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Occupational segregation by sex and industrialization in Canada, 1891-1971 Lautard, E. Hugh 1978

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OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION BY SEX AND INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CANADA: 1891-1971 by E. HUGH LAUTARD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1969 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c) E. Hugh L a u t a r d , 1978 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 27 September 197 8 ABSTRACT O c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r f o r c e s r e v e a l s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n t h e form o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e -g a t i o n by sex (OSS). There a r e two p r i n c i p a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s phenomenon. F i r s t , male and female workers a r e d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t l y among o c c u p a t i o n s , an a s p e c t o f OSS r e f e r r e d t o as o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by sex (ODS). Second, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a l sex c o m p o s i t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n s , such t h a t women are o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n a few j o b s , and u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n o t h e r s . T h i s d i m e n s i o n o f OSS i s r e f e r r e d t o as o c c u p a t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g (OST). Some p a t t e r n s o f OSS suggest t h a t male and female workers a r e n o t mer e l y s e g r e -g a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t j o b s , b u t a l s o s t r a t i f i e d i n t o o c c u p a t i o n s r e a d i l y r a n ked a c c o r d i n g t o c o n v e n t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . Such s e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i s r e f e r r e d t o as s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( S I S ) . A l t h o u g h economic, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y , and e c o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f change i n OSS and SIS i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s e phenomena, none o f the s e p e r s p e c t i v e s p r o v i d e s an adequate t h e o r y o f change i n OSS and S I S . As w e l l , t h e v a r i o u s approaches have l e d t o c o n t r a -d i c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s about t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS. Some a u t h o r s argue t h a t t h e r e has been no change i n the degree o f t h e s e phenomena. Oth e r s c o n t e n d t h a t OSS and SIS have grown more i i pronounced, w h i l e y e t o t h e r s c l a i m d e c l i n e s i n t h e s e phenomena. Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS r e s u l t s from m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n a d e q u a c i e s , w h i c h r e n d e r i n c o n c l u s i v e many o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and SIS. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s argued t h a t (1) t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f machine t e c h n o l o g y tends t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y t o s e l e c t workers f o r some j o b s on t h e b a s i s o f s t r e n g t h , i . e . , u s u a l l y by s e x ; (2) t h e commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s i m p l i e s h i r i n g and p r o m o t i n g workers on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r o b a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o -d u c t i o n ; (3) t h e i n d u s t r i a l urban m i l i e u i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n d i t i o n s c o n d u c i v e t o t h e employment and advancement o f women (e.g., low b i r t h r a t e , c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) ; and (4) t h e b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n accompanying i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i d e a l l y i m p l i e s the s e l e c t i o n and p r o m o t i o n o f workers on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , d e t e r m i n e d by f o r m a l i z e d , c a l c u l a b l e s t a n d a r d s , r a t h e r t h a n on such t r a d i t i o n a l , a s c r i p t i v e , and o f t e n econom-i c a l l y i r r a t i o n a l , c r i t e r i a as sex. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s p r e -d i c t e d t h a t ODS, OST, and SIS w i l l be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , and t h a t as t h e l e v e l s o f t h e l a t t e r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e o v e r t i m e t h e degree of ODS, OST, and SIS w i l l d e c l i n e . Indexes o f each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and o f i i i JDDS, OST, and SIS a r e c a l c u l a t e d w i t h o f f i c i a l C anadian d a t a f o r t h e census y e a r s 1891 t h r o u g h 1971. The r e s u l t s a r e graphed and c o r r e l a t e d , and s u b j e c t e d t o r e g r e s s i o n and t r e n d a n a l y s i s . G e n e r a l l y , the f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e s i s o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b o t h OSS and SIS and each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . D e c l i n e s i n OSS, however, a r e s l i g h t , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r r e m a i n i n g a t t h e end o f the p e r i o d s t u d i e d . The t h e o r e t i c a l and method-o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d , and s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d . „ i v CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 The S e x u a l D i v i s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Labour . . . 2 E x p l a n a t i o n s o f Change i n OSS and SIS 9 OSS, S I S , and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 22 , Research on Change i n OSS and SIS 31 Summary 36 I I . METHODOLOGY 38 E m p i r i c a l I n d i c a t o r s o f t h e Four Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 38 Indexes o f OSS and SIS 40 The Data 62 Statement o f Hypotheses 71 Methods 72 Summary 73 I I I . OSS, S I S , AND INDUSTRIALIZATION: CANADA, 1891-1971 74 Measurements o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , OSS, and SIS 74 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s : OSS, S I S , and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 87 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : ODS, OST, and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 98 v C h a p t e r Page Trend A n a l y s i s : OSS and SIS 102 Summary 109 IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 112 The S e x u a l D i v i s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Labour 112 OSS, S I S , and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 114 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n c l u s i o n s 115 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 116 REFERENCES 119 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Sex: P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e Female and Male Labour F o r c e s by Major O c c u p a t i o n Group, Canada (1971) 3 2. O c c u p a t i o n a l Sex-Typing: Sex C o m p o s i t i o n s o f Major O c c u p a t i o n Groups: Canada (1971) (Percentages) 6 3. O c c u p a t i o n a l S e x - T y p i n g : Sex C o m p o s i t i o n s o f L e a d i n g Female O c c u p a t i o n Groups and S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n s , Canada (1971) (Percentages) 7 4. S e x u a l I n e q u a l i t y o f O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s : P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e Female and Male Labour F o r c e s by B l i s h e n -McRoberts " C l a s s I n t e r v a l s , " Canada (1971) 9 5. N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex 42 6. P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, Showing A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e s 4 3 7. N u m e r i c a l and P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, w i t h Females R e d i s t r i b u t e d A c c o r d i n g t o Male D i s t r i b u t i o n 44 8. N u m e r i c a l and P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, w i t h Males R e d i s t r i b u t e d A c c o r d i n g t o Female D i s t r i b u t i o n 45 9. N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n 46 v i i T a b l e Page 10. N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex 51 11. N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on Sex 52 12. C a l c u l a t i o n o f R a t i o s o f Observed t o E x p e c t e d F r e q u e n c i e s o f Females i n H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , S t a n d a r d i z e d on Sex 53 13. C a l c u l a t i o n o f D e v i a t i o n s o f R a t i o s from Mean R a t i o (R. - R) and Squared D e v i a t i o n s (R ± - R ) 2 . 7 55 14. N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks, and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank 60 15. P r o p o r t i o n a l and Cumulated P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Male and Female Labour F o r c e s , by Three O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank 60 16. C a l c u l a t i o n o f Components o f RS f o r H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e 61 17. Labour F o r c e and P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e s , by Sex: Canada, 1891-1971 75 18. I n d i c a t o r s o f Four Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 77 19. Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1891-1971 83 20. Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1901-1961 84 21. Measurements o f S I S : Canada, 1951-1971 86 22. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among I n d i c a t o r s o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 (Below D i a g o n a l ) , 1951-1971 (Above D i a g o n a l ) 89 23. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among Dependent V a r i a b l e s : Canada, 1891-1971 (Below D i a g o n a l ) , 1951-1971 (Above D i a g o n a l ) 91 v i i i T a b l e Page 24. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1901-1961 . . 93 25. C o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Between Indexes o f OSS and I n d i c a t o r s o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971) and Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961) 95 26. C o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Between Indexes o f OSS and SIS and I n d i c a t o r s o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1951-1971 97 27. S t e p w i s e M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n s o f ODS and OST on the I n d i c a t o r s o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 101 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. T e c h n o l o g i c a l Development: Number o f P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s p e r 1,000 Workers, Canada (1891-1971) 79 2. P r o d u c t i v i t y : Output p e r Man-hour i n M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s , Canada.(1951-1971) 80 3. U r b a n i z a t i o n : P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n R e s i d i n g i n Urban A r e a s , Canada (1891-1971) 81 4. B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n : Number o f C l e r i c a l Workers p e r 1,000 Workers, Canada (1891-1971) 82 5. ODS: Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971), Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961) 104 6. OST: Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971), Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961) 105 7. S I S : Canada, 1951-1971 107 8. P e r c e n t a g e o f Male and Female Labour F o r c e s i n t h e Upper Three, and t h e Lower Three, C l a s s e s o f t h e B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l S c a l e : Canada, 1951-1971 108 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A l t h o u g h I assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s f i n a l form, t h e i n f l u e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e o f many persons shaped the c o n t e n t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am most g r a t e f u l t o George Gray, my p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r , f o r encouragement and c o n s i s t e n t d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank P a t r i c i a Marchak, M a r t i n M e i s s n e r , Don L a v i s , and James L i n d s e y , the o t h e r members o f my guidance committee, who p r o v i d e d a d v i c e and s u p p o r t as t h e s e were needed. I would l i k e t o acknowledge, as w e l l , my d e b t s t o t h o s e from whom I took c o u r s e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t was i n Y u n s h i k Chang's seminar on the S o c i o l o g y o f Popu-l a t i o n Growth t h a t I was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as an a r e a o f s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . I am g r a t e f u l t o have had the o p p o r t u n i t y o f t a k i n g c l a s s e s i n methodology and s t a t i s t i c s from M i l t o n Bloombaum and C h a r l e s R o b e r t s . I r e c a l l w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h e time and e f f o r t M a r t i n M e i s s n e r d e v o t e d b o t h t o t e a c h i n g me and t o s u p e r v i s i n g my s t u d i e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f coursework. S p e c i a l thanks go t o B e r n a r d B l i s h e n , who p r o v i d e d u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , w i t h o u t w h i c h p a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d here would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . I am a l s o g r a t e -f u l t o Roger E l l e r t o n and Hans L a r s e n f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a d v i c e . x i D u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s I e n j o y e d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h N e l s Anderson, whose unique e x p e r i e n c e i n the w o r l d o f work and i n s o c i o l o g y r e s u l t e d — o f t e n i n a d v e r t e n t l y — i n many b e n e f i t s t o t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n t o e d i t i n g t h e e n t i r e t h e s i s , A l e x H i m e l f a r b d e f t l y and p a t i e n t l y h e l p e d t o f o c u s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . N o e l I v e r s o n e d i t e d and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d s u c c e s s i v e d r a f t s o f t h e work. P e t e r McGahan r e a d the e n t i r e t h e s i s and p r o v i d e d a tho r o u g h c r i t i q u e . N e l s Anderson, C a r l Cuneo, John Goyder, Donald L o r e e , W i l f r e d M a r t i n , and James R i c h a r d s o n r e a d p o r t i o n s o f t h e stu d y and made u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . My d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s were s u p p o r t e d , i n t u r n , by a Canada C o u n c i l D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p , a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Summer Research S c h o l a r s h i p , and an H. R. M a c M i l l a n F a m i l y Graduate F e l l o w s h i p . I remain e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l f o r t h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank B e r n i c e and E m i l e L a u t a r d , my p a r e n t s , and K a t h l e e n and Cory Sansom, my p a r e n t s - i n - l a w , n o t o n l y f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l h e l p , b u t a l s o f o r t h e i r l o v e and encouragement. F i n a l l y , I thank Joan L a u t a r d , my l o v i n g w i f e , f o r h e r c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t and encouragement. x i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A sexual d i v i s i o n of labour occurs i n a l l s o c i e t i e s . Ethnographic records of nonindustrialized s o c i e t i e s show that although most subsistence a c t i v i t i e s are performed by both sexes, some are performed usually or exclusively by only one sex (Murdock and Provost, 1973:206-207). Brown (1970:1074) suggests that i n primitive settings the degree to which women p a r t i c i p a t e i n subsistence a c t i v i t i e s depends upon the compatibility of the l a t t e r with simultaneous child-care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women are most l i k e l y to make a substantial contribution when sub-sistence a c t i v i t i e s have the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : the p a r t i c i p a n t i s not obliged to be far from home; the tasks are r e l a t i v e l y monotonous and do not require rapt concentration; and the work i s not dangerous, can be per-formed i n spite of interruptions, and i s e a s i l y resumed once interrupted. Conversely, Murdock and Provost -(1973:21) note that periods of absence from the household are required by such t y p i c a l l y masculine a c t i v i t i e s as warfare, hunting, f i s h i n g , and herding. These and other masculine tasks usually have features which give a r e l a t i v e advantage to males, who "tend i n general to be endowed with greater physical strength than females and probably also a superior capacity for mobilizing i t i n b r i e f spurts of excessive energy." Even i n nonindustrialized settings, however, tasks per-formed by men i n one society are undertaken by women i n another. 1 2 The b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r , t h e n , i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n t h e s e x u a l a l l o c a t i o n o f s u b s i s t e n c e t a s k s . Depending on the v a l u e s o f a g i v e n s o c i e t y , o t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e "hardness" o r "toughness" o f raw m a t e r i a l s , a tendency f o r the sex wh i c h uses an a r t i f a c t t o be t h e sex wh i c h makes i t , c o m p l e x i t y o f t e c h n o l o g y , and i n t e n s i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i n f l u e n c e t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r (Murdock and P r o v o s t , 1973:211-215). The S e x u a l D i v i s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Labour O c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r i n d u s t r i a l work f o r c e s r e v e a l the p e r s i s t e n c e o f a s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r o u t s i d e t h e home 1 i n the form o f " o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex" (OSS). There a r e two p r i n c i p a l dimensions o f t h i s phenomenon. F i r s t , male and female w o r kers are d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t l y among o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , as may be seen i n T a b l e 1. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e i n a r e l a t i v e l y few major o c c u p a t i o n groups c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the much g r e a t e r , though by no means u n i f o r m , d i s p e r s i o n o f male workers among a l l o c c u p a t i o n groups. L i s t i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n groups a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e o f t h e i r s h a r e o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e h i g h l i g h t s t h e degree o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i n a few k i n d s o f work. I n 1971, over o n e - t h i r d (36 p e r cent) o f a l l female w o r kers i n Canada were employed i n c l e r i c a l work, w h i l e a n o t h e r 17 p e r c e n t h e l d "'"Inside the home, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e i s a s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f h o u s e h o l d l a b o u r ( M e i s s n e r e t a l . , 1975; M e i s s n e r , 1976; C l a r k and Harvey, 1976). 3 T a b l e 1 O c c u p a t i o n a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by Sex: P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e Female and Male Labour F o r c e s by M a jor O c c u p a t i o n Group, Canada ( 1 9 7 1 ) a O c c u p a t i o n Group Female Male C l e r i c a l 35. 9% 8.5% S e r v i c e 17.1 10.2 S a l e s 9.5 11.1 M e d i c i n e and h e a l t h 9.3 1.6 T e a c h i n g 8.1 2.7 F a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g 5.7 9.5 A g r i c u l t u r a l 4.1 7.9 P r o c e s s i n g 2.3 5.4 M a n a g e r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 2.2 6.2 M a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g 1.5 3.2 S o c i a l s c i e n c e s 1.1 1.0 A r t i s t i c , l i t e r a r y and r e c r e a t i o n a l 0.8 1.1 N a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , e n g i n e e r i n g and maths 0.7 4.3 M a c h i n i n g 0.5 4.5 O ther c r a f t s and equipment o p e r a t i n g 0.5 1.9 T r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t i n g 0.3 6.5 C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s 0.2 11.0 R e l i g i o n 0.1 0.4 F o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g 0.1 1.3 F i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g 0.0 b 0.5 M i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g 0.0 b 1.2 A l l o c c u p a t i o n groups 100.0% 100.0% (Number i n thousands) (2,620) (5,102) a E x c l u d i n g workers whose o c c u p a t i o n s were e i t h e r n o t c l a s s i f i e d o r not s t a t e d . L e ss t h a n 0.05 p e r c e n t . S ource: Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1974:Table 2 ) . 4 s e r v i c e j o b s . These two c a t e g o r i e s t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r h a l f (53 p e r cent) o f a l l women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . The s a l e s , m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h , and t e a c h i n g groups each c o n t a i n e d n e a r l y 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e . Thus t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l females were c o n t a i n e d i n t h r e e , o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s i n f o u r , and f o u r - f i f t h s i n f i v e , o f t h e twenty-one major o c c u p a t i o n groups o f t h e 1971 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e i n the r e m a i n i n g o c c u p a t i o n groups dropped o f f r a p i d l y from 6 p e r c e n t i n f a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g , and r e p a i r i n g j o b s t o v i r t u a l l y none i n m i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the male l a b o u r f o r c e shows much l e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Each o f t h e f i v e o c c u p a t i o n groups w i t h the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f male w o r k e r s — c l e r i c a l , s e r v i c e , and s a l e s , a g a i n , as w e l l as c o n s t r u c t i o n and f a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g — h a s r o u g h l y o n e - t e n t h o f the male work f o r c e . Only two c a t e g o r i e s ( r e l i g i o n and f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g ) c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e , c o n t r a s t i n g s h a r p l y w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women, wher.e t e n o c c u p a t i o n groups c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e female work f o r c e . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s among o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i s r e f e r r e d t o as " o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by sex" (ODS) ( M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1976). The o t h e r major d i m e n s i o n o f OSS i s seen i n the i n t e r n a l sex c o m p o s i t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and i s u s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f men and women w i t h i n each o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . I f t h e l a t t e r a r e l i s t e d 5 down the " s t u b " o f a t a b l e , t he p e r c e n t a g e s a r e r u n h o r i z o n -t a l l y . T h i s i s done i n T a b l e 2, w h i c h l i s t s t h e major o c c u -p a t i o n groups a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e wo r k e r s i n each who a r e women. I n o n l y t h r e e o f t h e g r o u p s — s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , s a l e s , and a r t i s t i c , l i t e r a r y and r e c r e a t i o n a l — a r e t h e p e r c e n -t a g e s o f workers who a r e female w i t h i n t e n p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s o f th e f i g u r e f o r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole (34 per c e n t ) . Of the o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n g r o u p s , women a r e g r e a t l y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n f o u r : m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h , w i t h 74 p e r c e n t ; c l e r i c a l , w i t h 68 p e r c e n t ; t e a c h i n g , w i t h 60 p e r c e n t ; and s e r v i c e , w i t h 46 p e r c e n t . Men, o f c o u r s e , dominate t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r t e e n g r o u p s , w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s r a n g i n g from 76 p e r c e n t i n f a b r i -c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g t o 99 p e r c e n t i n m i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g . The b r e a d t h o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , however, masks even more extreme v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e sex c o m p o s i t i o n s o f d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . F o r , as Gross (1968:207) o b s e r v e s , "the f i n e r t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s , t he more s e g r e g a t i o n one w i l l ' c a t c h . • " T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n T a b l e 3, whi c h l i s t s t h e f o u r o c c u p a t i o n groups i n w h i c h the p r o p o r t i o n o f workers who a r e female exceeds t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole by more th a n t e n p e r -centage p o i n t s . I n t h e s e r v i c e group as a whole, f o r example, women comprise r o u g h l y h a l f (46 p e r cent) o f t h e w o r k e r s , but chambermaids and housemen c o n s i s t almost e n t i r e l y o f t h e former (96 p e r c e n t ) , w h i l e v i r t u a l l y a l l (98 p e r cent) p o l i c e m e n and d e t e c t i v e s a r e men. S i m i l a r l y , t h e c l e r i c a l group i n c l u d e s s e c r e t a r i e s and s t e n o g r a p h e r s , o f whom 97 p e r c e n t a r e women, as 6 T a b l e 2 O c c u p a t i o n a l Sex-Typing: Sex C o m p o s i t i o n s o f M a j o r O c c u p a t i o n Groups, Canada ( 1 9 7 1 ) a (Percentages) O c c u p a t i o n Group Women Men M e d i c i n e and h e a l t h 74. ,3 25. ,7 C l e r i c a l 68. .4 31. ,6 T e a c h i n g 60. ,4 39. , 6 S e r v i c e 46. .2 53. .8 S o c i a l s c i e n c e s 37. .3 62. .7 S a l e s 30. .4 69. ,6 A r t i s t i c , l i t e r a r y and r e c r e a t i o n a l 27. .2 72. ,8 F a b r i c a t i n g , a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r 23. ,7 76. ,3 A g r i c u l t u r a l 20. .9 79. ,1 M a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g 19. .7 80. .3 P r o c e s s i n g 17. ,8 82. ,2 M a n a g e r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 15. .7 84. .3 R e l i g i o n 15. .7 84. .3 O ther c r a f t s and equipment o p e r a t i n g 12. .4 87. ,6 N a t u r a l s c i e n c e , e n g i n e e r i n g and maths 7. ,3 92. .7 M a c h i n i n g 5. ,7 94. ,3 T r a n s p o r t equipment o p e r a t i n g 2. .4 97. ,6 F o r e s t r y and l o g g i n g 2. .1 97. . 9 F i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g 1. .9 98. ,1 C o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s 0. .9 99. ,1 M i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g 0. .6 99. .4 A l l o c c u p a t i o n groups 33. .9 66. .1 E x c l u d i n g workers whose o c c u p a t i o n s were e i t h e r n o t c l a s s i f i e d o r n o t s t a t e d . S o u r c e : Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1974:Table 2 ) . 7 Ta b l e 3 O c c u p a t i o n a l S e x - T y p i n g : Sex Compositions.,of L e a d i n g Female O c c u p a t i o n G r o u p s 3 and S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n s , Canada (1971) (Percentages) O c c u p a t i o n Women Men M e d i c i n e and h e a l t h 74 26 P h y s i c i a n s and surgeons 10 90 Graduate n u r s e s 96 4 C l e r i c a l 68 32 S e c r e t a r i e s and s t e n o g r a p h e r s 97 3 M a i l c a r r i e r s 8 92 T e a c h i n g 60 40 U n i v e r s i t y 17 83 Secondary 45 55 E l e m e n t a r y and k i n d e r g a r t e n 82 18 S e r v i c e 46 54 P o l i c e m e n and d e t e c t i v e s 2 98 Chambermaids and housemen 96 4 a M a j o r o c c u p a t i o n groups i n w h i c h t h e are women exceeds t h a t i n t h e l a b o u r cent) by o v e r t e n p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s . p e r c e n t a g e o f workers f o r c e as a whole (34 who per Source: Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1974:Table 2) . w e l l as m a i l c a r r i e r s , o f whom 92 p e r c e n t a r e men. Such o c c u -p a t i o n s , i n w h i c h an overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n o f th e workers a r e o f one se x , a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g "sex--typed" (Armstrong and Armstrong, 1975). A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f OSS i s r e f e r r e d t o as " o c c u p a t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g " (OST). 8 Some p a t t e r n s o f OST suggest t h a t men and women a r e not merely s e g r e g a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t j o b s , b u t a r e a l s o s t r a t i f i e d i n t o o c c u p a t i o n s r e a d i l y r a nked by c o n v e n t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , as may a l s o be seen i n Tab l e 3. An extreme example o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e mediciviieand h e a l t h group, where 96 p e r c e n t o f nur s e s a r e fem a l e , b u t 90 p e r c e n t o f p h y s i c i a n s and surgeons a r e male. S i m i l a r l y , 83 p e r c e n t o f u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r s a r e men, w h i l e a l i k e p r o p o r t i o n o f el e m e n t a r y and k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s a re women; h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h i n g o c c u p i e s an i n t e r m e d i a r y p o s i t i o n , f o r i t i s p r a c t i s e d by n e a r l y as many women (45 p e r cent) as men (55 p e r c e n t ) . 