UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical edition of four entertainments by Thomas Middleton for the Drapers’ Company: "The Sunne in… Burridge, Christina J. 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A1 B87.pdf [ 18.5MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094624.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094624-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094624-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094624-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094624-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094624-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094624-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094624-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094624.ris

Full Text

A CRITICAL EDITION OF FOUR ENTERTAINMENTS.BY THOMAS MIDDLETON FOR THE DRAPERS'' COMPANY: THE SUNNE IN ARIES (1621), THE TRIUMPHS OF INTEGRITY (1623), THE TRIUMPHS OF HEALTH AND PROSPERITY ( 1 6 2 6 ) , AND AN INVENTION PERFORMED FOR...EDWARD BARKHAM (1622) by CHRISTINA J . BURRIDGE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i c e s t e r , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E n g l i s h  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1978  ^  C h r i s t i n a J . B u r r i d g e 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  reference and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  for financial  is understood that copying or gain s h a l l  permission.  University of B r i t i s h  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  9 October 1978  ENGL ISH Columbia  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  Department of The  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  not be allowed without my  i i ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l o l d - s p e l l i n g e d i t i o n o f Thomas M i d d l e t o n ' s t h r e e : L o r d Mayor's Shows f o r t h e D r a p e r s ' Company,  The  Sunne i n A r i e s ( 1 6 2 1 ) , The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ( 1 6 2 3 ) , The Triumphs  of  H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y ( 1 6 2 6 ) , and t h e r e l a t e d An I n v e n t i o n (1622) f o r t h e Draper L o r d Mayor, Edward Barkham.  The g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e  e d i t i o n s e t s t h e s e f o u r p i e c e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f London c i v i c p a g e a n t r y . I t d i s c u s s e s t h e h i s t o r y , n a t u r e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show and i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , as w e l l as d r a m a t i c , c o n t e x t , c o n c e n t r a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e e x t e n t t o which such shows can be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e growing p o l i t i c a l independence  o f London.  The  importance,  o f t e n : u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , o f t h e c i v i c work t o M i d d l e t o n ' s c a r e e r i s demons t r a t e d , and h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f o r m summarized.  The c r i t i c a l  intro-  d u c t i o n t o each t e x t p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t , drawing on m a t e r i a l i n t h e D r a p e r s ' Company a r c h i v e s t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Company, d r a m a t i s t , and o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e Show. Problems o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e a c c o r d e d a s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e .  The  n o t e s f o l l o w i n g each t e x t e x p l a i n s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s , r e l a t e  critical images,  i d e a s , and t e c h n i q u e s t o o t h e r works by M i d d l e t o n and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and g l o s s d i f f i c u l t  passages.  The t e x t s t h e m s e l v e s have been e d i t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s f o r m u l a t e d by S i r W a l t e r G r e g , R. B. McKerrow, and F r e d s o n Bowers. Each t e x t i s accompanied  by:  a t e x t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n d i s c u s s i n g the t e x t  and i t s copy, p r i n t i n g - h o u s e p r o c e d u r e s , and any b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l  problems  iii a r i s i n g from t h i s ; a l i s t o f s u b s t a n t i v e c h a n g e s ; a t e x t u a l commentary d i s c u s s i n g such a l t e r a t i o n s , r e f u s a l s t o emend, t e x t u a l c r u c e s , e t c . ; a l i s t o f p r e s s - v a r i a n t s ; a l i s t o f emended a c c i d e n t a l s .  A statement o f  e d i t o r i a l procedures follows the general  An I n v e n t i o n i s  introduction.  in MS and has t h e r e f o r e been t r e a t e d more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y .  The t e x t u a l i n -  t r o d u c t i o n o u t l i n e s t h e h i s t o r y a n d s t a t e o f t h e MS and t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s of procedure  followed.  A p p e n d i x I i s a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n t i n g o f L o r d Mayor's Shows.  A p p e n d i x I I c o n s i s t s o f e x t r a c t s f r o m t h e D r a p e r s ' Company r e -  cords r e l a t i n g t o Middleton  and t h e Shows he w r o t e f o r t h e Company.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract Table o f Contents L i s t o f Figures Preface  i i iv vi vii  INTRODUCTION  1  I. II.  1  III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.  29 O c t o b e r : The L o r d Mayor's Show The G e n e s i s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show: t h e P r o c e s s i o n o f O c t o b e r 2 9 , t h e Midsummer Watch, and t h e Royal E n t r y The Development o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show The L o r d Mayor's Show and Drama Audience T h e L o r d Mayor's Show a n d i t s A u t h o r s D e v i c e s , M a c h i n e s , and Stages Actors F i n a n c e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n :  7 16 18 23 25 29 46 48  X.  The P o l i t i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e Lord Mayor's Show ...  59  XI.  