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Supernatural intervention in Kālidāsa’s "Abhijñānaśakuntalā" and Shakespeare’s "Tempest" Bose, Mandakranta 1978

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SUPERNATURAL  INTERVENTION  IN KALIDASA'S  ABHIJNANASAKUNTALA AND  SHAKESPEARE'S  TEMPEST  by MANDAKRANTA |BOSE B.A., University of Calcutta M.A., University of Calcutta B.Lftt.,University of Oxford  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  OF  THE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF  (Department  GRADUATE of  STUDIES  Comparative  Literature)  We  accept to  THE  this  the  thesis  required  UNIVERSITY  OF  October, (c)  Mandakranta  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1978 Bose,  1978  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  make i t  t h a t permission  written  for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  thesis  It  for financial  is understood that copying or gain s h a l l  not  this  Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k Vancouver, V6T  thesis  be allowed without my  M a n d a k r a n t a Bose  ,  Columbia  Place  Canada  1W5  24 November 1978  that  or  publication  permission.  artment of  for  study.  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  representatives.  this  freely available  the requirements  ABSTRACT  Widely Kalidasa's grounds  Abhi jnanas'akuntala  for  t h e themes plays  set  comparison. of  loss,  revolve  brought  s e p a r a t e d by t i m e and c u l t u r a l  Both  up f a r  i n remote  and S h a k e s p e a r e ' s are romantic  re-union,and  round noble  lovers,  both  do t h e  action  of  The  supernatural  with  all  plays.  laws of about  that  of  the major  of  people,  heroines  and b o t h in  but  of  the is  through of  occurences i n each  plot  the  tragedy  i n each p l a y  the events  are  elements.  t h e movement  instrument  both  made p o s s i b l e by  supernatural  s i g n i f i c a n t turns  explore  and i n n o c e n t  nature,  We f i n d on e x a m i n i n g  i s thus  status  of  the  The T e m p e s t  supernatural  command.  that  the provide play.  construction  plays. The  the  the ordinary  the r e s p e c t i v e plays for  valid  actions  supernatural  happenings  c o n c l u s i o n brought  agencies.  impetus  both  show s t r a n g e  overriding  the  in  plays  and a h a p p y  supernatural  offer  An e v e n more s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y l i e s  Not  averted  The  ordinary  K a l i d a s a and S h a k e s p e a r e make o f  supernatural  are,  Tempest  have young  use t h a t only  as t h e y  tragicomedies  forgiveness.  away f r o m t h e s o c i e t y o f lands.  heritage  beings  supernatural  abounds  not  the  same  i n s p e c t a c u l a r d i s p l a y s on t h e  performing  In A b h i j n a n a s a k u n t a l a  i s , however,  amazing  on t h e o t h e r  i i  deeds a t hand,  in  stage,  Prospero's  the workings  of  i i i  the  supernatural  may be m a r v e l l o u s ,  take place before plays  is  entirely  the  spectator's  i n f a c t much d e e p e r . under man's  man.  By c o n t r a s t ,  sents  a scheme o f  not  t h e most  the  supernatural  must subdue emphasizes  existence,  it  it  through  focusses  attention  and t h u s  achieves greater  perhaps  supernatural  only  even  for  i s only  of  is  and the  dramatic  tension  of  reprevisible, that  t o man who  Abhijnanasakuntala  of  and t h e  supernatural.  vision that  e x i s t e n c e , which  i t s anthropocentric  the  the sake  inimical,  nature,  has a b r e a d t h  unity  in  between  i s autonomous  subdue n a t u r e .  upon man as a c r e a t u r e  human a c t i o n t h a n we f i n d  actually  The T e m p e s t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e s  therefore, the  difference  o f w h i c h human l i f e  the c o - r e x i s t e n c e o f man,  sense of But  The  and seems t o e x i s t  part.  and t h r o u g h  Abhijnanasakuntala,  The T e m p e s t .  eyes.  I n The T e m p e s t t h e  i s a power a l i e n ,  rather  no m a g i c a l e v e n t s  in Abhijnanasakuntala  important,  it  metaphysical  control  but  implies a  is lacking  p e r s p e c t i v e The  responsible for  Tempest  h i s own  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n  Abhijnanas'akuntala.  in  of  fate,  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  It I have  i s a p l e a s u r e to acknowledge  received in preparing  P r o f e s s o r Andrew P a r k i n , methods  I thank  I am e q u a l l y g r a t e f u l  whose s e n s i t i v e and e x t e n s i v e me t o a v o i d many e r r o r s . f o r his constant  native  a graduate  t o P r o f e s s o r Ashok  loan of a typewriter  to the University  of;  texts  has h e l p e d great  b e y o n d my  of B r i t i s h  w h i c h my g r a d u a t e  study  To P r o f e s s o r  f o r the preparation  in this  including the  manuscript.  h e l p e d me i n more ways  he h a s more t h a n my g r a t i t u d e .  iv  of this  Columbia  W.E.Fredeman  I am i n d e b t e d f o r many k i n d n e s s e s ,  My h u s b a n d h a s t h r o u g h o u t think  Aklujkar  literature.  fellowship, without  J a n e Fredeman  of Sanskrit  t o me i n v e n t u r i n g  u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e . and D r .  of the  To P r o f e s s o r Graham Good I owe a v e r y  encouragement  f i e l d of Sanskrit  To my s u p e r v i s o r ,  him f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and  knowledge  I am a l s o m o s t g r a t e f u l for  dissertation.  I l a r g e l y owe my u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of dramatic a n a l y s i s .  understanding.  debt  this  t h e h e l p and encouragement  than  I can  ABBREVIATIONS  NS  .  .  .  Bharata Muni, Natyasastra, Manisha G r a n t h a l a y a ,  Sakuntala  .  .  .  Bombay:  e d . , M.M.Ghosh,  1967.  Kalidasa, Abhijnanas'akuntala, p u b l i s h e d by t h e a u t h o r ,  v  Calcutta:  1934.  ed.,  A.B.Gajendragadkar,  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  ty  ABBREVIATIONS  •.  .  Y  Chapter I.  n. III. IV.  THE  TEMPEST  FOR  COMPARISON  1  ABHIJNANAS'AKUNTALA  10  THE  TEMPEST  CONCLUSION  SAKUNTALA:  AND  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  CASE  .  .  .  .  .  . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  38 .  NOTES  SELECTED  .  A  .  vi  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  54 64  69  Chapter  THE  TEMPEST  Over called  a  AND  "the  his  edition  of  the  East  well  often  as  been  SAKUNTALA:  century  Kaljdasa  I  ago,  A  Sir  of  in  the  West,  compared  as  the  foremost  cu 1 t u r e s }  frequently  led  Sanskritic  cultures  to  prom  the  this  and  even  Williams,  in  to  in  1876.  Kalidasa  of  the  broader  the  the  and  Indologist,  preface  Since  1  literary  comparison  comparison  COMPARISON  India"  published  as  respective  FOR  Monier  Shakespeare  Sakuntala,  CASE  to  then,  in  Shakespeare figures  c r i t i c s  of  have  have their  been  Elizabethan  and  the  comparative  views  of  2 East  and  West. Of  peare's son.  far  Both  f i r s t away  secluded in ing is  both  are  fact  both  many the  that  be  from  point both  iKalidasa and  of  courts  motivating  of  view  have  show  of  1  people; which,  by  to  for  fall  are  both  evaluating  in  are  set  love up in  provide  Equally  interestsignificant  agencies the  recon-  brought  history,  sharpen  compari-  of  however,  factors.  cultural  Shakes-  theme who  who  supernatural  tried  Shakespeare  the  lovers  heroines  ordinary  and  well-suited  around  and n o b l e  royal  plays  c r i t i c s  built  innocent  the  Sakuntala  particularly  young  have  of  Kalidasa(s  dramas  society  away  Several between  portray  the  areas  from  to  romantic  sight; from  works,  seem  both  cases  and, the  their  Tempest  c i l i a t i o n ; at  a l l  at  work.  comparison  particular  aspects  2 of  their  literary  studies, It  has  Rabindranath  the  cerned  further  with  important of  comments impact  elements  silent  on  attempt  in  of  there  is  a  human  world,  sees  they  so  and  says  essential  the  ships.  He  peace  through  remain  parallels are  Tagore,  f i r s t ,  the  the  most  common  theme  young  directed  at  the  ethical  he  does of  as  In  not  of  heroines.  address  stagecraft,  one  is  which the  and  himself  he I  is  shall  major  In  In  in  to  in  that  world  structural  view,  and  and  nature. and  shows  with  the  even  for  The  beings  and  shows  Furthermore, Shakespeare  his  to  human  i s ,  is  in the for  relation-  characters  s e l f - r e s t r a i n t ;  and  Sakuntall  in  Shakespeare  approaches  Kalidasa  nature  human  to  effects  In  Nature  with  Kalidasa  self-examination  of  some  belong  qualities  tune  from  ultimate  nature.  subdue  their  dramas  different.  human  Tagore's  between  difference believes  for  differs  their  wholly the  he  two  that  of  not  this  the  found  efforts  difference  Tagore,  and  blend  Tagore,  man' s  For  con-  the  identify  i t ,  bear  hostile.  Tempest  specifical1y  supernatural,  exclusive  harmonious  frequently The  to  perceptive.  of  problems  the  most  such  play.  relationships  Tempest,  or  Among  innocence  As  comparatlvlsts,  mutually  messages  social  study  Tagore  the  plays.  of  quite  are,  essentially  the  the  Sakuntala.  next,  presence  previous  cultures  are  each  being  comparison  and  of  and  structure  this  As the  of  the  components  the  for  remains  of  3  achievement.  Tagore's  Tempest  grounds  aesthetic  of  The  and  interst  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,  Tagore's  to  practice  on  achieving the  other  3  hand,  Shakespeare  struggling to  impose  with  that  separation of  their  will  the  and  physical,  on  the  human of  and  actions  the  Prospero  only  at the  finds  Tagore  by  Tempest, over the  and  renunciation a  which  sees  he  the of  c r i t i c s  the  supernatural  the  same  the  destinies  He  plane  thinks  power  of  and  and  of on  of that  Dusyanta, are  beginning  order Tagore  their  inevitable  of  says  test  which  gives  also  as  play  results  the  play.  Tagore,  is  Ferdinand's  a  the  it of  merely  love  a  serenity sublime  passions of  rather  man's  than  of  for  self-  tone.  in  celebration  of  the the  the  Ka.l i d a s a in  their  He  The  man's  conquest  oneness  the  both  natural  supernatural  characters other  hand,  Shakespeare but in  did the  at  petty  to  see  the  exist  with  in  in any  Mansinha,  Sakunta1 a "do  He  the  not  argues,  controlling  need  problems  of  to the  on  that as  human  existence  that  influence  supernatural  the  taken  conclusion  elements 5  forces  have  Mayadhara  a l l . "  uses  believed not  Shakespeare  works. comes  psychological  directly  and  comparison,  that  providence  providence  by  Sakuntala  Intelligence  detailed  Shakespeare,  in  greater  supernatural  a  projection  in  environments.  king  to  them  soul.  Siveral  author  much  through  universal  of  the  wanted  perceives  contrast  nature  note  natural  people  ^  Miranda. love  Tempest,  conquering  contrary,  4 less  The  S'akuntala of  on  in  and  repentance  suffering,  as  least  forces  refusal  impulsive  Ferdinand's  at  external  their  believes  shows,  and  involve human  a destiny. the God  or  world.  4  Mansinha supernatural the  by  not  takes  a  At  is  that  factors.  point a  are  theological  that  by  at  end  the to  the  for  the  a  we  also  the  about  the  that of  from  of in  and  of  design  the  its  signi-  the  belief and  the  of  in  for  of  gods,  As  mentioned  supernatural  forces  and  leads  7  of  Sakuntala,  God.  Mansinha  From  Shakespeare  relevance  over-  curse  lovers.  Raleigh,  seems  destiny  of  act  elements all  SSlSa k e s p e a r e  Walter  that  that  the  psychological  Kalidasa  loses  of  that  seventh  Shakespeare's  comparison essay  see  at  tragedy  consequence  general  of  and  supernatural  text, is  the  psychological  characters  re-union  taken  plane  the  believes  view,  and  of  time,  shaped  also  speculations his  claim  the  nature  same  his  symbolIzations  This  on,  same  the any  destinies of  on  that  given  Dusyanta  leads  Mansinha  happenings  into  is  revealed  design  above,  and  saying  been  But  the  the  characters  which  not  neglectful  Sakuntala  in  Sakuntala  Kalidasa.  Durvasas. the  in  has  influence  strangely  right  exist  supernatural  ficance do  is  this  becomes  the  present  study. Commenting general, is  M.M.  directed  Sharma  at  in  Sanskrit  literary  genena1;e  passion  the  an  supernatural  argues a  that  sense  spectator.  He  by  of  tells  in use  of us  Sanskrit of  wonder  reminds  us  that  the  a  that, poetry  heroism  wonder,  the  and  dramatic  either  feelings  Sharma  the of  theoreticians,  awareness  supported  indispensable.  the  creating  surprise  to  on  or  this  drama  in  supernatural measure  of  according was  of last  to  expected  romantic being  supernatural  was  used  5  _  _  by  Kalidasa  In  another  and  others  a r t i c l e ,  wonderful  and,  unnatural  event  ordinary  power  garments  and  by  to  Sharma  some  is of  create  strange  sage,  jewellery  sense  discusses  explained a  this  as  for  the  logic,  of  the  supernatural  concludes  the  working  of  in  the  case  Kanva's  of  when  the  she  and  that  as  Sakuntala  marvellous.  8  the  when  an  extraacquiring  sets  out  for  9  Dusyanta  s  i d y l l i c to  the  that on  the  comedies.  To  of  him  Arden.  Sa kun ta1 a ,  Sanskrit  Like  of  Shakespeare's appears  similar  Shakespeare's  depends  does  not,  sont  d ' a f f a l b l i r  efface, d'accord  much  on  however,  plots,  chance  and  elaborate  admetter  of  thing  audience  that  diminished  bevh'ii h i m s e l f  paraltre  have  pue'ril  points a  pour  on  to  only  a  dans  la  it  is  interest  role  in  et  que  raffine',  le  ne  If  we  doubtful  the  trop  secondaire  ^  enfeebled  " L ' a r t i f i c e ,  de  Les  1'action."  