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Essential components of a teacher training course in outdoor education : a survey Tufuor, Joseph K. 1978

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E S S E N T I A L C O M P O N E N T S O F A T E A C H E R T R A I N I N G C O U R S E O U T D O O R E D U C A T I O N : A S U R V E Y by J O S E P H K . T U F U O R B.Sc, (Gen.) (Educ.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, 1972 B.Sc, (Hons.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, 1973 M.Sc, (Bot.) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Science Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard "THE UNIVERSITY' OF B R I T I S H "COLUMBIA November,' 1978 (c) Joseph K. Tufuor, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of Science Education The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date November 1978 ABSTRACT There i s growing concern throughout the world f o r human s u r v i v a l . Outdoor e d u c a t i o n i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system has been i d e n t i f i e d by many e d u c a t i o n a l systems, i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f Ghana, as a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e means o f meeting t h i s g e n e r a l concern. In order to i n t r o d u c e outdoor e d u c a t i o n i n t o the c u r r i -culum, the-need'tc t r a i n t e a c h e r s has become apparent to many o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . Much c o n f u s i o n c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e on outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; there i s a p l e t h o r a of p o s s i b l e components f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programs. In ah. attempt to a s s i s t the p l a n n e r s o f outdoor edu-c a t i o n programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Ghana, t h i s study i n -v e s t i g a t e d those aspects o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n which experienced outdoor-educators i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r e d as important components of a •' teacher p r e p a r a t i o n course. The study conducted i s a type of d e s c r i p t i v e survey, c e n t e r i n g on the c o l l e c t i o n of judgmental data on v a r i o u s components o f an outdoor environmental edu c a t i o n course. Opinions were o b t a i n e d through a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l elementary s c h o o l teachers i n the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t who could be i d e n t i f i e d by th e i r p r i n c i p a l s as having had a one-week, outdoor experience with children at the North Vancouver Outdoor School. The questionnaire was made up of a Like r t - s c a l e and a modified form of Q-sort. The data were co l l e c t e d i n June, 19 78, and the rate of response was: Schools 94% (N=35); Teachers 67% (N=109). The U.B.C. computer LERTAP and a special Q-analysis program were used to analyse the data. The r e s u l t s indicated that: a) The teachers were undecided on what the s i n g l most important component of an outdoor t r a i n -ing program should be. They considered a l l 3 components presented to them as important; b) The respondents suggested about 20 additions to the l i s t of proffered components; c) The respondents ranked the top ten proffered components, i n decreasing order of importance as follows: 1. Ways of making students aware of the im-pact of humans on the i r environment; 2. Ways of helping students understand the need to conserve the natural environment; 3. The objectives of outdoor education; 4. Methods of ensuring the safety of the students; 5 . A philosophy of outdoor education.; 6. Methods of integrating classroom teach-ing with outdoor education; 7. Carrying out the program i n an outdoor setting; 8. How to preserve the outdoor educational s i t e ; Teaching s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c to outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; F a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... ix Chapter 1. THE PROBLEM 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Problem Statement 3 1.2.1 General Problem .. 3 1.2.2 S p e c i f i c Problem 5 1.3 Purpose of the Study 5 1.4 Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 6 1.5 Method of the Study 7 1.5.1 Nature of the Study 7 1.5.2 Development of the Questionnaire 7 1.5.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Questionnaire 8 1.5.4 Return of the Questionnaire... 8 1.6 Background Information .. . . . . . . . 9 1.6.1 The Setting of the Study 9 1.6.2 L i v i n g Conditions 11 1.6.3 Daily Program 12 1.7 Significance of the Study 13 1.8 Assumptions 14 1.9 Limitations of the Study 15 1.9.1 Scope .... 15 1.9.2 Questionnaire 16 -v-Chapter page 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 What i s Outdoor Environmental Education .... 20 2.3 Aims and Objectives of Outdoor and Environmental Education 22 2.4 The Need for Training Teachers .... 25 2.5 The Search for Important Components in a Course for Training Outdoor Education Teachers 26 2.6 Reported Course Components for Training Teachers i n Outdoor Education 2 8 2.7 Components Suggested by Individuals for Training Outdoor Educaiton T63.cli.63rs •••• •••• •••• 31 3. METHOD OF STUDY 36 3.1 Introduction 36 3.2 Development of the Questionnaire .... 37 3.2.1 Preliminary Preparation of the Questionnaire 37 3.2.2 P i l o t Studies 38 3.2.2.1 F i r s t P i l o t Study .... 38 3.2.2.2 Second P i l o t Study ... 39 3.2.2.3 Third P i l o t Study .... 39 3.2.3 F i n a l Preparation of the Questionnaire 39 I 3.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Questionnaires.... 40 3.3.1 Communication with the School Authorities 4 0 3.3.2 Mailing the Questionnaires .... 40 3.4 Return of the Questionnaires 41 3.5 Estimation of Respons Rate 42 3.5.1 Schools 4 2 3.5.2 Teachers 4 2 3.6 Analysis of the Responses 42 - v i -page Chapter 4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4 6 4.1 Introduction 4 6 4*2 S UIts •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• 4 7 4.2.1 Analysis of the Likert-Scale Responses 47 4.2.1.1 Most Important Com-ponents 4 7 4.2.1.2 Least Important Com-ponents 4 9 4.2.1.3 Interpretation of the Results 51 4.2.2 Analysis of the Q-sort Res-ponss s •••• •••• •••• •••« 52 4.2.2.1 Types of Views Ex-pressed 52 4.2.2.2 Interpretation of the Q-results 55 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 56 5.1 Conclusions 56 5.2 Limitations of the Conclusions 57 5.2.1 Generalizability to the Whole Population 57 5.2.2 A p p l i c a b i l i t y to the Ghanaian Situation 58 5.3 Recommendations for Further Research.. 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 APPENDICES 69 - v i i LIST OF TABLES Pre-determined Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Items i n each Score Category.... The Ten Most Important Components .... .... The Ten Least Important Components .... .... Main Points of View Expressed by the Popu-l a t i o n .... - v i i i -A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s m y g r a t i t u d e t o a n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w h o h a v e b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s s i s t i n g m e , i n a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t w a y s , t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s m y s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o m y t h e s i s a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r D . C . G i l l e s p i e , f o r h i s a d v i c e a n d g u i d a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e m e m b e r s o f m y c o m m i t t e e -P r o f e s s o r C . J . A n a s t a s i o u a n d P r o f e s s o r W . B o l d t f o r t h e i r u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s a n d c l a r i f y i n g d i s -c u s s i o n s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e e n d o f t h e J . . \ t h e s i s . I m u s t m e n t i o n h e r e t h e e x c e l l e n t c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , e s p e c i a l l y M r . D o n M c E w e n , t h e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n -t e n d e n t ; M r . C . S h i e l d , t h e o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t o r ; p r i n c i p a l s a n d t e a c h e r s w h o t o o k p a r t i n t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k M r s . C a r m e n d e S i l v a w h o d i s p l a y e d g r e a t p a t i e n c e i n t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . - i x -1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION Throughout the world, there i s growing concern for human s u r v i v a l . Meadows, Meadows, Randers and Behren (1972), and Mesarovic and Pestel (1974), expressed the view that the increasing human population and demands on resources, coupled with dwindling supplies are l i m i t i n g our choices for the future. Using computers in t h e i r projections, they predicted a world catastrophe within the next century unless the problems of a f i n i t e earth are acknowledged by mankind and responded to with adequate solutions. In 1975, the Belgrade Chapter which was unanimously adoped at the United Nations Education workshop ex-pressed the need for a new global ethic. An ethic which espouses attitudes and behaviour for individ u a l s and s o c i e t i e s which are consonant with humanity's place within the biosphere - which recognizes and se n s i t i v e l y responds to the complex and ever-changing relationships between man and nature and between man and man. (Belgrade Charter, 1975, p.57) . The role of schools in developing these concerns has 2 been c o n s i d e r e d by many e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n r e c e n t y e a r s , many programs developed as a r e s u l t . Many problems arose d u r i n g the implementation stages of outdoor or environmental e d u c a t i o n programs. Raymond (1974) r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s are inadequate f o r meeting environmental problems. Smith, C a r l s o n , Donaldson and Masters observed i n 1972 t h a t changing from t e a c h i n g i n a r e g u l a r school c l a s s -room, to t e a c h i n g f i e l d work was extremely d i f f i c u l t . They recommended s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s . In a study conducted by Bateson and Worthing (1976) i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was recommended t h a t the t r a i n -i n g o f both r e g u l a r teachers and i n s t r u c t o r s ( s p e c i a l teachers who teach o n l y a t the outdoor school) was necessary. M i l e s (1970), M i l e s (1971), the r e p o r t on Human S u r v i v a l and E d u c a t i o n (1971), and the i n t e r i m r e -p o r t of Exemplary V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Program (19 73)-i d e n t i f i e d teacher t r a i n i n g as a: c r u c i a l problem needing a t t e n t i o n . I n 1974, Laska r e p o r t e d t h a t an outdoor e d u c a t i o n teacher had to "muddle through" w i t h l i t t l e guidance for a s u i t a b l e c u r r i c u l u m or i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. C h i l d r e s s (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t teacher t r a i n i n g i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e component of any environmental e d u c a t i o n program. Ghana p l a n s to i n t r o d u c e environmental e d u c a t i o n a l i n t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l system and has i d e n t i f i e d the 3 t r a i n i n g of teachers as an esse n t i a l phase i n i t s im-plementation. Much confusion currently e x i s t s i n Ghana and i n the l i t e r a t u r e of outdoor education, because there i s such a plethora of possible components for i n c l u s i o n i n teacher-training programs that the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n appears much confused. In order to a s s i s t the academic planners of courses such as those envisaged by Ghanaian a u t h o r i t i e s , this study sought the opinions of experienced outdoor edu-cators. 1.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.2.1 General Problem Ghana has experienced environmental problems i n recent years. The increase i n human population has necessitated expansion i n food production, r e s u l t i n g i n larger farms. The t r a d i t i o n a l practice..of "shifting': c u l t i v a t i o n " whereby a farmer cleared any suitable part of a forest for farming for a few years, and then moved into new, f e r t i l e forest areas once the s o i l became de-pleted, i s no longer workable. Farmers unable to f i n d new f e r t i l e lands have had to continue to use th e i r old farms. This has resulted i n some farmers demanding .. access to national forest reserves which were set aside for various purposes, such as timber, protection of water-sheds, wild l i f e , and weather protection. Others have adopted new a g r i c u l t u r a l practices,,e .g. the use of 4 commercial f e r t i l i z e r s , without considering t h e i r ecological e f f e c t s . The reckless use of f i s h i n g methods which include chemicals (e.g. D.D.T.) has seriously depleted the supply of f i s h . Rivers and lakes, main sources of the domestic water supply, have been polluted by l o c a l f a c t o r i e s which release t h e i r untreated by-products, such as detergents, into them'f. (Conflicts between up-stream and down-stream dwellers have resulted. The future of the w i l d - l i f e i n -dustry has been endangered by the unwise a c t i v i t y of hunters and poachers. These problems have arisen because the general public does not understand the impact of present modes of l i f e on the ecology of the environment. The public school system has been i d e n t i f i e d as the most e f f e c t i v e tool for influencing public concern for the environment. To this end, i n the new educational structure which w i l l be implemented i n 1980, the incorporation of en-vironmental education i s being considered. A national council has been established to make the necessary pre-parations . The present study w i l l try to gather judgmental data on components which probably ought to be included i n the teacher t r a i n i n g aspect of the environmental education course for Ghana. 5 1.2.2 S p e c i f i c Problems T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d aspects of outdoor e d u c a t i o n which experienced outdoor-education teachers i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r e d as important components of a t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n course. 1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The g o a l o f the survey was to i n v e s t i g a t e those aspects o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n which experi e n c e d outdoor-educators i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r e d to be important components o f a teacher t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Teachers who undergo t h i s type o f ed u c a t i o n are expected to h e l p t h e i r p u p i l s to under- : stand the b i o p h y s i c a l environment i n which they l i v e , w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f r e d u c i n g i t s "abuse". T h i s type of e d u c a t i o n w i l l be o f f e r e d i n what f o r many o f the c h i l d r e n w i l l be t h e i r f i n a l year of formal s c h o o l i n g . Most w i l l subsequently l i v e i n r u r a l a reas. They w i l l be mainly engaged i n smal l s c a l e farming and f i s h i n g i n a de v e l o p i n g country where improved t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s are f r e q u e n t l y being i n t r o d u c e d . E v e n t u a l l y , many of these c h i l d r e n w i l l become t r a d i t i o n a l and/or e l e c t e d l e a d e r s and they w i l l be expected to make im-p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g environmental ones. Hope-f u l l y , we can educate them f o r these t a s k s . T h i s study i s i n i t s e l f p a r t of a l a r g e r study to f o l l o w which w i l l d e a l w i t h the development o f guide-lines 6 f o r a n a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y f o r implementing environmental e d u c a t i o n i n Ghana. 