UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Prairie legislative buildings of Canada Bodnar, Diana Lynn 1979

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THE PRAIRIE LEGISLATIVE BUILDINGS OF CANADA DIANA LYNN BODNAR B.SC. ( H . E c ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 1 B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 2 fA THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS 91 i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1 9 7 9 (c) D i a n a Lynn Bodnar, 1 9 7 9 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f Fine A r t s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e October 15, 1979 ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a s t u d y o f t h e t h r e e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i n the Canadian P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan,and M a n i t o b a . I t documents the h i s t o r y o f each b u i l d i n g , d e s c r i b e s the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and e s t a b l i s h e s the s t y l i s t i c p r o t o -t y p e s and i n f l u e n c e s . I t f u r t h e r examines the p l a c e of t h e s e b u i l d i n g s as a group i n the N o r t h American and European a r c h i -t e c t u r a l environment o f the p e r i o d 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 2 0 . The t h e s i s w i l l show how t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a and S a s k a t -chewan i n 1 9 0 5 1 and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f the p r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a i n 1 9 1 2 , n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s t o accommodate governmental f u n c t i o n s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f such p r a c t i c a l , as w e l l as o t h e r s y m b o l i c a l , needs on the d e s i g n and s t y l e o f each b u i l d i n g i s examined. I n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s s u r r o u n -d i n g each b u i l d i n g such as the use o f l o c a l m a t e r i a l s , the na-t i o n a l i t y and t r a i n i n g o f the a r c h i t e c t s , and economic l i m i t a -t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The t h e s i s w i l l c o n c l u d e t h a t w h i l e t h e t h r e e b u i l d i n g s show a s i m i l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e - the Beaux-A r t s S t y l e - l o c a l i n f l u e n c e s have combined to produce a more s p e c i f i c a l l y Canadian v e r s i o n , one which i s l e s s o r n a t e , l e s s complex, and s m a l l e r i n s c a l e . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v x PREFACE x i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I : THE ALBERTA LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 22 H i s t o r y D e s c r i p t i o n D e s i g n S o u r c e s F o o t n o t e s I l l u s t r a t i o n s I I : THE SASKATCHEWAN LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 73 H i s t o r y D e s c r i p t i o n D e s i g n S o u r c e s F o o t n o t e s I l l u s t r a t i o n s I I I : THE MANITOBA LEGISLATIVE BUILDING 117 H i s t o r y D e s c r i p t i o n D e s i g n S o u r c e s F o o t n o t e s I l l u s t r a t i o n s CONCLUSION 171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 175 APPENDICES 19^ A L e g a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f the A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s B L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s i n Canada C B u i l d i n g s D esigned by A.M. J e f f e r s D B u i l d i n g s D esigned by R.P. B l a k e y E B u i l d i n g s D e s i g n e d by W.S. and E. M a x w e l l F B u i l d i n g s D esigned by F.W. Simon - i v -G Town H a l l s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n H S t a t e C a p i t o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s I B i o g r a p h i e s -v-LIST^ OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1 Edmonton. L o o k i n g E a s t Down J a s p e r Avenue 18 2 Edmonton, Chapman B r o t h e r s B u i l d i n g 19 3 Edmonton. Canadian Bank o f Commerce 20 k Edmonton. T e g l e r B u i l d i n g 21 5 Edmonton. T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g ^7 6 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . L o o k i n g E a s t Down N o r t h Saskatchewan R i v e r 48 7 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t v i e B u i l d i n g w i t h Hudson's Bay Company B u i l d i n g s 49 8 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . D e s i g n # 1 . . . . 50 9 " A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . . D e s i g n # 3 . . . . 51 10 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . D e s i g n # 4 . . . . 52 11 A l l a n M e r r i c k J e f f e r s 53 12 R i c h a r d P a l i n B l a k e y 54 13 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . E x c a v a t i n g . . . 55 14 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Workers F i n i s h i n g C a r v i n g C a p i t a l s . 56 15 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . N o r t h E l e v a -t i o n Under C o n s t r u c t i o n 57 16 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . A e r i a l View.. 58 17 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Second F l o o r P l a n 59 18 A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . L o o k i n g From Rotunda Towards S t a i r c a s e and L e g i s l a t i v e Chambers i n South Wing 60 - v i -Figure Page 19 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Rotunda Look-ing Upwards Into Dome 61 20 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Looking Down Marble Staircase Towards Rotunda and North Wall 62 21 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber 63 22 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. North Eleva-t i o n 64 23 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Dome 65 24 Rhode Island State Capitol 66 25 Alberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Drawing of Front Elevation 67 26 Wisconsin State Capitol 68 27 Minnesota State C a p i t o l . Front Elevation.... 69 28 Minnesota State C a p i t o l . Rear Elevation 70 29 Aiberta L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Southeast Corner 71 30 B r a z i l Building. St. Louis World's Fa i r 72 31 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. A e r i a l View Looking North 9^ 32 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed Front Elevation. M i t c h e l l and Raine "... 95 33 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed Front Elevation. Cass Gilbert 96 3^ - Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed Front Elevation. F.M. Rattenbury 97 35 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed Front Elevation. Storey and Van Egmond...... 98 36 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed Front Elevation. Marchand and Haskell 99 - v i i -37 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed . Front Elevation. Darling and Pearson 100 38 Edward Maxwell 101 39 William Sutherland Maxwell 102 40 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposed" Front Elevation. E. and W.S. Maxwell 103 41 Peter L y a l l 104 42 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. North Elevation Under Construction 105 43 Kahn System of Reinforced Concrete 106 44 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Ma-innFl'oorr Plan 107 45 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Ro.t.undae. 108 46 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Entrance. 109 47 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. L e g i s l a -t i v e Building. L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber 110 48 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. North Elevation I l l 49 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Dome 112 50 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. South Elevation. 113 51 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. North Pediment 114 52 Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Rotunda.. 115 53 Leeds Town H a l l 116 54 Old Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e Building 145 55 V i c t o r Horwoed 146 565 Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e Building. Proposal. FW. Simon 147 - v i i i -F i g u r e Page 57 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . P r o p o s a l . E. and W.S. M a x w e l l 148 58 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . P r o p o s a l . Sharp and Brown 149 59 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . P r o p o s a l . Brown and V a l l a n c e 150 60 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . P r o p o s a l . Clemesha and P o r t n a l l 151 61 Frank W o r t h i n g t o n Simon 152 62 Thomas K e l l y 153 63 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . .Under C o n e t r . s t r u c t i o n 154 64 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . A e r i a l View L o o k i n g N o r t h 155 65 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . F d s s i l i n Limestone 156 66 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . F i r s t F l o o r P l a n 157 67 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Grand S t a i r -case 158 68 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Rotunda 159 69 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber 160 70 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Northwest C o r ner l 6 l 71 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . N o r t h P e d i -ment 162 72 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . S p h i n x . I63 73 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Golden Boy.. 164 74 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . South E l e -v a t i o n 165 - i x -F i g u r e Page 35 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . S k y l i g h t Over Grand S t a i r c a s e 166 76 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . C a r y a t i d s i n S t a i r c a s e H a l l 167 77 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Brangwyn MUF r a l 168 78 M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber M u r a l 169 79 Bournemouth Law C o u r t s and Town H a l l 170 -x-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. R h o d r i Liscombe and Mrs. Doreen Walker o f the Department o f F i n e A r t s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , and Dr. H a r o l d Kalman f o r h i s encouragement throughout t h e y e a r s . I would a l s o l i k e t o extend my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mr. McDougall ( C h i e f L i b r a r i a n , L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y o f A l b e r t a ) , M i s s M. B l a k e y , and to the S t a f f o f the A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan and M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . - x i -A r c h i t e c t u r e has a way o f r e v e a l i n g the p e r s o n -a l i t y of t h e inmates. I f the s t r u c t u r e i s such an i c o n as a l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g , an e n t i r e p r o -v i n c e i s u n f r o c k e d . The u n d e r r a t e d "beauty o f Saskatchewan can be judged by the s u r p r i s i n g s e r e n i t y o f the l e g i s l a -t u r e ' s s e t t i n g on man-made Wascana Lake. The e s s e n t i a l s o l i d i t y and q u i e t u d e o f Man i t o b a can be seen by the s p a c i o u s , t r e e d s e t t i n g o f the dome topped by t h e Golden Boy. Most r e v e a l i n g o f a l l , perhaps, i s the ' f i n de s i e c l e ' p i l e o f stone t h a t i s the A l b e r t a p a r l i a -ment i n Edmonton. Seen from the o p p o s i t e bank o f the N o r t h Saskatchewan R i v e r , i t i s bathed i n a s o f t r o s e a t e glow and t h e r e i s almost a Roman l o o k to i t . S n a t c h e d from i t s d e p r e s s i n g s u r r o u n d i n g s , i t c o u l d f i t i n t o a minor European c a p i t a l . I t has i m p e r i a l p r e t e n s i o n s . The b u i l d i n g on t h e bank o f the Saskatchewan wants to be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n i t i s . A l l a n Fotheringham, Maclean's, March 21, 1977 p. 80. - x i i -PREFACE T h i s t h e s i s i s a s t u d y o f t h e t h r e e l e g i s l a t i v e " b u i l d i n g s i n the Canadian P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and M a n i t o b a . The b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d between the y e a r s 1905 and 1920. The I n t r o d u c t i o n d e f i n e s the terms l e g i s l a t i v e and l e g i s l a t u r e , d i s c u s s e s the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f such a b u i l d i n g , and p r e s e n t s the v a r i o u s r e l a t e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s and t r e n d s on the P r a i r i e s , as w e l l as i n Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s document the h i s t o r y o f the t h r e e b u i l d i n g s , d e s c r i b e t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c d e s i g n s o u r c e s . The a ppendices i n c l u d e the l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g ; o t h e r l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i n Canada w i t h t h e i r dates o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and a r c h i t e c t s ; o t h e r b u i l d -i n g s d e s i g n e d by the P r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e a r c h i t e c t s ; town h a l l s i n B r e a t B r i t a i n ; and the s t a t e c a p i t o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h t h e i r dates o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and a r c h i t e c t s ; and b i o g r a p h i e s o f s e l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i g u r e s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l a ddress s e v e r a l problems. I n a d d i t i o n t o p r e s e n t i n g an a c c u r a t e and complete documentation f o r each b u i l d i n g , i t w i l l a n a l y z e th e e f f e c t o f t h e use o f l o c a l m a t e r i -a l s , economic c o n d i t i o n s , and the n a t i o n a l i t y and t r a i n i n g o f t h e a r c h i t e c t s as i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d e s i g n and s t y l e o f each b u i l d i n g . These b u i l d i n g s can t h e n be compared as a group w i t h s i m i l a r t y p e s o f b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d contemporaneously i n - x i i i -N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe t o determine s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d o f f i e l d work and e x a m i n a t i o n o f w r i t t e n and v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . P r i m a r y s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d photo-graphs and p l a n s r e l a t i n g to t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t h r e e l e g i s -l a t i v e " b u i l d i n g s ; secondary s o u r c e s r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y o f t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s and the a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y o f Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Great B r i t a i n a l s o were c o n s u l t e d . The p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l i s l o c a t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s , p u b l i c works departments, and l e g i s l a t i v e l i b r a r i e s . The most u s e f u l secon-dary a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o u r c e s e x i s t i n the f i n e a r t s l i b r a r i e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S e v e r a l problems were encountered d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , v e r y l i t t l e s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n has f o c u s e d on t h i s p e r i o d , 1890 - - 1 9 2 0 , i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l , and i n Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r . The few e x i s t i n g e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , such as t h o s e by P e v s n e r and H i t c h c o c k , have g e n e r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the t r a n s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f the p e r i o d which w i t n e s s e d the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the f i r s t c o n cepts o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . Most b u i l d i n g s o f t h i s p e r i o d do not d i s p l a y t h e s e new a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e a s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f the b u i l -d i n g s on t h e Canadian p r a i r i e s and i n t h e American midwest. The f r o n t i e r encouraged adherance t o t r a d i t i o n to m a i n t a i n c u l t u r a l i. s t a b i l i t y . Most houses, s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , banks, and o t h e r commercial s t r u c t u r e s c o n t i n u e d t o be d e s i g n e d i n a n e o - c l a s -s i c a l o r n e o - g o t h i c manner. There were r e l a t i v e l y few Frank L l o y d W r i g h t o r Greene and Greene type houses, or S u l l i v a n s t y l e - x i v -o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s b u i l t i n o t h e r than ::;their a r e a o f o r i g i n . S t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s u r v e y s have shown t h i s t o be the case. A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the apparent l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h i s p e r i o d may have been t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y were too r e c e n t t o have any h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The American B i c e n t e n n i a l and Can a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l have put t h i s p e r i o d i n a new p e r s p e c t i v e . The c u r r e n t g e n e r a t i o n now v a l u e s t h e s e b u i l -d i n g s which r e p r e s e n t t h e i r g r a n d f a t h e r s ' attempts t o make a new l i f e f o r themselves and which a r e g e n e r a l l y the e a r l i e s t s t a n d i n g e v i d e n c e o f s e t t l e m e n t on the p r a i r i e s . To d a t e , no documented c h r o n o l o g y o f the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n has appeared. A l t h o u g h t h e s e b u i l d i n g s a r e o n l y about s e v e n t y y e a r s o l d , t h e i r h i s t o r y i s a l r e a d y p a r t i a l l y l o s t o r surrounded i n myth. There have been no attemp t s t o d i s c u s s t h e s e b u i l d i n g s s t y l i s t i c a l l y o r t o p l a c e them i n t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t e x t . I t i s o n l y w i t h i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s t h a t s c h o l a r s have been a t t r a c t e d t o the Bea u x - A r t s S t y l e , the E c o l e des Bea u x - A r t s method o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g , and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the a r -c h i t e c t s o f Canada, Gr e a t B r i t a i n , and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d ( l i s t e d i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y ) were a r e s u l t o f an e x h i b i t i o n on the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s , o r g a n i z e d by the Museum o f Modern A r t , New Yo r k , i n 1 9 7 5 * The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s e x h i b i t i o n and f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g book, e d i t e d by A r t h u r D r e x l e r , was u n d e r t a k e n by R i c h a r d Chafee, N e i l L e v i n e , and D a v i d Van Zanten. A much e a r l i e r d i s s e r t a t i o n , -XV-w r i t t e n i n 1955 by James N o f f s i n g e r , f o c u s e d on the i n f l u e n c e o f the E c o l e on a r c h i t e c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as does Henry-R u s s e l l H i t c h c o c k ' s and W i l l i a m S e a l e ' s hook on American s t a t e c a p i t o l s . A l a s t a i r S e r v i c e has i n i t i a t e d s i m i l a r s t u d i e s o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s and i t s i n f l u e n c e on Edwardian a r c h i t e c t u r e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d here w i l l encourage f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t and r e s e a r c h i n t h i s e x c i t i n g p e r i o d o f Canada's a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y . INTRODUCTION The e r e c t i o n o f a l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g i n each o f the p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and M a n i t o b a was p h y s i c a l e v i d e n c e o f a t r a n s i t i o n on t h e p r a i r i e s "from a l o g c a b i n t o the i W hite House." The sudden and i n t e n s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e p r a i r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by Americans, d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1 9 0 0 -1915> a i d e d by the e x p a n s i o n o f the r a i l w a y , caused urban c e n t r e s and r u r a l a r e a s to de v e l o p and expand. The times were p r o s p e r -ous. The p r e v a i l i n g s p i r i t was one o f hope and optimism. M ater-i a l e x p a n s i o n became t h e measure o f n a t i o n a l and m o r a l p r o g r e s s . "The p a r t i s a n s o f each c i t y p r o c l a i m i t s s u p e r i o r i t y t o a l l the o t h e r s i n s w i f t n e s s o f growth, f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n , s i z e o f b u i l -d i n g s , p r i c e o f l a n d - by a l l r e c o g n i z e d s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e . " New b u i l d i n g s were e r e c t e d t o house the n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l , m e d i c a l , c u l t u r a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s were c r e a t e d when A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan became p r o v i n c e s on September 1, 1905* and w h i l e M a n i t o b a had been a p r o v i n c e s i n c e 1870, the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e was not annexed u n t i l 1912. A l l t h r e e p r o v i n c e s needed p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s i n which t o conduct the b u s i -ness o f g o v e r n i n g a p r o v i n c e . They needed l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s . C o n f u s i o n o f t e n a r i s e s c o n c e r n i n g the p r o p e r meaning and use o f the terms l e g i s l a t i v e and l e g i s l a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Ox f o r d D i c t i o n a r y ( 1 9 7 1 ) . "the term l e g i s l a t i v e i s most commonly used as an a d j e c t i v e and has the meaning " o f or p e r t a i n i n g t o -2-l e g i s l a t i o n o r the making o f l a w s . " The word l e g i s l a t u r e i s most commonly used as a noun and means "a "body o f p ersons i n v e s t e d w i t h the power o f making the laws of a c o u n t r y or s t a t e ; the l e g i s l a t i v e body o f a s t a t e . " Hence, the c o r r e c t usage of the f o l l o w i n g terms: th e l e g i s l a t u r e , the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly, the l e g i s l a t i v e grounds, th e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g . The f u n c t i o n s o f a l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g and the spaces needed to c o n t a i n them a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f o u r f u n c -t i o n s o f government. F i r s t o f a l l , the l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n v o l v e s the making o f lawsbby e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who meet i n a l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. S e c o n d l y , th e e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y and the making of d e c i s i o n s by the l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r , the p r e m i e r , and h i s c a b i n e t , a l l o f whom r e q u i r e o f f i c e s . T h i r d l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e day to day a p p l i c a t i o n o f p o l i c y t o programmes i n the community. T h i s i s h a n d l e d by the c i v i l s e r v i c e which a l s o r e q u i r e o f f i c e space. F o u r t h l y , the j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n , which i n v o l v e s law enforcement, r e q u i r e s courtrooms. The l a t t e r , however, a r e not l o c a t e d i n t h e p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s . There i s a l s o a f i f t h a l l - i n c l u s i v e f u n c t i o n o f government -t o s e r v e the p e o p l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p u b l i c needs a space w h i c h p h y s i c a l l y l i n k s them t o a l l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s and s y m b o l i -c a l l y emphasizes the i m p o r t a n c e o f the c i t i z e n r y . T h e r e f o r e , a l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s e r v e s the f u n c t i o n s o f a p r o v i n c i a l government and s h o u l d p r o v i d e space f o r t h e s e f o u r f u n c t i o n s : a l e g i s l a t i v e chamber, m i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c e s , c i v i l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s , - 3 -and a p u b l i c a r e a . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e accommodation f o r the e x e c u t i o n o f th e s e f u n c t i o n s , new l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s were e r e c t e d i n Ed-monton, R e g i n a , and Winnipeg. A l l t h r e e p r a i r i e c i t i e s e x p e r i -enced tremendous growth and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the y e a r s 1905 - 1915, "the g r e a t e s t peak o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the pre- W o r l d War I boom y e a r s 1909 - 1912. However, " o n l y one or two y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o 1 9 ° 6 , t h e r e was n o t h i n g but l o g c a b i n s , v a s t p r a i -r i e and dense woods." ( F i g u r e 1 ) . By 1906 - 1908 i n Edmonton and R e g i n a , most p u b l i c b u i l -d i n g s i n c l u d i n g s t o r e s , h o t e l s , and o f f i c e s were two t o t h r e e s t o r e y n a i l e d wood frame o r b r i c k l o a d b e a r i n g s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h d i s p l a y e d s i m p l e c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l i n g i n c o r n i c e s , columns, o r t r i m ( F i g u r e s 2 and 3 ) . T h i s phase o f c o n s t r u c t i o n occurred; somewhat e a r l i e r i n Winnipeg ( 1 8 8 5 - 1 9 0 5 ) - A c r o s s t h e p r a i r i e s , t h e appearance o f many towns was t r a n s f o r m e d . W h i l e s t i l l a c o u n t r y i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f i t s development, Western Canada has, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n many p a r t i c u l a r s , assumed a m e t r o p o l i t a n a s p e c t t h a t c o n t r a s t s i t s t r o n g l y w i t h o t h e r new coun-t r i e s i n s i m i l a r p e r i o d s o f p r o g r e s s . Compared f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h the e a r l y growth o f the wes-t e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , we f i n d a c o n d i t i o n so r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t , a modern i n -f l u e n c e so pronounced, t h a t the tremendous s t r i d e s which a r e b e i n g made i n t r a n s f o r m i n g Western Canada from a p r i m e v a l w i l d e r n e s s i n t o a c i v i -l i z e d t e r r i t o r y , can be r e g a r d e d as l i t t l e s h o r t of m a g i c a l . The p e r i o d 1909 - 1912 saw the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o Edmonton and Regina ( c . 1905 i n Winnipeg) o f s t e e l r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e c o n s t r u c t i o n which e n a b l e d the e r e c t i o n o f seven t o t w e l v e s t o r e y o f f i c e ' s k y s c r a p e r s ' and l a r g e s c a l e h o t e l s , t r a i n s t a -t i o n s , and c o u r t h o u s e s . These t y p e s o f " b u i l d i n g s were g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n e d i n the s t y l e c u r r e n t l y "believed t o "be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n , such as the Chateau S t y l e MacDonald H o t e l i n Edmonton (1912 - 1915); the Romanesque S t y l e R e g i n a P o s t O f f i c e ; and the 'stripped-down' N e o - c l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l S t y l e C.N.R. Winnipeg T r a i n S t a t i o n (1909 t 1911)- Most o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s c o n t i n u e d t o be d e s i g n e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Edwardian Commercial S t y l e as seen i n the T e g l e r B u i l d i n g ^ i n Edmonton (1911 - 1913)• T h i s s t y l e d i s p l a y s the f l a t r o o f , l e v e l s k y l i n e , and r e g u l a r window p a t t e r n s o f t h e more modern commercial s t u c t u r e s , but c l a s s i c a l o r n a m e n t a t i o n s t i l l p r e d o m i n a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e ground f l o o r and a l o n g the c o r n i c e ( F i g u r e 4 ) . U n t i l a f t e r W o rld War I v e r y few adopted the modern Chicago Commercial S t y l e o r t h e S u l l i v a n e s q u e S t y l e . Throughout each phase o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o -l a t e d communities at t e m p t e d to l i n k t h e i r p r a i r i e environment, a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y a t l e a s t , w i t h American and European c e n t r e s o f c u l t u r a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . They wanted t o prove t h a t they were r e s p e c t a b l e , t h a t they were p r o g r e s s i v e , and e q u a l . They c o u l d a c h i e v e t h i s s t a t u s by o f f e r i n g not o n l y the n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e s but by h o u s i n g them i n a p p r o p r i a t e b u i l d i n g s . They c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e as w e l l as anyone t o the growth o f Canada. These communities c o u l d b e s t convey t h e i r i d e a l s and v a s p i r a t i o n s , v i s u a l l y a t l e a s t , by a d o p t i n g the c u r r e n t popu-l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e f o r t h e i r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . D u r i n g the p e r i o d I 8 9 O - 1920 t h i s was the L a t e V i c t o r i a n Academic C l a s s i -c a l Style.,, one composed o f v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l elements and known i n i t s s e v e r a l forms as the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e , the N e o - c l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l , the Second R e n a i s s a n c e R e v i -v a l , t h e Edwardian Baroque, or Edwardian B e a u x - A r t s C l a s s i c i s m . Academic C l a s s i c i s m was u n i v e r s a l l y adopted i n i t s v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s i n the Western World f o r a lmost a l l p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g American s t a t e c a p i t o l s , B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n t o w n h a l l s , Commonwealth n a t i o n a l and s t a t e c a p i t o l s such as those a t C a n b e r r a ( W a l t e r B u r l e y G r i f f e n 1 9 1 3 ) f Melbourne ( J o h n G. K n i g h t and P e t e r K e r r I 8 5 6 - 1 8 8 8 0 ) , and New D e l h i ( S i r Edwin L u t y e n s 1912 - 1931)» banks, l i b r a r i e s , museums, c o u r t h o u s e s , and t r a i n s t a t i o n s . A l l t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , e x c e p t i n g t r a i n s t a t i o n s , r e l i e d on the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n . •"-.-Visually, t h i s t r a d i t i o n c o u l d b e s t be conveyed by r e f e r e n c e to the c l a s s i c a l p a s t . Hence, the predominant use o f c l a s s i c a l forms from th e Greek, Roman, R e n a i s s a n c e , and Baroque p e r i o d s . W h i f f e n has proposed one o f the most s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n s o f the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . I n a d d i t i o n to the r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p l a n and massing, smooth w a l l s and l a r g e s i z e , t h i s s t y l e i s r e c o g n i z e d by " i t s c o u p l e d columns; the f i v e - p a r t f r o n t a l com-p o s i t i o n c l i m a x i n g i n a c e n t r a l mass; a monumental f l i g h t o f s t e p s ; a r c h e d and l i n t e l e d o p e n i n g s , o f t e n s e t between columns -6-o r p i l a s t e r s which appear i n t h e same e l e v a t i o n ; f i g u r e s c u l p -t u r e , i n the round o r i n r e l i e f ; c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d p a r t s ; s t r i c t l y s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n n i n g ; t e r m i n a l f e a t u r e s i n the wings; and a d v a n c i n g and r e c e d i n g p l a n e s . " The N e o - c l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l was s i m i l a r t o the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e , "but much s i m p l e r . There were broad expanses o f p l a i n w a l l s u r f a c e and q u i e t r o o f l i n e s . The Greek o r d e r s predomina-t e d as d i d I m t e l e d windows and doorways. The Second R e n a i s s a n c e R e v i v a l emphasized a r c a d e s w i t h columns o r a r c h e s , c l e a r l y a r t i c u a l t e d s t o r e y s , h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s , g and a f l a t r o o f . Pediments were not used. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e p r e d o m i n e n t l y American v e r s i o n s o f Academic C l a s s i c i s m , the Edwardian Baroque was most p o p u l a r i n Great B r i t a i n . I t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i r r e g u l a r p l a n s , a l a c k o f symmetry i n p l a n s o r e l e v a t i o n s , and a l a c k o f correspondence between the forms o f t h e o u t s i d e o f the b u i l d i n g w i t h the im-p o r t a n c e o f the spaces i n s i d e . The c l a s s i c a l forms were exu-b e r a n t and s c u l p t u r a l , o f t e n o s t e n t a t i o u s . They were based on b u i l d i n g s o f the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e ( c . 