1 T a b l e 4 p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s -t r i b u t i o n s o f the female and male l a b o u r f o r c e s a c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r v a l s o f t h e B l i s h e n - M c R o b e r t s (1976) s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x . G r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e male th a n t h e female work f o r c e s a r e found i n the t o p two and t h e bottom two i n t e r v a l s . A l t h o u g h i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o det e r m i n e i t s e x t e n t by mere i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a , t h e apparent s e x u a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e may be r e f e r r e d t o as " s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s " ( S I S ) . ^Such extreme v a r i a t i o n i n s e x c o m p o s i t i o n s tends, n o t t o o c c u r w i t h i n t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n groups formed a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f males. F o r example, i n t h e f i v e o c c u p a t i o n groups i n w h i c h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f workers who a r e men exceeds 95 p e r c e n t ( i . e . , t he l a s t f i v e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2 ) , t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f workers who are women reaches 10 per c e n t . ( " S p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n " h e r e r e f e r s t o a d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n , such as "foremen . . . ," o r a r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n i n g w o r k e r s "not elsew h e r e c l a s s -i f i e d . " ) 9 T a b l e 4 S e x u a l I n e q u a l i t y o f O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s : P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e Female and Male Labour F o r c e s by B l i s h e n - M c R o b e r t s " C l a s s I n t e r v a l s , " Canada (1971) Socio-economic Index V a l u e Female Male 70.0000+ 2.7% 3.7% 60.0000-69.9999 8.9 11.8 50.0000-59.9999 23.2 9.8 40.0000-49.9999 22.1 21.2 30.0000-39.9999 20.2 22.7 Below 30.0000 23.0 30.7 T o t a l s 3 100.1% 99.9% aDo n o t e q u a l 100.0 p e r c e n t due t o r o u n d i n g e r r o r . S o u r c e : Based on Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1974:Table 2) and B l i s h e n and McRoberts (1976) . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o measure and e x p l a i n l o n g - t e r m changes i n t h e amounts o f ODS and OST, as w e l l as i n t h e degree o f S I S . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s o f change i n t h e s e phenomena. An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h e n d e v e l o p e d t o ac c o u n t f o r change i n OSS and SIS . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . E x p l a n a t i o n s o f Change i n OSS and SIS I f b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t acc o u n t f o r v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n n o n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , 10 t h e y a r e u t t e r l y i n a d e q u a t e as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f change i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex (OSS) and i n t h e s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (SIS) i n i n d u s t r i a l m i l i e u x . The v a r i o u s s o c i o l o g i c a l approaches t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y o f OSS and SIS have l e d t o c o n f l i c t i n g v iews about changes i n t h e s e phenomena. Some a u t h o r s argue t h a t t h e r e has been no change i n the degree o f OSS and S I S . O t h e r s contend t h a t t h e s e phenomena have grown more pronounced, w h i l e y e t o t h e r s p r e d i c t d e c l i n e s i n OSS and S I S . T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l bases f o r t h e s e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s . G i v e n t h e l a c k o f a g r e e -ment c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d s i n OSS and S I S , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e d e f i n i t i v e l y t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s o f change i n t h e s e phenomena. A c c o r d i n g l y , one o f t h e aims o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e s t a b l i s h l o n g - r u n t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS i n Canada. F i v e k i n d s o f e x p l a n a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d t o a c c o u n t f o r change i n OSS and S I S . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e 4 o v e r l a p among t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s , t h e y may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w e i g h t i n g g i v e n t h e a l l e g e d d e t e r m i n a n t s o f change i n OSS and SIS. One approach emphasizes f i n a n c i a l need, a n o t h e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as t h e key independent v a r i a b l e . A t h i r d argues t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s e x i s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r change i n OSS and S I S . A f o u r t h a p p r o a c h t o t h e q u e s t i o n u t i l i z e s the c o n c e p t s o f s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s , w h i l e the f i f t h i s anchored i n human e c o l o g y . The Economic Need Argument Armstrong and Armstrong (1975:383) c o n c l u d e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e d o u b l i n g between 1941 and 1971 o f b o t h t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n Canada (from 21 t o 40 p e r cent ) 2 and t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f Canadian workers who were women (from 18 t o 35 p e r c e n t ) , most women i n t h e p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e remained s e g r e g a t e d i n a few low s k i l l e d , low p a i d j o b s o v e r t h i s t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d . D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , however, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a r r i e d women i n t h e female work f o r c e grew more t h a n f o u r f o l d (from 13 t o 57 p e r cent) as a r e s u l t o f a seven-f o l d i n c r e a s e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f m a r r i e d women (from 4.5 t o 33 p e r c e n t ) . A r m strong and Armstrong (1975:381-382) e x p l a i n t h e enormous i n c r e a s e i n t h e m a r r i e d female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e as m a i n l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e r i s i n g f i n a n c i a l need o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e m i d d l e and l o w e r income ra n g e s . T h i s economic need, i t i s argued, i s brough t about by i n c r e a s i n g i n e q u i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l income, ;and . reflected' i n ^ \ . - ] ? ; " a s h i f t from t y p i c a l l y one income r e c i p i e n t p e r f a m i l y , t h e case f o r 57 p e r c e n t o f Canadian f a m i l i e s as o f 1951, t o a t l e a s t two income r e c i p i e n t s p e r f a m i l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n o f 65 per c e n t o f f a m i l i e s i n 1971. On t h i s b a s i s , A r m strong and Armstrong (1975:383) c o n c l u d e t h a t some women do work because . . . t h e y f i n d f u l f i l l i n g and r e w a r d i n g employment. However, many more women, e s p e c i a l l y AThe "female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e " i s t h e number o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (e.g., 3 m i l l i o n , as o f 1971) , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l women, 15 y e a r s o f age and o v e r (7.6 m i l l i o n i n 1971). 2 That x s , t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e , male and female workers combined (8.7 m i l l i o n , i n 1 9 7 1 K 12 i n t h e l o w e r and m i d d l e [income r a n g e s ] , work because t h e y need t h e money. . . . [ T h e r e f o r e ] , most women c o n t i n u e t o have t o t a k e l o w - s k i l l e d , p o o r l y p a i d j o b s . A l t h o u g h growing f i n a n c i a l need may e x p l a i n i n l a r g e p a r t the r e c e n t i n c r e a s e i n m a r r i e d female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r -t i c i p a t i o n , i t does not a c c o u n t f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f OSS and SIS t h r o u g h o u t th e l a b o u r f o r c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , even i f economic need d i d i n f l u e n c e OSS and SIS as Armstrong and Armstrong a r g u e , t h e n growing f i n a n c i a l need s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o l e a d t o i n c r e a s i n g OSS and SIS. A r m s t r o n g and A r m s t r o n g , however, do n o t c l a i m an i n c r e a s e , b u t r e f e r i n s t e a d t o s t a b i l i t y , a t r e n d w h i c h , as w i l l be shown l a t e r , i s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d . The S o c i a l i z a t i o n Approach An e q u a l l y u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d c o n c l u s i o n o f s t a b i l i t y , o r a t b e s t "a s m a l l , b u t d e f i n i t e , drop" i n OSS has a l s o been c o n s t r u e d as " p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , " w h i c h i n t e r p r e t s OSS as t h e i n e v i t a b l e c o u n t e r p a r t "of sex r o l e s e g r e g a t i o n i n t h e [ t r a d i t i o n a l ] f a m i l y " (Gross, 1968:203-205). I n t h i s v i e w , a boy i s s o c i a l i z e d — b y t h e f a m i l y , s c h o o l , and c h u r c h — t o be t h e f a m i l y b r e a d w i n n e r and hence t o g i v e p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n t o f i n d i n g a f u l l - t i m e , permanent j o b o r c a r e e r . G i r l s , on t h e o t h e r hand, must be s o c i a l i z e d p r i m a r i l y t o t r a d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l and m a t e r n a l r o l e s , and, t h e r e f o r e , a r e e x p e c t e d t o p r e p a r e f o r a l i m i t e d number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s ( e . g . , s e c r e t a r y ) , w h i c h do n o t i n v o l v e i n o r d i n a t e i n v e s t m e n t s i n t r a i n i n g , h i g h g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y , l e n g t h y commitments o f t i m e and energy i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e performance o f t h e i r f a m i l i a l r o l e s , o r d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h men i n t h e work p l a c e . N o n t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f a woman d o i n g a "man's j o b , " i s seen as p r e c i p i t a t i n g "a p r o f o u n d a l t e r a t i o n i n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e " ( P a r s o n s , 1942:609), t h e r e b y t h r e a t e n i n g t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f not o n l y s o c i e t y i t s e l f , b u t a l s o t h e " n a t u r a l " f e m i n i n e p e r s o n a l i t y ( E r i k s o n , 1964:105). Even i f such sex-based s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s and t h e s e g r e g a t i o n t h e y a l l e g e d l y engender a r e a f u n c t i o n o f "needs," t h i s s o r t o f e x p l a n a t i o n begs t h e v e r y q u e s t i o n i t would be e x p e c t e d t o answer: Why have t h e needs changed, .so as t o a c c o u n t f o r t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS? L i k e f i n a n c i a l need, s o c i a l i z a t i o n must be counted among t h e mechanisms by w h i c h change o c c u r s , b u t i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t as t h e key independent v a r i a b l e . 1 T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e p a r a l l e l s t h e vi e w s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y , Cambridge e c o n o m i s t , A l f r e d M a r s h a l l . B e a t r i c e Webb (1938:398) r e p o r t s a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h "the dear l i t t l e p r o f e s s o r " i n whi c h he argued t h a t woman was a s u b o r d i n a t e b e i n g , and t h a t , i f she ceased t o be s u b o r d i n a t e , t h e r e would be no o b j e c t f o r a man t o marry. . . . Hence t h e woman must n ot d e v e l o p h e r f a c u l t i e s i n a way u n p l e a s a n t t o t h e man: t h a t s t r e n g t h , courage, independence were n ot a t t r a c t i v e i n women; t h a t r i v a l r y i n men's p u r s u i t s was p o s i t i v e l y u n p l e a s a n t . Hence m a s c u l i n e s t r e n g t h and m a s c u l i n e a b i l i t y i n women must be f i r m l y t r a m p l e d on and b o y c o t t e d by men. . . . " I f you compete w i t h us we shan't marry you," he summed up w i t h a l a u g h . Not a l l approaches w h i c h emphasize s o c i a l i z a t i o n assume t h e s e p a t t e r n s f u l f i l l t h e "needs" o f s o c i e t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Some assume, i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e s e "needs" a r e l e a r n e d and have a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g e f f e c t . As g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f change i n OSS and S I S , however, t h e same c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e s . 14 The D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Argument A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f change i n OSS and SIS (Knudsen, 1969:190-191) acknowledges t h e i n f l u e n c e o f b o t h economic need and sex-based s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s , but r e g a r d s t h e l a t t e r p r o c e s s as h a v i n g r e s u l t e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s e x i s t d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n , a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f OSS and SIS. T h i s approach r e c o g n i z e s t h a t women who conform t o n o r m a t i v e s ex-r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be n o t o n l y r e s t r i c t e d by e d u c a t i o n and r e c r u i t m e n t t o a l i m i t e d number o f o c c u p a t i o n s , b u t w i l l a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s a l a r y s c a l e s and p r o m o t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s (Knudsen, 1969:192). Moreover, a m b i t i o u s o r i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y a g g r e s s i v e women a r e s t i g m a t i z e d as b e i n g " d e v i a n t , " m a n i f e s t i n g " r o l e c o n f l i c t , " o r even e x h i b i t i n g " n e u r o s i s " ( R o s s i , 1964:611). Both i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n e q u a l i t y and o p p r e s s i o n , Knudsen (1969:191) a r g u e s , have been r e i n f o r c e d by t h e postwar s o c i a l s c i e n c e s " t h r o u g h t h e use o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r -s p e c t i v e and t h e dominance o f f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 1 1 R o s s i (1964:611), t o o , contends t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i s m o f s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y has had advers e " e f f e c t s on t h e m o t i -v a t i o n and a b i l i t y o f women t o e x e r c i s e t h e r i g h t s a l r e a d y t h e i r s o r t o p r e s s f o r an e x t e n s i o n o f them." Thus, OSS and SIS were a l l e g e d l y a g g r a v a t e d as a r e s u l t o f . . . p r e c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e s , s o c i o l o g i s t s . . . a s s e r t e d t h e v a l u e and n e c e s s i t y o f c e r t a i n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . . . . j u s t i f i e d by a p p e a l s t o a n o r m a t i v e o r d e r w h i c h d e f i n e d females as complementary t o males. F u l f i l l i n g m a t e r n a l r o l e s i s t h e r e f o r e t h e p r i m a r y and h i g h e s t o r d e r i f n o t the o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . (Knudsen, 1969:191) 15 As one might e x p e c t , w r i t e r s who a r e c r i t i c a l n o t o n l y o f t h e s t a t u s quo w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y and t h e l a b o u r market, but a l s o o f f u n c t i o n a l i s t s o c i a l s c i e n c e , r e a c h the most p e s s i m i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS. Knudsen c l a i m s t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s between 1940 and 1966, OSS and SIS grew even more pronounced, and he p r e d i c t s " t h a t women w i l l remain i n an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n f o r t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n " (1969:192). D i f f i c u l t as i t i s t o s p e c i f y the e f f e c t s o f f a c t o r s such as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i t would be much more d i f f i c u l t t o document the a l l e g e d impact o f f u n c t i o n a l i s t s o c i a l s c i e n c e on b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y . Knudsen does no t s u p p o r t e i t h e r c l a i m , much l e s s document t h e i n c r e m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f e i t h e r s e x i s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r f u n c t i o n a l i s t c o n s e r v a t i s m l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e a l l e g e d i n c r e a s e s i n OSS and S I S . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n argument, t h e r e -f o r e , i s a l s o d e f e c t i v e . F o r n o t o n l y i s i t l o g i c a l l y i n a d -m i s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n a v a r i a b l e w i t h a c o n s t a n t (Ogburn, 1957: 1 3 ) , b u t , as w i l l be shown l a t e r , t h e " i n c r e a s e s " a r e a l s o undocumented. The I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Approach I n c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e who emphasize s i n g l e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f OSS and S I S , Oppenheimer (1970) adopts a comprehensive approach i n c o r p o r a t i n g demographic, economic, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l , as w e l l as s o c i o l o g i c a l , v a r i a b l e s . Oppenheimer (1970:96-144) argues t h a t OSS and SIS a r e v a r i o u s l y t h e r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c o s t , a v a i l a b i l i t y , q u a l -i t y , and m o t i v a t i o n o f f e m a l e , as compared w i t h male, l a b o u r ; 16 p r e - j o b t r a i n i n g p a t t e r n s ; t h e i n e r t i a o f t r a d i t i o n ; t h e con-v e n t i o n s and e x i g e n c i e s o f c a r e e r s ; and r e a l o r presumed d i f -f i c u l t i e s w i t h h a v i n g mixed work groups and female s u p e r v i s o r s ; as w e l l as t h e f o r c e o f b e l i e f s about s e x - l i n k e d a p t i t u d e s . Such an e x p l a n a t o r y framework, however, i s a t b e s t a p i e c e m e a l , and a t w o r s t an ad hoc, s e l e c t i v e approach. T r a -d i t i o n , f o r example, may e x p l a i n i n p a r t why "women . . . made . . . c l o t h e s a t home, and c o n t i n u e d t o do so i n t h e f a c t o r y . . . , n u r s e d t h e s i c k a t home, and . . . [then] i n t h e h o s p i t a l s . . . , [and] t o o k c a r e o f t h e i r own and o t h e r p e o p l e ' s houses as d o m e s t i c s " (Oppenheimer, 1970:105). T r a -d i t i o n does n o t a c c o u n t , however, f o r women outnumbering men n e a r l y t h r e e t o one i n e l e c t r o n i c s equipment f a b r i c a t i n g and a s s e m b l i n g j o b s . The e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h e l a t t e r s i t u -a t i o n i s t h a t employers b e l i e v e t h a t women have g r e a t e r manual d e x t e r i t y t h a n men and t h a t t h e y a r e more t o l e r a n t o f r e p e t -i t i v e , monotonous, and p o o r l y p a i d work (Oppenheimer, 1970:103). The p r o blem w i t h t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach i s t h a t i t does n ot s p e c i f y why a g i v e n f a c t o r i s e f f e c t i v e i n one i n s t a n c e b u t n o t i n a n o t h e r ; n o r does i t a c c o u n t f o r t h e absence o f s e x - t y p i n g i n many o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f an i n d u s -t r i a l s o c i e t y . I n s h o r t , t h e c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach o f f e r s s e p a r a t e and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r a r e l a -t i v e l y few extreme i n s t a n c e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e x - t y p i n g , b u t cannot account f o r t h e l e v e l o f OSS and SIS i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole and, hence, p r o v i d e s no g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r changes i n t h e s e phenomena. 17 The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach p o s i t s o n l y t h r e e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f change i n OSS: r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e way work i s done, t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , and l a b o u r s h o r t a g e s . Oppenheimer (1970:116-117) n o t e s t h a t t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f b o o t s and shoes r e s u l t e d i n t r a n s -f o r m i n g an e x c l u s i v e l y male c r a f t i n t o a s e r i e s o f j o b s , some o f w h i c h ( s t i t c h i n g and b i n d i n g ) became "women's work" and remained s o , d e s p i t e t h e s h i f t from home t o t h e f a c t o r y and th e subsequent i n t r o d u c t i o n o f machinery. The development o f s u c c e s s i v e l y h e a v i e r and f a s t e r power looms i n t h e c o t t o n i n d u s t r y i s c i t e d as t h e r e a s o n female w o rkers were g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by men, who a l l e g e d l y c o u l d t e n d t h e new machines more e a s i l y . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t y p e w r i t e r , i t i s n o t e d , marked t h e i n f l u x o f women i n t o c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , once a male p r e -s e r v e ; no r e a s o n s , however, a r e o f f e r e d (Oppenheimer, 1970:117-118) . Labour s h o r t a g e s , Oppenheimer (1970:118-119) a r g u e s , r e s u l t e d i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f women i n s c h o o l t e a c h i n g i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when cheap n a t i v e male l a b o u r became s c a r c e , as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f male e l e -mentary t e a c h e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e Second W o r l d War, when a s h o r t -age o f female t e a c h e r s o c c u r r e d . The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f f e m a l e , f o r male, w o r k e r s i n "men's j o b s " due t o wartime s h o r t a g e s , however, does n o t appear t o be permanent. The problem w i t h t h i s approach t o change i n OSS and SIS i s t h a t i t does n o t e x p l a i n why t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n r e s u l t s 18 i n t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f men w i t h women i n one o c c u p a t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a i n a n o t h e r ; nor why t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work o v e r -r i d e s t r a d i t i o n i n one s e t t i n g , b u t n o t i n a n o t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t r e n d s i n t h e degree o f OSS and SIS i n the l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole, i t does p r o v i d e a p o s t factum account o f s e v e r a l changes i n s e x - t y p i n g i n s p e c i f i c o c c u -p a t i o n s and i n d u s t r i e s . Moreover, a l t h o u g h Oppenheimer's (1970:77) c l a i m o f s t a b i l i t y i n t h e o v e r a l l degree o f OSS s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y remains u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d , , h e r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f OSS and SIS has y e t t o be s u r p a s s e d . The E c o l o g i c a l Approach There i s an approach t o t h e problem o f change i n OSS, however, w h i c h n o t o n l y uses t e c h n i q u e s p e r m i t t i n g a more o r l e s s r e l i a b l e measurement o f v a r i a t i o n i n OSS, but a l s o p r o -v i d e s a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t r e n d s i n OSS and S I S . T h i s a pproach, t h e f i n a l one t o be e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i s t h a t o f t h e human e c o l o g i s t s ( P o s t o n , 1968; P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1976). From t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , OSS i s viewed as a d i m e n s i o n o f t h e more g e n e r a l s o c i a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and, as s u c h , i s shaped by the p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976: 82). A c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e e c o l o -g i s t s argue w i t h Parsons (1960:102), i s "a p r i m a r y o r i e n t a t i o n t o economic p r o d u c t i v i t y " (emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . I t i s f u r t h e r argued t h a t as a s o c i e t y i n d u s t r i a l i z e s , i t becomes 19 b u r e a u c r a t i z e d , and h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e who a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e most t o p r o d u c t i o n ; workers a r e a s s i g n e d t o j o b s on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n on a s c r i b e d grounds, such as sex; u n i v e r s a l i s m o v e r r i d e s p a r t i c u l a r i s m i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f j o b s t o p r o s p e c -t i v e w o r k e r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e e c o l o g i s t s e x p e c t OSS t o d e c r e a s e w i t h a d v a n c i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( P o s t o n , 1968:16-17). Human e c o l o g i s t s ( P o s t o n , 1968; P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976) i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l components o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : t e c h n o l o g y , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y , s i z e , u r b a n i z a t i o n and l e v e l o f l i v i n g . These "component v a r -i a b l e s " a r e d i s c u s s e d as i n t e r r e l a t e d r e q u i s i t e s o f t h e i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l development i n c l u d e s the u t i l i z a t i o n o f h i g h - e n e r g y s o u r c e s (e.g., steam, e l e c t r i c i t y ) , r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y ( " e f f i c i e n c y " ) , w h i c h i n t u r n r e s u l t s i n a s h i f t o f t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n from a g r i -c u l t u r e i n t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n , and hence i n t o s e r v i c e s ( d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ) . The e c o l o g i s t s e x p l i c i t l y s p e c i f y s i z e as a r e q u i s i t e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : " L a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n -i z a t i o n s are c e r t a i n l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f a [ s o c i e t y ' s ] l a b o r f o r c e and t e c h n o l o g y " ( M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976:85). U r b a n i z a t i o n i s viewed as a r e s u l t , as w e l l as a r e q u i s i t e , o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : A t l e a s t u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has r e q u i r e d t h a t p o p u l a t i o n s c o n g r e g a t e i n c i t i e s because o f t h e need f o r a c o n c e n t r a t e d l a b o r f o r c e t o o p e r a t e th e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t ; c o n v e r s e l y , t h e i n c r e a s e d t e c h n o l o g y and e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f manpower and m a t e r i a l s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r have r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e l e a s e o f a 20 s i z a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e workers from a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . ( M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976:85) E c o l o g i s t s ( M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976:86) s t a t e t h a t " l e v e l o f l i v i n g i s u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as a consequent, r a t h e r t h a n a r e q u i s i t e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , b u t a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f l i v i n g i s needed f o r c o n t i n u i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . " P r e o c c u p i e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r component v a r i a b l e s as r e q u i s i t e s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h e e c o l o g i s t s have n e g l e c t e d t o l i n k each o f t h e components t o OSS. The r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a i d t o p r e v a i l between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS i s a p p a r e n t l y assumed t o e x i s t as w e l l between the components and OSS. The s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s between some o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s — t e c h n o l o g y , s i z e , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and l e v e l o f l i v i n g — a r e o v e r -l o o k e d . The consequences o f p r o d u c t i v i t y and e f f i c i e n c y 1 f o r OSS a r e mentioned o n l y o b l i q u e l y i n t h e c o u r s e o f a b r i e f d i s -c u s s i o n o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n ( P o s t o n , 1968:16). The r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h e l a t t e r p r o c e s s and OSS, moreover, i s never h y p o t h e s i z e d f o r t e s t i n g . T h i s f a i l u r e t o pursue a n a l y t i c a l l y t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b u r e a u c r a c y has been a s h o r t c o m i n g o f e c o l o g y g e n e r a l l y ; as a r e c e n t assessment ( F r i s b i e and P o s t o n , 1977:18-19) o b s e r v e s : " E c o l o g i s t s seldom t h i n k i n terms o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n when c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g . . . o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t th e c o n c e p t q u i t e o b v i o u s l y d e a l s w i t h a s p e c t s and f e a t u r e s o f . . . o r g a n i z a t i o n . " L e f t u n e x p l o r e d , t h e n , a r e t h e ^ E c o l o g i s t s have used t h e c o n c e p t s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y and e f f i c i e n c y a lmost synonymously and, as th e y have r e c o g n i z e d r e c e n t l y , " w i t h some i n c o n s i s t e n c y " ( F r i s b i e and P o s t o n , 1977: 20 ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two c o n c e p t s i s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 21 mechanisms l i n k i n g OSS w i t h t h e components o f i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n — i . e . , t h e c o r e o f t h e phenomenon has y e t t o be d i s -c o v e r e d . I n t h e i r approach t o t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , t h e e c o l o g i s t s have f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h ODS and OST as s e p a r a t e dimensions o f OSS, and have d i s r e g a r d e d SIS a l t o g e t h e r . Recent e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s have f o c u s s e d on ODS (Poston and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1976), a d e p a r t u r e from an e a r l i e r s t u d y ( P o s t o n , 1968) , w h i c h examined OST, but under t h e r u b r i c o f "ODS." I t has n o t been t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e human e c o l o g i s t s , o f c o u r s e , t o e x p l o r e e x h a u s t i v e l y t h e forms o f t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r t o s e l e c t one d i m e n s i o n ( u s u a l l y ODS) as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e more g e n e r a l s o c i a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r ( c f . M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1976:83), and e x p l a i n i t s v a r i a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made between ODS o r OST, o r t o r e c o g n i z e S I S , has r e s u l t e d i n e m p i r i c a l weaknesses i n e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s , w h i c h a r e d i s -c u s s e d below. The e c o l o g i s t s ' e x p l i c i t i n t e n t i o n ( c f . Gibbs and M a r t i n , 1959:36) has been t o d e v e l o p g e n e r a l hypotheses con-c e r n i n g change, and t h i s seems t o be p r e c i s e l y what i s needed i n t h i s a r e a , namely a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f l o n g - t e r m t r e n d s i n OSS and S I S . A l t h o u g h t h e e c o l o g i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between OSS and l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i m p l i e s an h i s t o r i c d e c l i n e i n the degree o f OSS and S I S , 22 t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t o be d i s c u s s e d below, have impeded t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s o f change i n t h e s e phenomena. None o f t h e f o r e g o i n g approaches t o t h e s u b j e c t con-s t i t u t e s an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n o f change i n OSS and S I S . The economic, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and i n t e r d i s c i p -l i n a r y arguments a l l i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f OSS and SIS. The p r oponents o f each have, i n B i e r s t e d t ' s (1960:8) p h r a s e , t u r n e d t h e i r t h e o r e t i c b i a s t o good a c c o u n t , but none p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f change i n t h e s e phenomena. As we have seen, th e e c o l o g i c a l approach o f f e r s a good d e a l o f p r omise i n d e v e l o p i n g hypotheses l i n k i n g OSS and SIS w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , b u t t h i s p romise has y e t t o be f u l f i l l e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s u p p l i e s t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and s p e c i f i -c a t i o n absent i n t h e t h e o r y t h u s f a r . OSS, SIS and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n d e v e l o p s th e t h e s i s t h a t OSS and SIS a r e i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p e x i s t s c o n c r e t e l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e f f e c t s o f f o u r c r i t i c a l d i mensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s argued t h a t t o u n d e r s t a n d th e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f OSS and SIS t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , one must c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e c h n o l -ogy/ p r o d u c t i v i t y , and u r b a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as b u r e a u c r a t i z -a t i o n , 1 r e c o g n i z e d by t h e e c o l o g i s t s as a " l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n "''Although t h e o t h e r components o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d by t h e e c o l o g i s t s ( s i z e and l e v e l o f l i v i n g ) remain i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e f o c u s h e r e i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s w i t h t h e most p r e d i c t a b l e e f f e c t s on t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . 23 o f an economic system w i t h [a] r a t i o n a l f o c u s on economic p r o d u c t i v i t y " ( P o s t o n , 1968:16). I n o t h e r words, we s h a l l be s p e c i f y i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h e " s u b r e l a t i o n s " t h a t account f o r t h e g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f OSS and SIS t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and an emphasis on p r o d u c t i v i t y , as w e l l as by u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . Each o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i t i s argued, erodes t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , a s c r i p t i v e bases o f t h e s o c i a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and t h e i n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f sex. Technology W h i l e no s i n g l e f a c t o r a c c o u n t s f o r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f nonmarket s o c i e t i e s whether a g r i c u l t u r a l o r c o m m e r c i a l , i n t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ; market s o c i e t i e s , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r e e -ment t h a t t h e development o f machine t e c h n o l o g y i s c r u c i a l (Marx, 1906:407; Weber, 1927:174; P o l a n y i , 1957:40; F o u r a s t i e , 1960:17; W i l l i a m s , 1976:39-41). 1 I n d u s t r i a l m achinery d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y from h a n d - t o o l t e c h n o l o g y i n t h a t t h e former t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s h i g h - e n e r g y c o n v e r t e r s , d e l i v e r i n g many ti m e s the power t h a t i s a t the d i s p o s a l o f n o n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , i n c l u d i n g m e r c a n t i l e s o c i e t i e s u t i l i z i n g o n l y t h e ^ W i l l i a m s (1976:40) has c o r r e c t l y o b s e r v e d t h a t " t h e r e i s no n e c e s s i t y t h a t members o f a s o c i e t y a c t r a t i o n a l l y by c h o o s i n g t o adopt a complex t e c h n o l o g y and t o abandon t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a s c r i p t i o n . " Thus, we eschew any s o r t o f t e c h -n o l o g i c a l f e t i s h i s m , f o r such an extreme p e r s p e c t i v e would i t s e l f beg q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e causes o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y . w i n d m i l l , w a t e r w h e e l , and s a i l i n g s h i p ( C o t t r e l l , 1955:43-78). I n i t i a l l y based on steam, t h e development i n t h e West o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y has i n v o l v e d t h e s u c c e s s i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f o t h e r h i g h - y i e l d energy s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g p e t r o l e u m , e l e c -t r i c i t y , and n u c l e a r power ( C o t t r e l l , 1955:93-99). I n n o n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s e t t i n g s , where sheer p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h i s a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e performance o f some t a s k s , c e r t a i n s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s must be a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e l e v a n t a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y age and sex. I n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , however, t h e development o f machine t e c h n o l o g y a m p l i f i e s human c a p a b i l i t i e s so as t o m i n i -mize the importance o f b r u t e s t r e n g t h , and hence sex, i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f most j o b s . I n Canada, by 1971 women were employed i n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y l i s t e d o c c u p a t i o n . W h i l e t h e y were s t i l l e x c l u d e d from some j o b s i n , f o r example, s t e v e d o r i n g and t h e r a i l w a y r u n n i n g t r a d e s , the presence o f women i n almost e v e r y j o b demon-s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e b i o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r j o b s e g r e g a t i o n . (Armstrong and Arm s t r o n g , 1973:373). I n l i g h t o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t w i l l be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t as t h e l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development advances, t h e r e w i l l be d e c l i n e s i n t h e degree o f OSS and S I S . 1 P r o d u c t i v i t y T e c h n o l o g i c a l development, i n v o l v i n g t h e " i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new machines, new m a t e r i a l s , new s o u r c e s o f power, and new ^ I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , o f c o u r s e , t h a t c e r t a i n a r e a s o f work (e.g., s t e v e d o r i n g ) a r e more l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e s t r e n g t h t h a n o t h e r s . However, the g e n e r a l t h r u s t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development has been t o make t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s t r e n g t h d e c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n j o b a l l o c a t i o n . p r o c e s s e s , " r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o r performance," 1" e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f l a b o u r ( H i g g i n s , 1968:150). Moreover, the c o s t s and r i s k s o f machine p r o d u c t i o n a r e such t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o -d u c t i o n p r o c e s s — r a w m a t e r i a l s , human l a b o u r , and m o n e y — a r e o r d i n a r i l y u n dertaken o n l y when t h e s a l e o f t h e f i n i s h e d goods o r s e r v i c e s i s n o t l i k e l y t o i n c u r a l o s s ( P o l a n y i , 1957:40). I n b oth modern s o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n o f l a b o u r , as w e l l as l a n d and money, u s u a l l y r e f l e c t "a p r i m a r y o r i e n t a t i o n t o economic p r o d u c t i v i t y " ( P a r s o n s , 1960:102, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . I n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e n , one would e x p e c t workers t o be h i r e d and promoted on the b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e c t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o d u c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n on a s c r i p t i v e grounds, such as sex. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t as t h e l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s , b o t h OSS and SIS d e c l i n e . U r b a n i z a t i o n The development o f machine t e c h n o l o g y and the a t t e n d a n t i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n the g e n e r a t i o n o f a s u r -p l u s ( S t e i n , 1964:48, 5 1 ) , wh i c h i n t u r n l e a d s t o e x p o n e n t i a l ^ I n e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f OSS, p r o d u c t i v i t y i s d i s -c u s s e d under t h e h e a d i n g o f " e f f i c i e n c y , " b u t o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n d e x e s (see p. 20, above). P r o d u c t i v i t y , o r performance, s i m p l y r e f e r s t o a p h y s i c a l o r t e c h n i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i s e x p r e s s e d as t h e r a t i o o f o u t -put r e a l i z e d t o r e s o u r c e s used. E f f i c i e n c y , on t h e o t h e r hand, i m p l i e s an o p t i m a l l e v e l o f performance o f an energy c o n v e r t e r , be i t a p e r s o n , a machine, o r an e n t i r e p r o d u c t i v e s i t u a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d as a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e energy f e d i n t o i t which i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o the form d e s i r e d ( C o t t r e l l , 1955:8; Canada. D.B.S., 1965:33). 26 i n c r e a s e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y . Concomitant "improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , " Kuznets (1966:70) o b s e r v e s , " p e r m i t t h e w i d e n i n g o f s o u r c e s o f s u p p l y . " These developments a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r i s e o f i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s and the growth o f b u r e a u c r a c y . U r b a n i z a t i o n o v e r t h e l a s t c e n t u r y and a h a l f has been p r i m a r i l y . . . a r e s u l t o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t h a t made l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n . . . f e a s i b l e . A l a r g e -s c a l e p l a n t i m p l i e s a dense . . . community, and a s h i f t o f t h e w o r k i n g , hence t o t a l , p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e c i t i e s . ( K u z n e t s , 1971:80) The development o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y reduces the chances o f c r o p f a i l u r e and r a i s e s t h e l e v e l o f f o o d p r o -d u c t i o n , e n a b l i n g a m i n o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f o o d f o r t h e e n t i r e s o c i e t y and, under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o produce f o o d s t u f f s f o r e x p o r t ( J a f f e and S t e w a r t , 1951:23-24; K u z n e t s , 1966:70). As a r e s u l t , t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n can c o n c e n t r a t e i n urban a g g l o m e r a t e s , produce n o n f o o d s t u f f s , and p e r f o r m t h e v a r i e d s e r v i c e s found i n an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ( E l d r i d g e , 1942:311; Schnore, 1964:40). T e c h n o l o g i c a l development, Kuznets (1966:276) o b s e r v e s , a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e v a r i e t y and volume o f consumer goods by t h e c r e a t i o n o f new t y p e s and by major changes i n t h e o l d . . . [ i n c l u d i n g ] modern c a n n i n g , f r e e z i n g . . . , s y n t h e t i c f i b e r t e x t i l e s , h o u s e h o l d e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s e t s , p a s s enger c a r s , a i r p l a n e t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , and t h e l i k e . T h e r e f o r e , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , as S t e i n (1964:6) emphasizes, n ot o n l y i n v o l v e s mass p r o d u c t i o n , b u t a l s o i m p l i e s mass con-sumption, w h i c h o f t e n r e s u l t s i n t h e employment o f women: Workers . . . [are]< f o r c e d i n t o t h e scramble f o r house-h o l d gadgets . . . c h i l d r e n [demand] e d u c a t i o n a l oppor-t u n i t i e s . . . . D r a s t i c changes i n . . . f a m i l y l i f e , i n c l u d i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e need f o r w i v e s and mothers t o ta k e j o b s , [ are] j u s t i f i e d i n terms o f t h e new . . . r e q u i r e m e n t s . ( S t e i n , 1964:52) The i n d u s t r i a l urban m i l i e u has pr o v e d e s p e c i a l l y c o n d u c i v e t o g a i n f u l employment among women: "The e x p a n s i o n o f female j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s i n t h e c i t y have been f a r more t o l e r a n t o f w o r k i n g w i v e s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e more c o n s e r -v a t i v e r u r a l a r e a s " ( O s t r y and Z a i d i , 1972:35). U r b a n i z a t i o n i s a l s o accompanied by an e a r l y c o m p l e t i o n o f c h i l d - b e a r i n g and a d e c l i n e i n t h e b i r t h r a t e , developments c o n d u c i v e n o t m e r e l y t o female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p e r  se, but a l s o t o t h e employment and advancement o f women i n o c c u p a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c a r e e r c o n t i n u i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , e f f e c t i v e l y " o f f l i m i t s " t o women b e a r i n g and c a r i n g f o r s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n o v e r much o f t h e i r e a r l y w o r k i n g l i v e s ( O s t r y and Z a i d i , 1972:36; Oppenheimer, 1970:109-110). A c c o r d i n g l y , i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d between u r b a n i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S . 1 Bure auc r a t i z a t i o n OSS and S I S , however, cannot be e x p e c t e d t o d e c l i n e m e r e l y because o f t h e e f f e c t s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, a commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , and u r b a n i z a t i o n . F o r t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f machinery e l i m i n a t e s o n l y the n e c e s s i t y t o s e l e c t ''"Although t h e growth o f t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r accompanying u r b a n i z a t i o n (Moore, 1967:107) r e s u l t s i n c o n s i d e r a b l y low-grade female employment ( O s t r y , 1967:7) and, t h e r e f o r e , may m i t i g a t e t h e o t h e r w i s e i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p e c t e d between u r b a n i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S , t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e f e r s , a g a i n , t o t h e g e n e r a l impact o f u r b a n i z a t i o n on OSS and SIS. 28 w o r k e r s f o r some j o b s on t h e b a s i s o f s t r e n g t h , i . e . , u s u a l l y by sex. H i r i n g and p r o m o t i n g workers on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r o b a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o d u c t i o n i s b u t one s t r a t e g y con-s i s t e n t w i t h an emphasis on p r o d u c t i v i t y , a n o t h e r o f w h i c h i s t a k i n g advantage o f e x i s t i n g sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n l a b o u r c o s t s . These and o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s e n h a n c i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , however, may be o v e r r i d d e n by p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o OSS and SIS. S i m i -l a r l y , t h e urban m i l i e u and i t s a t t e n d e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( e . g . , a low b i r t h r a t e ) a r e m e r e l y c o n d u c i v e t o , n o t d e t e r m i n a n t o f , t h e employment and advancement o f women. Even t h e combined e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s , t h e n , w i l l n o t ensure t h a t w o r k ers w i l l be s e l e c t e d and promoted on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as sex. However, one may e x p e c t t o see t h e s e l e c t i o n and advance-ment o f w o r kers on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o d u c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n on such a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as sex, i f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, a commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , and u r b a n i z a t i o n a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . F o r t h i s f o u r t h d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i d e a l l y maximizes t h e t e c h n i c a l r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f r e c r u i t m e n t and p r o m o t i o n . The e l a b o r a t i o n o f machine t e c h n o l o g y s t r u c t u r e s t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n and i t s a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a complex t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . "Technology," o b s e r v e s G a l b r a i t h (1971: 31), "means t h e s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c and o t h e r o r g a n i z e d knowledge t o p r o d u c t i o n t a s k s . I t s most i m p o r t a n t consequence . . . i s i n f o r c i n g t h e . . . s u b d i v i s i o n o f any 29 such t a s k i n t o i t s component p a r t s . " T e c h n o l o g i c a l development a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e e l a p s e d t i m e from t h e c o n c e p t i o n , t h r o u g h d e s i g n and t e s t i n g , t o t h e emergence, o f a m a r k e t a b l e p r o d u c t . The i n c r e a s e d amount o f t i m e , and hence c a p i t a l , t h a t i s com-m i t t e d t o p r o d u c t i o n i m p l i e s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i v e r s e t a l e n t s o f many s p e c i a l i s t s ( G a l b r a i t h , 1971:32-35). "Mass p r o d u c t i o n , " n o t e s C o t t r e l l (1955:207), " r e q u i r e s s c h e d u l i n g t h a t i s e x a c t t o t h e f r a c t i o n o f a second and demands c o n t r o l s o v e r . . . t e m p e r a t u r e , c h e m i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s , and o t h e r measurements t h a t can be made o n l y by e x p e r t s . " As t h e s e e x p e r t s come t o i n c l u d e s p e c i a l i s t s i n p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n -a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e e x p e r t s t h e m s e l v e s , i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s 1 — i n o r d e r t o be e f f i c i e n t and c o m p e t i t i v e i n t h e 2 w o r l d m a r k e t — m u s t a t t a i n a s i z e w h i c h c a l l s f o r management p r o c e d u r e s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e p e r s o n a l d i r e c t i o n e x e r -c i s e d by t h e e a r l y e n t r e p r e n e u r s ( S t e i n , 1964:85-90). I n p r a c t i c e , p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s become c e n t r a l l y (though n o t always p r i v a t e l y ) owned and c o n t r o l l e d ( S t e i n , 1964:85) by "some a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e model o f s p e c i a l i z e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l l y governed b u r e a u c r a c y " (Moore, 1974:101, h i s e m p h a s i s ) . ''"Exceptions t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n c l u d e o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r i l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d , e n t e r p r i s e s s p e c i a l -i z i n g e i t h e r i n u n s t a n d a r d i z e d goods o r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , and f i r m s bound by l e g a l o r o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s on growth ( G a l b r a i t h , 1973:4-42). 2 Some f i r m s , o f c o u r s e , exceed t h e s i z e r e q u i r e d f o r e f f i c i e n c y , t h e extreme c a s e s r e s u l t i n g i n economic concen-t r a t i o n — i . e . , l a r g e s i z e v i s - a - v i s t h e market i t s e l f ( G a l b r a i t h , 1971:87-89). 30 As a d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f r o u t i n e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l means o f c o n t r o l . The t a s k s once performed by t h e owner-managers o f e n t e r p r i s e have been s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g l a b o u r management, and t h e m e r c a n t i l e t a s k s o f p u r c h a s i n g , s a l e s , and f i n a n c e ( B e n d i x , 1956:211-212). A l t h o u g h n o t o r i o u s f o r i t s " i m p e r s o n a l i t y " ( S t e i n , 1964:90), b u r e a u c r a c y i d e a l l y p o s s e s s e s t h e " s p e c i a l v i r t u e " o f " e l i m i n a t i n g from o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s l o v e , h a t r e d , and a l l p u r e l y p e r s o n a l , i r r a t i o n a l , and e m o t i o n a l elements w h i c h escape c a l c u l a t i o n " (Weber, 1958:216). The r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f b u r e a u c r a c y r e n d e r s i t u n i q u e l y s u i t e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f many s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s , so as t o maximize p r o d u c t i v i t y . A l o n g w i t h o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s , i n modern i n d u s t r y , r e c r u i t m e n t , h i r i n g , and p r o m o t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e g u i d e d i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z -a t i o n by e x h a u s t i v e , w r i t t e n r u l e s s p e c i f y i n g more o r l e s s q u a n t i f i a b l e , and hence c a l c u l a b l e , s t a n d a r d s (e.g., examin-a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e ) f o r the s e l e c t i o n and advancement o f p e r -s o n n e l (Weber, 1958:214-216). I d e a l l y , t h e n , b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n r e s u l t s i n w o r kers b e i n g h i r e d and promoted on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d " t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e a s c e r t a i n e d t h r o u g h f o r m a l i z e d , i m p e r s o n a l p r o c e d u r e s " (Merton, 1957:196). I t i s e x p e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t as b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n p r o c e e d s , t h e r e w i l l be d e c l i n e s i n b o t h OSS and SIS ( c f . E r i c k s o n , 1974: 8 ) . Even b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , however, s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o e l i m i n a t e OSS and S I S . The t o p e c h e l o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s , as Weber i n s i s t e d , cannot be bureaucratized" 1" (Parsons, 1960:114). I n t h i s s e c t i o n , we have i d e n t i f i e d f o u r c r i t i c a l d i m ensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and s t a t e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r e x p e c t i n g each t o bear i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s t o b o t h OSS and SIS. We s h a l l now c o n s i d e r t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e methods used so f a r i n r e s e a r c h on OSS and S I S . These t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be shown t o be u n a b l e e i t h e r t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e e x p l a n -a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e a s s o c i a t e d o r t o t e s t t h e t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d h e r e . R e s e a r c h on Change i n OSS and SIS As mentioned e a r l i e r , p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f OSS and SIS have l e d t o i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s about t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS. F u r t h e r m o r e , as we have seen, none o f t h e s e con-c l u s i o n s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS u n d o u b t e d l y stems from t e c h n i c a l l i m i -t a t i o n s , w hich r e n d e r i n c o n c l u s i v e most o f t h e f i n d i n g s . These l i m i t a t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e a n a l y s i s o f o n l y p a r t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , a f a i l u r e t o examine d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a , a l a c k o f summary measurement, a f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h SIS from OSS, and OST from ODS, a f a i l u r e t o employ an o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g , and a l a c k o f l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s . ''"This q u a l i f i c a t i o n makes some sense o f t h e f a c t t h a t women h o l d l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f b o t h Clement's e l i t e p o s i t i o n s (6 o u t o f 946) and Canadian d i r e c t o r s h i p s and s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y (49 out o f 7,358) (Clement, 1975: 266) . One o f t h e most s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f OSS and SIS has been t h e f a i l u r e t o examine t h e s e phenomena thr o u g h o u t the e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s t o r i c a l c o m p a r i s o n , as w e l l as t o make e a s i e r t h e c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a , t h e s t u d y o f OSS and SIS may be r e s t r i c t e d t o , say, "the 10 o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h most female w o r k e r s " (Armstrong and Arm s t r o n g , 1975:372) o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t o " o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h i c h 70 p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e workers [are] women" (Oppenheimer, 1970:76). The e x t e n t t o whi c h t h i s l i m i t s t h e range o f o b s e r v a t i o n , however, i s enormous. Armstrong and Armstrong's (1975:372) " l e a d i n g female o c c u p a t i o n s , " f o r example, c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n h a l f (46 p e r cent) o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e and acco u n t f o r a mere 8 p e r c e n t o f male w o r k e r s , as o f 1971. Thus t h e a l l e g e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t "most women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e remain c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a few l o w - p a i d and low-s k i l l e d women's j o b s " (Armstrong and Ar m s t r o n g , 1975:383) i s based on an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c a r c e l y o n e - f i f t h (22 p e r cent) o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , a l i m i t a t i o n o v e r l o o k e d by t h e a u t h o r s . Other r e s e a r c h e r s (Knudsen, 1969; P o s t o n , 1968; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; Gunderson, 1976) have sought t o maxi-mize c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g coverage by a n a l y s i n g l a b o u r f o r c e d a t a c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a few b r o a d , but f a i r l y comparable, c a t e g o r i e s . As shown e a r l i e r , however, broad o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s mask enormous amounts o f s e g r e -g a t i o n and f a i l t o r e v e a l t h e i n e q u a l i t y a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t i n th e l a b o u r f o r c e . Any a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , w h i c h i s c o n f i n e d t o b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s w i l l u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e degrees 33 o f OSS and S I S , w h i c h a r e measured more a c c u r a t e l y by a n a l y s -i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a a t the most d e t a i l e d l e v e l a v a i l a b l e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f G r o s s (1968), Gunderson (1976), and the human e c o l o g i s t s ( P o s t o n , 1968; P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1976), none o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f OSS c i t e d above has employed a summary measure o f ODS o r O S T — i . e . , a s e g r e g a t i o n i n d e x — w i t h w h i c h t o s p e c i f y t h e amounts of s e g r e g a t i o n i n each o f t h e y e a r s , and t h e r e w i t h e s t i m a t e t r e n d s i n the phenomenon. The absence o f summary measurement i s a n o t h e r r e a s o n some a n a l y s e s o f OSS and SIS have been l i m i t e d t o i n s p e c t i n g d a t a f o r a few " l e a d i n g female o c c u p a t i o n s " ( c f . A r mstrong and A r m s t r o n g , 1975; Oppenheimer, 1970) o r c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o a few broad c a t e -g o r i e s ( c f . Knudsen, 1969). Such a n a l y s e s i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r from t h e l i m i t a t i o n s we have mentioned. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f summary i n d e x e s u n f o r t u n a t e l y has been accompanied by a l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made between ODS and OST. Those e m p l o y i n g such measure-ment examine o n l y one d i m e n s i o n o f s e g r e g a t i o n , u s u a l l y ODS (Gross, 1968; P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976). OST has been s u b j e c t e d t o summary measurement i n one e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , b u t under th e l a b e l o f "ODS" ( P o s t o n , 1968). I n t a k i n g up o n l y one d i m e n s i o n o f OSS, t h e s e s t u d i e s f a i l t o make the c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n between ODS and OST t h a t was r e c o g n i z e d by Oppenheimer (1970) and by Armstrong and Armstrong (1975), whose r e s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e the e x a m i n a t i o n o f b o t h d i m e n s i o n s . 