1.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS For a c l e a r e r understanding o f the t e x t , i t was important to d e f i n e s e v e r a l terms, as used i n t h i s study. These terms i n c l u d e : Abuse': unwise use o f a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e . Developing country: a n a t i o n whose average per c a p i t a income i s l e s s than $3,000 a year ( r e f . Stavenhagen, 1975, p . 3 ) . Elementary s c h o o l : an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , w ith grades from k i n d e r g a r t e n to seven as i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n B r i t i s h Columbia; i . e . c h i l d -ren between the approximate ages of f i v e to 13 y e a r s . Environmental e d u c a t i o n : any l e a r n i n g which d e a l s w i t h the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and concepts concerned with man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s c u l t u r e and b i o p h y s i c a l surroundings. (Adapted from Good, 1973). Outdoor e d u c a t i o n : any p a r t of a s c h o o l program conducted o u t s i d e the school b u i l d i n g , e x c l u d i n g r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . (Adapted from Brekke, 1977). R u r a l areas: any human community which has: a) A g r i c u l t u r e . as a major o c c u p a t i o n ; b) A p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s than 2,500 people i n the town; 7 c) A centering of the politico-economic system i n the holding of land. (Adapted from Gould and Kolb, 1964) . 1.5 METHOD OF THE STUDY 1.5.1 Nature of the Study This study constitutes descriptive research. Data for descriptive research i s t y p i c a l l y c o l l e c t e d through mail-questionnaire, interview, or d i r e c t observation (ref. Gay, 1976, p. 10; and Kerlinger, 1973, p. 412) . A mailed-questionnaire was used to c o l l e c t data, and was given to a l l elementary school•teachers i n North Van-couver School D i s t r i c t who had spent at l e a s t one week in the North Vancouver Outdoor School with children. The .subgroup of the population which was studied included a l l teachers who:, could be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s as having the required one-week, outdoor ex-perience. The size of the subgroup was expected to be somewhat less than the population, due to the se l e c t i o n procedure. P r i n c i p a l s might not have known or taken the time to f i n d out which teachers had the necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n and some of the q u a l i f i e d teachers might have declined to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the study. 1.5.2 Development of the Questionnaire Over 100 components, suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , were i d e n t i f i e d . T h i r t y - f i v e of these components were 8 selected, modified into a questionnaire and submitted to three judges for suggestions and assessment of the content v a l i d i t y . The questionnaire, made up of two instruments (Likert scale and Q-sort), was then sub-jected to three p i l o t runs. Further modifications were made and the f i n a l questionnaire (Appendix A) was ci r c u l a t e d . 1.5.3 Di s t r i b u t i o n of the Questionnaire The appropriate assistant superintendent was contacted for permission to conduct the study i n his school d i s t r i c t . His authorization and cooperation en-abled p r i n c i p a l s to be contacted for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaires. 109 teachers were asked to pa r t i c i p a t e i n 3 3 schools. P r i n c i p a l s did the actual d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaire i n t h e i r schools. In a l l cases teachers were asked to complete the questionnaire and return i t i n a self-addressed, pre-stamped envelope. 1.5.4 Return of the Questionnaire The f i r s t set of questionnaires was sent to pr i n c i p a l s on June 15, 1978. By June 26, 1978, 46 teachers had responded and a follow-up was conducted by telephone. By July 12, 71 of the 109 questionnaires sent out had been returned. This represents a response rate of 65%. 9 1.6 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.6.1 The setting of the Study The study was carr i e d out i n June 19 78 i n the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. This d i s t r i c t i s located on the outskirts of the C i t y of Vancouver; i t has 35 elementary schools. "The North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t has the oldest and perhaps the best established r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor education school program i n B r i t i s h Columbia". (McClaren and Ramsey, 19 72) . The outdoor school was established i n 1968 and".... has been a pioneer, as far as th i s Province [ B r i t i s h Columbia] i s concerned, i n the f i e l d of outdoor education" (Stables, 1976). The School D i s t r i c t has leased a s i t e at Paradise Valley, located 14 km north of Squamish, approximately 80 km from Vancouver. The outdoor school i s well equipped; f a c i l i t i e s at the s i t e include: cooking; dispensary; and dining f a c i l i t i e s . Students sleep i n cabins with indoor plumbing, including hot water. The outdoor environment includes forested areas, open : meadows, a variety of plant and animal l i f e , d i f f e r e n t types of s o i l , a r i v e r and a lake. Indoor f a c i l i t i e s include a l i b r a r v , microscopes, other science equipment and indoor games. Members of the outdoor s t a f f include a permanent outdoor school d i r e c t o r , two other teachers who help i n the actual i n s t r u c t i o n , and some non-teaching s t a f f . The non-teaching s t a f f comprises a s e c r e t a r y , nurse, r e c r e a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r , cooks and a maintenance s t a f f f o r the b u i l d i n g s a t the s i t e . Outdoor e d u c a t i o n a l programs are p r o v i d e d through-out the year f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n mainly i n grades s i x and seven i n a f i v e - d a y , r e s i d e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e . There i s a wide v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l programs, e.g. farm a c t i v i t i e s l i k e grading eggs, weighing farm animals, approaching and h a n d l i n g animals/ o r i e n t e e r i n g , s u r v i v a l e x p e r i e n c e s , dancing, l i v e animal t r a p p i n g , e t c . There are twenty-four f i e l d s t u d i e s and u n i t s which have been developed or m o d i f i e d by the s t a f f . In a survey c a r r i e d out by S t a b l e s i n 19 76, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t "there i s s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the p r o -j e c t has been meeting the needs of the v a r i o u s groups" - t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , c h i l d r e n and school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I n t e r e s t e d h i g h s c h o o l students i n grades 11 and 12, some o f whom take community r e c r e a t i o n , are g i v e n on- \ s i t e t r a i n i n g as c o u n s e l l o r s a t the outdoor s c h o o l . The p r o s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s a r r i v e a t the school on F r i d a y evening and leave on Sunday evening. T h i s i s an on-going program which has i n v o l v e d 325 students . : each year s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . S u i t a b l e students are s e l e c t e d from each group to a c t as c o u n s e l l o r s f o r groups of elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 11 1.6.2 L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s From s i x to t e n c h i l d r e n make up a c a b i n group, e i t h e r boys or g i r l s . Each c a b i n group l i v e s i n a separate c a b i n under the l e a d e r s h i p of a t r a i n e d h i g h -s c h o o l student as c o u n s e l l o r . The c o u n s e l l o r i s there to h e l p the c h i l d r e n i n e v e r y t h i n g they do d u r i n g the week a t the outdoor s c h o o l . Each day each student performs a s m a l l share o f the d u t i e s which are important f o r the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the s c h o o l ; e.g. sweep f l o o r s , s e t t a b l e s , serve food, c l e a n d i s h e s , c a r r y firewood, c l e a n up the grounds, f o r e c a s t weather, c a r r y out farm chores and a c t as host or hostess a t meal times. In a d d i t i o n to the g e n e r a l s c h o o l d u t i e s , i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each c h i l d to see t h a t h i s or her bed area and c a b i n i s w e l l maintained. The nurse conducts a d a i l y i n s p e c t i o n of c a b i n s and the c a b i n w i t h the h i g h e s t r a t i n g i s announced a t lunch time. Everyone eats i n the c e n t r a l d i n i n g h a l l . School cooks p r o v i d e good meals; 'seconds' are a v a i l a b l e a t a l l meals and no student goes hungry - snacks are pro-v i d e d . In the d i n i n g h a l l students s i t where they wish. I t i s recommended, however, t h a t they mix as much as p o s s i b l e and meet and make f r i e n d s w i t h boys and g i r l s from other c l a s s e s . Throughout t h e i r s t a y a t the camp, each student wears h i s name tag, making i t e a s i e r to know and c a l l o t h e r s by t h e i r names. 1.6.3 D a i l y Program The outdoor school has a d a i l y schedule (Appendix B ) . F i e l d s t u d i e s are scheduled f o r 9:30 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. to 3:45 p.m. These s t u d i e s con-c e n t r a t e on n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and c o n s e r v a t i o n , and :..;t\:.: students work i n smal l groups. There i s an hour o f r e c r e a t i o n p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s t u d i e s every a f t e r -noon which p r o v i d e s archery, f i s h i n g , swimming, t r a c k s i n g , canoeing, h i k i n g t r i p s and c r a f t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the s p r i n g and f a l l ; snowshoeing, s k a t i n g , c u r l i n g and i c e - f i s h i n g are w i n t e r a c t i v i t i e s . Each evening there i s a v a r i e d program which every c h i l d a t t e n d s . The r e s i d e n t s t a f f prepare the n i g h t l y programs. During campfire, c h i l d r e n s i t together as a c a b i n group w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r , s i n g i n g and e n j o y i n g s t u n t s and s k i t s . Other evening programs i n c l u d e n i g h t h i k e s , square dancing, h e r i t a g e c r a f t n i g h t s , apple r o a s t , and school newspaper p r e p a r a t i o n . A f t e r each evening program they have snacks, r e t u r n to t h e i r c a b i n w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r and prepare f o r bed. E v e r y t h i n g a t the outdoor s c h o o l i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d . A member of the Outdoor School s t a f f v i s i t s each c l a s s b e f o r e the c h i l d r e n come to the s c h o o l . They are i n -formed o f the suggested p e r s o n a l items they w i l l need and how these should be l a b e l l e d . They l e a r n the d i n i n g h a l l procedures, and the outd o o r - s c h o o l r u l e s , through a student's handbook. . A f t e r the week-long stay a t the s c h o o l , the d i r e c t o r v i s i t s the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s -rooms and a s s i s t s the teacher and students with f o l l o w -up a c t i v i t i e s . 1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In 1972, McClaren and Ramsey conducted a survey of outdoor e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They: r e -commended t h a t "There i s a c l e a r need to promote the i n - s e r v i c e and p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d of environmental e d u c a t i o n and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n " (p. 16) . In the follow-up study i n 19 76 by Bateson and Worthing, i t was found t h a t the number of outdoor p r o -grams i n the B r i t i s h Columbia school system had i n c r e a s e d They a l s o found t h a t " T r a i n i n g o f competent t e a c h e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s f o r the outdoors becomes an e s s e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s survey should p r o v i d e some d i r e c t i o n s i n t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l . Areas or i n s t i t u t i o n s which are i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a r t i n g outdoor and environmental e d u c a t i o n programs, such as Ghana, w i l l h o p e f u l l y have something of r e l e v a n c e f o r teachers to begin w i t h . The comments made by teachers may p o s s i b l y a s s i s t e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s i n North Vancouver r e f l e c t on the program being o f f e r e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t . The outcomes may help other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , to d e s i g n i n - s e r v i c e 14 courses f o r elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . H o p e f u l l y , u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s of e d u c a t i o n and c o l l e g e s r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r p r e - s e r v i c e teacher p r e p a r a t i o n i n out-door e d u c a t i o n w i l l compare t h e i r course components and workshops o f f e r i n g s w i t h the f i n d i n g s and make a p p r o p r i a t e changes. C u r r i c u l u m developers i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n may be able to i d e n t i f y some problems teachers p e r c e i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , and design more ; e f f e c t i v e -. c u r r i c u l a . Most teacher e d u c a t i o n programs have been developed by e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d , w i t h minimal teacher i n - p u t . Working w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of time and funds, edu-c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s may r e v i s e t h e i r t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n programs to make them more r e l e v a n t to the problems teach e r s f a c e . S u c c e s s f u l outdoor programs are more l i k e l y to occur i f the i n t e r e s t s o f teachers can be s u s t a i n e d by a course which meets t h e i r p e r c e i v e d needs. Teachers tend to take g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n a course which attempts to p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r p e r c e i v e d needs; more-s u c c e s s f u l outdoor programs may r e s u l t . 