1 6 8 0 - 1 7 2 0 ) , and s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h o s e works d e s i g n e d by C h r i s t o p h e r Wren, John Vanburgh, and N i c h o l a s Hawksmoor. T h i s flamboyant p e r i o d i n E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r e l a s t e d from I 8 9 O t o 1 9 0 6 , h a v i n g peaked i n I 8 9 7 . Edwardian B e a u x - A r t s C l a s s i c i s m was p o p u l a r from 1 9 0 7 t o 1 9 1 4 . T h i s s t y l e e x h i b i t e d a g r e a t e r degree o f r e f i n e m e n t , r e s t r a i n t , e l e g a n c e , even g a i e t y . P l a n s and e l e v a t i o n s were -7-more r e g u l a r and c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . These monumental s t y l e s , w h i l e the most s u i t a b l e f o r l a r g e p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , were a l s o e x p e n s i v e due t o t h e i r s i z e , and t o t h e i r e x t e n s i v e use o f s c u l p t u r e and d r e s s e d s t o n e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e s t y l e s became not o n l y p o p u l a r because o f t h e i r s t r o n g c l a s s i c a l q u a l i t i e s , b u t they a l s o became p o s s i b l e due to the bouyant economy d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d I890 - 1920. (The r e c e s s i o n s o f I893 - 1897, 1907, and 1913 were r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t - l i v e d . ) The numerous c l a s s i c a l elements c o u l d be chosen and r e p r o d u c e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the t a s t e and s k i l l o f the a r c h i -t e c t . T h i s approach t o d e s i g n , based on sound academic s t u d y and c r e a t i v e i n n o v a t i o n , was t a u g h t a t the most r i g o r o u s and r e s p e c t e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f the t i m e , the E c o l e des Beaux- A r t s i n P a r i s . The importance o f the E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s and i t s i n f l u -ence on a r c h i t e c t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and N o r t h A m e r i c a can be a p p r e c i a t e d by examining i t s h i s t o r y and the type and q u a l i t y o f the t r a i n i n g t o be found t h e r e . W h i l e the E c o l e was formed i n 1797, i t was r e o r g a n i z e d i n 1807 d u r i n g Napoleon's r u l e as the E c o l e I m p e r i a l e et S p e c i a l e des B e a u x - A r t s , and a g a i n i n 1819 - 1821. I t remained i n t h i s form u n t i l i t s d i s s o l u t i o n i n 1968. As the n a t i o n a l s c h o o l o f a r c h i -t e c t u r e i t employed o n l y the most q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s and r e -q u i r e d the most s e l e c t i v e e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s t a n d a r d s remained h i g h , so t h a t the s c h o o l enjoyed the r e p u -t a t i o n o f g r a d u a t i n g w e l l - q u a l i f i e d and s k i l l e d a r c h i t e c t s . - 8 -S i n c e t h e r e were no a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s u n t i l 1 8 6 5 ( M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y ) , i n Great B r i t a i n u n t i l 1 8 9 4 ( U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l ) , and i n Canada u n t i l I 8 9 6 ( M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ) , anyone w i s h i n g t o t r a i n as an a r c h i t e c t and t o r e c e i v e the b e s t t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e would a t t e n d the E c o l e p r o v i d i n g he passed the r i g o r o u s e n t r a n c e exa-m i n a t i o n s i n mathematics, d e s c r i p t i v e geometry, h i s t o r y o f a r c h i -t e c t u r e , drawing, and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . The a p p l i c a n t a l s o had to be between the ages o f f i f t e e n and t h i r t y . Upon p a s s i n g t h e exams the s t u d e n t chose h i s ' a t e l i e r ' and a t t e n d e d o p t i o n a l l e c t u r e s on the t h e o r y o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , the h i s t o r y o f a r c h i t e c -t u r e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , p e r s p e c t i v e , and mathematics. I n o r d e r t o pass from second c l a s s the s t u d e n t had to pass f o u r 'concours' o r exams a y e a r . These c o n s i s t e d o f e i t h e r an ' e s q u i s s e ' or s k e t c h done 'en l o g e ' or i n a box w i t h o u t any h e l p i n about t w e l v e hours; or a ' p r o j e t rendu' or more f u l l y completed a r c h i -t e c t u r a l d e s i g n which would t a k e about two months t o complete. T h i s type o f exam s t i p u l a t e d - t h a t the s t u d e n t must submit p l a n s , s e c t i o n s , and e l e v a t i o n s . P e r s p e c t i v e s were not a l l o w e d . S t u -dents who g r a d u a t e d to the f i r s t c l a s s took s i m i l a r exams which p r e s e n t e d more d i f f i c u l t d e s i g n problems. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g emphasized l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g and t h e r a t i o n a l s o l v i n g o f problems i n d e s i g n . The p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n was as, i f not more, i m p o r t a n t t h a n the f i n a l r e s u l t . The supremacy o f form and the importance o f drawing were s t r e s s e d , a l o n g w i t h the importance o f u n i t y , b a l a n c e , p l a n n i n g , composition, - 9 -f u n c t i o n , and c i r c u l a t i o n . I t was thought t h a t symmetry i n p l a n added t o t h e ease o f c i r c u l a t i o n , and symmetry o f e l e v a t i o n added t o t h e monumentality. F u n c t i o n s had t o be c l e a r l y a r t i -c u l a t e d . The a r c h i t e c t had t o be a b l e t o a n a l y z e the r e q u i r e -ments o f a b u i l d i n g , d e s i g n a l o g i c a l p l a n which would s e r v e the purpose o f the b u i l d i n g , and d e s i g n f a c a d e s which were e x p r e s s i o n s o f the i n t e r i o r p l a n . The d e s i g n o f a b u i l d i n g o r i g i n a t e d from the p l a n from w h i c h the s e c t i o n and e l e v a t i o n e v o l v e d . The i n t e r i o r spaces and e x t e r i o r masses were c l e a r l y o r g a n i z e d around major and minor axes. M a j o r emphasis was • p l a c e d on t h e sequences o f i n t e r i o r spaces such as h a l l s , s t a i r -c a s e s , and p u b l i c m e e t i n g chambers. C o l l a b o r a t i o n among t h e a r t s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e , and p a i n t i n g was s t r e s s e d . S t u d e n t s were encouraged t o t r a v e l e i t h e r t o s k e t c h o r photograph the g r e a t monuments o f t h e p a s t . U l t i m a t e l y , because of the t r a i n -i n g a t t h e E c o l e , - t h e s t a n d a r d o f d r a f t s m a n s h i p improved and th e use o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n t e a c h i n g and as a b a s i s f o r awarding commissions became t h e norm. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the E c o l e t r a i n i n g a l s o f o s t e r e d a l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n t o the p a r t i c u l a r s o f the s i t e , and t o t h e economic f e a s i b i l i t y o f the b u i l d i n g and i t s s i z e . T h i s approach t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g came t o i n f l u e n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t a i n , and Canada t h r o u g h t h e g r a d u a t e s o f t h e E c o l e i n P a r i s . They r e t u r n e d home e i t h e r t o p r a c t i c e and/or t o t e a c h i n a s c h o o l o r ' a t e l i e r * . Many Fr e n c h g r a d u a t e s came t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t e a c h as w e l l . The t h r e e American a r c h i t e c t s who most i n f l u e n c e d American - 1 0 -a r c h i t e c t u r e because o f the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e i r work were R.M. Hunt, H.H. R i c h a r d s o n , and C.F. McKim. R i c h a r d M o r r i s Hunt ( 1 8 2 7 - 1895) e n t e r e d the E c o l e i n 1 8 4 6 i n the ' a t e l i e r ' L e f u e l and g r a d u a t e d i n 1 8 4 7 . He then t r a v e l l e d , s t u d i e d , and worked i n Europe, most n o t a b l y on the L o u v r e , u n t i l h i s r e t u r n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 8 5 5 - He spent the y e a r w o r k i n g as a draughtsman f o r Thomas u • W a l t e r who was then w o r k i n g on the c a p i t o l b u i l d i n g i n Washington, D.C. Hunt r e -t u r n e d to New York where he e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1857 an ' a t e l i e r ' o f f e r i n g a two y e a r c o u r s e based on the p r i n c i p l e s he had l e a r n e d a t the E c o l e . I n t h i s way the E c o l e methods o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g and d e s i g n were d i s s e m i n a t e d to more American a r c h i t e c t s . Some o f Hunt's more i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e the T r i b u n e B u i l d i n g i n New York ( 1 8 7 3 )> "the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the M e t r o -p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t ( l 8 9 5 ) i and the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B u i l d i n g f o r the World's Cplumbian E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicago ( 1 8 9 3 ) . Many o f h i s b u i l d i n g s a r e i n the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e w i t h F r e n c h o v e r -tones . Henry Hobson R i c h a r d s o n ( I 8 3 8 - 1 8 8 6 ) was the second most prominent American a r c h i t e c t to e n t e r the E c o l e . He was a c c e p t e d i n i 8 6 0 i n t o the ' a t e l i e r ' Andre and r e t u r n e d to New York i n 1 8 6 5• He i s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the R i c h a r d s o n Romanesque S t y l e ( a n o n - c l a s s i c a l s t y l e ) which can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b o l d massing and i t s use o f r o c k - f a c e d masonry, round a r c h e s , r i b b o n windows, prominent l i n t e l s , s t e e p - g a b l e d w a l l dormers, and round o r p o l y g o n a l c o r n e r t o w e r s . Some o f h i s most i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g s - l i -ar e T r i n i t y Church, Boston (1872), the M a r s h a l l F i e l d Wholesale Store, Chicago (1885 -".1887), and the Allegheny County Court-house, P i t t s b u r g h (1884). Richardson used the Ecole p r i n c i p l e s of r a t i o n a l problem s o l v i n g , c l a r i t y of pl a n , and a r t i c u l a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s i n conjunction w i t h h i s own personal s t y l e to s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e r p r e t ...and...promote-that most t y p i c a l l y American s t r u c t u r e - the t a l l commercial b u i l d i n g . Charles F o l l e n McKim, (1847 - 1909), through the a r c h i t e c -t u r a l f i r m of McKim, Mead, and White, was to have the most i n -fluence on American a r c h i t e c t u r e . He e n r o l l e d at the Ecole i n I867 i n the ' a t e l i e r ' Daumet, t r a v e l l e d i n Europe, and worked i n New York before e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s i n f l u e n t i a l f i r m i n 1879-During the 1880s-',! t h i s f i r m designed b u i l d i n g s i n a simpler, smoother Richardsonian Romanesque S t y l e such as the T i f f a n y House, New York (1884), i n a Second Renaissance R e v i v a l S t y l e such as the Boston P u b l i c L i b r a r y (1888 - 1898), and i n a C o l o n i -a l R e v i v a l S t y l e such as the Germantown C r i c k e t Club, P h i l a d e l -p h i a (1890). The i n f l u e n c e of the f i r m on the spread of the p r i n c i p l e s of the Ecole i s p a r t i c u l a r l y great because of the many b u i l d i n g s designed.-., and erected by them and subsequently published i n l e a d i n g p e r i o d i c a l s ; the s e v e r a l hundred a r c h i t e c t s who passed through the firm's ' a t e l i e r ' ; and the a d d i t i o n a l education o f f e r e d at the American Academy i n Rome which McKim founded i n 1894. However, t h e i r most important s t y l i s t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n emerged i n I893. That was the year of the Chicago World's F a i r , the - 1 2 -f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f A m e rican s c i e n t i f i c , a r t i s t i c , and i n d u s -t r i a l e x h i b i t i o n s . I t was f o l l o w e d by the Pan-American E x p o s i -t i o n i n B u f f a l o i n 1 9 0 1 , the T r a n s - M i s s i s s i p p i E x p o s i t i o n i n Omaha i n 1 9 0 3 , the U n i v e r s a l E x p o s i t i o n f o r the L o u i s i a n a P u r -chase C e n t e n n i a l i n S t . L o u i s i n 1904, and the P a n a m a - P a c i f i c E x p o s i t i o n i n San F r a n c i s c o i n 1915* T h i s s e r i e s o f e x p o s i t i o n s a l l o w e d a r c h i t e c t s t r a i n e d a t the E c o l e to use a l l t h e i r t e c h -n i q u e s i n monumental p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and h i s t o r i c a l symbolism to c r e a t e an a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y u n i f i e d complex of b u i l -d i n g s , f o u n t a i n s , s c u l p t u r e s , and l a n d s c a p i n g . These e x p o s i t i o n s s p r e a d the i n f l u e n c e o f the E c o l e t h rough t h e i r v i s u a l impact on t h e p u b l i c who v iewed them as s y m b o l i c o f an i d e a l , harmoni-ous, urban w o r l d . These i d e a l s soon became embodied i n the C i t y B e a u t i f u l Movement which s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a b e f o r e World War I . The World's Columbian E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicago i n 1893 had the g r e a t e s t p o p u l a r impact o f a l l the e x p o s i t i o n s . I t s p l a n -n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l committee c o n s i s t e d e n t i r e l y o f E c o l e t r a i n e d ( e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ) a r c h i t e c t s . T h i s com-m i t t e e i n c l u d e d R i c h a r d M o r r i s Hunt and McKim, Mead, and White. A l l o f the b u i l d i n g s , except f o r L o u i s S u l l i v a n ' s T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n B u i l d i n g , were d e s i g n e d i n the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e w i t h R e n a i s s a n c e s o u r c e s . However, even S u l l i v a n ' s b u i l d i n g w i t h i t s p o l y c h r o m a t i c d e c o r a t i o n and c u r v i l i n e a r ornament was d e s i g n e d w i t h c l a s s i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s and i n c o n f o r m i t y to the u n i f o r m s i x t y - f o o t c o r n i c e l i n e d e s i g n e d to g i v e a d d i t i o n a l u n i t y t o - 1 3 -the complex. W h i l e L o u i s S u l l i v a n had a l s o s t u d i e d a t the • E c o l e , he, l i k e R i c h a r d s o n , used the E c o l e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h h i s own unique a r c h i t e c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y ; The r e s t o f the c a s t i r o n and p l a s t e r b u i l d i n g s were p a i n t e d e n t i r e l y i n w h i t e w i t h the main complex s u r r o u n d i n g a l a g o o n . W h i l e each subsequent e x p o s i t i o n i n f l u e n c e d the s p r e a d o f s i m i -l a r l y d e s i g n e d town p l a n s and c i v i c c e n t r e s , the g r e a t e s t a r c h i -t e c t u r a l impact o f t h e s e e x p o s i t i o n s was the exposure they gave to B e a u x - A r t s b u i l d i n g s . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E c o l e soon s p r e a d to G r e a t B r i t a i n t h r o u g h i t s E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h g r a d u a t e s . One o f the f i r s t a r c h i t e c t s t o t r a i n a t the E c o l e i n P a r i s was John Burnet ( 1 8 5 7 1 9 3 8 ) . Born i n Glasgow, he had a r t i c l e d i n h i s f a t h e r ' s f i r m b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the E c o l e i n 1 8 7 ^ i n the ' a t e l i e r ' P a s c a l . F o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n to S c o t l a n d a f t e r h i s g r a d u a t i o n i n 1 8 7 7 , he not o n l y encouraged o t h e r S c o t t i s h a r c h i t e c t s t o a t t e n d t h e E c o l e , but he, ^..together w i t h o t h e r s , attempted to i n t r o d u c e t h e f r e n c h e d u c a t i o n a l system i n t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e s . He even v i s i t e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n I 8 9 6 . W h i l e Burnet c o n t i n u e d t o d e s i g n i n a l o g i c a l manner as promoted by the E c o l e and produced r a t i o n a l d e s i g n s r e g a r d l e s s o f the s t y l e , such as the E l d e r L i b r a r y i n Glasgow ( 1 9 0 1 ) , whether neo-Baroque, c l a s s i c a l o r modern, a l l B e a u x - A r t s i n f l u e n c e s were g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d by t h e growing sense o f B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i s m . H i s B e a u x - A r t s d e s i g n f o r the Glasgow C i t y H a l l d i d not w i n . I n c o n t r a s t t o the American i n v a s i o n o f t h e E c o l e , v e r y few B r i t i s h a r c h i t e c t s -14-a t t e n d e d the E c o l e from 1880 - 1900. The i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r Edwardian Baroque was seen as a t r u l y B r i t i s h s t y l e . Optimism c o n c e r n i n g the growth o f the Empire and the economy encouraged the use o f t h i s e x t r a v a g a n t ' s t y l e from 1890 -''.1906. S e v e r a l changes o c c u r r e d about 1907 which encouraged the s p r e a d o f Edwardian B e a u x - A r t s C l a s s i c i s m . I n a d d i t i o n t o a change i n t a s t e which r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the e x c e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e Edwardian Baroque, a d e c l i n e i n the economy f o r c e d the r e d u c t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the s t e e l frame c a l l e d f o r a t h i n n e r e x t e r i o r w a l l c o v e r i n g . The f i r s t B r i t i s h a r c h i t e c t t o s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t r o d u c e B e a u x - A r t s p r i n c i p l e s was A r t h u r J . D a v i s (I878 - 1951) who a t t e n d e d t h e E c o l e from 1894 - 1900 i n the ' a t e l i e r ' P a s c a l , where he met C h a r l e s Merves. T o g e t h e r t h e y d e s i g n e d the R i t z H o t e l i n London (1903 - 19°6) w h i c h was t h e f i r s t n o t a b l e p r o -ponent o f the new s t y l e . D a v i s attempted t o i n t r o d u c e the f r e n c h system o f e d u c a t i o n by opening an ' a t e l i e r ' i n 1910. R e g i n a l d B l o m f i e l d (I856 - 1942) was the second g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on the s p r e a d o f the Beaux-Arts i n B r i t a i n . A l t h o u g h he d i d not a t t e n d the E c o l e , he adopted i t s p r i n c i p l e s and became t h e P r o f e s s o r o f A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e R o y a l Academy i n 1907. H i s U n i t e d U n i v e r s i t y C l u b (1906 - 1907), and h i s o v e r a l l concept f o r P i c a d i l l y C i r c u s ( c . 1913), b o t h i n London, were i n the Edwardian B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . He even opened h i s own ' a t e l i e r ' i n London i n 1913-Other n o t e w o r t h y b u i l d i n g s i n f l u e n t i a l i n the spr e a d o f - 1 5 -t h e s t y l e were the K i n g Edward V I I G a l l e r i e s , B r i t i s h Museum (1904 - 1914) by John B u r n e t , S e l f r i d g e ' s Department S t o r e (1907 - 1909, 1928) by F r a n c i s Swales, D a n i e l Burnham, and John B u r n e t , and t h e e a s t f r o n t o f Buckingham P a l a c e (1912 - 1913) by Ashton Webb, a l l i n London. The s t y l e d i d not s u r v i v e the war. However, a more o r g a n i z e d system of a r c h i t e c t u r a l educa-t i o n d i d c o n t i n u e . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E c o l e s p r e a d t o Canada as w e l l . Cana-d i a n a r c h i t e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r B e a u x - A r t s t r a i n i n g i n P a r i s o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s , o r i n " a t e l i e r s ' i n Canada such as the one s e t up by L y l e i n T o r o n t o i n 1908. P u b l i c b u i l d i n g s d e s i g n e d on B e a u x - A r t s p r i n c i p l e s soon became prominent i n Canada, p a r t i -c u l a r l y i n E a s t e r n Canada. As the West expanded, the s t y l e s were c a r r i e d by a r c h i t e c t s who moved t h e r e from the E a s t . Among the more s i g n i f i c a n t Academic C l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g s i n Canada are t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l i n M o n t r e a l (1904) by McKim, Mead, and White, t h e U n i o n S t a t i o n i n T o r o n t o (1914 - 1929) by John L y l e , the Bank o f Nova S c o t i a i n Winnipeg (1910) by D a r l i n g and P e a r s o n , the M e d i c i n e Hat Courthouse (1919 - 1920) by R.P. B l a k e y , the Canadian Bank o f Commerce i n Vancouver (1915) by V.D. Horsburgh, and t h e C.P.R. S t a t i o n i n Vancouver (1912 -1914) by B a r o t t , B l a c k a d e r , and Webster. Beaux=Arts i n f l u e n c e s c a r r i e d on a f t e r the war b o t h i n b u i l d i n g d e s i g n and a r c h i t e c -t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e the t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e s e r e c t e d by p r a i r i e communi-t i e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d d i d not always succeed i n c o n v e y i n g -16-t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s o f growth and e q u a l i t y , the p r a i r i e l e g i s l a -t i v e b u i l d i n g s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r h i g h e s t i d e a l s . Con-c e r n i n g the Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , the p e o p l e c o u l d " j u s t l y r e g a r d i t as a symbol o f the magnitude and s t r e n g t h o f the g r e a t P r o v i n c e o f which t h e y are c i t i z e n s . " 7 The 'Golden Boy', a s t a t u e o f a y o u t h shown r u n n i n g w i t h a t o r c h , was p l a c e d on top o f the M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g f a c i n g n o r t h i n o r d e r to i n d i c a t e the s o u r c e o f Manitoba's f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y . C o n c e r n i n g the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , " t h e r e i s no d i f -f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n as t o the wisdom o f the e x p e n d i t u r e which has p r o v i d e d the government o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h q u a r t e r s i n k e e p i n g w i t h the p r e t e n s i o n s o f A l b e r t a . F i f t y y e a r s from now t h e y s h o u l d have h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t are w e l l worth w h i l e . " 1 0 The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l document j u s t how t h e s e expen-d i t u r e s were used and what t h e y produced. -17-F o o t n o t e s Edmonton J o u r n a l . December 2 3 , 1911, p. 9 . 2 Rupert Brooke, The P r o s e o f Rupert Brooke, e d i t e d by C h r i s t o p h e r H a s s a l l (London: S i d g w i c k and J a c k s o n , 1956), p. 46. 3 Edmonton J o u r n a l , December 2 3 , 1911, p. 9 . 4 C o n s t r u c t i o n . I I (September, 1908), p. 47. ^ " C i t y ' s F i r s t ' S k y s c r a p e r ' t o be T h o r o u g h l y Modern," Edmonton J o u r n a l , August 2 , 1911, p. 3 . Marcus W h i f f e n , American A r c h i t e c t u r e S i n c e 1780:  A Guide t o the S t y l e s (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : M.I.T. P r e s s , 1969), pp. 149 -152. 7 I b i d . , p. 167. 8 I b i d . , pp. 154-158. 9 R e g i n a L e a d e r , October 4, 1909, p. 4. 10 Edmonton J o u r n a l , November 3 0 , 1911, p. 4. -18-F i g u r e 1: Edmonton L o o k i n g E a s t Down J a s p e r Avenue 1904 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ) -19-F i g u r e 2: Chapman B r o t h e r s B u i l d i n g 10423-82 Avenue Edmonton N o r t h E l e v a t i o n C o n s t r u c t e d 1907 Photo Taken 1975 ( H i s t o r i c S i t e s S e r v i c e , A l b e r t a C u l t u r e ) F i g u r e 3 : Canadian Bank o f Commerce 1 0 3 1 8-82 Avenue Edmonton Sou t h E l e v a t i o n C o n s t r u c t e d 1907 - 1908 Photo Taken c. 1912 ( G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e ) - 2 1 -F i g u r e 4 : T e g l e r B u i l d i n g 1 0 1 8 9 - 1 0 1 S t r e e t Edmonton Northwest C o r n e r C o n s t r u c t e d 1911 - 1 9 1 3 Photo Taken 1 9 1 5 F i r s t Kahn System o f R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e i n Edmonton ( G l e n h o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e ) - 2 2 -CHAPTER I THE ALBERTA LEGISLATIVE BUILDING A l b e r t a became a p r o v i n c e on September 1, 1 9 0 5 , and a p r e m i e r and c a b i n e t were i n s t a l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y , p e n d i n g p r o -1 v m c i a l e l e c t i o n s w h i c h were h e l d on November 9 , 1 9 0 5 . One o f the f i r s t i t ems o f b u s i n e s s o f the assembly was the c o n f i r -m a t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l c i t y . W h i l e Edmonton had been made the p r o v i s i o n a l c a p i t a l by the F e d e r a l Govern-ment on F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1905, s e v e r a l o t h e r towns and c i t i e s i n A l b e r t a , i n c l u d i n g C a l g a r y , w i s h e d to be c o n s i d e r e d as the s i t e o f the permanent c a p i t a l . B o t h Edmonton and C a l g a r y c o u l d p r o v i d e good l o c a t i o n s f o r a new l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g and p r o x -i m i t y t o s o u r c e s o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . However, on A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 0 6 J the p r o v i n c i a l assembly d e c i d e d i n f a v o u r o f Edmonton, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 11 ,53^, as the permanent c a p i t a l . S e v e r a l b u i l d i n g s were used t o house the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s -l a t i v e Assembly and t h e v a r i o u s departments b e f o r e t h e comple-t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g . .Departmental o f f i c e s were l o c a t e d i n the T h i s t l e R i n k u n t i l the end o f November 1905, when they were moved i n t o the Empire B l o c k . They remained t h e r e u n t i l November 1907, when t h e y were r e l o c a t e d i n t o the newly c o n s t r u c t e d T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g , where they remained u n t i l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . - ^ The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly had i t s f i r s t s i t t i n g i n the T h i s t l e R i n k on March 15 , 1906. B e g i n n i n g i n A p r i l 1906, the Assembly used the McKay -23-Avenue S c h o o l u n t i l the c o m p l e t i o n o f the T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g i n November 1 9 0 7 ( F i g u r e 5 ) « The Assembly c o n t i n u e d t o meet t h e r e u n t i l the c o m p l e t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . The need f o r permanent q u a r t e r s to house the government was f i r s t r a i s e d by W.H. C u s h i n g , M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works,^ on A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 0 6 . " I t i s most i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e Government a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment t a k e up the m a t t e r o f p r o v i d i n g Q l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . " H i s t o r y W h i l e s e v e r a l s i t e s were su g g e s t e d , the government approached t h e Hudson's Bay Company e a r l y i n J u l y 1 9 0 6 ^ about t h e a c q u i s i -t i o n o f p r o p e r t y i n the Company's ownership. I t was the s i t e o f 10 t h e Hudson's Bay Company's f i f t h F o r t Edmonton. P r e m i e r 11 R u t h e r f o r d a c c e p t e d t h e i r o f f e r o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21 a c r e s a t $ 4 , 0 0 0 p e r a c r e on October 1 2 , 1 9 0 6 . The s i t e chosen was l o c a t e d on the n o r t h bank o f the N o r t h Saskatchewan R i v e r ( F i g u r e 6 ) . The l a s t C h i e f F a c t o r ' s house, H a r d i s t y ' s House, s t o o d a d j a c e n t t o and s o u t h o f the e a s t wing of the L e g i s l a t i v e 13 B u i l d i n g . y The B u l l e t i n , q u o t i n g an unknown prominent o f f i c i a l , n o t e d the h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the s i t e : W h i l e i t i s w i t h a degree o f p r i d e and p l e a s u r e t h a t we n o t e t h e changed c o n d i t i o n s from the f u r t r a d e r s ' l i f e t o a p r o s p e r o u s , modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , we must admit t h e f e e l i n g t h a t we a r e , a f t e r a l l , a i m i n g o n l y to e s t a b l i s h f o r our p e o p l e t h e most i m p o r t a n t and i m p o s i n g s t r u c t u r e i n the p r o v i n c e upon a s i t e i n our judgment w e l l s u i t e d f o r the purpose, and i n d o i n g so f o l l o w i n g i n the f o o t s t e p s o f t h e o f f i c e r s o f the h i s t o r i c t r a d i n g company who e s t a b l i s h e d themselves upon the same ground some two g e n e r a t i o n s b e f o r e . ^ -24-Such h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the r e m a i n i n g 15 f o r t b u i l d i n g s were t o r n down i n October 1915 i n the b e l i e f t h a t t hey would s p o i l the new l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g and a l s o t o p e r m i t c o m p l e t i o n o f the government grounds ( F i g u r e 7 ) . There was no c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . The f i n a l d e s i g n was c o n c e i v e d by the a p p o i n t e d P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t s , E.C. H o p k i n s , A . M . J e f f e r s , and R.P. B l a k e y . Edward C o l l i s H o pkins o f C a l g a r y was a p p o i n t e d a r c h i t e c t o f t h e P u b l i c Works Department on March 1, 1906. 1^ Very l i t t l e i s known about him e x c e p t f o r the f a c t t h a t he s e r v e d on t h e f i r s t c o u n c i l o f t h e A l b e r t a A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s i n June 17 1906. He p r e s e n t e d h i s p l a n s f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g 18 i n May 1906. The scheme a p p a r e n t l y somewhat resembled t h a t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g w i t h o c t a g o n a l towers on the wings and a l a r g e dome i n the c e n t e r ( F i g u r e 8 ) . I n f a c t , the d e s i g n p r e s e n t e d t o the p u b l i c was the B r i t i s h C olumbia L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . T h i s was e i t h e r done i n e r r o r o r s i m p l y because no o t h e r s k e t c h e x i s t e d . By J a n u a r y 1907, Hopkins was p r e p a r i n g a second s e t o f p l a n s . However, P u b l i c Works M i n i s t e r , W.H. C u s h i n g , d i d not f i n d e i t h e r s e t s u i t a b l e . A p p a r e n t l y "he r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e y were b u i l d i n g f o r a l o n g time ahead and t h e y wished t o make the b e s t work p o s s i b l e . " 7 The t h i r d s e t o f p l a n s date from September I 9 0 7 and t h e y a r e s i g n e d "A.M. J e f f e r s , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t . " W h i l e J e f f e r s had been a p p o i n t e d C h i e f A r c h i t e c t u r a l Draughtsman f o r the - 2 5 -20 Department o f P u b l i c Works on May 1 , 1 9 0 7 , t h e r e i s no e v i -dence which i n d i c a t e s the date o f h i s appointment as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t . A l t h o u g h a l l subsequent r e v i s i o n s were s i g n e d by J e f f e r s , t h e A l b e r t a Government c o n s u l t e d o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c l u d i n g John Chalmers, the p r o v i n c i a l s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r 21 2 ? s i n c e J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 0 7 ; W i l l i a m F i n g l a n d , a r c h i t e c t ; and P e r c y E. Nobbs, the P r o f e s s o r o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a t M c G i l l U n i v e r -23 s i t y , M o n t r e a l . ^ Two u n s i g n e d f r o n t e l e v a t i o n s p r o b a b l y date from t h i s p e r i o d ( F i g u r e 9 and 1 0 ) . The f i n a l d e s i g n was made 24 p u b l i c m December 1 9 0 7 . A l l a n M e r r i c k J e f f e r s ( F i g u r e 11) was b o r n F e b r u a r y 8 , 2 ^ 1 8 7 5 i n P awtucket, Rhode I s l a n d . J He began h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l c a r e e r i n F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 2 as a s t u d e n t i n the o f f i c e o f G.W. Cady and Son, P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d , and c o n t i n u e d h i s t r a i n i n g w i t h v a r i o u s o t h e r a r c h i t e c t s and e n g i n e e r s . I n J a n u a r y 1895> w h i l e a l r e a d y employed as a draughtsman, J e f f e r s e n r o l l e d i n an e v e n i n g c o u r s e a t the Rhode I s l a n d S c h o o l o f D e s i g n ( e s -t a b l i s h e d 1877.). i n Advanced M e c h a n i c s . He s u b s e q u e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n Advanced A r c h i t e c t u r e on September 3 0 , 1 8 9 5 and i n an e v e n i n g s e c t i o n o f M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g i n J a n u a r y 1 9 0 2 . 2 ^ He came 28 t o Edmonton i n A p r i l 1 9 0 7 , became C h i e f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D r a u g h t s -man f o r the A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works May 1 , 1 9 0 7 , and was a p p o i n t e d P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t by September 1 9 0 7 . The m a j o r i t y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e s i g n s produced under J e f f e r s ' s u p e r v i s i o n were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use o f c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l -29 i n g . He became a n a t u r a l i z e d B r i t i s h s u b j e c t m t h e summer - 2 6 -30 o f 1 9 1 0 . O n J a n u a r y 18, 1912, he was a p p o i n t e d G i t y A r c h i -t e c t o f the newly c r e a t e d C i t y A r c h i t e c t u r e Department, and upon r e s i g n i n g h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c e , he took o f f i c i a l 31 charge o f h i s new d u t i e s on F e b r u a r y 1, 1912. J e f f e r s h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l November 15 . 