The D r a p e r s ' Company i n t h e E a r l y Century XII. The Company and t h e Drama X I I I . "The P o l i t i c s o f S p e c t a c l e " XIV. M i d d l e t o n and C i v i c P a g e a n t r y • Notes  Seventeenth 66 68 70 74 86  EDITORIAL PROCEDURES  100  THE SUNNE IN ARIES  104  Critical  Introduction  106  Textual Introduction  128  Text  135  Textual Apparatus  148  C r i t i c a l Notes  152  Notes  168  Page THE TRIUMPHS OF INTEGRITY  172  C r i t i c a l Introduction  173  Textual Introduction Text Textual Apparatus C r i t i c a l Notes Notes  189 196 209 212 221  THE TRIUMPHS OF HEALTH AND PROSPERITY  224  C r i t i c a l Introduction Textual Introduction  225 238  Text Textual Apparatus C r i t i c a l Notes Notes  243 253 256 267  AN INVENTION  269  C r i t i c a l Introduction Textual Introduction  270 276  Text  282  Textual Apparatus C r i t i c a l Notes Notes  287 291 293  SELECTED REFERENCES  295  APPENDIX I." APPENDIX I I  308 312  vi LIST OF FIGURES Page I.  P l a n o f London showing t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  route  o f the L o r d Mayor's Show  5  II.  Chrysanaleia:  The F i s h i n g Busse  36  III.  Chrysanaleia:  The King o f the Moors  37  IV.  Chrysanaleia:  Merman and Mermaid  38  V.  Chrysanaleia:  The C h a r i o t o f R i c h a r d II  39  VI.  Londons Tempe: a s e a - l i o n , an Londons Tempe: H a p p i n e s s , and  The C h a r i o t o f Oceanus, T e t h y s on I n d i a n boy on an o s t r i c h The Lemnian F o r g e , the F i e l d o f the P a l a c e o f A p o l l o  40  VII. VIII. IX. X. XI.  XII. XIII.  A Greenman; from John B a t e , The M y s t e r i e s o f N a t u r e and A r t T i t l e - p a g e o f The Sunne i n A r i e s , L i b r a r y copy  41 57  Huntington 104  T i t l e - p a g e o f The Sunne i n A r i e s , N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f S c o t l a n d copy ( s l i g h t l y e n l a r g e d )  105  La S e r r e ' s e n g r a v i n g o f t h e e n t r y o f M a r i e de M e d i c i s (1638), showing t h e C h e a p s i d e C r o s s and the new S t a n d a r d  122  T i t l e - p a g e o f The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y , H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y copy  172  T i t l e - p a g e o f The Triumphs o f H e a l t h P r o s p e r i t y , Huntington  and  Library.copy  224  XIV.  Two pages o f the Crane MS o f An I n v e n t i o n  269  XV.  Edward Barkham's c r e s t  281  vii PREFACE  M i d d l e t o n ' s e n t e r t a i n m e n t s f o r t h e D r a p e r s ' Company form a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e c i v i c p a g e a n t r y o f R e n a i s s a n c e London.  By t h e e a r l y  seventeenth- c e n t u r y t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e p u b l i c d i s p l a y s was t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, a complex e v e n t whose development  owed much t o  thft  v a r i o u s m e d i e v a l and Tudor r i d i n g s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e Mayor's i n a u g u r a l p r o c e s s i o n on 29 O c t o b e r , t h e Midsummer Watch, and t h e Royal E n t r y .  The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e  h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l , as w e l l as t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t o f c i v i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i n g e n e r a l and M i d d l e t o n ' s f o r t h e D r a p e r s i n particular.  D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e l a t t e r works i s r e s e r v e d f o r  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s , The Sunne i n A r i e s ( 1 6 2 1 ) , The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ( 1 6 2 3 ) , The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y ( 1 6 2 6 ) , and An I n v e n t i o n p e r f o r m e d f o r . . . Edward Barkham (1622). E x c e p t f o r t h e s e f o u r e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , a l l q u o t a t i o n s from t h e works o f M i d d l e t o n a r e from A. H. B u i l e n ' s e d i t i o n (London, 1885); t h e s e have been checked a g a i n s t the o r i g i n a l t e x t s .  I have s u b s t i t u t e d t h e modern  use o f 1/JL and u/v_ i n q u o t a t i o n s from M i d d l e t o n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  and  have expanded a l l MS c o n t r a c t i o n s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s i n t h e e x t r a c t s from Company r e c o r d s quoted i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , but have o t h e r w i s e r e t a i n e d t h e s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s .  Those e n t r i e s from t h e D r a p e r s '  Company r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o M i d d l e t o n ' s work f o r t h e Company a r e t r a n s c r i b e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Malone S o c i e t y p r o c e d u r e s , i n t h e  Appendix.  vi i i I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e D r a p e r s ' Company f o r i t s g e n e r o s i t y i n f i n a n c i n g much o f my g r a d u a t e work and f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o use i t s a r c h i v e s and l i b r a r y d u r i n g my r e s e a r c h .  In p a r t i c u l a r , I wish t o thank t h e  Company's E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Mr. R o b e r t Brown, f o r h i s k i n d n e s s i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h c o p i e s o f documents and f o r h i s c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t i n my project.  My thanks a r e due a l s o t o my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r J o e l H. K a p l a n ,  whose h e l p and encouragement a t a l l s t a g e s have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the f i n a l r e s u l t .  L a s t l y , I wish t o acknowledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f P r o -  f e s s o r S. K. H e n i n g e r , J r . and Mr. Roy Stokes i n c h e c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and o f f e r i n g a d v i c e .  INTRODUCTION S e a r c h a l l c h r o n i c l e s , h i s t o r i e s , r e c o r d s , i n what language o r l e t t e r s o e v e r ; l e t t h e i n q u i s i t i v e man w a s t e t h e d e a r t r e a s u r e s o f h i s t i m e and e y e s i g h t , he s h a l l c o n c l u d e h i s l i f e o n l y i n t h i s c e r t a i n t y , t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b j e c t upon e a r t h r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e p l a c e o f h i s government w i t h t h e l i k e s t a t e and m a g n i f i c e n c e as i s t h e L o r d Mayor o f t h e c i t y o f London. Thomas M i d d l e t o n The f l a m b o y a n t h y p e r b o l e o f M i d d l e t o n ' s c l a i m reminds us t h a t the L o r d Mayor's Show r e a c h e d i t s z e n i t h i n t h e t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s from  1605-  39, a p e r i o d c o r r e s p o n d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o t h e growth o f London's c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f i t s e l f as a m e t r o p o l i s , a c e n t r e o f p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and c u l t u r a l l i f e , a b l e t o compete w i t h any i n Europe.  