1 . 8 ASSUMPTIONS I t was assumed t h a t : a) The experience gained a t the North Vancouver Outdoor School enabled teachers to h o l d o p i n i o n s r e l e v a n t to the needs of a t e a c h e r -t r a i n i n g course i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . 15 b) The respondents possessed a c c u r a t e r e c a l l and p e r c e p t i o n s . c) The q u e s t i o n s were answered a c c u r a t e l y and h o n e s t l y , d) The computer programs which were used f o r the a n a l y s i s were s u f f i c i e n t l y adequate and e f f e c t i v e to analyse the views expressed. e) Those who responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d a f a i r r e f l e c t i o n of the views of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of outdoor-education t e a c h e r s i n North Vancouver. f) The manner i n which the q u e s t i o n s were asked d i d not a f f e c t the v a l i d i t y o f the responses. 1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1.9.1 Scope a) T h i s was a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study o f the views of teachers i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e no trends o r tendencies i n t h e i r views c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d . I t s accuracy can o n l y be assumed to r e f l e c t views a t the time when the study was c a r r i e d out. b) The d e f i n i t i o n o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n was r e l a x e d from those g i v e n i n Chapter two, to i n c l u d e any p a r t of the sc h o o l program o u t s i d e the school b u i l d i n g , e x c l u d i n g r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . A c t i -v i t i e s l i k e s h o r t nature walks, s t u d i e s i n or near the school yard or o v e r n i g h t s t u d i e s i n an outdoor camp were a l l c o n s i d e r e d as outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. c) The c r i t e r i o n used f o r i n c l u s i o n o f a teacher i n t o the p o p u l a t i o n was a one-week experience w i t h c h i l d r e n a t the North Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l . The r e s u l t s r e f l e c t e d the type of outdoor e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e d a t the North Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l . 16 1.9.2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a) I n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d f o r follow-up s t u d i e s , because of the d e c i s i o n t h a t was made to keep the responses anonymous. b) A t t e n t i o n i s drawn to the r a t h e r unusual, f o r c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n used to o b t a i n the s o r t i n g of items by s u b j e c t s . I t was unusual because o n l y extreme o p i n i o n s were sought, emphasising extreme: p o i n t s o f view. c) The average e x p e c t a t i o n of r e t u r n s from m a i l surveys seldom exceeds o n e - t h i r d of the m a i l -out (Hambleton e t a l . , 1970) . G e n e r a l i z e a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s i n such cases may be d o u b t f u l , and t h e r e f o r e the data' must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h g r e a t c a u t i o n . C h a p t e r 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION No m a t t e r what "new" i d e a s a r e p u t f o r w a r d , as was p o i n t e d o u t by Shulman (19 7 4 ) , i t i s l a t e r f o u n d t h a t t h e s e i d e a s have been r e p o r t e d by someone b e f o r e and a c t e d upon p r e v i o u s t o t h e r e p o r t i n g . S u c h i s t h e c a s e w i t h o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n . From t h e s t o n e age many o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e o u t - o f - d o o r s . G r a d u a l l y , e d u c a t i o n a l e m p h a s i s ( p r o b a b l y as a r e s u l t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n ) became more v e r b a l i z e d and l e s s p r a c t i c a l , and l e a r n i n g t o o k p l a c e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n d o o r s , a t a d e s k . Some e d u c a t o r - p h i l o s o p h e r s , however, d i d n o t o v e r l o o k t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u l t i s e n s o r y l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e . From t h i s a g o l d e n r u l e f o r t e a c h e r s must be d e r i v e d : e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d as f a r as p o s s i b l e be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e s e n s e s . E v e r y t h i n g v i s i b l e s h o u l d be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e o r g a n o f s i g h t , , e v e r y t h i n g a u d i b l e b e -f o r e t h a t o f h e a r i n g . O d o u r s s h o u l d be p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e s e n s e o f s m e l l and t h i n g s t h a t a r e t a s t e a b l e and t a n g i b l e b e f o r e t h e s e n s e o f t a s t e and t o u c h r e s p e c t i v e l y . I f an o b j e c t c a n make an i m p r e s s i o n on s e v e r a l s e n s e s a t o n c e , i t s h o u l d be b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h s e v e r a l . . . . (Comenius, 1667, p.95) . 18 In 1780 Heinrich Pestalozzi wrote i n 'Not Books but L i f e I t s e l f : To a r r i v e at knowledge slowly, by one's own experience, i s better than to learn by rote, i n a hurry, the facts that other people know, and then glutted with words to lose one's own free, observant and i n q u i s i t i v e a b i l i t y to study. (Vandenhazel, 1968, p.22). . . .It i s a cardinal p r i n c i p l e of the newer school of education that the beginning of i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be made with the experience learners already have; that t h i s experience and the capacities that have been developed during i t ' s course provide the s t a r t i n g point for a l l further learning. (Dewey, 1938, p. 74) . Sharp (1952) suggested: The school i s not education; we must learn to think of i t as merely the head-quarters from which learning a c t i v i t i e s are directed...There are some things, however, that can be learned better i n the classroom. I t i s merely a matter of selection...In a classroom, subjects tend to become a r t i f i c i a l l y separated from the re s t of the world. One cannot explore housing conditions i n the community without touching history, sociology, health, :\ science and other f i e l d s , (pp. 20-21) . Hammerman and Hammerman (1973) and Voelker (1975) have commented on the need to r e l a t e classroom learning to r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Their view was also expressed by Sharp (1952) i n the statement: "Outdoor education forces the issue of integration i n the curriculum, to study and experience things i n t h e i r t o t a l r e l a t i o n - " ships - one thing to the other." (pp. 20-21) Although r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and his en-vironment i s a major concern of the seventies, i t i s not a recent concern. Lowenthal reported that i n 179 8 Malthus used geometric calculations to predict the over-population of the earth, and Marsh (1864) des-cribed the demise of some of earth's most f e r t i l e lands because of man's abuse. David Lowenthal, expanding on the views of Malthus and Marsh, suggested: The same destructive process - extirpation of forests and w i l d l i f e , over-grazing, a too ambitious agriculture - recurred where-ever c i v i l i z a t i o n had flou r i s h e d . Long ago f e r t i l e and populous, the s t e r i l e Sahara, the rock-stream valleys of Provence and Dauphine, were now f o r l o r n monuments to human greed _o>r .improvidence. (Lowenthal, 1965, p. XVIII). In the past, however, man could always move on to new land. Today he i s running out of new land to "conquer". What does the future hold i n store for us? Mesarovic and Pestel (1976), attempted to show that mankind i s at the turning point. By extrapolation of present trends they predicted world catastrophe i n the next century unless mankind makes a dr a s t i c change i n l i f e s t y l e . They stated: Several c r i t i c a l problem areas have been investigated, i n p a r t i c u l a r the world food shortage, energy c r i s i s , population growth, and the d i s p a r i t y i n economic development. Two gaps, st e a d i l y widening, appear to be at the heart of mankind's present c r i s e s : the gap between man and nature, and the gap between 'North' and 'South', r i c h and poor. Both gaps must be narrowed i f world-shattering 20 c a t a s t r o p h e s are to be avoided; but they can be narrowed on l y i f g l o b a l ' u n i t y ' and ea r t h ' s ' f i h i t e n e s s ' are e x p l i c i t l y r e -cognized . (19 76, p. IX) . The assumption has been made i n t h i s study t h a t the concern f o r the f u t u r e i s w e l l founded. However, even i f t h e i r c a t a s t r o p h i c p r e d i c t i o n s are wrong, the h o l i s t i c or environmental a t t i t u d e w i l l continue to be ver y v a l u a b l e to c i t i z e n s i n our d i m i n i s h i n g world. On educat i o n , Reischauer s t a t e s : The q u e s t i o n remains: What can e d u c a t i o n do about a l l t h i s ? C l e a r l y , not e v e r y t h i n g . I would be the l a s t to suggest t h a t a world community can be developed through any s i n g l e master p l a n , much l e s s ,a p l a n l i m i t e d to the f i e l d of educa.tion. But education c e r t a i n l y must be p a r t of the e f f o r t - a c r u c i a l p a r t , i n f a c t . What-ever may be one's a n a l y s i s o f the road ahead f o r mankind, there can be no doubt -'. t h a t e d u c a t i o n f a c e s some stupendous t a s k s . (1974, p. 135) . Margaret Mead d e s c r i b e s the e d u c a t i o n a l dilemma as f o l l o w s : We must educate people i n what nobody knew yes t e r d a y and prepare people i n our sc h o o l s f o r what no one knows y e t but which some people must know tomorrow. (In Mclnnes & A l b r e c h t , 1975, p.51) . 2.2 WHAT IS OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION? D e f i n i t i o n s o f outdoor and of environmental edu-c a t i o n u s u a l l y g i v e n are ambiguous. The two terms augment each other and are sometimes c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a -l e n t (Hungerford, 1975; Leopold, 1966). They are a l s o used synonymously with such other terms as, c o n s e r v a t i o n education, science education, a g r i c u l t u r a l education, outdoor recreation, camping education, nature study, biology, ecology, resource management education, m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y education, and ecography (ref. Hammerman and Hammerman, 1973; Schoenfeld, 1971; Roth, 1970; Educational Product Report, 19 70; Hafner, 19 70; and Balzer, 1971) . Hammerman and Hammerman (1973) have defined out-door education as "the u t i l i z a t i o n of the out-of-doors as a laboratory for learning" and considered i t i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y i n character. Donaldson and Donaldson (1968) described outdoor education as "education i n , about and for the outdoors).'" They considered that out-door education takes place i n the outdoors, i s about the outdoors and provides a "positive and moral approach" to intera c t i n g with the outdoors. Smith, Carlson, Reynold, Donaldson and Masters added to t h i s idea that outdoor education i s , ...not a separate d i s c i p l i n e with prescribed o b j e c t i v e s . . . i t i s simply a learning climate o f f e r i n g opportunities for d i r e c t laboratory experiences i n ide n t i f y i n g and resolving r e a l - l i f e problems... (1972, p.20) . According to Balzer (1971), "a widely acceptable d e f i n i t i o n i s not available at the present time" for environmental education. As mentioned above, i t i s considered to be synonymous with outdoor education. Good (19 73) defines environmental education as learning which, "...deals with the c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and concepts concerned with man's r e l a t i o n -s h i p to h i s c u l t u r e and b i o p h y s i c a l surroundings 1."" Since World War I I , educators have r e t u r n e d to the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a b s t r a c t l e a r n i n g must be a i d e d and r e i n f o r c e d by c o n c r e t e experiences ( r e f . Vanden-h a z e l , 1968). The l a t e L.B. Sharp, e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f the Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Centre A s s o c i a t i o n , Carbondale, I l l i n o i s , whose w r i t i n g s were the b a s i s of Vandenhazel's d e f i n i t i o n , d i d not c o n s i d e r outdoor e d u c a t i o n to be an area of l e a r n i n g nor a separate d i s c i p l i n e w i t h s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s . To him " t h a t which can b e s t be l e a r n e d i n -s i d e the classroom should be l e a r n e d t h e r e . That which can b e s t be l e a r n e d i n the out-of-doors through d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , d e a l i n g with n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s and l i f e ..:. • s i t u a t i o n s , should there be l e a r n e d . " (Quoted from Vandenhazel, 196 8, p.22). I t appeared t h a t the use of the term "outdoor e d u c a t i o n " by North Vancouver teachers encompassed Good's (1973) d e f i n i t i o n of "environmental e d u c a t i o n " . Since the study was conducted w i t h i n t h a t d i s t r i c t , the term "outdoor education" was used throughout t h i s r e p o r t . In Ghana, this^ame type of e d u c a t i o n i s termed "en-vironmental e d u c a t i o n * " 2.