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The current status of child study centres in degree granting institutions in Canada Coates, Dona Mae 1979

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THE CURRENT STATUS OF CHILD STUDY CENTRES IN DEGREE GRANTING INSTITUTIONS IN CANADA by DONA MAE COATES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1951 D i p . C.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 (c) Dona Mae Coa t e s , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t nf E a r l y Childhood The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 August 31, 1979 i i ABSTRACT T h i s study i s d e s i g n e d to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e c h i l d study c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d by Canadian d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1978. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s a r e r e l e v a n t to the e f f o r t s o f those who a r e engaged i n s t u d y i n g young c h i l d r e n , those who a r e a p p l y i n g knowledge to the development of programs and p r a c t i c e s and those who a r e p r o v i d i n g guidance to p a r e n t s and workers who i n t e r a c t w i t h c h i l d r e n day-to-day. C h i l d study c e n t r e s were i d e n t i f i e d by an e n q u i r y m a i l e d to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the f i f t y d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada. Twenty i n s t i t u t i o n s were found to o p e r a t e c h i l d study c e n t r e s as d e f i n e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b i n g the c h i l d study c e n t r e s was g a t h e r e d by means of a s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a i l e d to each of the twenty pe r s o n s named by t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r . T h i s i n c l u d e d b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c e n t r e s and i n f o r m a t i o n about a s p e c t s of the c h i l d r e n ' s programs, f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r and i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the c e n t r e s , r e l a t i v e importance of the f u n c t i o n s performed by the c e n t r e s , p o l i c y making, s u p p o r t s and comment on the c e n t r e s ' impact on t h e i r communities. The study shows t h a t more than two t h i r d s of the c h i l d study c e n t r e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the p a s t t e n y e a r s , c o n f i r m a t i o n of s u g g e s t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c h i l d study has mushroomed i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Most c e n t r e s o p e r a t e programs f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , p l a c i n g them i n the t r a d i t i o n o f l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s . Most a r e engaged i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , whether they a r e under the a u s p i c e s of a f a c u l t y i i i o f e d u c a t i o n o r some o t h e r f a c u l t y o r department. A l l , however, p l a c e emphasis on a t l e a s t two o f the f o u r main f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s examined: r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n of c h i l d - r e l a t e d knowledge, and s e r v i c e . More than o n e - t h i r d o f c e n t r e s do n o t have s u f f i c i e n t i f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t to c a r r y out p r e s e n t g o a l s . Respondents from most c e n t r e s e x p r e s s a d e s i r e to communicate w i t h o t h e r c e n t r e s a c r o s s Canada, naming t o p i c s o f common c o n c e r n . L i s t e d i n the stu d y i s a c a t a l o g u e o f c h i l d study c e n t r e s , many of which had been i n v i s i b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Such a l i s t can en a b l e communication to take p l a c e among them. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d to examine the e x t e n s i v e involvement w i t h c h i l d study and c h i l d r e n ' s programs t a k i n g p l a c e dn Canadian campuses and whether the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of new knowledge i s b e i n g t e s t e d by i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to c h i l d r e n i n t y p i c a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s suggested t h a t d i v e r s e s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g and communication and c o o p e r a t i o n among c e n t r e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d i f the p o t e n t i a l o f c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s as p o w e r f u l r e s o u r c e s f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n of knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c e i s to be a c h i e v e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S v i l CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION TO STUDY 1 C o n c e p t u a l B a r r i e r s t o the Study o f Young C h i l d r e n 2 The Canadian Context 4 D e f i n i t i o n s Used i n T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n 5 Overview o f T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n 7 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9;' I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n 11 L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l s f o r C h i l d Study . . 16 C h i l d Study i n Canada 20 The I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study: A Canadian Model 25 Summary of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h i s Study . . 31 CHAPTER I I I : STUDY PROCEDURES 33 Q u e s t i o n s Which Guided the I n v e s t i g a t i o n 33 Sampling P r o c e d u r e s 34 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used i n T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n 37 V C o n s t r u c t i o n and Format of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 46 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 49 Summary 50 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS . 51 D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e C e n t r e s 51 The C h i l d r e n ' s Programs 56 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of F a c u l t y t o C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 60 F u n c t i o n s o f C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 63 Major O r i e n t a t i o n of C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 67 P o l i c y Making f o r the C e n t r e s 69 F i n a n c i a l Support f o r C h i l d Study C e n t r e s . . 70 C e n t r e s ' Impact On T h e i r Communities 71 P r o j e c t s D e s i r e d . . 72 Common Concerns o f Respondents ?A Summary . . . . 75 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 76 C h i l d Study on Campus 76 Goa l s of C h i l d Study C e n t r e s "79 Communication Among Canadian C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 82 L i m i t a t i o n s of Study 83 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study and A c t i o n 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY '87 APPENDIX A: LETTERS 95 APPENDIX B: RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS 99' v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I D e s c r i p t i o n of Canadian C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 52 I I .iAdmission C r i t e r i a 56 I I I R e l a t i v e Importance of Elements of C h i l d r e n ' s Environments and Program . 59 IV Academic L e v e l and F a c u l t y S t a t u s of Workers i n C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 61 V R e l a t i v e Importance of F u n c t i o n s Performed by C h i l d Study C e n t r e , S t a f f , and F a c u l t y 64 VI F u n c t i o n s D e s c r i b e d as Very Important o r Important By C h i l d Study C e n t r e s : A Comparison W i t h Howd & Browne 65 V I I Rank Order of G o a l s Which Guide the A c t i v i t i e s o f the C h i l d Study C e n t r e s 66 V I I I • B o d i e s That C o n t r i b u t e t o P o l i c y Making 69 IX C h i l d Study C e n t r e s ' Major Sources of Funding 70 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would l i k e to e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s o r , Dr. Glen: Dixon, who g e n e r o u s l y s h a r e d h i s time and knowledge w i t h me, and to my committee members, Dr. Hannah Polowy and Dr. D a v i d B a i n , who were ready w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s and a d v i c e when they were most needed. S p e c i a l thanks go to my husband, Dr. Donald C o a t e s , whose e x p e r t i s e and sense o f urgency sped my t a s k ; and to Dr. Norma Law f o r h e r h e l p and encouragement. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO STUDY T h i s i s a time i n Canada when young c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g d e p r i v e d of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to b e n e f i t from knowledge about c h i l d development which has accumulated over the p a s t f i f t y y e a r s . Canadian p a r e n t s , day c a r e , p r e s c h o o l and p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s do n o t have ready a c c e s s to i n f o r m a t i o n , adequate guidance to s e l e c t t h a t which r e l a t e s t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , nor p u b l i c p o l i c i e s which s u p p o r t them i n p u t t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t o use to meet the needs o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s . The impetus f o r t h i s s t u d y comes from a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t knowledge about young c h i l d r e n must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s , programs and p r a c t i c e s ; t h a t the development of knowledge, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o Canadian s i t u a t i o n s , i t s t r a n s f e r to Canadian p r a c t i t i o n e r s ! and d e c i s i o n makers and i t s wide d i s s e m i n a t i o n to a l l whose a c t i o n s a f f e c t young c h i l d r e n i s e s s e n t i a l to the development o f the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n s o f young Canadian c h i l d r e n . Programs f o r young c h i l d r e n which a r e o p e r a t e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d be i n a unique p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n the p r o c e s s o f t r a n s l a t i n g c h i l d development knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c e . They c o u l d f u n c t i o n as l a b o r a t o r i e s examining q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the d a i l y l i v e s o f young c h i l d r e n . They c o u l d h e l p t o p r e p a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s to work w i t h young c h i l d r e n on a d a i l y b a s i s i n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s . They c o u l d be the v i t a l s o u r c e from which i n f o r m a t i o n about young c h i l d -r e n f l o w s to many r e c i p i e n t s . 2 There a r e b a r r i e r s , however, t o d i s c o v e r i n g whether Canadian u n i v e r s i t y - o p e r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s programs i n f a c t a r e h a v i n g an impact on the d a i l y l i v e s o f c h i l d r e n beyond t h e i r d o o r s . There a r e c o n c e p t u a l b a r r i e r s between s e p a r a t e academic d i s c i p l i n e s which study c h i l d r e n , p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s between Canada's s e p a r a t e g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s between Canada's s e p a r a t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n s . These b a r r i e r s need t o be examined and b r e a c h e d i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the ways i n which Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e t r a n s f o r m i n g c h i l d development knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c e . C o n c e p t u a l B a r r i e r s to the Study of Young C h i l d r e n A v a s t amount of knowledge about the s p e c i a l n a t u r e of young c h i l d r e n ' s development has accumulated o v e r the p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y . How-ev e r , w h i l e knowledge has been i n c r e a s i n g , s c h o l a r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s c o u l d n o t draw upon a "body" o f knowledge no r a d e f i n e d " f i e l d " o f s t u d y . L i t e r a t u r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to one d i s c i p l i n e p r o v i d e s n e i t h e r a comp-r e h e n s i v e nor complete p i c t u r e o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the p r a c t i c e s of one d i s c i p l i n e w i t h young c h i l d r e n o f t e n o f f e n d t h e p r a c t i -t i o n e r s o f o t h e r s whose a c t i v i t i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n o c c u r i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s ; and a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s of some d i s c i p l i n e s can o f f e n d p a r e n t s o f young c h i l d r e n . Each d i s c i p l i n e may see i t s e l f as a c t i n g i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d w h i l e , l i k e the b l i n d f o l d e d men t o u c h i n g the e l e phant, they a r e knowledgeable about o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the young p e r s o n . Knowledge which i s b o t h v a l i d i n p r a c t i c e and w i d e l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e p o i n t s to t h e e a r l y y e a r s of l i f e as a p e r i o d o f c o n t i n u o u s i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g and growth. P i a g e t ' s c a r e f u l a n a l y s e s o f n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a -3 t i o n s o f young c h i l d r e n and r e p l i c a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f h i s i n s i g h t s have c r e a t e d a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s p e c i a l and u n i v e r s a l n a t u r e o f young c h i l d r e n ' s thought and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s ( P i a g e t , 1955; 1951). Language a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s o f the 1960's and 1970's have r e v e a l e d the s p e c i a l and u n i v e r s a l n a t u r e o f the p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g a f i r s t language (Bloom, 1970; Brown, Cazden & B e l l u g i , 1969; Ferguson, 1964; M c N e i l l , 1970). C r o s s - c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s have emphasized the u n i v e r s a l and s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f the growth of t r u s t and attachment i n b a b i e s and young c h i l d r e n ( A i n s w o r t h , 1967,'1969; Bowlby, 1953; F l i n t , 1959). The work o f t h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s such as the above p o i n t s t o the n e c e s s i t y t o take i n t o account the i n t e g r a t e d n a t u r e o f young c h i l d r e n ' s development: f o r example, a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s of c o g n i t i v e development, m a t u r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n language development, c o g n i t i v e v a l u e s o f s o c i a l development. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to o p e r a t e an exemplary d a i l y program f o r young c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t drawing upon knowledge i n the f i e l d s o f e d u c a t i o n , s o c i o l o g y , m e d i c i n e , n u t r i t i o n , p s y c h o l o g y and s o c i a l work, to name a few. I t i s l o g i c a l to assume t h a t u n i v e r s i t y - o p e r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s programs a r e i n a p o s i t i o n not o n l y to b e n e f i t from r e c e n t knowledge i n each of t h e s e f i e l d s but to p r o v i d e a l o c u s f o r communication between members of the academic community who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a p p l y i n g t h e i r v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s t o meeting c h i l d r e n ' s needs. T h i s study may demonstrate t h a t u n i v e r s i t y - o p e r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s programs do draw upon a v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n e s and p r o v i d e a l o c u s f o r communication between them. I t may become e v i d e n t t h a t as a r e s u l t t h e s e programs a r e h e l p i n g t o d e f i n e the " f i e l d " of study of young c h i l d r e n . 4 The Canadian Context The n e c e s s i t y f o r a s t u d y t h a t e x p l o r e s the p r e s e n t s t a t u s of c h i l d r e n ' s programs o p e r a t e d by Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s a r i s e s not o n l y from academic b a r r i e r s , which undoubtedly e x i s t beyond the b o u n d a r i e s of Canada, but from l i m i t a t i o n s on communication p e c u l i a r perhaps to the Canadian s i t u a t i o n . Canada's geography and demography o f t e n m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e exchange of i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the c o u n t r y . As a 5 0 0 0 - k i l o m e t r e wide c o u n t r y w i t h 85% of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g w i t h i n 300 k i l o m e t r e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r , communication o f t e n f l o w s more e a s i l y w i t h a d j a c e n t s t a t e s than w i t h countrymen. The U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i t h a [popula-t i o n t e n f o l d t h a t of Canada, w i t h l a r g e numbers of government and u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h programs i n o p e r a t i o n , and w i t h v a s t p u b l i s h i n g and media empires overwhelms Canada w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n s about young c h i l d r e n which a r e d e r i v e d from s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and economic c o n t e x t s of a d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r y . Program models and p o l i c i e s t h u s ^ a r e r drawn more e a s i l y from American c o u n t e r p a r t s f o r which i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e , than from those i n o t h e r p a r t s of Canada. I n a d d i t i o n , the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n p l a c e s i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l governments almost a l l m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . H e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n and f a m i l y laws of each p r o v i n c e r e f l e c t i t s p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , human and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and i t s h i s t o r y , dominant language and geography. E d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y , has been the j e a l o u s l y - g u a r d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i n c e s . The u n i v e r s i t i e s can be i n s u l a r i n t h e i r impact upon Canadian 5 academia as a whole through o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s h a r i n g knowledge i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l or American p u b l i c a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e i r l a r g e a u d i e n c e s . T h i s study may d i s c o v e r t h a t u n i v e r s i t y - o p e r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s programs e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n from each o t h e r w i t h few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r mutual communication and l i t t l e common knowledge about the c o l l e c t i v e impact o f t h e i r programs upon the d a i l y l i v e s o f young Canadian c h i l d r e n . D e f i n i t i o n s Used i n T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n C h i l d study C h i l d s t u d y i s a term which .^denotes* a movement begun by G. S t a n l e y H a l l i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c o n c u r r e n t w i t h the emergence o f p s y c h o l o g y as a d i s c i p l i n e ( D e i g h t o n e t a l , 1971) . I t i s a l s o a term i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the C h i l d Study A s s o c i a t i o n , founded i n t h e 1920's t o encourage p a r e n t study groups (Frank, 1962). C h i l d study has a l s o been used to r e f e r t o s e r v i c e s d e s i g n e d f o r a p p r a i s a l o f c h i l d r e n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s (Good e t a l , 1973). Each o f t h e s e uses o f the term c h i l d s t u d y i s too narrow f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Mary Northway, a Canadian i n v o l v e d w i t h c h i l d s t u d y r e s e a r c h f o r many y e a r s , o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f c h i l d s t u d y : C h i l d s t u d y i s the stu d y o f c h i l d r e n by any d i s c i p l i n e o r p r o f e s s i o n , c a r r i e d out by any method from r i g i d l y d e s i g n e d s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a -t i o n to f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , such as the p l a y -ground and the c l i n i c , which l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d knowledge of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , b e h a v i o u r and development. C h i l d study i s t h e r e f o r e w i d e r t han c h i l d development, though i t i n c l u d e s i t . C o n t r a r i w i s e , c h i l d s t u d y does n o t i n c l u d e a l l s t u d i e s m e r e l y because they use c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s . As few r a t s t u d i e s a r e d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o study r a t s , b u t to g a i n knowledge o f something e l s e - e f f e c t of drugs o r b r a i n i n j u r y - i n the same way, many s t u d i e s u s i n g c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s a r e not d i r e c t e d to l e a r n i n g more about c h i l d r e n but r a t h e r to such t h i n g s as the adequacy o f p e d a g o g i c a l methods o r the e f f e c t i v e -ness of TV commercials (Northway, 1973, p. 4 5 ) . 6 Northway m a i n t a i n s t h a t the " u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y of knowledge a t t a i n e d i n c h i l d s t u d y i s . . . i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a p p l i c a t i o n t o c h i l d r e n i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and . . . t h e i r i n c r e a s e d human and s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t " (Northway, 1973, p. 45). T h i s s t u d y w i l l d e f i n e c h i l d study as the study o f c h i l d r e n which l e a d s to i n c r e a s e d knowledge o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , b e h a v i o r and development, f o l l o w i n g Northway's d e f i n i t i o n . E a r l y c h i l d h o o d Not o n l y i s the f i e l d o f c h i l d s t u d y open t o a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , b u t t h e r e i s no concensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e as to what y e a r s c o n s t i t u t e "young" or " e a r l y " c h i l d h o o d . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n has been d e f i n e d as " o r g a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n between two o r t h r e e and e i g h t y e a r s of age" (De i g h t o n e t a l , 1971, p. 146).. However, i t i s p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t o n i s not u n i v e r s a l , as t h e r e i s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s . Hymes i s c i t e d . He c o n s i d e r s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d t o be "the p e r i o d o f h i g h dependency," the p e r i o d between b i r t h and e i g h t o r n i n e y e a r s (Hymes, 1969, p. 1 ) . The upper l i m i t o f e i g h t o r n i n e y e a r s o l d i s s u p p o r t e d by the work o f the language and l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s who d e s c r i b e landmarks i n c h i l d r e n ' s thought p r o c e s s e s , concept and language a c q u i s i t i o n a t about t h i s age, and by the common usage o f the term " p r e a d o l e s c e n t " t o d e s c r i b e the y e a r s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n to twe l v e . The lower l i m i t o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d as b i r t h i s s u p p o r t e d n ot o n l y by contemporary s t u d i e s which r e v e a l dimensions of baby b e h a v i o r and l e a r n i n g n ot p r e v i o u s l y imagined, but by c u r r e n t s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s which r e q u i r e the development o f p o l i c i e s and programs 7 f o r b a b i e s sometimes from the time o f b i r t h . T h i s s t u d y w i l l r e f e r , then, to young c h i l d r e n as those i n t h e p e r i o d of h i g h dependency, from b i r t h to nine1 years' old;. • -C h i l d study c e n t r e C h i l d r e n ' s programs w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g a r e known by s e v e r a l names: " l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l , " "campus-based l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l , " " l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l , " " c h i l d development l a b o r a t o r y . " Good e t a l d e f i n e " c h i l d s t u d y l a b o r a t o r y " as a p l a c e f o r s t u d y i n g the c h i l d under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s and f o r p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e e x p e r i m e n t a l programs i n v o l v i n g t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r and l e a r n i n g " (Good e t a l , 1973, p. 326). In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e i s d e f i n e d as a group program f o r young c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e d by an i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g f o r the study of the e x p e r i e n c e , b e h a v i o r and development o f young c h i l d r e n . Overview of T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n The purposes o f t h i s s t u d y a r e to e x p l o r e and d e s c r i b e the p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s ; to l o c a t e the c e n t r e s and t o determine t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . Do c e n t r e s e x i s t which a r e not v i s i b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e ? Are they l a b o r a t o r i e s i n which u n i v e r s i t i e s a d d r e s s the q u e s t i o n s i n the c h i l d s t u d y f i e l d ? Do c e n t r e s o f f e r s t u d e n t s who a r e p r e p a r i n g t o work w i t h young c h i l d r e n s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g about c h i l d development through g u i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e ? Do c e n t r e s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d development t o a v a r i e t y o f a u d i e n c e s i n c l u d i n g 8 s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , d e c i s i o n makers, f i e l d workers and the academic community, by such means as p u b l i c a t i o n s , l i a i s o n work,workshops? Do c e n t r e s p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to s p e c i a l groups of c h i l d r e n o r f a m i l i e s , to p a r e n t s o r to p r o f e s s i o n a l s ? I f c e n t r e s a r e p e r f o r m i n g r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a -t i o n and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to young c h i l d r e n and t h e i r programs, they may c o n s t i t u t e a p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l r e s o u r c e f o r v a l i d a t i n g knowledge by a p p l y i n g i t to programs and p r a c t i c e s , by t e s t i n g i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n promoting c h i l d r e n ' s development, and by p r o v i d i n g g u i d ance to a wide a u d i e n c e about t h a t knowledge which has u t i l i t y i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s o r t h a t which may have o n l y l i m i t e d o r s p e c i a l i z e d v a l u e . L i t e r a t u r e t h a t r e l a t e s t o the h i s t o r y and f u n c t i o n of c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I . Chapter I I I o u t l i n e s t h e p r o c e d u r e s of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV. I n Chapter V the r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d and i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e drawn. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e s and a p p e n d i c e s . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o be d e s c r i b e d i n Cha p t e r s I I I and IV, the r e l e v e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i e w e d and a b s t r a c t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e was d i s c o v e r e d to be i n a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s , l i t t l e r e l a t e d to each o t h e r . I t i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : I n t r o d u c t i o n s L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l s f o r C h i l d Study C h i l d Study i n Canada The I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study: A Canadian Model Summary of L i t e r a t u r e and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h i s Study I n t r o d u c t i o n As suggested i n Chapter I , t h e r e a r e b a r r i e r s t o examining c h i l d s t u d y , and c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , i n Canada. Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s have p u b l i s h e d r e l e v e n t h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y of mimeographed r e p o r t s , a r t i c l e s and monographs through p s y c h o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n and home economics departments. Governments and p r i v a t e l g r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l s o c o m p i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e has t y p i c a l l y been c a r r i e d out on an i n f o r m a l , r a t h e r p e r s o n a l , b a s i s i n Canada, r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d , c l a s s i f i e d and c a t a l o g u e d i n a p u b l i c and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e form. 10 Even beyond Canada's b o u n d a r i e s , l i t e r a t u r e about c h i l d r e n ' s programs o p e r a t e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s e x i s t s i n s o u r c e s which a r e l i t t l e r e l a t e d to each o t h e r . As a r e s u l t , the w r i t e r has c l a s s i f i e d t h i s l i t e r a t u r e from d i v e r s e s o u r c e s i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s which s u i t the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y : l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d s t u d y , c h i l d s t u d y i n Canada, and th e I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study as a Canadian model. The h i s t o r i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l bases f o r t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i t h the r e v i e w of each. A t the o u t s e t , however, a d i s t i c t i o n must be made between l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s and l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e on l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i s d e f i n e d as a c a t e g o r y f o r t h e purpose o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e s almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , which has a l o n g h i s t o r y o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s programs i n t o t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . L a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , on the o t h e r hand, b e l o n g t o a newer t r a d i t i o n , e x e m p l i f i e d by programs i n b o t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The growth of i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d s t u d y d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of the 20th c e n t u r y c u l m i n a t e d d u r i n g the 1920's i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of asnumber o f l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s f o r the study o f c h i l d r e n . L i t e r a t u r e about l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s i s n o t c a t a l o g u e d as such, however. The s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e d i v e r s e , and sometimes c o n f l i c t u a l . Both l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s , and l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s a r e programs f o r c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s . However, t h e i r h i s t o r y and p u r poses a r e d i f f e r e n t and t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e s a r e e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e . Both a r e r e l e v e n t to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , b u t they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . 11 L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n Programs f o r c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g have t r a d i t i o n s which go back 150 y e a r s , and a r e l i n k e d w i t h changing p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p l a c e i n N o r t h American s o c i e t y . D u r i n g the 19th c e n t u r y s o c i a l changes r e s u l t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f compulsory e d u c a t i o n f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s d u r i n g each y e a r . T h i s provoked a need f o r t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f t t e a c h e r s to handle c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r i n the l a b o r f o r c e . E a r l y s c h o o l s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f f u t u r e t e a c h e r s were termed "normal s c h o o l s . " A few c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d to the f i r s t normal s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s f o r the purposes of d e m o n s t r a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g as e a r l y as the 1820's (Barnard, 1851; W i l l i a m s , 1942). T h i s marked the b e g i n n i n g of a growing t r e n d throughout the 19th c e n t u r y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , a t r e n d o f f i c i a l l y endorsed by the a d o p t i o n of a r e s o l u t i o n a t the F i r s t A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n of the American Normal S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1859: R e s o l v e d t h a t t h i s e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s s h o u l d not o n l y be t h e o r e t i c a l , but a l s o p r a c t i c a l ; and t h a t to t h i s end t h e r e s h o u l d e i t h e r be a s c h o o l o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e , i n immediate c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the normal s c h o o l and under the same Board of C o n t r o l , o r t h e r e s h o u l d be i n o t h e r ways e q u i v a l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e (McGeoch, 1971, p. 2 ) . D u r i n g the f i r s t 25 y e a r s of the 20th c e n t u r y t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f o u r - y e a r i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s took an i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . L a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s kept pace. I n 1926 the American A s s o c i a t i o n o f < Teachers' C o l l e g e s adopted as one of i t s s t a n d a r d s f o r a c c r e d i t a t i o n o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs: 12 Each t e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e s h a l l m a i n t a i n a t r a i n i n g s c h o o l under i t s own c o n t r o l as a p a r t o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , as a l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s f o r purposes o f o b s e r v a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s e d t e a c h i n g on t h e p a r t o f s t u d e n t s (McGeoch, 1971, p. 3 ) . By the time W i l l i a m s (1942) conducted h i s su r v e y s o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1934 and 1937, 131 s c h o o l s comprised h i s sample. As the need f o r g r e a t e r numbers o f t e a c h e r s grew throughout the 1940's and 1950's, the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s c o u l d meet o n l y a f r a c t i o n of the needs o f p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g . Off-campus f a c i l i t i e s assumed i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r numbers o f s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s , " w h i l e c i r c u i t - r i d i n g c o l l e g e s u p e r v i s o r s f r a n t i c a l l y t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n some semblance o f c o n t a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s a t e v e r - w i d e n i n g d i s t a n c e s from the c o l l e g e s " (McGeoch, 1971, p. 6 ) . In 1948, the American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e s r e d e f i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e f o r e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s a s : A l l t h o s e c o n t a c t s w i t h c h i l d r e n , y o u t h , and a d u l t s ( t h r o u g h o b s e r v a -t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t e a c h i n g ) which make a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n to u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r g u i d ance i n the t e a c h i n g -l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s (American A s s o c i a t i o n of T e a c h e r s , 1948, p. 4 ) . P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g was becoming community based. A 1964 surv e y r e v e a l e d 212 l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , s c h o o l s which were d e f i n e d as "under the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l of a c o l l e g i a t e l e v e l i n s t i t u t i o n and/or r e c e i v e s the major share of i t s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from such an i n s t i t u t i o n " ( K e l l e y , 1964, p. 2 ) . K e l l e y a l s o found t h a t 22 l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s had been t e r m i n a t e d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s f i v e y e a r s . When Howd and Browne updated K e l l e y ' s s u r v e y i n 1969, they found 14 fewer l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n . I t seems e v i d e n t t h a t the number o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s peaked and began t o d e c l i n e between the 1937 and 1964 s u r v e y s . Was the change of emphasis t o 13 community-based p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g c a u s i n g l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s to become o b s o l e t e ? The e a r l y s u r v e y s o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s c o n s i s t e n t l y found the c l u s t e r o f f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d e m o n s t r a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g to be the most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s o f the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s ( W i l l i a m s , 1942; K e l l e y , 1964). However, Howd and Browne found t h a t more than h a l f o f the 194 l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d i n 1969 were unused o r made o n l y a l i m i t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s t u d e n t p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g . They r e p o r t e d t h a t the d e m o n s t r a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n f u n c t i o n s remained o f major importance, but o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was t h e i r f i n d i n g t h a t the c l u s t e r of f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o r e s e a r c h , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n had emerged and become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . W h i l e r e p o r t i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h had become an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n , however, the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s were f a r from b e i n g the f o c u s f o r the ferment o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n o f the 1960's. E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h mushroomed d u r i n g the 1960's. The l a u n c h i n g o f S p u t n i k i n 1957 had r e s u l t e d i n wi d e s p r e a d disenchantment w i t h the American e d u c a t i o n system, and a renewed i n t e r e s t i n s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s . Sponsors o f ma s s i v e p r o j e c t s i n t h e s e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s were funded by government. F o r the most p a r t , t h e l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s remained o u t s i d e t h i s c u r r i c u l a r r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y , h andicapped by o l d f a c i l i t i e s , l a c k o f funds f o r e x p a n s i o n and c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , Some e d u c a t o r s s t u c k to t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i c a l and c u r r i c u l a r guns and r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t the assumption t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e , e d u c a t i o n was o b s o l e t e . The p r i c e p a i d f o r such i n t e g r i t y i n c l u d e d l a c k of a c c e s s to governmental and f o u n d a t i o n f u n d i n g (Van T i l , 1969, p. 12). When a s h i f t i n s o c i a l p r i o r i t i e s t r a n s f e r r e d e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s t o the c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n the mid-1960's o n l y a m i n o r i t y of l a b o r a t o r y 14 s c h o o l s found themselves f o r t u n a t e enough to be l o c a t e d i n a p o v e r t y a r e a , and thus a b l e to q u a l i f y f o r government and f o u n d a t i o n f u n d i n g . Changing f u n c t i o n s of l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s have been documented by the s u r v e y s , a n a l y z e d and d e s c r i b e d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s ( B i x b y & M i t z e l , 1963; Blackmon e t a l , 1970; B l a i r e t a l , 1958; P e r r o d i n , 1955), and new d i r e c t i o n s have been suggested (Aubertine,;197:2; Hunter, 1970; McGeoch, 1971; Van T i l , 1969). D u r i n g the p a s t decade a r a s h o f s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s has f o c u s e d on t h e p u rposes of the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s and q u e s t i o n e d what the p r o p e r p u b l i c commitment to them s h o u l d be (McGeoch, 1968; Q u i g l e y & Chaves, 1974; S t a t e of F l o r i d a , 1976; S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y System of F l o r i d a , 1969). '* ' Proponents of the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s which a l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l may be i n a unique p o s i t i o n t o p e r f o r m . To b r i n g " p r a c t i c e i n l i n e w i t h p r e s e n t knowledge" (Ohm, 1960) i s a theme r e p e a t e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n s : " t o r e f i n e o r f i e l d t e s t t h e o r y i n an environment uncontaminated by the v e r y n e c e s s a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on p u b l i c s c h o o l s " (Hunter, 1970); to i n n o v a t e (McGeoch, 1971). The l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l i s seen as i n the f o r e f r o n t o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e , w i t h the p o t e n t i a l t o i n s t i t u t e i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e s , and to m o n i t o r , a s s e s s and i n t e r p r e t them. While the v a l u e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as i t r e l a t e s to p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t f i e l d workers a r e seen as an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t component o f the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e (McGeoch, 1971). Programs f o r c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g can be s u b j e c t to changes i n emphases and s u p p o r t s as s o c i a l changes b r i n g p r e s s u r e to bear on e d u c a t i o n systems. T h i s i s amply i l l u s t r a t e d by the h i s t o r y o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 15 L a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s may be by-passed o r d i s c o n t i n u e d as a r e s u l t of t h e s e p r e s s u r e s . They may a l s o have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r a n s l a t e t h e o r y i n t o p r o m i s i n g programs and p r a c t i c e s , u n i q u e i n t h e i r freedom and s u p p o r t f o r i n n o v a t i o n and f o r m o n i t o r i n g t h i s i n n o v a t i o n , and w i t h the means and t a l e n t t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n to the b e n e f i t of the p o p u l a c e of c h i l d r e n . Canada, a n a t i o n h a l f as o l d as the U n i t e d S t a t e s , has u n i v e r s i t i e s which f o r the most p a r t were i n t h e i r i n f a n c y o r n o t y e t c h a r t e r e d a t the time when c h i l d r e n ' s programs were b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n a m u l t i t u d e o f such i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Two e x c e p t i o n s were the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o o p e r a t e d a l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l , the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o S c h o o l s , as e a r l y as 1911, and t h a t two of the p i o n e e r i n g N o r t h American l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e s e u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1925. The p r e s c h o o l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o S c h o o l s has now become a p r i v a t e s c h o o l , and Canada has not had a t r a d i t i o n of i n c o r p o r a t i n g l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n t o t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . L a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a r e not mentioned i n s t a n d a r d r e f e r e n c e s on the h i s t o r y o f Canadian e d u c a t i o n ( P h i l l i p s , 1957; W i l s o n , Stamp & Audet, 1970). Because the l i t e r a t u r e on American l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s b r i n g s to l i g h t the p r e s s u r e s which s o c i a l changes can b r i n g to bear on u n i v e r s i t y -o p e r a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s programs, and because i t o f f e r s a n a l y s e s of the f u n c t i o n s such programs may s e r v e , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e c o n s t i t u t e s a u s e f u l \ r e s o u r c e f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , . 16 L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l s f o r C h i l d Study A second major t r a d i t i o n t h a t has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f programs f o r c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i s t h a t of c h i l d s t u d y . T h i s i s a younger t r a d i t i o n , w i t h i t s i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d growth and development growing a l o n g s i d e the new d i s c i p l i n e of p s y c h o l o g y l a t e i n the 19th c e n t u r y . The f i r s t c h i l d r e n ' s program t o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the purpose o f c h i l d study was the Iowa C h i l d W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n , a t the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa i n 1917. T h i s landmark was l a t e r d e s c r i b e d : . . . he r e we f i n d f o r the f i r s t time an emphasis l a i d on the s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e o f the study o f c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than upon i t s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . I t s f o u n d i n g h e r a l d e d the dawn o f a new day i n the stu d y o f c h i l d h o o d . C h i l d h o o d had come i n t o i t s own as a problem o f major s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t to be s t u d i e d n o t by the p a r e n t , the t e a c h e r , the p h i l o s o p h e r , o r the e d u c a t o r , but by t h e s c i e n t i s t (Bradbury, 1937, pp. 34-35). T h i s statement e x e m p l i f i e s the view o f the growing d i s c i p l i n e o f p s y c h o l o g y , but i n f a c t whether l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s s e r v e d the s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t w i t h the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s which s e r v e d t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n cannot be seen as an e i t h e r / o r q u e s t i o n , b u t r a t h e r one o f emphasis. F o r i n s t a n c e , n e i t h e r " p r e s c h o o l " nor " c h i l d s t u d y " were domains e x c l u s i v e t o t h e new l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s . Dewey i n c l u d e d a " s u b - p r i m a r y " group of f o u r t o f i v e y e a r o l d s when he e s t a b l i s h e d h i s l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago i n 1896, and h i s statement on l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s m a r r i e s the purposes o f c h i l d s tudy and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n the s e r v i c e of c h i l d development: . . . a p l a c e f o r the stu d y o f mind as m a n i f e s t e d and develop e d i n the c h i l d and f o r the s e a r c h a f t e r m a t e r i a l s and a g e n c i e s thataseem most l i k e l y to f u l f i l l and f u r t h e r the c o n d i t i o n s o f normal growth (Dewey*, ;1966, p. 96) . 17 Dewey's view i s p a r a l l e l e d by t h a t of H a r r i e t Johnson, f o u n d e r o f the second p i o n e e r i n g l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l , the C i t y and County S c h o o l , which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n New York i n 1919 f o r the Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l Experiments ( l a t e r the Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e of' E d u c a t i o n ) : . . . i t i s the i d e a of the d i r e c t o r . ^ M i s s Johnson^]" t h a t the f a c t s o f growth and development a r e the b e s t g u i d e to the knowledge o f what i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n b e h a v i o r . . . (Johnson, 1936). W i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1922 of t h e Ruggles S t r e e t N u r s e r y and T r a i n i n g S c h o o l by A b i g a i l E l i o t , a.":social worker, and the M e r r i l l -Palmer I n s t i t u t e i n D e t r o i t by Edna Noble White, a home economist, a f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n was added t o the stu d y o f young c h i l d r e n . These women were f a m i l i a r w i t h working w i t h p a r e n t s and were i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n and home and f a m i l y l i f e (Braun & Edwards, 1972; Osborn, 1975). In 1923 the L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial " d e c i d e d to su p p o r t the f i e l d s o f c h i l d s tudy and p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , making f i v e - y e a r g r a n t s t o u n i v e r s i t i e s which were l a t e r renewed and e n l a r g e d " (Frank, 1962, p. 214). The Memorial a i d e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f many p i o n e e r i n g c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , two o f them i n Canada. These Canadian c e n t r e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . N u r s e r y s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n home economics departments of t e n American u n i v e r s i t i e s between 1924 and 1930: Iowa S t a t e , Ohio S t a t e , C o r n e l l , G e o r g i a , Purdue, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma A & M, C i n c i n n a t i and Oregon S t a t e (Osborn, 1975) . These programs emphasized the r o l e o f the f a m i l y i n the l i f e o f the c h i l d , w h i l e c h i l d r e n ' s programs i n c o l l e g e s of e d u c a t i o n such as the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y N u r s e r y S c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1921 by P a t t y Smith H i l l , emphasized.', c u r r i c u l u m 18 methods and e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . "The p u b l i c s c h o o l wanted to improve s o c i e t y ; the home economics n u r s e r y wanted to improve the f a m i l y " (Osborn, 1975, p. 4 3 ) . These l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s were f o r young c h i l d r e n aged t h r e e to f i v e y e a r s o l d . From the b e g i n n i n g the N o r t h American c h i l d study c e n t r e s drew i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r program p r a c t i c e s from t h e M a c M i l l a n s i s t e r s i n E n g l a n d , and the t e a c h i n g s of- F r o e b e l , M o n t e s s o r i and the American p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t o r s (Braun & Edwards, 1972; Northway, 1973; Omwake, 1971; Osborn, 1975). The aims of the e a r l y h u m a n i t a r i a n s , the M a c M i l l a n s , F r o e b e l , M o n t e s s o r i and the p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t o r s such as Dewey, were to improve the whole l i v e s o f young c h i l d r e n , t h e i r p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e i r m o r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l development. F r o e b e l ' s more f o r m a l approach, as d e s c r i b e d i n the use of h i s " g i f t s , " was more i n f l u e n t i a l i n the e a r l y k i n d e r g a r t e n movement than i n the l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h an e a r l y r e p o r t of the Ruggles S t r e e t N u r s e r y S c h o o l and T r a i n i n g C e n t r e i n c l u d e s t h e " k i n d e r g a r t e n g i f t s " i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n (Braun & Edwards, 1972, p. 153). Dewey p r e f e r r e d to c a l l h i s f o u r to f i v e y e a r o l d group " p r e - p r i m a r y " r a t h e r than " k i n d e r g a r t e n " perhaps to emphasize h i s d i f f e r -ences w i t h F r o e b e l . Edna Noble w h i t e v i s i t e d the M a c M i l l a n s i s t e r s i n England, and A b i g a i l E l i o t worked w i t h them, r e t u r n i n g t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s ready to i n c o r p o r a t e an emphasis on h e a l t h y outdoor a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r new programs i n D e t r o i t and Boston. New i n f l u e n c e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h i s h u m a n i t a r i a n h e r i t a g e d u r i n g the 1920's. Freud's i n f l u e n c e began to be f e l t i n t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e , but most of a l l i n the i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h which the - everyday e x p e r i e n c e s of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d f o r l a t e r l i f e 19 problems were r e g a r d e d ( F o r e s t , 1935; Omwake, 1971). Another I n f l u e n c e was t h a t o f the b e h a v l o r i s t p s y c h o l o g i s t s : " I n the l a t e 1920's . . . t e a c h e r s who came under the i n f l u e n c e of the b e h a v i o r i s t p s y c h o l o g i s t s were m a i n l y concerned about ' h a b i t s ' and s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g f o r e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g and e l i m i n a t i o n " (Omwake, 1971, p. 33). And the work o f G e s e l l and the dev e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s was to m o d i f y t h i s emphasis i n the 1930's. The p u b l i c a t i o n o f B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l ' s On E d u c a t i o n i n 1926 urged t e a c h e r s to c o n c e n t r a t e on p e r s o n a l i t y development and e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n : Ste-ft . . . t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d work a t t h e i r own pace; t h a t punishment s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d ; t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t e n l e a r n b e s t when tau g h t by o t h e r c h i l d r e n and t h a t the young c h i l d r e n were h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d t o work and d i s c o v e r . He f e l t t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d a c l i m a t e o f l e a r n i n g which made d i s c o v e r y p o s s i b l e and a l l o w e d time to e x p e r i e n c e the j o y of s u c c e s s '"(Osborn, 1975, pp. 45-46). E a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l programs may show the i n f l u e n c e of such a wide range of h u m a n i t a r i a n s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , r e s e a r c h e r s and t e a c h e r s because o f the many d i s c i p l i n e s t o which t h e i r f o u n d e r s b e l o n g e d . B i r d Baldwin, f i r s t d i r e c t o r of the Iowa C h i l d W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n , was a p s y c h o l o g i s t , a l t h o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the S t a t i o n was the r e s u l t o f a campaign by a mother (Bradbury, 1937). Of the foun d e r s o f o t h e r p i o n e e r i n g ' c e n t r e s , " H a r r i e t Johnson was a,nurse, A b i g a i l . • E l i o t . a s o c i a l worker, Edna Noble White.a home economist, P a t t y Smith H i l l an e d u c a t o r . E a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , then, d e v e l o p e d from many d i s c i p l i n e s and they s e r v e d a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . W h i l e many were i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n from t h e i r i n c e p t i o n , and s e v e r a l such as Iowa, the F e l s I n s t i t u t e a t Ohio, and Min n e s o t a were known m a i n l y f o r r e s e a r c h , . . . most had t h r e e main f u n c t i o n s : t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h and s e r v i c e . I n some l a b o r a t o r y c e n t e r s . T e a c h i n g was the major f u n c t i o n ; i n o t h e r s R e s e a r c h . The f u n c t i o n of S e r v i c e ( t o c h i l d r e n , the f a m i l y and community) v a r i e d depending on the center. (Osborn, 1975, p. 44). 