The u n p a r a l l e l e d  m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h e Show became a v i s i b l e symbol o f London's p r o s p e r i t y and e f f e c t i v e government; as a n o t h e r w r i t e r o f t h e Show, explained:  Thomas Dekker,  "London i n F o r r a i n e C o u n t r i e s i s c a l l e d t h e Queene o f C i t i e s ,  and t h e Queene-mother o v e r her owne....As t h u s i n S t a t e , shee her s e l f e i s G l o r i o u s ; so have a l l o u r K i n g s h e l d i t f i t t o make her c h i e f e R u l e r e m i n e n t , and a n s w e r a b l e t o her g r e a t n e s s e .  I.  29 O c t o b e r : The L o r d Mayor's Show  The. L o r d  Mayor's Show was, from i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e major p u b l i c  manifestation of this "greatnesse."  Designed to c e l e b r a t e the formal  i n a u g u r a t i o n o f the L o r d Mayor on 29 O c t o b e r , i t was o r g a n i z e d and p a i d for  by t h e C i t y Company t o which t h e new L o r d Mayor b e l o n g e d .  Haberdashers'  As t h e  C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s e x p r e s s e d i t s u c c i n c t l y i n 1586, i t s  2 f u n c t i o n was " t h e honor o f t h e C i t i e & w o r s h i p p o f t h i s Company." To t h i s , a l l e l s e was s u b o r d i n a t e . events:  2  The t r i u m p h f o c u s e d on t h r e e i m p o r t a n t  t h e L o r d Mayor's s w e a r i n g o f t h e o a t h a t W e s t m i n s t e r ,  a t G u i l d h a l l , and t h e t h a n k s g i v i n g s e r v i c e a t S t . P a u l ' s .  the f e a s t  The t h r e e t o -  g e t h e r s i g n i f i e d t h e harmony o f t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e C i t y government, and t h e t r i u m p h , i n t h e o r y i f n o t always i n p r a c t i c e , celebrated this.  E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s t r i u m p h was an e l a b o r a t e p r o c e s s i o n  whose v a r i o u s components were d e s i g n e d t o honour the c h i e f m a g i s t r a t e and, i n so d o i n g , e n t e r t a i n t h e c i t i z e n s , u n i t i n g a l l i n a f e s t i v e occ a s i o n t h a t f o s t e r e d t h e Londoners'  sense o f community.  One o f t h e most  i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e components was t h e s e m i - d r a m a t i c p a g e a n t s ,  essentially  p r o c e s s i o n a l t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s , which from t h e t u r n o f the s i x t e e n t h cen3  t u r y became b o t h more numerous and complex.  The b a s i c elements o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n remained t h e same from t h e e a r l y Shows i n t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h a t o f 1639, t h e l a s t Show b e f o r e t h e Interregnum.  In 1575 t h e day's e v e n t s were d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m  Symthe, a c i t i z e n and Haberdasher  o f London.  The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s p r o -  c e s s i o n t o t h o s e f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r and t h e v i v i d d e t a i l o f Smythe's a c c o u n t make i t w o r t h q u o t i n g i n f u l l :  The day o f S t . Simon and Jude he ( t h e Mayor) e n t r e t h i n t o h i s e s t a t e and o f f y c e : and the n e x t d a i e f o l l o w ing he g o e t h by w a t e r t o Westmynster, i n most tryumphl i k e manner. H i s barge b e i n g e g a r n i s h e d w i t h t h e armes of t h e c i t i e : and n e r e t h e s a y d b a r g e goeth a shyppbote o f the Queenes M a j e s t i e , b e i n g e trymed upp, and r i g g e d l y k e a s h i p p e o f w a r r e , w i t h d y v e r s peces o f o r d i n a n c e , s t a n d a r d s , penons, and t a r g e t t s o f the p r o p e r armes o f t h e s a y d Mayor, t h e armes o f t h e C i t i e , o f h i s company; and o f t h e marchaunts a d v e r t u r e r s , o r o f  3  t h e s t a p l e , o r o f the company o f t h e newe t r a d e s ; n e x t b e f o r e hym goeth t h e barge o f t h e l y v e r y o f h i s owne company, decked w i t h t h e i r owne p r o p e r armes, t h e n t h e b a c h e l e r s barge and so a l l t h e companies i n London, i n o r d e r , e v e r y one h a v i n g e t h e i r owne p r o p e r b a r g e g a r n i shed w i t h t h e armes o f t h e i r company. And so p a s s i n g e a l o n g e t h e Thamise, l a n d e t h a t Westmynster, where he taketh h i s othe in Thexcheker, b e f f o r e the judge there (which i s one o f t h e c h i e f e j u d g e s o f E n g l a n d ) , which done, he r e t u r n e t h by w a t e r as a f f o r s a y d , and l a n d e t h a t Powles w h a r f e , where he and t h e r e s t o f t h e Aldermen t a k e t h e i r h o r s e s , and i n g r e a t pompe passe t h r o u g h t h e greate s t r e e t e of the c i t i e , c a l l e d Cheapside. And f y r s t e o f a l l cometh i j g r e a t e s t a n d a r t s , one h a v i n g t h e armes o f t h e c i t i e , and t h e o t h e r t h e armes o f t h e Mayors ; company: next them i j drommes and a f l u t e , t h e n an e n s i g n o f t h e c i t i e , and t h e n about Ixx o r Ixxx poore men m a r c h i n g e i j and two t o g e a t h e r i n blewe gownes, w i t h r e d d s l e e v e s and c a p p s , e v e r y one b e a r i n g e a pyke and a t a r g e t , whereon i s p a y n t e d t h e armes o f a l l them t h a t have byn Mayor o f t h e same company t h a t t h i s newe mayor i s o f . Then i j b a n n e r s , one o f t h e kynges armes, t h e o t h e r o f t h e Mayors owne p r o p e r armes. Then a s e t t o f h a u t b o i t s p l a y i n g e , and a f t e r them c e r t a y n e w y f f l e r s , i n v e l v e t t c o t e s , and chaynes o f g o l d e , w i t h w h i t e s t a v e s i n t h e i r handes, t h e n the pageant o f tryumphe r y c h l y d e c k e d , whereuppon by c e r t a y n e f y g u r e s and w r y t i n g e s ( p a r t l y towchinge t h e name o f t h e sayd Mayor) some m a t t e r t o u c h i n g e j u s t i c e , and t h e o f f i c e o f a m a j e s t r a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d . Then x v j t r u m p e t