time,  le  et  theorie  supernatural  I'Inde."  secondary  role  the  gout  tout  humaines  of  12 vraisemblance  penetre  un ou  scholar  I'emploi;  denouer  Kaliidasa"s;  out,  notre  a  denouement  thought  or  qui  French  passions  re'duit  pour  of  would  1 ha  des  au  think  they  jeu  excepte"  que  whether  le  en  century  merveilleux  K'alidasa  n1interviennent the  nineteenth  "Le  dieus  ral  with  hermitage  many  notes,  athe  says,  I'interet;  presque  gout  la  supernatural.  Sakuntala  Basham  Le'v.J,  drama,  menagalt  diminuer  as  be  Kanva's  Basham  supernatural.  to  comment.^  sujet  et  ceases  compares  Sylvain of  i t  A.L.Basham  forest  of  his  kingdom,  of  risque  as  some-  the  play;  de  choquait  pas  s  Levi  relegates  Sakuntala  because  the  supernatu-  his  interest  6 lies  primarily  structure.  of  is  so,  more  the  in  the  also  plot  is  used  in  Sakuntala  to  then  it  d i f f i c u l t  plot.  above,  he  a  supernatural  in  Sakuntala.  brief  survey  The though  tacit  several  studies  compared  their  of  dramatic  natural  elements  use  Sakuntala  and  reasons  have  also  attempt  influences  that in  The  to  the  not  the  plot  given  at  show  how  course  of  Kalidasa  and  of  relationship  seem  the  the  made  and  super-  trop  in  The  of  necessity  one  my  aim  Shakespeare and  particularly  action  in  has  is of  this  suited,  this  comyet  fundamentals  make  for  that, for  p r e s e n t stwdy.,  the  is  suggests  no  does,  the  the  of  Sakuntala  Tempest  of  and  which,  gout  one  Shakespeare the  the  be  than  taste  Kalidasa,  handling,  could  play  importance  the  If  observation  above  extensively  with  as  Levi's  beginning  human  of  "notre  highlight  of  a  supernatural  construction,  Tempest  of  the  plot.  what  c r i t i c a l as  accepted  plot  In  the  But  have  Kalidasa  although man's  of  structure  plot-  that  the  understand  his  in  admits  unravel  terms  Shakespeare  technique.  the  I  of  I  have  methods  examine  he  admission  c r i t i c s  parative  of  happenings.  nevertheless  he  not  disparagement  discounts d o.e s  to  the  product  Sakuntal a  strange  in  Levi's  a  cited  Perhaps  and  is  importance  of  passage  because  magic  quality,  mention  evidently  raffine."  poetic  does  unfolding is  and  he  primary  natural  theme  When  supernatural that  in  to super-  purpose for  chapter.  the I  shall  supernatural Sakuntala  differed  in  supernatural,  their they  and  that,  understanding nevertheless  7  admitted  man's  interpreted such  - - ,  exercise such  as  obvious in  here  obvious  spirits  the  more  closeness  phenomena  under  seems  at  that  is  higher  place  the  as  it  that the  major  directed of  direct ion.  at  of  of  who  about  portion  of  discovering  supernatural  the  events  of  the  some  supernatural  Sakuntala.  As  against  the  supernatural  The  Tempest is  to  Prospero, portrays  Inextricably  the  human  arises  functions  a  linked  out  of  unmistakable l i f e  in  Furthermore,  Sakuntalf  yet  work  according  however,  to  the  in  the  two  events  and  correlates  w i l l ,  significant turns  noting  perceived  and  s'tuely  elements  is  hand,  significant this  by  Structurally,  similar  or the  background.  guide  purpose.  gods  obvious  subservient  Sakuntala  gods,  closely  brings  Is  includes  supernatural  in  the  other  action  begin  evident,  in  autonomous  less  function  than  work  --  It  is  prognostication.  The  always  the  and  usefully  Tempest  On  Inscrutable has  to  The  once If  is  possible. beings  or  and  'supernatural'  disappearances,  men,  Tempest  which  design,  supernatural  use  the  The  in  beings,  own  may  w i l l .  humanity.  Prospero's  study  always  at  by  consideration.  in  magic,  it  of  about  uses  the  and  present  who  be  appearances  The  supernatural  A  supernatural  premonition  plays  them.  as  term  manner  powers  points  insofar  broadest  the  the  their  The  powers  Sakuntala  with  i t .  fantastic  immediately  force  the  magical  of  Prospero's  of  in  to  the  for  this  points  plot  in  at a  plays  reason, which particular  8  Related examining workings about  the of  to  terms  the  the  effective.  guiding  figure of  which  Again,  of  Prospero  providence.  would  the  my  and  The  shows  is  neither  in  The  such  of  the  is  explicit  throughout.  visible  the  task  perceives  them  so  focal  second  Tempest  Tempest  occupying  No  be  spectator  forces.  happenings  supernatural  diately  role  in  analysis  supernatural  supernatural  Sakuntala  the  this  we  nor  always  stage  point  In  so  imme-  have  the  virtually  of  power  in  is  y  available more  by  purpose divine t i l l  in  than  is  in  revealed  design end  The  In  The  in of  in  Tempest,  certainly  on has  shows,  the  the  play.  other  Yet,  as as  that  Durvasas  had  [  "My  1  Viskambhaka,'  a  conception  is  said:  words  the  act  with  withheld  The  the  is  a  tool  great  as  Prospero's  the  of  learn me  be  the  understanding  from  baanam  is  the enough.  man's  and to  hands.  so  his  independent  Anasuya's  ]  Kanva  evidently  revoke  annaha  otherwise"  that  and  obvious  in  force  introductory  supernatural  but  ambiguities.  i n a b i l i t y  abstract  "Tado  human  is  full  We  Prospero's  Sanskrit  supernatural  an  supernatural  - ' ! . ; * ' -  is  is  the  Tempes t ,  from  hand,  cannot  i s ,  of  between  the  us  demonstration.  T.;c iiojor  destiny.  that of  f i r s t  Durvasas1  supernatural man's  direct  supernatural  powers  guiding  acquaints  difference  the  man,  narihadi"  the  handling  the  Durvasas.  by  Sakuntala  major  play  Sakuntala,  has  which  implication  the  English  Sakuntala  curse of  report  bhabidum  (Act  IV,  scene).  This  represents  clearly  different  from  9  what  we  find  in  The  However, varies  in  between the  the  them,  although  the  plays,  there  two  because  in  situation  becomes  in  through  the  future precise the  of  these  nature  plays  plays.  The and  is  a  play forces  reconciliation.  operation  ensured.  status  each  workings.<ofisupernatural  final  of  Tempest.  a of  aim  component which of  function  key  supernatural  events  whcih The of  study  this  the  functional  tragedy  this of  of  similarity arise  also  out  bring  supernatural  the  dramatic  is  averted  is  to  agency  in  about  the  thus action  and  examine the  of  a  happy  the  framework  Chapter  II  ABHIJNANASAKUNTALA  Kalidasa greatest to six  of  lyrical  love  have  poem, as  A  been  by  regarded  works  found  him.  have  to  They three  long  Of  most  c r i t i c a l  well-known  of  attributed  spurious.  However,  Meghaduta, poetical  pieces;  Meghaduta ,  a l l  literature epigram  the  and M a i a v i k a g n i -  these ,  perfect  as  been  are:  VikramorvasTya,  dramas.  be  and A b h i j n a n a s a k u n t a l a ^  the  Sanskrit  Kalidasa.  Many  Kumarasambhava,  romantic  centuries  Sanskrit. to  which  A b h i j na n a s a k u n t a l a , three  traditionally  poets.  definitely  and  mi t r a ,  for  of  are  Raghuvams'a, and  been  Sanskrit  h i m , some works  has  have  been  literary is  tells  full  us  a  of  long regarded  works  in  encomiums  that  Kavyesw natakam ramyam t a t r a ramya Sakuntala. [ Of a l l f o r m s ' o f poetry, dr.ama i s t h e m o s t p l e a s i n g , and among d r a m a s S a k u n t a l a pleases best. ] The the  Western  translation  Sakuntala languages.  of  has been  world Sir  came  William  translated  Goethe  was f u l l  Willst  du  die  of  to  know  Jones into  in  1789.  almost  praise  Bllithe  Sakunta1 a  des  a l l  for fruhen  through  Since  then  European  Sakuntala: die  Friichte des spateren Jahres. W i l l s t d u , was r e i z t und entzuckt, W i l l s t du was s a t t i g t und n a h r t . W i l l s t d u d e n H i m m e l , d i e E r d e , m i t e i n e m Namen begriefen, N e n n ' i c h , S a k u n t a l a , D i e , und so i s t A l l e s gesagt. 10  11  [  If  in  e a r l y and fruits of r i p e r years, Of e x c i t e m e n t a n d e n c h a n t m e n t I should t e l l , Of f u l f i l l m e n t a n d c o n t e n t , o f Heaven and earth; Then w i l l I but say " S a k u n t a l a " and have s a i d a l l . According influenced  by  one  to  the  word  of  Heinrich  prologue  blooms  Heine,  to  of  Goethe  Sakuntal a  in  was  actually  conceiving  the  -f  ;  5  form a  of  the  Kalidasa  "Vorspiel c r i t i c  human  content  would  remain  European  of  within" if  we  "Sophocles,  Virgil  Kalidasa  a  able  to  leave  exception philosophy were  of  These  lies  Kalidasa's  to  l i f e  overwhelmed  interest  because  Ruben,  find  "the  general  remarks  "rJow  poor  we  Ryder and  Faust. to  ourselves  to  our  German  compares notes  the  Kalidasa  that  world  and  "we  has  know  not  that  been  the  appreciations  aesthetic fn  appeal ,  Sa kun t a i l a .  are  Inner  Tagore  without meaning  and  the  nature  and  his  portrayal  of  or  Goethe  a e s t h e t i c appeal of the p l a y . — — d i s c o v e r i n g K a l i d a s a ' s philosophy of of  with  7  c r i t i c a l  found  by  in  love  poet,  in  tries  and  Milton,"  alone."  directed  times,  Professor and  him  Theatre"  Sakuntala  confined  great  However,  dem  recent  culture."^  is  auf  the  Ruben's 8 l i f e .  relationq  ship  between  man  Many  c r i t i c s  have  The is  closest in  tions of  the  that  attempt  prescribed  Bharata.  This  and  nature  been  charmed  c r i t i c s to for is  have  see  have  the  by  in  the  come  h o w we'll ll  drama  attracted  to  lyricism the  study  fitt c o n f o r m s  theoretical  purpose  other  that  runs  to  texts  c r i t i c s .  in  K a l i d a s a . ^  of the of  through  technique conventhe the  school  12  studies  by  M.R.Kale  supernatural  and  B.Bhattacharya.  occurences  without  Kale  examining  itemizes  their  structural  1 2 function  in  the  play,  pondence  between  while  Sakuntala  and  Bhattacharya precepts  of  notes  the  Sanskrit  corjresdramatic  theory.. Sanskrit to  be  not  a  form  only  of  although  of  they  approach  that  most  the  thematic enhance  present  fore  of  However, context  is  the  of  dramatic  In  its  Bharata.  earliest  was  indispensable.  so  generally  on  of  Sakuntala  the and  play  to  confine  analyses  are  the  interested  exclusion  themselves  have  done  a  structure.  dramatic  plot  development  elements  in  Kalidasa's will  and  be  Written  available  in  the  useful  practice  drama,  is  in  to  much  they  to tell  The  studying  play  to  is  note  Sanskrit  classical dominated  the  treatise  by  of  the  there-  craftsmanship.  orientation  later  mind,  influential  as  it  function  entertainment  thought,  theory  the  the  Kalidasa's  theoretical  especially of  so,  had  of  supernatural  do  drama  drama  human  thematic  analyse  we  view  consider  the  structure,  play  theory  elevating  writing  content  the to  of  been  understanding  before  the  but  understanding  at  Natyaslastra it  and  about  aimed  drama,  critics  While  attempt  function  their  has  drama  study.  nothing  In  to  form  our  literary  that  modern  of  on  admitted  philosophical  studies  us  poetry.  entertaining  This  in  writers  on  second  the literature.  Indian by  the  century  Sanskrit  A.D.,i.5  dramaturgy.  13  Bharata  defines  drama  as:  h a n a b h a v o p a s a i j i p a n n a m n a n a v a s t h a n t a r a t ma kam. il.okavrttanukaranam natyam etan maya.krtam.' CNS.* I . " I l l - 1 2 ) [ The drama as I have d e v i s e d i t , is the i m i t a t i o n of the a c t i o n s and c o n d u c t of people, r i c h i n v a r i o u s e m o t i o n s and d e p i c t i n g different stages (in their development). ] Later size  writers on  other tion  the  hand of  one see  of  the of  is  tragic  the  the  expected  to  ending,  and  furthering  it  end  of.drama  fact  that  the  so  be  be  happiness.  An  theory  progress  of  joy  judged  far  as  we  of  the  action  notes  the  factors  the  concept  its  of  in  the  know,  there  subject,  satisfactory  a  was  consequence plot  towards  the  evolu-  and  be  views  on  drama,the  can  important  always  the  the  considered  empha-  and  of  Sanskrit.1tWhatever to  drama,  goal  should  f i t t i n g  carefully  Drama  that  of  They  depicting  Concerning  influence  dramatic  the  of  The  in  closely.  nature  instrument  suggest  in  the  mimetic  states.  order  end  of  an  Bharata  mind.  in  Sanskrit  terms  the  as  drama  play  in  follow  remarkable  Sanskrit  that  it  only  light no  hand  theorists  elevation as  drama  emotional  Sanskrit  joy  on  is  development the  happy  obstructing  or  denouement. (--  the  Sanskrit  term  is  'rupaka'  --)  can  be  1 4 of  ten  of  these  should ranga.*  different  kinds  categories,  begin  with  Those  a  a set  and  our  'nataka.' of  play  belongs  Rupaka,  preliminaries  preliminaries  consist  of  or  to  the  drama  called songs  in  the  and  f i r s t general, 'purva-  dances  to  14  propitiate  gods  no  on  bearing  begins by  a  with  divided  a  or  into  the  are  entire a  kind  and  each  play  in may  f i c t i o n , parts  play.  play  of  drama,  the  the of  a  the  play.  based  or  a  on  a  mixture by a  divisions  dramatic  be  of  that  action,  theory.  and  the  denotes  which  stages  of  development.  The  tional  points  in  that  of  action.  the  its  the. The  pratimukha-samdhi,  action five  '  the  a  be  It  the  'samdhis'  'bharatavakya  , '  found  in  dramaturgy,  of  kinds,  two to  main or  is  main  plot it  links  in  into  1  a  Sanskrit a five  meaning  the  the  sub-  into  the  the  chief  primary  be  a  chain  of  development  successive  are.thus  into 1  in  the  of  divided  the  and  may  l i t e r a l l y  are,  ' garbha-samdhi , '  is  - - a r e  'samdhis' lead  and  through  evoked  points  action  is  place  not  format  theme,  indicates  divide  though  the  preludes  time,  Sanskrit  'Samdhi, '  1  of  by  to  play.  The  two.  followed  proper  "correspond  legendary  'samdhis. term  may  is  play  with  sentiment  Plots  proper  The  acts,  of  drama  and  one-act  theory  have  play  general  action  1  the  the  These  Western  dramatic  to  the  which  introduced  ends  This  the  These  the  unities  always  even  'rasaf' of  is  being  single  benediction.  