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An investigation of learning stations for elementary art Sunday, Barbara-Ann 1979

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AN INVESTIGATION OF LEARNING STATIONS FOR ELEMENTARY ART by BARBARA-ANN SUNDAY B. Ed. (Elementary), University of British Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ART EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 © Barbara-Ann Sunday, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Art ^ducaUcfV D e p a r t m e n t n f ' " "  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e Jo August'ff D E - 6 B P 75-51 1 E i i Abstract This study identifies the current need for instructional alternatives with particular reference to the use of learning stations. While a variety of literature is available regarding the use of learning stations in several curricular areas, there seems to be little reference to the development of learning stations for art. Learning stations which have been used with suc-cess in other curricular areas are analyzed with a view to discovering design aspects relevant for the development of learning stations for art. The func-tions and formats of good learning stations which seem to be suitable for art are identified according to specified criteria. The production and piloting of art stations took place in two phases over a four-year period. Twenty-eight art stations are selected to exemplify various approaches and are ap-pended with some student results. During the first phase of the study, sta-tions were piloted in two different classrooms under the supervision of the author. A general feasibility of art stations was established along with some observations of basic strengths and weaknesses which help to establish guidelines for further station development. Teachers within one school district were invited to pilot the stations in their classrooms in the sec-ond phase of the study. Findings resulting from a questionnaire circulated to teachers who took part in the last year of the study and the author's ob-servations which were made throughout the study are discussed. Conclusions indicate that learning stations have potential to facilitate integrating art with language arts, social studies, and science. Conclusions also show that certain formats and activities seem more suitable for use in a station ap-proach than others. Suggestions for further research are made in view of the findings of this study. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES iv LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF PIATES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I. IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM 1 II. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 13 III. COMPONENTS OF STATION DESIGN 16 IV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING STATIONS FOR ART 28 V. PIAN FOR THE STUDY $2 VI. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 60 REFERENCES 82 APPENDIX A. Copies of the Learning Stations for Art With Some Student Results 85* APPENDIX B. Copy of the Teacher Questionnaire with Tabulations 1U8 iv LIST OF TABLES Page Table I QUESTIONNAIRE CIRCULATION 1^9 Table II QUESTIONNAIRE TABULATIONS PAGES 1 and 2 15*0 Table III QUESTIONNAIRE TABULATIONS PAGES 3 and li 151 Table IV QUESTION h: Comments 152 Table V QUESTION 7 s Comments 153 Table VI QUESTION 9 : Comments 15U Table VII QUESTION 15: Additional Teacher Comments 155 V LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure I AREAS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES - ART 21 Figure II LEVELS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES - ART . . . . . 23 Figure III LEVELS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES - ART AN EXAMPLE 2k vi 1 Branch Looms. Some Ways to Make 1, 2, 2 Centering on the Sun h, 5 3 Collage, For Hallowe'en 6 k Colours in a Fall Leaf 7 5 Colour of His Own, A 8, 9 6 Day of Autumn, A 10 7 Discover Colour in Marc Chagall LIST OF PLATES Station Plate Number Station Title Number Page I 87, 88, 89 90, 91 92 93 9h, 95 96 Paintings " 11, 12 97, 98 8 Get the Message? 13 99 9 Get Yourself a Pencil lk, 15 101, 103 10 How The World Began 16, 17, 18 10l*, 105, 106 11 Lettering Lesson, A 19 107 12 Lines in Landscape 20, 21 108, 109 13 Medieval Unit 22, 23, 110, 111, 2U, 25 112, 113 lU Mixing Colour, Make A Colour Wheel 26, 27 Uk, 115 15 Monster, Make A 28 117 16 Mystery Mural 29 118 17 Poster For Canada's Birthday, Design A 30, 31 119, 120 18 Scarecrow Clock, The 32, 33 121, 122 19 Self-Portrait 3U, 35, 123, 12U, 125, 36, 37 126, 127 20 Slide Sandwich, Make A 38 128 v i i Station Number Station Title 21 22 23 2l* 25 26 27 28 Snakes Alive Snow Colours Snowy Day, The Spiders Super Sunglasses Valentines From Cut Paper Van Gogh's Palette Where Did That Hamster Go? Plate Number Page 39, 1*0, kl 1*2, 1*3, kk, 1*5 1*6, 1*7 1*8, 1*9, 50 51 52 53, 5U 55, 56 129, 130, 131 132, 133, 13U, 135 136, 137 138, 139, lUO 11*1 11*2 U*3, 1UU ll*5, 11*6, 11*7 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to record my appreciation of the help and encouragement I have received from adviser, Dr. Graeme Chalmers. I wish also to acknow-ledge the support of the other members of my thesis committee, Professor Penny Gouldstone and Dr. James U. Gray. My thanks are also due to the many teachers and students whose help in piloting the learning stations at every stage of the study has been invaluable. Financial support for the last year of this study was provided in part through a grant from The Educational Research Institute of British Columbia. 1 Chapter I IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM There e x i s t s today an immensely wide v a r i e t y i n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , l o c a l i -t i e s , f i n a n c i n g , and resources which i s coupled w i t h a v a r i e t y o f combinations of student, t e a c h e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and s c h o o l board p e r s o n a l i t i e s which are f u r t h e r permeated w i t h a v a r i e t y of b e l i e f s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and p h i l o s o p h i e s r e g a r d i n g the nature of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . Out of t h i s seemingly co impli-cated network, c e r t a i n trends can be i d e n t i f i e d . I n today's elementary classroom we f i n d a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n the number of students who r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or v e r y s m a l l group programmes i n a v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l a r areas. Evidence suggests t h a t such a t r e n d w i l l eventu-a l l y become standard i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . One reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t we are b e t t e r equipped now than ever before t o determine the l e a r n i n g strengths and weaknesses o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n both con-t e n t areas and l e a r n i n g s t y l e . Another reason has t o do w i t h the t r e n d t o d i s c o n t i n u e grouping students w i t h s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g problems i n separate c l a s s e s or s c h o o l s . As a p o l i c y of mainstrearaing these students i s becoming w i d e l y accepted we know t h a t a g r e a t e r range of i n d i v i d u a l s i s d e l i b e r a t e l y b e i n g channelled i n t o r e g u l a r classrooms. I t i s recognized, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s or s m a l l groups of students w i t h i n a c l a s s may undertake t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s t o complete a l e s s o n , a u n i t , o r a year's work. I t f o l l o w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a wide v a r i e t y of r e -s u l t s and e v a l u a t i v e procedures are i n evidence. I t i s the work o f the teacher t o c a r e f u l l y consider what s o r t o f work i s assigned t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t o c o n t i n u a l l y assess i t s s u i t a b i l i t y . 2 There also seems to be a trend towards requiring elementary classroom teachers to teach most, i f not all subjects to one class. Hence, the terms "generalist" or "regular classroom teacher,11 and "self-contained classroom" are common descriptors. This trend seems especially evident in districts experiencing a decline in enrollment. Implicit in this trend is a tremend-ous opportunity for subjects to be taught by a person who knows the students well both as individuals and as a group. These two trends put the regular classroom teacher in a position of con-tinual search for materials and resources with which to construct appropri-ate units of study for individuals or small groups in various subject areas. The pressure experienced in such planning can be enormous. Once materials are located, there is the problem of logistics: teacher time must be care-fully managed in order to offer instruction to students working simultan-eously at varied levels. On examining collections of instructional material, yet another trend exists through the appearance of assorted project packages, card files, and kits. These would seem to have the potential of greatly assisting teachers in facilitating learning. Some of them are commercial products, others are of district or school manufacture, while s t i l l others are teacher produced. Some have quite clearly stated purposes, objectives, student and teacher directions, built-in evaluative criteria, and a system of record-keeping. Some of the materials are specifically designed for, or easily adapted to, a learning station approach. The use of learning stations as an instructional management device is by no means a new idea. In many situations, their use is commonplace. The in-tent of learning stations is to have individuals or small groups of students work for a period of time taking direction from a source other than the 3 teacher. Through the use of a learning station approach teachers have found one way to cope with the special needs of at least some of the students some of the time. This approach can accommodate a wide variety of student needs, provide for individualized instruction, and allow time for teacher-directed work with other small groups or individuals. The Language Arts and Sciences are two curriculum areas well-endowed with resources, particularly those for use in a station approach, but any art materials specially geared for a station approach are rare indeed. Moreover, instructional kits or materials which can be easily redesigned for use in a station approach for art are also difficult to locate. Perhaps there are a number of fairly obvious reasons why a vast array of such materials cannot be found. The main reason is that a high level of structure is necessary for the design of a good learning station. Since World War II, art education in general has suffered from a tradition of lack of structure. Commonly, there has been an overindulgence in the ndo-your-own-thingn school of thought. This sort of view, which is s t i l l very much in evidence, by its very nature denies the importance of structure. The notion seems to exist that creativity is believed to be stifled by the sort of struc-tured design that stations require. Another reason for minimizing the value of structure results from the notion that there is no need to group students for artj that whole class in-struction for this subject is entirely satisfactory. The argument presented is because instruction in art is often heavily weighted towards teacher demon-stration of a method, whole class treatment is thought to be the most effic-ient way to impart such information. Grouping students according to skill levels is a common practice for instruction in some subjects, but skill levels are hardly ever used in teaching art. Similarly, the assumption is made that h within a class all students will be interested in the same art work, hence the formation of interest groups is not common practice. Often teachers exclaim that controlling students with art materials is difficult at the best of times and that there is no way students can be left on their own to work. Also, i t can be generalized that because few art station materials exist commercially, few are made by teachers. This generalization can be made be-cause i t is a fact that teachers very often model their own stations after commercially available ones. In spite of al l these reasons, however, one would hope to find some mat-erials or at least some sources of assistance in making material specific-ally for learning stations in art. Learning packages for art which are available commercially usually re-quire a great deal of teacher intervention and control the entire time they are in use. The many slide/audio-tape/manual kits on methods for art and art history need many hours of re-working to use in a station approach. Such sound/film strip sets as Batik and Discovering Pottery, both from E.A.V., present lengthy step-by-step techniques for several methods under each title and also present extensive examples from the history of each craft. As one of the characteristics of a good station is that the activity is usually quite short and precise in nature, i t presents quite a challenge to the teacher to devise a way in which the material can be broken down into one or several short packages for independent study. Similarly, sound/film strip presentations such as Henry Moore: Looking  At His Work With Phillip James (Visual Publications) and Looking Into History; The Bayeux Tapestry (Visual Publications) are excellent publications, but are very lengthy. They require much teacher-editing for use in whole group 5 instruction. Again, their use as possible station materials is quite limited. The manuals for both are long, in very fine print, and do not employ a vocabu-lary generally suitable for use by elementary students. The material would require much teacher time to form specific reference points on which to base a station activity. Card kits available commercially seem to be exclusively designed as teacher lesson ideas and are often presented in a recipe box fashion. They, too, cannot easily be adapted for direct student use for a variety of reasons. For example, in The Art Box (Hart, 1973) the introductory card suggests that children can select their own cards from the package. For use as a sta-tion, however, a teacher would have to engage in some preliminary selection on behalf of the students, as each box contains 150 cards. Understandably, such pre-selection would need to be done according to some criteria. While a few theme categories are included, cards are organi ed mostly according to material and method. Cards involving certain visual elements or suggesting similar products are difficult to locate. No rationales or objectives are stated for individual projects nor are evaluative guidelines for results pro-vided. The diagrams and instructions are quite small, very brief, and not visually attractive. They would require much re-working to be part of a good station. The card kit, Ideas, Developmental Experiences Through Art (Dagley, 1978), would perhaps require far too much re-working to be feasible as a station com-ponent. A very loose definition of art is employed in forming the contents of this kit. Many of the activities have little to do with art procedures (e.g., Card 1 - drawing straight lines for the sake of manual co-ordination), or little to do with art materials (e.g., Card 259 involves corn and macaroni). Many of the 260 activities are intended for kindergarten and pre-kindergarten youngsters, therefore the actual wording of each card is intended for an adult 6 reader* Some of the ideas could perhaps be used for a station approach but the card format provides little help. Similarly, the Art Packet (Littlefield, 1965) series would appear to be based on a nebulous definition of art. In this set there is no attempt made to provide reasons for images or to have students develop personal images. The usual seasonal themes are included, but visual elements and relationships, i f mentioned, are not developed. Some art vocabulary is evident, but no art history is included. The emphasis is on materials and such non-traditional materials as pie-plates, macaroni, toothpicks, and pipe cleaners are included. The wording is intended for a teacher to read. Each card is far too brief for student use. Besides locating cards with quality traditional art activities, station use requires a system of cross-referencing. Teachers need to be able to pull out carefully sequenced cards using such criteria as a specific material, a particular process, a certain visual element, a theme, an image development strategy, or an historical/appreciative experience in order to build a good station using activity cards. Such a package would involve years of research such as the type involved with popular language lab kits. At the moment no such material appears to exist. Popular teacher guide books provide some assistance in the production of stations for language arts. Some of these involve art options. Such mater-ials usually provide an excellent opportunity for a meaningful integrated study. However, most of the materials examined fail to take advantage of the opportunity. For example, a station entitled "Roasty Oatsies" (Forte, Pangle and Tupa, 1973, P« 235) involves the study of advertisements. In a series of activities, students are asked to study found advertisements and later to make their own. The questions and activities come close, but really do miss the 7 chance to explore relationships between pictured and printed messages. The opportunity to investigate this particular area of commercial design is lost by the way in which the station activity has been designed. The Learning Center Book; An Integrated Approach (Davidson, et al., 1976) is intended to give teachers assistance in developing centres in which some station material may be involved. Art components are rare and when they ap-pear, very little guidance is given. For example, a centre based on the study of insects the entire art component reads "Art - Build a 'man-sized' honeycomb from cardboard!} (Davidson, et al., 1976, p. 105*). Whilst the teacher has been provided with an idea and a material suggestion there must be a little more to it i f the activity is to result in an art project rather than a construction pastime. Another example entitled "Home Builders Centre" (Davidson, et al., 1976, p. lU3), explains that students are to have an opportunity to design their own house. The materials needed, two sentences on what students are to do, and a suggestion as to what might be done with results are included. No rationale is given to suggest why students should become involved in the activity, nor are there any criteria that might be used to evaluate the design and decora-tion of their models. In general, such guidebooks intended for use at the elementary level treat art with a degree of triteness that doesn't become the subject. Titles and wordings for activities detract from art as a worthwhile and sophisticated endeavour. Art components are often treated as extra options—"fun things" rather than as integral aspects of the material. A guidebook entitled Reach-ing Teenagers; Learning Centers for the Secondary Classroom (Beach, 1977) contains an example of a station unit for art which seems to be generally well designed to be attractive and inviting and yet seems to handle the subject and 8 activity with a level of seriousness. Unfortunately, this particular model, as i t is written, is probably too complicated for use at the elementary level. Some of the format ideas provided, however, could be used for designing simi-lar material at the elementary level. These will be examined later. Periodicals often include descriptions of stations where students are working in different groups with a variety of materials. Occasionally articles appear which include art as part of the group work process. Such well-written reports as, "The Open Classroom: An Approach to Individualized Art Education" (rfargolis, p. 23), and "The Whittier School Art Center: A Studio Experience in Art Learning for Primary Age Children" (Lokken, p. 26), give detailed ac-counts of situations which involve much art work and glorify the aspect of student choice of small group activity. No mention is made, however, of the sort of instructional materials that may have been used to cover for the un-availability of a teacher. Possibly no instructional materials were needed in the examples cited here. Perhaps the teachers in each case circulated evenly from group to group and individual to individual to offer instruction. But, because the vast ar-ray of different projects which each article reports were successfully under-way at the same time, one is left to wonder just how effectively instruction was offered. It has been the experience of this writer that when such diverse individualization occurs i t is all too often the case that many students indi-cate a need for the teacher's special attention, or a considerable amount of time and material is wasted and mistakes are made by students who have taken the initiative to muddle through on their own. Admittedly, some phases of art work require just such muddling to arrive at personal solutions. But we know that in the realm of art education there is a tremendous amount that can be taught and learned. There is a danger that 9 a steady diet of the "muddling through" strategy perpetuates the myth that all one needs for art is time and materials. Suffice i t to say that little guidance for the development of art station material is in evidence in current periodicals* Often teachers devise station material using student textbooks other than those which are prescribed. Usually two books or a form of copy are used to cut and paste-up job cards or charts. Spellers and language texts make good exercise cards. Answer keys can usually be devised for such home-made mater-ials. Readers are often broken apart and the stories regrouped or bound in-dividually to meet the purposes of a station. Pour text book series for art have been examined to explore their possible adaptation for use in a station approach. Art is Elementary (Cornia, Stubbs, and Winters, 1976), Another Look (Townley, 1978), Time Out for Art (Herstein, 1978), and Art: Meaning, Media, and Method (Hubbard and Rouse, 1972) were examined. Time Out for Art and Art; Meaning, Media, and Method do contain suitable wording for student directions and clear diagrams that would prove to be of use in station work. Art history examples have been used well in Another Look, Time Out for Art, and Art: Meaning, Media, and Method. Another  Look contains sections which are to be done by students on their own, which could be adapted for station use. Objectives and evaluative criteria are, for the most part fairly well stated in each. Suffice i t to say that there is no one system which can be applied for the making of station activities from the art texts available. Teachers need to be aware of the contents of all the art texts and find the time to select materials to meet specific needs for stations. On the other hand, materials made entirely by teachers for art stations seem to be equally as disappointing. The examples found by this writer have been quite shallow and rather pointless, creating waste and confusion more 10 than anything else. For example, in one situation observed, a few easels, some paints, water, brushes, and