e r s , v i i j and v i i j i n a company, h a v i n g e banners o f t h e Mayors company. Then c e r t a y n e w y f f l e r s i n v e l v e t c o t e s and c h a y n e s , w i t h w h i t e s t a v e s as a f o r e s a y d e . Then t h e b a c h e l e r s i j and two t o g e t h e r , i n l o n g e gownen, w i t h crymson hoodes on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s o f s a t t y n ; which b a c h e l e r s a r e chosen e v e r y y e a r e o f t h e same company t h a t t h e Mayor i s o f ( b u t n o t o f t h e l y v e r y ) , and s e r v e as gentlemen on t h a t and o t h e r f e s t i v a l ! d a i e s , t o wayte on t h e Mayor, b e i n g e i n nomber a c c o r d i n g e t o t h e q u a n t e t i e o f t h e company, sometimes s i x t y o r one hundred. A f t e r them x i j t r o m p e t e r s more, w i t h banners o f t h e Mayors company, t h e n t h e dromme and f l u t e o f t h e c i t i e , and an e n s i g n e o f t h e Mayors company, and a f t e r , t h e waytes o f t h e c i t i e i n blewe gownes, r e d d s l e e v e s and c a p p e s , e v e r y one h a v i n g e h i s s i l v e r c o l l e r a b o u t h i s neck. Then t h e y o f t h e l i v e r e y i n t h e i r l o n g e gownes, e v e r y one h a v i n g e h i s hood on h i s l e f t e s h o u l d e r , h a l f e b l a c k and h a l f e r e d d , the nomber o f them i s a c c o r d i n g e t o t h e g r e a t n e s o f t h e companye whereof t h e y a r e . A f t e r them f o l l o w e S h e r i f f e s o f f i c e r s , and t h e n t h e Mayors o f f i c e r s , w i t h o t h e r o f f i c e r s o f t h e c i t i e , as the comon s a r g e n t , and t h e c h a m b e r l a y n e ; n e x t b e f o r e t h e Mayor goeth t h e s w o r d b e a r e r , h a v i n g on h i s headd the  cappe o f honor, and t h e sworde o f t h e c i t i e i n h i s r i g h t hande, i n a r i c h e s k a b a r d e , s e t t w i t h p e a r l e , and on h i s l e f t e hande g o e t h t h e comon c r y e r o f t h e : c i t i e , w i t h h i s g r e a t mace on h i s s h o u l d e r , a l l g i l t . The Mayor hath on a l o n g e gowne o f s k a r l e t , and on h i s l e f t e s h o u l d e r , a hood o f b l a c k v e l v e t , and a r i c h c o l l e r o f g o l d o f SS. about h i s neck. Then a l l t h e Aldermen i j and i j t o g e t h e r (amongst whom i s t h e R e c o r d e r ) , a l l i n s k a r l e t gownes; and t h e s e t h a t have been M a y o r s , have chaynes o f g o l d , the o t h e r have b l a c k v e l v e t t t i p p e t t s . The i j S h e r e f f e s come l a s t o f a l l , i n t h e i r b l a c k s k a r l e t gownes and chaynes o f g o l d e . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the Show as Smythe d e s c r i b e s i t and t h e mature s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f o r m i s t h e v a s t l y e l a b o r a t e d p a g e a n t r y . 1575 t h e r e i s one t a b l e a u  o n l y , but i n 1602 t h e Merchant T a y l o r s  In ar-  5  range t o have "a p a g e o n [ t ] , a s h i p p , a Lyon And a Cammell."  T h e i r next  show, The Triumphs o f R e - U n i t e d B r i t a n n i a (1605) by Anthony Munday, i s s t i l l more e l a b o r a t e , h a v i n g f o u r t a b l e a u x , each w i t h a speech o r d i a l o g u e . H e r e a f t e r , f o u r o r f i v e t a b l e a u x a r e customary.  Each o f t h e s e  was  s t a t i o n e d a t some p o i n t a l o n g t h e r o u t e from t h e Thames t o t h e G u i l d h a l l and S t . P a u l ' s , and g e n e r a l l y j o i n e d t h e p r o c e s s i o n a f t e r i t had been seen by the Mayor.  In 1591, w i t h P e e l e ' s Descensus  A s t r a e a e , t h e pagean-  t r y i n c l u d e d a w a t e r show, a t a b l e a u mounted on a barge which t h e L o r d Mayor on h i s j o u r n e y by w a t e r t o W e s t m i n s t e r  and back.  accompanied This  q u i c k l y became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s ; i t s e l a b o r a t e n e s s , however,varied from year to year. The e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show e n a b l e s us t o use Smythe's 1575 d e s c r i p t i o n as a supplement  t o Company r e c o r d s  and t h e p r i n t e d t e x t s i n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t the day's e v e n t s .  The  c e l e b r a t i o n s began e a r l y i n t h e morning when t h e new L o r d Mayor, a c companied by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r and t h e most i m p o r t a n t members o f the C i t y  6 Companies, p r o c e s s e d from the G u i l d h a l l t o T h r e e Cranes Wharf where t h e y embarked f o r W e s t m i n s t e r .  There t h e L o r d Mayor t o o k h i s o a t h b e f o r e  the King o r , more u s u a l l y , honoured  his  J u s t i c e . On t h e r e t u r n j o u r n e y he  was  by s a l u t e s f i r e d f r o m both the s h o r e and a g a l l y f o i s t (a barge  l a d e n w i t h o r d n a n c e ) , and by t h e water show,jn M i d d l e t o n ' s Show o f "a p r o p e r and s i g n i f i c a n t M a i s t e r - p e e c e o f Triumph,  1623  c a l l e d the Imperial 1  Canopy, b e i n g t h e A n t i e n t Armes o f the Company" (11.29-30).  (The  t a b l e a u i s r e - u s e d by M i d d l e t o n l a t e r i n t h i s Show, The Triumphs o f Integrity.)  The L o r d Mayor and h i s e n t o u r a g e d i s e m b a r k e d ,  usually at  P a u l ' s Wharf, and were j o i n e d by a l l the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s who had meantime been b r e a k f a s t i n g .  The p r o c e s s i o n , f o l l o w i n g the o r d e r d e s c r i b e d  by Smythe ( t h a t i s , e s s e n t i a l l y one o f a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f importance began i n e a r n e s t .  In 1623 t h e f i r s t h a l t was i n S t . P a u l ' s  then  Churchyard  where the L o r d Mayor was e n t e r t a i n e d w i t h "a Mount R o y a l l , on which Mount a r e p l a c ' t c e r t a i n e Kings sprung f r o m Shepheards"  and g r e a t Commanders...that were o r i g i n a l l y  (11.37-9).  T h i s d e v i c e was t h e n c a r r i e d a t t h e  r e a r o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n and t h e L o r d Mayor was " g r a c e f u l l y c o n d u c t e d  toward  the l i t t l e C o n d u i t i n Cheape" (11.1:06-7-) and t h e C h a r i o t o f S a c r e d Memory where worthy D r a p e r s were r e p r e s e n t e d under f i g u r e s o f t h e i r v i r t u e s . The f i n a l t a b l e a u o f t h e "Fore-noones  Triumph" t o o k p l a c e near S t . Lawrence  Lane, from t h i s complex s t r u c t u r e , t h e C r y s t a l Temple o f I n t e g r i t y , t h e L o r d Mayor was  i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e v i r t u e s and d u t i e s o f m a g i s t r a c y .  