1913 when the A r c h i t e c t u r e Department was a b o l i s h e d . O n F e b r u a r y 10, 1914, however, the C i t y Commissioners r e i n s t a t e d the p o s i t i o n and r e a p p o i n t e d J e f f e r s t o i t , t h e r e b y o v e r r i d i n g c i t y c o u n c i l ' s e a r l i e r d e c i -s i o n . J J e f f e r s f i n a l l y became r e g i s t e r e d i n 1914 as an a r c h i -t e c t under the A l b e r t a A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s (A.A.A.), opened an a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e , and a t t e m p t e d to seek p r i v a t e 34 commissions between March and May o f 1915« He p r a c t i s e d p r i v a t e l y i n Edmonton u n t i l 1922 when he went to P r i n c e R u p e r t , 35 commencing p r a c t i c e m t h a t c i t y on J u l y 231 1922. J J e f f e r s was back i n Edmonton by J a n u a r y 13 , 1923 where he r e t a i n e d h i s o f f i c e u n t i l a t l e a s t F e b r u a r y 15 , 1 9 2 3 L e a v i n g Edmonton,-^ he a r r i v e d i n C a l i f o r n i a sometime i n 1 9 2 3 - " ^ He c o n t i n u e d t o work as an a r c h i t e c t t h e r e u n t i l h i s death on October 27 , 1926 39 i n Los A n g e l e s a t t h e age o f 51* The A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was not y e t completed when J e f f e r s r e s i g n e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , p o r t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r , n o t a b l y the r o t u n d a and the s t a i r c a s e l e a d i n g to the l e g i s l a -t i v e chamber, were completed under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f R i c h a r d P a l i n B l a k e y . ^ 0 B l a k e y ( F i g u r e 12) was b o r n i n S u n d e r l a n d , County Durham, Eng l a n d on June 18, 1879 where he a r t i c l e d f o r f i v e y e a r s - 2 7 -4 l ( 1 8 9 4 - 1899.) for George Thomas Brown. He r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l 4 2 e d u c a t i o n a t the Bede C o l l i g i a t e I n s t i t u t e . M a r r i e d i n 1 9 0 6 i n Oswestry, S h r o p s h i r e , E n g l a n d , he worked near the b o r d e r s 4 3 o f S c o t l a n d and Wales. J He came t o Edmonton by way o f W i n n i -peg and "became a temporary s t a f f draughtsman w i t h the A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works sometime i n 1 9 0 7 . H i s p o s i t i o n 4 4 became permanent on October 1 , 1 9 0 7 and he became P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t J a n u a r y 1, 1912 even b e f o r e J e f f e r s had o f f i c i a l l y r e s i g n e d . ,He j o i n e d A.A.A. i n 1 9 1 1 , became a L i c e n t i a t e , R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s (R.I.B.A.) i n 1 9 1 1 , and a 4 5 F e l l o w , R.I.B.A. i n 1 9 2 1 . He remained P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t . 46 u n t i l 1 9 2 4 when he e n t e r e d p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e i n Edmonton i n t h e f i r m o f B l a k e y , B l a k e y and A s c h e r w h i c h became Bouey, Bouey, 47 B l a k e y , B l a k e y and A s c h e r . B l a k e y d i e d i n Edmonton May 4 , 1 9 6 3 . ' C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g f i n a l l y commenced d u r i n g the summer o f 1 9 0 7 . Tenders f o r t h e excava-t i o n o f t h e basement f o r t h e f o u n d a t i o n were c a l l e d June 2 7 , 4 8 1 9 0 7 and t h e work "began, u t i l i s i n g steam s h o v e l s , m August, even b e f o r e t h e f i r s t s t o r e y p l a n s were drawn i n September ( F i g u r e 1 3 ) . C o n c r e t e work f o r the f o u n d a t i o n w a l l s was s t a r t e d 49 on October 2 1 , 1 9 0 7 . ' B u i l d i n g proceeded even b e f o r e the f i n a l d e s i g n was p r e s e n t e d t o the p u b l i c on December 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 . ^ ° I n 1 9 0 8 a d d i t i o n a l p l a n s were drawn and the f o u n d a t i o n completed. ..The w o r k i n g drawings f o r t h e r o o f f r a m i n g were com-51 p l e t e d by J a n u a r y 3 , 1 9 0 8 ^ w h i l e those f o r the s o u t h e l e v a t i o n 52 were f i n i s h e d by F e b r u a r y 6 , 1 9 0 8 . The b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r -28-t h e e r e c t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was not i s s u e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 0 8 . - ^ I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t the " b u i l d i n g would c o s t $ 1 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 t o c o n s t r u c t . By A p r i l , work on t h e f o u n d a t i o n was n e a n n g c o m p l e t i o n . To d a t e , the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t and the P u b l i c Works Department had s u p e r v i s e d t h e day l a b o u r f o r q u a l i t y and c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . J The major p o r t i o n o f the s t e e l s k e l e t o n was e r e c t e d i n 1909 Working drawings f o r t h e dome were rea d y by F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 9 . ^ A d d i t i o n a l money was p r o v i d e d t o purchase e x t r a l a n d on May 1 2 , 57 1 9 0 9 . The f i r s t c o u r s e s o f t h e e x t e r n a l masonry were f i n a l l y e r e c t e d on May 18, 1 9 0 9 . ^ 8 On October 1 , 1 9 0 9 , E a r l Grey, G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f Canada, l a i d t he c o r n e r s t o n e . By December 1 9 0 9 , t h e f o u n d a t i o n s were completed as were the g r a n i t e base-ment w a l l s , a l t h o u g h o n l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the way around, J.-The d e l a y was i n i t i a l l y caused by the t a r d y shipment o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l and l a t e r by the slow d e l i v e r y o f t h e g r a n i t e and s a n d s t o n e . ^ I n 1 9 1 0 , a d d i t i o n a l drawings o f e x t e r i o r d e t a i l s were exe-c u t e d and t h e s t e e l and masonry f a c i n g was c o n t i n u e d . The d e s i g f o r t h e sandstone pediments were drawn by J a n u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 1 0 . ^ ° By August t h e grounds had been graded and the stonework on the s o u t h wing had been r a i s e d t o complete the t h i r d s t o r e y . The ;ed 62 6 l columns on t h e so u t h e l e v a t i o n were a l s o e r e c t e d . The p l a n s f o r t he s o u t h dome were drawn by October 1 9 1 0 . Even though t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g had been s u p e r v i s e d by t h e P u b l i c Works Department, t h e s u p p l y o f - 2 9 -a l l o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s were c o n t r a c t e d under normal t e n d e r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r was C a r t e r C o n s t r u c t i o n . The s t e e l c o n t r a c t o r was S t a n d a r d S t e e l o f M o n t r e a l w h i l e t h a t f o r t h e g r a n i t e was the Vancouver f i r m o f K e l l y and Murray. The c o n t r a c t f o r t h e sandstone was l e t t o J o h n Q u i n l a n o f M o n t r e a l and W. C a r t e r o f Edmonton who formed t h e Q u i n l a n - C a r t e r Company t o produce the m a j o r i t y o f the sand-s t o n e from t h e Glenbow Quarry, s e v e n t e e n m i l e s west o f C a l g a r y . However, t h e l a r g e r s l a b s o f sandstone e v e n t u a l l y had t o be b rought from Ohio, as t h e t ime i n v o l v e d i n s e c u r i n g l a r g e , f l a w l e s s s l a b s from th e Glenbow q u a r r y became p r o h i b i t i v e . ^ A. W a l t e r s o f Toronto c u t and f i t the s t o n e , M. C l u t t e r b u c k o f London, E n g l a n d d i d the d e c o r a t i v e c a r v i n g w h i l e G i l b e r t Land, A s s i s t a n t S u p e r v i s o r o f B u i l d i n g s , s u p e r v i s e d the e r e c t i o n o f 64 t h e s t o n e work. The e l e v a t o r s , t e r r a z z o f l o o r s , and doors were s u p p l i e d by Gorman, C l a n c e y and G r i n d l e y ; the p l u m b i n g and h e a t i n g by A. Lee and Company o f Edmonton; the e l e c t r i c l i g h t f i x t u r e s by D a v i d J . Braun M a n u f a c t u r i n g Company o f 1 C h i c a g o ; th e p l a s t e r i n g by W.B. Poucher; th e e l e c t r i c w i r i n g by Cunningham E l e c t r i c Company o f C a l g a r y ; and t h e marble by t h e M i s s i s q u o i M a r b l e Company.^ By 1911, work was c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e i n t e r i o r . The c a p i -t a l s were a l s o c a r v e d sometime d u r i n g the y e a r ( F i g u r e 14) . E a r l y i n March 1911, James McAleac o f Chicago was employed as C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r w i t h r e g a r d s t o the s t e e l f r a m i n g and i n t e r n a l m e c h a n i c a l s e r v i c e s . ^ P l a n s f o r the r o o f were drawn - 3 0 -"by A p r i l 22, e l e v a t i o n s o f the l i b r a r y by A p r i l 28, h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n p l a n s by J u l y 22, e l e v a t i o n s o'f the r o t u n d a by J u l y 24, and p l a n s f o r the e l e v a t o r s h a f t and c a r by August 1 2 . ^ Frank L a n s d o w n , p r e v i o u s l y employed as a draughtsman i n the Department o f P u b l i c Works, was a p p o i n t e d I n s p e c t o r o f the z o L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g on August 1. P l a n s f o r t h e marble en-t r a n c e t o the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber were drawn by November 2 3 . ^ W i t h b o t h the l i b r a r y and l e g i s l a t i v e chamber completed, t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly s a t f o r t h e f i r s t time i n the L e g i s l a t i v e 70 B u i l d i n g on November 3 0 , 1911.' The c o s t o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g t o date was $1 , 7 7 5 , 2 3 0 . 9 9 J 1 D u r i n g 1912 the e x t e r i o r o f the b u i l d i n g was completed t o g e t h e r w i t h the major p o r t i o n o f the i n t e r i o r . By J a n u a r y 1, t h r e e more s t a f f a ppointments had been made: James Burns A l l a n as A s s i s t a n t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t , Frank A l e x a n d e r V i g e r s as an ' 72 7 3 a r c h i t e c t , ' and P e r c y N o w e l l Johnson as S t r u c t u r a l E n g i n e e r . ' ^ 74 D e t a i l s o f the i n t e r i o r p a n e l l i n g were drawn by J a n u a r y 3 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , by J a n u a r y 2 3 , the p r o g r e s s o f the b u i l d i n g was marred by the appearance o f c r a c k s i n the p l a s t e r w a l l s o f the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber and l i b r a r y . I n a d d i t i o n , members o f the Assembly complained about the poor a c o u s t i c s , p a r t l y due t o the l a c k o f a r u g i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e a r c h e s s u p p o r t i n g t h e c e i l i n g o f the c o r r i d o r s o u t s i d e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber have had t o be removed. I t i s u n d e r s t o o d an e r r o r o f judgment i n t h e p l a n s would not p e r m i t t h e ke y s t o n e b e i n g i n s e r t e d i n i t s p r o p e r - 3 1 -p l a c e , and t h e consequent n e c e s s a r y c o n s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r c h e s . B y A p r i l 1 3 , t h e w a l l s o f t h e chamber and l i b r a r y had been r e p l a s t e r e d and most o f the o f f i c e p a r t i t i o n s i n s t a l l e d . ^ A new M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, C h a r l e s Richmond M i t c h e l l , was a p p o i n t e d on May 4, 1 9 1 2 . 7 7 On May 6 , t h e l a s t s t o n e on the dome was l a i d . 7 8 The s t e e l work on t h e upper s e c t i o n o f the dome was p l a c e d i n • • • 79 p o s i t i o n m June, but by t h e end o f J u l y , i t had not been 8 0 c o v e r e d , n o r had i t been c o v e r e d by September 3 when the b u i l d i n g was o f f i c i a l l y opened by t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l of Q -I Canada, H.R.H. the Duke o f Connaught ( F i g u r e 1 5 ) . A d d i t i o n a l Op money was a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g on November 18 ( $ 5 8 , 0 0 0 ) and on December 11 ( $ 7 , 0 0 0 ) . J The e x t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g had been completed by December 3 i n c l u d i n g t h e upper p o r t i o n o f 84 the dome which had been c o v e r e d . By December 3 1 , t h e L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g , i n c l u d i n g s i t e , grounds, h e a t i n g t u n n e l , power p l a n t , and t h e Seve n t h S t r e e t B r i d g e had c o s t $ 2 , 1 9 3 , 7 2 1 . 5 6 . 8 ^ I n 1 9 1 3 , t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g was completed i n -c l u d i n g t h e marble and p l a s t e r work i n the r o t u n d a and i n the s t a i r c a s e . 8 ^ P r e m i e r A.L. S i f t o n 8 7 o c c u p i e d h i s o f f i c e s i n t h e 88 89 e a s t wing on J a n u a r y 2 0 , and by F e b r u a r y 11 7 the e a s t wing was e n t i r e l y o c c u p i e d by d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c e s . A f u r t h e r $ 2 7 , 0 0 0 was a p p r o p r i a t e d on October 1 1 . ^ ° F i n a l l y , on November 28, 1 9 1 3 C h a r l e s S t e w a r t was a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works. As e a r l y as 1914, t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was c o n s i d e r e d 92 too s m a l l - 3 2 -The inadequacy o f t h e - t h r e e - m i l l i o n d o l l a r p a r l i a -ment " b u i l d i n g s has n o t o n l y "been found i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , the ' . 0 r 4 i n a r y p d e p a r t m e h t a l : o f f i c e s /have .'suffered. B a r e l y had the s t a f f s been t r a n s f e r r e d from th e o l d b u i l d i n g s , commonly, but a f f e c t i o n a t e l y , known as 'the b a r r a c k s ' ^ t h a n t h e department of p u b l i c works had t o t u r n t o i t s u s u a l d e v i c e s , and t e a r out what i t had put i n , and c o n s t r u c t t h a t which i t had l e f t out.9 3 Even a f t e r a l l t h e o f f i c e s i n the new L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g had been o c c u p i e d , t h e T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g was s t i l l f u l l o f govern-ed ment o f f i c e s . U n d o u b t e d l y , a l a c k o f c o n s t r u c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e on the p a r t o f the Government caused th e b u i l d i n g t o be b u i l t s m a l l e r t h a n t h e i r needs r e q u i r e d . Even though G.F. Todd, l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t o f M o n t r e a l , had been employed i n November 1906 by the p r o v i n c i a l government 9 5 t o l a y out t h e grounds o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , h i s p l a n seems t o have been abandoned. The grounds were graded i n May 96 1914, m p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t e r r a c e gardens which i n c l u d e d t r e e s , s h r u b s , and f l o w e r s from the Government N u r s e r y . These were 97 p l a n t e d d u r i n g the summer, m a r k i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the s i t e . D u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g decades, r e n o v a t i o n s t o t h e b u i l d i n g and a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s i t e were u n d e r t a k e n . The e a s t b o w l i n g g r e e n was added i n 1923 as was t h e west green i n 1932. The i n t e r i o r c o r r i d o r w a l l s were r e p a i n t e d i n 1927 - 1928. The f o u n t a i n i n t h e r o t u n d a was i n s t a l l e d d u r i n g 1939 - 19^0 w h i l e t h e J u b i l e e M e m o r i a l was e r e c t e d i n 1955• The b a n d s h e l l was 'erected i n 1959- On December 1, 1966 t h e c a r i l l o n was i n s t a l l e d . On J a n u -a r y 1, 1967 the c e n t e n n i a l flame was l i t w h i l e the F o r t Edmonton c a i r n was u n v e i l e d on September 7» 1967 • On November 197 -^> - 3 3 -a c o m p e t i t i o n was opened f o r a new l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n f o r the 98 l e g i s l a t i v e grounds. The w i n n e r s , M c i n t o s h , Workun, and Chernenko A r c h i t e c t s L t d . , were announced i n May 1975 . The p l a n •> 99 f e a t u r e d a f i t n e s s centre-, c a f e , l a k e , and r e f l e c t i n g p o o l . 7 T h i s p l a n w i l l not "be implemented as o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d . 1 0 0 The L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g underwent r e n o v a t i o n s i n 1977. The sub-s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x t e r i o r s t e p s was r e b u i l t w h i l e t h e t e r r a c o t t a t i l e s on the dome were r e p a i r e d by r e p l a c i n g and repb.int^r; 101 m g t h e m o r t a r . E x t e n s i v e i n t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n s a r e p l a n n e d f o r t he f u t u r e . D e s c r i p t i o n The c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s were t y p i c a l o f the p e r i o d f o r a b u i l d i n g o f i t s s i z e and f u n c t i o n . The founda-t i o n c o n s i s t s o f br o a d c o n c r e t e f o o t i n g s and w a l l s l a i d up t o the ground f l o o r . The s t r u c t u r e i s a s t e e l frame c o n s i s t i n g o f s t e e l columns, f l o o r beams, and r o o f and dome t r u s s e s . The basement w a l l s and e x t e r i o r s t e p s a re f a c e d w i t h g r a n i t e from Vancouver I s l a n d ( e x a c t l o c a t i o n u n s p e c i f i e d ) , w h i l e the upper s t o r e y s a r e f a c e d i n a g r e y i s h y e l l o w Paskapoo sandstone from the Glenbow Quarry n e a r C a l g a r y . W h i l e i t i s s o f t and e a s i l y c a r v e d when q u a r r i e d , i t hardens w i t h age and exposure. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s a l l o w , murky c o l o u r g i v e s a d i n g y appearance t o the ston e even i n the b r i g h t A l b e r t a s u n l i g h t . The upper p o r t i o n o f t h e dome i s f a c e d i n t e r r a c o t t a . The e x t e r i o r w a l l s a r e backed w i t h b r i c k w o r k and f u r r e d on t h e i n s i d e f a c e s w i t h h o l l o w - 3 4 -porous t e r r a c o t t a "blocks which p r o t e c t the s t e e l beams and columns from f i r e , and p r o v i d e a i r spaces to p r e v e n t dampness and a s o l i d s u r f a c e f o r i n t e r i o r p l a s t e r . The r o t u n d a w a l l s and a l l o t h e r i n t e r i o r w a l l s a r e h o l l o w t e r r a c o t t a b l o c k s . The r o o f i s f l a t w i t h a t a r and g r a v e l c o v e r i n g ( F i g u r e 1 6 ) . The p l a n o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s t o t a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l , v l t i s i n t h e shape o f a 'T' w i t h t h e b a r o f t h e 'T' c o n t a i n i n g the e a s t and west a d m i n i s t r a t i v e wings which house o f f i c e s f o r m i n i s t e r s and c i v i l s e r v a n t s ( F i g u r e 17). The wings a r e j o i n e d by the p u b l i c r o t u n d a ( F i g u r e s 18 and 19) which a l s o l e a d s ( F i g u r e 20) to the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber ( F i g u r e 21) and the l i b r a r y w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e stem o f the 'T' i n t h e s o u t h ( r e a r ) p o r t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g . "The b u i l d i n g o c c u p i e s a p l o t of ground 427 f e e t by 2 9 0 f e e t and the d i s t a n c e from t h e ground 102 t o the t o p o f t h e dome i s 178 f e e t . The b u i l d i n g has t h r e e s t o r e y s w i t h a basement, a sub-basement and an a t t i c . A c r i t i c a l assessment o f t h e i n t e r i o r spaces i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l problems a l t h o u g h a l l n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s , such as washrooms, s t a i r s , and e l e v a t o r s , a re c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d . I n g e n e r a l , t h e spaces a r e compressed, even o p p r e s s i v e . T h i s can be seen i n t h e s m a l l , p o r c h - l i k e e n t r a n c e chamber which seems l i k e a back e n t r a n c e t o the r o t u n d a . I t seems l a r g e enough i n i t s e l f but i s made s m a l l e r by t h e c l o s e d - i n l i g h t w e l l (now a f o u n t a i n ) and t h e l a r g e s t r u c t u r a l elements which appear t o o l a r g e i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the space they s u r r o u n d . The grand s t a i r c a s e i s s i m i l a r l y overpowered by t h e square p i e r s . The - 3 5 -e n t r a n c e t o t h e l i b r a r y i s a l s o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y as one must go under t h e s t a i r c a s e . Because o f the "bright s o u t h e r n exposure, the l i b r a r y windows a r e g e n e r a l l y c u r t a i n e d , t h u s o b s t r u c t i n g the b e a u t i f u l r i v e r v a l l e y view. The l o g i c a l arrangement o f the o f f i c e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e eas t - w e s t c o r r i d o r s and the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f the b u i l d i n g combine t o p r o v i d e easy and c o n v e n i e n t c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h the r e l e v a n t o f f i c e s c l o s e s t t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. Here, the p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s a r e a l s o crowded w i t h t h e s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r a l columns o b s t r u c t i n g t h e view o f t h e chamber. A l l o f t h e s e main a r e a s remain i n s u l a r w i t h no sense o f c o n n e c t i o n o r -ip r o g r e s s i o n from one space t o t h e o t h e r . The e x t e r i o r ( F i g u r e 22) e x h i b i t s many c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l s , i n c l u d i n g wide f l i g h t s o f s t e p s ( t o one main e n t r a n c e and two s i d e e n t r a n c e s ) , , a c e n t r a l p r o j e c t i n g p o r t i c o w i t h s i x hand-c a r v e d . C o r i n t h i a n columns, an e n t a b l a t u r e , pediments ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) , and c i r c u l a r windows and unique s c r o l l s on the dome;-.(Figure 2 3 ) . I n g e n e r a l , t h e b u i l d i n g e x h i b i t s a p l a n a r q u a l i t y , p a r t i -c u l a r l y on t h e n o r t h e l e v a t i o n which appears r a t h e r f l a t . T h i s i s n o t i c e a b l e i n the weakly a r t i c u l a t e d ends. They p r o j e c t o n l y s l i g h t l y . Even t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i c o i s not v e r y deep. The b u i l d i n g i s w e l l l i n k e d h o r i z o n t a l l y , and v e r t i c a l l y , b y the r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e pediment m o t i f i n t h e windows under the p o r -t i c o , t h e main pediment, and i n t h e pediments over t h e arched windows i n t h e dome. The i n t e r i o r has p l a s t e r w a l l s w i t h mahogany and oak t r i m - 3 6 -and p a n e l l i n g ; and marble and t i l e f l o o r s . Grey marble from Quebec was used i n t h e base o f t h e r o t u n d a and t h e r o t u n d a columns, and i n t h e f l o o r and w a l l s o f t h e main s t a i r c a s e . Green marble from P e n n s y l v a n i a was a l s o used i n t h e r o t u n d a . Dark g r e y marble from I t a l y was used i n the r a i l i n g s o f the main s t a i r c a s e . The handcarved oak doors on t h e f r o n t n o r t h e l e v a t i o n a r e from E n g l a n d . The i n t e r i o r abounds w i t h c l a s s i -c a l d e t a i l s such as t h e C o r i n t h i a n columns i n the r o t u n d a , the I o n i c p i l l a r s w i t h r e c t a n g u l a r m o t i f s and g u t t a e , and a c o f f e r e d c e i l i n g ( o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d w i t h a b a r r e l v a u l t i n the main s t a i r c a s e , and t h e I o n i c columns w i t h t a s s e l s i n the l e g i s -l a t i v e chamber. W h i l e i t seems t h a t the chamber was always w h i t e , t h e o r i g i n a l A A x m i n s t e r c a r p e t was "a dark shade o f Old Rose, w i t h s m a l l m e d a l l i o n s showing a crown i n g r e e n and oak 104 shades." The p r e s e n t c a r p e t i s b r i g h t r e d . From i t s i n -c e p t i o n , t h e b u i l d i n g was s e r v i c e d w i t h steam h e a t i n g , e l e c t r i c l i g h t s , and hot and c o l d r u n n i n g water. W h i l e s e v e r a l p a i n t i n g s and s t a t u e s were i n t e n d e d to be p l a c e d i n the i n t e r i o r , t h e s e 105 were n e v e r e x e c u t e d . J Very l i t t l e o f the o r i g i n a l f u r n i t u r e r e m a i n s , t h a t found i n the l i b r a r y a p p e a r i n g t o be t h e o l d e s t . W h i l e the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i s v e r y p l e a s i n g i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s , i t l a c k s an o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e monumental q u a l i t y . I t i s and has always been domi-n a t e d by i t s environment. T h i s may be due to i t s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , compact n a t u r e . The dome and n o r t h p o r t i c o a r e w e l l p r o p o r t i o n e d t o each o t h e r as a r e the p e d i m e n t a l groups on the - 3 7 -e a s t and west wings t o the s o u t h wing. The dome i s p a r t i c u l a r l y -a t t r a c t i v e . D e s i g n S o u r c e s The A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was d e s i g n e d i n the Be a u x - A r t s S t y l e . W h i l e the b u i l d i n g e x h i b i t s a l l o f the e l e -ments o f t h i s s t y l e as d e f i n e d by W h i f f e n such as the c o u p l e d columns, t h e f i v e - p a r t f r o n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n c l i m a x i n g i n a cen-t r a l mass, the a r c h e d and l i n t e l e d o p e n ings, and the symmetri-c a l p l a n n i n g , t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f e f f e c t . T h i s i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n the l e s s t h a n monumental f l i g h t o f s t e p s ; t h e meagerness o f t h e s c u l p t u r a l ornament, t h e r e b e i n g no f i g u r e s c u l p t u r e o r o t h e r s c u l p t u r e i n t h e round; the weak t e r m i n a l f e a t u r e s ; and the s h a l l o w n e s s o f the a d v a n c i n g and r e c e d i n g p l a n e s . T h i s b u i l d i n g can be s a i d t o e x h i b i t a s i m p l i -f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Be a u x - A r t s S t y l e . The s o u r c e s f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g can be t r a c e d i n two ways t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F i r s t o f a l l J e f f e r s would have known the Rhode I s l a n d S t a t e C a p i t o l ( F i g u r e 24) i n P r o v i d e n c e which was d e s i g n e d i n 1891 by McKim, Mead, and White. T h i s well-known American a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m promoted s e v e r a l c l a s s i c a l l y - d e -r i v e d s t y l e s i n t h e Academic C l a s s i c i s m f a s h i o n i n c l u d i n g t he Bea u x - A r t s S.tyle w h i c h t h e y used i n the Rhode I s l a n d S t a t e C a p i t o l . I t s most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e the c e n t r a l dome based on the c e n t r a l dome o f S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l i n London by C h r i s t o p h e r Wren, and the domed ' t o u r e l l e s ' . . The o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s s i m p l e and l i g h t , r e m i n i s c e n t o f the f i r m ' s Second R e n a i s -sance R e v i v a l work. These same ' t o u r e l l e s ' appeared on a f a i r l y l a t e e l e v a t i o n f o r the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g r e v i s e d by J e f f e r s on December 1, 1 9 0 8 ( F i g u r e 25). The s t a t e c a p i t o l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s had always been an i m p o r t a n t and s y m b o l i c b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d i n the most p o p u l a r s t y l e o f t h e t i m e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h J e f f e r s o n ' s F e d e r a l S t y l e V i r g i n i a c a p i t o l ( I 7 8 5 - 1 7 9 8 ) , t o S t r i c k l a n d ' s E a r l y V i c t o r i a n Greek R e v i v a l Tennessee c a p i t o l ( 1 8 4 5 - i 8 6 0 ) , t o Upjohn's H i g h V i c t o r i a n G o t h i c R e v i v a l - C h a t e a u e s q u e C o n n e c t i c u t c a p i t o l ( I 8 7 3 - 1879). However, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the Rhode I s l a n d c a p i t o l i n 1 8 9 1 and e n d i n g w i t h the West V i r g i n i a c a p i t o l i n I 9 3 O , the p r e v a l e n t s t y l e f o r s t a t e c a p i t o l s was the L a t e V i c t o r i a n Beaux-A r t s S t y l e , the p r o t o t y p e b e i n g the N a t i o n a l C a p i t o l b u i l d i n g i n Washington, D.C. w i t h i t s I 8 5 6 dome by W a l t e r , a g a i n based on S t . P a u l ' s . The t y p i c a l s t a t e c a p i t o l o f t h i s p e r i o d I 8 9 O -1 9 3 0 i n c l u d e d a double-winged p l a n w i t h a c e n t r a l r o t u n d a and dome, based on the dome o f W a l t e r , S t . P a u l ' s , the Pantheon, o r S t . P e t e r ' s , a monumental f r o n t p o r t i c o , and a b l a z i n g w h i t e e x t e r i o r c o v e r i n g o f marble o r g r a n i t e . The f i r s t s t a t e c a p i -t o l t o d e p a r t from t h i s norm was B e r t r a m Goodhue's Nebraska c a p i t o l ( 1 9 2 2 - 1 9 3 2 ) . T h i s b u i l d i n g , d e s i g n e d i n t h e emerging Moderne: S t y l e , d i s p l a y e d a f u n c t i o n a l c e n t r a l tower w h i c h con-t a i n e d o f f i c e s . A l t h o u g h i t c o u l d not be determined as t o what k i n d o f t r a i n i n g J e f f e r s would have r e c e i v e d a t t h e Rhode I s l a n d S c h o o l - 3 9 -o f D e s i g n o r i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e s where he t r a i n e d , i t seems t h a t J e f f e r s was f a m i l i a r w i t h the Be a u x - A r t s S t y l e and the E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s method o f d e s i g n i n g . A second d e s i g n s o u r c e f o r t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g can be documented. I n J a n u a r y o f 1907, A l b e r t a M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, W.H. C u s h i n g , made "a t r i p t o M i n n e s o t a and Wis-c o n s i n where he v i s i t e d t he s t a t e c a p i t o l b u i l d i n g s a t S t . P a u l and M adison t o get new i d e a s r e g a r d i n g t h e proposed b u i l d i n g s 107 f o r A l b e r t a . " A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e r e appear t o be no s i m i -l a r e x t e r i o r f e a t u r e s between the A l b e r t a b u i l d i n g and the W i s c o n s i n S t a t e C a p i t o l ( F i g u r e 2 6 ) . The p l a n i s i n a Greek c r o s s , the fac a d e f e a t u r e s C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s t r i p s , and the r i b b e d dome has a C o r i n t h i a n colonnaded drum and i s e n c i r c l e d w i t h s m a l l s c r o l l s and a b a l u s t r a d e . The f o u r t h d e s i g n o f t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g ( F i g u r e 10) d i s p l a y s t h e same colonnaded facade and drum w i t h a s c r o l l m o t i f . A v e r y e l e g a n t d e s i g n , one wonders why i t was r e j e c t e d . The M i n n e s o t a S t a t e C a p i t o l ( F i g u r e 27) has d e f i n i t e s i m i -l a r i t i e s . Even P r e m i e r R u t h e r f o r d " v i s i t e d S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a and i n s p e c t e d the s t a t e c a p i t o l b u i l d i n g s f o r i d e a s f o r t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t u r e , " a l t h o u g h t h i s was not u n t i l November 1907. The b u i l d i n g , d e s i g n e d by Cass G i l b e r t , and sheathed i n w h i t e m a r b l e , f e a t u r e s a l a r g e c e n t r a l dome based on S t . P e t e r s , and two s u b s i d i a r y domes over the Senate and C o u r t Chambers w i t h a n o t h e r s m a l l dome p l a c e d over the House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 109 t o the r e a r o f the r o t u n d a . The b u i l d i n g employed a v e r y - i n -e l a b o r a t e p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e programme w i t h the e n t i r e b u i l d i n g c o s t i n g seven m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . A l t h o u g h the e x a c t d imensions a r e not known, i t i s c e r t a i n l y l a r g e r t h a n the A l -b e r t a b u i l d i n g . V i s u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen i n the s l i g h t -l y a d v a n c i n g wing ends on t h e f r o n t e l e v a t i o n w i t h the c o u p l e d C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s . Most s t r i k i n g a r e the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e r e a r w i n g ( F i g u r e 2 8) w i t h t h e a r c h e d ground s t o r e y and the t w o - s t o r e y C o r i n t h i a n columns above. The M i n n e s o t a b u i l d i n g , however, does not use t h e b r o k e n pediment m o t i f on the s i d e s o f the r e a r wing ( F i g u r e 2 9 ) • There i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g v i s u a l s ource f o r t h e c i r c u -l a r window m o t i f on t h e dome o f the A l b e r t a b u i l d i n g . I t i s t h e B r a z i l B u i l d i n g from the S t . L o u i s World's F a i r ( F i g u r e 3.0) W h i l e d e s i g n e d i n t h e B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e , i t has no o t h e r s p e c i f i v i s u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . The A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , t h e r e f o r e , has not o n l y g e n e r a l but s p e c i f i c American s o u r c e s f o r i t s d e s i g n . -41-F o o t n o t e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , November 8, 1905, p. 1. Edmonton J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1905, n.p. Edmonton B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 2 6 , 1906, p . l . I b i d . , November 2 3 , 1905, p.8 . I b i d . , November 8, 1907, p. 13 . The T h i s t l e R i n k , Empire B l o c k , and T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g have a l l been d e m o l i s h e d . McKay Avenue S c h o o l was d e s i g n a t e d a P r o v i n c i a l H i s t o r i c S i t e i n 1976. 7 See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . g Edmonton B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 2 6 , 1906, p. 1. 9 L e t t e r , A.C. R u t h e r f o r d t o C.C. Chipman, Land Com-m i s s i o n e r , Hudson's Bay Company, J u l y 11 , 1906, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , A r c h i v e s , R u t h e r f o r d P a p e r s . 10 Dean C l a r k , Port Edmonton, Museum and A r c h i v e s Notes, #4 (Edmonton: A l b e r t a C u l t u r e , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1. 11 See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . 12 Telegram, M.J. MacLeod to A.C. R u t h e r f o r d , October 10, 1906, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , A r c h i v e s , R u t h e r f o r d P a p e r s . 13 J The Beaver, (December, 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 25- I t was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e d u r i n g the f a l l o f 1 9 0 5 . 14 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 2 7 , 1907, p. 1. 15 16 2 7 , 1906. 1? 18 19 20 3 , 1907. Edmonton J o u r n a l , October 1.3, 1915, p. 1. A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 1 9 2 / 0 6 , March Edmonton B u l l e t i n , June 2 3 , 1906, p. 3 . I b i d . , May 5 , 1906, p. 2 . R e g i n a L e a d e r , J a n u a r y 9 , 1907, p. 1. A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 3 0 0 / 0 7 , May.'/: - 4 2 -21 4 , 1907. 22 P- 9 23 24 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 67/07, March C o n s t r u c t i o n , I ( O c t o b e r , 1907), p. 64. Canadian A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , X X I I (March, 1908), Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 2 7 , 1907, p. 1. 2 5 J A p p l i c a t i o n Form #111, August 10, 1922, A r c h i t e c -t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( A . I . B . C . ) , Dead F i l e s . 26 . j ; I b i d . 