20 Some l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s have grown to i n c l u d e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n ; i n a d d i t i o n , some l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s have extended t h e i r age range downward to p r e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n . In 1969, 166 of 194 l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n c l u d e d p r e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n , 15 were e x c l u s i v e l y p r e s c h o o l s , and one was a p r e s c h o o l - g r a d e one (Howd & Browne, 1969). A l t h o u g h the s u r v e y i n c l u d e d some l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , i t i s not c l e a r i f those t h a t were sponsored by d i s c i p l i n e s o t h e r t h a n -e d u c a t i o n were i n c l u d e d . The s u r v e y examined f u n c t i o n s of l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n r e l a t i o n to e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , but not i n r e l a t i o n to s e r v i c e o r to c h i l d s t u d y as such. The e a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s were m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y and m u l t i -purpose, concerned w i t h b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f c h i l d development and w i t h c h i l d and f a m i l y o r i e n t e d p r a c t i c e s . More r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t the c h i l d s t u d y f o c u s of l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s may have been submerged by the sheer numbers of l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d s o l e l y i n the s e r v i c e o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs. C h i l d Study i n Canada The b e g i n n i n g s of c h i l d study i n f o u r Canadian p r o v i n c e s can be t r a c e d to the i n f l u e n c e o f Dr. C l a r e H i n c k s , a p h y s i c i a n , o r g a n i z e r and h u m a n i t a r i a n e n t r e p r e n e u r , who founded the Canadian Committee f o r M e n t a l Hygiene ( l a t e r the Canadian M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n ) . Northway (1973) r e c o u n t s the i n f l u e n c e o f H i n c k s i n M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Winnipeg and i n Saskatoon, where Samuel Laycock " f e l l under H i n c k s ' c h a r i s m a " and t h r o u g h a Canadian M e n t a l Hygiene A s s o c i a t i o n g r a n t to the U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t -chewan was a b l e to o p e r a t e a c h i l d g u i d ance c l i n i c i n Saskatoon, the 21 b e g i n n i n g of h i s e x t e n s i v e work i n p a r e n t and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . H i n c k s , b e l i e v i n g t h a t mental h e a l t h b e g i n s i n c h i l d h o o d , was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o b t a i n i n g g r a n t s from the L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial t o open c h i l d study c e n t r e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1925. The S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d . Study i n To r o n t o , now the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the ne x t s e c t i o n . The M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y N u r s e r y S c h o o l c l o s e d i n 1930 when the R o c k e f e l l e r g r a n t came to an end, and reopened i n the same y e a r as a p r i v a t e n u r s e r y s c h o o l . K. M. Bantham B r i d g e s , the r e s e a r c h p s y c h o l o g i s t who had been D i r e c t o r o f the M c G i l l N u r s e r y S c h o o l , c o n t i n u e d h e r s t u d i e s of i n f a n t s i n h o s p i t a l s and a c r e c h e i n M o n t r e a l . A n u r s e r y s c h o o l was begun i n 1940 i n the S c h o o l o f Home Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, when the home economics " p r a c t i c e house" was no l o n g e r a b l e t o have b a b i e s from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n r e s i d e n c e i n the house f o r s t u d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e . The n u r s e r y s c h o o l f o r t h r e e to f i v e y e a r o l d s c o n t i n u e s to the p r e s e n t time and now i n c l u d e s a program f o r b a b i e s as w e l l ( J a c k s o n , 1979) . Home economics was a l s o the base f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new P r e s c h o o l E d u c a t i o n program i n Ryerson I n s t i t u t e o f Technology (now Ryerson P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e ) i n T o r o n t o : The A s s o c i a t i o n [the N u r s e r y E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o J made p r o p o s a l s which were a c c e p t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the 1951 C u r r i c u l u m . F o l l o w i n g the customary American p r a c t i c e the P r e s c h o o l E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e was p l a c e d i n t h e Home Economics Department as an o p t i o n . Ten y e a r s l a t e r Ryerson opened i t s own N u r s e r y S c h o o l housed i n the new u n i t (Esson, 1968, p. 8 ) . I n the same yea r (1961) i n which a l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d a t Ryerson P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e i n T o r o n t o , the C h i l d Study C e n t r e came i n t o b e i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n Vancouver. 22 I t i s noteworthy t h a t the community o f p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d p l a y e d a prominent r o l e i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of b o t h programs. The Nu r s e r y E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o s u b m i t t e d p r o p o s a l s t o Ryerson, and the B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n s u b m i t t e d a comprehensive b r i e f t o the p r e s i d e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1956, " u r g i n g t h a t a C h i l d Development C e n t r e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d on campus" ( B r e d i n , 1966, p. 39). P r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n b o t h p r o v i n c e s were con c e r n e d about the l a c k o f t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s f o r the many p r e s c h o o l programs which p r o l i f e r a t e d i n t h e i r p r o v i n c e s f o l l o w i n g the second w o r l d war. N e v i l l e S c a r f e , Dean of the new F a c u l t y and C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1956, c h a i r e d a committee: . , . composed o f s e l e c t e d f a c u l t y members r e p r e s e n t i n g the v a r i o u s f a c u l t i e s , departments and s c h o o l s which o f f e r e d c o u r s e s and o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o the human s c i e n c e s , t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s a b i l i t y o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C h i l d Development C e n t r e on campus. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , economics, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and n u r s i n g were c o n s u l t e d by the committee, which then recommended t h a t a C h i l d Development C e n t r e was needed and s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d ( B r e d i n , 1966, pp. 40, 4 1 ) . I n 1961, the C h i l d Study C e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e of the J u n i o r League, w i t h the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n h a v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the C e n t r e , and d i r e c t e d by a Management Committee r e c r u i t e d from a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y C h i l d Study C o u n c i l . The main f u n c t i o n s o f the c e n t r e were: (a) to p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and study o f c h i l d r e n by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n v a r i o u s c o u r s e s r e l a t e d to human development, (b) to p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y who d e s i r e d to undertake r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d development and (c) to p r o v i d e l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programs l e a d i n g to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n P r e s c h o o l ( B r e d i n , 1966, p. 4 2 ) . The C h i l d Study C e n t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the n , 23 d e v e l o p e d from a m u l t i d i s c l p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e , as d i d t h e e a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . A s u r v e y o f the work o f i n d i v i d u a l s engaged .in r : c h i l d - ' s t u d y a l l a c r o s s Canada r e v e a l s t h a t w h i l e over the y e a r s many of them have been i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , i t was not u n t i l 1960 when Canada's somewhat s c a t t e r e d e f f o r t s i n c h i l d s t u d y and conc e r n s f o r her c h i l d r e n were brought t o g e t h e r f o r the f i r s t t i m e . T h i s was the c u l m i n a t i o n o f y e a r s o f p l a n n i n g and of t h r e e y e a r s ' s p e c i f i c study of p r o j e c t s which d e a l t w i t h e x i s t i n g programs f o r c h i l d r e n i n Canada (Northway, 1973, p. 43). Murray Ross, the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f York U n i v e r s i t y , commented on t h a t occasion,- the f i r s t Canadian C o n f e r e n c e on C h i l d r e n : We need, i n Canada, a v e r y c a r e f u l a p p r a i s a l of what r e s e a r c h i n r e s p e c t o f c h i l d r e n i s b e i n g c a r r i e d on, and which a r e the problems t h a t need t o be r e s e a r c h e d . I n s h o r t , we need a comprehensive o u t l i n e o f the problems t h a t e x i s t and what s h o u l d be done about them, the r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e s and e s t i m a t e d c o s t s . . . . (Northway, 1973, p. 43). No such a p p r a i s a l was c a r r i e d out then o r i n the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s . D u r i n g the 1960's, " c h i l d s t u d y a c r o s s Canada e x p l o d e d " w i t h p r e s c h o o l l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , new community c o l l e g e s p r o v i d i n g c o u r s e s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n and p u b l i c p r e s s u r e growing f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f i n c r e a s e d day c a r e s e r v i c e s . In 1965, the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n "appeared l i k e a meteor on the academic l a n d s c a p e " (Northway, 1973, p. 4 4 ) . Head S t a r t , which had begun i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1965, was p r o d u c i n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n Canada, w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s becoming c a u t i o u s o n l y s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r about a p p l y i n g p r o c e d u r e s and f i n d i n g s too s p e c i f i c a l l y to Canadian p o p u l a t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s , (Wright, 1973). A l t h o u g h Northway r e f e r s to l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s which were e s t a b l i s h e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s d u r i n g the 1960's, no c a t a l o g u e o r l i s t o f 24 t h e s e l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s e x i s t s . R e f e r e n c e s t o the programs a r e o b l i q u e , found f o r i n s t a n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e s about p l a y (Rubin, 1975) o r pl a y g r o u n d s (Lueck, 1973) or compensatory p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n (Wright, 1978), not i n a l i t e r a t u r e about l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s as such. There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s a r e r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f meeting the needs of s e v e r a l p o p u l a -t i o n s , and of i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e needs t o o t h e r s . Here a g a i n , the r e f e r e n c e s a r e s c a t t e r e d , a l t h o u g h they might be o f c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t t o o t h e r c h i l d study c e n t r e s . A former s t u d e n t e x p r e s s e s her v i e w p o i n t to the i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n a j u n i o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d y : . . . an advantage of the I n s t i t u t e i s the l a b . s c h o o l . . . . The s t u d e n t has the o p p o r t u n i t y o f spe n d i n g a l o t of time t h e r e w i t h the c h i l d r e n , even when he/she i s n o t p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g . . . . We no t o n l y g e t the t h e o r y but a c t u a l l y see on a d a i l y b a s i s the i n t e r -a c t i o n between c h i l d r e n and t h e i r development . . . . our l e c t u r e s a r e n o t i s o l a t e d from r e a l i t y because of the l a b . s c h o o l which s e r v e s as a c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c u m (O'Bryan e t a l , 1975, pp. 128, 129). A l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s u p e r v i s o r s e n d s ' b r i e f r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s to p a r e n t s , w i t h an i n t e r p r e t i v e covering"memo: We have been asked by many of you about the 'feedback' from t h e s e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s which had been promised to you by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . . . . I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x p l a i n t h a t a l t h o u g h a l l r e s e a r c h e r s a r e e t h i c a l l y bound to send you t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t o f t e n t a k e s many months b e f o r e the r e s e a r c h i s f i n a l l y completed . . . . You w i l l be a b l e t o r e v i e w not o n l y s t u d i e s i n which your own c h i l d has been i n v o l v e d , but a l s o l e a r n about o t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t has been conducted here (Greenberg, 1977). Twenty y e a r s a f t e r Ross' c a l l f o r a comprehensive o u t l i n e o f the problems i n the f i e l d o f c h i l d study i n Canada, and o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e s and e s t i m a t e d c o s t s , problems have p r o l i f e r a t e d , r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s have i n c r e a s e d i n number a l t h o u g h w i t h no wi d e s p r e a d knowledge o f where they a r e , and c o s t s have e s c a l a t e d . While the U n i t e d S t a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d a C h i l d r e n ' s bureau i n 1912 and has c o n t i n u e d to a d d r e s s the problems o f 25 c h i l d study a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , Canada has never had an e q u i v a l e n t o f f i c e , and her e f f o r t s i n c h i l d study remain "somewhat s c a t t e r e d . " I n s p i t e o f the growth which has o c c u r r e d i n programs and s t u d i e s of young c h i l d r e n i n the p a s t two decades, t h e s e programs and s t u d i e s t a k e p l a c e i n i s o l a t i o n from each o t h e r , s t r u n g a c r o s s the t e n p r o v i n c e s , w i t h s c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r mutual exchanges and no n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s t o su p p o r t communication and c o o p e r a t i o n . The I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study: A Canadian Model The S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study, named f o r the T o r o n t o s t r e e t on which i t was l o c a t e d i n 1925, was Canada's o n l y c e n t r e f o r c h i l d study f o r many y e a r s . Because i t s l e n g t h y h i s t o r y l i n k s i t w i t h the e a r l i e s t N o r t h American l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , because i t has exemp-l i f i e d a wide range o f f u n c t i o n s which b o t h l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s and l a b o r a -t o r y p r e s c h o o l s have undertaken, and because i t s c h a n g i n g a u s p i c e s provoke q u e s t i o n s about the r o l e of a c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e , t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e s -c r i b e the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study i n some d e t a i l . I n T o r o n t o , C l a r e H i n c k s worked c l o s e l y w i t h P r o f e s s o r E. A. B o t t , head o f the Department o f P s y c h o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , to e s t a b l i s h S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study, l i n k i n g the c o n c e r n f o r imp r o v i n g mental h e a l t h and the human good w i t h c h i l d s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l decades. H i n c k s persuaded W i l l i a m B l a t z , a Canadian p h y s i c i a n s t u d y i n g p s y c h o l o g y i n Ch i c a g o , t o take charge o f the new c h i l d study c e n t r e and he persuaded the R o c k e f e l l e r s , who were p r o v i d i n g much of the i n i t i a l f u n d i n g , t o . a c c e p t the young man's appointment (Northway, 1973). P r o -f e s s o r B o t t n ot o n l y p i l o t e d the p r o j e c t s u c c e s s f u l l y t h r o u g h U n i v e r s i t y 26 n e g o t i a t i o n s b u t d e s i g n e d the c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d and h e l p e d t o c o n s t r u c t the equipment. B l a t z d e s c r i b e d the new s c h o o l i n 1926: Today the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d i s assuming a unique importance f o r s c i e n c e . The problems of development as f o c u s e d i n the young normal c h i l d a r e of i n t e r e s t n ot m e r e l y f o r p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s , b u t a l s o f o r those whose b u s i n e s s i t i s to study the laws o f h e a l t h , h a b i t f o r m a t i o n , and the i n f l u e n c e of the group upon the b e h a v i o u r of the i n d i v i d u a l . I n the average home th e s e problems e x i s t , b u t n o t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i r study and s o l u t i o n . The N u r s e r y S c h o o l as de v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t decade i n Gre a t B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f e r s a means of adv a n c i n g our knowledge i n these v a r i o u s f i e l d s and a t the same time a f f o r d s the b e s t c a r e and a t t e n t i o n f o r the c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d . To g i v e s e r v i c e s as w e l l as b e i n g a u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n c e n t r e , a n u r s e r y s c h o o l must n e c e s s a r i l y combine the i n t e r e s t s o f many U n i v e r s i t y departments c o - o p e r a t i n g t o study the c h i l d as a d e v e l o p i n g organism. I n the S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study t h e s e problems a r e b e i n g approached from two s i d e s . I n the N u r s e r y S c h o o l d i v i s i o n a c o n t r o l l e d environment i s p o s s i b l e and the b e h a v i o u r o f the c h i l d i n such an environment, p a r t i c u l a r l y under the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o t h e r members of the group, can be ob s e r v e d and r e c o r d e d . The c h i l d i s not "experimented w i t h " i n the sense t h a t some c r i t i c s d r e a d . He i s f u r n i s h e d w i t h abundant m a t e r i a l t o s t i m u l a t e h i s v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s and h i s a c t i v i t i e s a r e no t e d . To t h i s p a r t of the c h i l d ' s l i f e the p a r e n t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the mother, h o l d the key. Mothers have t h e r e f o r e been o r g a n i z e d i n t o groups i n the P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n t o d i s c u s s t h e problems which they meet i n h a n d l i n g c h i l d r e n a t home. S e v e r a l i n q u i r i e s a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d out w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e mothers, and i t i s hoped t h a t i n t h i s way i n f o r m a t i o n can be c o l l e c t e d which w i l l be o f use, not o n l y f o r themselves, b u t f o r o t h e r s . . . . The N u r s e r y S c h o o l d i v i s i o n and the Par e n t E d u c a t i o n d i v i s i o n a r e thus complementary i n t h e i r aim to a r r i v e a t as complete an u n d e r s t a n d i n g as p o s s i b l e o f the l i f e o f the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d , and the work o f the two s t a f f s i s b e i n g c o r r e l a t e d to t h i s end (Northway, 1973, pp. 11, 12). From i t s b e g i n n i n g s , the I n s t i t u t e s t a f f was committed to d i s s e m i n a t i n g as w e l l as d e v e l o p i n g knowledge about young c h i l d r e n . One" s t a f f member i s quoted as s a y i n g " t h e r e were few books t o c o n s u l t , so we had to w r i t e our own" (Northway, 1973, p. 17). B o t t and B l a t z wrote the f i r s t book p u b l i s h e d by the I n s t i t u t e s t a f f , The Management o f Young C h i l d r e n , d e s i g n e d as a t e x t f o r p a r e n t study groups. M i l l i c h a m p r e c o r d s t h a t as a s t u d e n t . o f the St. George's S c h o o l i n 1931 the o n l y t e x t book 27 a v a i l a b l e to h e r was H a r r i e t Johnson's C h i l d r e n i n the N u r s e r y School, . ( M i l l i c h a m p & Northway, 1977), and i n t u r n , the f i r s t and f o r many y e a r s the o n l y Canadian t e x t a v a i l a b l e t o p r e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s was N u r s e r y Educa- t i o n Theory and P r a c t i c e by B l a t z , M i l l i c h a m p and F l e t c h e r . R e s e a r c h began t o be p u b l i s h e d soon a f t e r the S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study opened. B o t t ' s s t u d y of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n the n u r s e r y s c h o o l i s much c i t e d as a c l a s s i c n ot o n l y i n p l a y r e s e a r c h , b u t i n o b s e r -v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h method ( B o t t , 1928). B o t t arid a group of graduate s t u d e n t s p u b l i s h e d a comparative a n a l y s i s o f c u r r e n t methods o f o b s e r v a -t i o n a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n which became the f i r s t o f 18 monographs i n the Ch i l d i D e v e l o p m e n t S e r i e s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the 1930's by the s t a f f o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study ( B o t t , 1933). T h i s s e r i e s i n c l u d e d r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s ( B o t t , .1937; B l a t z , A l l i n & M i l l i c h a m p , 1936; B l a t z & M i l l i c h a m p , 1935), case s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ( B l a t z & G r i f f i n , 1936) and stu d y o u t l i n e s f o r p a r e n t groups ( S t a f f o f the I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study, ND). New methods o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h were employed, such as a n a l y z i n g the s o c i a l c o n t a c t s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h the a i d of "motion p i c t u r e s " ( B ernhardt e t a l , 1937). The I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study used i t s n u r s e r y s c h o o l , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n and c l i n i c programs as r e s e a r c h p o p u l a t i o n s . F o r one s t u d y , monthly r e c o r d s of b a b i e s from one month to two y e a r s o f age were kept by p a r e n t s under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n ( B l a t z & M i l l i c h a m p , 1935). N i n e t y c h i l d r e n were ob s e r v e d i n a stu d y of l a u g h t e r i n the n u r s e r y s c h o o l c h i l d ( B l a t z , A l l i n & M i l l i c h a m p , 1936). S i x t y c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c o f S t . George's S c h o o l p r o v i d e d d a t a on dev e l o p m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ( B l a t z & G r i f f i n , 1936). Two hundred p a r e n t s i n a t t e n d a n c e a t p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , 150 p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , 28 50 s o c i a l workers and 50 m e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s comprised the sample f o r a study of a d u l t a t t i t u d e s to c h i l d r e n ' s misdemeanors ( B o t t , 1937). The programs f o r p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n and f o r p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as the c h i l d r e n ' s programs, were r e s o u r c e s f o r t e s t i n g i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e s . The d i s c u s s i o n o u t l i n e s f o r p a r e n t e d u c a t o r s were used, r e v i s e d . . . . r e p o r t e d s t e n o g r a p h i c a l l y and the d i s c u s s i o n r e v i v e d i n seminars and c o n f e r e n c e s . . . t h e r e f e r e n c e s r e a d and r e r e a d . . . . Each i t e m of the o u t l i n e was d i s c u s s e d by the whole s t a f f and i n c l u d e d o r r e j e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h i s t e n y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e ( S t a f f of S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study, ND, P r e f a c e ) . Songs and games were i n v e n t e d , and r e v i s e d to i n c o r p o r a t e c h i l d r e n ' s i d e a s and r e s p o n s e s , many v a r i a t i o n s becoming f a m i l i a r to s u c c e s s i v e groups of c h i l d r e n b e f o r e they were p u b l i s h e d i n song books ( F l e t c h e r & Dennison, 1960; 1955). A c o n t i n u i n g t h r u s t of the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study has been the i n t e r e s t i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . F o r example, i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d y e a r l y over a 30-year p e r i o d from c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s a t t e n d i n g the I n s t i t u t e from 1926 to 1945, growing i n t o an a n a l y s i s of t r u s t and e m a n c i p a t i o n i n f a m i l i e s ( D a v i s , 1966). S t u d i e s of the famous Dionne q u i n t u p l e t s c o n t i n u e d f o r f i v e y e a r s ( B l a t z , 1938). Another major l o n g i -t u d i n a l study f o l l o w e d a c o h o r t of young c h i l d r e n from 1957 when they were i n c u s t o d i a l c a r e i n an orphanage, through t h e i r a d o p t i o n o r placement i n f o s t e r homes, and i n a s i x t e e n - y e a r f o l l o w u p s t u d y ( F l i n t , 1966; 1978). The I n s t i t u t e was f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d upon to assume a p u b l i c r o l e , i n i t s own and o t h e r communities. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g the y e a r s of the second w o r l d war. A team from the I n s t i t u t e t r a v e l l e d t o E n g l a n d to develop the Wartime Day N u r s e r i e s i n Birmingham (Northway, 1973). I n s t i t u t e s t a f f were seconded to the O n t a r i o government to h e l p develop wartime day n u r s e r i e s i n t h a t p r o v i n c e and were c a l l e d upon to 29 d r a f t day n u r s e r y l e g i s l a t i o n to s a f e g u a r d s t a n d a r d s when p u b l i c p r e s s u r e p r e v e n t e d the c l o s u r e of the "wartime" day n u r s e r i e s i n 1946 ( S t a p l e f o r d , 1976). The I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study has had many a u d i e n c e s . As w e l l as the f a m i l i e s of t h e c h i l d r e n , and p o s t - g r a d u a t e Diploma programs f o r n u r s e r y e d u c a t o r s , p a r e n t e d u c a t o r s and guidance p e r s o n n e l , o t h e r a u d i e n c e s i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n - p r i m a r y s p e c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y and n u r s i n g , graduate s t u d e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y , l a y l e a d e r s p r e p a r -i n g t o work w i t h p a r e n t s , and a s s i s t a n t s i n the n u r s e r y s c h o o l and day n u r s e r y f i e l d ( M i l l i c h a m p , 1951, p. 23). Dr. W i l l i a m B l a t z , the c o n t r o -v e r s i a l D i r e c t o r , became a permanent guest on a weekly t e l e v i s i o n show d u r i n g the 1950's, p r o v o k i n g r e s p o n s e s from an i n t e r s t e d mass a u d i e n c e which o f t e n r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about c h i l d development and c h i l d r e a r i n g r e q u i r i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i s s u e s by the I n s t i t u t e s t a f f ( M i l l i c h a m p & Northway, 1977). The B u l l e t i n o f the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study was p u b l i s h e d f o u r times a y e a r f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , from 1938 when, as The P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n  B u l l e t i n , i t was mimeographed and s t a p l e d by hand, to 1968 when, as C h i l d  Study, i t had a world-wide r e a d e r s h i p f o r i t s d i v e r s e range of t o p i c s (M.L.N. & N.F., 1965). T h i s house organ p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b i n g the r e s e a r c h t a k i n g p l a c e a t the I n s t i t u t e ( F l i n t , 1966; Grapko, 1965; Northway e t a l , 1964) and i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n Canada ( C l a r k , 1967), d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c u r r i c u l u m of the I n s t i t u t e ' s own n u r s e r y s c h o o l and e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ( C h i l d Study, 28, 2-9), and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f o t h e r t y p e s of c h i l d r e n ' s programs which p r o l i f e r a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1960's i n T o r o n t o ( C h i l d Study, 30), d e s c r i p t i o n s of t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs 30 ( C h i l d Study, 30), a d d r e s s e s p r e s e n t e d a t p r o f e s s i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s (Almy, 1966), i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g young c h i l d r e n ( M i l l i c h a m p , 1968; S t a p l e f o r d , 1967). Many a r t i c l e s were w i d e l y r e p r i n t e d . A c o l l e c t i o n o f i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c e s s a y s d e s c r i b i n g the I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study as an environment which f i r s t appeared, over a number of y e a r s i n The B u l l e t i n o f the I n s t i t u t e o f  C h i l d Study were r e p u b l i s h e d as L a u g h t e r i n the F r o n t H a l l (Northway, 1966). The changing a u s p i c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements and s o u r c e s of f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study i l l u s t r a t e how the d e f i n i t i o n of a c h i l d study c e n t r e can a f f e c t i t s f u n c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y , as w e l l as be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The S t . George's S c h o o l f o r C h i l d Study began w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f a f i v e - y e a r g r a n t from the L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial and a g r a n t to the Canadian N a t i o n a l Committee f o r