The  a f t e r n o o n was o c c u p i e d by t h e G u i l d h a l l f e a s t , a f t e r which t h e p a r t i c i pants p r o c e s s e d to S t . P a u l ' s f o r d i v i n e s e r v i c e , accompanied v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x o f t h e pageant.  by t h e  These a w a i t e d t h e L o r d Mayor a f t e r w a r d s ,  and, decked e l a b o r a t e l y w i t h t o r c h e s and l i n k s , e s c o r t e d him homeward.  7  T h i s e f f e c t was o f t e n most s p e c t a c u l a r :  Middleton d e s c r i b e s the g o l d ,  s i l v e r , and c r y s t a l Temple o f I n t e g r i t y "adorned  and.beautified with  many L i g h t s , d i s p e r s i n g t h e i r g l o r i o u s R a d i a n c e s  on a l l s i d e s  the C r i s t a ! ! " (11.195-7).  thorough  On the way, a t the e n t r a n c e t o Wood S t r e e t , t h e  p r o c e s s i o n h a l t e d f o r t h e f i n a l t a b l e a u , t h e I m p e r i a l Canopy, p r e v i o u s l y seen i n t h e w a t e r show.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a t y p i c a l o r d e r f o r the  v a r i a t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , were f r e q u e n t .  day;  Sometimes d i f f e r e n t wharves were  used, and t h i s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e t a b l e a u x .  On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s ,  as w i t h The Triumphs o f T r u t h i n 1613, t h e p a g e a n t r y m i g h t s t a r t e a r l i e r with a  t a b l e a u s t a t i o n e d on t h e L o r d Mayor's r o u t e from t h e G u i l d h a l l t o  the water.  E s s e n t i a l l y , however, t h e p r o c e e d i n g s were governed  by a mixr  t u r e o f c o n v e n i e n c e and custom.  II.  The G e n e s i s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show: t h e P r o c e s s i o n o f 29 the Midsummer Watch, and the Royal  The s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  October,  Entry.  L o r d Mayor's Show had i t s r o o t s i n two  other  c e l e b r a t i o n s o f the d i g n i t y o f London's c h i e f c i t i z e n s , t h e Mayor's i n a u g u r a l p r o c e s s i o n on 29 O c t o b e r and t h e Midsummer Watch.  A f u r t h e r im-  p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e a r l y Show was t h e Royal  Entry.  The f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h e p r o c e s s i o n accompanying t h e Mayor when he went t o take h i s o a t h b e f o r e the King o r h i s J u s t i c e , d a t e s from King John's e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f y e a r l y e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e o f f i c e i n 1215 and gave the Show i t s form.  From t h e e a r l i e s t days t h i s p r o c e s s i o n t o W e s t m i n s t e r  was a  d i g n i f i e d a f f a i r ; the Mayor b e i n g accompanied by t h e A l d e r m e n , t h e s e n i o r b r e t h r e n o f h i s Company, and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r d i g n i t a r i e s and  officials.  8 By 1400 t h e p r o c e s s i o n was e l a b o r a t e enough t o r e q u i r e m a r s h a l l s and minstrels.  The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s p l a y can be gauged by t h e c o s t o f S i r  R o b e r t O t t l e y ' s p r o c e s s i o n i n 1436; t h e c h a r g e s f o r c l o t h i n g a l o n e amounted t o 4.100 and a n o t h e r 155. 13. 09h was s p e n t on t h e r e s t o f t h e r i d i n g . f i r s t t h e Mayor and h i s a s s o c i a t e s r o d e t o Westminster but from 1422 i t became customary  7  At  along the Strand,  t o go by barge a l o n g t h e r i v e r .  Middle-  t o n and t h e o t h e r pageant p o e t s , f o l l o w i n g Fabyan and Stow, m i s t a k e n l y a t t r i b u t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s custom t o a D r a p e r , S i r John  Norman.  A g a i n t h e d i s p l a y was m a g n i f i c e n t , t h e barges were f e s t o o n e d w i t h and pennants and draped w i t h p l u n k e t .  banners  Norman's barge i n p a r t i c u l a r seems  t o have made a g r e a t i m p r e s s i o n , i t s s i l v e r o a r s and g e n e r a l were s t i l l b e i n g commented upon two hundred y e a r s l a t e r .  opulence  However, t h e  b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d d i d n o t always c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e g r a n d e u r o f the o c c a s i o n .  In 1483 t h e r i v a l r y o f t h e S k i n n e r s and Merchant  Taylors  o v e r p r e c e d e n c e r e s u l t e d i n l o s s o f l i f e ; 150 y e a r s l a t e r i n 1638 t h e D r a p e r s ' Company p a i d t h e i r bargemen 2/6 " f o r t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a i n e s i n o u t r o w i n g t h e L o r d M a i o r s Barge and l a n d i n g t h e Company b e f o r e t h e L o r d Major and Aldermen were l a n d e d ( t h e L o r d M a i o r s Barge b e i n g a l m o s t o u t o f o  s i g h t rowing towards W e s t m i n s t e r  b e f o r e o u r Company t o o k e w a t e r ) . "  d i f f i c u l t y o f e n s u r i n g an o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s t o and f r o m W e s t m i n s t e r c o n s t a n t problem f o r t h e o r g a n i z e r s .  This was a  D e s p i t e i t s e l a b o r a t e n e s s , t h e pro-  c e s s i o n d i d n o t i n c l u d e any pageants u n t i l t h e 1540s when t h e Midsummer Watch was i n d e c l i n e . The Midsummer Watch was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f Midsummer f o l k f e s t i v a l , c i v i c muster, and g u i l d c e l e b r a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Stow n't was  instituted  by Henry I I I " f o r the b e t t e r o b s e r v i n g o f peace and q u i e t n e s s e amongst h i s  9 g people"  and was kept on the eves o f t h e F e a s t s o f S t . John t h e B a p t i s t  and S t . P e t e r , 24 and 29 June.  