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF OUTDOOR EDUCATION The aims of the San Diego Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program !23 were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of many -outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. These aims i n c l u d e d : 1. To h e l p people r e l a t e to a n a t u r a l en-vironment and understand n a t u r a l f o r c e s ; 2. To help each c h i l d to become a more com-p l e t e person, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y ; 3. To gi v e c h i l d r e n experiences they would not otherwise have had; 4. To help each c h i l d become more independent, more mature and more competent i n s k i l l s and knowledge; 5. To help c h i l d r e n view the world i n a way of q u e s t i o n i n g , wondering, d i s c o v e r i n g and s o l v i n g problems; 6. To g i v e each c h i l d o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work a t c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s ; 7. To l i v e w i t h and get to know oth e r c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t r a c e s , economic l e v e l s and c u l t u r e s ; 8. To l e a r n about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and how to look a f t e r h i m s e l f . (Schram, 1969, p.35) . R u s s e l l saw s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s but added another one: "To help c h i l d r e n see a d u l t s as l e a r n e r s who have b a s i c human q u a l i t i e s i n common w i t h a l l people" (1973, p. 126) . S t i l l another g o a l o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n was t h a t of s t i m u l a t i n g and enhancing classroom l e a r n i n g : Teachers who have gi v e n outdoor e d u c a t i o n a t r i a l are q u i t e emphatic i n s a y i n g t h a t i t improves the chances of mutual t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e . And they say, f u r t h e r , t h a t when they go back i n t o the indo o r classroom with those same students, much of the s t i f f n e s s has gone out of the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , to be r e p l a c e d by a new k i n d o f eagerness never b e f o r e seen w i t h i n those w a l l s . (Sharp, 1952, p.21) . The objectives and benefits of outdoor education as seen by Orford are: "People of d i f f e r e n t backgrounds l i v i n g together i n a natural:outdoor setting, make 'out-door education' an ideal medium for meeting such edu-cational objectives as cooperation; i n d i v i d u a l and group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; written, o r a l and graphic communications analyzing and solving problems; knowledge about man and the environment; as well as the development of s k i l l s and attitudes for l e i s u r e activities,.", (Orford, 19 72, pp. 64 , 65) . In 19 75 an international workshop was held under the auspices of the United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and Cultural Organization (U.N.E.S.C.0) . This workshop resulted i n the Belgrade Charter en-t i t l e d "A Global Framework for Environmental Education." This framework for outdoor education was directed at the general public with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the formal education of young people and teachers: Environmental Education: Goal and Objectives. The goal of environmental education i s : To develop a world popu-l a t i o n that i s aware of, and concerned about, the environment and i t s associated problems, and which has the knowledge, s k i l l s , attitudes, motivations and commit-ment to work: i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , toward solutions to current problems, and the prevention of new ones. The objectives of environmental education r e l a t e to help-ing both indiv i d u a l s and groups to: acquire awareness of and knowledge about the en-vironment and i t s a l l i e d problems; to acquire new s o c i a l attitudes of concern that w i l l motivate active p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; to acquire the s k i l l s for solving problems; to be able to evaluate environmental 25 measures and e d u c a t i o n programmes i n terms of e c o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , a e s t h e t i c a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n to s o l v e problems. Guiding P r i n c i p l e s . Environmental E d u c a t i o n should: 1. C o n s i d e r the environment i n i t s t o t a l i t y ; n a t u r a l and man-made, e c o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , l e g i s l a t i v e , c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c ; 2. Be a continuous l i f e l o n g process both i n -s c h o o l and o u t - o f - s c h o o l ; 3. Be i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n i t s approach; 4. Emphasize a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i n g and s o l v i n g environmental i s s u e s ; 5. Examine major environmental i s s u e s from a world p o i n t o f view, while paying due r e g a r d to r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; 6. Focus on c u r r e n t and f u t u r e environmental s i t u a t i o n s ; 7. Examine a l l development and growth from an environmental p e r s p e c t i v e ; 8. Promote the value and n e c e s s i t y of l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the s o l u t i o n of environmental problems. (Belgrade C h a r t e r , 1975, p.58) . A f i r s t step i n r e a c h i n g these g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s appears to be the development of an environmental aware-ness which may b e s t be achieved through outdoor edu-c a t i o n which b r i n g s the students i n t o d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r environment. 2.4 THE NEED FOR TRAINING TEACHERS The need to t r a i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n teachers has been expressed by many organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s . Some of the international publications (report, work-shops, conferences) which have i d e n t i f i e d teacher tra i n i n g as necessary for providing e f f e c t i v e outdoor education programs i n schools include the following: the Seminar on Training of Teachers (1970); the Human Survival and Education Report (19 71); European Working Conference on Environmental Conservation Education (1972); interim report of the Exemplary Vocational Edu-cation Program... (1973); Evaluation Report on Outdoor Education (1974); report of the Workshop on Environ-mental Science Education (1974); and the Belgrade Charter (1975). The same general view has been expressed by i n -dividuals l i k e Miles (1970/ 1971); Smith, Carlson, Donaldson and Masters (1972); Childress (1973); Laska (1974); and Raymond (1974). In B r i t i s h - Columbia, the need to t r a i n teachers for outdoor education was recommended by McClaren and Ramsey (1972); and Bateson and Worthing (1976) . Staples (1976) made the same suggestion i n the study he conducted i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . 2.5 THE SEARCH FOR IMPORTANT COMPONENTS IN A COURSE  FOR TRAINING OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS Sutman (1972) and Burdin (1972) have both suggested the need to i d e n t i f y relevant components i n a teacher-tr a i n i n g course i n outdoor education. Sutman reported t h a t "a smal l amount o f ... a c t i v i t y i n environmental e d u c a t i o n i s o c c u r r i n g now; y e t the s t a t e o f the a r t i s not c l e a r ? " He suggested t h a t , "Teacher e d u c a t i o n cannot and should not w a i t f o r the r e s u l t s o f a com-pa r a b l e study of on-going environmental e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y " , but t h a t "today, we must be concerned enough to stand back and examine what the commitment o f teacher e d u c a t i o n ought to be to environmental e d u c a t i o n . We as teacher p r e p a r a t o r s [educators] must pause i n o r d e r to ga i n p e r s p e c t i v e and i n f u s e the e d u c a t i o n a l system w i t h the r i g h t e n e r g y - c a t a l y s t combination...".. B u r d i n (19 72) noted t h a t there were many sugges-t i o n s o f what should be i n c l u d e d i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s . He s t a t e d t h a t "the novice i n environmental s c i e n c e , technology and educa t i o n i s f l o o d e d by p r i n t e d matter on environmental problems and e d u c a t i o n , some produced by persons who have been i n v o l v e d f o r years i n p r o f e s s i o n a l endeavours, o t h e r s l e s s seasoned. The a r r a y o f m a t e r i a l s can e a s i l y c r e a t e f r u s t r a t i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y as to what a c t i o n s are d e f e n s i b l e , d e s i r a b l e , and f e a s i b l e . T h i s can l e a d to i n d e c i s i v e and unproductive o r to emotional and haphazard r e a c t i o n s , to our environmental c r i s e s . A b l e n d i n g o f s t r o n g concerns, i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c r e s -ponses, and competent p r o f e s s i o n a l i n p u t i s needed". Raymond (19 74) r e p o r t e d t h a t very l i t t l e work had been done by way of r e s e a r c h i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Few m a t e r i a l s were found on r e s e a r c h i n teacher t r a i n -i n g , such as Pike (19 73) who compared teachers u s i n g the i n q u i r y method wi t h those who d i d not use the method i n t e a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Brekke (19 77) f o r example, examined the ext e n t to which teachers were prepared f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n i n the Yukon a r e a . P a r t of the study by Bateson and Worthing (1976) was s i m i l a r to t h i s study i n t h a t they t r i e d to i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c type o f i n - s e r v i c e d e s i r e d by outdoor e d u c a t i o n teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and c l a s s i f i e d them. Most o f the l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on teacher edu-c a t i o n are course components which are i n use i n i n -s t i t u t i o n s which prepare teachers f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n , and suggestions from i n d i v i d u a l s working i n the area of outdoor e d u c a t i o n . 2.6 REPORTED COURSE COMPONENTS FOR TRAINING TEACHERS  IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION Leyendecker (196 6) l i s t e d the components o f the New Mexico 4-H l e a d e r s h i p course which i n c l u d e d : working wi t h youth; the p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s ; t e a c h i n g techniques; and t e a c h i n g methods. Yeater (1967) r e p o r t e d t h a t the C a r t e r e t outdoor p r o j e c t i n c l u d e d : d i r e c t e d -d i s c o v e r y t e a c h i n g method, f i e l d - o r i e n t e d approach; making a u d i o - v i s u a l : m a t e r i a l s ; p l a n n i n g ; o r g a n i z a t i o n ; p r a c t i c a l f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e s ; and a follow-up i n the classroom to review the outdoor work. Busch (1969) mentioned t h a t the Sc i e n c e P r o j e c t R e l a t e d to Upgrading C o n s e r v a t i o n E d u c a t i o n course f o r teachers i n c l u d e d : the i n q u i r y approach; i n t e g r a t i o n of outdoor a c t i v i t i e s w i t h classroom a c t i v i t i e s ; i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n o f resources a v a i l a b l e i n te a c h i n g outdoor education; and camp program development. The Mi n n e a p o l i s Independent School programs (19 70) i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g methods, and how games were used to i n t r o d u c e some environmental concepts. M i l e s (1970, 1971) d e s c r i b e d the Sedro-Wooley School program which i n c l u d e d w r i t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , and how a teacher can i n v o l v e students i n outdoor i s s u e s . P l a n n i n g o f f i e l d t r i p s •:• was the major theme of the Escambia and Santa Rosa County Sc h o o l , as r e p o r t e d by Montgomery and Smith (1972) . The Wisconsin Environmental E d u c a t i o n I n -s e r v i c e P r o j e c t (1972) covered the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s and knowledge, goals and o b j e c t i v e s , i n s t r u c -t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , d e f i n i t i o n of environmental edu-c a t i o n , and how to use c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n the l o c a l s e t t i n g . The Chadron S t a t e C o l l e g e program (1972) i n -clud e d : p r e p a r a t i o n and condu c t i o n o f f i e l d t r i p s i n an outdoor s e t t i n g ; development of outdoor c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s ; o b j e c t i v e s o f outdoor programs; and e v a l u a -t i o n procedures used i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Roth (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t the Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program emphasised the philosophy, objectives and f a c i l i t i e s for environmental education. Holtz (1974) mentioned that the tra i n i n g course for outdoor teachers i n Concordia College i s organized in an outdoor s e t t i n g . Students are taught the objectives of outdoor education, and are expected to observe teaching outdoor programs and then develop some a c t i v i t i e s and materials themselves. Lohart and A l l e n (1976) reported that the North F l o r i d a course included development of teaching materials and s k i l l s ; d e f i n i t i o n of conservation; development of programs; and doing the a c t i v i t i e s i n which children w i l l be engaged. In The University of B r i t i s h Columbia course Ed4 04 (1978), the following components were i d e n t i f i e d : the use of demonstrations; use of games and analogies; teaching techniques; use of audio-visual materials; i n -formation on sources of teaching materials; evaluation techniques; development of curriculum materials; and p r a c t i c a l involvement i n trying some of the units a v a i l a b l e . The Ed380 (1978) course involved objectives, procedures and evaluation of outdoor education work; development of interpersonal relationships; f i e l d sampling techniques;* selection of outdoor education :' project materials; l o g i s t i c s of planning f i e l d t r i p s ; safety methods; and f i e l d experiences i n practicing.: • outdoor a c t i v i t i e s (ref. Forster, 1978) . 2.7 COMPONENTS SUGGESTED BY INDIVIDUALS FOR  TRAINING OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS The l i t e r a t u r e i s s a t u r a t e d with components which have been suggested by i n d i v i d u a l s . In 1964, Brown and Mouser p u b l i s h e d t h e i r book on f i e l d methods and techniques and suggested the f o l l o w i n g components: p r e p a r a t i o n of f i e l d t r i p s ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n or t r y i n g out outdoor a c t i v i t i e s ; development of i n v i d i d u a l s t u d i e s ; how to r e c o r d and r e p o r t f i n d i n g s ; making f i e l d c o l l e c t i o n s ; and techniques f o r the c o l l e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f organisms. B u r d i n (1970) suggested t h a t outdoor-education teachers should be exposed t o : how outdoor e d u c a t i o n can be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the school c u r r i c u l u m ; the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e such as p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , media, people and p l a c e s ; t e a c h i n g methods; and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among people. Hammett (1970) suggested the s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r s as c o u n s e l l o r s ; t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n ; p r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s ; h e a l t h and s a f e t y procedures; and management o f food, as compo-c .' nents which can help t r a i n outdoor t e a c h e r s . There were many suggestions made i n 1971. In the resource guide f o r elementary and secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , Lundstrom (1971) p r o v i d e d resource agencies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; . c u r r i c u l u m programs a v a i l a b l e , and a b i b l i o g r a p h y of l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , which suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s needed those components f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g of outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Jungblom (1971) argued that since many curriculum materials did not f i t equally well into other settings and needed adapta-tio n , teacher t r a i n i n g courses should include pre-paration for such a c t i v i t i e s . The Human Survival and Education