a stack of paper were set out as a station with a direction card stating, "You can paint here." There was no reason stated for why the station activity should be done or how the activity should be evaluated. In this example, any relationship between the activity and art curriculum aspects such as image development, visual heritage, skills in using equipment and material, special vocabulary, or aesthetic criticism were non-existent. The point is not that a station activity could relate to all of these goals of art education, clearly this is impossible. But, at any grade level, the station activity could be designed to insure that an attempt is made to purposefully initiate an investigation within one or more of these concerns. Both students and teachers should know why a station activity should be under-taken and know the criteria by which the activity will be evaluated. Four other weaknesses of teacher-made art station activities have been observed. First, objectives, i f stated anywhere in the station set-up, are often not clear. This leads to difficulty in arriving at any meaningful evaluation. Secondly, non-art objectives are sometimes observed and i t is usually the case that non-art activities and conclusions follow. For example, such objectives as, "the student will string beads to make jewelry," or, "the stud-ent will colour in spaces to complete a given image" give indication as to the form of the finished product, but give little guidance as to what visual elem-ents might be employed in reaching specific learning outcomes,rather than a completed motor exercise. Thirdly, i t is sometimes the case that station activities involve art materials, but not art objectives: the entire thrust of the station activity 11 may be to serve another subject area with no visible means of reciprocation. Projects such as map colouring have been used as station activities in the name of art. Such activities as illustrating a poem or story, or making a title page have the potential to be art stations. But it is rare that any guidance is offered regarding the visual processes for good design in such endeavours. Fourthly, some stations offer few choices to the students. Hence the activity becomes limiting in scope, often leading to boringly similar student results. Perhaps such strong criticism of teacher-made learning stations for art is unfair. So-called art stations made by teachers are often intended to be njust-for-funw stations. Hence, they apparently need no elaborate design structure. The time of day when students use such stations is often just prior to lunch or just before the end of the school day. They are often used as fillers whenever there are a few spare minutes. Often the early finishers in any work are advised to work at a station activity for a little while. If choices of stations exist, such entertaining and recreational activities as playing board games, using a typewriter, and making balanced constructions are offered as equal options. In some instances, there is a strong suspicion that such act-ivities constitute most, if not a l l , of an art programme. The relative value of such pastimes could perhaps be debated. In summary, i t can be said that such fun stations are not designed or scheduled for use in such a way that they can contribute greatly to specific programmes and i t is a shame that some of them have been called art stations. This sort of station will not be discussed further in this study. It would seem to follow that an important contribution to art education 12 curriculum and instruction can be made through developing art station activi-ties with formats and objectives which attempt to eliminate these observed weaknesses* Chapter II 13 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Having briefly examined the general need for learning stations and having highlighted some of the ways in which station materials are secured and util-ized, i t has become evident that certain incongruities exist when the device is applied to art. There is a confusion in the use of terms, there is a lack of clarity and purpose in the structure of stations, and i t would also seem evident that the reason for learning stations is somewhat lost. Before proceeding with discussion of a learning station approach for elementary art, then, i t is necessary to define certain key terms which relate to learning stations in general. The following meanings have been settled upon in view of the way in which terms are most often used in the field. They result more from a consensus rather than by definition from an authority. The explanations which follow are held constant for the remainder of this study. Of paramount importance, then, is a description of what is meant by the term 'learning station.* A learning station is first and foremost an instruc-tional device. As such, learning stations possess certain characteristics which distinguish them from other instructional devices. Perhaps the most crucial of these characteristics for the purposes of this study is that a learning station is to be used by a small group of students for a period of time without continual "first hand" teacher interaction. In other words, students are left on their own to receive direction from a source other than the teacher. Very often i t is the case that such small groups of students are encouraged to interact with one another. Learning station design, therefore, involves a particular way in which materials are used to accomplish the task of giving students some ideas and ia directions without continual and immediate teacher interaction. Such mater-ials appear in a range of forms, some a 3 common as charts, job cards, work-books, texts, slides, films and audio tapes. Very often such materials are used in combination. As noted earlier, for some subjects there is a vast and increasing array of instructional materials available, many of which, i f not specifically intended for station use, can easily be adapted for use in this approach. Often the term 'learning station1 is used to describe a physical area in a classroom where instruction relying on teacher-organized directions and mat-erials takes place. It would seem to be that when such spots are designated with some degree of permanence as to subject and activities the term 'centre' is usually used. For instance, a classroom may have a science centre and a listening centre. Such terms indicate where students go to do work in science or to become involved in listening. The critical distinction, however, is that a centre may involve any sort of instructional device. A centre might be set up for a period of time with one learning station or a series of learn-ing stations. In summary, a centre doesn't necessarily involve a learning station and a learning station doesn't always constitute a centre. Because it is the learning station device that is under discussion here and not the physical arrangement of classrooms, the term 'centre' will not be used. Generally i t can be said that a learning station is usually designed to cover a particular part of a work unit, in a particular subject, for a particu-lar reason. Hence it follows that a learning station should be designed with the intent that a specific learning outcome be achieved. A learning station activity, then, refers to the actual work which stud-ents do as a result of using the materials of a learning station. Very often the activity is quite specific, of short duration, and provides for self-scor-ing, correction, and record-keeping. Student products, however, may take a 15" wide variety of forms too numerous to mention here. Having made some generalizations as to what learning stations are, i t is necessary to spend some time examining why they exist. As stated earlier, i t is the intention that students using a learning station become involved with an activity and receive continuous direction in the absence of immediate teacher interaction. The teacher is thus free to work with the remainder of the class, another small group, or individuals. It is known that with the sorts of groupings of youngsters we find in today's classrooms, providing time for individualized or small group instruction is very important. Learn-ing stations are but one of the alternatives which have the potential to pro-vide for such time. Also from the point of view of logistics, the learning station approach can satisfy two other common problems encountered in a mainstreamed class. Provision can be made for differences in interests, speed, volume, and qual-ity of work, depending on how children are grouped to use a station. Beyond sheer logistics, learning stations by their very design can allow students to investigate interests on their own and sometimes to rely on each other. It can also be said that learning stations seem to have the poten-tial to increase levels of independence and to encourage students to make responsible decisions. Because a l l of these generalized meanings and reasons for learning sta-tions seem applicable to the subject of elementary art, a close study of the components of good station design seems to be necessary. Chapter III 16 COMPONENTS OF STATION DESIGN It is a fact that successful learning stations have been developed in curricular areas other than art. It would perhaps be of value to closely study the design strategies used for such material to see what factors con-tribute to their success and to search for possible avenues for application to art. To assist in the process of analyzing successful station design strate-gies, three main perspectives have been established. The first of these to be considered is scope. The second is content, and a third involves the construction of good learning stations. Although these categories are closely related, they have been separated here to provide a framework for discussion. First, the scope of good stations will be considered. Scope refers to the part of an instructional unit which, in this instance, might be covered by use of a learning station. As noted earlier, a meaningful station activ-ity usually attends to a short and very concise aspect of a total unit plan. Some of these aspects will be illuminated here first in general then with specific reference to art. A station can be designed to give diagnostic information before a unit of work is begun. The results from the station activity can be quite valu-able in planning the development of the unit. Likewise, a station activity can be designed to provide an introduction to a unit. An activity specially geared towards arousing interest in the material which is to follow can be handled via a station. After introduction and motivation stages, idea-hunting and planning 17 steps can be covered by use of the station device. A station can provide reinforcement, depth, and enrichment to a unit scheme. Station activities can also be designed to summarize, review, test, or correct work. Simi-larly, they can be used to provide remedial work and special help in some instances. In many curricular areas, stations are developed to help overcome pro-gramme difficulties in readiness, interest, and timing when precise stages of units are defined. In an art unit, however, defining precise areas of development is not often standard procedure. Perhaps opportunities to de-fine precise stages that might be covered by a station unit will arise i f an examination is made of specific problems encountered in art programme development. As curricular constraints as to what shall be taught, when, and where are very rare in art education and as few records are kept to tell what back-ground a student has in art, i t is a problem to know where to begin in de-veloping an art programme for a class of elementary students. Diagnostic procedures, no matter how informal, are often undertaken. Conceivably, a station device might be designed to indicate the depth of learning that has taken place within an art area. It would seem that in practice art units rarely provide students with enough time in the important stages of idea-getting, image-forming, and image-refining. A teacher-directed lesson might be greatly facilitated i f students already had a bank of suitable image ideas ready to use, with mater-ials and processes that a teacher might introduce. The individual idea-get-ting process which encourages an array of different results is used quite successfully in creative writing station activities. Perhaps a station device could occasionally be used to handle the idea-getting aspect of an 18 art unit. Often during an art unit, students indicate that i f they had been more familiar with a material, a tool, or a method their results might have been better. A station activity might, therefore, be designed to allow students the time and opportunity to experience a new material or tool and experiment with new methods before a major project is begun. Perhaps art stations could be designed to offer alternative developments to a unit. Art education by its very nature is a subject which advocates the following of separate paths and the arrival at differing results. It would seem, therefore, that a station approach might be appropriate for this aspect of unit work. Also, a station might take care of the time-consuming materials, equip-ment, and method demonstration portion of an art unit. So often it is the case that not all students are ready to absorb the information imparted in a teacher-directed demonstration and they do not realize the relevance or retain the information. Often, in large group instruction, students cannot get close enough to properly see a demonstration. Student absence during demonstration times presents a problem. Consequently, students often request that this portion of a unit be repeated, A station might facilitate such repetition without using teacher time or the time of other students. Often teachers complain that there is not enough time to include art history in their programmes. Perhaps through a station approach at least some attempt could be made to provide experiences in art history in any stage of unit development but particularly in the summary stages. The timing problem of dealing with early finishers is just as common in art as i t is in any curricular area. In some instances the problem is often solved by the use of stations which are designed to provide related 19 experiences which enrich and further challenge the students who have already successfully completed a unit of work. Perhaps such stations could be de-signed for art as well. Finding why a station device will best meet instructional needs and de-fining exact parameters of the scope of activities is therefore important to the making of a good station. There seems to be sufficient reason to use a station approach in art. It also seems that no matter how subtle, art units have stages similar to stages which exist in the development of study units in other subjects. Investigation to find art activities which can be adapted for use in a station approach to cover certain aspects of unit development would appear to be worthwhile. Secondly, the content of a good station will be explored with the hope of finding applications for art stations. The content refers to the actual learning which is to take place when the physical components of a station are used in the manner intended. As in a good lesson, a good station usually covers in one way or another the following four aspects£ First, a rationale or explanation of why the learning should take place is stated somewhere in the content. Secondly, one or more specific objectives are made clear. What is to be learned from the station activity should be known by both the teacher and the students. Thirdly, an experience is offered which is aimed at achieving the objectives. Fourthly, provision is made for summarizing the work through discussion and evaluation. By this process some information is gathered to determine to what degree the objectives were achieved and sometimes to form some opinion of the value of the achievement. These four aspects might be included in good art stations as well. In general, stations can be designed to contain any one of a variety of instructional objectives which have the potential for helping to balance a 20 programme. It is generally accepted that a good art programme is one in which the instructional objectives have been carefully balanced to foster growth in all the art areas. The following diagrams will serve to review the sorts of inclusions that one might find in such a well-balanced art programme. Figure I contains some examples of visual expression areas such as drawing, painting, printmaking, and the like. This diagram also serves to show that instructional objectives for visual expression areas can be viewed in four main behavioural categories. These are physical, expressive, cog-nitive, and affective in nature. The physical realm involves objectives which are concerned with the manipulation of materials, tools, and equipment. Objectives involving tradi-tional methods, safety procedures, care and maintenance of items encountered fall into this category. The sorts of objectives which have to do with idea forming and personal image development fall into the expressive domain. Objectives which are framed to help students develop their own styles and personal techniques would also come under this heading. Objectives which are specially designed to foster growth in art vocabu-lary and extend students' knowledge of historical, cultural, and commercial aspects f a l l into the cognitive sphere. And those objectives which are formed to help students develop personal feelings and attitudes toward art work are part of the affective arena. Objectives which are intended to en-courage students to reasonably criticize their own work and that of others would also fall into this last category. 21 22 Figure II is a development of Figure I. The purpose of diagram II is to show that within each of the four major categories instructional ob-jectives can be arranged in levels of depth. The inner rings contain the basic level objectives and the outer rings contain the more complex and sophisticated objectives. These levels extend into al l four categories of instructional objectives. Figure III represents a further development of the same idea. Some ex-amples have been added here to show the sorts of activities that might be used to f u l f i l l types of objectives at the various levels. Having reviewed the various categories and levels of instructional ob-jectives of a well-balanced art programme, i t becomes evident that a broad range of opportunity exists to develop content material. Specific to the subject at hand, i t would seem possible that some of this development might make use of a learning station device. Hopefully, the instructional object-ives of art learning stations would reflect the balance of depth and breadth in a good art programme. Thirdly, the construction of good stations will be examined. Herein, construction refers to the actual physical form of the materials which are used to make a station. The assortment of physical components that may be found in a station has already been mentioned, but i t is important to spend time examining how materials such as job cards, charts, films and audio tapes are combined in the design of a good station. It is generally agreed that most stations should be introduced by the teacher. No matter how brief or how involved this becomes, i t seems that such official sanction is worthwhile in getting the station work started in the right spirit. In the same manner, station activities should receive some degree of summary under teacher direction. But, as has been explained Figure II LEVELS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES - ART 2U Figure III LEVELS OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES - ART, AN EXAMPLE 2* earlier, a learning station by its very definition involves teacher absence. Therefore, teacher time spent in introducing and summarizing a station should be carefully budgeted to let the materials take over the instructional role as much as possible. Questions of efficiency therefore arise. Naturally, the quickest and clearest ways of imparting information are desired. Clear language, be i t oral or printed, is essential to a good station. Students must be able to understand their directions in order to have a fair chance at doing the sta-tion activity. Obviously, suitable print and vocabulary must be used. Directional wording is usually kept to a minimum in order not to overwhelm students. Often diagrams, logo symbols, and colour coding assist in making directions brief. Station materials are often a combination of commercial items and teacher-made components. The teacher-made materials are often the portions which make the collection function as a station. This latter component usually explains what students are to do with commercial materials such as filmstrips, audio tapes, workbooks, or manuals. They are very often in the form of charts and job cards. Similarly, completed or partially completed examples are often used as an integral part of the directions. Many station materials, particularly those available commercially, use a systems approach. Although these require much field testing and development, a systems approach to housekeeping as-pects such as storage, clean-up, marking, and record keeping are often used in teacher-made materials. When this is the case, directions can be further reduced. Often, i f the format of materials permits, only parts of stations are presented at a time. This insures that work proceeds in a certain order 26 and has the further advantage of appearing to be very brief. Materials are often adapted to such a step format. Good stations are usually designed to be as visually attractive as poss-ible. This is done to help arouse and sustain student interest with the in-tent of inviting students to work on their own. Often favourite cartoon images or seasonal motifs and colours are used in conjunction with the in-structional materials. It stands to reason that because students are to work on their own, good station materials are usually constructed in such a way that they will withstand student use. Commercial materials are usually either quite sturdy or come with directions for their protection. Teacher-made materials also need to be as durable as possible for there is not only the monetary expense of the materials to consider but also the expense in teacher time taken to construct stations. To get maximum return from al l output, materials for stations should be constructed so that they are able to withstand much use. Upon examination of the general construction of good learning stations with the purpose of finding implications for the development of art stations, two major points arise. First, as construct has to do with the way in which directions are imparted, and as station directions should be effective but brief and attractive, i t would seem that many aspects of art education could f i t into this description. Opportunities to make diagrammatic direc-tions for methods abound, and some of these might be designed to show separ-ate stages of a process. Secondly, as many visual material sets are avail-able commercially, i t is conceivable that perhaps some of these could be used in conjunction with teacher-made station materials. The aspects of scope, content, and construct of good learning stations have been examined and some implications for designing learning stations for 27 art have been found. There is little to suggest, however, that these as-pects have been presented in any particular sequence. In other words, no particular starting point for station design appears to exist. The impetus seems to stem from highly particular and very diverse sets of circumstances. It is essential, however, that all three components of good station design be taken into account. 