to  hero.  The  within  joined  juncture,  act  Then  benediction,  the  interludes.  secondary.  plots  to  audience.  play.  introduction  sometimes  A  the  the a  observed  constituents and  of  or,  an  According plot  entertain  action  acts,  closing  every  to  'nandi,'  containing  action  or  the  'prastavana,'  playwright  and  and  transi-  next  mukha-samdhi  stage ,  1  avamars'a-samdhi , '  '  15 and  1  ni rvahana-samdhi  what! i would' tion,  the  the  the  movement  essential  and  out  1  of  ' b l j a , '  seed  the  incident,  might  of  wish  the  Sanskrit  some  a  theorists  of  the  drama  prospect  and  ' phalltgama ,  whether That to  is  the  the  theories  on  actions The  into  the  1  the  many  action  is  and  set  divisions  to  in  suggests  of  units  of  of  clear  to has  'prakarl,  to of  us  as  we  the  five 1  the  'avasthas':  praptyasa", ' success,  result.  We  may  l i f e  any or  this  that  always  drama  is  note  purposeful  in  the  action,  imagination.  analytical based  the  1  The  of  recommend  that  contis  certainty  the  they  of  identify  effort,  analyze  real  dictum  conduct  smaller  way  theorists  Bharata's  the  the  f u l f i l l e d .  intention  action  'yatna,'  attainment  as  the  recognized:  sign  be  plainly  The  in  episode,  to  not  'niyatapti,'  logical  action  are  fs  the  the  general  drama.  success,  Sanskrit  dramatic  the  of  'bindu,'  i s ,  are  1  classify  detail  that  stages  arthaprakrtis  purpose  the  the  minute  1  terms  beginning,  in  Five  But  the  to  various  be  'arambha,'  further  and  to  of  us  plot  the  exposi-  action,  action  'pataka,'  the  f a l l i n g  'avasthas,'  action,  these  as  and  1  respectively  the  help  offthe  drop),  of  elements  this  catastasis,  'karya,'  structural  that  the  the  terminology  'samdhis'  plot.  of  and  them  the  nature  of  points"introduce  Western  arthaprakrtis  ( l i t e r a l l y ,  meanings  in  The  the  elements  development  the  known  conclusion.  marking  nuity  These  1  progression,  and  by  be  .  approach  their  imitation  the of  men.  the which  action are  are  far  further  too  divided  complicated  and  not  16  quite of  relevant  the  stages  to of  the  relationship  and  the  our the  present action,  between  ' av a st ha s '  study. a  the  For  table  is  'samdhis,  1  easier  given the  comprehension  below  showing  'arthaprakrtis , '  :  Samd h i  Arthaprakrti  Mukha  identifies  BTja  Avastha and  introduces  Arambha  Pratimukha  "  Bindu  "  Yatna  Garbha  "  Pataka  "  Praptyas'a  Avamars'a  "  PrakarT  "  Niyatapti  Nirvahana  "  Karya  "  Phalagama  SaDskrit the  obvious  were  types  of  tory  to  to the  use  scene,  supplying  an  1  the  the  it  possible  matter  then,  or  of  different  the  like that  a  some  function  the  a-Re*  ' v i s kambha ka , '  behind  the  scene, an to  1  act an  a  the  types  to  the  act.  It  of  these  between  scene  ' c u l i k a ' ; introduce  Sanskrit  1  for  drama  the  explana-  a  1  scene  following is  not  them  vary  is  It  and  might thus  'ahkamukha'  would  choice  and  partly  instance,  an  one,  quite  scenes  s i m i l a r l y , act.  five  revelation,  revelation,  an  of  The  the  ankavatara,  'viskambhaka ,  behind of  scene  with  Playwrights  'arthopaksepakas.'  functions  A  classical  as  five  distinction  'pravesaka,' in  all  preface  emphasis.  present  perform may,  of  that  acts,  plays.  from  the  into  one-act  some  1  divided  short,  known  transition  how,precisely,  easily  any  always  introductory  clear  a  of  acts,  ' c u l i k a ,  'ahkamukha,'  is  were  .' a r t h o p a k s e p a k a s '  'pravesaka,  and  exception  expected  preambles  plays  of  seem, any  17 .  'arthopaksepaka'  in  particular  individual  preference-.-  bhaka'  1  and  p r a v e s'a k a .  Four tation  are  styles,  'satvatT,'  the  part  verbal action.  the  f i t  portrayal,  many  ways  but  ter,  and  A  should  can  'madhyama,'  fied,  be  an  full  to  the  'madhyama'  a  some  is  the  law  a  kinds suits  graceful  of  its  character lead.  conceived  have  an  impressive  have  and  sportive.  control  of  grave  while  charac-  is an  and over  A a  royal  lover  his  senses.  refinement,  'adhama,'  'uttama'  in  self-possessed,  intelligent  or  faults,  all  be  manners,  person  Natyasa s t r a ,  for  can  s p i r i t ,  person,  'BharatT,'  'ArabhatT'  followed  hero  should  are,  p l o t s . ^  should in  represen-  These  'KaisikT'  strong,  'uttanfa,'  has  mode.  have a  of  be  and  average  'viskam-  dramatic  suitable  formulates  he  graceful  addition  be  uses  'ka i s i kT.1  is  erotic  also  main  courageous,  heroine  According  the  dramatist's  drama.  and  action.  and  of  on  heroic  treatises  noble,  in  the  Natyasastra,  in  grave,  truth,  is  energetic  the  should  writers  representation,  other  a  Kalidasa  ' v r t t i s , '  'arabhatT,'  romantic  and to  of  by  Natyasastra  According  hero  of  for  The  steady,  called  'SatvatT'  depiction  style  of  Sakuntala  on  1  recommended  'bharatT,'  of  In  depended  a  coarse  patient  woman.  and  'adhama'  digniheroine  18 is  a  disreputable  or  sinful  many  subdivisions  of  these  disregard only  to  here  their  confusion.  person. basic  over-precise  Later  theorists  character-types,  but  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which  suggest we  may  leads  18  In only tic is  discussing  mention impact  that  field  of  structural  of  of  drama,  drama.  'rasa,'  Sanskrit  features  The  translated  "aesthetic  from  poetic  far  ordinary or  Bharata,  no  meaning  who  its  unless  composition  it  also  to  the  arouses  a  is  and  theory  the  theories  that  vital  in  Usually distinguishes  element  in  presentation. of  'rasa,  audience  to  h  an  the  most  goes.  phrase  its  the  not  aesthe-  complex  perhaps  the  the  their  most  interpretation  'rasa'  propounded  the  successors  examine  central  emotion,"  emotion,  dramatic  to  as  and  his  also  probably  aesthetics  so  it  is  and  but  concept  which  controversial as  Bharata  a  any  According  drama  has  aesthetic  1 g appreciation  of  emotions.  therefore  be  judged  to  by  A his  dramatist's handling  of  achievement emotions.  is  In  other  20 words,  'rasa' The  eight  is- t h e  tradition  aesthetic  'rasas'  of  soul  of  the  play.  established  emotions  eroticism,  as  by  proper  comedy,  to  pathos,  Bharata  identifies  drama.  These  heroism,  are  anger,  the fear,  21 disgust,  and  to  up  one  principal  diversified  and  enriched  of  build  the  points  Sakuntala. always a  sense  wonder.  He  convey of  Bharata tells to  the  The  emotion by  makes us  dramatist  that  which  other is  expected must  subsidiary  particularly  the  spectator  is  denouement  the  'adbhuta  be  gradually supported,  feelings. relevant of  a  One to  play  rasa,'  that  should i s ,  wonder: sarvesam kavyanam nirvahahe kartavyo  nanarasabhavayuktiyuktanam nityam hi raso'adbhutas tajjnaih (NS. XX. 46-7)  1 9 [ Replete with different emotions, n e c e s s a r i l y t e r m i n a t e s by a r o u s i n g of wonder.] Judged  in  this  Bharata's show,  an  lopment  views,  the  King  not  at  the  the  bee  With  and,  due  by  a  Dusyanta the  pretext  Burning marry  sign  of  with  a  of  The her  defending  it  his  each  in  turns  king  in  wild  the  deve-  events.  the  sage  The  sage  is  daughter,  companions saves in  his  will  Sakuntala  falls  stay  plot  of  to  foster  girl  returns  other,  its  tracing  Menaka.  two  from  of  comes  gallant  his  exemplify-.  excursion.  Beauty,  Sakuntala  for  us  many  nymph  with  prolongs  love  the  hunting  the  Bee. by  help  meets  to  outline  Hastinapura  along  struck  modesty,  of  king  child  plants  also  through  during the  appears  following  will  action  but  frightened  the  the  Dusyanta  home,  watering  Sakuntala  that  hermitage  Sakuntala,  is  as  outline of  Kanva's  l i g h t ,  all poetry a sense  is  when  her  love  she  from  with  her.  love.  the  hermitage  animals  Dusyanta  and  and  under demons.  Sakuntala  secretly.  of  The  king  his  troth-plighting  Sakuntala,  who  has  is  to  to  return  follow  to  the  leaves him  capital  his  signet  later.  Kanva  and  as  ring is  the  with  s t i l l  away  *  and  Sakuntala  hermit  Is  Durvasas  day-dreaming. visits  s'akuntala,  who  slight  him  by  her  the  effect  to  is not  lost  the in  paying that  Meanwhile,  hermitage, thoughts  attention,  she  will  be  of  the  and,  irascible  imagining  Dusyanta,  pronounces forgotten  by  a  that  wishes  to  curse  on  the  person  20 whose  thoughts  so  plead  for  Durvasas  one  will  token,  remember  an  ignorant her  her,  of  the  he  curse  her.  When  relents  only  by  enough  when  may  have her  Sakuntala's  he  say  catches  given  two  to  that  sight  her.  friends  friend her  of  some  Sakuntala who  ;  wish  loved  is  to  kept  spare  anxiety.  his  absence, escort  Dusyanta,  now  of  his  disciples.  he  fails  has  been  but  is  where  lost  a  the  Inside  a  fish  by  police  suspicion restored  of on  r i n g ,  her  to  birth  Sakuntala as  might  arrange  away  to  the  son.  meantime,  a  fisherman  attempting  officers. having  seeing  Dusyanta heartless  conduct  fight  for  the  war.  While  the  is  gods  He  stolen  i t .  and  he  after  stay  the  he  at  the  the  her  Kasyapa  is  ring caught  king  under  memory  is  gets  reward.  himself is  battle  her  house  by  of  the  w i l l i n g l y  of  rejects  he  fisherman  to  recognition,  king's  king's  blames  with  spite  pitied  before  When  place  in  aided  it  in  presented  wife  is  sell  the  the  demons,  earth  her  finds  Sakuntala.  against to  and  is  hermitage  to  But  happened  Dusyanta  brought  repentant  towards  returning  is  r i n g ,  now  have  s'akuntala  a  while  his  for  to  and  has  husband^s  Sakuntala.  plight,  taken  what  her  her  which by  of  to  When  recognize  enough  and  gives  Sakuntal"a  rtver  In  Menaka,  In  two  in  priest.  she  to  The  concerned  mother,  approves  sends  reminders.  his  returns,  and  her  of  her  ornament  Kanva  an  occupy  a  for  called goes in  to  his to the  heaven,  21  Dusyanta  happens  Kasyapa.  There  and  discovers  united by  with  he  that  t e l l i n g  him  watches  a  boy  playing  his  own  son,  is  great  the  PadmapurTna,  of  epics  22  this  of  and  in  'nataka'  genre, (for  'nataka'  in  the  classical purposes,  The  story  with  divine a  him  sage  lion  Bharata.  frees  is  We  Sanskrit  Borrowed  doing  so  the  He  of  cub  is  his  re-  guilt  Mahabharata,  find  a  work  of  Natyasastra) But  keeping in  similar a  one  story  later  way  while  the  which  only is  a  type was  Kalidasa  epic  on  legendary  followed  is ,  intact  the  the  he  Sakuntala  found  his  the  curse.  story  India.  legends.  own  the  of  of  in  date  than  -  Kalidasa  Mahabharata,  hermitage  Kasyapa  of  another  -  play.  and  story  source  two  losing  the  he  the  the  on  v i s i t  Sakuntala,  The  our  to  theme  convention of  drama  required  adapted  the  of  be  of  f a i r l y  simple:  King  the  based  legend  outline  expedition,  the  termed  to  the  a .hunting  from  the  to  his  story. Dusyanta,  reaches  Kanva's 0  S  hermitage, her  meets  descent,  accepts ssor, afraid their  her  son  Sakuntala  impatiently condition  marries of  _  her,  puBlic nine  learns  proposes  that  leaves  censure,  years  alone,  her for  son his  rejects  later.  the  The  from  own  'gandharva'  alone  would  palace,  and  her  her  when  she  intervention  mouth  marriage,  be  his  later,  succebeing  arrives of  a  with  voice  from  23 heaven  by  brings  about  This  version  Kalidasa.  He  has  their of  the  re-union. story  invented  the  has  been  episodes  elaborated of  upon  Durvasas'  22 curse, away  the  of  giving  Sakuntala,  reawakening invitation visit  of  the  of to  the  re-union of  might  in  "a  well-known  ring  with  to her  fight  Hemakuta An  found  tales.  To  the  important the  gods,  of  wandering  of  the  words  Indra's  the  in  episode  folk-lore it  is  his  homeland  leaves  herself  his  play.  from  and  and  the  Ruben,  far  the  subsequent  is  ring  of  home  identify  r i n g ,  the  addition  man  can  the  hermitage),  t i t l e  hurries  of  wafting  repentance,  (Kasyapa's  the  maiden, she  his  use  love  that  and for  in  Menaka's  recovery  motif  of  so  a  r i n g ,  the  legend a  the  memory  acknowledged have  Buddhist  learns  to  Sakuntala. as  or  king's  to  of  fisherman's  king  king  ring,  losing  the  the the  with  Kalidasa  who  and  or  a  her  token coming  24 child  to  him  1ater  Apart loped  the  four  has  of  the  Kalidasa's  in  the  by  The  some  them  The and  The  epic,  is  bare  four  Kanva  and with  it  of in  the the  is  has  we of  is  drama  the  through  course  with  to  are  understand  character,  only  thirty-two  indispensable  for  that  deve-  Bharata.  necessary,  s'akuntala  out  Mah"abharata  heroine  them  has  introducing  the  outline  f i l l e d  ones,  and  of  with of  the  personages  friends  most  Kalidasa  characters in  major  two  portrayal  new  Sakuntala,  these  of  episodes,  story  Dusyanta,  play.  The  new  adding  conversation  achievement. it  ~-  creation  Sakuntala's feelings.  also  surrounded  characters,  action  inventing  elements.  characters  Kalidasa new  from  story  supernatural  on."  as  a  her major  we  find  passion,  and  23  yet,  in  doing  so  Kalidasa  Natyasastra  concerning  Even  playfulness  in  young  her  girl  and  conventional mising fully  in  promise  to  she  trials  deference marks  homage  she  Mahabharata give  her  shows  self-respect,  to  the  advice  charaterization  S'akuntall  that  the  the  the  her  feminine  deserving  rejection her  in  self-respect  character king  yet  conforms  has she  the  the  --  to  her  husband  her  out  as  f i n a l l y  the  a  moving  self-restraint  --  and  bursts  into  an  only  her  uncompro-  individual  not  in  a  despite  After  a  of  Unlike  does  throne.  