d ^ U s e C o m m i t t e e T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e (ELUC) i s a C a b i n e t c o m m i t t e e c r e a t e d f o r m a l l y u n d e r t h e 1971 B . C . E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e A c t a s a f o r u m t o r e s o l v e i n t e r a g e n c y c o n f l i c t s o v e r r e s o u r c e u s e . I t s u c c e e d e d t h e u n o f f i c i a l L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e ( 1 9 6 9 ) w h i c h was c o m p o s e d o f t h e s a m e m i n i s t e r s ( M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ; H e a l t h ; M i n e r a l a n d P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s ; L a n d s , F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r R e s o u r c e s ; I n d u s t r y , T r a d e a n d C o m m e r c e ; A g r i c u l t u r e ) m i n u s t h e M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h . T h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r R e s o u r c e s c h a i r e d t h e c o m m i t t e e u n t i l 1976 w h e n t h e d e p a r t m e n t was s p l i t i n t o F o r e s t r y a n d E n v i r o n m e n t b y t h e new S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h e r e u p o n t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t b e c a m e c h a i r p e r s o n . T h e 1971 A c t a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e (ELUTC) c o m p r i s e d o f t h e d e p u t y m i n i s t e r s o f t h e s a m e d e p a r t m e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h i s c o m m i t t e e was n o t u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y b y t h e New D e m o c r a t i c (NDP) g o v e r n m e n t i n o f f i c e a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n w a s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e o f n o c o n c e r n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o b e d i s c u s s e d . ( i i ) T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d _ L a n d _ U s e C o m m i t t e e S e c r e t a r i a t T h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e S e c r e t a r i a t was e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e NDP g o v e r n m e n t i n 1 9 7 3 , p u r s u a n t t o t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e A c t . I t w a s t o b e t h e s u p p o r t s t a f f f o r t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e . T h e S e c r e t a r i a t h a s n o r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s t o t h e l i n e d e p a r t m e n t s , b u t i s d i r e c t l y 60 a c c o u n t a b l e t o ELUC. ( i i i ) Government Departments-E a c h o f t h e m i n i s t e r s o v e r s e e s an h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e p a r t m e n t , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e m i n i s t e r s who a r e members o f ELUC. Many o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s h ave some r e g i o n a l l y l o c a t e d s t a f f , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e r e s o u r c e d e p a r t m e n t s have f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y , i n a p r o v i n c e as l a r g e as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o employ r e g i o n a l s t a f f . A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , w h i c h had no s t a f f l o c a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n s u n t i l r e c e n t l y when one p l a n n e r was g i v e n an o f f i c e i n P r i n c e G e o r g e . The M i n i s t r y does employ o t h e r s t a f f w i t h r e g i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , b u t t h e s e s t a f f members a r e l o c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a -Civ) R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s T h e r e a r e t w e n t y - e i g h t f u n c t i o n i n g (one n o n - f u n c t i o n i n g ) R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n B.C., ea c h o f which has a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d as t h e p r i m e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body. A l t h o u g h t h e s e d i s t r i c t s a r e l o o s e l y r e f e r r e d t o as " r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s " , t h e y a r e t e c h n i c a l l y f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s , and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e H o n o u r a b l e Dan C a m p b e l l ' s 1 " ' own words, t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 1 The m i n i s t e r i n o f f i c e a t t h e t i m e t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o n c e p t was a d o p t e d . 61 c o n c e p t i s " a d e v i c e f o r c o m b i n i n g f u n c t i o n s . I t i s n o t a p o l i t i c a l a m a l g a m a t i o n . I t i s a f u n c t i o n a l a m a l g a m a t i o n i n w h i c h a b o a r d i s e s t a b l i s h e d t o u n d e r t a k e s e r v i c e s and a d m i n i s t e r them j o i n t l y . 1 1 1 The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . B o ard i s composed o f D i r e c t o r s a p p o i n t e d by and from t h e C o u n c i l s o f i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t , p l u s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m e l e c t o r a l a r e a s which encompass r u r a l and o t h e r u n i n c o r p o r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s . The number o f d i r e c t o r s on each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d and t h e number o f v o t e s e a c h c a r r i e s i s b a s e d on p o p u l a t i o n . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e c h i l d r e n o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , h a v i n g been c r e a t e d u n d e r t h e B.C. M u n i c i p a l A c t i n 1965. B e c a u s e t h e y were c r e a t e d under t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a l o n e , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t powers a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e powers a v a i l a b l e t o l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . . The o n l y o b l i g a t o r y f u n c t i o n o f e v e r y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s t h e l a n d use p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n ; o t h e r f u n c t i o n s a r e v o l u n t a r y and c r e a t e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e l e t t e r s p a t e n t o f t h e R e g i o n a l " D i s t r i c t . Hence, t h e f u n c t i o n s o f no two R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e i d e n t i c a l , y e t a l l f u n c t i o n s a r e l i m i t e d t o f u n c t i o n s o f l o c a l g overnment. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e f o r e , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e exempt from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e management and can be e x c l u d e d f r o m i n p u t i n t o r e s o u r c e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 B.C., M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t C o n c e p t ( V i c t o r i a , 1968). 62 T e c h n i c a l l y , h o w e v e r * t h e r e i s some a m b i g u i t y i n t h e s t a t u t e s a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g o f c r o w n l a n d s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s t o p r e s u m e t h a t r e g i o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c i e s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s o r p o l i c i e s , w h e r e " i n t e r e s t s " c o u l d mean p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s a s w e l l a s l e g i s l a t i v e c h a n g e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , p l a n n e r s e m p l o y e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o r e j e c t o r r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t ( a n d c o m m u n i t y ) p l a n s , o r t o w i t h h o l d v a r i o u s g r a n t s f r o m t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i f t h e y d o n o t a g r e e w i t h some a s p e c t o f t h e D i s t r i c t ' s p l a n . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s , t h e D i s t r i c t p l a n n e r may h a v e p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e q u a l t o t h o s e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l e m p l o y e e , y e t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r h a s t h e v e t o p o w e r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n t h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e ( d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t r e g i o n a l r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e c o u n t e r t o " p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y " a r e n o t a p p r o v e d . T h e p o i n t t o b e made i s t h a t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e v e r y w e a k i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h o f t e n p l a y a m i n o r r o l e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . T h e y a r e l i k e l y t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o n l y when l o c a t i o n a l o r z o n i n g d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t d i s t r i c t t e r r i t o r y m u s t b e made i n t h e c o u r s e o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a g i v e n r e g i o n i s m o r e l i k e l y t o t a k e p l a c e t h r o u g h M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s o r o t h e r l o c a l g r o u p s . T h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d i s r a r e l y t h e f o c u s o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . 63 T h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f B u l k l e y - N e c h a k o i s t h e d i s t r i c t a f f e c t i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y o f B u r n s L a k e ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n , a r e g i o n a l p l a n d i d e x i s t a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e r e was s o m e n o t i o n o f r e g i o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y . T h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o v e r t h e new m i l l s i t e i n B u r n s L a k e , b u t h a d n o i n f l u e n c e o n t h e m i l l ' s l o c a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d n a t u r e o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s p o w e r s , i t h a d n o f o c u s a s a " r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t " w h i c h s h o u l d b e i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s c o n c e r n i n g e i t h e r t h e m i l l o r t h e B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n . (v) T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e s T h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e s ( T P C s ) a r e c o m p o s e d o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , o n e m u n i c i p a l e m p l o y e e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m L a n d s S e r v i c e , W a t e r R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e , A g r i c u l t u r e , H i g h w a y s a n d P u b l i c W o r k s , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e , P a r k s , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a n d H o u s i n g , M i n e s a n d P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , d e s i g n a t e d p r o v i n c i a l a n d / o r f e d e r a l c r o w n a g e n c i e s . T h e i r p u r p o s e i s t o c o o r d i n a t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s w i t h o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l a n d m u n i c i p a l l e v e l p o l i c i e s . A s was m e n t i o n e d , t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s t e n d t o f o r m a r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t e x t f o r r e g i o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y . T h e m e m b e r s o f t h e TPC t e n d t o b e j u n i o r s t a f f m e m b e r s e x c e p t f o r t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r . T h e r e s o u r c e a g e n c y m e m b e r s a r e o f t e n r e g i o n a l s t a f f , b u t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t f r o m t h e 64 M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i s l o c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a and must o f t e n t r a v e l g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t o a t t e n d m e e t i n g s - R e c e n t l y , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been l o c a t e d i n P r i n c e G e o r g e . Most m e e t i n g s a r e r o u t i n e m e e t i n g s t o p r o c e s s r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s comment on whether r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s c o n f o r m t o o r c o n f l i c t w i t h d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y . ( v i ) R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Managgment Co m m i t t e e s R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committees (RRMCs) a r e c o m p r i s e d o f s e n i o r l e v e l o f f i c i a l s f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , H e a l t h , Highways and P u b l i c Works, Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and H o u s i n g and f r o m t h e Land Management B r a n c h , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h , Water R i g h t s B r a n c h , F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , P a r k s B r a n c h and F o r e s t S e r v i c e . (The p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same now as t h e y were i n 1974 a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l o f t h e b r a n c h e s have been moved a r o u n d between m i n i s t r i e s w i t h v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ) T h e r e a r e s e v e n R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committees (RRMCs) and R e g i o n s (see F i g u r e 5) whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o r e s o l v e r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s and t o e v e n t u a l l y f o r m u l a t e " i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e management p l a n s " a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l (ELUC b e i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n ) . T h e s e c o m m i t t e e s were b e i n g f o r m e d , and common b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s were b e i n g d e l i n e a t e d i n 1974 65 s i m u l t a n e o u s t o t h e Burns L a k e p r o j e c t . The ERMCs a r e b u r e a u c r a t i c c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h would n o t have t h e mandate t o engage i n t h e k i n d s of n e g o t i a t i o n s w hich were c e n t r a l t o t h e Burns L a k e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . No r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s a member o f t h e RRMC and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r s may a t t e n d m e e t i n g s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y . RRMC b o u n d a r i e s do not co n f o r m t o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s , a n d , a s can be s e e n i n F i g u r e 5, t h e RRMC bo u n d a r y c u t s t h r o u g h t h e m i d d l e o f B u l k l e y -Nechako R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be, t h e r e f o r e , p o o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e p o l i c y w i t h p r o v i n c i a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y . I f t h e M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s s u p p o s e d t o be t h e l i a s o n p e r s o n between t h e RRMCs and t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i t i s no wonder t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were and a r e ( e x c e p t f o r one p e r s o n r e c e n t l y h i r e d i n P r i n c e G e o r g e ) , l o c a t e d i n V i c t o r i a ; t h e y have t o t r a v e l g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t o a t t e n d RRMC m e e t i n g s , and i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t enough f o r t h e s e p e o p l e t o a t t e n d T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee m e e t i n g s p l u s a t t e n d t o t h e o v e r l o a d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o do i n V i c t o r i a . M o r e o v e r , s i n c e t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d use p o l i c y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been s e m i -d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o t h e r e g i o n s , 1 t h e r e i s no l o g i c i n r e g u i r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l employee t o r e p r e s e n t t h e v o i c e o f l a n d use p o l i c y f o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . C l e a r l y , where, a s i n t h e 1 "Semi" b e c a u s e p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s must a p p r o v e s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s b e f o r e t h e y become " o f f i c i a l " . 66 R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , l a n d use p l a n n i n g has been e x t e n d e d t o non-u r b a n a r e a s , e s t a b l i s h i n g l a n d use p o l i c y must i n v o l v e t r a d e -o f f s i n r e s o u r c e u s e s f o r c e r t a i n a r e a s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend how any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s u c h as t h e RRMC o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t v i a a p l a n n i n g s t a f f c a n be e x p e c t e d t o assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e s o c i e t a l c h o i c e s which b e l o n g i n t h e p o l i t i c a l forum, n o t i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i t t e e . ( v i i ) M u n i c i p a l I n s t l t u t i o n s -The m u n i c i p a l government o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e V i l l a g e of Burns Lake which had a p o p u l a t i o n o f r o u g h l y 1300 i n 1971. However, t h e e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f Burns L a k e a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a was 4,000-5,000.* I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s p o p u l a t i o n grew much between 1971 and 1974 s i n c e t h e r e were s e v e r e e c o n o m i c and unemployment p r o b l e m s i n t h e a r e a p r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s m i l l and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f B u rns Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n i n 1974. A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r t o n o t e i s t h a t t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e i n t h e B u r n s Lake a r e a r e p r e s e n t a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f t h e s e p e o p l e were unemployed i n 1974. T h e r e a r e f o u r bands o f I n d i a n s i n t h e a r e a , and t h r e e r e s e r v e s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e v i l l a g e . E ach o f i AVG Management S c i e n c e L t d , Soc-io-Economic- Impact_on_The B u r n s L a k e . A r e a o f The B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s - M i l l (September 16, 1974) , p.3. 67 t h e bands has an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l and a management s t a f f , and b e c a u s e o f t h e s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e under t h e n a t i o n a l I n d i a n A c t , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burns Lake has n e i t h e r t h e power t o r e g u l a t e t h e use o f r e s e r v e l a n d s , n o r t o t a x t h e s e l a n d s * The m u n i c i p a l government i s t h e r e f o r e a c o r p o r a t i o n c r e a t e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A c t whose membership does n o t i n c l u d e t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . T h o s e n a t i v e p e o p l e who l i v e on r e s e r v e s had, t h e r e f o r e , no f o r m a l l e g a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l government p r i o r t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e under t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . ( v i i i ) T e m p orary P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e s The p r e c e d i n g a r e t h e m a j o r f o r m a l i z e d p r o v i n c i a l g overnment i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h which t h e B u r n s Lake d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t e i t h e r was o r might have been c o n d u c t e d . T h e r e was an a d d i t i o n a l t e m p o r a r y " i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e " which was e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p i n - o f f d e v e l o p m e n t s ( e . g . , community p l a n n i n g ) a s a r e s u l t o f t h e B a b i n e - B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n p r o j e c t , and t o e n s u r e t h a t o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s were w e l l i n f o r m e d o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o j e c t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s t a s k f o r c e i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f H o u s i n g , E d u c a t i o n , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Human R e s o u r c e s * E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , L a b o u r , H e a l t h , N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , as w e l l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m B.C.H-I.S.- and f r o m Canada Manpower. The l i n k between t h i s t a s k f o r c e and t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o j e c t was t h r o u g h t h e 68 S e c r e t a r i a t . B. O v e r v i e w o f The - E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f The Burns L a k e N a t i v e D evelopment C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDG) As was m e n t i o n e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e B u rns Lake a r e a was i n s e v e r e e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n i n 1972 when t h e NDP government won t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . Unemployment r a t e s were v e r y h i g h , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the n a t i v e p e o p l e , and t h e s u b s e g u e n t low m o r a l e which a c c o m p a n i e s a l l s u c h d e s p a r a t e c o n d i t i o n s had l e d t o t h e compounding o f a l c o h o l i s m and o t h e r s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . I n f a c t , t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f B.C. i n g e n e r a l had been c o n s i d e r e d a " d e p r e s s e d r e g i o n " by t h e f e d e r a l Department o f R e g i o n a l E conomic E x p a n s i o n (DREE), and a p r o v i n c i a l s t u d y o f t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t i n d i c a t e d t o t h e government t h a t B u r n s Lake s h o u l d be a p r i o r i t y a r e a . S i n c e t h e economy o f t h e n o r t h w e s t i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , t h e NDP government r e e v a l u a t e d t h e f o r e s t r y p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l i n t h e r e g i o n and examined T i m b e r S a l e H a r v e s t i n g L i c e n c e s w h i c h were a b o u t t o e x p i r e t o d e t e r m i n e whether c o m p a n i e s i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e l i c e n c e s had k e p t t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g up t o q u o t a l e v e l s . I t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y was b e i n q u n d e r u t i l i z e d , and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l T i m b e r H a r v e s t i n g S a l e L i c e n c e s c o u l d be i s s u e d . 180,000 c u n i t s o f t i m b e r were i n t h e B u r n s Lake a r e a . However, t h e n o t i c e o f s a l e o f crown t i m b e r which a p p e a r e d o f f i c i a l l y on A u g u s t 10, 69 1973 was n o t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o r t o f n o t i c e , b u t i n s t e a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s i n t e n d e d t o t a k e an i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e f o r e s t s e c t o r i n t h e n o r t h w e s t . The n o t i c e o f s a l e o f t h e B u r n s Lake t i m b e r (a 12 y e a r l i c e n c e ) s p e c i f i e d t h a t t e n d e r s must i n c l u d e a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t i n t h e B u r n s L a k e a r e a , and t h a t p r o p o s a l s "must meet p r o v i n c i a l r e g u i r e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , and w a t e r , s o i l and t i m b e r management." P r e f e r e n c e was t o be g i v e n t o p r o p o s a l s " o f f e r i n g t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n o f employment, s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , wood u t i l i z a t i o n and r e v e n u e " ( emphasis a d d e d ) . I n s h o r t , e conomic c r i t e r i a were t o be b a l a n c e d w i t h s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o p o s a l s . S i x p r o p o s a l s were s u b m i t t e d by t h e d e a d l i n e (Nov. 2,1973): C a r r i e r Lumber Co. L t d . o f P r i n c e G e o r g e ; W i e r e ' s S a w m i l l L t d . o f Q u e s n e l ; F r a s e r Lake S a w m i l l s L t d . o f F r a s e r L a k e ; West F r a s e r T i m b e r Co. o f Q u e s n e l ; B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . o f V a n c o u v e r ; and B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f N o n - S t a t u s I n d i a n s (BCANSI). T h r e e o f t h e p r o p o s a l s were i m m e d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d ( C a r r i e r Lumber Co. L t d . , W i e r e ' s S a w m i l l L t d . , F r a s e r Lake S a w m i l l L t d . ) b e c a u s e t h e y f a i l e d t o a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e s e t o f s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s . The r e m a i n i n q t h r e e p r o p o s a l s r e q u i r e d somewhat more d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n b e f o r e a c h o i c e c o u l d be made. The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s a s k e d f o r a f i n a l o p i n i o n from a f o r e s t manaqement e x p e r t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . 70 B o t h t h e West F r a s e r and t h e B a b i n e p r o p o s a l l e a n e d more h e a v i l y t o w a r d s e m p h a s i z i n g t h e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s B u r n s Lake and t h e p r o v i n c e would g a i n i f t h e i r p r o p o s a l were a d o p t e d . I n f a c t , B a b i n e s t a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t i t c o n s i d e r e d i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be e c o n o m i c w h i l e t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s s h o u l d be s o c i a l . However, t h e d e s i g n o f t h e B a b i n e m i l l i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e i n i t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n o f l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t t o accommodate a l o c a l , u n s k i l l e d w o r k f o r c e , and t h e o v e r a l l number t o be employed a s w e l l a s t h e r e v e n u e t o t h e p r o v i n c e was g r e a t e r u n d e r t h e B a b i n e p r o p o s a l t h a n under t h e West F r a s e r b i d . An a c c e p t a n c e o f B a b i n e * s p r o p o s a l would a l s o have t h e p o s i t i v e s p i n - o f f e f f e c t o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e o v e r a l l e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t . E u r o c a n and C a n c e l , each o f which would own 26 p e r c e n t o f B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . , (Weldwood would h o l d t h e o t h e r 48 p e r c e n t ) , were e x p e r i e n c i n g extreme e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s . I f t h e c o n s o r t i u m ' s p r o p o s a l were t o be a c c e p t e d , E u r o c a n and C a n c e l ' s c h i p s h o r t a g e p r o b l e m would be s o l v e d and t h e y would be a b l e t o i m p r o v e t h e e c o n o m i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r o t h e r m i l l s . The p r o p o s a l s u b m i t t e d by t h e B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f Non-S t a t u s I n d i a n s (BCANSI) met s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s b e t t e r t h a n e c o n o m i c o n e s . T h e i r p r o p o s a l would have i n v o l v e d a l l n a t i v e p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a ( i n c l u d i n g t h e s t a t u s I n d i a n s whose c o o p e r a t i o n BCANSI had a l r e a d y s e c u r e d ) i n a major e c o n o m i c u n d e r t a k i n g . P r o f i t s from t h e m i l l would p r o v i d e t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e f u r t h e r s o c i a l and economic d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e 71 n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n B.C. t h r o u g h BCANSI. However, t h e n a t i v e p r o p o s a l r e l i e d h e a v i l y on f e d e r a l f u n d s f o r i t s r e a l i z a t i o n , and t h e r e was l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s g r o u p ' s a b i l i t y t o f i n d and a s s e m b l e a c o m p e t e n t management team. M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o p o s e d m i l l was s m a l l e r t h a n e i t h e r t h e West F r a s e r o r t h e B a b i n e m i l l , and employment and p r o v i n c i a l r e v e n u e s would have been a p p r e c i a b l y l e s s . When i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m ' s p r o p o s a l was t h e p r e f e r r e d one, t h e n a t i v e g r o u p , i n a l l i a n c e w i t h West F r a s e r , made a j o i n t p r o p o s a l t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e rnment. The two were t o s h a r e 50-50 i n t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . BCANSI a r g u e d t h a t t h i s would e l i m i n a t e any o b j e c t i o n s t h e p r o v i n c e might have about management p r o b l e m s . However, t h e p r o p o s a l was t e c h n i c a l l y t h e same as West F r a s e r ' s i n i t i a l p r o p o s a l w hich had been e v a l u a t e d as l e s s b e n e f i c i a l t h a n B a b i n e ' s p r o p o s a l . A l s o , t h i s j o i n t p r o p o s a l had come r a t h e r t o o l a t e , s i n c e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e government had i n d i c a t e d i t s p r e f e r e n c e t o B a b i n e and was n e g o t i a t i n g some s o r t o f agreement w i t h t h e c o n s o r t i u m t o a l l o w f o r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m i l l . i On A p r i l 4, 1S74, t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s announced t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m ' s p r o p o s a l and s a i d t h a t t h e n a t i v e g r o u p c o u l d have an 8 p e r c e n t s h a r e i n t h e m i l l " i f t h e y w i s h e d " . I n t h e same p r e s s r e l e a s e , * B a b i n e a g r e e d t o n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u b j e c t t o s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e s e p o i n t s r e q u i r e d n e g o t i a t i o n b e f o r e an a g reement amenable t o b o t h p a r t i e s c o u l d be made. 72 t h e m i n i s t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Department o f L a b o u r and Human R e s o u r c e s , he was a l s o a n x i o u s t o s e e n a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n s u b - c o n t r a c t and i n d e p e n d e n t l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s a s w e l l a s i n a r r a n g i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r new j o b s t h a t would emerge i n t h e r e g i o n . The n a t i v e g r o u p was g i v e n u n t i l A p r i l 23 t o d e c i d e . On A p r i l 9, 1974, n i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s t a t u s and n o n - s t a t u s I n d i a n s met w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s i n V i c t o r i a . L e a d e r s f o r t h e n a t i v e g r o u p demanded t h a t a s o c i a l p a c kage be p a r t o f t h e t h e 8 p e r c e n t e c o n o m i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were n o t met, t h e y t h r e a t e n e d t o f r u s t r a t e o r b l o c k any a t t e m p t s t o h a r v e s t t h e t i m b e r i n t h e B u r n s Lake P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t . I t was a g r e e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g t h a t a l o c a l c o mmittee which i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a l l bands s h o u l d meet i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y a weeks t i m e w i t h a government i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a l l r e l e v a n t government d e p a r t m e n t s , t o d i s c u s s t h e d i m e n s i o n s of n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n more d e t a i l . F o l l o w i n g t h i s m e e t i n g , t h e n a t i v e g r o u p met w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s who a g r e e d t o f u n d t h e e x p e n s e s o f t h e two c o m m i t t e e s . The " C o n d i t i o n s P r e c e d e n t t o The C o n s t r u c t i o n and O p e r a t i o n o f A S a w m i l l Complex A t B u r n s L a k e , B.C., By B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . " were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e on A p r i l 17, 1974. T h i s was j u s t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i n t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s t o f o l l o w between t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e government. 