M e n t a l Hygiene from the M e t r o p o l i t a n L i f e I n s u r a n c e Company (Northway, 1973). For twelve y e a r s i t was under the g e n e r a l s p o n s o r s h i p o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o Department of P s y c h o l o g y w i t h a management committee r e p r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l U n i v e r s i t y departments ( B o t t , 1951). I n 1937 i t be-came the autonomous I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study, a d m i n i s t e r e d by a committee o f the U n i v e r s i t y Senate, b u t gr a d u a t e s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o submit t h e s e s to the Department o f P s y c h o l o g y . D u r i n g the 1950's a " d i v e r g e n c e of s c i e n t i f i c v i e w p o i n t s " became apparent between the " s c i e n t i f i c - s t a t i s t i c " o r i e n t a t i o n of the Department o f P s y c h o l o g y and the "mental h e a l t h -community minded" p e r s p e c t i v e o f the I n s t i t u t e , when some q u e s t i o n a r o s e about whether the Department would a c c e p t the Master o f A r t s t h e s e s o f two I n s t i t u t e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ( M i l l i c h a m p & Northway, 1977, p. 2 4 ) . Through the y e a r s N a t i o n a l H e a l t h G r a n t s and O n t a r i o M e n t a l H e a l t h G r a n t s p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r the I n s t i t u t e , f o r c o n d u c t i n g and 31 p u b l i s h i n g r e s e a r c h . Changes i n p e r s o n n e l and academic p r i o r i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n the I n s t i t u t e becoming a c o n s t i t u e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n i n 1971 ( I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study, 1978; M i l l i c h a m p & Northway, 1977). Throughout i t s more than 50-year h i s t o r y the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study has a f f e c t e d the l i v e s o f c h i l d r e n spanning more than two g e n e r a t i o n s . Graduates of i t s v a r i o u s programs f o r g r a d u a t e and u ndergraduate s t u d e n t s and a s s o c i a t e s of the I n s t i t u t e , have t r a v e l l e d to many p a r t s of Canada and to c o u n t r i e s as near as the U n i t e d S t a t e s and as f a r away as T h a i l a n d t a k i n g a c h i l d study p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h them. However, the s t a n d a r d s and the d i v e r s i t y of the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study a r e d i f f i c u l t t o r e p l i c a t e , and s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r such i n s t i t u t e s w i t h a wide range of r e s e a r c h and d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s may come.about .only• when t h e r e i s g e n e r a l p u b l i c acknowledgement of the importance to young c h i l d r e n of t h e d e c i s i o n s taken by t h e i r f a m i l i e s , communities and the i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e i r s o c i e t y on t h e i r b e h a l f . Summary of R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e and  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h i s Study C h i l d r e n ' s programs o p e r a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g began i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a m i s s i o n to p r o v i d e d e m o n s t r a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s i n t r a i n i n g . L a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , on the o t h e r hand, were e s t a b l i s h e d to s t u d y the development of young c h i l d r e n , and the f o u n d e r s b e l o n g e d to a number of d i s c i p l i n e s . Both l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s and l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s , however, have been engaged i n t h r e e main f u n c t i o n s : r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and 32 d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h the l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s a l s o f u l f i l l i n g a s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n . Canada's f i r s t model, the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, one of the p i o n e e r i n g l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the 1920's i n N o r t h America, has embodied a l l of t h e s e f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a chan g i n g a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e p a t t e r n . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s have p r o l i -f e r a t e d i n Canada, but i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e programs i s not r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n seeks t o c r e a t e a c a t a l o g u e o f p r e s e n t c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s i n Canada, and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e s , and t o e x p l o r e the e x t e n t to which they a r e engaged i n r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n and s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . The number o f u n i v e r s s i t i e s o p e r a t i n g such programs, the f u n c t i o n s the c e n t r e s f u l f i l l , t h e i r s u p p o r t s and community image may p r o v i d e some i n d i c a t i o n o f the c o l l e c t i v e impact the c e n t r e s a r e h a v i n g on the study , c a r e and e d u c a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n i n Canada. CHAPTER I I I STUDY PROCEDURES T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the p r o c e d u r e s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n as they e v o l v e d out o f the summary w i t h which Chapter I I c o n c l u d e d . The c h a p t e r s e c t i o n s : a r e the f o l l o w i n g : Q u e s t i o n s That Guided the I n v e s t i g a t i o n Sampling P r o c e d u r e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used i n T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n C o n s t r u c t i o n and Format o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Summary Q u e s t i o n s That Guided the I n v e s t i g a t i o n T h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was.-undertaken'to i n v e s t i g a t e the s t a t u s of c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n Canada, f o r t h r e e p u r p o s e s : 1) to e s t a b l i s h a c a t a l o g u e o f Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s ; 2) t o determine the f u n c t i o n s which the Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s f u l f i l l ; 3) to e x p l o r e the p o s s i b l e impact o f Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s upon Canadian c h i l d c a r e and e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h the purposes o f the s t u d y , a c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e was d e f i n e d as a group program f o r c h i l d r e n between b i r t h and n i n e y e a r s 34 o l d which d e v e l o p s o r d i s s e m i n a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n about young c h i l d r e n o r programs f o r young c h i l d r e n , and i s o p e r a t e d by a d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . A r e v i e w of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e s uggested t h a t c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s would be m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y and m u l t i p u r p o s e , engaging i n r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , s e r v i c e and d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h the c e n t r e s would d i f f e r i n t h e i r b a l a n c e o f a c t i v i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g r e v i s e d l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s which g u i d e d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : 1) What i s the b a l a n c e of f u n c t i o n s which the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s p e r f o r m , and where do they p l a c e t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and emphases? 2) What d i s c i p l i n e s assume major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Canadian c e n t r e s ? 3) What b o d i e s h e l p t o su p p o r t and form p o l i c i e s f o r the c e n t r e s ? 4) Do c e n t r e s i d e n t i f y common concerns which c o u l d s e r v e as a f o c u s f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g or study? 5) How i s o l a t e d a r e the c e n t r e s from the mainstream o f Canadian p r a c t i c e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n , and from each o t h e r ? Sampling P r o c e d u r e s I n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w r e f e r e n c e was made t o the r a p i d expan-s i o n o f l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s i n Canada d u r i n g the 1960's (Northway, 1973). However, no c a t a l o g u e o r l i s t i n g e x i s t s o f these l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o sample i n two s t a g e s , t h e r e f o r e : f i r s t , t o c o n t a c t i n s t i t u t i o n s t o determine i f they o p e r a t e d a c h i l d r e n ' s program w i t h i n the study d e f i n i t i o n ; second, t o c o n t a c t the c e n t r e s i d e n t i f i e d to o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n on which the f i n d i n g s a r e based. I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y c e n t r e s , a l e t t e r of e n q u i r y (Appendix A) 35 was s e n t , i n March 1978, to each of the 50 d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada (Canadian E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977). The l e t t e r was a d d r e s s e d to the Dean of E d u c a t i o n , by name, i n i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h f a c u l t i e s o f e d u c a t i o n . O t h e r w i s e , the l e t t e r was a d d r e s s e d to the head of the D e p a r t -ment of P s y c h o l o g y , Community S e r v i c e s , F a m i l y S t u d i e s , or to the P r i n c i p a l o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . The l e t t e r i n c l u d e d a stamped, a d d r e s s e d r e p l y p o s t c a r d , r e q u e s t i n g a yes or no answer about the p r e s e n c e of a c h i l d r e n ' s program as d e f i n e d above i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n , and the name, a d d r e s s and t e l e p h o n e number of the most knowledgeable p e r s o n to c o n t a c t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the c e n t r e . By May 1978, r e p l i e s had been r e c e i v e d from 100% of the f i f t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o n t a c t e d , i d e n t i f y i n g twenty i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t o p e r a t e c h i l d r e n ' s programs, and the p e r s o n most knowledgeable about each of them. P r i o r to i d e n t i f y i n g the c e n t r e s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r p l a n n e d to v i s i t each of the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t they were few and c l u s t e r e d m o s t l y i n one p r o v i n c e . O b s e r v a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r -views would have p r o v i d e d a much more complete p i c t u r e than i s p o s s i b l e w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, the importance f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y study on c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n Canada to i n c l u d e e v e r y Canadian c e n t r e i d e n t i -f i e d w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . Thus, when twenty c e n t r e s were named, from Vancouver to H a l i f a x , s i t e v i s i t s were p r e c l u d e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , a s u r v e y , i n the form of a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was conducted of each o f the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above. The twenty p e r s o n s named by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of d e g r e e -g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s as most knowledgeable about the c e n t r e s were i n v i t e d 36 to complete one, or more than one q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f s e v e r a l programs were o p e r a t e d by t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . Respondents from Ryerson P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph completed two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s each. As shown i n T a b l e I , and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV, t h e s e a r e the o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n s named w i t h programs f o r c h i l d r e n under two y e a r s o l d and they take p l a c e i n d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s from the programs f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n o f f e r e d by t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Thus, the sample c o n s i s t s o f twenty-two Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r (Appendix A) accompanying the q u e s t i o n n a i r e o u t l i n e d the purpose o f the s t u d y , made s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t s and i n c l u d e d a commitment to share a summary of the r e s u l t s w i t h the r e s p o n d e n t s , as an i n c e n t i v e t o c o m p l e t i o n . • i t - S e v e n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who r e p l i e d n e g a t i v e l y t o the i n i t i a l e n q u i r y b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d programs f o r c h i l d r e n which d i d n o t f a l l w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f the s t u d y . One u n i v e r s i t y p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t . o p e r a t e s a home f o r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n which i s used f o r i n t e r n s h i p s f o r p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s . Another u n i v e r s i t y p s y c h o l o g y department o p e r a t e s a b e h a v i o r management program f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y handicapped c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h v i s i t s to home, n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , e t c . Two u n i v e r s i t i e s house k i n d e r g a r t e n s , and t h r e e house day c a r e s e r v i c e s , a l l o f which a r e used f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c a . One u n i v e r s i t y o p e r a t e s a c e n t r e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d i s -a b i l i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e program. These programs w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. In summary, a two-stage sampling p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t e d i n a c a t a -l o g ue of twenty-two Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s as d e f i n e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A t each o f the two s t a g e s i n the sampling p r o c e d u r e 100% of r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d ; t h a t i s , the e n t i r e census o f f i f t y i n s t i t u t i o n s 37 responded to the i n i t i a l e n q u i r y i d e n t i f y i n g the c h i l d study c e n t r e s , and the e n t i r e census of twenty i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n s responded to the s u r v e y , c o m p l e t i n g a t o t a l o f twenty-two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used i n T h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n A l t h o u g h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been c a l l e d "a wayward c h i l d o f s c i e n c e " i t p r o v i d e s a means not o n l y of u n c o v e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , but of i n t e r p r e t i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g i t and of drawing i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t may l e a d t o more r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h . (Mouly, 1970, p. 262). A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e f a v o r e d method f o r t h i s s t u d y , f o r r e a s o n s of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and d i s t a n c e , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . A m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a t h e r than a t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w , f o r i n s t a n c e , was used p a r t l y f o r r e a s o n s o f d i s t a n c e and d i f f e r i n g time zones, but m a i n l y because i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s would r e q u i r e time to compose complete answers t o q u e s t i o n s , and i n some i n s t a n c e s to c o n s u l t r e c o r d s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y on the f o l l o w i n g pages. I t has been reduced from the o r i g i n a l 8h X 14 i n c h s i z e . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and format o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . 38 CHILD STUDY CENTRES IN CANADA What i s the name of your c h i l d study centre? What i s the name of the degree-granting i n s t i t u t i o n which sponsors your c h i l d study centre? Who i s completing thi s questionnaire? NAME POSITION Does your centre conduct a group program for children of any age between b i r t h and nine years old which has as part of i t s mission the develop-ment and/cr dissemination of knowlege about children and/cr children's programs? YES NO Does your sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n assume at least half the c a p i t a l and/or operating costs of the centre, or administer funds which do so? YES NO If the answer to either of the two foregoing questions i s NO, disregard the questionnaire and return i t to the address on the f i n a l page. I f you have several programs with differences i n purpose, content, administra-t i o n , etc., please read the questionnaire before beginning to complete i t , as you may find i t appropriate to complete a copy for each program. * * * * * 1. Is the c h i l d study centre located on the campus of your i n s t i t u t i o n ? YES NO 2. How many children attend the centre? 3. What ages are the children who attend? to years During which months does the centre operate? 5. Does the centre conduct an a d d i t i o n a l summer program? YES NO 39 6. What are the centre's d a i l y hours? to 7. In what type of physical f a c i l i t y i s the centre housed? 8 . Which of the following c r i t e r i a apply to the admission of children to your centre? a) f i r s t come, f i r s t served VES NO b) parents are facu l t y , s t a f f or students of this i n s t i t u t i o n YES NO c) children have s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l , emotional or s o c i a l needs YES NO d) families have need for centre's services YES NO e) families must be members of a s p e c i f i e d geographical community Y E S NO f) families agree to cooperate with research requests YES NO g) families agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some aspect of the program YES NO h) according to balance of age, sex, socio-economic status YES NO i) other (please specify) 9. How would you describe the records kept for each child? a) basic information and anecdotal summaries XES NO b) det a i l e d h i s t o r y and precise records YES NO c) j o i n t home/school cumulative f i l e s YES NO d) other (please specify) 10. What a c t i v i t i e s are included i n a sample daily program for the children? (or attach a sample d a i l y schedule) 40 What was the r e l a t i v e importance given to each of the following elements when the present children's environment and program i n the c h i l d study centre were being planned? a) provision of sensory, manipulative constructive and symbolic material, such as sand, blocks b) provision of cognitive material such as a t t r i b u t e blocks, s e r i a l tibn cylinders c) provision of opportunity for free choice and use of materials dur-ing unstructured time d) provision for children to move i n d i v i d u a l l y from one a c t i v i t y to another e) provision for whole-group a c t i v i t i e s f) provision for outdoor a c t i v i t i e s g) provision for teacher directed a c t i v i t i e s h) provision for learning and prac-t i c e of s e l f - c a r e s k i l l s i ) attention to basic d a i l y needs such as eating, drinking, rest j ) planning for and reinforcement of pro- s o c i a l behaviors k) development of procedures for evaluating and discussing c h i l d -ren's progress with parents 1) provision for parent p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the program m) other (please specify) 41 12. Does one fa c u l t y or department have major professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the centre? If so, which one? If not, please elaborate 13. Other than the children's program, who does the centre house? a) no one else YES NO b) i n s t r u c t i o n a l faculty YES NO c) research f a c i l i t i e s YES NO d) f a c u l t y other than that of the sponsoring department YES NO e) parents' a c t i v i t i e s YES NO-f) other (please specify) 14. What are the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those who work at the c h i l d study centre? Please indicate i f personnel are also members of the fac u l t y . -SO fr c9 Director (head) Teachers of children Researchers Others (please specify) YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NQ 15. Other than s t a f f members, who are regular p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the children's program? a) undergraduate students b) graduate students c) parents d) researchers e) others (please specify) YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO NUMBER DURING 77/78 ) ) ) ) ) 42 16 . What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of the functions performed at the present time by the c h i l d study centre, i t s s t a f f and faculty? conducts c h i l d development research conducts research r e l a t i n g to c h i l d -ren's programs conducts family research provides a data and population pool f o r graduate students' research provides a c h i l d care service for parents demonstrates an exemplary program provides a s e t t i n g to f i e l d - t e s t research findings provides an observation s e t t i n g for preservice teachers provides a s e t t i n g for preservice teachers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and pr a c t i c e provides an observation s e t t i n g for students from other f a c u l t i e s or departments provides leadership i n i n - s e r v i c e teacher education programs such as workshops, study groups, profession-a l organizations produces and/or catalogues f i l m s , tapes, s l i d e s provides a consultation service for the professional community produces a regular p u b l i c a t i o n provides a consultation service for parents whose children are not i n the centre program disseminates knowledge about c h i l d -ren to the general public other (please specify) __' 4^ 43 What technological resources are ava i l a b l e for use at the centre? a) one-way v i s i o n glass b) audio tape c) video tape d) other (please specify) Please rank order from (1) for most important to (9) for l e a s t important the following goals which guide the a c t i v i t i e s of your centre. Please disregard those which do not apply. ( ) to produce new theory ( ) to translate theory into p r a c t i c e ( ) to disseminate knowledge and pr a c t i c e into the mainstream of c h i l d care/education ( ) to develop promising programs and processes ( ) to disseminate successful practices and programs ( ) preservice and inservice education of teachers to implement successful practices and programs ( ) to develop vigorous leaders ( ) other (please specify) YES NO YES NO YES NO How many publications have been produced by the c h i l d study centre faculty and s t a f f during the past 5 years? NUMBER a) published research studies b) published a r t i c l e s i n professional journals c) books d) issues of an in-house p u b l i c a t i o n e) other (please specify) Are program practices, observation and research schedules and demonstrations planned j o i n t l y by centre s t a f f and fac u l t y instructors? YES NO Please comment 44 21. Which of the following bodies contribute to the development of p o l i c i e s for the c h i l d study centre through representation on a centre committee or council? a) the centre s t a f f b) the fac u l t y and administration of the sponsoring department c) interested members of the u n i v e r s i t y community d) parents e) informed c i t i z e n s of the community f) government s t a f f g) no established group h) other (please specify) YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO 22. What are the centre's major sources of funds? 23. Do parents of children attending pay fees? YES NO 24. Does the centre have enough funds to operate and achieve i t s goals? Please comment YES NO 25. Do you have community supports to whom you can turn for assistance? Please comment YES NO 26. In what year was the c h i l d study centre established? 27. What have been the main landmarks i n the development of the c h i l d study centre? (or attach a relevant publication) 28. What s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s contribute to your centre's impact on the community and i t s image i n the eyes of fa c u l t y , students and parents? 45 29. What ideas or projects would you most l i k e to put into action i f your c h i l d study centre had access to more resources? 30. What i n s i g h t s , concerns or questions would you p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to discuss with those from other Canadian c h i l d study centres, i f you had the opportunity? 31. Is there anything else you would l i k e to say about your c h i l d study centre, this study, or your ideas about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c h i l d study centres to early childhood education and c h i l d development? * * * * * * * Address to which a summary of the study findings should be sent: NAME ADDRESS . Thank you for the time and e f f o r t required to complete t h i s questionnaire. Please mail i t i n the enclosed stamped addressed envelope. September 1978 Dona Coates, 505 - 2055 Pendrell St., Vancouver, B.C. V6G IT9 46 C o n s t r u c t i o n and Format  of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h i s s t u d y was c o n s t r u c t e d by the i n v e s t i -g a t o r , as p r i o r s u r v e y s i n v e s t i g a t e d l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s , r a t h e r t h a n c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I ( W i l l i a m s , 1942; K e l l e y , 1965; Howd & Browne, 1969). A b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e was r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about the number o f f a c u l t i e s and d i s c i p l i n e s which might be i n v o l v e d w i t h the c e n t r e s and to e x p l o r e the range o f g o a l s and f u n c t i o n s o f the c e n t r e s . Much of the q u e s t i o n c o n t e n t , t h e r e f o r e , was drawn from l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w s and a n a l y s e s o f p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s o f c e n t r e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h f u n c t i o n s which may be i n f e r r e d from Canadian c e n t r e p u b l i c a t i o n s . L i t e r a t u r e on e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h (Borg & G a l l , 1971; Gay, 1976) and on surv e y r e s e a r c h ( P a r t e n , 1950) p r o v i d e d g u i d ance f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and for m a t . An e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y of c e n t r e s which were e x p e c t e d to v a r y from each o t h e r i n many r e s p e c t s posed problems i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which would accommodate a l l i n t e r e s t s . C l o s e d q u e s t i o n s o f the yes/rio • of; c h e c k l i s t c a t e g o r y were p r e f e r a b l e , because o f t h e i r o b j e c t i v i t y , and e f f i c i e n c y i n c o m p l e t i o n and s c o r i n g . A p p r o p r i a t e use of c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t , 1) r e s p o n d e n t s have adequate i n f o r m a t i o n and w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d o p i n i o n s (Good, 1963, p. 277); 2) the l i s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e complete and each a l t e r n a t i v e i s d i s t i n c t from the o t h e r s (Gay, 1976, p. 129); 3) the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s w e l l i n f o r m e d about the respondent (Good, 1963\ p. 277). 47 Each respondent was r e f e r r e d t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r as b e i n g the p e r s o n most knowledgeable about the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e by a p e r s o n i n a u t h o r i t y (Appendix A ) , hence the resp o n d e n t s were assumed to have adequate i n f o r m a t i o n . The e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f the stu d y p r e c l u d e d the i n v e s t i g a -t o r from b e i n g w e l l i n f o r m e d about the r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , s e v e r a l open-ended q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d to en a b l e r e s p o n d e n t s to comment f r e e l y about t h e i r c e n t r e s , t o a m p l i f y i n f o r m a t i o n o r t o r a i s e a s p e c t s which had no t been e x p l o r e d by means of the c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s . Because i t c o u l d n o t be assumed t h a t l i s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s were complete i n the c h e c k - l i s t q u e s t i o n s , an " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y was added t o most q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s used by Howd and Browne (1969) p r o v i d e d some o f the q u e s t i o n s on c e n t r e f u n c t i o n s , and a r e the b a s i s f o r a - . l i m i t e d comparison w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s , i n Chapter IV. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s composed o f 31 q u e s t i o n s i n seven c l u s t e r s . The f i r s t c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q l - Q7,* i s d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e a b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the c e n t r e s and to l e a d r e s p o n d e n t s i n t o the ques-t i o n n a i r e w i t h some ease. 'The second c l u s t e r of q u e s t i o n s , Q8 - Q l l , r e f e r to the c h i l d r e n ' s programs. W h i l e i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o n l y l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d r e n ' s programs c o u l d be o b t a i n e d as p a r t o f a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a , c h i l d r e n ' s r e c o r d s and emphasis on some program elements might be r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n s o f the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . * Throughout t h i s s e c t i o n and Ch a p t e r s IV and V, q u e s t i o n s from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by "Q" f o l l o w e d by the number of the q u e s t i o n . 48 The t h i r d c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q12 - Q15, f o c u s on f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and inv o l v e m e n t w i t h the c h i l d study c e n t r e , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f f a c u l t y w i t h c e n t r e , and c e n t r e workers who a r e f a c u l t y members. The f o u r t h c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q16 - Q19, r e l a t e s - to t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the c h i l d study c e n t r e s and the r e l a t i v e importance the res p o n d e n t s a s s i g n to these f u n c t i o n s . The s c a l i n g of Q16, from "Very i m p o r t a n t , " to "Not used f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , " i s adopted from Howd and Browne. S e c t i o n s Q16 h ) , 1 ) , and k ) , which r e l a t e to p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , a r e a l s o d e r i v e d from Howd and Browne. The remainder o f f u n c t i o n s l i s t e d i n Q16 a r e those t h a t a r e d e s c r i b e d and suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . Q18 i s develope d from a l i s t o f p o s s i b l e c e n t r e g o a l s which has been c i t e d w i d e l y (Hunter, 1970). Howd and Browne's q u e s t i o n s about c e n t r e p u b l i c a -t i o n s formed the b a s i s o f Q19, augmented by the i t e m " i n - h o u s e p u b l i c a t i o n , " as the p u b l i c a t i o n o f V i e w p o i n t by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's C h i l d Study C e n t r e , and o f the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study's former p u b l i c a -t i o n C h i l d Study, i n d i c a t e d the p o s s i b l e importance o f t h i s a c t i v i t y . The f i f t h c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q20 - Q21, d e a l w i t h p o l i c y making f o r the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . Howd and Browne ask q u e s t i o n s about p o l i c y making t h a t assume a l a r g e - s y s t e m , e d u c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d c o n t e x t . Van T i l (1969) d e s c r i b e s how p o l i c y making can be p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n r e l a t i o n t o c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s , p r o f e s s o r s , t e a c h e r s and f u n d i n g s o u r c e s . Anderson (1973) d e s c r i b e s a l a r g e p o l i c y - m a k i n g body composed e q u a l l y o f p a r e n t s and members of the p r o f e s s i o n a l and academic community. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n m erely asks f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f those b o d i e s which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on p o l i c y - m a k i n g committees or c o u n c i l s f o r t h e c h i l d study c e n t r e s . 49 The s i x t h c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q22 - Q25, i d e n t i f y the c e n t r e s ' s o u r c e s of s u p p o r t and t h e adequacy of t h e s e s u p p o r t s . The f i n a l c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s , Q26 - Q31, i n v i t e the r e s p o n d e n t s to e x p r e s s p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c e n t r e s , d e s i r e s f o r f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s and o p i n i o n s about c h i l d s t u d y and e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . "A s u r v e y i s a c o l d a f f a i r and ends i n an a b s t r a c t i o n removed from e v e n t s " (Northway, 1973, p . 3 8 ) . T h i s c l u s t e r o f q u e s t i o n s was d e s i g n e d to provoke e x p r e s s i o n s of r e s p o n d e n t s ' own p o i n t s of view. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n were p r i n t e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r i n t e d on one s i d e of the paper o n l y , w i t h ample space p r o v i d e d f o r comments. I t i s as a t t r a c t i v e and as b r i e f as p o s s i b l e . Placement of the "YES NO" r e s p o n s e i n a c o n s i s t e n t p l a c e on the page and the b o x i n g of f a c u l t y and s t a f f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o l l o w e d the s t y l e o f a p r e v i o u s u n p u b l i s h e d Canadian s u r v e y ( O ' C o n n e l l , 1968). D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d r a f t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d by a former D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d Study C e n t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the form and c o n t e n t of the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f l e c t the s u g g e s t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from h e r r e v i e w . Two c o p i e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o g e t h e r w i t h c o v e r i n g l e t t e r (Appendix A) and a stamped, a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e , were d i s t r i b u t e d t o the twenty r e s p o n d e n t s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i n c l u d e d to a l l o w f o r more than one program o p e r a t e d by an i n s t i t u t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d by m a i l d u r i n g the second 50 week of September, 1978. The f i r s t m a i l i n g produced a r e t u r n of 12/20. A reminder l e t t e r (Appendix A) was sen t t o s u b j e c t s who had not r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by November, 1978. Telephone c a l l s were made i n J a n u a r y and March, 1979, and a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t out i n ca s e s o f p o s t a l e r r o r s , change o f p e r s o n n e l o r l o s s of the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . By March, 1979, e v e r y one of the twenty p e r s o n s who had been c o n t a c t e d had p r o v i d e d t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . Responses from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were then t a b u l a t e d and summarized. Summary T h e ' p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r o u t l i n e d the s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i r s t s t e p i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c a t a l o g u e o f the p r e s e n t Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . T h i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV. F u r t h e r aims o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t f o c u s e d on: 1) a b a s i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c h i l d study c e n t r e s ; 2) a s p e c t s o f the c h i l d r e n ' s programs; 3) f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and inv o l v e m e n t w i t h the c e n t r e s ; 4) f u n c t i o n s o f the c e n t r e s and the r e l a t i v e importance a s s i g n e d to them; 5) p o l i c y m a k i n g f o r the c e n t r e s ; , 6) the c e n t r e s s o u r c e s o f su p p o r t and adequacy o f s u p p o r t ; 7) h o p e d - f o r p l a n s and p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f c e n t r e r e s p o n d e n t s . R e s u l t s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV. CHAPTER IV RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of a n a l y s e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y c a r r i e d out i n t h i s s t u d y . S e c t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : D e s c r i p t i o n o f the C e n t r e s The C h i l d r e n ' s Program The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f F a c u l t y to C h i l d Study C e n t r e s F u n c t i o n s o f C h i l d Study C e n t r e s Major O r i e n t a t i o n o f C h i l d Study C e n t r e s P o l i c y Making f o r the C e n t r e s F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r C h i l d Study C e n t r e s C e n t r e s ' Impact on T h e i r Communities P r o j e c t s D e s i r e d Common Concerns of Respondents Summary In some i n s t a n c e s the c l u s t e r s of q u e s t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I have been regrouped i f r e s p o n s e s t o an i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s r e s u l t s would be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n a n o t h e r c l u s t e r . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the C e n t r e s T a b l e I p r o v i d e s a composite p i c t u r e o f the twenty-two c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s i n Canada, as d e f i n e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 52 TABLE I DESCRIPTION OF CANADIAN CHILD STUD? CENTRES Name and Location of Centre Faculty or Department Responsible for Centre Type of F a c i l i t y Child Study Centre, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Faculty of Education Dept. of Early Childhood ' Army huts Children's Centre, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan Faculty of Education (Early Childhood Subject Area) Fourth floor classroom Early Childhood Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Institute of Child Guidance and Development Two indoor rooms + playground Prekindergarten, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba Faculty of Education Dept. of Adm. and Educ. Services Faculty of Ed. building Child Studies Centre, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba Dept. of Psychology Fourth floor with courtyard Child Study Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba Faculty of Education Dept. of Ed. Psych, Early Childhood Classroom i n Ed. building Child Study Centre, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario Faculty of Social Sciences Dept. of Psychology 6-storey building designed for children Laboratory Preschool, Carlton University, Ottawa, Ontario Dept. of Psychology Third f l o o r , indoors and outdoors Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Institute of Child Study Converted home with addition Ryerson Infant-Toddler Centre, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, Ontario Early Childhood Education Renovated house Ryerson Early Learning Centre, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, Ontario Early Childhood Education Main fl o o r of campus building i n - and out Family Studies Laboratory School Toddler Program, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Department of Family Studies F i r s t f l o o r of house Family Studies Laboratory School Preschool, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Department of Family Studies Basement of university building Early Childhood Education Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario Dept. of Psychology F i r s t f l o o r of university building Laboratory Preschool, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario Dept. of Psychology F i f t h floor of new U. bldg. designed for ch. A c t i v i t y Learning Centre, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario Under negotiation Main fl o o r of Teachers' College Child Care Centre, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec Department of Education Masonic Temple Early Childhood Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick Faculty of Education Redesigned classroom i n Ed. bldg. with playground Maternelle La Colombe, Universite de Moncton, Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick Departement d'apprentissage et d'enseignement Dans Faculte bldg. Centre for Child Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia Interdisciplinary Several rooms with outside area Child Study Centre, Mount St. Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia Child Studies (Education) Purpose-built extension to maintenance bldg. Child Development Centre, Acadia University, School of Education Large room i n School of Education Wol f v i l l e , Nova Scotia 53 Located Ages of Number of Months of Year on Campus. Children Children Daily Hours Operation Established 3-5 38 9-2:30 Sept.-May 1961 3-5 90-95 9-11:30 Sept.-June 1969 1-3:30 3-5 65-70 9:15-11:45 ^ . . ^ 1 9 7 Q 4.6-5 16 9-11:30 Sept.-Apr. 1968 2.6-5 40 9-3:30 Sept.-May 1970 2.6-5 37 9-11:30 Oct.-Apr. 1972 1-3:30 5-12 91 9-3:30* Sept.-June 1967 2.9-5 60 9-11:30 Sept.-June 1967 1-3:30 2 ;-9-l 1 153 8:45-3 Sept.-June 1925 .4-2 24 8-5:30 Sept.-July 1975 2- 5 40 8-5:30 Sept.-June 1963 1.3-3 28 9:15-11:15 Sept.-July 1974 2.6-5 40 9-3:30 Sept.-July 1959 3- 5 30 9-11:30 Sept.-June 1974 2.8-5 56 9-11:30 Sept.-June 1973 1-3:30 6-15 85 8:30-4:30** Sept.-June 1978 2.6-5. 43 8:30-6 Sept.-Apr. 1973 3-6 40 8:45-11:45 Sept.-June 1975 12:30-3:30 3.5-6 80 9-3:30 Sept.-Apr. 1976 3-5 41 9-12 Sept.-June 1975 1:30-4 2-6 52 8-5:30 Sept.-Apr. 1977 3-5 27 9-11:30 Sept.-Apr. 1974 1-3:30 * Also a r e s i d e n t i a l program ** Two-hour sessions a l l day D r a m a t i c c o n f i r m a t i o n of Northway's (1973) statement about the e x p l o s i o n o f c h i l d s t u d y i n Canada i s demonstrated by the d a t e s when the  c h i l d study c e n t r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d (Q26). One c e n t r e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1925, i s t h r e e and a h a l f decades o l d e r than any of the o t h e r c e n t r e s . S i x c e n t r e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the decade between 1959 and 1968. F i f t e e n c e n t r e s (68%) were e s t a b l i s h e d between 1969 and 1978, e i g h t of t h e s e i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . A v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the c e n t r e s conduct programs f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n (Q3). Seventeen c e n t r e s i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n between the ages of 2 - 3 y e a r s o l d to 5 - 6 y e a r s o l d ; two more c e n t r e s i n c l u d e younger c h i l d r e n , n i n e t e e n i n a l l (86%) t h a t conduct programs f o r c h i l d r e n o n l y under s i x . Three c e n t r e s i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n o l d e r than s i x y e a r s o l d , and two of t h e s e , the C h i l d Study C e n t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, and the A c t i v i t y L e a r n i n g C e n t r e a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , a r e treatment programs. E i g h t c e n t r e s o p e r a t e b o t h morning and a f t e r n o o n programs, and an a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e , a morning program o n l y (Q6). Thus, 50% of the c e n t r e s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h h a l f - d a y c h i l d r e n ' s programs of two to t h r e e hours d u r a t i o n , making t h i s the most t y p i c a l . S i x c e n t r e s , i n c l u d i n g two of.-the t h r e e c e n t r e s f o r c h i l d r e n over s i x y e a r s o l d , have a d a i l y program of 5% to 6% hours i n l e n g t h . Four c e n t r e s o p e r a t e a f u l l - d a y program from 8:00 AM to 5:30 o r 6:00 PM. One c e n t r e s c h e d u l e s two-hour s e s s i o n s a l l day from 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM, a l t h o u g h t h i s a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n i s c l e a r l y a r e s u l t o f t h e i r r o l e as a treatment c e n t r e . One c e n t r e , a g a i n a t r e a t m e n t c e n t r e , o p e r a t e s a r e s i d e n t i a l , as w e l l as a daytime program. The number of c h i l d r e n s e r v e d by the i n d i v i d u a l programs v a r i e s between 16 and 153 (0.2) . However, assuming t h a t c e n t r e s w i t h two h a l f - d a y programs s e r v e two d i f f e r e n t groups o f c h i l d r e n , and t h a t c e n t r e s w i t h a 55 wide age range have s e v e r a l c l a s s e s , the p i c t u r e which emerges i s t h a t o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , i n t i m a t e groups o f c h i l d r e n . The c e n t r e s a r e housed i n a v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s (Q7). The c o n t r a s t i n t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s i s n o t a b l e ; f o r example, one c e n t r e c o n s i s t s of a s i x ^ s t o r e y b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n , a n o t h e r i s a c o n v e r t e d home w i t h a l a r g e a d d i t i o n d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n , two a r e i n r e n o v a t e d houses, w h i l e one e x i s t s i n Army hut s and a n o t h e r i n a Masonic Temple. S i x t e e n (73%) occupy p a r t o f a u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g . S i x o f t h e s e a r e s p e c i f i e d as h a v i n g outdoor space, and t h r e e a r e d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g d e s i g n e d , o r r e d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n , o r b u i l t s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s use. A l l but two o f the c e n t r e s a r e campus-based, and one of the two, the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, i s l e s s than a h a l f m i l e from the u n i v e r s i t y campus ( Q l ) . C e n t r e s a r e open f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r t h e academic or the p u b l i c s c h o o l y e a r , g e n e r a l l y (Q4). H a l f a r e open from September to June o r J u l y , and f o u r o f these o f f e r an a d d i t i o n a l summer program. S i x a r e open from September o r October to A p r i l , w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e open u n t i l May. These n i n e , t o g e t h e r w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph c e n t r e s which conform t o the t r i m e s t e r s o f t h a t u n i v e r s i t y , c o n s t i t u t e 50% o f the c e n t r e s - t h a t f o l l o w the academic y e a r o f t h e i r p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n the p u b l i c s c h o o l y e a r . T h i s busy p i c t u r e i s augmented by the c e n t r e s , t e n i n a l l , t h a t o p e r a t e summer programs (Q5). The summer t r i m e s t e r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph and the September-July s c h e d u l e o f the Ryerson I n f a n t - T o d d l e r c e n t r e b r i n g to 13 (59%) the number of c e n t r e s open f o r p a r t o f the summer. 56 The C h i l d r e n ' s Programs I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the c l u s t e r of q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the c h i l d r e n ' s programs, namely, those about a d m i s s i o n s , r e c o r d s , a c t i v i t i e s and the r e l a t i v e importance o f program elements, would r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t program emphases amongst the c e n t r e s . I n f a c t , the r e s p o n s e s do n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e w e l l among the c e n t r e s , o r r e v e a l any d e f i n a b l e p a t t e r n s . A m u l t i t u d e of a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d by c e n t r e s (Q8), as shown i n T a b l e I I . TABLE I I ADMISSION CRITERIA Number of Ad m i s s i o n C r i t e r i o n C e n t r e s f i r s t come, f i r s t s e r v e d 14 c h i l d r e n have s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l o r s o c i a l needs 13 f a m i l i e s agree to c o o p e r a t e w i t h r e s e a r c h r e q u e s t s 13 f a m i l i e s have need f o r c e n t r e ' s s e r v i c e s 12 a c c o r d i n g t o b a l a n c e o f age, sex, s o c i o -economic s t a t u s 11 f a m i l i e s agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n some a s p e c t of the program 10 p a r e n t s a r e f a c u l t y , s t a f f o r s t u d e n t s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n 8 f a m i l i e s must be members of a s p e c i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c a l community 4 57 An average o f :four - o f t h e W e i g h t : - l i s t e d a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a were named by the c e n t r e s ; and an average o f one out of the f o u r named was q u a l i f i e d i n some way. An a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t c r i t e r i a were s p e c i f i e d , as f o l l o w s : - f a m i l i e s o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g - p a r e n t s must b r i n g c h i l d r e n t o and from, to ensure d a i l y c o n t a c t - groups b a l a n c e d t o m a i n t a i n n o r m a l i z i n g e f f e c t (a trea t m e n t c e n t r e ) - s i b l i n g p r i o r i t y - p r i o r i t y g i v e n to community i n i n s t i t u t i o n - a b i l i t y t o pay o r be sponsored - seek out " s c h o l a r s h i p " c h i l d r e n - some c h i l d r e n under 2% a t t e n d w i t h s i b l i n g s and mothers I t w i l l be no t e d t h a t c r i t e r i a o f some c e n t r e s a r e c o m p l e t e l y o p p o s i t e t o those named by o t h e r s : f a m i l i e s o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n c o n t r a s t e d w i t h f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , and the a b i l i t y t o pay c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s e e k i n g out " s c h o l a r s h i p " c h i l d r e n . B a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n and a d e c d o t a l r e c o r d s a r e kept by 19 c e n t r e s ( 8 6 % ) , d e t a i l e d h i s t o r i e s and p r e c i s e r e c o r d s by 10 c e n t r e s ( 4 5 % ) , j o i n t home/school c u m u l a t i v e f i l e s by f o u r (18%) and o t h e r t y p e s of r e c o r d s by f i v e c e n t r e s (Q9). Other types o f r e c o r d s s p e c i f i e d were: . - p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t f i l e s - r e s e a r c h d a t a , i f r e q u e s t e d by D i r e c t o r - e n t r a n c e and c o g n i t i v e assessments - r e c o r d s i n r e l e v a n t a r e a s (a trea t m e n t c e n t r e ) - s t u d e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s - t e s t r e s u l t s from r e p l i c a t i n g s t u d i e s - check l i s t o f i n t e r a c t i o n s 58 The open q u e s t i o n , "What a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n a sample d a i l y program f o r the c h i l d r e n ? " (Q10) e l i c i t e d r e s p o n s e s which e x h i b i t e d common themes, a l t h o u g h they were worded d i f f e r e n t l y . F r e e p l a y i n a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s , i n d o o r s and out, and s t o r i e s , music, snacks, d i s c u s s i o n and f i e l d t r i p s were l i s t e d r e p e a t e d l y . Academic s t u d y was mentioned as an a c t i v i t y o n l y by the t h r e e c e n t r e s w i t h c h i l d r e n over s i x y e a r s o l d . Some d a i l y s c h e d u l e s were s p e c i f i e d , b u t a l l showed l a r g e b l o c k s o f f r e e c h o i c e time, and s t r e s s e d f l e x i b i l i t y . The r e l a t i v e importance a s s i g n e d t o elements o f the c h i l d r e n ' s environment and program ( Q l l ) shows near consensus on the items n o t e d f i r s t as v e r y i m p o r t a n t , as shown i n T a b l e I I I . Indeed, e i g h t o f the twelve items seem to be "motherhood" q u e s t i o n s , w i t h 90 - 100% of the c e n t r e s r a t i n g them as v e r y i m p o r t a n t o r i m p o r t a n t . Comments o f f e r e d by re s p o n d e n t s to s p e c i f y a d d i t i o n a l elements which they c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t p r o v i d e more i n t e r e s t i n g c l u e s t o program emphases. These i n c l u d e comment on c h i l d r e n ' s f r e e c h o i c e s : - s u p p o r t i n g c h i l d r e n i n making c h o i c e s - a c a r e f u l c h o i c e of m a t e r i a l s by the t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e l y " s t r u c t u r e s " the program, even i f t h e c h i l d r e n have f r e e r e i g n t o choose t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . , • - \ •• ; - • : •T~, s e l f , d i r e c t i o n and d e c i s i o n making. Problem-solving-was - a l s o ;added"to Cthe". l i s t ' by s e v e r a l c e n t r e s : - p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - e n c o u r a g i n g c r e a t i v i t y and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g - problem d e f i n i n g and s o l v i n g , b o t h s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l . Other program elements added to the l i s t were: - s t i m u l a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s k i l l s , e.g. d r a m a t i c p l a y - p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g and communication s k i l l s . 59 TABLE III RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ELEMENTS OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTS AND PROGRAM (N = 22) Element of environment or program Number of centres assigning importance e c • H O CJ u a o o provision of sensory, manipulative, constructive and symbolic material, such as sand, blocks provision for children to move i n d i v i d u a l l y from one a c t i v i t y to another provision of opportunity for free choice and use of materials during unstructured time planning for and reinforcement of pro-social behaviors provision for outdoor a c t i v i t i e s provision of cognitive material such as a t t r i b u t e blocks, s e r i a -tion cylinders development of procedures for evaluating and discussing c h i l d -ren's progress with parents provision for learning and practice of se l f - c a r e s k i l l s provision for whole-group a c t i v i t i e s attention to basic d a i l y needs such as eating, drinking, rest provision for parent p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the program provision for teacher directed a c t i v i t i e s other 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 22 21 19 15 14 14 14 14 11 11 11 1 * To obtain an index of importance for each item, scores were assigned to each scale l e v e l as follows: Very Important (3), Important (2), Limited Consideration (1), Not Considered (0). An average score was then computed for each item. 60 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of F a c u l t y t o  C h i l d Study C e n t r e s The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c h i l d study c e n t r e s to the academic l i f e o f t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s i s e x p l o r e d i n the c l u s t e r of q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y of c e n t r e s to f a c u l t i e s , t o the academic s t a t u s of s t a f f , and to the i nvolvement of members of the u n i v e r s i t y community i n the c h i l d r e n ' s program. A v a r i e t y of f a c u l t i e s and departments have major p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c e n t r e s (Q12). As shown i n T a b l e I , h a l f a r e w i t h i n f a c u l t i e s or departments of e d u c a t i o n and two a r e i n s t i t u t e s r e l a t e d to f a c u l t i e s o f e d u c a t i o n , b r i n g i n g to ' t h i r t e e n (-59%) the c e n t r e s t h a t r e l a t e m a i n l y to e d u c a t i o n as a d i s c i p l i n e . F i v e c e n t r e s (23%) a r e w i t h i n p s y c h o -l o g y departments. Two, a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, a r e o p e r a t e d by the Department o f F a m i l y S t u d i e s . In one i n s t i t u t i o n a number of d i s c i p l i n e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c e n t r e , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the most r e c e n t l y opened c e n t r e , a t L a u r e n t i a n U n i v e r s i t y i n J a n u a r y 1978, was s t i l l b e i n g n e g o t i a t e d , but " w i l l p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and community groups." T a b l e IV shows the academic l e v e l o f t h o se who work i n the c h i l d s tudy c e n t r e s and the numbers who have f a c u l t y s t a t u s (Q14) . The t y p i c a l p a t t e r n , t h a t o f h a l f the c e n t r e s , i s t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r i s a f a c u l t y member, w h i l e the t e a c h e r s a r e n o t ; however, i n f o u r c e n t r e s a l l a r e f a c u l t y members, and i n a n o t h e r f o u r c e n t r e s none have t h i s s t a t u s . O t h e r s who work i n the c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n c l u d e a program c o o r d i n a t o r , a i d e s , an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , s u p p o r t s t a f f , a community c o o r d i n a t o r , academic s t a f f and f a c u l t y c o n s u l t -a n t s , as w e l l as a grandmother. 