anger  heroine.  mature  wins.  she  the  innocence  displays  version  son  of  of  the  make  the  the  king's  conformity  once  when  with  she  says: anajja,  attano  hlaanumaneria  L I g n o b l e m a n , do y o u o f y o u r own h e a r t ? ]  pekkhasi  judge  by  the  measure (Act  But on the  she a  does  king's  not  rail  duty  as  Mahabharata.  s i b i l i t y .  This  the  hermits  but  complementary  the  type  motherly  does  Kalidasa  possessed  often  hermitage,  and  heroine is  Invents  and  other  found  in  the  or  of  the  his  becomes  among  a  him  of  legend  is  an  the  loving,  One  in  are  is  Sanskrit  Kanva,  considerate  found  is  of  Kanva,  self-  ascetic  literature. also  father  in  opposite  and  master  119)  respon-  given  calm  p.  advice  sole  impatient  GautamT,  sage  with  disciples  who  angry,  sages  the  two  Saradvata,  hermitage,  hands  shower  Kalidasa's  the  characteristics.  the  matron  Dusyanta  deviation  also  Sarngarava  while  invention  at  V,  of The  Kalidasa's of  while  the retaining  24 his  status  The  jester,  r e l i e f , his  is  living  than  to  the  affords  the  a  clown,  for  and  the  character  all  the  prescience audience  his  is  Mahabharata  in  and  him  as  creation  of  character  opportunist  becomes  a  noble,  individual,  the  powers.  comic  Dusyanta's  selfish  prescribed  other  regards  another  s e l f - c o n t r o l 1ed  Ideal  and  frequent  king  plays.  thoughtless, in  righteous  up  with  to  the  legend  blessed  This  common and  the  d u t i f u l ,  he  friend.  and  of  sage  more  elevated  king  a  while  closest  Kalidasa is  as  fully  treatises  on  drama,  25 the  type  does at  not  the  tion for  known  his  of  clearly  absolved  careful  to  uses  modify  pi a y ' s  of  of of  In  betraying  look,  is  his  But  loss  to  d i f f i c u l t  to  f i t  clear  sugges-  woman's  love,  is  of  in  memory  is  most  to  the  Sakuntala  Here of the  we  a  equally  Kalidasa  of  decide  because  bewailing  as  instrument  as  Kalidasa  Dusyanta  betrayal.  well  a  queens,  rejection  wilful  the  betraying  total  supernatural as  c r i t i c a l  Sakuntala,  Dusyantahs  a  Yet,  there  her.  Dusyanta's  being the  act  capable one  a  hero.  see  is  thus  how  Durvasas'  curse  course  the'  of  action. is  structure  follows  f i f t h  Interest  character  It plot  is  attribute  from  Kalidasa to  the  Durvasas.  prevented  Dusyanta  Hamsapadika,  loss  of  of  Dusyanta  hear  dhTrodatta'  spare  beginning  we  curse  the  entirely  that  song  as  the  not  suggested  prescribed  by  rules  the of  the  play  Sanskrit  to  the  writers.  dramaturgy  on  model  of  Sakuntala  general  lines,  25  though  not  in  minor  deviations  by  suggesting  gained  authority  at  the  Kalidasa's  evident  from  earlier  in  Sanskrit  of  which  seven  the  'nandi.'  prologue,  by  is  exposition. 1  of  rules the  did  for  might  level  later.  dramaturgical  series  of  significant  action  are  spread  by  the  the  over  six  customary  introduction  stage-manager,  the  elaboration should  is  derived.  minor  have  writings  structure  action  not  It  plot  of  these  of  that  proper  the  be given  conceived  incidents  out  Sakuntala  has  years.  The  play  benediction,  to  the  play  'sutradhara ,'  the  and in  the the  ' prastavana . '  the  the  a  follows  the  At  an  plot  Then  playwright  as  turns  with  the  they  accounts  the  reached  account  drama  acts,  that  Kale  that  nor  chapter  fresh  prefaces  entry  time  this  in  points.  end  of  the  prologue  ' mu k h a s a m d h i . '  which  The  of  beginning  pratimukha-samdhi,  occurs  1  king  signals  the  when  the  enters.  the  beginning  progression, the  king  His  the  tells  of  the  -  the  jester  y  how  captivating  the  beginning  indicated  by  heralding  the  he  of  finds  the  the  Sakuntala.  catastasis,  curse  f a l l i n g  of  The  occurs  Durvasas.  action  begins  1  garbha-samdhi ,  in  The with  the  fourth  1  act,  ' avamarsa-samdhi' the  rejection  of  y  Sakuntala  by  conclusion which  brought  where  begins  eventually The  are  Dusyanta.  they  two  with leads  main  together fall  The  in  the to  'nirvahana-samdhi ' invitation  the  happy  characters, in  love.  the In  of  Indra.to  the  Dusyanta,  re-union.  Sakuntala  expository Sanskrit  introducing  part  and of  dramaturgy  Dusyanta, the  play  this  part  26 is  thought  known  as  of  the  as  the  stage  development,  the  inception  called  of  'yatna'  or  the  explains  to  the  jester  some  ascetics  of  the  hermitage.  of  Sakuntala of  the  returns  desired  curse. is  success  The  shown  by  sown  when  would at  of  royal  an  'prakarT,  the  ends  the  the  'bTja'  pronounces  the  'Bindu,'  and  the  need  chooses  the  latter.  'pataka'  that  i s ,  torn  that  lovers. the  to  The  play.  'karya'  is  the  re-union  conventional  or  attainment  by  Durvasas'  or  'phalagama'  the  f i r s t  essential  is  turn,  that  a  is  Dusyanta  critical  exemplified  by  two the  his  duties  protect  the  hermitage  The  curse  the  of  from is in  the  Sakuntala  is  the  marks  the  that  final  issue  the  lovers. or  the  point  incident  benediction  in  Durvasas  turning of  point  cementing  between  of  by  when  certain  blessing  is  The  the  the  arthaprakrti \ '  drop,  significant  the  the  1  rejection  of  the  when  act  object  as  an  marks  action  with  a  It  of  recognized  thwarted  decisive  action.  stage  begins  been  and  lovers.  as  is  the  is  classified  a  next  third  The  known  who  or  the  the  action  'praptyas/al  desired  of  takes  of  in  love.  king  of 1  of  has  The  'niyatapti'  son.  action  the  and  destinies  or  fine  segments  episode  falling  or  he  about  re-union  ascetic  a  of  or  plot,  household  demons, the  seed  the  distinct dilemma  the  the  have  which  end  The  endeavour,  that  king's  attainment  The element  comes  the  play's  'arambha.'  king  prospect  the  1  of  the The  action play  bharatavakya.  1  27  This of  Sanskrit  the  play  and  heroic  of  the  turns  of  to  which  in  our  'adbhuta  All  make  events  structure  theory.  'rasas.'  play  the  basic  erotic,  For the  the  dramatic  is  of  is  the the  of  these  of  study, the  has  been  play  'rasa'  with  combine marvel  the  in  terms  that  pervades  comic,  pathetic,  at  conclusion  at  the  the  wonderful  protagonists.  this  most  the  main  mingled  lives  is  supernatural  is  audience  present  rasa,'  The  of  sense  relevant  of  the  since  traditionally  wonderful,  the  function  seen  as  one  can  be  no  of  27 producing that  a  a  sense  supernatural  wonder,  and  it  proves  also  that  development. or  other  birth  In  of  natural  the by  of is  demons demons the  it  to  wonder. event  is  hermits  has  for  used  act.  narrated  (Act the  threatening provides  play  effective  single  in  a  an  a.nymph given  in  achieve  Kalidasa every  While  does  be  Sakuntala  daughter  of  of  I,  second  the  the their  p.  is  this  a  In and  powerful  effect  means  some  of  influencing  very  f i r s t  we  find  that  and  the  hermitage. for  protection.  hint  of  third This  the The  act she  the is  the  act  to  hermits  plot-  element  the  super-  by  reports  introduction  king  of  Sakuntala,  supernatural  A  doubt  source  in  the  22).  occasion  there  be  of  invited  say:  tatrabhavatah Kanvasya maharser asamnidhyad r a k s a m s l na i s t i v i g h n a m utpadayanti'tat katipayaratram'sarathidvitTyena bhavata sanathTkriyatlm asrama i t i . (Act II, p. [ The powers o f e v i l d i s t u r b our pious l i f e in the absence of the h e r m i t - f a t h e r . We  46)  28  t h e r e f o r e a s k t h a t y o u w i l l r e m a i n a few n i g h t s w i t h y o u r c h a r i o t e e r to p r o t e c t the hermi t a g e . ] ( R y d e r , p.  23)  (akase): rajan! sayantane_s avanakarmani sampravrtte_ vedim Jiutas'anavatTm p a r i t a h p r a k i r n a h c h a y a s " c a r a n t i b a h u d h a bhayam a d a d f i c i n a h s a m d h y a p a y o d a k a p i s'ah p i s i tas'ananam. * ( A c t I I I , p. 71) [ (a v o i c e f r o m h e a v e n ) : 0 K i n g ! The f l a m e s r i s e h e a v e n w a r d f r o m t h e e v e n i n g a l t a r ; And r o u n d t h e s a c r i f i c e s , b l a z i n g h i g h , F l e s h - e a t i n g demons s t a l k , l i k e r e d c l o u d - m a s s e s , And c a s t c o l o s s a l s h a d o w s on t h e s k y . ] ( R y d e r , p. 38) /  In t h e t h i r d a c t G a u t a m T b r i n g s i n c h a r m e d  water to g i v e  S a k u n t a l a r e l i e f from her a i l m e n t , s a y i n g , imina dabbhodayena bhab issad i.  nirabadham  e b b a de  [ T h i s darbha water w i l l cure your completely of suffering.]  sarTram  ( A c t I I I , p. body  69)  The f o u r t h a c t b e g i n s . w i t h t h e c u r s e o f Durva'sas which i n i t i a t e s the t r a g i c p a r t of the a c t i o n .  The power o f  the curse i s c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d : v i c i n t a y a n t i yam a n a n y a m a n a s a t a p o d h a n a m v e t s i na mam u p a s t h i t a m s m a r i s y a t i tyam na s a b o d h i t o ' p i s a n katham p r a m a t t a h p r a t h a m a m k r t a m i v a . ' ' ' ( A c t I V , p.  74)  [ He, o f whom t h i n k i n g s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y y o u f a i l to r e c o g n i z e the presence of such a hermit as m y s e l f , w i l l n o t r e m e m b e r y o u e v e n on b e i n g r e m i n d e d , as a d r u n k a r d f o r g e t s h i s p a s t w o r d s . ] In t h e same a c t we a r e t o l d o f t h e d i v i n e p o w e r o f Kanva  by  w h i c h he b e c o m e s a w a r e o f S a k u n t a l a ' s m a r r i a g e ( a l t h o u g h why he d o e s n o t know a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e c u r s e r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y ) .  29  A  voice  p.  80).  and  from  heaven  Through  jewellery  also the  hear  a  the  are  him  divine  acquired  voice,  hermitage,  tells  power from  reported  bidding  about  to  a be  farewell  the  of  marriage  Kanva  tree  to  bridal  (Act  the  (Act  IV,  garments  p.  guardian  IV,  85).  deity  Sakuntala.  We  .of  GautamT  exclaims , jade- n n a d i j a n a s i n i d d h a h i m tabobanadebadahfm. [ My c h i l d , the d e i t i e s who a r e a s a f f e c t i o n a t e you farewel1 . ] At tion  of  the  beginning  premonition  in  of  the  the  anunnadagamanasi  of as  f i f t h  king's  (Act IV, the hermitage, kinsmen, bid  act  heart.  there The  is  a  king  the  wafts diated  end her  of away  her,  an  this  act  from  Sakuntala's  the  action  kingdom  clearly  of  mother, Dusyanta  identifiable  the  says,  nymph  who as  90)  sugges-  t a c c e t a s a _ s m a r a t i nunam abodhapurvam bhavasthfrani jananantafasauhrdani . (Act V, [ T h e r e m u s t Be r e c o l l e c t i o n s Of t h i n g s n o t s e e n on e a r t h , Deep n a t u r e ' s predilections, Loves e a r l i e r than birth.] (Ryder, At  p.  has  p.  103)  p.  53)  Menaka, repu-  a  supernatural  arid  utksipyaiham  one: strTsamsthanam capsarastirtham jyotirekam jagama.  (Act [ Before our eyes a heavenly light In w o m a n ' s f o r m , But s h i n i n g Bright, S e i z e d her and v a n i s h e d straight.]  In garden  of  the the  sixth king  act  and  the  stays  nymph  Sanumati  invisible  --  V,  p.  124)  (Ryder,  p.  61)  comes  to  the  "tirakkharinT-  30  padicchanna"  (Act  returning  to  heaven.  the  comes  gods,  help  and  takes  VI,  at  to  Hemakuta,  gods,  by  Matali,  finds  that  blessing  he  at  the  to the  the  beginning  deliberately  so,  had  when  been  In  is  of  is it  the  to  of  the  ask  last  abode  of  act  the  with  the  parents  the  play  had  promised.  the  the  gods,  the as  is  of  the  and  hermit's The  underscored,  that  of for  Sakuntala  as  by  king  king  son  heavily  before  Dusyanta  fine  revealed  designed  act  a  most is  act  re-united of  the  charioteer  this  heavenly he  throughout  the  of  father  influence  events  --  heaven.  supernatural  of  end  where  is  132)  Matali,  the  him  taken  p.  and  whole  chain  San urnat!  says:  s u d a m ma& s a u n d a l a m s a m a s s a s a n t T e mahendaj a n a n i e muhadojannabhaossua deba ebba taha anucitthissaanti*jaha aiena dhammapadinim bfiatta'ahinandissadi t t i . ' (Act V i , pp.161 L, I h e a r d t h e m o t h e r o f t h e g o d s consoling Sakuntala. She s a i d t h a t t h e g o d s , impatient f o r the s a c r i f i c e , would soon c a u s e him to welcome h i s true wife.] ( R y d e r , p. 77) Meditation and by  a  or  voice  'pranldhana,'  from  Kalidasa.  that  the  use  secondary  It of  role,  i n v i s i b i l i t y  heaven,  are  is  to  hard  the  all  when  we  find  so  tiraskarinT,'  1  supernatural  support  supernatural  or  the  in  a  many  view  elements of  Sanskrit uses  of  it  used  Sylvain drama in  has  Levi a  Sakuntala  28 at  every  stage An  play the  its  important  nature, same  of  human  plane,  progression. point  beings,  conventions  to and of  note  is  that  supernatural Sanskrit  although  in  forces  exist  drama  preclude  the on  31  supernatural  occurences  on  the  stage  although  supernatural  29 beings  do  jester  being  being but  appear. beaten  wafted  away  reported.  understands  Supernatural  by  Yet,  the  such  report  While  such  reports  action  sight  and  and  the  of  where  drama  also  rather  in  detail  Again,  the  stimulates also the  reporting  and  happenings precisely  In  of  sense  emphasizes gods.  clarifies  the  of  because  by  the  the  death  of  too,  at  human the  those  to  the  recognize In  using them  Greek  are  not  drama  reported  both  being  passion Oedipus  at  l i f e  being of  of'vast events  gains shown  in  marvellous  report  awareness  placing  in  his  showing  murder  of  its  than  unit  instance,  for  design  wonder  vision  For  response  Oedipus'  Sakuntala  intensify  stage.  next  play.  than to  for  events.  