73 T h e r e were t e n " C o n d i t i o n s P r e c e d e n t " w h i c h were e l e m e n t a l t o t h e d e s i g n o f t h e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o j e c t . T h e s e were t h a t t h e government s h o u l d : 1 . . P r o v i d e c o r e f u n d i n g f o r a B u rns Lake Community Development P r o j e c t ; 2 . , P r o v i d e t h e i n i t i a l f u n d i n g t o t h e p r o p o s e d B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n ; 3. P r o v i d e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i v e E c o n o m i c Fund; 4. P r o v i d e f o r t h e r i g h t o f f i r s t r e f u s a l t o p r e s e n t B u r n s L a k e a r e a r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g a l l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s d u r i n g b o t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n a l phase of t h e p r o p o s e d s a w m i l l ; 5. P r o v i d e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a t i o n of t h e p r o p o s e d B u r n s L a k e a l l - p u r p o s e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e ; 6. P r o v i d e f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e B u r n s Lake a r e a as a p r i o r i t y a r e a under t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t s e c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i m p r o v e -ment p r o g r a m , r e n o v a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e program and S e c t i o n 40 c o n c e r n i n g l o a n s ; 7. P r o v i d e f o r p u r c h a s e , on b e h a l f o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e o f B u r n s L a k e , t h e i n i t i a l 8 p e r c e n t e q u i t y and d e b t s e c u r i t y p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d by B a b i n e ; 8. P r o v i d e f o r a r e o p e n i n g o f t h e s h a r e h o l d e r ' s a g reement among t h e members o f B a b i n e t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs t h e c o n t e n t o f w h i c h was t o be d e t e r m i n e d by B a b i n e ; and f o r t h e s a l e o f c h i p s t o B a b i n e members; 9. P r o v i d e f o r t h e s a l e o f t h e a s s e t s o f B a b i n e f o r t h e sum o f one d o l l a r t o t h e p r o p o s e d B urns L a k e N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n a t t h e end o f t h e 12 y e a r TSHL l i c e n c e ; 10. P r o v i d e f o r t h e u n d e r w r i t i n g o f a l l c o s t s i n -c u r r e d by and on b e h a l f o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o n e g o t i a t i o n s . On A p r i l 29, t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f Highways, and t h e M i n i s t e r o f 74 I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce met w i t h t h e Burns Lake C o u n c i l t o d i s c u s s v a r i o u s m a t t e r s , one o f w h i c h was t h e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s a w m i l l . I n t h e e v e n i n g , a p u b l i c m e e t i n g was h e l d t o i n f o r m t h e community members o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n c e p t o f n o r t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t and o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s which were t a k i n g p l a c e between t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e n a t i v e s . The p l a n s f o r t h e m i l l were p r o c e e d i n g d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . At t h e m e e t i n g , t h e r e s e n t m e n t o f some of t h e n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t o w a r d s "government h a n d o u t s " s u r f a c e d . U n d o u b t e d l y , some who d i s l i k e d t h e program c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s r a c i s t s , and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h o s e who would be so v o c a l a t t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g a b o u t t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e were r e c e i v i n g a r e l i k e l y t o have been among t h e p r e j u d i c e d . However, t h e d i s l i k e o f g e n e r o u s government s p e n d i n g i s s h a r e d by many Burns L a k e r e s i d e n t s who a r e n o t r a c i s t . O t h e r t h a n t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t and Water R e s o u r c e s ' v i s i t t o B u r n s Lake on A p r i l 29, t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l d e s i g n o f t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDC) and t h e f i n a l p r o v i n c i a l - n a t i v e agreement were c o n d u c t e d by t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t . T hese v a r i o u s p r o c e d u r e s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s were s p r e a d o v e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y two and o n e - h a l f months (the r e s t o f A p r i l t h r o u g h t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u l y ) ... A l t h o u g h t h e n a t i v e n e g o t i a t i n g g r o u p was a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e f o u r s t a t u s I n d i a n bands as w e l l as BCANSI, BCANSI d o m i n a t e d t h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n f a c t , a t some c r u c i a l m e e t i n g s , no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e s t a t u s I n d i a n s were 75 p r e s e n t and t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e m e e t i n g were communicated t o t h e B u r n s L a k e I n d i a n bands v i a t h e B u r n s Lake r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who was h i m s e l f a member o f BCANSI. Of t h e t e n " C o n d i t i o n s P r e c e d e n t " n e g o t i a t e d , c o n d i t i o n 9 { r i g h t s o f f i r s t r e f u s a l t o TSHL and s a l e o f B a b i n e t o Burns L a k e N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDC) f o r $1.00 a f t e r TSHL e x p i r y d ate) was t o t a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t e r . The I n d i a n s d i d n o t push t h i s p o i n t . C o n d i t i o n 4 was a l s o u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t e r ( r i g h t o f f i r s t r e f u s a l t o B u r n s L a k e r e s i d e n t s o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) , a l t h o u g h t h e m i n i s t e r a g r e e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t a p o l i c y o f e m p l o y i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a s much a s p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be p u r s u e d . T h i s c o n c e p t was i n f a c t i n t r o d u c e d t o B a b i n e who a g r e e d t o p u r s u e i t . T h e r e was d i s c u s s i o n a l s o a b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o keep t h e n o n - n a t i v e - n a t i v e employment r a t i o a t l e a s t 60-40, which was t h e r a t i o o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p s i n t h e community. C o n d i t i o n 10 ( f u n d i n g f o r n e g o t i a t i o n c o s t s ) had e s s e n t i a l l y been s a t i s f i e d by t h e p r e v i o u s ( A p r i l 17) committment o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , c o n d i t i o n s 2 ( f u n d i n g of BLNDC), 3 ( N a t i v e E c o n o m i c Development F u n d ) , 7 ( p u r c h a s e o f t h e 8 p e r c e n t s h a r e ) and 8 ( o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g , c h i p agreement) were t h e main p o i n t s o f n e g o t i a t i o n between t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water r e s o u r c e s and t h e n a t i v e g r o u p . The m i n i s t e r had a g r e e d t o meet t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s : i t was t h e d e t a i l s of amounts, repayment 76 schemes, e t c . w h i c h had t o be s e t t l e d . The government had a s s e m b l e d i t s own i d e a s on what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o v i n c e and BLNDC s h o u l d be; E x c e p t on a c o u p l e o f p o i n t s , t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was n o t c h a l l e n g e d . The D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , on b e h a l f o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e Community Development P r o j e c t ( c o n d i t i o n 1), t h e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e ( c o n d i t i o n 5) and t h e h o u s i n g a s p e c t ( c o n d i t i o n 6) were m a t t e r s t o be d e a l t w i t h d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e m i n i s t e r s and d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e m i n i s t e r s were members of t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use Committee and t h e r e f o r e t h e S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f was n o t r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e s e m i n i s t e r s . The d e t a i l s o f s e t t i n g up s u c h programs would be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s t a f f o f t h e s e m i n i s t e r s . T h e r e was a l s o t h e f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e D i r e c t o r t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t (BLNDC) and t h e s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a s p e c t s s h o u l d r e m a i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l y s e p a r a t e . W h i l e t h e n a t i v e g r o u p made l i t t l e o b j e c t i o n t o t h e D i r e c t o r ' s p o i n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h o u s i n g and t r a i n i n g c e n t r e , t h e y i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e Community Development P r o j e c t was t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s , even more i m p o r t a n t t h a n BLNDC. They t h r e a t e n e d t o r e j e c t a l l o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f t h e package i f t h i s Community D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t was n o t p r o v i d e d . They wanted t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s t o p r e s s on t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e and key n a t u r e o f t h e p r o p o s a l . I t was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e n a t i v e c o m m i t t e e was 77 i n f a c t p r e p a r e d t o r e j e c t BLNDC i f t h e s o c i a l package was n o t d e l i v e r e d . The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s u p h e l d t h e s t a n c e t h a t t h e n a t i v e g r o u p s h o u l d m e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s d i r e c t l y , a l t h o u g h u n d o u b t e d l y t h e n a t i v e s t a n c e must have been d i s c u s s e d a t some p o i n t between t h e m i n i s t e r s . I n d e e d , n o t o n l y was t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s a l r e a d y aware o f t h e Burns L a k e p r o j e c t , b u t so were t h e M i n i s t e r s o f H o u s i n g , L a b o u r , t h e v a r i o u s m i n i s t e r s i n ELUC, and o t h e r m i n i s t e r s who may have become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s b e c a u s e o f t h e need f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ' community p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( e . g . , H i g h w a y s ) . T h e r e f o r e , when t h e n a t i v e g r o u p a p p r o a c h e d t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s f o r f u n d i n g f o r t h e Community Development P r o j e c t , t h e m i n i s t e r would n o t have been making an i s o l a t e d d e c i s i o n t o f u n d a community d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t . By f u n d i n g t h e p r o j e c t , he was a l s o e n s u r i n g t h e t i m e and money s p e n t on n e g o t i a t i o n s and p l a n n i n g up t o t h a t p o i n t had not been f o r n o t h i n g , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g f u n d s f o r programs which would r e i n f o r c e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a c o n t i n u e d b a s i s . The n a t i v e g r o u p , a t a June 10, 1974 m e e t i n g w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t had been g i v e n t h r e e weeks ( u n t i l J u l y 2) t o a r r i v e a t a " m u t u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a g r e e m e n t . " The agreement o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s t o f u n d t h e Community Development P r o j e c t was n o t s e c u r e d f o r m a l l y u n t i l J u l y 2, and on J u l y 4, an "Agreement i n P r i n c i p l e " was s i g n e d between t h e n a t i v e g r o u p and t h e C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s i n v o l v e d . 78 A l t h o u g h an "Agreement i n P r i n c i p l e " had been r e a c h e d , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e l e g a l documents r e m a i n e d t o be drawn up, and t h e programs and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e Community Development P r o j e c t r e m a i n e d t o be d e s i g n e d - T h r e e C o n t r a c t s w i t h e a c h o f Weldwood, E u r o c a n and C a n c e l and BLNDC a l s o had t o be f i n a l i z e d r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A p r e s s r e l e a s e o f September 16, 1974 announced t h e f i n a l d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o j e c t , a s w e l l a s o u t l i n e d t h e co m p l e m e n t a r y government programs w h i c h were b e i n g l a u n c h e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDC). Under t h e f i n a l a g r e e m e n t s : The I n d i a n p e o p l e were t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e $14 m i l l i o n s a w m i l l p r o j e c t b e i n g d e v e l o p e d by B a b i n e F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . The n a t i v e g r o u p , i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e o f B u r n s L a k e N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n , were i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h Weldwood o f Canada, E u r o c a n and C a n c e l , and were t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f B a b i n e F o r e s t p r o d u c t s a t e v e r y l e v e l , up t o and i n c l u d i n g membership on t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s . The BLNDC by way o f a f o r g i v a b l e l o a n ( e s t i m a t e d a t $425,000) f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government ( f u n d e d t h r o u g h t h e Department o f Economic Development) was t o p u r -c h a s e an 8 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t i n B a b i n e . T h i s l o a n was t o be i n t e r e s t f r e e f o r f i v e y e a r s , was t o b e a r i n t e r e s t a t 3 p e r c e n t t h e r e a f t e r , and was t o be f o r g i v a b l e o r r e p a y a b l e a t a r a t e o f 12 1/2 p e r c e n t e a c h y e a r s t a r t i n g i n 1980. BLNDC was t o r e c e i v e by way o f g r a n t s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e (Economic D e v e l o p m e n t ) , o p e r a t i n g f u n d s f o r f i v e y e a r s ( e s t i m a t e d maximun $514,000). The p r o v i n c e , on b e h a l f o f BLNDC, was t o p r o v i d e a bank g u a r a n t e e ( e s t i m a t e d a t $720,000) f o r 8 p e r c e n t o f B a b i n e ' s bank i n d e b t e d n e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h 8 p e r c e n t of B a b i n e ' s c o s t o v e r r u n s . BLNDC was t o a p p o i n t one d i r e c t o r t o B a b i n e ' s t e n p e r s o n B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . 79 BLNDC was a p p o r t i o n e d 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i p p r o d u c t i o n t o s e l l when and where i t saw f i t . The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s had a r r a n g e d f o r an e x p o r t p e r m i t t o be p r o v i d e d so t h a t t h e s e c h i p s c o u l d be s o l d on t h e w o r l d m a r k et. BLNDC was t o r e c e i v e , by way o f l o a n f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e ( a g a i n , t h r o u g h t h e Department of E conomic D e v e l o p m e n t ) , an e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p -ment f u n d o f $500,000. T h i s l o a n was t o be i n t e r e s t f r e e f o r f i v e y e a r s , was t o b e a r 3 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t t h e r e a f t e r , and was t o be r e p a y a b l e out o f income, o v e r t e n y e a r s , commencing i n 1980. T h i s was e s s e n t i a l l y an a d v ance a g a i n s t p r o f i t s w h i c h would e n a b l e BLNDC t o f u n d and d e v e l o p s u b s i d i a r y and s u p p o r t i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e B u r n s L a k e a r e a . The B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m s u p p o r t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of p r e f e r e n t i a l h i r i n g o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s p r i o r t o s a w m i l l s t a r t - u p . B a b i n e a l s o a g r e e d t o employ a l o c a l N a t i v e A s s i s t a n t P e r s o n n e l O f f i c e r f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r d u r i n g t h e s a w m i l l s t a r t - u p p e r i o d . The c o s t o f t h i s o f f i c e r was t o be b o r n e by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government t h r o u g h BLNDC. A s e c o n d l e g a l e n t i t y c a l l e d t h e B u rns L a k e Community Development A s s o c i a t i o n (BLCDA) was c r e a t e d under t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t t o i m p l e m e n t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g s o c i a l programs f u n d e d by t h e D e partment o f Human R e s o u r c e s . BLCDA was t o be f u n d e d f o r f i v e y e a r s , and t h e programs i t o f f e r e d were t o be f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e whole community, n o t j u s t t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . P r o g r a m s were i n i t i a l l y e x p e c t e d t o be g e a r e d t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t programs ( e . g . , t r a i n i n g p r o -grams) t o promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m i l l l a b o u r f o r c e . A s i d e f r o m t h e s e more f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s , a number o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y s u p p o r t programs were p r o m i s e d . The M i n i s t e r of L a b o u r i n d i c a t e d h i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e of p r e f e r e n t i a l h i r i n g o f B u r n s L a k e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e s a w m i l l and p r o m i s e d t o d e v e l o p w h a t e v e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p rograms were n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l l t h i s o b j e c t i v e . O n - t h e - j o b 80 t r a i n i n g programs i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Weldwood, C a n c e l and E u r o c a n were t o be a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e m i n i s t e r ' s s u p p o r t * T h e s e were i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r p rograms a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h Canada Manpower. The M i n i s t e r o f H o u s i n g d e s i g n a t e d Burns L a k e as a p r i o r i t y a r e a u n d e r S e c t i o n 40 o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e 75-25 f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o s t s h a r i n g o f t h e c a p i t a l c o s t of a c g u i s i t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r u r a l and n a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e B u r n s Lake a r e a . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e p r o v i d e d a s s u r a n c e t h a t l o g g i n g p l a n s f o r t h e a r e a would be a p p r o v e d i n s u c h a way as t o m i n i m i z e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t on t r a p l i n e s managed by t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . F i n a l l y , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government a g r e e d t o u n d e r w r i t e t h e n e g o t i a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g e x p e n s e s o f BLNDC and BLCDA. A l t h o u g h BLNDC and BLCDA were s e p a r a t e l e g a l e n t i t i e s , t h e y were, i n a n o t h e r s e n s e , "Siamese t w i n s " , s i n c e s e v e r a l o f t h e d i r e c t o r s on t h e BLNDC b o a r d were a l s o on t h e b o a r d f o r BLCDA, and t h e p r e s i d e n t o f BLNDC has been on t h e CDA b o a r d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . T h i s i s , p e r h a p s , i n e v i t a b l e i n a s m a l l community. A c e r t a i n g r o u p o f p e o p l e p o s s e s s i n g l e a d e r s h i p and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s k i l l s emerge a s t h e key p l a y e r s i n many community m a t t e r s . B o t h BLNDC and CDA m a i n t a i n e d a s m a l l s u p p o r t s t a f f which o p e r a t e d o u t o f t h e same o f f i c e . Between t h e t i m e o f t h e s i g n i n g o f a g r e e m e n t s (September 1974) and t h e m i l l ' s o p e n i n g i n June 1975, BLNDC and BLCDA had much t o a c c o m p l i s h . BLCDA a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t 81 o f a B a s i c T r a i n i n g and S k i l l s Development Program and a L o g g i n g S k i l l s Program. BLNDC s e t up two s u b s i d i a r y c o m p a n i e s : Burns L a k e N a t i v e L o g g i n g L t d . and B u r n s Lake N a t i v e T r u c k i n g . The l o a n s a d v a n c e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government p r o v i d e d s e e d f u n d i n g w i t h which BLNDC c o u l d o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l money t h r o u g h t h e f e d e r a l Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , ARDA, and t h e D e p a r t m e n t of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Funds were a l s o made a v a i l a b l e t o t h r e e n a t i v e p e o p l e t o e n a b l e them t o p u r c h a s e l o g g i n g t r u c k s -L a t e r i n 1975, t h e B u r n s Lake N a t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d - was formed t o b u i l d n a t i v e h o u s e s w i t h t h e a i d o f CMHC's AHOP f u n d i n g . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o have been a c o n t i n u e d r e s e n t m e n t on t h e p a r t o f some i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e community c o n c e r n i n g t h e amount o f f u n d s which BLNDC a n d BLCDA were r e c e i v i n g . M o r e o v e r , t h e f a c t t h a t some o f t h e s u b s i d i a r y c o m p a n i e s o f BLNDC ( L o g g i n g and C o n s t r u c t i o n ) were e x p e r i e n c i n g f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s added t o t h e c o n c e r n . Resentment was a l s o e x p r e s s e d by l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n who d i s l i k e d h a v i n g t o compete w i t h v a r i o u s n a t i v e b u s i n e s s m e n who had r e c i e v e d t h e i r money as low i n t e r e s t government l o a n s . 1 B e c a u s e o f f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , p l u s a number o f poor m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l o g g i n g s u b s i d i a r y , BLNDC i t s e l f was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . The r e s u l t 1 T h i s r e s e n t m e n t was e x p r e s s e d t o t h e manager o f BLNDC d u r i n g t h e l o c a l m e e t i n g o f t h e Chamber o f Commerce a t which t h e manager had been g u e s t s p e a k e r . T h i s was r e p o r t e d i n t h e L a k e s D i s t r i c t News, t h e l o c a l newspaper ( F e b r u a r y 26, 1975) . 82 o f t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h r e e BLNDC s t a f f members i n December, 1975, i n c l u d i n g t h e manager and t h e head o f Bu r n s L a k e N a t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . D e s p i t e t h e " g r o w i n g p a i n s " e x p e r i e n c e d by BLNDC, t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t , t h a t i s , t h e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n - B L N D C - C D A s u p p o r t f u n c t i o n , p r o d u c e d a h i g h and s u s t a i n e d . l e v e l o f n a t i v e i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s a w m i l l . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t months o f t h e m i l l ' s o p e r a t i o n , 148 o f t h e 300 p e r s o n s employed by B a b i n e were n a t i v e p e o p l e . Over a n i n e month p e r i o d , t h e r e was a 40 p e r c e n t l a b o u r t u r n o v e r r a t e i n g e n e r a l , b u t t h e r a t e was l o w e r amongst t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e t h a n i t was amongst t h e non-n a t i v e w o r k e r s . ( O t h e r l o c a l s a w m i l l s had e x p e r i e n c e d l a b o u r t u r n o v e r r a t e s o f up t o 300 p e r c e n t i n t h e f i r s t y e a r . ) 1 In December, 1975, t h e r e was a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y l o s t . T h i s l e f t t h e f u t u r e o f BLNDC and CDA t o be d e t e r m i n e d by a S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C. The E v o l u t i o n , o f t h e Burns L a k e _ P r o ' j e c t J a n u a r y 1976 - J u l y 1979 I n March 1976, when t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t o f BLNDC-CDA was t a b l e d b e f o r e t h e new S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e was some c o n c e r n o v e r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y CDA which h a d no e c o n o m i c a s s e t s o f i t s own, b u t which depended e n t i r e l y on g r a n t s f r o m t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s . The 1 BLCDA, Second A n n u a l R e p o r t , p.3. 83 p r e s i d e n t o f BLNDC r e p o r t e d t o t h e l o c a l newspaper t h a t "CDA w i l l p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e " and t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r was " i m p r e s s e d " w i t h CDA's work-However, i n J u l y , 1976, t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s was r e p o r t e d t o have been c r i t i c a l o f CDA. The L a k e s D i s t r i c t News w r o t e t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r had "major c o n c e r n s o v e r t h e management o f m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s i n BLNDC and CDA." 1 The m i n i s t e r p r o m i s e d c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t s u b j e c t t o t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s : - t h a t a d d i t i o n a l members be added t o t h e b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s of CDA t o e n s u r e a b r o a d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a n e x i s t e d ; - t h a t members o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n team examine CDAs f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s a t l e a s t f o u r t i m e s per y e a r ; - t h a t t h e m i n u t e s o f a l l b o a r d m e e t i n g s be f o r w a r d e d t o t h e m i n i s t e r -1 T h e r e were m e e t i n g s and e x c h a n g e s between t h e m i n i s t e r and t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e who were n o t a t a l l p l e a s e d w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s . The n a t i v e p e o p l e g a i n e d no compromise f r o m t h e m i n i s t e r and t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s were r e l u c t a n t l y a c c e p t e d . F o u r n o n - n a t i v e b o a r d members were added t o t h e 6 member n a t i v e b o a r d , one o f w h i c h was a government a p p o i n t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h i s d e c i s i o n was announced i n November, 1976. Upon i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e new c o n d i t i o n s , s e v e r a l n a t i v e p e o p l e r e s i g n e d as b o a r d members and w ithdrew from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CDA b e c a u s e t h e y r e s e n t e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n an 1 The, L a k e s D i s t r i c t News ( J u l y 28, 1976), p. . 1. _ 84 o r g a n i z a t i o n which t h e y had come t o view as t h e i r own. D u r i n g 1977, 1978, t h e r e were no m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f BLNDC, CDA. The c o n s t r u c t i o n s u b s i d i a r y o f BLNDC was l i q u i d a t e d , and a l t h o u g h t h e l o g g i n g company c o n t i n u e d t o s u s t a i n l o s e s d u r i n g 1978 as a r e s u l t o f d e c i s i o n s made i n 1975, i t i s c u r r e n t l y (1979) " m a r g i n a l " , and c u t t i n g q u o t a s a r e b e i n g met. BLNDC ha s a p p r o a c h e d t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l a bout j o i n t l y a p p l y i n g f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m l i c e n c e w hich t h e C o u n c i l had been p r o m i s e d by t h e NDP government b u t which t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s i s opposed t o g r a n t i n g . CDA i s s t i l l o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e j o i n t b o a r d , and t h e memory o f t h e f o r c e d b o a r d e x p a n s i o n i s f a d i n g i n t h e minds o f most n a t i v e p e o p l e . The a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g most o f i t s r e s o u r c e s on e d u c a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g and employment s e r v i c e s . T h e r e a r e a l s o a few O u t r e a c h w o r k e r s (a f e d e r a l l y f u n d e d s e r v i c e ) w o r k i n g o u t o f t h e same o f f i c e . On any s i n g l e day, b o t h n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p e r s o n s a r e s e e n coming and g o i n g . The n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m i l l employment i s now up t o 70 p e r c e n t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a t a l l l e v e l s e x c e p t f o r e m a n , b u t t h i s i s an o b j e c t i v e w h i c h t h e management e x p e c t s t o o b t a i n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . The N a t i v e Employment O f f i c e r has been r e t a i n e d by B a b i n e b e c a u s e t h i s o f f i c e r p r o v e d e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h n a t i v e e m p l o y e e s . A l l e x c e p t one of t h e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e whole p r o j e c t had been a good one, d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e s e p e o p l e i n i t i a l l y d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f t h e 85 amount o f government f u n d s which was b e i n g s p e n t on BLNDC-GDA. The p r e s e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must a g r e e w i t h t h i s p o s i t i o n s i n c e t h e i n i t i a l BLNDC f i v e y e a r c o n t r a c t was renewed i n March 1979 f o r 13 y e a r s . The S o c i a l C r e d i t m i n i s t e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f u n d i n g BLNDC ( L a b o u r , E conomic Development, F i n a n c e ) have a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t , however, o f how t h e c o r p o r a t i o n - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d . The new agre e m e n t b r i n g s BLNDC u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e government. A co m m i t t e e o f t h r e e a p p o i n t e e s (one from e a c h o f t h e t h r e e m i n i s t r i e s i n v o l v e d ) w i l l r e v i e w how t h e government money i s managed and s p e n t . The c o n t r a c t i s , i n f i n a n c i a l t e r m s , g e n e r o u s , and t h e government has d e c i d e d t o a d v a n c e g r a n t s i n s t e a d o f f o r g i v a b l e l o a n s . In b r i e f , t h e agreement i n v o l v e s : - d o u b l i n g t h e c a p i t a l l o a n f u n d t o a t o t a l o f more t h a n $1 m i l l i o n ; - a n n u a l g r a n t s o f $360,000 p e r y e a r f o r 13 y e a r s ( g r a n t s a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o 9 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t on a l o a n o f $4 m i l l i o n ) ; - t r a i n i n g g r a n t s f o r 5 y e a r s s t a r t i n g a t $25,000 i n 1979 and i n c r e a s i n g t o $40,500 i n 1984. 1 At t h e end o f 13 y e a r s , BLNDC s h o u l d be a' s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c o r p o r a t i o n , c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from t h e government. 86 D. The Burns Lake P r o c e s s W i t h i n -The P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y C o n t e x t P o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s a complex p r o c e s s w h i c h c a n e x i s t on many l e v e l s , e ach l e v e l i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o t h e r . Thus t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g phase o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s may have n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a number o f s p e c i f i e d d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a w h ich a r e t h e m s e l v e s t h e p o l i c i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Over t i m e , i f t h e d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a o f one a d m i n i s t r a t o r a p p e a r t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e d e s i r e d p o l i c y o u t p u t o f t h e l e g i s l a t e d l e v e l o f p o l i c y , t h e s e c r i t e r i a may be w r i t t e n i n t o t h e s t a t u t e and t h e r e f o r e become p o l i c y on t h e l e g i s l a t e d l e v e l ( i . e . , p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ) . The e x i s t e n c e o f " l e v e l s o f p o l i c y " a l s o p o i n t s o ut t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s i s n o t a l w a y s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s t a t u t e . M o r e o v e r , t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s dynamic and e v o l v e s o v e r t i m e . At any p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t i m e t h e r e w i l l e x i s t mature p o l i c i e s , n a c e n t p o l i c i e s , and p o l i c i e s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t between, but even mature p o l i c i e s a r e n o t c l o s e d t o m o d i f i c a t i o n . The p o i n t t o be made h e r e i s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r who s e e k s t o f i n d " t h e c o m p l e t e d p o l i c y p r o c e s s " b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s t u d y and a s s e s s t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l be w a i t i n g i n d e f i n a t e l y . From one p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s c a n be v i e w e d a s s i m p l y one i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f B.C. f o r e s t p o l i c y . From a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r e s t s e c t o r i n B.C. was i t s e l f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase o f y e t a h i g h e r l e v e l of p o l i c y - t h a t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t 87 f o r n o r t h w e s t B.C. And f r o m y e t a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e p r e c e d e n t s e t t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e a s p a r t n e r s o f a c o r p o r a t e g i a n t and t h e p r o v i n c i a l government was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f new p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y t o w a r d s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n B.C. The NDP government had i n t e n d e d t o expand t h i s c o n c e p t i n o t h e r B.C. c o m m u n i t i e s . S i n c e t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e so d y n amic and s o c o m p lex, how does one i s o l a t e t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p r o c e s s t o be a s s e s s e d ? E s s e n t i a l l y , i n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s , one must be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e s s : e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u r p o s e (or d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o b l e m ) ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a s s e s s m e n t o f mechanisms t o s a t i s f y t h e p u r p o s e o r r e c t i f y t h e p r o b l e m ; a c h o i c e o f mechanism and i t s s u b s e q u e n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 1 The B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s , d e s p i t e i t s l o c a l i z e d n a t u r e , 2 p o s s e s s e s a l l o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n o f a c a s e s t u d y t h r o u g h which t o e x p l o r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s o f t h i s t h e s i s had t o be " f i r s t g l a n c e " o r g e n e r a l i z e d , s i n c e t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o examine numerous examples i n d e t a i l b e f o r e s e l e c t i n g one. The 1 Or, i n Ranney's t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : an o b j e c t t o be a f f e c t e d ; a d e s i r e d c o u r s e o f e v e n t s ; a s e l e c t e d l i n e o f a c t i o n ; a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t ; an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e n t . . See: A u s t i n Ranney, e d . . P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and P u b l i c P o l i c y ( C h i c a g o : Markham Pub. Co., 1968), p. 7. 2 The t e r m " l o c a l i z e d " i s p r e f e r r e d t o " d e c e n t r a l i z e d " i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , s i n c e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s were t a k e n by a u t h o r i t i e s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e . 88 a u t h o r was s p e c i f i c a l l y l o o k i n g f o r what might be c o n s i d e r e d a "good" p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , s i n c e t h e i n t e n t was t o examine t h e p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a when t h e y were r e a l i z i n g t h e i r b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . The Burns Lake p r o c e s s had s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich f a v o u r e d i t s s e l e c t i o n f o r more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , b e c a u s e t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s was l o c a l i z e d , i t c o u l d be examined i n f a i r d e t a i l w i t h i n t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . The c o n s t r a i n t s o f a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n ( d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I) were r e d u c e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r o c e s s r e p r e s e n t e d a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l o r " i n t e g r a t e d " a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t , s i n c e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g u i d e d t h e whole a p p r o a c h o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s . T h i s p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e f a c e o f h i g h t e m p o r a l and t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s -T h i r d l y , t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e , who o f t e n a r e a n e g l e c t e d m i n o r i t y g r o u p i n many p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n B u r n s L a k e . The p r o c e s s c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be c r i t i c i z e d as a l l o w i n g f o r t h e " t y r a n n y o f t h e m a j o r i t y " . F o u r t h l y , t h e r e was a h i g h d e g r e e of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s who were, i n most c a s e s , C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , as w e l l a s , what a p p e a r e d t o be a h i g h l e v e l o f l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . In s h o r t , t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s a p p e a r e d " a t f i r s t g l a n c e " 89 t o meet many o f t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I V . However, s i n c e t h e s e norms r e p r e s e n t " a b s o l u t e s " , and s i n c e t h e r e a r e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t any p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i l l be a s s e s s e d as f a l l i n g somewhere between a b s o l u t e l y f a i l i n g t o meet any o f t h e norms and s u c c e e d i n g t o a c h i e v e a l l o f them a b s o l u t e l y . When t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a - d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s p a p e r a r e a p p l i e d i n t h e i r i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m , t h e a n s w e r s f l u c t u a t e between " y e s " , "no" and "somewhat", w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f answers f a l l i n g i n t h e "somewhat" c a t e g o r y and r e g u i r i n g more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n . Such an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s non-q u a n t i f i a b l e and c o m p a r a t i v e i n n a t u r e , t h a t i s , one p r o c e s s i s s a i d t o be b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r . The t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r IV p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r p r e f e r r i n g one p r o c e s s t o a n o t h e r . Where, as i n t h i s p a p e r , t h e a p p r o a c h i s n o r m a t i v e ( i . e . , an improved p r o c e s s i s s o u g h t ) , t h e c o m p a r i s o n e x i s t s between an a c t u a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s 1 and t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . The o p t i m a l p r o c e s s i s an "imaged" p r o c e s s where a l l t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a a r e met. The a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e B u r n s Lake p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s w hich f o l l o w s a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e key e l e m e n t s o f t h e p r o c e s s which f a i l e d t o meet t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s as d e f i n e d by t h e c r i t e r i a and e l a b o r a t e d i n C h a p t e r I V . The c o n s t r a i n t s t o m e e t i n g t h e norms a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t c h a p t e r . 