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Street women and their verbal transactions : some aspects of the oral culture of female prostitute drug… Layton, Monique Jacqueline Berthe 1978

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STREET WOMEN AND THEIR VERBAL TRANSACTIONS Some A s p e c t s o f t h e O r a l C u l t u r e o f Female P r o s t i t u t e Drug A d d i c t s by MONIQUE JACQUELINE BERTHE LAYTON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1969 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1970 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y & S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 19 7 8 Co} Monique Jacqueline Berthe Layton, 1978 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y & S o c i o l o g y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e , t h r o u g h the c o m b i n a t i o n o f an i n t e r a c t i o n a l framework, an e t h n o g r a p h i c semantic approach and an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o l k l o r e , t h e o r a l c u l t u r e o f female p r o s t i -t u t e drug a d d i c t s and t h e forms o f v e r b a l exchange t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y appear t o e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c environment. The v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s examined t a k e p l a c e on and o f f t h e s t r e e t , but always i n v o l v e " s t r e e t " p a r t i c i p a n t s : p e o p l e whose b u s i n e s s i s on t h e s t r e e t , where t h e y c a s u a l l y meet f r i e n d s and f o e s , where t h e y make t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s and c o n t r a c t s w h i c h l e a d t o f u r t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n s , and where t h e y r e p o r t f i n d i n g an e x c i t e m e n t and a pace o f l i f e t h e y e n j o y . Many o f t h e s e t r a n s -a c t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d as " b u l l s h i t t i n g " : t h e f l e x i b i l i t y of meaning o f t h i s term e n a b l e s us t o use i t t o i n d i c a t e a v a r i e t y o f v e r b a l exchanges among s t r e e t p e o p l e on t h e one hand, and between s t r e e t p e o p l e and "square Johns" on t h e o t h e r . I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t c o v e r s a m i c a b l e g r e e t i n g s , s m a l l t a l k , a n e c d o t e s , g o s s i p , j o k e s , w a r n i n g s : d i d a c t i c n a r r a t i v e s and m a n i p u l a t i v e e x e r c i s e s whose f u n c t i o n i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t one o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . They s e r v e as a s t e r n d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r among members o f t h e s t r e e t group and as means o f i n t e g r a t i n g newcomers t o t h e s u b c u l t u r e o f t h e s t r e e t by d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n t r a s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f " s t r a i g h t " and " s t r e e t " c u l t u r e members. In t h e second i n s t a n c e , speech a c t s s e r v e m o s t l y as an i n s t r u m e n t o f m a n i p u l a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n . The most d e v e l o p e d type of t r a n s a c t i o n examined i s t h e one t a k i n g p l a c e between p r o s t i t u t e s and t h e i r c u s t o mers, and t h e s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e d t o cope w i t h p r o b l e m a t i c c a s e s . The i n f o r -mants ar e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as drug a d d i c t s i n v o l v e d i n rion-p r o s t i t u t i o n a l though e x p l o i t a t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n s . As i n c a r c e r a t e d i n f o r m a n t s , t h e y a r e f u r t h e r i n v o l v e d i n " i n t e r v i e w t r a n s a c t i o n s " based on f i r m l y d e f i n e d c u l t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e two groups' c o n t r a s t i n g w o r l d v i e w s , t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s and o p p o s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t r i b u t e s , g i v e r i s e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f endo- and exo-s t e r e o t y p e s which r e i n f o r c e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n and r e g u l a t e t h e p a t t e r n o f s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t i n t e r a c t i o n . V e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s r e f l e c t the i n f o r m a n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t , where economic s u r v i v a l r e s t s on a p r o f i t a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o u t s i d e r s , and s o c i a l s u r v i v a l r e s t s on a c o h e s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e m s e l v e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE A FRAME OF REFERENCE: LITERATURE AND THEORY 1 L i t e r a t u r e and Ethnosemantic Approaches 2 F o l k l o r e 8 Ernies and S t e r e o t y p e s 13-C u l t u r a l B o u n d a r i e s 17 The S e t t i n g . 21 Summary . 2 5 CHAPTER TWO FIELD WORK AND THE INTERVIEW SITUATION 27 P a s t and P r e s e n t F i e l d w o r k 27 The I n f o r m a n t s 33 The P o p u l a t i o n 34 The I n d i v i d u a l I n f o r m a n t s 39 Pseudonyms 44 The I n t e r v i e w T r a n s a c t i o n 4 7 Bo u n d a r i e s 53 The Data 61 CHAPTER THREE STREET TALK:. RAPPING, CONNING AND BULLSHITTING 68 "Reading" and Conning t h e Mark 69 S t y l i s t i c D e v i c e s 78 Manners o f Speech 85 Swearing 9 2 J o k i n g 9 4 A r g o t and Competence 97 i v Page CHAPTER FOUR NATURE AND FUNCTION OF BULLSHITTING 107 The N a t u r e o f B u l l s h i t t i n g 108 The F u n c t i o n o f B u l l s h i t t i n g 110 The D i d a c t i c s o f S t r e e t T a l k 116 CHAPTER FIVE CONTRASTING CHARACTERISTICS OF STREET AND STRAIGHT PEOPLE 130 Square Johns, Rounders and t h e J a i l E x p e r i e n c e 130 C o n t r a s t i n g L i f e s t y l e s 137 V a l u e s and A t t i t u d e s 140 A d d i c t s , N o n - A d d i c t s and Time O r i e n t a t i o n 146 S t r e e t and S t r a i g h t V i l l a i n s 150 The R i p O f f 150 The Rat 152 The E a s t I n d i a n 154 The Narc 157 Formal and S u b t e r r a n e a n V a l u e s 159 CHAPTER SIX JUNKIE-PROSTITUTES, TRICKS, MARKS : DEFINITIONS AND TRANSACTIONS 160 The P r o s t i t u t e 163 The T r i c k 17 3 T r a n s a c t i o n s 178 The Mark 190 CHAPTER SEVEN "FAILURE" AND "SUCCESS" ON THE STREET 19 8 V Page CHAPTER EIGHT . • VERBAL SKILLS, MANAGEMENT AND CULTURAL CONTEXT 205 The S t r a i g h t - S t r e e t O p p o s i t i o n 207 The Male-Female O p p o s i t i o n 208 Summary » 212 BIBLIOGRAPHY 214 APPENDIX A VOCABULARY SELECTION 230 APPENDIX B TAXONOMY : I - S t r e e t / S t r a i g h t .' 234 I I - P r o s t i t u t i o n 235 I I I - Drugs 236 APPENDIX C BASIC GLOSSARY 237 APPENDIX D A SAMPLE OF STORIES 240 APPENDIX E MAPS : I - The Uptown Ar e a 258 I I - The Downtown Ar e a 259 APPENDIX F A; MARK'S STORY 260 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My t o t a l g r a t i t u d e i s due t o E l v i W h i t t a k e r f o r her guida n c e and her c o n s t a n t good humour. I n s t r e e t p a r l a n c e , she i s " s o l i d " and she i s "good p e o p l e . " I a l s o owe E l l i Kongas Maranda and P i e r r e Maranda a l a s t i n g d e b t , h a v i n g found i n s p i r a t i o n i n t h e i r work and s u p p o r t i n t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p . I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o a l l t h r e e f o r t h e i r p a s t and p r e s e n t encouragement. My thanks a r e due t o M a r t i n M e i s s n e r f o r h i s c o n s t r u c -t i v e c r i t i c i s m and t o M i c h a e l Kew, Kenneth S t o d d a r t and E l a i n e S t o l a r . . f o r t h e i r u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e s t a f f o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o D. Edgar, R. L i v i n g s t o n e , M. S t r o c e l and A. LaFlamme, as w e l l as t o H i l a r y C a r d a r e l l i f o r her p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , I want t o thank t h e Canada C o u n c i l f o r i t s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the 1976-77 academic y e a r . F o r o b v i o u s and d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , t h e p e o p l e I owe the most a r e my i n f o r m a n t s and my f a m i l y . CHAPTER ONE A FRAME OF REFERENCE: LITERATURE AND THEORY P r o s t i t u t e s c l a i m t o have d e v e l o p e d a q u i c k a p p r e c i a t i o n o f men as p o t e n t i a l customers and the a b i l i t y t o manage them. P r o s -t i t u t e s who s o l i c i t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s and who a r e a l s o drug a d d i c t s e x p l a i n t h a t t h e i r t w i c e v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the law i n c r e a s e s t h e i r need f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . They c l a i m t o seek o n l y q u i c k f i n a n c i a l rewards and t o f e e l no compunction i n s h o r t c h a n g i n g t h o s e t h e y b e l i e v e t o be out t o e x p l o i t them. Moreover, t h e s o c i a l and l e g a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y w hich r e s u l t s from t h e i r v i s i b l e and i l l e g i t i m a t e a c t i v i t i e s l e a d s them t o seek a c c e p t a n c e i n t o a s u p p o r t i v e m i l i e u where t h e y f i n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s o l i d a r i t y . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e y appear t o put s t r e s s on b e i n g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and knowledgeable enough n ot t o be " r i p p e d o f f " by o t h e r s t r e e t a d d i c t s . They must l e a r n q u i c k l y the r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e them t o cope w i t h an a m b i v a l e n t m i l i e u and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y w i l l e a r n and r e t a i n a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e s u b c u l t u r e . T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s two t y p e s o f v e r b a l t r a n s -a c t i o n s p r a c t i s e d by female p r o s t i t u t e s and drug a d d i c t s on t h e s t r e e t : t h o s e aimed a t o u t s i d e r s as means o f what t h e y d e s c r i b e as " c o n n i n g " , and t h o s e t h a t s e r v e t o s o c i a l i z e i n s i d e r s t h r o u g h the use o f d i d a c t i c g o s s i p . Both forms a r e l o o s e l y d e s c r i b e d by 2 t h e i n f o r m a n t s a s " b u l l s h i t t i n g " , a t e c h n i q u e o f v e r b a l e x c h a n g e w i t h w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t d e c e p t i v e a n d c o h e s i v e t r a n s -a c t i o n s . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' v e r b a l p e r f o r m a n c e s m u s t r e s t on a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , a n d t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e how t h e i n f o r m a n t s p e r c e i v e a n d c o n -s t r u c t t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t a n d how t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h i t . T h e a d d i c t - p r o s t i t u t e s s t u d i e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a r e t h u s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f t h e w o r l d v i e w o f t h e i r s u b c u l t u r e a n d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e i r s y s t e m o f c u l -t u r a l v a l u e s a n d t h a t o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . L I T E R A T U R E AND ETHNOSEMANTIC APPROACHES A c o m p r e h e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f a l l t h e t i t l e s o f f i c -t i o n a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , m e d i c a l , l e g a l , h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w o r k s d e v o t e d t o t h e t o p i c o f t h e woman who makes h e r l i v i n g on t h e s t r e e t - e v e n w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a s t g r o w i n g l i s t o f w o r k s r e l a t e d t o t h e l i f e s t y l e o f d r u g a d d i c t s a n d t h e p r o b l e m s o f d r u g a d d i c t i o n - w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p i l e . M o r e o v e r , much o f what h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h e s u b -j e c t w o u l d n o t b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e t y p e o f a n a l y s i s a n d t h e p o i n t o f v i e w a d o p t e d h e r e . I f we l o o k a t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o -l o g i c a l a n d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o p r o s t i t u t e s a n d p r o s t i t u t i o n , we f i n d t h a t u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y t h e t r e n d h a s b e e n t o c o n s i d e r t h e t o p i c i n t e r m s o f " m o r a l i t y , m a l a d j u s t m e n t , a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : (James 1 9 7 2 a : 8 ) . O f t h e s e w o r k s , t h e b e s t known a r e p e r h a p s B e n j a m i n a n d M a s t e r s ' P r o s t i t u t i o n a n d M o r a l i t y 3 (1964) which d e v e l o p s t h e theme of t h e f a i l u r e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as i t i s now a t t e m p t e d ; Maryse C h o i s y ' s P s y c h o a n a l y s i s o f the  P r o s t i t u t e (1965); and H a r o l d Greenwald's The E l e g a n t P r o s t i t u t e (1970), a p s y c h i a t r i c approach t o the s t u d y o f c a l l - g i r l s . Most o f t h e s e works f o c u s on t h e views of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y as i t c o n t e m p l a t e s what i t u n d e r s t a n d s t o be the w o r l d o f t h e p r o s t i -t u t e . In c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e works devoted t o t h e p r o s t i t u t e s ' p e r -s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e or t o the s o c i a l problems p r e s e n t e d by what i s deemed t o be a m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e and p h y s i c a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l l i f e s t y l e , a few s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e on the women's ( s i n c e o n l y female p r o s t i t u t e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d here) own p e r s p e c t i v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e environment i n which t h e y o p e r a t e . H i r s c h i 1 s "The P r o f e s s i o n a l P r o s t i t u t e " (1962) examines p r o s t i t u t i o n as an o c c u p a t i o n and b r i e f l y a t t e m p t s t o g i v e an i n s i g h t i n t o the p r a c -t i t i o n e r 's o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y ; Jackman, 0'Toole and G e i s (1968) a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o s t i t u t e ' s s e l f - i m a g e , and V e l a r d e , i n "Becoming P r o s t i t u t e d " , w i t h t h e way a masseuse-p r o s t i t u t e forms her s e l f - i d e n t i t y ; f i n a l l y , James' d o c t o r a l d i s -s e r t a t i o n (1972a) o f f e r s an e t h n o s e m a n t i c approach t o t h e s t u d y o f s t r e e t w a l k e r s . The l a t t e r work, w i t h i t s taxonomic and compo-n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s o f the domains o f the s t r e e t w a l k e r s ' a r g o t , i s -t o my knowledge - the f i r s t s t u d y of i t s k i n d t o c o n c e n t r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . 1 ^ c h u t z ' d e f i n i t i o n f o r "environment" i s used: t h a t p a r t o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d t h a t can be d i r e c t l y apprehended. " T h i s would i n c l u d e not o n l y t h e p h y s i c a l but a l s o t h e s o c i a l environment w i t h a l l o f i t s n a t u r a l a r t i f a c t s , language, e t c . " (1967:170). 4 S t u d i e s on drug a d d i c t s and drug a d d i c t i o n f o l l o w a p a r a l -l e l l i n e , a l t h o u g h i n t h i s case the s o c i a l problems p e r c e i v e d a r e of a more r e c e n t n a t u r e . Agar, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h p r e v i o u s works d e a l i n g m a i n l y w i t h t h e problem o f t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l " f a i l u r e system" o f t h e a d d i c t , p r e s e n t s i n R i p p i n g and Running (19 73) a s i m i l a r approach t o James' i n her s t u d y o f s t r e e t -w a l k e r s . B e f o r e him, S u t t e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d o f the " r i g h t e o u s dope f i e n d " (19 66) p r o v i d e s a good i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s u b c u l t u r e o f the s t r e e t a d d i c t , and P r e b l e and Casey's e t h n o g r a -phy o f t h e h e r o i n u s e r ' s l i f e on the s t r e e t , "Taking Care of B u s i n e s s " (1969) seeks t o f i n d t h e meaning of t h e l i f e f o r the s t r e e t a d d i c t . In h i s s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f drug a d d i c -t i o n , Weppner n o t e s t h a t P r e b l e ' s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d work, whi c h produced t h i s a r t i c l e , t h e f i r s t one e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t o d e a l w i t h the h e r o i n u s e r ' s l i f e on t h e s t r e e t , was the impetus f o r o t h e r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s " t o s t u d y t h e s t r e e t a d d i c t ' s sub-c u l t u r e from h i s p o i n t of v i e w and n o t from t h e a b s t r a c t e d empir-i c a l v i e w p o i n t o f the s o c i o l o g i s t o r p s y c h o l o g i s t " (Weppner 1973:114). F i n a l l y , S t o d d a r t ' s s t u d y (1968) w i l l be mentioned, of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s i n c e some of h i s d a t a on drug t r a n s -a c t i o n s a r e drawn from t h e same c i t y t e n y e a r s ago and p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l s o u r c e o f comparison w i t h d a t a o b t a i n e d f o r t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I t w i l l be shown l a t e r how t h e i n f o r m a n t s were s e l e c t e d . When t h e y f i r s t came t o me, t h e y acknowledged t h a t t h e y were " s t r e e t p e o p l e " . As an i n d i r e c t way o f c h e c k i n g t h e i r 5 f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e environment o f t h e s t r e e t drug a d d i c t , I showed them l e n g t h y e x t r a c t s o f A g a r ' s , S u t t e r ' s , and P r e b l e and Casey's s t u d i e s , a s k i n g them whether t h e y agreed w i t h t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e and c r i m i n a l p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d and t h e t e r m i n o l -ogy used. The l a t t e r was th o u g h t t o d i f f e r s l i g h t l y a t t i m e s from t h e i r own, b u t t h e y t o t a l l y agreed w i t h the d e s c r i p t i v e p a r t o f t h e works. One o f them, who was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o n f i -dence game known as "the hot T.V. game" (Agar 1973:46-47 and c f . Appendix F ) , found i t so p l a u s i b l y d e s c r i b e d t h a t she s a i d - o n l y h a l f j o k i n g l y , I t h i n k - she might t r y i t a f t e r h er r e l e a s e from j a i l . I n the same manner, I sometimes showed James 1 d i s s e r t a t i o n t o my i n f o r m a n t s , and checked her c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r own. At the b e g i n n i n g o f s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s , I had James and Agar's works i n e v i d e n c e on my desk, t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r l y the f a c t t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n as I r e q u e s t e d from them was i n f a c t a l r e a d y known and not a t a l l o f a c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e . Both James and A g a r 1 s s t u d i e s t a k e an e t h n o s e m a n t i c approach. In R i p p i n g and Running, Agar, who was m o s t l y i n v o l v e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , adapts a t e c h n i q u e f o r g a t h e r i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e d a t a t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of what he sees as c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s : h i s i n f o r m a n t s were asked t o e n a c t s t r e e t scenes f a m i l i a r t o a l l a d d i c t s ( o b t a i n i n g money- f o r drugs t h r o u g h v a r i o u s means, b u y i n g and u s i n g d r u g s ) ; t h e s e enactments were tap e r e c o r d e d and l a t e r p l a y e d back t o o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s f o r v a l -i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s . B o t h he and James borrow from l i n g u i s t i c methods and adopt i n t h e i r work a s y s t e m a t i c 6 q u e s t i o n i n g p r o c e d u r e t o e l i c i t d a t a which e n a b l e them t o a n a l y z e the c u l t u r e under s t u d y . I n the c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e t h e y f o l l o w , the i n i t i a l s t e p i s t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a n t s w i t h " s u b s t i t u t i o n frames" t h r o u g h which the e t h n o g r a p h e r s g e n e r a t e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l systems. N e x t , t h e y e s t a b l i s h taxonomies by g r o u p i n g " s e g r e g a t e s " . a n d " c o n t r a s t s e t s " (Frake 1972; P s a t h a s 1972:209; Agar 1973:28-39). The added sum o f f o l k taxonomies t h u s o b t a i n e d c o n s t i t u t e s "a s o c i e t y ' s e t h n o s c i e n c e , i t s p a r t i c -u l a r ways o f c l a s s i f y i n g i t s m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l u n i v e r s e " ; i n o t h e r words, i t c o n s t i t u t e s i t s " c u l t u r e " ( S t u r t e v a n t 1964:99). In a l a t e r work, Ethnography and C o g n i t i o n (19 74) , Agar f u r t h e r expands on the methodology o f " r e t r i e v i n g b o th c o n c e p t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s " by e x a m i n i n g " s i g n s " i n i n f o r m a n t s ' u t t e r a n c e s (1974:13). F o l k taxonomies, a l r e a d y t h e s u b j e c t o f much of James' work, a r e examined a g a i n i n t h i s work by Agar as a means of i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r environment. A p p l y i n g t h e same e t h n o s c i e n t i f i c approach as Agar and James, S p r a d l e y makes a f o r m a l semantic a n a l y s i s o f tramps and a l c o h o l i c s i n " A d a p t i v e S t r a t e g i e s o f Urban Nomads" (1972) and You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk (19 70) and, w i t h Mann, t o a female o c c u -p a t i o n i n an e s s e n t i a l l y male w o r l d i n The C o c k t a i l W a i t r e s s (1975) . Because o f t h e i r e t h n o s e m a n t i c approach, Agar, James and S p r a d l e y break away from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f such sub-c u l t u r e s as t h a t of t h e h e r o i n a d d i c t , t h e s t r e e t w a l k e r , o r t h e a l c o h o l i c , as " d e v i a n t " c u l t u r e s ; t h e y d e f i n e i n s t e a d t h e way 7 t h e i r i n f o r m a n t s p e r c e i v e and o r d e r t h e i r environment and e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i o n s i n terms o f t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s . The r e p u d i a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l grammars by l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y -s i s , and i t s d e s c r i p t i o n o f each language i n terms a p p r o p r i a t e t o i t s own s t r u c t u r e has t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t g u i d e d c u l t u r a l a n t h r o -p o l o g y a l o n g t h e same p a t h . Thus, c o g n i t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g y f o c u s e s on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between u n i t s o f language and u n i t s o f c o g n i t i o n and has t r a v e l l e d from an e s s e n t i a l l y " e t i c " v i e w p o i n t t o an e s s e n t i a l l y "emic" u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C o n v e n t i o n a l l y , P i k e ' s " e m i c - e t i c " d i s t i n c t i o n i s used here f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r , where " e t i c s " mean f e a t u r e s assumed t o be c u l t u r e - f r e e , t o wh i c h are opposed "emics", o r t h e group's c u l t u r e - b o n d a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e s e same f e a t u r e s . H a r r i s ' d e f i n i t i o n s were found t h e most u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r the usage o f t h e two terms: Emic s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r t o l o g i c o - e m p i r i c a l systems whose phe-nomenal d i s t i n c t i o n s o r " t h i n g s " a r e b u i l t up out o f con-t r a s t s and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t , m e a n i n g f u l , r e a l , a c c u r a t e , o r i n some o t h e r f a s h i o n r e g a r d e d as a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e a c t o r s t h e m s e l v e s . An emic statement can be f a l s i f i e d i f i t can be shown t h a t i t c o n t r a d i c t s t h e c o g n i t i v e c a l c u l u s by which r e l e v a n t a c t o r s judge t h a t e n t i t i e s are s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t , r e a l , m e a n i n g f u l , s i g n i f i c a n t , o r i n some o t h e r sense " a p p r o p r i a t e " o r " a c c e p t a b l e " ( H a r r i s 1968:671). By comparison w i t h t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s which r e f l e c t e x c l u -s i v e l y t he p o i n t o f view o f members o f t h e s u b c u l t u r e and a s c e r -t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l competence, e t i c s t a t e m e n t s depend upon phenomenal d i s t i n c t i o n s judged a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e community o f s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v e r s . E t i c s t a t e m e n t s cannot be f a l s i f i e d i f t h e y do not conform t o t h e a c t o r ' s n o t i o n o f what i s s i g n i f i c a n t , r e a l , m e a n i n g f u l o r a p p r o p r i a t e . E t i c s t a t e m e n t s a r e v e r i f i e d when independent o b s e r v e r s u s i n g s i m i l a r o p e r a t i o n s agree t h a t a g i v e n e vent has o c u r r e d ( H a r r i s 1968:675). 8 Throughout t h i s work, I have adopted the emic p e r s p e c t i v e and have t r i e d t o examine s t r e e t women's p e r c e p t i o n o f m a t e r i a l phenomena and t h e i r c o g n i t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . As i n t h e works o f Agar, S p r a d l e y and James i n which f o l k taxonomies r e v e a l t h e c u l t u r e ' s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e , t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f my f i e l d work was t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s and f o l k t a x o n -omies f o r what the i n f o r m a n t s r e c o g n i z e as d i s t i n c t domains. Through t h e c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t s r e v e a l e d by t h e taxonomy and t h e added d i m e n s i o n o f f o l k l o r e and v e r b a l performances w h i c h c a l l f o r "some d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s o f t h e group" (Abrahams 1970:290), t h r o u g h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n o f s t e r e o t y p e d d e f -i n i t i o n s w h i c h j u s t i f y and r e i n f o r c e t h e acknowledged c o n f r o n t a -t i o n between t h e s u b c u l t u r e and the l a r g e r c u l t u r e , I have t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c environment i n the c o n t e x t o f wh i c h t h e y p r a c t i s e t h e i r v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . FOLKLORE S i n c e f o l k l o r i s t s v iew f o l k l o r e as "raw m a t e r i a l f o r t h e stud y o f human thought" (Dundes 1971:103), t h e s t u d y o f a p e o p l e ' s f o l k l o r e may be t a k e n as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f c o g n i t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g y . A d o p t i n g Abrahams' d e f i n i t i o n o f f o l k l o r e as " a l l t r a d i t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s o f knowledge o p e r -a t i n g w i t h i n a community", knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be "the power o f t h e mind f o r s o l v i n g problems" and t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge t o p r o v i d e " i n h e r i t e d s o l u t i o n s t o t h e r e c u r r e n t problems o f groups" (Abrahams 1971:17). 9 Some r e c u r r e n t problems may be s o l v e d by m a t e r i a l and p r a c -t i c a l means and t h e development o f s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e a d d i c t p r o s t i t u t e c u l t u r e , i t e m s o f m a t e r i a l f o l k l o r e d e a l w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l problems o f f i x i n g , o f t r a n s -p o r t i n g i l l e g a l d r u g s , o f t a t t o o i n g , s h o p l i f i n g , s e x u a l p r a c -t i c e s , e t c . Other problems, o f an e t h i c a l o r s o c i a l o r d e r , f i n d t r a d i -t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s i n e t h i c a l and e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , o f t e n i n the form o f p r o v e r b s which p r o v i d e "an argument f o r a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n which conforms t o community v a l u e s " and " i n v o k e s an a u r a o f m o r a l r i g h t n e s s i n the c o n v e r s a t i o n " (Abrahams 1968:150). As a communicative p r o c e s s , f o l k l o r e i s l i m i t e d t o r e l a -t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p s , whose members ( p e r f o r m e r s and audience) a r e p a r t o f t h e same r e f e r e n c e group. Whatever t h e form o f exchange and t h e f o l k l o r i c genre used ( t a l e , p r o v e r b , j o k e ) , i t i s t r a n -scended by t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f n o t i o n s w h i c h Dundes c a l l s " f o l k i d e a s " : the " t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s t h a t a group o f p e o p l e have about t h e n a t u r e o f man, o f t h e w o r l d , and o f man's l i f e i n t h e w o r l d " (1971:95). A l l c u l t u r e s have u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and i t i s t h e s e assumptions o r f o l k i d e a s which a r e the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f w o r l d v i e w . Any one w o r l d v i e w w i l l be based upon many i n d i -v i d u a l f o l k i d e a s and i f one i s s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g w o r l d v i e w , one w i l l need f i r s t t o d e s c r i b e some o f the f o l k i d e a s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h a t w o r l d v i e w (Dundes 1971:96). One o f t h e f o l k i d e a s emerging from a corpus o f p r o v e r b s and t r a d i t i o n a l p h r a s e s would f o r i n s t a n c e appear t o be i n N o r t h American c u l t u r e t h e " p r i n c i p l e o f u n l i m i t e d good" ( i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e " p r i n c i p l e o f l i m i t e d good" found by F o s t e r 10 (1967) t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o t i o n i n M e x i c a n , and o t h e r peasant c u l t u r e s ) . T h i s p r i n c i p l e emerges ambiguously i n my i n f o r m a n t s ' b e l i e f t h a t "marks" a r e p l e n t i f u l , , and i n t h e c a r e l e s s n e s s o f some o f t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s s i n c e t h e y assume t h a t new o p p o r t u n i -t i e s w i l l always a r i s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, th e p r e s s u r e e x e r -c i s e d by t h e i r needs as h e r o i n a d d i c t s o f t e n make t h e i r s o l i c -i t i n g a c o m p e t i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . But i t i s a l s o a f a c t t h a t i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , "good" ( t r i c k s ) i s i n d e e d a l i m i t e d commod-i t y , and one's g a i n i s somebody e l s e ' s l o s s . Dundes opposed " f o l k f a l l a c i e s " t o f o l k i d e a s and a t t r i b -u t e s t h e term t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s . As p a r t o f the " s t a t e d p remises o f a c u l t u r e " , t h e y are c o n t r a s t e d t o f o l k i d e a s o f w hich one may n o t be aware o r which one may not be a b l e t o a r t i c -u l a t e . F o l k i d e a s would be more a m a t t e r o f b a s i c u n q u e s t i o n e d p r e m i s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f man, o f s o c i e t y , and o f t h e w o r l d , and t h e s e p r e m i s e s a l t h o u g h m a n i f e s t e d i n f o l k -l o r e p r o p e r might not be a t a l l o b v i o u s t o t h e f o l k i n whose t h i n k i n g t h e y are c e n t r a l . F o l k f a l l a c i e s such as s t e r e o -t y p e s would t h e r e f o r e be p a r t o f t h e c o n s c i o u s or s e l f -c o n s c i o u s c u l t u r e o f a p e o p l e whereas f o l k i d e a s would be p a r t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s o r u n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c u l t u r e o f a p e o p l e (Dundes 1971:101). S t r e e t p e o p l e i n t e r a c t i n a c l o s e and a c t i v e s y m b i o s i s w i t h s t r a i g h t p e o p l e who t h e y see as t r y i n g t o use, c o n t r o l , t r a p and i m p r i s o n them, and whom t h e y t r y t o evade, con, r o b , t r i c k and seduce. Much of t h e i r f o l k l o r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e form o f g o s s i p and a n e c d o t e s , d e s c r i b e s how t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e and how p e o p l e d e a l w i t h what t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be t h e problems c r e a t e d by t h e c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s between t h e two groups. To t h a t e x t e n t , i t r e v e a l s t h e p r e c e p t s and norms of t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' 11 c o g n i t i v e system. G o s s i p may a l s o be seen as a means t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l c on-t r o l . I t makes "a statement o f a p p r o v a l o r condemnation which r e i t e r a t e s t h e approved b e h a v i o u r a l l i m i t s o f the group" (Abrahams 1970:300). I f i t i s t r u e t h a t f o l k l o r e l i v e s by f o r c e o f i t s f u n c t i o n , as f o l k l o r i s t s o f t e n m a i n t a i n , t h e n i t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f s t r e e t f o l k l o r e t h a t we must examine. We o f t e n see i t " p r o t e c t i n g " i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the f u n c t i o n o f one o f t h e w e l l t y p i f i e d v i l l a i n s (the " r a t " ) i s c l e a r l y t o s h o u l d e r and bear t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' l a c k o f competence. Much l i k e s c a p e g o a t s , t h e y a r e r e n d e r e d a l l t h e more loathsome and d e s p i c -a b l e so t h a t t h e y s e r v e a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n i n e n a b l i n g i n f o r m a n t s t o deny what would o t h e r w i s e be seen as t h e i r own f a i l u r e s . The c o n s c i o u s s t a t e m e n t s made by s t e r e o t y p e s s t r e n g t h e n the b o u n d a r i e s between t h e two gro u p s , a f f i r m i n g a much needed i n s i d e r s ' s o l i d a r i t y , and d e f i n i n g t h e means o f c o p i n g w i t h o u t -s i d e r s , which o f t e n form t h e t o p i c o f g o s s i p and an e c d o t e s . Jokes a r e a l s o used as a p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e and a l l o w appar-e n t l y t h r e a t e n i n g b e h a v i o u r t o be p e r c e i v e d as a t e n t a t i v e o r h a r m l e s s i n c u r s i o n i n t o o t h e r w i s e f o r b i d d e n a r e a s . T h e i r symme-t r i c a l o r a s y m m e t r i c a l exchange (depending on p e o p l e ' s i n d i v i d u a l p r e s t i g e - t h e i r " r e p u t a t i o n " o r t h e i r "name") i s t y p i c a l l y such " t h a t i n any o t h e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t i t would e x p r e s s and arouse h o s t i l i t y " ( R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n 1952:91). S i n c e one o f the f u n c t i o n s o f j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t o o b v i a t e q u a r r e l s o r r e a l c o n f l i c t , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t - j u s t as t h e y a re found among c o c k t a i l 12 w a i t r e s s e s ( S p r a d l e y & Mann 1975) o r longshoremen ( P i l c h e r 1972) - t h e y s h o u l d be met f r e q u e n t l y i n the t i g h t and sometimes e x p l o s i v e c o n f i n e s o f t h e j a i l . As i n the case o f longshoremen, t h i s j o k i n g a l s o s e r v e s as an i m p o r t a n t boundary and symbol of group s o l i d a r i t y ... and p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o some unknown degree t o t h e m a i n t e n -ance of t h i s s o l i d a r i t y . T h i s f u n c t i o n o f j o k i n g b e h a v i o u r was t o some degree r e c o g n i z e d by R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n when he s t a t e d t h a t the j o k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a r e l a t i o n o f a l l i a n c e ( P i l c h e r 1972:112-113). As i n P i l c h e r ' s s t u d y , however, we must p o i n t out t h a t j o k -i n g b e h a v i o u r i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e s t r e e t s u b c u l t u r e does not f i t t o t h e end w i t h R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n 1 s d e f i n i t i o n s i n c e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f j o k i n g b e h a v i o u r i s not c o n n e c t e d w i t h k i n s h i p o r t h e a l l i a n c e o f n o r m a l l y h o s t i l e groups. Y e t , when t h i s j o k i n g b e h a v i o u r i s a l s o d i r e c t e d a t the s t r a i g h t group w i t h whom s t r e e t p e o p l e a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and have a f o r m a l l y h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p (matrons o r g u a r d s , f o r i n s t a n c e ) , i t f a l l s i n b e t t e r w i t h R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n 1 s t h e s i s s i n c e i t s d i r e c t e q u i v a l e n t and f r e q u e n t s u b s t i t u t e i s as c l o s e a form of a v o i d a n c e ( R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n 1952:106) as t h e s e t t i n g a l l o w s . A f u r t h e r example of t h e p a r t p l a y e d by f o l k l o r e i n the d a i l y conduct of t h e s t r e e t ' s b u s i n e s s a r e s t o r i e s comparing t h e n and now, t h e r e and h e r e , which s e r v e t o g i v e depth and c o n t i n u i t y t o a l i f e s t y l e c e n t e r e d on t h e immediate and a l i e n a t i n g n e c e s s i -t i e s o f the a d d i c t s ' l i f e and add t o i t t h e d i m e n s i o n o f b e l o n g -i n g t o a community ex p a n d i n g o v e r time and space. F i n a l l y , the v e r y s t r o n g e t h i c a l t e n o r o f some o f t h e anecdotes cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . A l t h o u g h most appear t o s t a r t as d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f f a c t s , t h e y o f t e n become enmeshed i n 13 v a l u e judgements. F i d e l i t y between mates i s e m p h a t i c a l l y s t r e s s e d , "honour among t h i e v e s " (as the i n f o r m a n t s sometimes v o i c e i t i r o n i c a l l y ) , the n e c e s s i t y t o p r e s e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t t o o u t s i d e r s , l o v e and s u p p o r t , r e t a l i a t i o n f a i r l y meted out t o t r a n s g r e s s o r s , are not o n l y themes but e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d m o r a l s whose message i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the ones c a r r i e d by t a l e s of t h e s t r a i g h t w o r l d . The v a l u e s of a " d i s v a l u e d " s u b c u l t u r e appear i n no way l e s s e t h i c a l t h a n t h o s e o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r e . Through the s t o r i e s , j o k e s and b u l l s h i t t i n g e v e n t s , t h e same c a r e i s e x e r c i s e d i n p r o v i d i n g w a r n i n g s a g a i n s t p h y s i c a l danger o f a l l n a t u r e s , but a l s o , more s u b t l y , a j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d , which appears t o p r o t e c t the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t h e group and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l f a r e o f i t s i n d i v i d -u a l s . EMICS AND STEREOTYPES The f o r m u l a t e d s t a t e m e n t o f what Dundes c a l l s " f o l k f a l l a -c i e s " t a k e s t h e form o f t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f s t e r e o t y p e s by s t r e e t p e o p l e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o handle s e v e r a l s e t s o f s t e r e o t y p e s . Much of t h e d a t a d e a l s w i t h t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f members o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c u l t u r e by t h e i n f o r m a n t s , a c u l t u r e a l s o known t o them and o f w h i c h t h e y have sometimes themselves been p a r t . These i n f o r m a n t s ' assumption i s t h a t t h e y are f a m i l i a r w i t h b o t h s e t s o f emics. In t h e c o n f u s i o n c r e a t e d by i n f o r m a n t s p r o v i d i n g c u l t u r e -bound f e a t u r e s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n t o a r e s e a r c h e r ( i . e . a r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f t h e o t h e r c u l t u r e ) whose own c u l t u r e - b o u n d o u t l o o k was 14 i t s e l f examined and c h a l l e n g e d , I have used t h r e e l a b e l s t o d i f -f e r e n t i a t e the n a t u r e and a t t r i b u t i o n o f emic i n f o r m a t i o n : s t r a i g h t i s used f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' emic view o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c u l t u r e , but a l s o (and t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n here between th e s e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s i n c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' emics are c o m p r i s e d o f both) f o r what the i n f o r m a n t s assume t o be t h e s t r a i g h t p e r s o n ' s own emic views of e i t h e r c u l t u r e ; and s t r e e t o r sometimes f o l k f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' emic views and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r own environment. The i n s i d e r ' s emic v i e w o f the o u t s i d e r o f t e n becomes a handy s t e r e o t y p e which c o n t r i b u t e s g u i d e l i n e s f o r the p r o p e r h a n d l i n g and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h a t o u t s i d e r by t h e i n s i d e r . Thus, the s t e r e o t y p i c f a b r i c a t i o n o f s t r a i g h t s as greedy p e o p l e e n a b l e s s t r e e t p e o p l e t o a c t upon t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h e i r own p r o f i t . C o n v e r s e l y , th e s t r a i g h t p e r s o n ' s emic view of s t r e e t p e o p l e as i r r e s p o n s i b l e and u n t r u s t w o r t h y e n a b l e s him t o agree w i t h th e p r i n c i p l e o f p a t e r n a l i s t i c and a u t h o r i t a r i a n j u d i c i a l and c o r r e c t i o n a l systems. I n C h apter V, a double d e s c r i p t i o n t a k e s p l a c e : a f o l k s t e r e o t y p e of s t r e e t p e o p l e and s t r a i g h t p e o p l e o f t e n accompanied by t h e s t r a i g h t s t e r e o t y p e f o r b o t h groups: i . e . "You t h i n k you are ... and t h a t we are ... w h i l e i n f a c t you a r e ... and we are The f o l k ( s t r e e t emic) d e s c r i p t i o n i s made t o sound a l l t h e more c o n v i n c i n g ("true") t h a t i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y v e r s i o n ( s t r a i g h t emic) i s a l s o known t o the s t r e e t s p e a k e r , t h u s weak-e n i n g the s t r a i g h t i n t e r l o c u t o r ' s p o s i t i o n . Whereas s t r a i g h t p e o p l e a r e o n l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f b o t h 15 g roups, s t r e e t p e o p l e know b o t h s t r e e t and s t r a i g h t v e r s i o n s o f the exo-and e n d o - s t e r e o t y p e s . I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n - when the e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t w i t h a s t e r e o t y p i c d e f i n i t i o n o f an o b j e c t - whether the e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not s i m p l y a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s t r a i g h t p e o p l e ' s emic i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . L e t us c o n s i d e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o the T r i c k s t e r (Abrams and S u t t o n - S m i t h 1977:30): v i o l a t i o n o f ta b o o , i m p u l s i v e n e s s , a l a c k o f c l o s e , c a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , apparent d i s r e g a r d f o r the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s , an i n a b i l i t y t o l e a r n from p a s t m i s t a k e s , l a c k o f a n x i e t y o r remorse, an e x h i b i t i o n i s t i c n a r c i s s i s m , c o n s t a n t use o f p r e -t e n s e and t r i c k e r y , and a demeanor o f c h i l d l i k e , i n n o c e n t charm. Such a l s o appear t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r e q u e n t l y p o s s e s s e d by t h e main c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e r s o n a l - e x p e r i e n c e s t o r i e s I was t o l d by women o f the s t r e e t . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d t h r o u g h o u t the t e x t s quoted h e r e , but J o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f her s i s t e r ' s a c t i o n s may se r v e t o e x e m p l i f y b r i e f l y t h e s e t r a i t s : My s i s t e r has robbed my mark a c o u p l e o f t i m e s . He s e t s up an apartment f o r me and she goes and c l e a n s i t out I The f u r n i t u r e , t he c o l o u r T.V. ... Twice she d i d t h a t t o him! ... She would do t h a t t o anybody t h a t would g i v e h er t h e o p p o r t u n i t y . B u t , see, I was i n here and I thought I would be g e t t i n g out on b a i l . So, he r e n t e d me an apartment, and put a l l k i n d s o f f u r n i t u r e i n i t , bought a c o l o u r T.V. f o r me ... J u s t e v e r y t h i n g ! I t was a l l w a i t i n g f o r me. I s a i d " W e l l , l i k e , I'm g o i n g t o be a b i t , so you might as w e l l g i v e h e r a key and she can s t a y t h e r e u n t i l I'm sprung." And so he d i d . He went out o f town. He came back a month o r two l a t e r and the p l a c e i s empty! She s o l d e v e r y t h i n g . So, he d i d i t a g a i n ... 16 She blows my mind! [To her f r i e n d ] You know how o u t -spoken she i s ? And most p e o p l e t h i n k she's j u s t k i d d i n g , the t h i n g s she comes out w i t h ! But I know she's dead s e r i o u s ! And t h e y l a u g h , and I l a u g h t o o , but f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s " ... She's downtown, she's s i c k , she c a n ' t get any money ... She says "The n e x t guy t h a t w a l k s around th e c o r n e r , t h a t ' s i t , I'm gonna n a i l him!" And she w i l l ! S h e ' l l j u s t punch him i n the f a c e , knock him down, t a k e h i s money and go [ l a u g h i n g ] . 2 Many of t h e T r i c k s t e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a l s o d e s c r i b e d t o me by p e o p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s e women. I n o t h e r words, t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f what resembles so c a l l e d "psy-c h o p a t h i c symptoms" and which i s seen as an e t i c d e f i n i t i o n appears t o be the s t e r e o t y p i c image o f s t r e e t women (and p r e -sumably of s t r e e t p e o p l e a t l a r g e ) h e l d by r e l a t i v e l y k nowl-edgeable s t r a i g h t p e o p l e , a s t e r e o t y p e which a l s o appears t o be w i l l i n g l y u p h e l d by s t r e e t p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s my i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the e t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n tended t o d i s a p p e a r from the n a r r a t i v e s as my i n f o r m a n t s came t o know me b e t t e r . Not t h a t they had r e c o g n i z e d i n me someone whose under-s t a n d i n g and openmindedness c o u l d e a s i l y t r a n s c e n d i t , but s i m p l y because th e p o i n t had c l e a r l y been made. They had shown me t h a t t h e y knew how I saw them. Knowing my c u l t u r e , t h e y had "con-v e r s e d " w i t h me on my terms. T h i s p o i n t h a v i n g been e s t a b l i s h e d by them, I made the subsequent p o i n t : I knew where I s t o o d and had no i n t e n t i o n o f f o o l i s h l y p r e t e n d i n g t h a t t h i s was not where I was g o i n g t o remain: I s i m p l y sought t o u n d e r s t a n d . The p o i n t was not t o "become n a t i v e s ... o r t o mimic them", the p o i n t was zThe i n f o r m a n t s ' s y n t a x and v o c a b u l a r y have been r e s p e c t e d i n a l l t h e t e x t s quoted i n t h i s work. 17 t o t r y and, " i n the widened sense o f t h e term i n which i t encom-passes v e r y much more th a n t a l k , t o conv e r s e w i t h them" (Geertz 1973:13). In t h e s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which s t r e e t and s t r a i g h t p e o p l e a r e i n v o l v e d - a s y m b i o s i s w h i c h j u s t i f i e s perhaps t h e e q u a l use o f e t i c and emic d e s c r i p t i o n s by t h e members o f t h e group examined - t h e y have an advantage over us ( i t i s k n o w i n g l y t h a t I so c l e a r l y draw the l i n e between "them" and "us", o n l y d o i n g what t h e y do t h e m s e l v e s ) . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e s of us are more u s e f u l t o them than our s t e r e o t y p e s o f them are t o us: o f n e c e s s i t y , t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e s have t o be more r e f i n e d s i n c e t h e i r dependence on us i s g r e a t e r t h a n our dependence on them, and s i n c e t h e y have t o work h a r d e r a t m a n i p u l a t i n g us than we do them. CULTURAL BOUNDARIES S t e r e o t y p e s m a i n l y s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e t h e d e l i n e a t i o n of c u l t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s between the two groups. As p r o s t i t u t e s (James 1972a L:l-9), as s t r e e t a d d i c t s (Agar 1973:2-4, S u t t e r 1966:180-186) and as j a i l inmates ( C o u t t s 1961:24-29, I r w i n and C r e s s e y 1964), my i n f o r m a n t s t r i p l y f u l f i l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r membership i n a s u b c u l t u r e . T h e i r presence i n j a i l a l t h o u g h f r e q u e n t i s u s u a l l y of s h o r t d u r a t i o n and o n l y comes as a r e s u l t of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f one o r t h e o t h e r two grou p s : i t i s o n l y a secondary s u b c u l t u r e . They a l s o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r p r o s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (or t h a t o f t h e i r f r i e n d s when th e y a r e not them s e l v e s "working g i r l s " ) t o be r e l a t e d t o the 18 need t o s u p p o r t a drug h a b i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r f i r s t and foremost i n t e g r a t i o n i s i n t o the s t r e e t a d d i c t s ' s u b c u l t u r e . I n f a c t , a s i x t e e n y e a r o l d g i r l met on t h e s t r e e t gave me t h i s unexpected etymology: "We're c a l l e d hookers because we're hooked." As members o f a s u b c u l t u r e , t h e y share many o f t h e v a l u e s of the l a r g e r c u l t u r e , but t h e y d i f f e r from i t i n t h e i r " s h a r e d , l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r s " r e s u l t i n g " i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ways of t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g which make p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a group" (James 1972a:6). Snow, a T s i m s h i a n woman, always r e f e r r e d t o her "own p e o p l e " . When I q u e s t i o n e d h e r , she s a i d she meant " s t r e e t p e o p l e , not o t h e r I n d i a n s . " J u l i e i n d i c a t e d t h a t she and her husband a r e s t r e e t p e o p l e "because o f t h e way we f i t i n , and the t h i n g s we know." J u l i e ' s s t a tement i s t h e non s c h o l a r l y v e r s i o n o f Goodenough's d e f i n i t i o n o f c u l t u r e : Whatever i t i s one has t o know o r b e l i e v e i n o r d e r t o o p e r a t e i n a manner a c c e p t a b l e t o i t s member, and t o do so i n any r o l e t h a t t h e y a c c e p t f o r any o f t h e m s e l v e s . By t h i s d e f i n -i t i o n , we s h o u l d note t h a t c u l t u r e i s not a m a t e r i a l phenomenon; i t does not c o n s i s t o f t h i n g s , p e o p l e , b e h a v i o r , o r emotions. I t i s r a t h e r an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h o s e t h i n g s . I t i s the form o f t h i n g s t h a t p e o p l e have i n mind, t h e i r model f o r p e r c e i v i n g , r e l a t i n g , and o t h e r w i s e i n t e r p r e t i n g them (1957:167). S t r e e t a d d i c t s s h are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s which w i l l be examined l a t e r i n t h e s t u d y . S i n c e t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r sub-c u l t u r e depends so much on i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r e , t h e y must a l s o i n t r o d u c e o u t s i d e r s t o t h e r o l e t h e y a r e t o p l a y i n t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. 19 When Dee and Bugsy, my f i r s t i n f o r m a n t s , came i n t o my o f f i c e i n O a k a l l a and agreed t o t a l k t o me, I became p a r t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e - a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r "square Johns" who i n t e r a c t w i t h them i n a complex system o f communication and exchange. As a newcomer t o t h e i r c u l t u r e , I had t o l e a r n a c e r t a i n behav-i o u r . I c o u l d never by " s o l i d " , b ut c o u l d I be t a u g h t t o be "good p e o p l e " r a t h e r than " i g n o r a n t " ? What minimum knowledge would I have t o a c q u i r e i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the rough g u i d e -l i n e s o f our t r a n s a c t i o n s ? What was my p l a c e i n t h e i r o r d e r o f t h i n g s ? I d i d n o t know a n y t h i n g and I had t o be t a u g h t . Newcomers t o the s t r e e t c u l t u r e - whether as s t r e e t i n s i d e r s o r s t r a i g h t o u t s i d e r s - have t o be somehow drawn i n t o a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Some o f t h e t h i n g s t h e y l e a r n a r e p r o b a b l y t h e same: what makes a rounder a rounder and a square a sq u a r e , and what t h e y can e x p e c t from each o t h e r . As t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d and i n f o r m a n t s t a l k e d about what took p l a c e on t h e s t r e e t between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t p e o p l e , t h e y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c t e d out t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n by dra w i n g me i n t o i t and d e f i n i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as " s t r e e t " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and " s t r a i g h t " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as b e i n g my own. By s t r i c t l y d e f i n i n g our r e s p e c t i v e i d e n t i t i e s and r o l e s , t h e y a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d s e c u r e b o u n d a r i e s between us. As t h e y d e s c r i b e d t h e l i f e s t y l e and v a l u e s o f bo t h groups, i t became c l e a r t h a t b o u n d a r i e s between them c o u l d o n l y be c r o s s e d by p e o p l e who have r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e i r former group. Knowledge o f t h a t c u l t u r e i s n a t u r a l l y not f o r g o t t e n , but may be r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y t r a n s f o r m e d by t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e new 20 c u l t u r e ' s v a l u e s . Many s t r e e t p e o p l e come from s t r a i g h t f a m i l i e s and were themselves s t r a i g h t ; o r a mark may become so i n v o l v e d i n a woman's l i f e s t y l e t h a t he may end up a d o p t i n g h er pace o f l i f e . O t h ers have c r o s s e d t h e l i n e i n r e v e r s e . I n t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a t e t h e y may even be named: one o f the s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n f o r an acey-ducey i s "someone who i s not on the l e v e l . They r o c k . L i k e an e x - j u n k i e t h a t comes back f o r a v i s i t " ( Bugsy). M a r g i n a l p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s a r e u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s s i n c e t h e i r e x c e p t i o n a l s t a t u s s e r v e s t o d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e . I n s p i t e o f t h e moderate f l o w from one group t o t h e o t h e r , and t h e s y m b i o t i c n a t u r e o f t h e ongoing r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two groups, b o u n d a r i e s a r e f i r m l y m a i n t a i n e d . C a t e g o r i c a l e t h n i c d i s t i n c t i o n s do not depend on an absence o f m o b i l i t y , c o n t a c t and i n f o r m a t i o n but do e n t a i l s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s o f e x c l u s i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i o n whereby d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s a r e mai n t e d d e s p i t e c h a n g i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n and membership i n the c o u r s e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i f e h i s t o r i e s . S e c o n d l y , one f i n d s t h a t s t a b l e , p e r s i s t i n g , and o f t e n v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e m a i n t a i n e d a c r o s s such b o u n d a r i e s , and are f r e q u e n t l y based p r e c i s e l y on the d i c h o t o m i z e d e t h n i c s t a t u s e s ( B a r t h 1969:9-10). But t h e s e " c a t e g o r i c a l e t h n i c d i s t i n c t i o n s " a re not a l l t h a t c l e a r c u t s i n c e - t o s t a r t w i t h - my i n f o r m a n t s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f s t r a i g h t n e s s was not q u i t e as e x c l u s i v e as mine. Throughout the r e s e a r c h , I had t o attempt and d i v e s t m y s e l f o f such r e a c t i o n s as " I f h er s i s t e r i s a s t r i p p e r , h er b r o t h e r i s i n t h e Pen, and her p a r e n t s a r e God knows where (she does n o t ) , how can she c l a i m t o have been, u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , s t r a i g h t ( i . e . l i k e me) ?" 2 1 Thus, i t i s from t h e t w i c e a n t i t h e t i c s t a n d p o i n t o f s t r a i g h t n e s s and m i d d l e c l a s s t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s d e p i c t e d t o me had t o be a n a l y z e d . As the epitome o f t h e s t r a i g h t , I perhaps found i t e a s i e r t o a c t out my p a r t i n our s t r e e t - s t r a i g h t t r a n s a c t i o n s , s y m b o l i z i n g a l l the s t r a i g h t v a l u e s and c a l l i n g i n response f o r an a f f i r m a t i o n o f the s t r e e t v a l u e s . To t h i s e x t e n t , o n l y women who f e l t c h a l l e n g e d and met me a t l e a s t h a l f way became i n f o r m a n t s . By i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n i n t o t he ethnog-raphy, we are d e a l i n g w i t h d a t a en abime, a w e l l known l i t e r a r y d e v i c e w h i c h r e v e a l s a p l o t w i t h i n a p l o t , b o t h h e l d i n an a n a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n , and each s e r v i n g t o throw l i g h t on the o t h e r . The t r a n s a c t i o n s between r e s e a r c h e r and i n f o r m a n t s , w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s t o be m a i n t a i n e d and t r a n s g r e s s e d but always t o be acknowledged, a r e p a r t o f an ethnography o f com-m u n i c a t i o n which encompasses v e r b a l exchanges between the two c u l t u r e s . Throughout the s t u d y , the c o n t r a s t o f o u t l o o k s between the two c u l t u r e s w i l l be s t r e s s e d , as a r e i t e r a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a n t s ' need f o r c l e a r l y d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s . THE SETTING The v e r y s e t t i n g (the " S t r e e t " ) i n which most t r a n s a c t i o n s t a k e p l a c e o r a r e i n i t i a t e d i s i t s e l f viewed d i f f e r e n t l y by the two groups. I n Vancouver, t h e S t r e e t can be downtown ( " G r a n v i l l e , Davie ....") o r uptown ("East H a s t i n g s , Cordova, the S t r a t f o r d . . . " ) . Many p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y drug a d d i c t s , concen-t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s around t h e C o r n e r . The Corner 2 2 ( e x c l u s i v e l y a s t r e e t term) i s formed by the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f E a s t H a s t i n g s and Columbia s t r e e t s . From a s t r e e t p o i n t o f v i e w , the West p a r t o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n i s q u i t e d e v o i d o f i n t e r e s t : i t i s alm o s t s t r a i g h t . But the N o r t h E a s t c o r n e r , w i t h the S u n r i s e H o t e l and t h e a d j a c e n t beer p a r l o u r i n f r o n t o f which i n t o x i c a t e d o r drugged women a r e sometimes seen t a k i n g t h e e a r l y a f t e r n o o n sun, and t h e South E a s t c o r n e r , w i t h t h e Cozy C o r n e r , a Chi n e s e g r o c e r y s t o r e , around which hang e x p e c t a n t j u n k i e s and w o r k i n g h o o k e r s : t h a t i s the Cor n e r . The name a l s o i n c l u d e s a s m a l l n e i g h b o u r i n g a r e a (see Appendix E) To me, the Corner i s H a s t i n g s and Columbia. I t ' s a name f o r t h a t whole g e n e r a l a r e a . Down t o C a r r a l l , from Pender over t o P o w e l l , t h a t whole a r e a . To me, t h e S t r e e t and t h e Corner a r e t h e same. L i k e , when I'm t a l k i n g o f g e t t i n g o u t o f here and h i t t i n g the s t r e e t , i t ' s j u s t g e t o u t , but when I t a l k about the S t r e e t , I t a l k about the C o r n e r . (Dee) J u l i e d e s c r i b e d t h e S t r e e t as made o f "pawnshops, r e s t a u -r a n t s , h o t e l s , beer p a r l o u r s , d r u g s t o r e s , n o v e l t y shops". Pos-s i b l y a p a r t from pawnshops ( a t l e a s t h i g h l y v i s i b l e o n e s ) , the d e s c r i p t i o n would a p p l y e q u a l l y t o uptown and.downtown, a l t h o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l appearance o f t h e l a t t e r and t h e ty p e of p e o p l e i t draws put i t a d e f i n i t e n o t c h above t h e for m e r , from a s t r e e t and a s t r a i g h t p o i n t o f view. However, g i v e n the l o c a t i o n o f the two a r e a s , most s t r a i g h t p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between "downtown" (the c e n t r e o f which t h e y see as b e i n g t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Gran-v i l l e and G e o r g i a s t r e e t s ) and "uptown" (which t h e y c a l l " C h i n a -town" and do not f r e q u e n t much: "Most p e o p l e don't go t h e r e , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t h a t draws them t h e r e " ) . Downtown, they s a y , 23 t h e r e a re "department s t o r e s , s m a l l s t o r e s , o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , d e n t a l and m e d i c a l b u i l d i n g s , f l o w e r and c h i n a shops, h o t e l s and t h e a t r e s . " One person a l s o added "and porno shops." In C h i n a -Town (or "uptown", i n J u l i e ' s t e r m s ) , t h e y l i s t the o l d L i b r a r y , C hinese and Japanese c u r i o shops, C h i n e s e r e s t a u r a n t s and t h e P o l i c e S t a t i o n . Two young men a l s o mentioned t h e T r a f f i c C o u r t . Two y e a r s ago, t h i s might have been my d e s c r i p t i o n , 3 t h a t o f an o r d i n a r y square John who, l i k e J u l i e o r the p e o p l e q u o t e d , o n l y sees what i s r e l e v a n t t o h i s o r her e x p e r i e n c e . The o n l y a d d i t i o n s b r o u g h t by t h e o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s t o J u l i e ' s l i s t o f beer p a r l o u r s , d r u g s t o r e s , h o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s and n o v e l t y shops where " s e x u a l a i d s " ("French t i c k l e r s " and o t h e r s ) a r e bought, were t h e a t r e s showing X - r a t e d f i l m s , t h e beach ("You might as w e l l g e t a good t a n w h i l e you're s l e e p i n g " ) and, i n the case o f some " b o o s t e r s " , s e v e r a l department s t o r e s known f o r t h e i r s h o p l i f t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . O b v i o u s l y , the i n f o r m -a n t s ' m e n t a l map o f t h e c i t y i s reduced t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t s i t e s o f the s t r e e t , t h e i r w o r k i n g and l i v i n g a r e a . 3 I n t he S p r i n g o f 1975, I was asked by the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission t o do some r e s e a r c h i n t o and w r i t e a r e p o r t on s t r e e t p r o s t i t u t i o n i n Vancouver (Layton 1975). One o f the f i r s t t h i n g s I d i d was t o go out a t n i g h t w i t h s t r e e t w o r k ers from the Gastown Team, an o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned w i t h t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f j u v e n i l e s , who p a t r o l the a r e a s d e s c r i b e d as uptown and downtown. I t was a t o t a l r e v e l a t i o n : t h e n o c t u r n a l s t r e e t became almost a p h o t o g r a p h i c n e g a t i v e of the d i u r n a l s t r e e t . S t o r e s d i s a p p e a r e d and between t h o s e v a n i s h e d shops s t a r e d t h e un s u s p e c t e d openings of i n numerable walk-up h o t e l s and rooms f o r r e n t : no l o b b y , j u s t a door and a s t e e p s t a i r c a s e . The same phenomenon a l s o gave sub-s t a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e who come t o l i f e a n i g h t , and make shadows of t h e s t r a i g h t people l e f t o v e r from t h e day. (see Appendix E) 24 Not o n l y do the two groups' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f the two a r e a s d i f f e r , but i t i s a l s o c l e a r from t h e r e s p o n s e s e l i c i t e d t h a t the s t r a i g h t p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d , what-e v e r t h e i r a r e a o f r e s i d e n c e and work, have a more e x t e n s i v e v i s i o n o f Vancouver. The same p o i n t i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by C o u l d and White (1974:34-37) who r e p r o d u c e P. O r l e a n s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c example (1967) of t h e t h r e e maps o f Los A n g e l e s p e r c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e eyes of (1) upper m i d d l e c l a s s w h i t e s i n Westwood, (2) b l a c k r e s i d e n t s i n A v a l o n , and (3) S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s i n B o y l e H e i g h t s , i n which t h e c i t y i s g r a d u a l l y reduced i n s i z e t o t h e e x t e n t , i n t h e l a s t c a s e , o f o n l y i n c l u d i n g t h e immediate a r e a , t h e C i t y H a l l and the bus depot ("The major e n t r a n c e and e x i t t o t h e i r t i n y urban w o r l d " ) . S t r a i g h t p e o p l e who go t o town t o work and shop e x p r e s s few f e e l i n g s about i t . E i t h e r t h e y " l i k e " i t , o r t h e y "don't l i k e what they've done w i t h i t " , u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g t o i t s p h y s i c a l appearance. S t r e e t p e o p l e , on t h e o t h e r hand draw much o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h from t h e v e r y environment o f t h e s t r e e t where t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s t a k e p l a c e , from knowing i t and b e i n g known as a p a r t o f i t . L o t s o f p e o p l e c a n ' t go from B u r r a r d t o D a v i e . They go c r a z y . I t ' s a n o t h e r t e r r i t o r y . They're a f r a i d o f p e o p l e , t h e y c a n ' t f e n d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . (Brandy) The w e l l d e f i n e d a r e a s i n w h i c h s t r e e t a d d i c t s f e e l a t home a l s o r e f l e c t t h e i r own s t a t u s and t h e r e c o g n i z e d h i e r a r c h y o f s t r e e t p e r f o r m e r s . T h i s i s even more t r u e o f a d d i c t s t r e e t -w a l k e r s , whose c h o i c e o f a r e a i s not o n l y r e g u l a t e d by p r i m a r y f a c t o r s as a d d i c t s (type o f drug t h e y use, t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n the drug scene, whether t h e y a r e a l s o t r a f f i c k e r s , e t c . ) but a l s o by secondary f a c t o r s as p r o s t i t u t e s ( t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance, grooming, r e m u n e r a t i o n e x p e c t e d f o r s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) . Sue p o i n t e d out t h a t The G r a n v i l l e s t r e e t g i r l s t h i n k t h e y ' r e b e t t e r t h a n the S t r a t f o r d g i r l s , t h e S t r a t f o r d g i r l s t h i n k t h e y ' r e b e t t e r t h a n the H a s t i n g s s t r e e t g i r l s . B u t , wherever i t s e x a c t l o c a t i o n , the S t r e e t i s , f o r a l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s , more th a n a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y : i t i s a way o f l i f e . As a d d i c t s , my i n f o r m a n t s r e c o g n i z e and adapt t o t h e i r own f a v o u r i t e s p o t t h e f e e l i n g s Dee a t t r i b u t e d t o her f r i e n d s a t the Co r n e r : You can t a k e a hype a t the C o r n e r , and t h e y can l i v e down t h e r e and be c o n t e n t o r happy, o r whatever, and th e y can l i v e down t h e r e w i t h o u t n e e d i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . SUMMARY The f o l l o w i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s i n which s t r e e t women engage draws on t h e co n c e p t s o f e t h n o s e m a n t i c s (Goodenough 1957, B u r l i n g 1969, S t u r t e v a n t 1964, Frake 1969, B l a c k 1974:521-529), o r s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n (Goffman 1959, 1961 and 1963, M c C a l l and Simmons 1966) and an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o l k l o r e (Abrahams 1968, Dundes 1971, Cothran 1974). I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an ethnography o f communication w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e community where communi-c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s where s p e c i f i c speech a c t s o c c u r , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e exchanges and t h e v a r i o u s codes adopted i n these e n c o u n t e r s . o 2 6 L i k e t h e works o f James (1971) , Agar (1973) and S p r a d l e y (1970, 1975), t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n f o c u s e s on an e s s e n t i a l l y emic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a s p e c t o f a " d e v i a n t " s u b c u l t u r e p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s becomes i r r e l e v a n t h e r e , s i n c e t h e o n l y d e v i a n c e acknowledged by t h e i n f o r m a n t s i s t h a t o f the c u l t u r e ' s members who f a i l t o conform t o the e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n w i t h i n t h e group and endanger i t s c o h e s i o n : t h e " r a t s " and the " r i p o f f s " . The i n f o r m a n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c environment d i r e c t s t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h members o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r e and among t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r economic s u r v i v a l depends on t h e i r management o f members o f t h e o t h e r c u l t u r e , w h i l e t h e i r s o c i a l s u r v i v a l depends on t h e i r management o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e i r own group. The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a n t - r e s e a r c h e r t r a n s a c t i o n i n t o t h e s t u d y p e r m i t s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a double p r o c e s s : t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a member of t h e s t r a i g h t c u l t u r e , an i n t e r a c t i o n u s u a l l y seen as m u t u a l l y e x p l o i t a t i v e , and t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s method o f i m p a r t i n g and d e f i n i n g a c u l t u r a l v a l u e system. 67 CHAPTER TWO FIELD WORK AND THE INTERVIEW SITUATION In t h e c o u r s e o f a p a s t s t u d y f o r t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission and t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , I t a l k e d t o about two dozen women, p r o s t i t u t e s and h e r o i n a d d i c t s . The a c t u a l f i e l d work took two d i f f e r e n t forms: I f i r s t became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the s e t t i n g as an o b s e r v e r , and I proceeded l a t e r t o i n t e r v i e w women whose t r a n s a c t i o n s n o r m a l l y t a k e p l a c e i n t h e same s e t t i n g . PAST AND PRESENT FIELDWORK Throughout the Summer of 1975, I spent two o r t h r e e n i g h t s a week i n t h e a r e a s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r as "downtown" and "uptown". I accompanied i n d i v i d u a l s t r e e t workers on t h e i r rounds, u s u a l l y from 9 a.m. t o m i d n i g h t o r l a t e r and, on a few o c c a s i o n s , a p o l i c e m a n d e t a c h e d t o the s t r e e t w o r k e r s ' team. A member o f t h e M o r a l i t y squad and a member o f t h e gay community a l s o i n t r o d u c e d me - s e p a r a t e l y - t o some p l a c e s o u t s i d e t h e w o r k i n g a r e a o f t h e s t r e e t w o r k e r s . Through t h e s e p e o p l e I became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s : s t r e e t c o r n e r s , whole c i t y b l o c k s , h o t e l s , beer p a r l o u r s and b a r s o r d i s c o t h e q u e s r e p u t e d t o c a t e r t o groups w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s such as j u v e n i l e homosexuals, b l a c k pimps o r drug t r a f f i c k e r s . I sometimes r e t u r n e d t o t h e s e p l a c e s l a t e r , and i n time became more f a m i l i a r 2 8 w i t h them and more s e n s i t i v e t o a c t i o n s o r s i g n a l s , and even t o sounds s p e c i f i c t o some o f them. D u r i n g t h a t summer, I o b t a i n e d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment f a m i l i a r t o my i n f o r m a n t s . I a l s o s a t i n on t r i a l s o r re a d t r i a l t r a n s c r i p t s o f ca s e s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d e v e n t s r e l e v a n t t o s t r e e t l i f e : c harges o f s o l i c -i t i n g , l i v i n g on t h e a v a i l s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , r a p e , t r a f f i c k i n g , d rug r e l a t e d o f f e n c e s , and even one drug r e l a t e d murder. The common enough o f f e n c e s i n t r o d u c e d me t o an o t h e r a s p e c t o f my i n f o r m a n t s ' l i f e , t he j u d i c i a l and c o r r e c t i o n a l one. The un u s u a l ones i n t r o d u c e d me t o e v e n t s w h i c h sometimes became p a r t o f t h e s t r e e t f o l k l o r e (e.g. Porky and t h e M a f i a s t o r y , p p . 1 2 5 - 1 2 6 ) . For t h e a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s and t h e t e x t s o b t a i n e d , I r e l i e d however almost e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h i s s t u d y on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n O a k a l l a , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t r e , from t h e S p r i n g t o t h e W i n t e r of 1976. The main r e a s o n f o r t h i s s e l e c t i o n i s t h a t i n 1975 I d i d n o t t h i n k I would be u s i n g f o r a d i s s e r t a t i o n t h e d a t a I was g a t h e r i n g . I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o me as a r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h e P o l i c e Commission might not have been f o r t h c o m i n g had t h e i n f o r m a n t s known i t would be used t o f u r t h e r a p e r s o n a l g o a l . Moreover, t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and the p r a c t i c a l use f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s o f work done i n 1975 s i m p l y became one o f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e s e t t i n g and t h e l i f e s t y l e . F i n a l l y , from a p r a c t i c a l and a p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , I p r e f e r r e d j a i l i n t e r v i e w s t o s t r e e t work. U n l i k e J e n n i f e r James 29 who spent many n i g h t s t a l k i n g t o her p r o s t i t u t e i n f o r m a n t s i n l i t t l e c a f e s , a t home, and i n a v a r i e t y o f p l a c e s o u t s i d e the j a i l where she had o f t e n f i r s t met them., I found t h i s f o r t h r i g h t and s e l f a s s u r e d approach i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h my own c h a r a c t e r . I formed a good r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a t l e a s t f o u r o f my i n f o r m a n t s , but t h e r e was ne v e r t h e s l i g h t e s t p r e t e n c e t h a t i t would be c a r r i e d o u t s i d e t h e j a i l . One o f them o f f e r e d t o meet me a f t e r her r e l e a s e , b u t her a c t i v i t i e s i m m e d i a t e l y absorbed her (I heard l a t e r t h a t she was "misbehaving a g a i n " ) and we never met. I d i d not attempt t o t a l k t o unknown women on the s t r e e t when t h e y were w o r k i n g , even b e f o r e I came t o know a l i t t l e more about s t r e e t l i f e , and c e r t a i n l y saw i t as an i m p o s s i b i l i t y a f t e r w a r d s . P a r t o f t h i s r e l u c t a n c e i s due t o a n a t u r a l shyness and a l a c k o f p e r s o n a l s a l e s m a n s h i p . The knowledge o f my i n t e r -f e r e n c e w i t h s t r e e t b u s i n e s s ( u s u a l l y " h o o k i n g " ) , t h e i m p l i c i t p a t r o n i z a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n my assum p t i o n t h a t I might q u e s t i o n them, t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e y would have t o r e j e c t t h i s p u b l i c approach i f o n l y f o r appearance's s a k e , d i d n o t encourage me t o c o n s i d e r t h i s method a d e s i r a b l e one. Most o f my r e l u c t a n c e , however, was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t I c o u l d f i n d no answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Why would t h e y want t o t a l k t o me?". I n 19 75, I was sometimes i n t r o d u c e d t o s t r e e t women by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s o r s t r e e t w o r k e r s . T h i s was a l s o an u n a c c e p t a b l e method, s i n c e t h e women had v e r y l i t t l e c h o i c e t o r e f u s e ( o n l y one d i d ) and t h e pe r s o n who performed t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n was a l s o p r e s e n t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . From t h e s e b r i e f and r a t h e r f u t i l e 30 e n c o u n t e r s , I have o n l y r e t a i n e d f o r the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t h e odd remark which s t r u c k me as an u n s o l i c i t e d m e a n i n g f u l s t a t e m e n t , a c h a l l e n g e , an a s s e r t i o n o f s e l f w o r t h , e t c . (e.g. B o n n i e , when our d e t e c t i v e go-between had l e f t f o r a m i n u t e , s a y i n g , perhaps t o b reak t h e s i l e n c e , " L a s t n i g h t , I made 550 d o l l a r s ! " I under-s t o o d t h i s statement as a c h a l l e n g e and answered: "Wow, t h a t ' s more t h a n I make i n a month!", an answer which m o m e n t a r i l y d e n i e d whatever r i g h t I might have f e l t t o i n t e r r o g a t e her i n a p o l i c e c a r . My s t a t u s was b e t t e r t h a n h e r s a t t h e time and f o r the o c c a s i o n ( r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h e P o l i c e Commission as opposed t o j u n k i e hooker who c o u l d not r e f u s e a cop's r e q u e s t ) , but i n terms t h a t we c o u l d b o t h a p p r e c i a t e , we had e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t she was " b e t t e r " t h a n me). Then (1975) as now (1977) , p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w s i n j a i l were t h e o n l y method I c o u l d e n v i s a g e as a p o s s i b i l i t y . Many r e s e a r c h e r s have mentioned t h a t p e o p l e seem w i l l i n g t o t a l k w h i l e t h e y a r e i n j a i l . Among my i n f o r m a n t s , I guessed a t many re a s o n s f o r t h a t w i l l i n g n e s s : boredom f o r some, and perhaps a d e s i r e f o r t h e more d o c i l e t o do what t h e y thought was e x p e c t e d o f them; sheer enjoyment, a f t e r a r e l u c t a n t b e g i n n i n g , o f b e i n g a p p r e c i -a t e d as a p e r s o n and as a s t o r y t e l l e r ; i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e f o r t h o s e who s t r e s s e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ("I s t a r t e d one term a t L a n g a r a " ; " I f i n i s h e d grade X I I i n here") t o t r y and e x p l a i n i n the terms t h e y assumed t o be t h o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n what way s t r e e t l i f e d i f f e r e d from s t r a i g h t l i f e and how much more e x c i t -i n g i t a l l was; and f o r a t l e a s t one, t h e i n t e r v i e w s were seen as 31 d i d a c t i c e x e r c i s e . I n a l l c a s e s , t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u l l s h i t t i n g as an a r t form t o o k precedence o v e r whatever o t h e r r e a s o n s t h e y m ight have had f o r a g r e e i n g t o t a l k t o me. The a u t h o r i t i e s were e x t r e m e l y generous w i t h me, g i v i n g me one o f t h e i r hard-to-come-by o f f i c e s , and f r e e a c c e s s t o any inmates I chose t o i n t e r v i e w . T h i s was done on t h e b a s i s o f p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w s I h e l d i n j a i l and thanks t o a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n from t h e Chairman o f t h e P o l i c e Commission. I a l s o assume t h a t t h e y a p p r e c i a t e d r e c e i v i n g a copy o f my p r e v i o u s r e p o r t . S i n c e , however, I was engaged i n t h i s new r e s e a r c h as a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l , I am v e r y much i n d e b t e d t o t h e i r g e n e r o s i t y . J a i l i n t e r v i e w s may l e a v e much t o be d e s i r e d . None p u t s i t more s c a t h i n g l y t h a n P o l s k y . We know a l s o , o r ought t o know by now, t h a t d a t a g a t h e r e d from caught c r i m i n a l s , f o r r e a s o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o and q u i t e a p a r t from p o s s i b l e s a m p l i n g b i a s , are n ot o n l y v e r y p a r t i a l b ut p a r t i a l l y s u s p e c t . These a r e d a t a t h a t a r e much t o o h e a v i l y r e t r o s p e c t i v e , d a t a from p e o p l e who a r e n ' t r e a l l y f r e e t o put you down; d a t a o f t e n i n v o l v i n g t h e k i n d o f " c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s " i n w h i c h you g e t t o l d what the c r i m i n a l t h i n k s you want t o hear so you w i l l g e t o f f h i s back o r may be do him some good w i t h the judge o r p a r o l e b o a r d ; d a t a from someone who i s not be h a v i n g as he n o r m a l l y would i n h i s normal l i f e s i t u a t i o n s ; and above a l l , d a t a t h a t you cannot supplement w i t h , o r i n t e r p r e t i n the l i g h t o f your d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f the c r i m i n a l ' s b e h a v i o r i n h i s n a t u r a l environment ( P o l s k y 1969: 115-116). One can c o u n t e r some o f the r e a s o n s g i v e n by P o l s k y f o r condemning t h e v a l i d i t y of d a t a t h u s g a t h e r e d : 1. Data a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y t o be shunned because t h e y a r e " r e t r o s p e c t i v e " . Indeed, most d a t a , e x c e p t t h o s e a r i s i n g from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a r e o f a r e t r o -s p e c t i v e n a t u r e . They a r e a l s o p r o c e s s e d and s e l e c t e d d a t a 32 and s e r v e t o p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o emic v a l u e s and emphases, and t h e c o n s t r u c t s o f r e a l i t y ( W h i t t a k e r 1973). N a r r a t i v e s a r e seldom bare s t a t e m e n t s o f f a c t s but u s u a l l y g i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r e v e n t s . I t i s as such t h a t t h e s e r e t r o s p e c t i v e d a t a a r e u s e f u l s i n c e , as Schwartz and Merton mention i n a passage quoted by W h i t t a k e r (1973:7) : T a l k about m o t i v e s does not end w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t i s t h e " r e a l " o r " t r u e " r e a s o n f o r t h e a c t i n q u e s t i o n but t a p s t h e m o r a l v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h which t h e i n f o r m a n t a p p r a i s e s and e v a l u a t e s m y r i a d s a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Moreover, th e i n d i v i d u a l manner o f a c c o u n t i n g i s i n i t s e l f r e v e a l i n g o f the i n f o r m a n t ' s a t t e m p t s a t p r e s e n t i n g a f r o n t c o ngruent w i t h h i s or her s e l f - i m a g e and b e l i e v e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ( S c o t t and Lyman 1968). 2. The s i m p l e comparison of s t r e e t l i f e s t y l e and s t r a i g h t l i f e s t y l e i s t h e most p o t e n t put-down some i n f o r m a n t s can c o n c e i v e . I t i s a l s o a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e one s i n c e , as t h e s a y i n g goes, " t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g p e r s o n a l i n i t " . U n l e s s , o f c o u r s e , one chooses t o make i t so and acknowledges b o t h t h e put-down and one's i n c l u s i o n i n t h e d e c r i e d group. 3. The " c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s " i s i n i t s e l f an event worthy o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As w i l l be seen l a t e r , i t i s a w e l l r e c o g -n i z e d phenomenon. 4. My s c e p t i c i s m has grown c o n s i d e r a b l y about t h e a b i l i t y o f the s t r a i g h t r e s e a r c h e r t o come c l o s e enough t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s - e s p e c i a l l y t h e c r i m i n a l s u b j e c t ' s - "scene" t o a n a l y z e t h e l a t t e r ' s b e h a v i o u r i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s scene. N a t u r a l l y , e x c e p t i o n s have t o 3 3 be made f o r p e o p l e who b e l o n g t o i t o r have come c l o s e enough t o i t , l i k e t h e M i l n e r s f o r t h e b l a c k pimps (1972) f o r i n s t a n c e , P o l s k y f o r t h e h u s t l e r s (1967) o r Becker f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n s (1951). But, can t h e s e p e o p l e be s a i d t o be e n t i r e l y s t r a i g h t any l o n g e r ? I am q u i t e aware t h a t t h i s s c e p t i c i s m i s a r e s u l t o f t h e " b u l l s h i t t i n g " t o w h i c h I have been s u b m i t t e d , and the r e i t e r a -t i o n t h a t square Johns s i m p l y cannot " u n d e r s t a n d " s t r e e t p e o p l e . I c o n s i d e r i t a p a r t o f my s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a square John. I n o t h e r words, " I know my p l a c e " . S i n c e s t r e e t p e o p l e and square Johns o f t e n i n t e r a c t and f e e d on each o t h e r , t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r ' s c u l t u r e t o t h e l a t t e r i s i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l as t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e a s s i g n e d t o them by t h i s c u l t u r e . THE INFORMANTS The o n l y c r i t e r i o n o f i n c l u s i o n i n my group of i n f o r m a n t s was t h a t t h e women "know" the s t r e e t . F or t h e p r i s o n s t a f f d r a w i n g up t h e l i s t , i t meant women u s u a l l y known t o be u s e r s , t r a f f i c k e r s and/or p r o s t i t u t e s , whatever t h e i r p r e s e n t charge might be. The i n f o r m a n t s were s e l e c t e d i n a c a s u a l maner: the s t a f f l o o k e d a t a l i s t o f inmates and put a check mark i n f r o n t o f those whose e x p e r i e n c e was a p p r o p r i a t e and added: " T h i s one would p r o b a b l y t a l k t o you ... t h a t one might ..." From th e checked names I t h e n s e l e c t e d one who was c a l l e d t o the o f f i c e where I s a t . The i n f o r m a n t s o f t e n asked how t h e y had been s e l e c t e d , i n which case I e x p l a i n e d t h a t I had p i c k e d t h e i r name 34 a t random from a l i s t I had been g i v e n o f p e o p l e who might be " i n t e r e s t i n g " t o t a l k t o ( r a t h e r t h a n " w i l l i n g " t o t a l k t o me, which may have been seen as a put down), and t h a t I d i d not know a n y t h i n g about them p e r s o n a l l y . My i n f o r m a n t s a r e n o t p a r t o f t h e ha r d c o r e of o f t e n p r e s -t i g i o u s inmates who a r e u n w i l l i n g t o t a l k t o n o n - o f f i c i a l s : t h o s e who a r e seen on t h e s t r e e t as " s o l i d " o r " h e a v i e s " and o f t e n become i n j a i l t h e m e d i a t o r s between o t h e r inmates and t h e s t a f f . They use t h e i r s t r e n g t h and a b i l i t y t o m a n i p u l a t e p e o p l e , g r a n t f a v o u r s and p r o t e c t i o n , mete out punishment and f i n d t h a t t h e i r a u t h o r i t y i s seldom c h a l l e n g e d . They a r e u s u a l l y j u n k i e s w i t h a "name" on t h e s t r e e t who f i n d t h a t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n has preceded them i n t h e j a i l . They would have had no re a s o n t o speak t o me and would have g a i n e d n o t h i n g from i t . Of a l l my i n f o r m a n t s , Dee was^the o n l y one who had a s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y comparable t o t h e i r s . R e f e r r i n g perhaps t o t h e women I i n t e r v i e w e d , Dee once e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t was n o t "v e r y c o o l t o h e l p s t r a i g h t p e o p l e " , and I l a t e r came t o see t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d as a f l a w i n the compos-i t e p i c t u r e o f c u l t u r a l competence t h e y were o t h e r w i s e b u i l d i n g f o r me. T h i s f l a w was somewhat redeemed by my a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y t h a t they would not have spoken t o me on t h e s t r e e t . (a) The P o p u l a t i o n The f i r s t p a r t o f my r e p o r t o f t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission (1975) draws upon t h e c o u r t , p o l i c e and p r o b a t i o n f i l e s o f one hundred women a r r e s t e d between 1973 and 1975 i n Vancouver f o r 3 5 " s o l i c i t i n g f o r t h e purpose o f p r o s t i t u t i o n " . The number was a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d , but t h e f i l e s were chosen on the b a s i s o f f u l l n e s s . Thus, a young g i r l f o r whom t h e c o u r t had r e q u e s t e d a thorough p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t was as l i k e l y t o be r e p r e s e n t e d as a woman w i t h a heavy c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , w e l l known by the p o l i c e and who may have been on a l o n g p r o b a t i o n . T h i s b i a s e d sample may a l s o n o t have been r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the a c t u a l age d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e s t r e e t , s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n on g i r l s under t h e age o f seventeen had t o be sought s e p a r a t e l y . The manner i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n had been g a t h e r e d d i d not p r e s e n t a g r e a t c o n s i s t e n c y e i t h e r and some f i l e s d i d not even t o u c h upon a s p e c t s v e r y w e l l documented i n o t h e r (e.g. f a m i l y b a ckground). Some f i l e s went back t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , and f a s h i o n s , t r e n d s and emphases were sometimes d i s c e r n i b l e (one f i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , even c o n s i d e r e d the women's e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and t o i l e t t r a i n i n g ) . W i t h t h e s e s e r i o u s c a v e a t s , an attempt was made t o c o l l e c t i n f o r -m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e women's p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y , t h e i r f a m i l y background and home envir o n m e n t , t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f d r u g s , t h e i r m e d i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c h i s t o r y , c o u r t h i s t o r y ( r a t h e r t h a n c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y w h i c h may not always have been f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d w i t h a r r e s t and t r i a l ) and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . These women form t h e p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h the i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h e p r e s e n t work a r e drawn, and a summary o f th e r e p o r t ' s f i n d i n g s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Limoges s u r v e y (1967), may s e r v e as a u s e f u l i f v e r y s k e t c h y i n t r o d u c t i o n . The youngest woman i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e p o r t was 14 y e a r s o l d 36 and t h e o l d e s t one 45; but most o f t h e ages ranged between 16 and 25. Of t h e t h i r t y who r e p o r t e d when th e y e n t e r e d p r o s t i t u -t i o n , 80% i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was b e f o r e t h e age o f 20, p e a k i n g a t 16-18. Most were w h i t e , and o f t h e t w e l v e I n d i a n s i n t h e sample, e i g h t were between t h e ages 15 and 19. They came almost e q u a l l y from urban and r u r a l a r e a s , and a l m o s t two t h i r d s o f them were from B r i t i s h Columbia. Some completed secondary s c h o o l and a few d i d n ot go beyond e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ; b u t t h e m a j o r i t y l e f t s c h o o l somewhere between grade 8 and 11. The o c c u p a t i o n s t h e y have i n t e r m i t t e n t l y h e l d ranged from w a i t r e s s e s t o c l e r k s o r s t r i p p e r s . Many have never h e l d l e g i t i m a t e employment and most were on W e l f a r e . Some o f t h e women a r r e s t e d had been m a r r i e d and were u s u a l l y d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d . A few l i v e d w i t h an " o l d l a d y " i n a l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p , but most l i v e d w i t h an " o l d man" i n a common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p . The " o l d man" u s u a l l y had a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , made h i s l i v i n g by t r a f f i c k i n g o r o t h e r i l l e g i t i m a t e means, and was most o f t e n a h e r o i n a d d i c t . Some o f the women who were not themselves h e r o i n a d d i c t s had worked o r were w o r k i n g f o r a w h i t e o r b l a c k pimp. Many o f them (30%) had had one o r two c h i l d r e n , u s u a l l y g i v e n up f o r a d o p t i o n a t b i r t h ; t h e few who had kept them u s u a l l y had them l o o k e d a f t e r by a r e l a t i v e . More t h a n h a l f o f t h e women's e a r l y home l i f e had been a f f e c t e d by t h e p a r e n t s ' d i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n , by t h e dea t h o r d e s e r t i o n o f one p a r e n t , o r some o t h e r f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n . F o u r -t e e n were r e p o r t e d t o be i l l e g i t i m a t e o r t o have been adopted i n 3 7 i n f a n c y . Many r e p o r t e d l e a v i n g home b e f o r e t h e age o f 15. One q u a r t e r came from s m a l l f a m i l i e s o f one o r two c h i l -d r e n , more th a n h a l f came from f a m i l i e s w i t h between t h r e e and s i x c h i l d r e n , and t h e r e s t came from v e r y l a r g e f a m i l i e s o f seven, t e n o r even more c h i l d r e n . Almost a t h i r d o f the s i x t y -f o u r women f o r whom the i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e were f i r s t b orn c h i l d r e n . I t was a l s o n o t ed t h a t when t h e f a m i l y had t o bear t h e p r e s s u r e o f a se v e r e a d d i t i o n a l problem (a b l i n d mother, a mother s l o w l y d y i n g o f c a n c e r , a mongoloid b r o t h e r , a b a d l y c r i p p l e d p a r e n t , a s i s t e r w i t h c e r e b r a l p a l s y , o r a mother w i t h p s y c h i -a t r i c p r o b l e m s ) , i n h a l f t h e cases t h e f i r s t b o r n c h i l d was p a r t of t h e sample. Moreover, e i g h t o f them were t h e e l d e s t daughter i n f a m i l i e s o f f i v e t o n i n e c h i l d r e n . Almost h a l f o f t h e home environments were d e s c r i b e d as "average". An almost e q u a l number were d e s c r i b e d as "bad" ( a l c o -h o l i c p a r e n t s , abused c h i l d r e n , e t c . ) . The f i l e s s u b s t a n t i a t e d seven c a s e s o f m o l e s t a t i o n by a c l o s e male r e l a t i v e b e f o r e t h e age o f 10, and r e p o r t e d two more. A s m a l l number o f women were r e p o r t e d by s o c i a l w orkers o r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s as coming from a p u n i t i v e o r e x t r e m e l y r e l i g i o u s f a m i l y , o f t e n among f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The p a r e n t s ' work h i s t o r y showed on t h e whole an attempt a t k e e p i n g more o r l e s s s t e a d y employment as l a b o u r e r s o r semi-s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . A s m a l l group showed o n l y s p o r a d i c employment, odd j o b s and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A t t h e o t h e r p o l e , an even s m a l l e r group i n d i c a t e d p a r e n t s w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l and m i d d l e 3 8 c l a s s background. Only h a l f o f t h e women a r r e s t e d f o r s o l i c i t i n g on t h e s t r e e t and i n b a r s were h e r o i n a d d i c t s . A l l , however, used some ty p e o f d r u g , whether a l c o h o l , b a r b i t u a t e s , m a r i j u a n a , LSD, speed, c o c a i n e , e t c . The younger g i r l s s t i l l r e p o r t e d s n i f f i n g g l u e . Among t h e h e r o i n a d d i c t s , d a i l y consumption was a n y t h i n g from a l i g h t h a b i t o f two t o t h r e e caps t o an e x p e n s i v e h a b i t o f s i x t o e i g h t caps o r more o f low q u a l i t y d rug. Q u i t e a few were o r had been on a methadone maintenance program. Almost h a l f t h e women had never been charged w i t h o r con-v i c t e d o f s o l i c i t i n g b e f o r e but may have r e c e i v e d s e v e r a l "warnings" under t h e p r e v i o u s A c t . The o t h e r h a l f had a t l e a s t one c o n v i c t i o n f o r t h e same o f f e n c e and many had f o u r o r f i v e p r e v i o u s s o l i c i t i n g c o n v i c t i o n s . Most o t h e r c o n v i c t i o n s were f o r t r a f f i c k i n g o r b e i n g i n p o s s e s s i o n o f n a r c o t i c s . Three q u a r t e r s o f the women had a l s o been c o n v i c t e d o f p e t t y t h e f t . Some o f t h e younger women had been i n v o l v e d i n c r i m e s w h i c h were u n t i l r e c e n t l y m o s t l y committed by men, such as c a r t h e f t o r b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , and more cases o f a s s a u l t s were r e p o r t e d among t h e j u v e n i l e s . The underground p r o s t i t u t i o n o f c a l l g i r l s and housewives was not t h e o b j e c t o f t h e st u d y and o n l y v i s i b l e p r o s t i t u t i o n f i g u r e d i n t h e r e p o r t . I d i s t i n g u i s h e d between t h r e e g e n e r a l zones o f o p e r a t i o n : S k i d Road ("uptown" i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , see Appendix E ) , t h e G r a n v i l l e s t r e e t a r e a and t h e Dav i e s t r e e t a r e a . I n the f i r s t a r e a , where t h e Corner and t h e S t r a t f o r d 39 H o t e l f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f h e r o i n a d d i c t s were overwhelming. Lower f e e s were r o u t i n e l y charged and the economic r u l e o f thumb (where one t r i c k e q u a l s one cap) was u s u a l l y a p p l i e d . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t , f o r a v a r i e t y o f l e g a l and economic r e a s o n s , p r o s t i t u t i o n downtown has r e c e n t l y been more o b v i o u s , more a g g r e s s i v e and, r e p u t e d l y under t h e gu i d a n c e o f pimps, i s p r o l i f e r a t i n g . I do not b e l i e v e t h a t s t r e e t p r o s t i t u t i o n among th e j u n k i e s o f t h e f i r s t a r e a has been n o t i c e a b l y m o d i f i e d by t h e changes r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e . I f t h e a d d i c t p r o s t i t u t e s ' b u s i n e s s i s a f f e c t e d by the c o m p e t i t i o n coming from t h e i n c r e a s e d number of p r o s t i t u t e s r e p o r t e d by t h e P o l i c e and t h e news media, they must s i m p l y r e s o r t t o more t h e f t s , more con j o b s , and t h o s e who d i d not t r a f f i c k b e f o r e may now have t o do so. (b) The I n d i v i d u a l I n f o r m a n t s For a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , the main one b e i n g o b v i o u s l y t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' good w i l l and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t e n women were s e l e c t e d as i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n . T h e i r ages ranged between 21 and 33, w i t h a mean o f 25.8 y e a r s . Only two have not t r a v e l l e d f a r t h e r t h a n A l b e r t a ; t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e o t h e r s , as a d d i c t s and p r o s t i t u t e s , c o v e r s most o f Canada and p a r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h r e e have a l s o been o v e r s e a s . Two were f a i r l y new t o t h e s t r e e t , t h e o t h e r e i g h t have been i n v o l v e d i n i t s i n c e t h e i r l a t e t e e n s o r e a r l i e r . A l l but one had .been i n p r i s o n b e f o r e , some many t i m e s . Three had r e q u e s t e d t o be h e l d i n p r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y f o r t h e i r own p r o t e c t i o n and t h e y l i v e d t o g e t h e r i n one room where 4 0 everybody o f t e n j o i n e d i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . Two o t h e r s were f i r s t i n t e r v i e w e d t o g e t h e r , t h e n b r o k e up t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and were a f t e r w a r d s seen s e p a r a t e l y . The l a s t t h r e e were always seen a l o n e . Some i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m e d o r d e n i e d a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e (e.g. "I'v e never been a w o r k i n g g i r l , b ut I've been t r a f f i c k i n g s i n c e I was s i x t e e n , " Dee). The f i n a l c r i t e r i o n o f i n c l u s i o n was whether o r not t h e woman h e r s e l f a c c e p t e d h er d e f i n i t i o n as b e l o n g i n g among " s t r e e t p e o p l e " . A l l around t h e j a i l , I r e c o g n i z e d the sounds and s m e l l s o f an E n g l i s h m e n t a l h o s p i t a l where I worked t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ago, and some o f t h e l i s t l e s s n e s s and t h e r e s t l e s s n e s s were a l s o t h e same. A l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s b u t Boots who had j u s t a r r i v e d had t h e p a s t y c o m p l e x i o n and t h e s h u f f l i n g g a i t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . They a l l wore t h e same j e a n s and the same T - s h i r t s and some s a i d t h a t t h e y were p l e a s e d t h a t t h e y no l o n g e r had t o wear u n i f o r m s . They a l l had j e w e l l e r y and most e x h i b i t e d t a t t o o s . The d e f i n -i t i o n s , j o k e s , b o a s t s and f e a r s quoted i n t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s are e x t r a c t e d from r a m b l i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n s h e l d w i t h Bugsy, Brandy, Snow, J u l i e , J o , Sue, Sugar, T i n y and B o o t s . I never saw t h e i r f i l e s and o n l y know what t h e y t o l d me and what I f e l t i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e . BUGSY was t h e youngest, a f a i r s k i n n e d g i r l o f twenty-one. From one i n t e r v i e w t o t h e n e x t , I d i d not know how I would f i n d h e r : b o i s t e r o u s , s u l k y , funny, a p p a r e n t l y p l e a s e d t o see me o r b a r e l y c i v i l . Y e t , she always s t a y e d . She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as 41 p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y tough and o f t e n t a l k e d o f b e a t i n g s r e c e i v e d and g i v e n , o f t h e u t t e r p i t i l e s s n e s s o f s t r e e t l i f e , and of s u r v i v i n g i t a l l and coming o ut a wi n n e r . I found her a d e l i g h t f u l s t o r y t e l l e r . I n s p i t e o f her age, she had been a hooker and a j u n k i e f o r e i g h t y e a r s . Now, alm o s t two y e a r s l a t e r , I can o n l y remember h e r as young and d i s a r m i n g . DEE was a s t o l i d and s t u r d i l y b u i l t woman. Her composure was always a d m i r a b l e and she exuded s t r e n g t h and common sense. She had always been a l e s b i a n and a t the b e g i n n i n g always came w i t h Bugsy. Dee was a j u n k i e , a t r a f f i c k e r , and t a l k e d o f r o b b e r i e s , escapes and v i o l e n c e . I thought h er b r a v e , c o u r t e o u s and f e l t c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t f o r h e r . She a l s o a p p l i e d system-a t i c a l l y t o our i n t e r v i e w s t h e c o n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s she was a t the same t i m e d e s c r i b i n g f o r me. A f t e r f o u r months, I s a i d : "We can go no f u r t h e r . You now know more about me than I know about you." She agreed p o l i t e l y , and t h a t was t h a t . BRANDY was a t t h i r t y - t h r e e t h e o l d e s t o f my i n f o r m a n t s . I thou g h t h er an unwise and i n d i s c r e e t woman: a f t e r twenty-two y e a r s on t h e s t r e e t and i n the j a i l s , she s t i l l t a l k e d t o t h e wrong peop l e and s a i d t h e wrong t h i n g s ; she was i n p r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y . Her l o n g e x p e r i e n c e i n American and Canadian s t r e e t s and j a i l s made her an i d e a l s u b j e c t , e q u a l l y f l u e n t i n s t r e e t a r g o t , s t a n d a r d language and m e d i c o - l e g a l j a r g o n . She was u n f o r -t u n a t e l y moody, however, w i t h a v e r y s h o r t a t t e n t i o n span and i n t e r v i e w i n g h e r amounted t o an endurance t e s t . We o f t e n s a t out i n t h e sun where she sunbathed, f o r e v e r d i s t r a c t e d by t h e male 42 inmates who worked nearby. A l t h o u g h a j u n k i e , her s e l f - p r o f e s s e d w o r s t enemy was a l c o h o l : she c o u l d never r e s i s t i t and had " b l a c k o u t s " d u r i n g which she b eat p e o p l e s e n s e l e s s . Her v i o l e n c e was a l s o d i r e c t e d a t h e r s e l f and her f orearms were e n t i r e l y c o v e r e d w i t h s l a s h s c a r s . She c o u l d e x p r e s s h e r s e l f i n the f o u l e s t way i m a g i n a b l e , y e t was c e r e m o n i o u s l y p o l i t e w i t h me. I t h i n k she found me some-what s i m p l e and t o t a l l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . SNOW was a b e a u t i f u l T s i m s h i a n g i r l o f t w e n t y - f o u r , w i t h r e m a r k a b l y f i n e hands. S i n c e t h e s e p o r t r a i t s a r e p u r e l y s u b j e c -t i v e and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , I s h a l l say t h a t I saw Bugsy and Snow as " g i r l s " and t h e o t h e r s as "women". I saw them b o t h as s e n t i -m e n t a l , v u l n e r a b l e , and i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n perhaps a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s more th a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . I n s p i t e o f t h e i r h a v i n g an e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e w h i c h I c o u l d not even fathom, I saw them b o t h as c h i l d r e n . Snow had been i n v o l v e d i n many p e t t y a c t i v i t i e s and t h e f t s , s m a l l t ime t r a f f i c k i n g , and a l s o s u p p o r t e d h e r s e l f by p r o s t i t u -t i o n . L i k e Bugsy, she had an i m p u l s i v i t y and an a l m o s t uncon-t r o l l a b l e w i l d n e s s about h e r . Two weeks b e f o r e the end o f her term, she escaped. JULIE came from a " s t r a i g h t " f a m i l y . She was m a r r i e d and had a c h i l d o f whom we o f t e n t a l k e d and who was b o r n i n j a i l d u r i n g a p e r v i o u s term of imprisonment. Her husband was a l s o s e r v i n g a s e n t e n c e i n O a k a l l a . She gave me t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t she p r a c t i s e d a somewhat h i g h e r c l a s s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r s , t h a t a l l her a c t i v i t i e s were i n f a c t s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f 4 3 the o t h e r inmates and mentioned t h a t she and her husband had "worked" i n E n g l a n d and done w e l l . She had luminous g r e y eyes i n a h e a r t shaped f a c e and her appearance and manner would s u p p o r t h e r c l a i m t h a t h e r g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s was w i t h marks. She always showed i n t e r e s t i n my work and e n j o y e d d i s c u s s i n g a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s . T h i s was p r o b a b l y a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e i n s i s t e n c e w i t h w h i c h she p r o j e c t e d a " s u p e r i o r " image. JO was a v e r y composed and handsome, i n t e l l i g e n t and o f t e n b i t t e r woman. She had t r a v e l l e d t o England and N o r t h A f r i c a and was p l e a s e d t o hear t h a t I knew Morocco which she l i k e d . She p r o s t i t u t e d h e r s e l f as a l a s t r e s o r t and p r e f e r r e d t o b o o s t o r s t e a l from her customers. BOOTS was s m a l l and q u i t e c h i l d l i k e i n appearance, w i t h l o n g b l o n d h a i r . She had been w e l l p r o t e c t e d by her o l d man and, a f t e r h i s d e a t h , went t o work f o r a w h i t e pimp who got her o f f h e r o i n f o r a w h i l e . A l t h o u g h a p r o s t i t u t e and drug a d d i c t o f l o n g s t a n d i n g , she had o n l y r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d s t r e e t l i f e . She t o l d t a l e s o f s u c c e s s u n r i v a l l e d by the o t h e r women, and her con-t r i b u t i o n f i g u r e s m o s t l y i n Appendix D. SUE, w i t h Dee t h e o n l y i n f o r m a n t who was not a p r o s t i t u t e , was m o s t l y a t r a f f i c k e r and b o o s t e r , who s t a r t e d u s i n g a t the age of t h i r t e e n . She was an u n f r i e n d l y woman and sometimes attempted t o i n t i m i d a t e me. Y e t , t h e s e minor power s t r u g g l e s were n e i t h e r i m p o r t a n t nor f r e q u e n t enough t o j u s t i f y her w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a l k t o me. She was a p r e c i s e i n f o r m a n t who t o o k t h e t r o u b l e t o c o r r e c t my m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n s . 44 TINY and SUGAR were t h e o n l y two i n f o r m a n t s who appeared unable t o cope w i t h the p r e s s u r e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i f e . They had b o t h been " s t r a i g h t " and unable t o r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f a more " e x c i t i n g " l i f e , but n e i t h e r appeared t o have been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l on t h e s t r e e t . D u r i n g t h e n i n e months o f my f i e l d work, T i n y and Jo were r e l e a s e d ; Bugsy and Boots were t r a n s f e r r e d ; Sue, Snow and Brandy escaped. Brandy was r e c a p t u r e d soon a f t e r w a r d s and s a i d i t had been "worth i t ! " A l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s were j u n k i e s . A l l made t h e i r l i v i n g on t h e s t r e e t and a l l would p r o b a b l y go back t o i t a f t e r t h e i r r e l e a s e o r t h e i r escape, as t h e y had always done i n t h e p a s t . Pseudonyms I t o l d my i n f o r m a n t s t h a t t h e i r anonymity would be r e s p e c -t e d as much as p o s s i b l e . I c o u l d have d i s t o r t e d t h e d a t a t o ensure complete anonymity, bu t have done n o t h i n g beyond th e vagueness of t h e above p o r t r a i t s and t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f pseudo-nyms, and t h i s f o r f o u r r e a s o n s : 1. My committee and t h e p r o b l e m a t i c r e a d e r s o f a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n c a r e l i t t l e whether Jane Doe, who l i v e s i n a n o t h e r w o r l d , becomes T a t i a n a as l o n g as e i t h e r name i s a t t r i b u t e d w i t h c o n s i s t e n c y t o the a u t h o r o f the s t a t e m e n t s quoted. 2 . S i n c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s were c a l l e d i n t o my o f f i c e t h r o u g h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e , the s t a f f know who my most f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s were. 45 3 . I t i s q u i t e u n l i k e l y t h a t any o f my i n f o r m a n t s ' a s s o c i a t e s would e v e r b o t h e r , i f t h e y knew o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , t o go t o the u n i v e r s i t y and r e a d my t h e s i s . 4. Moreover, and t h i s i s by f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t (and the r e a s o n f o r w h i c h t h e y showed so l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n p r e -s e r v i n g t h e i r anonymity) t h e d a t a I c o l l e c t e d a r e t o t a l l y u n i m p o r t a n t from t h e i r p o i n t o f view. W h i l e w o r k i n g f o r t h e P o l i c e Commission, I once asked a woman i f she d i d not mind b e i n g seen g e t t i n g o u t o f what was o b v i o u s l y an unmarked p o l i c e c a r ( o t h e r s , perhaps l e s s s u r e o f t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n , had shown some r e l u c t a n c e about i t ) . She answered: " I don't r e a l l y mind. They know me. They know I wouldn't say a n t h i n g i m p o r t a n t ! " I can o n l y assume t h a t some-t h i n g " i m p o r t a n t " would be i n f o r m a t i o n on c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s (whether knowledge o f a c r i m e , i t s p e r p e t r a t o r s , t h e whereabouts o f an escaped c o n v i c t , o r a n y t h i n g w h i c h would h e l p t h e p o l i c e ) . T h i s would be " r a t t i n g " out on o t h e r s t r e e t p e o p l e and one would have t o have a good reason f o r a g r e e i n g t o do so. The i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e c u r i o u s square John - even one endowed w i t h some s c h o l a r l y t i t l e and bent on some s c h o l a r l y t a s k - i s o f t h e same t y p e as t h e t i d b i t s g i v e n t o t h e mark: n e i t h e r r e a l l y m a t t e r . But s i n c e t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e women and t h a t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r (or t h e mark) a r e not t h e same, t h e so-thought t r i v i a o f f e r e d by the former may be a l l t h a t i s wanted from them. 46 On the second o r t h i r d i n t e r v i e w , I would come back t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f anonymity a l r e a d y b r i e f l y mentioned d u r i n g the f i r s t one. A l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d not c a r e about i t . T h i s , I b e l i e v e , was t h e f i r s t put-down I met. T h e i r d e n i a l o f a need f o r anonymity was s i m p l y a r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e sta t e m e n t made th e y e a r b e f o r e t h a t "They know I wouldn't say a n y t h i n g impor-t a n t " . The i m p l i c a t i o n was a l s o t h a t o n l y what t h e y c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t i s _ i m p o r t a n t . By t h e same t o k e n , i t made me a c o l l e c -t o r o f t r i v i a . I i n s i s t e d on t h e i r need f o r a pseudonym because I was k e e p i n g an open d i c t i o n a r y which was a v a i l a b l e t o them and where t h e y c o u l d always check t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s and comments, as w e l l as t h o s e made by o t h e r p e o p l e , and d i s c u s s t h e s e . I made the d o u b l e p o i n t t h a t t h e y might be embarrassed t o have t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s r e a d by o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e j a i l , and t h a t t h e i r anonymity was a l s o f o r my p r o t e c t i o n s i n c e I o n l y wanted t o know them by a nickname and be unable t o i d e n t i f y them l a t e r (they i n d e e d o f t e n q u e s t i o n e d me on "Who s a i d t h a t ? " ) . I was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the t y p e s o f nicknames t h e y would choose. Only h a l f o f them chose t h e i r own pseudonyms: Sugar ( a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g Brandy who, w i t h one g l a n c e a t h e r w e l l endowed f r i e n d , suggested " G r a p e f r u i t " ) , Brandy, B o o t s , Bugsy (second c h o i c e , T i n y b e i n g a l r e a d y t a k e n and her own nickname b e i n g t o o w e l l known), and J u l i e . I s e l e c t e d t h e o t h e r s , buy my re a s o n s would r e v e a l t h e i r i d e n t i t y . So, because o f my i n s i s t e n c e and i n s p i t e o f t h e i r l a c k o f 47 i n t e r e s t , my i n f o r m a n t s were g i v e n pseudonyms. A l l but one, who r i g h t e o u s l y i n s i s t e d t h a t she had no r e a s o n t o " h i d e h e r s e l f " . A few days l a t e r , i n t h e c o u r s e of a g o s s i p y s e s s i o n w i t h Brandy, i t s u d d e n l y became c l e a r t h a t t h i s woman's r e a l name was q u i t e unknown on t h e s t r e e t where she was o n l y known by her nickname. Her r e a l name was i n f a c t the b e s t pseudonym she c o u l d have used. In a p p r e c i a t i o n o f her g u i l e and her s a n c t i m o n i o u s a t t i t u d e , I gave her back h er own nickname as a pseudonym. I t m a t t e r s l i t t l e w h i ch one i t i s s i n c e t h e j o k e i s o n l y between her and me, and s i n c e , more t o the p o i n t , h er s t a t e m e n t s a r e in d e e d "not i m p o r t a n t " . THE INTERVIEW TRANSACTION S i n c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' agreement t o c o l l a b o r a t e had t o be s o l i c i t e d b e f o r e any f u r t h e r s t e p c o u l d be t a k e n , our f i r s t i n t e r v i e w was a l m o s t a s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n , where I went v e r y r a p i d l y t h r o u g h what Olesen and W h i t t a k e r d e s c r i b e as the f i r s t t h r e e phases o f r o l e - m a k i n g : s u r f a c e e n c o u n t e r , p r o f f e r i n g ( d e f -i n i t i o n s o f one's s e l f and t h e o t h e r ) and i n v i t i n g ( d e f i n i t i o n s of b o t h from t h e i n f o r m a n t s ) , s e l e c t i n g and m o d i f y i n g (meaning-f u l and v i a b l e p o r t i o n s of r e s e a r c h e r ' s and i n f o r m a n t ' s r o l e ) (Olesen and W h i t t a k e r 1967:273-281). I i n t r o d u c e d m y s e l f and i n d i c a t e d my a f f i l i a t i o n s , s t a t i n g t h a t I was n e i t h e r a s o c i a l worker nor a p s y c h o l o g i s t . I t was one way t o d i s s o c i a t e m y s e l f from t h e o v e r l y f a m i l i a r . I soon r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s was a n e c e s s i t y . My door was open when I was 48 no t i n t e r v i e w i n g anyone, and a f t e r h a v i n g seen me a few t i m e s w h i l e w a i t i n g t o be a d m i t t e d t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e a c r o s s t h e h a l l , some women sometimes wandered i n and q u e s t i o n e d me. Most, h a v i n g s a t i s f i e d t h e m s e l v e s t h a t I was not what t h e y t h o u g h t I was ( e i t h e r a p s y c h o l o g i s t o r a s o c i a l w o r k e r , s i n c e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e was sometimes used by them) l e f t i t a t t h a t . Others s a t on t h e edge o f t h e desk, ready t o f l e e s h o u l d I become demanding (or perhaps t a l k t o o much), and t r y t o f i n d o u t what I was. S i n c e t h e s e t a l k s were not f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s ( i . e . t h e y had i n i t i a t e d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , were i n c o n t r o l and a s k i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s , had not agreed t o " t a l k " t o me, d e c i d e d when t h e y s h o u l d l e a v e , e t c . ) t h e y o f t e n proved t o be p r o f i t a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n s where I c o u l d o b s e r ve a f r e e h a n d l i n g o f the s t r e e t - s t r a i g h t e n c o u n t e r . I o f t e n n o t i c e d t h a t a smoothly r u n n i n g and c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n c o u l d become d i f f i d e n t and s t i l t e d when i t t u r n e d i n t o a f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w ("Well, would you l i k e t o t a l k t o me, t h e n ? " "Yeah ... O.K. . . . " ) • o r c o u l d even appear t o come t o an end u n t i l "next time we meet", w h i l e i n f a c t c o n t i n u i n g t o ramble on f o r some t i m e a f t e r w a r d s . The commitment i n v o l v e d i n t h e change o f s t a t u s f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t and t h e p r e s s u r e f o r t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n t e r v i e w e r seemed t o t a k e on a p a r a l y z i n g q u a l i t y f o r b o t h . S i n c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s knew v e r y w e l l - each i n her own way -how t o h a n d l e a s o c i a l worker o r a p s y c h o l o g i s t , i t was a n o v e l t y f o r them t o f a c e an unknown q u a n t i t y as I , and t h e i r r e c o n n a i s -sance i n t o l e s s f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y was i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e . F o r c a s u a l v i s i t o r s and r e g u l a r i n f o r m a n t s , I p r a c t i s e d a few 49 d e f i n i t i o n s o f a n t h r o p o l o g y which would s e t i t a p a r t from t h e i r f a m i l i a r e x p e r i e n c e . I t r i e d : " I n a n t h r o p o l o g y , we are a c t u a l l y i n a v e r y n i c e p o s i t i o n , s i n c e we don't have t o t a k e s i d e s . F o r us, n o t h i n g i s r e a l l y "good" o r "bad". I f i t works, i t ' s good, i f i t d o e s n ' t , i t ' s bad." Some may have r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s what i s p a r t l y t h e i r own p h i l o s o p h y . O t h e r s may have though a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s p r e t t y wishy-washy. But - even i f t h e y d i d not b e l i e v e me - i t was a t l e a s t a c l e a r d e p a r t u r e from what t h e y c o n s i d e r " p r e a c h i n g " b e h a v i o u r o r what t h e y see as an attempt t o "get i n t o my head and s e t me s t r a i g h t " . To r e t u r n t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , I i n t r o d u c e d m y s e l f and e x p l a i n e d t h a t I was i n t e r e s t e d i n language and how people d e s c r i b e t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , g i v i n g t h e example o f what a " b a s t a r d " cop would mean t o a s t r e e t woman and a " b a s t a r d " p r o f t o a s t u d e n t : how th e y would d e s c r i b e two d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r s w i t h t h e same term and how t h i s term and t h e b e h a v i o u r i m p l i e d would be u n d e r s t o o d d i f f e r e n t l y by a n o t h e r s t r e e t woman o r ano t h e r s t u d e n t , n e i t h e r h a v i n g an immediate r e c o g n i t i o n o f her s t r e e t o r u n i v e r s i t y c o u n t e r p a r t ' s e x p e r i e n c e , but knowing what the term meant f o r her own group; I c o n c l u d e d t h a t "the cop and th e p r o f a re p r o b a b l y b a s t a r d s f o r the same r e a s o n s , but a c t i t out d i f f e r e n t l y " - thus c l a i m i n g a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t h e ranks o f downtrodden i n f e r i o r s and females everywhere, t h e o n l y s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e I c o u l d c l a i m w i t h my i n f o r m a n t s . I a l s o mentioned t h a t I was i n t e r e s t e d t o see how we p r o t e c t e d o u r s e l v e s from such b e h a v i o u r . I found i t n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n a t some l e n g t h my i n t e r e s t 50 i n l anguage, s i n c e my f i r s t s u p e r f i c i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n by a t h i r d p a r t y as "someone i n t e r e s t e d i n s t r e e t language" e l i c i t e d t h e amused and p a t r o n i z i n g r e a c t i o n : "You mean " f u c k " and s t u f f l i k e t h a t ? " B e f o r e t h e y answered my r e q u e s t t o t a l k t o me, I a l s o a sked: "There's a n o t h e r p o i n t and t h a t i s what's i n i t f o r you, and what's i n i t f o r me? I'm w o r k i n g f o r my Ph.D. a t t h e u n i v e r -s i t y , and t h e l a s t t h i n g I have t o do b e f o r e I'm t h r o u g h i s t o w r i t e a t h e s i s . Once I'm f i n i s h e d , I don't know. Ten y e a r s ago i t would have meant a good j o b . Now, I'm not so s u r e . But I've been a t i t f o r so l o n g t h a t I might as w e l l f i n i s h ! Now, what's i n i t f o r you? I'm not so s u r e about t h a t e i t h e r ... I c a n ' t r e a l l y pay you. A l l I can do i s l e a v e a "token o f my a p p r e c i a -t i o n " o r a " c o n s u l t a n t ' s f e e " on your account when I l e a v e , but i t would not be v e r y much ... Some p e o p l e e n j o y t a l k i n g about what t h e y know and what t h e y ' r e good a t ... There's someting e l s e w h i c h I t h i n k i s i m p o r t a n t and i t ' s s i m p l y t o t r y and make p e o p l e u n d e r s t a n d a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r what goes on. I know most of you r e a l l y want t o be l e f t a l o n e [ v i g o r o u s nods o f agreement], but we make the laws. And i f we don't know a n y t h i n g about you, your problems and your needs, our laws a r e g o i n g t o r e f l e c t t h a t . I can g i v e you two examples o f how a l i t t l e b i t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g has improved t h i n g s : as you know, i t i s no l o n g e r i l l e g a l t o be a homosexual, and v e r y soon now someone who presses, charges f o r rape w i l l n o t be asked whether she i s a hooker o r n o t . She w i l l n o t f i r s t have t o s t a n d t r i a l on t h a t b e f o r e her case i s h e a r d . 51 I always r e c e i v e d a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h a t l a s t a r g u -ment s i n c e i t has l o n g been a v e r y s o r e spot f o r s t r e e t women who seldom even b o t h e r t o p r e s s charges f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n . 1 I went on: "Hookers here would p r e f e r t o be l e f t a l o n e , t o o , b u t i t i s n o t the case everywhere e l s e , where t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o form u n i o n s and t o g e t t h e i r problems r e c o g n i z e d . They a r e t h e ones who come out and want t o t a l k about i t . They even go on s t r i k e s sometimes I " Once our r e l a t i o n s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d , I sometimes bro u g h t them f l o w e r s , c i g a r e t t e s , c h o c o l a t e o r gum. Bugsy always b r o u g h t t e a t o our i n t e r v i e w s , and I f e l t she was t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g a h o s t e s s - g u e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p between us. I n r e s p o n s e , I always b r o u g h t f l o w e r s o r s o f t d r i n k s when i n v i t e d f o r d i n n e r . I always s t r e s s e d t h e p o i n t t h a t I had no r i g h t s and depended e n t i r e l y on the good w i l l and h o s p i t a l i t y o f my i n f o r m a n t s . When i n t r o d u c e d by t h e s t a f f who sometimes f o r g o t t o i n d i c a t e t h i s c l e a r l y , I added: " I f you f e e l l i k e t a l k i n g t o me, t h a t i s I " I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t I was: a t t e m p t i n g t o a l l o w my xThe f o l l o w i n g exchange i s somewhat t y p i c a l o f f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d by many i n f o r m a n t s when f a c e d w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t p r o s t i t u t e s cannot be r a p e d . (I met t h e d e f e n d a n t i n 1975). Defense c o u n s e l : Had you had sex w i t h anybody f o r money? Defendant: I mean, what a r e you b r i n g i n g a l l t h i s up f o r ? I d i d n ' t ask t o g e t b e a t up. I d i d n ' t ask t o g e t t r e a t e d l i k e t h a t . J u s t because I was a w o r k i n g g i r l , he can go around, p o i n t i n g guns and t r e a t i n g me l i k e t h a t ? ... Yes, I have been a w o r k i n g g i r l . T hat's what you're a s k i n g I Yes, I admit t o t h a t . But t h a t does n o t have t o be r i g h t f o r him t o f o r c e me i n t o t h a t , and p u l l a gun, and t h r e a t e n t o k i l l me, does i t ? Does i t ? (Vancouver rape t r i a l t r a n s c r i p t ) 52 i n f o r m a n t s as much s e l f r e s p e c t and freedom as t h e y c o u l d have i n t h e s e s u r r o u n d i n g s , and t h a t by s t r e s s i n g t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y and good w i l l I acknowledged the i n e q u a l i t y o f t h e exchange o f d a t a -f o r - a - d i s s e r t a t i o n f o r a few d o l l a r s , a bunch o f l i l a c s o r r o s e s from my garden w i t h a l s o t h e same e f f e c t . I t i s such an easy p o s i t i o n t o assume t h a t I cannot t r u t h f u l l y d e t e c t what p a r t f r a u d u l e n c e and m a n i p u l a t i o n t a k e i n t h e f r o n t managed by a r e s e a r c h e r e s p e c i a l l y when t h i s f r o n t i s most n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d t o t h a t r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus, i t c o u l d perhaps be argued t h a t i t was a con game. Having assumed t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e would be a c c e p t a b l e , t h a t my r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r g r a c i o u s n e s s and c o u r t e s y would be a p p r e c i a t e d , t h i s became my game. A p a r e n t h e s i s i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n t h e meaning o f t h e word "game". Of t h e d i f f e r e n t meanings a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e word by E r i c P a r t r i d g e i n h i s D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e Underworld (1950) , my i n f o r m a n t s commonly use t h e f i r s t and t h e t h i r d d e f i n i t i o n s ; the second and f o u r t h ones a r e known t o them but are seen as American o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y B l a c k American o r " n i g g e r t a l k . " Game 1. Used as a noun, the q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g mastered o r h a v i n g t h e a p t i t u d e t o master t e c h n i q u e f o r g e t t i n g money o r one's own way t h r o u g h t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f human emotions. 2. The Game - p r o s t i t u t i o n , a l s o c a l l e d t h e "pussy game." 3. Any game i n which money and p e r s o n a l g a i n a r e the o b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g a l l h u s t l e s and " l e g i t i m a t e " b i g money e n t e r -p r i s e s 4. High game, e.g. "When you g i v e t e n c e n t s ' worth f o r twenty 53 c e n t s and t h e t r i c k t h i n k s he got t h i r t y c e n t s ' w o r t h . " I t i s a l s o a p p arent t h a t some s t r a i g h t - s t r e e t e n c o u n t e r s can be seen as "games" i n a more o r t h o d o x way, s i n c e i t h o l d s t r u e i n t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s t h a t a t l e a s t one o f the i n t e r a c t a n t s i s aware o r c a p a b l e of b e i n g made aware t h a t , i n r e a l i z i n g h i s aims i n an e n c o u n t e r , he must t a k e i n t o account th e o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what he e x p e c t s o f them, and v i c e v e r s a ( S c o t t and Lyman 1970:95). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s may a l s o become " f a c e games", i n t h e words of Goffman, i n which " d e f e n s i v e " ( s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e ) and " p r o t e c t i v e " o b j e c t i v e s a r e sought i n p r o t e c t i n g one p a r t i c -p a n t ' s i d e n t i t y a g a i n s t damage o r s p o i l a g e ( S c o t t and Lyman 1970:97)-. They are a l l a s p e c t s of t h e game whi c h a r e f a m i l i a r t o my i n f o r m a n t s . The game i s a l s o enhanced by t h e i r awareness t h a t i t i s a l s o seen as such my many of the s t r a i g h t p e o p l e who i n t e r v i e w them i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t y . BOUNDARIES Throughout most of the i n t e r v i e w s and w i t h most o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s , two s e t s o f b o u n d a r i e s emerged: t h o s e r e s u l t i n g from t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n of t h e two c u l t u r e s , and t h o s e c r e a t e d by the s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f and the way i t had been d e f i n e d . In the f i r s t c a s e , the c u l t u r a l s t r a i g h t - s t r e e t b o u n d a r i e s were d o u b l e : t h e customary o p p o s i t i o n between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t v a l u e s were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o n t r a s t e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f s t r e e t i n f o r m a n t s and s t r a i g h t r e s e a r c h e r , b u t a second o p p o s i -t i o n was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t women. 54 In the second c a s e , t h e type o f d a t a sought was m o s t l y l i n g u i s t i c and d e a l t w i t h c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s : I had not e x p r e s s e d any i n t e r e s t i n c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t t e r s o r , e x p l i c i t l y a t l e a s t , i n o c c u p a t i o n a l ( i . e . s e x u a l ) i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus, t h e o v e r t i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t o p i c o f s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s i n our i n t e r -v i ews went beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e " s i t u a t i o n " as i t was d e f i n e d , p r e s e n t i n g a t h r e a t t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e n t i r e e n c o u n t e r (Goffman 1961). I had a l s o e x p r e s s l y d e s c r i b e d m y s e l f as s t r a i g h t and a d e f i n i t e b e h a v i o u r and v o c a b u l a r y were e x p e c t e d from me. C o n s e q u e n t l y , I c l e a r l y t r a n s g r e s s e d my p e r s o n a l b o u n d a r i e s when I once i n a d v e r t e n t l y used t h e word "blow j o b " . The term e l i c i t e d a nervous and embarrassed g i g g l e from t h e i n f o r m a n t , who may not have minded " f r e n c h i n g " , b u t p r o b a b l y e x p e c t e d " o r a l sex" from a m i d d l e age and m i d d l e c l a s s woman, o r even " f e l l a t i o " , i f she knew t h e word. Respect f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h e d b o u n d a r i e s was o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' modesty. Most of them appeared c a r e f u l not t o say a n t h i n g which might presumably shock me. What might appear t o me t o be o u t l a n d i s h s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , would be r e f e r r e d t o as "something s p e c i a l " . On t h e whole, t h e y b e l i e v e d - and s a i d so - t h a t I was v e r y c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s e x u a l m a t t e r s and saw as e x t r a o r d i n a r y e x p e r i e n c e s which were t o them o r d i n a r y . " L i k e , f o r you," s a i d J o , "something might be d i f f e r e n t , b ut f o r us, i t ' s n o rmal." When p r e s s e d - a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when t r y i n g t o d e f i n e f o r me t h e d i f f e r e n c e between " p e r v e r t s " , " f r e a k s " , " w e i r d o s " and 55 " n u t s " - Bugsy gave me examples but o b v i o u s l y d i d not e n j o y d o i n g so. By t h e same t o k e n , when I v o l u n t e e r e d an example, always drawn from a n o t h e r i n f o r m a n t ' s t e x t , t o c o n f i r m a d e f i n i t i o n -e.g. " I f he wants t o watch you pee i n a g l a s s , o r i f he wants you t o pee on h i s f a c e , t h a t ' s h a rmless enough, but i s he l i k e l y t o t u r n ' dangerous as w e l l and t r y t o h u r t you?" - i t was r e c e i v e d w i t h what appeared t o be some embarrassment. I n a s t o r y r e l a t e d by Bugsy, her o l d man asked: "What were we d o i n g ? " when she t o l d him t h a t she had seen him w i t h a n o t h e r woman. F o r my b e n e f i t , she e x p l a i n e d : "So I t o l d him! I des-c r i b e d i t r i g h t down t o a tee.'" the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e o t h e r w i s e v e r b a t i m r e t e l l i n g o f t h e whole d i a l o g u e t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e d u r i n g t h e i r q u a r r e l . Another t i m e , she r e l a t e d i n some d e t a i l an en c o u n t e r w i t h a s a i l o r , s k i p p i n g o v e r t h i s passage: " I p i c k e d him up as a t r i c k . We went t o my g i r l f r i e n d ' s house and we d i d our t h i n g " . I n t h e same manner, J u l i e s a i d : "You p i c k up a t r i c k and you go t o h i s h o t e l room, and d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f whatever may be happening o r t u r n i n g o u t ..." Her use o f euphemisms was such t h a t she o f t e n c o n f u s e d me e n t i r e l y and t h a t , t o spare her i n her e f f o r t s t o spare me, I p r e f e r r e d not t o ask f o r c l e a r e r e x p l a n a t i o n s . Another example o f a c e r t a i n s e x u a l modesty w h i c h I o f t e n n o t i c e d i n my youngest i n f o r m a n t s ' d e a l i n g s w i t h me was t h e manner i n wh i c h Bugsy and Dee showed me t h a t t h e y were i n v o l v e d i n a l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p . They had bo t h been c a l l e d t o my o f f i c e t o g e t h e r : t h e i r names f o l l o w e d each o t h e r on the l i s t and 56 I had asked th e c o u n s e l l o r whether t h e y got on w e l l and c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d t o g e t h e r . She had s i m p l y answered: "Yes, i t w i l l be a l l r i g h t , t h e y ' r e f r i e n d s . " They i m m e d i a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p by s i t t i n g i n f r o n t o f my desk and h o l d i n g hands. T h i s f i r s t c l u e h a v i n g been r e c e i v e d i n a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t f a s h i o n , Dee t h e n l i t a c i g a r e t t e w h i c h Bugsy sometimes too k away from her mouth o r her hand and from which she drew two o r t h r e e t i m e s b e f o r e g i v i n g i t back t o h e r . There was a h a l f f u l l package on t h e desk i n f r o n t o f Dee, so t h e i r s h a r i n g was not t o be under-s t o o d as due t o the s c a r c i t y o f c i g a r e t t e s . Moreover, t a k i n g a c i g a r e t t e away from someone l o o k s l i k e a much more i n t i m a t e g e s t u r e t h a n r e c e i v i n g a h a l f smoked c i g a r e t t e . Dee b e i n g q u i t e o b v i o u s l y the dominant i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p (whatever t h e n a t u r e o f i t might have b e e n ) , Bugsy's g e s t u r e denoted a t r u s t and i n t i m a c y n o t j u s t i f i a b l e by any o t h e r t y p e o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p . T h i s second c l u e h a v i n g been a c c e p t e d , t h e y proceeded t o t h e n e x t one: Dee s a t back more c o m f o r t a b l y i n h e r h ard c h a i r and l i f t e d h er l e g s t o l e t them r e s t on Bugsy's l a p . Throughout th e r e s t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w Bugsy massaged Dee's b i g t o e s . They a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t h e word " n i c h y " , g r i n n i n g and s t r e s s i n g t h e word so t h a t I would ask what i t meant. Dee e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t r e f e r r e d t o a n y t h i n g t h a t a r o u s e d one s e x u a l l y and Bugsy l a u g h e d : "Dee i s n i c h y about her b i g t o e ! " What makes the i n c i d e n t m e a n i n g f u l i s t h a t i n none of t h e i r f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w s d i d t h e y e v e r t o u c h each o t h e r a g a i n and I assume t h a t t h e whole performance o n l y s e r v e d as a t e s t . The 57 o n l y o t h e r a l l u s i o n t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a d i s -c u s s i o n on t a t t o o s , when Bugsy showed me how h e r e x - o l d man's i n i t i a l s had been t u r n e d i n t o Dee's i n i t i a l s . When, two months l a t e r , I asked Bugsy what were t h e advantages o f h a v i n g an " o l d l a d y " i n j a i l , I f e l t I had committed a s m a l l b r e a c h of e t i q u e t t e s i n c e she had never s a i d a n y t h i n g e x p l i c i t about h e r f i r s t hand knowledge o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ; I ended my sentence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was not a p e r s o n a l one. She t h e n t a l k e d f r e e l y of h e r f u t u r e p l a n s w i t h Dee. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s modesty may be found i n Brandy's s t a t e m e n t : " I f someone g i v e s me f i f t y b u c k s , I l o s e a l l modesty. But i f someone's not g i v i n g me s h i t , I'm r e a l l y modest." But I a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r f r e q u e n t d i f f i d e n c e t o d i s c u s s e x p l i c i t l y t h e i r s e x u a l t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h me was m a i n l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n them l i e s What i s deemed t o be the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between us. T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r i s n a t u r a l l y enough a t o p i c o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t women. I n her i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The P r o s t i t u t i o n P a p e r s , M i l l e t t d e s c r i b e s some s h r i l l and d i s o r d e r l y arguments between f e m i n i s t s and p r o s t i -t u t e s , i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h was f i n a l l y h e a r d th e a c c u s a t i o n , so l o n g b u r i e d i n l i b e r a l good w i l l o r r a d i -c a l r h e t o r i c ... The r e j e c t i o n and d i s a p p r o v a l w h i c h th e p r o s t i t u t e s have sensed from th e b e g i n n i n g , and w i t h t h e u n e r r i n g i n s t i n c t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s have d i r e c t e d a l l t h e i r energy toward e x p o s i n g ( M i l l e t t 1 973:25). 2 2 T h i s resentment resembles the one sometimes e x p r e s s e d by B l a c k s and I n d i a n s when f a c e d w i t h w h i t e " l i b e r a l good w i l l o r r a d i c a l r h e t o r i c " . 58 T h i s c r y : "You're s e l l i n g i t , I c o u l d t o o b u t I do n ' t " , i n e f f e c t a t r i p l e s t a t e m e n t , i s a l l t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e f e m i n i s t s a r e o f t e n the f i r s t t o m a i n t a i n t h a t w i v e s c l o s e l y resemble p r o s t i t u t e s and buy w i t h s e x u a l f a v o u r s o r d u t i e s t h e i r husband's f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and t h e s e c u r i t y i t b r i n g s , o r t h a t s t r a i g h t women repay men f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f b e i n g wined, d i n e d , e n t e r t a i n e d and f l a t t e r e d i n t h e o n l y way t h a t i s e x p e c t e d o f them. Whereas t h i s argument i n the f e m i n i s t s ' mouth i s m e a n t t o s t r e s s t h e s e x u a l and s o c i a l s u b j e c t i o n o f a l l women, i n t h e p r o s t i t u t e s ' mouth i t s i m p l y becomes a way t o put down s t r a i g h t women and show t h a t t h e y have l i t t l e r e a s o n t o f e e l s e l f r i g h t e o u s ( s i n c e i t i s assumed t h e y do) and s u p e r i o r t o s t r e e t women. 3 U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , when f e m i n i s t s do t a k e up t h e argument, i t i s not w e l l a c c e p t e d by p r o s t i t u t e s . Or v i c e v e r s a . I f some r e l u c t a n c e was u s u a l l y shown when r e f e r r i n g t o e x p l i c i t l y s e x u a l - o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t h i s c o n t e x t - m a t t e r s , i t must a l s o be s a i d t h a t c o a r s e n e s s was sometimes used as a weapon ( d e f e n s i v e , r e t a l i a t i v e o r a g g r e s s i v e , depending on t h e i n t e r -v i e w s i t u a t i o n ) . I t was a t l e a s t f e l t as such, and w h i l e I a c c e p t e d t h e customary s t r e e t put down o f t h e " i g n o r a n t " s t r a i g h t as a g e n e r a l i z e d a n t a g o n i s t i c g e s t u r e , I apprehended t h e 3 "A h u s t l e r i s any woman i n American s o c i e t y . I was t h e k i n d o f h u s t l e r who r e c e i v e d money f o r f a v o r s g r a n t e d r a t h e r than the t y p e o f h u s t l e r who s i g n s a l i f e t i m e c o n t r a c t f o r her t r i c k . Or t h e k i n d o f h u s t l e r who c a r e f u l l y r e a d s women's magazines and l e a r n s what i t i s p r o p e r t o g i v e f o r each d a t e , depending on how much money h e r date o r t r i c k spends on her ( T e r k e l 1974:57)." 5 9 v o l u n t a r y c o a r s e s e x u a l remark o r s u g g e s t i o n as a p e r s o n a l a f f r o n t . I n f a c t , b o t h were e q u a l l y d i r e c t e d a t c h a l l e n g i n g a s t r a i g h t woman's s e l f p e r c e p t i o n as a l i b e r a l and u n d e r s t a n d i n g p e r s o n . The s t e r e o t y p i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s t r a i g h t women's hang ups 1* s e r v e d t o make any p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e a h o s t i l e c h a l -l e n g e and an attempt t o f o r c e t h e i s s u e , v e r y much as i n t h e passage d e s c r i b e d by Kate M i l l e t t . But i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c h a l l e n g e was o n l y a response t o what may have been seen as an u n f a i r e x c u r s i o n o u t s i d e t h e parameters o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n as t h e y had been d e f i n e d . On t h e whole, however, by never p r o f e r r i n g any so c a l l e d l i b e r a l good w i l l o r r a d i c a l r h e t o r i c t o my i n f o r m a n t s , I spar e d us bo t h the embarrassment o f t h e i r h a v i n g t o " s e t me s t r a i g h t . " When our r e s p e c t i v e , y e t s i m i l a r , p o s i t i o n s had t o be d i s c u s s e d , i t was o f t e n done t a c t f u l l y and somewhat i r o n i c a l l y . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t , f o r i n s t a n c e , Brandy s w i t c h e d around a p o p u l a r s t a t e m e n t : she d i d not say: " A l l w i v e s a r e p r o s t i t u t e s . " She s a i d : " A l l husbands are t r i c k s " ; f u r t h e r m o r e , when she compared us and s a i d t h a t we a c t i n s i m i l a r ways and m a n i p u l a t e our men i n i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n , she d i d not compare us as p r o s t i t u t e and s t r a i g h t woman, but s i m p l y as women: she spoke as an " o l d l a d y " ( r a t h e r t h a n as a p r o s t i t u t e ) t o a w i f e ; 4 A s Bugsy e x p l a i n e d : " I t was m a i n l y a sex problem between them. "The same o l d t h i n g a l l t h e t i m e ! " That's what Joe s a i d . He s a i d he c o u l d n ' t h a n d l e i t . He s a i d she r e f u s e d t o do i t i n a d i f f e r e n t way, because she d i d n ' t know how. She was s c a r e d . She always had t h e Mommy image i n her head: "Don't do t h a t l " T h at's a naughty g i r l ! " 6 0 You l o o k t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s , t h e y say the woman's been t i e d t o housework and r a i s i n g k i d s . But she's a l s o manipu-l a t e d t h a t guy t o go out and s l a v e h i s a s s , b r i n g home the paycheck, f e e d h e r , t a k e her o u t , wine and d i n e h e r . And I t h i n k t h a t now women a r e caught i n t h e i r own t r a p . They m a n i p u l a t e a l i t t l e t o o good! Because I t a l k e d t o a l o t o f p e o p l e and t h e y ' l l say: "But how can you t u r n a t r i c k ? " And I ' l l say: "You guys t u r n a t r i c k e v e r y time you f u c k your w i v e s ! " And t h e y say: "We don't t u r n ..." And I s a y s : "Yes, you do! You're b u y i n g the g r o c e r i e s f o r t h e week, you're c l o t h i n g h e r . And i f she's not i n t h e mood t o ge t f u c k e d t h a t n i g h t , y o u ' l l say: " W e l l , l e t ' s go t o a p a r t y , d e a r ! " and you r e l a x her w i t h booze and g i v e her a good t i m e , and t h e n you g e t h e r i n bed. And so e v e r y man i s a t r i c k ! " I t ' s t r u e ! Women have m a n i p u l a t e d men and now t h e y ' r e b a l k i n g because t h e y ' r e s t u c k i n t h e k i t c h e n ! You t a k e a good l o o k i n g woman o r a good l o o k i n g man, and t h e y can g e t a l o n g anywhere. I f t h e y have a n y t h i n g on t h e b a l l , t h e y use t h e i r l o o k s t o p l a y on o t h e r p e o p l e . I used t o do i t when I was younger. I was c u t e when I was a k i d , so I would j u s t p u c k e r up and throw a few c u t e t e a r s and I'd g e t what I want. When I got o l d e r I had a good shape, so a l l I'd have t o do i s w i g g l e my ass p a s t a guy and I got what I wanted, you know. Or, i f your husband's horny, and you want a c o a t o r something, you're gonna be as n i c e as you can, u n t i l you get t h a t c o a t . And t h e n y o u ' l l go back i n t o your r o l l e r s and no make-up. And you want something e l s e , so out come the r o l l e r s and on comes the make-up! I've done i t a l l my l i f e , and a l l my g i r l f r i e n d s do i t . Maybe t h e y don't r e a l i z e t h e y ' r e d o i n g i t , but t h e y ' r e d o i n g i t ... You p r o b a b l y done i t ! I f b o u n d a r i e s were u s u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d , t h e y were a l s o t r a n s g r e s s e d , and t h e r e was o f t e n an i m p l i c a t i o n o f female com-p l i c i t y d u r i n g our i n t e r v i e w s . I t was more or l e s s i m p l i e d t h a t , whereas t h e S t r e e t T r i c k s t e r was beyond my e x p e r i e n c e , I would d e f i n i t e l y guess what the Female T r i c k s t e r was up t o , and would know where and when t o l a u g h . I v e r y much doubt t h a t a male r e s e a r c h e r would have r e c e i v e d t h e same d a t a . A f t e r our r e c i p r o c a l l y t e n t a t i v e ges-t u r e s o f t h e b e g i n n i n g had f i n a l l y g e l l e d i n t o f a m i l i a r i t y , what t h e y t o l d me because I was a woman, t h e y would have s p a r e d him 61 because he was a man. Even i f t h e words had been the same, t h e i n t o n a t i o n and t h e g r i n s would have been d i f f e r e n t . And i f thos e had been t h e r e , t h e n t h e message t h e y c a r r i e d would have been d i f f e r e n t . To borrow G e e r t s ' w a r n i n g (1973:15-16), our f i c t i o would have d i f f e r e d and a man's "making" would n ot have been t h e same as mine. THE DATA The work done w i t h t h e i n f o r m a n t s f e l l b a s i c a l l y i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : e l i c i t a t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n s and answers; c o l l e c t i o n of spontaneous a n e c d o t e s ; and taxonomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Some women were i l l a t ease and moody, a l t h o u g h on t h e whole w i l l i n g t o t a l k ; o t h e r s were h e l p f u l and p a i n s t a k i n g l y i n f o r m a t i v e ; o t h e r s a g a i n were f r i e n d l y and v i v a c i o u s s p e a k e r s . A few o f them went t h r o u g h a l l t h r e e s t a t e s o v e r the months o f the r e s e a r c h . The i n f o r m a n t s and I n a t u r a l l y adopted a form o f communication b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p we had formed and t h e i r mood o f t h e moment. Bugsy, f o r i n s t a n c e , who c o u l d ramble on from one s t o r y t o a n o t h e r w i t h good humour, a good sense o f t i m i n g and a s a r c a s t i c t u r n o f mind, s a t w i t h g l a z e d eyes when I asked h er t o s o r t o u t and c l a s s i f y c a r d s : w i t h i n a few m i n u t e s , her boredom had made t h e atmosphere o f t h e room u n b e a r a b l e . Dee and Sugar, on the o t h e r hand, d u t i -f u l l y p erformed t h e t e d i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s , o f t e n p u z z l i n g a t what t h e y d i s c o v e r e d and s a y i n g t h e y had never "thought about i t l i k e t h a t b e f o r e . " J u l i e , 62 whose i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s was always e v i d e n t , appeared e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s , s p e c u l a -t i n g on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c u l t u r e s and d i s c u s s i n g t h e system o f communication and exchange between t h e i r members. To s t a r t t he f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s , when the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s was s t i l l unknown t o me, I asked them a l l t o name and d e s c r i b e the p e o p l e t h e y saw on the s t r e e t . As t h e s e were named and d e s c r i b e d , a rough c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l r e a d y took p l a c e i n t o " s t r e e t p e o p l e " ( t r a f f i c k e r s , u s e r s , h o o k e r s , e t c . ) and t h e "square Johns" (shoppers, t r i c k s , e t c . ) . As t h e groups were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d (e.g. d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t r i c k s , h o o k e r s , u s e r s , e t c . see Appendix B ) , more d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w e d , c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p e s were e x p r e s s e d and r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d e f i n e d . Some i n f o r m a n t s never c o n f i n e d themselves t o s t r a i g h t answers. I n f a c t , i t was t h e measure o f B u g s y 1 s t i r e d n e s s when she d i d , and I would t h e n put an end t o t h e f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w . She, and a t l e a s t two o t h e r s , r e g u l a r l y s u b s t i t u t e d an anecdote f o r a d e f i n i t i o n . I f I asked a q u e s t i o n on t h e p o s s i b l e t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between a "good cop" and a s t r e e t woman, f o r i n s t a n c e , o r on the way t o ha n d l e drunken t r i c k s , an answer v e r y o f t e n took the form of a s t o r y . I assume t h a t t h e y found i t d i f f i c u l t t o answer my q u e s t i o n s w i t h g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s amounting t o an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c environment. An a n e c d o t e , r e f e r r i n g t o one i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n asked found one answer, e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t e a d t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s 63 c u l t u r a l competence and h e r a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h a d e f i n i t e , con-c r e t e s i t u a t i o n . To an a b s t r a c t statement on r e l a t i o n s h i p s , she s u b s t i t u t e d a c o n c r e t e statement on s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n s . From t h e sum o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h and r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h s t r e e t g o s s i p emerge t h e approved b e h a v i o u r a l l i m i t s o f the group. Some i n f o r m a n t s appeared t o f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g format o f q u e s t i o n s and answers, perhaps because i t resembles t o o much p o l i c e i n t e r r o g a t i o n s o r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c o r r e c t i o n a l s t a f f . They were i n s t e a d encouraged t o t a l k f r e e l y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e on t h e s t r e e t , o f what t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be o c c u p a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l problems, and how th e y attempt t o handle t h e s e , and t h e y u s u a l l y responded t o t h i s r e q u e s t by r e t e l l i n g s t o r i e s d e p i c t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s and u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l outcomes. Whether o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h one i n f o r m a n t ' s u s u a l a n e c d o t a l way o f ans w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s o r a n o t h e r ' s s p e c i f i c i n t e n t t o r e l a t e a p a r t i c u l a r t a l e , p a r t o f t h e d a t a c o n s i s t s o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s . Some o f t h e s e s t o r i e s , t h r o u g h t h e sheer c o n t e x t o f t h e s t r e e t ' s u s u a l means o f l i v e l i h o o d and s u r v i v a l and the i n f o r -mants' s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , a r e v e r s i o n s o f t r i c k s t e r t a l e s , d e s c r i b i n g how t h e " s t r a i g h t " t r i c k o r mark, whose i n t e n t i s t o e x p l o i t " s t r e e t " women, a r e i n f a c t t r i c k e d ( m a n i p u l a t e d o r robbed) by them. They a l s o d e s c r i b e how i n f o r m a n t s come, s u c -c e s s f u l l y o r n o t , t o terms w i t h problems a r i s i n g from the i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y as p r o s t i t u t e s and drug a d d i c t s as 64 t h e y e n c o u n t e r members o f t h e n a r c o t i c s and m o r a l i t y squads. Always, t h e y attempt t o t r i c k t h o s e o ut t o t r i c k them. F i n a l l y , t h e y d e s c r i b e how t h e women's good f a i t h i s sometimes d e c e i v e d by the "bad" t r i c k s who rob and beat them, and how t h e y meet such a s i t u a t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n f o r which t h e y a r e always p r e p a r e d . W h i l e t h i s f i r s t group o f s t o r i e s d e s c r i b e s the i n t e r -a c t i o n , always o f an e x p l o i t a t i v e n a t u r e , between members o f t h e two c u l t u r e s , o t h e r s t o r i e s e s t a b l i s h some o f t h e parameters of i n - g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n and d e s c r i b e a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r and s a n c t i o n s f o r t r a n s g r e s s i n g i t s g u i d e l i n e s . A l i n g u i s t i c s a n a l y s i s went a l o n g w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s . Words i n t u i t i v e l y deemed t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , o r e x p l i c -i t l y s a i d t o be so by the i n f o r m a n t s t h e m s e l v e s , were e x t r a c t e d from t h e t e x t s and c l a s s i f i e d i n two ways: a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , w i t h t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n and o f t e n ample i l l u s t r a t i o n o f usage i n con-t e x t : e i t h e r ad hoc examples p r o v i d e d by t h e women as t h e y d e f i n e d t h e terms, o r e x t r a c t s from t h e s t o r i e s i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c meanings and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t s ; and t a x o n o m i c a l l y , i n t o domains such as " s t r a i g h t s " , " t r i c k s " , " h o o k e r s " , " a d d i c t s " , "cops", e t c . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was done by the i n f o r m a n t s as t h e y r e v i e w e d some 2 0 0 c a r d s b e a r i n g the words o f t h e g l o s s a r y (Appendix A) and s o r t e d them i n t o a semantic g r o u p i n g t h a t "made sense" t o them. F u r t h e r s o r t i n g t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y , as words were d i s c u s s e d and t h e terms were o r d e r e d a l o n g v e r t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n s o f d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n . None o f my i n f o r m a n t s had done t h i s t y p e o f 65 s emantic a n a l y s i s b e f o r e , y e t t h e y proceeded w i t h g r e a t a s s u r -ance. Much l i k e S p r a d l e y and Mann's c o c k t a i l w a i t r e s s e s (1975: 61-62), i t appears t h a t p r o s t i t u t e s and drug a d d i c t s who work on th e s t r e e t o p e r a t e w i t h s e v e r a l s e t s o f c a t e g o r i e s : some s e r v i n g as a b a s i s f o r t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e t t i n g i n which t h e y o p e r a t e and o t h e r s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e o n l y i n terms o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . I n t h e f o l k taxonomy e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i n f o r -mants, p e o p l e a r e c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l a t t r i b u t e s , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a r t l y t a k e s t h e form o f l e a r n i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s , networks among them, and r u l e s f o r o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e s e n e t w o r k s . The t e x t s and t h e taxonomy b o t h r e f l e c t t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' emic v a l u e s , and b o t h c u l t u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f s t r e e t emics. These d a t a d e a l w i t h p h y s i c a l and e n v i -r o n m e n t a l d e v i c e s f o r a d j u s t i n g t o , c o p i n g w i t h , and even a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f p r o b l e m a t i c o r dangerous s i t u -a t i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n s and s t o r y e x c e r p t s were anonymously a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s and t h e i r comments s e r v e d as v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s . The c u l t u r e ' s a r t i f a c t s , such as " r i g s " f o r " f i x i n g " , make-s h i f t a p p a r a t u s f o r t a t t o o i n g i n j a i l , c o n t a i n e r s t o c a r r y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f h e r o i n , e t c . a r e - a p a r t from t h e s y r i n g e - e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e , e a s i l y d i s p o s a b l e , and u s u a l l y o b j e c t s w i t h a n o t h e r q u i t e i n n o c e n t f u n c t i o n : a c h i l d ' s b a l l o o n , a broken t o o t h b r u s h , a sewing n e e d l e , a b o t t l e cap, a f i l t e r t i p o r some c o t t o n 66 b a t t i n g , a spoon. They show a degree o f i n g e n u i t y b u t , because of t h e i r need t o be i n c o n s p i c u o u s , e a s i l y and anonymously d i s -c a r d e d , t h e y have not g i v e n r i s e t o any ty p e o f a r t . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t a t t o o i n g , o n l y t h e v e r b a l a r t s have d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c u l t u r e : t h e performance o f g o s s i p , t h e o r a l d i s p l a y o f s t a t u s , j o k i n g and s w e a r i n g , the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f common knowledge and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t r i c k s o r marks, s e r v e as a means o f p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l and as a s o u r c e o f common and i n d i v i d u a l p r i d e . 67 CHAPTER THREE STREET TALK: RAPPING, CONNING AND BULLSHITTING Rapping, c o n n i n g and b u l l s h i t t i n g a r e ways t o t a l k . Speech a c t s s e r v e many p u r p o s e s : t h e y a r e used t o i n s u l t , i n t i m i d a t e , amuse, c a j o l e , c o e r c e , seduce, a p p r a i s e , g r e e t , subdue o r i m p r e s s . As t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s and t h e purposes v a r y , so do t h e manners of speech. The i n f o r m a n t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e an awareness o f the importance o f v e r b a l t r a n s a c t i o n s and t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y can e x p e r t l y dominate t h e s e . A female p r o s t i t u t e drug a d d i c t on the s t r e e t - a hooker and a hype - c o u l d i n t h e c o u r s e o f a day t a l k t o her o l d man o r her pimp, her mark, her g i r l f r i e n d , o t h e r h o o k e r s , o t h e r j u n k i e s , h e r c o n n e c t i o n ( t r a f f i c k e r ) , a r i p o f f , cops on the b e a t , members o f t h e m o r a l i t y squad p o s i n g as customers, n a r c s , her t r i c k s . The t r i c k s a l o n e might i n c l u d e a drunk, a t a l k e r , a m a s o c h i s t o r a w e i r d o , a l l r e q u i r i n g a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n on her p a r t . Her a l e r t n e s s , her a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e p e o p l e and t h e i r needs as w e l l as t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h e r , h e r a n t i c i p a t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i r outcome, and g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g her p r e c i s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f her environment and t h e p a r t she p l a y s i n i t shape h e r s t y l e o f communication. The women I met a l l l i v e d , l a w f u l l y o r u n l a w f u l l y , by t h e i r w i t s : s h o p l i f i n g and t h e perhaps s l i g h t l y more " p r o f e s s i o n a l " L E A F 68 O M I T T E D I N P A G E N U M B E R I N G . p. fc>% cWs w.tf=f -e/Aisf. 69 b o o s t i n g , r e h a s h i n g , 1 W e l f a r e , 2 p r o s t i t u t i o n , r o b b i n g t r i c k s , l i v i n g o f f a mark, ( d e s c r i b e d by Jo as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f "conning" and " h o o k i n g " ) , B. & E., 3 f o r g e r y , w r i t i n g bad cheques ( a l s o known as "paper h a n g i n g " ) , o r the o c c a s i o n a l w a i t r e s s i n g , des-c r i b e d by Brandy as b e i n g a "good s t a l l " . Whatever th e means o f l i v e l i h o o d , the women make sure t h a t t h e s e a r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r g r e a t e s t advantage. T a l k i n g a t r i c k out o f sex, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s more advantageous t h a n g o i n g t o bed w i t h him. I f he can a l s o be t a l k e d i n t o g i v i n g even more money f o r t h e same l a c k o f s e r v i c e s , a l l t h e b e t t e r . I f , on the same b a s i s , he can be t u r n e d i n t o a p r o f i t a b l e mark, t h i s i s a r e a l s u c c e s s . "READING" AND CONNING THE MARK A l l t h e women bo a s t o f h a v i n g a mark. The l i t t l e g i v e n t o him i n terms o f companionship or s e x , t h e amount r e c e i v e d from him (apartment, c l o t h e s , money, c a r ) a r e a l l t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a -t i o n where th e women's t a l e n t a t c o n n i n g i s a p p r a i s e d and e n j o y e d . I n j a i l , a mark's l e t t e r s a r e shown t o f r i e n d s , and h i s v i s i t s a r e t a l k e d about. The f a i t h f u l n e s s o f marks i s l e g e n d a r y 1 " T h a t 1 s when you go t o t h e shop and s h o p l i f t s something, r i g h t ? You go back and you make l i k e you've bought i t b u t you've l o s t t h e p r i c e t a g . And you g e t t h e r e f u n d , t h e money, i n s t e a d " (Jo) . 2Dee once j o k e d t h a t the day t h e W e l f a r e cheque comes i n i s the "hookers' day o f f " . 3The i n i t i a l s r e f e r t o a r t i c l e 306 o f t h e Canadian C r i m i n a l Code: B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h i s o f f e n c e was a t y p i c a l l y m a s c u l i n e one, but female a d d i c t s have now s t a r t e d t o commit i t . 7 0 and much t o t h e women's c r e d i t : i t i s p r o o f o f t h e i r c o n n i n g a b i l i t y . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I do n o t make any d i s t i n c t i o n between a woman's mark and a con a r t i s t ' s mark. The t e c h n i q u e used f o r " r e a d i n g " a mark i s r e p u t e d t o be the same i n b o t h c a s e s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h marks a r e a l s o the same, as we w i l l l a t e r see. From a " s t r a i g h t " p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e y may appear t o be two d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , but from the " s t r e e t " , a mark i s a mark. He o r she i s a l s o a p e r f e c t " s t r a i g h t man" i n t h e o r a l performance e n a c t e d , g i v i n g the e x p e c t e d cues t o which t h e a r t i s t w i l l r e p l y w i t h a d i s p l a y o f v e r b a l mastery. Snow, asked i n what a r e a o f s t r e e t a c t i v i t i e s she f e l t t o be an e x p e r t , answered: "Manoeuvering p e o p l e i n t o a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e me money". And Jo added "Speech. B e i n g a b l e t o t a l k " . R e f l e c t i n g upon t h e q u a l i t i e s t h a t make a good con a r t i s t , J u l i e e x p l a i n e d t h a t "Seventy f i v e p e r c e n t , I'd say, are good t a l k e r s . Conning, you more or l e s s have t o t a l k a l o t , and you have t o s e t an i m p r e s s i o n on the p e r s o n " . I p e r s o n a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s a b i l i t y t o " s e t an i m p r e s s i o n on t h e p e r s o n " , which a l l my i n f o r m a n t s b e l i e v e t h e y p o s s e s s and which i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f con a r t i s t r y . I t goes t o g e t h e r w i t h the a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t from t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , who i s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e a s s i m i l a t e d t o a mark, the n a t u r e o f h i s o r her needs i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e s e i n t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' own way. Bruce J a c k s o n n o t i c e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i s i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e w i t h h i s i n f o r m a n t s , p e t t y c r i m i n a l s , a d d i c t s , p r o s t i -t u t e s , s e e i n g i n i t an achievement o f competence on h i s p a r t . He 71 d e s c r i b e s t h e customary l o s s o f s e n s i t i v i t y and g a i n o f e x p e r t i s e which causes t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s t o p c o n v e r s i n g w i t h p e o p l e and s t a r t i n t e r v i e w i n g i n f o r m a n t s , b u t he a l s o d e s c r i b e s a t y p e o f i n f o r m a n t ' s apparent c o o p e r a t i o n which resembles t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e t e c h n i q u e a p p l i e d t o marks. Wh i l e w o r k i n g on t h e s e m a n u s c r i p t s I n o t i c e d some d i f f e r e n c e s i n my own t e c h n i q u e s over t h e y e a r s . In t h e e a r l y t a p e s ... I seemed t o t a l k a l o t . I o c c a s i o n a l l y gave o p i n i o n s . These were o f t e n more c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a n i n t e r v i e w s ... I l e a r n e d a l o n g t h e way t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s you ask s t r u c t u r e t h e s t a t e -ments you g e t , not o n l y i n form but i n c o n t e n t and f o c u s , so I d e c i d e d t o ask as few q u e s t i o n s as p o s s i b l e and t o make th o s e as g e n e r a l as p o s s i b l e so the speaker c o u l d d e c i d e what he c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t enough t o t a l k about. That i s n e c e s s a r y i f you want t o g e t what he t h i n k s i m p o r t a n t r a t h e r t h a n what he t h i n k s you t h i n k i s i m p o r t a n t (Jackson 1974: 9-10). In t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e , where my q u e s t i o n s a r e under-l i n e d , Dee d e s c r i b e s t h i s t e c h n i q u e : - I t ' s a l l h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . You work on h i s weaknesses. Somebody who l i k e s ... Who's always wanted a daughter o r whatever ... And t h a t ' s a weakness w i t h him. So you l e t him more o r l e s s t a k e c a r e o f you. - W i l l you t r y t o change your ways j u s t t o be l i k e a  d aughter? - No. You j u s t work on t h a t p a r t o f him and make him t h i n k o f you as h i s daughter. - W i l l you c a l l him s p e c i a l names? - No. I t never comes out r i g h t i n t h e open, what you're g o i n g , because i t makes him s e l f c o n s c i o u s . You j u s t work yourway around him t o get i t . - So, you have to' t r y d i f f e r e n t approaches b e f o r e you  know . ... - B e f o r e you know which one i s gonna work! - How much time do you have t o f e e l t h a t he c o u l d become a  mark? I s i t something t h a t you can d e c i d e a t once? 72 - A t once. You know whether he i s . A f t e r s i t t i n g and h a v i n g a d r i n k w i t h him o r something ... You j u s t get t o know t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . L i k e , some p e r s o n a l i t i e s can be marked i n a l o t e a s i e r t h a n o t h e r s . You l i s t e n t o him t a l k and you get t o know what he wants. And t h e n , t h a t ' s what you work on. H i s weaknesses. Jo and Snow added a few p r e c i s i o n s t o Dee's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e method: - What s o r t o f " t a l k i n g t a l e n t " do you have t o have? - M a n i p u l a t i o n . - Yeah. Put y o u r s e l f t o t h e l e v e l t h a t you know t h e y want t o be and t h a t t h e y a r e . - Yeah. - Which means t h a t you have t o l i s t e n , t oo? - Oh, yeah ... You go by e a r , you know. - You l i s t e n f i r s t and you t a l k a f t e r w a r d s ? - W e l l , you s t a r t out slow. - Yeah. They're t a l k i n g t o you and you're a n s w e r i n g them. Not g i v i n g y o u r s e l f away by t h e answers. More o r l e s s t h a t you're g o i n g a l o n g t h e m s e l v e s , making them t h i n k , you know ... - U n t i l you have enough t o go on t h a t you know what t h e y want. V i n c e n t Swaggi, K l o c k a r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l f e n c e , would agree w i t h t h e s e i n f o r m a n t s . From c h i l d h o o d , he s a y s , h u s t l i n g t a u g h t me how t o r e a d p e o p l e . I was a g r e a t b u l l -s h i t t e r , a good con. I c o u l d t e l l n i n e t i m e s out o f t e n who I c o u l d s e l l ( K l o c k a r s 1974:38). Two o f Blum's i n f o r m a n t s s t r e s s t h e d u a l and complementary a s p e c t o f i n f o r m a t i o n s e e k i n g and s e l f r e v e l a t i o n : There's a con f o r e v e r y man. I ' l l j u s t approach anyone and i t w i l l t a k e me j u s t f i f t e e n minutes t o l e a r n h i s i n t e r e s t s and h i s weaknesses (Blum 1972:30). 73 The n a t u r a l t h i n g i s t o l e t t h e mark show you what he wants and then you j u s t go a l o n g (1972:30). Con men o f t e n d e l i g h t i n d e s c r i b i n g s u c c e s s f u l " j o b s " . I c o u l d draw many i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e i r s k i l l from t h e l i t e r a t u r e o r from my i n f o r m a n t s ' t e x t . I thought i t more i n t e r e s t i n g and l e s s customary t o g i v e a mark's v e r s i o n o f such an e x p e r i e n c e . Reading con men's d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r e x p l o i t s , one may wonder how t h e whole t r a n s a c t i o n i s viewed from th e v i c t i m ' s s t a n d p o i n t and t o what e x t e n t he i s e n t i r e l y f o o l e d . The s t o r y r e p r o d u c e d i n Appendix F was g i v e n t o me by a f r i e n d , w i t h much embarrass-ment on h i s p a r t and g r a t i t u d e on mine. He d e s c r i b e s how he became the v i c t i m o f t h e "hot T.V. game". Reading the s t o r y , t h e i n j u c t i o n o f K l o c k a r s ' i n f o r m a n t may be remembered: "So you come over t o him and you're l o o k i n g around l i k e t h e r e might be cops w a t c h i n g " (1974:43), which s e r v e s t o c o n f i r m t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e d e a l : t h e merchandise i s i n d e e d " h o t " . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough i n t h i s c a s e , the mark was a c t u a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r a con j o b , but e n t i r e l y m i s j u d g e d i t s n a t u r e . S t r e e t p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h e y do p o s s e s s a s u p e r i o r i n t u i t i o n , t h e i n s i g h t t o a s s e s s p e o p l e and s i t u a t i o n s and t h e power t o m a n i p u l a t e them. W r i t e r s who have worked w i t h con men agree w i t h t h i s s e l f e v a l u a t i o n . When i t comes t o " p l a y i n g con" few p e o p l e can match t h e s k i l l and v e r s a t i l i t y o f a " r i g h t e o u s dope f i e n d " ( S u t t e r 1966: 211) . M i c h a e l Agar sees h i s c o n f i d e n c e men, whether j u n k i e s o r n o t , as Good i n t u i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i t h p o i s e and a sense o f a u t h o r i t y . They must c o r r e c t l y 'read' the mark and immedi-a t e l y f o r m u l a t e a s t r a t e g y t o encourage h i s t r u s t (Agar 1973:46). 74 Maurer r e f e r s t o " t h e i r h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e i r s o l i d o r g a n i z a -t i o n " (1940:1), t h e i r "superb sense o f human n a t u r e " (1940:2). The con a r t i s t seems t o have been endowed w i t h o r a c q u i r e d a l m o s t superhuman q u a l i t i e s . Such a p e r f e c t match between a group's s e l f image and t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e group l e a v e s me a l i t t l e u n c o m f o r t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e s e l f p r o f e s s e d t a l e n t o f t h a t group i s " t o s e t an i m p r e s s i o n on t h e p e r s o n " , as J u l i e put i t . My o f t e n i n a r t i c u l a t e i n f o r m a n t s a l s o c l a i m e d g r e a t i n t u -i t i v e powers and s a i d t h a t t h e y know. The f i e l d c o v e r e d by t h a t knowledge i s a l m o s t l i m i t l e s s : t h e y "know" what a t r i c k wants j u s t by l o o k i n g a t him, by e x t e n s i o n what any man wants, and by a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n , what any square John wants. Q u e s t i o n e d f u r t h e r , t h e y answered: " I j u s t f e e l i t I " Brandy e x p l a i n e d t h a t she knew how t o " r e a d " men and, a t a g l a n c e , c o u l d t e l l what they wanted and how t o adapt h e r own b e h a v i o u r t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r a n t i c i p a t i o n s , but she c o u l d not put t h a t e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t i n t u i t i o n i n t o words. I s u g gested t o her one p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f man a p p r o a c h i n g i n t h e s t r e e t . "He i s o b v i o u s l y u g l y / r e p u l s i v e / c r i p p l e d / h a s something p h y s i c a l l y wrong w i t h him, and presumably, g o i n g out w i t h a w o r k i n g g i r l i s the o n l y way he can get i t . What do you do?." " W e l l , t h e y ' r e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , so you're k i n d e r t o them t o b u i l d t h e i r s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . They're u s u a l l y p r e t t y s t r a i g h t and meek." S e v e r a l women appeared t o concur w i t h t h i s : s i n c e greed and/or s t u p i d i t y - t h e square John's main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - are not t h e r e a s o n f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t r i c k ' s r e q u e s t , t h e y appear t o be p r e p a r e d t o d e a l f a i r l y w i t h him. 75 From Brandy a l s o , I e l i c i t e d o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : "A good l o o k -i n g , w e l l d r e s s e d guy: more k i n k y ! " The apparent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n here i s t h a t , s i n c e he can "get i t " e l s e w h e r e , he w i l l o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s . O l d men are u s u a l l y " p e r v e r t e d d i r t y o l d b a s t a r d s . " "The guys i n t a x i s are t h e b e s t : t h e y pay t h e c a b b i e s t o f i n d a g i r l . " " I f t h e y ' r e d r i v i n g a L i n c o l n , t h e y ' r e cheap, t h e y don't want t o spent money: the money goes f o r the c a r ! " " I f t h e y ' r e d r i v i n g b e a t up c a r s , t h e y ' r e more generous." (The L i n c o l n d r i v e r s , d e s c r i b e d by Brandy, were r e c o g n i z e d w i t h amusement by Bugsy and J u l i e as t r u e t o f o r m ) . S i n c e i t may be assumed t h a t s t r e e t w a l k e r s have g a i n e d some f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p h y s i c a l l y h andicapped, u n a t t r a c t i v e o r o l d men, as w e l l as men c r u i s i n g the s t r e e t s i n a t a x i c a b l o o k i n g f o r "a good t i m e " , t h e y may have a r r i v e d a t t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f such t y p e s from s o l i d e x p e r i e n c e . But t h e L i n c o l n d r i v e r s are some-what p u z z l i n g . Bugsy and J u l i e ' s amused r e c o g n i t i o n s t r e s s e d the u n u s u a l a s p e c t o f t h i s t y p e o f customer and may l e a d one t o wonder whether d e f i n i t i o n s may not r e s u l t from s t r i k i n g but almost i s o l a t e d o c c u r e n c e s as much as from a l e n g t h y r e p e t i t i o n o f s i m i l a r e n c o u n t e r s . Whatever t h e b a s i s on wh i c h t h e y r e s t , s t e r e o t y p e s o b v i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e handy g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p r o p e r h a n d l i n g o f p e o p l e c a t e g o r i z e d as h a v i n g t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . From t h e r e a d i n g o f such " c l u e s " as d e s c r i b e d by Brandy, the i n f o r m a n t s appear t o draw t h e g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e i r occupa-t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h a p r o s t i t u t e when he f i r s t became a t r i c k , G.L. S t e w a r t s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d a competent o p e r a t o r , a woman who knew her j o b and 76 c o u l d "read" a customer, and whose performance may be i m p l i c i t l y compared t o t h a t o f a mechanic j u d g i n g t h e problem by l i s t e n i n g t o a c a r e n g i n e , o r a v e t e r i n a r i a n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f an a n i m a l from the way i t hangs i t s head: s i m p l e o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . What had I g i v e n her t o respond t o , o t h e r t h a n p a s s i v i t y and nerv o u s n e s s ? Toward t h e nervousness she had d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o u r i n t e n d e d t o calm and r e l a x me, and t o the p a s s i v i t y she had responded l o g i c a l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y ("Just l i e t h e r e and g e t r a p e d " ) , perhaps even assuming t h a t s e x u a l p a s s i v i t y and s u r r e n d e r were my " t h i n g " . She had made t h e most o f t h e c l u e s I had g i v e n h e r (Stew a r t 1972:270-271). "Reading t h e mark" i s a s k i l l sometimes acknowledged by t h e mark h i m s e l f . I t may be t h a t s t r e s s i n g t h e con a r t i s t ' s t a l e n t a t d e c e p t i o n i s a mark's way o f r e d u c i n g the p a r t p l a y e d by h i s own g u l l i b i l i t y , once he becomes aware o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . He may be encouraged t o do so by t h e con man h i m s e l f t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s r e c o v e r y and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s s e l f image (Goffman 1952). The con man's g u i l e i s seen by b o t h p a r t i e s as.complementing the mark's g u l l i b i l i t y . But b e h i n d t h e mark's back, t h e con a r t i s t i s l i k e l y t o p o i n t out t h e form e r ' s greed which i t i s h i s acknowledged t a l e n t t o i d e n t i f y and b a i t a p p r o p r i a t e l y . Some o f t h e con j o b s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e c l e v e r l y e n g i n e e r e d and c o n v i n c i n g l y c a r r i e d o u t . But even t h e see m i n g l y r o u g h e r , c o a r s e r r a c k e t s o f my i n f o r m a n t s appear t o succeed. The r e a s o n f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s i s c l a i m e d t o be due t o the v i c t i m ' s i g n o r a n c e , s t u p i d i t y o r gr e e d . Such a c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n o f t h e square John a t l a r g e as i g n o r a n t , s t u p i d and/or greedy i s in d e e d t h e one e l a b o r a t e d by s t r e e t p e o p l e on the b a s i s o f what t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t r a i g h t p e o p l e w i t h whom th e y i n t e r a c t f o r t h e i r mutual 77 e x p l o i t a t i o n . R e s e a r c h e r s i n no way escape th e s t e r e o t y p e , and i n f o r m a n t s t r a n s f o r m t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s ' needs i n t o t h e i r own codes. I n some c a s e s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s are compounded by the i n f o r m a n t s ' added resentment a t b e i n g i n j a i l o r under c o r r e c -t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n . By e l i c i t i n g from them, whether they are s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p a r o l e o f f i c e r s , p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s - o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s whose r e a l powers are unknown - an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s and g o a l s , and p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s p o n s e s t o f u l f i l l t h e s e , the inmates-con a r t i s t s -i n f o r m a n t s t e s t t h e i r t a l e n t s a t d e c e p t i o n and c o n t r o l and p r e -sumably, draw p r o f e s s i o n a l l e g i t i m a t i o n from the e x e r c i s e . James, i n a r e c e n t work (1977:190) quotes from Maruyama on some o f t h e problems o f p r i s o n r e s e a r c h where inmates f e e l e x p l o i t e d by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s and attempt t o m i n i m i z e th e e x p l o i -t e r s ' i n t r u s i o n by u s i n g " s o p h i s t i c a t e d phoney answers w h i c h make the i n t e r v i e w e r s happy." I t would be s i m p l i s t i c however t o view the i n t e r v i e w as some i n t e r a c t i o n between s e e m i n g l y c o o p e r a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s and n a i v e l y happy i n t e r v i e w e r s . Indeed, th e r e s e a r c h e r s ' w e a r i n e s s of t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' v e r b a l s k i l l s i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d . They know t h a t , when e n q u i r i n g i n t o v e r b a l s k i l l s , t h e y are f a c e d w i t h t h e danger t h a t t h e i r p r a c t i t i o n e r s may f e e l c h a l l e n g e d t o e x e r c i s e them and t h a t a competent performance on t h e i r p a r t may cause th e r e s e a r c h e r s t o "buy" i t . J e n n i f e r James, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n h e r work w i t h p r o s t i t u t e s , i s w e l l aware o f the problem. I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , she w r i t e s : 78 The i n f o r m a n t s know t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s w o r l d and d e a l w i t h q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . W i t h p r o s t i t u t e s t h i s problem i s compounded by t h e n a t u r e o f the " h u s t l i n g " b u s i n e s s . For example, a p r o s t i t u t e depends f o r her s u c c e s s and s u r v i v a l on her a b i l i t y t o judge p e o p l e and h a n d l e them - her a b i l i t y t o g i v e the customer what he wants w h i l e not d o i n g more th a n she wants. The p r o s t i t u t e i s t h u s s e l l i n g h er a b i l i t y t o make the man f e e l he i s s a t i s f i e d . "Conning" i s an a r t o f th e p r o f e s s i o n and t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s as l i k e l y a v i c t i m as the customer (James 1971:4). As James p o i n t s o u t , t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n a l s k i l l i s e s s e n -t i a l f o r the p r o s t i t u t e ' s s u r v i v a l . I n a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f the f o l k l o r e o f a Texas Madam, D a v i s Johnson s t r e s s e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f her i n f o r m a n t s ' f e e l i n g t h a t " t h e i r most impor-t a n t work i s m e n t a l and v e r b a l - t o remain i n c o n t r o l o f them-s e l v e s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e customers" (1973:219). I cannot emphasize t o o much t h e importance o f words i n her l i f e . Both she and the g i r l s t o l d us t h a t the p r o s t i t u t e ' s a r t i s much more me n t a l and v e r b a l than s e x u a l . Men a r e p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g e r ; t h e r e f o r e , t o m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t c o n t r o l a p r o s t i t u t e must use words e f f e c t i v e l y ... (She) c o n t r o l s h e r environment through v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s (1973:212). STYLISTIC DEVICES As s k i l l e d v e r b a l p e r f o r m e r s , the i n f o r m a n t s r e s o r t t o many s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s t o r e n d e r speech a c t s more e f f e c t i v e . One i s the e x a g g e r a t i o n o f d e t a i l s , t o c a t c h the l i s t e n e r s ' a t t e n t i o n , s t r i k e t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n , and perhaps s e r v e t o c o n v i n c e them f a s t e r . Budgsy, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s somewhat g i v e n t o p r a c t i s e t h e w e l l known s t o r y t e l l i n g d e v i c e o f m a g n i f y i n g i n c i d e n t s . In her c a s e , numbers i n c r e a s e d r a m a t i c a l l y . I f i x e d 3 caps and I had a 8 cop e s c o r t home! She s e n t 8 cops out l o o k i n g f o r me! The n e x t t h i n g I knew, t h e r e was 6 n a r c b u l l s and 4 p o l i c e m e n down t h e r e , l o o k i n g f o r me! 7 9 So, on t h e way up, I see t h e r e ' s 2 cop c a r s i n f r o n t o f us, 2 b e h i n d u s , and I'm under a r r e s t f o r s o l i c i t i n g ! Bugsy i s a G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t hooker and a s m a l l t i m e t r a f -f i c k e r . I know, she knows I know, I know she knows I know t h a t 8 cops, 6 n a r c b u l l s and 4 p o l i c e m e n , o r 4 cop c a r s would d e f i -n i t e l y not be m o b i l i z e d t o l o o k f o r h e r . But she i s a l s o t e l l i n g a good s t o r y t o an a p p r e c i a t i v e a u d i e n c e , a s t o r y w i t h a good p l o t and l o t s o f a c t i o n , o b v i o u s l y c a l l i n g f o r homeric p r o p o r -t i o n s , and we a r e b o t h t o u n d e r s t a n d her f i g u r e s as an a r t i s t i c d e v i c e used t o e s t a b l i s h h e r p r e s t i g e . In many i n s t a n c e s , s t a t u s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by d e m o n s t r a t i n g how "bad" one i s . One i s reminded o f t h e usage o f bad i n t h e B l a c k j a r g o n , where i t e x p r e s s e s a l l the q u a l i t i e s o f d a r i n g , c o o l , s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and n o n - c o n f o r m i t y d e n i e d t o t h e Negro d e f i n e d as "good" by White s o c i e t y ( M i l n e r 1972a"; M i l n e r 1972b: 114), and t h e p r e s t i g e c o n f e r r e d by such s t a t e m e n t s i s o b v i o u s : I'm b a r r e d from Newfoundland f o r l i f e , because I p u l l e d a bank r o b b e r y t h e r e . And t h e y t o l d me t h e y were d o i n g t h e i r f e d e r a l p r i s o n e r s a f a v o u r and send me back where I came from ... They d i d n ' t want me t o c o r r u p t t h e i r p r i s o n e r s ! (Dee) At one t r i a l , t h e y used my r e c o r d as e x h i b i t A! ( J u l i e ) My r e c o r d ? The l a s t f i v e - s i x y e a r s , t h e r e ' s been m o s t l y drug o f f e n c e s . And t h e r e ' s been r o b b e r y w i t h i n t e n t t o k i l l . I b e a t t h a t . And a murder t h a t I b e a t . (Dee) A s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e employed t o make a p o i n t c l e a r w h i l e not s t r e s s i n g i t i n an o b v i o u s manner i s the a s i d e . I had t o t r a i n m y s e l f t o r e c o g n i z e i t and i t s importance f o r my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n t e x t . F o r i n s t a n c e , Jo e x p l a i n e d t o Snow and me: "He was g o i n g t o g i v e me 200 d o l l a r s f o r one hour. That was up N o r t h " . 80 The l a s t remark appears i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t o r y as she was t e l l i n g i t . Y e t , the e x p l a n a t i o n was needed s i n c e , i n Vancouver, g i r l s l i k e Jo and Snow a r e not p a i d 200 d o l l a r s f o r one hour o f t h e i r t i m e . B u t , up N o r t h , t h i s c o u l d v e r y w e l l b'e t r u e . I might not have been knowledgeable about the g o i n g r a t e s b u t , s i n c e Snow was a l s o p r e s e n t , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n an a s i d e was q u i t e n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h J o ' s c r e d i b i l i t y . Had we f e l t , Snow i n p a r t i c u l a r , doubts a t t h i s p o i n t , we might not have b e l i e v e d t h e r e s t o f t h e s t o r y . I n t h e same i n t e r v i e w , Snow e x p l a i n e d : " I was a r r e s t e d because I went and robbed somebody. Somebody I know!" S m a l l t i m e con a r t i s t s u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e a h i t and r u n method. So do t h i e v e s . Robbing somebody i s not dumb but - h e r i n t o n a t i o n i m p l i e d i n t h e a s i d e - r o b b i n g somebody you know and who knows you ( e s p e c i a l l y , as i n her c a s e , h e r mark) and i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r e s s c h a r g e s , i s v e r y dumb! To g i v e a l a s t example, here i s a s t o r y t o l d by Bugsy: I had t h i s l i t t l e . o l ' man, once. And t h i s was c u t e ... He t o o k me o u t . He p a i d me j u s t f o r a s t r a i g h t , and h i s t ime was up and he hadn't even got i t h a r d . And he wasn't drunk, he had n o t h i n g t o d r i n k . And he s a y s : "Oh, dear!"- he s a y s , "my t i m e ' s up!" L i k e , i t was him t h a t k e p t t h e t i m e ! I wasn't even l o o k i n ' ... Bugsy's p o s i t i v e and even p r o t e c t i v e f e e l i n g s towards her t r i c k was e x p r e s s e d here i n many ways: - she c a l l s him a " l i t t l e o l ' man", i n s t e a d o f t h e customary " d i r t y o l d man"; - she d e s c r i b e s t h e whole i n c i d e n t as " c u t e " ; - he p a i d h e r " j u s t f o r a s t r a i g h t " , i . e . he was not a " w e i r d o " , 81 a " f r e a k " o r a " p e r v e r t " ; - the d i s a r m i n g l y q u a i n t "Oh, d e a r ! " he l e t s o u t , w h i l e h e r u s u a l e x c l a m a t i o n i s "Oh, s h i t ! " o r "Oh, f u c k ! " ; - h i s f a i l i n g was not due t o a l c o h o l (drunks can be " f l i p p y " ( u n p r e d i c t a b l e ) and t a k e f o r e v e r t o p e r f o r m , t o t h e i r r i t a t i o n o f most p r o s t i t u t e s ) ; - but t h e g r e a t e s t p r o o f she gave o f her good mood i s t h a t i t was he and not she who "kept the t i m e " , whereas she would n o r m a l l y have s a i d "Time's up!" a t the end o f the twenty minutes he had p a i d f o r ( i f not e a r l i e r , s i n c e he o b v i o u s l y was not g o i n g t o f i n i s h b e f o r e t h a t t i m e ) . The l i t t l e a s i d e was used t o e x p r e s s most d e c i s i v e l y h e r a p p r o v a l o f the l i t t l e o l ' man and h i s sense of p r o p r i e t y . I had e x p e c t e d i n t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r a l c u l t u r e numerous fo r m u l a e t o anchor t h e speech and s e t s t a t e m e n t s i n t o a c o n t e x t o f p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n and consensus. Indeed, Sue sometimes punc-t u a t e d an e d i f y i n g s t o r y w i t h " I f you c a n ' t pay, you s h o u l d n ' t p l a y " , and i t s echo " I f you c a n ' t do the t i m e , you s h o u l d n ' t do t h e c r i m e " . Other women a l s o mentioned t h a t "Money's money" and "Time's money". But I found t h e use o f pseudo a p h o r i s m s , mock r i d d l e s and i n d i v i d u a l d e f i n i t i o n s more i n t e r e s t i n g . There were a l s o few o f t h e s e , but t h e y added s p i c e t o the s t o r y and s t r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e performance of v e r b a l s k i l l s . W e l f a r e i s t h e hooker's day o f f . (Dee) The good j u n k i e i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . (Dee) How can you t e l l a j u n k i e ? By how much sugar she p u t s i n h e r c o f f e e ! (Bugsy) 8 2 How do you know the n a r c s ? When the door comes in.' (Bugsy) You want a l i t t l e l o v e f o r a l i t t l e money. I want a l i t t l e money f o r a l i t t l e l o v e . ( J u l i e ) There i s not enough d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o a n a l y z e p e r s o n a l s t y l e s , but the p a i r e d examples t a k e n from Sue, Dee and Bugsy would seem t o i n d i c a t e a r e s p e c t i v e p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the p r o v e r b , t h e a p h o r i s m and t h e pseudo r i d d l e . The d e l i v e r y i t s e l f and speech h a b i t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : t h e i n f o r m a n t s f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r s p e r s e " l i k e "you know and use them t o l e a v e a sentence suspended o r t o f o r c e the i n t e r -l o c u t o r t o make the n e c e s s a r y e f f o r t t o meet them h a l f way; or " r i g h t ? "hey? f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f i n t e r r o g a t i v e mimic w h i c h may be answered w i t h a f a i n t nod o r a g r u n t , o r any o t h e r s i g n t h a t you a r e g o i n g a l o n g w i t h what i s b e i n g s a i d . The n e c e s s a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n t e r l o c u t o r i s r e q u i r e d and t h e e l i c i t a t i o n o f h i s o r her a p p r o v a l t u r n s the monologue i n t o a d i a l o g u e . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the i n f o r m a n t s ' speech i s t h e r e p o r t i n g o f p a s t d i a l o g u e s i n d i r e c t s t y l e . B e s i d e the conven-t i o n a l a l t e r n a n c e o f t h e " I says - he s a y s " i n s e r t i o n s , some i n f o r m a n t s w i l l break up a r e p o r t e d sentence s e v e r a l t i m e s w i t h "he s a y s " , "so, I s a y s " . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the c r e a t i o n o f a v i v i d and l i v e l y s t y l e . I found i t a v e r y good d e v i c e f o r keep-i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e a u d i e n c e , even i f i t slows down somewhat the development of the s t o r y . I asked him. I s a y s : "You were out w i t h P e t e ' s o l d l a d y ? " He says : "No" . I s a y s : " Y o u ' r e a f u c k i n ' l i a r ! " I s a y s , " I was s i t t i n ' i n t h e c a r n e x t t o you," I s a y s , " I seen you!" 8 3 He s a y s : " W e l l , what were we d o i n g ? " So I t o l d him! I d e s c r i b e d i t r i g h t down t o a t e e ! He s a y s : "What were you g o i n g a t the show?" I s a y s : "My mark took me t o t h e show. I g o t p a i d 4 00 d o l l a r s t o go t o t h e show!" He s a y s : "Where's the money?" I s a y s : " I spent i t ! " . He s a y s : "On what?" I s a y s : "Junk." He s a y s : "Oh, you d i d , d i d you?" I s a y s : "Yeah!" He s a y s : " I g o t t a go s i c k , I gues?" I s a y s : " W e l l , go g e t your o t h e r s l u t t h e r e t o buy you some!", I s a y s , " I f she can a f f o r d you, i f she can a f f o r d t o go t o bed w i t h you," I s a y s , " s u r e l y she can a f f o r d t o buy you a cap o f j u n k ! " He s a y s : "Here we go!" So I s a y s : " F u c k i n ' r i g h t , here we go!", I s a y s , "Now, i f you don't mind, I'm busy. H i t i t ! " (Bugsy) I t w i l l be seen f u r t h e r on t h a t Bugsy has a l s o drawn here v e r y n e a t l y t h e l i s t o f r e c i p r o c a l d u t i e s and r i g h t s o f t h e " o l d man" and h i s " o l d l a d y " . Such an e x a g g e r a t e d form i s o b v i o u s l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c i n her c a s e , but Bugsy i s a l s o , and by f a r , t h e most e n t e r t a i n i n g o f my i n f o r m a n t s . I t t h i n k t h a t h er emphatic usage o f a v e r y common mannerism among a l l my r e s p o n d e n t s , and many p e o p l e o f s i m i l a r background, o n l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e v i v a c i t y o f her s t y l e , even i f one can o n l y t a k e a l i t t l e o f i t a t t h e t i m e . T h i s speech form i s f i r s t a t e m p o r a l d i s t o r t i o n : " t h e r e and t h e n " becomes "here and now". The p a s t i s t e l e s c o p e d i n t o the p r e s e n t as t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i s r e l i v e d : "he s a i d " becomes "he s a y s " . The p a s t " I " i s f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d : not o n l y i s i t brought i n t o t h e p r e s e n t but i t i s e x t e r i o r i z e d as a t h i r d p e r s o n : " I " s a y s . T h i s r e p o r t e d d i a l o g u e form a l s o g i v e s an i m p o r t a n t 84 d i a c h r o n i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f the s e l f . The r e p o r t e d d i a l o g u e between ego-then and a l t e r - t h e n i s p r e s e n t e d t o the r e s e a r c h e r by ego-now, who appears not o n l y as a r e p o r t e r but as a commentator, thus i n a d i a c h r o n i c q u a l i t y . Even i f t h e r e p o r t e d d i a l o g u e d i d not i n v o l v e ego, h i s o r her p r e s e n c e i s assumed. As a l i t e r a l r e p o r t e r h i s p r e s e n c e i s e s s e n t i a l t o both e v e n t s - t h e n and now - and t o b o t h i n t e r l o c u t o r s . Ego's c r e a t i v i t y as a speaker i s g i v e n i t s due s i n c e he i s i n c o n t r o l o f a l l speeches: t h o s e o f ego-then, ego-now, a l t h e r - t h e n and the r e s e a r c h e r drawn i n t o t h e p r e s e n t d i a l o g u e by t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e mimic and the p r e s s u r e t o p r o v i d e h i s o r her agreement. S i n c e much of t h e d a t a i s i n the form o f s t o r i e s , anec-d o t e s , r e t e l l i n g o f s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s , the mechanics o f t a l e b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g a r e e a s i l y o b s e r v a b l e . By f a r t h e most common way t o s t a r t a s t o r y i s "There's t h i s (guy I know, f r i e n d o f mine, cop up N o r t h , t r i c k had a w i f e , e t c . ) " . O f t e n the s t o r y p e t e r s o u t , but f o r Bugsy and J u l i e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e phrase was as r e c o g n i z a b l e as "once upon a t i m e " , and I a u t o m a t i c a l l y s t a r t e d my ta p e r e c o r d e r upon h e a r i n g i t . S t o r y e n d i n g , on the o t h e r hand, i s much more e l u s i v e . Even Bugsy o f t e n found i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c l u d e her t a l e s and i t was e x c e p t i o n a l l y t h a t she a r r i v e d a t a " c o n v e n t i o n a l " e n d i n g such as i n a s t o r y about a t r i c k ' s w i f e , where t h e t r i c k and h i s w i f e l i v e h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r t h a n k s t o Bugsy's good o f f i c e s . Most o f the t i m e , however, t h e anecdotes ended a b r u p t l y . T h i s may have been seen as a s t y l i s t i c weakness by Bugsy who sometimes 85 s i g h e d and added "Fuck o r " S h i t as a f o r m a l i f u n s a t -i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n . T h i s need o f a comment o f s o r t s was o f t e n c r e a t e d by my s i l e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g i s an example o f a more e l a b o r a t e e n d i n g a l s o e l i c i t e d by my f a i l u r e to. respond t o the n a t u r a l e n d i n g o f the s t o r y , which was: As soon as you say you've got a cop f o r a f r i e n d , everybody f i g u r e s you're a r a t . So I t o l d him " W e l l , you keep your mouth s h u t , I ' l l keep mine s h u t . " He says "O.K. You got a d e a l ! " I says " E i t h e r I got a d e a l o r you a i n ' t got a f r i e n d ! " O b v i o u s l y , t h e s t o r y c o u l d have ended t o everyone's s a t i s -f a c t i o n , but because o f the l a c k o f n a t u r a l c o n t e x t (where s t o r i e s may be topped a t once, o r a t l e a s t commented upon) and my f a i l u r e t o r e a c t , she h e s i t a t e d and went on i n a c o m p l e t e l y i r r e l e v a n t manner: He's n i c e ... He's t a l l ... He's dark and he's b l o n d ... I had my h a i r b l e a c h e d w h i t e when I knew him. He says "You l o o k l i k e one o f t h o s e Amazons". "Ooooh, get o f f the p o t ! " I s a y s , " I g o t w h i t e e y e s , I a i n ' t got p i n k eyes!" S h i t ... F i n a l l y , t he e n d i n g o f a s t o r y w i l l sometimes become t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new one, t o l d o r n o t : And I says "You're l u c k y , you know, because," I s a y s , "'cos i f I was P e t e , " I s a y s , "You'd be l o n g gone. Down a t t h e end of t h e Bow R i v e r , and i f you're e v e r l o s t i n t h a t , t h e y ' d never f i n d you," I s a y s , " I t t o o k them two and a h a l f months t o f i n d my baby s i s t e r ..." That was a t C h r i s t m a s ... But t h a t ' s a n o t h e r s t o r y . (Bugsy) MANNERS OF SPEECH We have examined t h e r e c o g n i z e d a r t o f c o n n i n g t h e mark; e l i c i t i n g t h e i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s d e s i r e s and needs, t h e n f i n d i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a l a n c e between t h e woman's r e l u c t a n c e t o g i v e and 86 t h e mark's gr e e d t o t a k e . We have a l s o examined v a r i o u s conven-t i o n s o f speech such as s t a t u s g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f bona f i d e s , a c c e p t a b l e e x a g g e r a t i o n - as opposed t o t h e t y p e o f e x a g g e r a t i o n t h a t s i m p l y b e t r a y s a l a c k o f c u l t u r e competence, such as J u l i e ' s c l a i m t o be c a r r y i n g a .38. A l l t h e s e s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e p a r t o f the c u l t u r e ' s v e r b a l s k i l l s . Many c a t e g o r i e s of speech a c t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i n f o r -mants who a t t a c h d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s , such as form, c o n t e n t , i n t o n a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g s and p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o v a r i o u s terms r e f e r r i n g t o manners of e x p r e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s not an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t o f terms, but a sample o f t h o s e most f r e q u e n t l y used. B u l l s h i t t i n g There are two meanings a t t a c h e d t o " b u l l s h i t t i n g " , des-c r i b i n g v e r y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s and purpose. The f i r s t one r e f e r s t o the attempt a t d e c e p t i o n and i s used i n t h e same c o n t e x t as " c o n n i n g " . T h i s i s the usage a l r e a d y met i n Swaggi's c l a i m t h a t he was "a g r e a t b u l l s h i t t e r , a good con". The second meaning s i m p l y r e f e r s t o t h e t y p e o f s m a l l t a l k e n c o u n t e r e d i n many groups. I asked Jo and Snow:"When you meet someone you know, what do you t a l k a bout?" - S m a l l t a l k . - "How're you d o i n ' ? " , "Oh, f i n e " , " R i g h t " , " P r e t t y slow t o d a y , hey?", " R i g h t ! " you know ... - "So and so g o t r i p p e d o f f by ..." - "You know who's got good s t u f f ? " , "Oh, yeah? I s t h a t r i g h t ? " , "Oh, yeah!" 87 - " I d i d some s t u f f the o t h e r day t h a t was dynamite!" J u s t b u l l s h i t ... - S t r e e t t a l k , you know ... (Jo and Snow) I had m i s u n d e r s t o o d , a t one p o i n t , the second meaning f o r t h e f i r s t one. They i m m e d i a t e l y c o r r e c t e d me: - Oh, no ... W e l l , i t ' s not ... I t ' s r e a l ! - I t ' s not b u l l s h i t t i n g . I t ' s j u s t ... - Everyday's happening on the s t r e e t ... - Yes, j u s t s m a l l t a l k ... J u s t b u l l s h i t t i n g , you know ... I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f b u l l s h i t -t i n g w i l l be examined s e p a r a t e l y . T a l k i n g " T a l k i n g " i s seen by my i n f o r m a n t s as t h e h u s t l e par  e x c e l l e n c e . I g e t enough by t a l k i n g t h a t I d i d n ' t have t o go on W e l f a r e . (Snow) I t a l k t o W e l f a r e p r e t t y good! (Snow) I l i k e t a l k i n g t o t h e s e p e o p l e . They're so n a i v e , so when you l a y something on them, t h e y ' r e shocked! ( J u l i e ) I j u s t t a l k t o them. I s i t t h e r e and I t a l k ! (Jo) I phoned him and I t a l k e d . A g a i n I t a l k e d ! So he went down t o drop t h e c harges ... I t a l k e d t o him. Put on my a c t ... He s a i d he's drop the c h a r g e s , you know. (Snow) N a t u r a l l y , i t has o t h e r meanings. I n the above examples, the women t a l k " t o s e t an i m p r e s s i o n " , as J u l i e put i t . In t h e f o l l o w i n g one, Snow t a l k s i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e an i m p r e s s i o n . I ' l l t a l k f o r a few m i n u tes i n t h e s t r e e t , you know, t o s o r t o f g e t t i n g an i d e a , you know. Then, I ' l l go. Only t h e n . " T a l k i n g " i s a m a n i p u l a t i v e e x e r c i s e t h r o u g h which the i n f o r m a n t s o b t a i n o r r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f a s i t u a t i o n . Whether i n 8 8 an e x p l o r a t o r y o r an a s s e r t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n , the i n t e r l o c u t o r s a re seen as v e r b a l opponents t o be overcome. Conning "Conning" a l s o i n v o l v e s t a l k i n g . "Conning, you more o r l e s s have t o t a l k a l o t " ( J u l i e ) . I t may a l s o i n f e r a s t r o n g e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o d e c e i v e than the one i m p l i e d i n s t r a i g h t " t a l k -i n g " . I f speech i s not always e x p l i c i t l y mentioned, i t i s n e v e r -t h e l e s s p a r t o f t h e whole performance. Conning p e o p l e t o t h i n k t h a t you're gonna go t o bed w i t h them, knowing t h a t t h e y have money. (Jo) When I'm on the r o a d , I have no i n t e n t i o n o f t r y i n g t o con them out o f money. (Snow) Some (h e a v i e s ) a r e l i a r s , t h ey con o t h e r p e o p l e . (Brandy) S i m i l a r l y , " I ' d h i t him f o r some money" i m p l i e s t h e use o f a v e r b a l r e q u e s t . Rapping "Rapping" may i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n degree o f c l o s e n e s s between t h e speakers as w e l l as some s e r i o u s n e s s i n t h e t o p i c , as opposed t o " b u l l s h i t t i n g " which o f t e n r e f e r s t o a s u p e r f i c i a l exchange. J o makes i t c l e a r i n the f o l l o w i n g exchange t h a t one u s u a l l y r a p s t o one's f r i e n d s : There a r e o n l y t h r e e p e o p l e i n t h i s b u i l d i n g t h a t I r e a l l y ra p t o , o r s i t down and t a l k t o ... The r e s t , i t ' s v e r y c a s u a l . I r a p (to t h e s e people) because t h e y ' r e more r e a l . I know t h e r e ' s no t r i p s and no b u l l s h i t . U n l i k e p e o p l e i n t h e b l a c k g h e t t o (Kochman 1969), s t r e e t p e o p l e a l s o use "rap w i t h " . I n the f o l l o w i n g example, "rap w i t h " i s used t o d e s c r i b e what Kochman's i n f o r m a n t s would c a l l " p u t t i n g 89 t h e make" (19 69:27) i n the c o n t e x t o f " r a p p i n g t o " a woman ( B u r l i n g 1970:157): I ' l l always t e l l o t h e r g i r l s , i f I see him r a p p i n g w i t h them, o r something. You know, j u s t anybody I'm r a p p i n g t o , I ' l l say "Hey, I met a r e a l l y w e i r d guy t o n i g h t . I f you happen t o see him, don't go near him!" (Jo) T e a s i n g and P r e a c h i n g These two terms i n d i c a t e a manner of s p e a k i n g as w e l l as a d e f i n i t e purpose. They a r e i n f a c t s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y , but Snow u s u a l l y s p e c i f i e s t h e manner i n which t h i s t e a s i n g o r p r e a c h i n g were done: And t h e y ' d come and p l a y p o o l w i t h u s , you know, t a l k t o u s , l a u g h w i t h us ... p l a y p o o l , t e a s e us ... o r e l s e we'd be a t a t a b l e and he'd be t e a s i n g u s , r i g h t ? "I'm gonna b e a t you guys a t p o o l ! " "O.K., You're on!" He used t o say t o us "God! I t ' s t o o bad! I w i s h you g i r l s would s t r a i g h t e n up your a c t , you know. You would be r e a l l y n i c e g i r l s i f you wouldn't be so c a r e f r e e , so c r a z y ! " Yeah ... Always more o r l e s s p r e a c h i n g away "Why don't you guys smarten up?" Snow, i n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r examples, uses the v e r b s as h a l f a d v e r -b i a l p h r a s e s , i . e . he s a i d t e a s i n g l y , he s a i d i n a p r e a c h i n g manner. Snow i s a s e n t i m e n t a l woman who o f t e n t h i n k s back on the good t i m e s when she was j u s t a rough tomboy I n d i a n g i r l i n P r i n c e Rupert and not t h e t h i e f and j u n k i e she has become downtown. She l i k e s t o l i n g e r on the t e a s i n g and p r e a c h i n g g i v e n t o her by a good n a t u r e d l o c a l cop - and i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t she does not c a l l him a p i g , o r a b u l l , o r a n a r c - who l i k e d h er and was concerned about h e r . So, not o n l y does she "name" t h a t way of s p e a k i n g b u t she a l s o c o n f i r m s t h e name by a d e s c r i p t i o n which c o u l d be used as a d e f i n i t i o n . Other examples of " p r e a c h i n g " 90 o n l y r e f e r r e d t o v a r i o u s speeches made by "do-gooders", and no examples were g i v e n . H a s s l i n g " H a s s l i n g " a l s o r e f e r s t o a complex a c t i o n performed as a speech a c t , accompanied by i m p l i c i t l y t h r e a t e n i n g b e h a v i o u r . S i n c e i t i s always p r a c t i s e d by " a s s h o l e s " who, by d e f i n i t i o n , abuse t h e i r power, i t s usage i s t h u s reduced t o s p e c i f i c s i t u a -t i o n s (narc and j u n k i e e n c o u n t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e ) : They always h a s s l e you, you know: "Oh, yeah? What's the s e marks a r e ? Don't g i v e me t h a t s t o r y ! " (Snow) They g i v e you a l o t o f h a s s l e , t e l l i n g you t o g e t o f f t h e s t r e e t . (Dee) " H a s s l i n g " always t a k e s p l a c e between p e o p l e o f uneven s t a t u s , power, s e l f - a s s u r a n c e o r need, s i n c e the o b j e c t o f the t r a n s -a c t i o n i s t o d e f e a t the i n t e r l o c u t o r i n t o s u b m i s s i o n o r t h e r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f whatever the speaker wants from him. Making L i k e , P l a y i n g L i k e These are a s p e c t s o f t h e "con" o r t h e " t a l k " . A g a i n , t h i s r e f e r s t o a complex s i t u a t i o n where t h e speech a c t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y mentioned but i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i m p l i e d : I s a i d "Yes? Me?", you know, p l a y i n g l i k e I've never ... you know ... (Snow) You go t o t h e s t o r e and s h o p l i f t s something, r i g h t ? You go back and you make l i k e you've bought i t , but you've l o s t the p r i c e t a g . (Jo) I s a i d " I t h i n k I've got i t " . I know I had i t , b ut I was p l a y i n g , you know, l i k e ... c a s u a l ... (Snow) Once more, t h e y a r e " s e t t i n g an i m p r e s s i o n " . The moves 91 d e s c r i b e d here a r e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e ones. When t h e s i t u a t i o n becomes more complex, one may be " l a y i n g something" (a " t r i p " , f o r i n s t a n c e ) , on someone: "They're so n a i v e so when you l a y something on them, t h e y ' r e shocked" ( J u l i e ) . A s e r i e s o f v e r b s i n d i c a t e t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g and h e s i t a n t c o n t e x t o f p r o s t i t u t i o n and the manner i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s sought and g i v e n : Sometimes, t h e y t r y t o beat around the bush t o f i n d out i f you're a w o r k i n g g i r l , because he doesn't want t o put h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n t o ask, and you're not ... When you're w a l k i n g a l o n g t o t h e h o t e l , you s o r t o f d r a g o u t what he'd l i k e and you d i s c u s s i t ... They u s u a l l y b r i n g up t h e s u b j e c t o f what t h e y l i k e . (Jo and Snow; my emphasis) To ask, i n t h i s c o n t e x t , when done by a man, i s s h o r t f o r "t o ask a w o r k i n g g i r l t o go o u t " . When t h e woman " a s k s " , i t i s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d by a d o l l a r f i g u r e . E v e n t s such as n o t i c i n g , b e l i e v i n g , s t o p p i n g (someone on th e s t r e e t ) , e t c . when r e t o l d , can be i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d and w i t h o u t t r a n s i t i o n by d i r e c t speech: A l l of a sudden, t h e y n o t i c e you. "HeyI Who's t h a t ? " (Jo) They b e l i e v e d me: " W e l l , you be on your way!" (Snow) T h i s s t y l i s t i c s h o r t c u t , by naming t h e m e n t a l p r o c e s s o f t h e sp e a k e r , r e e s t a b l i s h e s i n f a c t t h e l o g i c a l sequence of s t e p s which l e d t o t h e spoken s e n t e n c e quoted by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The s t r u c t u r e i s n a t u r a l l y n o t p e c u l i a r t o s t r e e t p e o p l e and s i m p l y r e f l e c t s an awareness o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t o f v a r i o u s speech a c t s . W h i l e , once a g a i n , none o f the p r e v i o u s examples can be a t t r i b u t e d o n l y t o tho s e i n f o r m a n t s we c a l l " s t r e e t p e o p l e " i n 92 t h i s work, t h e y a l l r e f l e c t t h e v i v a c i t y of s t y l e , t he v e r b a l s k i l l s and emphasis on speech p e c u l i a r t o a group who r e l y almost e x c l u s i v e l y on o r a l means of communication and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . SWEARING; I cannot e v a l u a t e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f s w e a r i n g on the s t r e e t , s i n c e I o n l y d e a l t w i t h women i n j a i l . Many o f t h e women who t a l k e d t o me, however, mentioned t h a t t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y was much c r u d e r and more v i o l e n t i n j a i l . Sue f e l t "dumb" when we went back out and s t a r t e d s w e a r i n g as she d i d i n j a i l , and Bugsy f e l t t h a t "people l o o k e d " a t h e r f o r the same r e a s o n . J o d i s a p p r o v -i n g l y e x p l a i n e d t h a t " s wearing becomes a way of l i f e i n h e r e " . They assumed t h a t t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s o f l i f e i n j a i l was t h e cause o f t h e i r change o f v o c a b u l a r y . B e c k e r , a n a l y z i n g t h e usage .of " f o u r l e t t e r words" n o t e s ' t h a t "the word t a k e s on the immediacy o f t h e a c t i t s e l f " and t h a t u s u a l l y we use f o u r l e t t e r words i n s i t u a t i o n s where we have no c o n t r o l , where we f e e l vague and a i m l e s s - as i n m i l i t a r y l i f e . C o n t i n u a l c u r s i n g seems t o g i v e us t a n g i b i l i t y , d e c i s i v e n e s s ; i t b r i n g s us back s t r o n g l y i n t o the w o r l d (Becker 1971:94-95). F i f t e e n y e a r s ago, when C o u t t s (1961) was a matron i n the same p r i s o n , The Manual s p e c i f i e d t h a t "a g i r l i s not a l l o w e d t o swear i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n " ( C o u t t s 1961:75) and some matrons s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e d t h a t c u t t i n g out " s t r e e t t a l k and f i l t h y t a l k " was a s i n e qua non c o n d i t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g (1961:91). 93 I f one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s of sw e a r i n g i s t o b r i n g one "back s t r o n g l y i n t o t h e w o r l d " , as Bec k e r w r i t e s , i t s p r e v e n t i o n may c o n t r i b u t e t o c u t one o f f from a w o r l d deemed u n s u i t a b l e . A l t h o u g h s w e a r i n g i s s t i l l d i s c o u r a g e d i n j a i l , i t was not un u s u a l f o r me t o o v e r h e a r from t h e o f f i c e I was l e n t one inmate y e l l t o a n o t h e r " I f you go i n t o my room one more t i m e , I ' l l b reak your f u c k i n g arm and your f u c k i n g neck!" i n to n e s t h a t were d e t e r r e n t enough. The v o c a b u l a r y l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o c u r s i n g , s w e a r i n g and a b u s i n g p e o p l e . K o n t r o w i t z (1968), a c t i n g on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t what i s i m p o r t a n t enough t o be p e r c e i v e d i s a l s o named, found 184 names g i v e n by j a i l inmates t o homosexuals, p r o v i n g - i f i t needed p r o v i n g a g a i n - the w e a l t h o f v o c a b u l a r y o f a d e v i a n t a r g o t . My i n f o r m a n t s g i v e names t o a number o f pe o p l e p o s s e s s i n g s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a s s h o l e , j e r k , punk, p r i c k , g oof, p e s t , p e r v e r t , w e i r d o , n u t , f r e a k , f l i p , r i p o f f , s a d i s t , r a t , p i g , b u l l , e t c . To t h e s e , I c o u l d o n l y oppose from a l l t h e t e x t s : "She's good p e o p l e " , "he's a f r i e n d " , "he's a good s h i t " , and " t h e y ' r e s o l i d " . I found such a p a u c i t y o f p o s i t i v e terms so r e m a r k a b l e t h a t I mentioned i t t o some o f my i n f o r m a n t s who agreed w i t h my examples and were them s e l v e s s u r p r i s e d . One s u g g e s t i o n made was t h a t , i n j a i l , one h a t e d everyone and e v e r y -t h i n g , and t h a t t h i s might v e r y w e l l be r e f l e c t e d i n one's vocab-u l a r y . Upon r e f l e c t i o n , however, t h e y c o u l d n ot add t o my b r i e f l i s t o f p o s i t i v e terms. 94 JOKING As w i t h s w e a r i n g , I cannot e v a l u a t e the i n c i d e n c e o f j o k i n g on t h e s t r e e t . I t was w i t h Brandy, T i n y and Sugar, who were housed s e p a r a t e l y i n p r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y and who sometimes i n v i t e d me f o r d i n n e r t h a t I had my f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e o f j o k e s f r e e l y exchanged. They were m o s t l y drug r e l a t e d and o n l y became " j o k e s " as an a f t e r t h o u g h t , because drug i s i n everybody's mind. For i n s t a n c e , I was f e e l i n g the d i r t around a house p l a n t and remarked t h a t i t was " p r e t t y d r y " , f o r g e t t i n g a p r e v i o u s d e f i n -i t i o n o f " d r y " as b e i n g "when t h e r e ' s no dope around". T i n y answered a b s e n t m i n d e d l y "Yeah, e v e r y t h i n g i s p r e t t y d r y around h e r e " , t h e n , a c t u a l l y h e a r i n g what she had s a i d , l aughed. Another t i m e , T i n y had mentioned t h a t her j e a n s were t o o l o o s e a t the w a i s t and she needed a n o t h e r p a i r . A member o f t h e s t a f f asked "Why don't you f i x them? You're p r e t t y good w i t h a . n e e d l e " , t h e n r e a l i z e d t h e p l a y on words and everybody laughed. G r e e t i n g s and b r i e f exchanges between women who a f t e r w a r d s d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s as f r i e n d s o f t e n t a k e the form of i n s u l t s . Abrahams, i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f b l a c k t a l k i n g o f t h e s t r e e t p o i n t s out t h a t apparent a g g r e s s i v i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f j o k i n g a c t i v i t y o r s t r e e t p l a y , and t h a t f o r p l a y t o o p e r a t e s u c c e s s -f u l l y , t h e r e must be a r e c o g n i z a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t and t h e r e a l w o r l d . One o f t h e s e v i t a l c o n n e c t i o n s i s t h a t f o r p l a y t o o p e r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y , t h e r e must be a sense o f t h r e a t a r i s i n g from t h e ' r e a l ' and ' s e r i o u s ' w o r l d o f b e h a v i o r . The t h r e a t o f i n c u r s i o n s from t h e r e a l w o r l d must be c o n s t a n t . That i s , i n t h e most s u c c e s s f u l k i n d s o f p l a y , the most con-s t a n t message must be the d e e p l y a m b i v a l e n t one: t h i s i s p l a y - t h i s i s n o t p l a y . W i t h j o k i n g a c t i v i t y (which 95 a c c o u n t s f o r most p l a y i n g i n the s t r e e t world) t h i s paradox-i c a l message i s v e r y commonly c a r r i e d o u t by the use o f t h e same a g g r e s s i v e , h o s t i l e f o r m u l a i c d e v i c e s found i n use i n r e a l arguments - i . e . t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what one f i n d s i n t h e B l a c k s t r e e t w o r l d - so much so t h a t t h e p a s s e r b y o f t e n has a h a r d time d i s c e r n i n g whether j o k i n g o r a r e a l argument i s t a k i n g p l a c e (Abrahams 1974:245). The f o l l o w i n g examples p r o v i d e d by Brandy i l l u s t r a t e v e r y w e l l Abrahams' p o i n t . She a l s o i n d i c a t e s how c a r e f u l l y one must handle such a s i t u a t i o n . I have t h i s f r i e n d t h a t ' s h a l f I n d i a n . I c a l l h e r "Hey, you f u c k i n ' waggon b u r n e r ! " and she c a l l s me "P u e r t o R i c a n c u n t ! " and p e o p l e who see us t o g e t h e r t h i n k we're gonna f i g h t . But we're f r i e n d s and we know j u s t how f a r we can go. Jokes a r e a l s o used t o r e l i e v e t e n s i o n i n p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s . I n t h e n e x t example Brandy quotes a guard whom she c o n s i d e r s t o be a " r e a l gentleman" and d e s c r i b e s a f i g h t w hich had s t a r t e d p l a y f u l l y : she and her f r i e n d knew "how f a r " t h e y c o u l d go, as i n t h e p r e v i o u s c a s e , but had j u s t r eached t h e c r i t i c a l l i m i t : She was h o l d i n g me l i k e t h a t , s ee, and I was h o l d i n g h e r . She wouldn't l e t me go because she knew I would h i t h e r , and I wouldn't l e t go because I knew she'd h i t me. And we were g o i n g l i k e t h a t , and i t wasn't funny anymore. So he s a y s : "You guys want some music so you can dance?" W e l l , i t was so funny t h a t we broke up! They b r o k e up l i t e r a l l y because t h e y broke up l a u g h i n g f i r s t , as a f a c e s a v i n g d e v i c e t h o u g h t f u l l y p r o v i d e d by t h e guard. Another t y p e of j o k e - o n l y used i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by s t r e e t p e o p l e when t a l k i n g t o members o f t h e o t h e r c u l t u r e - i s a > d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e l a t t e r ' s assumed s e l f r i g h t e o u s n e s s . I t t a k e s t h e form o f a d e n i a l o f h a v i n g committed a r e p r e h e n s i b l e o r u n l a w f u l a c t i o n , g i v i n g as an a l i b i - t h a t one was i n f a c t , a t 96 t h e same t i m e , busy c o m m i t t i n g an e q u a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e o r unlaw-f u l a c t i o n . J u l i e ( r e l a t i n g an exchange between h e r s e l f and a p o l i c e m a n ) : "Are you a u s e r ? " And I s a y s : " H e l l , no! I'm an a l c o h o l i c ! " I wasn't s o l i c i t i n g when he b u s t e d me ... In f a c t , I was on my way t o s c o r e ! (Bugsy) He c o u l d n ' t have been t r a f f i c k i n g when t h e y s a i d he d i d , because a t t h a t time he was p a s s i n g bad cheques! ( J u l i e ) The pause t h a t f o l l o w e d , so b r i e f as t o be b a r e l y n o t i c e -a b l e , was a cue t o l a u g h t e r , a p p r e c i a t e v e l y r e c e i v e d . I acknowledged t h e " n a u g h t i n e s s " o f t h e remark and, presumably, appeared t o condone t h e n a u g h t i n e s s of t h e i n t e n t i o n . What I c e r t a i n l y d i d was t o respond t o an o f f e r o f f r i e n d l y c o m p l i c i t y . C o u t t s (1961:134) mentions t h e c o m p l i c i t y i n t o w hich matrons a r e sometimes drawn. W i t h them the s i t u a t i o n i s n a t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t ; b u t , as a square John, I was e x p e c t e d t o f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e a t seeming t o condone t h a t o f which I d i s -approved. B u t , once more, the " d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n " and our r e l a t i o n s h i p were such t h a t I c o u l d not a l l o w t h e j o k e t o pass w i t h o u t acknowledging i t . Moreover, I had a l s o l a b e l l e d m y s e l f an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , one f o r whom t h e r e was n e i t h e r " r i g h t " n o r "wrong", o n l y what "worked" and what d i d n o t ; and t h a t , t o o , had t o be t e s t e d , I presume. The o n l y j o k i n g b e h a v i o u r I p e r s o n a l l y o b s e r v e d among inmates t h e m s e l v e s t o o k t h e form o f o n e - l i n e r s and come-backs, wh i c h w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e i r v a l u e as s t a t u s markers i n t h e ne x t c h a p t e r . 9 7 ARGOT AND COMPETENCE I t i s a t once apparent t h a t s t r e e t p e o p l e speak a language a l l t h e i r own, a l t h o u g h , when s p e a k i n g t o square Johns s t r e e t p e o p l e use t h e l a t t e r ' s terms i n o r d e r t o be u n d e r s t o o d . The i n f o r m a n t s ' g e n e r a l c o m p l i a n c e and t h e i r usage o f a common language make i t a t t i m e s easy t o o v e r l o o k t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f terms. I n t h e q u e s t i o n s I asked Dee, my f i r s t i n f o r m a n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , I used such terms as " h e r o i n " and " n i g h t c l u b " . Dee answered w i t h " h e r o i n " and " c l u b " . I n my n o t e s , I r e p o r t e d " h e r o i n " and " n i g h t c l u b " . One day, she used " p o l i c e m a n " . I was s u r p r i s e d and asked: "Do s t r e e t p e o p l e use t h e word 'policeman'?. "Only when t a l k i n g t o square J o h n s " , she r e p l i e d . "What o t h e r words do s t r e e t p e o p l e use when t a l k i n g t o square Johns? Do t h e y e v e r say ' h e r o i n ' among t h e m s e l v e s , f o r i n s t a n c e ? " N a t u r a l l y , I had t o go o v e r a l l my n o t e s and check them. I n the case o f " n i g h t c l u b " , i t was s i m p l y a case o f i n a t t e n t i o n : Dee and a l l the o t h e r women o n l y s a i d " c l u b " , w h i c h i s q u i t e l o g i c a l , s i n c e b i c y c l e c l u b s , s p o r t s c l u b s , e t c . , a r e m e a n i n g l e s s i n t h e i r l i f e -s t y l e and t h e o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t " c l u b " i s t h e " n i g h t c l u b " . They s i m p l y a v o i d e d what t h e y saw as a redundant form, w h i l e I a u t o m a t i c a l l y imposed my v o c a b u l a r y . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s second language, made t o appear d i f f i c u l t o r beyond t h e comprehension o f the average p e r s o n , i s the key t o a p r e s t i g i o u s i n s i d e r s ' w o r l d . Jo and I were t a l k i n g about the type o f c o n v e r s a t i o n she and an o r d i n a r y square John l i k e me c o u l d have i f we met on t h e s t r e e t c o r n e r i n 98 c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h would make such a c o n v e r s a t i o n p o s s i b l e . She e x p l a i n e d : " W e l l , you wouldn't use the same words as I would, t a l k i n g t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n on t h e s t r e e t . That would be a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t ... P r o b a b l y you wouldn't c a t c h t h e p o i n t ..." Hence, t h e need f o r her t o come t o my l e v e l of i g n o r a n c e t o be un d e r s t o o d . I once asked Snow i f t h e s t r a i g h t p e o p l e who spend a c e r t a i n l e n g t h o f time w o r k i n g i n " a r c a d e s " , p o o l rooms, beer p a r l o u r s p a t r o n i z e d by rou n d e r s and o t h e r s t r e e t p e o p l e , were not e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d them. She s a i d d o u b t f u l l y : "Oh, maybe t h i n g s l i k e " f a r o u t ! ... But t h a t ' s a l l . " I f the i n f o r -m a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be e r r o n e o u s , the a t t i t u d e p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s w e l l t h e s u p e r i o r i t y f e l t by s t r e e t p e o p l e i n h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t , commonly shared and bonding language. C e r t a i n terms have seeped i n t o t h e g e n e r a l language t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s between t h e two groups ( " t r i c k " , "mark", " f r e n c h " , "con", " o l d man", " p i g " , " b u l l " , e t c . ) . These terms, a c o n c e s s i o n o f s o r t s , a r e deemed t o be so e l e m e n t a r y t h a t anyone who does not u n d e r s t a n d them -l i k e B o o t s ' " E n g l i s h duke", f o r i n s t a n c e - i s thought t o be " r e a l l y s t u p i d , o r something". (see Appendix D) An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t made by P o l s k y (1969) i s t h a t t h e s p e c i a l language d e v e l o p e d by a s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t group i s not d e v i s e d , c o n t r a r y t o g e n e r a l b e l i e f , as t h e means o f p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h s e c r e c y would p r o v i d e . At f i r s t g l a n c e , i t would appear t o do so because i t has s p e c i a l terms f o r e v e r y p r o c e s s o f t h e 99 c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y c o n c e r n e d , f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o u t s i d e r s from i n s i d e r s , and r e q u i r e s a competence n o t a c h i e v e d by o u t s i d e r s . But P o l s k y and Maurer (1940), t h e o n l y l i n g u i s t P o l s k y c r e d i t s w i t h common sense on t h i s p o i n t , r e c o g n i z e i n t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s t h e mark o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n and p r o b a b l y no more. H a l l i d a y , however, sees as " a r g o t s " t h o s e languages whose f e a t u r e s a r e "no more t h a n t h e t e c h n i c a l and s e m i t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s o f a s p e c i a l r e g i s t e r " , but names " a n t i - l a n g u a g e s " ( i . e . languages o f a n t i - s o c i e t i e s ) "the p r o f e s s i o n a l j a r g o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s o f a c r i m i n a l c o u n t e r c u l t u r e " ( H a l l i d a y 1976: 571) . T h i s s o - c a l l e d s e c r e t language i s i n f a c t r e l a t i v e l y easy t o a c q u i r e . P o l i c e m e n know i t , even t h o s e who do not work under-c o v e r . Other r o u n d e r s know i t . Some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p r o b a b l y know i t . P o l s k y ' s and Maurer's main argument a g a i n s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f s e e i n g a p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e i n c r i m i n a l a r g o t i s t h a t i t i s used by the spe a k e r s o n l y when among t h e m s e l v e s , when s e c r e c y from o u t s i d e r s i s not r e q u i r e d ( P o l s k y 1969:99), s i n c e i t s usage when among o u t s i d e r s would i m m e d i a t e l y l a b e l i t s s p e a k e r s as d e v i a n t s (Maurer 1940:284). H a l l i d a y (1976:572) quotes a s t u d y on C a l c u t t a u n d e r w o r l d where t h e q u e s t i o n o f why what he c a l l s " a n t i - l a n g u a g e s " a r e used was asked of 400 " c r i m i n a l s and a n t i - s o c i a l e l e m e n t s " . Of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , 158 e x p l a i n e d i t as "the need f o r s e c r e c y " , appar-e n t l y a g r e e i n g w i t h the common b e l i e f . More i n t e r e s t i n g l y , 132 1 0 0 saw i t s use "as communicative f o r c e o r v e r b a l a r t . " I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s p e c i a l language of t h e i r s o f f e r s t h e s m a l l t ime c r i m i n a l s from whose group my i n f o r m a n t s a r e drawn any p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the p o l i c e . The square Johns are not a f f e c t e d by i t s i n c e t h e y seldom u n d e r s t a n d i t . What ar e t h e need f o r and the f u n c t i o n o f such a language, then? P o l s k y b e l i e v e s q u i t e s i m p l y t h a t t h i s t y pe of a r g o t d e v e l o p s p a r t l y t o p r o v i d e a s h o r t h a n d way of r e f e r r i n g t o t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s but p a r t l y a l s o as an e l a b o r a t e l y i n v e n -t i v e , r i t u a l i s t i c , o f t e n r a t h e r p l a y f u l way o f r e i n f o r c i n g group i d e n t i t y o r "we f e e l i n g " (1969:99). Maurer a l s o e x p l a i n s t h e needs f o r t h i s common language: C r i m i n a l groups o r mobs work o u t s i d e t h e law and c o n s e q u e n t l y count v e r y l i t t l e upon i t f o r p r o t e c t i o n . There i s a v e r y s t r o n g sense of c a m a r a d e r i e among c r i m i n a l s , a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d g r o u p - s o l i d a r i t y , w h i c h i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by i n t e r n a l " o r g a n i z a t i o n " and by e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s from b o t h t h e u p p e r w d r l d and t h e p r e d a t o r y u n d e r w o r l d . A common language h e l p s t o b i n d t h e s e groups t o g e t h e r and g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e s t r o n g f r a t e r n a l s p i r i t which p r e v a i l s among them. T h i s i s t r u e o f t h e e n t i r e u n d e r w o r l d , w i t h t h e p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n o f p r o s t i t u t e s . On the o t h e r hand, each s p e c i f i c t r a d e o r p r o f e s s i o n d e v e l o p s a f e e l i n g o f mutual e x c l u s i v e n e s s among i t s members; t h i s f e e l i n g s p r i n g s from the f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e a l l c r i m i n a l s , t h a t t h e y have a commonality of l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g and back-ground a r e somewhat s i m i l a r , t h a t t h e y f a c e i d e n t i c a l mechan-i c a l problems w h i c h must be s o l v e d w i t h somewhat s i m i l a r t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s , and t h a t c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e s o r " e t h i c s " must be r e c o g n i z e d i f the mob i s t o p r o s p e r (194-0 :283-284) . Maurer's r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o s t i t u t e s i s r a t h e r ambiguous. Does he mean t h a t p r o s t i t u t e s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l (even p a r t i a l l y ) because t h e y do not have a common language; because t h i s common language, i f t h e y have one, does not h e l p b i n d them as a group; o r because t h e y do not share a s t r o n g f r a t e r n a l f e e l i n g ? As i t t u r n s o u t , he means a l l t h r e e i n a p r e v i o u s a r t i c l e (1939) and 101 g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h e l a c k o f a r g o t he found among p r o s t i t u t e s : They l a c k t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o make and a c q u i r e an a r t i -f i c i a l language f o r t h e m s e l v e s (p. 546). She never d e v e l o p s a sense o f t r a d e , o r group s o l i d a r i t y , o f gang morale (p. 547). The p r o s t i t u t e s e l l s a s t a n d a r d s e r v i c e and depends h e a v i l y on s i m p l e commercial g o o d - w i l l ... There i s n e i t h e r i n c e n -t i v e toward a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f her p a t r o n s nor a psycho-l o g i c a l approach based on such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (p. 549). There i s a p r o s t i t u t e a r g o t , and J e n n i f e r James amply p r o v e s i t (1972a; 1972b; 1972c). She a l s o i n s i s t s i n a l l h e r work on the s t r e n g t h o f t h e commitment t h a t p r o s t i t u t e s have t o make t o the " f a s t l i f e " because o f the m o r a l and l e g a l s a n c t i o n s i n f l i c -t e d on them by the l a r g e r community. She i s a l s o c l e a r on t h e p a r t p l a y e d by a common language: Acceptance i n t h e p r o s t i t u t e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n depends t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e a b i l i t y t o communicate i n the a r g o t . The newcomer l e a r n s the r u l e s as she p l a y s t h e game ... I f she h a n d l e s h e r game w e l l and can communicate i n the a c c e p t a b l e manner, she can f u n c t i o n as a member of t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (1972b:103). U n l i k e Maurer, James a l s o d e s c r i b e s a f a i r l y s u p p o r t i v e m i l i e u where t h e p r o s t i t u t e always knows some p e o p l e w i l l i n g t o o f f e r her s h e l t e r , b a i l h e r out of j a i l , welcome her i f she d e c i d e s t o move away o r l e a v e her pimp (1972b:104). Maurer sees t h e p r o s t i t u t e s ' l o t as e s s e n t i a l l y a p a s s i v e one. I t sta n d s t o r e a s o n , however, t h a t i f t h e s t r e e t w a l k e r wants t o s u r v i v e she has t o ha n d l e v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s i n the c o n t e x t o f her o c c u p a t i o n , and has been l e d t o name and c l a s s i f y a v a r i e t y o f customers. James' i n f o r m a n t s r e c o g n i z e f i f t e e n 102 d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of t r i c k s , f o u r o f them " f r e a k s " . Mine a l s o gave me f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t r i c k s , grouped i n t o t h o s e " i t 1 s a l l r i g h t t o go out w i t h " and "those you s h o u l d s t a y away from." (see C h apter S i x and Appendix B ) . In h i s a r t i c l e , Maurer w r i t e s t h a t "the a r g o t v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h a p p l i e s s t r i c t l y t o the p r o f e s s i o n appears t o c o n s i s t o f l e s s t h a n f i f t y words" (1939:546). In her d i s s e r t a t i o n , James c o l l e c t e d o v er two hundred terms which she c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r domains ( s t r e e t w a l k e r s , t r i c k s , pimps and s t a b l e s i s t e r s ) . M a u r e r 1 s arguments may have been v a l i d some f o r t y y e a r s ago, when he wrote h i s a r t i c l e . The p r o s t i t u t e s he d e s c r i b e s had t h e c h o i c e o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e s e t ups: l i v i n g i n a b r o t h e l , work-i n g i n a " c a l l - h o u s e " , or "working th e s t r e e t " . I n t h e s e , t h e y were " p e r p e t u a l l y on the d e f e n s i v e ... (and) never p e r m i t t e d t o d e v e l o p p r o f e s s i o n a l independence, w h i c h appears t o be t h e f i r s t e s s e n t i a l i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c r i m i n a l a r g o t s " (1939:547). The low s t a t u s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n i n t h e c r i m i n a l w o r l d d e n i e s them " a l l c l a i m t o t r u e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s " . Moreover, he con-t i n u e s , p o l i c e o p p r e s s i o n and t h e t i g h t e n i n g o f t h e bonds which ensues, a r e a l s o m i s s i n g from th e p r o s t i t u t e s ' l i f e . Between Maurer and James, t h i r t y y e a r s have e l a p s e d . I f we l o o k a t the more r e c e n t terms e l i c i t e d by James, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e domains of t h e pimp and the " s t a b l e s i s t e r s " (women w o r k i n g f o r t h e same pimp), we see t h e v e r y s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f B l a c k J a r g o n . I c e b e r g S l i m ' s Pimp. The S t o r y o f My L i f e (1969), known by pimps and hookers as The Book, and M i l n e r & M i l n e r (19 72) make 103 a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t h e i n f l u e n c e o v er t h e conduct and language o f p r o s t i t u t i o n w h i c h t h e i r s t y l e and p r e s t i g e have earned t h e B l a c k American pimps. Even my Canadian i n f o r m a n t s , w h o , u s u a l l y deny t h a t t hey use such terms t h e m s e l v e s , know them n e v e r t h e l e s s and c h a r a c t e r i z e them: "That's N i g g e r t a l k " , "The B l a c k guys c a l l i t l i k e t h a t " . I n James, we see t h e enrichment o f p r o s t i t u t e a r g o t p a r t l y due t o t h e c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by a group w i t h a t h r i v i n g and c o l o u r f u l language o f i t s own. The growing v i s i b i l i t y o f s t r e e t p r o s t i t u t i o n has a l s o i n c r e a s e d p o l i c e i n t e r f e r e n c e and c o n t r o l and, by t h e same t o k e n , the t i g h t e n i n g o f t h e s t r e e t w a l k e r s ' r a n k s , c r e a t i n g t h e need f o r a common i n s i d e r s ' language. The d e s i r e o f p r o s t i t u t e s t o p r o -f e s s i o n a l i z e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n has g i v e n r i s e t o such o r g a n i z a -t i o n s as t h e West Coast COYOTE ( C a l l O f f Your O l d T i r e d E t h i c s ) or t h e B r i t i s h PUSSI ( P r o s t i t u t e s U n i t e d f o r S o c i a l and S e x u a l I n t e g r a t i o n ) , not t o mention the F r e n c h p r o s t i t u t e s ' s t r i k e o f Summer 19 75. In t h e case o f my own i n f o r m a n t s , t h e r e i s an added f a c t o r , one w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s them from James' s t r e e t w a l k e r s and f u r t h e r l i n k s them t o an " i n s i d e r s ' group": a l t h o u g h s h a r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of p r o s t i t u t i o n and t h e problems t h e o c c u p a t i o n e n t a i l s , my i n f o r m a n t s a r e a l s o drug a d d i c t s , and James 1 a r e n o t . Hers were d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen as such i n t h e S e a t t l e j a i l . The same c h o i c e would have been i m p o s s i b l e f o r me i n t h e B r i t i s h 104 Columbia P r o v i n c i a l J a i l : 4 the inmates who were a l s o p r o s t i t u t e s were, f i r s t and f o r e m o s t , j u n k i e s . T h e i r a r g o t i s t h a t o f t h e j u n k i e , as w e l l as t h e p r o s t i -t u de. T h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s t h a t o f the j u n k i e as w e l l as t h e p r o s t i t u t e . P r o s t i t u t e s s c o r e when t h e y get a t r i c k , j u n k i e s when t h e y buy dope. T u r n i n g a t r i c k , s c o r i n g and f i x i n g i s t h e u s u a l s u c c e s s i o n o f e v e n t s f o r t h e j u n k i e hooker; s o l i c i t i n g and s c o r i n g f o r the o r d i n a r y p r o s t i t u t e . The s h i f t o f meaning and emphasis o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e " s c o r e " from t h e non a d d i c t t o t h e a d d i c t s t r e e t w a l k e r i s r e v e a l i n g o f the t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k o f t h e two t y p e s o f women. I a l s o t h i n k t h a t a n o t h e r r e l e v a n t p o i n t i s t h a t the non a d d i c t p r o s t i t u t e o n l y s h a r e s h er a r g o t w i t h o t h e r p r o s t i t u t e s and w i t h pimps (the two extremes i n terms o f o c c u p a t i o n s t a t u s and sex r o l e s ) , making v e r y c l e a r h e r own p o s i t i o n as t h e most i n f e r i o r one, whereas the j u n k i e p r o s t i t u t e who u s u a l l y t r a f f i c k s s h a r e s h er a r g o t w i t h her e q u a l s , o t h e r j u n k i e s , males and f e m a l e s , among whom her own s t a t u s i s n o t dependent on sex o r o c c u p a t i o n , b u t on whether she happens t o have h e r o i n f o r s a l e . An a r g o t w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s h e r i n t o a b a s i c a l l y e q u a l i t a r i a n ^ T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e a t t h e ti m e the r e s e a r c h was con-d u c t e d . The p o l i c e were w a i t i n g f o r t h e d e c i s i o n o f a Supreme C o u r t a p p e a l b e f o r e making f u r t h e r a r r e s t s , and s i m p l e s o l i c i t i n g c h a r ges were n ot l a i d o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l months. Thus, p r o s t i t u t e s who were i n c a r c e r a t e d a t the time had been a r r e s t e d and s e n t e n c e d on a drug o r r o b b e r y charge. Sentences f o r s t r a i g h t s o l i c i t i n g a r e u s u a l l y s h o r t enough t h a t women "doing t i m e " f o r i t were soon r e l e a s e d . But t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f f i n d i n g non u s i n g p r o s t i t u t e s i n j a i l would have been m i n i m a l a t any o t h e r t i m e . 