Report (1971) also suggested adaptation of curriculum materials, and other components such as the philosophy of outdoor education/ development of materials, and how to teach problem-solving curriculum materials. Lines and Bolwell (1971) suggested ways of evaluating children's progress, and ways i n which teachers could extend and develop t h e i r own knowledge and techniques. There were many additional suggestions offered i n 1972, as shown by the writings of Sutman, Bauer, Burdin, Standley, and K a l l a . Sutman suggested that teachers i n t r a i n i n g be confronted with materials that w i l l place them i n problem-oriented situations, where they could gain experience i n making both i n d i v i d u a l decisions and contribute to group discussions. In-cluded i n the a r t i c l e were other components such as the methodology (teaching strategies) s p e c i f i c to outdoor education'••. learning through involvement and decision making. Bauer suggested that a t r a i n i n g course for outdoor education teachers should cover: involvement i n the a c t i v i t i e s which the children would be involved i n , and experiencing the t r a n s l a t i o n of ideas into action; teaching methodology; planning and c a r r y i n g out f i e l d t r i p s and o t h e r outdoor a c t i v i t i e s ; p r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s ; and t r a i n i n g i n the r e c o g n i z a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the l o c a l community. B u r d i n (1972) a l s o suggested t h a t teachers should be i n v o l v e d i n and exposed to the a c t i v i t i e s i n which c h i l d r e n would be engaged, t e a c h i n g methods, and s c h o o l board p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . S t a n l e y (1972) recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e p r e p a r a t i o n and use of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , while K a l l a (1972) suggested how to develop "good" i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a l l i n v o l v e d i n out-door programs, i . e . ^ s t u d e n t s , teachers and resource persons. Pike (1973) recommended the use of the i n q u i r y t e a c h i n g method, c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , and the use o f f i l m s i n t e a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Pearson and Hayden (197 3) i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s be t r a i n e d to w r i t e and implement packages i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . In 1974. Salee-. and R i c e suggested the use of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s i n t e a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Salee a l s o suggested t h a t t e a c h e r ' s enthusiasm should be i n c r e a s e d f o r s t u d y i n g outdoor problems. Leyh (1974) d i d not s p e c i f y components as such, but d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l how an outdoor e d u c a t i o n t r i p was o r g a n i z e d . H i s method was r e p o r t e d as being 34 s u c c e s s f u l , and suggested t h a t o t h e r t e a c h e r s t r y i t . The components may o n l y be deduced. They i n c l u d e d : l o g i s t i c s of f i e l d t r i p s ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t of students; s h a r i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; c o l l e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f i e l d specimens. Thomsen (1975), G a l l a g h e r and o t h e r s (1975) suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s should p r a c t i c e the outdoor a c t i v i t i e s themselves. G a l l a g h e r and o t h e r s (1975) added other components such as: the overview ( p h i l o -sophy) ; o b j e c t i v e s ; e v a l u a t i o n methods; and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p . K e l l y (1975) suggested t h a t teachers i n t r a i n i n g should be taught how the g o a l s of outdoor e d u c a t i o n can be a c h i e v e d . Four a r t i c l e s , produced i n 1975, were found on the s u b j e c t . Eder suggested the i n c l u s i o n o f f i r s t -hand p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . Corcoran (1976), i n a model program, i n c l u d e d : development of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s ; small group workshops; use of f i l m s ; book d i s c u s s i o n s ; and o u t - o f - c l a s s w r i t i n g of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . Saveland (1976) suggested c u r r i c u l u m de-s i g n ; t e a c h i n g methods; exposure to t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e ; t e a c h i n g media to be used; e v a l u a t i o n procedures; and how to i n v o l v e and s e l e c t youth and community personnel i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . King and Da l a Sota (1976) suggested t h a t outdoor teachers should know how to i n t e g r a t e outdoor a c t i -v i t i e s i n t o the e x i s t i n g school c u r r i c u l u m , and the o b j e c t i v e s and use o f t h e l o c a l community as a r e s o u r c e . An i n - s e r v i c e s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by Z i g a r m i , B e t z and J e n s e n (1977) showed t h a t t e a c h e r s want t o i n -t e r a c t among t h e m s e l v e s and s h a r e i d e a s . I n summary, t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h e d e s i r -a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The n e e d f o r t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n o u t d o o r - e d u c a t i o n a l pedagogy was c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d . The r a n g e o f s u g g e s t e d components t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s was b r o a d ( i n e x c e s s o f 100). T h e s e components c o u l d be g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n c e p t s , t e a c h i n g methods, and n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s . T h e r e was no a p p a r e n t p r i o r i t i z a t i o n o f t h e t o p i c s w i t h i n any o f t h e s e g r o u p s . 36 Chapter 3 METHOD OF STUDY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of the study was to investigate those aspects of outdoor education which experienced outdoor-educators i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t considered to be important components of a teacher-training course i n outdoor education. I t was decided to develop and ad-minister a questionnaire to elementary school teachers i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t who had had at lea s t one week experience i n the teaching of outdoor education. The survey was planned to determine p r i n c i p a l l y the following: a) The extent to which teachers 1 agreed with the incorporation of each of a pool of possible components into any teacher-training program i n outdoor education; b) Which components they considered to be most important and lea s t important from the pool of topic components; c) Any topic components which they considered to be important apart from those provided; d) Any"comments teachers may have regarding the inc l u s i o n and exclusion of components. 3.2 DEVELOPMENT OF: THE QUESTIONNAIRE 3.2.1 Preliminary Preparation of the Questionnaire Because no sa t i s f a c t o r y questionnaire could be found in the - l i t e r a t u r e , an appropriate one had to be developed and refined. Over 100 components suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e were i d e n t i f i e d . The sources included the Journal of Environmental Education, A Study of Out-Door Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Educational Research Information Centre, Programs in Environmental Education and teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n outdoor and environ-mental education at U.B.C. (e.g. U.B.C. course, Ed. 380, r e f . Forster 1978) . Components which seemed to be applicable or suitable for environmental education i n the ;Ghana-ia-n v. s i t u a t i o n were selected. (Components related to recreational a c t i v i -t i e s , for example, were s p e c i f i c a l l y dropped, since t h i s aspect would not be acceptable i n the Ghanaian s i t u a - i tion.) F i n a l s election of any one component was made upon the mutual agreement of the researcher and his re-search advisors. The questionnaire was submitted to four, judges who are f a m i l i a r with teacher t r a i n i n g programs i n outdoor and environmental education. Their judgements and approval established the content v a l i d i t y of the questionnaire. 3.2.2 P i l o t S t u d i e s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t e d three times. These p i l o t s t u d i e s improved the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by adding to the c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l items. 3.2.2.1 F i r s t P i l o t Study With the p e r m i s s i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n o f one of the U.B.C. i n s t r u c t o r s , a t h i r d year, r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n c l a s s o f 16 students was used. The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the approximate time needed to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , any word a m b i g u i t i e s and/or misunderstandings. Each student was g i v e n a copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked to respond to i t i n the presence of the r e s e a r c h e r . These s u b j e c t s were i n v i t e d to w r i t e comments about i n d i v i d u a l items and to suggest ways o f improving the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A f t e r the s u b j e c t s had responded to the question--, n a i r e , comments and suggestions were d i s c u s s e d w i t h the whole c l a s s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d and anal y s e d to check on the r e l i a b i l i t y ( i n t e r n a l con-s i s t e n c y ) and s u i t a b i l i t y o f the items, u s i n g the LERTAP computer program. 3.2.2.2 Second P i l o t Study I t was necessary to conduct another p i l o t study s i n c e the f i r s t p i l o t group d i d not have formal t r a i n i n g or exposure t o the t e a c h i n g o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n . The 39. second p i l o t study was conducted on ten, fourth-year education students in the Faculty of Education who had just completed a course i n the teaching of outdoor education (Ed. 380). The questionnaire was admi-nistered by a teaching assistant who knew the students; provision was made for comments and suggestions. A l l questionnaires were returned and analysed as before. 3.2.2.3 Third P i l o t Study The purpose of the t h i r d p i l o t study was to try the questionnaire on people who were more representative of the actual target population. That t h i r d p i l o t group was made up of about 30 experienced outdoor education teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia who attended a week-end workshop. The questionnaires were sent to the teachers by mail, through the Vancouver Environment Education o f f i c e , together with covering l e t t e r s (Appendix C) and self-addressed, pre-paid envelopes; provision was made for suggestions arid comments. Twenty-one of the 30 questionnaires (70%) were returned and analysed as above. 3.2.3 F i n a l Preparation of the Questionnaire Following the suggestions and comments obtained from the p i l o t studies and consultants the questionnaire was f i n a l l y revised. Some items were modified. The f i n a l three-paged questionnaire was made up of a L i k e r t - s c a l e component and a modified form of Q-sort (Appendix A). Provision was made for an additional item and comments to be added by the respondent. The questionnaires were printed and packed. Each packet consisted of a copy of the questionnaire; a return, self-addressed stamped envelope and a covering l e t t e r . The covering l e t t e r explained to the teacher the pur-pose of the study and assured him/her of complete anonymity (see Appendix D). 3.3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 3.3.1 Communication with School Authorities In May 1978, the appropriate assistant superin-tendent was contacted for permission to conduct the study i n his school d i s t r i c t , i n accordance with d i s t r i c t p o l i c y . His authorization and cooperation enabled schools to be contacted. With the help of a l i s t of names and mailing addresses of school s t a f f members, p r i n c i p a l s were con-tacted by l e t t e r (Appendix E) to seek t h e i r support for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaires. Forms were en-closed i n those l e t t e r s to p r i n c i p a l s on which they were asked to provide the number of teachers i n t h e i r schools who belonged to the population. Self-addressed business reply envelopes were also included. 3.3.2 Mailing the Questionnaires The f i r s t set of questionnaires was sent to twelve p r i n c i p a l s who had responded by June 15, 1978. P r i n c i p a l s who had not responded by then were con-tacted by telephone and a supply of questionnaire packages were sent to them. P r i n c i p a l s were asked to di s t r i b u t e them to teachers who q u a l i f i e d as members of the population. Two schools declined the request on the grounds that t h e i r teachers were too busy; those schools were omitted from the study. 3.4 RETURN OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES A l l questionnaires were to be returned to the researcher by mail using the self-addressed envelopes. By June 26, 1978 f o r t y - s i x of the 109 teachers had responded. Follow-up l e t t e r s were sent to a l l p r i n c i p a l s cooperating i n the study (Appendix F ) . Because of the importance attached to thi s l e t t e r factors such as the wording of the l e t t e r (ref. Charach, 1975), the time (ref. Droege and Crambert, 1965; Robin, 1965 and Dillman, 1975) and kind of postage (ref. Champion and Seer, 1969; and Veiga 1974) had to be considered. The l e t t e r s were personalized to in d i v i d u a l cooperating p r i n c i p a l s and sent by f i r s t class mail, and timed to arr i v e i n the schools on the second day of the summer vacation. I t was expected that with p o t e n t i a l l y less work, those p r i n c i p a l s who might not have d i s t r i b u t e d t h e i r questionnaires and those teachers who had not responded would have the time to do so then. By July 12, 1978, 71 of the 109 questionnaires sent out had been returned. 3.5 ESTIMATION OF RESPONSE RATE 3.5.1 Schools There are 35 elementary schools i n the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . A l l the p r i n c i p a l s of these schools were asked to d i s t r i b u t e the questionnaires. Thirty-three of the p r i n c i p a l s agreed to do i t . This represents a response rate of 94% of the elementary schools i n the d i s t r i c t . 3.5.2 Teachers There were 109 teachers who were i d e n t i f i e d by p r i n c i p a l s i n the 33 schools. Teachers i n the two other schools where p r i n c i p a l s did not agree to d i s t r i -bute the questionnaire were not contacted. Seventy-three a c t u a l l y took part i n the study, showing a res-ponse rate of 66.9%. 