28 Chapter IV THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING STATIONS FOR ART The design features of good learning stations in general have been re-viewed and some design strategies which seemed applicable to art programming and instruction have been noted. A wide variety of art stations were pro-duced, each of which make use of certain design strategies. The intent for the balance of this study is to examine the development of these art sta-tions. For the sake of clarity in presenting the stations which were produced, the following guidelines will be used. First, the three main points of view of scope, content, and construct will again be employed. Secondly, the par-ticular design strategies employed in each of these broad categories will be discussed. Thirdly, where i t has proven useful, these strategies are discussed in a certain order. Stations selected for discussion have been listed alphabetically by title and appended in Appendix A for reference. From the point of view of scope, as has been demonstrated, the role of a station within an entire unit plan can be seen. Art stations which were produced to specifically assist in diagnostic, introductory, planning, and major project activity stages will be discussed. Also, as a sort of experi-ment, art stations which were designed to f u l f i l l many of these roles at once will also be examined. At first, the idea of undergoing diagnostic procedures prior to the development of an art unit may seem distasteful. But, as there are no real scope and sequence guidelines in wide use in art curriculum development and as there is no particular guarantee that students necessarily retain art information any more readily than they do information in other areas, i t 29 would seem that some diagnostic procedures might facilitate the development of an art unit. It has been the experience of this author that often certain art units do not run smoothly because i t has been assumed that students have been ex-posed to and have retained certain art skills. An example that comes to mind occurred in a grade three tapestry weaving unit. The unit was built on the assumption that al l students knew the basic principles of fabric con-struction by weaving. As this assumption was wrong, i t was thought afterwards that a station might have been designed with a simple paper weaving activity. Such a device would quickly indicate which students understood the basic principles of weaving and, furthermore, the device might have served to remediate those students who did not have the basic understanding. Often assumptions are made in the area of colour theory, particularly at the intermediate level. Cards two and three of Station Fifteen, "Make A Colour Wheel," were designed as an attempt to diagnose how much basic colour theory students were able to demonstrate. When used with card one, "Mixing Colour," the set could be used for review. The idea-getting part of an art unit development might also be handled via a station device. This is one aspect of an art unit which usually re-quires a great deal of flexible timing. Station Two, "Centering On The Sun," was designed to help students through this aspect of unit development. It also provides some review of colour theory and some incentive to view the sun image as a universal theme. What is to be done with the sun designs is left for a teacher-directed session. Similarly, for the popular theme of monsters there is often a great deal of enthusiasm and many ideas for the use of art materials. But the 30 actual development of worthwhile monster images may take considerable time, and for some students an image-finding strategy needs to be provided. Sta-tion Sixteen, "Make a Monster," was designed to help students find their own monster images. The last two instructional cards which comprise the station were added after the station was piloted. Step 5 extends the experience into language arts and Step k was designed to encourage students to seek informa-tion regarding the history of monster images. These last two steps can be used as enrichment activities after a monster image has been successfully developed. A station to help students do the necessary work to get started in a unit of work was the intent of Station One, "Some Ways to Make Branch Looms." As the title implies, students are aided in making their own loom from branches by using this station. Introductory stages to the unit which would include motivation, branch collection, and an explanation of the need to establish warp beams are not part of this station and all these aspects should be covered prior to student work with the station. After the station work is complete, the teacher is again needed in teaching weaving. The sta-tion was designed to aid students in the loom construction portion of the unit. Stations can be used in the middle of the unit development process. Teacher-directed lessons in the initial stages of some units can be followed by a station or a series of stations. Then a teacher-directed session can provide summary, discussion, and evaluation stages. Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alive," was initiated from a language arts unit based on the theme of snakes. A teacher-directed lesson about the move-ment of snakes is followed by the placement of a long skipping rope or sev-eral skipping ropes in snake-like positions along the length of an extended 31 roll of white drug bond. The skipping rope is then outlined in such a way that the lines remain parallel about six inches apart. Head and tail ends are designated, then the snake length is cut into as many sections as there are students in the group. The sections are numbered and the way up is in-dicated on the back of each section. Students may then proceed with the station working in small groups. Cards numbered four and five for Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alive," were made after the station was used once in response to a student request to use the same method for more work. Some teacher explanation of gesture drawing is required, then the station work follows. Summary, discussion, evaluation, and historical studies of snake images are not included in this station. They have been left to teacher-directed lessons after the station work is completed. Following a similar format, Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours," was designed to follow a teacher-directed lesson as outlined in card b. Stud-ents using this series of stations are aided in a colour sensitizing experi-ence and then advised to use their chosen samples as part of a large work. Teacher direction is to resume with the method directions for the large work chosen, and continue to the completion of the unit. This station was en-tirely redesigned after i t was used several times. As such a wealth of snow paintings in reasonable reproduction format exist, the decision was made to limit this station to the exclusive use of Canadian works. Thus a topical subject, snow, and typical unit subject, snow colours, is made even more relevant by encouraging a knowledge of Canadian painters who have used this theme. Sometimes art stations can become part of unit developments in other subject areas. Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," which has five cards, was 32 designed to be used in conjunction with a popular seventh grade Medieval Times unit. It is designed to make use of all the special references mater-ial which abounds on this social studies subject. Hence motivation, theme sensitizing, and to some extent idea-getting stages are already underway. Personal expression and very simple art methods are used for the station activity while elements and principles of design are reviewed. Some spec-ial ways for students to view their completed art work in view of certain medieval themes are provided. The Starting Points in language series (Moore, 1973) provides many ideas for the development of art stations which can be used in conjunction with language arts group work. The colour sensitizing activities which com-prise Stations Seven, "Discover Colour in Marc Chagall Paintings," and Twenty-seven, "Van Gogh's Palette," were initiated to be used with two simi-lar Startin^_Poijits selections. The Starting Points unit, "What's So Differ-ent About Spiders?" provides the interest and motivation for use of Station Twenty-four, "Spiders." Although these stations were designed for use dur-ing or after the appropriate language arts section, this role could be re-versed. The stations could be used as introductions to the language arts sections. Seasonal festivals are usually popular with elementary school students. In the intermediate years, however, i t is often difficult for students to develop different and personal images to use in conjunction with such themes as Hallowe'en and Valentines Day. Station Three, "Collage for Hallowe'en," was designed as an attempt to bridge this gap. It could be used as part of a poetry-writing or poetry appreciation study. The summary stages of the unit such as display, discussion, and evaluation are left for teacher-direc-tion. Similarly, Station Five, "Colour In a Fall Leaf," is designed for use in connection with creative writing. 33 Two stations were designed which attempt to be more or less whole art units. Station Nineteen, "Self Portrait," is designed to begin with a teacher-directed introduction. This stage is to involve key vocabulary de-velopment which is indicated on cards numbered one, two, and three. From this point, students are to work through six more cards (a total of thirteen steps). Step 12 involves the development of critical skills and was added to the set after the first time the station was used. The discussion ques-tions can be rehearsed by the students using the station and then heard by the teacher during the necessary teacher-directed summary. The discussion and evaluative questions were not primarily designed to be answered in writ-ing. Station Thirteen, "Lines in Landscape," follows from a teacher intro-duction on the universal theme of landscape. It is suggested that all stud-ents involved in the station do the first activity which has to do with found image-refinement, and then students are to select certain options (Cards two, three, and four) for carrying their images through. This sta-tion was designed to provide students with several alternatives and could be used while a teacher-directed unit on another aspect of use for the land-scape theme in art was underway. Similarly, Station Eleven, "A Lettering Lesson," was designed to proV vide a worthwhile but short lettering unit for students as an alternative to a teacher-directed lettering lesson or as a related activity to be done while waiting for a turn to work in a small group under close teacher direc-tion to learn a cursive alphabet. As has been discussed, the content of station materials is crucial to good design strategy. As previously seen, a good art programme contains a balance of activities in the physical, expressive, cognitive, and affective 3U domains. Also, a good art programme strives to foster depth of understand-ing within all its realms. It is difficult to isolate these content areas. At the elementary level, units or lessons rarely dwell within one do-main. However, an art education experience can give emphasis to work within one of these areas. The same holds true for the points of emphasis in art stations. Although content is by definition an essential part of al l the art stations designed for this study, certain examples will be chosen for dis-cussion here because they particularly illustrate a variety of ways in which their content parallels that of a good art programme. The contents of three art stations included here have points of emphasis within the physical realm. Station Eighteen, "The Scarecrow Clock," is com-prised of three directional cards. The first card is entitled, "Make Your Own Brush." The intent is that by encouraging students to become involved in making, using, and caring for their own tools, a transfer of knowledge and attitudes will occur when students handle a commercially made brush. An extension of this activity which would relate to art knowledge would be to ask students to research how brushes are made. Card two of Station Eighteen, "The Scarecrow Clock," also has an emphasis within the physical realm. Here the station encourages students to experi-ment with the application of paint using a brush. No image development what-soever is suggested. Similarly, Station One, "Some Ways To Make Branch Looms," is designed to involve students in the production of a piece of equipment. Such produc-tion involves mainly physical skills. Other stations which make use of the same subject but develop it within another realm might be designed to accom-pany this station. The history of loom production, beginning to weave on a branch loom, or an historical-appreciative study of Salish branch looms are 35" examples of this possibility. The cognitive aspect of art programmes is exemplified in several art stations designed during this study. Art vocabulary, art history, art as a means of communication, and art elements and principles have been used in station design. An attempt to develop art vocabulary is evident in several of the sta-tions. The proper terms for tools, materials, equipment, and processes have been continually used. Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," begins with three charts which present students with six words. The process of defining these words under teacher direction serves as an introduction for the station. Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" presents a list of archi-tectural terms as part of the development of the station activity. Art history facts have been included in many of the stations. To do Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil," students find facts about the life and work of one artist, Emily Carr. Station Seventeen, "Design A Poster For Canada's Birthday," and Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" involve students in finding out about the work of two specific sorts of art-ists: graphic designers and architects, respectively. Station Two, "Center-ing On The Sunj" Station Fifteen, "Make A Monsterj" and Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," encourage students to research particular types of images. Station Six, "A Day Of Autumn," suggests that students research a particular process, while Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours," encourages students to find more work done by a particular artist. In Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," each card begins with a suggested survey of specified medieval art forms. Knowledge concerning the communicative aspects of art is emphasized in two stations under discussion here. Station Eight, "Get The Message?" 36 involves students working with pictographs which convey information. Picto-graphs in common use are identified, and their functions are examined. Using the classroom environment, students are directed to design a pictograph which would help in the management of their own classroom. The intent of Station Seventeen,"Design A Poster For Canada's Birthday," is to involve students in graphic communication experience. Knowledge of the special way in which images are found and rendered for poster purposes is imparted. The visual elements and principles of design, other aspects of art know-ledge, are emphasized in many stations. A discussion of a particular way of viewing the element of line begins the activity for Station Twelve, "Lines In Landscape." Focus on the element of shape occurs in Station Five, "A Colour of His Own," as a stencil printing experience develops. In the making of a banner in Card one of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," the element of shape is very important. The cut paper activity required for Station Twenty-six, "Valentines From Cut Paper," involves students in a study of variations of a particular shape. The visual element of colour received special emphasis in Station Four, "The Colours in A Fall Leaf;" Station Fourteen, "Mixing Colour" and "Make A Colour Wheelj" and in Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours." Texture, another visual element, is emphasized in the design of Card three in Station Thirteen, "Knight in Armour," and similarly, in Station Ten, "How The World Began." As the process of rubbing to make prints is used in both these stations, the visual aspects of texture are important. In Station Sixteen, "Mystery Mural," students are asked to simulate given textures to complete the station activity. 37 In general, the principles of design are perhaps more difficult to em-phasize at the elementary level than are the elements of design. However, some work with the principles of design has been attempted via the station approach. The principle of symmetry is explored in Cards two and six of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit." Students are directed to examine sym-metrical balance in the appearance of castles and cathedrals and the bilat-eral symmetry in stained-glass windows. Station Twenty-five, "Super Sun Glasses," also involves a specific use of symmetry. The principle of con-trast received emphasis in Card five of Station Thirteen,"Medieval Unit," and a special focus on the principle of unity occurs in Station Ten, "How The World Began." Pattern, another principle of design, is emphasized in Card five of Station Thirteen,"Medieval Unit," in a scraperboard activity. The affective content area of an art programme has to do with exploring feelings, attitudes, and values about both art which students have produced and examples selected from art in general. An attempt has been made to in-clude this content aspect in the design of some of the stations. The most basic stage in the affective content area is to encourage stud-ents to look carefully at art work. In the design of many of the art sta-tions, opportunities are provided for students to stop and look at their work. Reasons for the pause and what specifically should be examined during the pause are often given. Display is often important to the forming of feelings, attitudes, and values about art work. Many of the stations mention display of student re-sults and several of them suggest highly specific ways in which work might be shown. Display alone very often does not lead to the careful examination neces-sary to explore feelings, attitudes, and values about art work. To these 38 ends, some stations have been designed to include discussion questions. Some examples follow. The next but s t i l l very basic stage of instruction in the affective content is to offer students guidance for looking at art work. It can be suggested that students focus on specific aspects when viewing displayed art work. Several of the stations give instructions to students which tell specifically what should be looked at and why. It was usually the case that the aspects to be looked at were the same aspects stressed in the concept statements and developments of each station. Station Twenty-three, "The Snowy Day," contains an example of this. A next stage of instruction in affective content of an art programme might be to direct students to look at specific aspects of displayed art work and form opinions. Students may be encouraged to speculate why an aspect of the art work under discussion is the way i t is. Also, students may be encour-aged to use knowledge about tools, processes, equipment, materials, and the elements and principles of design. Discussion points have been designed to suit these purposes in many of the stations. Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," Card one, contains an example of this in Step 9 . A far more difficult level of instruction in the affective content of art is to encourage students to form judgements about their own work and that of others. Such formation can reasonably be made after some analysis of art work has been made. Many of the stations encourage students to stop and view their work, to check aspects, and to proceed when they are satisfied with the work at hand. Station Ten, "How The World Began," contains several examples of this design feature. A few of the stations contain questions which are designed to assist students in judging specific aspects of their finished art work. After some 39 discussion of the parts of the work produced in Station Ten, "How The World Began," students are asked to locate their favourite part of the resulting mural project and to be prepared to give reasons for their judgment. In Station Seventeen, "Canada's Birthday," students are encouraged to give their views of the strengths of their work according to certain criteria. Step 13 of Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," contains a progression of questions, the last of which is designed to help students form their own opinions on how their work may have been more successful. Step 11 of Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" also was designed to encourage students to form ideas about how work might have been better. Making changes is suggested, as is a strategy for testing the changes to see i f they are improvements. Content which can be categorized under the expressive area of an art programme is of uppermost importance and in practice i t usually receives the largest allotment of time. Most of the stations produced for this study re-flect this distribution. Some of the design mechanics used to foster individ-ual expression and encourage divergent results via a learning station approach are discussed here. Perhaps the most obvious examples of stations which foster individual results are those which are designed specifically for the idea-getting stage of an art unit. Implicit in the student directions is the assumption that individual expression is desired. Station Fifteen, "Make A Monster," all but guarantees that individual expression will occur as results are to be at least as varied as the pieces of driftwood which were found. Another simple way to encourage diverse results can be seen in the sta-tions which were designed without examples of possible student outcomes. The assumption made in this design strategy is that individual ideas for images will be formed in the "mind's eye" as the station directions are read and Uo carried out. The first four cards of Station Twenty-four, "Spiders," and Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" are examples of this. In Station Seventeen, "Design A Poster For Canada's Birthday," students are di-rected to form their own written lists from which to select a few ideas for image development. The variety of results from this process should greatly increase the chances of diverse results. A similar design strategy involves the showing of an example which is not altogether usable for students to attempt to copy. Examples which are extremes of being either too simple or too complex could be used for this design procedure. Incomplete examples could also serve this purpose. Some stations include examples that are to some degree irrelevant to the tasks students are asked to do. Station Eight, "Get The Message?" contains an example of this design strategy. In this station, students are directed to develop pictographs which would be of use in their classroom. The picto-graphs used as examples are found in a variety of everyday places but not in a classroom. Another technique to encourage individual expression is to build into the station a reminder that opportunities for diverse results exist. Some-times station directions are prefaced with the words, "You may wish to . . • ." The intent here is to tell students that they have a choice. Step 8 of Station Five, "A Colour Of His Own," and Step 8 of Station Six, "A Day Of Autumn," illustrate this. The words "choose," "select," and "decide" are used in numerous stations to provide further reminders of opportunities for individual responses. In several stations the word "own" is used as an in-dicator that products are expected to differ. The title of Station One, "Some Ways To Make Branch Looms" is also an attempt to represent the idea that diverse student results are expected. Ul As will be discussed, many stations have been constructed to include student job cards. Sets of job cards by their very nature are constructed so that each card contains directions for different pieces of work. Implicit in this design strategy is that when students select a job card their results will differ to some degree. Three stations have been designed to develop diverse results based on individual student differences. In Station Twenty-five, "Super Sun Glasses," students are asked to select an image which expresses their personality. The assumptions made in the formulation of the directions for this station is that students have different personalities, that they recognize the differ-ences, and that they are able to find suitable personal images. If these assumptions are all true, diverse results should be in evidence. Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," provides another example of an activ-ity which is based on individual differences. In this case, differences in physical appearance are capitalized upon in the making of a simplified but exaggerated self-portrait. Card two, "Illuminated Initials," of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," contains two strategies which encourage diverse results. The first relies on the fact that within a group of students i t is unlikely that two students will have exactly the same initials. In illuminating initials a second strat-egy for encouraging diverse results based on individual differences has been employed. Students are asked to choose combinations of images which express something about their unique individual qualities. Another design method for encouraging diverse results is that of direct-ing students to rely on their own personal impressions. Card three of Sta-tion Twenty-four, "Spiders," instructs students to draw from memory, spiders they have examined. The directions encourage students to emphasize features U2 which were specially remembered in an attempt to make an interesting drawing rather than an accurate rendering of any one spider. These directions were written in the hope that different students will remember different aspects and that the resulting drawings will reflect this difference. Card one, "Banners," of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," also encour-ages students to develop images relying on their own impressions. In this station, students are directed to examine medieval banners according to cer-tain criteria. Students are then instructed to rely on their own generaliza-tions of what constitutes a banner when developing a banner of their own. The third point of view to be used in examining art station design is that of construct. As discussed previously, a variety of physical compon-ents can be used to construct successful stations. Some particular physical components were used in the design of the art stations for this study and these will be related here. Art stations based on one particular resource can be constructed. A very compact design strategy by which to construct an art station can be called a 'book station' approach. This construct method first involves the selection of a suitable book. Many very attractive and inexpensive children's books are currently available and easy to locate. Of these, many are illus-trated with reproductions which involve an art method appropriate for use with elementary students. Very often stories are of high interest for elementary students and employ a vocabulary which makes them suitable for students to read for themselves. Several book stations for art have been developed for this study. A Colour Of His Own (Lionni, 1977) is illustrated with reproductions which seem to have originally been simple stencil prints. It was thought that an art station activity involving stencil printing might be initiated by use of this **3 book. Station Five, "A Colour Of His Own," was therefore constructed using a single directional chart. Station Six, "A Day of Autumn," involves a styrofoam block print activity, and i t was constructed from a book bearing the same title (Miles, 1973), illustrated with reproductions of block prints. Station Twenty-three, "The Snowy Day," was also constructed using this stra-tegy. Mixed media similar to those used to prepare illustrations for the book (Keats, 1976) are suggested for use in the production of a group mural. Station Ten, "How The World Began," and Station Eighteen, "The Scarecrow Clock," are two more examples of stations based on books (Barker, 197Uj Mendoza, 1971). These stations differ in construct from the book stations mentioned previously in that the activities are presented on separate charts which function to divide the work into distinctly different stages. In Station Ten, "How The World Began," Card one suggests that a collec-tion of rubbings be made. There is no reference to the book nor is there men-tion of the specific activity which is to follow. Card two draws students' attention to the book and its highly patterned and textured illustrations. Card two continues to develop a collage activity using the patterned and tex-tured papers resulting from the completion of Card one. This station was constructed in this manner to make the station more versatile. The station activities suggested in Card one or Card two could be substituted for teacher-directed lessons. If both cards are to be used in a station manner, init i -ally exposing only Card one might help in making the whole activity appear shorter and more manageable to students. Three distinctly different stages are presented in the three cards which comprise Station Eighteen, "The Scarecrow Clock." Card one involves students in making their own brushes. The activity suggested for Card two involves a series of brush and paint experiments. The student-made brushes may be used hh for the Card two activity but are not mandatory. The activity in Card three requires that students use their brush and paint experiments in a collage similar to those used to make the illustrations for the book. This particu-lar step card format allows for a certain flexibility in using the station. Card one can be entirely omitted in appropriate situations. The use of Card three might be altered. Another book which has illustrations made in the same manner, such as The Grouchy Ladybug (Carle, 1977), or The Very Hungry  Caterpillar (Collins & World Pub. Co., 1969) might be substituted. A station card or teacher-directed lesson based on themes from these books might follow. Another approach to the construct of a book station is exemplified in Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" Students are directed to read Where Did That Naughty Little Hamster Go? (Wolcott, 1975). Instead of basing an art activity on the illustrations in the book, students are in-structed to develop Ideas for an art project based on the story line. Some stations which make use of job cards were constructed. A variety of construct methods for job cards was attempted. It is usually the prac-tice that job cards contain different tasks and therefore different sets of directions. Station Two, "Centering On The Sun," contains twelve job cards. These cards contain rules intended to guide students in making their own sun image. The rules are stated in clear language with no pictures. In Station Eleven, "A Lettering Lesson," students are instructed to search through the job cards to select one which they might use. In this case the job cards each contain two alphabets which exemplify different lettering styles. Students are directed to select a job card which contains a texture sample as part of the activity required in Station Sixteen, "Mystery Mural." U5" In this case, the texture samples were all specially mounted on larger cards to ensure that the results remained a mystery as long as possible. Yet another type of construct was used in making the job cards which are a part of Station Twenty-four, "Spiders." In this case the actual forms which students are to draw have been presented on cards. The spiders which appear on the cards were collected in a dead and dry condition. Magnifying glasses were supplied with the station to assist students in viewing the spiders• Some of the stations produced are constructed in a form that might be called "equal option" cards. Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," is an exam-ple of this construct technique. As noted earlier, this station consisting of six cards is intended for use in conjunction with a vast array of resource material. The cards are not sequenced and they were designed in such a way that the same general collection of resource material could be applied to any of them. An array of resource material is necessary for Station Twenty-one, "Snow Colours," and it is also constructed using the equal option strategy. This construct feature also provides for some flexibility as any number of the cards may be offered and students might possibly complete more than one card, A construct strategy which has been used for some of the longer stations involves a number of charts which delineate activities necessary and specially sequenced to help students arrive at a desired outcome. The construct of Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," is an example of this. Another construct strategy has to do with the mechanics of imparting directions. Charts with directions using clear and simple language usually in complete sentences are most frequently used in this study. However, there are other ways in which directions can be given. One of these alternatives involves directional charts which bear no words with the possible exception U6 of a written title. An example of this strategy can be seen in Station One, "Some Ways To Build Branch Looms." The construct of station design is strongly influenced by the sorts of results which the station is intended to produce. As previously discussed, the majority of art stations designed for this study are constructed to el-icit divergent responses. Two stations, however, have been constructed to encourage convergent results. Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil," was constructed containing two crossword puzzles. Students are instructed to choose one of the puzzles and to attempt to complete their chosen puzzle by searching through provided re-source material. The station was constructed so that answers to the puzzles are provided on an honour system. Also, provision is made for discerning the number of answers which were found by students. To some extent, Card two of Station Fourteen, "Make A Colour Wheel," was constructed with the idea that the one ultimate solution to the making of a colour wheel exists only when the given set of directions are followed. In the station materials designed for this study certain construct strategies were incorporated regarding format. As most of the station mater-ials involved the manufacture of written directional charts, certain general-izations can be made. The first of these generalizations concerns mechanisms which were devel-oped in attempts to save reader time. Stations were developed in which the main concept Is stated at the beginning of the instructions. The intent of this was to provide both teachers and students with an overall idea of what the station is about and why i t is important. Station Two, "Centering On The Sun," contains an example of this as i t states that the sun is an important universal image. Prefacing these statements with a small arrow became stand-ard procedure in the course of station construction. The intent was that the U7 arrow would serve as an indicator for the concept statements and save both writer and reader time. Station Five, "A Colour of His Own;" Station Six, "A Day of Autumn;" Station Ten, "How The World Began}" Station Eleven, "A Lettering Lessonj" Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unitj" Station Seventeen, "Design A Poster For Canada's Birthdayj" Station Eighteen, "The Scarecrow Clock;" Station Twenty-three, "The Snowy Day;" Station Twenty-five, "Super Sun Glassesj" and Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" each contain an example of this. Another way in which stations were constructed to economize on reader time involved the use of underlining, A system was developed to impart sets of information using underlining in an attempt to avoid repetition and lengthy wording. It seemed necessary that somewhere in the station design a list of the materials which students need to complete the activity should be provided. To avoid the need to devote station space in which to list supplies and equipment, a system of yellow underlining was used. Materials could be named at the point in the directions where they are needed, yet once the system is understood, supplies and equipment needed for the activities throughout a station could be quickly determined. Another underlining device developed in the construction of the stations concerns vocabulary development. Whenever a term or phrase was used that may be new to students or was used in a way that is highly particular to art, a solid dark underline was used. The intent of this technique was to provide the teacher with words and phrases that might be defined during the teacher's introduction. Also, i t was hoped that drawing attention to the words and phrases as they occur in a station development would be more useful than providing a separate vocabulary l i s t . Step 5" of Station Five, "A Colour of U8 His Own," contains two examples of this, A further underlining system was utilized to emphasize required student behaviours. Words that state what i t is that students should do were under-lined with a dark undulating line in stations that were developed later. The intended purpose of this system was to provide both teacher and students with a fast reference for each step. Although many stations evidence this con-struct mechanism, Station Six, "A Day of Autumn," will serve to supply many examples. As some of the words that describe a student action also name a material, sometimes words received two different underlines. The word, "glue" in Step J> on a l l direction cards of Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours," con-tains an example of this, A further time-saving method was evolved in writing the directions for the art stations. It was found that at least two whole areas of direction could be entirely omitted. As they were common to all the stations, they were considered to be understood without having to be stated in words. The first of these concerns the reading of directions. Rather than con-tinually stating that students beginning work at a station should read all the directions first, this action came to be understood as general procedure. The second area to be largely omitted from station direction is that of storage and clean-up. As very standard and simple materials were used for most of the stations, i t was thought that ways to clean up should be more or less obvious to students. It was also assumed that the necessity for clean-up and careful storage should be general practice. Only in special instances was any mention made of these procedures. Station Six, "A Day of Autumn," contains examples where special mention of cleaning and care was considered necessary. Another construct feature which evolved as the stations were developed h9 concerns the format of station materials. As most of the stations involve directional charts, i t was found that storage and handling were greatly facil-itated i f the charts were all a standard size. As there was no need for large charts, the common twelve-by-eighteen Inch size was chosen. In some cases where station activities were quite lengthy, this size became a module for steps. Station Fifteen, "Make A Monster," is one of many examples of this. Yet another format consideration in station construction concerns the protection of the directional materials. A system of using strong quality cardboard for the instructional charts was developed. It wa3 hoped that the use of cardboard would make the directional charts more sturdy and enable them to stand independently on chalk ledges. Station Eight, "Get The Mess-age?" is an example of a station which was produced early in the study. The directional cards were badly damaged early in the study. A policy of laminating materials wherever possible was devised to assist in further protection. Laminating Is a system whereby materials are covered with a thin layer of plastic film. It has the advantage of protecting mater-ials against spills, splatters, and dirty finger marks as the majority of such stains can be simply wiped off. This assists in keeping the materials clean and attractive. Manual methods were used until laminating machines became available. Laminating prior to the first use of station materials was thought to be the best. Card three of Station Twenty, "Snakes," provides an example of a non-laminated and hence damaged directional card. To assist in protection against loss, certain housekeeping construction mechanisms were used. Envelopes to hold books were devised for most book stations and these were laminated onto the backs of most book stations. Card two of Station Twenty-three, "The Snowy Day," provides an example of this. Also, in this station, the back of the card has been used to provide further information about the display of results. Several stations have been devised with sturdy pockets to hold relevant materials. Examples of pockets which hold job cards can be seen in Station Two, "Centering On The Sun;" Station Eleven, "A Lettering Lessonj" Station Sixteen, "Mystery Muralj" and Station Twenty-four, "Spiders." Resource mater-ial was sometimes presented in such pockets. Station Twelve, "Lines In Land-scape j " Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alivej" and Station Twenty-seven, "Van Gogh's Palette," evidence examples of this construct strategy. In one sta-tion, Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil," student worksheets were placed in a pocket. The intent of these pockets was to assist in giving stations a neat and tidy appearance and to provide a system for keeping them that way. A further design feature involved numbering these materials where applicable so that any loss might quickly be discovered and rectified. At al l times attempts were made to make the stations constructed for this study as visually attractive as possible. During the course of station con-struction i t was found that inviting and meaningful titles could be given to stations which would serve to help all those concerned with the art stations make fast and easy reference to them. Possibilities for such mechanical strategies as layout, print style, and wording were continually reviewed in order to make station directions clear and inviting. To these ends, illustrat-ive material ranging from manually and mechanically copied images to original images were used. Yet another construct mechanism was developed as the stations were pro-duced. It was thought that i f the colour of the directional cards was limited to the use of white cardboard and i f all marks were made with strong black lines, the station might be easily photocopied. This became desirable as the study progressed. As has been demonstrated, a variety of art stations was developed. The development was done according to certain sets of guidelines which resulted from the borrowing of design strategies from stations which have been devel-oped successfully in other curricular areas. How successful this scheme of adaptation has been will be investigated in the remainder of this study. 