the  the  incidents  Agamemnon's  imaginative  report the  of  for  in  similar  the  shown  audience  of  spectator  very  on  the  rather  rather  therefore  the  Sakuntala  actually  turn  events  presented  of  the  as  intervention,  aspresented  fearful  intensity  gory  help  such or  that  spectator  or  Clytemnestra1s  sure  radical  marvellous  than  never  imagination  also  reporting  is  makes  the  his  l i f e  are  some  prepare  they  Matali,  supernatural  precedes  human of  mother,  of  stimulate  technique  Sanskrit  her  invisible  Kalidasa  hearing,  thedesign  the  extent  every  of  by  occurences,  the  in play.  Colonus nature  shaped  and by  miraculous powers beyond  at the  work  32  vision  of  tion.  The  greater look  the  audience  than  "beginning  He  man  closely The  the  audience  at  is  thus  the  of  made  l i f e ,  of  to  the  imagina-  reminded  as  we  find  of  forces  when  we  events.  the  king's  is  constantly  his  chain  awareness  hermitage  appeal  moulding the  with  an  supernatural  is  gradually  as  he  f i r s t  enters  lies  in  store  for  premonition  that  some  happy  future  s'antam  idam  asVamapadam s p h u r a t i  b u i l t ,  him.  exclaims, ca  bahu  k u t a h pha 1 a m ' i h a s y a bhavitavyanam dvarani bhavanti sarvatra. (Act I. p. 10) [ A t r a n q u i l spot is t h i s hermitage Y e t my a r m t r e m b l e s . What s u c c e s s c a n t h i s portend? athava  However, We  too  Soon in  become  after  love  aware  that  meets  the  girls  Sakuntala.  When  he  with  circumstances is  the  is  a  whom  Sakuntala's immediate in  the  f i f t h  as  found  of he  Her in  a  king  can  act,  on  with  the  away  connection the  her is a  to with  Mahabharata  the her  going  which  does of  to  and  falls the that  she  means  that  she  custom. have  plot,  any  but  later,  plot-development clear  protection mother  happen.  find  not  the  becomes  story.  to  violating  nymph  destiny.]  recount  t h r i l l e d  nymph,  to  to  hermitage  development  origin  doors  friends  without the  are  is  the  significance  supernatural her  of  he  and  marry  the  there  something  b i r t h ,  connection  spirits  abode.  her  bearing  Sakuntala's mother  of  daughter  girl  everywhere  is  This  of  when a  her  heavenly  carefully kind  of  of  retained  happening  33 seems  to  have  especially  if  today  an  quite  willing  to  protect  the  united. but  what  main  creates  in  jeopardy  the  course.  outcome  of  the  conflict  of  the  hand, of the  the  causes  king,  other  continue  the  rt  principal  plot  and  motives  by  of  of  to  the  the  a  in  which in  play.  This  play  attributing  to  so  union  king's and  Sakuntala in  the  f i r s t  Dusyanta's  plot far  the  of  by has  of  placing had  a the  time,  exercise  of  identifiable On  the  Sakuntala, of  This  about  f i r s t  here.  verge  curse  suspense  clearly  action  the  demons,  the  the  the  in  tribulations,  of  directions.  for  tragi-comic  to  the  is  about,  thus  has  lovers.  brings the  king  nuisance  act  audience  in  hermitage  king  tragic  love  the  for  be  tension  true  at  the  seems  legends. the  leads  to  to  power-.is  the  act  fourth  action  leaves  the  boon  and  interference  occasion  Even  happenings  that  stay  the  third  the  taking  hand,  an  in  course  myths  supernatural,  event  the  his  Thus  a  mainspring it  transpires  be  Durvasas1 ssupernatural as  it  to  whichturns  is  smooth  prove  of  legend.  audience,  such  one  In the  demons  in  audience,  some  other  is  providing  The  The Durvasas  by  any  prolong  the  the  from  disbelief  demons. of  to  derived like  act  to  presence.  hermitage  the  second  from  lovers  was  context  intrusion  continued are  it  acceptable  suspend  opportunity  another of  plot  the  the  quite  audience,  to  if  In the  the  Indian  literature  had  been  tragedy.  lapse  of  one then On  memory  34 to  powers  --  as  of  the  only  in  beyond the  his  control  Mahabharata  king's  love  possible  and  story  expected.  of  eventual  happiness  that  the  marriage  between  from  the  great  sage  --  Kanva  than  his  the  own  makes  re-union  Another is  to  Durvasas1  Sakuntala's  but  hopes  rather  factor  and  and  from  also  renewal  him  that  keeps  not alive  sanction  Sakuntala the  the  with  wholehearted  Dusyanta  perfidy  receives  guardian  spirits  *  of  the  woods. The  powers  at  f i f t h  work  act  when  premonition  which  ter  himself  between  most  powerful  play.  This  who  rescues  her  away,  is the  not  Menaka,  pp.  and  from is  on  the  sixth to  makes  mind  161-2).  ground  by  since  mechanical  of  repentant  for  learn  that  re-uniting phase  of  the  deus  Sakuntala  theory  action  one  is  of  the  in  the  Menaka,  This  prohibited possibly  of  the  a  stage.  friend  of  Sanumati's  of  the  have  a  and  encoun-  machina.  king.  gods  uneasy  s p i r i t i n g  ex  Sanumati,  presence the  follows  resources  the  an  tragic  occurences,  observe  the  the  l i t e r a l l y  nymph  of  by  mother,  dramatic  magical  supernatural  intervention  Sakuntala's  example  of  aware  for  Then  the  We  This  of  of  troubled  act  us  stage.  hint  supernatural  stage  In  a  king  humiliation  limited  in  of  presentation  comes  the the  perfect  the  with  Sakuntala.  action  the  every  design  the  her  find  prepares  of  soliloquy at  is  shown  because  we  examples  which  actual  begins  supernatural special  Dusyanta  most  (Act  s k i l f u l l y  VI,  35 handled.  When  condition  as  well  anguish.  He  has  time  mourning  soon  aroused  offstage  at  king's his  his to  of  the  to  rush  and  the  and  reawakens  as  hts  friend's  coming  i n ,  communicates  in  mood  Dusyanta  done  in his previous With  attention, this  goes  to  this  the  call  Matali  is  at  this by  to  with  the  to  the  of of  action  the  that  celestial  lets  king  the  he  in  despondency arises  jester  In  of  and  much  king  Indra's  as  out  duty  so  the  the  king  of  demons.  gods  enters  services  demons,  not  the  go,  request his  might  for  new  never  have  sorrow.  and  semi-celestial  hermitage her  Matali  is  king's  touch  kingly  As  his  somebody  the  the  king  shock.  invitation  business  his  a  the  his  Matali,  to  of  of  he  hears  l i f t  sense  rebellious  this  mood  play's  upon  battle  by  settled  accepts  to  curing  help,  overcoming  dares  us  mood  is  king's  passes  arouse  instrumental  administering  and  he  cries  who  his  in  action  when  helps  thus  to  assistance  of  is  relief  by  person  the  convince  assailant  jester's  incident  Matali  comic  The  on  despondent  anger  jester.  This  of  this  heroic  The  comments  observation  From  presumptuous  prerogatives.  inaction  own  her  incapable  of  Indra.  melancholy  and  our  loss.  one  friend.  providing  as  departs,  become  beating  charioteer anger  Sanumati  the  its king  on  his  last  way  and  The  back of  her  the  king's  phase.  leaves  hermitage  Sakuntala mother.  claiming  Because  the  palace,  is  brought  Kasyapa. child  meeting  have  between  It been  36 /  Dusyanta of  an  and  event We  the or  other.  it  which  as  arranged then  the  of  he  Their  love  broken  waiver  its  subsequent  trial  of  Finally,  of  as  the  regaining  towards  we  r e u n i o n  this  is  only  with  taking  the  so  for  are  seen powers.  again  it  by  is  plunges  Matali  protect  both  calculated  Sakuntala,  place  is  to  curse,  superhuman  that  see  to  that  recovery of  agency  opportunity  Durvasas'  love,  Sakuntala  progress,  supernatural  well,  but  king's  not  its  Sakuntala  magic  appearance  hermitage  by  its  piece  into  all  the  away  of  that  is  in  of  has  s p i r i t i n g  hopelessness  told  Dusyanta  stays  the  some  in  marvellous  Dusyanta  by  exercise  merely  grief.  stage  Durvasas'  action  on them.  of  Menaka's  a  above  shaped  because  and  takes  every  beginning,  memory  as  at is  contains  consequences  dramatist  forces  that  In  however,  a  by  Sakunta1 a  demons.  lapse  therefore  of  Sakuntala  from  the  Sakuntala  see  action  court  _  not the the  Dusyanta  maneuvering  we  are  according  to  categorically a  divine  design. The in  the  the  play.  At  its  occasions  powerful  helps  to  which  they  sense  place  of  the  occur,  has  most  pi a y , . i n f 1 u e n c i n g  providing a  supernatural  obvious  the for  their  actions a  it  functions  the  of  the  characters  actions.  It  But that  several  moulds  motivation  wonder.  into  therefore  we we  framework  must see of  also  also  and  action  existence  and  produces  note  the  of  that  world  in  that  . .  it  37  accommodates  both the  complementary unrelated  states  phenomena.  is  thus  never  an  integral  seen  part  of  as  natural of  i t .  the  existence  The an  and  supernatural  rather  supernatural intrusion  into  than  alien  presence human  as  in  l i f e  and Sa k u n t a l a but  as  Chapter  So seems  much  d i f f i c u l t  view  of  is  romantic  a  the  contrast to  has  the  to  context  of  thie  has  Is  Coleridge Tempest seen  in  was  be  in  "the  that  it  is  as  that  of  obvious  external  insistence  on  led  to  deal  has  been  largely  the of  to  point as  prescriptive  events  freedom  that  allegorical  interpretation  in  and is  38  G.  that  in  conforms  its  main  in  the  because that  out  an  follows  rather  rules.  the  play  meaning its  that  the  organic  imagination  imaginative  in  helpful  drama  trees,"^  the  fact  it  literature.  understood  of  that  Tempest  comparison  f i r s t  of  the  The  it  comprehensive  construction  classical  structure  His  great  to  by  plays  romantic  growth  conformity a  be  |n  that  observation  tempered  of  and  particularly  a  a  Tempest  unified  other  is  the  should  mechanical  influential  to  as  The  general  study  known  on  any  doctrine  present  prevailing  a  the  reservation  the  rules  at  Shakespeare's  too  that  written  Even  Sakuntala  as  been  neo-classical This  The  TEMPEST  comedy  with  lines.  of  THE  arrive  play.  III  of  principle,  than He  as  must  than be  Wilson  The  Knight's,  judged.  play  interpretation  symbolical.  a  argued  rather  the  unity  has which  most who  regards  39  the  play,  like  all  Shakespeare's  last  plays,  as  a  myth  of  2 the  regeneration  of  l i f e .  symbol  of  the  symbol  of  regeneration  opposed  further the  destructive  motifs  Caroline  in  reconciliation, builds  Spurgeon's lends symbol  of  the  D.G.James unifies of  almost  the  The  of  view  conflicting  of  that  storm  of  that  the  a  these  being  the  and  imagery  myth  the  the  and  of of  the  of  theme  images  of  carethemes. therefore  whole  is  between  chaos  and  through  which  of  a  showing  theme  opposed  as  has  By  Shakespeare  play  experiences in  the  music  opposition  Belief  music  restoration.  structure  as  and  and  classification  Tempest  religious  a  poetical  interpretations.  suggests as  a  Shakespeare's  images  fundamental  sees  his  and  l i f e ,  loss  images  Tempest  analysis to  of  symbolical  between  in  tempests  immortality,  analysis  Spurgeon  The  support  and  between  and  calls  forces  pattern  f a c i l i t a t e d  correlation  fully  a  Spurgeon's  destruction,  He  l i f e  into  regeneration  order.  Shakespeare  a  of  a  statement l i f e  and  4 power.  Another  that  Tempest,  The  final as  a  period, final  influential along  with  completes  celebration  his of  c r i t i c , other entire  reBirth,  E.M.W.Ti11 yard ,  plays  from  Shakespeare's  dramatic  pattern,  which  only  is  suggests  serving  implied  5 the  tragedies.  discovers  the  structure  of  of  the  most  Northrop structures  The  Tempest.  Balanced  and  Frye of  is  myth Frank  yet  another  dominating Kermode,  comprehensive  c r i t i c  the who  views  of  who  poetic offers the  one play,  in  40  finds  that  historic and to  the  Man's  resolve  his  he  it  possesses  the  This  7  him and  with  of  to  which  the  form  power  the of  of  man's  between  conflict the  ultimately  helps  play  of  and  suggesting  The the  the  art  and  efforts  nobility him  metaphysical  meaning  the  universal  opposition that  abstract  of  while  one  understand  philosophical  tragi-comic  Prospero's  that  perception  help  connection  good.  formulates  experiences,  nature.  that  play  and to  discover  powers  Tempest  of  explains  importance  reality  of  virtue  of  a  merciful  providence. A Edward that  different  Dowden  Shakespeare's*  attitudes  through  Shakespeare to  whose  the  "In  l i f e ,  of  of  criticism  approach plays  the  "heights"  line  were  expressions  of  serene  been  biographical  suggesting  depths" a  was  had  that  despair  belief  of  initiated and  who  his  argued  changing  tragedies from  by  show  which  he  rose  in  the  triumph  of  good  This  was  challenged  o  over  evil  Lytton show  in  the  Strachey  weariness  last who  and  comedies.  asserted an  that  attempt  to  the  final  withdraw  plays  from  by  actually  the  problems  g of  l i f e  Into  poetical  dreams-.  serenity  was  strongly  restated  that  last  and  the show  However, with  a  plays  growing  the  should  to  by  of  the  to  explaining  Shakespeare's  idea  Morton  regarded  indifference  validity  reference  be  But  his  of  Luce  as  Shakespeare's  who  more  of  dramatic  the  personal  last mood  claimed a  recreation  b u s i n e s s . ^  plays  mainly  is  debatable,  41  as  the  findings  E.E.Stoll and  the  also as  of  the  historical  deplored  the  excesses  habit  of  treating  demonstrated  artifacts  the  of  A  to  of  deal  critics  as  a  biography.  literary of  show.  criticism  considering  current  great  of  allegorical  Tempest  necessity  conforming  stage-conditions.^  The  school  light  the  He  plays  conventions has  been  and  thrown 12  on  these  The  by  masque-element  masque, of  matters  the  spells  Prospero pulates out with  and  the  then the  in  freed  The  of  of  worth  Enid  a  the  Welsford.  noting.  are  As  shown  enchantment.  in  Kermode  plot  development  in  the  a grip  Furthermore,  masque-presenter  However, of  and  Tempest  from  function  unfolding  scheme  Nicoll  particularly  characters.  