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Essential components of a teacher training course in outdoor education : a survey Tufuor, Joseph K. 1978

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E S S E N T I A L  C O M P O N E N T S  O U T D O O R  O F  A  T E A C H E R  E D U C A T I O N  :  T R A I N I N G  A  C O U R S E  S U R V E Y  by  JOSEPH B.Sc, B.Sc, M.Sc,  A  K.  TUFUOR  (Gen.) (Educ.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, (Hons.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, (Bot.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape C o a s t ,  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  MASTER OF  THE ARTS  In THE  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  STUDIES  Department of S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  We  "THE  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  UNIVERSITY' OF  B R I T I S H "COLUMBIA  November,' 1978  (c)  1972 1973 1975  Joseph K. T u f u o r ,  1978  OF  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make i t  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f the of B r i t i s h  available  for  requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  reference and study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  for  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or  by h i s of  that  representatives.  this  thesis for financial  written  gain s h a l l  University  Science Education of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  permission.  Department o f The  It  November 1978  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT There  i s growing  f o r human s u r v i v a l . school  system  systems,  has  including  concern Outdoor  throughout  e d u c a t i o n i n the  been i d e n t i f i e d  this  potentially  general concern.  order to introduce outdoor education i n t o culum, t h e - n e e d ' t c t r a i n  exists  i n the  on o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n ; t h e r e i s a p l e t h o r a  I n ah. a t t e m p t  to a s s i s t  of  i n teacher-training  curriapparent  literature possible programs.  the p l a n n e r s o f outdoor  c a t i o n programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y vestigated  In  individuals.  Much c o n f u s i o n c u r r e n t l y  components f o r i n c l u s i o n  the  t e a c h e r s has become  t o many o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  regular  by many e d u c a t i o n a l  t h a t o f Ghana, as a  e f f e c t i v e means o f m e e t i n g  the w o r l d  i n Ghana, t h i s  edu-  study i n -  those aspects o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n which  e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor-educators i n North Vancouver District  School  c o n s i d e r e d a s i m p o r t a n t components o f a •'  teacher preparation course. The survey,  study conducted centering  on  i s a type o f  the c o l l e c t i o n  of  descriptive judgmental  d a t a on v a r i o u s components o f an o u t d o o r education  course.  questionnaire teachers  environmental  O p i n i o n s were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h  administered to a l l elementary  i n the North Vancouver  a  school  School D i s t r i c t  who  c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s as having had a one-week, outdoor experience w i t h c h i l d r e n a t the North Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  made up o f a L i k e r t - s c a l e and a m o d i f i e d form o f Qsort. The data were c o l l e c t e d i n June, 19 78, and the r a t e o f response was: Schools 94% (N=35); Teachers 67% (N=109).  The U.B.C. computer LERTAP and a s p e c i a l Q-  a n a l y s i s program were used t o analyse the data. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d  that:  a)  The teachers were undecided on what the s i n g l most important component o f an outdoor t r a i n i n g program should be. They c o n s i d e r e d a l l 3 components presented to them as important;  b)  The respondents suggested about 20 a d d i t i o n s to the l i s t of p r o f f e r e d components;  c)  The respondents ranked the top t e n p r o f f e r e d components, i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of importance as f o l l o w s : 1.  Ways o f making students aware o f the imp a c t o f humans on t h e i r environment;  2.  Ways o f h e l p i n g students understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment;  3.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n ;  4.  Methods o f e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y o f the students;  5.  A p h i l o s o p h y o f outdoor education.;  6.  Methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g classroom t e a c h i n g with outdoor e d u c a t i o n ;  7.  C a r r y i n g o u t the program i n an outdoor setting;  8.  How to preserve the outdoor e d u c a t i o n a l site;  Teaching s t r a t e g i e s education;  s p e c i f i c to  outdoor  Facilitating children.  interaction  amongst  social  -iv-  TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  V  LIST OF TABLES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...  ix  Chapter 1.  THE PROBLEM  1  1.1 1.2  Introduction The Problem Statement 1.2.1 General Problem .. 1.2.2 S p e c i f i c Problem  1 3 3 5  1.3 1.4 1.5  Purpose o f the Study Operational D e f i n i t i o n s Method o f the Study  5 6 7  1.5.1 1.5.2  7  1.5.3 1.5.4 1.6  Background Information 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3  1.7 1.8 1.9  Nature o f the Study Development o f the Questionnaire D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Questionnaire Return o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . ..  .......  The S e t t i n g o f the Study L i v i n g Conditions D a i l y Program  7 8 8 9 9 11 12  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study Assumptions L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  13 14 15  1.9.1 1.9.2  15 16  Scope .... Questionnaire  -v-  Chapter 2.  page REVIEW OF LITERATURE  17  2.1 2.2  17  2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7  Introduction What i s Outdoor Environmental Education .... Aims and O b j e c t i v e s o f Outdoor and Environmental E d u c a t i o n The Need f o r T r a i n i n g Teachers .... The Search f o r Important Components i n a Course f o r T r a i n i n g Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Teachers Reported Course Components f o r T r a i n i n g Teachers i n Outdoor Education Components Suggested by I n d i v i d u a l s f o r T r a i n i n g Outdoor E d u c a i t o n T63.cli.63rs  3.  ••••  ••••  ••••  METHOD OF STUDY 3.1 3.2  3.2.2  3.2.3 3.3  28 31  ....  36 37  Preliminary Preparation of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P i l o t Studies  37 38  3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3  38 39 39  F i r s t P i l o t Study .... Second P i l o t Study ... T h i r d P i l o t Study ....  39  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . . . .  40  3.3.2  3.6  26  F i n a l P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Questionnaire  3.3.1  3.4 3.5  22 25  36  Introduction Development o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 3.2.1  20  Communication w i t h the School Authorities M a i l i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ....  I  40 40  Return o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s E s t i m a t i o n o f Respons Rate  41 42  3.5.1 3.5.2  42 42  Schools Teachers  A n a l y s i s o f the Responses -vi-  42  page Chapter 4.  RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4.1 4*2  Introduction S UIts •••• 4.2.1  4.2.1.2 4.2.1.3  ••••  ••••  ••••  Most Important Components L e a s t Important Components I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Results  A n a l y s i s o f the Q - s o r t Responss s •••• •••• •••• •••« 4.2.2.1 4.2.2.2  5.  ••••  A n a l y s i s o f the L i k e r t - S c a l e Responses 4.2.1.1  4.2.2  46  Types o f Views Expressed I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Q-results  46 47 47 47 49 51 52 52 55  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  56  5.1 5.2  56 57  Conclusions L i m i t a t i o n s o f the C o n c l u s i o n s 5.2.1 5.2.2  5.3  Generalizability to the Whole Population A p p l i c a b i l i t y to the Ghanaian Situation  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  Research..  57 58 59  BIBLIOGRAPHY  60  APPENDICES  69  -vii  LIST OF TABLES  Pre-determined Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Items i n each Score Category.... The Ten Most Important Components .... .... The Ten L e a s t Important Components .... .... Main P o i n t s o f View Expressed by the Population ....  -viii-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I number  w o u l d o f  I my  me,  w i s h  to  to  number  express  and  g r a t i t u d e  been o f  the  C . J .  for  u s e f u l from  my  to  a  i n s t r u m e n t a l  d i f f e r e n t  s i n c e r e  P r o f e s s o r  g u i d a n c e .  P r o f e s s o r  c u s s i o n s  a  have  my  i n  ways,  to  t h e s i s .  thank  t h e i r  express  who  a d v i s o r ,  a d v i c e  l i k e  i n  t h i s  t h e s i s  h i s  to  people  a s s i s t i n g complete  l i k e  members  A n a s t a s i o u  D . C .  a d d i t i o n ,  o f  my  and  I  P r o f e s s o r  to  f o r  w o u l d  committee  and  b e g i n n i n g  to  G i l l e s p i e ,  I n  suggestions  the  g r a t i t u d e  -  W.  B o l d t  c l a r i f y i n g  the  end  o f  d i s -  the  J  ..\  t h e s i s . I of  the  must s t a f f  e s p e c i a l l y tendent;  the Don  C .  here  the  N o r t h  S h i e l d , and  e x c e l l e n t  Vancouver  McEwen,  p r i n c i p a l s  the  the  c o o p e r a t i o n  S c h o o l  A s s i s t a n t  outdoor  t e a c h e r s  D i s t r i c t ,  S u p e r i n -  e d u c a t i o n  who  took  p a r t  i n  study. F i n a l l y ,  who  o f  M r .  M r .  d i r e c t o r ; the  mention  d i s p l a y e d  I  w i s h  g r e a t  to  thank  p a t i e n c e  - i x -  M r s . i n  Carmen  t y p i n g  de  t h i s  S i l v a t h e s i s .  1  Chapter 1  THE  1.1  PROBLEM  INTRODUCTION Throughout the world, there i s growing concern f o r  human s u r v i v a l .  Meadows, Meadows, Randers and Behren  (1972), and Mesarovic  and P e s t e l  (1974), expressed the  view t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g human p o p u l a t i o n and demands on r e s o u r c e s , coupled with d w i n d l i n g s u p p l i e s are l i m i t i n g our c h o i c e s f o r the f u t u r e .  Using computers  i n t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n s , they p r e d i c t e d a world  catastrophe  w i t h i n the next century unless the problems o f a f i n i t e e a r t h are acknowledged by mankind and responded adequate  to with  solutions.  In 1975, the Belgrade Chapter which was unanimously adoped a t the U n i t e d Nations E d u c a t i o n workshop expressed the need f o r a new g l o b a l  ethic.  An e t h i c which espouses a t t i t u d e s and behaviour f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s which are consonant w i t h humanity's p l a c e w i t h i n the biosphere - which r e c o g n i z e s and s e n s i t i v e l y responds t o the complex and ever-changing r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and nature and between man and man. (Belgrade C h a r t e r , 1975, p.57) . The  r o l e o f schools i n d e v e l o p i n g these concerns has  2  been c o n s i d e r e d in  by many e d u c a t i o n a l  recent years,  institutions,  many p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d as  Many p r o b l e m s a r o s e  during  the  a  result.  implementation  stages  outdoor or environmental education  programs.  (1974) r e c o g n i z e d  educational  are  inadequate  t h a t the p r e s e n t  f o r meeting environmental  S m i t h , C a r l s o n , D o n a l d s o n and t h a t changing from t e a c h i n g room, t o t e a c h i n g  field  In a study in  British  ing  in a regular  c o n d u c t e d by  C o l u m b i a , i t was  who  necessary.  teach Miles  only  and  a t the  teacher  Education  training  teachers.  Worthing  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and  as  train-  was  report  the  on  interim re-  Program  a: c r u c i a l  (1976)  (special  school)  (1971), the  p o r t of Exemplary V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n identified  difficult.  instructors  outdoor  1972  class-  recommended t h a t t h e  (1970), M i l e s  Human S u r v i v a l and  school  for regular  B a t e s o n and  of both r e g u l a r teachers  teachers  practices  problems.  extremely  training  of  Raymond  Masters observed i n  work was  T h e y recommended s p e c i a l  and  (19 73)-  problem  needing  attention. In teacher  1974, had  Laska to  reported  "muddle t h r o u g h " w i t h  for a s u i t a b l e c u r r i c u l u m Childress  (1973) r e p o r t e d  indispensable  t h a t an  or  outdoor little  instructional  that teacher  component o f any  education guidance  techniques.  training  environmental  is  an  education  program. Ghana p l a n s into  to i n t r o d u c e  i t s educational  environmental  s y s t e m and  has  educational  identified  the  3  t r a i n i n g o f teachers as an e s s e n t i a l phase i n i t s implementation.  Much c o n f u s i o n c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s i n Ghana  and i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n , because there i s such a p l e t h o r a o f p o s s i b l e components f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programs t h a t the t o t a l  situation  appears much confused. In  order to a s s i s t the academic p l a n n e r s o f courses  such as those envisaged by Ghanaian a u t h o r i t i e s , study sought  the o p i n i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e d  this  outdoor edu-  cators.  1.2  THE PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.2.1  General Problem  Ghana has experienced environmental problems i n recent years.  The i n c r e a s e i n human p o p u l a t i o n has  n e c e s s i t a t e d expansion i n food p r o d u c t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n l a r g e r farms.  The t r a d i t i o n a l  practice..of  "shifting':  c u l t i v a t i o n " whereby a farmer c l e a r e d any s u i t a b l e p a r t of  a f o r e s t f o r farming f o r a few y e a r s , and then moved  i n t o new, f e r t i l e  f o r e s t areas once the s o i l became de-  p l e t e d , i s no longer workable. new f e r t i l e farms.  Farmers unable  to f i n d  lands have had to continue to use t h e i r o l d  T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n some farmers demanding ..  access to n a t i o n a l f o r e s t r e s e r v e s which were s e t a s i d e for  v a r i o u s purposes,  sheds, w i l d l i f e ,  such as timber, p r o t e c t i o n o f water-  and weather p r o t e c t i o n .  Others have  adopted new a g r i c u l t u r a l practices,,e .g. the use of  4  commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , without c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r ecological The  effects.  r e c k l e s s use o f f i s h i n g methods which i n c l u d e  chemicals  (e.g. D.D.T.) has s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d the  supply o f f i s h . R i v e r s and l a k e s , main sources o f the domestic water supply, have been p o l l u t e d by l o c a l r e l e a s e t h e i r u n t r e a t e d by-products,  f a c t o r i e s which  such as d e t e r g e n t s ,  i n t o them'f. (Conflicts between up-stream and down-stream d w e l l e r s have r e s u l t e d .  The f u t u r e o f the w i l d - l i f e i n -  d u s t r y has been endangered by the unwise a c t i v i t y o f hunters and poachers. These problems have a r i s e n because the g e n e r a l p u b l i c does n o t understand  the impact o f p r e s e n t modes o f  l i f e on the ecology o f the environment.  The p u b l i c  school system has been i d e n t i f i e d as the most e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c concern  f o r the environment.  To t h i s end, i n the new e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which w i l l be implemented i n 1980, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f environmental e d u c a t i o n i s being c o n s i d e r e d .  A national  c o u n c i l has been e s t a b l i s h e d to make the necessary p r e parations . The p r e s e n t study w i l l  t r y to gather  judgmental  data on components which probably ought t o be i n c l u d e d i n the teacher t r a i n i n g aspect o f the environmental e d u c a t i o n course f o r Ghana.  5  1.2.2 This  Specific study  Problems  investigated  aspects o f outdoor  e d u c a t i o n which experienced outdoor-education i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t important  1.3  components o f a t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n c o u r s e .  