27 L e t t e r from B. C l a e s o n , R e g i s t r a r , Rhode I s l a n d S c h o o l o f D e s i g n , P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d , November 13 , I 9 7 8 . p o A p p l i c a t b n Form #111, August 1 0 , 1922, A.I.B.C., See Appendix C. A p p l i c a t i o n Form #111, August 10, 1922, A.I.B.C., Edmonton J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y 18, 1912, p. 1. Dead F i l e s 29 30 Dead F i l e s 31 32 ^ Edmonton C a p i t a l , November 10 , 1913, p. 1. Cer-t a i n aldermen accused t h e A r c h i t e c t u r e Department o f f i n a n c i a l e x t r a v a g a n c e . 33 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1914, p. 6 . 3^ I b i d . , March 19 to May 7. 1915, p. 6 . 35 A p p l i c a t i o n Form #111, August 10, 1922, A.I.B.C., Dead F i l e s . J e f f e r s was r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e A.I.B.C. f o r 1922 and I 9 2 3 . J e f f e r s was not a r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t w i t h the American I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s p r i o r t o coming t o Edmonton. 36 L e t t e r , A.M. J e f f e r s t o F. T.ownley, S e c r e t a r y , A.I.B.C., J a n u a r y 13 , 1923, A.I.B.C., Dead F i l e s . 37 y Edmonton J o u r n a l , J u l y 15, 1970, n.p. 3Q C e r t i f i c a t e o f Death, November 3 , 1926, S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a , O f f i c e o f t h e S t a t e R e g i s t r a r of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 2 6 - 0 4 7 3 4 5 . 3 9 I b i d . - 4 3 -40 A.W. Cashman, More Edmonton S t o r i e s (Edmonton: I n s t i t u t e of A p p l i e d A r t L t d . , 1 9 5 8 ), p. 198. According to Cashman, Blakey removed an arch s i t u a t e d over the s t a i r c a s e and lowered the rotunda roof. This could not be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by P u b l i c Works Annual Reports or i n t e r i o r drawings. A r t i c l e s of Apprenticeship, A p r i l 2 , 1 8 9 5 , M.G. Blakey C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. 42 K.W. Pysmeny, "Government House" (unpublished paper, Northern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1 9 6 9), p. 1 1 . 43 Interview w i t h M.G. Blakey, A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 7 5 , Vancouver. 44 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 5 8 6 / O 7 , Octo-ber 2 5 , 1 9 0 7 - See Appendix I f o r a biography of h i s brother, W.G. Blakey, who j o i n e d him i n Edmonton. 45 L e t t e r from R. Kamen, L i b r a r y , R.I.B.A., London, March 6 , 1 9 7 5 -46 A l t e r a t i o n s , F o r t Macleod Courthouse, J u l y 18, 1 9 2 4 , A l b e r t a Department of P u b l i c Works, Plans. The p o s i t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t was abolished by the s o c i a l i s t United Farmers of A l b e r t a p a r t y who were i n power 1921 - 1 9 3 5 - See Appendix D. 47 Edmonton J o u r n a l , May 6 , I 9 6 3 , p. 2 6 . 48 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , June 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1. 49 A l b e r t a , Department of P u b l i c Works, Annual Report  1 9 0 8 (Edmonton: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 6 9 . -5° Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1 . 51 Plans, A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a Housing and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 5 2 I b i d . 53 B u i l d i n g Permit, February 2 8 , 1 9 0 8 , C i t y of Edmon-ton, A r c h i v e s , B u i l d i n g Permit Book. 54 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 1 3 , 1 9 0 8 , p. 2 . In a much l a t e r issue of the Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 3 0 , 1 9 5 0 , n.p., i t i s s t a t e d that problems occurred during the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the foundation due to quicksand. This i s the f i r s t reference to t h i s problem, there being no previous mention of t h i s s i t u a -t i o n . A l l subsequent a r t i c l e s i n newspapers and guide books perpetuate t h i s myth. No contemporaneous accounts c. 1 9 0 8 sub-s t a n t i a t e t h i s statement. 55 i b i d . , September 5 , 1908, p. 9 . 5 6 P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 57 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 1 9 9 / 0 9 , May 12, 1909. 5Q C o n s t r u c t i o n , I I I (December, 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 104. 5 9 I b i d . ^ P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 6 1 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , August 12 , 1910, p. 3 . 62 P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. ^3 Edmonton C a p i t a l , June 2 6 , 1911, P- 1. By 1915, no sto n e q u a r r i e s were o p e r a t i n g on a l a r g e s c a l e n e a r C a l g a r y . 64 L e g i s l a t i v e Tour (Edmonton: A l b e r t a Government P u b l i c i t y Bureau, n . d . ) , n. p. See Appendix I f o r a b i o g r a p h y o f G.D. McKay. 6 ^ D Memo from J . S t o c k s , Deputy M i n i s t e r t o C. M i t c h e l l , M i n i s t e r , October 7, 1913» A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . ^ A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 6 O 3/H, J u l y 2 9 , 1911. 6 7 P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 68 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 653/11» August 19 . 1911- See Appendix I .fior b i o g r a p h y . 69 7 P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 70 ' Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 1, 1911, p. 9 . 71 ' Edmonton C a p i t a l , December 15 , 1911, p. 1. 7 2 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 159/12, F e b r u -a r y 16, 1912. 7 3 D A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 160/12 , F e b r u -a r y 16, 1912. 74 ' P l a n s , A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , A l b e r t a H o u s i n g / -45-and P u b l i c Works, Edmonton. 7 5 ^ Edmonton J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y 2 3 , 1912, p. 1. 7 6 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , A p r i l 1 3 , 1912, p. 5 . 77 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 417/12, May 4, 1912, See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . 7 8 Edmonton C a p i t a l , May 7. 1912, p. 1. 7 9 I b i d . , June 22, 1912, p. 1. 8 0 Edmonton J o u r n a l , J u l y 311 1912, p. 1. The dome was t o have been c o v e r e d i n copper, but due t o a d e l a y i n o r -d e r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l , t h e more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t e r r a c o t t a was used. 81 Photograph by Ross, September 3 i 1912, Edmonton C i t y A r c h i v e s , Photograph C o l l e c t i o n . 82 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 1 0 0 3/12, Novem-ber 18, 1912. Q o ^ A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 1 1 0 9/12, December 11, 1912. 84 Photograph by Ross, December 3 , 1912, Edmonton C i t y A r c h i v e s , P h otograph C o l l e c t i o n . 8 ^ A l b e r t a , J o u r n a l o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly 1913 (Edmonton: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1914), p. 56. 86 A l b e r t a , P u b l i c Works Department, Annual Report  1913 (Edmonton: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1914), p. 3 6 . See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . 88 Edmonton C a p i t a l , J a n u a r y 20, 19 1 3 , p. 1. 8Q 7 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , F e b r u a r y 11, 1913, p. 2. 90 A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 908/13, Octo-be r 11, 1913. 9"*" A l b e r t a Government, Order i n C o u n c i l 1 0 7 0/13, November 2 8 , 1913-9 2 Edmonton J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y 21, 1914, p. 18. 9 3 I b i d . 9 ^ Edmonton C a p i t a l , J u l y 8, 1914, p. 7 . -46-9 5 9 6 9 7 9 8 99 1 0 0 Edmonton B u l l e t i n , November 1 0 , 1 9 0 6 , p. 3 . Edmonton C a p i t a l , May 2 2 , 1 9 1 4 , p. 8 . Edmonton B u l l e t i n , September 2 5 , 1 9 1 4 , p. 4 . S t . John's Edmonton R e p o r t , May 5 , 1 0 7 5 , p. 4 . I b i d . , p. 5 • " Edmonton J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y 5 , 1 9 7 9 , n.p.,and t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. M c i n t o s h , September 2 5 , 1 9 7 9 . 101 S a i n t John's Edmonton R e p o r t , June 2 7 , 1 9 7 7 , p. 1 2 . 102 These dim e n s i o n s a r e l a r g e r t h a n those proposed by Hopkins ( 2 9 3 f e e t by 1 9 5 f e e t w i t h a 113 f o o t dome). 103 J Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1 . 104 L e t t e r , ;.C.H. Dancer, Deputy M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, t o W.H. Montague, M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, M a n i t o b a , A p r i l 14, 1 9 1 5 , M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , R o b l i n P a p e r s . The desks were o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be p l a c e d i n a h e m i c y c l e , o r c urve f a c i n g the Speaker's c h a i r , and not i n o p p o s i t i o n as t h e y a re now. 10 5 J Edmonton B u l l e t i n , December 2 7 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1 . 1 0 6 See Appendix H. S i x t e e n s t a t e c a p i t o l s were de-s i g n e d i n t h e B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . k S e v e r a l o f t h e s e r e p l a c e d p r e v i o u s l y b u i l t , s m a l l e r c a p i t o l s . 107 R e g i n a L e a d e r , J a n u a r y 9 , 1 9 0 7 , p. 1. 1 08 S t r a t h c o n a P l a i n d e a l e r , November 2 2 , 1 9 0 7 , n.p. 109 T h i s i s v e r y u n u s u a l . Only two, s m a l l e r domes ar e g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d over t h e Senate and House o f R e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s , and t h e y a r e s i t u a t e d a t the ends o f the two main wings. - 4 7 -BE" F i g u r e 5- T e r r a c e B u i l d i n g October 1907 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ) -48-F i g u r e 6 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g ( a t l e f t ) L o o k i n g E a s t Down N o r t h Saskatchewan R i v e r 1932 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ) F i g u r e ?: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Southwest C o r n e r w i t h H.B.C. B u i l d i n g s i n R i g h t Foreground c 1915 ( P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada PA-11278) - 5 0 -F i g u r e 8: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g D e s i g n #1 November 1906 (Edmonton B u l l e t i n . November 5, 1906, p. 9) - 5 1 -PLAN OF RwuAMtrrr tWLOtnqs — EDMONTON — < ; : ; : . i . J ' ^ i^ : ' ? I ! l l i . L ' i t ^ i ^ . ^ i . , i ; i = J : : ' - V - - v ' ^ - r " - : w . ^ . . t i ^ a ^ t . rnorwT ELEVATIOH F i g u r e 9s A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g F r o n t E l e v a t i o n D e s i g n #3 Undated ( A l b e r t a . P u b l i c Works Department. L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g P l a n s ) - 5 2 -F i g u r e 10: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g F r o n t E l e v a t i o n D e s i g n #4 Undated ( A l b e r t a . P u b l i c Works Department. L e g i s -l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P l a n s ) - 5 3 --54-F i g u r e 12: R i c h a r d P a l i n B l a k e y Date Unknown (M.G. B l a k e y C o l l e c t i o n ) / -55-F i g u r e 1 3 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g E x c a v a t i n g October 1907 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ) -56-F i g u r e 14: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Workers F i n i s h i n g C a r v i n g C a p i t a 1911 ( G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e ) - 5 7 -F i g u r e 15: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g N o r t h E l e v a t i o n Under C o n s t r u c t i o n c. August 1912 ( G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e ) - 5 8 -ng F i g u r e 1 6 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i j A e r i a l View c. 1 9 6 5 ( A l b e r t a Government P h o t o g r a p h i c S e r v i c e s -Bureau o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s ) -59-F i g u r e 17: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Second F l o o r P l a n ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ) -60-F i g u r e 18: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g L o o k i n g From Rotunda Towards S t a i r c a s e and L e g i s l a t i v e Chambers i n South Wing c. 1913 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a - Brown C o l -l e c t i o n ) - 6 1 -F i g u r e 19: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Rotunda L o o k i n g Upwards I n t o Dome c. 1965 ( A l b e r t a Government P h o t o g r a p h i c S e r v i c e s -Bureau o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s ) -62-F i g u r e 20: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g L o o k i n g Down Ma r b l e S t a i r c a s e Towards Rotunda and N o r t h W a l l ( A l b e r t a Government P h o t o g r a p h i c S e r v i c e s -Bureau o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s ) / -63--64-F i g u r e 22: A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g N o r t h E l e v a t i o n c. 1914 ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a - Brown C o l l e c t i o n ) - 6 5 -F i g u r e 2 3 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Dome c. 1 9 6 5 ( A l b e r t a Government P h o t o g r a p h i c Ser-v i c e s - Bureau o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s ) - 6 6 -F i g u r e 24: Rhode I s l a n d S t a t e C a p i t o l c. 1 9 0 9 B u i l t 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 0 6 McKim, Mead and White, A r c h i t e c t s ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review. XXVI ( O c t o b e r , 1909) / -67-F i g u r e 2 5 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Drawing o f F r o n t E l e v a t i o n December 1, 1 9 0 8 ( A l b e r t a . P u b l i c Works Department. L e g i s -l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P l a n s ) - 6 8 -F i g u r e 2 6 : W i s c o n s i n S t a t e C a p i t o l View From Washington Avenue c. 1917 B u i l t 1 9 0 6 - 1917 George Browne P o s t , A r c h i t e c t ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , X L I I (September, 1 9 1 7 ) , p. 1 9 9 ) - 6 9 -F i g u r e 2 7 : M i n n e s o t a S t a t e C a p i t o l F r o n t E l e v a t i o n c. 1912 B u i l t 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 0 5 Cass G i l b e r t , A r c h i t e c t ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XXXI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 2 ) , p.1 5 ) - 7 0 -F i g u r e 2 8 : M i n n e s o t a S t a t e C a p i t o l Northwest C o r n e r (Rear) c. 1912 B u i l t I896 - 1905 Cass G i l b e r t , A r c h i t e c t ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XXXI ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 2 ) , pTTTD - 7 1 -i g u r e 2 9 : A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g S o u t h e a s t C o r n e r c. 1914 ( G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e ) -72-F i g u r e 3 0 : B r a z i l B u i l d i n g S t . L o u i s World's F a i r 1 9 0 4 ( C a n a d i a n Magazine. XXIV (Novem-b e r / A p r i l , 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 0 5 ), p. 3 5 ) - 7 3 -CHAPTER I I THE SASKATCHEWAN LEGISLATIVE BUILDING A l t h o u g h Saskatchewan became a p r o v i n c e on September 1, 1905, e l e c t i o n s were n o t h e l d u n t i l December 13 . 1905- One o f t h e f i r s t i t e m s o f b u s i n e s s o f the newly e l e c t e d L i b e r a l p a r t y was t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n o f the c a p i t a l cijuy. W h i l e R e g i n a had been made the p r o v i s i o n a l c a p i t a l by the 1 F e d e r a l Government on F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1905, s e v e r a l o t h e r towns and c i t i e s i n Saskatchewan, i n c l u d i n g S a s k a t o o n and P r i n c e A l b e r t , w i s h e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d as p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t e s i t e s f o r the c a p i t a l . Each town i n t u r n j u s t i f i e d i t s c l a i m by c i t i n g t h e beauty o f i t s l o c a t i o n , of P e o p l e would come from f a r and n e a r to see t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s on P r i n c e A l b e r t H i l l , w h i l e t h e y wouldn't go 2 m i l e s t o see them h i d d e n on R e g i n a p r a i r i e o r Saskatoon's k n o l l . 2 The government b u i l d i n g s would o v e r l o o k th e v a l l e y i n w hich the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the c i t y [• Saskatoon'. ] s i s s i t u a t e d and between the c i t y and the b u i l d i n g s , , w i l l f l o w the m i g h t y [( South)] Saskatchewan R i v e r . . .".-> N e v e r t h e l e s s , when the q u e s t i o n was put t o the Assembly on May 2 3 , 1906, Regma p r e v a i l e d o v er i t s r i v a l s . S e v e r a l b u i l d i n g s housed the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e assem-b l y and the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments b e f o r e th e c o m p l e t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . The d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c e s were l o c a t e d i n the T e r r i t o r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u i l d i n g , b u i l t I 8 9 I , from 1906 u n t i l November 1910 when o f f i c e s wereir.moved t o the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . ^ The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly met i n the -74-T e r r i t o r i a l L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , b u i l t I883, from 1906 t o 1908. I n J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 , t h e y moved t o t h e second f l o o r o f the new 7 P o s t O f f i c e where t h e y met u n t i l December 1910. Even b e f o r e the government d i s c o v e r e d how cramped t h e s e temporary q u a r t e r s would be, t h e Assembly v o t e d $ 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 on May 23, 1 9 0 6 f o r the purchase o f a s i t e f o r a new L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , as w e l l as Q f o r p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a n s and a s t a r t on c o n s t r u c t i o n . H i s t o r y N e g o t i a t i o n s began i m m e d i a t e l y f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f a s i t e . Seven s i t e s were c o n s i d e r e d but o n l y one s u i t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f J.A. C a l d e r , P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r and n e g o t i a t o r f o r the government, 9 who^wisely e n v i s i o n e d the f u t u r e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i n a p a r k s e t t i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the s i t e p u r c h a s e d 10 on June 2 2 , 1 9 0 6 c o n s i s t e d o f 168 a c r e s on the s o u t h s i d e o f Wascana Creek (now t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d Wascana Lake) o p p o s i t e t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g Wascana Par k t o the n o r t h . The government pur c h a s e d t h e l a n d from McCallum, H i l l and Company 11 f o r $ 9 6 , 2 5 0 . A l t h o u g h t t h e s i t e i s now l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f the c i t y , i t was t h e n s i t u a t e d on the edge of town, where s u f f i c i e n t l a n d was a v a i l a b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a s u r r o u n d i n g p a r k . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s i t e a f f o r d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b u i l d i n g t h a t would f a c e b o t h the water and the c i t y ( F i g u r e 3 1 ) S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e purchase o f the s i t e , P r e m i e r W a l t e r . . 12 S c o t t , who was a l s o M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, began t o c o n s i d e t h e b e s t method of o b t a i n i n g an a r c h i t e c t f o r the L e g i s l a t i v e - 7 5 -B u i l d i n g . He i n i t i a l l y considered, i n t e r v i e w i n g a r c h i t e c t s and making an appointment. On September 5 i 1906, d u r i n g a v i s i t t o the west c o a s t , S c o t t met w i t h F r a n c i s Mawson R a t t e n b u r y , a prominent and s u c c e s s f u l B.C. a r c h i t e c t . N o t i n g t h a t S c o t t was w a v e r i n g between a c o m p e t i t i o n or an appointment, R a t t e n b u r y a d v i s e d a g a i n s t t h e f o r m e r , o n l y i n t i m a t i n g t h a t i t would be b e s t t o s i m p l y commission a r e p u t a b l e a r c h i t e c t , such as him-13 s e l f . J A l t h o u g h S c o t t had i n i t i a l l y "almost come t o the con-c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no a r c h i t e c t i n Canada from whom we can expect as good r e s u l t s as R a t t e n b u r y o f V i c t o r i a , " a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g he had "not y e t a r r i v e d a t a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n as t o 1 5 t h e method we w i l l f o l l o w . " -1 A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h o u t s i d e con-s u l t a n t s from New Y o r k , S t . P a u l , and V i c t o r i a , and h i s c o l i leagues,' S c o t t d e c i d e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o have the b e s t p o s s i b l e c h o i c e o f d e s i g n , a c o m p e t i t i o n , by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y , s h o u l d be h e l d . I n f a c t , he f e l t t h a t "we s h a l l have e n l i s t e d the b e s t t a l e n t i n a r c h i t e c t u r e which e x i s t s i n t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g 16 w o r l d . " S c o t t asked P e r c y E. Nobbs;, P r o f e s s o r o f A r c h i t e c -t u r e a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y t o a r r a n g e the c o m p e t i t i o n , s e l e c t t h e c o m p e t i t o r s , and s e r v e as an a s s e s s o r of the s u b m i t t e d d e s i g n s . Nobbs -• s u g g e s t e d one o t h e r a r c h i t e c t t o s e r v e as an ' 17 a s s o c i a t e a s s e s s o r , B e r t r a m Goodhue of New York; ' w h i l e 1 R Cass G i l b e r t suggested Frank M i l e s Day o f P h i l a d e l p h i a . W h i l e Goodhue (1869 - 1924) i s b e s t known f o r h i s G o t h i c R e v i -v a l c h u r c h e s , he was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e A r t s and C r a f t s - 7 6 -movement; he l a t e r p u r s u e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n i n d i g e n o u s s t y l e s by u s i n g t h e S p a n i s h C h u r r i g u e r e s q u e S t y l e almost e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the 1 9 1 5 P a n a m a - P a c i f i c E x p o s i t i o n i n San -Diego . , Day i s b e s t known f o r h i s C o l l e g i a t e G o t h i c b u i l d i n g s a t P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . The c o n d i t i o n s f o r the c o m p e t i t i o n were made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c o m p e t i t o r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f September g i v i n g them u n t i l November 3 0 , 1 9 0 7 t o p r e p a r e th e many r e q u i r e d p l a n s and d r a w e r s -19 i n g s . y The c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r and c o s t 2 0 ( $ 1 , 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) o f t h e proposed b u i l d i n g , suggested some a l l o -c a t i o n o f space, and d e s c r i b e d t h e S o u t h e r n Saskatchewan c l i m a t e . The d e s i g n was to accomodate a d d i t i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s . Cana-d i a n m a t e r i a l s were t o be used wherever p o s s i b l e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e w a l l s were t o be r e d b r i c k w i t h l i m e s t o n e t r i m . Two o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n d i t i o n s concerned the appearance of the b u i l d i n g . "As the s i t e i s so f a r from th e c i t y , some domina-21 t i n g f e a t u r e such as a dome o r tower i s suggested." Second-l y , the f a c t t h a t Saskatchewan was a p o l i t i c a l u n i t w i t h i n t h e 22 B r i t i s h Empire -'should be e x p r e s s e d m the b u i l d i n g . Unsuc-c e s s f u l c o m p e t i t o r s would r e c i e v e $ 1 , 5 0 0 f o r t h e i r expenses, w h i l e t h e w i n n e r ' would r e c e i v e 5% commission on t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f t h e work. He would a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e s e con-d i t i o n s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r c h i t e c t s . Seven a r c h i t e c t s were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e - 7 7 -c o m p e t i t i o n : one from E n g l a n d , one from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and f i v e from Canada. The E n g l i s h e n t r y was s u b m i t t e d by M i t c h e l l and Raine of London, E n g l a n d . A l t h o u g h t h e y were t h e n h i g h l y r e g a r d e d , v e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h e i r work. T h e i r p r o p o s a l was a v e r y complex one, b o t h i n e l e v a t i o n and i n p l a n ( F i g u r e 3 2 ) . The main e l e v a t i o n p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f b u i l t - u p forms as seen i n t h e d o u b l e - p o r t i c o e d c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e w i t h a d j a c e n t t o w e r s , t h e t h r e e l a y e r e d c e n t r a l c l o c k tower, and the two c o r n e r wing t o w e r s . The p l a n i s i n the shape of a square 'B' w i t h two open c o u r t s . The l e g i s l a t i v e chamber i s p l a c e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f the b u i l d i n g t o a p p a r e n t l y s e c u r e t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e i s o l a t i o n from a l l d i s t r a c t i o n s . - H a r d l y n e c e s s a r y i n the m i d d l e o f 168 a c r e s o f b a l d p r a i r i e . T h i s d e s i g n has c l e a r v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e Edwardian Baroque town h a l l s i n Great B r i t a i n and A u s t r a l i a , a l t h o u g h t h e arrangement o f t h e p a r t s on the f r o n t e l e v a t i o n and p l a n r e l a t e t o the concept of sym-m e t r i c a l and a x i a l p l a n n i n g o f She E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s . The American a r c h i t e c t was Cass G i l b e r t ( 1 8 5 9 - 1 9 3 4 ) o f New Y ork. He became f a m i l i a r w i t h the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e w h i l e w o r k i n g f o r McKim, Mead, and White ( 1 8 8 0 - 1 8 8 2 ) . He used t h i s s t y l e f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y i n h i s b u i l d i n g s such as t h e M i n -n e s o t a S t a t e C a p i t o l , t h e Customs House i n New York ( 1 8 9 9 f 1 9 0 3 ) , t h e A r k a n s a s S t a t e C a p i t o l ( I 8 9 9 - 1916), and t h e West V i r g i n i a S t a t e C a p i t o l ( 1 9 3 ° - 1 9 3 2 ) . H i s b e s t known d e p a r t u r e from t h i s s t y l e i s h i s q u a s i - G o t h i c R e v i v a l Woolworth B u i l d i n g - 7 8 -i n New Y ork ( 1 9 1 1 ) . The s t y l e o f h i s p r o p o s a l f o r t h e L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g i s C o l l e g i a t e G o t h i c , a s s o c i a t e d most prominent-l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. A s l e n d e r square tower r i s e s above the c r o s s i n g ( F i g u r e 3 3 ) . W h i l e th e p l a n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y T-shaped, G i l b e r t a l s o p r o -v i d e d two open c o u r t , a r e a s . B u i l d i n g s w i t h open c o u r t s are more d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y t o h e a t . To meet the " B r i t i s h Empire" c o n d i t i o n o f the c o m p e t i t i o n , G i l b e r t p r o b a b l y t h o u g h t h i s de-s i g n would form a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the G o t h i c R e v i v a l P a r l i a -ment B u i l d i n g s i n Ottawa by Thomas F u l l e r ( 1 8 5 9 - I 8 6 7 ) and London by C h a r l e s B a r r y (184-0 - 1 8 6 5 ) . The C anadian schemes were e x t r e m e l y d i v e r g e n t : two were v e r y s t r o n g l y American i n i n s p i r a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r t h r e e had marked B r i t i s h a s s o c i a t i o n s . F.M. R a t t e n b u r y ( 1 8 6 7 - 1 1 9 3 5 ) o f V i c t o r i a d e s i g n e d many s t r u c t u r e s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, most n o t a b l y f o r t h e C.P.R. and t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l . . H i s more i m p o r t a n t " b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e the Romanesque R e v i v a l L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i n V i c t o r i a ( 1 8 9 3 -I 8 9 7 , 1912 - 1 9 1 5 ) , t h e Chateau S t y l e Bank of M o n t r e a l i n V i c t o r i a ( I 8 9 6 ) , t h e Tudor-Chat eau S t y l e Empress H o t e l i n V i c t o r i a ( 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 0 8 ) , a n d the N e o - c l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l Courthouse i n Vancouver ( 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 1 1 ) , from which R a t t e n b u r y * s p r o p o s a l f o r the Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g ( F i g u r e Jk) was expanded. The d e s i g n d i s p l a y s a v e r y s e v e r e N e o - c l a s s i c a l R e v i v a l S t y l e u t i l i z i n g a m o t i f of I o n i c colonnades i n the wings and t h e f a m i l i a r Rhode I s l a n d colonnaded dome and ' t o u r e l l e s ' . The forms b u i l d up from th e wings toward the -79-t h e c e n t e r . The p l a n i s a l s o v e r y s e v ere and r e c t a n g u l a r . I n g e n e r a l , the " b u i l d i n g f o l l o w s the s t a t e c a p i t o l f o r m a t . S t o r e y and Van Egmond were a prominent R e g i n a f i r m a c t i v e i n v a r i o u s towns i n Saskatchewan, i n c l u d i n g S a s k a t o o n . S:ome o f t h e i r works i n c l u d e the Courthouse i n S a s k a t o o n and the T e l e -phone Exchange i n R e g i n a . E.M. S t o r e y worked as an a r c h i t e c t i n New York and K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o b e f o r e coming t o R e g i n a i n 2 3 A p r i l 1906. J W.B. Van Egmond s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i n T o r o n t o and New Y ork under t h e B e a u x - A r t s system b e f o r e coming to • 24 R e g i n a m 1 9 0 6 . The f r o n t e l e v a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l ( F i g u r e 35) shows two wings emphasized a t the ends w i t h C o r i n -t h i a n columns and f l a t domes, c u l m i n a t i n g i n a c e n t r a l p o r t i c o w i t h c o u p l e d C o r i n t h i a n columns and a colonnaded drum and dome, a g a i n f o l l o w i n g t h e American s t a t e c a p i t o l t y p e . The d e s i g n resembles th e f r o n t e l e v a t i o n o f the M i s s i s s i p p i S t a t e C a p i t o l ( 1 9 0 1 - 1 9 0 3 ) except f o r t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r wing ends. The p l a n i s i n t h e shape of a ;'W w i t h t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber i n the r e a r o f t h e c e n t r e p o r t i o n . U n l i k e the American s t a t e c a p i t o l where the two f l a t domes mark the chambers of the Senate and t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e y a r e here used t o mark the c r o s -s i n g s . The s t y l e used i s the B e a u x - A r t s . Marchand and H a s k e l l were a prominent M o n t r e a l a r c h i t e c -t u r a l f i r m but v e r y l i t t l e i s known o f t h e i r work. Joseph Omer Marchand ( 1 8 7 3 - 1936) was t h e f i r s t F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n t o s t u d y a t t h e E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s i n P a r i s ( I 8 9 3 - 1 9 0 3 ) . He d e s i g n e d many churches i n M o n t r e a l and the S t . B o n i f a c e c a t h e d r a l -80-i n M a n i t o b a . He a l s o d e s i g n e d the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g i n Ottawa w i t h J.A. P e a r s o n i n 1916. The Saskatchewan p r o j e c t combines t h e American B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e i n the f i v e - p a r t f r o n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n , pedimented c o r n e r s , and c e n t r a l e n t r a n c e w i t h an E n g l i s h c l o c k tower. A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l 'T* shape, t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber i s p l a c e d i n t h e c e n t r a l p r o j e c t i n g f r o n t e n t r a n c e ( F i g u r e 3 6 ) . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l elements i s w o r t h n o t i n g i n t h i s d e s i g n . D a r l i n g and P e a r s o n of Winnipeg and Toronto were t h e f o u r t h c o m p e t i t o r s from Canada. T h e i r most prominent b u i l d i n g s i n -c l u d e t h e Candian Bank o f Commerce i n Vancouver ( 1906 - 1 9 0 8 ) , and the R o y a l Bank B u i l d i n g ( 1 9 0 6 ) , the Bank.of Nova S c o t i a ( 1 9 1 0 ) » and the Ca n a d i a n I m p e r i a l Bank o f Commerce ( 1 9 1 2 ) , a l l i n W innipeg and a l l d e s i g n e d i n t h e Academic C l a s s i c a l S t y l e . F r a nk D a r l i n g ( 1850 - 1923) r e c e i v e d h i s t r a i n i n g i n the a r c h i -t e c t u r a l o f f i c e o f Henry L a n g l e y i n Tor o n t o ( 1 8 6 6 ) , and under George Edmund S t r e e t i n London ( 1 8 7 0 ) . He formed h i s p a r t n e r -s h i p w i t h John A. P e a r s o n i n 1895- The p r o p o s a l by D a r l i n g and P e a r s o n i s i n t h e B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e w i t h an Edwardian Baroque emphasis on c o m p l e x i t y and exuberance o f forms as seen i n t h e bro k e n pediments and c o u p l e d C o r i n t h i a n columns i n t h e wings, th e main e n t r a n c e w i t h i t s a d j a c e n t t o w e r s , and dome adorned w i t h f i g u r e s c u l p t u r e s . The p l a n i s i n a complex 'B* shape w i t h two open c o u r t a r e a s . Once a g a i n , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g sense o f E n g l i s h d e t a i l combined w i t h an American B e a u x - A r t s sense o f c o m p o s i t i o n ( F i g u r e 3 7 ) -On December 21, 1907, E. and W.S. M a x w e l l of M o n t r e a l 25 were announced the w i n n e r s o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . Edward M a x w e l l ( F i g u r e 3 8 ) , b o r n December 31, 1867, worked w i t h H.H. R i c h a r d -26 son's s u c c e s s o r s , S h e p l e y , Rutan, and C o o l i d g e , b e f o r e g o i n g 27 i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h h i s b r o t h e r m 1902 ' i n M o n t r e a l . W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d M a x w e l l (November 14, 1874 - March 2 5 , 1952) was b o r n i n M o n t r e a l ( F i g u r e 39) and began h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g as a draughtsman i n h i s b r o t h e r ' s o f f i c e i n 1890. He spent t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e o f f i c e o f W i l s o n and W e t h e r e l l of B o s t o n I 8 9 3 - I 8 9 6 . I n 1899 he e n t e r e d t h e E c o l e des Beaux-A r t s i n P a r i s and s t u d i e d under L o u i s P a s c a l f o r two y e a r s . He l a t e r became a member of t h e B e a u x - A r t s I n s t i t u t e o f D e s i g n ' 28 i n New York. He was a l s o e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e i n the R.A.I.C., t h e R o y a l Canadian Academy, the ' a t e l i e r ' M a x w e l l , t h e M o n t r e a l A r t s C l u b , and the P r o v i n c e o f Quebec A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s . The M a x w e l l p a r t n e r s h i p d i s s o l v e d i n 1923 w i t h the d e a t h o f Edward M a x w e l l on November 14. D u r i n g t h e i r p a r t n e r s h i p , t h e y d e s i g n e d many b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e C.P.R. i n B r i t i s h Coihumbia, Winnipeg, and Ottawa as w e l l as commercial b u i l d i n g s and l a r g e 30 r e s i d e n c e s m M o n t r e a l . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s were d e s i g n e d i n the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e as was t h e i r p r o p o s a l f o r t h e Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g ( F i g u r e 4 0 ) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i g n proceeded r a t h e r q u i c k l y i n comparison w i t h t h e o t h e r p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s . F r e d e r i c k G. Todd o f M o n t r e a l had a l r e a d y s u b m i t t e d a p o r t i o n o f h i s l a n d s c a p e p l a n f o r t h e s i t e i n October 1 9 0 6 ; - ^ h i s -82-32 completed p l a n s were a v a i l a b l e by A p r i l 1907. A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n was n o t f o l l o w e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y , i t was upon Todd's recom-mendation t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g s h o u l d f a c e n o r t h and be l o c a t e d w e l l back from th e w a t e r . J These s u g g e s t i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . By 1908, a l l t h e p r e l i m i n a r y work was w e l l under way. To h e l p s o l v e t h e w i n t e r unemployment problem, the government de-c i d e d t o h i r e day l a b o u r to h a u l g r a v e l t o the s i t e i n r e a d i -n ess f o r t h e l a r g e amount o f c o n c r e t e t h a t would be needed f o r t h e b u i l d i n g . T h i s work began on J a n u a r y 18, 1908. As f i n a l p l a n s were completed by May, t e n d e r s were a d v e r t i s e d , w i t h t h e 36 c l o s i n g date b e i n g June 2 2 , 1 9 0 8 . S i x t e n d e r s were r e c e i v e d : two from R e g i n a , two from Winnipeg, and two from M o n t r e a l . The c o n t r a c t f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n was awarded on June 3 0 , 1908 t o P e t e r L y a l l and Sons o f M o n t r e a l f o r $ 1,424, 1 5 0.^ P e t e r L y a l l (1842 - 1912) e m i g r a t e d i n I 8 7 0 from S c o t l a n d t o Canada where he founded th e f i r m i n 1 8 7 5 - 3 8 He undertook major c o n s t r u c -t i o n c o n t r a c t s i n M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , and Ottawa ( F i g u r e 4 l ) . E x c a v a t i o n s on t h e Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g were w e l l 39 under way by August 1 9 0 8 , 7 w h i l e the s i n k i n g o f t h e c o n c r e t e 40 p i l e s was p r o c e e d i n g by September 1908. n I n November, work 41 was suspended f o r t h e w i n t e r . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g c o n t i n u e d i n 1 9 0 9 . E r e c t i o n 42 o f t h e r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e framework was begun i n March, but a s t r i k e t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l t h e l a b o u r e r s 43 r e t u r n e d t o work on May 2 5 , 1909- By June 2 1 , t h e c o n c r e t e - 8 3 -work i n t h e , basement and. on t h e f i r s t two f l o o r s had been com-p l e t e d . U n l i k e the s t e e l frame s t r u c t u r e o f the A l b e r t a L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g , t h e Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i s con-s t r u c t e d 1 o f s t e e l r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e . A l t h o u g h t h i s method 45 o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was f i r s t used i n 1855 hy C. Lambot o f P a r i s , J 46 i t was not w i d e l y used u n t i l t h e 1 8 9 0 s . I t was s t i l l a r e -l a t i v e l y modern and new t e c h n i q u e i n 1 9 0 9 . I n f a c t , t h e Sas-katchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was, a t t h a t t i m e , th e l a r g e s t 47 r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e b u i l d i n g i n t h e C anadian West. ' T h i s method e n t a i l s the b u i l d i n g o f wooden forms or moulds around the s t e e l . C o n c r e t e i s poured i n t o the moulds and a l l o w e d t o s e t . When i t i s d r y , t h e forms a r e removed, e x p o s i n g the con-c r e t e column, f l o o r , or beam ( F i g u r e 4 2 ) . The L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g uses a p a r t i c u l a r method of r e i n f o r c i n g t h e c o n c r e t e , known as t h e Kahn System, d e v e l o p e d about 1903 ( F i g u r e 4 3 ) . The c o n c r e t e i s r e i n f o r c e d by a ' t r u s s e d bar' o f s t e e l w i t h f i n s s e t a t f o r t y - f i v e degree a n g l e s . T h i s became t h e most w i d e l y used method o f r e i n f o r c i n g c o n c r e t e d u r i n g the n e x t decade. The f a c i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e w i t h T y n d a l l l i m e s t o n e began 48 i n August. The r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e work was completed by October 4 , 1909, t h e day t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , E a r l Grey, l a i d 49 t h e c o r n e r s t o n e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n t e r i o r was completed i n 1910. A s t r i k e by t h e b r i c k l a y e r s and stonemasons i n J a n u a r y p r o t e s t i n g t h e use o f u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s t o l a y p l a s t e r b l o c k s ^ ended -84-• . • 51 m a d e c i s i o n m f a v o u r o f the former on F e b r u a r y 13- The b r i c k l a y e r s c o n s e q u e n t l y f i n i s h e d t h i s work d u r i n g t h e course o f the y e a r a l l o w i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e government o f f i c e s t o be o c c u p i e d between November 16 and 25- The stone c a r v i n g and the s h e e t i n g o f t h e copper dome was begun by the end o f the 53 y e a r . The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly met f o r the f i r s t time i n the r e a d i n g room o f the new l e g i s l a t i v e l i b r a r y on J a n u a r y 17, 1911 Work on the i n t e r i o r was s u b s t a n t i a l l y completed i n 1912. The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly met f o r the f i r s t time i n t h e new 55 l e g i s l a t i v e chamber on J a n u a r y 2 5 t 1912. ^ A c y c l o n e s t r u c k R e g i n a on June JO, 1912, and caused some damage t o p a r t i t i o n s , p l a s t e r work, windows,aand s k y l i g h t s . R e p a i r s were completed i n time f o r t h e o f f i c i a l o p e n i n g by the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , H.R.H th e Duke o f Connaught, on October 12, 1912. The f i n a l c o s t o f the b u i l d i n g was $ 2 , 2 3 6 , 6 l 4 . 2 1 . ^ D u r i n g the n e x t few y e a r s , a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the s i t e and b u i l d i n g were completed. I n 1913» "the government commis1? s i o n e d l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , Thomas Mawson and Sons o f L a n c a s t e r E n g l a n d t o p r e p a r e a new l a n d s c a p e p l a n t o s u r r o u n d the L e g i s -l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . M a l c o l m Ross, the newly a p p o i n t e d P u b l i c Works l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t , and George Watt, the Government House gard e n e r , p r e p a r e d the d e t a i l e d p l a n s from Mawson's gener 57a l gecommendations f o r a n a t u r a l , r u r a l p p a r k . The s c u l p t e d pediment on t h e main e n t r a n c e was completed i n 1914 by the 58 Bromsgrove G u i l d L i m i t e d o f E n g l a n d . Major i n t e r n a l r eno-v a t i o n s were not u n d e r t a k e n u n t i l 1966 - 1972.59 -85-D e s c r i p t i o n The " b u i l d i n g i s o f s t e e l r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e c o n s t r u c t i o n l a i d on c o n c r e t e p i l e s . The basement s t o r e y i s f a c e d i n g r a n i t e from Quebec w h i l e . t h e upper s t o r e y s are f a c e d i n T y n d a l l l i m e -stone from M a n i t o b a . D u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f the f i n a l w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s , P r e m i e r S c o t t d e c i d e d t h a t "our b u i l d i n g s would be cheapened i n appearance by the use o f r e d b r i c k , t h e y 60 a r e to be e n t i r e l y o f s t o n e . " The p a l e , b u f f c o l o u r o f the l i m e s t o n e g i v e s t t h e b u i l d i n g a v e r y subdued appearance. The r o o f i s f l a t w i t h a t a r and g r a v e l c o v e r i n g . The b u i l d i n g i s i n the shape o f a L a t i n 6 r o s s w i t h two uneven axes ( F i g u r e 44), one v e r y l o n g , which c o n t a i n s the m i n i s t e r i a l and c i v i l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s w hich are j'oined i n the c e n t e r by t h e p u b l i c r o t u n d a ( F i g u r e 45), and a s h o r t e r a x i s w i t h the main e n t r a n c e a t the n o r t h end ( F i g u r e 46), and the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber a t the s o u t h end ( F i g u r e 47). The o v e r a l l d i m ensions are 5 -^2 f e e t 8 J>/k i n c h e s e a s t to west, and 263 f e e t 5 i n c h e s n o r t h t o s o u t h . The h e i g h t from the ground t o t h e top o f t h e l a n t e r n i s 183 f e e t 8 i n c h e s . The b u i l d i n g has t h r e e s t o r e y s and a f u l l basement. The p l a n o f t h i s b u i l d i n g i s v e r y l o n g and s p r e a d out, making c i r c u l a t i o n t e d i o u s . T h i s i s not h e l p e d by t h e f a c t t h a t , though t h r e e s t a i r c a s e s a r e a d j a c e n t t o the r o t u n d a , the o t h e r s t a i r c a s e s , e l e v a t o r s , and washrooms are a t the ends o f t h e wings. D i s t a n c e s between v a r i o u s prominent rooms are g r e a t . W h i l e the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber i s p l a c e d t o the r e a r o f the -86-s o u t h wing, the p r e m i e r ' s o f f i c e , the c a b i n e t chamber, and the l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r ' s room are a t the f r o n t o f the n o r t h wing. The l i b r a r y , w h i l e s u i t e d t o t h e n o r t h e r n exposure i t s r e c e i v e s , i s a l s o n o t c l o s e t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. The o n l y e n t r a n c e i s i n t h e c e n t r e o f the n o r t h e l e v a t i o n . P r o g r e s s i o n o f the spaces i s w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d and a r t i c u l a t e d : from the s p a c i o u s but c o n t r o l l e d , even p r o t e c t i v e , e n t r a n c e the space opens up o v e r the main s t a i r c a s e o n l y t o be drawn i n a g a i n under the r o t u n d a . The space i s expanded a g a i n d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber w i t h i t s a i r y and l i g h t p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s . The s p a c e s , t h e n , a r e a l t e r n a t e l y b e i n g c o n t r a c t e d and expanded a l o n g t h e s h o r t a x i s . A l l o f t h e i n t e r i o r spaces a r e t h u s w e l l -d e f i n e d . The c h i e f ornamental f e a t u r e s on t h e e x t e r i o r i n c l u d e the c e n t r a l p r o j e c t i n g p o r t i c o w i t h i t s D o r i c columns and the two w ing p o r t i c o s w i t h b r o k e n pediments on t h e f r o n t e l e v a t i o n ( F i g u r e 48), surmounted "by an i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d o c t a g o n a l dome r e s t i n g over t h e c r o s s i n g on a square drum w i t h D o r i c columns ( F i g u r e 49). Other i m p o r t a n t e x t e r i o r d e t a i l s i n c l u d e p o r t i c o s w i t h broken pediments on the r e a r , c o u p l e d columns, round a r c h e d windows ( F i g u r e 5 0 ) , and a pediment s c u l p t u r e over t h e main e n t r a n c e ( F i g u r e 5 1 ) . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s Canada as a mother p r o t e c t i n g t h e p i o n e e r s e t t l e r on h e r l e f t and the I n d i a n and h i s way o f l i f e on h e r r i g h t . The group i s v e r y s t a t i c w i t h a l l o f t h e f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n . Only th e s l i g h t d i a g o n a l o f an arm r e p e a t s the d i a g o n a l -87-o f the frame which s e r v e s t o c o n t a i n t h e f i g u r e s and h o l d them f i r m . T h i s s t a t i c , r i g i d , s e v e r e q u a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d on the e x t e r i o r a saa whole. The w a l l s u r f a c e s a r e f l a t and t h i n . The broken pediments do not advance from the w a l l . The b u i l d i n g i s l i n k e d h o r i z o n t a l l y by the round a r c h e d windows w h i l e t h e b u i l d i n g i s l i n k e d v e r t i c a l l y by t h e s t r o n g D o r i c columns i n th e wings, p o r t i c o , and dome. Only the segmental a r c h e s on t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e drum suggest any exuberance. The wings a re s t r o n g l y enough a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h t h e br o k e n pediment m o t i f t h a t , even w i t h t h e l o n g l e n g t h o f t h e wings, the c o m p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l h e l d t o g e t h e r . O v e r a l l , the e f f e c t o f t h e dome i s weak as t h e l o n g wings t e n d t o overpower i t . The i n t e r i o r has p l a s t e r w a l l s w i t h oak and mahogany t r i m and p a n e l l i n g , and marble f l o o r s and p a n e l l i n g . I n t e r i o r d e t a i l s i n c l u d e a r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d p l a s t e r c e i l i n g i n the e n t r a n c e ( a common f e a t u r e o f t h e M a x w e l l ' s work), I o n i c columns w i t h t a s s e l s i n t he r o t u n d a , t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l r o s e t t e s i n the r o t u n d a c e i l i n g , I o n i c p i l a s t e r s w i t h t a s s e l s i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber, and c o f f e r e d f l a t a r c h e d c e i l i n g s i n the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. The i n t e r i o r d e t a i l s have been e x e c u t e d on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e but t h e y a r e not l o s t due t o t h e i r i n t r i c a c y , c o m p l e x i t y , and a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . The m u r a l ( F i g u r e 52) i n the r o t u n d a i s c a l l e d 'Before the White Man Came'. I t was completed i n 1933 by John Leman, a former P u b l i c Works employee. The scene d e p i c t s t h e Qu'Appelle V a l l e y i n which a few I n d i a n s are p r e p a r i n g t o -88-a t t a c k a herd, o f b u f f a l o on t h e o p p o s i t e shore. Apparently-o t h e r m u r a l s by Canadian a r t i s t s were p l a n n e d f o r t h e l e g i s l a -t i v e chamber and o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e b u i l d i n g but t h e F i r s t f\ 1 World War postponed t h e s e p l a n s i n d e f i n i t e l y . The o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s one o f t h i n n e s s , e l o n g a t i o n , and f l a t n e s s . The d e s i g n i s v e r y s o b r e , a t t i m e s b o t h s e v e r e and d e l i c a t e when one c o n t r a s t s the D o r i c columns w i t h t h e round a r c h e d windows. However, i t i s t h e l i n e a r q u a l i t y w h i c h , because o f i t s l e n g t h and s i z e , a t t a c h e s the b u i l d i n g t o t h e s o i l , and a l l o w s t h e b u i a i d i n g t o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y dominate th e l a n d s c a p e but seem an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t . D e s i g n S o u r c e s The Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i s a s i m p l i f i e d v e r -s i o n o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . The b u i l d i n g e x h i b i t s t h e c o u p l e d columns, t h e f i v e - p a r t f r o n t a l c o m p o s i t i o n , the c e n t r a l mass, t h e a r c h e d and l i n t e l e d o p e nings, and t h e s t r i c t l y s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n s grouped a l o n g major and minor axes, so t y p i c a l o f t h e s t y l e . There i s v e r y l i t t l e d e c o r a t i v e s c u l p t u r e ; t h e p l a n e s recede and advance v e r y s l i g h t l y . The e f f e c t i s one o f s i m p l i c i t y , a lmost b a r r e n e s s . The M a x w e l l s had c e r t a i n l y i n t e n d e d t o use more s c u l p t u r e as seen i n t h e i r c o m p e t i t i o n p r o p o s a l ( F i g u r e 4 0 ) . W h i l e t h e g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n o f t h e b u i l d i n g ad-h e r e s t o B e a u x - A r t s p r i n c i p l e s , t h e dome i s s i m i l a r t o a few i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d domes on B r i t i s h town h a l l s . ^ P r o b a b l y -89-one o f t h e e a r l i e s t domes o f t h i s type can beeseen on the Leeds Town H a l l ( F i g u r e 53) by C u t h b e r t B r o d r i c k (1853 - 1 8 5 8 ) . A s m a l l e i g h t - s i d e d dome i s p l a c e d over a colonnaded square drum. B r o d r i c k ( 1822 - 1905) d e s i g n e d s e v e r a l l a r g e s e c u l a r H i g h V i c t o r i a n b u i l d i n g s . He was o f t e n i n f l u e n c e d by F r e n c h work o f t h e p e r i o d 1840 - 1850. The extended c u t c o r n e r m o t i f on t h e drum d e r i v e s from th e work o f Wren i n h i s S t . P a u l ' s c o r n e r towers and a g a i n i n h i s R o y a l H o s p i t a l . T h i s m o t i f was p i c k e d up by John B e l c h e r (1841 - 1913) and o t h e r a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e Edwardian Baroque. I t can be seen i n t h e B e l f a s t C i t y H a l l by Brumwell Thomas ( I 8 9 7 -1 9 0 6 ) , t h e D u b l i n Customs House by James Gandon ( 1 9 1 2 ) , and t h e London S e s s i o n s House by E.W. M o u n t f o r d (1900 - 1 9 0 7 ) . None o f t h e s e , however, employ th e segmental a r c h m o t i f or a square colonnaded drum. The town h a l l had always been a prominent p u b l i c b u i l d i n g . The o r i g i n s o f t h i s t y p e o f b u i l d i n g can be t r a c e d t o the d e v e l -opment o f m e r c a n t i l e towns i n I t a l y , Germany, B e l g i u m , and t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , b e g i n n i n g i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . From g u i l d h a l l s , t h e y d e v e l o p e d i n t o houses o f p a r l i a m e n t i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W i t h t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e town i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n Great B r i t a i n and the M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a -t i o n A c t o f 1835. town h a l l s became symbols of t h e community. As t h e B e a u x - A r t s t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by both t h e M a x w e l l b r o t h e r s encouraged t h e use o f any h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e w h i c h was most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e purpose and image o f the b u i l d i n g , t h e y - 9 0 -chose t h e B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e , s i m p l i f i e d and r e f i n e d i t , and combined i t w i t h an Edwardian Baroque dome. The Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g combines Canadian m a t e r i a l s , P r a i r i e econo-mic r e s t r a i n t , B e a u x - A r t s t r a i n e d Canadian a r c h i t e c t s , and E n g l i s h town h a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s . - 9 1 -F o o t n o t e s 1 R e g i n a L e a d e r , F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1 9 0 5 t P- 1-2 I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 8 , 1906, p. 2 . 3 I b i d . , May 2k, 1906, p. 1. I b i d . 4 ^ L e w i s H. Thomas, "The Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g and i t s P r e d e c e s s o r s , " R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e  Of Canada J o u r n a l , X X X I I ( J u l y , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 252 . ^ I b i d . , p. 2 5 0 . I t was l o c a t e d on Dewdney Avenue between A t h o l and Montague S t r e e t s . B u i l t as a s i n g l e s t o r e y wood frajme s t r u c t u r e , i t was f a c e d w i t h b r i c k 1885 - 1886 b e f o r e a p o r t i o n <S£< i t burned i n 1922. 7 I b i d . , p. 2 5 2 . Q R e g i n a L e a d e r , May 24, 1906, p. 1. Q y Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 2 5 1 . 10 Saskatchewan, P u b l i c Works Department, Annual Report  1905 - 1907 ( R e g i n a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 8 ) , p. 1 3 . 11 R e g i n a L e a d e r , June 2 3 , 1906, p. 1. 12 See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . 13 -> T e r r y R e k s t e n , R a t t e n b u r y ( V i c t o r i a : Sono N i s , 1978 ) , pp. 98 - 101 . I t i s d e b a t a b l e how much s u p p o r t S c o t t gave R a t t e n b u r y . C o n s i d e r i n g S c o t t ' s 'above board' c h a r a c t e r , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t R a t t e n b u r y r e a d more i n t o the m e e t i n g t h a n e x i s t e d , 1 u, L e t t e r , W. S c o t t t o J . C a l d e r , June 2 6 , 1906, S a s k a t -c h e w a n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , S c o t t P a p e r s . 1 5 L e t t e r , W. S c o t t t o W. Henderson, Dominion Depart-ment o f P u b l i c Works, V i c t o r i a , September 2 2 , 1906, Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , S c o t t P a p e r s . 1 6 L e t t e r , W. S c o t t t o Cass G i l b e r t , August 15 , 1907, Saskatchewan P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , S c o t t P a p e r s . 17 ' P r e m i e r S c o t t was o r i g i n a l l y t o be t h e t h i r d a s s e s s o r but i l l n e s s eati.sed him t o withdraw. - 9 2 -18 L e t t e r , Cass G i l b e r t t o W a l t e r S c o t t , August 20, 1907, Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , S c o t t P a p e r s . 19 C o n d i t i o n s o f C o m p e t i t i o n f o r the S e l e c t i o n o f an  A r c h i t e c t f o r t h e Proposed L e g i s l a t i v e and E x e c u t i v e B u i l d i n g  A t R e g i n a , Saskatchewan ( R e g i n a : Government o f Saskatchewan, September 3, 1907), p. 5. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 I b i d . , p. 9 . I b i d . , p. 7 . I b i d - r , p. 8 . R e g i n a L e a d e r , September 7 , 1907, p. 7 I b i d . , I b i d . , December 21, 1907, p. 1. H a r o l d Kalman, The R a i l w a y H o t e l s and t h e Develop-ment of t h e Chateau S t y l e i n Canada ( V i c t o r i a : Maltwood Museum. 1968), p. 41, f n . 32. 2 7 M o n t r e a l S t a r , March 25, 1952, n.p. 2 8 I b i d . 29 R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada J o u r n a l , XXIX ( O c t o b e r , 1952), p. 311. 30 b i d . 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 See Appendix E. R e g i n a L e a d e r , October 31, 1906, p. 1. I b i d . , A p r i l 27, 1907, n.p. Thomas, op. c i t . , p.51251. R e g i n a L e a d e r , January, I 8 9 G I 9 0 8,Ip. 1. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 251. Regina L e a d e r . June 23, 1908, p. i . I b i d l , J u l y 1, 1 9 0 8 , p. l . T h i s was not the l o w e s t I b i d . , November 15, 1912, p. 13. I b i d . , August 2 1 , 1908, p . l . - 9 3 -4o 41 42 4 3 44 45 I b i d . , September 11, 1908, p. 8. I b i d . , November 14, 1908, p. 2. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 252. Edmonton J o u r n a l , May 26, 1909, p. 4, R e g i n a L e a d e r , June 21, 1909, p. 3. P e t e r G i l l e s p i e , " R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e , I t s Advan-t a g e s and L i m i t a t i o n s , " C o n s t r u c t i o n , V (March, 1911), p. 51. 46 The f i r s t r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e b u i l d i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was a house e r e c t e d i n 1875 i n P o r t C h e s t e r , New York, One o f t h e f i r s t r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s i n Canada was e r e c t e d i n H a l i f a x i n 1904. 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 G i l l e s p i e , op. c i t . , p. 53-Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 252. R e g i n a L e a d e r , October 4, 1909, p. 1. I b i d . , J a n u a r y 17, 1910, p. 2. Edmonton J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 14, 1910, p. 8 . Edmonton C a p i t a l , November 16, 1910, p . l . Saskatchewan, P u b l i c Works Department, Annual  R e p o r t 1910 - 1911 ( R e g i n a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1912), p. 90. 54 55 56 57 58 59 60. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 252. R e g i n a L e a d e r , J a n u a r y 25, 1912, p. 1. I b i d . , December 13, 1912, p. 6. Thomas, op. c i t . , p. 252. I b i d . R e g i n a L e a d e r - P o s t , May 15, 1966, n.p. f L e t t e r , W a l t e r S c o t t t o Mr. Page, J u l y 13, 1909, Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , S c o t t P a p e r s . 61 R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada J o u r n a l , I ( A p r i l / J u n e , 1924), pp. 43,44. ^ 2 See Appendix G. -94--95-F i g u r e 32 : Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P roposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n M i t c h e l l and R a i n e ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -96-HKKTII KMYAYINM WETITIUM FQR LEB83LATIY1K AMI"! IKXKKIilTIVE BUILOINB AT R O M A , IA1KATCHEWAN, CANADA. F i g u r e 33: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r oposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n Cass G i l b e r t ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) - 9 7 -F i g u r e 3^: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Proposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n F.M. R a t t e n b u r y ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) - 9 8 -r i n m o ,' *T >.# 1,1 1 i . i j l I M ' i • FgQflT; ELLVATIO/S • • PEOP05m'LBG15lj™E^'jm^W'DVllJ)l/SG» • EEGI/NA • S A S K A T C H E W A N • • jam, airrrai r g r - OM* WW F i g u r e 35 = Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s ed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n S t o r e y and Van Egmond ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -99-nroNT KIJ: VAT ION PROPOSED LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BUILDING R E G I N A S A S K A T C H E W A N F i g u r e 36: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Proposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n Marchand and H a s k e l l ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -100-F i g u r e 37: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Proposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n D a r l i n g and P e a r s o n ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) - 1 0 1 -F i g u r e 3 8 : Edward M a x w e l l ( R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f  Canada J o u r n a l , I ( A p r i l / J u n e . 1Q?U), P- 53) -102-F i g u r e 39: W i l l i a m S u t h e r l a n d Maxwell ( R e g i n a L e a d e r , October 14, 1912, p. 1) - 1 0 3 -F i g u r e 40: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r oposed F r o n t E l e v a t i o n E. and W.S. M a x w e l l ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -104-Figure 4 l : Peter L y a l l (Regina Leader, October 4, 1909, p. 1) - 1 0 5 -Ii l ^ *• M - 9 H & <~• all 1 i' J l F i g u r e 42: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g N o r t h E l e v a t i o n Under C o n s t r u c t i o n J u l y 23, 1909 ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) - 1 0 6 -F i g u r e 4 3 : Kahn System o f R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e ( R i t c h i e , T. Canada B u i l d s 1867 - 1 9 6 7. To r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Tor-onto P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 , p. 2 4 7 ) - 1 0 7 -F i g u r e 4 4 : Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g M a i n F l o o r P l a n ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -108-- 1 0 9 --110 -F i g u r e 4 7 : Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber (Saskatchewan Government Photograph) - I l l -I I Figure 48: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g N o r t h E l e v a t i o n c. 1913 ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) F i g u r e 4 9 : Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Dome 1927 ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -113-F i g u r e 50: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g S o uth E l e v a t i o n O ctober 10, 1910 ( A r c h i v e s of Saskatchewan) -114-F i g u r e 51: Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g N o r t h Pediment c. 1956 ( A r c h i v e s o f Saskatchewan) -115-F i g u r e 53: Leeds Town H a l l B u i l t I 8 5 3 - 1858 C u t h b e r t B r o d r i c k , A r c h i t e c t ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review. LXXIV ( O c t o b e r , 1933), p. 130) -117-CHAPTER I I I THE MANITOBA LEGISLATIVE BUILDING Wh i l e M a n i t o b a had been a p r o v i n c e s i n c e J u l y 15. I 8 7 O , t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e was not annexed u n t i l May 15 i 1912. I n Winnipeg, a number o f b u i l d i n g s were used t o house t h e p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and t h e v a r i o u s departments b e f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . The f i r s t l e g i s l a t i v e assembly met i n the A.G.B. Bannatyne home on March 15, 1871. T h i s r e s i d e n c e was l o c a t e d j u s t n o r t h o f the c o r n e r o f P o r t a g e and M a i n . A f t e r t h i s b u i l d i n g was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e on December 3> l873» t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly met i n t h e new c o u r t h o u s e u n t i l 1881. T h i s b u i l d i n g was s i t u -a t e d f u r t h e r n o r t h on M a i n S t r e e t between Bannatyne and W i l l i a m . The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly t h e n met i n t h e n o r t h wing o f the o l d Law C o u r t s from 1882 t o 1 8 8 3 . ^ D e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c e s were l o c a t e d i n t h e o l d Land T i t l e s B u i l d i n g u n t i l 1884.-' Annew p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g on Kennedy and Broadway S t r e e t s , d e s i g n e d by Thomas S c o t t , F e d e r a l A r c h i t e c t , was b u i l t i n I 8 8 3 and was r e a d y f o r occupancy i n 1884. Though now d e m o l i s h e d , i t once s t o o d on t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r o f the p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i v e grounds. T h i s 3 l / 2 s t o r e y , w h i t e , b r i c k b u i l d i n g had a mansard r o o f w i t h dormer windows ( F i g u r e 5^)• I t housed most of the government f u n c t i o n s u n t i l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r e s e n t L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . However, as t h e government b u r e a u c r a c y expanded, some d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c e s were r e l o c a t e d t o s e v e r a l o t h e r -118-b u i l d i n g s throughout the c i t y . The need to b u i l d a new l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g became apparent i n the l a t t e r part of 1909 as the other two p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s neared completion. "Manitoba i s g e t t i n g jealous [and;]. 7 wants a new l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g to e c l i p s e s i s t e r provinces." The current b u i l d i n g was considered inadequate to accomodate a l l the Government depart-ments and a d d i t i o n a l accommodation i s u r g e n t l y r e -qu i r e d . A d d i t i o n s and enlargements have been made from time to time, but i t i s now r e a l i z e d that the b u i l d i n g s which d i d good s e r v i c e many years ago are now too small f o r the volume of business and the n a d d i t i o n a l sub-departments of the prosperous province. A s i t e was f i n a l l y secured i n December 1911 9 comprising approximately t h i r t y acres. Formerly the l o c a t i o n of the F o r t Osborne barracks, i t was l o c a t e d i n the center of the c i t y on the north bank of the A s s i n i b o i n e R i v e r . H i s t o r y I t was i n i t i a l l y decided to simply enlarge the current 10 l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t , Samual Hooper, 11 having drawn up plans f o r two wings and a new f r o n t extension. However, t h i s idea seems to have been r e j e c t e d almost immediately as the government tiutarre'd i t s a t t e n t i o n to securing a new l o c a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r the e r e c t i o n of a l a r g e r b u i l d i n g . By January 1911, 12 Hooper had prepared plans f o r a new b u i l d i n g . This scheme was also r e j e c t e d when i t was decided i n October 1911 to hold a competition f o r the designeof the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l ^ i n ^ ; . 13 ding. v However, wi t h the death of Hooper-i, and the appointment - 1 1 9 -l i i , o f a new P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t ( F i g u r e 5 5 ) , V.W. Horwood, i t was d e c i d e d t h a t Horweod s h o u l d draw up a p r e l i m i n a r y s k e t c h o u t l i n i n g t h e "basic r e q u i r e m e n t s on which the c o m p e t i t i o n would 1 5" be based. v 16 The c o m p e t i t i o n , which opened December 1911, was l i m i t e d t o " a r c h i t e c t s who a r e B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s p r a c t i s i n g i n the 17 B r i t i s h Empire." ( A l l c i t i z e n s o f Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Canada, were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ) . Other c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d t h a t not o n l y s h o u l d Canadian m a t e r i a l s be used wherever p o s s i b l e , but a l s o t h a t t h e main m a t e r i a l was t o be M a n i t o b a l i m e s t o n e , and "the f a c t t h a t M a n i t o b a i s p o l i t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h empire s h o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n the c h a r a c t e r o f i t s ' 18 p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . " These r e q u i r e m e n t s were p r e p a r e d by C.H. Dancer, Deputy M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, arid the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t , under th e d i r e c t i o n o f C o l i n H. Campb.ell, M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, t o whom the s u b m i s s i o n s were t o be d e l i v e r e d 19 20 by F e b r u a r y 15, 1912. The a s s e s s o r was L eonard S t o k e s , F.R.I.B.A., as former p r e s i d e n t o f the R o y a l I n s i t i t u t e o f 21 B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s . The committee t o c o n f i r m t h e a s s e s s o r ' s 22 s e l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f P r e m i e r Rodmond P a l e n R o b l i n , C a m p b e l l , Dancer, and Horwood. T h i s s i t u a t i o n drew c o n s i d e r a b l e comment ( " F a r c i c a l A r c h i -t e c t u r a l C o m p e t i t i o n " ) from a F r e e P r e s s e d i t o r i a l . The two major c r i t i c i s m s were aimed a t t h e a s s e s s i n g committee and t h e t i m e l i m i t a l l o w e d f o r s e n d i n g i n the p l a n s . -120-I n f a c t here i s a government committee o f f o u r w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f one o u t s i d e r , presumably an a r c h i t e c t o f s t a n d i n g , "but who would n e c e s s a r i l y "be s u b o r d i n a t e t o h i s employers, who would c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b o a r d . The Government would be w e l l a d v i s e d t o s h i f t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o an independent commis-s i o n o f e x p e r t s . 