3.6 ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES For each questionnaire received, the responses on the L i k e r t - s c a l e items were checked against the res-ponses on the Q-sort to f i n d out i f the ratings were reasonably s i m i l a r . This was done i n order to e l i m i -nate the responses of subjects who were eith e r i n -consistent or did not take the questionnaire seriously. I t was f e l t that the four most important items and the four least important items selected by the subjects should t a l l y with the' high rated items and low rated items respectively on the L i k e r t scale for that same person. Where there was lack of agreement i n the res-ponses the questionnaire was rejected from further analysis. Only one questionnaire was rejected. In two of the questionnaires which were returned, the subjects had not responded to the Q-sort. These responses were analysed using the LERTAP and deleted i n the Q-analysis. The LERTAP computer program i s used for item and t e s t analysis in survey research. Por example, i t provides c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each item such as the mean response, the number and percentage of responses, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses across the scale. The Q-analysis provides more i n -formation about the population. Persons are v a r i -ables and items observations i n t h i s analysis. I t shows the various types of viewpoints expressed by the people. An analysis of these viewpoints shows what the various types considered very important, what was of l i t t l e importance and what was i n between. The additional items suggested for inclu s i o n i n such a course and other comments were grouped to f i n d out i f any information could be obtained to support, r e j e c t or elucidate some of the views presented. The responses on the Likert-type items were scored 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for great importance, much importance, some importance, l i t t l e importance and no importance, respectively. Where there was no response for an item, no score was assigned to that item for that p a r t i c u l a r person. Responses on the Q-sort part of the questionnaire were scores 9, 8, 7 and 6 most important, second most important, t h i r d most important and fourth most im-portant choices, respectively. A l l remaining items were scored 5 each. The pre-determined frequency dis-:* t r i b u t i b n of items i n each category i s presented i n Table 1. Where individ u a l s had chosen two items for a rating, both items were each assigned the score for that r a t i n g . On the other hand where ind i v i d u a l s had not responded to some scale, the score for that rating was not assigned to any item. The LERTAP computer program was used to analyse the L i k e r t - s c a l e responses. The mean of the scores on each item was used to indicate the r e l a t i v e importance which the subjects placed on that item as a component i n a course for the preparation of outdoor education teachers. The Hoyt's r e l i a b i l i t y index for the questionnaire was 0.90. This was calculated using the LERTAP compute program. This program uses the Hoyt method, which i s based on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y approach to r e l i . ^ a b i l i t y measurement. Table 1 Pre-determined Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Items i n each Score Category Scores 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency o f Items 1 1 1 1 27 1 1 1 1 Chapter 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate those aspects of outdoor education which experienced outdoor-educators i n North Vancouver School District-considered as important components of a teacher-tr a i n i n g course i n outdoor education. In thi s chapter only the main r e s u l t s are presented. S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s about the data can be found i n the Appendices. In t h i s chapter the res u l t s are presented under headings which correspond.to the two types of analyses ca r r i e d out - analysis of L i k e r t - s c a l e responses and Q-analysis of Q-sort responses. As mentioned i n Chapter 3, responses in d i c a t i n g great importance (G.I.), much important (M.I.), some importance (S.I.) , l i t t l e importance (L.I.) and no im-portance (N.I.) on the L i k e r t scale items were scored 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Consequently, i f a component has a mean score of 4.00, respondents generally agreed that i t was of much importance i n a 47 t r a i n i n g course for outdoor-education teachers. The organization of the results on the L i k e r t items i n the Appendix follow the same order i n which the components were presented i n the item of the i n -strument. The s e r i a l number attached to each item i n the instrument i s provided for both analyses. The tables contain the frequency (f) and percentage (%) response as well as the t o t a l number of subjects responding to each item. In the Q-analysis Alphabets (A-R) are used to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t p r o f i l e s of responses while s e r i a l numbers are used to i d e n t i f y both the items (1-35) of the Q-sort and the respondents ( 1 - 6 9 ) . In addition to responding to the two instruments, 39 of the teachers suggested other items and/or wrote comments which varied i n length from one or two sentences to one f u l l page. A l l of these suggestions and comments are grouped together and presented i n Appendix G and H. 4.2 RESULTS 4.2.1 Analysis of L i k e r t scale Item Responses 4.2.-1.1 Most Important Components The ten most important components as indicated by the mean scores are presented as Table 2. The summary of the responses of teachers to these items i s presented as Appendix I. The re s u l t s show that ways of making Table 2 The Ten Most Important Components* COMPONENT Mean Score 1. Ways o f making students aware of the impact of humans on t h e i r environment 4 .48 2. Ways of h e l p i n g students understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment 4 .47 3. The aims ( o b j e c t i v e s ) o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n 4 .35 4 . Methods of ens u r i n g the s a f e t y of the students 4 .35 5 . A p h i l o s o p h y o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n 4 . 30 6. Methods of i n t e g r a t i n g classroom t e a c h i n g w i t h outdoor e d u c a t i o n 4 .27 7. C a r r y i n g out the program i n an outdoor s e t t i n g 4 .27 8. How to pre s e r v e (keep f o r a long time) the outdoor e d u c a t i o n s i t e 4 .23 9 . Teaching s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c to outdoor e d u c a t i o n 4 .21 10 . F a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n 4 .16 Ordered i n d e c r e a s i n g importance. students aware of the impact o f humans on t h e i r en-vironment, and ways of h e l p i n g students understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment were the two most important components. The aims ( o b j e c t i v e s ) o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n , methods o f e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y o f the students and a p h i l o s o p h y o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n were the next three components which were s e l e c t e d by the tea c h e r s . The methods of i n t e g r a t i n g classroom teach-i n g with outdoor e d u c a t i o n , c a r r y i n g out the program i n an outdoor s e t t i n g , and how to preserve (keep f o r a l o n g time) the outdoor s e t t i n g were the next three s e l e c t e d components. The l a s t two most important com-ponents were t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c to outdoor e d u c a t i o n , and f a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n . The mean scores f o r a l l these ten components ranged between 4.4 8 and 4.16 which i n d i c a t e d t h a t teachers g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d those items to be o f much importance f o r any outdoor e d u c a t i o n course f o r t e a c h e r s . 4.2.1.2 L e a s t Important Components The t en least.'important components are pr e s e n t e d i n Table 3. The data shows t h a t of the 35 components which were presented to the tea c h e r s , the p r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s (e.g. f i l m s , r e c o r d i n g s ) f o r use i n te a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n , a study o f human Table 3 The Ten L e a s t Important Components* COMPONENTS Mean Score 1. P r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s (e.g. f i l m s , r e c o r d i n g s ) f o r use i n te a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n 3 .18 2. A study of human n u t r i t i o n 3 .20 3 . School board p o l i c y on outdoor educa-t i o n 3 .28 4 . The importance o f a balanced and a t t r a c t i v e d i e t 3 .31 5. School board r e g u l a t i o n s on out-door e d u c a t i o n 3 .32 6 . Adapting prepared outdoor m a t e r i a l s (e.g. commercial) to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s 3 .56 7. Methods of h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i n the outdoors 3 .58 .8. Developing i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s (working with each other) amongst teac h e r s 3 . 73 9 . C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a s s i s t a n c e (e.g. t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , adults) f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs 3 .83 10. The l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n the outdoors 3 . 87 * Ordered i n i n c r e a s i n g importance. n u t r i t i o n , s c h o o l board p o l i c y on outdoor e d u c a t i o n , the importance o f a balanced and a t t r a c t i v e d i e t , and s c h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s on outdoor e d u c a t i o n were con-s i d e r e d to be the f i v e l e a s t important items. Other components which were ranked low i n p r i o r i t y as shown i n Table 3 were: adapting prepared outdoor m a t e r i a l s (e.g. commercial) to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , methods of h a n d l i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i n the outdoors, de-v e l o p i n g i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (working w i t h each other) amongst te a c h e r s , c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a s s i s t a n c e (e.g. t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , adults) f o r out-door e d u c a t i o n programs, and the l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n the outdoors. The mean scores f o r these ten l e a s t important items, as presented i n Table 3, ranged from 8.18 to 3.87. 4.2.1.3 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s show t h a t teachers i n the North Vancouver school d i s t r i c t favoured items r e l a t e d to "the impact of humans and the need to conserve the environment, the aims and p h i l o s o p h y of outdoor edu-c a t i o n , the methods o f e n s u r i n g s a f e t y and f a c i l i t a t -i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n , how out-door e d u c a t i o n can be taught i n the school s e t t i n g , and how the study s i t e s can be p r e s e r v e d " . Even though the l e a s t important components from the l i s t were i d e n t i f i e d , the mean scores for these items indicated that the respondents generally con-sidered that these lower-rated components were also of some importance i n a general t r a i n i n g course for teachers i n outdoor education. The LERTAP analysis revealed that the highest and lowest scores which were obtained i n the 'test' were 173 and 107 respectively, with a mean score of 138. The comparison of these figures with the highest (175) and lowest (35) an i n d i v i d u a l could possible obtain depending on his attitude to the whole l i s t , reveals that the population was generally i n support of the components presented to them. 4.2.2 Analysis of the Q-Sort Responses 4.2.2.1 Type of Views Expressed The selection matrix obtained i n the Q-analysis showed that there were 18 factors ( d i f f e r e n t patterns of p r o f i l e s of sorting the items) displayed by the respondents. (This i s presented as Appendix D). The main views were expressed by Types A, B, C, E and F (made up of 15, 10, 7, 5 and 5 members re s p e c t i v e l y ) . Table 4 shows that members belonging to Type A can be characterized as having strong concerns for establi s h i n g and implementing the goals of outdoor education and a weaker concern for items related to 53 Table 4 Main P o i n t s o f Views Expressed by the P o p u l a t i o n TYPE CHARACTERIZATION BASIS (Items) A Most important: The p h i l o s o p h y and aims o f outdoor education, and how these can be implemented 4,7,11,._ 29 L e a s t important: Components r e l a t e d to student f e e d i n g and how outdoor t e a c h -i n g m a t e r i a l s can be prepared or adapted 19,20,27 28 B Most important: Components r e l a t e d to school board p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n s , l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s , and p r e -p a r a t i o n of t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s 21,22, 24,28 Le a s t important: Components on the ecology o f the environment, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n and the p h i l o -sophy of the program 4,5,11, 30 C Most important: S e l e c t i o n and use o f persons, and l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s outdoors 1,2,3, 24 Le a s t important: F i e l d t r i p conduction, sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and how the program :n can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o classroom t e a c h i n g to make students under-stand the need to conserve en-vironment : 10,11, 17, 25 E Most important: The p h i l o s o p h y , environmental ecology, and how such programs can be e v a l u a t e d 4,5, 9, 11 L e a s t important: Components r e l a t e d to human n u t r i t i o n , s e l e c t i n g a s s i s t a n c e how to prepare, and adapt m a t e r i a l s to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s 1,19, 27,28 F Most important: L o g i s t i c s , p h i l o s o p h y , f i e l d sampling techniques and p r e -p a r a t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l 4,8,12, 28 m a t e r i a l s L e a s t important: The ecology of the environment, and how t h i s can be taught i n 5,10,11, 29 a classroom s e t t i n g f e e d i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n of outdoor m a t e r i a l s . For Type B, components r e l a t e d to school board p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n s , l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s were c o n s i d e r e d to be most important. Components on environmental ecology, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n and p h i l o s o p h y were ranked as being o f l e a s t importance. " S e l e c t i o n and use of persons and l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s " was chosen as being the most important by members i n Type C, while conducting o f f i e l d t r i p s , sources o f i n -formation and how the program can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o classroom t e a c h i n g to enable students to understand the need to conserve the environment were c o n s i d e r e d to be o f l e a s t importance. Type E can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having s t r o n g con-cerns f o r understanding the ph i l o s o p h y , environmental ecology and e v a l u a t i o n , and weak concerns f o r com-ponents r e l a t e d to human n u t r i t i o n , c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a s s i s t a n c e , p r e p a r a t i o n and a d a p t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . For Type F, the l o g i s t i c s , p h i l o s o p h y , f i e l d sampling techniques and p r e p a r a t i o n of a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s were c o n s i d e r e d to be the most important components. Teaching s t r a t e g i e s i n environmental ecology and how these can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o classroom t e a c h i n g were ranked as being l e a s t important by the 55 members i n the group. 