g o a l o f t h e s u r v e y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e  aspects o f outdoor educators  Teachers  education are expected stand with  the b i o p h y s i c a l environment  children will  be o f f e r e d  be t h e i r  subsequently  be m a i n l y  engaged i n s m a l l s c a l e  i n rural  are frequently being  many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w i l l  l e a d e r s and t h e y w i l l  portant  decisions,  This  study  f o l l o w which w i l l  deal with  will  technological  introduced.  be e x p e c t e d  them f o r t h e s e  i s in itself  type  farming and f i s h i n g  Eventually, and/or  t o make i m -  i n c l u d i n g environmental  we c a n e d u c a t e  They  become t r a d i t i o n a l  elected  fully,  This  areas.  a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y where i m p r o v e d  practices  live,  year of formal schooling.  Most w i l l  in  i n which they  :  i n what f o r many o f t h e  final live  type o f  t o under-  the i n t e n t i o n o f r e d u c i n g i t s "abuse".  education w i l l  course i n  who u n d e r g o t h i s  to help their pupils  outdoor-  c o n s i d e r e d to  components o f a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g  education.  those  e d u c a t i o n which experienced  i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t  important  outdoor  of  c o n s i d e r e d as  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The  be  teachers  ones.  Hope-  tasks.  part of a larger  study to  the development o f guide-lines  6  for  a national  education  1.4  s t r a t e g y f o r implementing  environmental  i n Ghana.  OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS For  a clearer  important  understanding  of the t e x t ,  t o d e f i n e s e v e r a l terms, as used  i t was  in this  study.  These t e r m s i n c l u d e : Abuse': unwise use Developing capita  country:  Elementary  1975,  school:  grades  educational ren  a n a t i o n whose a v e r a g e  income i s l e s s  Stavenhagen,  with  of a natural resource.  from  than  $3,000 a y e a r ( r e f .  p.3). an e d u c a t i o n a l  institution,  k i n d e r g a r t e n to seven  system i n B r i t i s h  as  Columbia;  with  the  Good,  any  concerned and  surroundings.  years.  deals and  to h i s  (Adapted  from  1973).  conducted  any  o u t s i d e the  p a r t o f a s c h o o l program  school b u i l d i n g ,  regular physical education Brekke,  a) b)  l e a r n i n g which  w i t h man's r e l a t i o n s h i p  biophysical  Outdoor e d u c a t i o n :  Rural  t o 13  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of values, a t t i t u d e s  concepts culture  education:  i n the  i.e. child-  b e t w e e n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e ages o f f i v e  Environmental  per  classes.  excluding  (Adapted  from  1977).  areas:  any  human community w h i c h  has:  A g r i c u l t u r e . as a m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n ; A p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s t h a n 2,500 p e o p l e t h e town;  in  7  c)  A c e n t e r i n g o f the p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c system i n the h o l d i n g o f l a n d . (Adapted from Gould and Kolb, 1964) .  1.5  METHOD OF THE STUDY 1.5.1  Nature o f the Study  T h i s study c o n s t i t u t e s d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h . for descriptive research i s t y p i c a l l y c o l l e c t e d  Data  through  mail-questionnaire, interview, or d i r e c t observation ( r e f . Gay, 1976, p. 10; and K e r l i n g e r , 1973, p. 412) . A m a i l e d - q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c o l l e c t data, and was given to a l l elementary s c h o o l • t e a c h e r s i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t who had spent a t l e a s t one week i n t h e North Vancouver The  Outdoor  School w i t h c h i l d r e n .  .subgroup o f the p o p u l a t i o n which was s t u d i e d  i n c l u d e d a l l t e a c h e r s who:, c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s as having the r e q u i r e d one-week, outdoor experience.  The s i z e o f the subgroup was expected to be  somewhat l e s s than the p o p u l a t i o n , due t o the s e l e c t i o n procedure.  P r i n c i p a l s might not have known o r taken the  time t o f i n d o u t which teachers had the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n and some o f the q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s might have d e c l i n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  1.5.2  Development o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Over 100 components, suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , were i d e n t i f i e d .  T h i r t y - f i v e o f these components were  8  selected, modified to three  i n t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and submitted  judges f o r suggestions  content v a l i d i t y . instruments  and assessment o f the  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , made up o f two  ( L i k e r t s c a l e and Q - s o r t ) , was then sub-  j e c t e d t o three p i l o t runs.  F u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s were  made and the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Appendix A) was  circulated.  1.5.3 The  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  appropriate  contacted  a s s i s t a n t superintendent  f o r permission  school d i s t r i c t .  t o conduct t h e study  was in his  H i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n en-  a b l e d p r i n c i p a l s to be contacted  f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 109 teachers were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n 3 3 schools.  P r i n c i p a l s d i d the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  questionnaire i n t h e i r schools.  I n a l l cases  were asked to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  teachers  and r e t u r n i t  i n a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d , pre-stamped envelope.  1.5.4 The  Return o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f i r s t s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was sent t o  p r i n c i p a l s on June 15, 1978. By June 26, 1978, 46 teachers had responded and a follow-up was conducted by telephone.  By J u l y 12, 71 o f the 109 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  sent o u t had been r e t u r n e d . r a t e of 65%.  This represents  a response  9  1.6  BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.6.1  The s e t t i n g o f the Study  The study was c a r r i e d out i n June 19 78 i n the North Vancouver  School D i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  T h i s d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d on the o u t s k i r t s o f the C i t y of Vancouver;  i t has 35 elementary s c h o o l s .  "The North Vancouver  School D i s t r i c t has the  o l d e s t and perhaps the b e s t e s t a b l i s h e d  residential  outdoor e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l program i n B r i t i s h (McClaren and Ramsey, 19 72) .  Columbia".  The outdoor s c h o o l was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968 and".... has been a p i o n e e r , as f a r as t h i s P r o v i n c e [ B r i t i s h Columbia]  i s concerned, i n the  f i e l d o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n " ( S t a b l e s ,  1976).  The School D i s t r i c t has l e a s e d a s i t e a t P a r a d i s e V a l l e y , l o c a t e d 14 km n o r t h o f Squamish, approximately 80 km from Vancouver. equipped; f a c i l i t i e s  The outdoor s c h o o l i s w e l l a t the s i t e i n c l u d e : cooking;  d i s p e n s a r y ; and d i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . cabins with indoor plumbing, outdoor environment  Students s l e e p i n  i n c l u d i n g hot water.  The  i n c l u d e s f o r e s t e d areas, open :  meadows, a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t and animal l i f e , types o f s o i l , a r i v e r and a l a k e .  Indoor  different facilities  i n c l u d e a l i b r a r v , microscopes, o t h e r s c i e n c e equipment and i n d o o r games. Members o f the outdoor s t a f f i n c l u d e a permanent outdoor school d i r e c t o r , two o t h e r teachers who h e l p i n the  a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and some non-teaching  staff.  The  non-teaching  recreational  staff  comprises a s e c r e t a r y ,  director,  the b u i l d i n g s a t the  c o o k s and  nurse,  a maintenance  staff  site.  Outdoor e d u c a t i o n a l programs are p r o v i d e d out  the  and  seven i n a f i v e - d a y , r e s i d e n t i a l  is  year  for school  a wide v a r i e t y  activities  like  approaching survival etc.  have b e e n d e v e l o p e d  dancing,  carried  that "there  j e c t has  been m e e t i n g the  - teachers, parents, Interested high  The  training  as  prospective  F r i d a y evening  selected  animal  students  the  i n 19 76,  school  l e a v e on  outdoor a t the  since i t s inception.  and  12,  g i v e n on-  school  on  This  students  is .:  S u i t a b l e students  children.  \  school.  from each group t o a c t as c o u n s e l l o r s f o r  groups of elementary  pro-  groups"  school  Sunday e v e n i n g . i n v o l v e d 325  was  administrators.  i n g r a d e s 11  c o u n s e l l o r s a t the  i t  t h a t the  community r e c r e a t i o n , a r e  and  u n i t s which  staff.  Stables  counsellors arrive  farm  trapping,  s t u d i e s and  by  c h i l d r e n and  There  animals,  needs o f the v a r i o u s  o n - g o i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h has each year  by  farm  i s strong indication  school  some o f whom t a k e  out  six  orienteering,  live  field  or m o d i f i e d  reported  site  animals/  twenty-four  In a survey  i n grades  experience.  eggs, w e i g h i n g  handling  are  through-  o f e d u c a t i o n a l programs, e.g.  experiences,  There  c h i l d r e n mainly  grading  and  for  are  an  11  1.6.2  Living  Conditions  From s i x t o t e n c h i l d r e n make up either  boys o r g i r l s .  a cabin  Each c a b i n group l i v e s  group, in a  s e p a r a t e c a b i n under the l e a d e r s h i p o f a t r a i n e d school  student  as c o u n s e l l o r .  to h e l p the c h i l d r e n week a t t h e o u t d o o r performs for  the  floors,  farm  set tables, c l e a n up chores  and  school.  a r e a and  serve  E a c h day  s c h o o l ; e.g.  of each c h i l d  t o see  student  from  and  meet and  other classes.  nurse  call  School  -  snacks  s i t where t h e y  Throughout t h e i r  their  names.  at  are  a s much  make f r i e n d s w i t h b o y s and  o t h e r s by  conducts  are a v a i l a b l e  goes h u n g r y students  her  the  s t a y a t the  e a c h s t u d e n t w e a r s h i s name t a g , m a k i n g i t e a s i e r know and  times.  time.  dining hall.  'seconds'  In the d i n i n g h a l l  The  i s recommended, however, t h a t t h e y mix  possible  sweep  that h i s or  the c a b i n with  i s announced a t l u n c h  no  important  general school duties, i t i s  c o o k s p r o v i d e good m e a l s ;  It  student  a c t as h o s t o r h o s t e s s a t meal  i n s p e c t i o n o f c a b i n s and  m e a l s and  the  f o r e c a s t weather, c a r r y  Everyone e a t s i n the c e n t r a l  vided.  each  cabin i s well maintained.  highest rating  all  during  food, c l e a n d i s h e s , c a r r y  the grounds,  t o the  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a daily  i n e v e r y t h i n g t h e y do  s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the  In a d d i t i o n  bed  counsellor i s there  a s m a l l share o f the d u t i e s which are  firewood, out  The  high-  prowish.  as girls camp, to  1.6.3 The  Daily  outdoor  Program s c h o o l has a d a i l y  B).  Field  studies are scheduled  a.m.  and 1:00 p.m.  t o 3:45 p.m.  s t u d e n t s work i n s m a l l g r o u p s .  f o r 9:30 a.m.  t o 11:45  These s t u d i e s  con-  following  There  field  canoeing, h i k i n g  the s p r i n g and f a l l ; ice-fishing Each child  attends.  programs.  t r i p s and c r a f t s  c u r l i n g and  activities.  The r e s i d e n t  staff  prepare  During campfire, c h i l d r e n  s t u n t s and s k i t s . square  activities in  t h e r e i s a v a r i e d program which  c a b i n group w i t h t h e i r  hikes,  counsellor,  Other  the n i g h t l y  s i n g i n g and e n j o y i n g  e v e n i n g programs i n c l u d e n i g h t  dancing, heritage c r a f t  nights,  return  with their  f o r bed.  c o u n s e l l o r and prepare  E v e r y t h i n g a t the outdoor A member o f t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l  formed  o f the suggested p e r s o n a l items  through  come t o t h e s c h o o l .  s h o u l d be l a b e l l e d .  procedures,  to their  staff visits  the c h i l d r e n  hall  each  cabin  class  They a r e i n they w i l l  need  They l e a r n t h e  and t h e o u t d o o r - s c h o o l  a student's handbook. .  each  school i s well organized.  before  dining  apple  After  e v e n i n g p r o g r a m t h e y have s n a c k s ,  how t h e s e  every  s i t together as a  r o a s t , a n d s c h o o l newspaper p r e p a r a t i o n .  and  after-  swimming, t r a c k s  snowshoeing, s k a t i n g ,  are winter  evening  i s an hour o f  studies every  noon w h i c h p r o v i d e s a r c h e r y , f i s h i n g , ing,  (Appendix  s c i e n c e a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n , and : . . t : \ ; . . :  c e n t r a t e on n a t u r a l  recreation period  schedule  rules,  After  the week-long  director visits rooms and up  the c h i l d r e n  assists  in their  t h e t e a c h e r and  SIGNIFICANCE OF In  1972,  outdoor  THE  the  regular  class-  students with  follow-  McClaren  education  STUDY  and  Ramsey c o n d u c t e d  in British  Columbia.  commended t h a t " T h e r e i s a c l e a r in-service field  and  e d u c a t i o n and  In the follow-up  Worthing,  i t was  found  grams i n t h e B r i t i s h They a l s o  need  a  survey  They: r e -  t o promote  the  p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n the  of environmental  (p. 16) .  and  school,  activities.  1.7  of  s t a y a t the  found  instructors  study  that "Training  recreation"  i n 19 76 by B a t e s o n  t h a t the  Columbia  outdoor  number o f o u t d o o r  s c h o o l s y s t e m had o f competent  f o r the outdoors  and pro-  increased  teachers  becomes an  essential  consideration". The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  directions Areas  should provide  and  Ghana, w i l l teachers The  environmental  e d u c a t i o n programs,  starting such  as  with.  comments made by planners  program b e i n g help  in  h o p e f u l l y have s o m e t h i n g o f r e l e v a n c e f o r  to begin  educational  some  i n t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l .  or i n s t i t u t i o n s which are i n t e r e s t e d  outdoor  may  survey  offered  other  t e a c h e r s may  i n North i n their  possibly  Vancouver district.  school d i s t r i c t s ,  reflect The  to d e s i g n  assist on  the  outcomes in-service  14  courses  f o r elementary  university ponsible  faculties  o f e d u c a t i o n and  compare  their  workshops o f f e r i n g s w i t h  appropriate  colleges res-  the  course  components  f i n d i n g s and  make  changes.  Curriculum developers able  Hopefully,  f o r p r e - s e r v i c e teacher preparation i n out-  door e d u c a t i o n w i l l and  school teachers.  to i d e n t i f y  i n outdoor  some p r o b l e m s  o r g a n i z i n g outdoor  e d u c a t i o n may  be  teachers perceive i n  activities,  and  d e s i g n more  ;  e f f e c t i v e -. c u r r i c u l a . M o s t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s have b e e n by  e x p e r t s i n the  field,  with minimal  Working w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s o f cational  p l a n n e r s may  revise  teacher  time  their  and  likely  face.  to occur  s u s t a i n e d by  S u c c e s s f u l outdoor i f the  a course  Teachers  tend t o take  attempts  to provide  successful  1 .8  outdoor  interests  of  funds,  edu-  problems  p r o g r a m s a r e more t e a c h e r s can  w h i c h meets t h e i r greater interest  for their  in-put.  teacher-preparation  p r o g r a m s t o make them more r e l e v a n t t o t h e teachers  developed  be  p e r c e i v e d needs. i n a course  which  p e r c e i v e d n e e d s ; more-  p r o g r a m s may  result.  ASSUMPTIONS It a)  was  assumed t h a t :  The e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d a t t h e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r Outdoor School enabled teachers to h o l d o p i n i o n s r e l e v a n t to the needs o f a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  15  1.9  b)  The r e s p o n d e n t s perceptions.  possessed  accurate  recall  and  c)  The q u e s t i o n s were a n s w e r e d a c c u r a t e l y a n d honestly,  d)  The computer p r o g r a m s w h i c h were u s e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s were s u f f i c i e n t l y a d e q u a t e and e f f e c t i v e to analyse the views expressed.  