2 3 C o n c e r n i n g t h e e a r l y s u b m i s s i o n d a t e , t h i s r e n d e r s t h e whole scheme a b o r t i v e so f a r as e x t r a -C a nadian a r c h i t e c t s a r e concerned, and i n f a c t l o o k s v e r y l i k e a frame-up w i t h some u l t e r i o r o b j e c t i n v i e w . A f t e r o s t e n t a t i o u s l y t h r o w i n g the c o m p e t i t i o n open t o a l l a r c h i t e c t s d o m i c i l e d w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h empire, i t i s a t r a v e s t y t o c l o s e i t a t a date when few of them w i l l even have heard o f i t . The whole scheme seems i l l - c o n c e i v e d and h a s t y and might w e l l be withdrawn and r e c o n s i d e r e d . 2 4 2 5 Perhaps because o f t h e s e c o m p l a i n t s , and o t h e r s , i t would appear t h a t S t o k e s became the main judge, and t h e c l o s i n g d ate o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n was extended t o March 3 1 - 2 ^ The committee grew t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n members c o n s i s t i n g of m i n i s -27 28 29 t e r s from b o t h p a r t i e s . S i x t y - s i x d e s i g n s were s u b m i t t e d 7 30 o f which f i v e were chosen on A p r i l 12, 1912^ t o r e c e i v e an h o n o r a r i u m o f $2,000 and t o compete i n t h e f i n a l phase of t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . The f i v e a r c h i t e c t s s e l e c t e d were E. and W.S. M a x w e l l , M o n t r e a l ; : Sharp .and- Brown:,." Toronto..;. Browne and V a l -ance, M o n t r e a l 5 .Glemie'sh-a'.and'-Portn^EDij?.i.ReginasAitnd'-.'1;he w i n n e r , s e l e c t e d on September 24, 1 9 1 2 , ^ Frank W o r t h i n g t o n Simon, L i v e r p o o l , E n g l a n d ( F i g u r e 56). B e s i d e s t h e M a x w e l l s , v e r y l i t t l e i s known about the o t h e r c o m p e t i t o r s . The M a x w e l l s u b m i s s i o n f e a t u r e s an H p l a n , a C o r i n t h i a n p o r t i c o , and an Edwardian Baroque dome ( F i g u r e 57)• The Sharp and Brown d e s i g n has a T-shaped p l a n , a - 1 2 1 -C o r i n t h i a n p o r t i c o w i t h o u t a pediment, and a s m a l l American s t a t e c a p i t o l dome ( F i g u r e 5 8 ) . Brown and V a l l a n c e s e t up an o f f i c e i n Winnipeg i n 1910. Some o f t h e i r major b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e 5bhe U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t -chewan i n S a s k a t o o n , S t . Chad's C o l l e g e i n R e g i n a , t h e C a l g a r y H e r a l d B u i l d i n g , t h e Canada L i f e A s s u r a n c e Company b u i l d i n g i n ; C a l g a r y , and t h e Merchants Bank i n C a l g a r y . T h e i r p r o p o s a l shows a complex Y-shaped p l a n , an I o n i c a r c a d e , and a 350 f o o t . E n g l i s h tower ( F i g u r e 59) « F. Chapman Clemesha, p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan A r c h i -t e c t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n and a l i c e n t i a t e member of t h e R o y a l I n s t i -t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , came t o R e g i n a about 1906 and was 32 b e s t known f o r h i s r e s i d e n t i a l work. Frank H. P o r t n a l l was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Clemesha f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . They s u b m i t t e d th e w i n n i n g d e s i g n f o r t h e Winnipeg C i t y H a l l which was based on t h e d e s i g n o f S t . George's H a l l i n L i v e r p o o l by H.L. Elmes and C.R. C o c k e r e l l ( I 8 3 9 ) , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s l i m , E n g l i s h c l o c k tower. T h e i r concept o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g has a L a t i n c r o s s p l a n , and an E d wardian Baroque dome ( F i g u r e 6 0 ) . Simon ( F i g u r e 61) was b o r n i n E n g l a n d i n 1862, and, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g h i s i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g i n Birmingham, he a t t e n d e d the E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s i n P a r i s , s t u d y i n g under the F r e n c h a r c h i -33 t e c t , L o u i s P a s c a l . J Upon w i n n i n g the R.I.B.A. T i t e P r i z e i n 3Z4, 1887 f o r a c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n f o r a c a t h e d r a l , he began h i s p r a c t i c e i n E d i n b u r g h i n 1888. F o r some y e a r s , u n t i l about 1902, when he was e l e c t e d t o t h e F e l l o w s h i p o f t h e R.I.B.A., he was - 1 2 2 -a member o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m of Anderson, Simon and Craw-f o r d . Upon the d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p he became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Hugh H. Matear o f L i v e r p o o l w i t h whom he won the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the Edwardian Baroque L i v e r p o o l C o t t o n Exchange. A l s o , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h B r i g g s , Wolstenholme and T h o r n e l y , he d e s i g n e d a d d i t i o n s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l . He g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d h i s work t o c o m p e t i t i v e d e s i g n i n g . D u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , he moved t o Winnipeg, where w i t h t h e a i d o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m o f Bo d d i n g t o n , ^ Inman and S h e l t e n , he p r e p a r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,000 drawings f o r t h e c o n t r a c t o r s . He r e c e i v e d $10,000 f i r s t p r i z e and 5% commission on $2,000,000 ( t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ) amounting t o $100,000. He was a c t u a l l y p a i d $166,394.56. F o l l o w i n g t h e b u i l d i n g ' s c o m p l e t i o n , he went t o Fr a n c e where he d i e d a t Mentone on May 19, 1933-Mr. Simon was a man o f g r e a t p e r s o n a l charm. He had an u n u s u a l l y f a c i l e p e n c i l and was no mean ex e c u t a n t i n w a t e r c o l o u r p a i n t i n g . He had more t h a n 'a s t r e a k o f g e n i u s ' i n d e s i g n , and would a s s u r e d l y have r i s e n t o t h e h i g h e s t eminence i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n had i t n o t "been f o r a c e r t a i n w a n d e r i n g i n s t i n c t t h a t seemed t o be d e e p l y i n -g r a i n e d i n h i s n a t u r e , and t h a t kept him from a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f t o t a k e r o o t i n a a n y one s p o t . P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g began i n 1913' The c o n t r a c t f o r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n was u n o f f i c i a l l y awarded on J u l y 12, 1913 t o Thomas K e l l y ( F i g u r e 6 2 ) 3 8 and Sons o f Winnipeg f o r t h e sum o f $ 2 , 8 5 9 , 7 5 0 . 3 9 The o n l y o t h e r f i r m t e n d e r i n g f o r t h e c o n t r a c t was P e t e r L y a l l and Sons o f M o n t r e a l . A s e p a r a t e c o n t r a c t f o r t h e h e a t i n g , - 1 2 3 -v e n t i l a t i n g , and p l u m b i n g was awarded t o Crane and Ordway f o r , I4.Q 4.1 $119»000. E x c a v a t i o n s were f i n i s h e d i n August and p l a n s were w e l l under way t o s i n k f o u n d a t i o n h o l e s or c a i s s o n s t o 4-2 bedrock which would be f i l l e d w i t h r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e . A new M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, Dr. W..H. Montague,^ 3 took o f f i c e 44 on November 4, 1913-Work resumed i n A p r i l 1914, the m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o n c r e t e 45 c a i s s o n s h a v i n g been sunk th e p r e v i o u s f a l l . Work stopped 46 t e m p o r a r i l y , a p p a r e n t l y due t o t h e onset o f t h e war. However, i t was soon r e v e a l e d t h a t , i n f a c t , t h e c a p i t a l a c c o u n t s budget 47 was exhausted. An a d d i t i o n a l one q u a r t e r m i l l i o n d o l l a r s 48 had been spent on sewerage, l a r g e r , deeper, and s t r o n g e r 49 50 c a i s s o n s , y a s t r o n g e r s t r u c t u r a l frame, and a s t r o n g e r 51 f o u n d a t i o n w a l l , and an a d d i t i o n a l h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was s t i l l needed f o r s i m i l a r r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e s o u t h wing.' These a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s i n s p i r e d a t l e a s t one e p i t h e t f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i v e s i t e : "the c o s t l i e s t h o l e o u t s i d e t h e war zone."-' 2 By J a n u a r y 1915» t h e w a l l s were completed up t o the second 53 s t o r e y . J The o p p o s i t i o n L i b e r a l p a r t y l e d by T.C. N o r r i s gave n o t i c e t h a t t h e y would r e q u e s t t h a t a temporary committee be s e t up t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p u b l i c a c c o u n t s and g i v e d e t a i l e d 54 e x p l a n a t i o n s o f p u b l i c works e x p e n d i t u r e s . The P u b l i c A c c o u n t s Committee, t h e body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , was m a i n l y composed o f C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y members, and was c o n s e q u e n t l y i n a p o s i t i o n t o o b s t r u c t -124-• • 55 i n q u i r i e s - ^ by not p r o d u c i n g r e l e v a n t documents and w i t n e s s e s . 5 6 D e s p i t e t h e s e d e l a y t a c t i c s , i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t n o t o n l y were workmen b e i n g u n d e r p a i d ( t h e f a i r wage s c h e d u l e had been 57 changed a f t e r c o n t r a c t s were s i g n e d ) , ' but t h a t s e v e r a l a d d i -t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s had been p a i d i n f u l l b e f o r e the c o n s t r u c t i o n s p e c i f i e d by t h o s e c o n t r a c t s had been completed.-^ 8 The con-t r a c t o r s ( K e l l y and Sons) had been p a i d t w i c e t h e amount needed a l ] 60 59 t o buy s t e e l . y The Committee's f i n a l r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t a l l o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s had been p r o p e r r a n d n e c e s s a r y . A t t h e f i n a l s i t t i n g o f the Committee on March 30, 1915, t h e L i b e r a l s r e q u e s t e d t h a t a r o y a l commission be a p p o i n t e d t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t s , but 6 l t h i s was d e f e a t e d . Upon p e t i t i o n by t h e O p p o s i t i o n t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , P r e m i e r R o b l i n was f o r c e d t o a p p o i n t a r o y a l commission c o n s i s Q t i n g o f t h r e e members under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f C h i e f J u s t i c e 6 ? M a t h e r s , e f f e c t i v e A p r i l 20, 1915. The p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Mathers Commission, as i t came t o be c a l l e d , began on A p r i l 22, 6 3 1915» and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t on 64 August 24, 1915. D e s p i t e d e l a y s m s e c u r i n g w i t n e s s e s and documentary e v i d e n c e , and t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y ' s r e s i g n a t i o n 6 5 on May 12, 1915, w i t h t h e subsequent e l e c t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y on August 6, 1915, w i t h T.C. N o r r i s as p r e m i e r , i t was found t h a t Simon had not been a l l o w e d t o s u p e r v i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g and Horweod had been p l a c e d i n 6 7 e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f i t s e r e c t i o n . The r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l -125-Commission r e v e a l e d t h a t the L y a l l t e n d e r had "been shown t o K e l l y so t h a t he c o u l d u n d e r b i d L y a l l ; t h a t a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r a c t s had been g i v e n t o K e l l y f o r t h e c a i s s o n s and o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l work; t h a t K e l l y might r e a l i z e an e x c e s s i v e p r o f i t by under-p a y i n g h i s w o r k e r s , u s i n g cheaper m a t e r i a l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n zr o t e c h n i q u e s , such as cheap q u a l i t y c o n c r e t e i n t h e c a i s s o n s ; t h a t K e l l y was t o r e t u r n a p o r t i o n o f t h i s p r o f i t t o the Conser-v a t i v e p a r t y f o r campaign f u n d s ; t h a t K e l l y was t o r e t a i n the r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n f o r h i m s e l f ; t h a t t h e s e a c t i o n s had been 69 s u p p o r t e d and adopted y by s e v e r a l former C o n s e r v a t i v e m i n i s t e r s i n c l u d i n g P r e m i e r R.P. R o b l i n , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n G.R. C o l d w e l l , M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works W.H. Montague, A t t o r n e y -G e n e r a l J.H. Howden, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t Horwood, and C o nserva-70 t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s i d e n t R.M. Simpson; and t h a t t h e con-71 t r a c t o r s were o v e r p a i d t o t h e amount o f $701,493.59. C o n s t r u c t i o n t o e n c l o s e t h e n o r t h wing resumed on the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g on September 7, 1915, ending th e f o u r -month shut-down. The James McDiarmid Company r e c e i v e d a tem-72 p o r a r y c o n t r a c t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e 1915 c o n s t r u c t i o n season. Due t o t h e poor q u a l i t y o f t h e c o n c r e t e and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , th e p oor s t r u c t u r a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n s , s e v e r a l c a i s s o n s had t o be r e i n f o r c e d w h i l e o t h e r s had t o be r e b u i l t , ^ 3 p a r t i c u -l a r l y under t h e dome. F a u l t y c a i s s o n s caused c r a c k s t o appear 74 m - t h e s o u t h wing. A n o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e s t r u c -t u r a l ' d e s i g n o f the dome, and t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n i n v o l v e d -126-i n t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n which Mr. Simon p r o -posed t o t h e government w i t h a vie w t o e f f e c t i n g economy. There i s no a l t e r a t i o n a t a l l i n t h e ex-t e r n a l d e s i g n o f the dome, and Mr. Simon w i l l , i f a n y t h i n g , a c c e n t u a t e t h e "beauty and grandeur of the b u i l d i n g s as o u t l i n e d i n the o r i g i n a l plans.75 The s e r i o u s n e s s o f the d e f e c t i v e c a i s s o n s c o n t i n u e d t o appear i n 1916 i n the form o f c r a c k s due t o the s e t t l e m e n t o f the c a i s s o n s ( " C a p i t o l i n Danger o f C o l l a p s e ? " ) . 7 ^ I n d e c i s i o n as t o whether or not t o p r o c e e d on the c o n s t r u c t i o n meant t h a t v e r y l i t t l e work was done. V a r i o u s t e n d e r s were c a l l e d , but t h e o n l y ones awarded went t o t h e M a n i t o b a B r i d g e and I r o n Company 77 f o r the dome s t e e l , and t o James B a l l a n t y n e and Son of M o n t r e a l f o r the p i p i n g work i n the t u n n e l which connected the L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g t o t h e c e n t r a l power house. On October 21, a p p r o x i m a t e l y a thousand u n i o n workmen marched on the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g demanding t h a t work be c o n t i n u e d on i t t h r o u g h o u t t h e 79 w i n t e r . S e v e r a l o f f i c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o m p t r o l l e r - g e n e r a l , t h e game warden, and t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s b r a n c h , 8 0 moved i n t o t h e n o r t h w i n g about November 13. Tenders f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the L g g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g were f i n a l l y c a l l e d on December 29, 1916, i n t e n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s : e x c a v a t i n g , c o n c r e t e work, b r i c k w o r k , c a r p e n t r y and m e t a l work; marble work; r o o f i n g work; p l a s t e r i n g and t i l e w o r k ; g l a z i n g ; p a i n t i n g ; s p e c i a l g* j o i n e r y ; plumbing; h e a t i n g and v e n t i l a t i n g ; and e l e c t r i c w i r i n g . Tenders were c l o s e d F e b r u a r y 12, 1917 and awarded March 16; the g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t went t o J . McDiarmid Company f o r $1,785,681. ft ? 17- Work resumed i m m e d i a t e l y even though the c o n t r a c t was not o f f i c i a l l y l s i g n e d u n t i l A p r i l 16, 1917.8^ A g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f - 1 2 7 -c a r p e n t e r s , plumbers, e l e c t r i c i a n s , and l a b o u r e r s began June 84 30, 1917- The e l e c t r i c i a n s and plumbers r e t u r n e d t o work on J u l y 21, 1917j8"' and many l a b o u r e r s were r e t u r n i n g a few days 8 6 l a t e r ( F i g u r e 63). I n s p i t e o f t h e s e d e l a y s , t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber was i n p l a c e by September 6,8^ and work on a temporary r o o f and the i n t e r i o r was p r o c e e d i n g by 88 December 19• On Ja n u a r y 30, 1918, the M a n i t o b a Government was g r a n t e d the a u t h o r i t y t o borrow an a d d i t i o n a l one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r 89 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . 7 By May 22, the grand s t a i r c a s e was under c o n s t r u c t i o n and some o f t h e p l a s t e r models f o r t h e s c u l p t u r e had a r r i v e d and were b e i n g s e t up on 90 th e lawn where t h e c a r v i n g would be done. The l i f t i n g o f t h e f o u r , f o r t y t o n g i r d e r s w h i c h were t o form t h e base o f the dome 91 was completed on J u l y 25, 1918. By F e b r u a r y 24, 1919 the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g had c o s t $5,460,424.38.92 A n o t h e r s t r i k e o c c u r r e d i n m i d - J u n e 9 3 but was 94 c o n c l u d e d by J u l y 12 when work was p r o c e e d i n g on the drum. 9 5 The Golden Boy had a r r i v e d by August 7- By the end o f Septem-b e r a l l o f t h e e x t e r i o r had been completed except f o r the dome w h i l e the marble work i n the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber was n e a r i n g 96 c o m p l e t i o n . The Golden Boy was h o i s t e d t o t h e t o p o f t h e 97 dome on November 21. Depa r t m e n t a l o f f i c e s c o n t i n u e d t o move i n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g as o f f i c e s were c o m p l e t e d d d u r i n g t h e end o f 1919 and t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1920.' The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly met f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t h e new -128-l e g i s l a t i v e chamber on J a n u a r y 22, 1920. The a c o u s t i c s were p e r f e c t . The amount spent up t o November 30, 1919 and made p u b l i c March 11, 1920 on t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was $6,500, Q 8 4 4 7 . 3 6 . y o The s t a t u e s o f L a Ve r e n d r y e , L o r d S e l k i r k , G e n e r a l W o l f e , and L o r d D u f f e r i n were p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n on June 19, 99 1920. The mu r a l s o f the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber were completed i n time f o r t h e f o r m a l opening o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g on J u l y 15, 1920. P l a n s p r e p a r e d by Simon f o r l a n d s c a p i n g the grounds and i n v o l v i n g t h e p l a n t i n g o f t r e e s and f l o w e r s , were a c c e p t e d by t h e government by November 3, 1 9 2 0 . 1 0 0 The b u i l d i n g c o n t i n u e d t o s e t t l e and new c r a c k s appeared t h r o u g h o u t 1921. Simon made i t c l e a r , however, t h a t t h e r e was no r e a l cause f o r c o n c e r n and t h a t no more money s h o u l d be spent 101 on r e p a i r s u n l e s s something more s e r i o u s d e v e l o p e d . Land-s c a p i n g proceeded a f t e r the d e m o l i t i o n o f Osborne B a r r a c k s on 102 v May 27, 1921. Several^schemes f o r m a l l s r u n n i n g n o r t h from th e f r o n t o f the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g had been proposed i n 1913 and a g a i n i n 1921, but t h e s e were never implemented ( F i g u r e 64). The f i n a l c o s t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was $8,075,865.59. D u r i n g the e n s u i n g decades, a few a d d i t i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s were made t o t h e b u i l d i n g and the s i t e . S e v e r a l s t a t u e s were p l a c e d on t h e s i t e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h Queen V i c t o r i a , by S i r George Frampton o f Englan d , and c o n t i n u i n g w i t h f i g u r e s o f Robe r t B u r n s * George E t i e n n e C a r t i e r , - J o n S i g u r d s o n , and T a r a s Shev-chenko, a l l r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups o f Canada.- I n 1951, "the Golden Bay was g o l d p l a t e d , t o remove the need f o r -129-c o n t i n u a l c l e a n i n g o f t h e b r o n z e . A r c h i t e c t u r a l f l o o d l i g h t i n g was i n s t a l l e d around t h e b u i l d i n g i n 1958. To c e l e b r a t e Canada's Cent e n n i a l . , the t o r c h o f the Golden Boy was l i t on J a n u a r y 1, 1967. From I 9 6 3 t o 1 9 7 ° e x t e n s i v e i n t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n s were u n d e r t a k e n which i n c l u d e d the r e d e c o r a t i n g o f the r o t u n d a and main s t a i r c a s e . D e s c r i p t i o n The b u i l d i n g i s s t e e l frame c o n s t r u c t i o n on c o n c r e t e c a i s s o n s . The s t e p s a r e g r a n i t e from O n t a r i o w h i l e t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l s a r e T y n d a l l l i m e s t o n e from a q u a r r y t h i r t y m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f Winnipeg. The many q u a r r i e s o f magnesian l i m e s t o n e i n t h i s a r e a form one o f t h e l a r g e s t d e p o s i t s o f b u i l d i n g l i m e s t o n e i n Canada. I t had been e x t e n s i v e l y q u a r r i e d s i n c e 1 9 0 0 . I t has a b u f f , m o t t l e d appearance w i t h i t s most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e b e i n g t h e many f o s s i l s embedded i n i t ( i F i g u r e 65) • The r o o f i s f l a t w i t h a t a r and g r a v e l c o v e r i n g . The b u i l d i n g has an H-shaped p l a n ( F i g u r e 66) w i t h the m i n i s t e r i a l and c i v i l s e r v i c e o f f i c e s i n the wings, and the grand s t a i r c a s e ( F i g u r e 6 7 ) , p u b l i c r o t u n d a ( F i g u r e 6 8 ) , and l e g i s l a t i v e chamber ( F i g u r e 69) i n the centre- c o n n e c t i n g t h e f o u r wings. The o v e r a l l d i m e n s i o n s a r e 328 f e e t by 337 f e e t . The H e i g h t o f the b u i l d i n g from ground l e v e l t o t h e p i n n a c l e o f the dome i s 2^0 f e e t . The b u i l d i n g has t h r e e s t o r e y s and a f u l l basement. A l t h o u g h the b u i l d i n g i s l a r g e , i t s compact H shape r e n d e r s - 1 3 0 -c i r c u l a t i o n easy w i t h d i s t a n c e s between th e o f f i c e s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t . The o f f i c e o f the p r e m i e r and l i e u t e n a n t - g o v e r n o r and t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l i b r a r y a re a d j a c e n t t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. There a r e f o u r e n t r a n c e s t o t h e b u i l d i n g , one on each e l e v a t i o n w h i l e t h e r e are s i x s e t s o f s t a i r s w i t h i n the b a r o f the H. The spaces a r e t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d a l o n g t h e main n o r t h - s o u t h a x i s . From the o u t s i d e , one e n t e r s a s m a l l but s p a c i o u s e n t r a n c e w h i c h opens up i n t o a v e r y l a r g e , two s t o r e y grand s t a i r c a s e h a l l which i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the one i n the P a l a i s de J u s t i c e i n B r u s s e l s by J o s e p h P o e l a e r t (1868 - 1883). T h i s i s the l a r g e s t , most d r a m a t i c space a l o n g the a x i s . The grand s t a i r -case l e a d s t o a s m a l l e r , more e n c l o s e d r o t u n d a space. One moves t h r o u g h a c o n s t r i c t e d e n t r a n c e t o t h e s a n c t u a r y - l i k e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber. The atmosphere here i s v e r y q u i e t , a l m o s t s p i r i t u a l . The e x t e r i o r d i s p l a y s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l and non-c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l s . The n o r t h f r o n t e l e v a t i o n ( F i g u r e 70) shows two o f t h e wings and the c e n t r a l p r o j e c t i n g p o r t i c o w i t h s i x f l u t e d I o n i c columns, a pediment, and a s c u l p t e d tympanum f l a n k e d by a p a i r o f E g y p t i a n s p h i n x . The tympanum ( F i g u r e 71), m o d e l l e d by A l b e r t Hodge o f London and c a r v e d from I n d i a n a l i m e s t o n e by the P i c c i r i l l i b r o t h e r s o f New Y o r k , r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t o r y o f the immigrant. The. female f i g u r e o f M a n i t o b a s i t s f u l l f r o n t i n t h e m i d d l e . To her r i g h t , b e g i n n i n g i n the c o r n e r , E n t e r p r i s e beckons a worker t o t h e Land o f Promise. Next, t h e r e i s a f i n e l y m o d e l l e d b u l l l e d by Europa t y p i f y i n g the e m i g r a t i o n - 1 3 1 -from Europe, and between t h i s group and M a n i t o b a , t h e r e a re a f a t h e r , mother, and c h i l d - the new f a m i l y i n the new w o r l d . On the o p p o s i t e s i d e i n the c o r n e r , two f i g u r e s , Labour and C a p i t a l , c l a s p a j a r from w h i c h a stream o f water f e r t i l i z e s t h e e a r t h . Next i s a ploughman and a h o r s e , t i l l i n g the s o i l , b a l a n c i n g t h e B u l l and Europa group. Between t h i s and M a n i t o b a , i s a man and woman b r i n g i n g the f r u i t s o f t h e s o i l , b a l a n c i n g t h e f a m i l y group. T h i s r o b u s t , t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c , and t r a d i t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e f i g u r e s combined w i t h a Canadian s u b j e c t f o l l o w s t h e most prominent s c u l p t u r a l t r e n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a t t h i s t i m e . The two s p h i n x e s , modeled by A l b e r t Hodge and c a r v e d by E.A. Purdy, on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e main pediment ( F i g u r e 72), r e p r e s e n t Wisdom and Knowledge. The i r r e g -u l a r shaped o c t a g o n a l dome ov e r a square colonnaded drum i s a g a i n p l a c e d over t h e r o t u n d a . The f o u r l a r g e groups a t t h e base o f the dome r e p r e s e n t i n g A g r i c u l t u r e , Labour, S c i e n c e , and A r t , were m o d e l l e d by t h e S c o t t i s h s c u l p t o r , B i r n i e R h i n d , and c a r v e d from I n d i a n a l i m e s t o n e by F.A. Purdy. The f i f t e e n f o o t Golden Boy, p e r c h e d on top o f t h e dome ( F i g u r e 73), was m o d e l l e d by C h a r l e s G a r d e t , a F r e n c h s c u l p t o r , and c a s t i n b r o n z e . T h i s k f i g u r e , v a r i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t i n g s u c c e s s , p r o g r e s s , e n t e r p r i s e , e t e r n a l y o u t h , and/or M a n i t o b a , c a r r i e s a sheaf o f wheat i n h i s l e f t arm and a t o r c h i n h i s r i g h t . 7 The s o u t h r e a r e l e v a t i o n ( F i g u r e 7^) f e a t u r e s a p o r t i c o w i t h f o u r f l u t e d I o n i c columns and no pediment. The e a s t e l e v a t i o n shows a group o f two f i g u r e s on e i t h e r - 1 3 2 -s i d e o f t h e pediment r e p r e s e n t i n g Peace. These were m o d e l l e d by A l b e r t Hodge. The two s e a t e d f i g u r e s f l a n k i n g the east e n t r a n c e were d e s i g n e d , m o d e l l e d , and c a r v e d from I n d i a n a l i m e -s t o n e by t h e P i c c i r i l l i B r o t h e r s o f New York, and r e p r e s e n t L a Ver e n d r y e , the F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n e x p l o r e r and f u r t r a d e r who f i r s t saw the banks o f the Red and A-ssLniboine; and L o r d S e l k i r k , f o u n d e r o f t h e Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t . 