52 Chapter V PLAN FOR THE STUDY An account of the plans for the study of the use of the art stations has been isolated at this point. Two important statements preface these plans, however. First, as implied in the description of the strategies for development, i t was not planned that the art stations would be manufactured in one block of time to be followed by use in a second time frame. The de-velopment, use, and study stages of this work took place in an integrated manner over a four-year span. Secondly, i t must also be stated that many of the actual developmental strategies were not planned and tested in a formal way. Strategies for im-provement based on unsophisticated data were incorporated as work progressed. A number of the changes took place rather naturally in more of a learn-by-doing fashion than a formal research mode. Ideas for the development of later stations occurred as the construction of earlier stations was completed. As i t was thought that such ideas for change would result in improvement, they were implemented immediately. Formal plans for the study were made regarding the allocation of time, the functions of stages, and the location of work for each phase. The four years of study were divided into two broad sections of two years. During the first part some stations were developed and used in a lim-ited manner, while during the second phase many more stations were developed and their use was monitored more closely. The first phase of the study involved the production of some very basic art stations which were piloted in two different classrooms. One purpose of 53 this phase was to determine i f station material for art could be developed. A further purpose for this stage was to formulate some guidelines for the production of art stations. In the first year of the study, art stations were designed for a split grade four, five, and six group of approximately fifty-five students in a double classroom. Two generalist teachers were responsible for instruction in all curricular areas. As instruction was normally offered in many com-binations and permutations of small groupings, the use of a station device often occurred, but not for art. This was thought to be the best possible situation in which to introduce art stations. To initiate the art stations, several meetings were held with the teach-ers at which time specific plans were made. Timetabling, suitability of art methods, and particularly the appropriateness of images and themes were dis-cussed. Attempts were made to relate a portion of each art station to a study that was underway in another subject. As all levels of the Starting  Points ( Moore, 1973 ) text series for language arts was used, there ex-isted a great wealth of relevant themes upon which to plan visual expression experiences. General procedures for the use of the art stations were formed. Mater-ials for each art station were for the most part assembled outside of the classroom. Just prior to the time when a station was needed, the necessary materials were assembled in one location. This location, however, was not held constant. It was generally agreed, however, that students working in small groups should remain physically grouped for the duration of their work time to improve general classroom management. Normally groups of six to eight students were assigned to an art station. Students arrived at the spot indicated and sat down either on the floor or at chairs around a table. A Sh short but very concise introduction was planned and delivered by the author. The nature of such introductions changed according to several variables such as the scope of the particular station, the necessary vocabulary development, and the amounts of encouragement, reassurance, and/or clarification deemed as necessary from student questions and comments. A deliberate effort was made to keep the introduction to a minimum time period} not longer than approximately ten minutes. The students were then left on their own to complete the activity, taking directions from the instructional materials which comprised each station. In keeping with the tone of the classroom as a whole, students were encouraged to converse about their work and to seek further clarification of directions amongst themselves. The author then assumed the role of observer and moved away from the art station to another area in the classroom. Wherever possible, further inter-action with the students at the art station was discouraged if solicited and not offered except in rare instances. This behaviour was intended to simu-late that of a regular classroom teacher who would most likely be involved in teacher-directed instruction with another group whilst the art station was in use. The observation was done from a physical distance as far as physically possible for the removal of teacher input, but close enough to overhear some student conversation and see stages of student reactions. Many stations were planned and developed during this phase. Some of the materials produced at this stage were used throughout the duration of the study. The materials for Station One, "Some Ways To Make Branch Looms;" Station Seven, "Discover Colour in Marc Chagall Paintingsj" Station Eight, "Get The Message?", Cards one and two of Station Twelve, "Lines In Landscape;" Station Sixteen, "Mystery Mural;" Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alive;" and 55 Station Twenty-seven, "Van Gogh's Palette," are examples of these. Card three of Station Twelve, "Lines in Landscape," was produced later in the study. Two stations were made at this time which were completely redone at a later stage in the study. These are Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours," and Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" The forms in which they are appended here are the most recent. To complete the first phase of study, the station devices for art were piloted over the period of a year in a second classroom. This involved a class of eighth grade students in a high school, all of whom had elected to take art and were scheduled for an Art Eight programme. This instruction in art took place during three one-hour periods weekly. The purpose of the Art Eight course was to foster and maintain a general art background. Conse-quently, a variety of media and methods were used at basic levels. As some of the students possessed more art skills and knowledge than others, and some had greater powers of concentration than others, i t was neces-sary to plan art units for this group which would accommodate many individual differences. Provisions for student choice in areas such as theme, method, or media and group projects were often made to facilitate instruction. It was thought that a station approach might further assist in this endeavour. During this phase of the study, stations were planned and developed as alternatives to teacher-directed work. Sometimes i t was the case that only one station was planned for use by approximately five or six students who chose to do the station activity in lieu of the teacher-directed work. At other times several stations were offered as options along with a teacher-directed unit, and on one occasion a choice of one of six stations with no teacher-directed opportunity was offered. 56 The stations designed at this time were planned so that they related closely both to the teacher-directed options and, when more than one station was offered, to each other. Sometimes the relationship was established through theme. Station Twenty-four, "Spiders," provides an example of this. Sometimes a relationship was established in art domains. At a time when it was desired that all students become involved in researching aspects of the lives and works of famous artists, Station Twenty-seven, "Van Gogh's Pal-ette," was again used. At other times relationships were made through method or media. On an-other occasion i t was decided that al l students should undergo experiences using fibre materials. Stations which involved stitchery, basketry, fibre collage, and tapestry weaving were devised at this time. Card three of Sta-tion Twelve, "Lines in Landscape," was produced to serve this purpose. Some stations were planned to be ongoing for all students to do at desig-nated times of release from another unit of study. Station Fourteen, "Mixing Colour, Make a Colour Wheel," was used in this way whilst a teacher-directed painting lesson was underway. Similarly, Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," was designed in order to assist students in making a folio cover. Small groups were dispatched to work with these art stations during a teacher-directed unit. The next phase of the study was conducted over a two-year period in many classrooms within one school district. With few exceptions, the classrooms were contained classrooms and the teachers were generalists. This phase of the study differed from the first phase in three major ways. The first major area of difference concerns the purpose of study. As the purpose of the first phase involved gathering information on the feasibil-ity of art stations and the establishment of some basic guidelines for the 57 production of art stations, the focus of the second phase was to follow the guidelines and, through a process of feedback, to refine the development in all areas of station design. The second major difference concerns scale. During this phase of the study many more art station materials were planned and developed in order to increase the potential of receiving feedback information. Material which had already been developed was also used in this second phase. Sometimes repairs, re-writing, or extending these stations was necessitated. The third major difference concerns implementation and observation of the stations. During this phase the proportions of the study became such that one person could no longer use the materials in a first-hand manner. Plans were made to put teachers in receipt of the stations and encourage them to use the materials as their discretion. Certain specific procedures to facilitate this aspect of the study were formulated. First, the station materials that were available for use were publicized in an after school information session for teachers who were interested in piloting the materials. The materials were displayed at this time and guide-lines for their use were offered. Teachers were invited to select stations that seemed appropriate for their situations and to give an approximate in-dication of when they would like to be in receipt of specific stations. Where conflicts occurred, black and white Xerox and in some cases colour Xerox copies were made. Provision was made for teachers to indicate subjects and methods that they would be likely to use i f developed into a station for-mat. Some of these suggestions were used towards the end of the study. An example of this is Station Thirteen,"Medieval Unit." A record was kept of how many times each station was borrowed. Secondly, a system of packaging and delivering the station material was SB organized. Extra resource material to accompany some of the stations was collected and packaged with the station material. Some examples of stations for which such extra resource material was supplied were Station Two, "Center-ing On The Sun^ " Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil>" and Station Fifteen, "Make A Monster." Thirdly, limited plans were made to offer the author's assistance once stations were being used. At all times, teachers were made aware that assist-ance could be available should it be required. Such assistance was planned to be offered on four levels. First, provision was made for telephone conver-sations with participating teachers to clarify instructions, terms, and ex-pectations, and also to suggest possible teacher introductions. Secondly, i t was planned for some stations to include directional notes for the teacher. These were often casually written, but some were formalized. Card a. of Station Twenty-two, "Snow Colours," contains an example of formal directions. Thirdly, the opportunity for a "dry run" was made possible. Upon teacher request, and at a non-instructional time, teachers could receive assistance while going through the station activity step-by-step. Fourthly, provision was made for opportunities for first-hand, in-class help should teachers be reluctant to begin a station or find difficulties once the work was initiated. Plans were also made to view the stations in use whenever possible. At this time i t was envisioned that informal data could be collected regarding the ways in which the stations were used by both teachers and students. Simi-larly, plans were made for viewing student results, and, where possible, re-cording student results on photographic slides. It was hoped that this pro-cess would supply information that could be used in conjunction with informa-tion about how each station was used. It was thought that correlations 59 between particular station design strategies, the frequency of station use, and the quality of student products. The last phase of planning involved the formulation of a questionnaire for completion by teachers who had used the stations in the last phase of the study. It was further planned that the questionnaire be developed and circu-lated by a neutral party in order to encourage teachers to be as forthright and candid as possible. It was intended that such an instrument would yield much information about the value of and feelings about the art stations from the teachers1 points of view. 60 Chapter VI DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The purpose of this study has been to explore the feasibility of using art stations and to explore strategies for their design. To these ends, a range of materials for art learning stations were produced according to spe-cific criteria and piloted in a certain time frame. Information was gathered and some relationships were formed which have led to some tentative conclus-ions. These will be discussed in chronological order. During the first phase of the study the purpose was to explore the gen-eral feasibility of a station approach for art and to develop some guidelines for the second phase of the study. The findings regarding the general feasi-bility of the station approach can be grouped according to those which seem to indicate positive results and those which seem to be negative. The guide-lines which were formed at this time will be discussed in conjunction with the findings. Findings resulting from the first phase of the study that would indicate that learning stations have some definite advantages can be grouped in eight main categories. The first of these concerns general classroom atmosphere and is possibly not a true advantage; i t is more a neutral finding. In both the classrooms in which the initial stations were piloted, the use of an art station approach did not seem to upset established routines in such areas as discipline and control. Students were presented with a variety of methods and materials which have the potential of being "messy." Some examples of such methods and materials can be found in Station Twenty-four, "Spiders," which involved printer's ink in a print-making activity and Station Twenty -one, "Snakes 61 Alive," which involves rhoplex and India ink in a collage activity. In both classes, students demonstrated an understanding that their work was to be carried out independent of teacher-direction and that they could interact with one another. Classroom orderliness was not significantly upset in either classroom when art stations were being used. In the first year of the study, such a finding was almost to be expected as the students involved were well-known to their teachers and to each other, and all were familiar with procedures for work in small groups, some of which was independent of immediate teacher-direction. In the second classroom situation, however, the results are more signifi-cant. In the upper intermediate and particularly in secondary grades, the practice of using small instructional groups decreases. By the eighth grade, whole group instruction or instruction via completely individualized projects is more often to be found. The students involved in the second year of the study had no particular background of experience in working in small groups. As the whole group was a mixture of grade eight students who met as a group only for art, and as the students came from a variety of elementary schools, social ties were not par-ticularly well-developed. Nor were these students well-known to the teacher at the beginning of the station work study. These findings were encouraging as i t was thought that to some extent the two groups seemed well-contrasted. It seemed likely that art stations might be successfully organized in other sorts of classrooms. The organiza-tional success experienced at this phase contributed to the decision to carry the study into the second phase. A second general advantage which was noted in the first year of the study was that when art stations are used in conjunction with small group work in 62 other subjects, particularly with language arts, a certain message was im-parted by way of the organizational set-up. Visual expression was balanced with verbal expression and art work seemed to be accepted as a natural, every-day phenomenon. Admittedly, art stations cannot claim total responsibility for this acceptance but, in the situations cited, they certainly contributed. From this second general observation, a deliberate attempt to choose themes for stations which would have high relevance for integrated studies in other curricular areas was made. It was decided to investigate seasonal, science, and social studies topics as well as those pertinent to language arts to find possible themes for art stations. It was also decided to design components of stations which would elicit investigations in social studies and language arts. Step 5" of Station Fifteen, "Make A Monster," is an ex-ample of the latter. A third general advantage of an art station approach concerns the supply-ing of materials, tools, and equipment. This particular aspect of instruction in art can be a real problem, especially when i t is the policy of a school that such instruction take place in a regular classroom. When there is not enough of a commodity to go around a class, the process of sharing, ration-ing, and portioning can be time-consuming and disruptive. It stands to rea-son that every classroom in such a school cannot be supplied with class sets of some of the more specialized tools and equipment, nor can individual classes be completely supplied with a wide range of specialized materials. It is often the case that when a school is partially equipped with these items, no particular control is exercised over their location, maintenance, and availability. It was observed that when an art station approach is used, fewer supplies and equipment were needed. For stations with which all students in a class 63 were expected to work, a closer estimate could be made of materials needed, and it was an advantage that not all materials had to be supplied at once. For stations which only a small group of students were expected to complete, fewer materials were needed. Small sets of tools such as X-acto knives, bottles of india ink, brayers, brushes, and scissors were usually easy to secure. If i t was decided that tools and/or equipment would need to be specially purchased, the expense incurred was not as great as i t might have been i f whole class commodities had been purchased. It is understood that the use of a station device is not the only class-room management strategy which can lay claim to helping overcome the lack of class sets of materials, tools, and/or equipment. It was observed, however, that when a station was used, students often arranged to share and distribute items amongst themselves in a way that was not disruptive. It was therefore decided that more stations with activities which require specialized materi-als, tools, and equipment might be produced. A fourth generally positive aspect regarding the use of an art station approach was observed during the first year of the study. Group art projects such as the activities for Station Sixteen, "Mystery Mural," and Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" were attempted. In Station Six-teen, "Mystery Mural," a large group of students completed a sectional mural in small group work stages. In Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" much more group interaction was required. The small station group of fourth grade students worked together to complete a construction. Both the process and their results were quite successful. It was noted during this time that a station approach can facilitate at least two types of group pro-jects. It was therefore decided that perhaps more station activities which require group work might be designed. 6k The fifth observation which seems to indicate a possible value for the station approach is closely related to the fourth observation. It was noted that students working with the art stations rather spontaneously discussed their work and commented on their directions. This observation resulted in further ideas for art station development. Activities were planned which attempted to encourage group interaction. Directions in some of the later art stations instruct students to discuss as in Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," to choose a partner as in Step 1 of Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," and to brainstorm ideas as in Step 1 of Station Seventeen, "Design A Poster For Canada's Birthday." A sixth point which seemed to suggest that art stations had certain ad-vantages concerns observations of what might be called "student learning styles." In any small group situation it would seem that there is great opportunity to observe individual students' approaches to learning. In some subjects, work groups are formed on the basis of learning styles. For ins-tance, students who demonstrate similar degrees of self-motivation, independ-ence, and/or concentration are often grouped together or deliberately dis-persed, whichever best suits classroom management. It was noticed that while an art station was underway, there was an op-portunity to observe the learning style behaviours of individuals, particu-larly with regard to their approaches to problem-solving. Differences amongst students in leadership ability, degrees of independence, and work attack were noted. Teachers occasionally commented that the learning style behaviour of specific students differed during art station work to that demonstrated dur-ing work in small groups in other subjects, and that these differences were judged as improvements. An art station device seemed to provide yet another way by which a contribution to knowledge about the learning styles of 65 individual students could be made. A seventh observation made at this time concerns only a few students, but is considered important enough to be mentioned, however. There were a few students involved in the work with art stations who possessed higher levels of English language comprehension when reading for understanding and direction than they did for listening. The students identified in this category were English as a Second Language students who were recent immig-rants but who had learned some English in their countries of origin. When art stations were designed with written directional charts, these particular students seemed to have benefitted. An eighth and final observation was interpreted as an advantage. When all students in a class did not work with a particular art station and/or when stations involved a degree of student choice, it became necessary to evaluate results on an individual level. As individual evaluation is usually very necessary in art, i t was thought a contribution to complement this situ-ation might be made through the variety of student outcomes possible in an art station approach. Furthermore, as there is evidence to suggest that evaluation of art often occurs on the basis of objectives that are not unique to art (Eisner, 1971), i t was also thought that art stations might be de-signed so that the directions indicated stages through which a student could work to gain some understanding of a stated art concept. It was also decided that steps which would help students to reflect upon their work in a critical way could be an integral part of station directions both at crucial points during their work and at the completion of their work. These were used in all stations designed in the second phase of the study. During the first phase of the study certain observations were made that would indicate some negative features of an art station approach. These can 66 be grouped in six main categories. The first of the disadvantages concerns the way in which students fol-lowed directions. Students often tended to follow directions in what can be described as a "recipe manner." There was fear that the work might have been viewed more as a direction-following game than as an art activity. An empha-sis was placed on the following of each directional step and the purpose and outcome of activities seemed lost. Four strategies were explored at this time in an effort to overcome this situation. First, an effort was made to dispel such an interpretation during the teacher introduction. Secondly, a layout of directional charts was adop-ted in which students were presented with statements regarding what they might expect to learn and do by following the directions. Thirdly, phrases such as, "you might like/want to . . . ," were used to preface some instruc-tions with the hope of breaking the step routine of directions. Examples of this can be seen in Step 6 of Station Three, "Make A Collage For Hallowe'en," and in Steps 8 and 9 of Station Five, "A Colour Of His Own." Fourthly, two stations were designed which attempted to take advantage of this finding. In Station Sixteen, "Mystery Mural," the outcome is unknown to students and they are directed to simply follow instructions, step by step. In Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil," a crossword puzzle approach was adapted to take ad-vantage of the "game" aspect of art stations. A second negative feature which was observed during the first phase of the study was closely linked with the first observation and in many instances may be a result of i t . Art work resulting from activity with a station was in many cases very similar. The nature of this similarity was not only that products looked the same, but also that the results were of a mediocre stand-ard. In some situations, students needed to be reminded that they were not 67 searching for one solution but rather that many solutions were possible. After students became more familiar with the use of the station device, however, there was evidence that some were willing to search for a variety of solutions. Furthermore, there was evidence to suggest that students would change and alter the directions to suit their own personal view of the prod-uct. Student outcome 2 for Card two of Station Twelve, "Lines In Landscape," is an example of this. The student in this case decided that his work should not be limited to white and shades of off-white, but rather some earth-tone colours would be better. One of the grade six results for Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," showed a direction change which was voluntarily made by a student. In this case i t would appear that the student did not choose one of the two alternatives suggested in Step 7 on Card four. Instead, the stud-ent invented a personal solution which involved a combination of both options. Another point should be mentioned here which contradicts this second negative finding. Student results from the activity suggested in Station Fourteen, "Mixing Colour, Make A Colour Wheel," were intended to be quite similar in order to yield comparative information about students' ability to use colour in a specific way. Not only was the station device quite success-ful at providing this information, the station also served to indicate stud-ent levels of brush and paint control. A third disadvantage to the art stations produced during the first phase of the study was noticed. As stated, the majority of station materials pro-duced involved written directions for students to follow. Reading such directions was difficult if not impossible for students who possessed a low level of reading skills. The directions were also difficult for students in the early primary grades, and most were virtually impossible for kindergarten students. 