the  the  is  characters  has  that  Allardyce  has  proceeds  recommended  who  mani-  rightly  in  pointed  accordance  in  neo-classical  1 3 theory. Knox,  Support who  for,thts  provides  demonstrating  how  a  most  deeply  point  of  view  penetrating rooted  the  comes  study  play  is  from  of  The  in  the  Bernard Tempest,  comic  1 4 tradition  of  The has  been  Plautus. sense  of  frequently  wonder  aroused  examined,  as  by  for  Prospero's  instance  by  magic Knox,  15 Kermode, the he  and  Joan  supernatural has  done  is  has  more  thought  than  ment  playmaking.  of  to  Hartwfg.  see  been to the  Shakespeare's studied  formulate use  of  C.J.Sisson  by  conception 1 fi  W.C.Curry,  Shakespeare's  the has  supernatural shown  in  but  of what  metaphysical as  what  an  instru-  light  42  Shakespeare's but It  has is  not  audience  traced  therefore  would  its  effect  necessary  action  in  The  Tempest  course  of  events with  is a  have  in  here  of  the  to  detail  affected  basis  on  viewed  that  the  provide  us  Tempest  with  that  of  Sakuntal a  journey  from  loss  to  restoration  unfolding  analyze  so  by  Prospero's  the  we  of  the  the  insofar which  a c t i o n . ^  sequence  may  see  as  each  is  guided  the  This  structure  will  of  The  depicts by  7  of  how  supernatural.  comparing  magic,  a  the  supernatura1. Two our  points  perspective  popular doubt  demand  lavish f i r s t  court. makes  for  In  The  theatre  on  the  of  theatre  the  Tempest  lavtshly  the  performance  by  however,  Tempest  was  style  not  and  had  only  use  of  music.  characteristics  are  so  apparent.  to  the  popular  be  recognized  demand that  Shakespeare  to  the  laws  special  in  was  in for  why  its  This  was  no  Tempest  this  for  ordinary  supernatural.  shows,  was  writing, The  the  at  influ-  the  royal  but  also  masque-ldke doubt  but  element  This  no source  spectacle  is  The  the  of  productions  entertainments  This  that  use  at  keep  the  demand.  1611  spectacular  the  his  Into  for  substitute of  come  may  f i r s t ,  Shakespeare  accommodates  extensive  which  entertainment  second,  known of  noted  clear,,  which  Tempest  which  elaborate  quite  for  stage  The  be  mounted  Shakespeare,  spectacle  Blackfriars enced  on T h e  influenced  materials.  should,  a  it  response  must  also  helps  laws  of  is  also  nature f a c i l i t a t e d  43  by  setting  enchanted llers'  the  play  corner  tales In  in  of  known  a  the to  world  Shakespeare's and  travel  The  the  New  of  Shakespeare  and  his  remote  where,  Shakespeare,  circulation, tales  strange,  times,  in  according  anything  many  literature  World  island  such  in  an the  might  general  with  to  tales  particular  contemporaries  in  trave-  happen.  were  was  in  popular.  fascinated reports  of  lands 1o  that  were  There some  is  no  precise  elements  chiefly and  marvellously  a  in  certain  rich  but  literary  it  can  Be  German  source  traced  "scenarios"  contemporary  also  of  harboured for  back  the  comedy,  the to  well  dangers.  plot,  although  European  works,  Italian as  many  commedia as  two  del I 1 a r t e ,  romances  of  1 9 the  time.  But  conclusive the  and  magician  belong might  to  porary  the  the  common  known  pamphlets  of  the  elements  king,  the  have  none  stock  for  supposedly  log-Bearing  these or  evidence  of  Borrowed,  prince,  or  folkr1iterature  stories  accounts  Borrowing  and  of  he  the  such  s p i r i t .  World  as slaves,  Shakespeare  probably  New  is  used to  contem-  sharpen  20 his  picture  working  on  of an  the  enchanted  already  island,  existing  plot  but as  he  Kalidasa  was  not  was  in  Sa k u n t a l a . This nent  of  The  particular create  a  argues Tempest  purpose.  sense  of  all is  the used  That  wonder  he is  more  strongly  according used  to  that  But  compo-  Shakespeare's  supernatural  obvious.  every  that  elements he  used  own to the  44  supernatural  also  play  the  is  what The  to  be  does  a  suspense  voyagers. from and  ( I . i i . 1 5 ) . to  in  unambiguously  ends  vengeance once  strates that by  shown  upon  his  Prospero's  authority  over  and  be  u n d e r ,human lengthy  see  his  happens  and  design,  s p i r i t  commanding  slave  for  on  at  once  position  time  being.  by  the we  same  control.  ascribed time,  are  Prospero's past  events,  some  kind  this  is  to  done  is  the  with for and  but  f i r s t Ariel  not  also  time at  only  around  This  strengthens  are  he  at  as  Ariel demon-  we  told  island has  Ariel  of  the  once  this  that  Though  him.  be  supernatural,  the  art,  done"  thus  of  find  Prospero's  harm is  so  plans  forces.  subdues  time  he  for  power,  of  opens,  the  account  the  that  invoking  now  easily  the  How  at  at  fate  no  play  which,  conversation  Prospero's only  work  supernatural  powers , . P r o s p e r o man  at  by  of  the  the  intensity,  caused  "There's of  in  the  of  demonstrating.  seems  scene  been  that  his  we  that  will  had  enemfes.  which  extent  second  announcement  again  grows  action  at  which  regarding  occasion  into  Prospero's the  her  it  the  aims  storm  the  storm  to  the  everything  between  the  shaping  As  as  forces  explained,  enters.  soon  leads  of  a  theatre  whole  with  embodiment  of  analysis  with  reassures  supernatural  which  the  as  The  reassurance  opens  that  Prospero  means  phenomenon.  But  Miranda  a  following  play  natural  as  happens  total  has  great  confrontation the  sense  and  hints  that  Ariel  It  seems  that  the  of is  his  supernatural  45  powers have  can  be  their  used  own  of  to  Ariel  of  and  proves  that  That  potency  history  by  so  Ariel.  the  through  of  his  he  have  a  when  he  puts  Miranda  discuss  magic,  for  we  Sycorax  and  his  over  total  By  the  end  At of  the  this  available.  We  shown  as  a  creature,  monster tried  would  to  stage  have  magic. and  Prospero ' s  it  are  {Z.  Caliban  more  though  to  evident  that  he  the  domination  over  Shakespeare not  mere  is  and  boasts,  he  who is  Miranda  --  It  not  aside the  as  great  is  a  that  an  knows  Prospero's  clear  had in  of  Caliban  whether  i i . 349-53) this  freely  given  evidence  it  Prospero  says  sleep  testimony  are  are  to  Ariel .  However,  destroyed  is  they  demon-  more  better  time,  introduced  doubtful.  ravish. Miranda  Prospero's the  Is  over  scene  is  dangerous  same  Prospero's  authority  of  even  mild  plans  Prospero's  his  half-demon  his  bears  showing  that  we  discussion  claims  and  scene  power  or  permanently  existence.  may  spirits.  these  not  powers  triumph  other  that  but  this  Prospero's  ( I . i i . 1 8 5 - 6 ) , with  man  independent  Halfway stration  by  beast this he  once  been he  for  leaves  value  of  magic :  It  would  his control  Art i s o f s u c h pow ; l . r , my d a m ' s g o d , Setebos (I.ii.374-5)  His  exit  who  promptly  Then  is  followed  Prospero  falls puts  in  by  A r i e l ' s  love  with  Ferdinand  to  entrance Miranda the  test  leading and  she  in with  Ferdinand him.  46  l e s t too l i g h t the p r i z e light.  Make  winning (I.  When  Ferdinand  draws  (stage-direction). Prospero's about that  great  events  in  Prospero  within  his  command stand  that  which  clears  love,  this  fies  has  in  turn  the  Prospero's  next  act  magic.  and  cleaner,  glossier,  soon and  99). when  keeps  and  men.  by and  the  hint  events  comes  their  The  prepare  the  to  ground  equally just  as  spell  well the  cast  separate  for  their by two  sleep upon  by  signi-  brought  about  intrigue. Ariel  conspirators  being  (11.i.59-62 ,  is  revealed save  sleepers  and  controlled  are  Ariel  the  Antonio  having  that  garments  them  to  in  Gonzalo  over  put  fall  when  control  all  to  i s .  Prospero's are  Is  under-  wishes,  event  This  his  also  Miranda  find  that  We  told  enemies  Prospero's  before  they  been  complete  than  mechanism  courtiers  repeating,  have  brings  how  shipwreck  f i r s t  what  shown  restoration.  The  :  his  fn  we  of  get  becoming  again,  is  .454-5)  moving"  to  Ferdinand  the  from  only  we  fresher  Sebastian.  check  scene  and  obvious  in  been  not  power  tempest  eventually  as  "charmed  proof  this  brought  and  is  this  monsters  for  just  remarks,  92-4,  have  is  way  that  the  we  he  have  In  s p i r i t s ,  reconciliation  In  but  caused and  the  we  play.  Ferdinand  supernaturally  by  the  over  sword  Again power  power  is  his  i i  awaken draw  the  very  Antonio is  Sebastian  But  an and  intrigue  Alonso their  66 ,  and  swords  so is his to  kept  47  kill  them.  Ariel  connects  the  event  firmly  with  Prospero's  power : My  master  through  his  Art  forsees  That you, his f r i e n d , are i n ; Por e l s e h i s p r o j e c t d i e s , - -  danger  a n d s e n d s me to keep them  f o r t h , - living.  ( I I . i .292-4) With  A r i e l ' s  awakening  courtiers,  the  leading  a  find in  to  complete  supernatural  this  love  forming  The  f i r s t  Ferdinand  of  their  the  scene  betrothal.  threatened  sequence  Ferdinand  My  the  powers  way  between  virtual  and  process  of  of  action  of  of  III  and  action. out  and is  his  i n i t i a t e d ,  Here  again  Prospero's  the  we  design  and  play.  portrays  Miranda,  Miranda  husband,  re-education  carrying  Act  king  the  growing  culminating  in  their  asks,  then?  answers,  Ay, As  with  a  heart  Bondage  e'er  as of  w i l l i n g freedom:  here's  my  hand  (III.i.87-9) This  is  for,  having  their forced  one  place used  where magic  hearts  work  love  cannot  naturally. Prospero  That invokes On  Prospero's to  Bring  them  independently  Is  Be  deep  why,  divine  that  and  magic  to true  instead  of  does  together,  come  not he  together,  like using  love his  that  enter, must  let  Because grows  powers,  blessings:  which  Heavens breeds  rain grace between them.  ( I l l - i .75-6)  48  The the  rest  of  supernatural  i s ,  however,  the  Act  III,  eavesdropping Trinculo. Miranda about  and  it  signifies  the  his  defense will  "solemn  in  a  tell  and  of  their  away  are  That by the  this the  the  fact  stage.  their  a  dance,  is  ts  and the  scene  is  takes  happening :byj  Prospero  and  not  again  brought  c i v i l i z a t i o n .  prove  most  energetic.  "strange whisked  of  their  in  the a  and  his  us,  away  the  in  of  the arousing  physical The  and  move-  taking  fantasy.  a  moral  him  "on  movements  to  The  is  highly  There bring  magic  The  that  followers,  of  places  to  be  shapes"  devised.  sense  Prospero's  one  Ariel  banquet  appearance  combine  is  guilt.  carefully  to  reassures  its  later  this  3).  stages-direction  music,  and  against  the  their  Stephano  because  Ariel  in  Ariel  act  and  stylized  find  this  induce  the  present  of  and  bringing  on  for  king  most  to  natural  lightning,  recognition  choreographed  this  music,"  banquet  chides  at  to  action  Prospero  scene  we  with  ( " 1 1 1 . i i . 11  intervention  spirits  incident all  master"  of  is  dangers,  final  i i  straining  of  much  danger  units  nature  thunder  harpy  mi/nds  of of  whole  a  of  which  powers  strange  of  the  such  scene  conspiracy  source  magic,  and  The  accompaniment  ments  of  my  next  banquet.  action  one  animal  supernatural  is  in  new  against  The  shape  a  supernatural  I  shows  is is  In  Caliban's  Prospero's  But  "This  upon  This  by  action  act.  very  it The  masque.  indicated the  top"  of  the  s p i r i t s ,  present  the  banquet  of .  49  as  a  his  ritual  courtiers  mockery by  of  until  Ariel  selves  The  who  from  action  Sebastian agencies  chastisement are  taken  the  meaning  also sfn  is  And  a  thus  which In  betrothal  ef  on  them.  This  of  the  to  the  as we  does  moral  to  be  a  stern  see  the  and  not  This  that  chastisement the  wholly but  guided  sure  is  revealed  by  of  Alonso  supernatural  Prospero's the  of  art  of  "true  the with  and  strongest  the  unfolding  by  mine  love"  central nature  less  and  pleasant  punishes averted  (I/V.i.84,  symbol  More  formulation  imagination,  of  Art c a l l 'd  to  enact  133).  the  of  the  explains This  richness  shaping the  masque  of  a  20-22)  power  significance thus  l i f e  i.1  in  becomes harmony  heaven.  relevant  to  conclusion  Caliban,  and  the  blessings  (IV. the  and  celebrating  further  £• h a v e f r o m t h e i r c o n f i n e My p r e s e n t fancies.  provides  them-  instructor.  and  necessarily  cleanse  by  wedding-masque  Miranda,  which  to  regeneration  presentation  S p i r i t s ,  way  by  n o t h i n g but heart-sorrow l i f e ensuing. ( I I I . i i i . 8 1 - 2 )  Ferdinand  action..  their  followed  and  clear  shown  IV  of  temptation  Alonso  them  act  Act  through  purification.  tells  leading is  and  the of  Stephano,  effectively  by  present this and  study,  scene  where  Trinculo.  Prospero's  power  however,  and  is  the  Prospero  The the  dangers  are  action  can  50  move  on  to  the  repentance come. the  of  This  play,  going  the  begins  when  Ariel  a  A  scheme, which  function  the  the  later,  the  last of  three  will  act  what  Prospero's  "cannot  lines  i s ,  reconciliation  account  of  how  Antonio, few  that  occupies  brief  recounts  and  ( V . i . l l ) .  that  with  The  his  through  project  Sebastian,  release"  This  is  of  enemies  elsewhere.  reiterated  gives  his  which  on  Alonso,  fulfilment  of  has  magic  been  is  c u l p r i t s ,  budge  t i l l  Prospero  you  himself  a  summary  of  what  his  powers  have  achieved  for  is  similar  to  what  the  chorus  does  in  v i i i  scene  him. of  21 Doctor to  Faustus  abjure  before bring  but  magic  he  does  the  which so,  king,  we  are  not  so  up  his  project  Prospero  ft  the  sure as  he  calls  helps  most of  he  also  "rough"  him  to  powerful  Antonio had  announces  and  wished,  them,  his to  Sebastian in  intention  (V.i.50).  