34 Moreover, none o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d h e r e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s SIS from OSS. The human e c o l o g i s t s ( P o s t o n , 1968; P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1976) make no a t t e m p t e i t h e r t o a n a l y s e o r t o p r e d i c t change i n S I S , f o c u s s i n g i n s t e a d on one d i m e n s i o n o f OSS. A l t h o u g h Gross (1968:207) o b s e r v e s t h a t "a major form t h a t s e g r e g a t i o n t a k e s i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l , " he n e i t h e r a n a l y s e s nor draws c o n c l u s i o n s about S I S . Oppenheimer (1970) i m p l i c i t l y c o n s i d e r s SIS a l o n g w i t h OSS, a l t h o u g h she does n o t s h a r p l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two phenomena, n e i t h e r does she c l a i m t o have a n a l y s e d o r d i s c o v e r e d t r e n d s i n SIS. Knudsen's p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n , o f c o u r s e , i s w i t h S I S , which he a t t e m p t s t o i n f e r from OSS; "the m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d by women can h a r d l y be c l a s s i f i e d as c r e a t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demand-i n g " (1969:185). S i m i l a r l y , A r m s t r o n g and Arm s t r o n g a s s e r t t h a t t h e i r r e s e a r c h "demonstrates t h a t most women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e remain c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a few l o w - s k i l l e d , p o o r l y p a i d j o b s " (1975:371, emphasis added). Knudsen and t h e A r m s t r o n g s , however, employ n e i t h e r an o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g — t h e s i n e qua  non o f any s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a n a l y s i s — n o r a summary measure o f SI S , and a r e u n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e t r e n d s t h e y a l l e g e . T h e i r o t h e r weaknesses a s i d e , t h e s t u d i e s o f Armstrong and Armstrong (1976) and o f Knudsen (1969) a t l e a s t encompass s e v e r a l decades, as b e f i t s t h e a n a l y s i s o f change i n such phenomena as OSS and SIS. The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y o f OSS spans a somewhat l o n g e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d but i t i s based on o n l y two census y e a r s : 1900 and 1950 (Oppenheimer, 1970). I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e s t u d i e s , e c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f OSS ar e u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s o f d a t a f o r . o n l y one y e a r (Poston and Johnson, 1971; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976). I n summarizing an e c o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g two s u c c e s s i v e census y e a r s (1950 and 1960), P o s t o n n o t e s t h a t "a t i m e i n t e r v a l g r e a t e r t h a n t e n y e a r s i n l e n g t h i s p r o b a b l y n e c e s s a r y f o r an adequate assessment o f change i n . . . ODS" (1968:199). I n a s t u d y o f OSS c o v e r i n g a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s i v e census y e a r s (1900 t h r o u g h 1960), Gross (1968) , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l o i t t h e advantages a f f o r d e d by summary measurement, a n a l y s e d i n d e t a i l o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e . However, Gross used an i n d e x w h i c h i s a f f e c t e d by t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h i t i s a p p l i e d ( B l a u and Duncan, 1967:69). S i n c e t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n c r e a s e s decade by decade, c o n c l u s i o n s based on t h e r e s u l t s o f such c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e o f q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y . W i l l i a m s (1976) r e p o r t s a r e p l i c a t i o n o f G r o s s ' s t u d y , i n w h i c h he a n a l y s e d d a t a c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o 246 d e t a i l e d , but " e s s e n t i a l l y comparable," o c c u p a t i o n s . The problem w i t h t h i s s t r a t e g y i s t h a t i t n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u d e s w o r k e r s i n r e l a -t i v e l y new o c c u p a t i o n s c r e a t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and " f o r w h i c h d a t a a r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r one o r more decade (e.g., a i r l i n e p i l o t ) " ( W i l l i a m s , 1976:51-52). The e x c l u s i o n o f such o c c u p a t i o n s from t h e a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n a l o s s o f t h i r t y - e i g h t o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s about 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e 36 o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o b a b l y a s i m i l a r p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s . 1 A l t h o u g h W i l l i a m s o v e r l o o k s t h e p o i n t , e x c l u d i n g such a p r o -p o r t i o n o f t h e work f o r c e c a s t s doubt upon h i s c o n c l u s i o n o f a d e c l i n e i n ODS. F o r one o r more o f t h e reaso n s d i s c u s s e d above, each o f th e c o n c l u s i o n s about t r e n d s i n OSS and SIS remains unsub-s t a n t i a t e d . An adequate t e s t o f any t h e o r y p r e d i c t i n g change i n OSS and SIS would i n v o l v e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e sum-mary i n d e x e s o f ODS, OST, and SIS t o d e t a i l e d and ra n k e d o c c u -p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e , o v e r as many y e a r s as p o s s i b l e . Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r we have e v a l u a t e d v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f change i n t h e degree o f OSS and SIS i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s and d e v e l o p e d an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y o f change i n OSS and SIS w h i c h p r e d i c t s i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e phenomena and f o u r a s p e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , namely t e c h n o l o g y , p r o d u c -t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . F i n a l l y , we examined t h e methods used i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f OSS and SIS and s t a t e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t h a t would a f f o r d a v a l i d t e s t o f a t h e o r y p r e d i c t i n g change i n OSS and SIS. I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d above, too much remains i n ''"In l a b o u r f o r c e s e r i e s f o r Canada, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f workers e x c l u d e d by t h e d e l e t i o n o f such o c c u p a t i o n s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same as t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s e x c l u d e d . t h e r e a l m o f a s s u m p t i o n , because o f e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n a d e q u a c i e s . Trends i n OSS and SIS a r e assumed, r a t h e r t h a n i n v e s t i g a t e d . The s i t u a t i o n i n a few s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i s assumed t o e x i s t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . What seems t o be t h e case f o r one d i m e n s i o n o f OSS i s assumed t o h o l d f o r S I S , w h i c h i s never d i r e c t l y measured. The g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS i s e x p e c t e d t o h o l d f o r each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The r e a s o n i n g l i n k i n g OSS w i t h components o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , however, i s n o t p r o v i d e d , n o r a r e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l i n k e d ( e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l l y o r e m p i r i c a l l y ) w i t h S I S . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s how t h e t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d above i s t e s t e d by an a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and o t h e r Canadian census d a t a . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter I I I and d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r IV. CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r s p e c i f i e s e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s f o r each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n Cha p t e r I and d e s c r i b e s i n d e x e s o f OSS and S I S . I t d e s c r i b e s t h e d a t a t o whic h t h e s e measures a re a p p l i e d , r e s t a t e s t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between t h e independent and dependent v a r i -a b l e s , and i n d i c a t e s t h e a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s used t o t e s t t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s . E m p i r i c a l I n d i c a t o r s o f t h e Four  Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n I n C h apter I i t was argued t h a t OSS and SIS are eroded by each o f f o u r dimensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , namely t e c h n o -l o g i c a l development, i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . A v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and t e c h n i q u e s do not p e r m i t measurement o f a l l elements o f any o f t h e s e complex p r o c e s s e s over more than two o r t h r e e decades, even f o r a s i n g l e c o u n t r y , such as Canada, f o r which d a t a a re r e l a t i v e l y abundant and o f good q u a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , one e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r i s s e l e c t e d f o r each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . T e c h n o l o g i c a l development i s measured by the number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand w o r k e r s . The s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s based on t h e assumption t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l 38 39 development, i n v o l v i n g the " i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new machines, new m a t e r i a l s , new s o u r c e s o f power, and new p r o c e s s e s " ( H i g g i n s , 1968:150), w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s c oncerned w i t h t h e development and a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y (Anderson and W i l s o n , 1974:11-12; c f . Hagedorn e t a l . , 1971:181). More c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s o f t e c h n o l o g y , such as t h e v a r i o u s energy i n d e x e s ( L a b o v i t z and G i b b s , 1964:8), would be u n f e a s i b l e f o r t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e p e r i o d t o be s t u d i e d . On the o t h e r hand, t h e s e l e c t i o n o f the number o f e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand workers as an i n d i c a t o r o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development s h o u l d r e f l e c t t e c h n o l o g y as i n v o l v i n g "the a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge and b e l i e f s i n c a r r y i n g o u t t a s k s , " i n c l u d i n g t h e development o f energy s o u r c e s , machinery, p r o c e s s e s , and m a t e r i a l s ( c f . Gibbs and M a r t i n , 1962:672), a di m e n s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y i m p e r f e c t l y measured by energy i n d e x e s ( L a b o v i t z and G i b b s , 1964:7). Economic p r o d u c t i v i t y i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as o u t p u t p e r man-hour i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . Measurement o f produ c -t i v i t y i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r 1 t o maximize c o n s i s t e n c y and t h e r e b y c o m p a r a b i l i t y . Labour i s chosen as the s i n g l e f a c t o r i n t h e denominator o f t h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y r a t i o f o r bot h c o n c e p t u a l and p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , l a b o u r i s a r e s o u r c e common t o a l l i n d u s t r i e s . Second, i t u s u a l l y "'"Excluded from t h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y measure, t h e r e f o r e , are a g r i c u l t u r e ; f o r e s t r y ; f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g ; mines, quar-r i e s and o i l w e l l s ; c o n s t r u c t i o n ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communi-c a t i o n and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s ; t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e ; community, b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e ; and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and defence (Canada. D.B.S., 1970:17-20). 40 r e p r e s e n t s a major p a r t o f v a l u e added i n p r o d u c t i o n . T h i r d , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o m e a s u r e — i n t h i s c a s e , i n hours (Canada. D.B.S., 1965:33). The use o f man-hours worked, r a t h e r than persons employed, a v o i d s t h e d u p l i c a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e l a t t e r employment measure, which i n v o l v e s c o u n t i n g m u l t i p l e j o b h o l d e r s t w i c e . The o u t p u t d a t a r e p r e s e n t R e a l Domestic P r o d u c t (Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1977a:27-28). The i n d i c a t o r o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n a r e a s d e f i n e d as urban by the census. A d m i t t e d l y a crude measure o f the s o c i a l p r o p e r t i e s o f urbanism, t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s t h e most p r a c t i c a b l e f o r t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d ( c f . L a b o v i t z and G i b b s , 1964). B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i s o p e r -a t i o n a l i z e d as t h e number o f c l e r i c a l w o r k ers p e r thousand w o r k e r s , an i n d i c a t o r s i m i l a r t o one used by B l a u e t a l . (1966: 182). Most d i r e c t l y measuring b u r e a u c r a c y ' s p r o p e r t y o f h a v i n g w r i t t e n r u l e s , r e c o r d s , and communications, r e q u i r i n g "a s t a f f o f . . . s c r i b e s o f a l l s o r t s " (Weber, 1958:197), t h i s i n d i -c a t o r o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i g n o r e s the o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s , w h i c h a r e l e s s r e a d i l y o p e r a t i o n -a l i z e d o v er t h e p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The d a t a f o r t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s a r e d e s c r i b e d f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f i n d e x e s f o r t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . Indexes o f OSS and SIS I n e v a l u a t i n g the methods o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , we saw t h a t summary i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS a r e e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s t u d y i n g change i n t h e s e phenomena. C o e f f i c i e n t s o f " l o c a l i z a t i o n " and " g e o g r a p h i c a s s o c i a t i o n " have l o n g been used by ec o n o m i s t s (Hoover, 1936; F l o r e n c e e t a l . , 1943) and geographers ( W r i g h t , 1937). S i m i l a r i n d e x e s have been used s i n c e by s o c i o l o g i s t s t o measure p a t t e r n s and t r e n d s i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n and r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r a c i a l , e t h n i c , and s o c i o e c o n o m i c - s t a t u s groups i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( L i e b e r s o n , 1961; Duncan and Duncan, 1955; Taeuber and Taeuber, 1965; E r b e , 1975), Canada (Marston, 1969; D r i e d g e r and Church, 1974; B a l a k r i s h n a n , 1976), and Sweden (Ramsey, 1966). Mean-w h i l e , Glenn (1963), Gibbs (1965), Broom and Glenn (1965), and L i e b e r s o n and F u g u i t t (1967) adapted t h e s e measures as i n d e x e s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n o f w h i t e s and b l a c k s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s work f o r c e . F i n a l l y , t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e was s u b j e c t e d t o summary measurement: Gross (1968) measured ODS, and P o s t o n (1968) a n a l y s e d OST. The human e c o l -o g i s t s have c o n t i n u e d t o employ s e g r e g a t i o n i n d e x e s o f ODS (Poston and Johnson, 1971; W i l l i a m s , 1975; 1976) and i n some s t u d i e s have f o c u s s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n by r a c e , sex, and age ( M a r t i n , 1972; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976). As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I , however, SIS has y e t t o be so measured. T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s c o n v e n t i o n a l measures o f OSS and i n t r o d u c e s i n d e x e s o f ODS, OST, and S I S . Measurement o f ODS W i t h one e x c e p t i o n (Gunderson, 1976), a l l a n a l y s e s o f ODS employing summary measurement use t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n d e x (DI) (Gross, 1968; P o s t o n and J o h n s t o n , 1971; M a r t i n , 1972; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972; 1976; W i l l i a m s , 1975; 1976). S i n c e DI i s used i n t h i s s t u d y f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , i t s c a l c u l a t i o n as an i n d e x o f ODS i s i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e . The f o r m u l a f o r DI i s where i s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e i n t h e i t h o f n o c c u p a t i o n s , i s the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e i n t h e i t h o f n o c c u p a t i o n s , and t h e summation i s o f t h e abso-l u t e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e female and male p r o p o r t i o n s i n each o c c u p a t i o n o v e r n o c c u p a t i o n s . DI v a r i e s between z e r o and 100 and may be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d e x o f d i s p l a c e m e n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f female w o r kers who would have t o change o c c u -p a t i o n s f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t o be t h e same as t h a t f o r male w o r k e r s , o r v i c e v e r s a . The c a l c u l a t i o n o f DI may be demonstrated by a p p l y i n g i t t o a s i m p l e h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e (Table 5 ) . As i n a c t u a l i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r f o r c e s , t h e males i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e a r e more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n t h e women. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e i s such t h a t most women a r e i n occ u -p a t i o n 3, t h e r e s t i n o c c u p a t i o n 2, and none i n o c c u p a t i o n 1. 100 x ( 2 | X ± - Y i | ) / 2 T a b l e 5 N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex O c c u p a t i o n Male Female T o t a l 1 30 0 30 2 20 5 25 3 10 25 35 T o t a l s 60 30 90 To compute DI f o r t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e , we c a l -c u l a t e the p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s and t a k e t h e a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e s between the female and male p r o p o r t i o n s i n each o c c u p a t i o n (Table 6). T a b l e 6 P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l • Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, Showing A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e s O c c u p a t i o n Male Y i Female X i A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e s |X. - Y.1 1 0.50 0.00 0.50 2 0.33 0.17 0.16 3 0.17 0.83 0.66 T o t a l s 1.00 1.00 1.32 F o r t h i s example, t h e n , DI = 100 x (E |x i - Y i|)/2 = 100 x (1.32/2) = 100 x 0.66 = 66.0 p e r c e n t The DI v a l u e o f 66 p e r c e n t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e degree o f ODS i s such t h a t 66 p e r c e n t o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would have t o s h i f t from one o c c u -p a t i o n t o a n o t h e r i n o r d e r f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t o be the same as t h a t of the male l a b o u r f o r c e o r v i c e v e r s a . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f DI may be v e r i f i e d by o b s e r v i n g t h a t i f f i v e women a r e s h i f t e d from o c c u p a t i o n 3 and p l a c e d i n o c c u -p a t i o n 2, and ano t h e r f i f t e e n women from o c c u p a t i o n 3 a r e p l a c e d i n o c c u p a t i o n 1, t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would have the same p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as t h e male work f o r c e (Table 7, c f . T a b l e s 5 and 6 ) . I n a l l , t wenty o f t h e t h i r t y women, o r 66 p e r ce n t o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e (the c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e o f D I ) , must change o c c u p a t i o n s i n o r d e r f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n s o f the sexes t o be the same. T a b l e 7 N u m e r i c a l and P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, w i t h Females R e d i s t r i b u t e d A c c o r d i n g t o Male D i s t r i b u t i o n N u m e r i c a l P r o p o r t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Male Female Male Female 1 30 15 0.50 0.50 2 20 10 0.33 0.33 3 10 5 0.17 0.17 T o t a l s 60 30 1.00 1.00 One o f t h e advantages o f DI i s t h a t i t may be i n t e r -p r e t e d from the s t a n d p o i n t o f e i t h e r sex. S h i f t i n g 66 p e r c e n t o f the h y p o t h e t i c a l male l a b o u r f o r c e ( f o r t y men) by moving a l l t h i r t y males from o c c u p a t i o n 1, and t e n from o c c u p a t i o n 2, t o o c c u p a t i o n 3 a l s o makes t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e sexes t h e same (Table 8, c f . T a b l e s 5 and 6 ) . Thus, DI i n d i -c a t e s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e i t h e r sex r e q u i r e d f o r t h e o c c u -p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f b o t h t o be i d e n t i c a l . T a b l e 8 N u m e r i c a l and P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, w i t h Males R e d i s t r i b u t e d A c c o r d i n g t o Female D i s t r i b u t i o n N u m e r i c a l P r o p o r t i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Male Female Male Female 1 0 0 0.00 0.00 2 10 5 0.17 0.17 3 50 25 0.83 0.83 T o t a l s 60 30 1.00 1.00 R e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e i n T a b l e 5, however, i t may be n o t e d t h a t t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole i s not e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o how much o f t h e measured ODS i s due t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . These e f f e c t s can be removed by " s t a n d a r d -i z i n g " t h e work f o r c e on o c c u p a t i o n ( c f . P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971:338-339). T h i s may be done by a s s i g n i n g an e q u a l number o f p e r s o n s t o e v e r y o c c u p a t i o n , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l sex c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h i n each o c c u p a t i o n . T a b l e 9 c o n t a i n s t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e d a t a from T a b l e 5, s t a n d a r d i z e d on o c c u p a t i o n . As may be seen, t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d l a b o u r f o r c e numbers 300, w i t h an e q u a l number o f workers (100) i n each o c c u p a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l w i t h i n - o c c u p a t i o n sex c o m p o s i t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d : e.g., j u s t as i n t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n 20 p e r c e n t (5/25) o f t h e w o r k e r s i n o c c u p a t i o n 2 a r e women (Table 5 ) , so, t o o , i n the s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n 20 p e r c e n t (20/100) o f t h e w o r k e r s i n o c c u p a t i o n 2 a r e female (Table 9 ) . DI may be c a l c u l a t e d , i n t e r p r e t e d , and v e r i f i e d f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d l a b o u r f o r c e as f o r t h e o r i g i n a l . The DI v a l u e f o r t h e s t a n -d a r d i z e d d a t a i s 64 p e r c e n t . Compared w i t h the " c r u d e " v a l u e o f 66 p e r c e n t , c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y 3 p e r c e n t (2/66) o f t h e ODS measured i n t h e o r i g i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s due t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . I n t h e examples t h a t f o l l o w , as i n t h e a n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , a l l measures o f OSS and SIS a r e c a l c u l a t e d w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d d a t a . T a b l e 9 N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n O c c u p a t i o n Male Female T o t a l 1 100 0 100 2 80 20 100 3 29 71 100 T o t a l s 209 91 300 DI v a l u e s , however, a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s (n) t o whi c h t h i s i n d e x i s a p p l i e d ( B l a u and Duncan, 1969:69; M a r t i n and P o s t o n , 1972). F o r measuring change i n ODS, t h e r e f o r e , DI i s a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y f o r d a t a s e r i e s i n w h i c h n i s c o n s t a n t , as i n the a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n f o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes i n t h i s s t u d y . An i n d e x independent o f n i s r e q u i r e d wherever n v a r i e s , as i n the main a n a l y s i s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Gibbs and P o s t o n (1975:473-474) p r e s e n t a measure o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (M4), which t h e y r e p o r t i s v i r t u a l l y i ndependent o f t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o whi c h i t i s a p p l i e d ( r = 0.13). M4 measures the degree o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f workers i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Now, t h e g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f e m a l e , t h a n male, workers among o c c u p a t i o n s i s t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f ODS ( c f . T a b l e s 1 and 5, abo v e ) . A p p l i e d t o t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e r e f o r e , M4 s h o u l d s e r v e as a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d e x o f ODS. F o r t h i s p urpose, M4 i s o b t a i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e q u a n t i t y 100 x ( E | X i - x | ) / 2 Z X i where X^ i s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d f r e q u e n c y o f women i n t h e i t h o f n o c c u p a t i o n s , X i s t h e mean s t a n d a r d i z e d f r e q u e n c y o f women p e r o c c u p a t i o n , and t h e summation i n the numerator i s o f t h e abso-l u t e d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d f r e q u e n c i e s from t h e mean s t a n d a r d i z e d f r e q u e n c y o v e r n o c c u p a t i o n s . The summation i n t h e denominator i s t h e t o t a l number o f females i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d l a b o u r f o r c e . The c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s o f M4 range between z e r o and 100 per c e n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e female l a b o u r 48 f o r c e t h a t would have t o be s h i f t e d from one o c c u p a t i o n t o ano t h e r i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p r e f e c t l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women i n a l l o c c u p a t i o n s (Gibbs and P o s t o n , 1975:374). Hence t h e h i g h e r t h e v a l u e o f M4, t h e g r e a t e r t h e degree o f con-c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e i n a r e l a t i v e l y few o c c u p a t i o n s , and t h e l o w e r t h e v a l u e , t h e more even the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women among t h e o c c u p a t i o n s . 1 The c a l c u l a t i o n o f M4 may be i l l u s t r a t e d by u s i n g the s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e (Table 9 ) . To c a l c u l a t e M4 f o r the female l a b o u r f o r c e i n T a b l e 9, we f i r s t o b t a i n the mean number o f women p e r o c c u p a t i o n : X = ZX i/n = 91/3 = 30 The a b s o l u t e d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f women i n each o c c u p a t i o n from t h e mean number o f women p e r o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e O c c u p a t i o n 1: |0 - 30|= 30 o c c u p a t i o n 2: |20 — 301 = 10 o c c u p a t i o n 3: |71 — 3 0 J = 41 Fo r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l female l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e n ^ T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n o f M4 d i f f e r s i n two minor r e s p e c t s from t h a t o f Gibbs and P o s t o n (1975). F i r s t , t h e y do n o t i n c l u d e the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n by 100, and hence o b t a i n a p r o -p o r t i o n r a t h e r than a p e r c e n t a g e . Second, t h e y s u b t r a c t t h e c a l c u l a t e d q u a n t i t y from u n i t y , w h i c h m e r e l y i m p l i e s an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n which i s the converse o f t h a t g i v e n h e r e : i . e . , the lowe r t h e v a l u e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a . 49 M4 = 100 x [Z.\X± - X|)/2 EX. = 100 x = 100 ["(-30 + go + 4i) yi] L 91 J = 100 x (40.5/91) = 100 x 44.5 = 44.5 p e r c e n t The M4 v a l u e o f 44.5 p e r c e n t f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l female l a b o u r f o r c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e degree o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women i s such t h a t 44.5 p e r c e n t o f them would have t o be s h i f t e d from one o c c u p a t i o n t o a n o t h e r i n o r d e r f o r t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n among a l l o c c u p a t i o n s t o be p e r f e c t l y even. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M4 may be v e r i f i e d by o b s e r v i n g (Table 9) t h a t i f t e n women are t a k e n from o c c u p a t i o n 3 and p l a c e d i n o c c u p a t i o n 2, and an o t h e r t h i r t y - o n e from o c c u p a t i o n 3 a r e p l a c e d i n o c c u p a t i o n 1, a p e r f e c t l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i r t y women p e r o c c u p a t i o n ( w i t h one woman l e f t o ver) i s a c h i e v e d by s h i f t i n g f o r t y - o n e members (or 44.5 p e r cent) o f t h e 91-member s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l female l a b o u r f o r c e , p r e c i s e l y t he v a l u e o f M4 c a l c u l a t e d above. A l t h o u g h c a l c u l a t i n g M4 f o r the female l a b o u r f o r c e p r o v i d e s a s a t i s f a c t o r y measure o f the degree o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f women, i t g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f men. U n l i k e DI, t h e n , M4 does n o t d i r e c t l y measure ODS, whi c h r e f e r s t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f men and women. As e v i d e n t i n T a b l e 9, a l t h o u g h male workers a r e more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n women, n e a r l y h a l f o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d male l a b o u r f o r c e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n 1, and n e a r l y 90 p er c e n t i n t h e f i r s t 2 o c c u p a t i o n s combined. The M4 v a l u e f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l male l a b o u r f o r c e i s 19.4 per c e n t , i n d i c a t i n g l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e amount o f con-c e n t r a t i o n measured i n t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e (M4 = 44.5). The i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e M4 v a l u e s f o r t h e male and female work f o r c e s c o u l d be combined by t a k i n g t h e r a t i o o f th e l a t t e r t o t h e for m e r : 44.5/19.4 = 2.29, w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r t w i c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would have t o change j o b s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p e r f e c t l y even d i s t r i -b u t i o n among o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n would be t h e case f o r t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e . I n t h e Canadian d a t a , however, M4 v a l u e s f o r t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e a re c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e . Moreover, t h e r a t i o s o f t h e former t o t h e l a t t e r a r e al m o s t p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e M4 v a l u e s f o r females (r = 0.97). I t may be assumed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t M4 v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d f o r the female l a b o u r f o r c e s e r v e as v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e degree o f ODS. Measurement o f OST As n o t e d i n Cha p t e r I , t h e r e i s o n l y one a n a l y s i s o f OST i n v o l v i n g summary measurement ( P o s t o n , 1968). The i n d e x used i s the c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l a t i v e v a r i a t i o n (CRV), a g e n e r a l measure o f v a r i a b i l i t y c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e r a t i o o f t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 51 t o t h e mean ( P o s t o n , 1968:64-77; Snedecor and Cochrane, 1967: 62-64). S i n c e CRV i s used f o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes i n t h i s s t u d y , i t s c a l c u l a t i o n as an i n d e x o f OST i s i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e . B e f o r e d e f i n i n g CRV and i l l u s t r a t i n g i t s c a l c u l a t i o n , i t would be u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r OST i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e used t o demonstrate t h e co m p u t a t i o n o f t h e measures o f ODS. As may be seen i n T a b l e 10, women c o n s t i t u t e o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e (30/90), y e t t h e r e a r e no women i n o c c u p a t i o n 1, w h i c h i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e v i r t u a l l y a l l - m a l e p r e s e r v e s o f t h e Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e o b s e r v e d i n Cha p t e r I ( c f . T a b l e s 2 and 3 ) . I n o c c u p a t i o n 2 we f i n d t h a t o n e - f i f t h , and i n o c c u p a t i o n 3 ov e r t w o - t h i r d s , o f t h e workers a r e female. I n none o f t h e t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s do we obs e r v e t h e number o f women we would e x p e c t i f female w o r k e r s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n each o c c u p a t i o n as th e y a r e i n t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . T a b l e 10 N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex O c c u p a t i o n Male Female T o t a l 1 30 0 30 2 20 5 25 3 10 25 35 T o t a l s 60 30 90 Nor i s t h i s OST t h e r e s u l t o f women b e i n g outnumbered two t o one i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole. F o r i f we remove t h e s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s o f t h e sex c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e , by s e t t i n g t he t o t a l number o f female w o r kers a t t h a t o f males ( i . e . , e q u a l i z i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f men and women i n t h e work f o r c e as a whole a t 0.50 each) and a p p o r t i o n i n g them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f women, OST i s s t i l l e v i d e n t (Table 1 1 ) . O c c u p a t i o n 1 remains m o n o p o l i z e d by male w o r k e r s , o n e - t h i r d o f a l l workers i n o c c u p a t i o n 2 a r e women, as a r e o v e r f o u r - f i f t h s i n o c c u p a t i o n 3. I n the s t a n d a r d i z e d , as i n t h e o r i g i n a l , h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e , t h e n , no o c c u p a t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e sex c o m p o s i t i o n one would e x p e c t from the now e q u a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e sexes i n t he t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . T a b l e 11 N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n s and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on Sex O c c u p a t i o n Male Female T o t a l 1 30 0 30 2 20 10 30 3 10 50 60 T o t a l s 60 60 120 The c a l c u l a t i o n o f CRV as an i n d e x o f OST may be i l l u s -t r a t e d w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d d a t a i n T a b l e 11. The f i r s t s t e p i n o b t a i n i n g CRV i s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e r a t i o (R^) o f t h e ob s e r v e d t o th e e x p e c t e d (E^) number o f women f o r each o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s i s done by d i v i d i n g t h e number o f women o b s e r v e d i n each o c c u p a t i o n (CK ) by the number we would e x p e c t (E^) i f t h e sexes were r e p r e s e n t e d i n each o c c u p a t i o n as i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole. The e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s a r e o b t a i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the t o t a l number o f workers i n each o c c u p a t i o n (T^) by the p r o p o r t i o n o f women i n t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e ( P ) . Thus, R i = ° i / E = 0 i / ( T i x P) S i n c e the h y p o t h e t i c a l work f o r c e i s s t a n d a r d i z e d on se x , w i t h t h e p o r p o r t i o n s o f t h e sexes i n t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e e q u a l -i z e d , P = 0.50. The r a t i o s (R^) a r e c a l c u l a t e d i n T a b l e 12. Ta b l e 12 C a l c u l a t i o n o f R a t i o s o f Observed t o E x p e c t e d F r e q u e n c i e s o f Females i n H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , S t a n d a r d i z e d on Sex O c c u p a t i o n 0. l T. l P E . 1 ( T ± x P) R i (0../E.) 1 0 30 0.50 15 0.000 2 10 30 0.50 15 0.667 3 50 60 0.50 30 1.667 T o t a l 2.334 The c a l c u l a t i o n s i n Ta b l e 12 show t h a t an u n d e r r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f women i n an o c c u p a t i o n (0^ < E^) r e s u l t s i n a r a t i o l e s s t h a n 1.00 (e.g., o c c u p a t i o n 2) and t h a t an o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (0^ > E^) produces a r a t i o g r e a t e r t h a n 1.00 (e.g., o c c u p a t i o n 3) . Where t h e number o f women o b s e r v e d i n an o c c u p a t i o n i s what one would e x p e c t from t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e as a whole (0^ = E^), the r a t i o would be 1.00, an event which does not occur i n the hypothetical labour force. In other words, OST i n the form of discrepancies between the sex compositions of occupations and that of the t o t a l labour force re s u l t s i n observed-to-expected r a t i o s greater or less than, but not equal to, 1.00. Thus, the greater the extent of OST—i.e., the more instances of, and the more extreme, such departures from the o v e r a l l sex composition of the labour f o r c e — t h e greater the dispersion of r a t i o s about 1.00. One way to measure OST with the information obtained so far would be to calculate the standard deviation (a) of the r a t i o s (R^), which measures t h e i r dispersion about t h e i r mean (R) : a = ~\/z {RL - R) 2/n With the information i n Table 12 the mean (R) i s calculated as follows: R = ZRv/n = (0.000 = 0.667 = 1.667)/3 = 2.334/3 = 0.778 The deviations of the rati o s from the mean (R. - R) and t h e i r l — 2 squared values (R^ - R) are presented i n Table 13. 55 T a b l e 13 C a l c u l a t i o n o f D e v i a t i o n s o f R a t i o s from Mean R a t i o ( R i - R) and_ Squared D e v i a t i o n s (R^ - R ) 2 O c c u p a t i o n R. I -R .(R i - R) (R ± - R ) 2 1 0.000 0.778 -0.778 0. 605 2 0.667 0.778 -0.111 0. 012 3 1.667 0.778 -©.889 0. 790 The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (a) may be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from T a b l e 13: a = ^ ( R i - R ) 2 / n = -y/(0.605 + 0.012 + 0.790)/n = -^.407/3 = -V0.469 = 0.685 As a b a s i c measure o f v a r i a t i o n , t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n would summarize t h e e x t e n t o f OST p r e s e n t i n a l a b o u r f o r c e : t h e g r e a t e r t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e degree o f OST. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , however, i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r comparing OST i n one work f o r c e w i t h t h a t i n a n o t h e r . F o r , as P o s t o n (1968:70) n o t e s , t h e mean, as w e l l as t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i -a t i o n , may v a r y among l a b o u r f o r c e s ( c f . Snedecor and Cochrane, 1967:62). F or c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , t h e r e f o r e , P o s t o n (1968: 70-71) c a l c u l a t e d CRV as a normal measure o f d i s p e r s i o n , 56 CRV = 100 x (a/R) , which a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e degree o f OST: t h e l a r g e r t h e v a l u e o f CRV, the g r e a t e r t h e e x t e n t o f OST. Now, CRV d i f f e r s from b o t h DI and M4 i n two i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , CRV v a l u e s a r e not r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e evenness. Second, CRV l a c k s an upper l i m i t : g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t d i s p e r s i o n ( i . e . , a > R ) , CRV exceeds 100. M a r t i n and Gray (1971:497) p r e s e n t a c o r r e c t e d CRV (CRVc), o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h d i v i s i o n by -/n - 1, t h e t h e o r e t i c a l maximum v a l u e o f CRV: CRVc = 100 x (a/R)/-/n - 1 S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e d a t a f o r t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e , we have CRVc = 100 x (p. 685/0. 7 7 8 9 / (Vn - 1) = 100 x (0. 880/-/3 - 1) = 100 x (0.880/vT") = 100 x (0.880/1.414) = 100 x (0.622) = 62.2 p e r c e n t A l t h o u g h CRVc does n o t v a r y above 100, i t remains dependent on n: t h e l a r g e r t h e n, the s m a l l e r t h e CRVc v a l u e ( c f . Smith and Snow, 1976:527). As an i n d e x o f OST, t h e r e f o r e , CRVc i s a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y i f a p p l i e d t o a s m a l l and c o n s t a n t 57 number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , as i n t h e a n a l y s i s p e r f o r m e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes i n t h i s s t u d y ( c f . P o s t o n , 1968). An OST measure independent o f n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e main a n a l y s i s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n w h i c h n v a r i e s . As n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , M4 i s independent o f n. O t h e r w i s e , however, i t i s s i m i l a r t o CRV, b e i n g based on a b s o l u t e , r a t h e r t h a n s q u a r e d , d e v i a t i o n s from the mean ( M a r t i n and Gray, 1971:496-497; Smith and Snow, 1976:525). A v a r i a t i o n o f M4, t h e r e f o r e , may be used t o measure OST i n t h e main a n a l y s i s o f t h i s s t u d y . To d i s t i n g u i s h i t from M4, t h e p r i n c i p a l measure o f ODS, t h i s a dapted i n d e x o f OST i s here c a l l e d M7: 1 M7 = 100 x R. -1 ZR. R )/2 M7 ranges from z e r o t o 100 and i n d i c a t e s t h e degree o f OST: the h i g h e r t h e v a l u e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e OST. L i k e CRVc, M7 l a c k s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e evenness. M7 may be c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h t h e r a t i o s and t h e i r d e v i a t i o n s from the mean, o b t a i n e d i n the c o u r s e o f computing CRV (Tables 12 and 13, above) : ^Gibbs and P o s t o n (1975) p r e s e n t s i x measures i n a l l : M l t h r o u g h M6. 58 M7 = 100 x (E IR^  - R |)/2 l = 100 x pO-778 + 0.111^ 0.889)/2J L 2 . : = 100 x '78/2 = 100 x (0.889/2.334) = 100 x (0.3809) = 38.09 p e r c e n t Thus, M7 i s i n t r o d u c e d as an i n d e x o f OST f o r d a t a s e r i e s i n whi c h n i s l a r g e and v a r i e s , as i n t h e main a n a l y s i s o f t h i s s t u d y . Measurement o f SIS U n l i k e ODS and OST, SIS has never been s u b j e c t e d t o sum-mary measurement. T h i s s t u d y i n t r o d u c e s an a d a p t a t i o n o f Duncan and Duncan's (1955:495) l o w - r e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n d e x 1 t o measure t h e r e l a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e sexes i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s i n d e x o f r e l a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s (RS) i s o b t a i n e d by (1) o r d e r i n g t h e o c c u p a t i o n s f r om h i g h t o low rank , (2) removing t h e s t r u c t u r a l e f f e c t s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l - r a n k d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e t h r o u g h s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , as f o r M4 above, (3) c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s among t h e T h i s measure i s f o r m a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h e G i n i i n d e x (Duncan, 1952:267) . 59 o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k s , (4) c u m u l a t i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s from h i g h t o low o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k , and (5) com-p u t i n g the q u a n t i t y fx. ,Y. - EX.Y. n n* l - l l l l - l where X^ i s the cumulated p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d female l a b o u r f o r c e , and Y^ i s t h e cumulated p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d male l a b o u r f o r c e , i n t h e i t h o f n o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k s , and the summations a r e o v e r t h e s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s . C a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s way, t h e i n d e x s e r v e s as a measure o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f females r e l a t i v e t o males. RS v a l u e s range from -100 t o +100. N e g a t i v e v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t women, i n comparison t o men, a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s o f lower r a n k ; p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t women, i n comparison t o men, are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s o f h i g h e r rank. Zero i n d i c a t e s s e x u a l e q u a l i t y i n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . The magnitude o f RS v a l u e s l a c k s a d i r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o r e d i s -t r i b u t i o n r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g about evenness ( c f . CRVc and M7, above). A c c o r d i n g t o Duncan's (1952) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, a b s o l u t e v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 20.0 i n d i c a t e a " v e r y " i n e q u i t a b l e s i t u a t i o n . Imposing o r d e r on the h y p o t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e d a t a used above p e r m i t s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f RS. S i n c e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d as f o r measuring ODS, we use t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a n d a r d i z e d on o c c u p a t i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g DI and M4, above. These d a t a a r e r e p r o d u c e d and ranked i n Ta b l e 14. 60 T a b l e 14 N u m e r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e , by Three O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks, and by Sex, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank Male fe m a l e T o t a l H i g h Medium Low 100 80 29 0 20 71 100 100 100 T o t a l s 209 91 300 W i t h our h y p o t h e t i c a l d a t a now s t a n d a r d i z e d and o r d e r e d , we n e x t c a l c u l a t e , t h e n cumulate, t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f b o t h t h e male and female l a b o u r f o r c e (Table 1 5 ) . T a b l e 15 P r o p o r t i o n a l and Cumulated P r o p o r t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s o f H y p o t h e t i c a l Male and Female Labour F o r c e s , by Three O c c u p a t i o n a l Ranks, S t a n d a r d i z e d on O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank P r o p o r t i o n a l Cumulated O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Rank Male Female Male Female H i g h 0.48 0.00 0.48 0.00 Medium 0.38 0.22 0.86 0.22 Low 0.14 0.78 1. 00 1.00 T o t a l s 1.00 1.00 We a r e now ready t o c a l c u l a t e t h e components o f RS; t h e o p e r a t i o n s a re shown i n T a b l e 16. 61 T a b l e 16 C a l c u l a t i o n o f Components o f RS f o r H y p o t h e t i c a l Labour F o r c e O c c u p a t i o n a l Rank Male Y i Female X i X. -Y. l - l l X.Y. , l l - l H i g h Medium Low 0 . 4 8 0 . 8 6 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 2 2 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 1 0 . 8 6 T o t a l s — —— 0 . 2 2 0 . 9 7 The i n d e x o f SIS i s t h e n o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s : RS = 100 x (£x . -.Y. - £X.Y. ., ) & 1 - 1 i a i i - i ' = 100 x ( 0 . 2 2 - 0 . 9 7 ) = 100 x ( - 0 . 7 5 ) = - 7 5 . 0 The n e g a t i v e s i g n o f t h i s RS v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t h e hypo-t h e t i c a l l a b o u r f o r c e women, i n comparison t o men, a r e concen-t r a t e d i n t h e l o w e r r a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . The magnitude o f t h e v a l u e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e degree o f r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s extreme. Whether RS i s a f f e c t e d by t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w hich i t i s a p p l i e d remains an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , no assumptions c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n o f RS t o n a r e w a r r a n t e d a t t h i s s t a g e . T h i s s t u d y , however, may be e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e as t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s s e c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d c o n v e n t i o n a l measures o f OSS and i n t r o d u c e d i n d e x e s o f ODS, OST, and S I S . The d a t a t o w h i c h they a r e a p p l i e d a r e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The Data T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e b o d i e s o f d a t a t o w h i c h t h e measures o f t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s d e f i n e d above a r e a p p l i e d . The d a t a s e t s used a r e based on census and o t h e r o f f i c i a l Canadian s e r i e s f o r t h e n i n e census y e a r s from 1891, when o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a were f i r s t c l a s s i f i e d by s e x , t h r o u g h 1971, the most r e c e n t census y e a r . A l t h o u g h i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o have a more l e n g t h y s e r i e s o f a n n u a l d a t a , t h e b a s i c o b s e r v a t i o n s on most o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e made no more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e v e r y t e n y e a r s . 1 D e c e n n i a l s e r i e s , however, do n o t p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s problem, s i n c e t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e aggre-gate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h p r o b a b l y e x h i b i t l i t t l e y e a r l y change. A g r e a t e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a base i s t h e s h o r t p e r i o d which i t c o v e r s ( c f . Land, 1970:272-273). Were the r e q u i s i t e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e two census y e a r s p r e c e d i n g 1891, t h e a n a l y s i s c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e p e r i o d from 1871, t h e p o i n t from w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Canada, w h i l e r e m a i n i n g l a r g e l y r e s o u r c e - b a s e d , may be r e g a r d e d as d e v e l o p i n g under market c o n d i t i o n s ( P e n t l a n d , 1959:455). N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e 1891-1971 p e r i o d i s a t l e a s t one decade l o n g e r t h a n t h a t encompassed by t h e l o n g e s t p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f change i n OSS o r S I S . '''The c o n t i n u o u s s u r v e y o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , begun on a q u a r t e r l y b a s i s i n 1945, and c a r r i e d o u t monthly s i n c e 1952, p r o v i d e s n e i t h e r t h e t i m e span nor t h e d e t a i l r e q u i r e d f o r an a n a l y s i s o f l o n g - t e r m change i n OSS and i t s r e l a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ( c f . O s t r y and Z a i d i , 1972:10). ODS and OST The main d a t a s e r i e s used t o g e n e r a t e ODS and OST v a l u e s i s based on t h e d e t a i l e d , n a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a p u b l i s h e d f o r each census y e a r from 1891 t h r o u g h 1971. The h i s t o r i c a l s e r i e s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 1921 census i s used f o r t h e y e a r s 1891 t h r o u g h 1921 (Canada. D.B.S., 1929:Table 1 ) . There a r e two rea s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s s e r i e s . F i r s t , t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r 1901 a r e not c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e 1901 census (Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1977b; c f . Canada. Census O f f i c e , 1902; 1904; 1905; 1906), a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l volumes o f b o t h t h e 1911 and 1921 census (Canada. Department o f Trade and Commerce, 1915:Table 1; Canada. D.B.S., 1921:Table 1 ) . One o f t h e l a t t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e -f o r e , must be used as the s o u r c e o f d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r 1901. Second, i n t h e 1921 census p u b l i c a t i o n t h e 1901 d a t a form p a r t o f a c o m p a r a t i v e s e r i e s f o r t h e census y e a r s 1891 th r o u g h 1921. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e 1921 census i s used as t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f d a t a f o r t h e f i r s t f o u r census y e a r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . No s i m i l a r s e r i e s o f d a t a e x i s t s f o r the p e r i o d 1931 th r o u g h 1971, d u r i n g w h i c h t h e census c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o c c u -p a t i o n s underwent b a s i c r e v i s i o n e v e r y census y e a r , r e f l e c t i n g t h e r a p i d and fundamental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . As a r e s u l t , c o m p a r a b i l i t y i s a c h i e v e d e i t h e r a t t h e c o s t o f d e t a i l , as l o n g - r u n , b u t b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d , s e r i e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d ( c f . O s t r y , 1967:Table 3 ) , o r a t t h e c o s t o f coverage, as d e t a i l e d s e r i e s w h i c h n e c e s s a r i l y 64 e x c l u d e t h e newer, i n c o m p a r a b l e o c c u p a t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d ( c f . Canada. D.B.S., 1966:Table 8; M e l t z , 1 9 6 8 ) . The d a t a f o r 1931 th r o u g h 1971, t h e r e f o r e , a r e based on t h e p e r t i n e n t census p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e y e a r s (Canada. D.B.S., 1936:Table 40; 1946:Table 4; 1953:Table 4; 1963:Table 6; S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1974:Table 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s e b o d i e s o f d a t a p e r m i t measurement o f OSS thr o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e and a t t h e most d e t a i l e d l e v e l p u b l i s h e d , t h e r e i s a problem o f c o m p a r a b i l i t y , a t l e a s t f o r t h e 1931-1971 p e r i o d , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e d e f i n i t i o n , as w e l l as t h e number, o f o c c u p a t i o n s v a r i e d g r e a t l y . A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r t h e i n d e x o f ODS (M4) o r t h e measure o f OST (M7) i s a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t e d by v a r i a t i o n i n the number o f c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e remains t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . A c c o r d i n g l y , O s t r y ' s (1967:Table 3) d e f i n i t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , b u t b r o a d l y c l a s s i -f i e d , 1 s e r i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r t h e census y e a r s 1901 th r o u g h 1961 i s used t o c a l c u l a t e ODS and OST v a l u e s w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l measures (DI and CRVc), as w e l l as w i t h t h e i n d e x e s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y (M4 and M7). These c a l c u l a t i o n s p e r m i t an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d e t a i l e d d a t a used i n t h e main a n a l y s i s , as w e l l as o f t h e measures i n t r o d u c e d h e r e . 1The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on t h e b r o a d " d i v i s i o n s " o f t h e 1951 census scheme. I n o r d e r t o maximize d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , as w e l l as t o p r e s e r v e a c o n s t a n t number o f c a t e -g o r i e s , t h e " o c c u p a t i o n n o t s t a t e d " c a t e g o r y , n o t used u n t i l 1921, i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F o r t h e same r e a s o n s , t h e "commercial" and " f i n a n c i a l " d i v i s i o n s , i n s e p a r a b l e f o r 1901, a re c o l l a p s e d i n t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . These a d j u s t m e n t s , a l s o made by O s t r y (1967:3-8) f o r a n a l y t i c p u r p o s e s , r e s u l t - V i n f o u r t e e n d i v i s i o n s f o r a l l census y e a r s , 1901 t h r o u g h 1961. 65 A d e f i n i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e o f a n o t h e r s o r t remains i n b o t h t h e d e t a i l e d s e r i e s based on t h e o r i g i n a l 1891-1971 census counts and t h e b r o a d l y but comparably c l a s s i f i e d s e r i e s p r e -p a r e d by O s t r y (1967). P r i o r t o 1951 the census used t h e " g a i n f u l l y o c c u p i e d , " r a t h e r t h a n the c u r r e n t " l a b o u r f o r c e , " d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s d i f f e r -ence a f f e c t s t h e enumeration o f the female l a b o u r f o r c e , as w e l l as o f s t u d e n t - a g e male workers and persons i n s e a s o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s (Canada. D.B.S., 1967:4), and may, t h e r e f o r e , be e x p e c t e d t o have consequences f o r t h e measurement o f OSS. D e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e s e e f f e c t s , however, i s beyond the scope o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . There i s one advantage i n u s i n g t h e g a i n f u l l y o c c u p i e d c o n c e p t w h i c h may compensate i n p a r t f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n w o r k - f o r c e d e f i n i t i o n s . S i n c e the g a i n f u l l y o c c u p i e d c o n c e p t r e f e r s t o customary o r h a b i t u a l a c t i v i t y , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o the d i s r u p t i o n s o c c a s i o n e d by the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n and t h e Second World War 1 (Denton and O s t r y , 1967:4; O s t r y , 1967:32). Three a d d i t i o n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s remain i n t h e d e t a i l e d 1891-1971 s e r i e s . F i r s t , t h e minimum age f o r t h e work f o r c e has been r e v i s e d upward o v e r the p a s t g e n e r a t i o n . The g a i n f u l l y o c c u p i e d count i n c l u d e d p e r s o n s t e n y e a r s o f age and o v e r u n t i l ^ I n an a n a l y s i s o f change o v e r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a war, f o r example ( c f . P i e r s o n , 1977), the d i f f e r e n c e s between the d a t a f o r 1951 and t h o s e f o r 1931 and 1941 would p r e s e n t t h e v e r y s o r t o f problem t o w h i c h t h e r e c u r r i n g l a b o u r f o r c e s u r v e y and i t s l a b o u r f o r c e c o n c e p t o f t h e work f o r c e were a response (Denton and O s t r y , 1967:4-8). 1941, when the minimum age was changed t o f o u r t e e n . I n 1961, t h e age was r a i s e d a g a i n , t o f i f t e e n y e a r s . S i n c e t h e n a t u r e o f Canadian s o c i e t y and the economy p r i o r t o the 1960's was such t h a t t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n c l u d e d a few p e o p l e l e s s t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , 1 the d e t a i l e d d a t a s e t s have been l e f t u n a d j u s t e d , as r e f l e c t i n g t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e t i m e s i n which t h e y were r e c o r d e d . The o t h e r d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the d e t a i l e d s e r i e s a r e t h e e x c l u s i o n o f the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s u n t i l 1961 and t h e i n c l u s i o n , i n 1941, o f p e r s o n s on a c t i v e s e r v i c e w i t h a g a i n f u l o c c u p a t i o n p r i o r t o e n l i s t m e n t . SIS As s t r e s s e d above, t h e measurement o f SIS r e q u i r e s ranked o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x e s f o r the d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e 1951, 1961, and 1971 censuses ( B l i s h e n , 1958; 1967; B l i s h e n and McRoberts, 1976), make i t p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y s e SIS f o r the t h r e e most r e c e n t census y e a r s . The ranked 1951 o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e s p e c i f i e d i n the 1951 census, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f two o c c u p a t i o n s , " f l o w e r growers and l a n d s c a p e g a r d e n e r s " and " l o d g i n g and b o a r d i n g house k e e p e r s , " f o r w h i c h the 1951 s c a l e c o n t a i n s no i n d e x e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an o m i s s i o n o f 3,424 men and 6,364 women, l e s s than 1 per c e n t o f t h e workers o f each sex. The o r d e r e d 1961 o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e s p e c i f i e d •*"With the e x c e p t i o n o f g i r l s i n 1911, who c o n s t i t u t e d 2 p e r c e n t o f a l l g a i n f u l w o r k e r s , t h e s e young p e o p l e never exceeded 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l work f o r c e . Most o f the boys were c l a s s i f i e d as u n p a i d f a m i l y w o r kers on farms, the g i r l s as d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s . i n t h e census o f t h a t y e a r e x c e p t n i n e , f o r w h i c h B l i s h e n ' s 1961 s c a l e c o n t a i n s no e n t r i e s . E x c l u d e d a r e 392,496 men and 24,123 women. N e a r l y a l l o f t h e males e x c l u d e d (384,410) and o n e - t h i r d o f t h e females (8,996) a r e "fa r m e r s and s t o c k r a i s e r s , " then t h e most numerous s i n g l e t y p e o f w o r k e r . 