4.2.2.2 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Q-Results The r e s u l t s o f the Q-sort i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n o p i n i o n i n s e l e c t i n g the most important and l e a s t important components. For example, there were as many as 18 d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t views expressed, and of the f i v e main types of views i d e n t i f i e d , s i x components (1, 4, 5, 28 and 29) which were s e l e c t e d as being most important by some groups were s e l e c t e d by ot h e r s as being l e a s t important. There was no component agreed upon, by a l l f i v e major types as being most important or l e a s t important. Twelve components (6,'13, 14, 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 8 , 26, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35) c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as the consensus ones i n t h a t a l l members i n the f i v e major types (groups) agreed t h a t none of them was c o n s i d e r e d as being most important or l e a s t important by the f i v e major types. Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 CONCLUSIONS a) • Teachers experienced i n outdoor education were undecided on what the single most important com-ponent of an outdoor education tr a i n i n g program should be. The teachers considered a l l 35 components pre-sented to them as important i n a general outdoor edu-cation t r a i n i n g course for teachers. Even the le a s t important item i n the whole l i s t was indicated as being of some importance intthe t r a i n -ing course. This suggests that a l l these items warrant consideration i n the design of a general-, course i n outdoor education for teachers. b) The comments suggested by the respondents i n -dicated that the l i s t of components provided was not complete enough. Other components such as those deal-ing with lesson plans, recreational a c t i v i t i e s , and :.• survival techniques were added. c) The ten most important components i n a general outdoor education t r a i n i n g course, i n order of im-portance , were: 1. Ways of making students aware of the impact o f humans on t h e i r environment; 2. Ways o f h e l p i n g students understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment; 3. The o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; 4. Methods o f e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y o f the stu d e n t s ; 5. A p h i l o s o p h y o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; 6. Methods of i n t e g r a t i n g classroom t e a c h i n g with outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; 7. C a r r y i n g out the program i n an outdoor s e t t i n g ; 8. How to pre s e r v e and maintain the outdoor e d u c a t i o n a l s i t e ; 9. Teaching s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c to outdoor e d u c a t i o n ; 10. F a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n S ince the respondents f e l t t h a t a l l of the items were important, then, i f a l i m i t e d course must be de-signed, i t should probably i n c l u d e the ten t o p - r a t e d components. 5.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE CONCLUSIONS 5.2.1 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y to the Whole P o p u l a t i o n The c o n c l u s i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d w i t h due re g a r d to the r a t e o f response. Only 6 6.9% of the teach e r s con-t a c t e d responded. The l a c k o f response in ;.the remain-i n g 33.1% r a i s e d a number o f q u e s t i o n s , e.g. was the sample s e l f - s e l e c t i v e ( i . e . d i d o n l y those teachers who were i n favour o f outdoor e d u c a t i o n respond)? The data was u n f o r t u n a t e l y c o l l e c t e d a t a time of year when teach e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y busy; a low response r a t e c o u l d reasonably be a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s f a c t . Since the average r e t u r n s from m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s exceeded o n e - t h i r d o f the m a i l - o u t ( r e f . Hambleton e t a l . , 1970) a response r a t e o f 66.9% seemed reasonably a c c e p t a b l e under the circumstances, and the above con-c l u s i o n s are very l i k e l y a p p l i c a b l e to the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n i n North Vancouver. 5.2.2 A p p l i c a b i l i t y to-the Ghanaian S i t u a t i o n T h i s study was c a r r i e d out i n North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , w i t h a view to p o s s i b l y a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s to Ghana, and perhaps ot h e r areas. The s i t u a t i o n i n North Vancouver i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n Ghana i n many r e s p e c t s , e.g. c u l t u r a l l y , c l i m a t i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , e t c . which o b v i o u s l y l i m i t s the a p p l i -c a b i l i t y o f the c o n c l u s i o n s . However, educ a t i o n i n Ghana and North Vancouver i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l systems i n both areas have a common h i s t o r y i n h e r i t e d from Great B r i t a i n . The methods of te a c h i n g , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , and the e d u c a t i o n a l experiences of teachers are b a s i c a l l y the same. In Ghana there i s a l r e a d y a Canadian i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system, due to the f a c t t h a t many Ghanaians have been educated i n Canada and Canadian educators have taught i n Ghana. Most teach e r s from c o u n t r i e s o t h e r than Canada and Great B r i t a i n are expected to undergo a t r a i n i n g program p r i o r to teach-i n g i n Ghana. Because of the s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h i n the two systems, no such a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d of Canadians. I t seems reasonable to expect t h a t teachers i n Ghana would respond i n a s i m i l a r way to the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , hence the c o n c l u s i o n s o f the study have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f being a p p l i c a b l e i n the Ghanaian t e a c h e r -t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n . 5 .3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH As a r e s u l t of t h i s study to determine important components f o r a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n f o r Ghanaian t e a c h e r s , the f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s are suggested. 1) R e p l i c a t e the study i n the Ghanaian s i t u a t i o n . 2) Expand the l i s t o f components to i n c l u d e more items such as those on s u r v i v a l techniques, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , l e s s o n p l a n s and farm s t u d i e s . 3) F i n d o ut i f the s e l e c t i o n o f items was i n -f l u e n c e d by any e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as sex, tea c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , type of school p u p i l s and grade l e v e l o f p u p i l s . 4) I t i s a l s o suggested t h a t course o r g a n i z e r s conduct p e r i o d i c s t u d i e s to assess the f e l t -needs o f teachers r e g a r d i n g the content o f a course o f t h i s n a t u r e . 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ED 020830. Zigarmi, P., Betz, L., and Jensen, D. "Teachers' Preferences i n and Perceptions of In-Service Education". Education Leadership, 1977, 34, 7, 545-55 69 A P P E N D I X A QUE S TIONN A I RE : IMPORTANT COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR A T E A C H E R - T R A I N I N G PROGRAM I N OUTDOOR E D U C A T I O N 70 - 7 IMPORTANT COMPONENTS REQUIRED OF A  TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAM IN OUTDOOR EDUCATION This questionnaire i s aimed at assessing your opinion about items which you consider to be important components of any teacher-training program i n outdoor education. For the purpose of t h i s study, outdoor education i s defined as any part of a school program outside the school b u i l d i n g , excluding regular phy s i c a l education classes. Outdoor education a c t i v i t i e s could include short nature walks, studies i n or near the school yard or overnight studies i n an outdoor camp. Please i n d i c a t e to what extent you agree with each of the items by checking the relevant space beside the items. The design of a course i n outdoor educati for teachers should include: 1. C r i t e r i a for selecting assistance (e.g. teachers, parents, adults) for outdoor education programs. 2. C r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i n g senior students (counsellors) for outdoor education programs. 3. How to use resource persons i n outdoor education. 4. A philosophy of outdoor education. 5. Ways of making students aware of the impact of humans on th e i r environment 6. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n ( r a t i o n a l e value, importance) of outdoor education 7. The aims (objectives) of outdoor edu-catio n . cu CU o o <U <u d C CJ O cd n) c C 4-1 cu • u cd cd u CJ U • u 4-> o c O u U a . cd o , o o g 4 J & &, H u M e e o M i—i 0) a . 4-> i H B cd m 4-> M 0) o e 4 J u 3 o • H o , o . . . . s w 8. The l o g i s t i c s (e.g. budgeting, trans-portation, food) of outdoor education. The design of a course i n outdoor education for teachers should include 9. Methods of evaluating outdoor programs. 10. Methods of integrating classroom teach-ing with outdoor education. 11. Ways of helping students understand the need to conserve the natural en-vironment . 12. Field-sampling techniques (e.g. c o l l e c t i n g , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of organisms). 13. Guidelines for choosing s u i t a b l e out-door a c t i v i t i e s . 14. Methods of ensuring the safety of the student. 15. A course i n f i r s t - a i d . 16. How to prepare for f i e l d t r i p s . 17. How to conduct a f i e l d t r i p on s i t e . 18. How to r e l a t e outdoor education to everyday l i f e . 19. Adapting prepared outdoor materials (e.g. commercial) to l o c a l conditions. 20. The importance of a balanced and a t t r a c t i v e d i e t . 21. School board regulations on'outdoor education. 22. School board p o l i c y on outdoor edu-cation. 23. How to preserve (keep for a long time) the outdoor education s i t e . 24. The l e g a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n the outdoors. The design of a course i n outdoor education for teachers should include: 25. The various sources of information ( outdoor teaching materials) on outdo education. 26. How to follow-up outdoor a c t i v i t i e s the classroom. 27. A study of human n u t r i t i o n . 28. Preparation of audio-visual material (e.g.. f i l m , recordings) for use i n teach-ing outdoor education. 29. Teaching strategies s p e c i f i c to outdoor education. 30. F a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amongst c h i l d r e n . 31. Developing inter-personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s (working with each other) amongst teachers. 32. Developing outdoor education programs. 33. Doing the same outdoor a c t i v i t i e s c h i l d r e n w i l l be engaged i n . 34. Carrying out the program i n an outdoor s e t t i n g . 35. Methods of handling d i s c i p l i n a r y problems i n the outdoors. Examine the l i s t of 35 items and add any one important item you think has been excluded. Your a d d i t i o n becomes No. 36). .Write the item i n the space provided below. 36. Go back and look at the whole l i s t (including what you added), and select the most important one: i n the whole l i s t . Put the number of the most important item on top of the l i n e provided beside. Do likewise for your cu cu CJ a CU CU a C q a CO cd (3 C 4-1 4 J crj CO u o u 4-1 4 J o fl o 5-i u ft n) ft O o B . 4-> Im ft ft H u Im e g o i—i i—i CU ft +j rH a 'CO & <D 4-> -CU o & 4-1 5-1 O •H o O s to rJ 73 2nd, 3rd and 4th most important choices. Most important Second most important Third most important Fourth most important Do likewise for the four l e a s t important items. Least important Second l e a s t important Third l e a s t important Fourth l e a s t important Comments (please use reverse i f necessary) Thank you for your cooperation. 74 APPENDIX B Daily Schedule At The North Vancouver Outdoor School 7:00 a.m. Rise and shine 7:30 Duties 8:00 Breakfast 9:00 Clean-up - duties h free time 9:30 F i e l d Study I 11:45 Fetch 'n' carry 12:00 noon Lunch 1:00 p.m. F i e l d Study II 3:45 Recreation 5:00 Duties 5:30 Supper 6:30 Daily follow-up 7:30 Evening program 8:30 Snack 9:00 Cabins 9:30 Lights out (Grade 6 & 7) 10:30 Lights out (Grade 8 & 9) APPENDIX C i COVER LETTER TO OUTDOOR EDUCATION TEACHERS P i l o t Study #3 76 2* Western Education Development Group J University of British Columbia, Faculty of Education, Vancouver B.C., Canada, V6T 1W5, (604)228-5385 A p r i l 20, 1978 Dear We are t r y i n g to f i n d out what you as an out-door educator would l i k e to see i n a teacher t r a i n i n g course f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n . One o f our graduate students, Joseph Tufuor, has put together the e n c l o s e d check l i s t . Would you be k i n d enough to f i l l t h i s out so we can have your guidance to improve our p r o -grams . Thank you very much. S i n c e r e l y , C.J. A n a s t a s i o u , D i r e c t o r CJA/pwg e n c l . Vancouver Environment Education Project veep & Transit Education Project 77 A P P E N D I X D C O V E R L E T T E R T O T E A C H E R S THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WES15ROOK M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N June 15, 1978 Dear Teacher: The goal of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y those topics which experienced outdoor-education teachers consider as e s s e n t i a l com-ponents of any program to prepare teachers of outdoor education. These topics w i l l be catalogued for possible future use i n the design of a course of study i n outdoor education to be included i n the preparation of elementary school teachers i n Ghana. Most of the c h i l d r e n i n Ghana w i l l complete their formal education at the end of grade ten. Approximately 80% of them w i l l subsequently be engaged i n small-scale farming and f i s h i n g i n r u r a l areas of a developing country into which improved technology i s gradually being introduced. Some of these young adults w i l l eventually become hereditary and/or elected leaders i n t h e i r communities and they w i l l be expected to make important decisions, including environmental ones. Hopefully, during th e i r schooling we can give them some understanding of their b i o p h y s i c a l environment with the i n t e n t i o n of reducing i t s abuse. Please complete the enclosed questionnaire (15 minutes, or less) and return i t to me i n the stampled envelope. You can be assured that a l l information obtained w i l l be used only i n research and held i n the s t r i c t e s t confidence. You or your school w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d i n any way when the findings are published. The response of every teacher who receives t h i s questionnaire i s urgently needed. I cannot proceed with my study without the opinion of experienced outdoor educators. Thank you for your consideration. Joseph K. Tufuor (student) JKT/had enclosure APPENDIX E COVER LETTER TO PRINCIPALS 80 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B.C. , C A N A D A V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N M a y 1978 Dear P r i n c i p a l : I am a Master's degree student from Ghana, enrolled i n science education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am endeavoring to assess the opinions of experienced outdoor education taachers regarding the items they f e e l to be of value i n any teacher-t r a i n i n g program i n outdoor education. I hope that my f i n d i n g s may be incorporated i n part into the design of a curriculum for elementary teachers i n Ghana. Enclosed i s a sample of the questionnaire which I would l i k e to c i r c u l a t e to your teachers. Please indicate the number of copies required for your school on the form included with the self-addressed envelope. I plan to conduct the study as unobtrusively as p o s s i b l e . Completed questionnaires w i l l be returned d i r e c t l y to me i n unmarked envelopes thereby ensuring complete anonymity for both teachers and schools. Your cooperation i n t h i s study w i l l be appreciated. Thank you for your help. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Joseph K. Tufuor (Student) JKT/fmb En c l . 81 Please complete and return i n the enclosed, pre-paid, addressed envelope. Name of School: ; Number of your teachers who have worked with c h i l d r e n at North Vancouver Outdoor School f o r at l e a s t one week Please i n d i c a t e i f you need extra copies f o r your personal f i l e . (No. of copies needed) Note: F i n a l returns w i l l be made d i r e c t l y to me by i n d i v i d u a l teachers using unmarked envelopes, thereby ensuring complete anonymity of teachers and schools. J.K. Tufuor 82 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B.C., C A N A D A V6T 1W5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N May 31, 1978 Dear Mr. RE : Outdoor Education Survey Thank you for responding to my l e t t e r dated May 15, 1978. Enclosed are the questionnaires which I would l i k e you to d i s t r i b u t e to a l l your teachers who have worked with c h i l d r e n at the North Vancouver Outdoor School for at le a s t one week. F i n a l returns w i l l be made d i r e c t l y to me by i n d i v i d u a l teachers using the stamped, unmarked envelopes. This w i l l ensure complete anonymite of teachers and schools. As you r e c a l l , the purpose of t h i s study i s to assess the opinions of experienced outdoor education teachers regarding the items they f e e l to be of value i n any teacher-training program i n outdoor education. I hope that my findings may be incorporated i n part into the design of a curriculum for elementary teachers i n Ghana. Once the questionnaires have been analysed you w i l l receive an abstract of my f i n d i n g s . Thank you for your help. Yours s i n c e r e l y , Jospeh K. Tufuor (student) JKT/had Enclosures APPENDI COVERING LETTER ("FOLLOW-UP" X F TO PRINCIPALS LETTER) 84 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 WESBROOK M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B.C. , C A N A D A V6T 1W5 P A C L ! L I T OP E D U C A T I O N June 23, 1978 Last week, questionnaires were sent to you to be d i s t r i b u t e d to outdoor educators i n your school. As you r e c a l l , the purpose of the study i s to help i d e n t i f y important topics i n developing a teacher-training program i n outdoor education. I am happy to inform you that the response has been encouraging; many teachers have already responded. Since we do not know those teachers who have responded i t i s d i f f i c u l t to reach them i n d i v i d u a l l y . We s h a l l be g r a t e f u l i f you could extend our appreciation to a l l teachers i n your school who are helping us i n t h i s study. We know that the good response would not have been possible without your cooperation; thank you for find i n g time to help us. When we have received a l l the questionnaires and analysed the r e s u l t s we s h a l l send your school an abstract of the study. Thank you f o r your help. Yours s i n c e r e l y , J.K. Tufuor (Student) DCG/hd APPENDIX G COMPONENTS SUGGESTED BY TEACHERS 86 APPENDIX G Responses of Teachers to Item 36, S o l i c i t i n g  Additional Components Level of i n t e r e s t of teacher(s) involved i n outdoor education-Teaching on developing love of the outdoors. Lesson plans which have been used by other teachers. C r i t e r i a for s i t e selection related to program ob- ':" j e c t i v e s . Recreational a c t i v i t i e s on-site. Filming or taking s l i d e s of students while they are doing outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . They enjoy seeing these l a t e r on. Provide a s o c i a l opportunity for the teachers and counsellors to i n t e r a c t during the outdoor program. A r i c h s c i e n t i f i c background: biology, ecology, geology, forestry, etc. The person thus prepared can create suitable c u r r i c u l a . Relating what kids learn at outdoor education to t h e i r l i v e s a f t e r they leave school. Perhaps a knowledge of animals, e s p e c i a l l y farm and domestic animals. Farming and animal products, dairy, egg, etc. are usually a part of most permanent outdoor school s i t e s . Preparation of campfire sing-songs, games, s k i t s , etc. Survival techniques. Helping children to become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n the outdoors. The development of self-concept, self-worth i n the out-doors . Safety or s u r v i v a l studies. S t a f f should have a r e a l love of the outdoors and deep inter e s t i n nature! E f f e c t i v e methods (acceptable) o f making t h e i r environmental concerns known to people who make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n s i n resource management. Some concern o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the students age l e v e l , l o c a l background and a b i l i t y . S p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . Ideas f o r funding such a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e g r a t i o n o r ways o f i n t e g r a t i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n i n every s u b j e c t area the c h i l d takes. O p p o r t u n i t i e s to use the s k i l l s , r e sources e t c . with c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . Developing performance o b j e c t i v e s f o r students. L e a r n i n g how to r e l a t e t h i s important s u b j e c t to a l l age groups. Developing a s t r o n g s e l f - c o n c e p t and self-image f o r each c h i l d . Workshop f o r teachers p r e s e n t i n g c o n c r e t e t e a c h i n g ideas one can use wit h t h e i r c l a s s . The converse of #5. Ways o f making students aware o f the impact o f h i s environment on man. Use of s k i l l s l e a r n e d to be put i n p r a c t i c a l use i . e . : o v e r n i g h t . A l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t i e s both indoor and out, smal l and l a r g e groups. An emergency program. 88 APPENDIX H Comments Wade by teachers You seem to have covered everything 1. I f you have a p h i l o s o p h y of outdoor e d u c a t i o n i t should speak f o r i t s e l f . I t h i n k a l l the items are important. I f e e l the impact of man on h i s environment i s the c r u c i a l p o i n t . I n c u l c a t i n g a l o v e of the outdoors seems the b e s t way of e n s u r i n g optimum use.. The (the l e a s t important items selected) are necessary, but they would r e q u i r e very l i t t l e emphasis. I found the second paragraph o f your cover l e t t e r v e r y p a t r o n i z i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a s t sentence. Canadians have notheen p a r t i c u l a r l y adept a t p r e v e n t i n g abuse of t h e i r own environment. I hope my responses are of some h e l p . I b e l i e v e an awareness o f one's n u t r i t i o n i s very important. Good l u c k ! L e t me b e g i n by thanking you' :for the o p p o r t u n i t y to a i r my concerns about a s u b j e c t I f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y about, t h a t being outdoor s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . a) In my experience, outdoor schools g r e a t e s t downfall comes from disagreements between the i n d i v i d u a l s who work th e r e . Most o f t e n because the m a j o r i t y o f people are a s s i g n e d the p o s t and d i d n ' t choose i t f r e e l y , a sad s t a t e of a f f a i r s . You can take the horse to the water, but you can't make him d r i n k I T h i s s i t u a t i o n comes from the l a c k of s e r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n the. school board d i r e c t s towards an outdoor s c h o o l , such as the North Vancouver . ' outdoor s c h o o l . b) Secondly, a more comprehensive program needs to be developed between the High School students ( c o u n s e l l o r s ) and the permanent outdoor s c h o o l s t a f f . Too o f t e n the High School students are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d outdoor sc h o o l as a reward f o r p r e v i o u s hardwork or f a v o r s Not, on t h e i r p o s s i b l e m e r i t s as a c o u n s e l l o r . Good k i d s and good c o u n s e l l o r s are not always the same t h i n g . Perhaps a g r e a t e r communication between the outdoor s c h o o l and the h i g h school teachers and students would h e l p . ;c) ' I c o n s i d e r outdoor school to be a v a l u a b l e and worthwhile endeavour on any l e v e l . I hate to see i t not r e c e i v i n g the care and s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e i t r e q u i r e s . T h i s seems to be a v e r y comprehensive l i s t . I f e e l t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d e d here i s r e a l l y important to any teacher t r a i n i n g program. #6 - An a p p r e c i a t i o n w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y o c c u r . A good q u e s t i o n n a i r e . - q u e s t i o n s easy to understand. Item 22 and 21 are l o c a l l y determined. The students i n your program w i l l not g e n e r a l l y be aware of the s p e c i f i c s i n a d i s t r i c t and t h e r e f o r e i t w i l l be q u i t e time con-suming to understand p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s on a p r o v i n c e wide b a s i s . When you c o l l a t e the r e s u l t s , I would be i n t e r e s t e d i n your a n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s ) Sorry, I t h i n k they are a l l important. E v e r y t h i n g on t h i s l i s t i s so damn important, I c o u l d n ' t r e l e g a t e any o f them to o b l i v i o n . Would make a super c h e c k l i s t f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f a programme!' S a t i s f a c t o r y . E v e r y t h i n g i s c l e a r . Impossible to choose the l e a s t important ones, but T h i s i s a r a t h e r w e l l prepared q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A c t u a l l y t h i s wasn't too p a i n f u l and s i n c e I b e l i e v e i n the cause'. Hope i t h e l p s . Sounds l i k e a very i n t e r e s t i n g course. GoodI APPENDIX I RESPONSES OF TEACHERS TO LIKERT ITEMS APPENDIX I Responses of Teachers to L i k e r t Items a) Responses o f Teachers to Components 1 to 10 Gl MI SI LI NI ' ' ' To t a l * Mean** 1. f .' 21- 19 29 2 0 71 3.8.3 % 29.6 26.8 40.8 2.8 0.0 . 100.0 2. f 25 23 18 4 1 71 3.94'.; % 35.2 32.4 25.4 5.6 1.4 100.0 3. f 18 • 39 11 2 0 70 3.9,9 % 25.4 54.9 15.5 2.8 0.0 98.6 4. f 34 26 9 2 0 71 4 .30 % 47.9 36.6 12.7 2.8 0.0 100.0 5. f 38 29 4 0 0 71 4. 48 % 53.5 40.8 5.6 0.0 0.0 99.9 6. f 20 33 16 1 0 70 3.97" % 28.2 46.5 22.5 1.4 0.0 98.6 7. f 32 32 7 0 0 71 4.35 % 45.1 45.1 9.9 0.0 0.0 100.1 8. f 20 31 14 5 1 71 3.90 % 28.2 43.7 19.7 7.0 1.4 100.0 9. f 18 36 12 5 0 71 3.94 % 25.4 50.7 16.9 7.0 0.0 100.0 10. f 33 25 12 1 0 71 4/27 % 46.5 35.2 16.9 1.4 0.0 100.0 *Number o f i n d i v i d u a l s responding to item. * * C a l c u l a t e d from i n d i v i d u a l s who responded to i tern. 92": b) Responses of Teachers to Components 11 to 2 0 GI MI SI LI NI To t a l Mean 11. f 38 28 5 0 0 71 4 .47 w % 53.5 39.4 7.0 .. 0.0 0.0 99.9 12. f . 15 38 17 1 0 71 3.94 ; % 21.1 53.5 23.9 1.4 0.0 99.9 13. f 18 36 17 0 0 71 4.01j % 25.4 50.7 23.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 14. f 36 25 9 . 1 0 71 4.35";. % 50.7 35.2 12.7 1.4 0.0 100.0 15. f 21 32 15 2 1 71 3.9 9. % 29.6 45.1 21.1 2.8 1.4 100'.0 16. . f 20 38 13 0 0 71 4. io 1 ? % 28.2 53.5 18.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 17. f 22 36 13 0 0 71 4.13' % 31.0 50.7 18.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 18. f 24 26 20 1 0 71 4.03? % 33.8 36.6 28.2 1.4 0.0 100.0 19. f :8 31 26 5 1 71 3.56 % 11.3 43.7 36.6 7.0 1.4 100.0 20. f 6 25 28 10 1 70 3.31? % 8.5 35.2 39.4 14.1 1.4 98.6 93 c) Responses of Teachers to Components 21 to 30 GI MI SI LI NI TOTAL MEAN 21. f % 10 14.1 17 23.9 32 45.1 10 14.1 2 2.8 71 100.0 3.32\ .' 22. f % 10 14.1 17 23.9 31 43.7 10 14.1 2 2.8 70 98.6 3.28; i 23. f % 35 49.3 19. 26.8 15. " 21.1 2.. .": 2.8 0 0.0 71 100.0 4.23 ; 24. f: % 25 35.2 18 25.4 25 35.2 1 1.4 1 1.4 70 98.6 ri 3.87' 25. f % 18 25.4 37 52.1 15 21.1 1 1.4 0 0.0 71 100.0 4.01 ; 26. f % 24 33.8 28 39.4 17 23.9 . 1 1.4 0 0.0 70 98.5 4.01 27. f % 4 5.6 19 26.8 35 49.3 "13 18.3 0 0.0 71 100.0 3.20 28. f % 6 8 .'5 14 19.7 40 56.3 9 12.7 2 2.8 . 71 100.0 3.18 29. f % 28 39.4 31 43.7 11 15.5 1 1.4 0 0.0 71 100.0 4.2L-30. f % 23 32.4 37 52.1 10 14.1 1 1.4 0 0 71 100.0 4 .16 ; 94 d) Responses of Teachers to Components 31 to 35 GI MI SI LI NI TOTAL MEAN 31. •f 13 32 20 6 0 71 • 3.73^';.. % 18.3 45.1 28.2 8.5 0.0 100.0 32. f 25 34 10 2 0 71 4.167 35.2 47.9 14.1 2.8 0.0 100.0 33. f 27 29 13 1 1 71 4 .13 \. \ % 38.0 40.8 18.3 1.4 1.4 99.9 34. f 32 27 11 1 0 71 • -4 .27 % 45.1 38.0 15.5 1.4 0.0 100.0 35. f 14 22 27 7 1 71 3.:58". % 19.7 31.0 38.0 9.9 1.4 100 ;o APPENDIX J SELECTION MATRIX OF RESPONENTS ON THE BASIS OF TYPES H O r t to fl) o H i O ry ro i- 1 o s H -0 9 to O 3 * t ) O H -3 r t < ro 3 Total* IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS OF INDIVIDUALS BELONGING TO EACH TYPE OF VIEW. i—1 O M 3 \ U l L n W W W N ( O H I - ' l - l l - ' H > O H U W W H O O l U H P l.OD) O M J i + > t O H 0 0 (O v l M 0 0 4 > O A <y\ v D v O •vj O M j i W U N N H O v l W v l O N 4 > Ul . m U l jv, J S . w (_J ( J i M - ' ( 3 \ 4 > 1—1 u> o' 4>- v o m o v o h o O A 4>-v l h O — •V. • P - U J 0 0 0 0 4>-O N Ul H h - 1 h o h o 0 0 N > •vj O n h o '3:: M • U J Z ' h o > J o h o - P - (r-J t o o > U l U J o p U l v.; cn ftl ftl o i-3 H O z i-9 H X o ft) cn •rJ O 21 D ft] •-3 cn H i-3 O h3 K >rJ ft) cn !> ft) O H X V96 

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