chastise of  his  However, enemies  and  penitence  --  and  forgiveness  to  and  wind  happy  r e- uni on . When that The  it two  is  we  very  most  of  of  and  Caliban's to  have  Prospero  the  clearly  are,  Miranda. plots.  potentialities  recounts  the  progress  composed  Prospero's  vicious  the  at  important  re-education Ferdinand  look  of  f i r s t ,  At of  the  three the  enemies, The  of  and  third  is  lines  second, the  beginning  a  revenge-plot of  his  we  of  find  action.  chastisement  its  treachery  plot,  and  the  f o i l i n g the  enemies  action  union of seems  because in  Act  I,  51  scene soon of  i i , and his  his  union  expected  enemies is  to  Miranda. shaped  the  plot may  them  in  his  power.  vengeance  is  revealed  as  the  correction  his  have  and  Miranda  keeps  his  finally-,  saves  the  desire  island  the  act it the  and for  Prospero  The in  him  By  events.  supernatural play.  When  .same  revenge.  But  of  total his  But  by  of  his troubled  magic his  is  all  by  but  his  plan  over  brings  music;  sound  who  Caliban's  therefore  The  Tempest.  as  an  instrument in  the  must  further  forces  also  helps of  he  Prospero's  Caliban,  of  incident  his  and  is  which  and  most  magic  motivated is  foiled  things  in  magic.  is  element  agency  penitence  it  moment  magic;  prisoner  control  we  the  and  and  plot-motivation.  his  safe  the  way,  from  one  But  them  effecting  supernatural  the  Ariel  alive,  holds  exerts  independently  using  re-  of•action  c r i t i c a l  of  by  This  lines  every  But  Ferdinand  supernatural  shipwrecked By  them.  of  two  instrument  Miranda  means  At  this  the  the  plot-structure  remains  from  he  In  enemy.  magic.  enemies  powerful  because  f i r s t  are  thus  his  the  as  admonishes.them,  by-  seen,  see  s p i r i t ;  that  marriage  Prospero's  enemies  with  the  therefore  he  reconciliation by  impetus  Ferdinand  In  has  gains  Prospero1s.  magic  he  cemented  we  by  that  and  be  As  are  we  rejoices  the  prime  importance  Although  it  subordinate  play note  to  of  most that  reveal  banquet  does to  not  man,  accountable the  working  character (Act  for  III,  in  of the  scene  i i i )  52  reveals the  the  shipwrecked  party  revelation  immediately  succeeds  with The  to  remorse, same  pattern  Prospero's V,  scene  ment  as  due  sin.  Sebastian tion  who  generating by  Is  moral as  insist the  accept  placing  out  prime that  for the  good  and  is  since  the  suggests  the a  moral  his  of  Sycorax that  group  Both  the too.  the  battle had  in  can  fundamental  what  to  A r i e l , the  to  in  powers  The  evident is  as  and  the  his his  man  of  that  right  in  himself  possessed  capacity agent,  and an  the  that aware-  between play  and  by  Sycorax.  supernatural in  and  consequently  contradiction beginning  by  expediency.  universe  bring  between  supernatural  of  reinforce  Prospero,  and  order  at  also  essen-  reconcilia-  character  is  serves  supernatural The  It  is  Antonio  the  and  chastise-  affected  matter  crises  action,  symbolized  account  However, play  of  play.  a  by  cell  nature  and  reveals In  when  his  perverted  as  responses.  the  order. is  merely  and  his  rebukes  then,  Alonso  of  o'f.the  evil  Prospero's  Alonso  unaffected.  later  temporarily  wholly  supernatural  there  that  has  Alonso  supernatural  that  only  individuals  mover  workings of  sin  particular  wrong,  ness  been  troubles,  overwhelming  before  the  proves  their  Sebastian  brought  Prospero's  and  dimensions  the  had  in  of  reiterated  accepts  which  cause  and  is  is  supernatural,  spelling  what  and  him  The by  Alonso  contrary,  between  Tempest  party  j u s t i c e ,  the  Antonio  responses  the  i ) .  virtuous On  leaves of  magic  (Act  t i a l l y  but  the  themselves  powers, are  53  neither --  good  virtuous  vast  nor or  powers,  e v i l ,  sinful  quite  sionally  perceived  ordinary  laws  made  possible.  magical the of  and  element  the  next  these  Yet,  as  approach  user.  alien  to  the  world  or  acquired  part  of  differ tell  us  in  makes the  accepted  man By  and the  world  of  present  study  we  shall  use  the  and  plays.  what  of  The  Tempest  as  where scheme  a  structu-  Sakuntala.  examine  these  events  natural  in  similarly  the  Sakunta1 a  is as  occa-  use  strange  supernatural Tempest  only  their  world  purpose  inconceivably  and  the  The  the  are  of  supernatural  about  of  to  part  in  their  These  man.  suspended  unlike  the  this the  are  by  presence  an  clearly  plays-use  they  the  fantastic,  existence.  according  of  nature  is  function  --  Their  supernatural  ral  how  of  but  at  and,  what  In points  equally,  differences  in  Chapter  IV  CONCLUSION  Analysis and  Sakuntala  forces find but fn  have  that  these  the  movement  in  with  union  loss, deal  and a  with  such  a  sense  and  a  treachery. Prospero  process  of  sharp  of  of that  begins  and  suffering on  which  the  the  different.  loss  on  from  of with  Miranda,  at  and  the  play to  a  the and  is  a  complex  action  in  begins  and  Tempest  does  is  both  brief  problem  fractured  by  is  wrong  done  gradually  works  out  man  of  By  getting  the  emphasizing  Tempest its  in  ambition  grievous  The  not  Sakuntala",  The  potentiality  54  and.re-union,  separation  forgiveness.  wronged  events  strengthening  the  Ferdinand  world  both;we  specific  The  father's. a  In  It  that  beginning,  tragic  depicts  as  supernatural  action,  that  Tempest  plays  forgiveness  in  her  The  about  reconciliation.  reconciliation  focus  situation,  being  bring  moves  separation  It  against  a  to  and  both  of  functions.  of  are  because  stratagem  deeper,  in  towards  problem  Miranda's  Prospero's  course  lovers  then  merely  the  Sakuntala  only-  that  only  plot-patterns  and  because  not  movement  of  development  structural  forces  guide  although  plot  clearly  important  plays'a  the  the  shows  generally both  of  creates  central a l l  his  55  enemies in  the  in  his  f i r s t  power.  act  ance.  However,  he  do  can  them  and  of  the  is  no  play shadow  overcast tragedy to  him  this a  his  by is  and  he  happy  one  comes  is  great  so  of  be  Tt  and  The a  is  and  through  he  can  vengethat  reform  possibilities  that  at  play  the  lapsed  end  memory  child.  the  his  resolution.  but  only  III,  absolute  tragic  comic  potentially  Chapter  so  enemies;  king's  wife  in  preparing  Sa k u n t a l a ,  the  a  about  his  into  loss.  his  transformation  to  in  when  finds  seems  turned  tragic  observed  friends.  revenge  averted  have  destroy  into  thus  of a  power  than  them  are  I  Prospero  better turn  As  In  too  is  that comes  both  tragic  There  back  plays  situation  workings  of  into  supernatural  powers. This different plays.  as  man , a n d The  as  an  ways'  in  which  Sakuntala  powers  in  s i m i l a r i t y cannot,  part  of  of  nature  Tempest  instrument  plays  supernatural  design  grand well  an  of  the  entity  the  human  forces in  action. by  as  i t s e l f  workings  is  of  purpose  are  covers the  the  as  status  viewed  in  in  the  world  of  supernatural. human  than  part  of  work  the  under  produce  the  supernatural  destiny.  used to  of  rather  man's  order But  that  that  disguise  agencies  supernatural  controlling  plot-construction  abouts as  a  of  above  of  man  the  see  force  supernatural  reveals  as  we  however,  as  No of  control  some  doubt the  entirely  great in  both  mechanics  convenient the  But  turn-  supernatural different  56  lights  and,  consequently,  tionship  with  elements  in  standing  not  only  Kalidasa  and  Shakespeare,  at  action  human  these  The obtrusive music, The  in  the  and  and  have  its  Chapter  unseen  which  at  the  of  vital demons  stay to  at  limit  remember The  to  be  been the  than  in  The and  parallel  in  action  forces.  juncture  of  on  hermitage.  repudiate his  curse  everything of  for  demons  consecutive  to  with  supernatural  unquestionable.  he  to  go  Kasyapa's their in  is  the  for  to  the  battle  hermitage  child. play  No but  as  of  we  curse  of  action  phases, The  show menace  equally,  second  it  them  magic is  the to  ring.  the and  Sakuntala  influence  is  lost  time  against  Dusyanta  Dusyanta  Sakuntala ' s  where  prolonged  causes  allows  have  constantly  be.  startling its  unearthly  Dusyanta's  while,  shown  less  moments  to  looking  spirits  is  Its  of  existence.  But  crucial  King  under-  of  The  various  that  our  much  The  Durvasas  provides  Dusyanta  brought living  when  is  Sakuntala  Sakuntala,  to  of  Sakuntala.  for  supernatural  ways  Tempest.  Durvasas'  by  their  proves  rela-  techniques  scheme  the  of  occasion  the  the  its  of  add  supernatural  provides  menace  occasion  in  of  in  use  dramatic  also  influence  and  put  but  the  therefore  supernatural  Kanva's  forget  may  the  the  II,  by  how  we  lightning,  influenced come  comparing  place  of  no  differently  respective  Sakuntala  thunder  in  By  plays,  presence  Tempest;  seen  mankind.  viewed  thus  has  proclaims  57  aspects when,  By  contrast,  of  the  after  the  play,  had  been  sense of  Ariel are  work  further  t h i s ,  the  and at  vividly,  by  serve the  to  his  saves  the  lives  of  incidents  Caliban.  the  are  to  so  the  in  the  potency  of  reveals  his  plan  Miranda  all  that  Prosepero's to  control  nature  The  Prospero's  In  the  supernatural other  men  but  in  own  into  play  that  I, is  more  Juno  and  and  that  Caliban,  envelops  because they  as  scene  i i , we  brought  about  which  enable  to  aside  the  very  which  is  these  succeed  soon  powers set  he  whispered  of  As  too  immobility.  Trinculo,  magic.  Act  powers  perhaps  is  end  ethereal  A r i e l ' s  It  the  him  in  he  realize by  not  laws  only of  themselves. This  of  happens  play.  This  as  the  masque  of  commotion  powers.  enchantment  marvellous  proving  that  the  aroused  obedience  also,  Stephano,  the  obviously  to  l i f e ,  of  vast  to  the  is  scene  fantasy  us  banquet,  miraculous  f i r s t  Ferdinand  startling  people  a  by  but  charm  Alonso's  the  Prospero's  only  vanishing  punsihment  highlight  into  the wonder  that  Introduces  not  of  superhuman  spirit-slaves  the  in  that  almost  scene,  a b i l i t y  of  that and  second  upon  sense  storm  Prospero's  monstrous  his  episodes  Ceres,  the  demonstrated,  from  warning  of  second  extracts  The  in  plays  Our  raging  strengthens  the  once  the  learn  the  Tempest  supernatural.  seeing  we  The  supersession  Tempest,  is  only  of  nature,  hinted  at  in  a  Sakuntala.  major The  feature Sanskrit  58  play our  does  contain  ordinary  Kanva's  experience  hermitage  when  she  from  Dusyanta's  and  goes  Matali  Strange  Chapter  II,  on  of  implicit to  calm  to  be  in the  violent  reports  the  waters  guaranteeing  rt a  Ferdinand  that  Ceres,  that  nature  has  to  strive  hard  has  to  impose  order  are  can to  absent  from  the  man  presenting have  help  that  important he  rules  the  and  man  lies  storm  and  then  and  has  But  solemn  music  succeeded  in  betrothal  of  the  masque  of  Juno  and  bounty.  But  man  nature  and  her  This s  In  than  of  theatre  very  the  harmony  _  Sakuntala.  rather  the  with  this  nature.  A  strange  in  nymph,  i n v i s i b l y .  than  nature  Prospero  shown,  achieve  upon  a  the  mystery.  its  raise  through  bless  s  entirely  to  when  ending  we  in  by  teleported  occurences  of  between  commanding only  happy  that  jewellery  convention  rather  sense  of  discussion,'in  Greek  impact  a b i l i t y  by is  is  is  reported  our  within  trees and  about  miraculous  conflict  Prospero's  move  events  the  The  SanumatT  Tern p e s t * h a v e .  magic  of  in the  visual  i n T he  sense  played.  of  stimulating  events  A  and  not- f a l l  Sakuntala  always  noted  do  garments  mother.  however,  have  or  lack  rich  charioteer,  Sanskrit  Prospero's  elements.  and  the  stage,  strange of  we  her  that  events.  court.  by  are,  As  reports  aspect  Dusyanta's  startling  the  natural  Sakuntala  heavenly  of  advantage  verbal the  the  happenings  of  kingdom  seen.  reporting  the  to  give  happenings  actually  them  strange  with of  sense  Miranda  c o n f l i c t  is  _  S a k u n t a l a man  and  nature  59  co-exist  harmoniously  by  supernatural  of  a  man  there is  in  clearly  Sakuntala when the  l i t t l e the  sent gave  later  them  to  This of> e x i s t e n c e The  him  bid  in  harmony  as  is  in  and  between is  begins  triumph soon  plain  over  show  unwilling The  is  a  flowers  and  jewellery  that  with  Life  It.  are  when told  that the  woods,  instead.  demonstrated  addresses of  as nature  from  the  the  The a  trees  forest,"  The  different  in  His are that.  exclusively.  it  from  rule  is  of  and  man  The  and  with  convincing  proof  of  This The  with  slaves, again  that  of  not Is  Ariel  but  supernatural  opposition supernatural which  the  Prospero's and  Caliban  associates, a  supernatural  view  anthropocentric  the  storm  his  a  controls  The  dealings  offers  nature  not  nature.  between  Tempest.  totally  not  Prospero  controls and  Sakuntala  does  where  them  slaves, at  with  bring  further  Sakuntala  laws  hermitage  "companions  man  these  its  We  Kanva  Sakuntala  nature.  that  Tempest  that  in  court.  is  completely  nature in  to  suggests  Tempest,  and  instance  determined  farewell.  is  through  man  quite  play  The  no  Kanva's  nature  find  existence  relationship  garments  and  incident  lives  beings  rich  her  In  in  of  overriding  Dusyanta's  we  that  and  disciple  man  is  Man's  Sakuntala's  Tempest.  it  for  when  as  nature  events  his  between  forest  asks  by  scheme  There  Tempest.  leaves  trees  harmony  The shown  Kanva  a  powers.  