1 The west e l e v a t i o n a l s o shows a group o f two f i g u r e s , model-l e d by A l b e r t Hodge, on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e pediment, r e p r e s e n t i n g War. The two f i g u r e s f l a n k i n g t h e west e n t r a n c e c a r v e d by t h e P i c c i r i l l i B r o t h e r s , a l s o o f I n d i a n a l i m e s t o n e , r e p r e s e n t G e n e r a l Wolfe and L o r d D u f f e r i n , t h i r d g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l o f Canada. The o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l even though t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l s u r f a c e s a r e f l a t , smooth, and t h i n . The concept o f t h e b u i l d i n g cannot he gras p e d i n a s i n g l e v i e w . I t must be e x p e r i e n c e d i n the round. The most s u c c e s s f u l e l e v a t i o n s a r e t h e e a s t and west w i t h t h e s m a l l double-columned pedimented p o r t i c o and the columned ends o f the n o r t h and s o u t h wings. The n o r t h and s o u t h e l e v a t i o n s appear weak w i t h o u t any t e r m i n a t i n g f e a t u r e t o the wings. The s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f the dome r e l a t e w e l l t o the r e s t o f the b u i l d i n g , b e i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n t o i t . The m o t i f o f t h e d e l i c a t e I o n i c columns l i n k s t h e body o f t h e b u i l d i n g which c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e more r o b u s t q u a l i t y o f t h e dome w i t h i t s C o r i n t h i a n colonnaded drum. The dome i s t h e d o m i n a t i n g element w i t h a l l o t h e r p a r t s sub-o r d i n a t e t o i t . - 1 3 3 -Some o f the i n t e r i o r w a l l s a r e T y n d a l l l i m e s t o n e ( o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o be E n g l i s h P o r t l a n d s tone) but t h e m a j o r i t y a r e p l a s t e r . I n t e r i o r d e t a i l s combine b o t h c l a s s i c a l and n o n - c l a s -s i c a l elements. The grand s t a i r c a s e f e a t u r e s an e l a b o r a t e p l a s t e r c e i l i n g w i t h an u n u s u a l s t e e r - s k u l l m o t i f , a s k y l i g h t ( F i g u r e 75) > f o u r c a r y a t i d s m o d e l l e d by A l b e r t Hodge and c a r v e d by the P i c c i r i l l i B r o t h e r s - based on t h e Erechtheum i n Athens ( F i g u r e 76) , and the two bronze b u f f a l o , m o d e l l e d by C h a r l e s Gardet. The r o t u n d a has c o u p l e d , f l u t e d C o r i n t h i a n columns, a marble f l o o r l a i d out i n a c i r c u l a r meander m o t i f , a l i g h t wheel, and a s e m i c i r c u l a r m u r a l o v e r the e n t r a n c e t o t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber ( F i g u r e 77)- I t was e x e c u t e d by Frank Brangwyn, who a l s o sup-p l i e d some mu r a l s f o r t h e M i s s o u r i S t a t e C a p i t o l . The work i s done i n tempera on canvas which measures twenty-two f e e t l o n g and n e a r l y f i f t e e n f e e t h i g h a t t h e top o f the c u r v e . The sub-j e c t i s 'Canada's War Record,' an a l l e g o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f World War I . A group o f s o l d i e r s occupy a s h o t - s h o r n wood amidst w h i c h a r e seen fragments o f a r u i n e d c h u r c h . S:©me are wounded, some a r e a t work. A huge gun i s t h e r e , c o n t r a s t i n g s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e f l o w e r s t h a t s p r i n g from t h e b l o o d - s o a k e d ground. The c e n t r a l group, i n w h i c h a wounded man i s b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by comrades, t y p i f i e s t h e h o r r o r s o f war; and i n the background s t a n d s t h e H o l y Mother, h o l d i n g i n her arms th e P r i n c e o f Peace. Even though the f i g u r e s are v e r y r e a l i s t i c a l l y drawn, the p i c -t u r e p l a n e i s v e r y f l a t and two d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s q u a l i t y i s emphasized by the v e r t i c a l t r e e t r u n k s w h i c h u n i t e t h e back-ground w i t h t h e f o r e g r o u n d . - 1 3 4 -••?he The M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t i v e chamber adopted t h e h e m i c y c l e p l a n i n i t s s e a t i n g arrangement which was common i n Europe and i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chambers o f A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan were a l s o p l a n n e d t h i s way, they adopted t h e o p p o s i t i o n s e a t i n g arrangement used i n Ottawa. The c o l o u r scheme o f t h e M a n i t o b a l e g i s l a t i v e chamber i s e x q u i s i t e i n s o f t shades o f b l u e and g o l d . The two bronze s t a t u e s o f Moses and S o l o n were m o d e l l e d by C h a r l e s Gardet. The c e i l i n g and w a l l d e c o r a t i o n i s by Augustus V i n c e n t Tack (I87O - 1949) o f New Yo r k . He g r a d u a t e d from the C o l l e g e o f S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r i n I89O and t h e f i n e a r t s programme a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y i n 1912. He a l s o s t u d i e d i n P a r i s and under John L a Farge i n New York. He d i d many r e l i g i o u s and p u b l i c commissions i n c l u d i n g the mu r a l s f o r t h e Nebraska S t a t e C a p i t o l . H i s s t y l e e v o l v e d t h r o u g h I m p r e s s i o n i s m and Neo-Impressionism. F o r the murals i n the l e g i s l a t i v e chamber he used a p o i n t i l l i s t t e c h n i q u e . I n s t e a d o f m i x i n g c o l o u r s on his p a l e t t e , he a p p l i e d pure p r i m a r y c o l o u r d i r e c t l y i n s m a l l d o t s on t h e canvas, w h i c h when viewed from th e r i g h t d i s t a n c e , b l e n d e d i n t h e eye o f the b e h o l d e r . The programme i s an a l l e g o r y on t h e o r i g i n o f l e g i s l a t i o n . I n the c e i l i n g a r e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a n c i e n t codes o f law, the f i v e codes o f law, and t h e t e n v i r t u e s . B e h i n d t h e Speaker's c h a i r , a r e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g Courage, V i g i l a n c e , S a c r i f i c e , and L o y a l t y ; f i v e g r e a t l e g i s l a t o r s ; and a scene showing J u s t i c e f l a n k e d by Wisdom and Knowledge and o t h e r f i g u r e s s y m b o l i c o f Humanity and the Tree o f L i f e ( F i g u r e 78). -135-The e x t e n s i v e c o s t o f the M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i n c u r r e d d u r i n g the R o b l i n government, t h e c o s t o f t h e war, and the r e s u l t i n g i n f l a t i o n f o r c e d the N o r r i s government t o ask 10 5 Simon t o reduce the c o s t of the b u i l d i n g . J T h i s Simon d i d by e l i m i n a t i n g p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a r c h i t e c t u r a l c a r v i n g , most n o t a b l y on the dome; by c o v e r i n g t h e dome w i t h copper i n s t e a d o f s t o n e ; by s u b s t i t u t i n g a l i g h t e r s t e e l and wooden framework i n the dome; by e l i m i n a t i n g o r s u b s t i t u t i n g cheaper m a r b l e , wood work, and p l a s t e r i n g ( t h e e n t i r e marble w a l l l i n i n g o f th e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber was o m i t t e d ) ; by s u b s t i t u t i n g most bronze w i t h wrought i r o n ; and by s u p p l y i n g a s i m p l e r scheme f o r the p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e chamber, The v a l u e o f t h e s e d e d u c t i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s amounted t o $ 1 , 0 0 9 , 4 4 2 . One can not h e l p but f e e l t h a t Simon would have been d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e s e changes even though he r e l a t e d t o Thomas Johnson, M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, t h a t w h i l e o f n e c e s s i t y t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f d e t a i l and o m i s s i o n o f o r n a -ment and the a d o p t i o n o f l e s s e x p e n s i v e m a t e r i a l s t h e g e n e r a l u t i l i t y and a r t i s t i c c h a r a c t e r o f th e b u i l d i n g i s not impaired.1°7 H i s t r u e f e e l i n g s were more t o t h e p o i n t when he s a i d " u n l e s s c a r v i n g can be done i n a h i g h c l a s s manner i t i s b e t t e r o m i t t e d 108 e n t i r e l y . I n f e r i o r work i s worse t h a n none a t a l l . " R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s e r e d u c t i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s , t h e M a n i -t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , when compared t o the o t h e r p r a i r i e b u i l d i n g s , r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t i n t e g r a t i o n o f the a r t s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u p l t u r e , and p a i n t i n g , i n the b e s t B e a u x - A r t s t r a d i t i o n . W h i l e l a r g e , the b u i l d i n g i s c o m p a c t . a n d t e f f i c i e n t • -136-I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s v i s u a l and s p a t i a l c o m p l e x i t y . W h i l e t h e proposed m a l l i n t h e C i t y B e a u t i f u l Movement f a s h i o n was n e v e r b u i l t , the b u i l d i n g i s g r a n d l y s i t u a t e d a t t h e end o f M e m o r i a l B o u l e v a r d . The b u i l d i n g dominates but i s i n harmony w i t h i t s urban environment. D e s i g n S o u r c e s Even though t h e M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i s more e l a b o r a t e t h a n the o t h e r p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i n i t s use o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s c u l p t u r e , t h e e f f e c t i s s t i l l s i m p l e r t h a n t h e American B e a u x - A r t s s t a t e c a p i t o l or the Edwardian Baroque town h a l l . W h i l e t h e r e i s a monumental f l i g h t o f s t e p s , s t r i c t s y m m e t r i c a l p l a n n i n g , and c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n • o f ' p a r t s , t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d use o f t h e c o u p l e d column, the f r o n t e l e v a -t i o n does not have a f i v e - p a r t c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e r e a r e no a r c h e d o p e n i n g s , and t h e f a c a d e s do n o t have pronounced r e c e d i n g and a d v a n c i n g p l a n e s . The body of t h e b u i l d i n g e x h i b i t s a g r a c e f u l , s i m p l i f i e d q u a l i t y , B e a u x - A r t s i n i t s arrangement of masses and spaces but more complex i n i i t s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e p l a n and dome. The v i s u a l s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e can a g a i n be t r a c e d t o E n g l a n d . The Bournemouth Law C o u r t s and Town H a l l by C.E. Mallows and F.W. Lacey ( c . 1906) e x h i b i t s e v e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s ( F i g u r e 79). The p l a n i s H-shaped, a l t h o u g h , u n l i k e the L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , t h e wings a r e c u r v e d . The dome i s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e Edwardian Baroque town h a l l domes, mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e - 1 3 7 -Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g , w i t h i t s colonnaded drum and extended c u t c o r n e r m o t i f . I t i s not c l e a r whether t h e drum of t h e Bournemouth b u i l d i n g i s square or round. I t a l s o has an i r r e g u l a r l y shaped o c t a g o n a l dome. The b u i l d i n g i s g e n e r a l l y much more e l a b o r a t e i n i t s w a l l t r e a t m e n t t h a n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . An i d e n t i c a l e x t e r i o r d e t a i l i s the pedimented window l o c a t e d i n t h e centr_e o f the ends o f the wings and a t t h e ends o f t h e f r o n t and r e a r f a c a d e s . The Bournemouth b u i l d i n g does, however, l a c k a pedimented p o r t i c o . W h i l e t h e M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g i s a l s o the p r o d u c t o f an a r c h i t e c t w i t h B e a u x - A r t s t r a i n i n g , economic c o n d i t i o n s have s i m p l i f i e d i t , and the n a t i o n a l background o f t h e a r c h i -t e c t has i n t r o d u c e d E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e s . - 1 3 8 -F o o t n o t e s 1 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , October 2 , 1912, p. 3 . 2 D e n i s e Dawes, M a n i t o b a : P a s t and P r e s e n t (Winnipeg: M a n i t o b a C e n t e n n i a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 1 ) , n.p. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 9 9 I b i d . , December 8 , 1911 , p. 1 3 . 20 The name o f the a s s e s s o r was not named i n advance. 21 Born i n S o u t h p o r t , L a n c a s h i r e ( I 8 5 8 - I 9 2 5 ) , he a r t i c l i n E n g l a n d and opened h i s own p r a c t i c e i n I 8 8 3 . A p r o l i f i c a r c h i t e c t , he d e s i g n e d many s c h o o l s and t e l e p h o n e b u i l d i n g s . He was a l e a d i n g Edwardian Baroque a r c h i t e c t . He had a l s o s e l -e c t e d i n 1912 the p l a n s f o r t h e never b u i l t W innipeg C i t y H a l l . W i nnipeg F r e e P r e s s , A p r i l 2 2 , 1920, p. 5. I b i d . W i n n ipeg T r i b u n e , October 2 , 1912, p. 3 . I b i d . R e g i n a L e a d e r , October 8 , 1999, p. 1. I b i d . W i nnipeg T r i b u n e , December 4, 1911, p. 1. See Appendix I . Winnipeg T r i b u n e , February,25, 1910, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , J a n u a r y 5, 1911, p. 1. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , October 12, 1911, p. 1. See Appendix I . Winnipeg T r i b u n e , December 4, 1911, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , December 8 , 1911, p. 13 . I b i d . , J a n u a r y 4, 1912, p. 4. I b i d . -139-22 See Appendix I . 23 Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , December 9, 1911, p. 4. I b i d . 25 I b i d . , J a n u a r y 5, 1912, p. 5; C o n s t r u c t i o n , VI ( F e b r u a r y , 1912), p. 44; C o n s t r u c t i o n . V I I (June, 1912), pp. 69-70. 26 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , A p r i l 1, 1912, p. 1. 27 3 Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , A p r i l 11, 1912, p. 9. 28 L e t t e r , L e o n a r d S t o k e s to t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , A p r i l 10, 1912, M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , R o b l i n P a p e r s . 29 L e t t e r , C.H. Dancer, Deputy M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, A p r i l 23, 1912, M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , R o b l i n P a p e r s . T h i s form l e t t e r t o t h e v a r i o u s u n s u c c e s s f u l a r c h i t e c t s l i s t s t h i r t y - s i x o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t y - f i v e a p p l i c a n t s . 30 31 32 33 34 R e g i n a L e a d e r , A p r i l 13, 1912, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , September 24, 1912, p. 1 R e g i n a L e a d e r , A p r i l 13, 1912, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , October 1, 1912, p. 2. Western Canada C o n t r a c t o r , ( J u n e , 1933), P- 9-See Appendix F f o r a l i s t o f Simon's B u i l d i n g s . 3 5 The B u i l d e r , ( J u l y 7, 1933), P- 6. 36 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , June 5, 1933, P« 44. 37 J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , (fJiune 17, 1933), P- 641. 38 39 40 41 42 See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . Edmonton C a p i t a l , J u l y 12, 19131,. p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , J u l y 14, 1913, p. 3. I b i d . , August 27, 1913, p. 12. There would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 h o l e s , 80 t o 100 f e e t i n depth and 7 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r . -140-4 3 44 ^5 46 47 48 49 See Appendix I . Winnipeg T r i b u n e , November 4, 1913, p. 1. Winnipeg Free P r e s s , A p r i l 30, 1914, p. 22. I b i d . , August 28, 1914, p. 10. I b i d . , October 19, 1914, p. 13. I b i d . , September 19, 1914, p. 1. I b i d . , "The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n had been t o c o n s t r u c t t h e b u i l d i n g , which would be o f enormous w e i g h t , on cement p i l e s d r i v e n t o r o c k , and i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t the cement p i l e s would be d r i v e n t o a depth o f 50 f e e t . " T h i s c o n t r a d i c t s the statement made i n t h e Winnipeg Free P r e s s , August 27, 1913, p. 12. See a l s o F o o t n o t e 30. See a l s o Winnipeg Free P r e s s , September 19, 1914, p. 4. " I t was d e c i d e d t o construct p i e r s o f s o l i d c o n c r e t e r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s t e e l , and send them down t o r o c k , i n s t e a d o f t h e cement p i l e s o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d . " 5® I b i d . " I t was n e c e s s a r y t o change the c o n s t r u c t i o n from r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e t o s t e e l and c o n c r e t e . " These changes were recommended by E.C. Shankland, a s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r from C h i c a g o , and P r o f e s s o r Brydone - J a c k , o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a . 51 t o b r i c k . I b i d . The f o u n d a t i o n w a l l was changed from r u b b l e J Winnipeg Free P r e s s , October 10, 1914, p. 13. 53 I b i d . , J a n u a r y 16, 1915, p. 10. ^ I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 11, 1915, p. 1. 55 i b i d . , March 17, 1915, p. 9 -I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 13, 1915, P- 1. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , March 2, 1915, P- 8. 56 57 58 I b i d . , March 10, 1915, p. 1- A major w i t n e s s was W i l l i a m S a l t , an a s s i s t a n t i n s p e c t o r o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g who kept t h e r e c o r d s o f the depth o f t h e c a i s s o n s . The charge by the L i b e r a l s was t h a t t h e c a i s s o n s were i n r e a l i t y not as deep as S a l t i n d i c a t e d , thus a l l o w i n g f o r more money t o be p a i d f o r c o n c r e t e which was not used. -141-59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , March 12, 1915, p. 16 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , March 30, 1915, p. 1. I b i d . See Appendix I . Winnipeg T r i b u n e , A p r i l 22, 1915, p. 1-I b i d . , August 24, 1915, p. 1. I b i d . , May 12, 1915, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , August 7, 1915, P- 1- See Appendix I f o r b i o g r a p h y . 67 68 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , June 7, 1915, P- 1 I b i d l j August 11, 1915, p. 2. K e l l y was f i n a l l y a r r e s t e d October 2, 1915 and charged w i t h c r i m i n a l a c t s of p e r j u r y , c o n s p i r a c y t o d e f r a u d , o b t a i n i n g money under f a l s e p r e t e n c e s , and l a t e r , l a r c e n y and embezzlement. He was e x t r a d i c t e d t o Winnipeg on May 9 , 1916. H i s t r i a l s t a r t e d June 19, 1916, w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f l a w y e r s who had q u i t June 7, 1916. On June 29, 1916 he was found g u i l t y of t h e f t , and r e c e i v i n g and o b t a i n i n g money by f a l s e p r e t e n c e s . He a p p e a l e d t o the Supreme C o u r t o f Canada, October 10, 1916. He was d e n i e d a new t r i a l November 7, s e n t e n c e d November 18, 1916 t o two and o n e - h a l f y e a r s i n j a i l . He was r e l e a s e d t o h i s home on August 20, 1917, f o r r e a s o n s o f i l l h e a l t h , even a f t e r s p e n d i n g h i s time i n j a i l w i t h s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s / He was back a t work, a p p a r e n t l y f r e e , by June 26, 1918. 69 W r i t t e n and v e r b a l e vidence was s u p p r e s s e d . Con-s t r u c t i o n d a t a as t o t h e depth o f t h e c a i s s o n s and t h e c o s t of m a t e r i a l s was f o r g e d or d e s t r o y e d . 70 R e g i n a L e a d e r , June 25, 1915, P- !• A second R o y a l Commission, which began June 28, 1915, was a p p o i n t e d " t o i n v e s -t i g a t e t h e charges made e a r l i e r i n the week by C P . F u l l e r t o n , t h a t membersoof the R o b l i n government and N o r r i s government, had been concerned i n a ' d e a l ' which f i x e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r the t r a n s f e r o f a u t h o r i t y from the o l d regime t o the new." The most r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n p e r t a i n e d t o an agreement by N o r r i s t o s t i f l e t h e Mathers Commission. A r e p o r t r e l e a s e d J u l y 29, 1915 (Winnipeg T r i b u n e , J u l y 29, 1915, p . l ) d i s m i s s e d the F u l l e r t o n charges as unfounded. However, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Mathers Commission, the f o u r former C o n s e r v a t i v e members were -142-s u b s e q u e n t l y charged w i t h c o n s p i r i n g t o d e f r a u d t h e p u b l i c , and t r i e d on v a r i o u s o t h e r charges i n c l u d i n g the d e s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c documents ( R o b l i n ) , and c o n s p i r i n g t o c o r r u p t and c o r r u p t -i n g a i w i t n e s s (Howden, C o l d w e l l , and Montague). The e x - m i n i s t e r s were t r i e d , b e g i n n i n g J u l y 24, 1916. The v e r d i c t g i v e n on September 5, 1916, r e a c h e d a d e c i s i o n o f g u i l t y . They were f r e e d by t h e Crown on June 26, 1917 due t o the poor h e a l t h o f R o b l i n and C o l d w e l l (Montague had d i e d ) . 71 1 Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , August 26, 1915, p. 1, 10, 11. A d i a r y k e p t by Simon t o r e c o r d a l l h i s d a i l y b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and l e t t e r s was i n s t r u m e n t a l e v i d e n c e i n the;' Commission's f i n d i n g s . The M a n i t o b a government f i l e d a c i v i l s u i t a g a i n s t K e l l y and Sons on J u l y 21, 1915 i n an attempt t o r e c o v e r c l o s e t o one and a t h i r d m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i l l e g a l l y c o l l e c t e d by them i n c o n t r a c t s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g ( W i n nipeg T r i b u n e , J u l y 21, 1915, p. 1) . A Board o f A p p r a i s a l a p p o i n t e d March 22, 1917 announced on May 26, 1917 t h a t K e l l y and Sons owed $1,388,351 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . Upon K e l l y ' s a p p e a l , the amount was r e d u c e d by $615,213 on December 1, 1920. E a r l y i n 1921, t h e M a n i t o b a Government a p p e a l e d t h i s d e c i s i o n d i r e c t l y t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n E n g l a n d . The d e c i s i o n o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l u p h e l d th e o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e Board of A p p r a i s a l . The money remained on t h e p r o v i n c i a l books u n t i l 194-1 when i t was r e d u c e d t o $25,000. By t h a t date about $30,000 had been r e c o v e r e d . 72 73 74 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , September 7, 1915, P- 1-I b i d . , September 8, 1915, P- 1« Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , November 25, 1915, P- 3-75 I b i d . , December 4, 1915, p. 24. S. B y l a n d e r , a s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r , "was a p p o i n t e d t o a s s i s t Mr. Simon, the a r c h i t e c t , i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n o f t h e dome and i n s o l v i n g t h e e n g i n e e r i n g problems i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f o u n d a t i o n s . " See Appendix I . (Simon had been r e - i n s t a t e d as s u p e r v i s i n g a r c h i t e c t ) . Simon a l s o employed Hugh W a t k i n s , a Q u a n t i t y S u r -v e y o r , t o a i d i n s e t t i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r a new g e n e r a l c o n t r a c -t o r . W h i l e Q u a n t i t y S u r v e y i n g was not a new t e c h n i q u e ( i t had been used i n E n g l a n d f o r y e a r s ) , t h i s was the f i r s t time i n Canada a q u a n t i t y s u r v e y o r had been employed by a p u b l i c i n -s t i t u t i o n and the f i r s t time a c l i e n t had h i r e d one i n Western Canada. Watkin's j o b was t o d e c i d e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f m a t e r i a l and l a b o u r n e c e s s a r y i n each t r a d e t o f i n i s h the b u i l d i n g , and t o s u p p l y a b i l l o f q u a n t i t i e s upon w h i c h t e n d e r s c o u l d be based. 7 6 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , May 4, 1916, p. 1. -143-77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 I b i d . , September 12, 1916, p. 1. I b i d . , September 14, 1916, p. 5. I b i d . , O ctober 21, 1916, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , November 13, 1916, p. 5. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , December 29, 1916, p. 2. I b i d . , March 16, 1917, p. 1. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , A p r i l 17, 1917, p. 5. I b i d . , June 30, 1917, p. 1. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , J u l y 21, 1917, p. 1. I b i d . , J u l y 25, 1917, p. 1. Win n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , September 6, 1917, p. 5. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , December 19, 1917, p. 5. I b i d . , J a n u a r y 31, 1918, p. 15. Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , May 22, 1918, p. 5. I b i d . , J u l y 26, 1918, p. 5. Winnipeg T r i b u n e , F e b r u a r y 25, 1919, p. 5-Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , June 21, 1919, p. 5. I b i d . , J u l y 12, 1919, p. 27-I b i d . , August 14, 1919, p. 5- I n June 1918, the Barbedienrie Foundry i n P a r i s , i n which the s t a t u e was b e i n g c a s t , was p a r t i a l l y wrecked by German a i r bombs. The s t a t u e was undamaged. I t was s h i p p e d as b a l l a s t i n a f r e i g h t e r coming a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c f o r war s u p p l i e s . I t made s e v e r a l t r i p s back and f o r t h on t h e A t l a n t i c d u r i n g 1918 - 1919 b e f o r e f i n a l l y b e i n g u nloaded i n New York. 96 Winnipeg T r i b u n e , September 29, 1919, p. 10. 9 7 I b i d . , November 22, 1919, p. 3-98 Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , March 12, 1920, p. 1. -144-W innipeg T r i b u n e , June 19, 1920, p. 1. The s t a t u e s were put i n p l a c e by t h e ' i c e .method'. ' "The sto n e f i g u r e s were h o i s t e d and p o i s e d over t h e i r p l a t f o r m s . B l o c k s o f i c e were t h r u s t beneath the l i f t i n g t i m b e r s and t h e s t a t u e s a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e . The t i m b e r s were removed [ t h e "block o f i c e b e i n g s l i g h t l y t h i c k e r t h a n t h e s u p p o r t i n g t i m b e r s ] and t h e f i g u r e s r e s t e d on t h e i c e , w h i c h g r a d u a l l y m e l t e d , a l l o w i n g them t o r e a c h t h e p l a t f o r m s . " W i n nipeg F r e e P r e s s , November 3» 1920, p. 8. I b i d . , A p r i l 2, 1921, p. 7-I b i d . , May 28, 1921, p. 3-Western Canada C o n t r a c t o r , X V I I I (June, 1921), p. A r c h i t e c t u r a l - Review, XLIX (March, 1921), p. 57. L e t t e r , F.W. Simon t o Thomas H. Johnson, M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, September 21, 1916, M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r -c h i v e s , N o r r i s P a p e r s . 1 0 6 I b i d . 1 0 7 I b i d . 100 101 102 103 104 105 108 I b i d . -145-F i g u r e 54: Old M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g B u i l t I 8 8 3 - 1884 Thomas S c o t t , A r c h i t e c t ( W i n n ipeg Free P r e s s . March 5, 1910, p.22) - 1 4 6 -F i g u r e 55: V i c t o r Horwood ( S c h o f i e l d , F.H. The S t o r y o f Mani-t o b a . Winnipeg: S.J. C l a r k e Pub. Co. 1913, P- 665, Volume I I ) -147-F i g u r e 56: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s a l F.W. Simon (W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , September 24, 1912, p. l ) -148-F i g u r e 57: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s a l Edward and W.S. Maxwell ( C o n s t r u c t i o n . VI (November, 1912), p. 75) -149-F i g u r e 58: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s a l Sharp and Brown ( C o n s t r u c t i o n , VI (November, 1912), p. ?6) -150 -F i g u r e 59: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s a l Brown and V a l l a n c e ( C o n s t r u c t i o n . VI (November, 1912), p. 77) - 1 5 1 -F i g u r e 6 0 : M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g P r o p o s a l Clemesha and P o r t n a l l ( C o n s t r u c t i o n . VI (November, 1912), p. 78) - 1 5 2 -F i g u r e 6 l : Frank W o r t h i n g t o n Simon (W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s , October 1, 1912, P- 2) -154 -• • z » W W / / F i g u r e 63: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n . Under C o n s t r u c t i o n J u l y 30, 1917 ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) -155-F i g u r e 64: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g A e r i a l V i e w L o o k i n g N o r t h ( M a n i t o b a Depar tment o f Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) -156-F i g u r e 65: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g F o s s i l i n L i m e s t o n e 1964 ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) F i g u r e 6 6 : M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g F i r s t F l o o r P l a n ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) -158-F i g u r e 6 7 : M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Grand S t a i r c a s e ( M a n i t o b a Department o f Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) -159-- 1 6 0 -F i g u r e 6 9 : M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber ( M a n i t o b a Department of Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) -161-F i g u r e ?0: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Northwest Corner September 24, 1924 ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) -162-F i g u r e 71: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Pediment c. 1919 ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) - 1 6 3 -F i g u r e 72: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g S p h i n x ( M a n i t o b a Department of Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) - 1 6 4 -F i g u r e 73: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Golden Boy ( M a n i t o b a Department of Consumer, Cor-p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) - 1 6 5 -F i g u r e 74: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g S outh E l e v a t i o n 1920 ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) -166-F i g u r e 75- M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g S k y l i g h t Over Grand S t a i r c a s e ( M a n i t o b a Department o f Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) - 1 6 7 -C a r y a t i d s i n S t a i r c a s e H a l l ( M a n i t o b a Department o f Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) -168-F i g u r e 77: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g Brangwyn M u r a l ( M a n i t o b a A r c h i v e s ) -169-F i g u r e 78: M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g L e g i s l a t i v e Chamber M u r a l ( M a n i t o b a Department o f Consumer, C o r p o r a t e and I n t e r n a l S e r v i c e s ) - 1 7 0 -F i g u r e 79: Bournemouth Law C o u r t s and Town H a l l B u i l t c. 1906 C.E. Mallows and F.W. L a c e y , A r c h i t e c t s (Academy A r c h i t e c t u r e . XXIX (1906), p. 30) CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s has d i s c u s s e d the a r c h i t e c t u r e and h i s t o r y o f the l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s o f A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and M a n i t o b a , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o contemporaneous a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e n d s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n c h r o n o l o g y , a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and d e s i g n s o u r c e s f o r each " b u i l d i n g r e v e a l e d n o t o n l y th e p r o v i n c e s ' s t r i v i n g f o r i d e n t i t y and growth, but a l s o t h e i r need t o conform t o Western t r a d i -t i o n s , t a s t e s and s t a n d a r d s o f p r o g r e s s . The t h r e e l e g i s l a -t i v e b u i l d i n g s were examined i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t e x t : the a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s o f the E c o l e des Beaux-A r t s i n P a r i s and i t s impact on a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n and N o r t h A m e r i c a ; the American e x p o s i t i o n s and the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f the B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e by s e v e r a l l e a d i n g A m erican a r c h i t e c t s ; and the common use o f Academic C l a s s i c i s m f o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the American s t a t e c a p i t o l and the B r i t i s h town h a l l . The B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e o r i g i n a t e d a t t h e E c o l e des Beaux-A r t s i n P a r i s , where r a t i o n a l and f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f space, symmetry i n p l a n and e l e v a t i o n , and grandness of s c a l e and p r o p o r t i o n were t a u g h t . These d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d t o most a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c h o o l s and ' a t e l i e r s ' i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and B r i t a i n . S e v e r a l prominent American a r c h i t e c t s promoted the Academic C l a s s i c a l S t y l e s , i n c l u d i n g the Beaux-A r t s S t y l e , between 1880 and 1920 a t the American e x p o s i t i o n s -172-and f o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s i n g e n e r a l , but most p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c o u r t h o u s e s , banks, and s t a t e c a p i t o l s . B r i t i s h a r c h i t e c t s used the Edwardian Baroque most o f t e n f o r town h a l l s . I n Canada, as e l s e w h e r e , t h e s e s t y l e s g e n e r a l l y became outmoded a f t e r 1920 when d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s were i n t r o d u c e d from Germany, A u s t r i a , and F r a n c e . The A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d between 1907 and 1913 w i t h a s t e e l frame and f a c e d w i t h g r a n i t e and s a n d s t o n e . There was no c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g which was d e s i g n e d by two P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t s , one an A merican, t h e o t h e r an E n g l i s h m a n . Due t o a l a c k o f f o r e s i g h t on the p a r t o f t h e government, t h e b u i l d i n g was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l even f o r t h e s p a t i a l l needs o f t h e day. A d e s i r e t o use l o c a l b u i l d i n g t r a d e s and m a t e - r i a l s r e s u l t e d i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f s e v e r a l A l b e r t a s u b c o n t r a c t o r s and t h e use o f A l b e r t a s a n d s t o n e . The c h o i c e o f an American a r c h i t e c t and the i n t e r e s t . 6f a few i n f l u e n t i a l government o f f i c i a l s i n A merican s t a t e c a p i t o l s produced a u n i que, A m e r i c a n - l o o k i n g l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g . I t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e A l b e r t a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g e x h i -b i t s q u a l i t i e s o f t h e L a t e V i c t o r i a n B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e and t h a t i t s main p r o t o t y p e i s t h e M i n n e s o t a S t a t e C a p i t o l . The Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d between 1908 and 1912 o f r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e f a c e d w i t h M a n i -t o b a l i m e s t o n e . There was a c o m p e t i t i o n by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g w h i c h was d e s i g n e d by a C anadian a r c h i t e c t u r a l -173-f i r m . The c h o i c e o f Canadian a r c h i t e c t s w i t h t r a i n i n g from t h e E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s i n P a r i s was combined w i t h the d e s i r e o f t h e government t o have a l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d w i t h e x p l i c i t Empire a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t the Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g a l s o e x h i b i t s q u a l i t i e s o f the L a t e V i c t o r i a n B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e and t h a t i t s g e n e r a l p r o t o -t y p e s a r e E n g l i s h town h a l l s . The M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d between 1913 and 1920 w i t h a s t e e l frame f a c e d w i t h M a n i t o b a l i m e s t o n e . There was a l i m i t e d open c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h i s b u i l d i n g which was d e s i g n e d by an E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t . O r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d w i t h e x t e n s i v e s c u l p t u r e and r i c h m a t e r i a l s , t h e completed b u i l d i n g appears much s i m p l e r i n i t s o v e r a l l e f f e c t because o f wartime economies. I t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g a l s o e x h i b i t s q u a l i t i e s o f the L a t e V i c t o r i a n Beaux-A r t s S t y l e and i t s g e n e r a l p r o t o t y p e s a r e E n g l i s h town h a l l s . T h i s t h e s i s has s t a t e d t h a t t h e common a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e o f t h e t h r e e p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s i s the L a t e V i c t o r i a n B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . However, s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s have m o d i f i e d t h e end r e s u l t . L o c a l m a t e r i a l s , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a i n i n g , n a t i o n a l i t y , a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by each o f the a r c h i -t e c t s (one American, one Canadian, and one B r i t i s h ) , economies, imposed by the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o f the young p r o v i n c e s , and th e demands o f World War I r e s u l t e d i n b u i l d i n g s d e s i g n e d -arid c o n s t r u c t e d i n a v a r i a n t of t h e pure B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e . The Ca n a d i a n v e r s i o n i s s m a l l e r , s i m p l e r , l e s s complex t h a n t h a t -174-produced i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r B r i t a i n . Thus, s i n c e s i m i l a r s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada a t t h i s - . p e r i o d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e s adopted i n Canada "between I89O and 1920 have s i m i l a r l y "become s i m p l i f i e d and h y b r i d i z e d . The p r a i r i e l e g i s l a t i v e b u i l d i n g s o f Canada r e p r e s e n t an o r i g i n a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n , American, and B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e s . - 1 7 5 -SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY I STYLE Ackerman, James S. " S t y l e ' ; " A r t and A r c h a e o l o g y . En-glewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1963. A l l s o p p , B r u c e . S t y l e i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s . London: S i r I s a a c P i t m a n and Sons, L t d . , 1956. D i x o n , John W. "Notes Toward a Theory o f S t y l e . 