68 This disadvantage was partially amended by the use of certain tactics. First, several stations using many diagrams for direction were designed. It was found, however, that the diagrams needed to be very simple as they, too, were hard to read. A station was produced using diagrams to introduce a coil method of basketry. As a station, the activity met with little suc-cess at the elementary level, although it was quite successful at the grade eight level. The reason for the difference in success seemed largely related to the sophisticated diagrams that were necessary to show the methods in stages. This particular station was excluded from further piloting because of this inherent difficulty. Another method used to help overcome the need to read for direction is evidenced by wordless stations. A series of charts were made to Instruct students in various methods of making cut paper valentines for Station Twenty-six, "Valentines From Cut Paper." No words were used, but the diagrams were presented in the manner of a mathematical equation. Another wordless presentation is evident in Station One, "Some Ways To Make Branch Looms." The student results from both these stations have been judged as quite suc-cessful. Yet another way in which reading for directions could be partially as-sisted was through an extended teacher introduction. This required the teacher taking time to go through the critical steps of the station more or less reading the directions to the students. This seemed to be quite success-ful in solving this problem, but this strategy can come dangerously close to defeating the purpose of a station device. It was also observed that stud-ents working with station materials who were good readers would help and en-courage others to read. A final observation concerned with direction inter-pretation should be related. It was observed that when a second activity on 69 Cards four and five was added to Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alive," which involved a similar method with a different theme, students followed the direc-tions on their own with ease and the results were good. Another finding has been categorized as a weakness of a station approach, and to some degree the findings were expected. Throughout the study an effort was made to select station activities which seemed appropriate for students to complete on their own. As mentioned, the activities were usually quite short, precise, and easily explained with words and/or diagrams. Some of the activities which were selected, however, proved to be inappropriate to the situations in which they were piloted. Stations were designed to include activities such as simple gesture drawing and basic mass drawing. It was found that these activities were not successful as station activities because they rely too heavily on what might be called a "magic of the moment." In other words, they require constant and direct supervision by a teacher to assist students in recognizing aspects such as the success of minimal marks, the use of specific points of view, and the value of accidental results. Op-portunities to cover such aspects are generally lost i f the activities are presented in a station format. The stations which were based on these sorts of activities were excluded from the second phase of the study. A fifth point which may be viewed as a weakness of the station approach concerns those stations which were not intended for use by a whole class. A rather involved system was required for keeping records of experiences and understandings which individuals had attained via the station approach. This was necessary for the planning of a class art lesson in order to avoid repe-tition for some students. A suitable checklist model that might easily be adapted in an individual card file manner for this purpose has been Imple-mented by The Halton Board of Education (1976). Another suitable list of 70 headings for such cards can be found in the planning notes suggested by Laura Chapman (1978, p. 380). A third can be found in the "Content Analysis Form" which has been suggested for use in Ohio schools (Efland, 1977, p. 15>0), Evaluative notes could easily be incorporated into these models. The sixth and last major weakness to the use of the art station approach involves the time needed to develop suitable materials. Obviously, the crea-tion of instructional materials for art stations takes much teacher time. As with the development of teacher-made materials in other subject areas, art stations are best developed individually to suit specific units which are likely to be repeated by the teacher at another time. Sharing materials with colleagues and carefully storing materials helps reduce preparation time. Some station cards were specifically designed to be used with several stations or to serve several art units. This flexibility can be seen in Card one of Station Ten, "How The World Began," and in Cards one and two of Sta-tion Five, "A Colour Of His Own." These had the advantage that they were not specifically related to the final cards in each station and they could be re-used in a different context. Card one of Station Ten, "How The World Began," for example, could be used whenever an assortment of rubbings was desired. It need not necessarily be followed by Card two. This strategy helped save some preparation time. As demonstrated, the general advantages and disadvantages noted by the investigator in the first phase of the study provided guidelines for the many stations that were designed in the second phase of the study. In the second phase of the study, information about the art stations was gathered in two ways. The first was by using a questionnaire and the second was by observa-tion. 71 A questionnaire was designed and distributed by a third person who had knowledge of the art stations and the study, but was not involved in using the art stations. The questionnaire was distributed to twenty-six teachers all of whom were known to have attended introductory workshops and to have used at least one of the stations. A copy of the questionnaire and a tabu-lation of responses has been appended in Appendix B herein. The results of the questionnaire must be viewed in light of the fact that the questionnaire instrument was not as delicate as it might have been. In a sense it was very successful in that i t raised many more questions. How-ever, an opportunity to glean highly detailed information regarding station use was somewhat lost as some of the questions were found to be ambivalent. Nevertheless, the findings of the questionnaire will be presented and each noteworthy finding will be discussed in relation to observational findings. The first item to which teachers were to respond in the questionnaire concerns the manner in which the station materials were used. The question was formed as an attempt to identify whether the materials were used for small group instruction in a station approach, or i f the materials were used largely as plans for teacher-directed instruction. It was discovered that the way in which this question was posed led to some confusion. Some teachers interpreted the question to ask whether just one group within a class worked with a station or i f many small groups, totalling the whole of a class, took a turn at working with the station. Other teachers interpreted the question to ask whether the stations were used as such or i f they were used as plans for teacher-directed lessons. Even had this question been more specifically worded, on the strength of observations made it was felt that the one-in-three ratio of actual station use would be about the same as indicated in the results of the questionnaire. 72 There are two main comments which should be made regarding this. The first comment concerns the methods of classroom management which were in evidence by teachers who used the stations. Not all the teachers who took part in using the stations were accustomed to using a station device to assist instruction in any subject. Others who used a station approach did not choose to use the art stations in the manner for which they were designed. As a consequence, i t was observed that the stations were often displayed and used as "public" lesson plans. The second comment relevant to the first item of the questionnaire con-cerns sound pedagogical practice. Perhaps i t is good policy for any new instructional method, material, or device to be initiated under the full and constant direction of a teacher. Possibly, i f the study had been longer, and i f teachers had borrowed the same materials a second and third time, more use of the materials in a station manner may have resulted. The responses to question five of the questionnaire substantiate this notion. Question eight of the questionnaire is noteworthy. The tally indicates that two-thirds of the materials were used for instruction in grades four, five, six, and seven, with most use In the upper intermediate grades. With the exception of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit," which i 3 highly pertinent to grade seven, it was hoped that the stations would be mainly used in grades three, four, and five. It was thought that these are the grades in which a station device involving written directional cards would most likely be used. This may indicate that the themes and methods were not as appropriate as had been hoped or simply that not enough teachers registering classes in these grades volunteered to use the materials. It was felt that the comments added to the questionnaire supplied import-ant information. For purposes of discussion, these have been grouped into 73 those which relate to teacher use and those which relate to student response. Observations have been added to the comments where relevant. Comments regarding teacher use of the art stations which occurred fre-quently on the questionnaire related to a particular aspect of the station content. Teachers volunteered remarks concerning the potential which the themes of some art stations had to facilitate integrated studies with sub-jects such as language arts, science, and social studies. Responses to the second part of questionnaire item 5* seem to substantiate these comments. It was observed that integration took place in several ways. Art sta-tions based on image themes relevant to social studies such as Station Thir-teen, "Medieval Unit," were offered to students as an option along with other social studies activities during social studies instructional time. The as-sumption made here seemed to be that the art activity ranked in value with the other options as ways of expressing feelings about social studies topics. Sometimes an art station activity was used to Initiate activities in other areas. An extension for Station Five, "A Colour Of His Own," was ob-served In which primary students were instructed to write a composition about their chameleons. On several occasions, Station Eight, "Get The Message?", Station Twenty-one, "Snakes Alive," and Station Twenty-four, "Spiders," were observed being used in an integrated fashion with language arts units of the same titles. On another occasion, Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Ham-ster Go?" was observed in use as part of a primary unit on 1communities' as a theme. One station was found to be most flexible for use in an integrated man-ner. During the last three years of the study, Station Nineteen,"Self-Portrait," was frequently used at the beginning of each school year as part of introductory units to new class formations. This station was used for a Th similar purpose on one occasion when a substitute was required for a two-month period for a primary class. The station assisted the substitute in becoming familiar with the students. Station Nineteen,"Self-Portrait," was often observed in use as an integral part of self-awareness units. This sta-tion was also used in conjunction with a language arts unit on exaggeration and caricature. The use of the art stations for integrated studies seemed to be a result of a combination of two factors. First, the thematic contents of some of the stations were found to be appropriate for uniting subjects. Secondly, the clear and simple construction of directions which was necessary for the art stations was appropriate for use by teachers who chose to use an integrated approach. The art stations assisted these teachers in planning. In conjunction with this finding i t was observed that teachers requested to borrow station materials based upon image themes. Particular methods, materials, construction features, or scope aspects were not main criteria for selection. Station Nine, "Get Yourself A Pencil," was borrowed once but never used, possibly because of its rather obscure features of construction. A few of the comments and several observations, however, support certain features of station construction. Closely related to questionnaire responses concerning integration were comments regarding resources. Teachers indicated appreciation for resource material which accompanied some of the stations. Also, some teachers indicated that they added extra resource material of their own to complement station presentations. From both questionnaire comments and observation there was evidence to suggest that in some cases the construc-tion features of the stations were used as models from which teachers were able to produce their own stations. A second construction feature voluntarily mentioned on the questionnaire 75" concerns the format of equal option direction cards. The fact that teachers could elect to present all cards in a set or limit the number of cards was appreciated. This flexibility in presentation could overcome problems with the availability of materials. Card four in Station Twenty-two, "Snow Col-ours," for example, was simply omitted in one situation when a supply of wool was not available. This format also proved useful in that certain cards could be omitted i f they proved repetitious for students or i f they suggested a process which a teacher didn't wish to use in a station situation. It was observed that this type of station construction was advantageous as it could provide for station growth. Because of the open-ended nature of construc-tion, teachers could add more direction cards to the station whenever time and new ideas were available. It was observed that the stations which were constructed to rely on one specific book resource were quite limiting. In Station Twenty-eight, "Where Did That Hamster Go?" the activity has appeal to students in all the element-ary years, but the book on which the activity is based limits the use of the station to primary levels. Perhaps this type of limitation could be corrected by constructing book stations, by placing the book references on separate cards so that they might be easily removed. Several book references might be constructed on different cards for each book station in order to appeal to a wider range of student maturity and reading levels. Many of the comments regarding teacher use of the art stations related to the level of structure necessary for this device. Contrary to expecta-tions, most remarks offered in this area indicate welcome for the structured activities and presentations for skills of image development, material use, and appreciation. Only one comment was directly concerned with the scope of the art stations. 76 A fear was expressed that some of the art stations might be misused as whole art units or even whole art programmes. From all observations, however, i t appeared that teachers used the stations to aid and assist existing art pro-grammes where i t was believed that a station device would improve the learn-ing situation. The responses to questionnaire item J> seem to support the observations. Comments concerning student response which appeared most frequently on the questionnaire reflect the importance of the teachers' role in the use of the art stations. Findings indicated that not only is the teacher introduc-tion critical to the operation of learning stations, but keeping a check on the progress of students working with a station and teaching a summary stage were also of critical importance. For the book stations, i t was observed that most teachers read the books to the students and framed remarks which generated interest in the illustra-tions. The main steps of these stations were also reinforced before stud-ents proceeded on their own. When i t was the intent that all students should work with a station, some teachers found that one general introduction to the station worked well. The students seemed to be able to "store" their motivation and enthusiasm until i t was their turn to work with the station. This seemed to be the case regardless of whether a l l students were given a turn at the station within one day or i f the time span was several days. It was also found that when teacher introductions became very lengthy, to the extent of previewing an entire activity, the stations could be used to support the activity. At these times, the stations served as a reminder of the procedures outlined by the teacher. In these instances, the stations were particularly useful in supplying information to students who had been 77 absent during the teacher's outline. Another use of art stations occurred which is related to attendance problems. In several cases i t was observed that work with the art stations operated smoothly at times when a substitute teacher was required. That students had an ongoing activity which was clearly explained and well-struc-tured seemed to be appreciated by all concerned. There seemed to be a relationship between some construction features of the art stations and some of the reported and observed student responses. It was observed that when directional steps were arrayed on many charts, the directions seemed to be easier for students to follow, compared to presenta-tions which appeared on one chart. Station Nineteen, "Self-Portrait," which arrays one activity over nine cards, was borrowed often without any confusion in the directions being reported. Results were generally very satisfying to all concerned. On the other hand, Station Five, "A Colour Of His Own," seemed to have too many directions on one card. One teacher was observed to have re-designed this station using several step charts rather than one. There seemed to be few strong relationships established between the amount of examples of possible outcomes which were incorporated in station procedures and student response. This was seen as favourable, as i t was orig-inally thought that the use of examples might influence student results in that students might copy the examples. Related to this, and equally as en-couraging, was the observation that there was little evidence to indicate that students had copied each other in arriving at solutions. Another comment which relates to student response concerns the quality of student products. Student results were viewed as generally successful and it was noted that stations seemed to particularly involve students who had been known to be reluctant to take part in whole class art presentations. 78 Another volunteered comment regarding student response indicated that station format often accommodated and assisted students who had been judged as "non-talented'* in art. Some comments and observations regarding student response indicate poten-tially negative features of the art stations. That some students became frustrated with the manner in which they were expected to follow directions was volunteered as a negative finding. Other teachers, however, viewed simi-lar situations as good for requiring students to persevere using common sense and self-reliance. Any judgement of the value of students having to follow directions on their own seems to hinge on the amount of positive student response in this particular area. As with all teacher-learner situations, once students, methods of instruction, and activities are well-known to the teacher, i t re-mains for the best possible combinations to be found. The station device is but one tool by which instruction can be offered. It was never intended that stations would be suitable to provide instruction for all students. Suffice i t to say, students who became so frustrated with the station approach that art learning was not particularly facilitated, or was even pre-vented, should not be subjected to instruction via a station format. In other instances, perhaps more practice in using art stations might result in an improvement in learning by station use. In summary, certain general conclusions have been formed which result from the various phases of this study. It would seem that an art station approach can be a viable instructional alternative which can benefit class-room management, curriculum, and instruction. Furthermore, this study has served to indicate some of the conditions under which such benefits can be realized. 