1 - o r among a c t u a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s 90 a t t e n t i o n i s t h e n g i v e n t o p r o m o t i n g a b e t t e r p r o c e s s b y t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f c o n s t r a i n t p a r a m e t e r s a n d i n t r o d u c i n g a new i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . E . A s s e s s m e n t . o f . . T h e B u r n s L a k e . . P l a n n i n g / P o l i c y P r o c e s s ( 1 ) W e r e t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t _ c h a n n e l s a n d o t h e r - r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n d i y i d u a l s . a n d g r o u p s t o - c o m m u n i c a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s and_nee.ds._tG> a c c o u n t a b l e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ? S o m e w h a t . B e c a u s e t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s a n d W a t e r R e s o u r c e s w a s h i m s e l f i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e . v a r i o u s l a g g i n g r e g i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , h e h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k i n g v a r i o u s s t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y w h a t t h e n e e d s o f t h e r e g i o n s w e r e . One o f t h e r e g i o n s w h i c h e m e r g e d a s a p r i o r i t y r e g i o n e v e n b e f o r e t h e m o r e d e t a i l e d c o n s u l t a n t ' s s t u d y w a s b e g u n w a s t h e n o r t h w e s t . B e c a u s e t h i s m i n i s t e r t o o k t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s t r y i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e , many g r o u p s a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t e p p e d f o r w a r d t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s . T h e B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n o f N o n - S t a t u s I n d i a n s ( B C A N S I ) w a s o n e o f t h e s e g r o u p s . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , h o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h l i m i t e d t h i s p r o c e s s o f p r o v i n c i a l - l o c a l c o m m u n i c i a t i o n , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h w a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a t i c m o d e l o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h k e p t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s r e l a t i v e l y r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r e l e c t o r a t e b e t w e e n e l e c t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , much o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 91 was c e n t r a l i z e d i n V i c t o r i a , e v e n when t h e d e p a r t m e n t had p e r s o n n e l l o c a t e d r e g i o n a l l y . As a r e s u l t , t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s was n o t r e a l l y f a c e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f a s s e s s i n g and o r d e r i n g t h e s e communicated p r o b l e m s : t h e p r i o r i t i e s had a l r e a d y been d e t e r m i n e d b e c a u s e t h e m a g n i t u d e of c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s demanded a t t e n t i o n . M o r e o v e r , a l t h o u g h B u r n s Lake had been c i t e d as one o f t h e p r i o r i t y r e g i o n s , t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t needs might have a c q u i r e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e m i n i s t e r i f BCANSI h a d not been o r g a n i z e d and m i l i t a n t , and i f Burns L a k e had n o t had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f competent l e a d e r s h i p v i a t h e l o c a l BCANSI r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . W i t h o u t t h e s e e x c e p t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s and n e e d s might have l e d t o t h e o v e r s i g h t o f n a t i v e p r o b l e m s as i s so o f t e n t h e c a s e . B urns Lake i s t h e r e f o r e t h e e x c e p t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e r u l e . (2) D i d t h e _ v a r ^ i n c j _ E e r c e E t i o n s - _ o f _ a l l . : i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s - . e n t e r i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e pr o b l e m ? Somewhat. The BCANSI p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d t h e s a w m i l l r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f a p r o b l e m o r need i n a v e r y g e n e r a l s e n s e . How t h a t p r o b l e m was d e f i n e d i n more s p e c i f i c t e r m s depended on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s ( t r a n s a c t i o n s ) between t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s on b e h a l f o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and t h e B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e n a t i v e s wanted t h e s a w m i l l , t h e 92 m i n i s t e r d i d n o t want t o award t h e TSHL c o m p e t i t i o n t o t h e n a t i v e s b u t t h o u g h t t h e y s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e m i l l d e v e l o p m e n t . The n a t i v e s n e x t v i e d f o r 50 p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h West F r a s e r , b u t t h e West F r a s e r p r o p o s a l was n o t f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t e r . The m i n i s t e r ' s c o n c e p t was f o r t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h t h e B a b i n e c o n s o r t i u m , b u t h i s c o n c e p t o f what p e r c e n t a g e t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be was somewhat more t h a n B a b i n e would a c c e p t , t h u s t h e 8 p e r c e n t f i g u r e was a compromise t o a l l t h r e e p a r t i e s . However, a l t h o u g h t h e n a t i v e s had m o d i f i e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n and were p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t e d somewhat l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m i l l , t h e y were c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e n a t u r e of n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be s o c i a l a s w e l l as e c o n o m i c i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r h o l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Thus t h e " C o n d i t i o n s P r e c e d e n t " t o s a w m i l l d e v e l o p m e n t a d v a n c e d by t h e n a t i v e g r o u p e x p r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r t h i s s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . T h e r e was, however, one c r i t i c a l g r o u p l e f t o u t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h a t was t h e community o f B u r n s Lake i n g e n e r a l . A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n s f o r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n were c o m m u n i c i t e d t o t h e C o u n c i l and t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c v i a a p u b l i c m e e t i n g and p r e s s r e l e a s e s , t h e s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s were one way e x c h a n g e s . The p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e 60 p e r c e n t n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n n e v e r e n t e r e d i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m , y e t t h e s e were t h e p e o p l e who l i v e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e i n B u rns L a k e . From t h e m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l o f p e r c e p t i o n , t h e agreement between t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e p r o v i n c e r e p r e s e n t e d a 93 c o n t r a c t between t h e I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n assumes t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v ernment r e p r e s e n t s t h e v o i c e o f t h e g e n e r a l n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , and t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s , t h e y do n o t see t h e p r o v i n c i a l government a s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Both a s p e c t s o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t a r e , o f c o u r s e , c o r r e c t t o a d e g r e e . However, i n our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r m of democracy, n a t i v e p e o p l e do h a v e t h e r i g h t t o v o t e , and t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f a s p e c i f i c m i n i s t e r w i l l r e p r e s e n t e i t h e r t h e p o s i t i o n o f n a t i v e o r n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s on s u c h i s s u e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n o t p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e government t o i g n o r e p u b l i c o p i n i o n between e l e c t i o n s . 1 At t h e l e v e l of p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t p o l i c y where t h e n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d be viewed as an i n n o v a t i v e way t o i m p l e m e n t f o r e s t p o l i c y , t h e r e was a p a r a l l e l g e s t u r e t o evoke l o c a l non-n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s by way o f o f f e r i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f B u r ns L a k e a m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m l i c e n c e . The mayor a p p l i e d f o r t h e l i c e n c e , p a i d a c o n s u l t a n t t o do t h e n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g , b u t had n o t f i n i s h e d s a t i s f y i n g t h e F o r e s t A c t ' s r e d t a p e r e q u i r e m e n t s b e f o r e t h e r e was a change i n g o v e r n m e n t s and s u b s e q u e n t l y a change i n p h i l o s o p h y a b o u t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s becoming i n v o l v e d i n b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s . 1 The MLA f o r B u r n s Lake i n 1972-75 was NDP, b u t he had won h i s s e a t b e c a u s e t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t v o t e had been s p l i t w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . 94 D e a l i n g w i t h e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s i n a s m a l l community by i n v o l v i n g n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e s e c t o r s i n s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s e s i s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e r i f t between t h e two c u l t u r e s t o grow w i d e r . 1 The p r o b l e m has t o be d e f i n e d a t t h e community l e v e l s i n c e p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m which needs t o be e x p r e s s e d i s how t h e n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e c u l t u r e s do and s h o u l d r e l a t e t o each o t h e r . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e a r e c o n s t r a i n t s t o i n v o l v i n g t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . One o f t h e major c o n s t r a i n t s t o i n v o l v i n g a wide number o f p e o p l e i n t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s was t i m e : B a b i n e had t o w a i t u n t i l t h e f i r s t phase o f n e g o t i a t i o n s was c o m p l e t e d w i t h t h e n a t i v e g r o u p b e f o r e t h e TSHL would be g r a n t e d and p l a n s f o r m i l l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d c o n t i n u e ; t h e V i l l a g e o f Burns Lake had t o w a i t w h i l e a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s p r o c e e d e d b e f o r e t h e much needed l o c a l employment would be . made a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e was a s e n s e o f u r g e n c y which p e r m e a t e d t h e p r o c e s s . The m i n i s t e r ' s t i m e was a l s o v e r y v a l u a b l e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t . Even t h o u g h he had t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t c o n d u c t some of t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e n a t i v e g r o u p , he had t o keep a b r e a s t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and be p r e p a r e d t o make d e c i s i o n s when n e c e s s a r y . From an e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y p o i n t o f v i e w , h i s t i m e c o u l d n o t be d o m i n a t e d by t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o j e c t , n o r s h o u l d i t have been. As i t was, n e g o t i a t i o n s were 1 Burns Lake has a l o c a l s o c i e t y c a l l e d t h e " B r i d g e t h e Gap S o c i e t y " w hich t r i e s t o promote c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e c u l t u r e s . . 95 s p r e a d o v e r a b o u t n i n e months f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e p r o c e s s t o t h e s i g n i n g of t h e a g r e e m e n t s i n September, 1974. T h e r e was a l s o a p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r a i n t t o i n v o l v i n g n o n - n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s , t h e n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n was e x t r e m e l y s t r a i n e d i n 1974. I t may be p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t some of t h e s t r e s s n o t e d by t h e s e p e r s o n s was a g g r a v a t e d by u n i -l a t e r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e government and t h e n a t i v e g r o u p . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s s t r e s s s h o u l d have been p r e d i c t a b l e . The p o i n t t o be made i s t h a t n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s were a c o n s t r a i n t t o i n v o l v i n g n o n - n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w t h a t a c o n s t r a i n t s h o u l d be v i e w e d as an i n s u r m o u n t a b l e o b s t a c l e . (3) D i d t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e e t e d a n d : . i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s _ d e t e r m i n e t h e , a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d ? Somewhat. A l t h o u g h t h e s p e c i f i c s o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l o c a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , t h e M i n i s t e r of Human R e o u r c e s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f La b o u r , B a b i n e and t h e n a t i v e g r o u p , t h e p r o c e s s f a i l s t o meet t h e n o r m a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i o n , a g a i n b e c a u s e o f t h e e x c l u s i o n of n o n - n a t i v e l o c a l g r o u p s f r o m t h e p r o c e s s . Because o f t h e l o c a l i z e d a s p e c t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , and bec a u s e o f t h e n o n - t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i c y * no l e n g t h y s t u d i e s and p r o p o s a l s were n e c e s s a r y t o i n f o r m a l l n e g o t i a t i n g 96 parties of the proposals and counter-proposals. Hence, there i s no c l e a r l y defined set of alternatives i d e n t i f i a b l e - just a series of negotiations and compromises on a point by point basis, and f i n a l l y legal agreements drawn to cement the partnerships. Even policy processes which do reguire more technical input may not produce a c l e a r l y decernable l i s t of alternatives i f the process i s characterized by a high l e v e l of in t e r a c t i o n as an optimal process would be. The alternatives which can emerge from the process may also be a shorter set of a wider range of alternatives explored during the exchange between participants i n the process. For the sake of i l l u s t r a t i o n , some of the alternatives generated from the Burns Lake process might be conceptualized as: -native p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i a 8 percent ownership plus comprehensive tr a i n i n g programs to ensure p a r t i c i p a -t i o n on a l l levels of employment; -the above plus an added BLNDC economic arm capable of beginning subsidiary companies; -the above plus a Community Development Project support function. Within these broad categories of alternatives, there exist numerous points for negotiation. These points determine the details of the policy output. For instance, Babine would agree to encourage native p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the m i l l only i f the Indians would agree that native workers would receive no special p r i v i l e g e s over non-native workers. The second alternative was the i n i t i a l alternative preferred by the Minister of Lands, Forests and Water Resources on the advice of the Director of the Secretariat. I t was only because of the high l e v e l of 97 p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e g r o u p t h a t t h e t h i r d c o n c e p t even e n t e r e d i n t o t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s . In s h o r t , t h e c o r r e c t a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d n o t s i m p l y i n v o l v e c o u n t i n g t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s documented, but i n s t e a d i t s h o u l d i n v o l v e l i s t i n g t h e number of g r o u p s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . The B u rns Lake p r o c e s s f a l l s s h o r t o f b e i n g t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s b e c a u s e no n o n - n a t i v e l o c a l g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . I f l o c a l g r o u p s had been i n c l u d e d , t h e p r o b l e m may n o t have been d e f i n e d p u r e l y f r o m a n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , but from a b r o a d e r community b a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e , and t h e range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s g e n e r a t e d would have i n c l u d e d a s p e c t s o f n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e were a g a i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e and o f human b e h a v i o u r d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y w h i c h worked a g a i n s t b r o a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n some p o l i c y s i t u a t i o n s ( a l t h o u g h i t d i d not a p p e a r t o be a f a c t o r i n B u r n s L a k e ) , f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s by way of t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s c o u l d a l s o l i m i t t h e amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w hich c o u l d be accommodated. (4) Were r e s o u r c e s a l l g c a t g d r _ t o : _ e n s n r e : t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y - t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t - i v e p r o p o s a l s ? Somewhat. T h i s c r i t e r i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t o f e n s u r i n g an o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , and i t i s 98 r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e combined c u l t u r a l - d e m o c r a t i c norm o f e n s u r i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (see C h a p t e r I I ) . As s u c h , t h e r e was no f o r m a l i z e d p r o c e d u r e o f making a v a i l a b l e f u n d s o r t e c h n i c a l s t a f f t o e n a b l e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s u n a b l e t o f i n a n c e t h e m s e l v e s . However, t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human S e s o u r c e s a g r e e d t o s u p p o r t t h e e x p e n s e s o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n which i n c l u d e d t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s , c o n s u l t i n g e x p e n s e s , and l e g a l e x p e n s e s . No doubt f u n d s would have been e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r g r o u p s had t h e y been i n c l u d e d . However, i n o r d e r t o become a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s p r o c e s s , a g r o u p would have had t o be o r g a n i z e d and m i l i t a n t : no i n v i t a t i o n s f o r o p i n i o n s were e x t e n d e d . T h e r e a r e o b v i o u s f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s which l i m i t t h e amount o f f u n d s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s which c a n be e x t e n d e d t o e n a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . O b v i o u s l y , some l i m i t s must be s e t . On t h e o t h e r hand, one must remember t h a t many p a r t i c i p a n t s s i l l n o t need t o be s u p p o r t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e n a t i v e g r o u p was s i n c e t h e y may have a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s . C l e a r l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n e n c o u r a g e n o r t h e l a r g e s t c o n s t r a i n t t o e n c o u r a g i n g i s outmoded government i n s t i t u t i o n s which n e i t h e r p r o v i d e t h e c h a n n e l s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 99 (5) W e r e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s a n d i n d i v i d e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s ? S o m e w h a t . A g a i n , , t h e p r o c a l t e r n a t i v e s i s n o t d i s c r e t e f r o a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h e f a c t t h a t e a c h p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s ( o b j e c t i v e s ) f o r i m p l i e s t h a t some f o r m o f p e r s o n a r i g o u r o u s e v a l u a t i o n o f v a r r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s b e o p e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p p r o p o s a l s f r o m d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t I n p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s w h i c h k n o w l e d g e , e v a l u a t i o n may h a v e t o r e p o r t c i r c u l a t e d among p a r t i c i f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s s h o u l d o f e v a l u a t i v e p o i n t s o f v i e w i f t i n t e r a c t i v e . I n B u r n s L a k e , t h e e v a l u a t n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s d o n e s i m a l t e r n a t i v e s . E a c h g r o u p h a d i t s a t n e g o t i a t i o n s . E a c h g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n a m o n g s t t h e g r o u p s wou a d j o u r n f o r a s e t t i m e p e r i o d ( t h e n b e i n t r a g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n o n w o u l d b e a c c e p t e d , o n t h e p o i n t s a n d o n t h e p o i n t s w h i c h w o u l d b e o f a l l a f f e c t e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d u a l s i n c o r p o r a t e d . . i n t o t h e e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n o f p o l i c y m t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a t i n g n e g o t i a t i n g p a r t y h a s s p e c i f i c d e s i r i n g a c e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e 1 e v a l u a t i o n h a s o c c u r r e d . A i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , a n d i n t e r a c t i v e s o t h a t o t h e r o l i c y p r o c e s s c a n e v a l u a t e t h e i v e s . r e q u i r e e x p e r t t e c h n i c a l b e d o n e b y h i r e d e x p e r t s a n d a p a n t s . E v e E t h e n , t h e n u m b e r o f n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e t o t a l n u m b e r h e p r o c e s s i s t r u l y o p e n a n d i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s o f u l t a n e o u s t o t h e q e n e r a t i o n o f l e g a l c o u n s e l w h i c h w a s p r e s e n t w o u l d p r e s e n t t h e i r p o i n t s ; I d o c c u r ; t h e m e e t i n g w o u l d e . g . , t h r e e w e e k s ) . T h e r e w o u l d t h e c o m p r o m i s e p o i n t s w h i c h w h i c h w o u l d n o t b e c o m p r o m i s e d , c o m p r o m i s e d s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n 100 c o n d i t i o n s o r c o n c e s s i o n s . A t a new m e e t i n g , some agreement would be r e a c h e d and new f a c t o r s would e n t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h w o u l d s u b s e g u e n t l y need t o be d i s c u s s e d , a g a i n , i n g r o u p , a p a r t , t h e n i n g r o u p . T h i s f o r m o f e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g p a r t i e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . A g a i n * however, t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e c o m p l e t e l y met t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f n o n - n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n w hich l i m i t e d t h e number o f p e r c e p t i o n s e n t e r i n g t h e p r o c e s s . The m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t t o t h e o p t i m a l e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s , b e c a u s e i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w hich was n e c e s s a r y , a g a i n was t i m e - e s p e c i a l l y t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s ' t i m e . On t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i f g r o u p s need t o h i r e e x p e r t s , f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s c o u l d be a f a c t o r p r o h i b i t i n g a wide r a n g e o f e v a l u a t i o n s . However, i f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s i s s e e n i t s e l f a s a d e v i c e f i r s t t o g e n e r a t e and t h e n t o e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e n e g o t i a t i o n a p p r o a c h i s an e f f i c i e n t and l e s s c o s t l y way t o m u l t i p l y a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a n i s h i r i n g o u t s i d e c o n s u l t i n g e x p e r t s . ( 6 ) Were r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e - t h a t - a l l g r o u p s : w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s have i n f a c t had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? Somewhat. T h i s , l i k e c r i t e r i o n f o u r , r e l a t e s t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f e n s u r i n g t h a t v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s become p a r t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n t h e c a s e o f B u r n s Lake 101 where t h e same p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a t e d and e v a l u a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s meets c r i t e r i o n s i x i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e d e g r e e t o which i t meets c r i t e r i o n f o u r . The r e a s o n f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a l l o c a t i n g f u n d s t o g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s and a l l o c a t i n g f u n d s t o e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s would be more a p p a r e n t i n a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t which c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o l a s t l o n g e r and t o r e q u i r e more t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s . I f f u n d s were c l o s e d o f f a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e of t h e p r o c e s s , t h e e n t r y o f g r o u p s l a t e r i n t h e p r o c e s s would be b l o c k e d . I n an i n t e r a c t i v e p o l i c y p r o c e s s where t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e p r o p o s a l s c h a n g e as n e g o t i a t i o n s p r o g r e s s and p a r t i c i p a n t s a d j u s t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , i t i s e n t i r e l y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t some g r o u p may wish t o become' i n v o l v e d o n l y a f t e r t h e y see a change i n t h e p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n w hich has now t o u c h e d on t h e i r s p h e r e i f i n t e r e s t . One i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t t o m e e t i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s , a g a i n , t h a t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e n o t u n l i m i t e d . As was m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e s have t o be u n l i m i t e d , s i n c e n o t e v e r y one w i l l r e q u i r e them. The s e c o n d , and most i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l . A c l o s e d b u r e a u c r a t i c model o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t does n o t s u p p l y many p o i n t s o f e n t r y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , and t h e s e c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e , a f t e r a l l , t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d be a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s who s e e k t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 102 (7) Were; t h e r e c h e c k s , on qovernment agency b i a s which m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have i n a d v e r t e n t l y d o m i n a t e d ^ t h e - p r o c e s s ? Somewhat. T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e s t o c r i t e r i a t h r e e and f i v e w h i c h m a i n t a i n t h a t i n t e r g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s g e n e r a t e d and e v a l u a t e d . The d e m o c r a t i c -c u l t u r a l v a l u e which s t a t e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be e n s u r e d r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m have c h a n n e l s f o r w i d e l y b a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n s T h i s means p r e v e n t i n g t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s by one s p e c i a l i z e d agency w i t h a l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e r a n g e o f s o c i a l c h o i c e s i n v o l v e d . I n B u r n s L a k e , where t h e p r o c e s s of p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t r e m a i n e d , f o r t h e most p a r t i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a r a t h e r t h a n t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c a r e n a , t h e r e was n o t much p r o b l e m w i t h a v o i d i n g agency b i a s . The major b u r e a u c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a n t was t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , and t h e S e c r e t a r i a t i t s e l f was a s p e c i a l t y p e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c y . The E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t i s t h e s t a f f arm o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use Committee (ELUC) of C a b i n e t . B e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o ELUC and n o t t o any one m i n i s t e r , t h e s t a f f o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t have no l o y a l t y t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f any one l i n e a g e n c y . They a r e , t h e r e f o r e , u n b i a s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f one r e s o u r c e o v e r a n o t h e r . T h i s i s why t h e S e c r e t a r i a t i s s e e n as t h e a g e n c y which s h o u l d c o o r d i n a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f r e s o l v i n g r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , and w h i c h s h o u l d s u p p l y p o l i c y a d v i c e on r e s o u r c e 103 c o n f l i c t i s s u e s t o t h e c o m m i t t e e o f C a b i n e t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e n , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t was d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e and n o t t o any one m i n i s t e r i n d i v i d u a l l y . I n p r a c t i c e , however* t h e D i r e c t o r was i n t e r a c t i n g more w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n o f ELUC, t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , s i n c e t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s was i n i t i a t e d t h r o u g h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f o r e s t p o l i c y . However* t h e D i r e c t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r a g e n c y and i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s on t h e p o i n t s o f p r o g r e s s i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s . M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , w hich was p a r t o f ELUC, worked c l o s e l y w i t h t h e S e c r e t a r i a t and t h e i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e , b ut t h e c o n c e r n was more i n accommodating growth a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s a w m i l l c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , t h a n i t was i n d e f i n i n g n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The M i n i s t e r o f Economic Development was i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i n a n c i n g of BLNDC, b u t a g a i n , he d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . In s h o r t , so f a r as t h e E L U C - S e c r e t a r i a t i n v o l v e m e n t was c o n c e r n e d , t h e p r o c e s s was b i a s e d s l i g h t l y i n f a v o u r o f t h e Department o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s . I n s o f a r as t h e mandate o f ELUC and t h e S e c r e t a r i a t d e a l s w i t h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e -e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s , t h e l a t e e n t r y o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s and t h e f a i l u r e t o e i t h e r i n v o l v e t h e s e n i o r l e v e l s t a f f o r t h e m i n i s t e r i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s b i a s e d t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s s l i g h t l y i n f a v o u r o f e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s . As a r e s u l t , more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e d e s i g n o f t h e e c o n o m i c arm t h a n t o t h e s o c i a l arm o f t h e p r o j e c t . 104 The major c a u s e o f a g e n c y b i a s d o m i n a t i o n , t h a t i s , d e p o l i t i c i z i n g t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , had been a v o i d e d . S t i l l t h e r e were i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a v o i d i n g a l l a g e n c y b i a s : t h e r e was no C a b i n e t c o m m i t t e e on which s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s came t o g e t h e r ; 1 t h e S e c r e t a r i a t had a p h y s i c a l - e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n . 2 (8) Were f i n a l c h o i c e s made by a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , o r by t h e p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l ? Y e s . The B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s p e r h a p s r e p r e s e n t s t h e u l t i m a t e i n s e c u r i n g a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m b e c a u s e t h e C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s t h e m s e l v e s were i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . U s u a l l y t h e r e a r e s e v e r e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e m i n i s t e r s ' t i m e which i n h i b i t t h e i r i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n l o c a l i z e d p o l i c y i s s u e s , and u s u a l l y some d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s must be d e l e g a t e d t o o t h e r s . The NDP government, and e s p e c i a l l y t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , was c o m m i t t e d t o e n s u r i n g B.C. c i t i z e n s had a c c e s s t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The m i n i s t e r s u b s e g u e n t l y became i n v o l v e d i n a 1 A l t h o u g h an ad hoc i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e had been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s was n o t t h e major d e c i s i o n a r e n a . 2 T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t ELUC and t h e S e c r e t a r i a t were n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s . I n d e e d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e TSHL add and t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o i n v o l v e a g r o u p c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n an e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t i s p r o o f t o t h e c o n t r a r y . However, ELUC and t h e S e c r e t a r i a t s i m p l y d i d n o t h a v e t h e mandate t o a c t i n some of t h e a r e a s o f d e v e l o p m e n t which e n t e r e d i n t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n c f t h e p r o b l e m t h r o u g h t h e n a t i v e g r o u p . 