The f u s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s  is well-  caught i n Stow's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t : e v e r y mans doore b e i n g shadowed w i t h g r e e n e B i r c h , l o n g F e n n e l , S t . Johns w o r t , O r p i n , w h i t e L i l l . i e s , and such l i k e , g a r n i s h e d upon w i t h G a r l a n d s o f b e a u t i f u l l f l o w e r s , had a l s o Lampes. o f g l a s s e , w i t h o y l e b u r n i n g i n t h e m . a l l t h e n i g h t , some hung out braunches o f y r o n c u r i o u s l y wrought, c o n t a y n i n g hundreds o f Lampes 1 i g h t a t once, which made a g o o d l y shew, namely i n new F i s h s t r e e t , Thames s t r e e t e , &c. Then had y e b e s i d e s t h e s t a n d i n g w a t c h e s , a l l i n b r i g h t harnes i n e v e r y ward and s t r e e t e o f t h i s C i t i e and Subu r b s , a m a r c h i n g w a t c h , t h a t p a s s e d t h r o u g h the p r i n c i pal s t r e e t s t h e r e o f , t o w i t , f r o m t h e l i t l e C o n d u i t by P a u l e s g a t e , t h r o u g h west Cheape, by t h e S t o c k s , t h r o u g h C o r n h i l l , by Leaden h a l l t o A l d g a t e , t h e n backe downe F e n c h u r c h s t r e e t e , by G r a s s e c h u r c h , about G r a s s e c h u r c h C o n d u i t e , and up G r a s s e Church s t r e e t e i n t o C o r n h i l l , and t h r o u g h i t i n t o west Cheape a g a i n , and so broke up: t h e whole way o r d e r e d f o r t h i s marching w a t c h , e x t e n d e t h t o 3200. T a y l o r s y a r d s o f a s s i z e f o r t h e f u r n i t u r e whereof w i t h l i g h t s , t h e r e were a p p o i n t e d 700. C r e s s e t e s , 500. o f them b e i n g f o u n d by t h e Companies, the o t h e r 200. by the Chamber o f London: b e s i d e s t h e which l i g h t e s e v e r y C o n s t a b l e i n London, i n number more than 240. had h i s C r e s s e t , t h e charge o f e v e r y C r e s s e t was i n l i g h t two s h i l l i n g e s f o u r e pence, and e v e r y C r e s s e t had two men, one t o b e a r e o r h o l d i t , an o t h e r t o b e a r e a bag w i t h l i g h t , and t o s e r v e i t , so t h a t t h e poore men p e r t a y n i n g t o t h e C r e s s e t s , t a k i n g wages, b e s i d e s t h a t e v e r y one had a s t r a w n e h a t , w i t h a badge p a i n t e d , and h i s b r e a k f a s t i n the m o r n i n g , amounted i n number t o a l m o s t 2000. The m a r c h i n g watch c o n t a i n e d i n number about 2000. men, p a r t e o f them b e i n g o l d e S o u l d i e r s , o f s k i l l t o be C a p t a i n s , L i e u t e n a n t s , S e r g e a n t s , C o r p o r a l s , &c. W i f l e r s , Drommers, and F i f e s , S t a n d a r d and E n s i g n e b e a r e r s , Sword p l a y e r s , Trumpeters on h o r s e b a c k e , Demi-launces on g r e a t h o r s e s , Gunners w i t h hand Guns, o r h a l f e l hakes, A r c h e r s i n c o a t e s o f w h i t e f u s t i a n s i g n e d on t'he b r e a s t and backe w i t h the armes o f the C i t t i e , t h e i r bowes bent i n t h e i r handes, w i t h s h e a f e s of arrowes by t h e i r s i d e s , P i k e men i n b r i g h t C o r s l e t s , B u r g a n e t s , &c. Hoi b a r d s , the l i k e B i l l men i n A l m a i n e R i v e t s , and Apernes o f Mayle i n g r e a t number, t h e r e were a l s o d i v e r s P a g e a n t s , M o r r i s d a n c e r s , C o n s t a b l e s , t h e one  10 h a l f e w h i c h was 120. on S. Johns Eve, the o t h e r h a l f e on S. P e t e r s Eve i n b r i g h t h a r n e s s e , some o v e r g i l t e , and e v e r y one a J o r n e t o f S c a r l e t t h e r e u p o n , and a c h a i n e o f g o l d e , h i s Hench man f o l l o w i n g him, h i s M i n s t r e l s bef o r e him, and h i s C r e s s e t l i g h t p a s s i n g by him, t h e Waytes o f the C i t y , the Mayors O f f i c e r s , f o r h i s guard b e f o r e him, a l l i n a L i v e r y o f w o l s t e d o r Say J a c q u e t s p a r t y c o l o u r e d , the Mayor h i m s e l f e w e l l mounted on h o r s e back, t h e sword b e a r e r b e f o r e him i n f a y r e Armour w e l l mounted a l s o , t h e Mayors f o o t m e n , & t h e l i k e T o r c h b e a r e r s about him, Hench men t w a i n e , upon g r e a t s t i r r i n g h o r s e s f o l l o w i n g him. The S h e r i f f e s watches came one a f t e r t h e o t h e r i n l i k e o r d e r , but n o t . s o l a r g e i n number as t h e Mayors, f o r where t h e Mayor had b e s i d e s h i s G i a n t , t h r e e P a g e a n t s , each o f t h e S h e r i f f e s had b e s i d e s t h e i r G i a n t e s but two P a g e a n t s , ech\ t h e i r M o r r i s Dance, and one Hench man t h e i r O f f i c e r ' s i n J a c q u e t s o f W o l s t e d , o r say p a r t y c o l o u r e d , d i f f e r i n g from t h e Mayors,.and each from o t h e r , but h a v i n g h a r n i s e d men a g r e a t many, &c. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e more e n t e r t a i n i n g a s p e c t s o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, the p a g e a n t s , t h e g i a n t s , and t h e C i t y W a i t s , as w e l l as some o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , came from t h e Midsummer Show.  The a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r the Watch were, from i t s i n c e p t i o n , i n t h e hands of t h e g u i l d s .  In the e a r l y days t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e  armed men and t h e c r e s s e t s , but as t h e Watch became more e l a b o r a t e t h e m a j o r C i t y Companies seem t o have t a k e n an i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent making use o f t h e o c c a s i o n t o honour t h e i r members who  role,  had a c h i e v e d  the  o f f i c e o f Mayor o r S h e r i f f , i l 1 u s t r a t e t h e i r h i s t o r y and a s s o c i a t i o n s , and g e n e r a l l y e n t e r t a i n t h e c i t i z e n r y .  The e a r l i e s t m e n t i o n o f  pageants  i n the Watch makes i t p l a i n t h a t t h e y were p r o v i d e d by the Companies p r o v i d e d the Mayor and S h e r i f f s .  The f i r s t r e c o r d o f any pageants  from 1504 when t h e D r a p e r s ' Company p a i d L38. 13. 10% " f o r x i i j f o r mydsomerwatch f o r the s a i d M a i r . " ^ scribal error.  who  is  pageantes  The " x i i j " i s most l i k e l y a  A c c o r d i n g t o Stow t h e Mayor had t h r e e pageants and t h e  11 S h e r i f f s two e a c h , and even a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e Midsummer Show t h e Mayor had no more than f o u r and each S h e r i f f t h r e e .  The p a g e a n t s , as Stow s a y s , were p e r i p a t e t i c , b e i n g "boren the M a i r " i n the p r o c e s s i o n .  