79 Art stations can be designed to assist teachers in coping with many types of student differences. Through the use of different types of art stations, choices can be offered to students in several aspects of unit pro-gramming such as theme development, use of materials, and methods employed. It was also indicated that with student familiarity in the use of a station approach, successful results, diverse in quality and nature, could be achieved. In a general classroom situation, flexible timing of teacher direction and student work speed can be accommodated by the use of art stations, particu-larly in the idea-searching and image-development stages. An important function of art stations was realized when they were found to be used in an integrated manner with studies in other curricular areas. The visual expression aspect of most stations became important to both teach-ers and students when the stations were used as alternative ways in which students could relate social studies, science, and language arts topics. Particularly well-developed images and careful work habits were noted in student results of Station Thirteen, "Medieval Unit." Because of the con-tent design aspects of the stations, it was felt that art growth was encour-aged in these instances. When used as components of integrated studies, it was concluded that the art station activities were not subservient to studies in other subjects. The knowledge and thematic interests generated by other studies assisted the expressive image development procedures which the art station activities required. Having determined some basic information about some of the types of art stations that are possible and about some of their uses, i t was felt that further study in certain areas is warranted. More time could be spent in determining the success of the station activi-ties in terras of their use as station devices. Such an investigation would 80 need to be carefully controlled as: i t has been found in this study that art station use was not an absolute phenomenon: use can occur by degrees. In the second phase of the study there was no provision for the accurate recording of the degrees to which the station devices operated on their own as opposed to the amount of teacher intervention that was deemed necessary each time materials were used. Likewise, no record was kept of the length of teacher introduction, nor was there a cut-off point in station directions after which students were to work on their own. This was left to teacher discretion. To keep a closer record, perhaps fewer stations could be used a greater number of times. It would facilitate the study greatly i f art station mater-ials were introduced in classrooms where students and teachers were already quite familiar with the independent nature of station operation due to ex-perience with station devices in other subjects. A further study might involve a much closer account of strategies for implementing art stations. The development of specific guidelines for such a procedure seems possible on the strength of findings of this study. Per-haps one activity might be developed in several different ways. This would yield more definitive information regarding the value of examples, diagrams, step charts, equal-option charts, and the inclusion of resource material should these be piloted widely and under close observation. Careful records of student responses during their work with the stations and their resulting products would need to be stored and categorized in retrievable fashion. The construction of stations might be improved i f certain design features were adapted. For example, formal notes to teachers using the materials might be included with each station to communicate pertinent information regarding the use of the stations. It is felt that the scope possibilities of 81 individual stations is in need of particular clarification. Such notes might state possible lessons which would both preceed and follow specific station activities. Another construction feature of future station design might be the in-corporation of a cross-coding system for art station collections. Cross-referencing stations under various headings would be a great asset in imple-menting stations. Broad headings might reflect the physical, expressive, affective, and cognitive domains of art instructional objectives. Sub-head-ings to supply specific information regarding activities might also prove very useful, as would a theme index and an indication of the scope span of stations. The impetus for this study came from seeing a need to explore One type of solution to a problem which is common to curriculum and instruction in the wide variety of teaching and learning situations. In view of recent trends, the need for classroom teachers to schedule time to direct instruction for small groups or individuals in all curricular areas is a problem which is likely to continue and increase in magnitude. It follows that a need for alternative instructional devices will continue. It has been found that a learning station approach for elementary art is one such alternative. The implications of the study can be seen in the degree of success with which the materials developed during the course of the study provided teachers with some solutions to this problem. 82 References Art box, The. 1$0 creative art activities for primary grade studies. Carson, California: Educational Insights Inc., 1971. (Kit) Art box. The. Creative art activities for intermediate grade studies. Carson, California: Educational Insights Inc., 1971. (Kit) Barker, Carol. How the world began. Billericay, Essex: Abelard-Schuman, 1971*. Beach, Don M. Reaching teenagers: learning centers for the secondary classroom. Santa Monica, California: Goodyear Publishing Company Inc., 1977. Carle, Eric. The secret birthday message. New York: Crowell Publishing Co., 1972. Carle, Eric. The grouchy ladybug. New York: Crowell Publishing Co., 1977. Chapman, Laura. Approaches to art in education. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc., 19781 (Canada: Longmans) Cornia, Ivan E., Stubbs, Charles B., and Winters, Nathan B. Art is elementary, teaching visual thinking through art concepts. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 197o. Dagley, Catherine 3. Idea developmental experiences through art. Follett Publishing Co., 1978. (Kit) Davidson, T., Fountain, P., Grogan, R., Short, V., and Steely, Judy. The  learning centre book: an integrated approach. Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear Publishing Company Inc., 1976. Educational Audio Visual, Batik. Concord, Ontario: distributed by Wintergreen Communications Ltd., 81*81 Keele Street (no date). (Filmstrip #A7KF 0032) Efland, Arthur. Content analysis form. Planning art education in the  middle/secondary schools of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: State of Ohio Department of Education, 1977, p. 150. Eisner, Elliot W. How can you measure a rainbow? Tactics for evaluating the teaching of art. Presented at the National Art Education Association Conference, Dallas, Texas, April 1971. Eisner, Elliot W. The mythology of art education. In I. Kaufman, L. Berk, & J. Herbert (Eds.), Curriculum theory network: a .journal from the  Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1971*, U, (Nos. 2 & 3), 89. 83 Forte, Imogene, Pangle, M.A., and Tupa, R. Complete learning centers for the elementary classroom. Center stuff for nooks, crannies and  corners. Nashville, Tennessee: Incentive Publications Inc., 1973. Halton County Board of Education. Visual Arts folder. Burlington, Ontario: Hart, A.S. For intermediate grades. The art box. Carson, California: Educational Insights Inc., 1973. (Kit) Herstein, Rosaline. Time out for art activities on your own (Books A, B, and C). San Francisco, California: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Center for the Study of Instruction, 1978. Hubbard, G., and Rouse, M. Art: meaning, media, and method. Westchester, Illinois: Benefic Press, 1972. Keats, E.J. The snowy day. New York: Puffin Books, 1976. Kemp, J.E. Instructional design: a plan for unit and course development. Belmont, California: Lear Siegler Inc./Fearon Publishers, 1971. IAonni, L. A colour of his own. London: William Collins Sons and Co. Ltd., 1977. Littlefield, Marjorie H. Art Packet. Dansville, N.Y.: Owen Publishing Co., 1965. (Kit) Lokken, Carol. The Whittier School Art Center: a studio experience in art learning for primary age children. In Allen Caucott (Ed.), Focus - elementary art education. Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, June 1972, p. 26. Margolis, Charles. The open classroom: an approach to individualized art education. In Allen Caucott (Ed.), Focus elementary art education. Reston, Virginia: National Art Education Association, June 1972, p. 23. Moore, W. (Ed.). Starting points in reading, and Starting points in language (Levels A, B, and C). Canada: Ginn & Co., 1973, Mendoza, George, The scarecrow clock. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971. Miles, Betty. A day of Autumn. Toronto: Pinwheel Books, Random House of Canada, October 1973. Townley, Mary R. Another look. Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1978. r. The. Cleveland, Ohio: Collins and World Publishing Visual Publications. Henry Moore: Looking at his work with Philip James. Downsview, Ontario! Mclntyre Educational Media Ltd., 8 6 St. Regis Crescent North. (Filmstrip) Bk Visual Publications. Looking into history. Downsview, Ontario: Mclntyre Educational Media Ltd., 86 St. Regis Crescent North. (Filmstrip) Visual Publications. The bayeux tapestry (Pt. I and II). Downsview, Ontario: Mclntyre Educational Media Ltd., 8 6 St. Regis Crescent North. (Filmstrip) Wolcott, Patty. Where did that naughty little hamster go? Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd., 1975. APPENDIX A COPIES OF THE LEARNING STATIONS FOR ART WITH SOME STUDENT RESULTS PLATE ONE, STATION ONE, SOME WAYS TO MAKE BRANCH LOOMS Unsequenced Direction Cards PLATE TWO, STATION ONE, SOME WAYS TO MAKE BRANCH LOOMS Unsequenced Direction Cards 89 Phase I Grade U Phase II Grades 2/3 Phase II Grades 2/3 PLATE THREE, STATION ONE, SOME WAYS TO MAKE BRANCH LOOMS Student Results 90 PLATE FOUR, STATION TWO, CENTERING ON THE SUN Direction Chart with Job Cards 91 17 +J> * Phase II Grades 2/3 drawing Phase II Primary painting Phase II Intermediate one colour styrofoam print Phase II Grades 6/7 multi-coloured styrofoam print Phase II Grades 2/3 collage Phase II Intermediate stitchery PLATE FIVE, STATION TWO, CENTERING ON THE SUN Student Results PLATE SIX, STATION THREE, MAKE A COLIAGE FOR HALLOWE'EN Three Direction Cards and Poems I the colours in a fall leaf... 3£pbce a coloured M picture or leaves here,... .1 _^ . < -ifW the most colourful fall leaf... fctben set if uou can find samples of 1 1 choose your samples from tht \J materials here. j.order uour colours , ...and tell how you've ordered them t label each cf your colours with a name ... be as descriptive as you can be ready to tell why you chose the names jog wrote i display your colour work with your leaf j j 1m. make a fall picture use uour faj colours and tile materials here. write, ofoilpownor use all your colour words ; Displau ^ , .1 Wis work with uour leal and colour samples-PLATE SEVEN, STATION FOUR, THE COLOURS IN A FALL LEAF Direction Card A colour of his own 1 £ ThJnk about the shape of a c h o m e t e o n . ^ I I I g j l Q ^ Most onimols hove their own particular colour..but... chameleon* h « e loot of their own: they change colour wherww they go. Stencil printing oanshmr tkj> I. Read the book "A Colour of His Own" btj leo lionni; U at the vonoas chonriwn colors I With pencil on mamllo tnq. outjine Ike shapelofo chameleon. l l l o r t S h t in the mm of the tog well < w a u # o » e d g t t . 4. Check uour chameleon out h * owdwfcen aou are nappu with it g t It oat cdoaa w e line u w m d r w r i b h g h i mm dont cut f i l r o n i n c d g e - p u i d t f e i n on M T outline. SL When M ham a hole f> uour tog that 16 ctawltwi s h y q% print ihmiohfte hole onto cartridge p a p m « * or pint and | sp«»."lhls Is cakd stencil printing. ThetDgtecaW a stwctl ^ :: b.Hoki seiera] clear stencil prints using a •orttiu of eolotn I Wow, gear stencil to dnj and turn it owrtt pert reverse f a g » s . S.Prrt somal dandesM ki both dreetians on one piece of paper. 3v * y m&Amnt mtta. prtMrwtjnap 1t>m*t a /aye mwtm pap ugh jam-jtm*. % foxse uour best prirta)d jirrtte t o a i a r fte cokxr ofgc* print- *^/fUia-&Kd*X. -filtpenmftifatri'in oddK/tS-P.JFndwtmn adeddamkmt HDppjau LJOUT b a t chameleon prints with research material on chameleons. PLATE EIGHT, STATION FIVE, A COLOUR OF HIS OWN Direction Card 95 Phase II Primary Phase II Primary PLATE NINE, STATION FIVE, A COLOUR OF HIS OWN Student Results ?6 A M O F A U T U M N Shapes con be mod* I be, as outline poaltlvelu, V L Seod the storu and Jook at the illtistfrfloo*. What II shapes did UMI real about ? 'C^ JL Who* fol shopu did uou see? *> Afind torn esomples of positive shapes, negative shopus, and 'iN outlined stapes In th* lllustratlone. yt\\** 5omf, shapes are within other shapesi ^^K. ^ v These shapes hove been made with block pruts. ^ " ^ ^ ' 3. TheriK of a km faB shapes that you would Ike to us». Practice n drawing uour chosen fol shapes with pencil on paper kl the Jhree y£4 ways until they ore clear. j'-^ xj^  4 With o ballpoint pen outline uour chosen fall shapes on a , piece of sturofoam. Be sure thrpen punctures the .surface - faut f \ ES push Trlght through. ^ r Jgp, .J JjQ i. Kith a light value fell colour of printers' ink, print several copies of ijour oUlmed^^*- ^ ^ W d ^9 T" rtS"f^i*'*fu*|- ^ itiv. 4. Then, with your boJIpoint pen, corjnrj jeer outlined shapes ee the eturantoje rilo negative ond positive shape* Outline . torn*, bocegreund shape*. \ With o ielddle-nlu* U colour, print sewrel coplee. Print some of uour copies dlrectlg eed perfecthj overtop el the lighter copies. Iht le colled registration. Mprints tedru, and clean, jour atgroftam. I Hen. with bolpolnt pee. convert Uour proton outlined shapes into positive and negotlv* shapes. dot I»OJ uii to out lint mm Stnpts ie -Unis/igetrnmpos/tioa. !• Print for the lost time with a dark-value fall colour, registering over uour previous prints. ie Look and tell what has happened te uour prints with each cuttlnq and printing. Jou hove made 0 block print/ t.Su mar want A Ate/ outmm aitmt tHb/tek printng promt QMS * » etar eepu of war final print fwWbutt ts aTSss %f bocWtt. Jjl oHernafe pooes eUtil fei poems, •tee, ord thought*. -PIATE TEN, STATION SIX, A DAY OF AUTUMN Two Direction Cards PLATE ELEVEN, STATION SEVEN, DISCOVER COLOUR IN MARC CHAGALL PAINTINGS Two Direction Cards and Resource Cards PLATE TWELVE, STATION SEVEN, DISCOVER COLOUR IN MARC CHAGALL PAINTINGS Student Results PLATE THIRTEEN, STATION EIGHT, GET THE MESSAGE? One Direction Folding Direction Chart PLATE FOURTEEN, STATION NINE, GET YOURSELF A PENCIL Direction Cards 1, 2, 3, and h PLATE FIFTEEN, STATION NINE, GET YOURSELF A PENCIL Direction Cards 5, 6, 7, and 8 R U B B I N G S [^Ribbings art a type cf prfcl«Qki»j wt»ci can mote a vtiuoj reard of BUT*.* I. Lp*arouodB«u interesting Surfae ttttaret. LI^Mavcrietyofcrayencol^ Cgte rubbings of interesting surfaces. Qnv >pr ehtete of newsprint In random foshloe. cie* //AUK cofrrsaadstrfocts cmbtttmtb A Hate o anal rfewfinder by cutting Q 5 square piece of RS sonort cm. black; CMsroctta) pap e*.hotetaa W | K^ft newiinoer to scon ow stctoos ofjor rubbtoas. i g s c w s which » * » ofuoor njbbinat sow • -twtorBwhk* on fine, intricate and defeat*. - texturts which ore coarse and bold. - shapes when appear in ertnij rtpeoted patterns. - Shapes which apprarn random fashjaft I b. Sdwt uoar most irteresbnq robbing vtw and display ft using your viewtinder a& a fiornt, }. Look at the display of interesting rubbing v i e * , when each come from? " rubbings v-vXv;.,'! • ;•' it' L PLATE SIXTEEN, STATION TEN, HOW THE WORLD BEGAN Direction Card 1 PLATE SEVENTEEN, STATION TEN, HOW THE WORLD BEGAN Direction Cards 2 and 3 Phase II Primary PLATE EIGHTEEN, STATION TEN, HOW THE WORLD BEGAN Student Results L^ettering must be reodoble L«tUring tos'siufe' U^tterirw styles on dimwit ••Often the stub of the letcnnq has a mesoqe fir the^reoaer Icommandl : I. Look Xhnuet\ the various letterinc stulee thdt on her* lo fad Alphabets that tore Twswgeft .... • • fWimtj:-. that or* Bold Fanciful Debet** rosier ful ! I. find several of uour favourite ' aJ|*Xli*i*. be. prepared tt> Ui what f«ungs thx« dphabtis haw and whij .•:.•!'•.] them j i. Wth pBncil and ruler, divide the provided piece of square paper into a few VWHHTV sited rectonQtes.1 i Want pencil, cniorac each | iwioWiiiu to uwti' ftketed ^ ^ ^ B j atijte* to fit Mue-Utj trrto IjOUf spaces ifH(|fl J$ (.. Bjacten tn other positive. I L V I l a u « MOU or (onibmnq | D C «sJH I 'l Mount uour K,I the brack puree piwJed DKptou Jjour work her*. • Find more v. of lethnna 'with ieellro&' | and rww&puocn>. coriTempopnRv L€TT€PiriQ STYLES I PLATE NINETEEN, STATION ELEVEN, A LETTERING LESSON Direction Cards 1, 2, and 3, with job cards 108 PLATE TWENTY, STATION TWELVE, LINES IN LANDSCAPE Direction Cards 1, 2 , and 3, with resource picture cards PLATE TWENTY-ONE, STATION TWELVE, LINES IN LANDSCAPE Student Results C^The design chorocteristics of mediwol banners con be. used to create a L Look at many examples of medieval banners... - what are the banners node of ? - what kinds of colours are evident 7 - what sorts of shapes have been used ? main shapes? border shapes? - what naqes con uou retoo/**? why a t X suppose thes? irnqges wens used? - what wer2 banners ir? when wie they used? Sou am use stmt, of these chbrodenstatonateobowwt t Tote a large rare of paper and cut it to the actual swe and shape which uouwould (le uour banner tobe A V^pendpJrxpV«smpfc s^ordesgntj fiOife. bamer shape Q»os% an m a * whdi tec someuwri about uou... consider: ? " - a sport, hobby, or club emblem, or study 9vca>qn - a aitural sumbol. fanulu crest, retaous sgn/rsonia - fowuite ond/or oppropiiote cttvii Use function of ipurbanner a animation of ideas rr JOB, (MS*. 4. When uou are happy with uour homer plan, mpjfe o inol bcrtw out of cofcired poffer or ptin fabric such as f * t sOse your pb\ as a pattern to cut out the backo/ound. i . Then cut out the main shapes from uour pbmond use these as patterns te cat from paper oTfobrc. ' j Qx&to- Should uour banner be double-sided? t so-^ P J S cut out dcubk. shapes for each piece. ? iWioe the shapes on the borkyround and ojut or 8. Add decorative devices such as: fringes. rretalh records, ropes, tassels... and functoml fittings such as: poles, rods, weights... T 6i§[*y Sf parade uour banners. How have sons of the characteristics of medieval bowers p.fVhops.. iwtiitAf.& 'Banmrfilm' ' 9 * * S At jmr tugmi7~ Di5cuss..fc we use banners in todays world? cJ>Forciful devices, sumbol'ic elements and amuang cartoons con be used te ewbeJi&h ond illuminate initial letters. I. Look at examples of medieval illuminated manuscripts, -which letters were usually decorated or ifluwnoted? -nhich symbolsond imaqessnthe decoraboas con you reoogrite? -why do uou suppose tetters were illuminated? LEicamin examples of Old English alphabets. Choose one which uou lite. 3. With pencil, ruler and E " x « ' COrtridrje paper. draft out uour initials, your first name* uour first initial and last name, or uour whole name, following the alphabet you chose. k Check uour draft for orcuracu and spacing... Make necessary aajuStments. fn,l)ijflmnopqr0frnti Wr^UMlICU.VJTN cbrfgliiiklmnapqrs tubtocp* 9a^-?!rV£$(:)»i! 23CM«3H 33>"X3KJIB3?s T i o k r i r f j k i i i l l 12316678 Haurbrtrrlinklmno WrstuuuixmlZJ* 5. With pencil still, njan some imoqes with to iliuminote any rjplol letters uoorie drafted. Choose combinations of images wnch urtquelu express uou,-thase which symbolize a rucknome, eodiac sign, club, hobby, Sport, culture, religion, habit, etc. 6. When uou ore happy with uour rrmj&cnpt, moke We pencil draft penrdnent with rat pen or ink. 7. QispJSo V '" u m i n o ted nxinuscript with those made by others. 8- Leek, at the final display. Can uou find symbols ' art! well chosen amusim elements, ? How has readability been influenced bj illumination ? ^vnjghf inc)VmourQP C^ >lhe sombre Sffendour and arrau; of metokc textures of medwri sues of con be captured in a rubbngs. L Using thin paper and an cfisertment of meinfe,-Coloured wax crayons, create, a cokcbon of various texture rubbings. I look corefullu at ol the excimptes of rredeeol ormour suitr that ut>u con -find Notice.... -the overal shape? of the vonous pieces -tie. Afferent textures evident ^c^^'orniour rvrowte ir i our providesiohtY heoring? -ho«do uou b^ pase.one at on armour? wos'the function of amour0 when -what1 *? and when? -Which metals were used to moke armour? 3.5elect.o briqhtlu eoloured«fece of Construction poperTobe o background "wijour tojttmormr. t Look trrouoh uour rubbinq collection and pta SB taflehfee* bi 3afai* epSfe porte of an armour suit 4Cut out the shapes and pieces aid ntaoofcar, enforcement of d KnJjhtS pose on tvrJgrefed. fc. When uou ore happy with uour positioning and arrangement, glue the pieces dotn. I £M details with Q metallic-xcfcurtd felt pen b> extend and unrhj uour suit of ormour if uou m& 1 Perhopstoojjd to ixxr exposition, odraqon, an oopxing kruqht, aliT%orofe>/ tDuTTKjntnt OaoilsTould be included before nluincj down the entire oologe. 1 Dl5{iaj) y**- • o f X with that of others n a Sleet foshem B- Discuss... Do we use armour todcuj? Find visual examples and display those too. C W T C erbre ormour ejection. H.inc drawing**? C^ The symmetrical balance, the repetition of central motfe, and the splendid dearotne elements of medieval cathedrals and castles con be expressed m line dnaeetea. I. Look at mono examples of medEvol cattiedrolsond castles, find the man facade or front of each. frem o frontol point-ofyiew ansider: WW 4... pint-ot'-ytew Consider "the- overall shapes of the. buldnps -isthere, 0 SummetnooJ balance 6 the building shQpes7..is ihroacsntral axis to the designs of the f -what tree and shapes are i k the desigrsof the buiinas'? - which ports of eoch design ore funcboenl' - which ports seem fc be mostkj ttmttmt £. Find or example of a fay*te of i redrevai coUiedral or castle which gai porbculorlij "at Zen>-jn on an IfeHj j With a EMT piece of bb* wiiruction paper and a drawing instrument that wilt molte a -fine write, line, (penal anai or otrjrprned aouon, chalk, or pastel) m«e a lire droenno • the sector! of llefioto* uou chose y jou, mm u&h it from at T*e adn txtttm a!6e> of uour jxptr and, work upmrds. J r r f.^ UDpiiiij details and tru te show the fjabnee and repetition of the main lines and shapes. 5. Continual^  s^ and check proportions and 6. field smol decorative details last Work right off the edges of the paper uour fac-ade designs in a grouprij. • OTTipore uour cathedral and te desgns to the (fcsmns or nTodern rjq bud cinqs. Whet anibrities and rifWrmces ccuou note? Can uou account fir these: - 'fci'ee. ^craperboardcp C*>Some of the omote patterns ond the pogtantry of bnght colours of ireomd tmes can be expressed usinq the principle of contrast in the scraper board Method. I. Look at many examples of medieval art: banners, stained glass windows, cashes, cathedrals, costumes, carvings, sculpture. . — fel what maternk uou think each is mode ar. — Examin the lines, shapes, ana piferns «i the various art forms. - Describe ports of works which seem in hove a definite function., describe ports of warta which seem to be -fir decoration onkj - Which ports of examples involve the use arcane? Whet rkmds of colours ore used? - Which ports of examples iivolvelrt»«rmo» of colour-but rrudi notfcrn? , . . - When examples mi• dul and pbn sections? The relationship between the colourful and potterned areas ond the dut pkm sections is called coirtrost. Such contrast can be I using tfte scraper board method 2. Solidly cover a q-xn'piece of buff rnanua tog wimorias of thick wax crayon Choose ccteurswhcli uou found nmedreicl artyewnptes. 