105 number o f l o c a l i z e d p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s . D e s p i t e t h e m i n i s t e r ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o c e s s , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on h i s t i m e m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t o f o t h e r B u r n s Lake g r o u p s i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 9. H e r e ; a l t e r n a t i v e i m B l e m e n t a t i o n -arrangements p r o p o s e d and a n a l y s e d by t h e _ v a r i o u s , g r o u p s , i n d i v i d u a l s and a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d ia„.the p r o c e s s ? No. Most o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t (BLNDC) o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t and a l e g a l c o u n s u l t a n t . O n l y one f o r m o f i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n t o be e n t i r e l y n a t i v e owned was a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a l t h o u g h a few o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l - n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p were d e b a t e d and e i t h e r compromised o r c o n c e d e d . F o r example, t h e p r o v i n c e had i n i t i a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e one BLNDC member on t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f B a b i n e s h o u l d be 1 The m i n i s t e r d i d have v a r i o u s m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e mayor and C o u n c i l members o f B u r n s Lake c o n c e r n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f a s a w m i l l i n o r n e a r B u rns Lake ( t h i s was an a s p e c t o f u s i n g f o r e s t p o l i c y t o s a t i s f y r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y p r o b l e m s ) and c o n c e r n i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m l i c e n c e ( a n o t h e r l o c a l i z e d p o l i c y g u e s t i o n which grew o u t o f i m p l e m e n t i n g f o r e s t p o l i c y ) . However, a t no t i m e was t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e f a r m l i c e n c e p r o j e c t and t h e BLNDC p r o j e c t i n t e g r a t e d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l v i a w i d e r c i t i z e n g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e m i n i s t e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n were even more a p p a r e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l t r e e farm l i c e n c e p r o c e s s : t h i s was s o m e t h i n g o f f e r e d t o t h e C o u n c i l , but l e f t t o r e g u l a r c h a n n e l s of a p p r o v a l t h r o u g h F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 1 0 6 a p p o i n t e d by t h e government w h i l e i t s t i l l c o n t r o l l e d 5 p e r c e n t o r more i n t e r e s t i n BLNDC, b u t t h e n a t i v e g r o u p was a b l e t o i n s i s t t h a t BLNDC s h o u l d a p p o i n t t h e nominee- A l t h o u g h t h e n a t i v e g r o u p d i d have a f i n a n c i a l c o n s u l t a n t , t h e r e was no d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f BLNDC. The n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was, however, a key f a c t o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Community Development A s s o c i a t i o n (CDA), b ut t h i s t o o was s e t up e s s e n t i a l l y a t t h e l a s t m i n u t e and w i t h l i t t l e d e b a t e as t o what a l t e r n a t i v e s m ight have been c o n s i d e r e d . Be o f Huma R e s o u r c p r o j e c t a s p e c t s p a r t i c i s t a g e s , t h e r e s t o be a Th a l t e r n a b e h a v i o p r o c e s s f u r t h e r t h e Bur need f a f u l l s t e r a t e r t h e omic c t e d i v e s and f a i l n i n g i a l , t i n g no e o f t h e s i f c a u s e CDA was added a t t h e e n d , and b e c a u s e t h e M i n i n R e s o u r c e s and t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and W es n e v e r met t o d e b a t e t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f as a u n i t y , no c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l and e c o n were c o n s i d e r e d . And f i n a l l y , b e c a u s e o f r e s t r i p a t i o n i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t a l l d i s a g r e e m e n t s had e s s e n t i a l l y been d e a l t w i t h , u l t was an i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n which c o u l d n o t c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h p a r t i e s . e c o n s t r a i n t s t o i n c l u d i n g v a r i o u s g r o u p s i n d e t e r m i t i v e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e t h o s e f i n a n c u r a l and t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e g o t i a e s . T h e s e were d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y and r e g u i r e e l a b o r a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phas ns Lake p r o c e s s a g a i n e m p h a s i z e s , c o n s t r a i n t s a s i d e , o r numerous and d i v e r s e i n p u t s i n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s r a n g e o f r e l e v a n t a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . 107 (10) Was t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n where u n c e r t a i t i e s w ^ r e ; - f a i r l y : -numerous? -Yes. The BLNDC—CDA s t r u c t u r e s were t h e m s e l v e s e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h emerged f r o m a new c o n c e p t o f n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t r u c t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s , b e i n g s e m i -autonomous, had t h e c a p a c i t y t o e x p e r i m e n t and a d a p t t o u n f o r s e e n p r o b l e m s which may a r i s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e t a i l s o f n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . T h i s s t r u c t u r e a l s o t o l e r a t e d m i s t a k e s s i n c e t h e y were s e e n as p a r t o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . D e l i v e r y o f programs t h r o u g h t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e would have been f a r l e s s f l e x i b l e . The f a c t t h a t t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s meets t h i s c r i t e r i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i v e p o l i c i e s was overcome. T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n amount o f u n i f o r m i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w i t h i n d e p a r t m e n t s and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management p u r p o s e s . K e e p i n g t h e Burns Lake p r o j e c t o u t s i d e t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e a v o i d e d t h i s . 1 1 I t might have o c c u r r e d a s a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , b e c a u s e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l e g a l e n t i t y (BLNDC) , t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s would r e m a i n s i m i - a u t o n o m o u s . However, t h i s w o u l d have been f a r l e s s p r o b a b l e i n t h e c a s e o f CDA. 108 (11) Was t h e r e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o e t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t of r e s u l t s and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s ? Somewhat. The e n t i r e c o n c e p t o f BLNDC was s e t up so as t o p r o v i d e a s e r i e s o f c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s which would i n e f f e c t p r o v i d e i n t e r n a l r e g u l a t i o n w i t h a minimum o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c government i n t e r f e r e n c e . CDA was l e s s c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e o r i g i n a l BLNDC c o n t r a c t which was f o r f i v e y e a r s was t o be r e v i e w e d i n 1979. A l l l o a n s a d v a n c e d by BLNDC were r e s t r i c t e d t o a c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c r a d i u s t o e n s u r e t h a t monies would be used f o r l o c a l s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . No amount o v e r $25,000 c o u l d be a d v a n c e d f r o m t h e l o a n f u n d u n t i l i t was e v a l u a t e d and a p p r o v e d by t h e B.C. Development C o r p o r a t i o n . The money a d v a n c e d t o BLNDC was n o t by way o f g r a n t , b u t f o r g i v a b l e l o a n s . The f i r s t f i v e y e a r s were i n t e r e s t f r e e , but i n t h e y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r , i n t e r e s t o f 3 p e r c e n t was t o be c h a r g e d . No payments o f e i t h e r i n t e r e s t o r p r i n c i p a l was t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d b e f o r e 1979. The p r i n c i p a l sum and i n t e r e s t owing would be f o r g i v e n a t a r a t e o f 12 1/2 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r a f t e r 1979 i f BLNDC had m a i n t a i n e d a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e . T h a t l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e was t o be d e f i n e d by a t h r e e p e r s o n m o n i t o r i n g b o a r d made up o f one p r o v i n c i a l a p p o i n t e e , one n a t i v e a p p o i n t e e , and one a g r e e d upon a p p o i n t e e . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e t h e i n c e n t i v e t o keep BLNDC e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g c o n s t a n t 109 government s u p e r v i s i o n . , 1 On t h e o t h e r hand, CDA was a more dependent s t r u c t u r e b e c a u s e i t d i d not have t h e c a p a c i t y t o g e n e r a t e r e v e n u e . The M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s r e g u i r e d no f o r m o f m i n i t o r i n g o f p r ograms o t h e r t h a n t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e was a t r e m e n d o u s c a p a c i t y f o r CDA t o l e a r n f r o m i t s m i s t a k e s , b u t v e r y l i t t l e c a p a c i t y f o r t h e Department o f Human R e s o u r c e s , d e s p i t e i t s l a c k o f n e g a t i v e i n p u t , t o p r o v i d e any p o s i t i v e g u i d a n c e s h o u l d t h e need a r i s e . B e c a u s e most o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was i n t e r n a l , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f BLNDC, CDA and t h e c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s w r i t t e n i n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f BLNDC, t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s which t e n d t o promote u n i f o r m i t y o f programs was a v o i d e d . Thus t h e BLNDC-CDA programs c o u l d be d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o n a t i v e n e e d s , and t h u s , s h o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e l o n g e r r u n . 1 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o m o n i t o r i n g t h e c o n t i n u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p o l i c y o u t p u t h a s been abandoned by t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t m i n i s t e r s r e s p o n s i b l e ( L a b o u r , E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , F i n a n c e ) i n f a v o u r o f t h e more p a t e r n a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h o f e x t e n d i n g g r a n t s i n s t e a d o f f o r g i v a b l e l o a n s , and o f k e e p i n g d i r e c t and c l o s e g overnment s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n . 110 (12) Was t h e r e e x p l i c i t E r o v i s i o _ _ f o r _ u t i l i z i n q t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s to, a d a p t p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g l y ? Somewhat. A g a i n , t h e BLNDC arangement meets t h e c r i t e r i o n , t h e CDA a r r a n g e m e n t f a l l s h o r t o f m e e t i n g i t . B o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r semi-autonomous n a t u r e , p r o v i d e d f o r a d a p t a t i o n t o l o c a l n e e d s . T h i s meant r e l e v a n t p r o g r a m s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and i r r e l e v a n t p r ograms c o u l d be p h a s e d o u t a s community ne e d s c h a n g e d . The BLNDC a r r a n g e m e n t , by p r o v i d i n g f o r a t h r e e p e r s o n m o n i t o r i n g team a f t e r 1979, a team w i t h b o t h n a t i v e and p r o v i n c i a l members, p r o v i d e d f o r a w o r k i n g -l e a r n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t t o e x i s t between t h e n a t i v e c o r p o r a t i o n and and t h e p r o v i n c e . 1 T h i s meant t h a t not o n l y c o u l d t h e p r o v i n c e l e a r n and change i t s i d e a s on t h e d e s i g n o f p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o BLNDC, but a l s o t h e p r o v i n c e would be g a t h e r i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e on which t o b a s e f u t u r e n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . CDA p r o v i d e d o n l y i m p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n ( i . e . , a n n u a l r e p o r t s ) f o r t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of program a s s e s s m e n t s as a b a s i s on which t o a d a p t p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . The c o n t i n u o u s a d a p t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s t o e n s u r e r e l e v a n c e r e q u i r e s a c o n t i n u o u s two-way i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w w h i c h , i n a l a r g e 1 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s t h r e e p e r s o n b o a r d has been s e t up by t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t M i n i s t e r s o f L a b o u r , E c o n o m i c Development and F i n a n c e , b u t t h a t t h i s b o a r d i s now e n t i r e l y f o r m e d o f government a p p o i n t e d o v e r s e e r s (one f r o m e a c h m i n i s t r y ) and t h e m u t u a l exchange a s p e c t i s l o s t . 111 and complex society may be a very costly undertaking i f required on a policy by policy basis within the present i n s t i t u t i o n a l context- Technical constraints of generating, gathering and analysing the sheer volume of information which would be generated within each government department could be a serious constraint. The BLNDC-CDA models manage to be adaptive without such problems because of the i r decentralized and semi-autonomous nature. (13) Were the varying perceptions- of a l l affected and interested i n d i v i d u a l s and groups included as i n p u t s to the assessment and modification procedure?-Somewhati The Board of Directors for both BLNDC and CDA came from the native community at l a r g e , 1 and as the board which decides the policy of the organization, the BLNDC and CDA keep i n touch with community sentiment. But i t was e s s e n t i a l l y the native community whose perceptions were tapped. This may re s u l t i n an adequate range of community perceptions entering the assessment and modification procedure i f the entire policy process has allowed for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of interested groups from the star t - In Burns Lake there were some community members whose l i v e s were impacted from the p o l i c i e s of BLNDC—CDA but whose perceptions did not enter into the process at a l l , l e t 1 The S o c i a l Credit administration expanded the board of CDA by four non-native members i n 1976. The board now represents native and non-native perceptions i n policy.. Although i n i t i a l l y , the native people recoiled at the forced intrusion of the government, they have now gotten over some of that resentment. 1 1 2 a l o n e t h e a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , n o n - n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s d i d e n t e r CDA v i a t h e v a r i o u s p rograms o f f e r e d t o b o t h n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s was n o t a f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s a t f i r s t , b u t as t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n m a t u r e d , i t began t o keep i t s own r e c o r d s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f p r o g r a m s . A l t h o u g h on a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t t h e r e may be f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s of t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s o r f i n a n c i a l and t e m p o r a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y s o p e r a t i n g t o l i m i t t h e number o f p e r s p e c t i v e s f r o m which e v a l u a t i o n i s done, a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l s u c h c o s t s a r e n o t g r e a t - B e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s may be more r e l e v a n t i f members o f t h e b o a r d do n o t c o o p e r a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r . U s u a l l y , t h i s would be a v e r y p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t , d e p e n d i n g on s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , b u t i n B u r n s L a k e , where t e n s i o n s between n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s e x i s t e d , t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e members on t h e same.board i s a p r e d i c t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h must be c o n s i d e r e d when d e s i g n i n g i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . The c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e c i s i o n r u l e s (e.g.., c o n s e n s u s vs m a j o r i t y ) and t i m e ( e . g . , d e a d l i n e s ) c o u l d a l s o c a u s e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h i s may have been why t h e NDP M i n i s t e r of Human R e s o u r c e s o p t e d f o r an a l l n a t i v e b o a r d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t CDA was t e c h n i c a l l y s u p p o s e d t o be f o r t h e community i n g e n e r a l . 113 CHAPTER V I I : A NORMATIVE MODEL OF REGIONAL GOVERNMENT FOR B.C.: TOWARDS PROMOTING THE OPTIMAL PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS A. The P u r s u i t _ o f The O p t i m a l - P r o c e s s A l t h o u g h e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f p o l i c i e s a r e u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f use o f government r e s o u r c e s ( f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e ) , t h e y can be v e r y m i s l e a d i n g i f t h e e v a l u a t o r and t h e r e v i e w e r a r e n o t f u l l y aware o f t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e i r i n h e r e n t v a l u e a s s u m p t i o n s . With r e s p e c t t o t h e Burns Lake p r o j e c t , f o r example, i t would be s h o r t s i g h t e d t o e v a l u a t e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t i n t e r m s o f t h e e c o n o m i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f Burns Lake N a t i v e Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BLNDC). I t i s t h e t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e mi11-BLNDC-CDA which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e " p o l i c y o u t p u t " o f t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s , and e v a l u a t i n g t h a t p r e s e n t s a m y r i a d of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . I n any c a s e , who i s t o j u d g e who s h o u l d have b e n e f i t e d and who s h o u l d have l o s t , i f anyone? I t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r t o u n d e r t a k e such a t a s k . Much l e s s a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o a s s e s s i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n t h a n i s g i v e n t o a s s e s s i n g t h e s u b s t a n t i v e o u t p u t s o f t h e p r o c e s s . However, i n a s s e s s i n g a p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s one i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e t o f d e m o c r a t i c norms (see C h a p t e r I I I ) on w h i c h t h e r e i s a l m o s t c o n s e n s u s i n Canada. A s s e s s i n g a p o l i c y p r o c e s s , l i k e a s s e s s i n g p o l i c y o u t p u t , i s done w i t h a view t o i m p r o v i n g t h e f u t u r e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . 114 T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s why one would want t o i m p r o v e t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s : -a b e t t e r p r o c e s s s h o u l d r e s u l t i n b e t t e r p o l i c y o u t p u t s , 1 - a b e t t e r p r o c e s s i s an end i t s e l f i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t s a t i s f i e s t h e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m of government (see C h a p t e r I I I ) . 2 As was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e "means" o f i m p r o v i n g t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . w h i l e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a i f i t i s t o be o p t i m a l , i t must s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y i f i t i s t o be " o p t i m a l " and n o t " u t o p i a n w " Thus t h e key c o n s t r a i n t s or p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e B u rns Lake p r o c e s s w i l l be e l e m e n t a l t o s u g g e s t i n g t h e a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n n e c e s s a r y t o promote o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . F o r i n s t a n c e , one o f t h e key c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l B u r ns Lake p r o c e s s was t h e s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e m i n i s t e r s ' t i m e . B e c a u s e o f t h e m y r i a d o f l o c a l p o l i c y i s s u e s i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h which t h e m i n i s t e r s had t o d e a l , no one p r o c e s s c o u l d r e c e i v e as much a t t e n t i o n a s i t s h o u l d . The r e s u l t was t h e t e n d e n c y t o l i m i t t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s t o as few 1 I t does n o t f o l l o w , however, t h a t a p o l i c y w h i c h i s a g r e e d by most t o be "good" i n s u b s t a n t i v e t e r m s i s n e c e s s a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f a good p r o c e s s . I t may j u s t happen t h a t t h e r e i s so much p u b l i c c o n s e n s u s t h a t a p o l i c y s u c c e e d s d e s p i t e a l a c k o f d e b a t e . However, a good p r o c e s s r e d u c e s p o l i t i c a l r i s k s t h a t a p o l i c y w i l l be u n p o p u l a r when u n c e r t a i n t i e s a r e g r e a t and t h e r e i s l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s - which i s most o f t h e t i m e . 2 O b v i o u s l y , however, a p r o c e s s c a n n e v e r e x i s t w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i v e p o l i c i e s . 115 p a r t i c i p a n t s as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o r e n d e r t h e p r o c e s s manageable w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e m i n i s t e r s ' t i m e . T h i s p r e v e n t e d t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s f r o m m e e t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n g o a l s . T h i s s u g g e s t s a l s o t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l n e v e r be a b l e t o meet p a r t i c i p a t i o n g o a l s a s l o n g as C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s c o n t i n u e t o have such a volume o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s must t h e r e f o r e have fewer r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i f an o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s t o be a c h i e v e d . D e c r e a s i n g t h e number o f d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f each C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r means i n c r e a s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . E i t h e r t h e number o f s p e c i a l i z e d m i n i s t e r s and d e p a r t m e n t s c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d , o r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g i o n a l i z e d o r l o c a l p o l i c y i s s u e s c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d t o r e g i o n a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I f t h e number o f C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s were expanded, p a r t i c i p a t i o n g o a l s would s t i l l be f r u s t r a t e d (as t h e y were i n B u rns Lake) b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s of n e g o t i a t i o n and t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s of c o o r d i n a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m s u c h a d i s t a n c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e C a b i n e t i t s e l f would have t o be expanded t o s u c h an e x t e n t a s t o r e n d e r i t u n w i e l d y . The mode o f d i v i s i o n o f d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w hich would promote t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s would t h e r e f o r e be t h e d e c e n t r a l i z e d o p t i o n . I f t h e d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a r t i c i p a t i o n g o a l s c o u l d be met, b u t o t h e r p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s c a l e o f d e c i s i o n -making would p r e v e n t o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s do n o t have 116 s u f f i c i e n t a r e a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o w a r r a n t t h e i r making many o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e d e c i s i o n s which have t o be made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s a s w e l l a s from t h e p o i n t o f view o f s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s - F o r i n s t a n c e , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t c o u l d n o t have d e c i d e d among t h e m s e l v e s where t h e s a w m i l l s h o u l d be l o c a t e d . Many o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would have wanted i t . T h e r e f o r e , many o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s c o u l d n o t be d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . S e c o n d l y , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n g e n e r a l do n o t have s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s t o h a n d l e t h e volume o f d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which must be d e c e n t r a l i z e d , n o r c o u l d t h e p r o v i n c e e v e r hope t o d u p l i c a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e s i n so many l o c a t i o n s - T h e s e f a c t o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e b e s t d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o a r e g i o n a l i n s t e a d o f a l o c a l l e v e l . T h e r e a r e , a g a i n , two i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n o p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h e r e g i o n s : e i t h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d t o r e g i o n a l b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c i e s ; o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d t o r e g i o n a l l y e l e c t e d a g e n c i e s . S i n c e t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c o p t i o n d o e s n o t s a t i s f y t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a , t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n would be s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d e l e c t e d . l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . As t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s i l l u s t r a t e d , a t v a r i o u s p h a s e s i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e g u i r e d t o make t r a d e -o f f s i n s o c i a l c h o i c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e n a t i v e g r o u p had t o 117 a c c e p t a more modest e c o n o m i c r o l e t h a n t h e y had a t f i r s t hoped, b u t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o do so o n l y i f t h e i r p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l program n e e d s were met. In f a c t , d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , i t became c l e a r t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t (whose p r i o r i t i e s were e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t ) t h a t t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c q u i r i n g s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t programs t h a n w i t h s e c u r i n g e c o n o m i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, t h e S e c r e t a r i a t and ELUC's mandate d i d n o t i n c l u d e s o c i a l program d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s had t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . H i s l a t e e n t r y r e s u l t e d i n a h a s t i l y d e s i g n e d Community Development A s s o c i a t i o n . Had he been i n v o l v e d from t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e BLNDC—CDA r e l a t i o n s h i p might h a v e been d e s i g n e d d i f f e r e n t l y . The d y n a m i c s o f t h e p r o c e s s of making t r a d e - o f f s among s o c i a l c h o i c e s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n f a c i l i t a t e and i n t e g r a t e t h e s e c h o i c e s . T h i s a l s o means t h a t , i d e a l l y , d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n a l l p u b l i c s e c t o r s s h o u l d be j o i n t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s from t h e b e g i n n i n g i f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t t o be " l o p s i d e d . " Thus t h e o p t i m a l r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h d e c i s i o n — m a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would be m u l t i -p u r p o s e r a t h e r t h a n s i n g l e - p u r p o s e , and a l l d e c i s i o n s would be j o i n t d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n made by t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x e c u t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p r e s e n c e o f e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would a l t e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c i t i z e n s of t h e r e g i o n s . No l o n g e r would t h e p r o v i n c e be b r i n g i n g a p r o v i n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e r e g i o n s v i a t h e 118 r e g i o n a l l y b a s e d b u r e a u c r a c y , b u t i n s t e a d , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s would be i n t e g r a t e d . P o l i c y i n t e g r a t i o n would r e q u i r e c l o s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s l i n k s between t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e r e g i o n and C a b i n e t . With r e s p e c t t o j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , j u r i s d i c t i o n s c a n be e i t h e r d i s c r e t e o r o v e r l a p p i n g between r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . S i n c e maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e s maximum a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s - a r e more c o n d u c i v e t o p r o m o t i n g t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s -O t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s s u g g e s t t h e n e e d t o pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e t a i l s o f o p e r a t i o n of t h e r e g i o n a l government model i t s e l f . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t was s e e n t h a t a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l as t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a wide r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s depends on t h e number o f g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g and t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n among g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . However, i t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s ( f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l , and i n f o r m a t i o n a l ) o f t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i n B.C. b l o c k e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l e x c e p t t h e most o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s ( i . e . , BCANSI), and r e n d e r e d t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n w i l l i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n f o r r e s o u r c e s _ f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - web t o e n s u r e a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as c h a n n e l s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p h y s i c a l - e c o n o m i c b i a s p r e s e n t i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s a t t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c l e v e l o f 1.19 g o v e r n m e n t , i t h e S e c r e t a r i a t a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l government s h o u l d be a P o l i c y A n a l y s i s . S e c r e t a r i a t r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e e x e c u t i v e a s a whole, r a t h e r t h a n an E n v i r o n m e n t and La n d Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t r e s p o n s i b l e t o a C a b i n e t Committee w i t h a n a r r o w e r mandate t h a n C a b i n e t . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l g overnment d e s i g n b o r r o w s f r o m and b u i l d s upon t h e b e s t a s p e c t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n , t h u s p r o v i d i n g a p o l i c y a n a l y s i s u n i t and f u r t h e r e n s u r i n g a g a i n s t a g e n c y b i a s i n t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s . S i m i l a r l y , a c o m p l e m e n t a r y a s p e c t o f d e s i g n i n t e n d e d t o a v o i d a g e n c y b i a s would be t h e n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e o f r e g i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y . T h i s d e s i g n f e a t u r e would m i n i m i z e t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t one key i n d i v i d u a l , s u c h as t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s , c o u l d have on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s . C l e a r l y , t h e D i r e c t o r ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r k e e p i n g t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s e p a r a t e d i d not e n c o u r a g e t h e M i n i s t e r o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s t o i n c l u d e t h e M i n i s t e r o f Human R e s o u r c e s i n a l l a s p e c t s o f n e g o t i a t i o n i n B u r n s L a k e . A c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e o f b u r e a c u r a c y , e s p e c i a l l y where members on t h e c o m m i t t e e a r e f r o m v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , would i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f many p e r c e p t i o n s and o p i n i o n s e n t e r i n g t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s f r o m t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s i d e . T h i s a s p e c t b u i l d s upon e x i s t i n g i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e ( t a s k f o r c e ) i n Burns L a k e , and e x t e n d s i t t o i n c l u d e t h e r e g u l a r use o f 1 The j o i n t d e c i s i o n s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e e l i m i n a t e b i a s a t t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . 120 c o m m i t t e e s w i t h i n t h e P o l i c y S e c r e t a r i a t i t s e l f . F i n a l l y , i t was s e e n t h a t t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t and r e e v a l u a t i o n o f p o l i c y and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s i n Burns L a k e depended upon t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . S i n c e c o n t i n u a l a s s e s s m e n t and p o l i c y a d j u s t m e n t a r e s p e c i f i c a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a w h i c h t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s must meet, t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n f o r p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n must i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g . To summarize, one c o u l d s a y t h a t i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s w h i l e m e e t i n g t h e t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework d e s i g n e d s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g t w e l v e d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s : d e c e n t r a l i z e d ; r e g i o n a l ; e l e c t e d l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; m u l t i - p u r p o s e ; a l l d e c i s i o n s j o i n t ; e x e c u t i v e l i n k e d t o C a b i n e t ; o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; r e s o u r c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web; P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t ; c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e ; c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g . These p r i n c i p l e s l e a d t o t h e d e s i g n o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d , r e g i o n a l government model a s t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e g i o n a l government model w i l l f i r s t be d e s c r i b e d and t h e n i l l u s t r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s which may have o c c u r r e d i f t h e r e g i o n a l model had been i n p l a c e . A l t h o u g h t h e B u r n s Lake example i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t s made, t h e n o r m a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government a r e i n t e n d e d t o promote an i m p r o v e d p o l i c y p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l . The p r o c e s s m a n i f e s t e d as a 121 r e s u l t o f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s b e i n g i n p l a c e i s s p e c i f i c a l l y imaged t o meet a l l t h i r t e e n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a and i s t h e r e f o r e t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . The c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e how t h e model would m i n i m i z e t h e i r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . B. A N o r m a t i v e Model o f R e g i o n a l _ G g y e r n m e n t F o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government f o r B.C. i s d e s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t w e l v e a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . The model i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d e c e n t r a l i z e d , m u l t i - p u r p o s e , r e g i o n a l g o vernment which would be c a p a b l e n o t o n l y of f o r m u l a t i n g r e g i o n a l p o l i c y w i t h i n a l l s e c t o r s o f g o v e r n m e n t , b u t a l s o o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s . The r e g i o n a l government model would r e p l a c e c u r r e n t r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ( e . g . . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , RRMCs), r a t h e r t h a n be added t o them. The model i s a l s o d e s i g n e d t o be as open and s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as p o s s i b l e g i v e n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s which l i m i t mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l p o l i c y i s s u e s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and c h a n n e l s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u p l e d w i t h t h e a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s r e n d e r t h i s model s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f i t s e l e c t o r a t e . The numerous c o m m u n i c a t i o n s l i n k s between t h e government o f f i c i a l s , a g e n c i e s , and t h e p u b l i c make t h i s model f l e x i b l e and d y n a m i c , and t h e r e f o r e c a p a b l e o f e v o l v i n g w i t h changes i n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , o r w i t h c h a n g e s i n 122 t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s . In t h i s s e c t i o n * t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e g i o n a l government w i l l be f i r s t o u t l i n e d , w h i l e t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e model a c c o r d i n g t o e a c h o f t h e t w e l v e a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n w i l l be r e s e r v e d u n t i l t h e r e a d e r has become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o r g a n s o f t h e model. 123 (1) S t r u c t u r e FIGURE 6: A-Normajtive._Model o f R e g i o n a l Government F o r B.C. G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s • • • • • • • • • • • • • (b ) • • • • • • • • la • • • P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t P o l i cy A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t —~f— * R e g i o n a l E x e c u ' t i v e D e p a r t m e n t s P r o v i n c i a l M o n i t o r i n g 3* ( o ) S t a J i _ 124 ( i ) G e n e r a l Assembly The r e g i o n a l g overnment's G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y would be a l e g i s l a t i v e body o f e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s f r o m c o n s t i t u e n c i e s d e s i g n a t e d on a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s . T h e r e would be some minimum ( e . g . , f i v e year) r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n c y r e q u i r e m e n t b e f o r e e l i g i b i l i t y t o s i t i n t h e Assembly c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . B u r n s L a k e and t h e i m m e d i a t e a r e a would have an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t t i n g i n t h e G e n e r a l Assembly. T h i s body would be c h a r g e d w i t h r e g i o n a l p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a r e a s o f r e g i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , w h ich would i n c l u d e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . The Assembly would d e b a t e and p a s s b y - l a w s which f o r m a l i z e d r e g i o n a l p o l i c y i n t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s o f i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . ( i i ) The E x e c u t i v e _ C o u n c i l Whether o r n o t t h e Assembly s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d on a p a r t y p o l i t i c a l b a s i s i s a p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I f i t were, t h e p a r t y l e a d e r would t h e n be c h a i r p e r s o n o f t h e G e n e r a l A s sembly and be c h a r g e d w i t h f o r m i n g t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . I f n o t , t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l c o u l d be e l e c t e d by t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y , and t h e c h a i r p e r s o n by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l members. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l members would be p a i d , f u l l - t i m e o f f i c i a l s . Much l i k e t h e C a b i n e t , e ach member o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l would head a d e p a r t m e n t , b u t , a l l m a j o r d e c i s i o n s would be t a k e n j o i n t l y . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e t h e number o f 125 d e c i s i o n s w h i c h e x e c u t i v e members would have t o make would be s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s t h a n t h e number f a c i n g C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e whole p r o v i n c e . ( i i i ) The E x e c u t i v e D e p a r t m e n t s The d e p a r t m e n t s would p r o v i d e t h e s t a f f f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y a d v a n c e d by t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y . They w o u l d r e p l a c e p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l s t a f f members ( t h e p r o v i n c i a l e m p l o y e e s c o u l d become employees o f t h e r e g i o n ) , e x c e p t f o r a few p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s t a f f l e f t a s a m o n i t o r i n g u n i t t o c h e c k r e g i o n a l agency b i a s f r o m d o m i n a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The i n c r e a s e i n r e g i o n a l s t a f f members ( i n c l u d i n g membership i n t h e G e n e r a l A ssembly i t s e l f ) s h o u l d be e g u a l t o o r l e s s t h a n t h e d e c r e a s e i n p r o v i n c i a l e m p l o y e e s . The c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g government b u r e a u c r a c y would n o t i n c r e a s e . * I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s would be u s e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p o l i c y . Membership on t h e committee would be d e f i n e d on a s u b - r e g i o n a l b a s i s . . M a j o r r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s (where " r e s o u r c e " i s d e f i n e d i n i t s b r o a d e s t terms) would be r e f e r r e d t o and d e a l t w i t h by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . Of c o u r s e , many r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s c l a s s i f i e d a s " m i n o r " a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l o f p e r c e p t i o n would be 1 T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f f u n c t i o n s would be r e p l a c e d on a one t o one b a s i s i n t h e r e g i o n . Q u i t e t h e c o n t r a r y , some r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s may have more o r f e w e r s t a f f members t h a n t h e c o m p a r a b l e p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t . T h i s p o i n t i s made o n l y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l government model does n o t c a l l f o r t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f , but i n s t e a d t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f them. 126 "major" a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s would r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l when r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s a r o s e . {iv) The: P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t T h i s body would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y a n a l y s i s and c o o r d i n a t i o n and would r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . A l l p o l i c y a n a l y s i s and r e s e a r c h would be on a co m m i t t e e b a s i s , w i t h some p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e co m m i t t e e sometimes b e i n g p e r s o n s o u t s i d e t h e p o l i c y a n a l y s i s u n i t ( e . g . , c o n s u l t a n t s , p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s , r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s t a f f , e t c . ) . Members o f t h i s S e c r e t a r i a t might a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e on r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y . The S e c r e t a r i a t p a r t i c i p a n t on t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l committee would be someone who ha d been i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . T h i s would keep t h e S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f i n t o u c h w i t h f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s , j u s t a s i n c l u d i n g some d e p a r t m e n t s t a f f on p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e s would keep t h e f i e l d o p e r a t o r s i n t o u c h w i t h c h a n g e s i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n . I n b o t h c a s e s , however, t h e c o m m i t t e e s s e r v e as a i d s t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , a d v i s i n g and i n f o r m i n g . They do n o t make p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s on t h e i r own. The S e c r e t a r i a t would a l s o be c h a r g e d w i t h m o n i t o r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y by t h e l i n e a g e n c i e s ( e . g . , by c o n d u c t i n g p e r i o d i c s t u d i e s ) and r e p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l t o e n s u r e t h a t e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e m a i n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and impleme n t a t i o n . 127 F i n a l l y , t h e S e c r e t a r i a t ( o r u n i t t h e r e o f ) would be c h a r g e d w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y . E a c h p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would have an o f f i c e , t h r o u g h which c i t i z e n s would communicate p r o b l e m s , needs and i d e a s . The i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k s f o r t h e whole r e g i o n would be a n a l y s e d , o r g a n i z e d , p r o c e s s e d and r e p o r t e d t o e a c h member o f t h e G e n e r a l Assembly and E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l on a r e g u l a r b a s i s i n o r d e r t o keep them i n f o r m e d o f t h e major p r o b l e m s o f t h e r e g i o n and t h e p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s . T h i s would h e l p a v o i d c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s and e n a b l e t h e g e n e r a t i o n of more r e l e v a n t p o l i c i e s . T h i s u n i t o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t would a l s o be c h a r g e d w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e f u n d s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o e n c o u r a g e c r e a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . (2) O p e r a t i o n ( i ) R e g i o n a l As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s would be u n a b l e t o t a k e on t h e number and r a n g e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e t h e b u r d e n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . T h e r e f o r e , a r e g i o n a l government model i s p r e f e r r e d . The r e g i o n a l government model o u t l i n e d h e r e c o u l d n o t be d u p l i c a t e d t w e n t y - n i n e t i m e s ( t h e c u r r e n t number o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ) b e c a u s e f i n a n c i a l and s t a f f r e g u i r e m e n t s would n e c e s s i t a t e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s t o s u p p o r t s u c h g o v e r n m e n t s . The 128 b o u n d a r i e s c h o s e n f o r r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s would have some p h y s i c a l and m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l r a t i o n a l e 1 so a s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e a r e a i s i n f a c t a " r e g i o n " . The r e g i o n would be l a r g e enough t o i n c l u d e a h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i v e l y d e b a t e . Both urban and r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s would be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g i o n , s i n c e t h e u r b a n -r u r a l d i a l e c t i c i s c e n t r a l t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e g i o n . A l t h o u g h e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n a l government would have t o c o r r e s p o n d more t o t h e s i z e o f t h e R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management R e g i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . 2 S m i t h e r s i s t h e b e s t c e n t r e f o r t h e " c a p i t a l " o f t h e r e g i o n . T h i s means t h a t Burns L a k e w o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l e s f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f r e g i o n a l g overnment. ( i i ) D e c e n t r a l i z e d , M u l t i - p u r p o s e The r e g i o n a l government model i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e and m u l t i - p u r p o s e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n e x t e n d s t h r o u g h a l l government s e c t o r s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e a c t u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n 1 i . e . , b o u n d a r i e s would n o t be drawn on t h e b a s i s o f one f u n c t i o n ( e . g . , w a t e r r e s o u r c e s management). 2 T h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t RRMC d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d be t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s o r any o t h e r r e g i o n a l government. O t h e r more p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s c o u l d be s m a l l e r i n a r e a l e x t e n t . 129 r e g i o n a p r o v i n c t h e y m d e v e l o p i t i s b< which t h o s e p s o c i a l , Fo r e s p o n s been a have a l l o t t m r e g i o n c o n s u l t a d v e r t i would h t h e r e human r and fun program and BLC r e l i e v e i s s u e s 1 p o l i c y A l t h o u g h y power g e n e r a l , e s o u r c e , ugh t h e i l l have t would cy- The o r t h w e s t ( b u t i n l e t h e o p o s a l s , b e c a u s e omic and ' d e v e l o p c i e s o r o f BLNDC 1 j u r i s d i c t i o n s be d e c e n t r a l i z e d so as t o i a l C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s from t h e m y r i a d o f l o c a l u s t r e s o l v e and t o promote e x p e d i e n t r e g i o n a ment, u n h i n d e r e d by e x c e s s i v e " r e d t a p e " d e l a y s , eyond t h e scope o f t h i s p a p e r t o i t e m i z e e v e r would be d e l e g a t e d t o r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , i n owers would be q u i t e b r o a d and i n c l u d e a r e a s o f r e d u c a t i o n , e c o n o m i c , e t c . p o l i c y . r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e Burns Lake example, a l t h o i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i n c e wide f o r e s t p o l i c y would s t p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e q i o n a l governmen been c h a r g e d w i t h i m p l e m e n t i n g f o r e s t p o l i e n t o f t h e 180,000 c u n i t s o f t i m b e r i n t h e n would s t i l l have been a p r o v i n c i a l u n d e r t a k i n g a t i o n w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ) , whi sement f o r b i d s , t h e r e v i e w and c h o i c e o f pr ave been w i t h i n r e g i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , g i o n a l g o v ernment would have j u r i s d i c t i o n i n econ e s o u r c e a r e a s as w e l l , i t would have been a b l e t o d r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t agen s s u c h a s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t DA. ( i i i ) A l l D e c i s i o n s J o i n t -The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e d e s i g n e d t o a c t a s a u n i t and t d e c i s i o n s would be j o i n t o n e s . Th r e g i o n a l government model i s h e r e f o r e a l l i m p o r t a n t r e g i o n a l i s p r o v i d e s f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n 130 o f p o l i c i e s and t h e accommodation o f t r a d e - o f f s i n s o c i a l c h o i c e s a t t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . In t h e Burns Lake example, had t h e r e g i o n a l government model been i n p l a c e , t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member i n c h a r g e o f Human R e s o u r c e s would have been a s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s as t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member i n c h a r g e o f F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . Thus t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c y o u t p u t would have a c q u i r e d as much a t t e n t i o n as t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a s p e c t o f t h e p r o j e c t . ( i v) E x e c u t i v e - C o u n c i l L i n k e d t o C a b i n e t -The r e q i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , a l t h o u g h p o s s e s s i n g s u b s t a n t i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers, c o u l d n ot be c o m p l e t e l y autonomous s i n c e t h e y would s t i l l be " c r e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . " The p r o v i n c e would c o n c e r n i t s e l f more w i t h s e t t i n g t h e b r o a d e r p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c i e s which might o f t e n be a s e t o f g o a l s o r s t a n d a r d s , w h i l e l e t t i n g t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t means o f m e e t i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l s t a n d a r d s a c c o r d i n g t o r e g i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s and p r i o r i t i e s . I n a s e n s e , t h e r e g i o n a l government would be i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , b u t on t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i t would be f o r m u l a t i n g r e g i o n a l p o l i c y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an h i e r a r c h i c a l power s t r u c t u r e i n t h e b r o a d e s t s e n s e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l government would c h o o s e t o i g n o r e o r o v e r r i d e r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s i f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v ernment had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s model a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r r e g i o n a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g 131 r e g i o n a l g r o u p s and c o n s t i t u e n t members i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c i e s . B e c a u s e t h e r e g i o n a l government model i s a p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n l i n k s between r e g i o n and p r o v i n c e would be t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l and C a b i n e t (see F i g u r e 6 -l i n k ( a ) ) . In t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h i t would have been p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s e t t h e s t a n d a r d o r g u o t a o f t i m b e r which c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , t h e r e g i o n a l government would have been i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e t t i n g t h e g u o t a o f f e r e d . B e c a u s e most o f t h e f o r e s t r y s t a f f a r e employed by t h e r e g i o n , t h e r e g i o n a l s t a f f would need t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s u r v e y s and a n a l y s i s p r e c e d i n g t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e 180,000 c u n i t TSHL g u o t a . However, r e g i o n a l s t a f f would r e p o r t t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l who would t h e n communicate d i r e c t l y w i t h C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . The f i n a l c h o i c e o f g u o t a r e m a i n s w i t h C a b i n e t . The t a s k o f a c c e p t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and c h o o s i n g p r o p o s a l s t o h a r v e s t t h e t i m b e r would be a r e g i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The p r o v i n c i a l - r e g i o n a l government r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h e r e f o r e a c o m p l e m e n t a r y one. I t would be i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t t o e n s u r e t h a t r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e f u n c t i o n i n g w e l l , and t h e r e f o r e t o o f f e r r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s as much s u p p o r t as t h e y need t o f u n c t i o n w e l l . F i n a n c i a l l y , t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s would be s u p p o r t e d by a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e income t a x c o l l e c t e d , much as t h e p r o v i n c e i s . I t i s n o t d e s i r a b l e t o keep r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s f i n a n c i a l l y 132 weak s i n c e t h i s would h i n d e r t h e i r p o l i c y - m a k i n g a b i l i t i e s - The r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s would a l s o be g i v e n t h e a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e income t a x e s ( w i t h i n a l i m i t ) t o a l l o w f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p o l i c y d e v e l o p ment. B e s i d e s t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e p r o v i n c e would a l s o p r o v i d e e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t s s o t h a t t h e more remote o r l e s s p o p u l a t e d a r e a s o f B.C. c o u l d have o p p o r t u n i t i e s e q u a l t o t h e more p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . T h i s need i s r e c o g n i z e d w i t h i n some o f t h e m i n i s t r i e s now ( e . g . , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g r a n t s . T h e s e m i n i s t e r i a l g r a n t s would no l o n g e r be n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e . E v e r y a t t e m p t would be t a k e n t o keep b u r e a u c r a c i e s s m a l l . A d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s t a f f c a n be employed when needed. The p r o v i n c i a l government would a l s o keep a s m a l l t e c h n i c a l s t a f f o f e x p e r t s on p a y r o l l t o be employed by t h e more remote and l e s s p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n s . Over t i m e , p o p u l a t i o n r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r e g i o n s may be s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t h i s program u n n e c e s s a r y . (v) E l e c t e d L o c a l . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e The e l e c t e d l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t s i n t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y and may o r may n o t be c h o s e n t o f i l l an E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l p o s i t i o n . The d u t i e s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d ; t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a s a g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s d e a l t w i t h h e r e . The most i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a t t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 133 p l a y s i s t o d e b a t e and v o t e on new p o l i c y b y - l a w s o r on c h a n g e s i n e x i s t i n g p o l i c y b y - l a w s . I n t h i s f u n c t i o n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s presumed t o have knowledge o f and t o have b a l a n c e d t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f h i s o r h e r c o n s t i t u e n t members b e f o r e t a k i n g a s t a n c e on an i s s u e . New p o l i c i e s and c h a n g e s i n e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s would be p a s s e d by m a j o r i t y v o t e o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y . However, i t i s not s i m p l y a t t h e l e g i s l a t i v e s t a g e w h i c h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e has o c c a s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e . M o n t h l y m e e t i n g s o f t h e whole G e n e r a l Assembly would p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l members t o p o s t t h e Assembly on t h e p o l i c y i s s u e s , and f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s a t an e a r l y s t a g e i n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would be k e p t p o s t e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y i s s u e s t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l o f f i c e o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and t h e y would be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on b e h a l f o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t members a t any p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s . I n v e r y l o c a l i z e d p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , o n l y t h e i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would be l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y , w h i l e p o l i c i e s o f r e g i o n a l e x t e n t may r e q u i r e more f r e g u e n t m e e t i n g s o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y t o accommodate s u c h wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ( L i n k (b) i n F i g u r e 6 r e p r e s e n t s t h i s E x e c u t i v e - G e n e r a l A s sembly r e l a t i o n s h i p . ) I t i s t h e d u t y o f t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o i n f o r m c o n s t i t u e n t members, l o c a l government b o d i e s , and l o c a l g r o u p s , on p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t o r p e n d i n g p o l i c y c h a n g e s as w e l l a s t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s , needs and i d e a s and t o communicate t h e s e {1) t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g c e n t r e o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , and (2) t o E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l members when 134 c o m p l a i n t s a r e s p e c i f i c t o a c u r r e n t p o l i c y d e b a t e . L i n k s (c) and (d) i n F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( v i ) R e s o u r c e s F o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n -In o r d e r t o i n v i t e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l g r o u p s i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y i s s u e s , f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l and s t a f f r e s o u r c e s would be made a v a i l a b l e t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e r e g i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . In o t h e r words, t h e c o n s t i t u e n t members know t h e r e a r e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; r e s o u r c e s a r e n o t s i m p l y a l l o t t e d when a new p o l i c y i s b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d . L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a s p e c i a l i z e d g r o u p which would be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . L i n k s (e) and (f) i l l u s t r a t e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n F i g u r e 6. ( v i i ) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Web K O v e r l a p p i n g J u r i s d i c t i o n s -A s i d e f r o m f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e n e e d s , a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and c h a n n e l s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s i n m e e t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . The c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web and o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s between p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l government model p r o v i d e s t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . L o c a l government b o d i e s , l o c a l g r o u p s a n d l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n t members may r e c e i v e or communicate i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l g e n e r a l p u r p o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( l i n k (c) i n F i g u r e 6) . Some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e would be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s ( l i n k s (g) and (d) ) , w h i l e 135 some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n would be i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p a t t e r n o f g e n e r a l n e e d s , p r e f e r e n c e s a n d p r o b l e m s i n t h e whole r e g i o n . The l a t t e r t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l y a f t e r t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n has been g a t h e r e d and p r o c e s s e d by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u n i t o f t h e r e g i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t ( s e e l i n k s (d) and (c) i n F i g u r e 6 ) . O v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r e an a s p e c t o f d e s i g n which m a x i m i z e s t h e number o f a v e n u e s open t o t h e c i t i z e n s e e k i n g a c c e s s t o p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s and p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , and w h i c h p r o v i d e s c h e c k s on t h e m i s t a k e s which one o r t h e o t h e r government (or a g e n c y t h e r e o f ) might make. 1 ( v i i i ) P o l i c y . A n a l y s i s . S e c r e t a r i a t The r e g i o n a l P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t i s a m u l t i - p u r p o s e b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ( l i n k ( h ) ) . S t a f f members would be s p e c i a l i s t s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s and would work on a committee b a s i s on p o l i c y a n a l y s i s i n s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s . Members on t h e c o m m i t t e e s would a l s o r e p r e s e n t a r a n g e o f d i s c i p l i n e s and t h e r e f o r e a r a n g e o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f p o l i c y p r o b l e m s . N o n - s e c r e t a r i a t members mi g h t a l s o be i n c l u d e d on t h e p o l i c y c o m m i t t e e s . One p u r p o s e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t o a v o i d a g e n c y * o r i n t h i s c a s e " d i s c i p l i n e " b i a s i n p o l i c y a n a l y s i s . A u n i t o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t would a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 1 See: Mark S p r o u l e - J o n e s , "An A n a l y s i s o f C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m , " P u b l i u s , V o l . 4. F a l l , 1974. 136 p r o c e s s i n g and t r a n s f e r r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Web ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s (c) , (d) and (g) i n F i g u r e 6) , and f o r d i s p e n s i n g f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l and s t a f f r e s o u r c e s t o a p p l i c a n t s ( l i n k (e)) . F i n a l l y , a u n i t o f t h e r e g i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i n g d a t a on p o l i c y o u t p u t s a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i v e s from t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l and f o r r e p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ( l i n k s (h) and (n) i n F i g u r e 6 ) . T h i s would a l s o be a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n e u n i t w h i c h would work c l o s e l y w i t h t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l a g e n c i e s who would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a -( i x ) Committee S t r u c t u r e The c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n i s t h e c h o s e n a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a c t i c d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s . I t i s a d e s i g n f e a t u r e w h i c h a l l o w s f o r t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s by t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f any one d e p a r t m e n t , and f o r t h e i n j e c t i o n of numerous p e r c e p t i o n s and i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s i n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h i s a s p e c t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n c o u l d be v i e w e d as t h e means of accommodating maximun p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e government s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f . B o t h t h e P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t and t h e e x e c u t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government would o p e r a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o m m i t t e e p r i n c i p l e . S t a f f members would t h u s be a s s i g n e d v a r i o u s c o m m i t t e e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r t h e 137 a n a l y s i s o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s . The c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t would not be f i x e d b u t would be f o r m e d as t h e p o l i c y i s s u e s a r o s e . These c o m m i t t e e s would r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ( l i n k , (h) i n F i g u r e 6) . The d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s would be o r g a n i z e d on a s u b - r e g i o n a l b a s i s . Any c o n f l i c t w h i c h a r o s e i n p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n would be r e f e r r e d t o and d e a l t w i t h d i r e c t l y by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ( r e l a t i o n s h i p (j) i n F i g u r e 6). A t t i m e s , d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s t a f f members would be i n v i t e d t o s i t w i t h S e c r e t a r i a t c o m m i t t e e s d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of new p o l i c i e s , and S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f may s i t w i t h s u b - r e g i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s when new p o l i c i e s a r e b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d ( r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i ) o f F i g u r e 6) . A l t h o u g h t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l s t a f f members a r e r e g u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n s u b - r e g i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s f u n c t i o n s , t h e y a r e employed as " f o r e s t e r s " , " s o c i a l w o r k e r s " , " e c o n o m i s t s " , e t c . and t h e r e f o r e e a c h p e r s o n has a s i m u l t a n e o u s s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n s l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w hich i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a s i n g l e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l Member. Thus any m i n o r p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e , o r any major p o l i c y change s u g g e s t i o n s which might emerge f r o m t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement o f t h e s t a f f member would be r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member i n c h a r g e ( r e l a t i o n s h i p (k) i n F i g u r e 6). M i n o r p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s c o u l d be d e c i d e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member a l o n e , b u t p o l i c y c h a n g e s would be a m a t t e r f o r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e whole E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . O n l y one D i r e c t o r o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t and one D i r e c t o r o f 138 t h e e x e c u t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s i s n e c e s s a r y . These p o s i t i o n s would be p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e : d i r e c t o r s would n o t - be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e v i e w i n g s t a f f work b e f o r e f o r w a r d i n g i t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . The r o l e o f t h e D i r e c t o r s would i n c l u d e h i r i n g s t a f f , a s s i g n i n g s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i n f o r m i n g t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l o f s t a f f r e q u i r e m e n t s , e t c . ( r e l a t i o n s h i p (1) and (m) o f F i g u r e 6) . (x) C o n t i n u o u s M o n i t o r i n g T h e r e a r e two p a r t s t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g a s p e c t o f r e g i o n a l government d e s i g n : p r o v i n c i a l m o n i t o r i n g o f r e g i o n a l government p o l i c y ( r e l a t i o n s h i p (o) i n F i g u r e 6 ) ; r e g i o n a l m o n i t o r i n g o f p o l i c y o u t p u t by a m o n i t o r i n g u n i t o f t h e P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t ( r e l a t i o n s h i p (n)) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e g i o n a l government model would r e p l a c e most p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s t a f f , a s i n g l e p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f member from e a c h p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r y would be l o c a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n t o keep i n f o r m e d o f t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n would be f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f , and sometimes p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f would be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on one o f t h e r e g i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t o r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e g i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f would r e p o r t i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f i n V i c t o r i a , t h e y would r e p o r t any major c o n f l i c t s between r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l and t o t h e C a b i n e t f o r r e s o l u t i o n ( l i n k s (p) , (q) and (a) i n F i q u r e 6 ) . P r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s t a f f would, n o t have v e t o power o v e r r e g i o n a l s t a f f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f 139 o f f i c e s would a l s o be i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s f o r p u b l i c a c c e s s t o p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s (see l i n k ( r ) , F i g u r e 6)-The m o n i t o r i n g u n i t o f t h e r e g i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i n g d a t a on p o l i c y o u t p u t s a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t i v e s f r o m t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , and f o r r e p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . T h i s would n o t o n l y p r o v i d e f o r c h e c k s on a g e n c y b i a s i n p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , b u t i t would a l s o a l l o w f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s a d j u s t m e n t o f p o l i c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o c h a n g e s i n s o c i e t a l p r e f e r e n c e s or i n c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y of t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . C. The N o r m a t i v e Model i n O p e r a t i o n : An Improved Burns L a k e P r o c e s s S i n c e t h e r e g i o n a l government model h a s been d e s i g n e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a and m i n i m i z e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y , t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s t r a n s p o s e d t o t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t i s t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n p u r p o s e s , i t i s more u s e f u l t o comment on t h e t r a n s p o s e d p r o c e s s as i t compares t o t h e o r i g i n a l p r o c e s s . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n p u r p o s e s a l s o , p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s i n p o l i c y o u t p u t as (a r e s u l t o f c h a n g e s i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s ) m ight be m e n t i o n e d . The r e a d e r s h o u l d n o t e t h a t i t . i s n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n t o s u g g e s t how thg._policy_: o u t p u t s h o u l d have- been c h a n g e d . . Changes i n p o l i c y o u t p u t r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e s and g o a l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s ; no one c a n judge what s h o u l d have h a p p e n e d , l e a s t o f a l l an o u t s i d e r t o t h e p r o c e s s . 140 The r e a d e r s h o u l d a l s o n o t e t h a t when s u g g e s t i n g how t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s and p o l i c y o u t p u t s would have changed, one i s o n l y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g a s p e c i f i e d r e s u l t w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . C l e a r l y , w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t , more i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s would have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s t h a n a r e i n d i c a t e d by a s t u d y o f t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s . S i n c e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s c a n n o t be p r e d i c t e d , n e i t h e r c a n t h e i r s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d n o t e t h a t t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p and v i s i o n a r y c a p a b i l i t i e s o f s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e B u rns L a k e p r o c e s s removes t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o c e s s * b e i n g l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p , m o t i v a t i o n and o t h e r r e l a t e d human c o n s t r a i n t s t o o p t i m a l i t y o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . 1 O t h e r p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s may be s u b j e c t t o t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , and t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s c o u l d be f r u s t r a t e d . However, t h e d e s i g n of t h e o p t i m a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework s h o u l d m i n i m i z e t h e n e c e s s i t y of r e l y i n g t o o h e a v i l y on one i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s ( e . g . , v i a j o i n t d e c i s i o n s , c o mmittee s t r u c t u r e s ) , and maximize l e a d e r s h i p o p p o r t u n i t i e s so t h a t l e a d e r s s t e p f o r w a r d t o meet t h e c h a l l e n g e ( e . g . , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web, r e s o u r c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . 1 The p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s i n t h e t r a n s p o s e d p r o c e s s c o n s t a n t . P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s a r e assumed t h e n t o be o f f i c i a l s . a r e h e l d r e g i o n a l 141 {1) Mould t h e r e b e s u f f i g i e n t c h a n n e l s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s _ a n d _ g r o u p s t o communicate t h e i r p r o b l e m s and n e e d s ^ t g _ a c g o u n t a b l e - p o l i t i c a l -o f f i c i a l s ? I m proved. The model o f r e g i o n a l government p r o v i d e s f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n t h r o u g h t h e o f f i c e o f t h e G e n e r a l Assembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l , m u n i c i p a l and t h e v a r i o u s arms o f r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . The f o r m a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e c o m m u n i c i a t i o n s c h a n n e l s i s i n t e n d e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e human and e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l d e r i v a t i o n o f p u r p o s e i n t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . Such human c o n s t r a i n t s which m i g h t e x i s t r a n g e from i g n o r a n c e t o a p a t h y on t h e p a r t o f any s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c i a n . E x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s overcome i n c l u d e t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c b u f f e r t o e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g d e f e a t e s t a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f a p u b l i c which has t i r e d o f e x p e n d i n g s o much e n e r g y t o p a r t i c i p a t e t o r e c e i v e so l i t t l e i n r e t u r n . F o r example, t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c h a n n e l between t h e r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s o f f i c e and t h e band o f f i c e i n B u r n s L a k e would have e n c o u r a g e d t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e o r g a n i z e d B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f Non-S t a t u s I n d i a n s would n o t have been s o i m p o r t a n t a f a c t o r i n a t t r a c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s p e c i a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s o f t h e B u r n s Lake I n d i a n s . I n s h o r t , t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t would n o t have depended so c o m p l e t e l y on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a m i n i s t e r open t o i n n o v a t i v e 142 p o l i c i e s and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f BCANSI t o overcome t h e c o n d i t i o n e d i n e r t i a o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . 1 (2) Would t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of a l l i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r - - . i n t o _ t h e d e f i n i t i o n _ . o f „the p r o b l e m ? Improved. T h e r e a r e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government which would e n s u r e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s : t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e " c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web" w h i c h would keep t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m e d o f government u n d e r t a k i n g s as w e l l a s communicate p u b l i c n e e d s t o government; t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h o s e who w i s h t o can p a r t i c i p a t e f o r m a l l y ; t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l o c a l G e n e r a l Assembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e n o t w i s h i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r m a l l y c a n be communicated. In B u r n s L a k e , t h e l o c a l MP was o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s , and i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t a t any t i m e d i d he p a r t i c i p a t e as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v i e w s o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . A l t h o u g h p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r h i s l a c k o f i n v o l v e m e n t was p o l i t i c a l i n c o m p e t e n c e , 2 i t i s no s m a l l f a c t o r 1 However, p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s c a n n o t overcome a l l p o l i c y p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The m a t t e r o f r e v i s i n g t h e f e d e r a l I n d i a n A c t has t o be d e a l t w i t h a t t h e f e d e r a l p o l i c y l e v e l . 2 T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was i n c o m p e t e n t i n o t h e r m a t t e r s . He s i m p l y d i d n o t p o s e s s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s . 143 that he l i v e d 40 miles or so from Burns Lake. I f the model of regional government had been in place. Burns Lake would have had i t s own General Assembly representative. On t h i s smaller scale there i s almost no way that the representative could avoid becoming involved i n public opinion, especially since he or she, as a member of the community, would also be personally involved. For p o l i t i c a l support, the elected representative would depend upon the whole of the Burns Lake population, 40 percent of which i s native Indian. Assuming that the BCANSI proposal to build the sawmill was s t i l l the i n i t i a t i n g action for native p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the m i l l , the i n i t i a l phase of negotiations might have remained much the same: the natives bid for the m i l l ; the Executive Council (not just one member) refused the bid but offered an equity share on the recommendation of the Executive Council member responsible for the Department of Forest Resources. The percent share would also have had to have been neqotiated with Babine (the preferred proposal) prior to the o f f e r of 8 percent. The r e a l difference i n the process to t h i s point i s that the non-native population of Burns Lake would be aware of (a) the BCANSI bid and (b) the qovernment's o f f e r , by way of the communications web and the close contact with the l o c a l General Assembly representative, who, as a matter of course, would be kept informed on a l l aspects of development in his (her) constituency. At t h i s point, other l o c a l groups might have joined the process and demanded either an equal share i n the m i l l or a part of what the native population was receiving. They would only have had to approach the l o c a l representative to 144 become i n v o l v e d , t h e y would n o t have had t o a p p r o a c h a C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, o t h e r g r o u p s might n o t have done a n y t h i n g b u t o b s e r v e t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n t e r e s t . The p o i n t i s t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h i n v i t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t h e r e s h o u l d any i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p w i s h t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . I f n o n - n a t i v e g r o u p s had j o i n e d i n and demanded an e g u a l s h a r e i n t h e m i l l , t h e p r o b l e m m i g h t have been d e f i n e d as community s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The f a c t t h a t human ( b e h a v i o u r a l ) c o n s t r a i n t s m ight have e x i s t e d i n 1974 t o l i m i t n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n does n o t n e g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t might have r e q u i r e d more i n t e n s i v e and l o n g e r n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a n d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h n a t i v e demands, but i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l would have more t i m e f r e e t o d e a l w i t h s u c h m a t t e r s , and t h a t d i s t a n c e s which would have t o be t r a v e l l e d a r e l e s s , t h e r e would be f e w e r c o n s t r a i n t s t o i n v o l v i n g more g r o u p s i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . T h e r e a l s o e x i s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e a l i n g s e p a r a t e l y w i t h e a c h g r o u p , b ut c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e i d e a s o f one g r o u p t o t h e o t h e r . The m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t , t h a t o f t h e m i n i s t e r ' s t i m e , would be removed by t h e r e g i o n a l government model. The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l would have f e w e r demands on i t s t i m e t h a n d i d t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , who had t h r e e p r o v i n c e wide d e p a r t m e n t s t o o v e r s e e . C e r t a i n l y , n e g o t i a t i o n s c o u l d n o t go on f o r e v e r , b u t w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r w e e k l y , o r even d a i l y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , n e g o t i a t i o n s c o u l d be c o n d e n s e d i n t o a much 145 r e d u c e d t i m e span- I n t h e B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v ernment model would have a l l o w e d more f r e g u e n t , more i n t e n s i v e , and l e s s drawn-out n e g o t i a t i o n s . (3) Would t h e ^ y a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f _ a l l , a f f e c t e d and -i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s d e t e r m i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d ? Improved. B e c a u s e t h e p r o c e s s under t h e r e g i o n a l government i s "opened up", t h e r e would have been an e x t e n d e d c a s t o f a c t o r s i n t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n l y , t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d n o t h a v e been i n d e f i n i t e . D e p e n d i n g on who s t e p p e d f o r w a r d and f o r what r e a s o n , t h e g r o u p s c o u l d h a v e been a s k e d (or c o a x e d v i a t h e d i s p e n s a t i o n o f f u n d s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) t o f o rm c o a l i t i o n s when i t a p p e a r e d as i f p u r p o s e s were a l i g n e d , o r , i f t h e r e was o n l y a demand f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e B u r n s Lake r e s i d e n t s c o u l d have been a s k e d t o e l e c t a s m a l l g r o u p o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The G e n e r a l A ssembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would have been a key a c t o r i n o r g a n i z i n g t h i s a c t i v i t y , a l t h o u g h he o r she would a l w a y s m a i n t a i n t h e s t a n c e t h a t he (she) was t h e p u b l i c s e r v a n t o f b o t h n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t s . The number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s which would have been c o n s i d e r e d i n Burns L a k e would have depended upon t h e number o f p e r c e p t i o n s b r o u g h t t o t h e p r o c e s s by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p l u s t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s which might emerge f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f g r o u p s w i t h v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s . I f t h e p r o c e s s had been open i n Burns L a k e , f o u r a d d i t i o n a l 146 groups might have stepped forward at various points i n the process to parti c i p a t e and change the alternatives considered: -a l o c a l non-native group which demanded a share i n the m i l l as well; -a l o c a l native group which would not have i n s i s t e d so r i g i d l y on a s t r i c t l y native Community Development Project i f i t meant losing the BLNDC offe r ; -a l o c a l business association group concerned about the native competition not being "equal" i n the sense that Indians would receive low interest loans throuqh BLNDC; -the board members of the newly created Burns Lake Community Resources Society who had been tryi n g to establish i t as the o f f i c i a l community-wide society with the mandate to organize, acquire fundinq f o r , and coordinate various community development programs. (The formation of these s o c i e t i e s had been encouraged by a policy of decentralization within the Department of Human Resources.) If these groups had stepped forward, the number of alternatives considered would have been greatly expanded. They might have included, for example: (1) -native p a r t i c i p a t i o n via x percent, p a r a l l e l non-native p a r t i c i p a t i o n via x percent, 1 plus comprehensive tr a i n i n g programs on a l l l e v e l s of employment; (2) -native and non-native partnership i n pa r t i c i p a t i o n v i a x percent, plus comprehensive training programs to ensure p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a l l l e v e l s of employment; (3) -(1) plus an added BLNDC economic arm to begin sub-s i d i a r y companies, and a p a r a l l e l structure for non-natives ; 1 Non-native p a r t i c i p a t i o n could have been secured either by enabling l o c a l Burns Lake residents to form a separate corporate body, or by allowing the municipality to hold the shares. 147 (4) - (2) p l u s an e c o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f sub (5) - e i t h e r (1 ) , (2) r a t e s ; (6) - e i t h e r (1 ) , (2) b e i n g on a s t r i c t l y l o a n ( n o t f o r g i v a b l e l o a n ) b a s i s , but a t below market i n t e r e s t r a t e s ; (7) - e i t h e r ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , o r (6) p l u s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e community-wide Human R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y ; (8) - e i t h e r ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , o r (6) p l u s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r a community-wide Community Development P r o j e c t 1 t o be formed from t h e n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e s t r i c t l y h y p o t h e t i c a l , b u t t h e r e a d e r c a n s e e how t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s would have a f f e c t e d and e x panded t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s . A g a i n , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e and human b e h a v i o u r d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y a r e overcome b e c a u s e o f t h e d e c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v ernment. T r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a v e l f o r b o t h government and non-government g r o u p s , and f i n a n c i a l c o s t s o f s t a f f s a l a r i e s a r e m i n i m i z e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o x i m i t y of t h e r e g i o n a l government and b e c a u s e o f t h e d e c r e a s e d l e n g t h o f t h e t o t a l t i m e r e g u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e n e g o t i a t i o n s . 1 i . e . , a s o c i a l p r o g r a m , but one w hich i s d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y and has d i f f e r e n t o r more f u n c t i o n s t h a n would a Community R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y . 148 (4) Would r e s o u r c e s be a l l o c a t e d t o - e n s u r e a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n , o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s ? I mproved. The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e model o f r e g i o n a l g o v ernment e n s u r e s t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f u n o r g a n i z e d o r p o o r l y f u n d e d g r o u p s i s s e c u r e d . T h i s i s t o a v o i d e i t h e r t h e t y r a n n y o f t h e m a j o r i t y o r t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s by any one g r o u p , s i n c e t h i s would l i m i t t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . In B u r n s L a k e , f u n d s would have been made a v a i l a b l e t o g r o u p s o t h e r t h a n t h e n a t i v e a l l i a n c e who w i s h e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s would n o t have i n v o l v e d s u c h a h i g h e x p e n s e a s one m i g h t a t f i r s t e x p e c t . The d i s t a n c e between government h e a d q u a r t e r s and B u r ns L a k e i s q r e a t l y r e d u c e d and o v e r n i g h t l o d g i n g c o s t s would have . been u n n e c e s s a r y . A l t h o u g h some g r o u p s may s t i l l h ave had t o employ e x p e r t a d v i c e , some o f t h a t a d v i c e c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d l o c a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y by t h e n o n - n a t i v e g r o u p s who had a g r e a t e r p o o l o f l o c a l e x p e r t i s e r e s o u r c e s f r o m which t o draw. The u t i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l r e s o u r c e s whenever p o s s i b l e (and o f t e n a t no c o s t i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e h a p p e ns t o b e l o n g t o t h e n e g o t i a t i n g group) r e d u c e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e m p l o y i n g c o n s u l t a n t s and l a w y e r s f r o m V a n c o u v e r , and, o f p a y i n g n o t o n l y f o r t h e i r h o u r l y f e e s , b u t f o r t h e i r t r a v e l e x p e n s e s and f o r g o n e f e e s as w e l l . T h i s was t h e c a s e i n B u r n s Lake. Had t h e r e g i o n a l government model been i n p l a c e , i t might have i n s i s t e d t h a t 1 4 9 l e g a l a n d c o n s u l t i n g r e s o u r c e s be o b t a i n e d i n t h e r e g i o n t o m i n i m i z e t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s . I f s u c h r e s o u r c e s were u n a v a i l a b l e i n B u r n s L a k e , t h e c o m m u n i t i e s o f S m i t h e r s , T e r r a c e , P r i n c e R u p e r t , o r e v e n P r i n c e G e o r g e would have been t h e n e x t b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e s . The r e g i o n a l g o v ernment would a l s o have had a c e r t a i n number of e x p e r t s i n i t s employ which c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s . . As i t was, BCANSI was a V a n c o u v e r b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n which o b t a i n e d i t s l e g a l and c o n s u l t i n g a d v i c e i n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s might have been t h e b e t t e r c h o i c e i f one c o n s i d e r s t h a t government o f f i c i a l s were i n V i c t o r i a , b u t i t would have made no s e n s e a t a l l i f t h e government c o n d u c t i n g t h e p r o c e s s were a r e g i o n a l one. The most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s which w o u l d have been m a n i f e s t under t h e r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n would have been e n c o u r a g e d by t h e r e s o u r c e s a l l o t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h u s h a r n e s s e d a s a p o s i t i v e i n p u t , r a t h e r t h a n e n d u r e d as a c o n s t r a i n t t o s w i f t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . (5) Would t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l l a f f e c t e d and i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s be. i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s ? -Improved. As was m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n o f p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s i s n o t d i s c r e t e f r o m t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . S i n c e , i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e model o f r e g i o n a l government, t h e number o f g r o u p s e n t e r i n g t h e p r o c e s s would have been g r e a t e r , t h e n t h e p r o c e s s o f 150 e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s would have been much more t h o r o u g h and r i g o u r o u s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e e a c h a l t e r n a t i v e would h a v e been s u b j e c t t o t h e s c r u t i n y o f s e v e r a l g r o u p s , each o f whom a p p r o a c h e d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . The p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e would p r o b a b l y have b e e n a h y b r i d one, r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e r i e s o f c o m p r o m i s e s , t r a d e - o f f s , and c o n c e s s i o n s g r a n t e d . In a s e n s e , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s s u g g e s t e d p r e v i o u s l y as p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s t h e m s e l v e s r e f l e c t t h i s " h y b r i d " n a t u r e which emerges from t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . However, i f one c o n s i d e r s a l l t h e d e t a i l s and t e r m s t o be worked o u t u n d e r e a c h o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s ( e . g . , what p e r c e n t a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , what i n t e r e s t r a t e t o be c h a r g e d ) , one c a n s e e t h a t t h e a c t u a l number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t o o g r e a t t o l i s t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a c c e p t e d p o l i c y i s not l i k e l y to be s t r i c t l y i d e n t i f i e d a s e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e ( 1 ) , (2), (3), ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , (6), ( 7 ) , o r (8), b u t i t i s r a t h e r l i k e l y t o be composed o f a s e r i e s o f a s p e c t s from one or s e v e r a l o f t h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s on which a l l t h e g r o u p s have e i t h e r a g r e e d , c o n c e d e d o r t r a d e d - o f f f o r a n o t h e r c o n c e s s i o n . The c o n s t r a i n t s o f t r a n s a c t i o n t i m e and c o s t s a r e a g a i n t h o s e l i k e l y t o i n h i b i t t h e o p t i m a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . A g a i n , t h e r e g i o n a l government has more t i m e t o d e v o t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p r o c e s s e s such as t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s . The B u r n s L a k e p r o c e s s would have been more t h e u s u a l b u s i n e s s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , whereas i t was an e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e i n t h e r e a l m o f d u t i e s o c c u p y i n g t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . F i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s , a s e x p l a i n e d , a r e r e d u c e d 151 b e c a u s e o f r e d u c e d d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d and t h e use o f l o c a l or r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . D e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e a c t u a l number o f g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g , t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e g i o n a l government would s t i l l h ave e n a b l e d a d e c r e a s e i n t o t a l t i m e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end o f n e g o t i a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s would have been open and i m p a r t i a l t o any one g r o u p would a l s o have done much t o r e l i e v e t h e n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e t e n s i o n s s o f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as human c o n s t r a i n t s t o c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e two p o p u l a t i o n s . In one s e n s e , t h e p a r t i s a n p r o v i n c e - n a t i v e p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y a g g r a v a t e d t h e r i f t between t h e two c u l t u r e s , i n i t i a l l y a t l e a s t . T h i s p o i n t s o u t t h e f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f b e h a v i o u r amongst g r o u p s c a n a c t u a l l y be p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l behave i n a c e r t a i n manner. (6) Would r e s o u r c e s be a l l o c a t e d t o e n s u r e - t h a t a l l g r o u p s w i t h d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s . w o u l d i n f a c t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e y a l u a t i o n „ o f _ a l t e r n a t i y e p r o p o s a l s ? I m p r o v e d . A l t h o u g h i t was e v i d e n t i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s t h a t no d i s t i n c t d i v i d i n g l i n e c o u l d be drawn between t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s phase and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s p h a s e , t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f ' the p r o v i s i o n o f f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h a t t h o s e r e s o u r c e s a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . T h i s p r o v i d e s f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e p r o c e s s a t any p o i n t , which i s e s s e n t i a l b e c a u s e t h e n a t u r e and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s c o u l d s h i f t any t i m e a s a r e s u l t o f n e g o t i a t i o n s , and i n s o d o i n g c r o s s t h e s p h e r e o f 152 i n t e r e s t o f some o t h e r g r o u p . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n B u r n s L a k e , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e Human R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y g r o u p would have e n t e r e d o n l y when i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e n a t i v e g r o u p was l i k e l y t o s e c u r e a p p r o v a l f o r t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t . T h i s would have been a p p a r e n t b e c a u s e t h e l o c a l G e n e r a l Assembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , who was f u l l y i n f o r m e d on t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s would have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f o r m i n g n e w s p a p e r s and p o s t i n g i n h i s o r h e r o f f i c e summary r e p o r t s o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s . A r e v i e w o f t h e " C o n d i t i o n s P r e c e d e n t " a l o n e would have been enough t o i n v o l v e t h e R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y s i n c e i t had been e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g f u n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e Department o f Human R e s o u r c e s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e t y p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e d o f t h e Human R e s o u r c e s S o c i e t y would n o t have depended on t h e p r o v i s i o n of f u n d s , a l t h o u q h i t c o u l d have, f o r i n s t a n c e , i f an a s p e c t o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had r e q u i r e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r Community Development Program p r o p o s e d by t h e n a t i v e g r o u p . As i t was, t h e n a t i v e g r o u p ' s p r o p o s a l f o r money i n v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y t h e employment o f t r a i n e d s t a f f (community d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , employment and e d u c a t i o n c o u n s e l l o r s , h o u s i n g c o o r d i n a t o r , e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t c o o r d i n a t o r ) . The l i m i t t o t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f e x t e n d i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s example. Not a l l g r o u p s w i l l need f u n d s t o p a r t i c i p a t e - sometimes i t i s l a c k of a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l a u d i e n c e which c o n s t i t u t e t h e r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o s t i m u l a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 153 I n l e s s l o c a l i z e d p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s where t e c h n i c a l i n p u t i s more l i k e l y t o be a r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h o s e c o s t s would be b o r n e by t h e r e g i o n i n g e n e r a l , and on a per c a p i t a b a s i s would n o t c o n s t i t u t e a b a r r i e r t o e x t e n d i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (?) Would t h e r e : b e c h e c k s on government agency b i a s , which might o t h e r w i s e i n a d v e r t e n t l y d o m i n a t e t h e p r o c e s s ? I m p r oved. The model o f r e g i o n a l government would have a P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e whole E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l r a t h e r t h a n a S e c r e t a r i a t r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y t o m i n i s t e r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l and l a n d u s e d e p a r t m e n t s . T h i s would mean t h a t , n o t o n l y would r e g i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t members no t be b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f any one r e s o u r c e d e p a r t m e n t , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of any d e p a r t m e n t a t a l l . M o r e o v e r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t a f f members* b e i n g b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e o r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t i s removed f r o m t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e g i o n a l government by e n s u r i n g t h a t s t a f f members work i n c o m m i t t e e s as much as p o s s i b l e . T h i s would remove t h e p h y s i c a l -e c o n o m i c b i a s which the ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t b r o u g h t t o t h e B u rns Lake p r o c e s s . With r e s p e c t t o l i n e a g e n c y s t a f f who a r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s t a k e n , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n i s t o e n s u r e t h a t one agency c a n n o t s u p e r s e d e t h e o t h e r i n a r e a s o f o v e r l a p . T h e s e c o n f l i c t s a r e e x p l o r e d on a committee b a s i s and t h e n r e p o r t e d t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l f o r r e s o l u t i o n by a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 154 M o n i t o r i n g o f l i n e a g e n c i e s by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t and by p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s t a f f d o u b l y e n s u r e s t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t e r i n g o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n d i s t o r t e d p o l i c y o u t p u t s . In t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s , t h i s a d v a n t a g e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n would have been l e s s o b v i o u s t h a n t h e o t h e r s , s i n c e t h e a c t u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e t y p e and form o f l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v elopment was e s s e n t i a l l y a l o c a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency b i a s becomes a more s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e when p o l i c i e s w i t h a r e g i o n a l e x t e n t r e q u i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n any c a s e , t h e p r o b l e m o f a g e n c y b i a s a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l i n B u r n s L a k e was overcome: (a) by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e i n c l u d i n g non-ELUC d e p a r t m e n t s ; (b) by k e e p i n g t h e p r o c e s s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a , t h e r e b y r e m o v i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c " e m p i r e b u i l d i n g " . The a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r e g i o n a l government d e s i g n i s t h a t t h i s i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l a p p r o a c h would be s t a n d a r d i n s t e a d o f e x c e p t i o n a l as i t i s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . 1 At t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l , t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l i s s m a l l and has f e w e r a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s t o make b e c a u s e o f i t s r e s t r i c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l and d e m o g r a p h i c e x t e n t . T h i s means t h a t a l l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s c a n be made j o i n t l y , and t h e r e i s no need f o r any one m i n i s t e r t o a c t i n i s o l a t i o n . New p o l i c y w ould be i n i t i a t e d 1 i . e . . These i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e s a r e p a r t o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t ' s " c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n " a p p r o a c h which i s r e s e r v e d f o r s i t u a t i o n s w hich c a n n o t be h a n d l e d t h r o u g h t h e u s u a l c h a n n e l s . 