before  They were g e n e r a l l y on r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s ,  f a m i l i a r from both t h e Royal E n t r y and t h e g u i l d drama, a l t h o u g h , as S h e i l a W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t , t h e y seem t o have been i n "a d i s c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f being s e c u l a r i z e d " throughout the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ^  Pageants  were f r e q u e n t l y made new, a l t h o u g h ones from p r e v i o u s y e a r s were a t t i m e s r e f u r b i s h e d and made t o s e r v e a g a i n .  In a d d i t i o n t h e y were o c c a s i o n a l l y 12  b o r r o w e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e G i a n t s , from r e l i g i o u s g u i l d s o r o t h e r Companies. C h a r a c t e r s i n t h e pageants were g e n e r a l l y p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n ; however, 13 a d u l t a c t o r s and Company members a l s o sometimes t o o k p a r t . a l s o o f t e n supplemented  The c a s t was  by f i g u r e s c o n s t r u c t e d o f w i r e and paper.  There i s  no e v i d e n c e o f speeches b e f o r e 1541, a l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y " p l a y e d and sang" (MSC  III, p.xxi-ii).  I f the meaning o f t h e t a b l e a u x needed t o be  made c l e a r , w r i t t e n i n s c r i p t i o n s were a f f i x e d , but most o f t h e must have been v e r y f a m i l i a r t o t h e s p e c t a t o r s .  pageants  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s i n g i n g  c h i l d r e n , p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n s were o f t e n h i r e d f o r t h e p a g e a n t ;  these  i n c l u d e d p l a y e r s o f v i r g i n a l s , r e g a l s , h a r p s , l u t e s , shawms, and r e b e c k s . By 1522 t h e Midsummer Show was  i m p r e s s i v e enough f o r L o d o v i c o S p i n e l l i ,  s e c r e t a r y t o the V e n e t i a n Ambassador, t o send home an e n t h u s i a s t i c a c c o u n t o f i t . A l l t h e t a b l e a u x he d e s c r i b e s , e x c e p t S t . George and S t . John t h e B a p t i s t , were p r o v i d e d by t h e D r a p e r s ; Next came a n o t h e r band o f m u s i c i a n s , w i t h 50 men and naked boys dyed b l a c k l i k e d e v i l s , w i t h the d a r t and b u c k l e r i n t h e i r hands, g o a d i n g the f o l l o w e r s o f P l u t o ,  12 who was on a p u l p i t under a canopy s e a t e d on a s e r p e n t t h a t s p a t f i r e ; he h i m s e l f b e i n g n a k e d , w i t h a drawn sword i n h i s hand: so- c o n t r i v e d t h a t , when he b r a n d i s h e d i t , i t made t h e s e r p e n t v o m i t v e r y f e t i d s u l p h u r i c f i r e b a l l s : and on t h e p u l p i t i n f r o n t o f P l u t o were f i g u r e s o f an ox, a l i o n , and some s e r p e n t s . A n o t h e r band o f s t e e l - c l a d h a l b e r d i e r s marched n e x t , preceding a l l the Prophets, with the tree o f l i f e sprouting from t h e b e l l y o f a recumbent male f i g u r e , and by c e r t a i n mechanism t h e P r o p h e t s t u r n e d about f r o m one side to the other. They were f o l l o w e d by a band o f h a l b e r d i e r s , n e x t t o whom came a p l a t f o r m on which was a c a s t l e accompanied by m u s i c i a n s , and w i t h i n i t some armed men, who a s t h e y moved caused t h e d r a w - b r i d g e s t o f a l l and r i s e , and on t h e w a l l s were men s t a n d i n g w i t h s t o n e s i n t h e i r hands f o r i t s def e n c e a g a i n s t a T u r k i s h horseman i n p u r s u i t , armed w i t h a v e r y l o n g t i n sword t i n g e d w i t h b l o o d , who t e r r i f i e d t h o s e w i t h i n , s h o u t i n g i n E n g l i s h ["wo b e " ? ] . Then came a n o t h e r band o f h a l b e r d i e r s , f o l l o w e d by c h o r i s t e r s on f o o t i n w h i t e s u r p l i c e s , who p r e c e d e d a s t a g e on which was a v e r y b e a u t i f u l l i t t l e g i r l under a canopy o f b r o c a d e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e V i r g i n Mary, w i t h f o u r boys, a l s o i n w h i t e s u r p l i c e s , c h a n t i n g " l a u d s " . . . . Next came a band o f h a l b e r d i e r s w i t h a s t a g e , on which was S a i n t George, i n armour, c h o k i n g a b i g dragon and d e l i v e r i n g S a i n t Margaret.  \  Then came a m o r r i s dance, f o l l o w e d by t h e Mayor, S h e r i f f s , and t h e i r e n t o u r age, and f i n a l l y more p a g e a n t s : " t h e i s l e o f Patmos w i t h S a i n t John t h e E v a n g e l i s t and some t o w e r s , f r o m one o f which he was l e a n i n g , and beneath were two l i t t l e boys" and "Herod a t t a b l e , w i t h H e r o d i a s '  daughter,  the t u m b l e r , and t h e e x e c u t i o n e r who beheaded S t . John t h e B a p t i s t , who was r e p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g i n p r i s o n on t h e p u l p i t d e s c r i b e d above."  Spinelli's  a c c o u n t pays t h e Show a c o n s i d e r a b l e compliment:  " n o r do I b e l i e v e t h a t 14 anywhere e l s e i n t h e w o r l d a s i m i l a r mark o f r e j o i c i n g i s u s u a l . " The Drapers had two f a v o u r i t e p a g e a n t s ; one, o f t h e A s s u m p t i o n ,  honoured  t h e i r p a t r o n e s s t h e V i r g i n Mary, t h e o t h e r , t h e C a s t l e o f War, sometimes borrowed t h e name o f t h e S h e r i f f o r Mayor f o r t h e y e a r , hence t h e C a s t l e o f  13 Monmouth i n 1536.  Both o f t h e s e were sometimes p a i d f o r by t h e  Bachelors  o r Yeomanry o f the Company whereas a l l the o t h e r s were p a i d f o r by the Livery.  O t h e r pageants o f t h e i r s i n c l u d e S t . B l y t h e , A c h i l l e s , t h e  S t o r y o f J e s s e , S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t , S t . U r s u l a , and a King o f the Moors and h i s p a v i l i o n .  In 1522,  p r o b a b l y as a r e s u l t o f C h a r l e s V's 15 e n t r y i n t o London, t h e y planned a pageant o f t h e G o l d e n F l e e c e . The r e l i g i o u s theme o f most o f t h e s e p a g e a n t s s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Midsummer Show i n the l a t e 1530s and 1540s  may  have been a r e s u l t o f an attempt  political  t o s u p p r e s s them on r e l i g i o u s and  g r o u n d s , p a r a l l e l i n g t h e c o n t r o l and u l t i m a t e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e C y c l e plays in t h i s period.  