e)  Those who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d a f a i r r e f l e c t i o n o f the views o f the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of outdoor-education teachers i n North Vancouver.  f)  The manner i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d d i d not a f f e c t the v a l i d i t y o f the responses.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1.9.1  Scope  a)  T h i s was a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y o f t h e views o f teachers i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e no t r e n d s o r t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e i r v i e w s c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d . I t s a c c u r a c y c a n o n l y be assumed t o r e f l e c t v i e w s a t t h e t i m e when t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t .  b)  The d e f i n i t i o n o f o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n was r e l a x e d f r o m t h o s e g i v e n i n C h a p t e r two, t o i n c l u d e any p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m outside the school b u i l d i n g , excluding regular physical education classes. Activ i t i e s l i k e s h o r t nature walks, s t u d i e s i n or near the school yard or o v e r n i g h t s t u d i e s i n a n o u t d o o r camp were a l l c o n s i d e r e d as outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs.  c)  The c r i t e r i o n u s e d f o r i n c l u s i o n o f a t e a c h e r i n t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n was a one-week e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h i l d r e n a t the North Vancouver Outdoor School. The r e s u l t s r e f l e c t e d t h e t y p e o f outdoor education p r a c t i c e d a t the North Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l .  16  1.9.2  Questionnaire  a)  I n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d n o t be i d e n t i f i e d f o r f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s , because o f the d e c i s i o n t h a t was made t o k e e p t h e r e s p o n s e s anonymous.  b)  A t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o t h e r a t h e r u n u s u a l , f o r c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n used to o b t a i n the s o r t i n g o f i t e m s by s u b j e c t s . I t was u n u s u a l b e c a u s e o n l y e x t r e m e o p i n i o n s were s o u g h t , e m p h a s i s i n g extreme: p o i n t s o f v i e w .  c)  The a v e r a g e e x p e c t a t i o n s u r v e y s seldom exceeds o u t (Hambleton e t a l . , a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s d o u b t f u l , and t h e r e f o r e interpreted with great  o f r e t u r n s from m a i l o n e - t h i r d o f the m a i l 1970) . Generalize i n s u c h c a s e s may be t h e data' must be caution.  Chapter  REVIEW  2.1  LITERATURE  INTRODUCTION No  pointed  matter  what  out  Shulman  these  ideas  acted  upon  with  OF  2  by  have  been  previous  outdoor  educational  "new"  ideas  (19 7 4 ) ,  the  education.  From  occurred  and a  learning  desk.  took  place  the  i n the  almost  the  importance  before  age  as  was  that and  i s the  case  many o f  the  out-of-doors.  (probably  verbalized  found  Such  stone  and  as  a  less  exclusively  Some e d u c a t o r - p h i l o s o p h e r s ,  overlook direct  became more  forward,  someone  reporting.  Gradually, e d u c a t i o n a l emphasis urbanization)  put  i t i s later  r e p o r t e d by  to  processes  are  of  practical,  indoors,  however,  of multisensory  result  did  learning  at  not through  experience. From t h i s a g o l d e n r u l e f o r t e a c h e r s must be d e r i v e d : e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e senses. E v e r y t h i n g v i s i b l e s h o u l d be b r o u g h t before the organ of sight,, e v e r y t h i n g a u d i b l e before that of hearing. O d o u r s s h o u l d be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e s e n s e o f s m e l l and t h i n g s t h a t are t a s t e a b l e and t a n g i b l e b e f o r e the sense o f t a s t e and t o u c h respectively. I f a n o b j e c t c a n make a n i m p r e s s i o n o n s e v e r a l s e n s e s a t once, i t s h o u l d be brought into contact with several.... ( C o m e n i u s , 1667, p.95) .  18  In 1780 H e i n r i c h P e s t a l o z z i wrote i n 'Not Books but L i f e I t s e l f : To a r r i v e a t knowledge slowly, by one's own experience, i s b e t t e r than to l e a r n by r o t e , i n a hurry, the f a c t s t h a t other people know, and then g l u t t e d w i t h words to l o s e one's own f r e e , observant and i n q u i s i t i v e a b i l i t y to study. (Vandenhazel, 1968, p.22). . . . I t i s a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of the newer school o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t the beginning o f i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be made w i t h the experience l e a r n e r s a l r e a d y have; t h a t t h i s experience and the c a p a c i t i e s t h a t have been developed during i t ' s course p r o v i d e the s t a r t i n g point for a l l further learning. (Dewey, 1938, p. 74) . Sharp (1952)  suggested:  The s c h o o l i s not education; we must l e a r n to t h i n k of i t as merely the headq u a r t e r s from which l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t e d . . . T h e r e are some t h i n g s , however, t h a t can be l e a r n e d b e t t e r i n the classroom. I t i s merely a matter of s e l e c t i o n . . . I n a classroom, s u b j e c t s tend to become a r t i f i c i a l l y separated from the r e s t o f the world. One cannot e x p l o r e housing c o n d i t i o n s i n the community without touching h i s t o r y , s o c i o l o g y , h e a l t h , :\ s c i e n c e and other f i e l d s , (pp. 20-21) . Hammerman and Hammerman (1973) and V o e l k e r have commented on the need t o r e l a t e classroom to r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .  T h e i r view was  by Sharp (1952) i n the statement:  also  (1975) learning  expressed  "Outdoor e d u c a t i o n  f o r c e s the i s s u e of i n t e g r a t i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m , to study and experience t h i n g s i n t h e i r t o t a l r e l a t i o n - " ships - one  t h i n g to the other."  (pp. 20-21)  Although r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and h i s environment  i s a major concern o f the s e v e n t i e s , i t i s  not a r e c e n t concern.  Lowenthal  r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 179 8  Malthus used geometric c a l c u l a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t the o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n o f the e a r t h , and Marsh (1864) desc r i b e d the demise o f some o f e a r t h ' s most f e r t i l e because  o f man's abuse.  David Lowenthal,  the views o f Malthus and Marsh,  lands  expanding on  suggested:  The same d e s t r u c t i v e process - e x t i r p a t i o n of f o r e s t s and w i l d l i f e , o v e r - g r a z i n g , a too ambitious a g r i c u l t u r e - r e c u r r e d whereever c i v i l i z a t i o n had f l o u r i s h e d . Long ago f e r t i l e and populous, the s t e r i l e Sahara, the rock-stream v a l l e y s o f Provence and Dauphine, were now f o r l o r n monuments to human greed _o>r .improvidence. (Lowenthal, 1965, p. X V I I I ) . In  the p a s t , however, man c o u l d always move on t o  new l a n d .  Today he i s running out o f new l a n d to  "conquer". What does the f u t u r e h o l d i n s t o r e f o r us? Mesarovic and P e s t e l  (1976), attempted  mankind i s a t the t u r n i n g p o i n t .  to show t h a t  By e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f  p r e s e n t trends they p r e d i c t e d world c a t a s t r o p h e i n the next c e n t u r y u n l e s s mankind makes a d r a s t i c change i n lifestyle.  They s t a t e d : S e v e r a l c r i t i c a l problem areas have been i n v e s t i g a t e d , i n p a r t i c u l a r the world food shortage, energy c r i s i s , p o p u l a t i o n growth, and the d i s p a r i t y i n economic development. Two gaps, s t e a d i l y widening, appear t o be at the h e a r t o f mankind's p r e s e n t c r i s e s : the gap between man and nature, and the gap between 'North' and 'South', r i c h and poor. Both gaps must be narrowed i f w o r l d - s h a t t e r i n g  20  c a t a s t r o p h e s a r e t o be a v o i d e d ; b u t t h e y c a n be n a r r o w e d o n l y i f g l o b a l ' u n i t y ' a n d earth's 'fihiteness' are e x p l i c i t l y r e cognized . (19 76, p . IX) . The the  a s s u m p t i o n h a s b e e n made i n t h i s  concern  f o r the f u t u r e i s w e l l founded.  even i f t h e i r holistic  study  However,  c a t a s t r o p h i c p r e d i c t i o n s a r e wrong, t h e  or environmental  very valuable  that  to c i t i z e n s  On e d u c a t i o n ,  attitude will  continue  i n our d i m i n i s h i n g  Reischauer  t o be  world.  states:  The q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s : What c a n e d u c a t i o n do about a l l t h i s ? C l e a r l y , not everything. I w o u l d be t h e l a s t t o s u g g e s t t h a t a w o r l d community c a n be d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h any s i n g l e m a s t e r p l a n , much l e s s ,a p l a n l i m i t e d t o t h e f i e l d o f educa.tion. B u t e d u c a t i o n c e r t a i n l y must b e p a r t o f t h e effort - a crucial part, i n fact. Whate v e r may be o n e ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e r o a d a h e a d f o r m a n k i n d , t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t -'. t h a t e d u c a t i o n f a c e s some s t u p e n d o u s t a s k s . (1974, p . 135) . M a r g a r e t Mead d e s c r i b e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  dilemma  as f o l l o w s : We must e d u c a t e p e o p l e i n what nobody knew y e s t e r d a y and p r e p a r e p e o p l e i n o u r s c h o o l s f o r what no one knows y e t b u t w h i c h some p e o p l e must know tomorrow. ( I n M c l n n e s & A l b r e c h t , 1975, p.51) .  2.2  WHAT IS OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL D e f i n i t i o n s o f outdoor  EDUCATION?  and o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c a t i o n u s u a l l y g i v e n a r e ambiguous.  The two t e r m s  augment e a c h o t h e r and a r e sometimes c o n s i d e r e d lent  (Hungerford,  1975; L e o p o l d ,  used  synonymously w i t h  such  other  edu-  1966).  equiva-  They a r e a l s o  terms a s , c o n s e r v a t i o n  education, science education, a g r i c u l t u r a l outdoor  education,  r e c r e a t i o n , camping e d u c a t i o n , nature  study,  b i o l o g y , ecology, r e s o u r c e management education, m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y education, and ecography  ( r e f . Hammerman  and Hammerman, 1973; Schoenfeld, 1971; Roth, 1970; E d u c a t i o n a l Product Report,  19 70; Hafner,  19 70; and  B a l z e r , 1971) . Hammerman and Hammerman (1973) have d e f i n e d outdoor e d u c a t i o n as "the u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e out-of-doors as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r l e a r n i n g " and c o n s i d e r e d i t i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n character. (1968) d e s c r i b e d outdoor  Donaldson and Donaldson  education as "education i n ,  about and f o r the outdoors).'"  They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t o u t -  door e d u c a t i o n takes p l a c e i n t h e outdoors,  i s about  the outdoors and p r o v i d e s a " p o s i t i v e and moral approach"  t o i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the outdoors.  C a r l s o n , Reynold,  Donaldson and Masters  i d e a t h a t outdoor  education i s ,  Smith,  added t o t h i s  ...not a separate d i s c i p l i n e w i t h p r e s c r i b e d o b j e c t i v e s . . . i t i s simply a learning climate o f f e r i n g opportunities f o r d i r e c t l a b o r a t o r y experiences i n i d e n t i f y i n g and r e s o l v i n g r e a l - l i f e problems... (1972, p.20) .  A c c o r d i n g t o B a l z e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , "a w i d e l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e a t the present time" f o r environmental  education.  As mentioned above, i t i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o be synonymous w i t h outdoor Good (19 73) d e f i n e s environmental  education.  e d u c a t i o n as l e a r n i n g  which,  "...deals with  attitudes  and  concepts  ship to h i s culture  the  realization  and  reinforced  of  concerned  and  S i n c e W o r l d War  hazel,  the c l a r i f i c a t i o n  biophysical  I I , educators  surroundings ."" 1  have r e t u r n e d  The  l a t e L.B.  objectives.  To  nor him  the classroom  a separate  education  " t h a t w h i c h c a n b e s t be s h o u l d be  dealing with  situations,  s h o u l d t h e r e be 196 8,  appeared  term In  (1973) d e f i n i t i o n  "outdoor  vironmental  2.3  AIMS AND The  of  o f the term  direct  life  ..:. •  from  type  "outdoor  encompassed  "environmental  conducted  e d u c a t i o n " was  Ghana, t h i s ^ a m e  which  p.22).  t h a t t h e use  s t u d y was  through  (Quoted  e d u c a t i o n " by N o r t h V a n c o u v e r t e a c h e r s  the  specific  That  n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s and learned."  an  learned i n -  learned there.  experience,  Vandenhazel,  t o be  d i s c i p l i n e with  l e a r n e d i n the o u t - o f - d o o r s  Since  director  A s s o c i a t i o n , Carbondale,  c a n b e s t be  Good's  aided  ( r e f . Vanden-  Sharp, e x e c u t i v e  d i d not c o n s i d e r outdoor  area of l e a r n i n g  It  to  whose w r i t i n g s were t h e b a s i s o f V a n d e n h a z e l ' s  definition,  side  relation-  t h a t a b s t r a c t l e a r n i n g must be  t h e Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Centre  Illinois,  w i t h man's  by c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s  1968).  of values,  education".  within that d i s t r i c t , used  throughout  of education  this  i s termed  the  report.  "en-  education*"  OBJECTIVES OF  aims o f t h e San  OUTDOOR EDUCATION  Diego Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  Program  23  !  were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m a n y o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n -  programs.  T h e s e aims i n c l u d e d : 1.  To h e l p p e o p l e r e l a t e t o a n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and u n d e r s t a n d n a t u r a l f o r c e s ;  2.  To h e l p e a c h c h i l d t o become a more comp l e t e person, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y ;  3.  To g i v e c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e s o t h e r w i s e have h a d ;  4.  To h e l p e a c h c h i l d become more i n d e p e n d e n t , more m a t u r e and more c o m p e t e n t i n s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e ;  5.  To h e l p c h i l d r e n v i e w t h e w o r l d i n a way o f q u e s t i o n i n g , wondering, d i s c o v e r i n g and s o l v i n g problems;  6.  To g i v e e a c h c h i l d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o work a t conservation projects;  7.  To l i v e w i t h a n d g e t t o know o t h e r c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t r a c e s , e c o n o m i c l e v e l s and cultures;  8.  To l e a r n a b o u t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y look a f t e r h i m s e l f .  they would n o t  and how t o  (Schram, 1969, p.35) . Russell one: basic p.  saw s i m i l a r  "To h e l p c h i l d r e n human q u a l i t i e s  126) .  Still  o b j e c t i v e s b u t added  another  s e e a d u l t s a s l e a r n e r s who i n common w i t h  another  a l l people"  goal o f outdoor  t h a t o f s t i m u l a t i n g and e n h a n c i n g  education  classroom  have (1973, was  learning:  T e a c h e r s who have g i v e n o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n a t r i a l a r e q u i t e emphatic i n s a y i n g t h a t i t improves the chances o f mutual t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e . And they say, f u r t h e r , t h a t when t h e y go b a c k i n t o t h e i n d o o r c l a s s r o o m w i t h t h o s e same s t u d e n t s , much o f t h e s t i f f n e s s h a s gone o u t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , t o be r e p l a c e d by a new k i n d o f eagerness never b e f o r e seen w i t h i n those walls. ( S h a r p , 1952, p.21) .  