155 j o i n t l y ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s may be d e a l t w i t h by one E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member u n l e s s some c o n f l i c t s h o u l d a r i s e , i n w h i c h c a s e , i t becomes a m a t t e r f o r t h e whole c o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r . The B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s was s u f f i c i e n t l y m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l t o r e q u i r e t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e whole E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p h y s i c a l - e c o n o m i c b i a s which e x i s t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e E L U C - S e c r e t a r i a t d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e Burns Lake p r o c e s s would have been removed i f t h e r e g i o n a l government model had b een i n p l a c e . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m o f t h e B u r n s Lake p r o j e c t d e s i g n would p r o b a b l y have been a v o i d e d i f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l had been c o n d u c t i n g t h e p r o c e s s : t h e CDA a s p e c t o f t h e p r o j e c t would not have j u s t been " t a c k e d on" a t t h e end. I n s t e a d , w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Human R e s o u r c e s Department i n v o l v e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h e d e s i g n o f and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e Community Development P r o j e c t would have been c a r e f u l l y , n e g o t i a t e d , e v a l u a t e d , and i m p l e m e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a g r e e m e n t s a r r i v e d a t by t h e n e g o t i a t i n g g r o u p s . W i t h t h e whole E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l i n g e n e r a l g i v e n more t i m e t o d e v o t e t o c o n d u c t i n g p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , t h e c o u n c i l members more d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n s (e.g... F o r e s t s , Human R e s o u r c e s Labour) c o u l d h a v e been p r e s e n t d u r i n g a l l o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s e s s i o n s . I t would n o t have been n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e S e c r e t a r i a t t o c o n d u c t v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e p r o c e s s i n t h e i r aibsence. T h i s would have meant, t h a t i n t e r m s o f s t a f f i n p u t , a c o m m i t t e e o f t h e P o l i c y A n a l y s i s S e c r e t a r i a t would have been 156 employed t o a n a l y s e t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s and s y n t h e s i z e them i n t o c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s . T h i s a l s o would have meant t h e i n j e c t i o n o f more v i e w p o i n t s t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , s i n c e t h e p r o c e s s would n o t have been d o m i n a t e d by any one p e r s o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t c o n s t i t u t e s a v e r y e f f i c i e n t way o f t a p p i n g t h e c r e a t i v e r e s o u r c e s o f the s t a f f w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . S i n c e a g e n c y b i a s i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t i n i t s e l f , t h e r e m o v a l o f a g e n c y b i a s r e g u i r e s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o l u t i o n . The o n l y p o s s i b l e c o n s t r a i n t t o e n s u r i n g t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s y s t e m can o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y i s p o s s i b l y t h e s i z e o f b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d i e s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t i s m i n i m i z e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e government d e s i g n e d i s a r e g i o n a l one w i t h a r a t h e r s m a l l b u r e a u c r a c y . The r e g i o n a l e x t e n t means t h a t t h e volume o f c a s e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s manageable w i t h o u t a g r e a t d e a l o f r e d t a p e , and t h e l i m i t e d s i z e o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y means t h a t i t c a n n o t become d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and a c g u i r e l i f e u n t o i t s e l f . (8) Would f i n a l c h o i c e s be_made :.by a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or by t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y ? -Onchanged. W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e g i o n a l g overnment, a l l i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n B u r n s Lake would have been t a k e n by a c c o u n t a b l e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , s i n c e t h e members o f t h e G e n e r a l Assembly and t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l a r e e l e c t e d by t h e 157 regional population. Moreover, the constraints on p r o v i n c i a l ministers' time which usually prevent th e i r involvement i n such l o c a l i z e d , s p e c i f i c policy issues i s removed in a decentralized regional government. The Executive Council members have more time to become intimate with a l l aspects of regional policy formation, including the implementation phases, because they are not bogged down with <a) the administration of a huge department and (b) a l l aspects of policy formation i n every corner of B.C. (9) Would alternative implementation arrangements be proposed and analysed,by the various groups, individuals and agencies involved in the process?-Improved. Again* because of the high access to information and channels for p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the problem of generation and evaluation of alternative implementing arrangements would have been overcome. This was not the case i n the actual Burns Lake Process. The one alternative implementing arrangement for the economic arm of the project, although c a r e f u l l y designed, was e s s e n t i a l l y the product of two men - the Director of the Secretariat and the lawyer for the province. Only one alternative was examined because i t was e s s e n t i a l l y designed to accommodate native demands. It was therefore accepted without dispute. The one alternative implementating arrangement for the 158 s o c i a l arm o f t h e p r o j e c t was not d e b a t e d e i t h e r , and b e c a u s e i t was " t a c k e d on" a t t h e end, i t was n o t so c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d . With a c c e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n c h a n n e l s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i n p u t o f a wide r a n g e o f p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h e r e g i o n a l government model would have e n s u r e d t h a t a w i d e r r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e a r l y and c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l member i n c h a r g e o f t h e Human R e s o u r c e s Department would have r e n d e r e d t h e recommendation o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l arms o f t h e p r o j e c t r e m a i n s e p a r a t e a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e BLNDC—CDA a r r a n g e m e n t . A l t e r n a t i v e s m i g h t have r a n g e d f r o m c o m p l e t e l y f u s i n g t o c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t , t o c o n s i d e r i n g some form o f c o o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o r p o r a t e o w n e r s h i p a r r a n g e m e n t . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t o f t h e p r o j e c t m i g h t have been i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h two s e p a r a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s , one n a t i v e , one n o n - n a t i v e , w h i l e t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t might have been a j o i n t v e n t u r e from t h e s t a r t . The whole r a n g e o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s was r e s t r i c t e d by l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n -T h e r e i s no need t o e l a b o r a t e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t i m e , money a n d human b e h a v i o u r w h i c h , a g a i n , i n h i b i t t h e g o a l of e n s u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s a s p e c t has been d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . 159 (10) Would t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s be s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n where u n c e r t a i n t i e s were f a i r l y numerous:? Unchanged. The o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s be u n c e r t a i n t i e s . N o t h i n g c a n be known u n t i l i t happens and t h e c h a l l e n g e i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g i s t o make e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s ( p r e d i c t i o n s ) about what might happen. A g r e a t d e a l o f judgement, t h e r e f o r e , 1 goes i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a s p e c t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . A t a c t i c a l way o f m i n i m i z i n g r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n c e r t a i n t i e s i s t o implement new p o l i c i e s on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s . T h i s c a n be done i r r e s p e c t i v e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t u c t u r e , and t h e Burns Lake, p r o j e c t i t s e l f c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an e x p e r i m e n t . However, a n o t h e r t a c t i c a l way o f m i n i m i z i n g r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n c e r t a i n t i e s i s t o a v o i d c h a n g i n g p o l i c i e s and s t a r t i n g new o n e s . I f t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s had n o t been an i n d i v i d u a l open t o s u g g e s t i o n s f o r new ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s , t h e BLNDC p r o c e s s would n e v e r have begun. A l t h o u g h no one p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t i s r e q u i t e d i n o r d e r t h a t p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t n o n be s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t h e r e g i o n a l government model e x e m p l i f i e s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h m a x i m i z e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p o l i c i e s w i l l be im p l e m e n t e d on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s . F o r i n s t a n c e , under t h e r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t u c t u r e , p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s would be v e r y b r o a d l y f r a m e d , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y i s r e g i o n a l p o l i c y . The 160 p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y d o e s n o t become a m a t t e r f o r u n i f o r m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o v i n c e wide by p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y - I n s t e a d , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y becomes t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s t h r o u g h t h e r e g i o n a l g o vernment model as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s p a p e r would be an open, p a r t i c i p a t o r y , r e g i o n - w i d e p r o c e s s . The d y n a m i c s o f t h i s p r o c e s s would v a r y from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t t h a t no two r e g i o n s would have i d e n t i c a l p o l i c i e s . T h e s e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s can t h u s be s e e n as e x p e r i m e n t a l i m p l e m e n t a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . F o r i n s t a n c e , s u p p o s e t h a t b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t p o l i c y and t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n a l f o r e s t p o l i c y a r e i n p l a c e . Suppose a l s o t h a t i t i s t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t when a l l o t t i n g T i m b e r S a l e H a r v e s t i n g L i c e n c e s t h a t p r o p o s a l s s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o meet m u l t i p l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s . I f t h i s were t h e c a s e , t h e n BCANSI and l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be prompted t o e n t e r p r o p o s a l s . New i d e a s would be c o n s t a n t l y e n t e r i n g t h e p r o c e s s b e c a u s e o f a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and c h a n n e l s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D e c i s i o n s a r e k e p t i n t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , and t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i s s t r u c t u r e d i n s u c h a way a s t o be under t h e c o n t r o l o f a c c o u n t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I n s h o r t , t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s p a r t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i t s e l f . E a c h t i m e a new s a w m i l l i s b u i l t , t h e a c t o r s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t ( e x c e p t p e r h a p s E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l members) and t h e 161 o u t p u t o f t h e p r o c e s s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . T h u s , s i n c e each p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y i s i t s e l f a p a r t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , i t i s u n i q u e , and and t h e r e f o r e e x p e r i m e n t a l . BLNDC would h a v e been o n l y one of many su c h e x p e r i m e n t s . The o n l y c o n s t r a i n t t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i o n i s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f . (11) Would t h e r e be e x p l i c i t ^ p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t o f r e s u l t s _ a n d t h e : e f f e c t i y e n e s s _ o f ^ t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e m e n t s ? -Improved. A g a i n , t h e l a c k o f r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s does n o t p r e v e n t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s which p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t s o f r e s u l t s . I n d e e d , i t was shown t h a t BLNDC managed t o meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n . 1 What i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i s t h a t BLNDC i s i t s e l f an i n s t i t u t i o n . I n o r d e r f o r a s s e s s m e n t t o be c o n t i n u o u s , i t must be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n some way. Even when m o n i t o r i n g i s a t e c h n i c a l t a s k , t h e g a t h e r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g o f m o n i t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n must s t i l l be accommodated i n some i n s t i t u t i o n a l manner i f i t i s t o be c o n t i n u o u s . A p r o j e c t which would have been i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h o u t t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new i n s t i t u t i o n would have had t o p r o v i d e f o r a m o n i t o r i n g c e n t e r w i t h i n t h e r e g u l a r b u r e a u c r a c y , and f o r t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f m o n i t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n 1 I t was t h e d e s i g n o f p r e v e n t e d t h e B u r n s c r i t e r i o n c o m p l e t e l y . CDA which was l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l and Lake p r o c e s s from m e e t i n g t h i s a s s e s s m e n t 162 t h r o u g h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n n e l s , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t . The dynamism must t h e r e f o r e e x i s t w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t a l s o t h a t BLNDC was p l a n n e d t o be " p l u g g e d i n t o " p r o v i n c i a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s v i a a t h r e e p e r s o n m o n i t o r i n g b o a r d . T h i s b o a r d would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i d i n g what c o n s t i t u t e d " s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e " o f BLNDC and f o r a s s e s s i n g p e r f o r m a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d s s e t . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a l l o w s f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t . Most government p o l i c i e s a r e n o t i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h a semi-autonomous c o r p o r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t i n s t e a d t h r o u g h t h e r e g u l a r b u r e a u c r a c y . T h i s means t h a t i n o r d e r f o r a l l p o l i c y r e s u l t s t o be c o n t i n u o u s l y m o n i t o r e d , and i n o r d e r f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o m o n i t o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s must be b u i l t i n t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y what government model a c c o m p l i s h e s , o v e r l a p p i n g c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e s i s m o n i t o r e d by o t h e r r e g i o n a l ag a g e n c i e s . T h i s e s s e n t i a l l y amount p o l i c i e s d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h t h e ag The open and p a r t i c i p a government* i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t o f i t s d e s i g n , p r o v i d e f o r n o t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r e g i o n a l The a g e n c i e s a r e hooked up v i a and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a g e n c i e s e n c i e s as w e l l a s by p r o v i n c i a l s t o a s s e s s i n g t h e o u t p u t o f e n c i e s on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s . t o r y a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l he " c o m m u n i c i a t i o n s web" a s p e c t o n l y t h e c o n t i n u o u s i n f o r m a l 163 a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s u c c e s s o f g o vernment p o l i c i e s , b u t a l s o f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s - government i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . When i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e needs o f t h e s o c i e t y a r e n o t b e i n g met t h r o u g h a g i v e n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f becomes an i m p e d i m e n t t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c norms o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . These two a s p e c t s o f r e g i o n a l government d e s i g n , i n t e r m s o f t h e B u r n s Lake p r o c e s s , would l i n k CDA more c l o s e l y i n t o t h e government i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n s o f a r as t h e Department o f Human R e s o u r c e s would have been k e e p i n g t r a c k o f t h e o u t p u t o f programs o f CDA, w h i l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n m o n i t o r e d t h r o u g h t h e G e n e r a l Assembly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s o f f i c e would have i n d i c a t e d , a t l e a s t i n f o r m a l l y , whether o r n o t t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h e p r o j e c t was s a t i s f a c t o r y . The o n l y c o n s t r a i n t t o m e e t i n g t h i s a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a i s , a g a i n , t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i t s e l f . (12) Would t h e r e be e x p l i c i t , p r o v i s i o n _ , f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s t o a d a p t p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g l y ? I mproved. I n o r d e r f o r a s s e s s m e n t s t o be u t i l i z e d t o a d a p t p o l i c i e s , t h e r e must be some mechanism i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d and p r o c e s s e d i s u s e d i n a p r o d u c t i v e manner. BLNDC, b e c a u s e i t i s a s e m i -autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n , has a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g mechanism which e n s u r e s t h a t i t w i l l a d a p t i t s p o l i c i e s a c c o r d i n g l y . T h i s 164 mechanism i s e c o n o m i c i n c e n t i v e s : i f BLNDC d o e s n o t p e r f o r m w e l l , i t w i l l c e a s e t o e x i s t . T h i s s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g mechanism i s o v e r s t a t e d somewhat, however, s i n c e BLNDC i s o n l y semi-autonomous, and n o t an autonomous c o r p o r a t i o n a s y e t . B e c a u s e i t was s e t up t o a c h i e v e g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t i v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a c e r t a i n number o f f i n a n c i a l m i s t a k e s would n o t be a s s e s s e d as f a i l u r e i f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n l e a r n e d a v a l u a b l e l e s s o n f r o m making t h o s e m i s t a k e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o v i d e (a) f o r BLNDC t o a d a p t i t s p o l i c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e and (b) f o r t h e government t o change o r d i s s o l v e t h e c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e by w i t h d r a w i n g f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g , s h o u l d t h e c o r p o r a t i o n f a i l t o show a t l e a s t i mprovement i n i t s e c o n o m i c p e r f o r m a n c e . The e s s e n t i a l p o i n t i s t h i s , however: b e c a u s e BLNDC was t h e o u t p u t of a government p o l i c y p r o c e s s , t h e d e c i s i o n t o change t h e p o l i c y must be a p o l i t i c a l one. T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y s y s t e m , w h i l e t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u o u s a s s e s s m e n t o f r e s u l t s o f p o l i c i e s and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s i s a m a t t e r o f d e s i g n i n g "dynamic i n s t i t u t i o n s " , t h e e x p l i c i t p r o v i s i o n f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s t o a d a p t n o t _ o n l y p o l i c i e s b u t a l s o i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s i s a m a t t e r o f d e s i g n i n g p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t would f u r t h e r m o r e , seem t h a t one a d v a n t a g e o f c h o o s i n g semi-autonomous i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ( e . g . , c o r p o r a t i o n s , s o c i e t i e s , r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s ) i s t h a t s u c h s t r u c t u r e s , r a t h e r t h a n h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d government b u r e a u c r a c i e s , a r e more 165 c a p a b l e o f and l i k e l y t o a d a p t t h e i r p o l i c i e s t o new c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g . However, i t would a l s o seem t h a t s u c h s t r u c t u r e s c a n be l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t h a n h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s i f t h e c o r r e c t g o v e r n m e n t - a g e n c y ( c o r p o r a t i o n ) l i n k s a r e n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . In e s s e n c e , i t i s b e c a u s e semi-autonomous i m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c i e s a r e " h a l f g o v e r n m e n t " and " h a l f p r i v a t e " t h a t a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t a r i s e s . The semi-autonomous n a t u r e o f t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s g i v e s them t h e mandate t o s e t t h e i r own p o l i c i e s , but i n a s m u c h as t h e s e p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be i n agreement w i t h and a d a p t t o h i g h e r l e v e l government p o l i c y , one can s e e how t h e two s e t s of p u r p o s e s c o u l d l e a d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . The a d o p t i o n of t h e r e g i o n a l g overnment model would overcome t h i s p r o b l e m . W h i l e t h e r e g i o n a l government i s s e m i -autonomous, i t i s s t i l l " g o v e r n ment", and as s u c h (a) i s m u l t i -p u r p o s e r a t h e r t h a n s i n g l e p u r p o s e (such a s BLNDC) and i s t h e r e f o r e more a b l e t o a d a p t t h e t o t a l s e t o f r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s t o c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and (b) i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f and p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o i t s whole e l e c t o r a t e ( n o t j u s t a s e l e c t c l i e n t group) and i s t h e r e f o r e more l i k e l y t o m o d i f y i t s i m p l e m e n t i n g s t r u c t u r e s ( i n s t i t u t i o n s ) t o meet c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The d e s i g n o f t h e r e g i o n a l government a l s o e n s u r e s t h a t i t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c i e s as w e l l . The c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s on agency b i a s , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web, and t h e open p a r t i c i p a t o r y n a t u r e of t h e r e g i o n a l g overnment e n s u r e s t h a t i t r e m a i n s p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e , dynamic, and t h e r e f o r e a d a p t a b l e . 166 I t i s t r u e , however, t h a t e v e n a r e g i o n a l government m i g h t want t o implement some p o l i c i e s i n s u c h a way t h a t l p c a l c o n d i t i o n s become an i n p u t i n t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The c o m m u n i c a t i o n s web a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v ernment would n o t c o n s t i t u t e a s u f f i c i e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e power t o d e l e g a t e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e r e g i o n a l government would have t o r e s o r t t o BLNDC—CDA t y p e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Even t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s would be, n e v e r t h e l e s s , more p o l i t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t h a n t h e y a r e i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t s i n c e t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f would be more k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f and s e n s i t i v e t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h i t o p e r a t e s * N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e o p t i m a l s i t u a t i o n w ould be one i n which l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s as w e l l would o p e r a t e on a m u l t i -s e c t o r a l l e v e l ( i n s t e a d o f f r om w i t h i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a l o n e ) . I f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n had e x i s t e d i n Burns L a k e , under t h e r e g i o n a l government model, o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i m p l e m e n t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , s u c h a s i m p l e m e n t i n g CDA p o l i c i e s t h r o u g h m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s (where i t might be p o s s i b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e n a t i v e g r o u p s as w e l l ) would have been c o n s i d e r e d . 1 1 The n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n i s a u n i q u e one, however. Some amenable agreement needs t o be worked o u t amongst f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e s which w i l l a l l o w f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e two c u l t u r e s w i t h o u t f u r t h e r s u b j u g a t i n g t h e n a t i v e c u l t u r e t o w h i t e c u l t u r e . 167 (13) Would t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f . a l l a f f e c t e d and-i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s be i n c l u d g d ^ a s . i n p u t s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t a n d m o d i f i g a t i o n : p r o c e d u r e ? -Improved- The number o f p e r c e p t i o n s w h i c h go i n t o t h e m o n i t o r i n g and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i s u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f c l i e n t e l e g r o u p s s e r v e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . S p e c i a l a g e n c i e s s u c h as BLNDC i n c o r p o r a t e t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r n a t i v e c l i e n t e l e g r o u p s . CDA, i n i t s 1976 f o r m can i n c o r p o r a t e n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o i t s m o n i t o r i n g and m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e g r o u p s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p o l i c i e s and s t r u c t u r e o f i m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c i e s s u c h a s CDA, b e c a u s e CDA i s s i n g l e - p u r p o s e , t h a t i s , i t p r o v i d e s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r " t h e needy", t h e number o f p e r c e p t i o n s which a c t u a l l y e n t e r i n t o t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s t e n d s t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e and t h e p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h t h e c l i e n t e l e . P o l i c i e s change a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f p r o b l e m s a s d e f i n e d by t h e s e g r o u p s , b u t a l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f p r o b l e m s c o u l d r e s t r i c t s o l u t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s . A g a i n , a m u l t i - p u r p o s e r e g i o n a l g o vernment s e t up t o be p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y s e n s i t v e s e r v e s a s a, m u l t i - p u r p o s e i m p l e m e n t i n g a g e n c y f o r p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s . P e r c e p t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s would n o t be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h o s e c l i e n t e l e d i r e c t l y r e c e i v i n g b e n e f i t s o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e government a g e n c y . 168 T h e r e f o r e , t h e i s s u i n g o f t i m b e r l i c e n c e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , would n o t be a c l o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s between p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y and i n d u s t r y , ( t h e c l i e n t e l e g r o u p ) , b u t i n s t e a d an open p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s w h i c h would i n v o l v e t h e whole r a n g e o f s o c i a l t r a d e - o f f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s i n g l e l i c e n c i n g d e c i s i o n . I t i s more l i k e l y t h a t p o l i c i e s would be m o d i f i e d t o b a l a n c e t h e s e numerous s o c i a l g o a l s r a t h e r t h a n t o s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e c l i e n t e l e g r o u p . Of c o u r s e , a g a i n t h e r e g i o n a l government model c o u l d n o t have p e r m i t t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e o f i m p l e m e n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B u r n s Lake u n l e s s t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s had w i d e r p o wers, and u n l e s s a whole r a n g e o f g u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t i v e - n o n - n a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l m a t t e r s were s e t t l e d f o r m a l l y . However, a more s e n s i t i v e r e g i o n a l government might do much n o t o n l y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (BLNDC-CDA) were w e l l d e s i g n e d and a d a p t a b l e , but a l s o t o show t h a t n a t i v e -n o n - n a t i v e c u l t u r e s c o u l d c o o p e r a t e and j o i n t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o promote r e g i o n a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . 169 CHAPTER V I I I : ASPECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN REQUIRED TO PROMOTE OPTIMALITY OF THE PLANNING/POLICY PROCESS: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In C h a p t e r V I I , t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n i n B u r n s L a k e was examined i n t e r m s o f how i t m ight have met t h e g o a l s o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s i f i t had been c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t which f e a t u r e d a n o r m a t i v e model o f r e g i o n a l government f o r B.C. I n s o f a r as t h e p r o c e s s i s imaged t o meet t h e a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a , i t i s t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . However, l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e a b i l i t y o f r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o r e a l i z e t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e x i s t b e c a u s e o f t h e s y s t e m i c n a t u r e o f t h e whole C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t . The p o l i c i e s and p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s o f f e d e r a l g o v ernment i n s t i t u t i o n s r e m a i n u n i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l government framework, a t l e a s t i n a f o r m a l manner- The f e d e r a l government might be p e r s u a d e d t o i m p l e m e n t i t s p rograms t h r o u g h t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , b u t i t i s u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n t o c o o p e r a t e . A l s o , v a r i o u s f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s ( e . g . , t h e I n d i a n Act) d i s t i n c t l y l i m i t t h e way i n w h i c h r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s a r e d e s i g n e d and i m p l e m e n t e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f what might be c o n s i d e r e d o p t i m a l . However, t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , l i k e a l l c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s , s h o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d as o b s t a c l e s . R a t h e r t h e y a r e m a t t e r s t o be n e g o t i a t e d and a d j u s t e d . Somewhat l e s s l i m i t i n g from t h e p r o v i n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , but beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s i n q u i r y i s t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f 170 a d j u s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s o t h a t t h e y r e a l i z e t h e g o a l s o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . A d j u s t i n g l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s m i g h t i n v o l v e b r o a d e n i n g t h e s c o p e o f m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and r e f o r m i n g t h e i r t a x i n g powers. A d j u s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s m i ght i n v o l v e r e f o r m i n g t h e s y s t e m o f l e g i s l a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s and a d j u s t i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e r e l e v a n t a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a . The C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , f r e e d f r o m much o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s w o r k l o a d , c o u l d d e v o t e most o f t h e i r t i m e t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e f e d e r a l and l o c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework r e s t r i c t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e r e g i o n a l government t o promote o p t i m a l i t y i n a l l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , a s u b s t a n t i a l improvement i n t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e r e f o r e i n many p o l i c y o u t p u t s c a n be a c h i e v e d i f t h e r e g i o n a l model i s a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M o r e o v e r , a c l o s e r l o o k , f i r s t a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government i n t e r m s o f which a s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a e a c h a s p e c t s a t i s f i e s , and w h i c h c o n s t r a i n t s e a c h a s p e c t overcomes, and t h e n a t t h e s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s w hich a r e m a n i f e s t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e sys t e m a s a whole, w i l l i n d i c a t e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e a s p e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n . 1 7 1 A- Aspects of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Design Required to Meet The Goal Set  and Minimize Constraints 6 o a l s M e t A s p e c t o f O e s i g n . C o n s t r a i n t s M i n i m i z e d A c c o u n t a b i l i t y G o a l ( 8 ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n G o a l s ( 2 . 3 , 5 , 9 . 