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" J u d i c i a l S t r u c t u r e and Court House Con-M i l l s , Edward. " J u d i c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C o u r t House Con-s t r u c t i o n i n A l b e r t a . " U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , C a nadian I n v e n t o r y o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g , 1977-Pysmeny, K.W. "Government House." U n p u b l i s h e d paper, N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, I 9 6 9 . "A Tour o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . " U n p u b l i s h e d t y p e d m a n u s c r i p t , A l b e r t a C u l t u r e , n.d. U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . A r c h i v e s , R u t h e r f o r d P a p e r s . B. H i s t o r y 1. Books B l u e , John. A l b e r t a : P a s t and P r e s e n t . C h i c a g o : P i o n e e r H i s t o r i c a l Bub. Co., 1924. -187 -Cashman, Tony. The B e s t Edmonton S t o r i e s . Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1976, pp. 204 - 207. MacGregor, J.G. Edmonton: A H i s t o r y . Edmonton: M.G. 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Canadian' A r c h i t e c t and B u i l d e r , X X I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 0 8 ) , pp. 11 - 13 . " L e g i s l a t i v e and E x e c u t i v e B u i l d i n g s , R e gina." C o n s t r u c -t i o n , V I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1915). pp. 5 - 12. " R e n a i s s a n c e D e s i g n o f E n g l i s h A r c h i t e c t s . " C o n s t r u c t i o n , I I (May, 1908), pp. 43 - 47. Ruse, Norman A. "Regin a , Her Development." C o n s t r u c t i o n , V I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1915), pp. 29 - 35-"Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s , R e gina." R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada J o u r n a l , I ( A p r i l / J u n e , 1924), pp. 41 - 53. S t e w a r t , John and Buggey, Susan. "The Case f o r Commemo-r a t i o n o f H i s t o r i c Landscapes and Gardens." A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n Technology B u l l e t i n , V I I (Number 2, 1975), pp. 99 - 123. Thomas, L e w i s H. "The Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g and i t s P r e d e c e s s o r s . " R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l  I n s t i t u t e o f Canada J o u r n a l , XXXII ( J u l y , 1955), pp. 248 - 252. Van Egmond, W.G. " P u b l i c B u i l d i n g s a t Re g i n a . " C o n s t r u c -t i o n , V I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1915), pp. 13 - 22. "Western D e s i g n i n R e g i n a C o m p e t i t i o n . " C o n s t r u c t i o n , I I ( A p r i l , 1908), pp. 41 - 43. "Winning D e s i g n i n R e g i n a C o m p e t i t i o n . " C o n s t r u c t i o n , I ( F e b r u a r y , 1908), pp. 36 - 40. -189-3. Newspapers R e g i n a L e a d e r . J a n u a r y 1, 1905 - December 31, 1915-R e g i n a S t a n d a r d . J a n u a r y 1, 1905 - September 5, 1906. 4, U n p u b l i s h e d Documents and M a n u s c r i p t s P r o v i n c e o f Quebec A s s o c i a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s . A r c h i t e c t s F i l e - M a x w e l l ^ . R e g i n a P u b l i c L i b r a r y . 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P r a i r i e L i b e r a l i s m : The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n  Saskatchewan 1905 - 1971• Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1975' Ward, Norman and S p a f f o r d , D u f f , ed. P o l i t i c s i n S a s k a t -chewan. Don M i l l s : Longmans Canada L t d . , 1968. W r i g h t , J.F.C. Saskatchewan: The H i s t o r y o f a P r o v i n c e . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d . , 1955--190-2 . P e r i o d i c a l s B o o k i n g , D.H. " P r e m i e r W a l t e r S c o t t : H i s E a r l y C a r e e r . " Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , X I I I (Autumn, I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 81 - 9 0 . . "Saskatchewan's F i r s t P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n . " Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , X V I I ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 4 l - 54. Com p l i n , M a r g a r e t . " F l o r e a t R e g i n a . " Canadian G e o g r a p h i -c a l J o u r n a l , IX (December, 1934), pp. 305 - 3 1 2 . "From Shack t o C i t y - H i s t o r y o f R e g i n a a t a Glance." Man - t o - Man Magazine, VI (November, 1 9 1 0 ) , pp. 999 - 1004. Murray, J e a n E. "The P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l C o n t r o v e r s y i n Saskatchewan." Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , V (Autumn, 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 81 - 1 0 5 . " R e g i n a , the 'Model' C i t y o f the West." C o n s t r u c t i o n . I l l (December, 1909), pp. 87 - 9 5 . Weaver, E m i l y P. "Regina: The C a p i t a l o f Saskatchewan." Canadian Magazine, XXXIX (May/October, 1 9 1 2 ) , pp. 173 - 181. X MANITOBA A. A r c h i t e c t u r e 1. Books/Pamphlets E v i d e n c e G i v e n B e f o r e t h e P u b l i c A c c o u nts Committee Re-l a t i n g t o E x p e n d i t u r e on t h e New P a r l i a m e n t  B u i l d i n g s . Winnipeg: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915-L e s l i e , Thomas W. The L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g o f M a n i t o b a . Winnipeg: P r o v i n c i a l Government o f M a n i t o b a , 1925. M a n i t o b a . Department o f P u b l i c Works Annual R e p o r t s . 1910 - 1975-M a n i t o b a . J o u r n a l s o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 1910 -1920. M a n i t o b a . P u b l i c A c c o u n t s . 1910 - 1921. M a n i t o b a . S t a t u t e s . 1880 - 1921. -191-M a n i t o b a C o u r t o f K i n g ' s Bench. K e l l y A p p r a i s a l : M i n u t e s  of Judgement. Winnipeg: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1917-P e v s n e r , N i k o l a u s . South L a n c a s h i r e . Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1969. R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission A p p o i n t e d t o I n q u i r e i n t o  C e r t a i n M a t t e r s R e l a t i n g t o the New P a r l i a m e n t  B u i l d i n g s . Winnipeg: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915-R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission A p p o i n t e d t o I n v e s t i g a t e the Charges made i n the Statement o f C P . F u l l e r t o n ,  K.C. Winnipeg: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915-2. P e r i o d i c a l s H e a l y , W.J. "The M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . " The  Canad i a n T h i n k e r , ( J u l y , 1937), pp. 5 - 8 . "Manitoba P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g , Winnipeg." A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Review, L I ( J a n u a r y , 1922), pp. 1 - Ik. "Manitoba's_ Imposing P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . " Western Canada C o n t r a c t o r , X V I I I ( J u n e , 1921), pp. 29 -33, 56. "Manitoba*s L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g . " H a b i t a t , I I I (May/ June, i960) , pp. 2 - 6 . "Mr. Brangwyn's New P a n e l . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, XLIX (March, 1921), pp. 5 5 - 5 9 . "The New L e g i s l a t i v e and E x e c u t i v e B u i l d i n g , Winnipeg, M a n i t o b a . " C o n s t r u c t i o n , V (Novmeber, 1912), pp. 69 - 78. "New P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g . " B u i l d i n g News and E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , CXVI (March 19, 1919), p. 180. "Le P a l a i s du Pa r l e m e n t a. Ma n i t o b a . " C o n s t r u c t i o n Moderne, X X V I I I (11 mai, 1913), pp. 375 - 377-P r a t t , A.M. " T h i s i s t h e Law." M a n i t o b a S c h o o l J o u r n a l , XI (March, 1950), pp. 12 - 16, 2k. R e i d , W i l l i a m A. " L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s . " C anadian A n t i q u e s C o l l e c t o r , VI (November/December, 1971), PP. 31 - 33. - 1 9 2 -Ross, Donald. A. "Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l d i n g s , Winnipeg." R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada J o u r n a l , I ( J u l y / S e p t e m b e r , 1924), pp. 75 - 8?. S t o u g h t o n , A.A. "The New M a n i t o b a P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g . " C o n s t r u c t i o n , XIV (March, 1921), pp. 67 - 86. 3- Newspapers Wi n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s . J a n u a r y 1, 1910 - J a n u a r y 31» 1922. W i n n i p e g T r i b u n e . J a n u a r y 1, 1910 - J a n u a r y 31, 1922. 4. U n p u b l i s h e d Documents and M a n u s c r i p t s M a n i t o b a . Department o f P u b l i c Works. L e g i s l a t i v e B u i l -d i n g P l a n s . M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . N o r r i s P a p e r s . M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . N o r r i s P a p e r s . M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Photograph C o l l e c t i o n . M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . R o b l i n P a p e r s . Oxton, S.C. "D e s c r i p t i v e - , Guide t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a a t Winnipeg, M a n i t o b a . " U n p u b l i s h e d t y p e d m a n u s c r i p t , Government o f M a n i t o b a , 1920. B. H i s t o r y 1. Books D o n n e l l y , M.S. The Government of M a n i t o b a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1963• J a c k s o n , James A. The C e n t e n n i a l H i s t o r y o f M a n i t o b a . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t L t d . , 1970. Lodge, R.C., ed. M a n i t o b a E s s a y s . T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n Company of Canada L t d . , 1937-Morton, W.L. M a n i t o b a : A H i s t o r y . T oronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o P r e s s , 1967. Second e d i t i o n . - 1 9 3 -S c h o f i e l d , F.H. The S t o r y o f M a n i t o b a . Winnipeg: S.J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1913. 2. P e r i o d i c a l s Chipman, George F i s h e r . "Winnipeg: T.he M e l t i n g P o t . " Canadian Magazine, X X X I I I (1-909), pp. 409 - 4 l 6 . C l a r k , A.F.B. "Winnipeg i n 1904." Canadian Magazine , XXV ( J u n e , 1905), pp. 99 - 109. "The Gateway t o t h e G r a n a r y , o f the B r i t i s h Empire." Con-s t r u c t i o n , I I I (December, 1909), pp. 54 - 82. -194-APPENDIX A: LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF THE ALBERTA, SASKATCHEWAN AND MANITOBA LEGISLATIVE BUILDINGS A l b e r t a 10801 - 97 Avenue B l o c k A and B P l a n 463BM Saskatchewan P a r t o f t h e West 1/2 o f S e c t i o n 18, Township 17, Range 19, West o f t h e 2 M e r i d i a n and the Northwest 1/4 o f S e c t i o n 7, Township 17, Range 19, West o f t h e 2 M e r i d i a n M a n i t o b a P a r c e l 1 ( t h a t p o r t i o n o f R i v e r l o t 1 s o u t h o f Broadway and between Kennedy and Osborne S t r e e t s ) and P a r c e l 2 ( B l o c k s 11 and 12, and p a r t o f R i v e r l o t 85) •195-APPENDIX B: LEGISLATIVE BUILDINGS IN CANADA Date P r o v i n c e C i t y A r c h i t e c t 1811- 1819 Nova S c o t i a H a l i f a x John M e r r i c k 1 8 4 3 - 1847 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d C h a r l o t t e t o w n I s a a c S m i t h 1859- 1867 O n t a r i o Ottawa Thomas F u l l e r 1878- I887 Quebec Quebec C i t y Eugene Tache 1882 New B r u n s w i c k F r e d e r i c t o n J.C. Dumaresq 1886- 1892 O n t a r i o T oronto R i c h a r d A. Waite 1893-1912-1897 •1915 B r i t i s h C olumbia V i c t o r i a F.M. R a t t e n b u r y 1907- 1913 A l b e r t a Edmonton A.M. J e f f e r s , R.P? B l a k e y 1908- 1912 Saskatchewan R e g i n a E. & W.S. M a x w e l l 1913- 1920 M a n i t o b a Winnipeg F.W. Simon 1916- 1919* O n t a r i o Ottawa John A. Pearson, J o s e p h 0 . Marchand 1960 Newfoundland S t . John's B e t t s , Beaudoin, Cash + D e s t r o y e d by f i r e F e b r u a r y 3, 1916. * F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g . -196-APPENDIX C: BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY A.M.JJEFFERS* Date L o c a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t a t u s Unknown Unknown 1907 1907- 1909 1908- 1909 1908- 1912 1909 1909- 1910 1909 1912 1912 1915-1922 1918 Unknown Edmonton C a r d s t o n W e t a s k i w i n L e t h b r i d g e Edmonton F o r t Saskatchewan Edmonton Edmonton C a l g a r y Edmonton Unknown Bow I s l a n d S c h o o l F i r e h a l l C ourthouse ( r e v i s e d p l a n s ) Courthouse Courthouse #1 Courthouse #1 Courthouse A t h a b a s c a H a l l A r t s B u i l d i n g Courthouse #2 ( i n i t i a l p l a n s ) C i v i c B l o c k S c h o o l s (15) S c h o o l Unknown Unknown S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g Demolished Demolished S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g S t a n d i n g Unknown Demolished •^Presumably a l l b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d by t h e A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works between A p r i l 1907 and J a n u a r y 31, 1912 were d e s i g n e d by J e f f e r s as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t . -197 -APPENDIX D: BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY R.P. BLAKEY* Date L o c a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t a t u s Unknown C a l g a r y I n s t i t u t e o f Unknown Technology 1911-1913 Edmonton Government House S t a n d i n g 1912-1915 C a l g a r y Courthouse #2 S t a n d i n g 1918 Taber Courthouse S t a n d i n g 1919-1920 M e d i c i n e Hat Courthouse S t a n d i n g 1923 B l a i r m o r e Courthouse S t a n d i n g c. 1926 D r u m h e l l e r Courthouse #1 Unknown * Presumably a l l b u i l d i n g s erected by the A l b e r t a Department of P u b l i c Works between J a n u a r y 1, 1912 and 1924 were d e s i g n e d by B l a k e y as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t . A complete l i s t of h i s priMateleommissions i s s t i l l to be made from the B l a k e y , B B l a k e y , Bouey, Bouey and A s c h e r C o l l e c t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. -198-APPENDIX E: BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY W.S. AND E. MAXWELL^ Date L o c a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t a t u s Unknown M o n t r e a l G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l Unknown Unknown M o n t r e a l H i g h S c h o o l Unknown Unknown M o n t r e a l Church o f the M e s s i a h Unknown Unknown S e n n e y i l l e Angus Re s i d e n c e Unknown Unknown S e n n e v i l l e F o r g e t R e s i d e n c e Unknown Unknown M o n t r e a l S t o c k Exchange Unknown 1898-1899* Vancouver C.P.R. S t a t i o n #2 Demolished c. 1900* N o r t h Bend F r a s e r Canyon H o t e l E x t e n s i o n Unknown 1900* Ottawa Broad S t r e e t S t a t i o n Unknown 1900* Sicamous H o t e l Unknown 1902 M o n t r e a l Hosmer House S t a n d i n g * 1902 M o n t r e a l L a n c a s h i r e I n s u r a n c e Co. Unknown 1902 Unknown U n i t a r i a n Church Unknown 1904 1906 Winnipeg R o y a l A l e x a n d r a H o t e l Demolished c. 1905* Winnipeg C.P.R. S t a t i o n S t a n d i n g 1905 M o n t r e a l R o y a l Bank Unknown 1905-1908 M o n t r e a l Q u i n l a n Appartment B l o c k Demolished 1908 Ottawa De p a r t m e n t a l and J u s t i c e B u i l d i n g Unknown * Edward M a x w e l l + A more complete l i s t i s s t i l l t o be made from t h e Ma x w e l l C o l l e c t i o n , Redpath Museum, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l . -199-APPENDIX E ( c o n f ' d ) Date L o c a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t a t u s c. 1910 1911-1914 c. 1912 1912 c. 1914 1920-1924 M o n t r e a l C a l g a r y M o n t r e a l M o n t r e a l M o n t r e a l Quebec Nurses Home, Unknown R o y a l V i c t o r i a H o s p i t a l P a l l i s e r H o t e l S t a n d i n g Dominion E x p r e s s Unknown B u i l d i n g A r t G a l l e r y S t a n d i n g D a v i s R e s i d e n c e Unknown Chateau F r o n t e n a c S t a n d i n g ac Tower & Wing - 2 0 0 -APPENDIX F: BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY F.W. SIMON Date L o c a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t a t u s Unknown Unknown Unknown c. 1899+ 1905-19©6 E d i n b u r g h L i v e r p o o l L i v e r p o o l Glasgow L i v e r p o o l I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n U n i v e r s i t y ( a d d i t i o n s ) O r l e a n s House I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n B u i l -d i n g s (competiS t i v e d e s i g n ) C o t t o n Exchange Demolished Unknown Unknown S t a n d i n g Not b u i l t * W i t h Matear + W i t h C r a w f o r d -201-APPENDIX G: TOWN HALLS IN GREAT BRITAIN Date L o c a t i o n A r c h i t e c t 1853-1858 Leeds C u t h b e r t B r o d r i c k 1860-1862 H a l i f a x B a r r y 1866-1871 Rochdale W.H. C r o s s l a n d 1866-1873 B o l t o n W i l l i a m H i l l 1868-1877 Manchester A l f r e d Waterhouse 1873 B r a d f o r d Lockwood and Mawson 187^-1876 L e i c e s t e r F . J . Hames 1881 Greenock H. and D. B a r c l a y I885-I887* C h e l s e a John Brydon 1887 C l e c k h e a t o n F.M. R a t t e n b u r y I890 S h e f f i e l d R e g i n a l d B l o m f i e l d c. 1892 Glasgow W i l l i a m Young 1892-1893 B a t t e r s e a (London) R e g i n a l d B l o m f i e l d 1897-1902 C o l c h e s t e r J ohn B e l c h e r 1897-1906 C a r d i f f L a n c a s t e r , S t e w a r t and R i c k a r d s ' 1897-1906 B e l f a s t Brumwell Thomas c. 1901 South S h i e l d s R e g i n a l d G. K i r k b y 1901-1905 W a l s a l l G i b s o n and R u s s e l l 1902 D e p t f o r d L a n c h e s t e r and R i c k a r d s -202-APPENDIX G ( conf.d) Date L oclj.6ca.tion A r c h i t e c t c. 1903 S o u t h S h i e l d s L a n c h e s t e r , S t e w a r t & R i c k a r d s 1904-1908 S t o c k p o r t Brumwell and Thomas c. 1905 H a m i l t o n A l e x C u l l e n c. 1906 Bournemouth C.E. Mal l o w s and F.W. Lacey 1906-1909 L a n c a s t e r Edward W. Mo u n t f o r d c. 1908 Birmingham A s h l e y and Newman c. 1908 Lambeth Warwick and H a l l c. 1909 B e t h n a l Green P e r c y R o b i n s o n & W l l A l b a n Jones 1911-1918 S t . Marylebone (London) Edwin Cooper •$ F i r s t Edwardian Baroque T o w n h a l l - 2 0 3 -APPENDIX H: STATE CAPITOLS IN THE UNITED STATES"1" Date S t a t e A r c h i t e c t  1771- 1779 M a r y l a n d J o s e p h H. Sharpe 1785- 1798 V i r g i n i a L o u i s C l e r i s s e a u / T h o m a s J e f f e r s o n 1^89- 1792 New J e r s y J o n a t h a n Doan 1789- 1796 Delaware A l e x a n d e r G i v a n 1793- 1829 Washington,D.0. W i l l i a m Thornton^. Benjamin L a t r o b i C h a r l e s B u l f i n c h 1795- 1798 M a s s a c h u s e t t s C h a r l e s B u l f i n c h 1816- 1820 New Hampshire A l b e Cady 1828- 1831 Maine C h a r l e s B u l f i n c h 1833- 1840 N o r t h C a r o l i n a I t h i e l Town, A . J . D a v i s s 1838- 1860 Ohio Henry W a l t e r s 1841- 1845 F l o r i d a Unknown 1845- 1860 Tennessee W i l l i a m S . t r i c k l a n d 1850- 1852 Alabama George N i c h o l s 1851- •1865 Washington,D.C. Thomas U.. W a l t e r ( c a s t i r o n dome) 1853- •1868 South C a r o l i n a John R. N i e r n s e e 1857- •1859 Vermont" Thomas E. Powers 1860- •1878 C a l i f o r n i a M i n e r F. B u t l e r 1867- •1897 New York Thomas F u l l e r , Augustus L a v e r / Henry R i c h a r d s o n , L e o p o l d E i d l i t z 1869- •1871 Nevada P e t e r Cavanaugh 1869- •1873 Kansas E. Townsend M i x 1869- •1888 I l l i n o i s J o hn C.Cochrane, A l f r e d P i q u e n a r d 1871- •1878 M i c h i g a n E l i j a h E. Myers -204-APPENDIX H ( c o n t ' d ) Date S t a t e A r c h i t e c t 1871- I887 Iowa Cochrane, P i q u e n a r d 1873- 1879 C o n n e c t i c u t R i c h a r d Upjohn 1878- 1888 I n d i a n a Edwin May 1882- 1888 Texasr.g E l I j a n i E b s M y e r s 1884- I889 G e o r g i a Edbrooke,' Eurnham 1886- 1888 Wyoming D.W. Gibbs 1886- 1909 C o l o r a d o E.E. Myers 1895- 1906 Rhode I s l a n d McKim, Mead and White 1896- •1905* M i n n e s o t a Cass G i l b e r t 1898- •1902 Montana C.E. B e l l , J.H. Kent 1898- * 4 9 0 7 P e n n s y l v a n i a J o s e p h M. Huston 1899- •1900* A r i z o n a J . R e i l l y Gordon 1899- • 1916 A r k a n s a s George R. Mann, Cass G i l b e r t 1901- •1903* M i s s i s s i p p i Theodore C. L i n k 1905-1905-•1909* •1912° Kentucky M a h o Idaho Frank Andrews T o u r t e l l o t t e / H u m m e l l 1906-# -1917 W i s c o n s i n George Browne P o s t 1907- * -1910 S o u t h Dakota C.E. B e l l 2913- -1916 Utah R i c h a r d K l e ' t t i n g 1913- * -1918 M i s s o u r i Tracy, Swartwout 1914- * -1917 Oklahoma S.A. L a y t o n ', S . Wemyss-Smith 1922- -1932 Nebraska B e r t r a m G. Goodhue - 2 0 5 -APPENDIX H ( c o n t ' d ) Date S t a t e A r c h i t e c t 1923-1926 Washington 1929- 1931* A l a s k a 1930- 1932 West V i r g i n i a 1931- 1932 L o u i s i a n a 1932- 1934 N o r t h Dakota 1936-1938 Oregon 1965-1966 New Mexico 1965-1969 H a w a i i W.R. Wilder,,' H.K.White U.S. F e d e r a l A r c h i t e c t Cass G i l b e r t Weiss,, D r e y f o u s , S e i f e r t h J o s e ph B e l l de Remer, W i l l i a m F, Kurke., H o l a b i r d , Roolte Trowbridge, L i v i n g s t o n . ' K e a l l y W.C. K r u g e r Belt,Lemm0n,L0 + Only t h e o r i g i n a l d a t e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a re g i v e n f o r " b u i l d i n g s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used as s t a t e c a p i t o l s . See H i t c h c o c k and S e a l e f o r d a t e s o f a d d i t i o n s and r e n o v a t i o n s . * B e a u x - A r t s S t y l e -206-APPENDIX I : BIOGRAPHIES B l a k e y , W i l l i a m George Born i n S u n d e r l a n d , Durham County, England i n 1885, he a t t e n d e d t h e Bede C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l , and l a t e r a r t i c l e d w i t h George T. Brown. A f t e r coming t o Canada i n 1907, he began work as a draughtsman w i t h t h e A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works on J a n u a r y 1, 1908. Some y e a r s l a t e r , he opened h i s own p r i v a t p r a c t i c e i n Edmonton. In- the f a l l o f 1915» he went ove r s e a s f o r the war e f f o r t , but r e t u r n e d t o c o n t i n u e h i s p r a c t i c e i n Ja n u a r y 1919- He formed s e v e r a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a r t n e r s h i p s and d e s i g n e d many b u i l d i n g s i n t h e Edmonton a r e a u n t i l h i s r e t i r e -ment i n t h e l a t e 196,0s. ( S o u r c e : B l u e , John. A l b e r t a P a s t and P r e s e n t . C h i c a g o : P i o n e e r H i s t o r i c a l Pub. Co., 1924, pp. 308-309. Volume I I I . ) B y l a n d e r , S. • He was the s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r formmany prominent " b u i l d i n g i n Great B r i t a i n i n c l u d i n g S e l f r i g g e ' s s t o r e , the R o y a l Auto-m o b i l e C l u b , and t h e R i t z H o t e l , a l l i n London. He de s i g n e d t h e f i r s t s t e e l frame b u i l d i n g i n London ( b u i l d i n g unknown). He was a l s o chairman o f the j o i n t c o n f e r e n c e f o r s t a n d a r d i z i n g q u a n t i t i e s f o r r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e , chairman o f t h e R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e P r a c t i c e Committee o f t h e C o n c r e t e I n s t i t u t e o f London p a s t chairman of t h e J u n i o r . I n s t i t u t e o f E n g i n e e r s , and a -207 -member of the B r i t i s h Engineering Standards Committee. He a l s o h e l d the p o s i t i o n of c o n s u l t i n g engineer f o r the s t r u c t u r a l work f o r the A u s t r a l i a house i n London. "He takes a keen i n t e r e s t i n the s c i e n t i f i c and p r a c t i c a l developments of the use of con-c r e t e and r e i n f o r c e d concrete, and b e l i e v e s that much more science should "be a p p l i e d i n the use of concrete-- p a r t i c u l a r l y grade grading and mixing - than i s the case." (Source: Winnipeg Free Press, December 4,. 1915» P- 24). Cushing, W i l l i a m Henry He was born i n Ontario on August 21, 1852 and came ,,to A l b e r t a i n 1883- In 1885, he e s t a b l i s h e d Cushing Brothers Limited, Manufacturers of B u i l d i n g Supplies i n Calgary. He served as an alderman on Calgary C o u n c i l 1890-1906. He acquired the McLeod Woodworking P l a n t i n Edmonton i n 1900 and a s i m i l a r f a c t o r y i n Regina i n 1905- As an e l e c t e d member of the A l b e r t a p r o v i n c i a l government, he was M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works from 1906 toll'910. He died January 25, 1934. Hooper, Samuel Born i n 1851 i n H a t h e r l e i g h , County Devon, England, he came to Canada i n 1880 and to Winnipeg i n 1881. Having s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i n England under h i s uncle, he began h i s a r c h i t e c -t u r a l p r a c t i c e i n Winnipeg i n 1893- He worked f o r a time w i t h h i s brother Thomas, who l a t e r set up a prominent o f f i c e i n Vancouver. Samuel not only designed s e v e r a l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e -208-b u i l d i n g s i n Winnipeg, i n c l u d i n g the C a r n e g i e L i b r a r y , and the Land T i t l e s B u i l d i n g , but he a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d Hooper's Marb l e and G r a n i t e Company, became f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e M a n i t o b a A r c h i t e c t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , and was h i r e d as the M a n i t o b a P r o v i n -c i a l A r c h i t e c t i n § 9 0 7 ' He h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l h i s death i n London on October 19, 1911• (Sour c e : Winnipeg T r i b u n e , October 19, 1911., p. 1; S c h o f i e l d , F.H. The S t o r y o f M a n i t o b a , Winnipeg: S.J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1913, PP- 601 - 6 0 2 ) . Horwood, V i c t o r W i l l i a m He was born a t Fro m e , S o m e r s e t s h i r e , England on F e b r u a r y 27, 1878 and came t o P r e s c o t t , O n t a r i o i n 1884. He s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Ottawa under h i s b r o t h e r , E.L. Horwood, b e f o r e w o r k i n g i n M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , S t . P a u l , and Chicago where he a s s i s t e d i n t h e p l a n s o f t h e new p o s t o f f i c e . Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n W innipeg i n 1904, he e s t a b l i s h e d h i s own o f f i c e . He d e s i g n e d many b u i l d i n g s i n Winnipeg i n c l u d i n g S t . P a u l ' s P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, S t . B o n i f a c e C i t y H a l l , t h e Law C o u r t s , and the a g r i -c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e . He became t h e f i r s t v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f the M a n i t o b a A r c h i t e c t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g h i s appointment on J a n u a r y 1, 1911 as a s s i s t a n t t o Hooper i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i t e c t ' s o f f i c e , he succeeded t o t h a t p o s i t i o n upon;Hooper's dea t h . He r e t i r e d from p u b l i c l i f e i n 1915-(Sour c e : Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s , November 1, 1911, p. 5; Scho-f i e l d , F.H. The S t o r y o f M a n i t o b a . Winnipeg: S.J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1913, pp. 664 - 6 6 7 ) . -209-K e l l y , Thomas He was born i n County Roscommon, I r e l a n d on August 7, 1855-I n 1864, he came t o New York s t a t e where he l e a r n e d the b r i c k -l a y i n g t r a d e . A f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n Winnipeg i n 1878, he be-came foreman f o r P e t e r M c G i l l , c o n t r a c t o r . I n 1880, he formed h i s own f i r m , K e l l y B r o t h e r s C o n t r a c t o r s , w i t h h i s b r o t h e r M i c h a e l . He was l a t e r j o i n e d by h i s o t h e r b r o t h e r , M a r t i n , i n 1884; h i s sons R o b e r t and C h a r l e s i n 1908; and a n o t h e r son, Lawrence, i n 1912. The f i r m owned i t s own b r i c k y a r d and s e r v e d as t h e c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e P o s t O f f i c e , G r a i n Exchange, and Bank o f Nova S c o t i a i n Winnipeg, and the P o s t O f f i c e i n Vancouver. D e s p i t e h i s problems w i t h the law, he c o n t i n u e d a s u c c e s s f u l c o n t r a c t i n g c a r e e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and d i e d i n r e t i r e m e n t i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1941. (Sour c e : S c h o f i e l d , F.H. The S t o r y o f M a n i t o b a . Winnipeg: S . J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1913, PP- 135-136; D o n n e l l y , M.S. The Government of M a n i t o b a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o P r e s s , 1963, p. 188). Lansdown, Frank He was b o r n i n L i n c o l n , E n g l a n d on September 24, 1880. He s t u d i e d a r c h i t e c t u r e w i t h M o r t i m e r and Son, a t t h e L i n c o l n T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , and w i t h B r i g g s and Walstenholme o f L i v e r p o o l . He came t o Canada i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1907, s t o p p i n g i n O n t a r i o , b e f o r e coming t o Edmonton where he worked f o r Barnes and Gibbs f o r one y e a r . He was employed as a d r a f t s m a n and C h i e f D r aughts-man w i t h t h e A l b e r t a Department o f P u b l i c Works from 1908 u n t i l 1918. A f t e r w o r k i n g i n Saskatchewan i n 1918 and 1919, he -210-r e t u r n e d t o Edmonton t o open a p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . ( S o u r c e : B l u e , John. A l b e r t a P a s t and P r e s e n t . C h i c a g o : P i o n e e r H i s t o r i c a l Pub. Co., 1924, pp. 38I - 3 8 2 . Volume I I I ) . M a t h e r s , T.G. He was b o r n a t Lucdnow, O n t a r i o on A p r i l 16, 1859- A f t e r becoming e d i t o r o f t h e M a n i t o b a L i b e r a l , P o r t a g e l a P r a i r i e , i n I 8 8 3 , he began h i s s t u d y o f law i n 1884 and was c a l l e d t o the M a n i t o b a b a r i n I 8 9 O . He p r a c t i s e d law f o r over t e n y e a r s b e f o r e b e i n g a p p o i n t e d a judge o f t h e c o u r t o f K i n g ' s bench f o r M a n i t o b a i n 1905» and c h i e f j u s t i c e o f t h e c o u r t o f K i n g ' s bench o f M a n i t o b a i n 1910. ( S o u r c e : W innipeg F r e e P r e s s , A p r i l 2 1 , 1915, P« 1 6 ) . McKay, George D. Born c. 1879 i n B a n f f s h i r e , S c o t l a n d , he worked as a stonemason i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o coming t o Edmonton i n 1911- He a l s o worked on the Macdonald H o t e l and t h e A r t s B u i l d i n g i n Edmonton, J a s p e r Lodge, the J a s p e r C.N.R. S t a t i o n , L a c l a B i c h e I n n, and t h e Chateau L a u r i e r i n Ottawa. He d i e d i n 1955. ( S o u r c e : Edmonton J o u r n a l , A p r i l 11, 1955» n.p.). M i t c h e l l , C R . Born i n N e w c a s t l e , New B r u n s w i c k , he s t u d i e d law and openedf'his own o f f i c e i n M e d i c i n e Hat i n 1908. I n 1910, he n o t x o n l y became a d i s t r i c t c o u r t judge i n t h e C a l g a r y a r e a , but a l s o - 2 1 1 -became p a r t o f P r e m i e r S i f t o n ' s c a b i n e t . As a. U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k g r a d u a t e i n c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g ? , h e was s u i t a b l e as t h e new M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, t o which he was a p p o i n t e d May 4 , 1912. ( S o u r c e : Edmonton C a p i t a l , May 6 , 1912, p. 2 ) . Montague, W a l t e r Humphries He was b o r n i n O n t a r i o on November 2 1 , I858 and r e c e i v e d h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n t h e r e . He g r a d u a t e d from t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s , E d i n b u r g i n 1882. A f t e r s e r v i n g i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s as a member o f p a r l i a m e n t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s i n O n t a r i o , ' he came t o Winnipeg i n 1905 where he was engaged i n the l a n d and i n v e s t m e n t b u s i n e s s . He s e r v e d as t h e ' M a n i t o b a M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works from November 4 , 1913 u n t i l the government's r e s i g -n a t i o n i n 1915- He d i e d November 13, 1915-((Source: Winnipeg T r i b u n e , November 4 , 1913, P' 1 ) -N o r r i s , T o b i a s C r a w f o r d He was b o r n i n Brampton, O n t a r i o on September 5, 1861 and d i e d i n 1936. He s e r v e d as t h e M a n i t o b a L i b e r a l P r e m i e r from May 12, 1915 t o August 8 , 1922. R o b l i n , R.P. He was b o r n i n S o p h i a s b u r g , O n t a r i o on F e b r u a r y 15, 1853-He s e r v e d as t h e M a n i t o b a C o n s e r v a t i v e P r e m i e r from October 29, 1900 t o May 12, 1915-- 2 1 2 -R u t h e r f o r d , A l e x a n d e r Cameron He was b o r n ( F e b r u a r y 2 , 1 8 5 7 ) and educated i n O n t a r i o . H i s p a r e n t s had e m i g r a t e d t o Canada from S c o t l a n d i n 1855• He a t t e n d e d M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , g r a d u a t i n g i n 1881 w i t h a B.A. and a B.C.L. Soon a f t e r coming t o S t r a t h c o n a i n 1 8 9 5 , he was e l e c t e d t o t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s Assembly i n 1 9 0 2 . He h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l h i s appointment as L i b e r a l p r e m i e r f o r A l b e r t a on September 2 , 1 9 0 5 - He a l s o a c t e d as P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r and M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n u n t i l h i s r e s i g n a t i o n on May 2 6 , 1910. S c o t t , Thomas W a l t e r Born on October 27, 1867 i n O n t a r i o , he came t o R e g i n a i n 1 8 8 6 where he began h i s f i r s t c a r e e r i n t h e newspaper b u s i n e s s . He not o n l y owned and e d i t e d t h e R e g i n a Leader from 1 8 9 5 u n t i l 1 9 0 6 , but a l s o s e r v e d as a t e r r i t o r i a l member of p a r l i a m e n t f o r West A s s i n i b o i a from'11900 t o 19©5- He t h e n became the l e a d e r o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y i n Saskatchewan and i t s f i r s t p r e m i e r , a p o s i t i o n he h e l d u n t i l 1916. He was a l s o the M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works u n t i l October 1 9 1 2 . He d i e d i n 1 9 3 8 . S i f t o n , A r t h u r L e w i s He a r r i v e d i n t h e West i n 1 8 7 5 , was c a l l e d t o t h e M a n i t o b a , bar' i n I 8 8 3 , was e l e c t e d t o t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s L e g i s l a -t u r e i n I 8 9 8 , and was made a c h i e f j u s t i c e o f A l b e r t a i n 1 9 0 5 -F o l l o w i n g R u t h e r f o r d ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , he s e r v e d as t h e L i b e r a l P r e m i e r of A l b e r t a from May 26, 1910 u n t i l October 30, 1 9 1 7 . - 2 1 3 -He a l s o s e r v e d as M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works from June 1, 1910. ( S o u r c e : Edmonton C a p i t a l , September 25, 1912, p. 2 ) . 

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