The o b j e c t i v e s and b e n e f i t s of outdoor as seen by O r f o r d are: "People  education  of d i f f e r e n t backgrounds  l i v i n g together i n a n a t u r a l : o u t d o o r s e t t i n g , make  'out-  door e d u c a t i o n ' an i d e a l medium f o r meeting such educ a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s as c o o p e r a t i o n ; i n d i v i d u a l and  group  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; w r i t t e n , o r a l and g r a p h i c communications a n a l y z i n g and  s o l v i n g problems; knowledge about man  the environment; as w e l l as the development of and a t t i t u d e s f o r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , . " , pp.  and  skills  ( O r f o r d , 19 72,  64 , 65) . In 19 75 an i n t e r n a t i o n a l workshop was  h e l d under  the auspices of the U n i t e d Nations E d u c a t i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  (U.N.E.S.C.0) .  T h i s workshop r e s u l t e d i n the Belgrade C h a r t e r titled  "A G l o b a l Framework f o r Environmental  T h i s framework f o r outdoor  e d u c a t i o n was  en-  Education."  directed at  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the formal e d u c a t i o n of young people and  teachers:  Environmental E d u c a t i o n : Goal and O b j e c t i v e s . The g o a l of environmental e d u c a t i o n i s : To develop a world popul a t i o n t h a t i s aware o f , and concerned about, the environment and i t s a s s o c i a t e d problems, and which has the knowledge, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s and commitment to work: i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , toward s o l u t i o n s to c u r r e n t problems, and the p r e v e n t i o n of new ones. The o b j e c t i v e s of environmental e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e to h e l p i n g both i n d i v i d u a l s and groups t o : a c q u i r e awareness of and knowledge about the environment and i t s a l l i e d problems; to a c q u i r e new s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s of concern t h a t w i l l motivate a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; to a c q u i r e the s k i l l s f o r s o l v i n g problems; to be able to e v a l u a t e environmental  25  m e a s u r e s and e d u c a t i o n programmes i n terms o f e c o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , a e s t h e t i c a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n to s o l v e problems. Guiding  Principles.  Environmental  Education  1.  C o n s i d e r the environment i n i t s t o t a l i t y ; n a t u r a l and man-made, e c o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , l e g i s l a t i v e , c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c ;  2.  Be a c o n t i n u o u s l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l ;  3.  Be  4.  Emphasize a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i n g and s o l v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s ;  5.  Examine m a j o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s f r o m a w o r l d p o i n t o f v i e w , w h i l e p a y i n g due r e g a r d to r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s ;  6.  F o c u s on c u r r e n t and situations;  7.  E x a m i n e a l l d e v e l o p m e n t and environmental perspective;  8.  Promote t h e v a l u e and n e c e s s i t y o f l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the s o l u t i o n of environmental problems. ( B e l g r a d e C h a r t e r , 1975, p.58) .  A  interdisciplinary  first  appears  cation  t o be  future  both i n -  approach;  environmental growth from  an  g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e s t be  achieved  which b r i n g s the  with their  in i t s  step i n r e a c h i n g these  n e s s w h i c h may  2.4  should:  through  students  into  outdoor direct  aware-  edu-  contact  environment.  THE  NEED FOR  The  need  TRAINING TEACHERS  to t r a i n  outdoor  education  teachers  has  been expressed by many o r g a n i z a t i o n s and Some of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s  individuals.  ( r e p o r t , work-  shops, conferences) which have i d e n t i f i e d teacher t r a i n i n g as necessary f o r p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e  outdoor  e d u c a t i o n programs i n s c h o o l s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : the Seminar on T r a i n i n g o f Teachers S u r v i v a l and E d u c a t i o n Report  (1970); the Human  (19 71); European Working  Conference on Environmental C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n (1972); i n t e r i m r e p o r t o f the Exemplary  V o c a t i o n a l Edu-  c a t i o n Program... (1973); E v a l u a t i o n Report on Education  Outdoor  (1974); r e p o r t o f the Workshop on E n v i r o n -  mental Science E d u c a t i o n (1974); and the Belgrade Charter  (1975).  The same g e n e r a l view has been expressed by i n dividuals l i k e Miles Donaldson Laska  and Masters  (1970/  1971); Smith,  (1972); C h i l d r e s s  (1974); and Raymond (1974).  Carlson,  (1973);  In B r i t i s h -  Columbia,  the need to t r a i n t e a c h e r s f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n was recommended by McClaren and Ramsey (1972); and and Worthing  (1976) .  Bateson  S t a p l e s (1976) made the same  s u g g e s t i o n i n the study he conducted i n North  Vancouver  School D i s t r i c t .  2.5  THE FOR  SEARCH FOR IMPORTANT COMPONENTS IN A COURSE TRAINING OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS  Sutman (1972) and B u r d i n (1972) have both suggested the need to i d e n t i f y r e l e v a n t components i n a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  Sutman r e p o r t e d  that  " a s m a l l amount o f ... a c t i v i t y  education is  i s o c c u r r i n g now; y e t t h e s t a t e o f t h e a r t  not clear?"  He s u g g e s t e d  c a n n o t and s h o u l d parable  study  activity", to  i n environmental  not wait  t h a t , "Teacher  f o r the r e s u l t s  of on-going environmental  b u t t h a t "today,  education o f a com-  education  we must be c o n c e r n e d  enough  s t a n d b a c k and examine what t h e commitment o f t e a c h e r  education teacher  ought t o be t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  preparators  [educators]  education.  We a s  must p a u s e i n o r d e r t o  g a i n p e r s p e c t i v e and i n f u s e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m the  right  energy-catalyst  Burdin  (19 72)  noted  combination...".. t h a t t h e r e were many  t i o n s o f what s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n o u t d o o r for  training  teachers.  environmental  science, technology  education,  involved less  seasoned.  create  and  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l endeavours,  been  others  The a r r a y o f m a t e r i a l s c a n e a s i l y  frustration  to indecisive haphazard  problems  who h a v e  and u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o what a c t i o n s  a r e d e f e n s i b l e , d e s i r a b l e , and f e a s i b l e . lead  education  and e d u c a t i o n i s  some p r o d u c e d b y p e r s o n s  f o r years  sugges-  He s t a t e d t h a t " t h e n o v i c e i n  f l o o d e d b y p r i n t e d m a t t e r on e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  with  and u n p r o d u c t i v e  This can  o r to emotional  r e a c t i o n s , to our environmental  A blending o f strong concerns,  intelligent  crises.  public res-  ponses, and competent p r o f e s s i o n a l i n p u t i s needed". Raymond  (19 74)  reported that very  b e e n done by way o f r e s e a r c h  i n outdoor  little  work h a d  education.  Few m a t e r i a l s were f o u n d  on r e s e a r c h i n t e a c h e r  ing,  who compared  the  such  as P i k e  (19 73)  i n q u i r y method w i t h  education.  Brekke  (19 77)  example, e x a m i n e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s  prepared  f o r outdoor  of the study to  using  t h o s e who d i d n o t u s e t h e  method i n t e a c h i n g o u t d o o r for  teachers  train-  this  by B a t e s o n  study  tried  outdoor  2.6  from  similar  the s p e c i f i c  education  teachers  them.  available  on t e a c h e r  edu-  teachers  f o r outdoor  i n d i v i d u a l s working  education,  i n the area of  education.  REPORTED COURSE COMPONENTS FOR TRAINING IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION Leyendecker  New M e x i c o 4-H  (196 6)  listed  l e a d e r s h i p course  which i n c l u d e d : working  t h e p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s ;  techniques;  and t e a c h i n g methods.  the C a r t e r e t outdoor  discovery  project  Yeater  making a u d i o - v i s u a l : m a t e r i a l s ; p l a n n i n g ; field  experiences;  classroom  to review  teaching (1967) r e p o r t e d  included: directed-  t e a c h i n g method, f i e l d - o r i e n t e d  practical  approach; organization;  and a f o l l o w - u p  the outdoor  TEACHERS  t h e components o f t h e  with youth;  that  Part  components w h i c h a r e i n u s e i n i n -  s t i t u t i o n s which prepare suggestions  to i d e n t i f y  and c l a s s i f i e d  Most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e  and  (1976) was  d e s i r e d by o u t d o o r  Columbia,  c a t i o n are course  i n t h e Yukon a r e a .  and W o r t h i n g  i n t h a t they  type o f i n - s e r v i c e in British  education  were  work.  i n the  Busch Related for of  (1969) m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e S c i e n c e P r o j e c t  to Upgrading  teachers outdoor  fication  Conservation Education  included: the inquiry  education; Minneapolis  approach;  a c t i v i t i e s with classroom  of resources a v a i l a b l e  i n teaching  programs  Miles  identi-  outdoor  The (19 70)  t e a c h i n g methods, and how games were u s e d some e n v i r o n m e n t a l  integration  activities;  and camp p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . Independent School  course  included  to introduce  concepts.  (1970, 1971) d e s c r i b e d t h e S e d r o - W o o l e y  School program which i n c l u d e d w r i t i n g  and d e v e l o p i n g  c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , and how a t e a c h e r c a n i n v o l v e students  i n outdoor  issues.  Planning of f i e l d  was t h e m a j o r theme o f t h e E s c a m b i a and S a n t a  t r i p s •:• Rosa  C o u n t y S c h o o l , a s r e p o r t e d by Montgomery a n d S m i t h (1972) .  The W i s c o n s i n  Environmental  s e r v i c e P r o j e c t (1972) c o v e r e d  Education I n -  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  skills  and k n o w l e d g e , g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s ,  tional  strategies,  cation, local  definition  of environmental  edu-  a n d how t o u s e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n t h e  setting. The  Chadron S t a t e C o l l e g e program  c l u d e d : p r e p a r a t i o n and c o n d u c t i o n outdoor  setting;  materials; tion  instruc-  procedures  reported  of field  development o f outdoor  o b j e c t i v e s o f outdoor used  i n outdoor  (1972) i n trips  i n an  curriculum  p r o g r a m s ; and e v a l u a education.  Roth  (1973)  t h a t the Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g  program emphasised facilities Holtz for  the p h i l o s o p h y , o b j e c t i v e s and  f o r environmental e d u c a t i o n . (1974) mentioned  t h a t the t r a i n i n g  course  outdoor teachers i n Concordia C o l l e g e i s o r g a n i z e d  i n an outdoor s e t t i n g .  Students a r e taught the  o b j e c t i v e s o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n , and are expected t o observe t e a c h i n g outdoor programs and then develop some a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s themselves. Allen  L o h a r t and  (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t the North F l o r i d a  course  i n c l u d e d development o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and s k i l l s ; d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n ; development o f programs; and doing the a c t i v i t i e s i n which c h i l d r e n w i l l be engaged. In  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  course Ed4 04  (1978), t h e f o l l o w i n g components were i d e n t i f i e d : the use o f demonstrations; use o f games and a n a l o g i e s ; t e a c h i n g techniques; use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s ; i n formation on sources o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s ;  evaluation  techniques; development o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s ; and p r a c t i c a l involvement i n t r y i n g some o f the u n i t s available.  The Ed380 (1978) course i n v o l v e d o b j e c t i v e s ,  procedures and e v a l u a t i o n o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n work; development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;  field  sampling techniques;* s e l e c t i o n o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n project materials; l o g i s t i c s o f planning f i e l d  :'  trips;  s a f e t y methods; and f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s i n p r a c t i c i n g . : • outdoor a c t i v i t i e s  ( r e f . F o r s t e r , 1978) .  2.7  COMPONENTS SUGGESTED BY INDIVIDUALS TRAINING OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS The  literature  i s saturated with  w h i c h have b e e n s u g g e s t e d by Brown and and  Mouser p u b l i s h e d  techniques  preparation out  of  field  trips;  field  how  their  book on  and  identification  report  available places;  the  collection (1970)  teachers  curriculum;  school  can  be  sources  should  people.  Hammett  teachers  as  integrated of  information  social  (1970) s u g g e s t e d  counsellors; testing  the and  safety procedures; nents which can  and  help  s e l e c t i o n of evaluation;  management o f  train  outdoor  T h e r e were many s u g g e s t i o n s  and  Lundstrom  a bibliography of that teachers teaching  secondary  compo-c .'  In  agencies  programs a v a i l a b l e ,  n e e d e d t h o s e components f o r Jungblom  the  school  resource  l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , which  of outdoor education.  as  teachers.  (1971) p r o v i d e d  organizations;.curriculum  food,  and  made i n 1971.  g u i d e f o r e l e m e n t a r y and  and  i n t e r a c t i o n among  preparation of audio-visual materials; health  teachers,  be  s u c h as p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , m e d i a , p e o p l e  t e a c h i n g methods; and  resource  trying  invididual  Burdin  with  components: i n or  f o r the  of organisms.  outdoor education  methods  f i n d i n g s ; making  techniques  e x p o s e d t o : how  1964,  field  participation  suggested that outdoor-education  the  In  following  development of  t o r e c o r d and  collections;  components  individuals.  suggested the  outdoor a c t i v i t i e s ;  studies;  and  and  FOR  and  suggested effective  (1971)  argued  t h a t s i n c e many c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s d i d not f i t e q u a l l y w e l l i n t o other s e t t i n g s and needed  adapta-  t i o n , teacher t r a i n i n g courses should i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r such a c t i v i t i e s . E d u c a t i o n Report  The Human S u r v i v a l  (1971) a l s o suggested  and  a d a p t a t i o n of  c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , and o t h e r components such as the p h i l o s o p h y of outdoor m a t e r i a l s , and how materials.  education/ development of  to teach p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c u r r i c u l u m  L i n e s and B o l w e l l (1971) suggested ways of  e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s , and ways i n which teachers c o u l d extend and develop t h e i r own and  knowledge  techniques. There were many a d d i t i o n a l suggestions o f f e r e d i n  1972,  as shown by the w r i t i n g s o f Sutman, Bauer,  B u r d i n , S t a n d l e y , and K a l l a .  Sutman suggested  that  t e a c h e r s i n t r a i n i n g be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l p l a c e them i n problem-oriented  s i t u a t i o n s , where  they c o u l d g a i n experience i n making both  individual  d e c i s i o n s and c o n t r i b u t e to group d i s c u s s i o n s .  In-  cluded i n the a r t i c l e were other components such as the methodology  (teaching strategies)  specific  to  outdoor education'••. l e a r n i n g through involvement d e c i s i o n making.  Bauer suggested  and  that a t r a i n i n g  course f o r outdoor education t e a c h e r s should cover: involvement  i n the a c t i v i t i e s which the c h i l d r e n would  be i n v o l v e d i n , and e x p e r i e n c i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n of i d e a s i n t o a c t i o n ; t e a c h i n g methodology; p l a n n i n g and  carrying  out  preparation the  trips  i n the  Burdin  outdoor  of  board p o l i c i e s  and  training  community.  