105 group may be seen as more d e s i r a b l e than on which r e s t r i c t s her t o a permanently l o w l y p o s i t i o n . Moreover, a d e a l e r i s someone whose s e r v i c e s a r e h i g h l y p r i z e d by s t r e e t p e o p l e , w h i l e a p r o s -t i t u t e ' s a r e o n l y a p p r e c i a t e d , and v e r y ambiguously so, a t t h a t , by h e r s t r a i g h t customers. The p r e s t i g e o f t h e former i s by f a r t h e h i g h e r . And so i s t h e a r g o t o f t h e s u b c u l t u r e . I found among my i n f o r m a n t s a s o r o r a l f e e l i n g , the t i g h t bonds among members o f t h e same group. However, t h i s f e e l i n g e x i s t s because t h e women see them s e l v e s as s t r e e t p e o p l e , not as p r o s t i t u t e s . Towards non a d d i c t p r o s t i t u t e s , t h e i r f e e l i n g s a r e more r e s e r v e d and q u i t e a m b i v a l e n t . T h i s l a t t e r group i s seen as " s t r e e t " because o f t h e i r common l i f e s t y l e and e x p e r i e n c e , but a l s o as " s t r a i g h t " because o f t h e i r v a l u e s . The d o u b l e dichotomy p r e s e n t - f u t u r e and f r e e d o m - s e c u r i t y , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r and which p o l a r i z e s " s t r e e t " and " s t r a i g h t " , a l s o d i v i d e s u s e r and non-user among p r o s t i t u t e s . A l l my i n f o r m a n t s f e e l p r i d e i n and j e a l o u s y of t h e i r l anguage. The two f o l l o w i n g examples come from J u l i e : So, we're g e t t i n g c l o s e t o where I'm g e t t i n g o f f , and he says " W e l l , would you l i k e t o do a t r i c k ? " And I s a y s : "Do_ a t r i c k ? " , I s a y s , "don't you mean t u r n a t r i c k ? " And he s a y s : "Oh, yeah! That's i t ! T h at's i t ! " And I s a y s : "Do a t r i c k ..." And I j u s t l aughed ... I mean, what k i n d o f a t r i c k d i d he want me t o do? A f t e r I s c o r e d , I got back t o him and I s a i d "O.K., now you've g o t t o g e t me a r i g ! " I don't know what he was t h i n k -i n g about ... " r i g " ... He s a i d : "Oh he s a i d "Ah ..." He was a t r u c k d r i v e r , t o o . He s a i d : "Oh, my r i g ' s a t ..." I s a y s : "Hey! I'm s u r e you don't use h e r o i n ... You j u s t don't appear t o be t h e t y p e . " So, he s a y s : "What's t h i s r i g b u s i n e s s ? " So, I s a y s : " W e l l , you have t o go t o a 106 d r u g s t o r e and get me an o u t f i t , a s y r i n g e . " 5 And he s a y s : "Oh JEEEEZUS1" Whereas i n t h e second example, J u l i e i s m e r e l y amused by the p l a y on words and t h e t r u c k d r i v e r ' s l a c k o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n (shown by her own e x a g g e r a t e d use o f s t r a i g h t t e r m s ) , she o p e n l y s n e e r s a t t h e f i r s t man's attempt a t t a l k i n g l i k e a rou n d e r . Not o n l y does he b e t r a y h i s i g n o r a n c e o f t h e a r g o t , but he i s d e s p i c a b l e because he t r i e s t o pass h i m s e l f o f f as a knowledge-a b l e p e r s o n . Moreover, the d e g r a d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n o f "doing a t r i c k " i s not l o s t on J u l i e , from whom " t u r n i n g " one, on t h e i o t h e r hand, i s m e r e l y b u s i n e s s . In t h i s sense, he i s i g n o r a n t i n b o t h languages. The p o s s e s s i o n o f a common language e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a community and i n d i c a t i n g membership i n a common c u l t u r e s t r e n g t h e n s t h e bonds between group members and i s v a l u e d because o f i t . ' I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , v e r b a l s k i l l s a r e a l l t h e more v a l u e d as t h e y a r e some o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s few n o n - v i o l e n t weapons f o r e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o v er both i n s i d e r s and o u t s i d e r s . 5 T i g h t e r c o n d i t i o n s now p r e v a i l , compared t o the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n S t o d d a r t (1968:3-4) where a s m a l l e n v e l o p e c o n t a i n -i n g "an i n e x p e n s i v e hypodermic n e e d l e , s y r i n g e , and a b o t t l e cap" c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n a d r u g s t o r e from t h e same a r e a f o r 53C by a s k i n g f o r an " o u t f i t " o r a "machine" [now " r i g " ] , much a s , a few y e a r s l a t e r , k i t s o f a i r p l a n e g l u e and p l a s t i c bags were e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e from g r o c e r y s t o r e s . 107 CHAPTER FOUR NATURE AND FUNCTION OF BULLSHITTING B u l l s h i t t i n g i s the m a i n s t a y o f s t r e e t t a l k . I t has a l r e a d y been examined i n i t s two a s p e c t s : a con, a t r i p , a t a l l t a l e - and the s m a l l t a l k between p e o p l e who share enough under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e same language and t h e same c u l t u r e t o co n v e r s e i n an easy.manner. I t i s i t s d u a l o r combined n a t u r e and i t s f u n c t i o n t h a t we are g o i n g t o c o n s i d e r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n f o r -mants' a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e i r environment. I t s l i m i t s a r e not easy t o d e f i n e s i n c e b u l l s h i t t i n g i s b o t h c o n t e n t and form. We w i l l see t h a t b e s i d e i t s two manners o f e x p r e s s i o n , i t has two d i f f e r e n t g o a l s : t o d e c e i v e and t o i n s t r u c t . I n ever w i t n e s s e d e i t h e r a s p e c t o f b u l l s h i t t i n g b e i n g p e r -formed i n the s t r e e t c o n t e x t . However, i n the exchanges which t o o k p l a c e between.my i n f o r m a n t s and m y s e l f , a m i l d form o f b u l l -s h i t t i n g was f o r e v e r p r e s e n t . I n f a c t , i t was the b l e n d i n g o f i t s d o u b l e a s p e c t w h i c h was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o me. I found i t d i f f i c u l t t o o r g a n i z e my d a t a i n t o r e c o g n i z e d f o l k l o r i c g e n r e s , s i n c e as w e l l as j e s t s , j o k e s , t r i c k s t e r t a l e s , p r o v e r b s o r aph o r i s m s , so much o f i t was t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f h e a r -say and t h e p a s s i n g o f g o s s i p . But g o s s i p i t s e l f i s a c o n v e r s a -t i o n a l genre, w i t h i t s s t a n d a r d c a s u a l s t o r y - t e l l i n g p a t t e r n s and i t s f o l l o w i n g o f some o f t h e d i c t a t e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n such as t h e 108 need t o appear spontaneous (Abrahams 1970:299). THE NATURE OF BULLSHITTING I found many s i m i l a r i t i e s between my i n f o r m a n t s ' c a s u a l " b u l l s h i t t i n g " and t h e " t a l k i n g t r a s h " o f C o t h r a n ' s i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e Okefenoke Swamp Rim of G e o r g i a . " T r a s h " i s d e s c r i b e d as r a n g i n g from s m a l l t a l k about t h e weather t o d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s o f brands of p i c k u p t r u c k s , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h some t e a s i n g , j o k e t e l l i n g and y a r n s p i n n i n g . I t i s d e f i n e d as " l o a f i n g and l y i n g b e h a v i o r " , comprised o f a v a r i e t y o f f o l k l o r i c genres b u t u n i f i e d i n i t s c o n t e x t (Cothran 1974:342). As s m a l l t a l k , what e v e n t s does b u l l s h i t t i n g c o v e r on the s t r e e t ? Jo and Snow a l r e a d y gave us an example i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . Sue a l s o d e s c r i b e s two o t h e r a s p e c t s o f s t r e e t g o s s i p : W e l l , someone comes up from t h e s t r e e t and says " I saw so and so, and t h e y ' r e d o i n g r e a l l y w e l l . ' " (You know, t h e y ' r e s t a y i n g o f f the d r a g and n o t u s i n g , o r t h e y ' r e not d r i n k i n g t o o much, o r t h e y ' r e n o t t a k i n g p i l l s , o r whatever t h e i r weakness i s , t h e y ' r e n o t i n d u l g i n g i n i t too o f t e n ) . You t a l k w i t h j u s t p e o p l e you run i n t o , a c q u a i n t a n c e s . P e o p l e r u n s t o r i e s about somebody e l s e , you know. M o s t l y t h e y t a l k about bad t h i n g s . I f i t ' s something about a f r i e n d of y o u r s , t h e y c a n ' t w a i t t o s p r e a d the bad news. L i k e , i f t h e y know your o l d man i s g o i n g out w i t h somebody e l s e , t h e y c a n ' t w a i t t o t e l l you! You g e t i t r e a l l y bad i n h e r e , more tha n on t h e s t r e e t . You know, peopl e l i k e i n s t i g a t i n g , i n h e r e . She a l s o c o n f i r m e d the range o f c i r c u l a t i o n a l r e a d y men-t i o n e d t o me by J u l i e , and t h e continuum between s t r e e t and j a i l m entioned by a l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s : S t o r i e s s p r e a d l i k e w i l d f i r e . T h e y ' l l s t a r t i n the s t r e e t , and t h e y ' l l be i n h e r e , and back i n t h e s t r e e t w i t h i n a week ... u s u a l l y w i t h a l i t t l e b i t added h e r e , a l i t t l e b i t added t h e r e ... Some time y o u ' l l even hear about them i n 109 C a l g a r y o r Edmonton, o r back E a s t , you know. I've he a r d a l o t o f s t o r i e s about back E a s t . Jo had a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t warnings were an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f s t r e e t t a l k . T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by Sue: S t o r i e s l i k e t h a t (about bad t r i c k s ) , t h e g i r l s t e l l them-s e l v e s , w a r n i n g p e o p l e a g a i n s t t h e guy i n case he's c r e e p i n g around here ... You want t o keep your d i s t a n c e from them. Or p e o p l e s e l l i n g bad dope, you know, you warn p e o p l e about i t . Bugsy, i n h e r i n i m i t a b l e s t y l e , g i v e s o t h e r examples o f b u l l s h i t t i n g : Sure t r a v e l s f a s t ! "Oh, d i d you know so and so robbed a t r i c k l a s t n i g h t ? " o r "Did you know so and so f u c k e d so and so's o l d man?" Some p r e t t y good t h i n g s , t o o : "Hey, d i d you know Bugsy was on escape?" "Far o u t ! " J u l i e , who had a s t r a i g h t u p b r i n g i n g and i s now m a r r i e d w i t h a c h i l d w h i l e v e r y much b e l o n g i n g on t h e s t r e e t , adds y e t an o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o s t r e e t t a l k : You see each o t h e r , and t h e r e ' s a l o t t o t a l k about, and what's g o i n g on now ... You go back over what's been happening, and t a l k about, you know, a l o t o f t h i n g s . And i t ' s n o t j u s t what's happening downtown t h a t you t a l k about, because some p e o p l e have met o t h e r p e o p l e ' s f a m i l i e s , and you know, b e i n g i n t h e homes and have d e a l i n g s w i t h them, maybe growing up w i t h them ... So i t ' s n o t j u s t g o i n g down t h e r e t o t a l k about what's g o i n g around ... In J u l i e ' s terms, a l o t o f t h i n g s , " t r i p s " and o t h e r s , a r e b e i n g " l a i d " i n t h e s e t a l k s . Thus b u l l s h i t t i n g b l e n d s w i t h b u l l -s h i t t i n g . Moreover, t h e y a l s o b u l l s h i t t e d w i t h me about b u l l -s h i t t i n g , an event w i t h i n an e v e n t , and r e - e n a c t e d t h e s t r e e t -s t r a i g h t c o n f r o n t a t i o n which forms t h e d i d a c t i c c o n t e n t o f many o f t h e s t o r i e s . The s t o r i e s t o l d a r e o b v i o u s l y o f a more e l a b o r a t e n a t u r e t h a n the d i a l o g u e s r e p r o d u c e d f o r me by J o , Snow o r Bugsy. They 110 are about an ev e n t (a bad t r i p , a f r e a k you go out w i t h , your o l d man g o i n g out w i t h so and so's o l d l a d y , b e i n g h a s s l e d o r b u s t e d ) . These n a r r a t e d e v e n t s , above and beyond the g r e e t i n g s and c h i t - c h a t which a c t as f e e l e r s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and acknowl-edgement o f i n c l u s i o n , are t h e d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s wisdom. Abrahams n o t e s t h a t i n the b l a c k s p e a k i n g community, t h e r e are t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s o f s t r e e t - t a l k e v e n t s : t h o s e i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o pass on i n f o r m a t i o n , t h o s e i n which i n t e r p e r s o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o r a r g u m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a d i s p l a y o r w i t s i s g o i n g on, and t h o s e i n which p l a y i s t h e p r i m a r y component o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n (1974:246). A l t h o u g h t h e l a s t t y p e o f event i s not de v e l o p e d here t o the l e v e l o f t h e v e r b a l a r t form d e s c r i b e d by Abrahams (1974), Kochman (1970) and M i l n e r & M i l n e r (1972) , a l l t h r e e a r e p r e s e n t and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . I do not t h i n k t h a t I was s t r e t c h i n g the l i m i t s o f t h e genre when I d e c i d e d , f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s work, t o i n c l u d e a l l t a l k . What was not good humoured i n c l u s i v e b u l l s h i t t i n g was d e c e i t f u l e x c l u s i v e b u l l s h i t t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o my d e f i n i t i o n s , my i n f o r m a n t s were e i t h e r b u l l s h i t t i n g w i t h me o r b u l l s h i t t i n g me. In so d o i n g , t h e y p r a c t i s e d i n t h e l a t t e r what t h e y preached i n t he former. THE FUNCTION OF BULLSHITTING The w o r l d emerging from t h e s t o r i e s t h e y t o l d me i s one o f t r e a c h e r y and v i o l e n c e , where f r i e n d s a r e few, even i f a c q u a i n -t a n c e s a re many. Wi t h t h e l a t t e r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h a I l l tenuous network o f s m a l l f a v o u r s r e n d e r e d and owed; o f t r i c k s , cop and r i p o f f w a r n i n g s ; and a l s o o f b u l l s h i t t i n g . The f a v o u r s and warnings a r e p r e s t a t i o n s , as Mauss uses t h e word t o s i g n i f y t h i n g s g i v e n i n an a p p a r e n t l y v o l u n t a r y , d i s i n -t e r e s t e d and spontaneous manner, w h i l e b e i n g i n f a c t o b l i g a t o r y and i n t e r e s t e d . The economics and p o l i t i c s o f s t r e e t s u r v i v a l a re i n d e e d based on t h i s sytem of p r e s t a t i o n s . B u l l s h i t t i n g i s a l s o p a r t o f t h e same system, s i n c e many of t h e t h i n g s exchanged are " c o u r t e s i e s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , r i t u a l " (Mauss 1969:2), t o which b u l l s h i t t i n g e v e n t s would be a s s i m i l a t e d . The d i s c o n n e c t e d s m a l l t a l k and t h e r e t e l l i n g o f e v e n t s , exchange of news, g o s s i p o f escape, b u s t i n g , h a s s l e s , bad t r i c k s and good marks, good "junk" and bad " s h i t " , s e r v e as an ongoing d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s t r e e t community by con-s t a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between s t r a i g h t o u t s i d e r s and s t r e e t i n s i d e r s . By t h e same t o k e n , t h e y p r o v i d e c o n v e n i e n t endo- and e x o - s t e r e o t y p e s . They a l s o s e r v e as a means o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n by r e d e f i n i n g each t i m e t h e r i g h t s , d u t i e s , and s a n c t i o n s f o r t r a n s -g r e s s i o n s f o r s t r e e t p e r f o r m e r s , t h u s r e a f f i r m i n g the bonds among them. T h i s i s o f t e n done t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l - e x p e r i e n c e s t o r i e s , t h e t y p e o f s t o r i e s sometimes q u a l i f i e d as " l i e s " by t h e c o r r e c -t i o n s o f f i c e r s , t h e type o f s t o r i e s where t h e i n t e r w e a v i n g o f f a c t and f i c t i o n "proves so smooth than one c o u l d not s e p a r a t e t h e two s t r a n d s even i f i t were i m p o r t a n t t o do so" (Cothran 1974:346). In t h e f i n e b a l a n c e a c h i e v e d i n t h e s e s t o r i e s between f a c t 112 and f i c t i o n , t h e p a r t p l a y e d by each i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . But f a c t and f i c t i o n a r e e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t , and one would have t o go as f a r as C o t h r a n , f o r whom what a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e was d e c i d e d l y l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n what i s a l l e g e d , i m a g i n e d , o r wished t o have happened ... A f a n t a s y i s n e i t h e r t r u e o r f a l s e . R a t h e r , i t has a p a r t i c -u l a r degree of e x p e r i e n c e d r e a l i t y o r u n r e a l i t y , as p r e s c r i b e d by s o c i e t y o r by a d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l (Cothran 1974 :343) . B u l l s h i t t i n g , l i k e myths, f a i r y t a l e s o r r i d d l e s , s e t s t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e u n i v e r s e . The o c c u p a n t s o f my i n f o r m a n t s ' u n i v e r s e a r e d i v i d e d i n t o the S t r e e t and t h e S t r a i g h t . Most p e o p l e f i t n e a t l y i n t o one group, some l o i t e r on t h e margin o f one group w i t h t h e i r a f f i l i a -t i o n s o r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e o t h e r . B u t , on t h e whole, t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l a r g e c a s t o f p e o p l e found i n t h e t a l e s a r e p o l a r i z e d i n t o two c o n t r a s t i n g groups, w i t h o p p o s i t e v a l u e s , e x p e r i e n c e and a t t r i b u t e s . Two o p p o s i t e groups a r e i d e a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The " s t r e e t " , f r e e and l i v i n g i n the p r e s e n t and f o r now, l i v i n g an e x c i t i n g l i f e f u l l o f t h r i l l s and f r a u g h t w i t h danger, f u l l o f g e n e r o s i t y and c l e v e r n e s s , and the " s t r a i g h t " , s a c r i f i c i n g e x c i t e m e n t f o r s e c u r i t y i n a d o u b t f u l f u t u r e , l i v i n g a l i f e o f d r u d g e r y and p e t t y d u t i e s , f u l l of greed and i g n o r a n c e . I n such a s i m p l i s t i c u n i v e r s e , one's a l l e g i a n c e s a r e made c l e a r and so i s one's sense of d u t y . I f t h e e x p e r i e n c e d r e a l i t y does not always c o r r e s p o n d t o the i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e l e s s o n remains n e v e r t h e l e s s . And t h e model i s seen as t r u e , even i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some pe o p l e do not conform t o i t , even i f the non-user p r o s t i t u t e has 113 s t r a i g h t v a l u e s , i f t h e s t r a i g h t f e n c e i s i n v o l v e d i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the s t r e e t r i p o f f i s as greedy and s t u p i d as t h e square John. The e x c e p t i o n s r e i n f o r c e t h e r u l e , s i n c e t h e y a r e i n d e e d p e r c e i v e d as e x c e p t i o n s . I n some c a s e s , t h e y are a l s o named: "acey-duceys" w i t h "a f o o t i n and a f o o t o u t " . As i n most s o c i e t i e s , a sense of t e m p o r a l and c u l t u r a l con-t i n u i t y i s g i v e n by t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f l o n g time p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c u l t u r e . Comparisons between "then" and "now" o s c i l l a t e between t h e p o l e s o f t h e "good o l d days" and the " i t was t o u g h e r t h e n " p o s i t i o n s . S t o d d a r t ' s i n f o r m a n t s (1968:89) l o o k back upon an u n d e n i a b l y l e s s s t r i c t e r a . S i n c e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e two f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s i s t o e n l i g h t e n the u n i n i t i a t e d o b s e r v e r , e x p l i c i t comparison i s made w i t h contemporary c o n d i t i o n s . They might w e l l have been o m i t t e d from o l d t i m e r s 1 r a m b l i n g s when among s t r e e t p e o p l e . A l o t o f t h i n g s changed s i n c e they s t a r t e d u s i n 1 a l l t h a t f u c k i n ' e l e c t r o n i c equipment t o h e l p them p i n c h guys. They've got e v e r y t h i n g g o i n ' f o r them, now, y'know. Most guys around now don't know what i t used t o be l i k e b e f o r e t h e y s t a r t e d r e a l l y c r a c k i n g down. I t used t o be t h a t you c o u l d j u s t s c o r e a cap o f dope and go home and f i x w i t h no w o r r i e s . I t ' s n o t l i k e t h a t now. None of t h e p r e s e n t i n f o r m a n t s would have known the t w i c e removed s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above, the Golden Age o f drug a d d i c -t i o n i n Vancouver, as i t were. They l o o k back upon ti m e s when th e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between drug a d d i c t s and drug c o n t r o l o f f i c e r s were p h y s i c a l l y more v i o l e n t , and " o l d t i m e r s " such as Brandy and Sue r e c a l l o c c a s i o n s where p e o p l e , and o f t e n t h e y t h e m s e l v e s , were " t h r o t t l e d " , "choked" and "punched". When a comparison w i t h 114 p r e s e n t t i m e s i s e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e d , " h a s s l i n g " i n i t s many forms i s mentioned and one does not g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the s i t u a t i o n has n e c e s s a r i l y improved. In e v e r y c a s e , t h e d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h e h o s t i l e f o r c e s a t work s e r v e t o s t r e n g t h e n group s o l i d a r i t y . The d i a c h r o n i c , h i s t o r i c p e r s p e c t i v e i s complemented by t a l e s o f e l s e w h e r e , i n w h i c h " t h e r e " i s compared w i t h "here". Both S t o d d a r t ' s i n f o r m a n t s (p. 89) and mine agreed t h a t (a) e l s e -where i s d i f f e r e n t , and (b) l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a r e i n the l e s s e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n , u s u a l l y because o f law enforcement p o l i c i e s and methods. S p a t i a l c o n t i n u i t y i s t h u s a l s o p r o v i d e d , and b o t h d i m e n s i o n s s e r v e t o a f f i r m t h e concept o f a drug a d d i c t community expanding beyond the immediate c o n f i n e s o f t h e p r e s e n t and one's " c o r n e r " . The h i s t o r i c and g e o g r a p h i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f t h e s t r e e t a d d i c t ' s environment i s a l l t h e more impor-t a n t t h a t t h e r e i s no f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p on the s t r e e t . U n l i k e c r i m i n a l o c c u p a t i o n s p r a c t i s e d o f f the s t r e e t (Letkemann 1973, Bryan 1965), s k i l l s a r e l e a r n e d as t h e y a r e p r a c t i s e d . Sometimes, a d v i c e i s g i v e n , but i t i s u s u a l l y done when pe o p l e work t o g e t h e r . The s u p p o s e d l y s t r o n g bonds wh i c h u n i t e s t r e e t p e o p l e seem t o be much more a u n i f i e d f r o n t a g a i n s t the s t r a i g h t w o r l d t h a n a r e a l f r a t e r n a l f e e l i n g . They u n d e r s t a n d one a n o t h e r , and share t h e same v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e . But t h e y a l s o l e a v e one a n o t h e r f r e e t o l e a r n t h e r u l e s o f the game on t h e i r own, by t r i a l and 115 e r r o r , even i f e r r o r must mean b e i n g b u s t e d , b e a t e n up o r r i p p e d o f f . I made an attempt t o f i n d out what t y p e o f c o a c h i n g o r h e l p my i n f o r m a n t s r e c e i v e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r c a r e e r . Bugsy s t a r t e d a t t h i r t e e n . " I t was my b i r t h d a y " , she e x p l a i n e d , "and I wanted t o g e t drunk, so I t u r n e d a t r i c k . " Soon a f t e r w a r d s , she met " t h i s one g i r l " . Her and me used t o go on double t r i c k s a l l the t i m e . And t h e s e two guys t h a t we always went w i t h , c o n t i n u a l l y ... I mean we went w i t h them about t h r e e t i m e s a week. T h i s one guy, the guy I was always w i t h , wanted t o s i t and watch th e o t h e r two. And C o n n i e , she knew a l l the p o s i t i o n s . And I was w a t c h i n g her and I used t o ask her about them. In J u l i e ' s e x p e r i e n c e , however, th e s i t u a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be somewhat d i f f e r e n t : You can work w i t h a n o t h e r g i r l ... They u s u a l l y don't want t o because i t might c u t i n t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s . Young, t o o ... I t ' s always a new f a c e coming up ... And you don't want t o t a k e t o o much o f a chance on h e r , because you r e a l l y don't know h e r . A t the age of f i f t e e n , Jo met somebody " t h a t gave her an i d e a " . ("They j u s t t o l d me t h a t t h e y knew t h i s guy and he was a l l r i g h t . An o l d e r businessman. He wanted t o g i v e me f i f t y d o l l a r s . " ) Then, a l l of a sudden, i t was t h e r e , and i t was happening, and i t was j u s t l e f t t o my own d i s c r e t i o n . I t i s c e r t a i n l y up t o each i n d i v i d u a l t o a c q u i r e t e c h n i c a l competence i n w h i c h e v e r manner he o r she can c o n t r i v e t o so so. What must be a c q u i r e d r a p i d l y , however, and o v e r which o t h e r s have some c o n t r o l , i s t h e knowledge not t o endanger t h e group. Some pe o p l e t a l k t o o much. L i k e , when I f i r s t h i t t h e s t r e e t , I d i d t h a t a l l t h e t i m e . I t a l k e d t o o much, you know, not r e a l i z i n g what I was d o i n g . U n t i l I g o t t o l d , 116 you know. "Hey, s e t t l e down! Keep you mouth shut when t h e b u l l s a r e around!" I never r a t t e d out on anybody but I was t a l k i n g when t h e r e were b u l l s c l o s e by, c l o s e enough t o l i s t e n , and not r e a l i z i n g what I was d o i n g . So, I g o t i t a l l s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t , and now when I see a b u l l , I shut my mouth, no m a t t e r what I'm t a l k i n g about, I j u s t shut r i g h t up! (Bugsy) But p a t i e n c e i s r e p u t e d t o be s h o r t on t h e s t r e e t , where the pace i s f a s t and p e o p l e a re w a t c h f u l . B u l l s h i t t i n g , by d e p i c t i n g t h e w o r l d and i t s o c c u p a n t s , e s t a b l i s h i n g r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r and d e s c r i b i n g s a n c t i o n s f o r t r a n s g r e s s i o n , p r o v i d e s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t i s a d i d a c t i c t o o l , f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e i n c o n t e n t and form, expendable w i t h time and l e i s u r e o r r e n d e r e d as c o n c i s e and s t r i k i n g as need be. G o s s i p , a form of b u l l s h i t t i n g f o c u s i n g on o t h e r s r a t h e r than t h e s e l f , i s seen by Abrahams as a " t e c h n i q u e f o r m a i n t a i n -i n g community c o n t r o l t h r o u g h t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f p u b l i c m o r a l i t y " (1970:291). Among th e V i n c e n t i a n s where he o b s e r v e d i t , he saw i t as a means 'of m a i n t a i n i n g i n a s m a l l community "some k i n d o f community-held p u b l i c image i n t h e f a c e of i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s from t h e c i t y " (291). A l t h o u g h h i s i n f o r m a n t s saw g o s s i p as " p o t e n t i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e " b o t h t o communal and i n d i v i d u a l l i f e , t h e y r e c o g n i z e d i t s v i t a l advantage: i t gave "a sense o f community i d e n t i t y and i n v o l v e m e n t " (293). THE DIDACTICS OF STREET TALK In- the b r i e f p a r a g r a p h where Bugsy t o l d o f t h e q u a r r e l she had w i t h h e r o l d man, she d e s c r i b e d ' t h e r e c i p r o c a l d u t i e s o f an o l d man and h i s o l d l a d y . To t h e newcomer t o s t r e e t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , she gave s e v e r a l p o i n t e r s : 117 1 I asked him, I says "You were out w i t h P e t e ' s o l d l a d y ? " He says "No". I says "You're a f u c k i n ' l i a r ! " I s a y s , " I was s i t t i n ' i n t h e c a r ne x t t o you," I s a y s , " I seen you!" He says " W e l l , what were we d o i n g ? " So I t o l d him! I d e s c r i b e d i t r i g h t down t o a t e e ! He says "What were you g o i n g a t the show! 2 I says "My mark too k me t o t h e show, I got p a i d 400 d o l l a r s t o go t o the show!" He says "Where's t h e money?" 3 I says " I spent i t ! " He say "On what?" I says " J u n k I " He says "Oh, you d i d , d i d you?" I says "Yeah!" 4 He says " I g o t t a go s i c k , I gu e s s ? " 5 I says " W e l l , go g e t your o t h e r s l u t t h e r e t o buy you some!" I s a y s , " I f she can a f f o r d you, i f she can 6 a f f o r d t o go t o bed w i t h you," I s a y s , " s u r e l y she 7 can a f f o r d t o buy you a cop o f j u n k ! " He says "here we go!" 8 So I says " F u c k i n ' r i g h t , here we go!" I s a y s , "Now, 9 i f you don't mind, I'm busy. H i t i t ! " 1. The o f f e n c e i s d o u b l e : h e r o l d man has been out ("going o u t " i s a euphemism f o r h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s ) w i t h a g i r l who was e q u a l l y u n f a i t h f u l s i n c e she was somebody's o l d l a d y . An o l d l a d y owes p e r s o n a l f i d e l i t y t o her o l d man, marks and t r i c k s n o t -w i t h s t a n d i n g . The danger and the s a n c t i o n was a l s o double and, i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f the s t o r y , t h e r e was a f r e e f o r a l l , w i t h Pete b a s h i n g Bugsy's o l d man and she s p l i t t i n g t h e l i p o f P e t e ' s o l d l a d y . Moreover, Bugsy and Pete spend the r e s t o f t h e day t o g e t h e r and he bought h e r dope d u r i n g t h a t t i m e , p r o b a b l y u s i n g h i s o l d l a d y ' s money t o do so. T h i s was f a i r payment f o r Bugsy's d e e p l y f e l t g r i e v a n c e : "He was t a k i n g my money and spending i t on he r ! B u y i n g her beer and s h i t ! 1 And he was d o i n g i t b e h i n d my !One o f t h e many names f o r h e r o i n . The two most commonly used by my i n f o r m a n t s are "junk" and " s t u f f " . 118 back and e v e r y t i m e I asked him about i t , he s a i d no, he wasn't!" 2 . Her o l d man's f e e b l e attempt a t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t she may have been as g u i l t y as he was c r u s h e d , and Bugsy's v i r t u e and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e g r i t y were t r i u m p h a n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d : she was w o r k i n g and b e i n g w e l l p a i d f o r i t , t o o ! (Bugsy's u s u a l homeric p r o p o r t i o n s , I would s u s p e c t ) . Her answer a l s o r e v e a l s t o t h e newcomer t h a t t h e mark has t o pay f o r t h e s m a l l e s t f a v o u r : i t i s h i s d u t y , and some women would p r o b a b l y argue t h a t i t i s h i s p r i v i l e g e . 3 . N o r m a l l y , Bugsy would spend the money by s c o r i n g f o r b o t h o f them. Y e t , n o t h i n g has been s a i d about i t , and the f a c t t h a t he had t o ask shows t h a t he was not e x p e c t e d t o share h er dope. 4 . T h i s i s t h e key remark. Bugsy was p a y i n g him back f o r h i s i n f i d e l i t y by not p r o v i d i n g f o r h i s needs. He had f a i l e d i n h i s duty t o h e r : f a i t h f u l n e s s and s p e c i f i c use o f her money. So she d i d not p e r f o r m h e r s : b r i n g i n g him t h e money she had earned o r th e dope she had s c o r e d . He t h e n had t o go s i c k (do w i t h o u t h i s f i x ) , w h ich i s no s m a l l punishment and w e l l b e f i t t i n g t h e c r i m e . 5. One c o u l d perhaps assume t h a t by b e i n g u n f a i t h f u l , Bugsy's o l d man has s p o i l t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and t r e a t e d h e r , r e t r o -a c t i v e l y , as i t were, l i k e a s l u t . I am not sure t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r such r o m a n t i c c o n c e i t i n Bugsy's anger: i t was m o s t l y h e r p r i d e which was h u r t . 6. T h i s does not mean t h a t the o t h e r g i r l was p a y i n g f o r Bugsy's o l d man's f a v o u r s . I t may have been meant as an i n s u l t s i n c e she was comparing him t o a pimp. I t may a l s o have.meant t h a t t h e " o t h e r s l u t " might as w e l l assume a l l t h e 119 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f an o l d l a d y . 7. To the i n j u r y of not b r i n g i n g dope t o h e r o l d man, Bugsy added the i n s u l t o f i m p l y i n g t h a t he was o n l y a one-cap a d d i c t . For an o l d t i m e r l i k e Bugsy, t h i s was a l m o s t as i n s u l t i n g as a c c u s i n g him o f s n i f f i n g g l u e ! 8 . Bugsy's anger was so w e l l founded t h a t she c o u l d even a f f o r d t o be s e l f r i g h t e o u s about i t . 9 . The whole scene to o k p l a c e a t Bugsy's p l a c e o f work, i n f r o n t o f a b a r , and the l a s t remark was meant t o h u m i l i a t e him even f u r t h e r by s t r e s s i n g t h e f a c t t h a t she, a t l e a s t , was d o i n g what she was supposed t o do: she was w o r k i n g . A nother i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n was g i v e n by Bugsy a t the end o f t h e t a l e : When I was f i n i s h e d w i t h h e r , she d i d n ' t l o o k t o o h o t ! She had two b l a c k eyes and h e r nose was s p l i t a l l o v e r her f a c e , her mouth was a l l b l e e d i n g , and t h e cops walked i n j u s t as I f i n i s h e d . "What happened h e r e ? " And I l o o k a t h e r , as though t o say "Oh, hey, say something!", you know. And she says " I was a l i t t l e b i t drunk and I w a l k e d i n t o t h e door as she was o p ening i t . " And t h e cop says "And you d i d n ' t know she was b e h i n d the door, I guess?" I says "No. I d i d n ' t know she was i n the bathroom. I don't watch th e bathroom," I s a y s , "I'm i n here t o g e t t i n g ( s i c ) drunk, I a i n ' t here t o w a t c h i n g no can, t o see who goes i n and who comes o u t ! " He says "Yeah", and he says t o h e r "You're s u r e t h a t ' s a l l t h a t ' s happened?" And she says "Yeah", and t h e n she l o o k e d a t me! And t h a t was i t ! And t h e y l e f t . T h i s i s t h e o n l y t i m e t h e g i r l has a c t e d p r o p e r l y . Her l a s t "Yeah" and t h e l o o k she gave Bugsy were t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y e d by t h e l a t t e r , but t h e l i s t e n e r l e a r n s a t once t h a t a b l a c k eye, a s p l i t nose and a b l e e d i n g mouth do not g i v e anyone t h e r i g h t t o i n v o l v e t h e cops i n what i s , a f t e r a l l , a w e l l d e s e r v e d p u n i s h -ment f o r a t r a n s g r e s s i o n t o t h e o l d man-old l a d y code of b e h a v i o u r . 120 The l i s t e n e r a l s o l e a r n s t h a t cops a r e not e n t i r e l y g u l l i b l e , but t h a t i t does not m a t t e r i f t h e y do n o t b e l i e v e you as l o n g as t h e y do n o t "have something on" you. I n t h i s c a s e , the p o l i c e -man's s u s p i c i o n s , h i s d i s b e l i e f and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o do something about i t are e v i d e n t . Y e t , he had t o l e a v e because o f t h e l a c k o f c o r r o b o r a t i o n from P e t e ' s o l d l a d y . Three p o i n t e r s a r e t h u s g i v e n about one's d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e p o l i c e : 1. "They" c a n ' t do a n y t h i n g u n l e s s someone r a t s out o r p r o v i d e s p r o o f s . 2. A u n i t e d f r o n t must be p r e s e n t e d , whatever t h e s i t u a t i o n . 3 . Cops' f r u s t r a t i o n , w h i l e e n j o y a b l e , i s dangerous; t h i s i s not a p p a r e n t i n t h e s t o r y , b u t t h e c u m u l a t i o n o f such s t o r i e s e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s to. t h e same comment made by Dee, J u l i e , Jo and Snow i n v a r i o u s forms: - You've beaten them so many t i m e s ... - They don't l i k e t h a t ! They don't l i k e t o be b e a t , so t h e y ' l l show you! - They h o l d a grudge ... (Jo and Snow) And t h e n , t h e y become " d i r t y " (Dee). I n t e l l i n g me t h e s t o r y , i t was p r o b a b l y not Bugsy's i n t e n -t i o n t o d e s c r i b e f o r me her o l d man's d u t y t o h e r s e l f and h e r du t y t o him, nor t h e s a n c t i o n s which f o l l o w a t r a n s g r e s s i o n . Y e t , she has done so - and does so when she t e l l s t he s t o r y on the s t r e e t . What a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e between them i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e b u l l s h i t t i n g e v ent she performed i n t h e r e t e l l i n g o f i t . What she s a i d took p l a c e i s a l l t h a t m a t t e r s , s i n c e i t makes sense i n terms o f t h e s t r e e t r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r . I t i s a 121 competent s t o r y . She has a l s o " l a i d something on" me a t the same t i m e : t h a t she was a good e a r n e r and t h a t she was tough. I t had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e cour s e o f p r e v i o u s i n t e r v i e w s t h a t she was on t h e whole a b e t t e r e a r n e r t h a n I and t h a t she was to u g h e r t h a n I . Now, once a g a i n , t h e e x c i t i n g s t r e e t q u a l i t i e s o f toughness and smartness ( i t t a k e s w i t s t o be p a i d 400 d o l l a r s t o go t o t h e show) were p i t t e d a g a i n s t the wishy-washy square Johns whose group I r e p r e s e n t e d . I n t h i s c a s e , as o f t e n happened i n th e n a r r a t i v e s , a s t r e e t woman who p r i d e d h e r s e l f on her "smart-ne s s " when d e a l i n g w i t h square Johns, has shown "toughness" when d e a l i n g w i t h her own k i n d . M i l n e r r e c o g n i z e s t h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e way b l a c k men d e a l w i t h w h i t e s o c i e t y : "the d e v i o u s ( t r i c k s t e r ) and the open c o n f r o n t a t i o n (bad man)" ( M i l n e r 1972 b:115). A t h i r d p e r s o n l i s t e n i n g t o Bugsy t e l l i n g me t h e s t o r y would have got t h e double message o f s t r e e t s o c i a l o r g a n -i c i z a t i o n ( d u t i e s and s a n c t i o n s ) and s t r e e t - s t r a i g h t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . H a ving two i n f o r m a n t s a t t h e same s i t t i n g p r o v i d e d me w i t h a double bonus: 1. They gave each o t h e r a knowledgeable a u d i e n c e , t h u s check-i n g t h e i r tendency t o b u l l s h i t u n c o n t r o l l a b l y about so c a l l e d " f a c t s " . 2. ' They p r o v i d e d each o t h e r w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i v e a u d i e n c e i n f r o n t o f whom t o en a c t t h e s t r e e t - s t r a i g h t communication and exchange i n t e r a c t i o n . I n s t e a d o f h a v i n g two peopl e p r e s e n t a t once, I o c c a s i o n -a l l y gave an anonymous t r a n s c r i p t t o one o f t h e women, a s k i n g h e r 1 2 2 t o check a d e t a i l o r g i v e h e r o p i n i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s des-c r i b e d i n the s t o r y . For i n s t a n c e , J u l i e had once t o l d me t h a t she "packed a 38." When Jo and Snow r e a d and commented on J u l i e ' s s t o r y o f a p a r t i c u l a r r a c k e t she f a v o u r e d , t h e y c o u l d not h i d e t h e i r con-tempt f o r someone who had so o b v i o u s l y h i n t e d a t a much h i g h e r c r i m i n a l s t a t u s t h a n h e r r e a l one, and who had moreover done so i n such an u n r e a l i s t i c and u n b e l i e v a b l e manner. J u l i e ' s c l a i m d i d n o t make sense. - She says she c a r r i e d a 38, you know ... Someone who c a r r i e s a 38 i s not g o i n g t o do p e t t y t h i n g s l i k e t h a t ! - That's h e r e , i s n ' t i t ? How, i n t h e S t a t e s , I'd have t o say y e s , b u t h e r e , no I I've n ever met anybody i n t h i s c i t y , any woman t h a t ' s c a r r i e d a gun ... A l l t h e d i f f e r e n t scenes t h a t I've been t h r o u g h i n t h e p a s t y e a r s , I've never met a woman who w alked around p a c k i n g guns. Was she a hype? - Yes. - W e l l , now, you c o u l d n ' t t a k e t h a t r i s k , because t o o o f t e n you get i n a r e g u l a r r u n o f t h e m i l l h a s s l e and g e t t i n g p u l l e d o v e r and t h e r e ' s no p l a c e where you c o u l d put a 381 When t h e y s t o p you, you know, t h e y might get you t o open your c o a t , your p u r s e , you know. Take your c o a t and your sweater o f f and l o o k a t your s l e e v e s . Now, where a r e you gonna have a gun t h a t t h e y ' r e n o t g o i n g t o see i t ? E s p e c i a l l y a hype! A f t e r J u l i e had f i n i s h e d t e l l i n g me about her r a c k e t , I had r a t h e r t r e a c h e r o u s l y , asked a t y p i c a l square John q u e s t i o n : "Wasn't i t dangerous?". And t h i s was when he r u n f o r t u n a t e " I always packed a 38!" escaped h e r . My q u e s t i o n c a l l e d f o r an o u trageous answer, outrageous from th e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e l o g i c Of competent s t r e e t b e h a v i o u r . As Jo and Snow p o i n t e d o u t , a s m a l l t i m e female hype, whatever h e r r a c k e t o r h u s t l e , does not 123 "pack a 38". E x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t i t i s u n p r a c t i c a l and danger-ous f o r her t o do so. But my q u e s t i o n , s t r e s s i n g my " s t r a i g h t " a t t r i b u t e s , i g n o r a n c e o f s t r e e t customs, co n c e r n f o r one's s a f e t y , f e a r o f danger and e x c i t e m e n t , assumption t h a t s t r e e t a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l l f r a u g h t w i t h danger and v i o l e n c e , a l m o s t e x a g g e r a t i n g them, e l i c i t e d from J u l i e t h e e q u a l l y s t e r e o t y p e d r e a c t i o n o f t h e w i l d and dangerous gun p a c k i n g s t r e e t h u s t l e r . In c o l d t y p e , however, Jo and Snow f a i l e d t o see i t as a j o k e a t my expense and s i m p l y t r e a t e d t h e statement a t i t s f a c e v a l u e . S i n c e i t was now d i r e c t e d a t them and no l o n g e r a t me , t h e y even too k umbrage a t the b u l l s h i t . A l l o f J u l i e ' s s t o r y became a t once s u s p i c i o u s and t h e y d i s m i s s e d i t e n t i r e l y , r e f u -s i n g t o g i v e her the b e n e f i t o f the doubt and r e j e c t i n g t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y o f h e r t a l e and her r a c k e t . Reading the s t o r y and h a v i n g t o judge i t , t h e y saw the statement " I (a Vancouver hype, s t r e e t h ooker, s m a l l time t r a f -f i c k e r and h u s t l e r ) always packed a 38" as an i n s u l t t o t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e and competence as s t r e e t p e o p l e . Had J u l i e been f o o l i s h enough t o make such a s t a t e m e n t t o h e r p e e r s , on the s t r e e t , h e r s a n c t i o n would p r o b a b l y have been the same t o t a l d i s m i s s a l she s u f f e r e d i n a b s e n t i a i n my o f f i c e I was v e r y seldom a l l o w e d t o recede u n o b t r u s i v e l y i n t o t h e background. I c o u l d o n l y a c c e p t i n v i t a t i o n s t o l u n c h o r d i n n e r where more pe o p l e would be p r e s e n t , never suggest them. U n l e s s t h e whole group knew me, as i n P r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y , a woman would be h e s i t a n t t o ask me, s i n c e she would t h e n impose my p r e s e n c e on t h e group. A p a r t from Dee i n her group and Brandy i n h e r s , my 124 i n f o r m a n t s were not l e a d e r s . They were e i t h e r l o n e r s o r r a t h e r meek i n d i v i d u a l s , i n no p o s i t i o n I b e l i e v e t o impose me on o t h e r s o r t o ask me w i t h o u t t h e i r t a c i t c o n s e n t . I was not i m p o r t a n t enough t o w a r r a n t a p r e v i o u s c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e group about i t , e i t h e r , s i n c e i t would then have made t h e i n v i t a t i o n a f o r m a l one and the meal a s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n . Moreover, I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e women were not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n making p u b l i c knowledge t h e i r s e s s i o n s w i t h me. T h i s s i t u a t i o n n a t u r a l l y reduced my o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o see pe o p l e i n t e r a c t more o r l e s s n o r m a l l y . Bugsy and Dee asked me f o r l u n c h once, and I a c c e p t e d t h e p r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y group's i n v i t a t i o n t o d i n n e r t h r e e t i m e s and t o l u n c h once. These e n a b l e d me t o w i t n e s s t h e exchange o f o n e - l i n e r s and come-backs on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . To me, an u n i n i t i a t e d s p e c t a t o r , t h e y were u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e sp e a k e r ' s s t a t u s . To "Up y o u r s ! " , Dee gave t h e d r a w l i n g answer " S o r r y , i t won't f i t ! " The c h a l l e n g e , o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o n t e s t (Goffman 1971:178-179), i s s u e d by t h e f i r s t s peaker was t a k e n up and s u c c e s s f u l l y met by Dee. I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t s p e a k e r ' s s t a t u s as one t e n t a t i v e l y e q u a l t o Dee's. The l a t t e r ' s m i l d come back s i g n a l l e d her acceptance o f t h a t s t a t u s w h i l e g i v i n g h er the l a s t word. I t a l s o s e t t h e mood o f t h e i n t e r -change. I n t h e case of Brandy and Sugar, t h e former's untopped and s l i g h t l y m a l e v o l e n t o n e - l i n e r s s i m p l y c o n f i r m e d by a p p r e c i a t i o n o f her s t a t u s . I had a l r e a d y seen an i n d i c a t i o n o f i t when 125 Sugar, the cook and p e r s o n i n charge o f t h e meals, always checked w i t h Brandy b e f o r e i s s u i n g h e r i n v i t a t i o n s . When t h e f a n c y t o o k h e r , Brandy would make such remarks a s : "Sugar, c r o s s your l e g s , i t ' s d r a f y i n h e r e ! " These remained s c r u p u l o u s l y unanswered, i n d e f e r e n c e t o Brandy's r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r s h i p i n terms o f j a i l and s t r e e t e x p e r i e n c e , as w e l l as i n terms o f sheer p e r s o n a l i t y . "Moreover," Brandy s c o r n f u l l y e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , " i t ' s t r u e ! She s m e l l s and she knows i t . " The measure o f t h e s t r e e t i s c o n s t a n t l y t a k e n . L i f e t h e r e i s dangerous and, l e s t i t s h o u l d be f o r g o t t e n and p e o p l e become complacent and c a r e l e s s , r e m i n d e r s a r e g i v e n i n t h e form o f s t o r i e s such as t h e one Bugsy s p o n t a n e o u s l y t o l d me one day. As w e l l as a s t e r n w a r n i n g t h a t i t i s unwise t o have d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e b i g guys and t o r i p o f f one's b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s , i t i s a n i c e p i e c e o f f o l k l o r e m e t i n g out h o r r o r and humour i n an a l m o s t u n b e a t a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n . - D i d you know about H a r r y B. b e i n g k i l l e d ? Who was s t r a n g l e d w i t h a p a i r o f women's panty hose? L a s t y e a r ? And H u r s t ? That's a n o t h e r guy. - Porky? - Yeah, P o r k y ! 