controlling  is  in  feature world  is  and  of so  alien  60  to  that  of  rare  cases  ship  is  man  that  of  no  these  forced,  co-existence  worlds  fraught  coming  with  is  envisaged.  together,  tension  and  the  a  In  the  relation-  sense  of  menace.  y  By  contrast,  at  separate  as  complementary  for  but  instance,  fight men  Sakuntala  demons  and  on  is  man  guides cannot  that  asked  by  Indra,  behalf  of  the  or  gods  is  fully  1ife  such  separation  of  Dusyanta  relationship  with  present  in  The  ment  man's  celebrates role  of  a  are  plan  providence  by  and  controls  man,  but  the  as  VI'  Sanumati  This  the  over  events  force  plan  of  that  reveals the  view  is  man's to  an  the He  tragic  of  contradictory  universe.  the  between  demons  supernatural  his  to  the  oftner  Prospero'simastery in  gods,  as  divine  is  them  supernatural  resolution  supernatural  supremacy  the  some  Act  the  of  such  Sakuntala.  where  presents  Dusyanata,  the  play  to  the  beings  Communication and  the  In  for  and  Tempest  man's  in  and  king  feared  according  the  hand.  the  s p i r i t s ,  understand.  Is  supernatural  universe.  gods.  Some  represented  human  same  frequent  away,  there  in  is  and  existence  the  drives  supernatural  of  of  ubiquitous.  Dusyanta  that  levels  man  parts  is  spirits  presence that  close  places  that  instru-  supernatural assumes  the  absolutely.  y  Sakuntala human the  being  vital  curse.  has  no  parallel  using  even  this.  supernatural  incident  But  to  of  here  Durvasas human  The  powers  to  placing  power  is  one  instance  shape  of  events  Sakuntala  demonstrably  under  a is a  limited,  61  for  when  he  relents  Anasuya,  he  admits  which  once  at that  pronounced,  Understanding supernatural helps of  us  the  closed  to  actually  a  by  the  of  Dusyanta,  separate facts  last  like  forces. scheme of  a as  planned  far  metaphysical In  boundaries.  undiscovered  of  and  The  Tempest  in  the  conception  at  a  existence,  The  universe  the  senses  asks  Dusyanta This  as  deeper  of  of  is  undis-  the  the  help in  event, unseen  in  a  than as  be  play  proved  shown  by  such to  sphere  as  last  level  not  the  super-  for  units  events,  seem  the  some  engineered  chance ring  for  the  supernatural  heaven.  seems  own. with  gods,  that  curse  man  l i f e  of  its  Sa kun t a 1 a ,  significance  Sakuntala's  vast that  the  loss  arbitrary therefore  audience  into  that  contemplation.  comparison, The  king  his  of  the  plane  and  Even  beyond  human  presents  related  events.  In  friend  retract  difference  in  play,  purpose. of  Sakuntala  from  gain  existence,  but  stretches  the  to  entirely  plays.  the  returning  thus  immediate  in  mortal,  Events  recovery  is  mere  unable  alien  Tndra,  Sakuntala's  relationships  the  never  in  and  of  but  of  power  basic  in  others  of  a  a  Sakuntala  that  act  all  has the  to  is  intervenes  purpose.  as  the  point  pleas  he  respectively  supernatural  natural  the  vast i n  most  categorically  even  by  implication  the map  The In  world of  the  The  existence  Tempest, the  of  world  separate  which of  Tempest implied  confines  man.  level  It-does of  being  has in  closer  Sa k u n t a l a  the  action  not on  explore  which  the  62  supernatural  exists.  of  existence  The  to  human  The  himself, as the  a  and  the  supernatural  these  powers  books  are  obviously,  by  rests  upon  human  and  the a  In  and  its  natural  to  of  in  relationship to  of  the  while  Sakunta1 a  the  difference  in  handling  element  undoubtedly the in  the  plays, The  regarded acknowledges  is  the  in  us  of  man  harnesses  why  Prospero's  power.  and  have  we  have  Quite relegation  is  of  entirely  Sakuntala  which  unity  the  seen  conception  man,  both of  is  for  the  of  of  Tempest  the  explicit  serves  supernatural  uti1ize  to  in  part  supernatural  the  despite  super-  plot-development.  most  to  how,  the  pi ays  explicit  the  related for  his  for  reminds  that  Importance  problems  is  Sakuntala.  play  it  fundamental  pages  supernatural it  the  This  man  we  in  urgency  worlds.  with  solve  function  supernatural  of  while  stressing  of  greater  consequence  of  scheme  responsibility  effort.  l i f e  preceding  difference  underlying  own  larger  is  supernatural,  secondary  vision  the  is  Even  supernatural  means  in  a  in  symbols  perception  the  is  glorification  supernatural  there  man's  insistently his  a  i n f i n i t e l y  than  on  the  important  this  to  of  through  such  is  instrument. power  greatness  basic  motives  Tempest  marvellous  the  gives  The  convenient  foreign  and  disregarding  in  man's  the  by  Tempest  passions  focus  But  as  The  The  Tempest  implied. a  This  structural  different function highlight  philosophies of  the  human  63  achievement, natural frame  in  of  between  while  Sakuntala  reference the  two  Kalidasa  and  more  purposes  than  they  found  the  construction,  despite  differently, almost  human  containing  one.  While  supernatural they  also of  similar argues  certainly  a  as  influence  affairs human  therefore  Shakespeare  conceptions their  e l l i p t i c a l  on  plays  both  specific  the  used  action.  the  the a  The  superlarger comparison  suggests  supernatural  that for  as  practical  playwrights  an  ideal  of  it  man's  place  useful in  interest  fundamental  reflecting  suggests  convincingly  found  thematic  of  tool in the  formulating world.  they  difference  opposite  plot-  cultural  used of  That the  tool  world-view, identities.  NOTES Chapter  I  Kalidasa, essentially a lyric poet, i s the bestknown f i g u r e i n S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e . He i s b e l i e v e d t o have l i v e d sometime i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D . and t o have been t h e p r i n c i p a l poet a t t h e c o u r t of King Vikramaditya. D e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t s a r e g i v e n by S . N . D a s g u p t a and S . K . D e , A H i s t o r y o f S a n s k r i t L i t e r a t u r e , Calcutta: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1962, v o l . I, and by K.Krishnamoorthy, K a l i d a s a , New Y/ork:. T w a y n e , 1 9 7 2 . p  See f o r I n s t a n c e , A. R y d e r , S h a k u n t a l a and Other W r i t i n g s o f K a l i d a s a , New Y o r k : . : D u t t o n - , , 1 9 1 2 ; A . H i 11 e b r a n d t , K a l i d a s a , B r e s l a u : V\. & H . M a r c u s , 1 9 2 1 ; S r i A u r o b i n d o , K a l i d a s a , C a l c u t t a : Arya S a h i t y a , 1 929; W.Ruben, Kalidasa: T h e Human M e a n i n g o f H i ' s W o r k s , t r a n s l . J o a n B e c k e r , Berlin: Berlin Akademie, 1957. 3  RabTndranath Tagore, "Sakuntala , " i n Col 1ected Works ( i n B e n g a l i ) , C a l c u t t a : V i s v a - B h a r a t i , 1 974 , v o l . V , p p . 521 - 3 7 ; A . C . S u b r a h m a n i a m , "The W i n t e r ' s T a l e and Sakuntala - - A Comparative Study," S a m s k r i t Ranga Annual, vol. V, 1964-65/1966-67, pp. 69-76; Mayadhara Mansinha, K a l i d a s a and S h a k e s p e a r e , D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r a s i d a s s , 1969, pp. 110-15. 4  Tagore,  pp.  521-37.  5 Mansinha, ^Mansinha, 1923,  p.  112.  pp.  ^Walter Raleigh, pp. 159-60.  110-15. Shak e s p e a r e ,  London:  Macmillan,  Q  Mukunda Madhav Sharma , "The T r e a t m e n t of the Supernatural and t h e Wonderful in Sanskrit Dramas," Proceedings of the A l l India Oriental Conference, Poona, 1969, pp. 290-99. 64  65  g S h a r m a , "Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e T r e a t m e n t of the S u p e r n a t u r a l and the W o n d e r f u l in Sanskrit Dramas," S a m s k r i t a Ranga A n n u a l , v o l . V I , 1972, pp. 59-69.  Grove  ^A.L.Basham, The Wonder P r e s s , 1954, pp. 434-40.  1890,  p.  ^ S y l v a i h 175. 1 2  L e v i ,  Levi,  p.  Le  that  Theatre  was  Indien,  India,:New  Paris:  York:  Bowillon,  175.  Chapter  II  Textual c i t a t i o n s a r e f r o m t h e e d i t i o n by A.B. Gajendragadkar, B o m b a y : ~ p u b l i s h e d • by" t h e - a u t h o r , 1934. The f u l l t i t l e m e a n s ' T h e s i g n e t - r i n g o f S'a k u n t a l a . 1 Hereafter I use the s h o r t t i t ! e S a k u n t a l a . Translations are e i t h e r mine, or taken from R y d e r ' s e d i t i o n of the play. 2 Quoted K a l Ida's a ,  by  Bombay:  M.R.Kale  in  Booksellers'  The  Abhijnanasakuntalam  Publishing,  1961  ,  p.  of  13.  3 Q u o t e d f r o m D e u t s c h e M o n a t s s c h r i f t by R.M.Bose, A b h i j n a n a s ' a k u n t a l am: A S y n t h e t i c S t u d y , Calcutta; Modern Book A g e n c y , 1970, p. x i i i . 4 Ruben , p . 7. 5 Ruben ,  p .  6  Ruben,  p.  7  Ryder ,  pp.  Ruben,  pp.  8 . 10. xx-xxi.  P  8-9;  see  also  his  last  chapter.  9 K a l i da s a ,  Krishnamoorthy, Delhi: Motilal  K a l i d a s a ; C . R . D e v a d h a r , Works B a n a r a s i d a s s , 1 972 , v o l . I;  of  66  D.Sarma, An distributed  of D.  Interpretative by C h o w k h a m b a ,  Study 1968.  of  Kalidasa,  ^ E d w a r d C. D i m m o c k , J r . , e_t a j _ . , I n d i a , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , S a r m a , op_. c i t .  ^ B . Bhattacharya , Sanskrit V a r a n a s i : B h a r a t i y a M a n i s h a , 1974; Kale,  1 2  pp.  Drama Kale,  Calcutta:  The Literatures 1974, pp. 96-9;  and pp.  Dramaturgy, 48-50.  82-3.  13 Moti.lal  P.V.Kane, History Ba.narasidass, 1961,  of p.  Sanskrit 47.  P o e t i c s , Del h i : -  14  Natyasastra, ed. M.M.Ghosh, C a l c u t t a : Manisha G r a n t h a l a y a , 1 967 , c h . 2 0 . 2 - J 3 . Theten different kinds b f _ d r a m a m e n t i o n e d t n t h e N_S a r e : n a t a k a , p r a k a r a n a , anka, v y a y o g a , b h a n a , s a m a v a k a r a , v T t h f , p r a h a s a n a , d i m a , and ihamrga. 15 A detailed discussion I n d i a n Kavya L i t e r a t u r e , Delhi: 1972, vol. I. 1 6  Nsf,  ch.  20-22.  Njf,  ch.  24.31;  1 7  1 o  19 i y  34.69b-7Q.  /  NS,  l 0  ch.  may be f o u n d i n A.K.Warder, Motiial Banarasidass,  ch.34.lla;  12a-b.  '  N_S,  ch.  6.31  .  20 V.K.Chari, " P o e t i c E m o t i o n s and P o e t i c S e m a n t i c s , " The J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s and A r t C r i t i c i s m , XXXIV, i i i , Spring 1976, pp. 287-99. 2 1  Njf,  ch.  6.15.  22 2 3  24  Gajendragadkar, Introduction, Mahabharata , 1.62.3-1.69.44. Ruben ,  pp.  50-51 .  p.  xxxi.  67  25  ' Dasarupaka, ed. G.G.O.Haas, University, 1950, ch.2.4b-5a.  New  York:  Columbia  26 Kale, 27  Z 9  Levi, NS",  p.  48.  c h . 6.82.  HS_,  2 8  Introduction,  p. ch.  175. 20.19.  Chapter  III  Samuel T a y l o r Coleridge, Lecture IX, Criticism, r e p r i n t e d In R.W.Langbaum e d . , The Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1964, pp. 141-53. The  Shakespearian  Tempest,  London:  Shakespearian Tempest, New  Methuen,  1953.  3 Shakespear's Imagery, 1 958 , . e s p e c i a l l y p p . 300-4.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University,  "The F a i l u r e of the Bal1 ad-Makers ," Chapter VII, S c e p t i c i s m and P o e t r y , London: Allen & Unwin, 1937, pp. 205-41. 4  5 London:  "The T r a g i c P a t t e r n , " Chatto & Windus, 1938. A'Natural  Perspective,  Shakespeare's  New  York:  The  Tempest  Last  Columbia  Plays,  University,  1 965. In his introduction Methuen, 1966. 7  London:  to  (Arden  ed.) ,  o  Shakspere: A Critical Study London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1957 e s p e c i a l l y pp. 416-27.  of H i s Mind and r e p r i n t o f 1875  Art, e d . ,  68  "Shakespeare1s Final P e r i o d , " i n Books and Characters , London: C h a t t o & W i n d u s , 1 922 , p p . 47-64. 9  ^Introduction "The  1 1  to  Tempest,"  The  Tempest.  PMLA,  X L V 1 1 (1 9 3 2 ) ,  pp.  699-726.  1 2 A l l a r d y c e N f c o l l , S t u a r t Masque and the R e n a i s s a n c e S t a g e , New Y o r k : B e n j a m i n B l o m , 1 9 6 3 ; Enid W e l s f o r d , The C o u r t M a s q u e , New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l , 1962. 1 3 Introduction  to  The  Tempest,  p.  Ixxiv.  1 4 R.Langbaum  "The Tempest and t h e A n c i e n t Comic e d . , The T e m p e s t , pp. 163-81.  Louisiana:  Joan Hartwi g, Shakespeare's Lousiana State University,  •j  Tradition,"  Tragicomic 1972.  in  Vision,  c  " S a c e r d o t a l S c i e n c e i n Sha k e s p e a r e ' s The Tempest," i n h i s Sha k e s p e a r e ' s P h i l o s o p h i c a l " P a t t e r n s , L o u i s i a n a : Louisiana State University, 1959. 1 7 X I (1 9 5 8 ) ,  "The M a g i c pp. 70-77.  of  Prospero,"  Shakespeare  Survey,  1 8 Kermode,  pp.  xxv-xxxiv.  Kermode,  pp.  l x i i i - l x x i .  Kermode,  Appendix  19 20 A.  21 J . P . H a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t by s h o w i n g t h e v i r t u e of w h i t e m a g i c The T e m p e s t a n s w e r s t h e d i l e m m a o f t o o much l e a r n i n g as p r e s e n t e d i n D o c t o r F a u s t u s , Boston University S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , IT(1 956) , p p . 1 9 7 - 2 0 6 .  SELECTED  A.  Bharata  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Primary  Sources  Muni, Natyasastra, ed. Granthalaya, 1967.  Dhananjaya,  'Da s a ' r u p a k a , e d . University Press,  Kal i d a s a ,  A b h i , j n a n a s ^ a k u n t a l am , Bombay: p u b l i s h e d by  M.M.Ghosh,  G.C.O.Haas, 1950. ed. the  Calcutta:  New Y o r k :  Manisha  Columbia  A. B . G a j e n d r a g a d k a r author, 1934.  ,  Mahabharata , ed. V . S.Sukhthanakar, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 3 3 , v o l . I. S h a k e s p e a r e , W i l l i a m , The Tempest, e d . Frank Kermode, Arden e d i t i o n , Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Methuen, 1 966.  B.  Basham,  Secondary  A . L . , The Wonder Press, 1954.  Sources  that  was  India,  New Y o r k :  Bhattacharya, B . , S a n s k r i t Drama and D r a m a t u r g y , Bharatiya iManlsha, 1 974. Bose,  Chari,  Grove  Varanasi:  R . M . , Kalidasa: AbhijnanasakuntaTam, A Synthetic C a l c u t t a : Modern Book A g e n c y , 1970. V . 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