exposed  to the  activities  r e g u l a t i o n s i n outdoor  preparation  Kalla  and  use  of  i n which  education. in  training  to develop  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  d o o r programs, i . e . ^ s t u d e n t s ,  school  audio-visual materials,  (1972) s u g g e s t e d how  inter-personal  should  e n g a g e d , t e a c h i n g methods, and  and  in  resources  (1972) recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s  practice  activities;  (1972) a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s  c h i l d r e n w o u l d be  while  other  utilization  local  i n v o l v e d i n and  Stanley  and  of audio-visual materials;  r e c o g n i z a t i o n and  available  be  field  "good"  a l l involved i n  teachers  and  out-  resource  persons. Pike  (1973) recommended t h e  use  of  t e a c h i n g method, c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , and in  teaching  (197 3)  i n their  teachers in  outdoor education.  be  outdoor  t r a i n e d to write  a l s o suggested  increased  and  organized.  Rice  P e a r s o n and  and  of  films  Hayden that  implement packages  suggested  i n teaching  the  enthusiasm  such,  i n d e t a i l how an outdoor e d u c a t i o n reported  as  of  education.  outdoor problems.  s p e c i f y components as  H i s method was  use  outdoor  that teacher's  for studying  (1974) d i d n o t described  use  education.  audio-visual materials  be  the  inquiry  e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t suggested  I n 1974. Salee-.  Salee  the  should  Leyh but  trip  being  was  34  successful, The  and  suggested  components may  logistics interest  of of  collection  o n l y be  field  trips;  students; and  Thomsen  that other deduced.  identification  of  (1975), G a l l a g h e r  field  and  should  included: of  the  activities  Gallagher  specimens.  others  (1975)  p r a c t i c e the  components s u c h a s :  and  the  outdoor  others  (1975)  overview  (philo-  sophy) ; o b j e c t i v e s ; e v a l u a t i o n methods; and of  information  teachers  and  help.  in training  of outdoor education Four a r t i c l e s , the  subject.  Eder  hand p r a c t i c a l  Kelly  should can  be  be  (1975) taught  suggested how  small  discussions; materials. sign; and  and  suggested the  Corcoran  and  teachers vities  curriculum  of  films;  l a Sota  book  curriculum  to teaching  and  how  t o i n v o l v e and i n outdoor  (1976) s u g g e s t e d t h a t  de-  materials  a v a i l a b l e ; t e a c h i n g m e d i a t o be  community p e r s o n n e l Da  first-  (1976) s u g g e s t e d c u r r i c u l u m  e v a l u a t i o n procedures;  King  on  (1976), i n a  out-of-class w r i t i n g of  t e a c h i n g methods; exposure  y o u t h and  goals  i n c l u s i o n of  group workshops; use  Saveland  facilities  the  that  were f o u n d  model program, i n c l u d e d : development o f materials;  sources  achieved.  p r o d u c e d i n 1975,  experience.  try i t .  responsibilities;  suggested t h a t teachers  added o t h e r  They  identification  sharing of  themselves.  teachers  used; select  education. outdoor  should  know how  to i n t e g r a t e outdoor  i n t o the  existing  school  curriculum,  acti-  and  the  objectives  and use  of the local  community  as  a  resource. An and  i n - s e r v i c e survey  Jensen  teract  among  In ability school  (1977)  showed  themselves  summary,  The  outdoor-educational  the  training  These the  of  need  understanding skills.  share  could  be  was  the t o p i c s within  clearly  broad  any  no  t o be  of the  trained i n indicated.  ( i n excess into  desir-  included i n  three  teaching  of  groups.  100).  categories  methods,  apparent  of these  Betz  to i n -  as p a r t  f o r teachers  grouped  was  want  indicated the  education  o f concepts, There  Zigarmi,  ideas.  components  of teachers  by  teachers  p e d a g o g y was  of suggested  components  necessary  and  outdoor  curriculum.  range  that  the l i t e r a t u r e  of teaching  The  conducted  and  prioritization  36  Chapter 3  METHOD OF STUDY  3.1  INTRODUCTION The purpose  o f the study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e  aspects o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n which experienced  those  outdoor-  educators i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r e d to be important components o f a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  I t was decided to develop and ad-  m i n i s t e r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o elementary  school teachers  i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t who had had a t l e a s t one week experience i n the t e a c h i n g o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n . The  survey was planned to determine  p r i n c i p a l l y the  following: a)  The e x t e n t t o which t e a c h e r s agreed w i t h the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f each o f a p o o l o f p o s s i b l e components i n t o any t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n ;  b)  Which components they c o n s i d e r e d t o be most important and l e a s t important from the p o o l o f t o p i c components;  c)  Any t o p i c components which they c o n s i d e r e d to be important a p a r t from those p r o v i d e d ;  d)  Any"comments t e a c h e r s may have r e g a r d i n g the i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n of components.  1  3.2  DEVELOPMENT OF: THE QUESTIONNAIRE 3.2.1  P r e l i m i n a r y P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Because no s a t i s f a c t o r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d be found  i n the l i t e r a t u r e , an a p p r o p r i a t e one had to be -  developed  and r e f i n e d .  Over 100 components  i n the l i t e r a t u r e were i d e n t i f i e d . the J o u r n a l of Environmental  suggested  The sources i n c l u d e d  E d u c a t i o n , A Study o f Out-  Door E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n f o r m a t i o n Centre, Programs i n Environmental and teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n outdoor  Education  and e n v i r o n -  mental e d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C. (e.g. U.B.C. course, Ed. 380, r e f . F o r s t e r 1978) . Components which seemed t o be a p p l i c a b l e o r s u i t a b l e f o r environmental selected. ties,  e d u c a t i o n i n the ;Ghana-ia-n v. s i t u a t i o n were  (Components r e l a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n a l  activi-  f o r example, were s p e c i f i c a l l y dropped, s i n c e t h i s  a s p e c t would n o t be a c c e p t a b l e i n the Ghanaian tion.)  situa-i  F i n a l s e l e c t i o n o f any one component was made  upon the mutual agreement o f the r e s e a r c h e r and h i s r e search a d v i s o r s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was submitted  to four, judges who  are f a m i l i a r w i t h teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n outdoor and environmental  education.  T h e i r judgements and  approval e s t a b l i s h e d the content v a l i d i t y o f the questionnaire.  3.2.2 The pilot the  Pilot  Studies  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t e d  s t u d i e s improved  clarity  First  of individual  Pilot  With the permission U.B.C. i n s t r u c t o r s , o f 16 s t u d e n t s  study  was t o d e t e r m i n e  These  by a d d i n g  Study  year,  was u s e d .  o f one o f t h e  regular  education  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  t h e approximate time needed t o  c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , any word a m b i g u i t i e s misunderstandings. questionnaire of  Each student  and a s k e d  the researcher.  These  items  sistency) computer  and t o suggest  to write ways o f  t h e s u b j e c t s had responded t o t h e question--,  whole c l a s s .  were d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d  t o c h e c k on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y  (internal  o f the items,  using  and con-  t h e LERTAP  program.  3.2.2.2  Second P i l o t  I t was n e c e s s a r y since  s u b j e c t s were i n v i t e d  comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s  analysed  a copy o f t h e  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  After naire,  was g i v e n  and/or  to respond to i t i n the presence  comments a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l improving  to  items.  and c o o p e r a t i o n  a third  class  times.  the questionnaire  and p r e c i s i o n  3.2.2.1  three  the f i r s t  or exposure  pilot  Study  to conduct another  pilot  g r o u p d i d n o t have f o r m a l  study training  t o the teaching o f outdoor education.  The  39.  second p i l o t study was conducted on t e n , f o u r t h - y e a r education  students  i n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n who had  j u s t completed a course education  i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f outdoor  (Ed. 380). The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i -  n i s t e r e d by a teaching a s s i s t a n t who knew the s t u d e n t s ; p r o v i s i o n was made f o r comments and s u g g e s t i o n s . A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d and analysed as b e f o r e .  3.2.2.3 The  Third P i l o t  purpose o f the t h i r d  Study pilot  study was t o t r y  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on people who were more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the a c t u a l t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  That t h i r d p i l o t group  was made up of about 30 experienced teachers i n B r i t i s h workshop.  outdoor  Columbia who attended  a week-end  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to the teachers  by m a i l , through the Vancouver Environment office,  together with c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s  s e l f - a d d r e s s e d , p r e - p a i d envelopes; for  suggestions  questionnaires  3.2.3  arid comments.  Final  from the p i l o t  Education  (Appendix C) and  p r o v i s i o n was made  Twenty-one o f the 30  (70%) were r e t u r n e d and analysed as above.  P r e p a r a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  F o l l o w i n g the suggestions  and comments  obtained  s t u d i e s and c o n s u l t a n t s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was f i n a l l y r e v i s e d . The  education  Some items were m o d i f i e d .  f i n a l three-paged q u e s t i o n n a i r e was made up o f  a L i k e r t - s c a l e component and a m o d i f i e d (Appendix A ) .  form o f Q-sort  P r o v i s i o n was made f o r an a d d i t i o n a l item  and comments  to be added by the respondent.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r i n t e d and packed.  The  Each  packet  c o n s i s t e d of a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; a r e t u r n , s e l f - a d d r e s s e d stamped envelope and a c o v e r i n g The  letter.  c o v e r i n g l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d to the teacher the pur-  pose o f the study and assured him/her o f complete anonymity  3.3  (see Appendix D).  DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 3.3.1  Communication with School A u t h o r i t i e s  In May 1978, the a p p r o p r i a t e a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n tendent was contacted  f o r permission  study i n h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , district policy. enabled  to conduct the  i n accordance w i t h  H i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n  schools to be c o n t a c t e d .  With the help o f a l i s t of names and m a i l i n g addresses  o f s c h o o l s t a f f members, p r i n c i p a l s were con-  t a c t e d by l e t t e r  (Appendix E) to seek t h e i r support f o r  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  Forms were en-  c l o s e d i n those l e t t e r s to p r i n c i p a l s on which  they  were asked t o p r o v i d e the number o f teachers i n t h e i r schools who belonged t o the p o p u l a t i o n .  Self-addressed  b u s i n e s s r e p l y envelopes were a l s o i n c l u d e d .  3.3.2 The  M a i l i n g the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was sent to  twelve p r i n c i p a l s who had responded by June 15, 1978.  P r i n c i p a l s who had n o t responded by then were cont a c t e d by telephone  and a supply o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e  packages were sent to them. distribute  P r i n c i p a l s were asked t o  them to teachers who q u a l i f i e d as members  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  Two s c h o o l s d e c l i n e d the r e q u e s t  on the grounds t h a t t h e i r teachers were too busy; those  3.4  s c h o o l s were omitted  from the study.  RETURN OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t o be r e t u r n e d to the  r e s e a r c h e r by m a i l u s i n g the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d  envelopes.  By June 26, 1978 f o r t y - s i x o f the 109 teachers had responded. Follow-up l e t t e r s were sent to a l l p r i n c i p a l s cooperating  i n the study  (Appendix F ) . Because o f the  importance attached to t h i s l e t t e r f a c t o r s  such as the  wording o f the l e t t e r ( r e f . Charach, 1 9 7 5 ) , the time ( r e f . Droege and Crambert, 1965; Robin, 1965 and Dillman, Seer,  1975) and k i n d o f postage ( r e f . Champion and  1969; and Veiga 1974) had to be c o n s i d e r e d .  l e t t e r s were p e r s o n a l i z e d to i n d i v i d u a l  The  cooperating  p r i n c i p a l s and sent by f i r s t c l a s s m a i l , and timed to a r r i v e i n the schools on the second day o f the summer vacation.  I t was expected  t h a t with p o t e n t i a l l y  less  work, those p r i n c i p a l s who might not have d i s t r i b u t e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and those teachers who had n o t responded would have the time t o do so then.  By  J u l y 12, 1978, 71 o f the 109 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  sent o u t  had been r e t u r n e d .  3.5  ESTIMATION OF RESPONSE RATE 3.5.1  Schools  There are 35 elementary schools i n the North Vancouver School  District.  A l l the p r i n c i p a l s o f these  schools were asked to d i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i r t y - t h r e e o f the p r i n c i p a l s agreed to do i t .  This  r e p r e s e n t s a response r a t e o f 94% o f the elementary schools i n t h e d i s t r i c t .  3.5.2  Teachers  There were 109 teachers who were i d e n t i f i e d by p r i n c i p a l s i n the 33 s c h o o l s .  Teachers i n the two  other schools where p r i n c i p a l s d i d not agree t o d i s t r i bute the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were not c o n t a c t e d . three a c t u a l l y took p a r t i n the study,  Seventy-  showing a r e s -  ponse r a t e of 66.9%.  3.6  ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES For each q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c e i v e d , the responses on  the L i k e r t - s c a l e items were checked a g a i n s t the r e s ponses on t h e Q-sort  to f i n d o u t i f the r a t i n g s were  reasonably  T h i s was done i n order  similar.  to e l i m i -  nate t h e responses o f s u b j e c t s who were e i t h e r i n c o n s i s t e n t o r d i d not take the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e r i o u s l y .  I t was f e l t t h a t the f o u r most important f o u r l e a s t important  items  items and the  s e l e c t e d by the s u b j e c t s  should t a l l y w i t h the' h i g h r a t e d items and low r a t e d items r e s p e c t i v e l y on the L i k e r t s c a l e f o r t h a t same person.  Where t h e r e was l a c k o f agreement i n the r e s -  ponses the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e j e c t e d from f u r t h e r analysis.  Only one q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e j e c t e d .  In two o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which were r e t u r n e d , the s u b j e c t s had not responded t o the Q - s o r t . responses  These  were analysed u s i n g the LERTAP and d e l e t e d  i n the Q - a n a l y s i s .  The LERTAP computer program i s  used f o r item and t e s t a n a l y s i s i n survey  research.  Por example, i t p r o v i d e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each item such as the mean response, of responses,  the number and  percentage  and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses  across the s c a l e .  The Q - a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s more i n -  formation about the p o p u l a t i o n .  Persons are v a r i -  a b l e s and items o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  It  shows the v a r i o u s types o f viewpoints expressed by the people.  An a n a l y s i s of these viewpoints  shows  what the v a r i o u s types c o n s i d e r e d v e r y important, was o f l i t t l e The  what  importance and what was i n between.  a d d i t i o n a l items  suggested  for inclusion i n  such a course and o t h e r comments were grouped to f i n d out i f any i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d to support, r e j e c t or e l u c i d a t e some o f the views  presented.  