61 TABLE IV ACADEMIC LEVEL AND FACULTY STATUS OF WORKERS IN CHILD STUDY CENTRES Academic L e v e l Number of D i r e c t o r s F a c u l t y Number o f Teac h e r s F a c u l t y Number of Other Workers F a c u l t y D o c t o r a t e 11 11 0 0 8 6 Ma s t e r s 8 6 10 5 6 2 B a c h e l o r 2 1 45 4 4 0 Diploma 1 0 7%* 1 1 0 C e r t i f i c a t e 0 0 16 1 0 0 Other 0 0 2 0 10 0 T o t a l 22 18 69h.. 10 29 8 * = a h a l f - t i m e t e a c h e r Many members of the u n i v e r s i t y community p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c h i l d r e n ' s programsr(Q15). In n i n e t e e n c e n t r e s , u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s r e g u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e , numbers r a n g i n g from t h r e e to 120; and i n t e n c e n t r e s g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e , the numbers r a n g i n g from t h r e e to 75. Others p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c e n t r e programs i n c l u d e f a c u l t y members, p a r e n t s , community v o l u n t e e r s , h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and one g r a n d f a t h e r . I n f o r m a l exchanges between f a c u l t y and s t a f f o c c u r i n e i g h t e e n c e n t r e s where program p r a c t i c e s , o b s e r v a t i o n and r e s e a r c h s c h e d u l e s and 62 d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e p l a n n e d j o i n t l y by c e n t r e s t a f f and f a c u l t y i n s t r u c t o r s (Q20). G e n e r a l l y , the t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the c e n t r e s a r e e x t e n s i v e (Q17). E i g h t e e n c e n t r e s a r e equipped w i t h one-xray v i s i o n g l a s s . N i n e t e e n c e n t r e s have a u d i o ^ t a p i n g r e s o u r c e s , and an equal?, number have v i d e o - t a p i n g r e s o u r c e s . F i f t e e n c e n t r e s a r e equipped w i t h a l l t h r e e . Four of the l a t t e r s p e c i f i e d a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s : - a sound system - the r e s o u r c e s o f the u n i v e r s i t y media department - " r e s e a r c h rooms" equipped w i t h one-way m i r r o r s and a u d i o - and v i d e o -t a p i n g f a c i l i t i e s - o p p o r t u n i t y t o supplement c e n t r e r e s o u r c e s from the department o f p s y c h o l o g y equipment c e n t r e f o r r e s e a r c h needs. There i s c l o s e p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y between the c e n t r e s and the academic community (Q13). Twelve c e n t r e s (55%) share h o u s i n g w i t h i n s t r u c -t i o n a l f a c u l t y , and t e n of these a l s o house r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s . Three c e n t r e s house f a c u l t y o t h e r than t h a t o f the s p o n s o r i n g department. One c e n t r e houses, i n a d d i t i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s programs, 115 graduate s t u d e n t s i n two Diploma programs, E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n and C h i l d Assessment and C o u n s e l l i n g . Seven c e n t r e s house o n l y the c h i l d r e n ' s program, b u t o n l y one o f these seven i s not i t s e l f l o c a t e d i n p a r t o f a u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g . P u b l i c a t i o n s a r e another i n d i c a t o r o f the i n v o l v e m e n t o f the academic community w i t h c e n t r e s (Q19). I n f o r m a t i o n about p u b l i c a t i o n s produced by the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e f a c u l t y and s t a f f was f a r from complete, h a l f the c e n t r e s f a i l i n g to respond t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ; o t h e r s commenting t h a t i t was too d i f f i c u l t to say, t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n was j u s t b e i n g compiled o r t h a t o n l y a " b a l l p a r k " f i g u r e c o u l d be g i v e n . N o n e t h e l e s s , c e n t r e 63 p e r s o n n e l have p u b l i s h e d a s u b s t a n t i a l amount i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . F a c u l t y o r s t a f f o f each o f f o u r c e n t r e s have produced a book; two c e n t r e s have each produced 15 i s s u e s of in-house p u b l i c a t i o n s ; each o f s i x o t h e r c e n t r e s ' s p e c i - .< f i e d t h a t f a c u l t y o r s t a f f have produced t e n o r more p u b l i c a t i o n s i n p r o f e s -s i o n a l j o u r n a l s ; and many c e n t r e s produced r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n the form of graduate s t u d e n t s ' t h e s e s . F u n c t i o n s o f C h i l d Study C e n t r e s The r e l a t i v e importance o f f u n c t i o n s performed by the c h i l d s tudy c e n t r e s , s t a f f and f a c u l t i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V (Q16). The composite p i c t u r e p r o v i d e d by T a b l e V i l l u s t r a t e s the g r e a t emphasis g i v e n to the o b s e r v a t i o n , p r a c t i c e - t e a c h i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s i n Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s , w i t h a l m o s t / a l l c e n t r e s r a t i n g t h e s e as v e r y i m p o r t a n t o r im p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s / T a b l e VI compares the r a t i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h o s e o f Howd and Browne (1969), f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n , p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i o n /-f u n c t i o n s o f c e n t r e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to not e t h a t w h i l e the p a t t e r n i s v e r y s i m i l a r , the Canadian c e n t r e s c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e these e d u c a t i o n -o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s h i g h e r than do the American l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s of 1969, even though o n l y 59% o f Canadian c e n t r e s a r e under t h e a u s p i c e s of e d u c a t i o n as a d i s c i p l i n e , , x j v Respondents were asked t o rank o r d e r the g o a l s t h a t g u i d e the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r c e n t r e s (Q18). D e s p i t e c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s , some respo n d e n t s f a i l e d to r a n k . t h e g o a l s . I n T a b l e V I I , f o u r c a s e s were dropped because they used the f i r s t rank and no o t h e r ; thus T a b l e V I I r e p r e s e n t s p a r t i a l f i n d i n g s (18/22 c e n t r e s ) . When any of the r e m a i n i n g 64 TABLE V'.." RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY CHILD STUDY CENTRE, STAFF, AND FACULTY (N = 22) Number of centres assigning importance u o •u Function Very Important Important Limited Value Not Used For This Purpose % of Centres Assigning Very Importan Important ' provides an observation se t t i n g for preservice teachers 17 5 0 0 100% provides a sett i n g for preservice teachers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and practice 18 3 0 1 95.5% demonstrates an exemplary program 17 4 0 1 95.5% provides an observation setting for students from other f a c u l t i e s or departments 8 14 0 0 100% provides leadership i n in-service teacher education programs such as workshops, study groups, professional organizations 8 8 1 5 72.7% disseminates knowledge about children to the general public 5 5 4 8 45.5% provides a c h i l d care service for parents 8 ' 5 1 8 59.0% conducts c h i l d development research 7 3 5 7 45.5% provides a sett i n g to f i e l d - t e s t research findings 6 4 4 8 45.5% conducts research r e l a t i n g to c h i l d -ren's programs 4 6 4 8 45.5% provides a data and population pool for graduate students' research 6 3 4 9 41.0% provides a consultation service for the professional community 5 6 2 9 50.0% provides a consultation service for parents whose children are not i n the centre program 2 5 4 11 31.8% conducts family research 2 2 .7 11 18.2% produces and/or catalogues f i l m s , tapes, s l i d e s 1 3 8 10 18.2% produces a regular publication 2 1 2 17 13.6% TABLE VI FUNCTIONS DESCRIBED AS VERY IMPORTANT OR IMPORTANT BY CHILD STUDY CENTRES: A COMPARISON WITH HOWD & BROWNE (1969) Howd & Browne (N = 194) Coates (N = 22) Number of C e n t r e s Number of Centres F u n c t i o n Very Impt. Impt. T o t a l % Very Impt. Impt . T o t a l % .provides an o b s e r v a t i o n s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s 117 62 179 92.3 17 5 22 100 p r o v i d e s a s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r a c t i c e 89 72 161 83.0 18 3 21 95.5 p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p i n i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs such as workshops, study groups, profess* s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 41 65 106 54.6 8 8 16 72.7 TABLE V I I RANK ORDER OF GOALS WHICH GUIDE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE CHILD STUDY CENTRES (N = 1 8 ) Number of Centres A s s i g n i n g Rank Goal Rank Index* F i r s t Second F o u r t h T h i r d or Lower to t r a n s l a t e t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e 2.5 6 2 3 7 p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s t o implement s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s and programs 2.2 5 2 3 8 to develop p r o m i s i n g programs and p r o c e s s e s 2.1 3 4 4 7 t o d i s s e m i n a t e knowledge and p r a c t i c e : into-.the mainstream of c h i l d c a r e / e d u c a t i o n 1.8 2 4 4 8 to d i s s e m i n a t e s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s and programs 1.5 1 3 6 8 to develop v i g o r o u s l e a d e r s .8 2 0 2 14 to produce new t h e o r y .6 0 2 2 14 To o b t a i n a rank i n d e x f o r each item, s c o r e s were a s s i g n e d .tO;.:each .rank as f o l l o w s : F i r s t Rank ( 3 ) , Second Rank ( 2 ) , T h i r d Rank ( 1 ) , F o u r t h Rank or lower ( 0 ) . An average s c o r e was then computed f o r each item. 67 e i g h t e e n c e n t r e s d e s i g n a t e d two items to be of f i r s t rank, the r a n k i n g was r e o r d e r e d , w i t h each g o a l t a k i n g p r i o r i t y i n t u r n d u r i n g t a l l y i n g . The r e s u l t of t h i s p r o c e d u r e was to r e d u c e , r a t h e r than to enhance, the impor-tan c e of g o a l s endorsed. Even so, t r a n s l a t i n g t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e c l e a r l y shows as the most h i g h l y ranked g o a l o v e r a l l . •'•-Major O r i e n t a t i o n of C h i l d Study C e n t r e s The r a t i n g s which c e n t r e s a s s i g n e d to f u n c t i o n s and the o r d e r i n which they ranked t h e i r g o a l s made i t p o s s i b l e to examine c e n t r e s ' o r i e n t -a t i o n s to the f o u r major c l u s t e r s o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which c e n t r e s a r e i n v o l v e d : r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n and s e r v i c e . Seven c e n t r e s i d e n t i f y c h i l d development r e s e a r c h as \a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n and " t o produce new t h e o r y " ranks f i r s t , second o r t h i r d as a g o a l of f i v e of t h e s e seven. A l l of the seven r a t e r e s e a r c h about c h i l d r e n ' s programs o r f a m i l y r e s e a r c h as v e r y i m p o r t a n t or i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l as t h e p r o v i s i o n of a p o p u l a t i o n p o o l f o r graduate s t u d e n t s ' r e s e a r c h . S i x o f the seven a l s o r a t e t h e p r o v i s i o n of a s e t t i n g t o f i e l d - t e s t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s as v e r y i m p o r t a n t o r i m p o r t a n t . No c e n t r e o t h e r than these seven a s s i g n s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r a t i n g to more than one r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n , nor r a n k s the g o a l " t o produce new t h e o r y " - f i r s t , 'second o r t h i r d . One s h o u l d not c o n c l u d e , however, t h a t these seven c e n t r e s have an e x c l u s i v e l y r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n . F i v e of them r a t e the p r o v i s i o n of a s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r a c t i c e as v e r y i m p o r t a n t ; and o f t h e s e , f o u r rank the p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s to implement s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s and programs as b e i n g the f i r s t g o a l o f the c e n t r e . I n a d d i t i o n , f o u r of the r e s e a r c h - o r i e n t e d programs c o n s i d e r t h e f u n c t i o n o f " d i s s e m i n a t i n g knowledge about c h i l d r e n t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c " 68 as b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t o r a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n of t h e i r c e n t r e ; f i v e of t h e seven rank d i s s e m i n a t i n g knowledge and p r a c t i c e s as f i r s t , second o r t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t g o a l s ; and one d e s c r i b e s s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s as i m p o r t a n t or v e r y i m p o r t a n t . W hile fewer than o n e - t h i r d o f the twenty-two Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s may be c a l l e d " r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d , " t h i s study shows t h a t a m a j o r i t y a r e o r i e n t e d to t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n . E i g h t e e n d e s i g n a t e t h e p r o v i s i o n of "a s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r a c t i c e " as a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n and t h i r t e e n o f t h e s e rank the " p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s " as a f i r s t , second o r t h i r d g o a l of t h e c e n t r e . Here a g a i n , the o r i e n t a t i o n i s ' n o t e x c l u s i v e l y t o t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n , however. F i v e o f the e i g h t e e n a r e a l s o r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d , as d e s c r i b e d above; seven c o n s i d e r " d i s s e m i n a t i o n of knowledge about c h i l d r e n to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c " as an i m p o r t a n t o r v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n ; f i f t e e n rank d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as f i r s t , second o r t h i r d g o a l s o f the c e n t r e ; and seven .describe s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s as i m p o r t a n t o r v e r y i m p o r t a n t . One c e n t r e , a t r e a t m e n t program, might be s a i d to have a major o r i e n t a t i o n to d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s shown i n the p a t t e r n of f u n c t i o n s r a t e d by t h a t c e n t r e as v e r y i m p o r t a n t : to demonstrate an exemplary program, to p r o v i d e a c o n s u l t a t i o n s e r v i c e to the p r o f e s s i o n a l community and to p a r e n t s whose c h i l d r e n a r e not i n the c e n t r e program, to produce and/or c a t a l o g u e f i l m s , t apes and s l i d e s (the o n l y c e n t r e t o d e s i -gnate t h i s as a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n ) , to p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs, and to d i s s e m i n a t e knowledge about c h i l d r e n t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s c e n t r e a l s o h i g h l y r a t e s a l l the s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . I t ranks n e i t h e r r e s e a r c h nor t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s as v e r y i m p o r t a n t ; however, i t s h i g h e s t r a n k i n g g o a l , to t r a n s l a t e t h e o r y i n t o 69 p r a c t i c e , and i t s involvement w i t h i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , show a g a i n t h a t c e n t r e s cannot be s a i d to have an o r i e n t a t i o n t o one c l u s t e r o f a c t i v i t i e s to the e x c l u s i o n of the o t h e r s . No c e n t r e i s m a i n l y o r i e n t e d to s e r v i c e . However, h a l f the c e n t r e s r a t e t h e i r s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and the community as i m p o r t a n t o r v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s . P o l i c y Making f o r the C e n t r e s T a b l e V I I I l i s t s the b o d i e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to the development o f p o l i c i e s f o r the c h i l d study c e n t r e s through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on a c e n t r e c o u n c i l or committee (Q21). TABLE V I I I BODIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO POLICY MAKING :• ...Number; Body of P e o p l e R e p r e s e n t e d of C e n t r e s f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s p o n s o r i n g department 22 c e n t r e s t a f f 20 p a r e n t s 9 i n t e r e s t e d members o f the u n i v e r s i t y community 6 i n f o r m e d c i t i z e n s o f the community 5 government s t a f f 5 no e s t a b l i s h e d group 1 s c h o o l boards 1 70 F a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h p o l i c y making f o r a l l the c e n t r e s , and a r e the o n l y p o l i c y makers f o r two c e n t r e s . S t a f f a r e i n v o l v e d i n p o l i c y making f o r a l l o t h e r c e n t r e s . P a r e n t s a r e the t h i r d body r e p r e s e n t e d i n two c e n t r e s , and i n two o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d members of the u n i v e r s i t y community i s the t h i r d body r e p r e s e n t e d . The c o m p l e x i t y of u n i v e r s i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t seven c e n t r e s i n v o l v e f o u r o r more b o d i e s i n p o l i c y making. F i n a n c i a l Support f o r C h i l d Study C e n t r e s T a b l e IX shows the c e n t r e s ' major s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g , ( Q 2 2 ) . TABLE IX CHILD STUDY CENTRES' MAJOR SOURCES OF FUNDING Source of Funding Number of C e n t r e s A Major Source Only Source u n i v e r s i t y budget 20 9 p a r e n t f e e s 11 1 p r o v i n c i a l government 3 1 r e s e a r c h g r a n t s 2 0 fund r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s 1 0 The u n i v e r s i t y budget i s a major s o u r c e of funds f o r 20 c e n t r e s , and the o n l y major s o u r c e f o r n i n e c e n t r e s . S i x c e n t r e s l i s t u n i v e r s i t y budget and p a r e n t s ' f e e s as t h e i r two major s o u r c e s of f u n d s . 71 A l t h o u g h p a r e n t s ' f e e s a r e l i s t e d as a major s o u r c e o f funds f o r o n l y h a l f the c e n t r e s , some p a r e n t s pay f e e s i n 20 c e n t r e s , and i n 17 o f these 20 a l l p a r e n t s pay (Q23) . F o u r t e e n c e n t r e s (64%) r e p o r t adequate funds t o o p e r a t e and a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s , though these i n c l u d e one c e n t r e which commented o n l y "we g e t by." E i g h t c e n t r e s do not have enough funds and t h e i r comments on t h i s i n c l u d e : - needs f o r c h i l d r e n ' s program as w e l l as f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - need f o r f a c u l t y time f o r r e s e a r c h - need f o r development money f o r outdoor p l a y space - r e c e n t c u t b a c k s i n funds - need f o r funds t o c o v e r expenses f o r " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " c h i l d r e n - a f t e r the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l g r a n t s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o budget f o r o p e r a t i n g and e x p a n s i o n . Twelve c e n t r e s do n o t have community s u p p o r t s v t o t u r n to f o r a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g one c e n t r e which s a i d i t would n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e (Q25). Three c e n t r e s d i d n o t respond t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Of the seven who do have community s u p p o r t s some commented: - f o r m o r a l s u p p o r t o n l y - a campaign to r a i s e money - p a r e n t s , e t c . - a b l e t o c a l l upon v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s as r e q u i r e d - some support f o r low income f a m i l i e s from f o u n d a t i o n , c i t y s u b s i d y f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , p r i v a t e s o u r c e s such as g i f t s . C e n t r e s ' Impact on T h e i r Communities Twenty c e n t r e s responded t o the q u e s t i o n , "What s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e to your c e n t r e ' s impact on the community and i t s image i n the eyes o f f a c u l t y , s t u d e n t s and parents?." CQ28) The comments range from 72 e n t h u s i a s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f q u a l i t y programs to a t e r s e "none." Most c e n t r e s comment on t h e i r impact as q u a l i t y d e m o n s t r a t i o n programs, a l t h o u g h program d e s c r i p t i o n s range from g e n e r a l - "based upon deve l o p m e n t a l knowledge" - to more s p e c i f i c - "open e d u c a t i o n program," " i n t e g r a t e d group o f c h i l d r e n , normal and handicapped," " i n f a n t program." S e v e r a l c e n t r e s mention t h e i n n o v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r programs i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities, w i t h some community programs b e g i n n i n g to r e p l i c a t e t h e i r models. Four c e n t r e s s p e c i f i c a l l y mention the impact o f t h e i r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs, one emphasizing i n s e r v i c e as w e l l as p r e s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . S e v e r a l o f these t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s : one graduated i t s f i r s t s t u d e n t s i n 1974, and t h r e e o t h e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n i n the 1970's. Two c e n t r e s comment on the s e r v i c e s they p r o v i d e t o the community, and t h r e e J: s p e c i f i c l i a i s o n s w i t h community a g e n c i e s such as s c h o o l s and C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . One c e n t r e d e s c r i b e s i t s community l i a s o n p e r s o n who t o u r s and l e c t u r e s . One c e n t r e comments s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t " i n the eyes o f f a c u l t y i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been viewed as e n l i g h t e n i n g and have been the s o u r c e which ^ p r o v i d e d d a t a t h a t brought about program change." P r o j e c t s D e s i r e d E i g h t e e n c e n t r e s d e s c r i b e d p r o j e c t s they would l i k e t o put i n t o a c t i o n i f r e s o u r c e s a l l o w e d CQ29). These a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix B and summarized h e r e . E l e v e n p r o j e c t s c o n c e r n the c h i l d r e n ' s programs. Four c e n t r e s 73 d e s c r i b e an i n t e r e s t i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d o r low income f a m i l i e s . Two c e n t r e s would l i k e to extend t h e i r age groups from i n f a n t s o r t o d d l e r s t hrough to f i v e y e a r o l d s . Two would l i k e to extend t h e i r programs to day c a r e f o r r e a s o n s of community s e r v i c e and the p o t e n t i a l f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . One d e s c r i b e s p l a n s to i n s t i t u t e a program f o r g i f t e d f o u r y e a r o l d s , w h i l e a n o t h e r has an i n t e r e s t i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . S i x c e n t r e s w i s h to extend t h e i r work w i t h p a r e n t s , one s p e c i f y -i n g " b o t h i n the l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g and i n home environments," and two, p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n i n the community. Seven c e n t r e s would i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e s e a r c h commitments. Two mention the need f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n "from t h r e e to e l e v e n " or " l o n g i t u d i n a l study of c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the c e n t r e from two to f i v e . " One c e n t r e needs s t a f f time d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e s e a r c h . O t h e r s mention r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s i n a r e a s such as c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y or c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p -ment. E l e v e n p r o j e c t s named c o n c e r n s e r v i c e to the community. These s e r v i c e s would i n c l u d e the p r e v i s i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g , a r e s o u r c e c e n t r e f o r s t u d e n t s and the community, workshops f o r day c a r e and n u r s e r y s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , an e a r l y i n f a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n program. Some r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c community needs: - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n - s u p e r v i s e i n f a n t group homes or have w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n f a n t u n i t - I I nous f a u t un C e n t r e de c o o r d i n a t i o n pour l e s s e r v i c e s a 1'enfant pour l e s e c t e u r f r a n c a i s de l a p r o v i n c e du Nouveau-Brunswick. Two c e n t r e s mention h o u s i n g , one n e e d i n g a new f a c i l i t y and a n o t h e r a l a r g e r space. 74 Four c e n t r e s would l i k e s t a f f time to develop a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , i n the s e r v i c e o f r e s e a r c h , p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . Common Concerns of Respondents Respondents from f i f t e e n c e n t r e s had i n s i g h t s , q u e s t i o n s o r c o n c e r n s t h a t they would share w i t h p e r s o n n e l from o t h e r c e n t r e s , g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y (Q30). These a r e grouped and l i s t e d i n Appendix B, and common concerns a r e summarized h e r e . of c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s , f o r example " t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e n t r e s f o r community use," "the development of n o v e l programs," the b a l a n c e of " r e s e a r c h t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and community i n v o l v e m e n t . " Nine c e n t r e s would l i k e t o d i s c u s s the i n t e r n a l problems of c e n t r e s . These problems i n c l u d e the s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e s t a f f , s t a f f time c o n s t r a i n t s and s a l a r i e s ; f u n d i n g ; program p l a n n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s ; r e c o r d k e e p i n g methods; the r o l e o f a p a r e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . E i g h t c e n t r e s would l i k e t o share c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s , one s p e c i f y i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h v e n t u r e s . S i x c e n t r e s have concerns about t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e to d i s c u s s "approaches to t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g " o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programs p r e p a r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s . Seven c e n t r e s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n d i s c u s s i n g the uses and purposes 75 Summary R e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A c a t a l o g u e o f p r e s e n t Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s was p r e s e n t e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r programs f o r c h i l d r e n , f a c i l i t i e s , s p o n s o r s h i p and y e a r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t , r e v e a l i n g a n o t a b l y h i g h number o f c e n t r e s l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s o l d , and o f c e n t r e s f o r p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . C e n t r e s a r e a b l e to i d e n t i f y and s c a l e the r e l a t i v e importance o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , as l i s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e s e a r c h , t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , d i s s e m i n a t i o n and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s a r e a l l performed by Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s . E v e r y c e n t r e i s m u l t i p u r p o s e , emphasizing two or more f u n c t i o n s . Most c e n t r e s a r e under the s p o n s o r s h i p of o n l y one d i s c i p l i n e o r department, and th e s e v a r y from i n s t i t u t i o n to i n s t i t u t i o n . Most c e n t r e s a r e a b l e to e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n about the impact o f t h e i r c e n t r e on t h e i r community, and many e x p r e s s common concerns and an eagerness to share t h e s e w i t h o t h e r c h i l d study c e n t r e p e r s o n n e l . W h i l e many p r o j e c t s c o n c e r n i n g the study o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r c a r e and e d u c a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d as needed, most c e n t r e s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t to make th e s e a r e a l i t y , and one t h i r d have not enough s u p p o r t to meet p r e s e n t g o a l s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V, c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn and recommendations a r e made f o r f u t u r e study and a c t i o n . CHAPTER V . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a c a t a l o g u e of Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s o p e r a t i n g i n 1978, as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I and i n v e s t i g a t e d by the p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I . I t was p o s s i b l e to e x p l o r e the v a r i e t y and b a l a n c e of the f u n c t i o n s which the c e n t r e s p e r f o r m , and the s p o n s o r s h i p , s u p p o r t s and p o l i c y making which t r a n s f o r m c e n t r e g o a l s i n t o r e a l i t y . Some i n d i c a t i o n s were g i v e n as to the c e n t r e s ' impact on t h e i r communities. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n answered, c o m p l e t e l y o r i n p a r t , the q u e s t i o n s posed by t h i s study which were i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter I and r e v i s e d i n Chapter I I I . New q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e b o t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n and communica-t i o n a l s o came to l i g h t as a r e s u l t of the s t u d y . These a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : C h i l d Study on Campus Goals of C h i l d Study C e n t r e s Communication among Canadian C h i l d Study C e n t r e s L i m i t a t i o n s o f Study Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study and A c t i o n C h i l d Study on Campus I t i s c l e a r from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e i n v o l v e -ment w i t h c h i l d s t u d y on Canadian campuses, and t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t has been i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y over the p a s t t e n to f i f t e e n y e a r s . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the 77-p r e s e n t c h i l d study c e n t r e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s , c e n t r e s now e x i s t i n g i n twenty of f i f t y Canadian d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f c h i l d study c e n t r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d e s i g n e d to i d e n t i f y programs f o r ftwhich t h e r e was an i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment to the g o a l s and f u n c t i o n s t h a t a program f o r young c h i l d r e n can f u l f i l l . A c h i l d study c e n t r e was d e f i n e d as a group program f o r c h i l d r e n of any age between b i r t h and n i n e y e a r s o l d which d e v e l o p s and/or d i s s e m i n a t e s knowledge about c h i l d r e n and/or c h i l d r e n ' s programs. "Operated by the i n s t i t u t i o n " meant t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n assumes a t l e a s t h a l f the c a p i t a l or o p e r a t i n g c o s t s o f the c e n t r e , o r a d m i n i s t e r s funds which do so. I n s t i t u S t i o n a l commitment to programs i s much more complex than s i m p l y c o n t r i b u t i n g o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the c e n t r e s ' o p e r a t i n g expenses, as the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n Chapter I I i m p l i e s , and the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study i n d i c a t e . The p r o p o r t i o n of a c e n t r e ' s budget p r o v i d e d by the s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n may not be a guide to the adequacy of f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , as shown by t h i s i v e s t i g a t i o n . O n e - t h i r d o f c e n t r e s f e l t s u p p o r t was i n a d e q u a t e t o f u l f i l l p r e s e n t g o a l s , and more than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s would l i k e t o i n s t i t u t e f u r t h e r i d e a s o r p r o j e c t s i f r e s o u r c e s allowed; (Q 24, 29). Budgetary s u p p o r t was l a c k i n g f o r : a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , academic and r e s e a r c h commitments of f a c u l t y , a v a i l a b l e time f o r f a c u l t y and s t a f f t o develop programs, and f o r such d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as w r i t i n g , v i d e o - t a p i n g , and communication w i t h p a r e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e f i e l d and the p u b l i c . A t t h e same time, most c e n t r e s have few major s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g , h a l f h a v i n g o n l y a s i n g l e major s o u r c e (see T a b l e I X ) . The f i r s t Canadian c e n t r e s r e l i e d on f o u n d a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s and government to p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t s of t h e i r b udgets. S o c i a l and economic p r e s s u r e s 78 can b r i n g about changes i n p u b l i c commitment to c e n t r e s , as shown by the h i s t o r y o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . These f a c t o r s , d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , might suggest t h a t d i v e r s e f u n d i n g s o u r c e s , s u p p o r t i n g c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s o r p r o j e c t s of c e n t r e s , might h e l p c e n t r e s f u l f i l l p r e s e n t g o a l s and developi;fufether-iplans"-. .--I n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment to c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n v o l v e s not o n l y budgetary s u p p o r t , but r e l a t e s t o the n a t u r e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and academic, s u p p o r t s , as w e l l . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s study i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t c h i l d study c e n t r e s might be the l o c u s f o r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n v o l v e -ment i n c h i l d s t u d y , and t h a t t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n might h e l p to d e f i n e a f i e l d o f study of young c h i l d r e n . The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s some su p p o r t f o r t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n , i n t h a t e a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s were m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y , and i n t h a t two of the e a r l i e s t c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada, a t the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o i n 1926 and a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961, e v o l v e d from m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y c o o p e r a t i o n . The importance o f th e n a t u r e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and academic s u p p o r t s , and the academic q u a n d r i e s posed by the s t u d y o f young c h i l d r e n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the e v o l u t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study from i t s i n i t i a l s p o n s o r s h i p by a p s y c h o l o g y department, to an autonomous i n s t i t u t e , to i t s c u r r e n t i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a c o n s t i t u e n t o f a f a c u l t y o f e d u c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study show t h a t p r e s e n t Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s a r e sponsored by d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s (see T a b l e I) but seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t fewer than o n e - t h i r d i n c l u d e d i s c i p l i n e s o t h e r than t h a t of the s p o n s o r i n g department i n p o l i c y making (see T a b l e V I I I ) . A l l the c e n t r e s except the two treatment programs b e l o n g to the t r a d i t i o n o f l a b -o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s . The m u l t i ' d i s c i p l i n a r y f o c u s of e a r l y l a b o r a t o r y p r e s c h o o l s seems to be supported by contemporary t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h i n the 7'9 c h i l d development f i e l d , as suggested i n Chapter I . Thus the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t e i t h e r the i n f o r m a t i o n as g a t h e r e d i s i n c o m p l e t e , o r t h e r e i s a p u z z l i n g l a c k of m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y f o c u s i n the p r e s e n t Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . T h i s study r e v e a l s t h a t c e n t r e s ' s u p p o r t s may depend upon p e r s o n a l r a t h e r than i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment, endangering o r l i m i t i n g f u n c t i o n s i n a v a r i e t y o f ways when p e r s o n n e l change. In o r d e r f o r c e n t r e s to c o n t r i b u t e to the f i e l d o f the s t u d y , c a r e and e d u c a t i o n of young c h i l d r e n , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s to s p e l l out the v a l u e s and r o l e s of the c e n t r e s and to r e c r u i t and commit adequate r e s o u r c e s to f u l f i l l t h ese r o l e s . G oals of C h i l d Study C e n t r e s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n l i s t e d seven p o s s i b l e g o a l s which c h i l d study c e n t r e s might s u p p o r t (Q18). Ten o r more c e n t r e s ranked the f o l l o w i n g as f i r s t , second o r t h i r d g o a l s of t h e i r c e n t r e s (see T a b l e V I I ) : - to t r a n s l a t e t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e - p r e s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of t e a c h e r s to implement s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s and programs - to develop p r o m i s i n g programs and p r o c e s s e s - to d i s s e m i n a t e knowledge and p r a c t i c e i n t o the mainstream of c h i l d c a r e / e d u c a t i o n - to d i s s e m i n a t e s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s and programs. As p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter IV, the g o a l emerging w i t h the h i g h e s t rank was t h a t of t r a n s l a t i n g t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e , .:,'This i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n the l i g h t o f a u t h o r s c i t e d i n Chapter I I who d e s c r i b e c e n t r e s as b e i n g 809 u n i q u e l y s u i t e d f o r t h i s f u n c t i o n . However, t r a n s l a t i n g t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e has been d e s c r i b e d as an a c t i v i t y , which r e q u i r e s s t a f f members who a r e " b i l i n g u a l i n t h e i r f l u e n c y w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f i e l d s o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e " (Hunter, 1970, p. 15). The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t a c h i e v i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s h i g h academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of s t a f f members. T h i s study shows t h a t i n a l l b u t one of the Canadian c e n t r e s r a t i n g h i g h l y the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e the d i r e c t o r has a d o c t o r a t e o r masters degree, and t h r e e o f these c e n t r e s employ t e a c h e r s w i t h masters d e g r e e s , an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e s t a f f members may inde e d be " b i l i n g u a l " w i t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . T h i s study c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t a l l Canadian c h i l d study c e n t r e s , whether sponsored by a f a c u l t y o f e d u c a t i o n o r n o t , a r e o p e r a t i n g i n the s e r v i c e o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . A l l c e n t r e s p r o v i d e an o b s e r v a t i o n s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s , and a l l but one c e n t r e r a t e h i g h l y the f u n c t i o n s o f p r o v i d i n g a s e t t i n g f o r p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r a c t i c e and the d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f an exemplary program, as r e p o r t e d i n Chapter IV. The ages o f c h i l d r e n and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d a i l y programs (see T a b l e I) seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r a v a r i e t y of programs i n d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s , i n c l u d i n g i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l day c a r e , f a m i l y programs, p a r t - d a y n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , k i n d e r g a r t e n o r p r i m a r y s c h o o l programs and f o r work w i t h d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f the ages o f c h i l d r e n s e r v e d by the programs. The t y p i c a l c h o i c e o f c h i l d r e n ' s program i s a s m a l l , h a l f - d a y program f o r t h r e e ^ t o - f i v e y e a r o l d s . Twelve o f the f i f t e e n programs e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p a s t t e n y e a r s a r e f o r the t h r e e - t o - f i v e age group. T h i s c h o i c e may i n d i c a t e t h a t the c e n t r e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n programs f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y of p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ; i t may mean t h a t a group o f 81 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n l e n d s i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l t o o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d development; i t may a l s o mean t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y p r e s c h o o l may be an i n n o v a t i o n , d e m o n s t r a t i n g the v a l u e s of such a program to an a r e a of Canada not f a m i l i a r w i t h these programs; i t may i n d i c a t e s i m p l y t h a t w h i l e ©Idef-.Ghi-ldren a r e a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , study and p r a c t i c e , groups o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r such purposes i n the community. I t i s noteworthy t h a t w h i l e t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the c e n t r e s a r e equipped w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s c r e e n s , as w e l l as w i t h v i d e o and audio r e c o r d e r s , o n l y o n e - t h i r d a r e r e s e a r c h o r i e n t e d . T h i s r a i s e s t h e i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n o f whether these t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s a r e b e i n g used i n i n n o v a t i v e ways i n the s e r v i c e o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n o r o f a v a r i e t y o f d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Comments by re s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t some r e s o u r c e s a r e perhaps unused f o r l a c k o f s t a f f and f a c u l t y time to e x p l o i t t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . S e v e r a l c e n t r e s c l a i m t h a t many g o a l s a r e o f the f i r s t rank, as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some c e n t r e s have n o t s e t p r i o r i t i e s . One respondent commented t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f p r o v i d e d h e r , as a new d i r e c t o r , w i t h " t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r f a c u i t y communication and g o a l s e t t i n g . " Some c e n t r e s , on the o t h e r hand, may have generous r e s o u r c e s which a l l o w s e v e r a l g o a l s to be h i g h p r i o r i t y . T h i s r a i s e s a q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d by many of the e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s of l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s c i t e d i n Chapter I I ; t h a t i s , the m u l t i - f a c e t e d r o l e of t e a c h e r s i n the programs and the demands which the needs o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s , r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s , s t u d e n t s , v i s i t o r s and f i e l d workers a l l make upon t h e i r time. Among the p r o j e c t s d e s i r e d by c e n t r e s i f r e s o u r c e s a l l o w e d , were some e x t e n s i v e ones such as c o o r d i n a t i o n o r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . Y e t t h e s t r a i n s on c e n t r e s which t r y to be a l l t h i n g s to a l l 82 p e o p l e i s w e l l documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and i s e x p r e s s e d by one r e s p o n d -ent i n t h i s study as a c o n c e r n f o r the "burn-out e f f e c t s " on s t a f f . I t seems c l e a r b o t h from- the l i t e r a t u r e and from r e s p o n s e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t the a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t , g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t u s , and a c h i e v e commitment of c e n t r e p e r s o n n e l may depend upon c a r e f u l s e t t i n g of g o a l s and p r i o r i t i e s by c e n t r e p o l i c y makers, and s t r i n g e n t a l l o t m e n t o f time to a c h i e v e these g o a l s . Communication Among Canadian  C h i l d Study C e n t r e s I t appears from the r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e p e r s o n n e l w i s h to communicate w i t h each o t h e r , and t h a t they have many common c o n c e r n s . Such a communication model may be found i n the t h r e e -y e a r o l d O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l s , as commented upon by the p r e s e n t members who sh a r e i n t e r n a l problems, r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and s c h o l a r l y papers i n t h e i r t w i c e - y e a r l y m e e t i n g s . Two re s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d the w i s h f o r a n a t i o n a l group s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f O n t a r i o and the hope t h a t t h i s study might pave the way f o r i t s f o r m a t i o n by l e a d i n g to improved communications and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of common c o n c e r n s . Much i n f o r m a t i o n about the c e n t r e s can be exchanged o n l y by f a c e - t o - f a c e communication and mutual v i s i t s . The l i m i t a t i o n o f the m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o the c h i l d r e n ' s programs. D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s and s c a l i n g o f the elements o f the c h i l d r e n ' s programs showed so much concensus t h a t one might i n f e r t h a t a v i s i t t o any one c e n t r e would be much l i k e t h a t t o any o t h e r . A l t h o u g h 8,3' t h i s seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , i f t h e r e i s i n d e e d such concensus a c r o s s Canada about program elements which a r e e s s e n t i a l , a c o l l e c t i v e statement t o t h a t e f f e c t might have a p o w e r f u l e f f e c t on p r a c t i c e s w i t h the wid e r p o p u l a t i o n of Canadian c h i l d r e n . I f the body o f knowledge which c o l l e c t i v e l y the c e n t r e s r e p r e s e n t were c o n s o l i d a t e d and made a v a i l a b l e , would i t a r t i c u l a t e the s t a t e o f knowledge and p r a c t i c e i n Canada? Would i t d e f i n e a f i e l d o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d ? Would i t c a t a l o g u e the problems t h a t a r e b e i n g addressed? Would i t then be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y and d e f i n e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e o f common and perhaps unique s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the study o f t h e po p u l a c e o f young Canadian c h i l d r e n ? L i m i t a t i o n s o f Study D e c i s i o n s made a t the o u t s e t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n p l a c e d two major l i m i t a t i o n s on the s t u d y . F i r s t , the d e f i n i t i o n o f c h i l d study c e n t r e used by t h i s study may e x c l u d e programs f o r c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e d by u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t do not f a l l w i t h i n the stu d y d e f i n i t i o n , b u t t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to c h i l d s tudy i n Canada. T h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y , s u r v e y i n g programs i n d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s i n Canada, many t h a t a r e i n v i s i b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t was important to d e f i n e a c h i l d study c e n t r e p r e c i s e l y i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about programs w i t h some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A second major l i m i t a t i o n r e l a t e s to sa m p l i n g . Many programs f o r young c h i l d r e n a r e o p e r a t e d by Canadian community c o l l e g e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n departments, c h i l d r e n ' s programs which would be ex p e c t e d to show some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common w i t h those o p e r a t e d 84 by d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A d e c i s i o n to e x c l u d e t h e s e programs from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made because o f the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t r e s e a r c h might be a f u n c t i o n o f some c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s i n d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , but n ot i n community c o l l e g e s , and a f u l l range o f f u n c t i o n s was to be e x p l o r e d . The 100% response to the s u r v e y , and the c o m p l e t i o n by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s o f a l l c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s and the m a j o r i t y of open q u e s t i o n s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I . However, t h e survey r e s p o n s e s brought to l i g h t some d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e format and c o n t e n t , as f o l l o w s : 1. Few c e n t r e s e n c l o s e d l i s t s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s , r e p o r t s o r b r o c h u r e s , as r e q u e s t e d i n the l e t t e r accompanying the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix A ) . T h i s may have been an o v e r s i g h t r a t h e r than a l a c k o f m a t e r i a l , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t such a r e q u e s t s h o u l d appear i n the body o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f . 2. Responses to q u e s t i o n s about c h i l d r e n ' s programs and a c t i v i t i e s (Q10, 11) showed such s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s amongst the c e n t r e s t h a t i t seems h i g h l y q u e s t i o n a b l e whether i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine the f l a v o r and q u a l i t y of c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s by means of a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3. A q u e s t i o n about landmarks i n the development o f c e n t r e s (Q27) e l i c i t e d few re s p o n s e s and t h e s e p r o v i d e d l i t t l e ^ a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a -• . t i o n to t h a t p r o v i d e d i n the open q u e s t i o n s which f o l l o w e d . Such a q u e s t i o n might b e t t e r appear i n a h i s t o r i c a l study where i t c o u l d be expanded and c l a r i f i e d , r a t h e r than i n a study o f the p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f c e n t r e s . 85 4. Rank o r d e r i n g was n o t a c o m p l e t e l y e f f e c t i v e way of l e a r n i n g the c e n t r e s ' p r i o r i t i e s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV (Q18). The re s p o n d e n t s were c l e a r l y asked to rank the g o a l s , a l t h o u g h a m i s - p r i n t r e a d "from one to n i n e " i n s t e a d o f "from one to seven" and t h i s may have p r o v e d c o n f u s i n g . While f o r the most p a r t the survey brought f u l l and s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s , the n e c e s s i t y to use a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a r e g r e t t a b l e l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . C h i l d study c e n t r e s b r i n g t o g e t h e r p e o p l e who must work c l o s e l y : p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n who b e l o n g to f a m i l i e s and n e i g h -borhoods, s t a f f members w i t h v a r i e d backgrounds and p h i l o s o p h i e s , s t u d e n t s w i t h many m o t i v a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s , f a c u l t y members w i t h m u l t i t u d e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d i f f e r i n g academic c o n v i c t i o n s . These p e o p l e merge t h e i r i n t e r e s t s f o r the bet t e r m e n t o f c h i l d r e n n ot o n l y i n the c e n t r e but beyond i t s d o o r s . A m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e cannot r e s u l t i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the human i n t e r a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d to a c h i e v e such a complex t a s k . Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study and A c t i o n The comprehensive a p p r a i s a l recommended twenty y e a r s ago by Ross and quoted i n Chapter I I - of the problems which a r e b e i n g a d d r e s s e d and which need to be ad d r e s s e d i n the stu d y of young Canadian c h i l d r e n has never been c a r r i e d o u t . Y e t a l l b u t two of the p r e s e n t twenty-two c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n Canada have been e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e t h a t time. U n t i l the p r e s e n t study was c a r r i e d o u t , no c a t a l o g u e e x i s t e d to make t h e s e c e n t r e s v i s i b l e t o each o t h e r and to o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r work. The p r e s e n t s t u d y p o i n t s t o s e v e r a l gaps i n p r e s e n t knowledge and su g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d study c e n t r e s a r e i n a unique p o s i t i o n to h e l p f i l l the f o l l o w i n g needs: 8.6 1. to i d e n t i f y p i v o t a l programs f o r c h i l d r e n ; : o p e r a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , i n c l u d i n g the community c o l l e g e s , which a r e h a v i n g an impact on programs and p r a c t i c e s w i t h the g e n e r a l p o p u l a c e of young Canadian c h i l d r e n ; 2. to s u r v e y v i t a l q u e s t i o n s b e i n g asked about young Canadian c h i l d r e n ; 3. to a s s i g n p r i o r i t y to t hose q u e s t i o n s which have the most e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n to c h i l d r e n i n l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ; 4. to use Canadian j o u r n a l s and p u b l i c a t i o n s o f Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l and advocacy o r g a n i z a t i o n s to d e s c r i b e the work now b e i n g done i n the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s above; 5. to c r e a t e a d i r e c t communication l i n k among c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n Canada i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the accomplishment o f common g o a l s . The h i g h dependency of young c h i l d r e n , and the w i d e s p r e a d l a c k of s u p p o r t s f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s demand t h a t Canada makes the most e f f e c t i v e use of the s o u r c e s of s c h o l a r s h i p and l e a d e r s h i p which a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r g u i d a n c e . C h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s may be u n i q u e l y s u i t e d to f u l f i l l t h i s u r g e n t need. They f a c e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s of academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s , of c h o o s i n g and b a l a n c i n g a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s , and of d e f i n i n g and d i v e r s i f y i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t s . T h i s s t u d y p o i n t s to the need f o r communication and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n on the p a r t of the c e n t r e s t o b e g i n to s o l v e these d i f f i c u l t / q u e s t i o n s . 8(7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 88 A i n s w o r t h , Mary D. I n f a n c y i n Uganda. B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1967. O b j e c t r e l a t i o n s , dependency, and attachment: a t h e o r e t i c a l r e v i e w o f the i n f a n t - m o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . C h i l d Development, 1969, 40, 969-1025. Almy, M i l l i e . Spontaneous p l a y : an avenue f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l development. C h i l d Study, 1966, 28, 2-14. American A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e s , Committee On Standards and Surve y s . S c h o o l and Community L a b o r a t o r y E x p e r i e n c e s i n Teacher  E d u c a t i o n , 1948. Anderson, R o b e r t a , e t a l . I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Teacher E d u c a t i o n i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d . M i n n e s o t a : Mankato S t a t e C o l l e g e , S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1973. A u b e r t i n e , Horace E. The r e n a i s s a n c e o f the l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s . A Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the meeting o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s . C h i c a g o , .1972. B a r n a r d , Henry. On Normal S c h o o l s . H a r t f o r d : Case, T i f f a n y and Co., 1851. ( R e p r i n t by C o l o r a d o S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1929) B e r n h a r d t , K a r l S., M i l l i c h a m p , Dorothy A., C h a r l e s , M a r i o n W., & M c F a r l a n d , Mary P. An A n a l y s i s o f the S o c i a l C o n t a c t s o f P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n  With the A i d o f M o t i o n P i c t u r e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o S t u d i e s : C h i l d Development S e r i e s #10. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1937. Bi x b y , P a u l W. & M i t z e l , H a r o l d E. (eds.) Campus S c h o o l t o a Re s e a r c h and D i s s e m i n a t i o n C e n t e r . U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. Blackmon, C. Robert (ed.) L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s , U. S. A. - S t u d i e s and  Readings. Southwestern S t u d i e s : Humanities S e r i e s , #3. L a f a y e t t e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Southwestern L o u i s i a n a , 1970. B l a i r , L o i s C , C u r t i s , Dwight K. & Moon, A. C. The Pur p o s e s , F u n c t i o n s  and Uniqueness o f the C o l l e g e - C o n t r o l l e d L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l . Lock Haven, Pa.: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student T e a c h i n g , 1958. B l a t z , W. E. The t h e o r y o f human s e c u r i t y . I n L o i s M. Broekmah, John H. W h i t e l e y & John P. Zubek (eds.) C h i l d Development: S e l e c t e d  Readings. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1973, 150-166. Human S e c u r i t y . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1966. 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Baby t a l k i n s i x lang u a g e s . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 1964, 66_, 103-114. F l e t c h e r , M a r garet I . & D e n i s o n , Margaret Conboy. A N u r s e r y Revue: Songs  and P l a y l e t s . B o ston: The Bo s t o n Music Company, 1955. . The New H i g h Road of Song f o r N u r s e r y S c h o o l s and K i n d e r g a r t e n s . T o r o n t o : W. J . Gage L i m i t e d , 1960. F l i n t , B e t t y M. The C h i l d and the , i t u t i o n : A Study o f D e p r i v a t i o n and  Recovery. U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1966. . The S e c u r i t y o f I n f a n t s . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1959. New Hope f o r D e p r i v e d C h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1978. F o r e s t , I . S c h o o l f o r the C h i l d From Two to E i g h t . New York: Ginn, 1935. 91 Frank, Laurence. 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L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l : r e p o r t s on r e s e a r c h . Department o f P s y c h o l o g y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , June 1977 (Mimeo). Howd, M. C u r t i s & Browne, Kenneth A. N a t i o n a l Survey o f Campus L a b o r a t o r y  S c h o o l s 1969. The American A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 1970. Hunter, M a d e l i n e . Expanding r o l e s o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s . P h i D e l t a Kappan, September 1970, 52., 14-19. Hymes, James L. J r . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the  P r o f e s s i o n . Washington, D. C.: The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the E d u c a t i o n of Young C h i l d r e n , 1969. I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study. Program o f S t u d i e s . F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v -e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1978. J a c k s o n , L o l a . P e r s o n a l Communication, 1979. Johnson, H a r r i e t M. C h i l d r e n i n the N u r s e r y S c h o o l . New York: The John Day Company, 1928. . S c h o o l Begins a t Two. New York: New R e p u b l i c , 1936. K e l l e y , Evan Hugh. C o l l e g e - C o n t r o l l e d L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1964. Washington, D. C : American A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 1964. L a n d r e t h , C a t h e r i n e . C h i l d l a b o r a t o r i e s on u n i v e r s i t y campuses. C h i l d  Development, 1964, 35, 989-992. Lueck, P h y l l i s E. P l a n n i n g an outdoor l e a r n i n g environment. Theory I n t o  P r a c t i c e , 197 , 1 2 (2), 121-127. 92 McGeoch, Dorothy M. F u n c t i o n and F u t u r e : The P u b l i c Campus L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n W i s c o n s i n . U. S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n & W e l f a r e : O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1968. . The Campus L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l : P h o e n i x or Dodo B i r d ? Washington, D. C : ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e on Teacher E d u c a t i o n , 1971. M c N e i l l , D. The a c q u i s i t i o n o f Language: The Study of Developmental  P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Harper & Row, 1970. M i l l i c h a m p , Dorothy A. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the I n s t i t u e and i t s p l a c e i n the community. I n I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study S t a f f , T w e n t y - f i v e  Y e a r s of C h i l d Study. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1951, 18-25. . An overview of p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . C h i l d Study, s p r i n g 1968, 30 ( 1 ) , 18-24. & Northway, Mary L. C o n v e r s a t i o n s a t Caledon. T o r o n t o : The B r o r a C e n t r e , 1977. Northway, Mary L. L a u g h t e r i n the F r o n t H a l l . T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1966. . C h i l d s t u d y i n Canada: A c a s u a l H i s t o r y . I n L o i s M. Brockman, John H. W h i t e l e y & John P. Zubek ( e d s . ) , C h i l d Development:  S e l e c t e d Readings. M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1973, 11-46. and Research S t a f f . The r e s e a r c h programme and the l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y . B u l l e t i n o f the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, 1964, 26 (1),1-19. ; and I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study S t a f f . W e l l C h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1956. M. L. N. & N. F. K a r l S. B e r n h a r d t : E d i t o r 1938 to 1964. B u l l e t i n o f the  I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, 1965, 2J_ ( 2 ) , 12-13. O'Bryan K. G., Kuplowska, 0. M. & O'Bryan, M. H. The J u n i o r K i n d e r g a r t e n  Study. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o . T o r o n t o : The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e o f S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1975. O ' C o n n e l l , M. S h e i l a . C h i l d Study Survey. I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1968 (mimeo). Ohm, Robert (ed.) The L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s N e w s l e t t e r , 2, January, 1960. Omwake, E v e l i n e . P r e s c h o o l programs i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t e r c h a n g e , 1971, 2 ( 2 ) , 27-40. Osborn, D. K e i t h . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . The U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a : E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t e s , 1975. P a r t e n , M i l d r e d . S u r v e y s , P o l l s and Samples. New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1950. P e r r o d i n , A l e x F. (ed.) F u n c t i o n s of L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n Teacher E d u c a t i o n . T h i r t y - F o u r t h Yearbook, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student T e a c h i n g . Cedar F a l l s , Iowa: the A s s o c i a t i o n , 1955. P i a g e t , J . The Language and Thought of the C h i l d . C l e v e l a n d : M e r i d i a n Books, 1955. . P l a y , Dreams and I m i t a t i o n i n C h i l d h o o d . New York: N o r t o n , 1962. Q u i g l e y , Laurence A. & Chaves, A r t h u r (eds.) R e p o r t of the Task F o r c e on  T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s . M a s s a c h u s e t t s S t a t e C o l l e g e System. U. S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1974. Rubin, Kenneth H. P l a y b e h a v i o r s o f young c h i l d r e n . Young C h i l d r e n , 1977, 32 ( 6 ) , 16-24. R u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d . On E d u c a t i o n ( p u b l i s h e d i n N o r t h America as E d u c a t i o n  and the Good L i f e ) New York: B o n i & L i v e r i g h t , 1926. S t a f f o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study, P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n . O u t l i n e s  f o r P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n Groups: D i s c i p l i n e . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o S t u d i e s : C h i l d Development S e r i e s #5. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , ND. S t a p l e f o r d , E l s i e . H i s t o r y of the Day N u r s e r i e s Branch: A P e r s o n a l Record. Government of O n t a r i o : M i n i s t r y o f Community and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1976. S t a t e o f F l o r i d a , Department of E d u c a t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n of S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s . U. S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Wel-f a r e , N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1976. S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y System of F l o r i d a . Campus L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y System o f F l o r i d a . U. S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1969. Van T i l , W i l l i a m . The L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l : I t s R i s e and F a l l ? I n d i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y and L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s A d m i n i s t r a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n . U. S. Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , 1969. W i l l i a m s , E. I . F. The A c t u a l and P o t e n t i a l Use of L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n  S t a t e Normal S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n , No. 846. New York; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1942. 9 4 W r i g h t , Mary J". Recent t r e n d s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n i n the U. S. A. and Canada. .In .^isT^MJiSr-ockmanV John H. W h i t e l e y & ;J6hn P. Zubek, (eds.) C h i l d Development; S e l e c t e d Readings. M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1973, 271-280. . Compensatory E d u c a t i o n f o r P r e s c h o o l e r s : A N o n - t e c h n i c a l Report on the U. W. 0. P r e s c h o o l P r o j e c t . Department of P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , London, Canada, 1978. 95. APPENDIX A LETTERS 96 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A (Name, p o s i t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) I am a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a d v i s e d by Dr. G l e n D i x o n . I am r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from you which w i l l a l l o w me to c o l l e c t d a t a f o r my M. A. t h e s i s d u r i n g A p r i l and May, 1978. Would you p l e a s e answer the two q u e s t i o n s on the e n c l o s e d s e l f - a d d r e s s e d c a r d , a t your e a r l i e s t convenience? The q u e s t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d below. The i n f o r m a t i o n which I w i l l put t o g e t h e r about c h i l d study c e n t r e s i n Canada w i l l undoubtedly be of i n t e r e s t t o a l l the c e n t r e s . Thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e . Yours v e r y t r u l y , (Signed) Dona Coates D e f i n i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s : 1. Does your i n s t i t u t i o n o p e r a t e a c h i l d study c e n t r e or c e n t r e s i n any c a p a c i t y o r f a c u l t y , as d e f i n e d here? C h i l d Study C e n t r e : a group program f o r c h i l d r e n o f any age between b i r t h and n i n e y e a r s o l d which has as p a r t o f i t s m i s s i o n the d e v e l o p -ment and/or d i s s e m i n a t i o n of knowledge about c h i l d r e n and/or c h i l d r e n ' s programs. Operated by your i n s t i t u t i o n : a c h i l d study c e n t r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d to be o p e r a t e d by a d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n assumes a t l e a s t h a l f the c a p i t a l o r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s o f the c e n t r e , o r a d m i n i s t e r s funds which do so. 2. The name, a d d r e s s and t e l e p h o n e number of the p e r s o n o r p e o p l e whom I s h o u l d c o n t a c t f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . P e r s o n o r p e o p l e : those most knowledgeable about the c e n t r e o r c e n t r e s . 9 7 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Name, I n s t i t u t i o n and a d d r e s s o f p e r s o n named by a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) I am a gr a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a d v i s e d by Dr. Gl e n Dixon. I am c o n d u c t i n g a st u d y on the s t a t u s o f c h i l d study c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d by d e g r e e - g r a n t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada. My hope i s t h a t a st u d y d e s c r i b i n g the twenty Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s c o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r communication f o r those who a r e concerned about c h i l d development i n t h i s c o u n t r y . M u t u a l knowledge o f the v a r i e d m i s s i o n s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r e s c o u l d r e s u l t i n c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n of i d e a s about t h e development, e x a m i n a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of exemplary c h i l d c a r e / e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n Canada. You have been named by the dean or head o f your department as the p e r s o n who i s b e s t i n f o r m e d about your c h i l d study c e n t r e . Two k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e r e q u e s t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . 1. The e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f e r s t o a wide range o f p o s s i b l e c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e f u n c t i o n s . Some q u e s t i o n s may have s c a n t r e l e v a n c e to your c e n t r e , w h i l e o t h e r s may r e q u i r e e l a b o r a t i o n . Would you take time t o complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e f o r e the end of September? 2. Should a l i s t of p u b l i c a t i o n s about t h e c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e be a v a i l a b l e ; s h o u l d members of i t s s t a f f or f a c u l t y have p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l about the c e n t r e o r i t s work; o r s h o u l d r e p o r t s o r b r o c h u r e s s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the c e n t r e be a v a i l a b l e , t h e s e would be v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n s to a composite p i c t u r e o f Canadian c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s ' a c t i v i t i e s . You w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h a summary of the stu d y f i n d i n g s , and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e s a space f o r the name and add r e s s to which t h i s s h o u l d be s e n t . I f warran t e d , the r e s u l t s o f the stu d y w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n a r e l e v a n t C a nadian j o u r n a l . With the utmost a p p r e c i a t i o n o f your time and e f f o r t , I am, Yours v e r y t r u l y , (Signed) Dona Coates 9:9 APPENDIX B RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS :1.00 RESPONSES TO QUESTION 29 IDEAS OR PROJECTS DESIRED (N=19) C h i l d r e n ' s Programs A more d i v e r s e program f o r c h i l d r e n ( t o d d l e r ; 3 y e a r o l d s ; 4 y e a r o l d s ; 5 y e a r o l d s ) . A program t h a t began w i t h i n f a n t s t h r o u g h to 5 y e a r o l d s , p r o b a b l y day c a r e , to p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t and n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s t o the community as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l s u t d i e s i n r e s e a r c h . More c h i l d r e n from low soc i o e c o n o m i c backgrounds - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a problem arid one t h a t we don't have money to r e s o l v e . Compensatory program o f f e r e d t o " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " and o t h e r s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s . More " s c h o l a r s h i p " c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , ones from low-income f a m i l i e s ) . We i n t e n d t o move i n t o the a r e a o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . A d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d to be n e c e s s a r y . A daycare c e n t r e - we need another room and time/energy to o r g a n i z e . R e s i d e n t c l a s s e s . Broader base o f s e l e c t i o n - s o c i o e c o n o m i c . I n t e g r a t i o n of s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n . P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s A new p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y . L a r g e r f a c i l i t y t o a l l o w more movement (g r o s s motor s k i l l s development) to the c h i l d r e n . P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n S y s t e m a t i c p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n . We a r e s e e k i n g ways to expand involvement o f p a r e n t s i n the program's o p e r a t i o n . We would l i k e to see more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o work w i t h p a r e n t s b o t h i n the l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g and i n home environments. ioi R e s e a r c h More r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g range of c h i l d r e n ' s ages, 3 to 11, on c h i l d development, r e l a t e d t o such t h i n g s as r e a d i n g , a t t i t u d i n a l development. R e s e a r c h a t the program l e v e l and a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . L o n g i t u d i n a l study of c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g same c e n t r e from 2 - 5 y e a r s of age. A r e s e a r c h component ( d e s i g n a t e d s t a f f ) . R e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . C u r r i c u l u m development. Development of A/V M a t e r i a l s More f i l m i n g / v i d e o t a p i n g / p a r e n t e d u c a t i e n programs - a g a i n i t s a m a t t e r of who has the time and energy as we don't have money f o r more s t a f f . Use o f v i d e o - t a p e to c o l l e c t and a n a l y z e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o b e h a v i o r a l change i n p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g of s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . A s e r i e s of" f i l m s which demonstrate: c h i l d r e n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r ; t e a c h e r s t a l k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n ; c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o make c h o i c e s ; views o f s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o r s t h a t o c c u r i n a c l a s s r o o m where c h i l d r e n a r e i n c o n t r o l . A u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Community Service^-. Community s e r v i c e d e v e l o p e d i n such a r e a s a s : - workshops f o r day c a r e workers and n u r s e r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s - d i p l o m a c o u r s e f o r day c a r e workers - encouragement of a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e . g . , l o c a l C. A. Y. C.) - c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s a d v o c a t i n g b e t t e r p r o v i s i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n ( p a r e n t s , s o c i a l workers, h e a l t h workers, e t c . ) I I nous f a u t un C e n t r e de c o o r d i n a t i o n pour l e s s e r v i c e s a 1'enfant pour l e s e c t e u r f f a n c a i s de l a p r o v i n c e du Nouveau-Brunswick. C e t t e annee a cause de 1'annee I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de 1'enfant nous f a i s o n s des demarches pour a v o i r un c e n t r e . C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . E a r l y i n f a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n program. 102 S u p e r v i s e i n f a n t c a r e group homes o r have w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n f a n t u n i t . A r e s o u r c e c e n t r e f o r s t u d e n t s and community. P e o p l e to work i n the v a r i o u s programs. More s e r v i c e t o the community ( e . g . , a p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n program, c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ) . 103 RESPONSES TO QUESTION 30 INSIGHTS, CONCERNS, AND QUESTIONS TO SHARE WITH OTHER CENTRES (N=15.) Uses and Purposes o f C e n t r e s Purpose f o r l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s . The need f o r c h i l d r e n ' s c e n t r e ( 2 % - 5 y e a r s ) to be l o c a t e d w i t h i n the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n b u i l d i n g . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d be aware o f young c h i l d r e n ' s growth and development. Exchange o f programs, p h i l o s o p h y , e t c . Development o f n o v e l programs f o r Canadian p r e s c h o o l s . Uses to which t h e i r c e n t r e s a r e p u t , e.g. a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the c e n t r e s f o r community use. How a r e o t h e r f a c u l t i e s making use of t h e i r " l a b " s c h o o l s f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , r e s e a r c h and community involvement? How t o move the C e n t r e from a f u n c t i o n a l f a c i l i t y to a r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t y w hich a l s o p r o v i d e s a f u n c t i o n a l s e r v i c e . Approaches to Teacher E d u c a t i o n T eacher e d u c a t i o n . Approaches to s t u d e n t t r a i n i n g . O r i e n t a t i o n t o t r a i n i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n a l competence of community c o l l e g e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l (an a c u t e problem i n O n t a r i o where g r a d u a t e s o f CAAT c o l l e g e programs t y p i c a l l y u n s k i l l e d a t a d m i n i s t e r i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , and d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a a r e h i r e d to do a d m i n i s t e r i n g , e t c . Does such a " p o l i c y " e f f e c t the k i d s i n the programs (how w e l l do these t e a c h e r s compare to those who have B.A. o r M.A. degrees r e : v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t e a c h e r competence?). C h i l d r e n ' s r i g h t s i n a c l a s s r o o m . 10* ' R e s e a r c h C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h . E a r l y c h i l d h o o d r e s e a r c h i n Canada on c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t , c o g n i t i v e development, s e l f concept and m o t i v a t i o n . What a r e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h problems b e i n g a d d r e s s e d by o t h e r f a c u l t i e s ? C o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s i n r e s e a r c h , programs, e t c . Re s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ( f o r m a t i v e and summative e v a l u a t i o n s ) Emphasis on r e s e a r c h and p u b l i c a t i o n s from the c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . Research f i n d i n g s . I n t e r n a l Problems o f C e n t r e s Le p e r s o n n e l n e c e s s a i r e pour commencer e t f a i r e f o n c t i o n n e r un t e l c e n t r e . P l a n i f i c a t i o n des a c t i v i t e pour p a r e n t s e t e n f a n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e : s t a f f s a l a r i e s i n p r e s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l systems. Time c o n s t r a i n t s and burn-out e f f e c t s o f l a b . s c h o o l s t a f f . L ' o r g a n i s a t i o n p h y s i q u e d'un c e n t r e de s e r v i c e s a 1'enfant dans un c c n t e x t e u n i v e r s i t a i r e . L e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . R o l e of t h e p a r e n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . R e g u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c h i l d s t u d y c e n t r e s . Ideas about r e c o r d k e e p i n g , program p l a n n i n g ( c u r r i c u l u m i s s u e s ) , t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems such as s a l a r i e s . T eacher s e l e c t i o n . F u n d i n g . 105 RESPONSES TO QUESTION 31 GENERAL COMMENTS (N=13) The f o c u s i n t h i s c e n t r e i s on t r a i n i n g g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y . They may opt f o r a s p e c i a l t y i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n (as p a r t of our M.A. o r Ph.D. porgram). We have produced s i x M.A.'s and h o p e f u l l y w i l l produce 3 Ph.D.'s t h i s y e a r who have t a k e n the E.C.E. s p e c i a l t y . The aim i s t o t r a i n s c i e n t i s t s i n the f i e l d who w i l l be a b l e to advance knowledge and g i v e l e a d e r s h i p a t "high'.', l e v e l s . I f they opt f o r E.C.E. they take the e q u i v a l e n t of a p r o f e s s i o n a l y e a r of t r a i n i n g as an E.C.E. e d u c a t o r so t h a t they can q u a l i f y f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n by the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o . One honours E.C.E. c o u r s e i s t a u g h t a t the undergraduate l e v e l but we do not t r a i n t e a c h e r s a t the undergraduate l e v e l . The c o u r s e i s P s y c h o l o g y 346." I b e l i e v e t h a t our p r e s c h o o l c e n t r e i s f u l f i l l i n g a need i n our community. By m a i n t a i n i n g a warm, f r i e n d l y atmosphere w i t h the c h i l d r e n i n our program as w e l l as w i t h o t h e r members of the community, c e n t r e s of t h i s type can do a g r e a t d e a l to promote the growth of the young c h i l d . I t i s a c e n t r e where t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y l e a r n ways of d e v e l -o p i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e c u r r i c u l u m f o r c h i l d r e n by l i s t e n i n g and o b s e r v i n g them. C h i l d r e n a r e the i n f o r m e r s . The t e a c h e r s seem to be t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of the c e n t r e . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i n n o v a t i v e programs and response to r e s e a r c h a l l depend upon the f l e x i b i l i t y and c o o p e r a t i v e n a t u r e of the t e a c h e r . As a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t y i t i s h i g h l y l a u d e d by the s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e . S c h o o l s i n N.B. tend to be v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l and t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s to see modern e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y b e i n g put i n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. Les s t a g i a i r e s s o n t completement r e s p o n s a b l e s de 1'enseignement aupres des e n f a n t s , l a p l a n i f i c a t i o n de 1'enseignement e t des a t e l i e r s de p a r e n t s , l e c u r r i c u l u m l ' a m i n i s t r a t i o n b u d g e t a i r e , l e r e c r u t e m e n t des e n f a n t s , e t c . e s t l a r e s p o n s a b i l i t e des s t a g i a i r e s . C -'est un e n d r o i t ou l e s s t a g i a i r e s ont l ' e n t i e r e r e s p o n s a b i l i t f e du p r o g r e s de 1'enfant. de p l u s e l l e s sont p r e p a r e e s a t o u t l e s n i v e u x pour 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n l e l e u r p r o p r e c e n t r e p l u s t a r d . Our " C e n t r e f o r C h i l d S t u d i e s " was founded f o u r y e a r s ago by s e v e r a l e n t h u s -i a s t i c and h i g h r a n k i n g f a c u l t y from v a r i o u s departments. S i n c e t h i s time they have e i t h e r l e f t the u n i v e r s i t y o r gone on to o t h e r i n t e r e s t s , l e a v i n g the C e n t r e under a . s e m i - i n t e r e s t e d committee of two. The s t a f f have concen-t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s on e s t a b l i s h i n g an e x c e l l e n t program f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t . F o r the most p a r t our c e n t r e i s unused f o r r e s e a r c h - a t l e a s t a t the p r e s e n t time. 106 T h i s s t u d y s h o u l d p r o v i d e the R.C.E. community w i t h some v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d h e l p each c e n t r e a s s e s s i t s purposes and p r a c t i c e s . C e r t a i n l y i t w i l l p r o v i d e knowledge o f Canadian p r a c t i c e s t o Canadians who then can make c l e a r e r judgements. T h i s study p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r f a c u l t y communication and g o a l s e t t i n g r e the C h i l d r e n ' s C e n t r e . I was p e r s o n a l l y g l a d t h a t we were asked to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h i s r e a s o n . I asked o t h e r members of the E a r l y C h i l d h o o d a r e a and the t e a c h e r s i n the C e n t r e to complete i t and then compared the v a r i o u s answers. T h i s has g i v e n me, as the new d i r e c t o r , a v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s p e o p l e . I l o o k f o r w a r d t o r e c e i v i n g a summary of the r e s u l t s o f your s u r v e y and I hope you can make the i d e a o f a -meeting o f f a c u l t y p e o p l e who a r e i n v o l v e d i n c e n t r e s a r e a l i t y . T h i s study c o u l d i l l u m i n a t e common problems and c o n c e r n s . In O n t a r i o the u n i v e r s i t i e s have an i n f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e t w i c e a y e a r where l a b . s c h o o l d i r e c t o r s and t e a c h e r s a l l meet t o hear l e a r n e d p a p e r s , d i s c u s s programs, s t a t u s o f s t a f f , s h a r e i d e a s and problems and c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . We a l l f i n d i t o f g r e a t v a l u e . You s h o u l d be aware t h a t a group e x i s t s which d i s c u s s e s many o f the a s p e c t s of y o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ( t w i c e a y e a r ) . The O n t a r i o U n i v e r s i t i e s L a b o r a t o r y P r e s c h o o l Group has been meeting f o r ov e r 3 y e a r s now ( i n c l u d e s C a r l t o n , Guelph, Ryerson, I n s t i t u t e f o r C h i l d Study, McMaster, Western and W a t e r l o o ) . Would be n i c e t o have a n a t i o n a l group meeting a t some p o i n t . I'd be p l e a s e d t o a i d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f such a meeting a t some p o i n t . I f t h i s s t u d y c o u l d l e a d to improved communications and perhaps an a s s o c i a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f c h i l d study c e n t r e s , t h a t would be u s e f u l . 

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