1 3 ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) R e s o u r c e G o a l s ( 4 , 5 ) 1 . D E C E N T R A L I Z E D T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y H a n d l i n g I n f o r m a t i o n V o l u m e T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y C o p i n g w i t h P a r t i c i p a t i o n F i n a n c i a l : T r a n s a c t i o n C o s t s T e m p o r a l : D e c i s i o n D e l a y s R e s o u r c e G o a l s ( 4 , 6 ) 2 . R E G I O N A L ( v s l o c a l ) T e c h n i c a l : S c a r c i t y o f R e s o u r c e s . ( h u m a n , f i n a n c i a l , e f c ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n G o a l s ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 9 , 1 3 ) A g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) 3 . M U L T I - P U R P O S E T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s A c c o u n t a b i 1 i t y G o a 1 ( 8 ) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( l ) 4 . E L E C T E D L O C A L R E P R E S E N T A T I V E T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y C o p i n g w i t h P a r t i c i p a t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) A c c o u n t a b i l i t y G o a l ( 8 ) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( l ) 5 . E X E C U T I V E C O U N C I L L I N K E D TO - C A B I N E T T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s A c c o u n t a b i l i t y G o a l ( 8 ) D E C I S I O N S J O I N T a g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) ( T h r o u g h E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) 3 T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s H u m a n : E f f o r t s t o C o n t r o l P o l i c y b y M o r e A g g r e s s i v e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( 1 ) A g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) O V E R L A P P I N G W R I S D I C T . O N S J f f f t j f f ] j j^jj o f . R e s o u r c e s ( i . e . , p r o v . c a n h e l p ) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( 1 ) R e s o u r c e G o a l s ( 4 , 6 ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n G o a l s ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 9 , 1 3 ) 8 . C O M M U N I C A T I O N S WEB T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y H a n d l i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n H u m a n : A p a t h y , R e s e n t m e n t o f P u b l i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( 1 ) R E S O U R C E S F O R ^ P A R T I C I P A T I O N R e s o u r c e G o a l s ( 2 . 4 ) ( f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n i c a l , e t c . ) P a r t i c i p a t i o n G o a l s ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 9 . 1 3 ) T e c h n i c a l : L a c k o f R e s o u r c e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n H u m a n : R e s e n t m e n t , R e f u s a l t o C o o p e r a t e o n p a r t o f P u b l i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( 1 ) A g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) 1 0 . P O L I C Y A N A L Y S I S S E C R E T A R I A T T e c h n 1 c a l : A c c o u n t a b i 1 i t y v s E x p e r t D i l e m m a C o m m u n i c a t i o n s G o a l ( 1 ) A g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) 1 1 . C O M M I T T E E S T R U C T U R E ' ( n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a c y ) T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l I c i e s H u m a n : B u r e a u c r a t i c I n - f i g h t i n g , P e r s o n a l S t a g n a t i o n C o m m u n e i c a t l o n s G o a l ( 1 ) A g e n c y B i a s G o a l ( 7 ) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n + M o n i t o r i n g ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ) 1 2 . C O N T I N U O U S M O N I T O R I N G ( P r o v . a n d r e g i o n a l i n t e r -a g e n c y l i n k s ) T e c h n i c a l : D i f f i c u l t y I n t e g r a t i n g P o l i c i e s H u m a n : • • , Emp1 r e B u i l d i n g I n •;• B u r e a u c r a c y 172 B. Systemic Aspects of The Regional I n s t i t u t i o n a l Design As can be seen from the preceding summary of the aspects of the regional government design, each aspect, except aspect number two (Regional vs Local)* meets more than one goal, and many aspects overcome more than one constraint i n doing so. Moreover, no one aspect meets a l l the goals, and even when several aspects are taken together* they do not meet a l l the goals plus overcome a l l the constraints to optimality. In short, the aspects of the design of the regional government model are i n t e r r e l a t e d and make up an i n s t i t u t i o n a l system. For instance, decentralization as an aspect of the normative model of regional government i s seen to meet the accountability goal because decision-makers are more v i s i b l e and accessible to the public. But s t r i c t l y speaking, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and v i s i b i l i t y alone are not s u f f i c i e n t conditions for accountability. However, the decentralized quality of the normative model does serve to help ensure accountability because the qovernment i s simultaneously elected and decentralized. The various aspects of the model are interdependent: one cannot i s o l a t e one or more aspects of i n s t i t u t i o n a l desiqn and expect to promote the optimal process. The present regional planning i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B.C. do not and could not meet the entire set of assessment c r i t e r i a because certain e s s e n t i a l aspects of the optimal i n s t i t u t i o n a l design are ignored. The Regional D i s t r i c t s , for example, although semi-decentralized i n s t i t u t i o n s ; are not r e a l l y multi-purpose; they are delegated powers only within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the 1 7 3 M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . T h i s i s a major drawback s i n c e t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n i n any p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e use o r a l l o c a t i o n . A g a i n , t h e s i n g l e p u r p o s e n a t u r e o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t j u r i s d i c t i o n means t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e , t h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee ( T P C ) , s e r v e s t h e p r o v i n c e and n o t t h e r e g i o n . The r e g i o n must c o o r d i n a t e i t s p o l i c i e s w i t h t h o s e o f the r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s ; t h e r e i s no c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e r e g i o n . The n a r r o w j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t h u s f r u s t r a t e s t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and t h e use o f c o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e s t o c o o r d i n a t e p o l i c i e s . A s i d e f r o m t h e i r u t i l i t y i n p a r t i a l l y m e e t i n g " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n and M o n i t o r i n g G o a l s " 1 0 , 1 1 and 1 2 , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n s t i t u t i o n s f a l l v e r y s h o r t o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e p r o c e d u r a l g o a l s o f a d e m o c r a t i c C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . The R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committees (RRMCs) s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l government s t r u c t u r e s i n c e t h e y m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arm o f C a b i n e t - i They a r e somewhat c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e "Committee S t r u c t u r e " a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l government model, e x c e p t t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e a s p e c t o f t h e r e g i o n a l government i s t h e r u l e ; t h e RRMCs a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e y meet o n l y t o r e s o l v e major r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e g i o n a l government model p r o v i d e s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o n c e r n s on t h e c o m m i t t e e s as w e l l : t h e membership i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o r e s o u r c e and e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s i t i s f o r RRMCs. 174 Even i f t h e RRMC i n t h e n o r t h w e s t had been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1974, i t c o u l d n o t have c o n d u c t e d t h e t y p e o f i n t e r a c t i v e p o l i c y p r o c e s s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n Burns L a k e , f o r i t has no mandate t o b e g i n new p r o j e c t s on i t s own, o r t o a l l o c a t e p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s t o p r o j e c t s s u c h a s t h e BLNDC-CDA p r o j e c t . RRMCs a r e , a f t e r a l l , not a c c o u n t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t s , b u t m e r e l y p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s . However, t h i s i s not t o say t h a t RRMCs and s i m i l a r b u r e a u c r a t i c a g e n c i e s do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e u n l i k e l y t o c o n d u c t new p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s , t h e y c o u l d 1 make o r i n f l u e n c e r e g i o n a l l e v e l p o l i c y i n s o f a r a s t h e y do have c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n -making a s w e l l as a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , RRMCs have l e s s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e model o f r e g i o n a l g overnment, t h e y have a p h y s i c a l - e c o n o m i c b i a s w h i c h t h e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s would n o t h a v e , and t h e y a r e n o t c o m p r i s e d o f a c c o u n t a b l e , e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as t h e r e g i o n a l government would be. The n e t e f f e c t i s that, r e g i o n a l l e v e l p o l i c i e s g e n e r a t e d by RRMCs would t e n d t o be l e s s i n n o v a t i v e , l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t o p u b l i c n e e d s , and more b i a s e d t o w a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e a g e n c i e s ' c l i e n t e l e . Thus, a l t h o u g h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f some d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a RRMC may overcome, t o some e x t e n t , t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t o f 1 " C o u l d " i f RRMCs met f r e g u e n t l y . Most o f t h e " r e g i o n a l p o l i c y " i s made by a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g s i n g l y , n o t as p a r t o f t h e RRMC. Most r e g i o n a l l e v e l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s u n c o o r d i n a t e d . 175 c o o r d i n a t i n g p o l i c i e s , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n on i t s own i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n t o meet t h e g o a l s o f t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . C. S y n e r g i s t i c E f f e c t s o f _ T h e R e g i o n a l Government D e s i g n B e c a u s e t h e r e g i o n a l government model i s a s y s t e m , t h e p a r t s ( a s p e c t s o f d e s i g n ) o f t h e s y s t e m a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d , and t h e t o t a l b e n e f i t g a i n e d from th e a d o p t i o n o f t h e model would be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f t h e p a r t s . T h e s e a r e t h e p o s i t i v e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e s y s t e m ' s o p e r a t i o n which c o u l d be t e r m e d t h e s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s . I n t e r m s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l government, t h e s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s e s s e n t i a l l y mean t h a t t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s a r e f u r t h e r r e d u c e d , and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a i s e n h a n c e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , b e c a u s e t h e r e g i o n a l government model i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d , many government e m p l o y e e s would be r e l o c a t e d t o t h e r e g i o n s and a p p r o v a l p r o c e d u r e s now f o c u s e d on V i c t o r i a would be r e f o c u s e d on t h e r e g i o n s . T h i s c r e a t e s a demand i n t h e r e g i o n f o r s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l and t h e i n c r e a s e d r e g i o n a l a c t i v i t y w ould t e n d t o a t t r a c t more p o p u l a t i o n . Over t i m e , t h e d i s p a r i t i e s i n p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s between t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e would be r e d u c e d . The n e t e f f e c t o f t h i s a s p e c t o f d e v e l o p m e n t would be t o enhance t h e r e g i o n a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s by f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o p t i m a l p r o c e s s . As more r e s o u r c e s ( p e r s o n n e l and o t h e r w i s e ) become a v a i l a b l e , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o l i c y 176 o u t p u t f r o m r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s e s would a l s o be f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d . Not o n l y would t h e r e be a q u a n t i t a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n r e s o u r c e s b e c a u s e of t h e m i q r a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t o t h e r e g i o n * but t h e r e would a l s o be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f human r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , job s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Once t h e r e g i o n a l government was o p e r a t i n g , i t w o u l d g a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e c o o p e r a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n c o n f l i c t i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . When r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s r e a l i z e t h a t t h e e n e r g y t h e y expend w i l l not be wasted and t h a t t h e i r v i e w s w i l l i n f a c t be s e r i o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p o l i c y d e s i g n , t h e y w i l l become l e s s a p a t h e t i c a b o u t a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and p r e p a r i n g b r i e f s . S i m i l a r l y , once t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d (not o n l y t h r o u g h a c c e s s t o t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , but a l s o t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e e l e c t e d G e n e r a l Assembly i t s e l f ) , t h e l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e r e g i o n w i l l become a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s . In t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l d i r e c t t h e i r e n e r g i e s e l s e w h e r e . L i k e w i s e , much of t h e p e t t y b i c k e r i n g and e m p i r e b u i l d i n g , o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a s i n e v i t a b l e b u r e a u c r a t i c b e h a v i o u r , would d i s a p p e a r i f t h e o p p r e s s i v e and m i l i t a r i s t i c h i e r a r c h y i n b u r e a u c r a c y were s u b s t i t u t e d by t h e n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , c o m m i t t e e a p p r o a c h c e n t r a l t o t h e model o f r e g i o n a l g o v ernment. T h i s 177 a s p e c t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e " C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Web" a s p e c t would e n c o u r a g e new and i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s t o s u r f a c e w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i t s e l f - R e g i o n a l government b u r e a u c r a t i c p o s i t i o n s would become c h a l l e n g i n g and s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e ven a t t h e j u n i o r s t a f f l e v e l . In s h o r t , one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s w h ich c o u l d be e x p e c t e d from t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l government model would be t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f many o f t h e human o r b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s which a r e o f t e n a c c e p t e d as g i v e n s by t h e more d e t e r m i n i s t i c . I n B u r n s L a k e , t h e l e a d e r s h i p , c r e a t i v i t y and e n t h u s i a s m were p r e s e n t b e c a u s e o f an e x c e p t i o n a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h emerged a t t h a t moment i n t i m e . A l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework might be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f s h o r t a g e o f s u c h human r e s o u r c e s , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s would a t t r a c t t h e human r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e demand. A l t h o u g h t h e g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n B u r ns L a k e had t o be r e t a i n e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n p u r p o s e s , t h e n e t e f f e c t o f t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e r e g i o n a l government model might have p r o d u c e d an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f t h e r e g i o n a l government had b e en i n p l a c e , t h e n e a r c r i s i s e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e i n B u r n s Lake might have been a v o i d e d . I f Burns Lake had, n e v e r t h e l e s s , been s l a t e d f o r some k i n d o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e p o l i c y m i g h t have t a k e n a 178 d i r e c t i o n o t h e r t h a n e n a b l i n g l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m i l l . T h e r e might a l s o have been some more g e n e r a l r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s t o g u i d e t h e p r o c e s s o f n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , o r t h e o u t p u t o f t h e B u r ns L a k e p r o j e c t may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e g i o n wide p o l i c y . D. G e n e r a l A p p l i c a b i l i t y ,of ,:.The; A s p e c t s o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e s i g n What i s b ecoming i n c r e a s i n g c l e a r a s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l g o v ernment model i s e x p l o r e d i s t h a t n e i t h e r a r e t h e p r o b l e m s n o r c a n t h e s o l u t i o n s be s i m p l i s t i c , l i n e a r and u n i -d i m e n s i o n a l . Too o f t e n i n p o l i c y a n a l y s i s t h e t e n d e n c y i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f p o l i c y and i g n o r e t h e p r o c e d u r a l and t h e r e f o r e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s which a r e so i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s o f a g i v e n s u b s t a n t i v e p o l i c y s o l u t i o n . Not o n l y d o e s t h e a d v o c a c y o f a r e g i o n a l government model e x p r e s s t h e c o n c e r n t h a t p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be e v o l v e d i n an open and i n t e r a c t i v e way, b u t i t a l s o m a i n t a i n s t h a t p o l i c y o u t p u t s h o u l d be t a i l o r e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t f o r w h i c h i t i s b e i n g e v o l v e d . The same i s t r u e o f new i n s t i t u t i o n s : t h e y s h o u l d be t a i l o r e d t o f i t t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n which t h e y w i l l o p e r a t e . The r e g i o n a l government model i s d e s i g n e d t o meet C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a t i c norms and t o overcome c o n s t r a i n t s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n human and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . Most o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s , l i k e t h e norms, w i l l be common t o a l l p r o v i n c e s , e x c e p t t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s i z e o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e t o p o g r a p h y 179 and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . However,, t h i s i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o promote t h e o p t i m a l p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s ( A s p e c t 2 - " R e g i o n a l v s L o c a l " ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a v e r y l a r g e , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v e r s e , y e t a m o d e s t l y and u n e v e n l y p o p u l a t e d p r o v i n c e . As t h e B u r n s Lake example i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e m i n i s t e r s ' t i m e p l u s t h e l o n g d i s t a n c e s which had t o be t r a v e l l e d t o c o n d u c t an i n t e r a c t i v e p o l i c y p r o c e s s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t h e number o f g r o u p s which c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . At t h e same t i m e , t h e r e i s a l i m i t t o t h e number of i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h can be d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s which have v e r y l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . The need f o r a r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a s an i n t e r m e d i a r y emerges. I n t h e l a r g e r C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s , s u c h i n t e r m e d i a r y o r r e g i o n a l government i n s t i t u t i o n s would a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e a l t h o u g h g e o g r a p h i c a l s i z e p l u s p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y w i l l s t i l l d e t e r m i n e what t h e s p e c i f i c b o u n d a r i e s and s i z e s o f r e g i o n s s h o u l d be. However, i f one were t o seek t o i mprove t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s i n s m a l l p r o v i n c e s s u c h as New B r u n s w i c k o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i n t e r m e d i a r y government i n s t i t u t i o n s would be a p p r o p r i a t e . These p r o v i n c e s a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s m a l l e r i n s i z e t h a n most B.C. r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s would be. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o f N.B. and P . E . I . t o be t h e " r e g i o n a l " government, t h e n a l l t h e n o r m a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n a l government model c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i n o r d e r t o 180 i m prove t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s . 1 E . C o n c l u d i n g Remarks The i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's was m a n i f e s t e d i n an e c o l o g i c a l o r s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y . The a p p l i e d f o r m o f t h i s " h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h " has r e s u l t e d i n t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f s u c h c o n c e p t s as " i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e management" and " c o o r d i n a t e d r i v e r b a s i n p l a n n i n g . " The R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committees i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h . E a r l y p l a n n e r s who c o m p i l e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a s t e r p l a n s i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e m e r i t o f an h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h , b u t t h e i r e m p h a s i s on p r o d u c t i n s t e a d o f p r o c e s s s u b j e c t e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t s t o much c r i t i c i s m . The c u r r e n t e m p h a s i s on c o o r d i n a t i o n and on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s o r c o m m i t t e e s r e g u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c o o r d i n a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h e e s s e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e p l a n n i n g / p o l i c y p r o c e s s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e c o m m i t t e e a p p r o a c h i s t o i n t e g r a t e , o r a t l e a s t c o o r d i n a t e , 1 management d e c i s i o n s . However, b o t h t h e o l d and t h e new a p p r o a c h t o i n t e g r a t i o n 1 The f e d e r a l government would t h e n be t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u c h a s p e c t s a s " D e c e n t r a l i z e d " and " O v e r l a p p i n g J u r i s d i c t i o n s " . 1 " I n t e g r a t e " i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s "a w h o l e " i n t o w hich t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s c a n be i n t e g r a t e d . C o o r d i n a t i o n can o c c u r w i t h o u t a view t o " t h e whole". 181 s i l e n t l y t o l e r a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . E f f o r t s t o improve i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n a r e f o c u s e d on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h u s i g n o r e some o f t h e most b a s i c d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s , s u c h as e l e c t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d i e s , which c o u l d l e a d t o t h e t r u e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l c h o i c e s . T h i s p a p e r has t a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a s a whole i s t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s t h a t s o c i e t y has ch o s e n t o make i t s t r a d e - o f f s i n r e s o u r c e use, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s t h a t t r u e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s c a n be a c h i e v e d . The o b v i o u s l a c k o f p o l i c y i n t e g r a t i o n can o n l y mean t h a t t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s i s n o t o p e r a t i n g as i t s h o u l d . Any change i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n n e c e s s a r y t o i m p r o v e t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s would t h e r e f o r e be g e a r e d t o w a r d s m e e t i n g t h e norms o f t h e o p t i m a l d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y p r o c e s s , n o t t o w a r d s t h e o b j e c t i v e o f o v e r c o m i n g i n t e g r a t i o n c o n s t r a i n t s a l o n e . The p u r s u i t o f t h e o p t i m a l p o l i c y p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e d t o t h e d e s i g n o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d , m u l t i - p u r p o s e , r e g i o n a l government a s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e g r a t e d r e g i o n a l p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e s . O n l y when t h e s e t o f c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d d e m o c r a t i c norms o r t h e s e t o f c o n s t r a i n t s c h a n g e s w i l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework r e g u i r e a d j u s t m e n t i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e t o i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l c h o i c e s . The i n c o n g r u e n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t B.C. p o l i c y i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h t h e s u c h an a d j u s t m e n t i s 182 s e t o f d e m o c r a t i c norms i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r d u e . 183 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AVG Management S c i e n c e L t d . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I m p a c t on The B a r n s L a k e A r e a o f _ T h e B a b i n e - F o r e s t s P r o d u c t s - M i l l . C o n s u l t i n g R e p o r t , S e p t . 16, 1974. Berman, P a u l . "The S t u d y o f Macro And M i c r o - I m p l e m e n t a t i o n ^ " P u b l i c P o l i c y , V o l . 26, No. 2, S p r i n g 1978,. B r a y b r o o k e , D a v i d and L i n d b l o m , C h a r l e s . A S t r a t e g y . o f D e c i s i o n . G l e n c b e : New York F r e e P r e s s , 1963. B . C i , D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . R e g i o n a l - D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971i G e n e r a l Review. V i c t o r i a , 1971. B.C., ELUC. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use Committee. V i c t o r i a , 1972-B.C.., ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t - A n n u a l R e p o r t . V i c t o r i a , 1974, 1975, 1977 and 1978. B.C., ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t . F u n c t i o n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n and P l a n n i n g A p p r o a c h . V i c t o r i a , 1978. B.C., ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t . G u i d e l i n e s _ f o r R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management Committees. V i c t o r i a , 1978,. B.C., M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t C o n c e p t . V i c t o r i a , 1968. B.C., M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and H o u s i n g . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Review C o m m i t t e e i R e p o r t o f The Committee. V i c t o r i a , O c t . 31, 1978. B u r c h e l l , R. And S t e r n l i e b , G-, e d s . P l a n n i n g T h e o r y i n - T h e 1980's. New J e r s e y : R u t g e r s U. P r e s s , 1978. BLCDA. The B u r n s L a k e P r o j e c t : - F i r s t A n n u a l R e p o r t . March, 1975. BLCDA. The B u r n s L a k e P r o j e c t : Second A n n u a l R e p o r t . March, 1976. BLCDA. The B u r n s L a k e P r o j e c t ; _ ; _ T h i r d _ A n n u a l R e p o r t . March, 1977. BLCDA. The ..Burns L a k e _ P r o j g c t : _ F o u r t h A n n u a l : R e p o r t . March, 1978. 184 Canada, DREE, Sub-Committee on M u l t i p l e Use and N a t i o n a l Committee on F o r e s t Land. Towards I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e Management. O t t a w a : Queens P r i n t e r , 1970. C a n t a n e s e , A n t h o n y J . P l a n n e r s and L o c a l P o l i t i c s : I m p o s s i b l e Dream. B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage Pub. Co. L t d . , 1974. D e u t s c h , K a r l W. N e r v e s o f Government. New Y o r k : C o l l i e r - M c M i l l a n , 1966. Diamond, D. And M c L o u g h l i n , J.B., e d s . P r o g r e s s - i n P l a n n i n g : E d u c a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g . V o l . 1, P a r t 1,. G r e a t B r i t a i n : Pergamon P r e s s L t d . , 1973. F a l u d i , A n d r e a s . P l a n n i n g T h e o r y . -Glasgow: B e l l and B a i n L t d . , 1973. Fox, I r v i n g K. " A s s e s s i n g a P u b l i c P o l i c y P r o c e s s . " U n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s c i r c u l a t e d t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e s o u r c e s p o l i c y c o u r s e . 0.B.C., 1979. Fox, I r v i n g K. "The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Framework f o r R e g i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management.'! U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , J u l y 1972. Fox, I r v i n g K. and Dunn, E d g a r J r . " C a n a d i a n P o l i c y Development f o r Management o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e s o u r c e s . " Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . V a n c o u v e r , June, 1976. F r e d r i c h , C a r l J . " P o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p u b l i c p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g . " C a n a d i a n P u b l i c - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . V o l . 14, 1971, pp. 1-15. H a e f e l e , Edwin. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e • G o v e r n m e n t .and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management. B a l t i m o r e : John H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1973. Heayn, B r u c e . I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e ^Management: - B» C. ' s__Regjonal R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e s . M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.R.C., 1977. K a r l s e n , E r i k and Rees, W i l l i a m . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s - a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management_in- li7c. V a n c o u v e r : U.B.C. P r e s s , 1974. The L a k e s D i s t r i c t .News. B u r n s L a k e p e r i o d i c a l . J a n u a r y 1972 - J u l y 1979. L a P o r t e , Todd R., e d . O r g a n i z e d : S o c i a l C o m p l e x i t y . New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U. P r e s s , 1975. 185 L e v i n , M e l v i n E. Communi_y_and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . T h i r d E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. L i n d b l o m , C h a r l e s . "The S c i e n c e o f M u d d l i n g T h r o u g h . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review.- V o l . 19, pp. .79-88. L o w e n t h a l , D a v i d . " A s s u m p t i o n s B e h i n d The P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s . " From: J a r r e t , H., e d . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y . I n .A Growing Ecomony. B a l t i m o r e : John H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1966. Maas, A r t h u r , ed. A r e a and Power.-I l l i n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s , 1959. Mayo, H.B. An I n t r o d u c t i o n _ T O ; . D e m o c r a t i c - T h e o r y . -U.S.A.: O x f o r d 'd. Press I n c . , 1960. O l s o n , Mancur. The L o g i c o f C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . Mass. : H a r v a r d U. P r e s s , 1965. 0s t r o m , V i n c e n t . The I n t e l l e c t u a l ^ C r i s i s i n A m e r i c a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . U.S.A.: U. Of Alabama P r e s s , 1973.. P a g e t , G a r y . Towards a T h e o r y - F o r . E n y i r o n m e n t a l - P l a n n i n g . S t u d e n t D i s c u s s i o n P a p e r No. 2, F a c u l t y of E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s . T o r o n t o : York U. P r e s s , 1976. P o l s b y , N e l s o n . Community Power .and P o l i t i c a l T h e o r y . New Haven: Y a l e U. P r e s s , 1963. P r o s s , A. P a u l . " C a n a d i a n P r e s s u r e G r o u p s i n t h e 1970's: T h e i r R o l e and T h e i r R e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e . " C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 18, 1975, pp. 121-135. Ranney, A u s t i n , e d . P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and P u b l i c P o l i c y . -C h i c a g o : Markham Pub. Co., 1968. R o n d i n e l l i , D e n n i s A. Urban_and R e g i o n a l - D e v e l o p m e n t ^ P l a n n i n g . London: C o r n e l l U. P r e s s , 1975. S c o t t , A n thony. "The E c o n o m i s t and F e d e r a l i s m i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management." From: S w a i n s o n , N e i l , ed. Managing t h e Water E n v i r o n m e n t . V a n c o u v e r : U.B.C. P r e s s , 1976. S o u t o - M a i o r , J o e l . C h a p t e r s 1,2 and 3 o f Phd. T h e s i s . U n p u b l i s h e d . S p r o u l e - J o n e s , Mark. "An A n a l y s i s o f C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m . " P u b l i u s , V o l . 4, F a l l , 1974. 186 Sweden, M i n i n t e r of L a b o u r and H o u s i n g ; M i n i s t e r o f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g and L o c a l Government. P l a n n i n g Sweden;•Stockholm, 1973. U.B.C., C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , R e s o u r c e I n d u s t r i e s P r o g r a m s . I n t e g r a t e d . Management o f R e s o u r c e s . P r o c e e d i n g s from t h e c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r , Nov. 24, 1978. W a r f i e l d , J o hn N. I m p r o v i n g . , B e h a v i o u r i n P o l i c y m a k i n g . -O h i o : The Academy f o r C o n t e m p o r a r y P r o b l e m s , 1975. W h i t e , G i l b e r t . " F o r m a t i o n and R o l e o f P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s . " From: J a r r e t , H., e d . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y i n a G r o w i n g Economy. B a l t i m o r e : John H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1966;. W i l s o n , J o h n . " P o l i t i c s and S o c i a l C l a s s i n Canada: The C a s e o f W a t e r l o o S o u t h . " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l _ o f _ S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 1, 1968, pp. 288-309. " OTHER SOURCES: PERSONAL INTERVIEWS B a k e r , J o h n : Mayor o f Burns l a k e C r e r a r , A l i s t a i r : Former D i r e c t o r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t and L a n d Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t . F a r s t a d , Graham: C o n s u l t a n t t o t h e Department o f Human R e s o u r c e s d u r i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f t h e Burns L a k e p r o c e s s . F r a s e r , D a v i d : Lawyer f o r BCANSI i n 1974. G i l g a n , B i l l : D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r t h e B u l k l e y - N e c h a k o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . G r e y , J e a n : F i r s t government a p p o i n t e d d i r e c t o r on t h e CDA B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a f t e r t h e 1976 e x p a n s i o n . K a r l s e n , E r i k : A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f t h e ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t . M c K i n l e y , Mike: E x e c u t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r CDA. P a t r i c k , M a r g a r e t : Former member o f t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s of BLCDA. P i e r c e , J i m : V i l l a g e C l e r k f o r B u r n s L a k e . P l a s w a y , Nancy: P r e s i d e n t o f BLNDC. 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