3. Qir oil the colours -al the too- Wh a fauerof block-oil pastel or brush on tffck ndro ink with a little liqiid soap m it. The too con now be colled Straprfbootf. " 4-WtoperralimarDuohpieceof °^ e"paper, pjon. ewhich udtj would lite to use.. oW to be influenced by the rneriwsol , but dont necessarily copy any cat 4 When' uou ore pleased with uar plan, fjnd a srnrp-pwntea instrument (a w.oainx»ss> punt...)rwith wheh to... 1 b.Scratch and_sagpe uour mage as pkmned into the snaperboard Hate toes, whole shapes. and patterns, ord allow these to rjrtrost with flat plain black areas. 1 When hnished, toptoy uour Scroperboard peas together, g Discuss: What aspects of redievol arts have been successfulj borrowed ix snapertjoorrj? C^lhe bloterol symmetry, the heavenward drtcfeon. ond the linked spoadenwis of Gothic stained glass con be simulated n a cut paper design t Look carefully at examples of gothc stoned glass windows - what images do uou see conmonij used? 'at — J ^ ^ L _ _ - find an ewmpte wheh hoe a t^oteroly summetncol design., ond poni outr the major space divisees of the desnft He* do the smol space oVuxons help the atoqn" - it is sad that gothc (fcstjns "aspire towards heovut." How is this achieved in window design7 why do {fu Suppose ths was done' 2. fold a piece of i£"xiv block Mstoucbon - m half, lenqthwn&e-fromtne^of thefb^toop^t' $ down on the outer edge, mgfe a /penal line curve, to describe the-shape of half of a aoth*; orrji 4 With pencil, moke, on outline of your whole window shape so the border s nam thick 5 Remembering toe gothc wndows uou wew p|gn_ some major space divisions p-on uour paper desion Link these witt? the rJrderonrf th«*en toem/ to i cm olso. 4_ tNext, piasome smoU bjpicolkj gatlfc Space divisions thtcken these Vires and link than to the lints you've, alreorij dram \ With shnrppointed scissors or on exacts knife, tut out the spocts in between ^ ^ • knite, cut out uour thickened lines. Cut through both halves at once. S. (fe o«t uour window design. Check if it needs repair (tope on penal side)ar a When uou ore happy with uour cesun.fl • the spaces' with cut tissue— cettophW. Out the shapes on thr pencied snte So lhe final side stays lo rhspjoj uour windows oso fnete over a real window, so bqht comes throuah D^cul.. How troabonally gothc ore JUT wmdow designs? rtcutbnq. ond/V* Phase II Grade 7 line drawing Phase II Grade 7 scraper board : 1 r i Phase II Grade 7 scraper board PLATE TWENTY-FIVE, STATION THIRTEEN, MEDIEVAL UNIT Student Results I l l PLATE TWENTY-SIX, STATION FOURTEEN, MIXING COLOUR, MAKE A COLOUR WHEEL Direction Cards 1, 2, and 3 Phase I Grade 8 Phase II Intermediate group 1 Phase II Intermediate group 2 Phase II Intermediate group 3 PLATE TWENTY-SEVEN, STATION FOURTEEN, MIXING COLOUR, MAKE A COLOUR WHEEL Student Results PLATE TWENTY-EIGHT, STATION FIFTEEN, MAKE A MONSTER Direction Cards 1, 2, 3, and h 3eV> 1 " " j r * / 1 , r: IWSTERY LV3URAL ; prepare..• I' choose... scale-up wash i display. i e-inck ptrfctMm of Cortndq. paper.. tola" it ctmsk into lbJScpofe. open it out W • o cord trom the box below O the prepared paper back, record uour cord rwrhbtr and f direction, •uw to Ul marks of uour » « M -:. scak-op the cVneefoe ^ lis. & M r J £ f i t * I: : &oW ucer oniwl tOM^ VItS •*» venl»B*i etorcroe* tats. Am hat «* etrjj tW prwvdod colon »grve uour 6ouore o yrashr •tvej the. point provided Let it dnj. form o uaiwetoe.- | -on a dear node M M 4 p a * of  o rectanake l'»V and (tvide-Uinte 3130333 ,.S.I ,,!,<„ • • • • ploe* t*rt ill o etoek -: - *i -*ewe]»ie,^ievkB&f^»<>t-. ni PLATE TWENTY-NINE, STATION SIXTEEN, MYSTERY MORAL Direction Card with 2h job cards 119 Design A Poster... " Canada's A good potter conitwicote) 0 message q^ cta.cleark end fwafuflij because af opartlculor raiiimaConrflattrsani^ojee. For Birthday.., •tOn rough paper, brainstorm lotos for 0 pester bu making lists: - things whicTCaiadbnsenjni ertteh 8r» I porircularlu worth ceiebrounq \ - symMs wnlch ore hjptcollu - Items which tjpifi) BrtWojjS L Select one J the Item (hen each list which uou would like to use in designing a pestm • & With (lend) on rough popwj. mate slmptfled drminqs of uour 3 ioens so Slot each Is and dea-lu recoqrned Check fir recognlUoir with a friend. t With pencil on a rough paper, plan short nerd possibilities wkh wort iSwItli uour . . . . (taxings to cotmsj a message regonfing Conodafe btrthdag. 3 . ^ t t h i wcrtmgwhlch ipa UtnX^ est ftowrth J r 3 drmemgt,' b. S earth throuql vorfaas IttterL and asM on olphober whWT" suits the S blowings and the vwdhw jjw*vi chosenJ f-. WHh pencil on a p»l»-8l_red sheet a? white paper, plan, the arrorgernertt, position,^ , v.^ and olees of uour drawn ideas and written messaae. Aim fir maximum viewer Impact. ' Overlaps might help 8.When goo are pleased with uour arrengenwrt, . ypjpn surtable attractive colour /combinations for goar various ~ , Space division - again aim for a dear strong message, H ferpjtfe i|»»r poster udng paint, f&pat. bL E* paper, ond/or pofWe. ^ 1° fepjaj the completed poster*. nVloak cartful!/at the posters to,ldtnt% /rj^ -irtrfpoeters ottroct uour attention micklu-whut n -which swee divisions stern trtronaeeVv/ri?,'3 -clear and simple imogee-hoeido theg help? / -rrttertm stules which are porttcukrlu sotted to words and rmoqes- how? t.fhdO*Hoil... . _ - mBt a ceaectlew of good pesters and tel wtw theu art good, n^tf^a'a^1t ttnodrt blrthrlarj and conacre oeekj • te uuft^ jj^  —feeeortn the work of 0 poster deslantf\ -^. i s PLATE THIRTY, STATION SEVENTEEN, DESIGN A POSTER FOR CANADA'S BIRTHDAY Direction Cards 1 and 2 120 Phase II Primary Phase II Grade li Phase II Grade k Phase II Grade h Phase II Intermediate PLATE THIRTY-ONE, STATION SEVENTEEN, DESIGN A POSTER FOR CANADA'S BIRTHDAY Student Results PLATE THIRTY-TWO, STATION EIGHTEEN, THE SCARECROW CLOCK Direction Cards 1 and 2 122 Phase II Primary i Phase II Primary PLATE THIRTY-THREE, STATION EIGHTEEN, THE SCARECROW CLOCK Student Results PUTE THIRTY-FIVE, STATION NINETEEN, SELF-PORTRAIT Direction Cards k, and 6 T S . G W » » S - . ulnlit i ma ••JSJSJSJSJ ao tits colour wheel «an«W Tom us V eoleor ^^^^ 3*SttM^ i V Ibannong t w i t I v M s b 1 ^ /.lour;. w» feKitf paste hdn&OBJU of OjDOT I .., pr«p«d te teS hn mm wm* m loWaefecioBS...r «in ortour wheel order / • random order [ .repeated order - .dorkloliqkt order bright fa dull »rdsr j t | j - which show profile vlsws -Which ore silhouettes - which fu think involve s s n e | distortion eggogeratlon choraeoture-- which you think ore meet accurate and realistic. .which art drawings point* N» sculptures - which har» bKkweunds • what sorts of things ore. included In backgrounds -whu you think artists iroft. self-portraits PLATE THIRTY-SIX, STATION NINETEEN, SELF-PORTRAIT Direction Cards 7, 8, and 9 vn PLATE THIRTY-SEVEN, STATION NINETEEN, SELF-PORTRAIT ^ Student Results PLATE THIRTY-EIGHT, STATION TWENTY, MAKE A SLIDE SANDWICH Direction Card PLATE THIRTY-NINE, STATION TWENTY-ONE, SNAKES ALIVE Direction Cards 1, 2, and 3 with 2 resource files PLATE FORTY, STATION TWENTY-ONE, SNAKES ALIVE Direction Cards li and f> 131 PLATE FORTY-ONE, STATION TWENTY-ONE, SNAKES ALIVE Student Results 132 iuQaestions for Using This Kil Phlosopbu -the contents of this kit hove been designed to: -help teach colour l a i m t and colour theoru -pronde on exposure to Canadian art mrk «6S Some historical and Old appreciative- outcomes -relate to a specific season Contents - Introduction Card - i -Colour Theori) Cords - II -^production Cards --Student Actmtg Cords-5 ieouencinq the Contents -tne intreducteru cord o intended for first use as abocrw-oVrected lesson and should precede ay wrk mth actwiUj Cards, -cokur theoru cords nsoij be used as a veni first lesson b«turt, beatnninq this unit or moj b> u&d to tap wft snips*2ond #T.ntlieo*TibjMHs.l -the octwitu cards mou be used as a lesson pton fcr a teacfler-directed lesson - the ocbvitq cards mtoj be used as a teacher-introduced station activity for small gnups verkwia indcrendtntlg -the teacher'mojj wish to limit the number of artwitu cords presented •. eg just use or* card ,1 or soae passible ComanorJois month* -paint and pastel I J Collogeand stitch | a s p^ooesond student copabvlibes/ineds/ weave, and stitch J interests vary. Coding -ueilow underline - all supplies needed -Wiggled underline-oil main sbk uhidi would help mth evaluative criteria - italic, print - all points of departure ftr jurdier stodg. enrichment. I Step* 7 W each rttvibj Cord - TIT information regarding painting, pastel CoSage. weaving, flndshtcherw 1 methods, see. Art ^ source 600k fir spoofo instructwis. PLATE FORTY-TWO, STATION TWENTY-TWO, SNOW COLOURS Card a. Note for the Teacher 133 | * Look through, these reproductions of paintings by Canadian artists. | Choose one reproduction that you find interesting. j A.Look at the colours... : :^  i • uWrtert colours did the artist use? I. How can the colours be grouped? . -.Colours that repeat ... warm / toof ._ fight/.dcrk... limited colours... ...foreground/ background. ... bright/ dull ... snow colours... — •ty colours...; primary j Secondary...Is there we colour thcrt dominates? £ How are these colour groups used to rncfce the pointing interesting? %How did the artist point the picture ?--rria?ericte, brush size, brush strokes (1hick/thin) fn there textures ? ft. took at the images... - • * — :• •; ... . I Wtat images did me artist use.? - ~~ -. jvpk^vi..{^:;*Ve the mo^« clear"" :.<:-••••• 31 Does erne image dominate? ^ How can the images be grouped? i , sleidns , buildings, landscape . trees, I and forms .etc. C Look at the colour* and images together... ..-..^ -.jl^.L.le there a relationship between the cdexirs and the images? 2. Xs there moveanent ? Are horizontal and- vertical lines used? - ;.. '3.What time of day is"*? What 'is the»»jo*ier lite? Jsifwindy? • Is tots painting real or irnagihar-y ? ' & How does •*« picture rr«^ ycu f^? Is rr noisy ,cpet, : CO»m , eweited, scary f happy . sad ... ? D> Who IS the Qrtist" ? Find out as rru* as|ou can about the. artist. E- E v a l u a t e . . . Tell vvhy\-.u found this panting; interesting... .1*11 vvhy you like or disKoz. parts cf tie painting... Kk» the artist able to shore a fe&ig cr an idea with you? PLATE FORTY-THREE, STATION TWENTY-TWO, SNOW COLOURS Card b. Outline for possible teacher-directed lesson I Record the title of the wrt, the artists name. and uour none on a card OS tne example shows. Uou nau marr to fad out more about theortist Z With pastel and a large piece of marala paper, mix sample areas of as many colours as uou Can see iff the work. 3. Cut ou£ uour pastel SOMotes and them on the card in a meaningful way. Be prepared to explain uour orro/wenwrF Check uour work carefuly 5 Glue down your samples m the orarKjement you decided on. 6 2SRl8jJ Jj°»r a^"r ""^  with uour selected work \ On mamlo paper, use Pk colours you sampled to create uour own winter pastel picture. Dispjou gour winter pastel picture with gour selected ma and colour sample cord 9 I Beard the title of the work, the artists name, ond uour name on a card oo the example shows Jbw ray mmt ts And out rare abut Oit ortot I With 0 large supply of Coloured paper, tissue and faferic scraps, find, as many colours as you can that match those you see m the work j Cut out smal samples of OK cokxrs uou find and n them on the cord in nngful wou. 5e preporedTO expjsn uour ci-ningirtent J t Check your work carefuly • ••• s Sh£ iSSi aomptea in the arangement uou chose 25r*|i) your colour card with your selected work. r On o piece of white card board, use the colours you sampled to create a winter colage >• QSl&j uour *lritt' colage j Mth uour selected work I and colour sample card. PLATE FORTY-FOUR, STATION TWENTY-TWO, SNOW COLOURS 3 of $ unsequenced direction cards 1. Record the title of the work, the artists name, and your name on a card as the example stone. //ui mat wait te Aidant mort about PK artist 2. With a large supplj of wol and uarn scraps. as manu colours as uou can that match those uou see in the wort. A ujt off small samples of the colours uou find and qruup them on the card in 5 meamnaful way. Be. r/repared toacplairi uour crranoeme«t~ " f ChecE your work corefuij. * 9* $200. i)o u r samples in the urnmoement uou decided on. Bs!^  uour colour card with uour selected work, t On a simple loom, use the colours uou sampled to create a winter wearing, ggteptaij uour winter weomng with uour selected work and colour sample card. Uu I Record the title of the work, the artists name, and uour name on o card as thi example shows Jt* mau want te find out atari about tt>e artist I. with a large supply of fabric, thread, era yam scraps, fjnd as manj coxurs as uou con that mau* tfcoei you see Hi the work. 3 Cut <xtf smol sanexes <t tfce colours uou find and qrcup them on the card in t meaninoful won Be preparer to ejjan uour srrancjement | QS* joir work carefully B kJl£ ft**1 your samples in tfce orronjementjai chose t Disnjoij jour colour card «rttTijour selected work. } On a plan tockyowid fabric, j-* the Colours flM sampled to create o winter stiWenj. • Djpjojj ijow-w^sWrtenj wrth uour selected work ond colour sample cord. PLATE FORTY-FIVE, STATION TWENTY-TWO, SNOW COLOURS 2 of 5 unsequenced direction cards m SNOW Mr OTajcu cf a xa:y dau ecn ba shown bj special K I of fteelecents of Oitour. shape and texture. L feed ft*stenj 'A S=or/j Dog" bg Ezra Tack Keats. L Lecx. at the jSustrations. Hsu are made with simple cut paper cctoqe oad ova-prirted stomps, -Mat serts of ctle^ shovebeen used for snow? -Cat lands of textures fcavs been used IV* snow? - -Gat special shapes have been used for snow? -What snow shapes da tpu find mteresting on a OTDWJJ dag? 4 Picas a boxtooend paper of Txg*blut conitruction paper so the & aids is facing DOU. r^>-that h. W3h tott penal ir=rk Bern. •Tomth» bottom S. from pfeces of white papa; cut out sons "derating snow shapzs and place them an uour bockqroad paper. The snowline must encrat the nor k on each side edge. tV froa pieces cf ctloercd construction papa; cut out tmalzr shapes a pjoj chert thzy shcafd go to compete ijcur snow picture ecmpositioa £ {31m you est heppy with your sno-j picture arrangement, chak yo Box snraDns tnen ok* dovraoJyoar peper shapes. I Next, with a sponge ar.d wrg light value snow colours of point or m!t„ r -^print over mm snow shapss te rco.'Je a SJHCTJ texture, this drg then... I W% a ecrret and a paring knife cut a snovrTtake- dsign ^ to the carrot. H. With a dirt-Yahis sno'.v dour ink, stamp print ijour sno./flate on jsur fight ton areas and with a Gght-valae snow colour ink. stamp print your infirm on dark snr.varecs to ca!* rcr» texture on gour snow pidure. I Jbmgmsi it ttchanp snr.vfhkz steeps afii a pa/toir t» odd am tvtan vambf it jpar see* plctur*. K.DfepJrg gour snow pictures as o fog drip rmral <,-ith al iSea. snow lines •latching Jyt luring ao spaces in between. j P. LocX at the variety cf sr.aj shopes, colours red textures in the whole-•oral and collect snow poena and short stores ".-to go ninth appropriate. parts of the mural. -.1 S i S U ? $ » £ PLATE FORTY-SIX, STATION TWENTY-THREE, THE SNOWY DAY Direction Cards 1 and 2 137 PLATE FORTY-SEVEN, STATION TWENTY-THREE, THE SNOWY DAY Reverse side of Card 2 PLATE FORTY-EIGHT, STATION TWENTY-FOUR, SPIDERS Direction Cards 1 and 2 with job cards and some resource material PLATE FORTY-NINE, STATION TWENTY-FOUR, SPIDERS Direction Cards 3 , h, 5 G IhO PLATE FIFTY, STATION TWENTY-FOUR, SPIDERS Student Results PLATE FIFTY-ONE, STATION TWENTY-FIVE, SUPER SUNGLASSES Direction Cards 1, 2, 3, and h PLATE FIFTY-TWO, STATION TWENTY-SIX, VALENTINES FROM CUT PAPER Folding Direction Charts 1, 2, and 3 11*3 PLATE FIFTY-THREE, STATION TWENTY-SEVEN, VAN GOGH'S PALETTE Direction Card and Resource Pouch PLATE FIFTY-FOUR, STATION TWENTY-SEVEN, VAN GOGH'S PALETTE Student Results wkere did ikt hamster gp? E^nvironrnenfa on be cxrefuSij planned to be useful cad beoutrfsl L Read the storjj "Where Did That Naughtg DttJt Hamster Go?" bg fttbj Vfclott. 2. Discuss- - Where did the children look for the hamster? -Where did the children find the nomster? -What did the children build for the hamsters enviroronent? Who? -What sorts of places do hamsters and aerbils seem to ft*? 3. End pictures and meanings and describe functions for the folvnring rants of things chieh ore built in human envtronraeats: tunnel slide buttress kitchen eoftae bolcoBj window underpass door bed rota hoi kVinjQ rooB pork porch borrow crumnej Stairs arch bosnient otttt bridge. f mWm K t c c h ^ 0 hamster or agerM night need and fee. 5. Working with a group pjan an environment for a hamster or a qerfat -Who should build which port to obtain a vorfctv? -How should ports be organised ts -fit together ? -What would make the environment tfensinq b i s * * ? 1 3 k Collect odds ond ends which could be used to build 0 temporori for a hamster or a^ rtit. poper rale bam stgrtfoarn shapes spools fabric, straws a^rn-string f. With masking tope, q'ue and scissors, begin to construct the ports eftf* group environment from the odds and ends Collection. Rome uour port with a label. tl Assemble the parts within a lory ccrdboord box, leave the bw opes at the top so uou can see in. Make sure each part is securekj fastened downs. "j.Test gour environment fir a few minutes bg adding a oerbil or hamster. See which improvements need to be made, late the animal awaij and mate necessaru changes. It fee a list of ol ille parts of the emnrwmeirt ll.Put the animal back into thtenvininmtnthVfimiiiQnd use the Bst to tgj^  how often the anjmal ftequtnis each port -Does the animal use each part for joar intended use? -Are there, places the animal freauents more often than others? -Would another gerfail/hamster Mow the same pattern? -Could a better spate-use plan be devised bg uour grasp? -Is {he environment pleasing to Ionic at? -How could the. envirwment be made mare beoubful? RL Name some types of human eiwu-wmeirt*. - Who plans the use of spot* n each? - Who plans to mate things pleasing to look at in each? - Do uou think space iswell used In tack? Why? Whj not? - Do uou think each Is pleasing ts look at? tfthj? Whurjt? - How could each be improved to be more useful and more beautiful? PLATE FIFTY-FIVE, STATION TWENTY-EIGHT, WHERE DID THAT HAMSTER GO? Direction Cards 1 and 2 Iit6 PIATE FIFTY-SIX, STATION TWENTY-EIGHT, WHERE DID THAT HAMSTER GO? Student Results m7 Phase I Grade k Phase I Grade U APPENDIX B COPY OF THE TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE WITH TABULATIONS Table I QUESTIONNAIRE CIRCULATION No. of teachers surveyed No. of stations surveyed No. of teachers returning questionnaire No. of stations returned in questionnaire A R T S T A T I O N  Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 1 . T h e m a t e r i a l w as u s e d a s a n a c t i v i t y f o r : s m a l l g r o u p • [SI' w h o l e c l a s s 2 . Was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e a c t i v i t y c l e a r t o s t u d e n t s ? Yes 39 3 . W e r e t h e d i r e c t i o n s c l e a r t o s t u d e n t s ? Yes 35 4. D i d y o u r e l a t e t h e a c t i v i t y t o o t h e r s t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s 0 a n o t h e r s u b j e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l a r t p r o g r a m m e Comments: A R T S T A T I O N Q U E S T I O N N A I R E P A G E 2 5. I f y o u w e r e t o u s e t h e saxa t o r e l a t e t h e a c t i v i t y t o ; Yea Yes at Yes 35 : a c t i v i t y a g a i n , i s i t p o s s i b l e o t h e r s t a t i o n s a n o t h e r s u b j e c t t h e a r t p r o g r a m m e i n g e n e r a l 6. Were the Bate r i a l s to be used canry to: -_ I d e n t i f y Tea" 3f Yes 35 No l o c a t e 7 . D i d y o u a d d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s ? Yes Ho I f " Y e s " , p l e a s e s p e c i f y lij- Speci-Pr'edL* W h i c h g r a d e l e v e l u s e d t h e m a t e r i a l ? K 1 2. 3 4 5 S 7 I . 7 I . I / I I ' H- 3 9 il 8 n H-lb ART STATION QUESTIOHHAISE PAGE 3 9 . Was i t s u i t a b l e a t t h a t l e v e l f o r : i n t e r e s t ? Yes 3-Yes 35 Yes 33 a r t s k i l l s ? l a n g u a g e u s e d ? 1 0 . I n y o u r o p i n i o n f o r w h i c h o t h e r g r a d e l e v e l s w o u l d t h e m a t e r i a l b e s u i t a b l e : K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 i n t e r e s t ? a r t s k i l l s ? l a n g u a g e u s e d ? 1 1 . . -A t t h e . c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y d i d d i s c u s s i o n t a k e , p l a c e t o : - . • .. • e v a l u a t e t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r k j u s t , c o m p l e t e d ? . YES NO 3b 0 b r o a d e n t h e s t u d e n t s ' h o r i z o n YES NO 29- 3 1 2 . D i d y o u ' u s e t h e d i s p l a y s u g g e s t i o n s ? Yes No /a 0 . A R T S T A T I O N QOESTIOSTHAIEE P A G E 4 1 3 . H a v e y o u a n y o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r d i s p l a y i n g t h e a c t i v i t y ? m . 1 4 . D i d y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h l e a d y o u t o w a n t t o u s e i t a g a i n ? Comments :• 15. A d d i t i o n a l c o m m e n t s : 1 9 7 9 - 0 6 - 0 5 spw • Table IV Question It: Comments teacher's directions and interpretation were crucial kindergarten, of course, need more teacher direction very helpful great potential for socials unit excellent excellent student results helped in construction of own station used with language arts enjoyed i t chose only certain parts to do grade three did better than grade two helpful in relating to science Table V Question 7: Comments masses of film strips Starting Points in Language pictures, essays, and poems children brought things books and programmes another option added books own activity cards, pictures, and stories Table VI Question 9 : Comments some students were highly frustrated extremely good for integration good for direction-following skills and perseverance was specially adapted for Kindergarten mostly for intermediate increase in student interest very good worked well for primary and intermediate needed some teacher direction, particularly introduction a bit involved and long some parts a bit advanced 155 Table VII Question 15: Additional Teacher Comments - integrated with literature - needs much careful time spent in teacher introduction - promotes appreciation and skills lend well to integration - students were proud of their work - enhanced a general programme - leads to other things - integration possibilities noted - sophisticated, but challenging - only for older students - teaching of specific skills in a stimulating and interesting way - excellent results - plan to make a similar station for myself - good unit - an ambitious undertaking - easy to use - better for whole class - art history components appreciated - fear that station devices may be misused as total programmes - possibilities for integration appreciated - skills involved, good - exposure to various ways of image-producing appreciated - a month's activities centered around this work - extremely well put together—suited my needs - teacher learned at the same time, step-by-step presentation particularly good - freed teacher-time for other work - easy for students to follow - good for helping non-talented students - results weren't that good: students lack of common-sense was learned - excellent materials - student enthusiasm noted 

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