The responses on the L i k e r t - t y p e items were scored 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 f o r g r e a t importance, much some importance, respectively.  little  importance  and no  importance,  importance,  Where there was no response  f o r an item,  no score was a s s i g n e d to t h a t item f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r person. Responses on the Q - s o r t p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s c o r e s 9, 8, 7 and 6 most important, second most important, t h i r d most important and f o u r t h most important choices, respectively. were scored 5 each.  A l l remaining  The pre-determined  items  frequency dis-:*  t r i b u t i b n o f items i n each category i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table 1. Where i n d i v i d u a l s had chosen  two items f o r a  r a t i n g , both items were each a s s i g n e d the  score f o r  that r a t i n g .  On the o t h e r hand where i n d i v i d u a l s had  not responded  t o some s c a l e , the score f o r t h a t r a t i n g  was n o t a s s i g n e d t o any item. The LERTAP computer program was used to analyse the L i k e r t - s c a l e responses.  The mean o f the scores on  each item was used to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e  importance  which the s u b j e c t s p l a c e d on t h a t item as a component i n a course f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n teachers. The Hoyt's r e l i a b i l i t y was 0.90. program.  index f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  T h i s was c a l c u l a t e d using the LERTAP compute T h i s program uses the Hoyt method, which i s  based  on  ability  the i n t e r n a l  c o n s i s t e n c y approach  to  reli.^  measurement.  Table Pre-determined  1  Frequency  Items i n each S c o r e  Distribution  of  Category  Scores  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Frequency o f Items  1  1  1  1  27  1  1  1  1  Chapter 4  RESULTS OF THE STUDY  4.1  INTRODUCTION The purpose  o f t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e  those aspects o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n which e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor-educators  i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t -  c o n s i d e r e d as important components o f a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  In this  chapter o n l y the main r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d . S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s about the data can be found i n the Appendices. In t h i s chapter the r e s u l t s are presented under headings which correspond.to the two types o f a n a l y s e s c a r r i e d o u t - a n a l y s i s o f L i k e r t - s c a l e responses and Q - a n a l y s i s o f Q - s o r t responses. As mentioned i n Chapter g r e a t importance importance portance  3, responses  (G.I.), much important  (S.I.) , l i t t l e  importance  indicating  (M.I.), some  (L.I.) and no im-  (N.I.) on the L i k e r t s c a l e items were scored  5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Consequently,  ifa  component has a mean score o f 4.00, respondents g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t i t was o f much importance  ina  47  t r a i n i n g course f o r outdoor-education t e a c h e r s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r e s u l t s on the L i k e r t items i n the Appendix f o l l o w the same o r d e r i n which the components were presented i n the item of the i n strument.  The  s e r i a l number a t t a c h e d to each item i n  the instrument i s p r o v i d e d f o r both a n a l y s e s . t a b l e s c o n t a i n the frequency  The  (f) and percentage  (%)  response as w e l l as the t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s responding to each  item.  In the Q - a n a l y s i s Alphabets  (A-R)  are used  to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s of responses w h i l e s e r i a l numbers are used to i d e n t i f y both the items ( 1 - 3 5 ) of the Q - s o r t and the respondents  (1-69).  In a d d i t i o n to responding to the two  instruments,  39 of the teachers suggested other items and/or wrote comments which v a r i e d i n l e n g t h from one or sentences to one  f u l l page.  and comments are grouped Appendix G and  4.2  two  A l l of these suggestions  together and presented i n  H.  RESULTS 4.2.1  A n a l y s i s of L i k e r t s c a l e Item Responses 4.2.-1.1 Most Important  The  Components  ten most important components as i n d i c a t e d by  the mean scores are presented as Table 2.  The  summary  of the responses of teachers to these items i s presented as Appendix I.  The r e s u l t s  show t h a t ways of making  Table 2  The  Ten Most Important  Components*  COMPONENT  Mean S c o r e  1.  Ways o f m a k i n g s t u d e n t s aware o f t h e i m p a c t o f humans on t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t  4 .48  2.  Ways o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e need t o c o n s e r v e t h e n a t u r a l environment  4 .47  3.  The aims ( o b j e c t i v e s ) education  4 .35  o f outdoor  4 . Methods o f e n s u r i n g t h e s a f e t y o f t h e students  4 .35  5.  A philosophy o f outdoor education  4 . 30  6.  Methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g c l a s s r o o m teaching with outdoor education  4 .27  7.  Carrying setting  4 .27  8.  How t o p r e s e r v e (keep f o r a l o n g the outdoor e d u c a t i o n s i t e  9 .  Teaching strategies education  specific  Facilitating children  interaction  10 .  Ordered  o u t t h e program i n an o u t d o o r  social  i n decreasing  time) 4 .23  to outdoor 4 .21 amongst 4 .16  importance.  students  aware o f t h e i m p a c t  vironment,  a n d ways o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s  need t o c o n s e r v e most i m p o r t a n t outdoor the  students  components.  teachers.  a l o n g time) selected  (objectives) of  methods o f e n s u r i n g  education,  setting,  education  p o n e n t s were t e a c h i n g  classroom  were  (keep f o r  s e t t i n g were t h e n e x t  The l a s t  three  two m o s t i m p o r t a n t  strategies  and f a c i l i t a t i n g  teach-  c a r r y i n g o u t the program  and how t o p r e s e r v e  the outdoor  components.  education,  the safety of  o f outdoor  The methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g  an o u t d o o r  the  components w h i c h were s e l e c t e d by t h e  ing with outdoor in  The aims  and a p h i l o s o p h y  three  understand  t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t were t h e two  education,  the next  o f humans on t h e i r e n -  specific  social  com-  to outdoor  interaction  amongst  children. The  mean s c o r e s  f o r a l l these  t e n components  r a n g e d b e t w e e n 4.4 8 a n d 4.16 w h i c h i n d i c a t e d teachers  generally considered  much i m p o r t a n c e  those  f o r any o u t d o o r  items  education  that  t o be o f course f o r  teachers.  4.2.1.2 The in  Table  L e a s t Important  t e n l e a s t . ' i m p o r t a n t components a r e p r e s e n t e d 3.  The d a t a  w h i c h were p r e s e n t e d  shows t h a t o f t h e 35 components to the teachers,  of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s use  Components  i n teaching outdoor  (e.g.films,  education,  the p r e p a r a t i o n recordings) f o r  a study  o f human  Table 3 The  Ten L e a s t Important  Components*  COMPONENTS  Mean S c o r e  Preparation of audio-visual materials (e.g. f i l m s , r e c o r d i n g s ) f o r use i n teaching outdoor education  3 .18  2.  A s t u d y o f human  3 .20  3 .  School tion  1.  4 . 5. 6 . 7.  .8.  9 .  10.  nutrition  board p o l i c y  on o u t d o o r  educa3 .28  The i m p o r t a n c e o f a b a l a n c e d and attractive diet  3 .31  S c h o o l b o a r d r e g u l a t i o n s on o u t door e d u c a t i o n  3 .32  Adapting prepared (e.g. commercial)  3 .56  outdoor m a t e r i a l s to l o c a l conditions  Methods o f h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i n the outdoors  3 .58  Developing inter-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s (working w i t h each amongst t e a c h e r s  3 . 73  other)  Criteria f o r selecting assistance (e.g. t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , a d u l t s ) f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs  3 .83  The  3 . 87  legal  liabilities  i n the outdoors  * Ordered  i n increasing  importance.  nutrition,  school board p o l i c y  the importance school board sidered  o f a b a l a n c e d and  the  five  least  components w h i c h were r a n k e d  to l o c a l  handling  disciplinary  veloping  inter-personal  other)  important items. low  and  e d u c a t i o n were  in priority  con-  Other as  shown  c o n d i t i o n s , methods o f  problems i n the outdoors, relationships  amongst t e a c h e r s , c r i t e r i a  assistance  (working  dewith  for selecting  (e.g. t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , a d u l t s ) f o r out-  d o o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , and the  diet,  3 were: a d a p t i n g p r e p a r e d o u t d o o r m a t e r i a l s  (e.g. commercial)  each  education,  attractive  r e g u l a t i o n s on o u t d o o r  t o be  i n Table  on o u t d o o r  the l e g a l  liabilities  in  outdoors. The  items,  mean s c o r e s f o r t h e s e  as p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e  3,  ten l e a s t ranged  important  from  8.18  to  3.87.  4.2.1.3 The  results  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s show t h a t  Vancouver school d i s t r i c t "the i m p a c t  o f humans and  environment, cation, ing door and  the need to c o n s e r v e  interaction  and  amongst c h i l d r e n , taught i n the  study s i t e s  c a n be  school  preserved".  to  the  t h e a i m s and p h i l o s o p h y o f o u t d o o r  e d u c a t i o n c a n be the  North  favoured items r e l a t e d  t h e methods o f e n s u r i n g s a f e t y  social  how  teachers i n the  edu-  facilitathow  out-  setting,  Even though the l e a s t important components from the l i s t were i d e n t i f i e d , t h e mean scores f o r these items i n d i c a t e d t h a t the respondents  g e n e r a l l y con-  s i d e r e d t h a t these l o w e r - r a t e d components were a l s o of  some importance  i n a general t r a i n i n g course f o r  t e a c h e r s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . The LERTAP a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the h i g h e s t and lowest scores which were o b t a i n e d i n the ' t e s t ' were 173 and 107 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h a mean score o f 138. The comparison and lowest depending  o f these f i g u r e s with the h i g h e s t (175)  (35) an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d p o s s i b l e o b t a i n on h i s a t t i t u d e to the whole l i s t , r e v e a l s  t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y i n support o f the components p r e s e n t e d to them.  4.2.2  A n a l y s i s o f the Q-Sort 4.2.2.1  The  Type o f Views Expressed  s e l e c t i o n matrix o b t a i n e d i n the Q - a n a l y s i s  showed t h a t there were 18 f a c t o r s of  Responses  (different patterns  p r o f i l e s o f s o r t i n g the items) d i s p l a y e d by the  respondents.  (This i s presented as Appendix D). The  main views were expressed by Types A, B, C, E and F (made up o f 15, 10, 7, 5 and 5 members r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Table 4 shows t h a t members b e l o n g i n g t o Type A can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having strong concerns f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g and implementing  the goals o f outdoor  e d u c a t i o n and a weaker concern f o r items r e l a t e d t o  53  Table 4 Main P o i n t s o f Views E x p r e s s e d TYPE A  B  C  by t h e P o p u l a t i o n  CHARACTERIZATION  BASIS (Items)  Most important:  The p h i l o s o p h y a n d aims o f o u t d o o r 4,7,11,._ e d u c a t i o n , and how t h e s e c a n be 29 implemented  Least important:  Components r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t f e e d i n g a n d how o u t d o o r t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s c a n be p r e p a r e d or adapted  19,20,27 28  Components r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l board p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n s , l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s , and p r e paration of teaching materials  21,22, 24,28  Least important:  Components on t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e environment, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n a n d t h e p h i l o sophy o f t h e p r o g r a m  4,5,11, 30  Most important:  S e l e c t i o n and use o f p e r s o n s , and l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s outdoors  1,2,3, 24  Least important:  F i e l d t r i p conduction, sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a n d how t h e p r o g r a m :n c a n be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o c l a s s r o o m 10,11, t e a c h i n g t o make s t u d e n t s u n d e r 17, 25 s t a n d t h e need t o c o n s e r v e e n vironment  Most important:  :  E  F  Most important:  The p h i l o s o p h y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l e c o l o g y , a n d how s u c h p r o g r a m s c a n 4,5, 11 be e v a l u a t e d  Least important:  Components r e l a t e d t o human nutrition, selecting assistance how t o p r e p a r e , a n d a d a p t m a t e r i a l s to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s  1,19, 27,28  Most important:  L o g i s t i c s , philosophy, f i e l d sampling t e c h n i q u e s and p r e paration ofaudio-visual materials  4,8,12, 28  Least important:  The e c o l o g y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and how t h i s c a n be t a u g h t i n a classroom setting  5,10,11, 29  9,  f e e d i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n o f outdoor materials. For policy  Type B, components r e l a t e d  and r e g u l a t i o n s ,  preparation  amongst c h i l d r e n  as b e i n g o f l e a s t  "Selection was c h o s e n  and t h e  Components on e n v i r o n m e n t a l  interaction  were r a n k e d  liabilities  o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be  most i m p o r t a n t . social  legal  to school board  ecology,  and p h i l o s o p h y  importance.  and u s e o f p e r s o n s  and l e g a l  liabilities"  a s b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t b y members i n  Type C, w h i l e c o n d u c t i n g o f f i e l d  trips,  sources o f i n -  f o r m a t i o n and how t h e p r o g r a m c a n be i n t e g r a t e d classroom  teaching to enable  into  students to understand the  need t o c o n s e r v e the environment were c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f least  importance. Type E c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h a v i n g  cerns f o r understanding  the philosophy,  e c o l o g y and e v a l u a t i o n ,  a n d weak c o n c e r n s  ponents r e l a t e d  t o human n u t r i t i o n ,  selecting  assistance,  materials  to l o c a l  For sampling  strong  con-  environmental f o r com-  criteria for  p r e p a r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n o f  conditions.  Type F , t h e l o g i s t i c s ,  philosophy,  field  t e c h n i q u e s and p r e p a r a t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l  m a t e r i a l s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most components.  Teaching  strategies  i n environmental  e c o l o g y a n d how t h e s e c a n be i n t e g r a t e d t e a c h i n g were r a n k e d  important  as b e i n g l e a s t  into  classroom  i m p o r t a n t by t h e  55  members i n t h e g r o u p .  4.2.2.2 The  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Q-Results  r e s u l t s o f the Q-sort  subjects varied  and l e a s t  important  t h e r e were a s many a s 18  d i f f e r e n t views expressed, of views i d e n t i f i e d , 29)  that the  considerably i n opinion i n selecting  the most i m p o r t a n t F o r example,  indicate  distinctly  and o f t h e f i v e main  s i x components  w h i c h were s e l e c t e d  components.  ( 1 , 4, 5, 28 and  a s b e i n g m o s t i m p o r t a n t by  some g r o u p s were s e l e c t e d b y o t h e r s a s b e i n g important. all  There  types  was no component a g r e e d  least  upon, by  f i v e m a j o r t y p e s a s b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t  or least  important. T w e l v e components 32,  (6,'13,  14, 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 8 ,  33, 34 and 35) c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d  as the  o n e s i n t h a t a l l members i n t h e f i v e m a j o r (groups)  agreed  types.  