2 W e l l , t h e r e was those t h r e e , H a r r y , and P o r k y , and Rocky ... They a l l go i t , t h e same t h r e e . H a r r y was t h e one who was s t r a n g l e d i n h i s mother's back-y a r d . And Rocky, t h e y found h i s body, and i t took them ^ S i n c e my s t a t u s was ambiguous, a t o t a l o u t s i d e r , y e t under t h e apparent a u s p i c e s o f t h e A u t h o r i t i e s , no amount o f knowledge o r i g n o r a n c e shown by me was a c t u a l l y s u r p r i s i n g . Thus Bugsy found i t n a t u r a l t h a t I s h o u l d know a t once th e nickname of a j u n k i e k i l l e d t h e y e a r b e f o r e (the e t h n o c e n t r i c assumption t h a t such knowledge may w e l l be shared by everyone would not p l a y i n t h e case o f an o r d i n a r y s q u a r e ) . 126 two weeks t o i d e n t i f y him. Whoever d i d him i n d i d a good j o b . They p u l l e d o u t a l l h i s t e e t h , p u t a r s o n on h i s f i n g e r s and on h i s t o e s ... - Put a r s o n ? - B u r n t h i s f i n g e r s , you know ... and ... oh, t h e y j u s t d e s t r o y e d him c o m p l e t e l y , so t h a t t h e r e was no way t o i d e n t i f y him. H i s mother i d e n t i f i e d him by h i s h e a r t ... He had a h e a r t shaped mole on h i s a s s ... H e a r t shaped! L o t s o f p e o p l e got moles, but t h e y d i d n ' t f i g u r e anybody would come w i t h t h a t ! And Rocky's mom and dad had gone out of town. And t h e y came back u n e x p e c t e d l y . And when t h e y c o u l d n ' t f i n d Rocky, t h e y went down t o the Morgue. They c o u l d n ' t i d e n t i f y him by h i s f a c e because he had a c i d poured a l l over h i s f a c e , so t h e y t u r n e d him o v e r and she s a i d : "Yeah!" A l l t h r e e o f them were drug a d d i c t s . The guys t h a t d i d t h a t a r e guys from t h e S t a t e s . There's two guys from Canada s e r v i n g time f o r i t and th e y d i d n ' t do i t . Four guys from t h e S t a t e s ... i n t h e M a f i a . Some guys i n t h e M a f i a from t h e S t a t e s . They gave H a r r y B. and Rocky t h e money t o go and p i c k them up an ounce. And t h e y say: " I f you don't come back, you're n ot g o i n g t o l i v e t o see tomorrow!" W e l l , t h e y came back and s a i d : "We g o t r i p p e d o f f ! " They had t h e money s t a s h e d . So t h e s e guys s a y : " W e l l , you've g o t one week t o come up w i t h the money." And when t h e week was up, t h a t was i t ! The guys came down; t h e y were h i d i n g ; t h e y found them! They were w a t c h i n ' them ... The presence o f the "guys i n t h e M a f i a from t h e S t a t e s " p u t s t h e blame on o u t s i d e r s , t h u s s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e bonds among i n s i d e r s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s case s i n c e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be t h a t i n s i d e r s (the "two guys from Canada" now " s e r v i n g t i m e f o r i t " ) were i n f a c t g u i l t y o f the deed. By t h e same t o k e n , t h e i n j u s t i c e o f J u s t i c e i s a l s o g l o s s e d over l i g h t l y , a u s e f u l l e s s o n . In s p i t e o f the r e a l dangers evoked i n the l a s t s t o r y , one s h o u l d not a l l o w t h e f e a r o f p o t e n t i a l dangers t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e conduct o f one's b u s i n e s s on the s t r e e t . One must be ready t o t a k e chances. Such a s t o r y was t o l d by Bugsy a g a i n who, f o r once and t o her m o r t i f i c a t i o n , was u n w i l l i n g t o o v e r l o o k the 127 "funny f e e l i n g " she had about a customer. W e l l , I know one g i r l ... I t u r n e d down a t r i c k , and he asked h e r , and she went out w i t h him. And she got 200 d o l l a r s f o r i t ! I t was t r u e , v e r y t r u e , I know she wouldn't l i e t o me. I f she would have l i e d t o me, I woulda h i t h e r ! I hate some-body who l i e s , I do! And she s a y s : "You know, t h a t t r i c k t h a t you t u r n e d down?" She s a y s : " I g o t 200 d o l l a r s from him!" I s a y s : "You d i d n ' t ! " She s a y s : " I d i d ! R e a l l y ! " She showed i t t o me ... and she hadn't worked a l l n i g h t , and she had no money on h e r when she came downtown. "You b i t c h ! I want h a l f ! I t u r n e d him down f o r you!" She had t h e c h o i c e o f g i v i n g i t t o me o r I'd t a k e i t ! My b e s t f r i e n d goes out and t u r n s him! I t o l d h e r , I s a y s : "Ah, I don't l i k e him!" She s a y s : " W e l l , i f I'm not down i n 16 m i n u t e s , come up and get me." She was down i n 10 min u t e s . She g o t 200 d o l l a r s f o r i t ! I asked h e r : "Did you rob him?" She says "no". I s a y s : "Are you s u r e ? " "No". The guy walked by, p a t t e d h er on the a s s and he s a i d : " I had a good t i m e , " he s a y s , "see you, baby!" O.K. ... Oh, wow! That p i s s e d me o f f ! One s h o u l d n o t t a k e t o o s e r i o u s l y Bugsy's t h r e a t s t o her f r i e n d . The woman was a f t e r a l l her "best f r i e n d " . However, she was not e n t i r e l y k i d d i n g e i t h e r . The s t o r y ends as f o r e s e e n , Bugsy r e m a i n i n g t h e h e r o i n e : she g e t s h e r h a l f and a l l ends w e l l , w i t h two "caps" each and a meal i n a r e s t a u r a n t . Beyond t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s e a r c h f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a s s e r t i o n o f bona f i d e s , p r o v i d e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f who you a r e , whom you know and who knows you, what you know about them, and the acknowledgement o f i n s i d e r ' s s t a t u s , b u l l s h i t t i n g maps o u t v e r y c l e a r l y , i n a v e r y l i m i t e d s a m p l i n g o f t a l e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s o f b e h a v i o u r . 1. R i g h t s and d u t i e s o f s t r e e t p e o p l e , such as t h o s e d es-c r i b e d i n Bugsy's s t o r y where t h e o l d l a d y was d e f i n e d as a p r o v i d e r , and where s o l i d a r i t y a g a i n s t the p o l i c e , what-e v e r i n t e s t i n e d i s s e n t i o n t h e r e may have been, was 128 s t r e s s e d ; ) 2. s a n c t i o n s f o r t r a n s g r e s s i o n , as i n t h e s t o r y d e s c r i b i n g t h e f a t e o f H a r r y and Rocky, who had a t t e m p t e d t o r i p o f f t h e i r b u s i n e s s p a r t n e r s , o r t h e one about Bugsy's p u n i t i v e measures a g a i n s t her u n f a i t h f u l l o l d man; 3. r a n k i n g among s t r e e t p e o p l e , sometimes e s t a b l i s h e d , as i n Dee and Brandy's c a s e , by t h e use o f one l i n e r s ; 4 . d e a l i n g s w i t h the p o l i c e : o t h e r s t o r i e s t r e a t such t o p i c s as how t o beware of M o r a l i t y squad cops, o f newcomers on the s t r e e t , o f r i p o f f s ; how t o d e a l w i t h a t r i c k ' s w i f e ; what t o e x p e c t of marks, how f a r t o go w i t h them; how a l o o f one must always be w i t h "good cops"; how t o handle d r u n k s , " p e r v e r t s " , "East I n d i a n s " - d e s c r i b e d f u r t h e r as " V i l l a i n s " ; how t o f o i l t h e n a r c s . T h i s i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t conduct which i s f o r m a l i z e d i n n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n . These s t o r i e s a r e t o l d f o r t h e i r e n t e r -t a i n m e n t v a l u e . They h e l p pass th e time o f day, e s t a b l i s h the t e l l e r as someone w i t h e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge, t i g h t e n t h e bonds of t h e community, s t r e n g t h e n s t e r e o t y p e s , c r e a t e f o l k h e r o e s and v i l l a i n s . They a r e amusing, fearsome and sad. They are a l s o s t o r i e s t h r o u g h which new comers a r e i n s t r u c t e d and group members keep t h e i r v a l u e s a l i v e . M u t u a l s t o r y t e l l i n g and t h e v a r i o u s forms o f b u l l s h i t t i n g form a t r a n s a c t i o n known as c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h r e a l i t y i s c o n s t a n t l y r e d e f i n e d . The most i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e o f r e a l i t y - m a i n t e n a n c e i s c o n v e r -s a t i o n . One may view t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s everyday l i f e i n terms 129 o f the w o r k i n g away o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a p p a r a t u s t h a t o n g o i n g l y m a i n t a i n s , m o d i f i e s and r e c o n s t r u c t s h i s s u b j e c -t i v e r e a l i t y ... I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t r e s s , however, t h a t the g r e a t e r p a r t o f r e a l i t y - m a i n t e n a n c e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t , not e x p l i c i t . Most c o n v e r s a t i o n does not i n so many words d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d . R a t h e r , i t t a k e s p l a c e a g a i n s t t h e background o f a w o r l d t h a t i s s i l e n t l y t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . (Berger and Luckmann, 1967:152). 130 CHAPTER FIVE CONTRASTING CHARACTERISTICS OF STREET AND STRAIGHT PEOPLE The c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e d by my i n f o r m a n t s and d e p i c t e d i n t h e i r s t o r i e s a r e c l e a r l y d i v i d e d i n t o two main groups: S t r e e t and S t r a i g h t . Through c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p i n g , r i g i d b o u n d a r i e s a r e c r e a t e d between them. V e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s performed by s t r e e t p e o p l e on square Johns base t h e i r t e c h n i q u e on c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the square Johns' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . W i t h o u t the s t r e e t woman's c e r -t a i n t y t h a t a mark i s , by d e f i n i t i o n , "greedy" and " s t u p i d " , she c o u l d n o t have e l a b o r a t e d h er method f o r h a n d l i n g him. In t h i s s e nse, d e f i n i t i o n s s e r v e as i n t e r a c t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s . There are v i s i b l e b o u n d a r i e s between t h e two groups: t h e y speak and d r e s s d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e i r means o f l i v e l i h o o d a r e d i f f e r e n t , t h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s d i f f e r e n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e l y e v i d e n t c o n t r a s t , my i n f o r m a n t s a l s o p e r c e i v e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i d e a l s e p a r a t i o n : v a l u e s and l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . SQUARE JOHNS, ROUNDERS AND THE J A I L EXPERIENCE The paragon o f s t r a i g h t l i f e i s the square John. A c c o r d i n g t o Rumack (1972), "a square i s a p e r s o n who does not p o s s e s s a p o l i c e r e c o r d . " More th a n a s i m p l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s , by s t r e e t s t a n d a r d s , an err o n e o u s one: t h e r e a re "s q u a r e s " i n j a i l , 131 and t h e r e a re "square" c r i m e s . Were I t o commit a f r a u d and be c o n v i c t e d o f i t , I would not i p s o f a c t o change s i d e s . Squareness i s much more t h a n a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n , but j a i l e x p e r i e n c e i s c e r t a i n l y an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b o t h groups. Even more t h a n c r i m e s t y p i c a l l y committed by square J o h n s , t h e r e a r e a l s o square c r i m i n a l s , who do not l i v e on the s t r e e t , who a r e m a r r i e d , have c h i l d r e n and l e a d a c o n v e n t i o n a l l i f e . T h e i r way o f t h i n k i n g , e x p l a i n s Dee, " i s d i f f e r e n t from o u r s . T h e i r l i f e i s t h e same as y o u r s , y e t t h e y know a way o f o u r s . L i k e , i t ' s mixed between t h e two." S i n c e n ot p o s s e s s i n g a p o l i c e r e c o r d i s o n l y an o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n and s a n c t i o n o f a c e r t a i n t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t p l a y an e x c l u s i v e p a r t i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a square. I t must a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a square John's l a c k o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y due t o h i s h o n e s t y : many s t r e e t people may see him as s i m p l y c a r e f u l o r p u s i l l a n i m o u s . The l a w f u l n e s s o f h i s con-d u c t i s c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e f a c t o r s which s e r v e t o d e f i n e him, but Rumack 1s p r i v a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s n o t o n l y i n s u f f i c i e n t , i t i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y unfounded. Letkeman's d e f i n i t i o n i s much more comprehensive s i n c e i t r e g a r d s l i f e s t y l e as a most i m p o r t a n t component: C r i m i n a l s use t h e term "square" t o r e f e r t o (1) t h e conven-t i o n a l c i t i z e n committed t o t h e l e g i t i m a t e l i f e s t y l e , and who i s s t a b l e and r e l i a b l e , and (2) t h e one-time o f f e n d e r o t h e r -w i s e committed t o a l e g i t i m a t e l i f e s t y l e (Letkeman 1971:110). 132 To t h e square John, the s t r e e t u s u a l l y opposes t h e roun d e r . T h i s l i n g u i s t i c o p p o s i t i o n between t h e terms s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e a c u l t u r a l o p p o s i t i o n a l m o s t as v i s u a l l y as B l a c k and White do f o r o t h e r groups. The p e r s o n "out o f l i n e " i s n o r m a l l y d e f i n e d as a " d e v i a n t " ; however, t h e power o f naming and d e f i n i n g has been g r a n t e d t o t h o s e who, i n t h i s c a s e , a r e thems e l v e s " s t r a i g h t " . Honest f o l k g i v e names t o t h i n g s , and t h e t h i n g s bear t h e s e names ... I am aware t h a t honest p e o p l e a r e a l s o o b j e c t s t o each o t h e r . I am g i v e n names ... But i f I am named, I name i n t u r n . Thus, naming and b e i n g named, I l i v e d i n a s t a t e o f r e c i p r o c i t y . Words a r e thrown a t me, I c a t c h them and throw them a t o t h e r s ( S a r t r e 1963:40-41). The s t r a i g h t naming p r o c e s s makes t h e o b j e c t what it''- has been named - i n t h i s case a " d e v i a n t " , a " c r i m i n a l " . By t h i s naming, " t h e i r f a i l i n g s and e r r o r s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a p e r -manent p r e d i s p o s i t i o n , t h a t i s i n t o a d e s t i n y " ( S a r t r e 1963:34). There i s no t r u e naming r e c i p r o c i t y between s t r a i g h t and s t r e e t p e o p l e . S t r e e t naming i s alm o s t p o w e r l e s s t o a f f e c t and meta-morphose s t r a i g h t p e o p l e i n t o t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n . L i t e r a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , s t r a i g h t p e o p l e a r e seldom r e a c h e d by the l a n -guage o f t h e s t r e e t . Y e t , t h e y must acknowledge t h e name g i v e n t o them by s t r e e t p e o p l e as t h e d e r o g a t o r y term and t h e b r a n d i n g mechanism i t i s . And t h e y must a l s o a c c e p t the name g i v e n t o them s e l v e s by s t r e e t p e o p l e as a s e l f - p r a i s i n g d e f i n i t i o n . I n t h i s a r t i c l e on f o l k i d e a s and w o r l d v i e w , Dundes (1971) d i s c u s s e s the o p p o s i t i o n o f l i n e and c i r c l e : t he p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f l i n e a r i t y , e v i d e n t i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s " s t r a i g h t " t a l k , g e t t i n g " s t r a i g h t e n e d " o u t o r 133 "squared" away a f t e r h a v i n g got "out o f l i n e " i s opposed t o t h e n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e , a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e e x p r e s -s i o n s " c i r c u l a r " r e a s o n i n g , "roundabout" ways of s p e a k i n g , "going around i n c i r c l e s " . But he p o i n t s out a r e c e n t r e v e r s a l o f t h e s e c o n n o t a t i o n s . R e c e n t l y , t h e l i n e v e r s u s t h e c i r c l e o p p o s i t i o n has t a k e n a new t u r n . I t has been r e s t a t e d i n terms o f s t r a i g h t v e r s u s groovy. Curves mean "c u r v a c e o u s " and sex; l i n e s mean " s t r a i g h t " o r "square" and t h e d e n i a l o f sex. There i s a movement away from t h e " s t r a i g h t and narrow" towards t h e "groovy and broad" (Dundes 1971:99). Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t s t r e e t p e o p l e have d e f i n e d o u t -s i d e r s as s t r a i g h t p e o p l e and square Johns, and i n s i d e r s as r o u n d e r s . A rounder i s "someone who has b u s i n e s s on the s t r e e t " , s a i d Dee who d e s c r i b e d t h o s e i n the " f a s t l i f e " as p e o p l e who hang.around t h e C o r n e r , a r e i n t o d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , a r e always on the go ... They a r e g e n e r a l l y Rounders. J u l i e has them hang around i n b a r s , and you see them on t h e s t r e e t as w e l l . And t h e y p r o b a b l y know a l o t about what's happening, you know, i f you go up and t a l k t o them. A r e l a t i v e l y new-comer t o t h e s t r e e t , T i n y l i s t e d as s t r a i g h t p e o p l e seen on t h e s t r e e t : t r i c k s , marks, common shoppers. They're not even t h e r e ! And r o u n d e r s . They know e v e r y t h i n g . But t h e y ' r e not i n v o l v e d . Y e t , i f t h e i r degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and commitment i s not unanimously agreed upon, t h e y a r e however u n i f o r m l y thought t o be knowledgeable about t h e ways o f t h e s t r e e t , and u s u a l l y t r u s t -w orthy. F o r Snow and J o , r o u n d e r s a r e t h e s u c c e s s f u l ones on the s t r e e t : 134 You know, t h e r e are p e o p l e out t h e r e c o l l e c t i n g pop b o t t l e s . And t h e r e ' s t h e ones t h a t a r e making hundreds and thousands o f d o l l a r s a day. Those a r e the r o u n d e r s . When I asked them i f t h e y were r o u n d e r s , t h e y answered yes o n l y a f t e r t h e b r i e f e s t h e s i t a t i o n . Rumack d e f i n e s t h e rounder as A p e r s o n who has spent time i n j a i l o r who i s engaged i n an i l l e g a l a c t i v i t y . A l l t h e g i r l s whom I met c o n s i d e r e d them-s e l v e s Rounders. Only Brandy, among my i n f o r m a n t s , would agree w i t h h i s narrow d e f i n i t i o n . F o r h e r , r o u n d e r s a r e s i m p l y " c r i m i n a l s " and t h e "top men a r e t h o s e who don't get caught". The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s and j a i l t erms, once a g a i n , i s not seen by the i n f o r m a n t s as f i g u r i n g predomin-a n t l y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " r o u n d e r s " , e x c e p t perhaps f o r Brandy who has spent h a l f her l i f e i n j a i l . However, th e f a c t t h a t a l l Rumack's i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m rounder s t a t u s i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . Here a g a i n , Letkeman 1s d e f i n i t i o n seems much more p e r t i n e n t : The most common d i s t i n c t i o n made by t h e o f f e n d e r i s between the "rounder" and t h e "square" (or " s q u a r e - j o h n " ) . "Rounder", however, has d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n t h a n " c r i m i n a l " . S i m p l y t o be l a b e l l e d a c r i m i n a l by the c o u r t does n o t c o n f e r rounder s t a t u s . To be a rounder one must be known and r e c o g n i z e d as one, by o t h e r r o u n d e r s and by p e r s o n s s e r i o u s l y committed t o the i l l e g i t i m a t e l i f e s t y l e . I n f a c t , inmates o f p r i s o n s r e f e r t o some o t h e r inmates as " s q u a r e s " (1971:110). Bugsy's d e f i n i t i o n o f a rounder e x p l a i n s t h e p r e s t i g e con-f e r r e d by t h e t i t l e : Someone who's been around a l o n g t i m e , knows the s t r e e t up and down, knows who a r e t h e cops. They a r e s o l i d p e o p l e : t h e y don't r a t out t o t h e cops, t h e y don't have t o I Rumack's and Letkeman's d e f i n i t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t here s i n c e t h e y 135 are Canadian d e f i n i t i o n s , an e x c e p t i o n i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y American f i e l d o f s t u d y , and s i n c e t h e y r e f l e c t t he t e r m i n o l o g y used i n two l a r g e Canadian c i t i e s . The i n f o r m a n t s t h e m s e l v e s s t r e s s t h e f a c t t h a t American and Canadian terms v a r y . I f Rumack's d e f i n i t i o n were adequate, he would h a r d l y f e e l i t n e c e s s a r y t o mention t h a t a l l h i s i n f o r m a n t s " c o n s i d e r e d them-s e l v e s Rounders", s i n c e as p r o s t i t u t e s j u s t out o f j a i l t h e y would a u t o m a t i c a l l y q u a l i f y f o r t h e t i t l e . What the statement i n d i c a t e s i s t h e p r e s t i g e a t t a c h e d t o t h e term and the eagerness of i n f o r m a n t s t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e " s o l i d p e o p l e . " In t h e days when "dope f i e n d s " were d e s p i s e d e x c e p t i o n s and c r i m i n a l s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s - f o u r o r f i v e decades ago i n Vancouver - the d i s t i n c t i o n was c l e a r l y made. A c c o r d i n g t o Old S a l , J a c k s o n ' s o l d t i m e r a d d i c t : P o l i c e gave us t h a t name, c h a r a c t e r s . I n them days we was p e o p l e . F o l k s was squares and we was p e o p l e . The p o l i c e had a l o t o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e y o n l y rode t h e peo p l e t h a t shot dope. C h a r a c t e r s tended t o t h e i r own b u s i n e s s (Jackson 1972:72) . J a i l i s a p a r t o f s t r e e t l i f e and, as such may count l i t t l e as a f o r m a l marker, n ot as much as b e i n g a hype does, f o r i n s t a n c e . I t o n l y bestows t h e t i t l e o f "con" o r "ex-con", w i t h i t s c o n n o t a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e and membership i n an a d d i t i o n a l s u b c u l t u r e . B u t, f o r most s t r e e t p e o p l e , one i s e i t h e r i n j a i l , has been i n j a i l , o r w i l l p r o b a b l y soon be i n j a i l , and t h e c o n t i n u i t y of l i f e i s not broken t h r o u g h t h e pas-sage i n j a i l , however u n p l e a s a n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e may be. I t does not change p e o p l e , t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , t h e i r v a l u e s as r a d i c a l l y a s , 136 f o r i n s t a n c e a g a i n , b e i n g a hype does. Brandy, an o l d t i m e con, s a y s : " I g o t a good home i n t h e s t r e e t , but j a i l i s p a r t o f l i f e ; i t doesn't f a z e me." Not o n l y i s j a i l i n many c a s e s a n e c e s s a r y p h y s i c a l r e s p i t e , but i s a l s o s t r e n g t h e n s bonds by a d d i n g an e x t r a dimen-s i o n t o group i n c l u s i o n . J u l i e mentioned s e v e r a l t i m e s t h e warm i f s u p e r f i c i a l f e e l i n g e x p e r i e n c e d when someone known " i n h e r e " i s l a t e r met on the s t r e e t , a r e s u l t presumably o f t h e " r e l a x e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n " w h i c h P r e b l e and Casey (1969:8) see as b e i n g c e n t e r e d around t h e " f a c t s and f o l k l o r e " o f t h e h e r o i n u s e r ' s l i f e on t h e s t r e e t . S i n c e a s t a y i n j a i l f i g u r e s e x t e n s i v e l y i n s t r a i g h t d e f i n -i t i o n s , one must remember t h a t c o n c e r n w i t h t h e l e g a l i t y o f one's a c t i o n s i s i n d e e d a t y p i c a l l y s t r a i g h t n o t i o n . The s t r e e t p e o p l e ' s i n i t i a l e n counter w i t h t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system i s o f t e n reduced t o b e i n g " h a s s l e d " or b e i n g " b u s t e d " , and t h i s may w e l l be how t h e y d e f i n e t h e b o r d e r between a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e l a w f u l (and o n l y cause you t o be h a s s l e d ) and t h o s e t h a t a r e u n l a w f u l (and enable them t o b u s t y o u ) . The common b e l i e f t h a t " t h e r e ' s a law f o r t h e r i c h [and a l s o t h e s t r a i g h t ] and a law f o r t h e poor [and a l s o s t r e e t p e o p l e ] " perhaps l e a d s t o t h e i n e p t i t u d e o r i n d i f f e r e n c e o f some women a t p r o t e c t i n g t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s t r u e t h a t l i k e S t o d d a r t ' s i n f o r m a n t s , whose knowledge of the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e law e n a b l e d them t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e format o f t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s , t h e women i n t e r v i e w e d a r e i n f o r m e d o f the l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s 137 s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f n a r c o t i c s and t r a f f i c k i n g i n d r u g s . As p r o s t i t u t e s , however, a l l but one m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r l e g a l s t a t u s . Bugsy, f o r i n s t a n c e , a f t e r e i g h t y e a r s as a p r o s t i t u t e , does not r e a l l y know what p a r t o f her t r a n s a c t i o n s causes h e r d e l i n q u e n c y . She d i d not a l t e r her modus o p e r a n d i i n 19 72 when th e c harges a g a i n s t p r o s t i t u t e s changed from "vagrancy" t o " s o l i c i t i n g " . She b e l i e v e s t h a t " s o l i c i t i n g " , w hich i s i n f a c t t h e o f f e n c e , means " s e l l i n g y o u r body f o r sex", a l e g a l endeav-our i n Canada. As f a r as she i s c o n c e r n e d , she " p r o p o s i t i o n s " her c l i e n t s , minds her own b u s i n e s s and hopes t o be l e f t a l o n e . The many t a c t i c s used by women (Layton 1975:197, 201-202) t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s from t h e law o r even t o t r y and o p e r a t e w i t h i n the w o r d i n g o f a r t i c l e 195.1 o f the C r i m i n a l Code on s o l i c i t i n g f o r t h e purpose o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , have been so u n s u c c e s s f u l t h a t a d e f i n i t e b i t t e r n e s s i s f e l t a g a i n s t t h e p o l i c e , who a r e moreover accused o f " t u r n i n g e v e r y t h i n g around" i n t h e i r t e s t i m o n y . CONTRASTING LIFESTYLES More than by t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s o r t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e o c c u p a t i o n s , s t r e e t and s t r a i g h t p e o p l e a r e d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d and c o n t r a s t e d by t h e l i f e t h e y l e a d . Square Johns ar e seen as engaged i n t h e d r e a r y r o u t i n e s o f " n i n e - t o - f i v e " j o b s . T h e i r s o c i a l l i f e and t h e i r p l e a s u r e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as e q u a l l y d u l l : o S t r a i g h t p e o p l e , you know, t h e y go out once a week, t w i c e a week f o r d i n n e r , t o t h e b a r s f o r a few d r i n k s , and t h e y s i t a t home and watch T.V. We're downtown a l l t h e t i m e , you 138 know, and t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g b i g . adoout g o i n g f o r a d r i n k o r a n y t h i n g ! (Sue) As w e l l as s t r e s s i n g the l a c k l u s t e r square way o f l i f e , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f s t r e e t p e o p l e t o cope w i t h the demands o f a s t r a i g h t o c c u p a t i o n was a l s o mentioned. Moreover, i f t h e y a r e h e r o i n a d d i c t s , as so many o f them a r e , t h e y cannot s u p p o r t t h e i r h a b i t on a s t r a i g h t s a l a r y . "They c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d t o be a j u n k i e on a jo b . They might h o l d a j o b , but t h e y ' d need t o b o o s t , o r some-t h i n g " (Dee). The pace o f s t r e e t l i f e , as w e l l , would not a l l o w a j u n k i e t o h o l d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l " n i n e - t o - f i v e . " You c a n ' t s t a y s t a b i l i z e d as a s t r a i g h t j o b and be, you know, r u n n i n g downtown and s c o r i n g , p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e money i s n ' t enough ... You'd have t o have a h i g h p a y i n g j o b , and you c o u l d n ' t h o l d i t , n o t r u n n i n g around l o o k i n g f o r t h e pe o p l e t h a t you need. ( J u l i e ) I n s t e a d , she e x p l a i n s , I f y ou're h o o k i n g and you're u s i n g , you go out and make money h a l f way t h r o u g h t h e n i g h t , s c o r e f o r t h e morning, c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g . So t h a t when you wake up i n t h e d a y t i m e , you'd have s t u f f t o f i x . One o n l y has t o l i s t e n t o Bugsy d e s c r i b e how she spends her day t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t o t a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e two l i f e -s t y l e s : I d o 1 my f i r s t t r i c k , t h e n I s c o r e . I f i x , t h e n I do a n o t h e r t r i c k , and t h e n I s c o r e two caps and f i x . E v e r y t r i c k I do, I s c o r e . I spend a l l my money u n l e s s I'm lo a d e d enough t h a t I want t o h o l d on, so t h a t I can buy a c o u p l e o f caps t o t a k e home. U s u a l l y a t t h e end o f t h e n i g h t , I have about $12 0 and I s c o r e enough t o t a k e home. I u s u a l l y q u i t around s i x i n th e morning. 1 J u l i e , i n s p i t e o f her f i r m s t a n d on t h e i m p r o p r i e t y o f the e x p r e s s i o n " t o do a t r i c k " (see p. 105) would never c h a l l e n g e B u g s y ' s - r i g h t , a f t e r e i g h t y e a r s on t h e s t r e e t , t o say whatever she p l e a s e s . R u l e s o f l i n g u i s t i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e f o r o u t -s i d e r s . 139 The men she meets i n t h e e a r l y morning a r e a l l s t r a i g h t . Y e t , she c l e a r l y shows the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r " s t r a i g h t " r e a s o n s f o r b e i n g on t h e s t r e e t a t t h a t t i m e , and h e r s . There a r e p e o p l e who d r i v e a l l t h e t i m e : guys who work l a t e a t n i g h t , o r guys who come i n t o town, l o g g e r s o r something, o r guys who have been out f o r something t o e a t , o r have been a t a p a r t y o r something. There are f o u r o r f i v e o f us a t t h a t t i m e o f n i g h t . O f t e n the f e a r o f t h e s t r e e t f e l t by s t r a i g h t p e o p l e was mentioned t o me. J u l i e ' s s t r a i g h t p a r e n t s were t e r r i f i e d by i t and t h o u g h t t h e y would g e t "mugged o r r a p e d , o r something", i f t h e y went " t h e r e " . Y e t , she s t r e s s e s how "normal" s t r e e t l i f e i s , w i t h p e o p l e " e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g , l i k e everywhere e l s e ! " Dee a l s o cannot s t r e s s enough t h a t "we t h i n k o f our l i f e as normal. To u s , i t ' s n o r m a l , i t ' s our normal way o f l i f e . " They l i v e on t h e s t r e e t because t h e y do b u s i n e s s t h e r e , t h e i r f r i e n d s are on t h e s t r e e t , and t h a t ' s t h e i r b i g l i v i n g room. (Dee) To t h e s t r a i g h t l i f e d e s c r i b e d by Sue, Dee opposes t h a t o f t h e hypes: They l i k e t h e e x c i t e m e n t t h a t ' s on t h e C o r n e r , t h e y l i k e n i g h t l i f e , t h e y l i k e t h e e x c i t e m e n t ... They l i k e t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f b e i n g e i t h e r a d e a l e r o r a j u n k i e , o f p l a y i n g c a t and mouse w i t h t h e b u l l s . You've got t o l i k e a l l t h i s t o become a hype. To be a r e a l j u n k i e , you've got t o l i k e i t , because i f you d o n't, y o u ' l l never make i t down t h e r e . As one o f C o u t t s ' matrons a d m i t s : "A r e a l l i v e game o f cops and r o b b e r s , an e x c i t i n g l i f e , and how tame e v e r y t h i n g e l s e must be i n c omparison!" ( C o u t t s 1961:101). Agar (1973:1) r e f e r s t o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f a d d i c t i o n w hich m o s t l y "assume the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a i l u r e s t a t u s o f t h e a d d i c t as t h e problem t o be e x p l a i n e d " and c h a l l e n g e s t h i s 140 a ssumption. P r e b l e and Casey go f u r t h e r s t i l l . F o r them, h e r o i n does not p r o v i d e f o r i t s l o w e r c l a s s u s e r s "a e u p h o r i c escape from th e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l problems which d e r i v e from g h e t t o l i f e . " I t p r o v i d e s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , a m o t i v a t i o n and r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f a m e a n i n g f u l l i f e , a l b e i t a s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t one. The a c t i v i t i e s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s engage i n and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e y have i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r q u e s t f o r h e r o i n a r e f a r more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the m i n i m a l a n a l g e s i c and e u p h o r i c e f f e c t s o f t h e s m a l l amount o f h e r o i n a v a i l a b l e t o them ( P r e b l e and Casey 1969: 21) . VALUES AND ATTITUDES Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e two groups were b e t t e r d e f i n e d t h a n o t h e r s by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . What was l e s s w e l l known - the s t r a i g h t w o r l d - tended t o f a l l i n t o s t e r e o t y p e s and l a c k t h e g r e y shades of what was more f a m i l i a r - t h e s t r e e t w o r l d - about which s t a t e m e n t s were u s u a l l y q u a l i f i e d . S t r e e t and s t r a i g h t p e o p l e were c o n t r a s t e d i n a l m o s t e v e r y one o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s were con-s t a n t l y opposed and no doubt was l e f t t h a t s t r e e t ways were the b e s t . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o n s t a n t l y con-t r a s t e d p r o t a g o n i s t s were d e s c r i b e d as t o u c h i n g on t h e b a s i c q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i f e : freedom and c o n s t r a i n t , competence and i g n o r a n c e , g e n e r o s i t y and g r e e d . In o p p o s i t i o n t o the s e d e n t a r y and s e c u r e square Johns, th e u n l a w f u l n e s s o f t h e s t r e e t p e o p l e ' s o c c u p a t i o n s d i c t a t e s many c o n s t r a i n t s i n t h e i r l i f e , such as the r e q u i r e m e n t of m o b i l i t y and t h e need f o r p r i v a c y . 141 Most p e o p l e don't l i k e t o o many p e o p l e knowing where t h e y ' r e s t a y i n g ... People t h a t you're c l o s e t o o r you're f r i e n d s w i t h , t h e y u s u a l l y know where you l i v e ... L i k e , j u s t e v e r y -body on the s t r e e t wouldn't know where I was l i v i n g , and y e t t h e r e 1 r e might be t e n p e o p l e t h a t know where I am. L i k e , a l l t h e p e o p l e t h a t buy o f f me, t h e r e ' s a few t h a t know where I l i v e , b u t m o s t l y , I show up when I show up! You move o f t e n , j u s t t o keep ahead o f t h e p o l i c e and too many peo p l e g e t t o know where I l i v e and t h e y ' r e coming a l l hours of t h e n i g h t ( t h a t ' s i f you're a d e a l e r ) . L o t s o f p e o p l e l i v e i n rooms on a monthly b a s i s , o r weekly. (Dee) T h i s freedom o f movement i s accompanied by an independence from many c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h was sometimes e x p r e s s e d i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e square Johns' c o n c e r n w i t h h i s n e i g h -bour's o p i n i o n and h i s f e a r o f s t e p p i n g o v e r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s o f s t r a i g h t p r o p r i e t y . L i k e you, f o r i n s t a n c e , i f you t h o u g h t : "Oh, geez, I t h i n k I'd l i k e t o t a t t o o ! " You'd t h i n k : " W e l l , maybe the woman ne x t door would t h i n k I'm ..." Where the con doesn't t h i n k t h a t , you know. " H e l l w i t h t h e p e r s o n o r what he t h i n k s ! I f he doesn't l i k e i t , t h a t ' s my arm!" (Dee) Dee was t h e f i r s t t o admit t h a t everyone on the Corner was not n e c e s s a r i l y "smart", b u t she saw them a l l competent enough i n t h e ways o f the s t r e e t t o s u r v i v e and e n j o y t h e i r l i f e s t y l e , even i f t h e y were not l i k e t h e "good j u n k i e " who i s " s e l f s u f f i c -i e n t " . I n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s knowledge, we f i n d t h e square John's i g n o r a n c e . A square John w a l k i n g down t h e s t r e e t c o u l d n ' t p i c k f o u r hypes out o f a dozen. I f t h e r e ' s a dozen p e o p l e t h e r e and f o u r o f them a r e hype, you wouldn't be a b l e t o p i c k them o u t . Another hype would p i c k them o u t ! (Dee) She a l s o d e s c r i b e d a woman shopper w a l k i n g down the s t r e e t : She w a l k s w i t h h e r a t t e n t i o n on h e r s e l f , she i s not i n t e r -e s t e d i n p e o p l e around h e r ... a hype would be! She o n l y l o o k s a t shop windows. 142 Snow, i n c o n t r a s t , d e s c r i b e d a hype, f o r e v e r a n x i o u s not t o m i s s a n y t h i n g , and i n d i c a t e d t o t h e u n i t i a t e d how b e i n g a t t e n t i v e and o b s e r v a n t u s u a l l y pays o f f : I f you don't l o o k , you're gonna miss something. L i k e , I n o t i c e someone l u r k i n g i n a doorway and I t h i n k : "What's t h a t guy? I s he l o o k i n g f o r a g i r l o r i s he: ..." I was w a t c h i n g . "He's up t o something! So, I ' l l j u s t watch him f o r a w h i l e . " And, s u r e enough! You know, l i k e , say p r i o r t o t h a t I had money and I was gonna, say, buy some dope, r i g h t ? But I j u s t h e l d back. I wanted t o watch t h i s p e r s o n . Sure enough, some t r a f f i c k e r comes by and t h a t guy jumps on t o p o f him w i t h a n o t h e r p a r t n e r ! Of nowhere, r i g h t ? " When t h i s p l a i n i g n o r a n c e o f s t r e e t mores and t h e i n a b i l i t y t o r e a d c l u e s e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y t a k e on a n o t h e r q u a l i t y : I g n o r a n t means ob n o x i o u s . S t r a i g h t p e o p l e are i g n o r a n t t o your k i n d o f l i f e , t o t h e s t r e e t scene. They don't know a n y t h i n g about i t . (Sugar) " I g n o r a n t means obno x i o u s " i s the s t r e e t v e r s i o n o f the s t r a i g h t s t a t e m e n t t h a t " i g n o r a n c e o f the law i s no excuse". The l a c k o f knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a d s t o an "obnoxious" b e h a v i o u r . T h i s b e h a v i o u r i t s e l f i s seen as " i g n o r -ant . " 2 I g n o r a n t cops: t h e y have no manners a t a l l ! They say "There's a p r o s t i t u t e " , o r "There's a s l u t " , o r something s t u p i d l i k e t h a t . " (Bugsy) E q u a l l y i g n o r a n t are some p o l i c e m e n t o whom f r e a k s a r e r e p o r t e d . "Most o f them j u s t l a u g h a t you and say " W e l l , i t ' s your own f a u l t f o r b e i n g a p r o s t i t u t e ! " (Bugsy) S t r a i g h t p e o p l e ' s i g n o r a n c e and obnoxious b e h a v i o u r i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e i r main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , however, i s not t h a t , 2 0 n e i s reminded o f t h e j a n i t o r s ' " i g n o r a n t " t e n a n t s , t h e " U n t r a i n a b l e s " who were n o t r e a r e d p r o p e r l y (Gold 1964:24). 143 but g r e e d . Greed i s i n d e e d what causes them t o become marks. A mark i s d e f i n e d by Maurer (1940:119) as someone who must have " l a r c e n y i n h i s v e i n s " , who wants something f o r n o t h i n g . I f such a man has money, he i s a con man's i d e a l p r e y . K l o c k a r s ' e x p e r t , Swaggi, draws from h i s e x p e r i e n c e t o c o n f i r m t h i s assessment: Any h u s t l e r can t e l l you t h a t 9 out o f 10 p e o p l e got l a r c e n y . May be even 99 out o f 100 ... I f t h e p r i c e i s r i g h t and a man can use t h e m e r c h a n d i s e , he's gonna buy. No q u e s t i o n about i t ( K l o c k a r s 1974:62). I n my e x p e r i e n c e , women have j u s t as much l a r c e n y i n them as men. May be more ( K l o c k a r s 1974:49). My i n f o r m a n t s a r e unanimous about t h e t r u t h o f s t a t e m e n t s such as t h e s e . Dee, t a l k i n g about b o o s t i n g , s a i d she never had any problem s e l l i n g t h e s t o l e n merchandise a t about one t h i r d o f i t s r e t a i l p r i c e . She c l a i m e d t o have s o l i c i t e d p e o p l e i n b a r s and beer p a r l o u r s . " U s u a l l y p e o p l e w i l l buy from [ b o o s t e r s ] . E s p e c i a l l y square Johns. They're g l a d t o g e t a good d e a l ! " The women's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h square Johns e x p l a i n s t h e i r f e e l i n g s , s i n c e t h e y u s u a l l y e n t e r w i t h them i n t o a m u t u a l l y e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e (where my q u e s t i o n s are u n d e r l i n e d ) was one o f s e v e r a l where th e terms o f s t r a i g h t - s t r e e t t r a n s a c t i o n s were d e f i n e d . - What do t h e y want from you? - ( B i t t e r l y ) A l l o f us! ... I t depends, sometimes t h e y want company. - Sometimes t h e y j u s t want t o be w i t h you and f i n d o ut how you l i v e , how t h e o t h e r h a l f l i v e s , how you're d o i n g . - L i k e me! 144 - You know, t h e y do! They say: "we're o b s e r v i n g you." - Some j u s t want a p a r t y . - Some want ... L i k e I s a i d , company. Company i n t o c l u b s , b a r s , you know? - I f t h e p r i c e i s r i g h t , a r e you w i l l i n g t o g i v e them what  th e y want? Or w i l l you always t r y t o g i v e a l i t t l e l e s s  f o r t h e same money? - I always t r y t o g e t a l i t t l e b i t more! - More money, r a t h e r t h a n g i v e l e s s ? - R i g h t ! - W e l l , I don't l i k e t o g i v e any, r e a l l y , but i f I know they've got money and I know I can g e t money, I ' l l s t i c k w i t h them, you know. (Snow and Jo) They want something, o r t h e y j u s t want t o screw me and t h e y don't want t o g i v e me money ... They're t r y i n g t o do something ... (Jo) As Jo and Snow i n d i c a t e , c u r i o s i t y as w e l l as g r e e d prop-e r l y s p e a k i n g may be t h e b a s i s f o r a mark o r a t r i c k ' s d e s i r e t o purchase t h e s e r v i c e s o r company o f s t r e e t women. T h i s i s p a r -t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r h e r o i n a d d i c t s : He wanted t o watch me ... He wanted t o see, you know, t o see t h e whole n i t t y g r i t t y r i g h t t h e r e , t h a t he'd heard about and he's seen on T.V. And t h e n , when I go t i t , h i s eyes were j u s t b u l g i n g ! ( J u l i e ) J u l i e , who o f t e n met o l d e r men "out f o r a good t i m e " , t o l d s t o r i e s about them and d e p i c t e d them r u b b i n g t h e i r hands and t h i n k i n g w i t h a l u s t y s n e e r : " W e l l , J e s u s C h r i s t ! There, t h e o l d l a d y ' s a t home, and I g e t me a young whipper snapper h e r e ! " To t h e square John's e x p l o i t a t i v e g r e e d , c u r i o s i t y o r l u s t i s opposed t o the r o u n d e r ' s g e n e r o s i t y . I n the c o n t e x t o f the j u n k i e ' s w o r l d , t h i s u s u a l l y means g i v i n g someone money t o s c o r e 145 o r dope t o f i x . T h i s i s n o r m a l l y done f o r " f r i e n d s " , n ot f o r " a c q u a i n t a n c e s " o r " a s s o c i a t e s " . I f she's good ... I mean not j u s t anybody, but p e o p l e I con-s i d e r f r i e n d s , t h a t I know would do t h e same f o r me i f I was i n t h e same, you know ... (Jo) I f she had money and knew I d i d n ' t have any, and I was g e t t i n g s i c k , she'd s p l i t ... That'd be out o f f r i e n d s h i p . I've done i t 101 t i m e s f o r h e r ! I'm a s u c k e r f o r f i x i n ' p e o p l e ! (Bugsy) T h i s o c c a s i o n a l w i l l i n g n e s s t o share mentioned by my i n f o r -mants does not however seem t o be t h e r u l e everywhere among h e r o i n u s e r s . Y e t , a n o t h e r f e e l i n g i s sometimes e x p r e s s e d , even among p a r t n e r s : I'm l o o k i n g out f o r m y s e l f . I might be s i c k tomorrow; any-way, he's g o t something w o r k i n g f o r him t h a t I don't know about ( P r e b l e and Casey 1968:8). The i n f o r m a n t s have not e x p l a i n e d t h i s a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p -ancy. I would assume t h a t the more l i m i t e d means o f l i v e l i h o o d open t o women ( p r o s t i t u t i o n b e i n g t h e one t o w h i c h t h e y most o f t e n r e s o r t ) and t h e i r u s u a l l y more r e s t r i c t e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s may a c c o u n t t o some e x t e n t f o r t h e i r appar-ent g r e a t e r g e n e r o s i t y : i f t h e i r f r i e n d s had "something w o r k i n g f o r " them, t h e y would p r o b a b l y know about i t . Hence, the need e x p r e s s e d i s genuine. Moreover, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o s t i t u t e s t o be v i s i b l e on the s t r e e t makes i t easy f o r t h e l e n d e r t o c l a i m her due when her t u r n comes t o be i n need. F o r i t i s always i m p l i e d t h a t t h e r e c i p r o c i t y o f t h e g i f t i s e x p e c t e d . There appears t o be a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e o f d i s r e g a r d f o r s h o r t range needs, such as tomorrow's f i x now a v a i l a b l e and g i v e n away, and a l o n g range c o n c e r n f o r un-dated f u t u r e needs, such as 146 some o t h e r day's f i x l a c k i n g and e x p e c t e d back. S i n c e j u n k i e s u s u a l l y l i v e v e r y much f o r t h e p r e s e n t , t h i s a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c -t i o n may be an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y . I t i s however no more th a n an apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n , s i n c e t h i s l o a n i s made w h i l e t h e i r own needs a r e b e i n g s a t i s f i e d , t h e p r e s e n t i s t a k e n c a r e o f , and t h e f u t u r e seems f a r away. ADDICTS, NON-ADDICTS AND TIME ORIENTATION Not a l l s t r e e t p e o p l e are drug a d d i c t s , a l t h o u g h many o f them do t a k e d r u g s . Y e t , u s e r s form t h e c o r e o f s t r e e t l i f e . A s t r o n g s o l i d a r i t y e x i s t s among them and t h e y have now a c q u i r e d a p r e s t i g e u n t i l r e c e n t l y d e n i e d t o them. A few decades ago, good c i t i z e n s and c r i m i n a l s b o t h frowned upon drug a d d i c t i o n . You d i d n ' t shoot dope back i n them days. I f you s h o t dope you was a s o r r y , r o t t e n , non-good b i t c h , i t was s t r i c t l y uh-uh, you d i d n ' t shoot o r s n i f f dope o r a n y t h i n g . I f you d i d , you wasn't no good ( B i g S a l , quoted i n J a c k s o n 1972:72). F i f t e e n y e a r s ago, O a k a l l a had a s m a l l s e c t i o n r e s e r v e d f o r drug a d d i c t s who were s e p a r a t e d from t h e r e s t of t h e i n m a t e s . They now form a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e j a i l p o p u l a t i o n . J o ' s f i r s t e s t i m a t e from " n e a r l y a l l " became upon r e f l e c t i o n "70-80%." They a l s o form a r e c o g n i z e d group and a c t as one. One s t a f f member commented: "The hypes always put p r e s s u r e on everybody ... The hypes a r e b l o o d y b i g heroes around here"! " W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d number and t h e i n c r e a s e d p r e s t i g e and a c c e p t a n c e o f i t s members by o t h e r s t r e e t p e o p l e , the h e r o i n a d d i c t s u b c u l t u r e and i t s v a l u e s t e n d t o a f f e c t even n o n - u s i n g s t r e e t f a m i l i a r s . The need t o l i v e e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e p r e s e n t i s p a r t o f t h e 147 j u n k i e s ' l i f e . T h e i r needs a r e p r e s s i n g and immediate. The " s t r a i g h t e n i n g o u t " p r o v i d e d by the drug r e l i e v e s a n x i e t y and r e s t o r e s peace and o p t i m i s m . The h a r d c o r e j u n k i e l i v e s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o f i x . I once asked Bugsy, b a r e l y o u t o f h e r teens,, whether she had any f u n . On the s t r e e t ? That's h a r d t o say ... I f I wasn't u s i n g , I b e l i e v e I c o u l d have a l o t o f f u n . But when I'm u s i n g , I don't have any f u n . My mind's t o o s e t on g e t t i n g money t o f i x . T h at's i t ! As J o and Snow d e s c r i b e d t h e i r h i t and r u n t e c h n i q u e s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e y were o n l y concerned w i t h immediate p r o f i t s and were not ready t o p l a n more p r o f i t a b l e h u s t l e s i f t h o s e r e q u i r e d some d e l a y . They j o k e d : " W e l l , our needs a r e b i g g e r now! Anyway, t h e r e ' s always money around ..." T h i s i s a b e l i e f s h a r e d by a l l my. i n f o r m a n t s . Marks a r e t h e r e f o r the p i c k i n g . They w i l l be t h e r e a g a i n tomorrow, and a g a i n t h e y w i l l p r o v i d e . A l l w i n d f a l l s a r e seen i n t h e same l i g h t : E verybody, p r e t t y w e l l , i s on W e l f a r e . Oh, t h e day you get your W e l f a r e cheque, you go down and s c o r e 3-4 caps, and t h e n , your W e l f a r e cheque's gone and you don't worry a g a i n f o r a n o t h e r month! I t ' s easy money f o r a day ... I t ' s a hooker's day o f f ! (Dee) The f u t u r e i s not something j u n k i e s f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y a n x i o u s t o d e l v e i n t o . They f a c e r i p o f f s , b e a t i n g s , a d i m i n i s h -i n g a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r needs, and ov e r d o s e s which a r e o f t e n f a t a l . Based on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f everyday l i f e on t h e s t r e e t , t h e y c o u l d o n l y t o o w e l l f o r e s e e a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e o f t h e i r own, and i t appears t h a t t h e y would r a t h e r o v e r l o o k what th e y can f o r e s e e . Moreover, t h e drug f i x e s t h e i r mind on t h e urgency o f t h e i r needs, and t h e immediacy o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . 148 U s i n g p r o s t i t u t e s t e n d t o shrug o f f menti o n ' o f t h e f u t u r e . The n o n - u s i n g p r o s t i t u t e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e r e p u t e d by my i n f o r m a n t s t o have a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e , and t h i s d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e appears t o be enough f o r the s t r e e t group t o a t t r i b u t e t o them s t r a i g h t v a l u e s , i n s p i t e o f a l i f e s t y l e w h i c h a s t r a i g h t o b s e r v e r might see as q u i t e s i m i l a r . I t i s tho u g h t t h a t t h e i r a m b i t i o n i s t o get o f f the s t r e e t and, p o s s i b l y , become c a l l g i r l s . S i n c e c a l l g i r l s a r e thought t o have l e g i t i m a t e occupa-t i o n s as w e l l , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t most o f my i n f o r m a n t s saw n o n - u s i n g p r o s t i t u t e s i n t h e i r r o l e as a s p i r i n g c a l l g i r l s as al m o s t s q u a r e , i f not i n t h e i r l i f e s t y l e and knowledge o f t h e s t r e e t , a t l e a s t i n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r s e c u r i t y and improved work-i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Dee b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r a m b i t i o n t o become c a l l g i r l s i s accompanied by a l i k i n g o f t h e l i f e s t y l e t h a t presumably - s i n c e n e i t h e r she nor her f r i e n d s know any c a l l g i r l s - goes w i t h i t . "They l i k e t h a t . They e n j o y b e i n g wined and d i n e d , where t h e o r d i n a r y s t r e e t g i r l d oesn't e n j o y t h a t . " J u l i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f n o n - u s i n g p r o s t i t u t e s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r assumed d e s i r e t o b u i l d up a c l i e n t e l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y b e l i e v e d t o a v o i d r i p p i n g o f f t h e i r customers. I f t h e y need e x t r a money, th.e_yare more l i k e l y t o t u r n an e x t r a t r i c k . They a l s o have l i t t l e t o do w i t h f e n c e s . In o t h e r words, t h e y conduct t h e i r b u s i n e s s as l e g i t i m a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , w i t h an eye t o i m p r o v i n g t h e i r l o t . They are s a i d t o ob s e r v e some o f t h e s t r e e t r u l e s o f 149 b e h a v i o u r but they do not e n t i r e l y b e l o n g t o t h e s t r e e t . Because t h e i r o u t l o o k i s seen as b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t t h e y can be viewed w i t h some s u s p i c i o n . Yeah, t h e y ' r e good, t h e y ' r e good about w a r n i n g . They're h e l p i n g ... But o n l y as f a r as the h e a t ' s c o n c e r n e d , and i f t h e y had a bad t r i c k ... They don't l i k e j u n k i e s , most of them ... The u s e r s a r e v e r y l e e r y o f them. I mean, t h e y ' r e on t h e i r guard. You know, t h e y ' r e not u s e r s , and you don't know whether t h e y ' r e s i n c e r e l y h o o k i n g ... and t h e y c o u l d be w a t c h i n g e v e r y t h i n g , r i g h t ? ( J u l i e ) Because of t h e i r l e s s e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r d i f f e r e n t l i f e o r i e n t a t i o n , b o t h due t o t h e i r o u t s i d e r s t a t u s i n t h e "drug scene", n o n - a d d i c t p r o s t i t u t e s a r e p a r t l y a s s i m i l a t e d t o s t r a i g h t p e o p l e . The b a s i c o p p o s i t i o n between now and l a t e r , t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e h e l p s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the immediate c o n c e r n s of t h e s t r e e t and t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e s t r a i g h t w o r l d . But e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i s t h e concept o f a dichotomy o f t h e p r e s e n t as i t may be p e r c e i v e d by the a d d i c t s . There seems t o e x i s t two o p p o s i t e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t , as i t i s l i v e d on t h e s t r e e t by a d d i c t s . A n o r m a l i z e d p r e s e n t i s c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d , one where needs a r e m o m e n t a r i l y s a t i s f i e d and t h i n g s a r e a g a i n i n o r d e r . Language i n d i c a t e s t h a t b e i n g under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h e r o i n i s normal. For i n s t a n c e , one i s " s i c k " when one needs th e drug and one " f i x e s " i n o r d e r t o " s t r a i g h t e n o u t " . To t h i s p r e s e n t r e i n s t a t e d by the drug i n t o n o r m a l i t y , t h e s t r e e t opposes th e concept o f a n o t h e r , almost anomic p r e s e n t , where e v e r y thought converges on t h e r e g a i n i n g o f t h i s n o r m a l i t y . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e , a l l needs a r e s a t i s f i e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t and t h e immediate f u t u r e . The a d d i c t may then r e v e r t t o what 150 Dundes d e s c r i b e s , i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e pe a s a n t c u l t u r e s a n a l y z e d by F o s t e r (1967), as the l a r g e r , N o r t h American c u l t u r e ' s b e l i e f i n a p r i n c i p l e o f u n l i m i t e d good, a c u l t u r e where p r e v a i l s t h e b e l i e f t h a t " t h e r e ' s p l e n t y more where t h a t came from" (Dundes 1971:96). I n t h e second c a s e , t h e need and t h e p r e s s u r e t o s a t i s f y i t a r e such t h a t t h e a d d i c t can o n l y b e l i e v e t h e g l a r i n g e v i d e n c e of t h a t money, t h a t dope, t h a t t r i c k as b e i n g t h e ones which must a t once be s t o l e n o r t u r n e d , s i n c e no o t h e r w i l l s e r v e t o f u l l -f i l l p r e s e n t y e a r n i n g s as f a s t as t h o s e would. "You would under-s t a n d t h a t I'm s i c k and t h a t I need t h a t money", e x p l a i n e d J o ' s f r i e n d , and I b e l i e v e t h a t i n d e e d what i s meant i s n o t " I need money", but " I need^ t h a t money", where t h a t s i m p l y means now. STREET AND STRAIGHT VILLAINS S t r e e t f o l k l o r e p r o v i d e s f o u r e a s i l y i d e n t i f y a b l e v i l l a i n s : one s t r e e t v i l l a i n , t h e " r i p o f f " ; one m a r g i n a l v i l l a i n , t h e " r a t " , sometime c l a s s i f i e d as an "acey-ducey"; one s t r a i g h t v i l l a i n , t h e " E a s t I n d i a n " : a l t h o u g h v i l l a i n o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o found among a l l "bad t r i c k s " , t h e E a s t I n d i a n i s the one who embodies them a l l i n a f a s i o n b e s t s u i t e d t o f u l f i l l t h e s t r e e t ' s sense o f h o r r o r and drama; and t h e " n a r c " , o r a r c h -v i l l a i n . The R i p O f f "Rip o f f s " a r e s t r e e t p e o p l e . I t i s a l s o u s u a l l y s t r e e t p e o p l e who a r e " r i p p e d o f f " . The same a c t i o n performed on a 151 square John i s more l i k e l y t o be c a l l e d a r o b b e r y and no p a r t i c -u l a r s t i g m a i s a t t a c h e d t o i t . Indeed, on the c o n t r a r y , i f the r o b b e r y i s performed w i t h w i t and e l e g a n c e , o r a t l e a s t w i t h i m p e t u o s i t y and r e c k l e s s n e s s , i t becomes a t o p i c f o r b o a s t i n g . A l t h o u g h a t r i c k can a l s o be r i p p e d o f f , the word i s m o s t l y used f o r s t r e e t p e o p l e : "When you t a l k about a square John, you say you "robbed" him" (Sue). A few seconds l a t e r , she added w i t h a h e s i t a n t l a u g h : "You r i p o f f your f r i e n d s I" Her r e s e r v a t i o n s may have been due t o t h e f a c t t h a t r i p o f f s , a l t h o u g h r e m a i n i n g s t r e e t p e o p l e , cease t o be f r i e n d s . Jo d e s c r i b e s what she r e f e r s t o as her "code o f m o r a l e t h i c s " (her i n t o n a t i o n p u t s t h e words between q u o t a t i o n m a r k s ) : L i k e , I won't t h i n k n o t h i n g o f t a k i n g from a t r i c k o r some-t h i n g i n t h a t t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n . Or b o o s t i n g i n s t o r e s •, o r i n a g e n e r a l con t h i n g . But I wouldn't t a k e from my own k i n d . And I wouldn't r o b my f r i e n d s , a l t h o u g h my f r i e n d s s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d ... You know, p e o p l e t e l l me: " I f you're my f r i e n d , you s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I'm s i c k and t h a t I need t h a t money." W e l l , you s h o u l d ask me, and maybe I ' l l g i v e i t t o you! I wouldn't do t h a t because I c o u l d never go back t o them. I'd be t o o ashamed ... There's t i m e s I've g o t a w f u l l y des-p e r a t e and I've been a w f u l l y c r a z y ... S t i l l , I haven't gone and robbed by f r i e n d s ... And I've done a l o t o f t h i n g s ! I f Bugsy's s t o r y o f H a r r y and Rocky (pp. 125-126) i s u n u s u a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c towards them, i t i s p r o b a b l y because t h e y r i p p e d o f f t h e "guys from t h e M a f i a , from t h e S t a t e s " , t w i c e o u t s i d e r s . My i n f o r m a n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e i s u s u a l l y w i t h s m a l l t ime r i p of f s : 152 Sometimes t h e y w a i t f o r you o u t s i d e when t h e y see you have a t r i c k , and t h e y t h r e a t e n you ... even w i t h a k n i f e , so you have t o g i v e them your money. (Bugsy) They a r e o f t e n j u n k i e s who s t a n d i n the Corner and t r y t o i n t i m i d a t e you. (Dee) They can e i t h e r out and rob you, o r s e l l you b l a n k c a ps, o r j u s t t a k e your money and d i s a p p e a r . U s u a l l y i t ' s from a dope d e a l e r you g e t a r i p o f f . (Sue) P e t e r R e i l l y i n a F i f t h E s t a t e t e l e v i s i o n s p e c i a l (CTV, March 15, 1977) r e p o r t i n g on t h e s e v e n t y f i v e d r u g - r e l a t e d mur-d e r s , acknowledged as such by t h e p o l i c e , w h i c h have t a k e n p l a c e i n Vancouver o v e r the l a s t twenty y e a r s , mentions th e s a t i s f a c -t i o n e x p r e s s e d by s t r e e t j u n k i e s a f t e r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f w e l l known r i p o f f s . There a r e s t o r i e s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n w hich r e t e l l t h e deeds of r i p o f f s . When t h e n a r r a t o r i s a l s o t h e v i c t i m , t h r e a t s a r e i s s u e d , s t r a n g e l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f grade B g a n g s t e r movies o r o l d melodramas:"He won't l i v e t o see tomorrow" o r , by Bugsy: " T h i s guy r i p p e d me o f f and I ' l l see him i n h i s g r a v e . " As b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d as r i p o f f s a r e , t h e i r a c t i o n s a r e however s e e m i n g l y u n d e r s t o o d . A l t h o u g h I o n l y h e a r d once: "Dog e a t dog", t h e r e i s a s t r o n g b e l i e f , e x p r e s s e d by many i n f o r m a n t s t h a t " I t ' s a j u n g l e , o u t t h e r e I " The Rat Not o n l y are r a t s as h a t e d as r i p o f f s , t h e y are a l s o d e s p i s e d . One o f t h e q u e s t i o n s I had asked Sugar l e d her t o t a l k about her b e i n g h e l d i n p r o t e c t i v e c u s t o d y . She s a i d : 153 "I'm i n here because I'm supposed t o be a r a t m i m i c k i n g a l l t h e l o a t h i n g on h e r f a c e and i n h e r v o i c e t h a t such an a c c u s a t i o n would g e n e r a t e when made by o t h e r s t r e e t p e o p l e . Y e t , w i t h o u t rat's, many pe o p l e who are a r r e s t e d would have t o f a c e t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r a r r e s t . I n s t e a d , t h e y can r e s t s e c u r e i n t h e b e l i e f ( o r , a t l e a s t , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f the b e l i e f ) t h a t }had t h e y not been r a t t e d on, they would s t i l l be f r e e . T h e i r own s k i l l s remain e s s e n t i a l l y u n c h a l l e n g e d s i n c e t h e y cannot be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e u n f a i r advantage t a k e n over them. I t ' s worse t o be a r a t t h a n a r i p o f f . Most o f us wouldn't be i n here i f i t wasn't f o r them. (Sue) The n e x t t h i n g I knew, t h e r e was s i x n a r c b u l l s and f o u r p o l i c e m e n down t h e r e ! I know who d i d i t . And when she does come i n , she b e t t e r move i n t o (my) group, because t h e n t h e y can t a k e h e r out a g a i n and bury h e r . I don't c a r e ! But she won't l i v e v e r y l o n g . She p u t t o o many p e o p l e i n here ... (Bugsy) I once mentioned t o Bugsy t h a t I had not seen f o r q u i t e some ti m e a woman I know i n f r o n t o f a s m a l l G r a n v i l l e s t r e e t h o t e l where she works, and was wondering i f she was a l l r i g h t . She answered s c o r n f u l l y : Maybe somebody put cement b o o t s on h e r . She's wrong. She's a r a t . Maybe t h e y put swimming boots on h e r . I f t h e y d i d , she d e s e r v e d i t . She's been w o r k i n g f o r t h e cops. She's never been b u s t e d . J u l i e , d e s c r i b i n g the technique' employed by the p o l i c e t o i n v i t e p e o p l e t o r a t out on t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s , c o n c l u d e d : I t h e l p s i n some cases ( t o r a t ) , maybe, f o r y o u r s e l f . B u t , b e l i e v e me, i t ' s n o t a q u i e t w o r l d . And i f you're s u r e y o u ' r e gonna r a t , you might as w e l l be s u r e you're not gonna use junk anymore, and t h a t ' s because ... You know, i t always comes out i n t h e wash! 154 U n l i k e r i p o f f s , r a t s a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e community: the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y a r e unanimously p u t by t h e i n f o r m a n t s w i t h t h e P o l i c e group. As mentioned i n t h e second c h a p t e r , I gave the i n f o r m a n t s some 2 0 0 c a r d s b e a r i n g a word ta k e n out o f t h e t e x t s and i n t u i t i v e l y f e l t t o be r e l e v a n t t o the c u l t u r e and asked them t o put thes e c a r d s i n t o groups t h a t "made sense" t o them (see Appendices A and B ) . The f o u r o r f i v e i n i t i a l groups were th e n s u b d i v i d e d and f u r t h e r r e f i n e d . The o n l y s u r p r i s e I had was t o see Rat p u t u n h e s i t a t i n g l y i n the f i r s t round w i t h "cop", " b u l l " , " p i g " , " n a r c " , " p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r " , "matron", " j a i l " , " j udge", and o t h e r p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t -i n g t he " A u t h o r i t y " group. On the second and t h i r d r e g r o u p i n g , i t remained w i t h " n a r c " , " p i g " and " b u l l " . N e i t h e r r i p o f f s nor r a t s a re i n an e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n : as s t r e e t d e f i n e d d e v i a n t s among s t r a i g h t d e f i n e d d e v i a n t s , t h e y a r e r e j e c t e d by both c u l t u r e s . The E a s t I n d i a n The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c e r t a i n v i s i b l e groups are nega-t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d and members o f t h e s e groups are branded as v i l l a i n s . The v i l l a i n s t e r e o t y p e a l s o makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r th e s e p e o p l e t o be t r e a t e d o t h e r w i s e t h a n as such. The f o l k c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the E a s t I n d i a n t r i c k , f o r i n s t a n c e , p r e v e n t s t h e " n i c e " E a s t I n d i a n , who i s s a i d t o e x i s t i f o n l y as an e x c e p t i o n , from b e i n g t r e a t e d i n a f r i e n d l y manner. You don't want t o be seen h a v i n g a beer w i t h them because they, might c a l l you "Hindu l o v e r " . (Bugsy) 155 He [ her E a s t I n d i a n mark] came here [ O a k a l l a ] ... W e l l , s h i t I I a l m o s t g o t laugh e d o ut o f t h e whole b u i l d i n g , hey I ( J u l i e ) The r e p u t a t i o n o f E a s t I n d i a n s i s unmatched by any o t h e r group o f cus t o m e r s : "East I n d i a n s a r e t h e ones you're supposed t o s t a y most away from" (Sue). Oh, boy, th e y do some t e r r i b l e t h i n g s ! I hate them guys w i t h a p a s s i o n ! They're t e r r i b l e ! They've done t h i n g s l i k e t a k i n g a l i g h t b u l b and s t u c k i t up a g i r l , and h i t h er i n the stomach and s h a t t e r t h e l i g h t b u l b ; o r t a k e a broken b o t t l e and shove i t up h e r . They've k i l l e d a few g i r l s , s l a s h e d them up, l e f t them b l e e d i n g ... Or th e y g e t a g i r l up t o a room ... i f she's a new g i r l , she doesn't know and s h e ' l l go up t o a room, and h e ' l l have s i x o r seven o f h i s f r i e n d s t h e r e , and t h e y ' l l j u s t keep h e r i n the room a l l n i g h t . They u s u a l l y t a k e a l l the money she's a l r e a d y g o t . (Sue) Sue i s not a p r o s t i t u t e , and she has o f t e n d e c l i n e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o s t i t u t e s and p r o s t i t u t i o n , p l e a d i n g h er l a c k o f f i r s t hand knowledge - t h e same l a c k o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e she would have i n the case o f E a s t I n d i a n t r i c k s . Y e t , she was w i l l i n g t o t a l k about them a t l e n g t h . Bugsy's i n d i g n a t i o n was such t h a t she f o r once f o r g o t h er u s u a l modesty i n my p r e s e n c e : E a s t I n d i a n s c h e a t a l o t ... They t r y t o get two f o r the p r i c e o f one. Sometimes t h e y come and t h e y t h i n k you have n o t f e l t i t , and th e y t r y t o come a g a i n . B u t , t h e n , you show them ( p r e t e n d i n g t o h o l d up a " s a f e " ) and say: "What's t h a t a t the bottom, hey?" P o l i c e and C o u r t r e c o r d s show t h a t some cases o f v i o l e n c e and abuse committed by E a s t I n d i a n men, e i t h e r a l o n e o r i n groups, have been r e p o r t e d t o t h e p o l i c e and t a k e n t o t h e c o u r t s . G iven t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f female and e s p e c i a l l y t r a n s v e s t i t e p r o s -t i t u t e s t o t a k e t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s t o the a u t h o r i t i e s , i t may be 156 assumed t h a t more cases o f v i o l e n c e , abuse and t h e f t than the ones r e p o r t e d have i n f a c t t a k e n p l a c e . I t i s perhaps a l s o not un r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t the p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f a p r o s t i t u t e who "does not l i k e g o i n g out w i t h them" may c o n t r i b u t e , i n some cases and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t o make the enc o u n t e r a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , a s e l f -f u l f i l l i n g prophecy which r e i n f o r c e s the s t e r e o t y p e . The s t o r y o f t h e e l e c t r i c b u l b was t o l d t o me i n e x a c t l y t h e same terms t h i r t e e n months e a r l i e r by a n o t h e r woman, and a l l u d e d t o by a t h i r d one. I t i s s t r i k i n g enough not t o need any e m b e l l i s h m e n t , and t h e v a r i a t i o n s o n l y o c c u r r e d i n the c l o s e n e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e women who r e p e a t e d the s t o r y and i t s v i c t i m . S i n c e b e h a v i o u r such as t h i s c o u l d n o t be seen as b e i n g s i m p l y i n d i v i d u a l (thus a r b i t r a r y ) because o f i t s assumed f r e -quency o f o c c u r e n c e , i t i s e x p l a i n e d i n c u l t u r a l terms: They're u s u a l l y t r a i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e i r women a r e t r a s h . I guess t h e y t r e a t a l l women p r e t t y bad. (Sue) E a s t I n d i a n s a re cheap, anyway, because t h e y come from a c o u n t r y where i t ' s cheap ... I t h i n k t h e s e f e l l o w s t e n d t o be a b u s i v e w i t h t h e i r own women. ( J u l i e ) I n a n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w , J u l i e a l s o e x p l a i n e d the E a s t I n d i a n s ' b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h t h e i r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Canadian c u l t u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h i t . As t h e y see Canadian women d r i n k i n g , smoking, and d r e s s e d immodestly by t h e i r s t a n d a r d s , t h e y assume them a l l t o be t h e w o r s t t y p e o f p r o s t i t u t e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y b r u t a l i z e p r o s t i t u t e s as the o n l y Canadian women a v a i l a b l e t o them. 157 The Narc N a r c s , because o f the n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e y w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e , a r e be d e f i n i t i o n " a s s h o l e s " : "They t u r n my stomach" ( S u g a r ) ; "the l o w e s t " ( T i n y ) ; "any sneaky b e h a v i o u r t h a t l o o k s sneaky, i t ' s a n a r c ! " (Bugsy); "How do you know the n a r c s ? When the door comes i n ! " (Bugsy); "cops, p i g s and b u l l s , t h e y ' r e a l l t h e same; o n l y some are worse: the n a r c s ! " (Dee). The f o l k s t o r i e s r e l a t e d t o n a r c - s t r e e t " t r a n s a c t i o n s are f u l l o f v i o l e n c e . "They h i t me i n the stomach and I m i s c a r r i e d " (Sue). They d e s c r i b e " t h r o t t l i n g " and " h a s s l i n g " . I n s t a n c e s o f broken t e e t h o r c h o k i n g w h i l e s e a r c h i n g f o r dope c o n c e a l e d i n the s u s p e c t ' s mouth and ready t o be swallowed, are s a i d t o have been f r e q u e n t i n t h e p a s t . Nowadays, n a r c s are m o s t l y accused o f " p l a y i n g d i r t y " : "They frame you" (Dee, Brandy, J u l i e ) . -They go b e h i n d you back and t e l l y o u r employer t h a t you a r e a j u n k i e o r an ex-con and t h e y t e l l him t o f i r e you o r e l s e ! (Jo and Snow) Long, i n t r i c a t e s t o r i e s are t o l d t o demonstrate t h e l e n g t h t o which t h e n a r c s w i l l go t o "get you". Here a g a i n , an e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n f o r the t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r met among members o f a c e r t a i n group. The c u l t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h e E a s t I n d i a n s ' b e h a v i o u r i s now r e p l a c e d by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l one: You have t o be s a d i s t i c t o be a n a r c . (Bugsy) They c a n ' t h a n d l e t h e i r j o b . They e n j o y i t . They t a k e i t on everybody on the s t r e e t : everybody i s d i r t and must be stepped on. (Tiny) I t ' s a p e r s o n a l t h i n g , l i k e a p e r s o n a l t r i p . They're s p e c i a l l y a f t e r hypes and t h e w o r k i n g g i r l s who a r e a l s o a d d i c t s . (Dee) 158 I f E a s t I n d i a n s a r e p h y s i c a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e and v i s i b l y a l i e n t o the s t r e e t , t h e n a r c s ' e f f o r t t o pass the m s e l v e s o f f as s t r e e t p e o p l e causes anger and b i t t e r n e s s . They "hang around the Corne r " p o s i n g as " c h i p p y hypes" o r week end u s e r s (Dee). To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , members o f the M o r a l i t y Squad a r e a l s o p a r t o f what t h e f o l k l o r e sees as t h e c u l t u r e ' s v i l l a i n s . I t was thoug h t a t one p o i n t t h a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s c o u l d not l i e and, when c h a l l e n g e d , had t o answer t r u t h f u l l y . I n t h e i r c a s e , " b u s t " s t o r i e s a r e t o l d which d e t a i l not o n l y the manner i n which the women were made t o t h i n k t h e cop was a bona f i d e t r i c k , b u t how he d e c e i t f u l l y answered t h e q u e s t i o n : "Are you a cop?" (Layton 1975:197). The two groups o f v i l l a i n s can be c o n t r a s t e d from t h e p e r -s p e c t i v e of a s t r e e t - s t r a i g h t o p p o s i t i o n . R i p o f f s and r a t s a r e i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a i n s ; E a s t I n d i a n s and n a r c s a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y so. Reasons t h a t may pass as excuses a r e found f o r the f i r s t group: need and f e a r . C u l t u r a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e o t h e r two are s i m p l y "wrong". A l l s t r e e t p e o p l e c o u l d , i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y would p r o b a b l y deny i t , become r i p o f f s and r a t s . None o f them c o u l d be an E a s t I n d i a n o r a n a r c . I n t h e s t r e e t group, t h e r a t i s t h e most h a t e d o f t h e two s i n c e he has not o n l y t r a n s g r e s s e d t h e r u l e s o f s o l i d a r i t y b ut has - even l i n g u i s t i c a l l y - c r o s s e d t h e l i n e between s t r e e t and s t r a i g h t . I n t h e o t h e r group, the n a r c ' s v i l l a i n y i s t w o f o l d : he i s t he c u l t u r a l enemy s i n c e he devotes h i s e f f o r t s and time t o b r i n g about t h e undoing o f s t r e e t u s e r s and t r a f f i c k e r s , b ut he 159 t o o has c r o s s e d t h e l i n e , i n r e v e r s e t h i s t i m e , i n h i s attempt t o l o o k , speak and behave l i k e them. In a s u b c u l t u r e t h a t sees as e s s e n t i a l i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from and antagonism towards the l a r g e r c u l t u r e , the l e a s t f o r g i v -a b l e s i n i s perhaps boundary c r o s s i n g f o r reaso n s o f v i l l a i n y . FORMAL AND SUBTERRANEAN VALUES The norms o f s t r e e t l i f e , w h ich a r e a l s o t h e norms o f t h e drug a d d i c t ' s l i f e : "hedonism, t h r i l l - s e e k i n g , l a c k o f employ-ment, u n s t a b l e f o r m a l m a r r i a g e s " (Young 1971:53), a r e incompa-t i b l e w i t h t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s w h ich a re seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . More th a n i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t i n f a c t a d i a m e t r a l o p p o s i t i o n t o f o r m a l v a l u e s , and form what i s sometimes c a l l e d the s u b t e r r a - nean v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y . Young (1971:126) c o n s t r u c t s a t a b l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t he c o n t r a s t between s u b t e r r a n e a n and f o r m a l v a l u e s (the " o f f i c i a l v a l u e s o f t h e workaday w o r l d " ) : FORMAL WORK VALUES SUBTERRANEAN VALUES 1. d e f e r r e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n s h o r t - t e r m hedonism 2. p l a n n i n g f u t u r e a c t i o n s p o n t a n e i t y 3. c o n f o r m i t y t o b u r e a u c r a - e g o - e x p r e s s i v i t y t i c r u l e s 4. f a t a l i s m , h i g h c o n t r o l o ver autonomy, c o n t r o l o f b e h a v i o u r i n d e t a i l , l i t t l e o v e r d i r e c - d e t a i l and d i r e c t i o n t i o n 5. r o u t i n e , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y new e x p e r i e n c e , e x c i t e m e n t 160 6. i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o a c t i v i t i e s performed as an end-work i n - t h e m s e l v e s 7. h a r d p r o d u c t i v e work as a d i s d a i n f o r work v i r t u e These s u b t e r r a n e a n v a l u e s are o n l y r e l e a s e d i n t h e s t r a i g h t w o r l d a t i n t e r m i t t e n t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p e r i o d s ( h o l i d a y s , f e s t i v a l s , e t c . ) ; t h u s , t h e two s e t s o f v a l u e s a r e s a i d t o c o e x i s t i n our s o c i e t y . I n f a c t , t h e s e two s e t s o f v a l u e s c o n t r a d i c t each o t h e r . S t r a i g h t and s t r e e t norms a r e n o t o n l y d i f f e r e n t : t h e y a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , and t h e i r s a f e g u a r d and c o h e s i o n depend on the maintenance o f b o u n d a r i e s between t h e two c u l t u r e s . 160a CHAPTER SIX JUNKIE-PROSTITUTES, TRICKS, MARKS: DEFINITIONS AND TRANSACTIONS T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s o f members o f t h e two groups who are engaged i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p seen as m u t u a l l y e x p l o i t a t i v e by t h e i n f o r m a n t s . The t r a n s a c t i o n s performed a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e when p r o s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a r e o b t a i n e d and p a i d f o r , and an e l e m e n t a r y c o n t r a c t i s then f u l f i l l e d . Many i n s t a n c e s o c c u r , however, when e v e n t s may cause t h i s c o n t r a c t not t o be f u l f i l l e d . These e v e n t s ( r o b b e r y , b e a t i n g , a r r e s t ) a r e de t e r m i n e d by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t r i c k o r the woman h e r -s e l f . A s t r e e t w a l k e r 1 s customery s o l i c i t i n g t e c h n i q u e c o n s i s t s m o s t l y i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e amount o f her e x p e c t e d r e m u n e r a t i o n i n terms w h i c h would not l e a d t o h e r a r r e s t , s h o u l d t h e p o t e n t i a l t r i c k be i n f a c t a member o f t h e m o r a l i t y squad (La y t o n 1978). I t c o n s i s t s a l s o , a t t i m e s , i n e l i c i t i n g from a perhaps d i f f i d e n t customer the n a t u r e o f h i s needs. Beyond t h i s b a s i c d i s p l a y o f v e r b a l s k i l l s , a woman may be c a l l e d upon t o h a n d l e p r o b l e m a t i c and d i f f i c u l t c a ses where her mastery o f v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n may make t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a s a f e outcome and a v i o l e n t e n c o u n t e r . She may f i n d h e r s e l f p l a c e d i n t h e s e p r o b l e m a t i c c i r -cumstances i n her r o l e o f p r o s t i t u t e o r drug a d d i c t . 161 The s u b c u l t u r e o f t h e drug a d d i c t has been w e l l d e s c r i b e d by a u t h o r s ( P r e b l e and Casey 1969, Agar 1973) who t h e m s e l v e s comment and e v a l u a t e p r e v i o u s works on t h e s u b j e c t . S t o d d a r t has a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d t h e drug a d d i c t s ' t r a n s a c t i o n s i n the same c i t y (1968). The v a r i o u s and w e l l known " c o n n e c t i o n s " who form th e t r a f f i c k i n g network among u s e r s w i l l c o n s e q u e n t l y be g l o s s e d o v e r . The j u n k i e - p r o s t i t u t e c o n s i d e r e d here i s o f t e n h e r s e l f a t r a f f i c k e r . She i s however al m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a s m a l l time "con-n e c t i o n " , who s e l l s d i r e c t l y on the s t r e e t . L e t us remember Bugsy who, i n h e r M a f i a s t o r y (pp. 125-126) has t h e guys from th e M a f i a a s k i n g f o r an ounce (400 c a p s ) . She, h e r s e l f , s e l l s "caps" which she o b t a i n s from a "middle man" d e a l i n g i n " b u n d l e s " (25 c a p s ) , and, f o r h e r , t h o s e who d e a l i n ounces are as f a r removed i n the h i e r a r c h y o f c r i m e as t h e M a f i a o r g a n i z a t i o n i s from the p e t t y l a r c e n y she knows. I n f a c t , t r a f f i c k e r s i n ounces are o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s removed from t h e s t r e e t s e l l e r s , and not t e r r i b l y h i g h up i n t h i s h i e r a r c h y . A p o i n t must be made h e r e , however, and i t i s t h a t , as i n many o t h e r w a l k s of l i f e , a woman's s t a t u s may depend on her mate's. He may be a h i g h e r " c o n n e c t i o n " than one would n o r m a l l y e x p e c t h e r t o be, j u d g i n g from her o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . However, she may be " p u t t i n g o u t " f o r him d i r e c t l y on t h e s t r e e t , t h u s r e g a i n i n g what i s seen as h e r p r o p e r s t a t u s . In s h o r t , t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y on t h e s t r e e t , t h e i r v a r i a b l e but s e c u r e income, and t h e i r needs - i n c r e a s i n g but c o n t r o l l e d by 162 the n e c e s s i t y t o be v i s i b l e as s t r e e t w a l k e r s - c o n t r i b u t e t o keep the j u n k i e - p r o s t i t u t e a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l , the l o w e s t , o f t r a f f i c k i n g , when t r a f f i c k i n g i s one o f her means o f l i v e l i -hood. There are a number of p e o p l e m a r g i n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the s t r e e t , w i t h whom the i n f o r m a n t s i n t e r a c t , and who w i l l o n l y be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d , such as t h e "teeny boppers": K i d s around t h e C o r n e r , hanging around and t r y i n g t o be a r o u n d e r . They say t h i n g s l i k e : " I d r i n k h a r d l i k k e r " " I smoke dope" "Hey, man, you s c o r e d ? " , and t h e n you f i n d out t h a t t h e y a r e t a l k i n g about MDA o r something l i k e t h a t , not s t u f f . They a r e a n u i s a n c e t o a w o r k i n g g i r l . They t a l k t o you ...: " I have t e n bucks, you wanna ..." (Dee and Bugsy) J u l i e spoke i n a d e r o g a t o r y manner of t h e i r " f r e n z i e d s t a t e " , t h e i r o v e r z e a l o u s i n t e r e s t i n what goes on on the s t r e e t , t h e i r " l o v i n g t h e e x c i t e m e n t " , t h e i r i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Not b e i n g " v e r y , v e r y s o l i d i n t h e i r own mind", t h e y a r e a r i s k t o s t r e e t p e o p l e who cannot a f f o r d t o have them around. Others a r e t h e employees of the " a r c a d e s " , r e s t a u r a n t s , c o f f e e shops and p o o l rooms f r e q u e n t e d by s t r e e t p e o p l e . O t h e r s , s t i l l , a r e p e o p l e w o r k i n g i n h o t e l s or "rooms" who may be w i l l i n g t o knock on the door a f t e r h a l f an hour and ask " E v e r y t h i n g O.K.?" or e l s e do n o t want t o g e t i n v o l v e d and "don't g i v e a s h i t and c a n ' t hear n o t h i n g i f you scream'" Fences and pawn shop o p e r a t o r s a r e a l s o p a r t o f a j u n k i e -p r o s t i t u t e ' s l i f e : A f e n c e i s i n t o a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s i l l e g a l - and t h e y ' r e always wondering about t h e i l l e g a l p a r t o f what t h e y ' r e b u y i n g , l i k e s e r i a l numbers. That's a l l t h e y c a r e about ... P r e t t y w e l l most o f t h e t i m e , f e n c e s a r e s t r a i g h t . ( J u l i e ) I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f e n c e , t h e pawn shop o p e r a t o r i s d e s c r i b e d as 163 k e e p i n g i n t o u c h w i t h t h e p o l i c e who " i n f o r m them on what's hot and w h a t 1 s n o t . " P a r t - t i m e r s such as a " c h i p p i e hooker" o r a " c h i p p i e hype" ar e a l s o f r e q u e n t l y met c h a r a c t e r s . They are not r e a l l y p a r t o f t h e s t r e e t and would be o v e r l o o k e d i f t h e y d i d not i n f a c t r e p -r e s e n t a p o t e n t i a l danger: u n d e r c o v e r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a r e rumoured t o pose as c h i p p i e hypes. A l l t h e s e p e o p l e g r a v i t a t e around th e i n f o r m a n t s , but t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i d e r b a s i c a l l y two p e o p l e : t h e p r o s t i t u t e and t h e t r i c k . S i n c e t h e t r i c k may become a mark, the l a t t e r w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s new r o l e . And, s i n c e t h e j u n k i e -p r o s t i t u t e may m i s t a k e f o r a t r i c k o r a buyer someone who i s i n f a c t a member o f t h e M o r a l i t y Squad o r the N a r c o t i c s Squad, the r o l e o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , but o n l y i n t h i s l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y . THE PROSTITUTE I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f urban nomads, S p r a d l e y (1972b:239-240) b r i e f l y d e l i n e a t e s the v a r i o u s models used i n t h e s t u d i e s o f S k i d Road a l c o h o l i c s , showing th e d i f f e r e n t group i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and t h e c o m p o s i t e p o r t r a i t t hey form. The same c o u l d be done f o r p r o s t i t u t e s , i f o n l y t o c o n t r a s t t h e s e v a r i o u s models w i t h t h e s t r e e t emic one. The s t r a i g h t m o d e l 1 o f t h e p r o s t i t u t e , based on c u l t u r a l 1 T h i s model i s c a l l e d t h e " f o l k model" i n S p r a d l e y . How-e v e r , s i n c e i n t h i s work we a s s i m i l a t e " f o l k " v i e w s w i t h emic v i e w s , what S p r a d l e y names the " e t h n o g r a p h i c model" w i l l be c a l l e d f o l k model. 164 knowledge, appears t o p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . She was "hooked" on drugs by a pimp, so t h a t he would a c h i e v e c o n t r o l o v er h e r . She i s s a d l y abused and o f t e n b e a t e n by her pimp, w h i l e b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y and s e x u a l l y dependent on him. She o f t e n has a " h e a r t of g o l d " . She i s m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p r e a d i n g v e n e r a l d i s e a s e s . She d i e s i n "the g u t t e r " o r , i n a few c a s e s , becomes w e a l t h y and f a d e s i n t o r e s p e c t a b l e r e t i r e m e n t . The l e g a l model i s an ambiguous one, s i n c e i t has t o r e c o g -n i z e t h a t p r o s t i t u t i o n , l i k e drug a d d i c t i o n , i s not an u n l a w f u l a c t i v i t y . Y e t , s i n c e i t i s , l i k e drug a d d i c t i o n , a m o r a l l y r e p -r e h e n s i b l e one, l e g a l c o n t r o l has t o be a c h i e v e d o v e r i t s p e r p e -t r a t o r s w i t h s t a t u t e s w h i c h a r e d i f f i c u l t t o endorse because -as - t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n t h e case o f t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h drug p o s s e s s i o n - t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f an a c t i o n w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e v e n t i t from b e i n g committed (Layton 1978). C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n Canada, the s e x u a l component i s o m i t t e d i n t h e l e g a l model, where the p r o s t i t u t e was d e s c r i b e d u n t i l 1972 as a " v a g r a n t " , a " n i g h t w a l k e r " , a " l o i t e r e r " , and i s p r e s e n t l y seen as a " s o l i c i t o r " and an " i m p o r t u n e r " . The m e d i c a l model shows the p r o s t i t u t e as an agent of d i f f u s i o n o f v e n e r a l deseases b u t , u n l i k e t h e s t r a i g h t model, no more so than any o t h e r v e r y promiscuous p e r s o n . She i s a l s o seen as a l i k e l y s u f f e r e r from v e n e r a l and s e x u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d d i s e a s e s , v a g i n a l i n f e c t i o n s , and t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f a b o r t i o n . Her exposure t o v a r i o u s t y p e s of weather a l s o causes her t o be seen as a l i k e l y s u f f e r e r f r o m b r o n c h i a l and r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c -t i o n s . F i n a l l y i f she i s an a d d i c t , she i s a l s o seen as r u n n i n g 165 a h i g h r i s k o f m a l n u t r i t i o n and h e p a t i t i s . A s u p e r f i c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l model d e s c r i b e s h er as a mal-a d j u s t e d , s e l f - i n d u l g e n t woman, d e p r i v e d o f p o s i t i v e p a r e n t a l models. I f she i s an a d d i c t , she i s u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as a s o c i o p a t h . I n any e v e n t , she i s seen as a h i g h s u i c i d e r i s k . The s o c i o l o g i c a l model d e f i n e s h e r i n terms o f age, sex, r a c e , income, g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , t y p e s of customers, means o f i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o h e r o c c u p a t i o n , e t c . (e.g. James 1971). F i n a l l y , t h e f o l k model, o r e t h n o g r a p h i c model, i n S p r a d l e y ' s words, "aims a t d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i n s i d e r ' s v iew o f h i s s o c i a l w o r l d " (1968b:240). T h i s model has been examined f o r t h e n o n - j u n k i e p r o s t i t u t e i n S e a t t l e by James (19 72a). What f o l l o w s i s a d e f i n i t i o n o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o s t i t u t e s g i v e n by j u n k i e -p r o s t i t u t e s i n Vancouver. P r e d i c t a b l y , the c a t e g o r i e s of p r o s -t i t u t e s and customers do n o t v a r y g r e a t l y from t h o s e e l i c i t e d by James (see a l s o Sheehy 1974:35-38). At l e a s t t h r e e women have mentioned t o me t h a t Vancouver i s " y e a r s b e h i n d " t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t e r m i n o l o g y , so t h e f i v e y e a r d i f f e r e n c e in; t h e g a t h e r -i n g o f James' d a t a and mine i s p r o b a b l y not i m p o r t a n t . Some g e n e r a l terms a r e frowed upon: " I would never c a l l m y s e l f a whore" ( S u g a r ) ; " P r o s t i t u t e sounds t o o g r o s s " (Bugsy). Bugsy p r e f e r s t o c a l l h e r s e l f a l a d y o f t h e e v e n i n g , a term seen by Sugar as b e i n g "more h i g h c l a s s " t h a n hooker, and on a r r e s t s h e e t s I t w i c e saw women i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as l a d i e s o f the  n i g h t t o p o t e n t i a l t r i c k s . Working g i r l and hooker a r e g e n e r a l l y seen as a c c e p t a b l e terms and can be used f o r a l l l e v e l s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n . They are commonly used by t h e women themselves and 166 when I asked what term would be s u i t a b l e f o r me t o use, my i n f o r -mants suggested t h a t e i t h e r one would be a p p r o p r i a t e . A f i r s t d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the hooker and t h e amateur, t h e c h i p p i e who may t u r n an o c c a s i o n a l t r i c k b ut i s a " s t r a i g h t g i r l " . R e a l hookers need n ot c a r r y on t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n f u l l t i m e , s i n c e weekend h o o k e r s , F r i d a y and S a t u r d a y n i g h t p r a c t i t i o n e r s who "may have a j o b o r a home l i f e " , and Summertime  h o o k e r s , s t u d e n t s who "work" d u r i n g the summer h o l i d a y , a r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g p a r t o f t h e group. However, t h e y o n l y appear t o my i n f o r m a n t s t o be m a r g i n a l i n "the l i f e " . A l l t h e i n f o r m a n t s gave a l i s t o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o s -t i t u t e s , d e s c r i b i n g such f e a t u r e s as t h e i r t r a d e , g e n e r a l l o c a -t i o n , degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e drug scene. They l a t e r a t t e m p t e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the manner shown below, w i t h one n o t i c e a b l e e x c e p t i o n . Brandy a l o n e gave a t once a h i e r a r c h i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : " h i g h c l a s s , m i d d l e c l a s s and lower c l a s s h o o k e r s " . I n the h i g h c l a s s group a re t h e c a l l g i r l s who would a t the most use "smoke dope" ( m a r i j u a n a and h a s h i s h ) . L i t t l e i s known about them. M i d d l e c l a s s hookers o f t e n t a k e "coke" and o f t e n have a pimp. They work i n b a r s and l o u n g e s , have a " s m a l l b u s i n e s s and lower p r i c e s " , and o f t e n s p e c i a l i z e i n " s t a g s " . The lower c l a s s hookers a r e o f t e n " s i c k " and i n need o f a f i x ; t h e y have an o l d man o r an o l d l a d y t o s u p p o r t and "work on D a v i e , G r a n v i l l e , t h e S t r a t f o r d ... Cordova's the w o r s t , " I t i s u n u s u a l t o put t h e s e l o c a t i o n s t o g e t h e r : a d e f i n i t e h i e r a r c h y i s u s u a l l y seen, w i t h Davie a t the t o p , G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n t h e m i d d l e , and Main S t r e e t , Cordova S t r e e t , t h e S t r a t f o r d H o t e l , 167 E a s t H a s t i n g s S t r e e t a t t h e bottom. Brandy's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t she sees as t h e c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r among the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o s t i t u t e s t h e t y p e o f drug t h e y use. From t h i s a l o n e d e r i v e s t h e t y p e o f p r o s t i t u t i o n t h e y e i t h e r f a v o u r o r can o n l y e x p e c t t o p r a c t i s e , w i t h i t s e n s u i n g s o c i a l consequences. She e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d a d e c r e a s i n g s o c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s f o l l o w i n g an i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e more a d d i c t i v e d r u g s . From the o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s , I o b t a i n e d f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s : c a l l g i r l s ; hookers w o r k i n g i n saunas, steam b a t h s and massage p a r l o u r s ; camp t o camp h o o k e r s ; hookers w o r k i n g i n h o t e l s , lounges and b a r s ; and s t r e e t g i r l s . There appears t o be a c e r -t a i n amount o f m o b i l i t y among the members of the l a s t two groups. Whereas s t r e e t w a l k e r s would not work i n t h e most e x p e n s i v e h o t e l s i n town/ t h e y o f t e n f r e q u e n t l e s s e x c l u s i v e b a r s and h o t e l l o u n g e s . There i s a l s o a c e r t a i n amount of m o b i l i t y i n t h e sense t h a t women who work i n h o t e l s have o f t e n s t a r t e d , and w i l l end a g a i n , on t h e s t r e e t . 1. C a l l G i r l s Dee saw them u s u a l l y i n t h e i r 30's, o f t e n w i t h a t r a d e o f s a d i s t s who "know where t o go" and do not want t o r i s k unknown w o r k i n g g i r l s on t h e s t r e e t . Most of t h e i r r e g u l a r customers have become marks. . They were s a i d t o l i v e u s u a l l y i n "an a p a r t -ment i n a h i g h r i s e i n t h e West End". The f e e s t h e y charge was open t o s p e c u l a t i o n , r a n g i n g from " p r o b a b l y a minimum o f $100 f o r a t l e a s t an hour" t o "hundreds and even thousands o f d o l l a r s " . 168 Bugsy s a i d she "wouldn't mind b e i n g a c a l l g i r l : t h e y s t a y a t home!" They were r e p u t e d t o "have i t e a s i e r " s i n c e t h e y don't have t o "worry about t h e cops". B e s i d e , most o f them a r e s a i d t o "have a l e g a l j o b " as w e l l . "Sometimes t h e y phone, and some-tim e s t h e y g e t phoned." Rather w i s t f u l l y , Bugsy r e p e a t e d : "They're i n s i d e , t h e y ' r e n o t down on the s t r e e t ! " She d e s c r i b e d t h e way she assumed one c o u l d become a c a l l g i r l : You g i v e your t r i c k s you^phone number and t e l l them you're n o t g o i n g t o be coming downtown no more, and t h e y ' l l have t o phone. I f t h e y ' r e s t e a d y t r i c k s , t h e y w i l l . A n o t h e r woman r e p o r t e d : I've been i n t h i s b u s i n e s s f o r a y e a r . I'm w i t h a g i r l f r i e n d , and we're making up some b u s i n e s s c a r d s w i t h our phone number on i t . We're g o i n g t o g i v e t h o s e o u t and when we're w e l l known, we won't have t o work on t h e s t r e e t . But Bugsy c o n c l u d e d : " I t ' s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l about c a l l g i r l s , 'cause I've never been a c a l l g i r l " . Only B o o t s , i n f a c t , s a i d she knew a n y t h i n g about c a l l g i r l s . 2 . Massage P a r l o u r s and Steam Baths Much l i k e c a l l g i r l s , women w o r k i n g i n sauna b a t h s , steam baths and massage p a r l o u r s were r e p u t e d t o have i t " e a s i e r " s i n c e t h e y do n o t work on the s t r e e t . They were thought t o be " u s u a l l y non a d d i c t s " and " u s u a l l y w i t h a pimp." Hav