1 The ranked 1971 o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e s p e c i f i e d i n the 1971 census. There a r e t h r e e f e a t u r e s o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e s w h i c h c o u l d a f f e c t t h e a n a l y s i s o f S I S . F i r s t , t h e 1951 i n d e x i s based e n t i r e l y on e d u c a t i o n and income, whereas t h e 1961 and 1971 s c a l e s a r e based on P o r t e r - E i n e o (1967) p r e s t i g e s c o r e s , as w e l l as on e d u c a t i o n and income. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t t h e a n a l y s i s o f OSS, however, as B l i s h e n (1967:50) r e p o r t s a rank c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.96 between t h e 1961 i n d e x and t h e 1951 s c a l e . Second, t h e 1961 and 1971 i n d e x e s a r e based on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f male workers o n l y . T h i s s t r a t e g y i s founded on t h e assumption t h a t "the f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l s t a t u s i s dependent upon t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f the husband r a t h e r than t h e w i f e when b o t h a r e w o r k i n g " ( B l i s h e n , 1967:42). S i m i l a r l y , though c r i t i c a l l y , M e i s s n e r e t a l . (1975:426) co n t e n d t h a t "women's p o s i t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f . . . t h e i r k i n r e l a t i o n s h i p as con-s t i t u t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r dependent l a b o u r i n the household. . . . and t h e j o b s . . . a v a i l a b l e t o them c o n f i r m t h e i r dependent "'"The o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s e x c l u d e d a r e nuns and b r o t h e r s , d i e t i c i a n s , d e l i v e r y managers, owners and managers i n to b a c c o p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s , owners and managers i n u n s p e c i f i e d i n d u s -t r i e s , d o c t o r s ' and d e n t i s t s ' o f f i c e a t t e n d a n t s , u n s p e c i f i e d s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s , and m i l l i n e r s , h a t and cap makers ( c f . B l i s h e n , 1967:431). 68 l a b o u r s t a t u s . " I n c o n t r a s t , E i c h l e r (1973:47) argues t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s d e r i v e d from t h e i r husband's p o s i t i o n , employed women have an independent s t a t u s w h i c h i s e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e same b a s i s as t h a t o f men, though i t i s lo w e r e d by t h e f a c t o f t h e i r f e m a l e n e s s . A v a i l a b l e d a t a and t e c h n i q u e s do n o t p e r m i t d i r e c t measurement o f such a gender e f f e c t h e r e . How-e v e r , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f an a d d i t i o n a l s e t o f i n d e x e s , based on th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f female w o r k e r s , f o r 205 o f t h e 279 o c c u -p a t i o n s l i s t e d i n 1951, and f o r a l l l i s t e d i n 1971 ( B l i s h e n and C a r r o l l , f o r t h c o m i n g ) , p e r m i t s a p a r t i a l assessment o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h b a s i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f male workers o n l y may a f f e c t t h e a n a l y s i s o f S I S . Pea r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s between male and female s c o r e s f o r bo t h 1951 and 1971 a r e h i g h (0.92 and 0.84, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Moreover, i n t h e case o f t h e 205 o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e 1951 cen s u s , weighted-average s c o r e s , based j o i n t l y on t h e male and female i n d e x e s , c o r r e l a t e even more h i g h l y w i t h t h e s e p a r a t e male and female s c o r e s (0.99 and 0.94, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e p a r a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e i n d e x o f SIS (RS) f o r t h e 205 o c c u -p a t i o n s f o r 1951, w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o r d e r e d f i r s t a c c o r d i n g t o male s c o r e s (RS = -0.14) and t h e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w e i g h t e d -average i n d e x e s (RS = - 0 . 1 7 ) , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e use o f male r a n k i n g s may o n l y s l i g h t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e degree o f OSS. S i n c e o n l y male i n d e x e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r 1961, however, the male s c o r e s a r e a l s o used t o o r d e r o c c u p a t i o n s f o r 1951 and 1971. O c c u p a t i o n s f o r each y e a r , t h e n , a r e ranked on a con-s i s t e n t , i f perhaps n o t i d e a l , b a s i s . 69 The t h i r d i s s u e t h a t a r i s e s i n p r e p a r i n g d a t a f o r measuring SIS concerns v a r i a t i o n i n t h e number o f ranked o c c u -p a t i o n s (n) among t h e t h r e e census y e a r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s phase o f the a n a l y s i s . As n o t e d above, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between RS v a l u e s and n i s u n c e r t a i n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e t a i l e d , r a nked o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , B l i s h e n ' s s i x b r o a d " c l a s s i n t e r v a l s " are a l s o used t o p r o v i d e a s e r i e s w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t number o f ranked c a t e g o r i e s . S i n c e t h e p u b l i s h e d 1951 s c a l e i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven "somewhat a r b i t r a r y " i n t e r v a l s ( B l i s h e n , 1958:522), the ranked 1951 o c c u p a t i o n s a r e r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s i x e q u a l -i n t e r v a l c a t e g o r i e s . Because t h e range o f t h e 1951 s c a l e (31.95 - 89.95) d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from t h a t f o r b o t h 1961 (25.36 - 76.69) and 1971 (14.40 - 75.28), t h e c u t t i n g p o i n t s used t o det e r m i n e t h e s i x c l a s s i n t e r v a l s o f t h e 1951 s c a l e a r e made a t e v e r y e i g h t i n d e x p o i n t s , r a n g i n g from 72.00 downward t o 40.00, r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e t e n s d i g i t s as f o r the 1961 and 1971 s c a l e s ( B l i s h e n , 1967:51; B l i s h e n and McRoberts, 1976:73). B l i s h e n (1978), who a l s o uses t h e 1951 i n d e x d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c l a s s i n t e r v a l s , r e g a r d s t h e method employed here as a p p r o p r i a t e . I n d i c a t o r s o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i t y , t h e f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a re measured w i t h census d a t a . "The number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand w o r k e r s , t h e i n d i c a t o r o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, i s t a k e n from the d e t a i l e d occupa-t i o n a l d a t a used i n the a n a l y s i s o f OSS. The number o f s u r -v e y o r s i s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h a t o f e n g i n e e r s f o r t h e census y e a r s 1891 t h r o u g h 1941. To maximize c o n s i s t e n c y , t h e r e f o r e , 70 s u r v e y o r s a r e i n c l u d e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g census y e a r s as w e l l . P r o d u c t i v i t y , measured as o u t p u t p e r man-hour i n manu-f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , i s the o n l y independent v a r i a b l e f o r w h i c h d a t a are n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l census y e a r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Canada's " N a t i o n a l A c c o u n t s , " w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on volume and t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n , as w e l l as on t h e numbers o f persons employed and t h e amount o f time worked, c o v e r o n l y t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e c l o s e o f t h e Second World War' ( c f . J a f f e and Froomkin, 1968:180-181). L i k e S I S , t h e n , p r o d u c t i v i t y can be measured o n l y f o r t h e census y e a r s 1951, 1961, and 1971. The d a t a on o u t p u t p e r man-hour a r e t a k e n from a comparable s e r i e s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y measures f o r manu-f a c t u r i n g , w h i c h a r e g i v e n i n i n d e x form, u s i n g 1971 as t h e base y e a r (Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1977a:Table 1 3 ) . The s o u r c e of d a t a on u r b a n i z a t i o n , measured as t h e pe r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n a r e a s d e f i n e d as urban by the cen s u s , f o r 1891 t h r o u g h 1961 i s the d e f i n i t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t s e r i e s o f d e c e n n i a l r u r a l - u r b a n d i s t r i b u t i o n s p r e -p a r e d by Stone (1967:Table 2 2 ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r 1971 i s t a k e n from the 1971 census and a d j u s t e d f o r c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h Stone's f i g u r e s (Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1973:Table 1 0 ) . Data on b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , the number o f c l e r i c a l w o r k ers p e r thousand w o r k e r s , f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961 a r e t a k e n from the b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d s e r i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a used t o measure OSS ( O s t r y , 1967:Table 3 ) . The o r i g i n a l , u n a d j u s t a b l e census f i g u r e s must be used f o r 1891 and 1971 (Canada. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1893:Table X I I ; Canada. 71 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1974:Table 2 ) . The methods by w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s o f measuring t h e s e d a t a on the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s a r e a n a l y s e d w i l l be s p e c i f i e d f o l l o w i n g a r e s t a t e m e n t of t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and SIS. Statement o f Hypotheses A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y o f change i n OSS and SIS d e v e l o p e d i n Chapter I , i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d between t h e s e phenomena and each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . From t h i s g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n are d e r i v e d t w e l v e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s : 1. I n Canada between 1 8 9 1 1 and 1971 t h e r e w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and ODS; as i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n advances, ODS w i l l d e c l i n e . Thus: 1.1 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and ODS. 1.2 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between p r o d u c t i v i t y and ODS. 1.3 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n and ODS. 1.4 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between b u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n and ODS. 2. I n Canada between 1 8 9 1 1 and 1971 t h e r e w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OST: as i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n advances, OST w i l l d e c l i n e . Thus: 2.1 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and OST. ^1951 i n t h e case o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . 72 2.2 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between p r o d u c t i v i t y and OST. 2.3 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n and OST. 2.4 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between b u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n and OST. 3. I n Canada between 1951 and 1971 t h e r e w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and S I S ; as i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n advances, SIS w i l l d e c l i n e . Thus: 3.1 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and SIS. 3.2 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between p r o d u c t i v i t y and SIS. 3.3 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n and SIS. 3.4 There w i l l be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between b u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n and SIS. The methods by w h i c h t h e above hypotheses a r e t e s t e d a r e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Methods The t h e o r y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a d v a n c i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on changes i n OSS and SIS i m p l i e s a t e m p o r a l s e q u e n c i n g , such t h a t d e c l i n e s i n OSS and SIS f o l l o w i n c r e a s e s i n i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n . S i n c e t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l o r d e r i n g i s not known, the t e s t s o f t h e hypotheses s t a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f i n e d t o e x a m i n i n g t h e l i n e a r a s s o c i a t i o n s between each o f t h e f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS ( c f . Dubin, 1968:93-94). The t e c h n i q u e s t o be used i n c l u d e c o r r e l a t i o n , r e g r e s s i o n , and t r e n d a n a l y s i s . C o r r e l a t i n g the v a l u e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e , d i r e c t i o n , and s t r e n g t h , o f t h e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s among the v a r i a b l e s examined. A more c r u c i a l t e s t o f th e hypotheses t h a t do n o t i n v o l v e p r o d u c t i v i t y o r SIS ( i . e . , h ypotheses 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, 2.3, and 2.4, above) w i l l be t h e r e g r e s s i o n o f ODS and OST v a l u e s on t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e and c o l l e c t i v e i m p a ct o f t h e f o r c e s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n on ODS and OST. Such r e g r e s s i o n s w i l l n o t be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y o r SIS d a t a , a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y 1951, 1961, and 1971 and, t h e r e f o r e , i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e measurements o f each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s w i l l be t e s t e d f o r t h e pre s e n c e and the d i r e c t i o n o f t r e n d s w i t h t h e C o x - S t u a r t t e s t f o r t r e n d ( B r a d l e y , 1968:174-176). Summary I n the i n i t i a l s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s were s p e c i f i e d f o r t h e f o u r a s p e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z -a t i o n , and i n d e x e s were d e f i n e d f o r b o t h d i m e n s i o n s o f OSS and f o r S IS. N e x t , t h e d a t a t o w h i c h t h e s e measures a r e a p p l i e d were d e s c r i b e d . F i n a l l y , t h e hypotheses t o be t e s t e d were s t a t e d , and t h e p r o c e d u r e s t o be used i n t h e i r t e s t i n g were o u t -l i n e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER I I I OSS, S I S , AND INDUSTRIALIZATION: CANADA, 1891-1971 T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o u t -l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e v a l u e s o f t h e f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e in d e x e s o f OSS and S I S . The c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e measure-ments a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the second s e c t i o n . The t h i r d s e c t i o n summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , t h e v a l u e s o f OSS and SIS a r e examined f o r t h e pr e s e n c e and d i r e c t i o n o f t r e n d s . Each s e t o f r e s u l t s s e r v e s as a b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s . Measurements o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , OSS, and SIS B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f change i n OSS and S I S , we may c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y t h e growth i n the male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s , as w e l l as t h e changes i n t h e p a r t i c -i p a t i o n r a t e s o f t h e s e x e s , o v e r t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d . T a b l e 17 p r e s e n t s t h e l a b o u r f o r c e counts and r a t e s by sex f o r Canada from 1891 t h r o u g h 1971. W h i l e t h e numbers o f b o t h male and female workers i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y o v e r the e i g h t y - y e a r p e r i o d , t h e r a t e o f e x p a n s i o n f o r women was n e a r l y f o u r t i m e s t h a t f o r T a b l e 17 d P a r t i c i by Sex: Canada, 1891-1971 Labour F o r c e a an P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates,' Year Labour F o r c e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate (Per Cent) Male Female Male Female 1891 1,410,379 195,990 7 6 . 6 b 1 1 . l b 1901 1,544,883 237,949 78.3 14.4 1911 2,358,813 364,821 82,0 16.6 1921 2,683,019 490,150 80.3 17.7 1931 3,261,371 665,859 78.4 19.4 1941 3,613,045 833,729 85.6 22.9 1951 4,121,832 1,164,321 84.1 24.2 1961 4,705,518 1,766,332 80.8 29.1 1971 5,665,705 2,961,210 • 7 6 . l b 36. 5 b aAge: 1891-1931, 10 y e a r s o f age and o v e r 1941-1961, 14 y e a r s o f age and o v e r 1971, 15 y e a r s o f age and o v e r Not comparable w i t h i n t e r v e n i n g census y e a r s ( c f . s o u r c e s below) S o u r c e s : Labour f o r c e , Censuses c i t e d i n C h a p t e r I I P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , 1891 (Canada. D.B.S., 1929: T a b l e 1) 1901-1961 (Denton and O s t r y , 1967:22-29) 1971 (Canada. Labour Canada, 1971:3) men. The male l a b o u r f o r c e i n c r e a s e d f o u r f o l d , from 1.4 m i l l i o n i n 1891 t o 5.7 m i l l i o n i n 1974. Over t h e same p e r i o d , the female l a b o u r f o r c e expanded from l e s s t h a n 200,000 t o n e a r l y t h r e e m i l l i o n , a f i f t e e n f o l d i n c r e a s e . S i n c e t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by j u s t o v e r f o u r t i m e s , t h e s e c o n t r a s t i n g r a t e s o f growth i n t h e male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s r e s u l t e d from markedly d i f f e r e n t t r e n d s i n male and female l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . 76 R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l working-age p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a b o u r f o r c e , the r a t e s i n T a b l e 17 o b s c u r e d i s t i n c t and o p p o s i t e t r e n d s f o r c e r t a i n age groups i n b o t h t h e male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s , as w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t e s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s f o r women. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e o v e r -r i d i n g d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sexes i s e v i d e n t : some f l u c t u -a t i o n (due m a i n l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e minimum a g e ) , b u t l i t t l e change, i n male r a t e s , w h i l e the female r a t e s i n c r e a s e d about t h r e e f o l d , o v e r t h e e i g h t y - y e a r p e r i o d , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e o v e r a l l sex r a t i o o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (males/females) d e c r e a s e d from o v e r seven t o one, t o l e s s t h a n two t o one. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y o f change i n OSS and SIS d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r I , t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l sex c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e s h o u l d have been accompanied by advances i n i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n and d e c r e a s e s i n OSS and S I S . The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d below i n d i c a t e the changes i n OSS, SIS and t h e f o u r i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s . Trends i n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n The argument t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and a com-mitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , as w e l l as u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t -i z a t i o n , erode OSS and SIS i s p r e d i c a t e d on t h e assumption t h a t each o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e o v e r t i m e . The measurements t a k e n f o r t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t a t l e a s t f o r Canada between 1891 and 1971 t h i s i s not a g r a t u i t o u s s u p p o s i t i o n (Table 1 8 ) . I n d i c a t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, the number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l 77 T a b l e 18 I n d i c a t o r s o f Four Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891 a-1971 Dimension o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n Year T e c h n o l o g i c a l Development P r o d u c t i v i t y U r b a n i z a t i o n B u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n 1891 1.8 — 29.8 8.6 1901 1.4 — 34.9 32.1 1911 2.7 — 41.8 38.2 1921 4.0 — 47.4 68.9 1931 4.0 52. 5 66.7 1941 4.6 55. 7 72. 8 1951 6.0 43.7 62.4 106.7 1961 8.0 64.5 69.7 126.8 1971 10.1 100. 0 76.2 159.2 •a 1951-1971 i n t h e case o f p r o d u c t i v i t y I n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : T e c h n o l o g i c a l development: number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s p e r 1,000 w o r k e r s P r o d u c t i v i t y : o u t p u t p e r man-hour i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s U r b a n i z a t i o n : p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n a r e a s d e f i n e d as urban by t h e census B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n : number o f c l e r i c a l w o r k ers p e r 1,000 workers e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand w o r k e r s e x h i b i t e d a n e t i n c r e a s e o f n e a r l y s i x f o l d o v e r the e i g h t y - y e a r p e r i o d . I n 1891 t h e r e were l e s s t h a n two e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand w o r k e r s . By 1971 t h e r e were t e n . U r b a n i z a t i o n , measured by t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n a r e a s d e f i n e d as urban by t h e ce n s u s , more than d o u b l e d between 1891 and 1971. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 78 t h e p e r i o d l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d (29.8 p e r c e n t ) o f Canadians r e s i d e d i n urban a r e a s ; by 1971 t h e f i g u r e was g r e a t e r than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s (76.2 p e r c e n t ) . The l e v e l o f b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t e d as t h e number o f c l e r i c a l w orkers p e r thousand w o r k e r s , e x h i b i t e d an e i g h t e e n f o l d n e t i n c r e a s e o v e r th e 1891-1971 p e r i o d . I n 1891 t h e r e were about n i n e c l e r i c a l w o r k e rs p e r thousand w o r k e r s ; as o f 1971 the f i g u r e was 159. The growth o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development l e v e l l e d o f f and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y , o v e r th e 1921-1931 decade, which o v e r l a p p e d the b e g i n n i n g o f the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n . Of t h e t h r e e d imensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n measurable t h r o u g h o u t the 1891-1971 p e r i o d , o n l y u r b a n i z a t i o n e x h i b i t e d a s t r i c t l y monotonic i n c r e a s e o v e r th e e i g h t decades examined. The l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y , i n d i c a t e d as o u t p u t p e r man-hour i n manu-f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y t h e t h r e e most r e c e n t census y e a r s , more th a n d o u b l e d o v e r th e two decades p r e c e d i n g 1971. The i n c r e m e n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s may be p o r t r a y e d more v i v i d l y by means o f graphs. F i g u r e 1 t r a c e s t h e t r e n d i n t h e number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s p e r thousand w o r k e r s and i n d i c a t e s t h e emergence o f t h e v a r i o u s e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i a l t i e s i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h they were r e c o g n i z e d by t h e census. The s u c c e s s i v e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f c i v i l , m e c h a n i c a l , m i n i n g , e l e c t r i c a l , c h e m i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l , m e t a l l u r g i c a l , p e t r o l e u m , and n u c l e a r e n g i n e e r s i n d i c a t e s t h e i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y i n Canada between 1891 and 1971. The t r e n d s f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n Number 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 Year F i g u r e 1. T e c h n o l o g i c a l Development: Number o f P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s per 1,000 Workers, Canada (1891-1971) 80 are graphed i n Figures 2, 3, and 4, which i l l u s t r a t e the substantial increases i n these three indicators of i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n . The extent to which these trends i n the independent variables are accompanied by the expected declines i n OSS and SIS i s considered i n the remainder of t h i s chapter. Index a 100 h 50 1951 1961 1971 Year aReference base: 1971 = 100 Figure 2. Productivity: Output per Man-hour i n Manufacturing Industries, Canada (1951-1971) 18 Number 200 cn 160 Year F i g u r e 4. B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n : Number o f C l e r i c a l Workers p e r 1,000 Workers, Canada (1891-1971) 00 83 Indexes o f OSS and SIS Having examined t h e t r e n d s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s , we t u r n now t o t h e measurements o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s , OSS and SIS. T a b l e 19 c o n t a i n s t h e v a l u e s o f t h e in d e x e s o f ODS and OST c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d , occupa-t i o n a l d a t a f o r 1891 thr o u g h 1971. The l e v e l o f ODS shows a n e t d e c l i n e o v e r t h e e i g h t y - y e a r p e r i o d . The M4 v a l u e o f 46.3 p e r c e n t f o r 1971 i n d i c a t e s t h a t n e a r l y h a l f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would have t o change j o b s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a p r e f e c t l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women among a l l o c c u p a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e 1971 f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s a 26 p e r c e n t r e l a t i v e d e c r e a s e from t h e 1891 l e v e l (62.8 per c e n t ) , t h e f l u c t u a t i o n i n ODS was such t h a t t h e 1941 l e v e l i s t h e same as t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p e r i o d . The M7 v a l u e s f o r OST suggest a s i m i l a r t r e n d : a n e t r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e o f 20 p e r c e n t , from 50.7 p e r c e n t i n 1891 t o 41.3 p e r c e n t i n 1971, a l t h o u g h b o t h t h e 1931 and 1941 l e v e l s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r 1891. T a b l e 19 Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1891-1971 Dimension Year o f OSS (Index) 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 ODS (M4) 62.8 62.1 56.4 53.5 62.5 62.8 57.6 57.1 46.3 OST (M7) 50.7 49.8 46.2 44.0 54.6 5.3.4 48.2 49.3 41.3 Number o f Oc c u p a t i o n s 133 145 153 154 397 216 281 333 499 T a b l e 20 p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r s e t o f M4 and M7 v a l u e s , as 84 T a b l e 20 Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1901-1961 Dimension Year Of OSS (Index) 1901 1911 1921 1931 .1.9.4.1 .19.51. 1961 ODS (M4) 60.2 56.0 53.1 55.8 55.4 52.4 49. 5 OST (M7) 50.4 45.3 44.1 46. 3 47.2 44.1 41.5 ODS (DI) 69.2 65.6 64.0 66.5 66.8 63.6 61.1 OST (CRVc) 31.2 27.8 27.1 28.5 29.1 27.5 26.9 Number o f C a t e g o r i e s 14 14 14 14 1.4 14 14 w e l l as t h e v a l u e s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s o f ODS and OST (DI and CRVc, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d s e r i e s o f d a t a f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961. These measurements p e r m i t two co m p a r i s o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h the b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a may be compared w i t h t h o s e f o r d e t a i l e d d a t a by e x a m i n i n g t h e M4 and M7 v a l u e s i n b o t h T a b l e s 19 and 20. Second, t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e i n d e x e s o f ODS and OST i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y (M4 and M7, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) may be compared w i t h t h o s e g e n e r a t e d by t h e con-v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s (DI and CRVc, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) by e x a m i n i n g t h e two s e t s o f measurements i n T a b l e 20. Comparing t h e M4 and M7 v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d l y but c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a (Table 20) t o t h o s e f o r d e t a i l e d d a t a f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961 (Table 1 9 ) , we see t h a t t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f change i s s i m i l a r : f l u c t u a t i o n s , b u t n e t d e c l i n e s over' t h e 1901-1961 p e r i o d . I n t h e case o f t h e b r o a d l y 85 c l a s s i f i e d d a t a , t h e 1931 and 1941 v a l u e s do not exceed t h o s e f o r 1901, as happens w i t h the d e t a i l e d d a t a . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the M7 v a l u e f o r OST f o r 1911, t h e measurements f o r t h e b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a a r e l o w e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e d e t a i l e d d a t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the 1931-1961 p e r i o d . E x a m i n i n g t h e M4 and M7 v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g measurements o b t a i n e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s o f ODS and OST (DI and CRVc, r e s p e c -t i v e l y ) , we see (Table 20) t h a t t h e two s e t s o f v a l u e s suggest s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s : n e t d e c l i n e s w i t h r i s e s o v e r t h e 1931-1941 p e r i o d . One may a l s o note t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e M4 v a l u e f o r 1961, h a l f (49.5 p e r cent) o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would r e q u i r e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o b r i n g about a p e r f e c t l y even d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f women among o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . I t may f u r t h e r be no t e d t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e DI v a l u e o f t h a t y e a r , o v e r t h r e e - f i f t h s (61.1 p e r ce n t ) o f women would have t o change j o b s t o a c h i e v e a d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e same as t h a t o f men. Having c o n s i d e r e d t h e measurements o f OSS w i t h b o t h d e t a i l e d and comparable d a t a , as w e l l as w i t h b o t h c o n v e n t i o n a l measures and t h e i n d e x e s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y , we n e x t examine t h e measurements o f S I S . T a b l e 21 p r e s e n t s RS v a l u e s f o r 1951, 1961, and 1971, t h e o n l y y e a r s f o r w h i c h census o c c u -p a t i o n s may be ranked . There a r e two s e t s o f r e s u l t s : measure-ments t a k e n w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s ranked a c c o r d i n g t o th e B l i s h e n i n d e x e s as w e l l as v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e d a t a grouped a c c o r d i n g t o the s i x , e q u a l - i n t e r v a l " c l a s s e s . " 86 T a b l e 21 Measurements o f S I S : Canada, 1951-1971 Index and Year Ranking 1951 1961 1971 RS, d e t a i l e d -10.7 -11.8 - 3.4 (Number o f r a n ks) (209) (298) (497) RS, broad -28.8 6.9 0.6 (Number o f c l a s s e s ) (6) (6) (6) Do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e number o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n T a b l e 19 because o f t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o the c o n v e n t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i n d e x (Duncan, 1952:268), t h e RS v a l u e s o f -10.7 and -11.8, based on t h e d e t a i l e d r a n k i n g s f o r 1951 and 1961, r e s p e c t i v e l y , would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o v e r a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f women was "somewhat" lo w e r t h a n t h a t f o r men i n th o s e y e a r s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e f o r 1971 (-3.4) i s c l o s e r t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f g e n e r a l e q u a l i t y ( i . e . , 0.0), but s t i l l f a v o u r i n g the male l a b o u r f o r c e . The RS v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the ranked d a t a grouped i n t o t h e s i x e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s s u g g e s t a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t r e n d . The v a l u e f o r 1951 i n d i -c a t e s t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o men, women were v e r y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the lower c l a s s e s . The v a l u e s f o r 1961 and 1971 suggest a r e v e r s a l i n t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e se x e s , w i t h some advantage f o r women i n 1961, s c a r c e l y any i n 1971. RS v a l u e s , 87 t h e n , appear t o be a f f e c t e d s l i g h t l y by t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a p p l i e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h b o t h d e t a i l e d and grouped d a t a s u g g e s t a d e c l i n e i n t h e degree o f SIS. The measurements r e v i e w e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t the hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S . Between 1891 and 1971, t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s e x h i b i t e d upward t r e n d s , as assumed. The i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS suggest t h a t t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s underwent n e t d e c l i n e s o v e r t h e same p e r i o d . I n the n e x t s e c t i o n we examine t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e s e t s o f measure-ments t o t e s t the hypotheses f u r t h e r . C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s : OSS, S I S , and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n and between the s e t s o f v a l u e s f o r the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s examined above. We are i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n a r e i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o OSS and S I S , as e x p e c t e d , t h e r e s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s among t h e i n d i -c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Second, t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y might p r e s e n t a problem i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . We a l s o e x p e c t t o f i n d p o s i t i v e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among i n d e x e s o f ODS, OST, and SIS. As w e l l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e measure-ments o f OSS and SIS t a k e n w i t h d e t a i l e d , r a t h e r t h a n b r o a d l y 88 c l a s s i f i e d , o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e consequences o f u s i n g d e t a i l e d d a t a . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o r r e -l a t i o n s between the v a l u e s o f t h e OSS i n d e x e s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y and t h o s e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l measures, as w e l l as t h e r e l a t i o n between RS v a l u e s computed w i t h d e t a i l e d r a n k i n g s and th o s e c a l c u l a t e d f o r grouped d a t a , a r e o f i n t e r e s t i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e measures o f OSS and SIS i n t r o d u c e d h e r e . F i n a l l y , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e depen-dent and independent v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e a t e s t o f t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S IS. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s : Independent  V a r i a b l e s T a b l e 22 p r e s e n t s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the i n d i -c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The v a l u e s above t h e d i a g o n a l a r e f o r t h e 1951-1971 p e r i o d and i n c l u d e t h o s e i n v o l v i n g p r o d u c t i v -i t y , measurable o n l y f o r t h e t h r e e most r e c e n t census y e a r s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s below t h e d i a g o n a l a r e f o r 1891 t h r o u g h 1971 and, t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e o n l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, urban-i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e , as t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d . F o r 1951-1971, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and p r o d u c t i v i t y and between u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n a r e p e r f e c t ( r = 1.00), and none o f the o t h e r s i s l e s s t h a n 0.98. F o r 1891-1971, the low-e s t c o e f f i c i e n t i s t h a t f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and u r b a n i z a t i o n (0.97). B oth c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g b u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n a r e 0.98. The magnitude o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s among T a b l e 22 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among I n d i c a t o r s 3 o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 (Below D i a g o n a l ) , 1951-1971 (Above Dia g o n a l ) T e c h n o l o g i c a l P r o d u c t i v i t y U r b a n i z a t i o n B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n Development T e c h n o l o g i c a l Development — P r o d u c t i v i t y U r b a n i z a t i o n 0.97* B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n 0.98* 1.00* 0.99* 0.99* — 0.99* 0.98 — 1.00* 0.98* — * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l . F o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , see Table 19. 90 t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y must be borne i n mind when t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e s u b j e c t e d t o m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s : Dependent  V a r i a b l e s I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 23. A l l a r e i n t h e e x p e c t e d , p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . E x a m i n i n g the v a l u e s by column, from l e f t t o r i g h t , we may ob s e r v e t h a t i n t h e 1891-1971 s e r i e s ODS and OST a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ( r = 0.93). The o t h e r c o e f f i c i e n t s ( i . e . , t h o s e above t h e d i a g o n a l ) a r e f o r t h e 1951-1971 p e r i o d , f o r whi c h SIS i s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b o t h d e t a i l e d r a n k i n g s and t h e e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between ODS and OST i s v i r t u a l l y p e r f e c t (0.99). The RS measurements 1 o f SIS c a l c u -l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d d a t a a re p e r f e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h OST (r = 1.00) and n e a r l y so w i t h ODS (0.99). The RS v a l u e s c a l -c u l a t e d w i t h t h e ranked d a t a grouped i n t o t h e s i x c l a s s e s , how-e v e r , a r e o n l y m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ODS (0.70) and OST (0. 5 7 ) , as w e l l as w i t h t h e RS measurements based on d e t a i l e d r a n k i n g s (0.59). I f s q u a r e d , a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g RS v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h grouped d a t a would produce c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n l e s s t h a n 0.50. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f RS v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d c l a s s e s , t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . The v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e measurements o f ODS and OST ^ h e a b s o l u t e RS v a l u e s a r e used f o r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s . T a b l e 23 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among Dependent V a r i a b l e s : Canada, 1891-1971 (Below D i a g o n a l ) , 1951-1971 (Above D i a g o n a l ) ODS OST M4D a M7D SIS RSD SIS RSB a ODS M4D — 0.99* 0.99* 0.70 OST M7D 0.93* — 1.00* 0.57 S I S = RSD — 0.59 SIS, RSB — * S i g n i f i c a n t a t th e 0.05 l e v e l . a"D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d d a t a . b„ B„ i n d i c a t e s RS c a l c u l a t e d w i t h s i x , e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s . s u g gest t h a t e i t h e r t h e i n d e x o f ODS (M4) o r t h a t o f OST (M7) might be used as a s i n g l e , g e n e r a l i n d e x o f OSS. The a s s o c i -a t i o n between t h e RS v a l u e s computed w i t h d e t a i l e d , r a nked d a t a and t h o s e c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e s i x e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s sug-g e s t s t h a t RS may be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o whi c h i t i s a p p l i e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s m a l l number o f cases p r e -c l u d e s a d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h ypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S , a l l c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e p o s i t i v e . B e f o r e t u r n i n g from t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among 92 measurements o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s between the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s , we s h a l l con-s i d e r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e v a l u e s o f OSS computed w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s and thos e based on b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a , as w e l l as t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between each o f t h e measures o f ODS and OST i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y (M4 and M7, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x (DI and CRVc, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The former c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l s u g g e s t t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h t h e use o f d e t a i l e d d a t a may b i a s t h e measurement o f OSS, whereas t h e l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l i n d i c a t e the u t i l i t y o f M4 and M7 used t o measure ODS and OST, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r the f i r s t time i n t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e 24 c o n t a i n s the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e measurements o f OSS f o r the 1901-1961 p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h i t may be n o t e d t h a t , a g a i n , a l l t h e r e l a t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d m a i n l y i n the c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the second d i a g o n a l above and t o the r i g h t o f the p r i n c i p a l d i a g o n a l . S t a r t i n g a t t h e t o p of t h i s d i a g o n a l , we note t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between M4 v a l u e s f o r ODS computed w i t h d e t a i l e d d a t a and t h o s e c a l -c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a i s moderate ( r = 0.57), and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the two s e t s o f M7 measurements o f OST i s low (0.37). These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , i f n o t the number o f c a t e g o r i e s , may a f f e c t b o t h M4 and M7. C o n t i n u i n g down the d i a g o n a l , we observe t h a t i n t h e b r o a d l y b u t con-s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s o f ODS (DI) and OST (CRVc) w i t h M4 and :M7; a r e v e r y h i g h 93 T a b l e 24 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Among Indexes o f OSS: Canada, 1901-1961 ODS M4D OST M7D ODS, M4B OST. M7B ODS, DIB OST CRVcB D ODS M4D — 0.92* 0.57 0.70* 0.68* 0.75* OST M7D a — 0.25 0. 37 0. 38 0.43 ODS, M4 B —— 0.97* 0.98* 0.90* OST, M7B 0.99* 0.96* ODS, DIB — 0.91* OST . CRVcB — * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l . "D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . b "B" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y , b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a . ( r = 0.98 and 0.96, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a M4 and M7 a r e v a l i d measures o f ODS and OST. B e a r i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i n mind, we n e x t c o n s i d e r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s between each o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s and t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n s : Dependent and  Independent V a r i a b l e F H a v i n g o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among b o t h 94 t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y pos-i t i v e , as i m p l i e d by t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S , we a r e now ready t o examine the a s s o c i a t i o n s between t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s . T a b l e 25 summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e c h -n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and each measurement o f ODS and OST. A l l v a l u e s are n e g a t i v e , as p r e d i c t e d . Examining the c o e f f i c i e n t s by column, from l e f t t o r i g h t , we see t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n s between ODS, measured by M4 w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s from 1891 t h r o u g h 1971, and b o t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l development ( r = -0.72) and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n (-0.71) a r e s u b s t a n t i a l , t h e i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between t h i s measurement o f ODS and u r b a n i z a t i o n i s o n l y moder-a t e (-0.62). In the second column we may n o te t h a t t h e i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between OST, measured by M7 w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d d a t a f o r 1891-1971, and each o f t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n are r e l a t i v e l y low and, a g a i n , the l o w e s t i n v o l v e s u r b a n i z a t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g columns o f T a b l e 25 c o n t a i n t h e c o r r e -l a t i o n s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t o r s w i t h v a l u e s f o r M4 and M7, as w e l l as f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s o f ODS and OST (DI and CRVc), c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961. A l l t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e v e r y s t r o n g i n v e r s e a s s o c i a t i o n s between the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e s e measurements o f OSS. The o n l y c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a b s o l u t e v a l u e s below 0.85 i n v o l v e OST o r u r b a n i z a t i o n . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l Table 25 C o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Between Indexes o f OSS and I n d i c a t o r s o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971) and Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961) Indexes o f OSS  Dimension o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 1891-1971 1901-1961 ODS, OST, ODS OST ODS OST M4D M7D M4B C M7B C DIB CRVcB C T e c h n o l o g i c a l development -0.72* -0.46 -0.94* -0.84* -0.88* -0.71* U r b a n i z a t i o n -0.62* -0. 32 -0.88* -0.77* -0.80* -0. 65 B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n -0.71* -0.44 -0.91* -0.79* -0.85* -0.66* * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . F o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , see Table 19. "D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . c "B" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a . 96 s u p p o r t f o r t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between each o f t h e d imensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n measurable f o r 1891 t h r o u g h 1971 and b o t h ODS and OST. The r e l a t i v e l y weaker a s s o c i a t i o n i n v o l v i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , as n o t e d i n C hapter I , t h e OSS o c c a s i o n e d by t h e employment o f women i n urban-based s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s may m i t i g a t e t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n on OSS. T a b l e 26 summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the depen-dent and independent v a r i a b l e s f o r 1951 t o 1971, t h e o n l y p e r i o d f o r w h i c h p r o d u c t i v i t y and SIS may be i n c l u d e d . A g a i n , a l l c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e i n t h e e x p e c t e d , n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the column on t h e extreme l e f t , we o b s e r ve t h e v e r y s t r o n g i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d between ODS and each o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; the a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f each c o r r e l a t i o n i s above 0.85. The c o e f f i c i e n t s i n t h e n e x t column t o the r i g h t i n d i c a t e v e r y s t r o n g i n v e r s e a s s o c i a t i o n s ( r = -0.87) between OST and b o t h u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n , and s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between OST and b o t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l development (-0.80) and p r o d u c t i v i t y (-0.77). Moving t o t h e second column from t h e r i g h t , we o b s e r v e an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s between t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and SIS measured w i t h d e t a i l e d , r a n k e d d a t a . The c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the column on t h e f a r r i g h t i n d i c a t e v e r y s t r o n g i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between SIS (measured w i t h t h e r a nked o c c u p a t i o n s c o l l a p s e d i n t o s i x e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s ) and a l l f o u r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f a l l t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s i s a t l e a s t 0.90. 97 T a b l e 26 C o r r e l a t i o n s (Pearson's r ) Between Indexes o f OSS and SIS and I n d i c a t o r s 3 o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1951-1971 Dimension o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ODS, M4D OST, M7D SIS, RSD SIS RSB C T e c h n o l o g i c a l development -0.89 -0.80 -0.81 -0.95 P r o d u c t i v i t y -0.87 -0.77 -0.78 -0.96 U r b a n i z a t i o n -0.94 -0.87 -0.87 -0. 90 B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n -0.94 -0. 87 -0.88 -0.90 F o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , see T a b l e 19. "D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d d a t a . C"B" i n d i c a t e s RS c a l c u l a t e d w i t h s i x , e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s . These r e s u l t s . f o r t h e 1951-1971 p e r i o d uphold t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between p r o d u c t i v i t y and b o t h ODS and OST, and p r o v i d e f u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between b o t h ODS and OST and t h e o t h e r t h r e e d imensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between OSS and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , however, s h o u l d be drawn w i t h c a u t i o n , s i n c e t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e M4 and M7 v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d d a t a o n l y . These f i n d i n g s a l s o s u p p o r t t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between SIS and each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h c o n c l u s i o n s must be t e n t a t i v e , g i v e n the u n c e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n d e p e n -dence o f RS from t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h i t i s a p p l i e d . 98 The r e s u l t s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , t h e n , s u p p o r t t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS and SIS. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among b o t h t h e dependent and i ndependent v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e , as i m p l i e d by the e x p e c t a t i o n o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between t h e dependent and i ndependent v a r i a b l e s . The a s s o c i a t i o n s between each o f t h e dim e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and a l l i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS ar e w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n n e g a t i v e , as p r e d i c t e d . We nex t c o n s i d e r t h e r e l a t i v e and c o l l e c t i v e i m p a ct o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r v a r i a t i o n i n b o t h ODS and OST. R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : ODS, OST, and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d so f a r i n d i c a t e t h a t (1) t h e l e v e l o f each o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s o v e r t i m e , as assumed by the t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r I ; (2) i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among b o t h t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s a r e p o s i t i v e , as t h e o r e t i c a l l y i m p l i e d ; and (3) t h e r e l a t i o n s between the dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g a t i v e , as e x p e c t e d . I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e v a l u e s o f ODS and OST a r e l i n e a r l y r e g r e s s e d on tho s e f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d i n C h apter I I , t h e d a t a f o r b o t h p r o d u c t i v i t y and SIS a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o i n c l u d e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n such m u l t i p l e r e g r e s -s i o n s . The more s t r i n g e n t t e s t o f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n , t h e r e -f o r e , i s n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s between OSS and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, 99 u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s used i s a f o r w a r d s t e p w i s e p r o -c e d u r e , 1 by w h i c h th e independent v a r i a b l e s are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s i n s u c c e s s i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 2 e x p l a i n i n g t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . T h i s p r o -cedure i s used because i t i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e o f e r r o r i n the p r e s e n c e o f m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y ( c f . P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971: 347). A l t h o u g h t h e independent v a r i a b l e s a r e h i g h l y i n t e r c o r -r e l a t e d , m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y does n o t p r e s e n t as s e r i o u s a problem as i t would i f t h e r e were b l o c k s o f independent v a r i a b l e s , d i f -f e r i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e number o f p r e d i c t o r s c o n t a i n e d , w h i c h c l e a r l y i s n o t t h e case here ( c f . B l a l o c k / , 1 9 7 2 : 4 5 7 ) . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s n o t employed here t o t e s t a c a u s a l model o f t h e r e l a t i o n s between the dependent and i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , because t h e assumptions r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s use o f t h e p r o c e d u r e a r e n o t w a r r a n t e d . As n o t e d i n t h e p r e -v i o u s c h a p t e r , the t h e o r e t i c a l s e q u e n c i n g o f t h e independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s i s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d . Moreover, t h e r e i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r assuming t h a t the s e t o f v a r i a b l e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s , much l e s s r e p r e s e n t s , a " c l o s e d system" ( c f . L o e t h e r and M c T a v i s h , 1974:310). I n s t e a d , t h e purpose o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n s i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i v e and '''The s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e i s t h e SPSS " f o r w a r d ( s t e p w i s e ) i n c l u s i o n " subprogram (Nie e t a l . , 1975:345). 2 Thus, the v a r i a b l e e n t e r i n g on t h e f i r s t s t e p o f the a n a l y s i s i s the one most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , and t h e r e m a i n i n g i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r o f t h e s i z e o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e squared p a r t i a l c o r r e -l a t i o n s w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . 100 c o l l e c t i v e i m p a c t o f t h e indepe n d e n t v a r i a b l e s on each d i m e n s i o n o f OSS. A c c o r d i n g l y , the f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w o f the r e s u l t s o f the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s f o c u s s e s on t h e squared m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n 2 c o e f f i c i e n t (R ) , wh i c h i s o f i n t e r e s t f o r such d e s c r i p t i v e p urposes (Hocking, 1976:14). S i n c e t h e number o f independent v a r i a b l e s ( t h r e e ) i s l a r g e r e l a t i v e t o the number o f u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s ( n i n e census 2 y e a r s ) , some " s h r i n k a g e " o f R may be e x p e c t e d . I n t h e s e c i r -2 cumstances, x t xs more a p p r o p r x a t e t o c o n s x d e r a d j u s t e d R v a l u e s , c o r r e c t e d t o account f o r t h e l o s t degrees o f freedom, though n o t f o r s a m p l i n g e r r o r ( C r o c k e r , 1972:32). The n i n e census y e a r s under e x a m i n a t i o n , however, c o n s t i t u t e a popu-l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a random sample t h e r e o f . The problem o f s h r i n k a g e a r i s i n g from s a m p l i n g e r r o r (McNemar, 1961:184-185), t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s a n a l y s i s ( c f . P o s t o n and Johnson, 1971:345). The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 27. I n t h e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n s o f b o t h ODS and OST on th e i ndependent v a r i a b l e s , t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y have been c o n s i d e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y : t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, 2 u r b a n x z a t x o n , and b u r e a u c r a t x z a t x o n . The a d j u s t e d R v a l u e s f o r the r e g r e s s i o n o f ODS i n d i c a t e t h a t n e a r l y h a l f t h e v a r i -a t i o n i n t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f OSS (46 per cent) would be accounted f o r by t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, and o v e r h a l f (53 p e r cen t ) by t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and u r b a n i z a t i o n j o i n t l y . These t h r e e dimensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n combined would a c c o u n t 101 T a b l e 27 S t e p w i s e M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n s o f ODS and OST on the I n d i c a t o r s 3 o f Dimensions o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 Dimension o f Step ODS OST I n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n A d j u s t e d R2 F A d j u s t e d R2 F T e c h n o l o g i c a l development 1 0.46 7.705* 0.09 1.837 U r b a n i z a t i o n 2 0.53 5.500 0.27 2.496 B u r e a u c r a -t i z a t i o n 3 0.58 4.741 0.45 3.161 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0. 05 l e v e l . F o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f T a b l e 19. the i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , see f o r 58 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n ODS. The 2 a d j u s t e d R v a l u e s f o r OST i n d i c a t e a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t e c h -n o l o g i c a l development would a c c o u n t f o r v e r y l i t t l e (9 p e r c e n t ) o f the v a r i a t i o n i n OST, u r b a n i z a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -ment would j o i n t l y e x p l a i n t h r e e t i m e s as much v a r i a t i o n (29 p e r c e n t ) , and a l l t h r e e i n d i c a t o r s combined r a i s e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e t o n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n OST. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n t h e f i n a l s t e p i n t h e compu-t a t i o n s f o r b o t h ODS and OST, a l t h o u g h the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f -f i c i e n t s f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n a r e n e g a t i v e as p r e d i c t e d , t h a t f o r u r b a n i z a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e . T h i s f i n d i n g i s t h e o p p o s i t e n o t o n l y o f what i s e x p e c t e d by 102 the hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between u r b a n i z a t i o n and b o t h ODS and OST, b u t a l s o o f t h e i n v e r s e ( a l b e i t r e l a t i v e l y weaker) a s s o c i a t i o n i n d i c a t e d by the c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . T h i s unexpected r e s u l t o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u n d e r s c o r e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f examining t h e r e l a t i v e and c o l l e c t i v e a s s o -c i a t i o n s between the independent v a r i a b l e s and OSS, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . The f i n d i n g o f a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , as n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I , t h e OSS o c c a s i o n e d by t h e employment o f women i n urban-based s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s may m i t i g a t e t h e o t h e r w i s e i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between u r b a n i z a t i o n and OSS. A p a r t from the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , however, the r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o r r e l a t i o n s examined i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n : t h e r e i s an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e degree o f OSS. The f i n a l s e t o f r e s u l t s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t o f the t r e n d a n a l y s i s o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s , r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . Trend A n a l y s i s : OSS and SIS A t the o u t s e t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter I , i t was n o t e d t h a t the v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s o f change i n OSS and SIS have l e d t o c o n f l i c t i n g v iews o f t r e n d s i n t h e s e phenomena. W h i l e some a u t h o r s have argued t h a t t h e degrees o f OSS and SIS s h o u l d d e c l i n e o v e r t i m e , as e x p e c t e d by t h e hypotheses under t e s t h e r e , o t h e r s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e phenomena have grown more pronounced. S t i l l o t h e r s have 103 contended t h a t t h e r e has been no change i n t h e degree o f OSS o r SIS. A l t h o u g h measurements o f OSS and SIS were r e v i e w e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e v a l u e s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s were n o t graphed, as were t h o s e o f t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h e x h i b i t e d upward t r e n d s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l assumption t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n advances o v e r t i m e . The measurements o f OSS and S I S , w h i l e showing n e t d e c l i n e s , r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n o v e r t h e e i g h t y - y e a r p e r i o d under s t u d y . T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s graphs o f t h e s e changes, as w e l l as t h e r e s u l t s o f C o x - S t u a r t t e s t s f o r t r e n d ( B r a d l e y , 1968:174-176). The M4 measurement's o f ODS, c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b o t h d e t a i l e d , and b r o a d l y but c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a , and DI v a l u e s , c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a , a r e graphed i n F i g u r e 5. The n e t d e c l i n e s , as w e l l as t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s n o t e d above, a r e a p p a r e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e o v e r a l l d e c l i n e from 63 t o 46 p e r c e n t i n t h e M4 v a l u e s computed w i t h the d e t a i l e d d a t a f o r 1891 t h r o u g h 1971 i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , b o t h t h e DI and M4 measurements, c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961, r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t downward t r e n d s , the movements o f w h i c h a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y c o i n c i d e . S i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s may be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e t s o f OST v a l u e s graphed i n F i g u r e 6. D e s p i t e t h e n e t drop from 51 t o 41 i n t h e M7 v a l u e o v e r t h e 1891-1971 p e r i o d , the f l u c t u a t i o n i s such t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i s p r e s e n t . Both t h e M7 and CRVc measurements, c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e 1901-1961 d a t a s e r i e s , however, e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t P e r Cent 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . a"D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . "B" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y b u t c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a . F i g u r e 5. ODS: Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971) , Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961). •*» P e r Cent 100 to O % C (d a m o to > 60 50 40 30 M7D"(1891-1971) M7B b(1901-1961)* CRVcB (1901-1961)* 1921 1931 Year 1941 1891 1901 1911 • S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l a"D" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . 1951 1961 "TTTT b„ B" i n d i c a t e s i n d e x c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y but c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d F i g u r e 6. o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a . OST: Canada, D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n s (1891-1971), Broad O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r i e s (1901-1961) 106 downward t r e n d s , t h e c u r v e s f o r w h i c h c o i n c i d e a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y . Measurements o f SI S , c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e RS i n d e x u s i n g b o t h d e t a i l e d and b r o a d r a n k i n g s f o r 1951, 1961, and 1971, a re graphed i n F i g u r e 7. There i s an app a r e n t movement toward e q u a l i t y ( i . e . , toward zero) i n b o t h s e t s o f v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance. A n o t h e r way t o examine SIS i s t o compare the d i s t r i -b u t i o n s o f the male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s , a c c o r d i n g t o a s i m p l e dichotomy o f t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e . F i g u r e 8 p r e s e n t s t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r 1951, 1961, and 1971. The l o w e r t h r e e c l a s s i n t e r v a l s o f the 1951 s c a l e a c c o u n t f o r a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f women (89 p e r cent) t h a n men (84 p e r c e n t ) . There i s a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e (79 per cent) than the male l a b o u r f o r c e (83 p e r cent) i n t h e l o w e r " h a l f " o f the 1961 s c a l e . The low e r t h r e e c l a s s e s o f the 1971 s c a l e c o n t a i n 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e women, as compared w i t h 75 p er c e n t o f t h e men, i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . The upper " h a l f " o f the 1971 s c a l e a c c o u n t s f o r 35 and 25 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the female and male l a b o u r f o r c e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n F i g u r e 8 s u g g e s t a s h i f t from a s i t u a t i o n o f s l i g h t advantage t o men i n 1951 t o one somewhat i n f a v o u r o f women i n 1971. I f t e s t e d f o r t r e n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e s m a l l number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s would a g a i n p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The e v i d e n c e r e v i e w e d above, t h e n , upholds t h e hypotheses o f d e c l i n e s i n ODS and OST, a t l e a s t f o r the 1901-1961 p e r i o d . The f l u c t u a t i o n i n OSS measurements c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the d e t a i l e d 1891-1971 d a t a , and the p a u c i t y o f SIS 107 +100 + 20 + 10 - c a l c u l a t e d w i t h d e t a i l e d , r a n ked o c c u p a t i o n s .. c a l c u l a t e d w i t h s i x b r o a d , e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c l a s s e s H > CO + 1951 /1961 1971 - 10 - 20 - 30 -100 1 — F i g u r e 7. S I S : Canada, 1951-1971 108 B l i s h e n C l a s s e s Upper Three C l a s s e s Male Female TFT 16% 11% Lower Three C l a s s e s 65? 84% 89% 83% I U j J 79% |75% LLii 1951 1961 1971 F i g u r e 8. P e r c e n t a g e s o f Male and Female Labour F o r c e s i n the Upper Three, and t h e Lower Three, C l a s s e s o f the B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n a l S c a l e : Canada, 1951-1971 109 measurements/ p r e v e n t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g -n i f i c a n t t r e n d s i n t h e s e s e t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . As n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , however, the o b s e r v a t i o n s under e x a m i n a t i o n are n o t f o r a sample, b u t f o r the p o p u l a t i o n i t s e l f . A c c o r d -i n g l y , s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s n o t c r i t i c a l i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . 1 A l s o o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e c u r r e n t l e v e l and f u t u r e c o u r s e o f OSS. Based on t h e DI measurements f o r t h e b r o a d l y b u t con-s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a f o r 1901 t h r o u g h 1961, t h e degree o f ODS a t the end o f t h i s p e r i o d was such t h a t o v e r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e would have had t o change j o b s i n o r d e r f o r the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e sexes t o be the same. A l t h o u g h e x t r a p o l a t i o n beyond th e range o f t h e d a t a i s dangerous ( c f . H o c k i n g , 1976:15), assuming a s t r a i g h t l i n e , and g i v e n the r a t e o f d e c l i n e i n ODS, from about 70 p e r c e n t i n 1901 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 61 p e r c e n t i n 1961, i t would t a k e r o u g h l y f o u r and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s ( u n t i l about t h e y e a r 2415) t o a c h i e v e a s e x u a l l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d work f o r c e ! Summary The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d above g e n e r a l l y u p h o l d t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s between i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and SIS. I n Canada, between 1891 and 1971, the l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n r o s e , w h i l e t h e amounts o f "'"In t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e has been r e p o r t e d , b u t not d i s c u s s e d ; i t i s con-s i d e r e d here because t h e C o x - S t u a r t t r e n d t e s t i s a p u r e l y i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e d u r e . 110 OSS and SIS d e c l i n e d , a l b e i t more s l o w l y and w i t h some f l u c t u -a t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n s between di m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and SIS were c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v e r s e , as e x p e c t e d , a l t h o u g h some o f t h o s e i n v o l v i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n and OST were r e l a -t i v e l y weak. The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , t o g e t h e r , t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n would e x p l a i n about h a l f the v a r i a t i o n i n ODS and OST. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a l s o r e v e a l e d , however, t h a t o f t h e combined e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t h r e e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d v a r i a b l e s t h o s e o f b o t h t e c h n o -l o g i c a l development and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n were n e g a t i v e , as p r e d i c t e d , whereas the e f f e c t o f u r b a n i z a t i o n was p o s i t i v e , the o p p o s i t e o f what was e x p e c t e d and o f what was s u g g e s t e d by t h e s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , i t was n o t e d t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d -i n g t h e n e t d e c l i n e s i n t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s , t h e degree o f OSS remains pronounced. The a p p a r e n t t r e n d s i n S I S , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t OSS does n o t i p s o f a c t o i m p l y SIS. Based on B l i s h e n r a n k i n g s a t l e a s t , t h e r e was l i t t l e SIS p r e s e n t i n the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e as o f 1971. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e female l a b o u r f o r c e was i n d e e d c o n c e n t r a t e d i n low r a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s o v e r the 1951-1971 p e r i o d , b u t so was t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e male l a b o u r f o r c e . 1 The r e s u l t s examined above a l s o r e v e a l t h a t the measure-ments o f ODS and OST i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( i . e . , M4 and M7, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) may be a f f e c t e d by d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , i f n o t by t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a p p l i e d . To "'"This f i n d i n g c o n c e r n i n g S I S , o f c o u r s e , i n no way g a i n -says the u n e q u i v o c a l d i s a d v a n t a g e o f women w i t h r e s p e c t t o income. I l l t h e e x t e n t t h a t such a p r o p e r t y o f t h e s e measures would p u t the r e s u l t s o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the 1891-1971 p e r i o d and o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n doubt, t h e hypotheses o f i n v e r s e r e l a -t i o n s between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS are s t i l l s u p p o r t e d by the c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e s ( e x c l u d i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y ) w i t h b o t h t h e s e i n d e x e s and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l measures o f OSS c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e b r o a d l y but c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d 1901-1961 d a t a s e r i e s . We have a l s o found t h a t RS may be a f f e c t e d by the number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h t h e i n d e x i s a p p l i e d . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f i r s t t o use a summary measure o f r e l a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , however, t h e r e i s no c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x w i t h which t o compare SIS measures o r t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t e t e s t o f t h e hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g SIS and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s about S I S , t h e r e f o r e , remain t e n t a t i v e . The t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The p r e s e n t s t u d y p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e t h e o r y t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n erodes OSS and S I S . T h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r summarizes the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , r e a s o n i n g , and hypotheses p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r . I t a l s o r e c a p i t -u l a t e s t h e methods and f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n Ch a p t e r s I I and I I I . F i n a l l y , i t o u t l i n e s some t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i -c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . The S e x u a l D i v i s i o n o f  I n d u s t r i a l Labour A s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f work o u t s i d e t h e home o c c u r s i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s i n t h e form o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n by sex (OSS), w h i c h c o m p r i s e s two d i m e n s i o n s , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e sexes among o c c u p a t i o n s (ODS) and v a r i a t i o n i n t h e sex c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s (OST), p a t t e r n s o f whic h suggest s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ( S I S ) . A l t h o u g h m a t e r i a l i s t , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches t o t h e st u d y o f OSS and SIS each i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s e phenomena, none o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s p r o v i d e s an adequate t h e o r y o f change i n OSS and S I S . I n l i n k i n g OSS t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , 112 113 the human e c o l o g i s t s o u t l i n e t h e most p r o m i s i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f change i n OSS and S I S . I d e n t i f y i n g s e v e r a l d imensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , t h e human e c o l o g i s t s argue t h a t as a s o c i e t y i n d u s t r i a l i z e s , i t becomes b u r e a u c r a t i z e d , and h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e who a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e most t o p r o d u c t i o n . I d e a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , w o r kers a r e a s s i g n e d t o o c c u p a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f achievement, r a t h e r t h a n on such a s c r i p t i v e grounds as sex. A c c o r d i n g l y , the e c o l o g i s t s e x p e c t OSS t o d e c l i n e w i t h a d v a n c i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . They do n o t , however, e x t e n d t h i s p r e d i c t i o n t o i n c l u d e S I S , n o r do t h e y s p e c i f y mechanisms l i n k i n g OSS t o each d i m e n s i o n o f i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n . The t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d as an e x t e n s i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e argument advanced by t h e human e c o l o -g i s t s . I t i s here argued t h a t the development o f machine t e c h -n o l o g y tends t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y t o s e l e c t w o r kers f o r j o b s on the b a s i s o f s t r e n g t h , and hence i n p r a c t i c e , u s u a l l y by sex. I t i s a l s o contended t h a t h i r i n g and p r o m o t i n g w o r k e r s on the b a s i s o f t h e i r p r o b a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o d u c t i o n i s i m p l i e d by t h e commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . I t i s f u r t h e r argued t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l urban m i l i e u i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n d i t i o n s (e.g., low b i r t h r a t e , c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) c o n d u c i v e t o t h e employment and advancement o f women. F i n a l l y , b u r e a u c r a c y i d e a l l y i m p l i e s t h e s e l e c t i o n and p r o m o t i o n o f workers on t h e b a s i s o f a c h i e v e d 114 q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , d e t e r m i n e d by f o r m a l i z e d , c a l c u l a b l e s t a n d a r d s , r a t h e r t h a n such t r a d i t i o n a l , o f t e n e c o n o m i c a l l y i r r a t i o n a l , c r i t e r i a as sex. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t OSS and SIS would be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, p r o d u c t i v i t y , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , and t h a t t h e degree o f b o t h OSS and SIS would d e c l i n e , as t h e l e v e l o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n advanced, o v e r t i m e . These e x p e c t a t i o n s , however, do n o t i m p l y th e e l i m i n a t i o n o f OSS o r S I S , a t l e a s t w i t h i n t h e t ime span examined. OSS, S I S , and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Canada, 1891-1971 The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f census and o t h e r o f f i c i a l Canadian d a t a f o r 1 8 9 1 1 t h r o u g h 1971 made i t p o s s i b l e t o t e s t t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c a l , i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S . I n d i c a t o r s o f t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i n d e x e s o f OSS and SIS were c a l c u l a t e d and s u b j e c t e d t o c o r r e l a t i o n , r e g r e s s i o n , and t r e n d a n a l y s i s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the dependent and i n d e p e n -dent v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v e r s e , as e x p e c t e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , t e c h n o l o g i c a l development, u r b a n i z a t i o n , and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n would a c c o u n t f o r about h a l f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n b o t h ODS and OST. I n t h e i r combined impact on t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n b ore an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n t o ODS and OST, whereas t h e e f f e c t o f ^1951 i n the case o f p r o d u c t i v i t y and SIS. 115 u r b a n i z a t i o n was p o s i t i v e . F i n a l l y , t he measurements o f ODS, OST, and SIS e x h i b i t e d n e t d e c l i n e s o v e r the p e r i o d s f o r w h i c h the d a t a were a v a i l a b l e , a l t h o u g h f l u c t u a t i o n s and a p a u c i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n s p r e v e n t e d some o f t h e t r e n d s from b e i n g s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s u l t s summarized here s u p p o r t the t h e s i s t h a t as a s o c i e t y i n d u s t r i a l i z e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -ment and a commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , as w e l l as u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , erode OSS and SIS. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e some t h e o r e t i c a l and method-o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n c l u s i o n s The t h e o r y t e s t e d here a m p l i f i e s t h e human e c o l o g i c a l a c c o u n t o f OSS. C o n c r e t e r e l a t i o n s between OSS and f o u r d i mensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a r e s p e c i f i e d w h i c h account i n p a r t f o r t h e g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS. I n a d d i t i o n , each o f t h e dimensions o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s l i n k e d l o g i c a l l y n o t o n l y t o b o t h ODS and OST, b u t a l s o t o SIS. Thus, the f o r m u l a t i o n d e v e l o p e d h e r e i n p a r t f u l f i l l s t he promise o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e from w h i c h i t i s d e r i v e d . I n t u r n , the r e s u l t s c o n f i r m the h e u r i s t i c u t i l i t y o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t . To some e x t e n t , t o o , t h e t h e o r y o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and OSS and SIS a m p l i f i e s the s o c i a l i z a t i o n approach by i n d i c a t i n g t h e c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o which s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s must adapt. A l t h o u g h the con-c l u s i o n s o f s t a b i l i t y i n OSS and SIS re a c h e d by tho s e u s i n g t h e 116 s o c i a l i z a t i o n , economic, and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches are n o t s t r i c t l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d , n e i t h e r are t h e y e n t i r e l y d e p r i v e d o f p l a u s i b i l i t y , by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n i s n o t t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d t o e l i m i n a t e OSS and S I S , the r a t e o f d e c l i n e o b s e r v e d i n OSS i s such t h a t i t s e f f e c t i s u n l i k e l y t o be e x p e r i e n c e d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . The assumption t h a t OSS i p s o f a c t o i m p l i e s S I S , however, f i n d s no s u p p o r t i n the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d h e r e . A l t h o u g h l e v e l s o f b o t h ODS and OST remain h i g h , S I S , c a l c u l a t e d w i t h B l i s h e n o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k i n g s , d e c l i n e d t o n e g l i g i b l e amounts o v e r the 1951-1971 p e r i o d f o r w h i c h i t i s measurable. Sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n income, o f c o u r s e , a r e n o t c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h i s f i n d i n g . Moreover, u n t i l a d d i t i o n a l work i s done w i t h t h e RS i n d e x o f SIS i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on SIS i s c ompleted, r e s u l t s based on t h e measurement o f SIS by t h e RS i n d e x remain t e n t a t i v e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i -b u t i o n s o f t h e male and female l a b o u r f o r c e s on t h e d i c h o t o m i z e d B l i s h e n s c a l e , however, such SIS as remained i n t h e Canadian work f o r c e i n 1971 appears t o have been t o t h e advantage o f women. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p e r h a p s , th e m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s o f b o t h sexes pursue o c c u p a t i o n s ranked i n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e s c a l e . We t u r n now from t h e o r e t i c a l t o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i -c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y i s t h e f i r s t t o i n v o l v e s i m u l t a n e o u s , summary measurement o f b o t h ODS and OST, among d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s , 117 t h r o u g h o u t an e n t i r e l a b o u r f o r c e , o v e r so l o n g a p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t has i n t r o d u c e d M4 and M7 as i n d e x e s o f ODS and OST, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d a t a i n w h i c h the number o f o c c u -p a t i o n s v a r i e s . The low t o moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e measures, computed w i t h such d a t a , and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d e x e s o f ODS (DI) and OST (CRVc), c a l c u l a t e d w i t h b r o a d l y b u t con-s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a , s u g g e s t , however, t h a t d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , i f n o t the number o f c a t e g o r i e s , may a f f e c t M4 and M7. Measurement o f change i n OSS, t h e n , s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o d e f i n i t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t d a t a s e r i e s . G i v e n t h e a l m o s t p e r f e c t c o r r e l a t i o n s among a l l OSS i n d e x e s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h c o n s i s t e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d d a t a , any one o f t h e f o u r measures used here c o u l d s e r v e as a s i n g l e , g e n e r a l i n d e x o f OSS. DI would be recommended because o f i t s d i r e c t i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y . T h i s s t u d y i s a l s o t h e f i r s t t o d i s t i n g u i s h , t h e o r e t i c -a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y , SIS from OSS, and t h e f i r s t t o u n d e r t a k e summary measurement o f S I S . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e use o f d e t a i l e d , r a nked o c c u p a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n b r o a d , e q u a l - i n t e r v a l c a t e g o r i e s a f f e c t s RS v a l u e s remains an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . G i v e n the subsequent v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e RS i n d e x , o r a m o d i f i -c a t i o n t h e r e o f , i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f r a c e , e t h n i c , and sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n s t a t u s , income, o r e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e . g . , f a c t o r i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s ) , as w e l l as p o p u l a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s ( e . g . , c o u n t r i e s , c i t i e s ) . A l t h o u g h i t must not be assumed t h a t g r e a t e r q u a n t i f i c a t i o n somehow r e s o l v e s a l l t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s , i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f i n e q u a l i t y i n g e n e r a l , and o f SIS i n p a r t i c u l a r , measurement 118 remains c o n s p i c u o u s l y i n a d e q u a t e . The h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and SIS i n Canada, documented i n t h i s s t u d y , remains t o be c o n f i r m e d i n more r e f i n e d a g g r e g a t e s and group-i n g s . Much subsequent r e s e a r c h would n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , f o r w h i c h t h e abundance and q u a l i t y o f d a t a a r e g r e a t e r t h a n were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . Tak-i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s o r census m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s as u n i t s o f a n a l y s i s , one c o u l d d e s i g n r e s e a r c h t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s between a s p e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and b o t h OSS and S I S , w i t h c o n t r o l s f o r e t h n i c i t y and age. As w e l l , degrees o f OSS and SIS u n r e v e a l e d by t h e d a t a and methods used i n t h i s s t u d y undoubtedly remain t o be s t u d i e d i n t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h work i s done, and i n w h i c h t h e consequences o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l development and a commitment t o p r o d u c t i v i t y , as w e l l as u r b a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , may be examined more d i r e c t l y . I n sum, t h i s study has c l a r i f i e d , and found s u p p o r t f o r , t h e t h e o r y t h a t a s p e c t s o f the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s erode b o t h OSS and SIS. I n so d o i n g , i t has produced the f i r s t such s e t o f r e s u l t s f o r Canada, i n d e e d f o r any c o u n t r y . F i n a l l y , i t s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . Such c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e f i n e m e n t s as u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y f a c i l i -t a t e t a k i n g the q u e s t i o n s a t i s s u e o u t o f t h e r e a l m o f assumption and s p e c u l a t i o n and p l a c i n g them i n t h e r e a l m o f e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . REFERENCES Anderson, N e l s , and Frank R. 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