consensus  types  t h a t none o f them was c o n s i d e r e d a s  b e i n g most i m p o r t a n t major  26, 31,  or least  important  by t h e f i v e  Chapter 5  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1  CONCLUSIONS a) • Teachers experienced i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n  were undecided on what the s i n g l e most important component o f an outdoor e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g program should be.  The teachers c o n s i d e r e d a l l 35 components p r e -  sented t o them as important i n a g e n e r a l outdoor educ a t i o n t r a i n i n g course f o r t e a c h e r s . Even the l e a s t important item i n the whole was i n d i c a t e d as being o f some importance  intthe  ing  items  course.  T h i s suggests t h a t a l l these  list train-  warrant c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the design o f a general-, course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s . b)  The comments suggested by the respondents i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t the l i s t o f components p r o v i d e d was n o t complete  enough.  Other components such as those  ing with lesson plans, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  dealand :.•  s u r v i v a l techniques were added. c)  The t e n most important components i n a g e n e r a l  outdoor e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g course, i n o r d e r o f importance , were:  1.  Ways o f m a k i n g s t u d e n t s aware o f t h e i m p a c t o f humans on t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ;  2.  Ways o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e e d to conserve the n a t u r a l environment;  3.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f o u t d o o r  4.  Methods o f e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s ;  5.  A philosophy o f outdoor  6.  Methods o f i n t e g r a t i n g c l a s s r o o m with outdoor education;  7.  C a r r y i n g o u t t h e p r o g r a m i n an o u t d o o r  8.  How t o p r e s e r v e and m a i n t a i n educational site;  the outdoor  9.  Teaching s t r a t e g i e s education;  specific  to outdoor  Facilitating  interaction  10.  Since  the respondents  were i m p o r t a n t , signed,  social  then,  felt  education; teaching setting;  amongst  children  t h a t a l l o f the items  i fa limited  i t should probably  education;  course  must be d e -  i n c l u d e the t e n t o p - r a t e d  components.  5.2  LIMITATIONS OF THE CONCLUSIONS 5.2.1 The  Generalizability  c o n c l u s i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d w i t h  the r a t e o f r e s p o n s e . tacted ing  responded.  33.1% r a i s e d  sample  Only  a number  due r e g a r d t o  in .the ;  con-  remain-  o f q u e s t i o n s , e . g . was t h e  ( i . e . d i d o n l y those  were i n f a v o u r o f o u t d o o r  Population  6 6.9% o f t h e t e a c h e r s  The l a c k o f r e s p o n s e  self-selective  The  t o t h e Whole  education  who  respond)?  d a t a was u n f o r t u n a t e l y c o l l e c t e d  y e a r when t e a c h e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y  teachers  a t a time o f  b u s y ; a low  response  rate  could reasonably  Since  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s  the average r e t u r n s  from m a i l  exceeded o n e - t h i r d o f the mail-out al.,  questionnaires ( r e f . Hambleton e t  1970) a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 66.9% seemed  acceptable  under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  c l u s i o n s are very population  i n North  5.2.2 This School  study  and t h e above  to-the  was c a r r i e d with  Ghanaian S i t u a t i o n  o u t i n North Vancouver  a view t o p o s s i b l y a p p l y i n g the  i n North Vancouver  areas.  i s different  Ghana i n many r e s p e c t s , e . g . c u l t u r a l l y , economically, cability  e t c . which o b v i o u s l y  essentially  administration.  from  that i n  climatically,  limits  the a p p l i -  i n Ghana a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r  t h e same i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g a n d The e d u c a t i o n a l  systems i n b o t h  have a common h i s t o r y i n h e r i t e d f r o m G r e a t The  The  o f the conclusions.  However, e d u c a t i o n is  con-  Vancouver.  t o Ghana, a n d p e r h a p s o t h e r  situation  reasonably  a p p l i c a b l e to the e n t i r e  Applicability  District,  results  likely  fact.  methods o f t e a c h i n g ,  educational  experiences  same.  I n Ghana t h e r e  within  the e d u c a t i o n a l  teaching  Britain.  m a t e r i a l s , and the  of teachers  i s already  areas  are b a s i c a l l y the  a Canadian i n f l u e n c e  s y s t e m , due t o t h e f a c t  that  many G h a n a i a n s have b e e n e d u c a t e d i n C a n a d a a n d Canadian educators  have t a u g h t  from c o u n t r i e s o t h e r  i n Ghana.  t h a n Canada and G r e a t  Most  teachers  B r i t a i n are  expected  t o undergo a t r a i n i n g  ing  i n Ghana.  two  systems,  of  program p r i o r  Because o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s no s u c h a d d i t i o n a l  training  to teach-  w i t h i n the  i srequired  Canadians. It  seems r e a s o n a b l e  Ghana w o u l d r e s p o n d  to expect  that  teachers i n  i n a s i m i l a r way t o t h e q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e , hence t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f being applicable training  5 .3  teacher-  situation.  RECOMMENDATIONS As  i n the Ghanaian  a result  FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  of this  study  to determine  components f o r a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g education  f o r Ghanaian  additional  important  program i n o u t d o o r  teachers, the following  s t u d i e s are suggested.  1)  R e p l i c a t e the study  i n the Ghanaian  situation.  2)  E x p a n d t h e l i s t o f components t o i n c l u d e more i t e m s s u c h a s t h o s e on s u r v i v a l t e c h n i q u e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , l e s s o n p l a n s and farm s t u d i e s .  3)  F i n d o u t i f t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i t e m s was i n f l u e n c e d by any e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as sex, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , type o f s c h o o l p u p i l s and grade l e v e l o f p u p i l s .  4)  I t i s a l s o suggested that course o r g a n i z e r s conduct p e r i o d i c s t u d i e s to assess the f e l t needs o f t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g the c o n t e n t o f a course o f t h i s nature. 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E d u c a t i o n L e a d e r s h i p , 1977, 34, 7, 545-55  69  APPENDIX A  QUE S T I O N N A I RE : IMPORTANT  COMPONENTS  REQUIRED  PROGRAM I N OUTDOOR  FOR A T E A C H E R - T R A I N I N G EDUCATION  70-7  IMPORTANT COMPONENTS REQUIRED OF A TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAM IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s aimed a t a s s e s s i n g your o p i n i o n about items which you c o n s i d e r to be important components of any t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . For the purpose of t h i s study, outdoor e d u c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as any p a r t of a s c h o o l program o u t s i d e the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , e x c l u d i n g r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . Outdoor e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d i n c l u d e s h o r t nature walks, s t u d i e s i n or near the s c h o o l yard or o v e r n i g h t s t u d i e s i n an outdoor camp. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what e x t e n t you agree w i t h each of the items by checking the r e l e v a n t space b e s i d e the i t e m s .  The d e s i g n of a course i n outdoor f o r t e a c h e r s should i n c l u d e :  educati  CU o C n) •u  U  O o,  & M 4-> cd 0)  u  1.  C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a s s i s t a n c e (e.g. t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , a d u l t s ) f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs.  2.  C r i t e r i a for selecting senior s t u d e n t s ( c o u n s e l l o r s ) f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs.  3.  How t o use r e s o u r c e persons education.  4.  A p h i l o s o p h y of outdoor  5.  Ways of making s t u d e n t s aware of the impact of humans on t h e i r environment  6.  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n ( r a t i o n a l e v a l u e , importance) of outdoor e d u c a t i o n  7.  The aims ( o b j e c t i v e s ) of outdoor cation.  8.  The l o g i s t i c s (e.g. budgeting, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , food) of outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  i n outdoor  education.  edu-  , o . . . .  <U CJ c cd •u  <u O C cd 4->  o  o  u  e M o 3  s  U  &, e  i—i m e o w  cu o d cd 4-1  u  o a. g H 0) iH 4-> 4J •H  cu CJ c cd 4J  u  o a. B M o  The d e s i g n of a c o u r s e i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s should i n c l u d e  9.  Methods of e v a l u a t i n g outdoor  programs.  10.  Methods of i n t e g r a t i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g w i t h outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  11.  Ways of h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment .  12.  F i e l d - s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s (e.g. c o l l e c t i n g , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o r g a n i s m s ) .  13.  G u i d e l i n e s f o r choosing s u i t a b l e o u t door a c t i v i t i e s .  14.  Methods of e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y of the student.  15.  A course i n f i r s t - a i d .  16.  How  to prepare f o r f i e l d  17.  How  t o conduct a f i e l d  18.  How to r e l a t e outdoor e d u c a t i o n t o everyday l i f e .  19.  A d a p t i n g prepared outdoor m a t e r i a l s (e.g. commercial) to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  20.  The importance of a balanced attractive diet.  21.  School board r e g u l a t i o n s on'outdoor education.  22.  School board p o l i c y on outdoor cation.  23.  How t o p r e s e r v e (keep f o r a long the outdoor e d u c a t i o n s i t e .  24.  The l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n the  trips.  t r i p on  site.  and  edu-  time)  outdoors.  u o ft  Im  The d e s i g n of a course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s should i n c l u d e :  cu a C cd 4J  25.  The v a r i o u s sources of i n f o r m a t i o n ( outdoor t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s ) on outdo education.  26.  How to f o l l o w - u p outdoor the c l a s s r o o m .  27.  A study of human n u t r i t i o n .  28.  P r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l (e.g.. f i l m , r e c o r d i n g s ) f o r use i n t e a c h ing outdoor e d u c a t i o n .  29.  Teaching s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c education.  30.  Facilitating children.  31.  Developing i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (working w i t h each other) amongst teachers.  32.  Developing  33.  Doing the same outdoor w i l l be engaged i n .  34.  C a r r y i n g out the program i n an setting.  35.  Methods of h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i n the outdoors.  +j  'CO -CU 5-1  O  CU  q (3  crj 4-1 5-i  O  ft e  i—i  &  CU  a C CO  4J  uo ft g  i—i  o  <D &  s  to  O  cu CJ a  CO 4-1  uo ft  B H CU  rH 4-> 4-1  •H rJ  o  fl  .  n) 4->  uo ft a o  activities  to  outdoor  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst  outdoor  e d u c a t i o n programs. activities  children  outdoor  Examine the l i s t of 35 items and add any one important item you t h i n k has been e x c l u d e d . Your a d d i t i o n becomes No. 36). .Write the item i n the space p r o v i d e d below. 36.  Go back and look a t the whole l i s t ( i n c l u d i n g what you added), and s e l e c t the most important one i n the whole l i s t . Put the number of the most important item on top of the l i n e p r o v i d e d b e s i d e . Do l i k e w i s e f o r your :  73  2nd,  3rd and 4 t h most important c h o i c e s .  Most important Second most important T h i r d most important F o u r t h most important Do l i k e w i s e f o r the f o u r l e a s t  important  items.  L e a s t important Second l e a s t important T h i r d l e a s t important F o u r t h l e a s t important  Comments ( p l e a s e use r e v e r s e i f necessary)  Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n .  74  APPENDIX B  D a i l y Schedule  At  The  North Vancouver Outdoor School  7:00 7:30 8:00 9:00 9:30 11:45 12:00 1:00 3:45 5:00 5:30 6:30 7:30 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:30  a.m.  noon p.m.  R i s e and shine Duties Breakfast Clean-up - d u t i e s h f r e e F i e l d Study I F e t c h 'n' c a r r y Lunch F i e l d Study I I Recreation Duties Supper D a i l y follow-up Evening program Snack Cabins L i g h t s out (Grade 6 & 7) L i g h t s out (Grade 8 & 9)  time  APPENDIX C  i COVER LETTER TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS P i l o t Study #3  76  2* Western Education Development Group J  University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education, Vancouver B.C., Canada, V6T 1W5,  April  20,  1978  Dear We a r e t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t what y o u a s a n o u t door e d u c a t o r would l i k e t o see i n a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g course f o r outdoor education. One o f o u r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , J o s e p h T u f u o r , has p u t t o g e t h e r t h e e n c l o s e d c h e c k l i s t . Would y o u be k i n d enough t o f i l l t h i s o u t so we c a n have y o u r g u i d a n c e t o i m p r o v e o u r p r o grams . Thank y o u v e r y much. Sincerely,  C.J. Anastasiou, Director  CJA/pwg encl.  Vancouver Environment Education Project veep  &  Transit Education Project  (604)228-5385  77  APPENDIX  COVER  LETTER  TO  D  TEACHERS  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WES15ROOK M A L L  V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION  June 15, 1978  Dear  Teacher:  The g o a l of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y those t o p i c s which experienced o u t d o o r - e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r a s e s s e n t i a l components o f any program t o prepare t e a c h e r s of outdoor e d u c a t i o n . These t o p i c s w i l l be c a t a l o g u e d f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e use i n the d e s i g n of a c o u r s e of study i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n t o be i n c l u d e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Ghana. Most of the c h i l d r e n i n Ghana w i l l complete t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t h e end of grade ten. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% of them w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y be engaged i n s m a l l - s c a l e f a r m i n g and f i s h i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s of a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y i n t o which improved technology i s g r a d u a l l y being i n t r o d u c e d . Some of these young a d u l t s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become h e r e d i t a r y and/or e l e c t e d l e a d e r s i n t h e i r communities and they w i l l be expected t o make important d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g environmental ones. H o p e f u l l y , d u r i n g t h e i r s c h o o l i n g we c a n g i v e them some understanding of t h e i r b i o p h y s i c a l environment w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of r e d u c i n g i t s abuse. P l e a s e complete the e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e (15 minutes, or l e s s ) and r e t u r n i t t o me i n the stampled envelope. You c a n be a s s u r e d t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d w i l l be used o n l y i n r e s e a r c h and h e l d i n t h e s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . You or your s c h o o l w i l l n o t be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when the f i n d i n g s a r e p u b l i s h e d . The response of every teacher who r e c e i v e s t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s u r g e n t l y needed. I cannot proceed w i t h my study w i t h o u t the o p i n i o n of e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor e d u c a t o r s . Thank you f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Joseph K. Tufuor  JKT/had enclosure  (student)  APPENDIX E  COVER LETTER TO PRINCIPALS  80  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L  V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T  FACULTY OF EDUCATION  1W5  M  a  1978  y  Dear P r i n c i p a l : I am a M a s t e r ' s degree student from Ghana, e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n science education  I am endeavoring to a s s e s s the o p i n i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor e d u c a t i o n t a a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g the items they f e e l to be of v a l u e i n any t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . I hope t h a t my f i n d i n g s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n p a r t i n t o the d e s i g n of a c u r r i c u l u m f o r elementary t e a c h e r s i n Ghana. E n c l o s e d i s a sample of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which I would l i k e to c i r c u l a t e to your t e a c h e r s . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e the number of c o p i e s r e q u i r e d f o r your s c h o o l on the form i n c l u d e d w i t h the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e . I p l a n to conduct the study as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . Completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be r e t u r n e d d i r e c t l y to me i n unmarked envelopes thereby e n s u r i n g complete anonymity f o r b o t h t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s . Your c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s study w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . help. Yours  sincerely,  Joseph K.  JKT/fmb Encl.  Thank you f o r your  Tufuor  (Student)  81  P l e a s e complete and r e t u r n i n the e n c l o s e d , p r e - p a i d , addressed  Name of S c h o o l :  ;  Number o f your t e a c h e r s who have worked w i t h c h i l d r e n a t N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l f o r a t l e a s t one week P l e a s e i n d i c a t e i f you need e x t r a c o p i e s f o r your personal f i l e .  (No. of c o p i e s needed)  Note: F i n a l r e t u r n s w i l l be made d i r e c t l y t o me by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s u s i n g unmarked e n v e l o p e s , t h e r e b y e n s u r i n g complete anonymity o f t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s . J.K.  Tufuor  envelope.  82  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L  V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION  May 31, 1978  Dear Mr. RE  : Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  Thank you f o r r e s p o n d i n g  Survey  t o my l e t t e r dated May 15, 1978.  E n c l o s e d a r e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which I would l i k e you t o d i s t r i b u t e t o a l l your t e a c h e r s who have worked w i t h c h i l d r e n a t the N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l f o r a t l e a s t one week. F i n a l r e t u r n s w i l l be made d i r e c t l y to me by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s u s i n g the stamped, unmarked e n v e l o p e s . T h i s w i l l ensure complete anonymite of t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s . As you r e c a l l , the purpose of t h i s study i s t o a s s e s s t h e o p i n i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s r e g a r d i n g the items they f e e l t o be of v a l u e i n any t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . I hope t h a t my f i n d i n g s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n p a r t i n t o the d e s i g n of a c u r r i c u l u m f o r elementary t e a c h e r s i n Ghana. Once the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been a n a l y s e d you w i l l r e c e i v e a n a b s t r a c t of my f i n d i n g s . Thank you f o r your  help. Yours  sincerely,  Jospeh K. Tufuor  JKT/had Enclosures  (student)  APPENDI X F  COVERING LETTER TO PRINCIPALS ("FOLLOW-UP" LETTER)  84  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L  V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V 6 T 1W5 PACL!LIT OP E D U C A T I O N  June 23, 1978  L a s t week, q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to you to be d i s t r i b u t e d t o outdoor educators i n your s c h o o l . As you r e c a l l , t h e purpose of t h e study i s t o h e l p i d e n t i f y important t o p i c s i n d e v e l o p i n g a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . I am happy t o i n f o r m you t h a t the response has been encouraging; many t e a c h e r s have a l r e a d y responded. Since we do not know t h o s e t e a c h e r s who have responded i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e a c h them i n d i v i d u a l l y . We s h a l l be g r a t e f u l i f you c o u l d extend our a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l t e a c h e r s i n your s c h o o l who a r e h e l p i n g us i n t h i s study. We know t h a t t h e good response would not have been p o s s i b l e without your c o o p e r a t i o n ; thank you f o r f i n d i n g time t o h e l p u s . When we have r e c e i v e d a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a n a l y s e d the r e s u l t s we s h a l l send your s c h o o l an a b s t r a c t of the study. Thank you f o r your h e l p . Yours  J.K.  DCG/hd  sincerely,  Tufuor  (Student)  APPENDIX G  COMPONENTS SUGGESTED BY TEACHERS  86  APPENDIX G  Responses of Teachers t o Item 36, S o l i c i t i n g A d d i t i o n a l Components L e v e l of i n t e r e s t of teacher(s) i n v o l v e d i n outdoor educationTeaching on developing love of the outdoors. Lesson plans which have been used by o t h e r t e a c h e r s . C r i t e r i a f o r s i t e s e l e c t i o n r e l a t e d to program objectives. Recreational a c t i v i t i e s  ':"  on-site.  F i l m i n g or t a k i n g s l i d e s of students w h i l e they are doing outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . They enjoy s e e i n g these l a t e r on. Provide a s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s to i n t e r a c t d u r i n g the outdoor program. A r i c h s c i e n t i f i c background: b i o l o g y , ecology, geology, f o r e s t r y , e t c . The person thus prepared create suitable c u r r i c u l a .  can  R e l a t i n g what k i d s l e a r n a t outdoor e d u c a t i o n to t h e i r l i v e s a f t e r they leave s c h o o l . Perhaps a knowledge of animals, e s p e c i a l l y farm and domestic animals. Farming and animal products, d a i r y , egg, e t c . are u s u a l l y a p a r t o f most permanent outdoor school s i t e s . P r e p a r a t i o n of campfire sing-songs, games, s k i t s , e t c . S u r v i v a l techniques. H e l p i n g c h i l d r e n to become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n the outdoors. The development of s e l f - c o n c e p t , self-worth i n the outdoors . S a f e t y or s u r v i v a l  studies.  S t a f f should have a r e a l l o v e of the outdoors deep i n t e r e s t i n nature!  and  E f f e c t i v e methods ( a c c e p t a b l e ) o f m a k i n g t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s known t o p e o p l e who make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s i n r e s o u r c e management. Some c o n c e r n level, local Specific Ideas  o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the students background and a b i l i t y .  training  f o r funding  i n outdoor such  age  activities.  activities.  The i n t e g r a t i o n o r ways o f i n t e g r a t i n g o u t d o o r i n every s u b j e c t area the c h i l d takes. O p p o r t u n i t i e s to use the s k i l l s , r e s o u r c e s c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . Developing Learning groups.  education  e t c . with  performance o b j e c t i v e s f o r students.  how  to relate  this  important  s u b j e c t t o a l l age  D e v e l o p i n g a s t r o n g s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f - i m a g e f o r each c h i l d . Workshop f o r t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t i n g c o n c r e t e one c a n use w i t h t h e i r c l a s s .  teaching  ideas  The c o n v e r s e o f #5. Ways o f m a k i n g s t u d e n t s i m p a c t o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t on man.  aware o f t h e  Use o f s k i l l s overnight.  use i . e . :  l e a r n e d t o be p u t i n p r a c t i c a l  A l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t i e s both indoor groups. A n emergency p r o g r a m .  and o u t , s m a l l and l a r g e  88  APPENDIX H  Comments Wade by t e a c h e r s You  seem t o have c o v e r e d e v e r y t h i n g . 1  I f y o u have a p h i l o s o p h y o f o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n i t s h o u l d speak f o r i t s e l f . I t h i n k a l l the items are important. I f e e l t h e i m p a c t o f man on h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e c r u c i a l point. I n c u l c a t i n g a l o v e o f t h e o u t d o o r s seems t h e b e s t way o f e n s u r i n g optimum use.. The ( t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t items s e l e c t e d ) a r e n e c e s s a r y , b u t they would r e q u i r e v e r y little emphasis. I found the second paragraph o f your c o v e r l e t t e r v e r y p a t r o n i z i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a s t s e n t e n c e . Canadians have n o t h e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y a d e p t a t p r e v e n t i n g abuse o f t h e i r own environment. I hope my  r e s p o n s e s a r e o f some h e l p .  I b e l i e v e an a w a r e n e s s o f one's n u t r i t i o n important. Good  i s very  luck!  L e t me b e g i n by t h a n k i n g y o u ' f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a i r my c o n c e r n s a b o u t a s u b j e c t I f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t being outdoor school education. :  about,  a)  I n my e x p e r i e n c e , o u t d o o r s c h o o l s g r e a t e s t d o w n f a l l comes f r o m d i s a g r e e m e n t s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who work t h e r e . M o s t o f t e n because the m a j o r i t y o f people are a s s i g n e d t h e p o s t and d i d n ' t c h o o s e i t f r e e l y , a s a d state of a f f a i r s . You c a n t a k e t h e h o r s e t o t h e w a t e r , b u t y o u c a n ' t make him d r i n k I This s i t u a t i o n comes f r o m t h e l a c k o f s e r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n the. s c h o o l b o a r d d i r e c t s t o w a r d s an o u t d o o r s c h o o l , s u c h as the N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . ' outdoor school.  b)  S e c o n d l y , a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o g r a m n e e d s t o be d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n the H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( c o u n s e l l o r s ) and t h e p e r m a n e n t o u t d o o r s c h o o l staff. Too o f t e n t h e H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s a r e  g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d outdoor s c h o o l a s a r e w a r d f o r p r e v i o u s hardwork o r f a v o r s N o t , on t h e i r p o s s i b l e m e r i t s as a c o u n s e l l o r . Good k i d s and good c o u n s e l l o r s a r e n o t a l w a y s t h e same t h i n g . P e r h a p s a g r e a t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e o u t d o o r s c h o o l and the h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s w o u l d h e l p . ;c) ' I c o n s i d e r o u t d o o r s c h o o l t o be a v a l u a b l e and w o r t h w h i l e e n d e a v o u r on any l e v e l . I hate to see i t n o t r e c e i v i n g the c a r e and s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e i t requires. This  seems t o be  I feel to any #6 A  - An  a very  comprehensive  list.  t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d e d here i s r e a l l y t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g program. appreciation w i l l  good q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  automatically  - questions  important  occur.  easy to  understand.  I t e m 22 and 21 a r e l o c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . The s t u d e n t s i n y o u r p r o g r a m w i l l n o t g e n e r a l l y be aware o f the s p e c i f i c s i n a d i s t r i c t and t h e r e f o r e i t w i l l be q u i t e t i m e c o n suming to u n d e r s t a n d p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s on a p r o v i n c e wide b a s i s . When you c o l l a t e your a n a l y s i s of  t h e r e s u l t s , I w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s )  Sorry, I think they are a l l important. E v e r y t h i n g on t h i s l i s t i s so damn i m p o r t a n t , I c o u l d n ' t r e l e g a t e any them t o o b l i v i o n . Would make a s u p e r c h e c k l i s t f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f a programme!' Satisfactory. Impossible  Everything  to choose the  is  clear.  l e a s t important  This i s a rather well prepared  a very  interesting  ones, b u t  questionnaire.  A c t u a l l y t h i s w a s n ' t t o o p a i n f u l and cause'. Hope i t h e l p s . Sounds l i k e  of  since I believe i n  course.  GoodI  the  APPENDIX I RESPONSES OF TEACHERS TO LIKERT ITEMS  APPENDIX I Responses a)  Responses  Gl  .' 2129.6  o f Teachers  to L i k e r t  o f Teachers  Items  t o Components 1 t o 10  MI  SI  LI  NI ' ' 'T o t a l *  19 26.8  29 40.8  2 2.8  0 0.0 .  71 100.0  3.8.3  Mean**  1.  f %  2.  f %  25 35.2  23 32.4  18 25.4  4 5.6  1 1.4  71 100.0  3.94'.;  3.  f %  18 • 25.4  39 54.9  11 15.5  2 2.8  0 0.0  70 98.6  3.9,9  4.  f %  34 47.9  26 36.6  9 12.7  2 2.8  0 0.0  71 100.0  4 .30  5.  f %  38 53.5  29 40.8  4 5.6  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 99.9  4. 48  6.  f %  20 28.2  33 46.5  16 22.5  1 1.4  0 0.0  70 98.6  3.97"  7.  f %  32 45.1  32 45.1  7 9.9  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 100.1  4.35  8.  f %  20 28.2  31 43.7  14 19.7  5 7.0  1 1.4  71 100.0  3.90  9.  f %  18 25.4  36 50.7  12 16.9  5 7.0  0 0.0  71 100.0  3.94  10.  f %  33 46.5  25 35.2  12 16.9  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  4/27  *Number o f i n d i v i d u a l s **Calculated t o i tern.  responding to item.  from i n d i v i d u a l s  who  responded  92":  b)  11.  Responses o f Teachers  f  % 12.  f .  % 13.  f  % 14.  f  % 15.  f  % 16. . f  % 17.  f  % 18.  f  % 19.  f  % 20.  f  %  t o Components 11 t o 2 0  GI  MI  SI  LI  NI  Total  Mean  38 53.5  28 39.4  5 7.0 ..  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 99.9  4 .47  15 21.1  38 53.5  17 23.9  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 99.9  3.94 ;  18 25.4  36 50.7  17 23.9  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.01j  36 50.7  25 35.2  9 12.7  .1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.35";.  21 29.6  32 45.1  15 21.1  2 2.8  1 1.4  71 100'.0  3.9 9.  20 28.2  38 53.5  13 18.3  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 100.0  4. i o ?  22 31.0  36 50.7  13 18.3  0 0.0  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.13'  24 33.8  26 36.6  20 28.2  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.03?  w  1  :8 11.3  31 43.7  26 36.6  5 7.0  1 1.4  71 100.0  3.56  6 8.5  25 35.2  28 39.4  10 14.1  1 1.4  70 98.6  3.31?  93  c)  Responses o f Teachers to Components 21 to 30  GI  MI  21. f %  10 14.1  22.  f %  23.  f %  17 23.9  SI 32 45.1  LI 10 14.1  NI 2 2.8  TOTAL 71 100.0  10 14.1  17 23.9  31 43.7  10 14.1  2 2.8  70 98.6  3.28 i  35 49.3  19. 26.8  15. " 21.1  2.. .": 2.8  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.23 ;  25 35.2  18 25.4  25 35.2  1 1.4  1 1.4  70 98.6  f %  18 25.4  37 52.1  15 21.1  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  26. f %  24 33.8  28 39.4  17 23.9  .1 1.4  0 0.0  70 98.5  4.01  27. f %  4 5.6  19 26.8  35 49.3  "13 18.3  0 0.0  71 100.0  3.20  28. f %  6 8 .'5  14 19.7  40 56.3  9 12.7  2 2.8  . 71 100.0  3.18  f %  28 39.4  31 43.7  11 15.5  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  4.2L-  30. f %  23 32.4  37 52.1  10 14.1  1 1.4  0 0  71 100.0  4 .16 ;  24. f: % 25.  29.  MEAN 3.32\ .'' ;  ri 3.87' 4.01 ;  94  d)  Responses  of  T e a c h e r s t o Components 31 t o 35  GI  MI  SI  LI  NI  31. •f %  13 18.3  32 45.1  20 28.2  6 8.5  0 0.0  71 100.0  32.  f  25 35.2  34 47.9  10 14.1  2 2.8  0 0.0  71 100.0  33.  f %  27 38.0  29 40.8  13 18.3  1 1.4  1 1.4  71 99.9  34.  f %  32 45.1  27 38.0  11 15.5  1 1.4  0 0.0  71 100.0  4 .27  35.  f %  14 19.7  22 31.0  27 38.0  7 9.9  1 1.4  71 100 ;o  3.:58".  TOTAL  MEAN  • 3.73^';..  4.167 4 .13 \. \  •-  APPENDIX  SELECTION ON  MATRIX  THE B A S I S  OF OF  J  RESPONENTS TYPES  Total*  H O rt to  i—1  O  IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS OF INDIVIDUALS BELONGING TO EACH TYPE OF VIEW. O M 3 \ U l L n W W W N ( O H I - ' l -  H  U  W  W  H  O  O  l  l  >  l - ' H  U  H  l.OD)  P  fl)  o  OMJi+>tOH 0 0 (O v l M 0 0  Hi 4>  OA  <y\  O  ry ro io s  •vj  1  OMji W O vl W  U N v l ON  jv,  JS.  N  4>  to  H Ul .  ftl  m  o  i-3  (_J  w  H  O  ( J i M - ' ( 3 \ 4 >  Ul  u>  H09  cn ftl  vD vO  1—1  4>-  vo  mo  z  o'  v.;  H  X  v o  o  O  3* t) O H3 rt  OA  ho  vl  4>hO  —  h-1  Ul  ho  H  ho  00  4>•vj O n  ho  ft) O H  X  '3::  H  i-3  O • M  ho  h3  UJ  Z'  ho >J  o  - P - (r-J  p to  o> U l UJ  o  Ul  V96  !>  •-3 cn  N>  3  ft)  cn •rJ O 21 D ft]  •P- U J 00 00  •V. ON  < ro  i-9  K >rJ ft) cn  

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