The e d i t o r s o f Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t i o n s I I I c l a i m  t h a t the r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e  o f t h e Midsummer Show was t h a t i t s  " p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s had been t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e day o f the L o r d Mayor's inauguration" ( p . x x i i i ) .  But a l t h o u g h t h i s i s what happened, i t n e i t h e r  e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n f o r the t r a n s f e r nor t h e r e d u c t i o n i n p a g e a n t r y e a r l y L o r d Mayor's Show. the p a g e a n t r y  i n the  And on the f a c e o f i t t h i s d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s f e r  t o 29 O c t o b e r  i s s t r a n g e , f o r from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f  both p a r t i c i p a n t s and s p e c t a t o r s 24 and 29 June a r e e m i n e n t l y  preferable  days, given the E n g l i s h c l i m a t e f o r outdoor c i v i c f e s t i v i t i e s .  The o f f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n was f i n a n c i a l .  During t h i s p e r i o d there  were i n d e e d c o m p l a i n t s from members o f t h e Companies c o n c e r n i n g the e x p e n s e , but t h i s i s so t h r o u g h o u t  t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Show.  In 1541  t h e Wardens  o f t h e Drapers c o m p l a i n e d  to t h e i r C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s " t h a t t h e y f o r  e v y r y g r o t e i n tyme p a s t / a r now Fayne t o gyve v...Whiche h a t h e r y s y n e by a wanton and s u p e r f l u o w s  precydence  begon by mayres and S h e r e f f e s o f  14 the m e r c e r y / And a f t e r t h e same so r e c y t e d The seyd A s s i s t e n s sayd what remedy but go t h r o u g h wyth a l l . "  1 6  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Show o f 1539  s u p p r e s s e d by o r d e r o f Henry V I I I on t h e grounds o f expense.  was  S i n c e , how-  e v e r , the c i t i z e n s were not i n f o r m e d u n t i l two days b e f o r e t h e Show was due to t a k e p l a c e when a l l t h e money had a l r e a d y been s p e n t , t h e K i n g ' s e x p l a n a t i o n seems d i s t i n c t l y s p e c i o u s .  1 7  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no f i r m e v i d e n c e t o go on, we may be j u s t i f i e d i n assuming t h a t t h e o v e r t r e l i g i o u s c o n t e n t o f most o f t h e p a g e a n t s , a t a t i m e when t h e crown was b e g i n n i n g t o c e n s o r and r e s t r i c t o t h e r forms o f t h e a t r i c a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n v e n i e n t e x c u s e o f t h e i r c o s t , caused t h e i r d e c l i n e . P. D. L u s h e r has argued t h a t the D r a p e r s ' pageant o f t h e Assumption o f 1534 p r o v i d e s an example o f t h e i r dangerous  p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s .  In-  s t e a d o f r e f e r r i n g t o i t as a pageant o f t h e Assumption as was u s u a l , t h e D r a p e r s ' books d e s c r i b e i t as "A p a g e n t t o f A l a d y e h a v y i n g A Romayn M. g i l t i n her hond or A dyademe i i i j sqware w i t h A g r e t e M. a t e v e r y e c o r 19 ner."  L u s h e r a r g u e s t h a t such an a t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , coming a mere  two months a f t e r t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Company, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r C i t y d i g n i t a r i e s , had sworn t o a c c e p t the i l l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f P r i n c e s s Mary, i n d i cates a d e l i b e r a t e gesture o f p o l i t i c a l support f o r her.  This i s almost  c e r t a i n l y g o i n g t o o f a r ; i t i s hard t o i m a g i n e Henry i g n o r i n g such b l a t a n t defiance.  However, even w i t h o u t t h e s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e t h a t  L u s h e r s u g g e s t s , pageants o f t h e A s s u m p t i o n were u n l i k e l y t o be t h o u g h t h i g h l y o f by r o y a l a u t h o r i t y . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t among t h e e a r l y  changes  i n t h e C y c l e p l a y s a f t e r t h e break w i t h Rome i s t h e abandoning o f p l a y s on t h i s v e r y s u b j e c t .  2 0  15 Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r and adumbrat i o n o f t h e p a g e a n t r y was a d e l i b e r a t e l y j u d i c i o u s move by the C i t y F a t h e r s to c u t the c o s t s o f the Show, but a t t h e same time r e t a i n i t , i n s p i t e o f any r o y a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C i t y t r a d i t i o n . be c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e attempts 21 their Cycle plays. pageants,  T h i s would  by o t h e r m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e  F o r d e s p i t e t h e c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t the e x p e n s e o f t h e  L o n d o n e r s must have b e n e f i t e d , c o m m e r c i a l l y  points out i n the seventeenth  from them.  c e n t u r y " b e s i d e s a l l the t w e l v e  As Dekker  Companies,  ( e v e r y one o f which i s a g a y n e r by t h i s imployment:) i t would p u z z l e a good memory t o r e c k o n up a l l t h o s e Trades-men (with o t h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y 22 P r o f e s s i o n s w h i c h l i v e n o t i n t h e C i t y ) who g e t money by t h i s A c t i o n . " The f u l l y d e v e l o p e d L o r d Mayor's Show o f the s e v e n t e e n t h  century also  owes much t o t h e Royal E n t r y , a l r e a d y a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c e r e m o n i a l the m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  in  Indeed t h e e a r l i e s t example o f a t r a d e pageant  occurs in the v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r the B a t t l e o f F a l k i r k i n  1298  when t h e F i s h m o n g e r s had "4 s t o r i o n s [ s t u r g e o n s ] g y l d e d c a r y e d on 4 h o r s e s and a f t e r 4 h o r s e s c a r y e d 3 samons  of s y l v e r and a f t e r x l v i knyghts a l l 23  armed uppon l u c e s o f t h e w a t e r [ p i k e ] and S t Magnus among the r e s t . " The e a r l y Shows seem t o have borrowed the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e i r p a g e a n t s from the Royal E n t r y , but as t h e y grew more complex, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two r i d i n g s became one o f mutual i n f l u e n c e .  This i s not sur-  p r i s i n g i n view o f the p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f b o t h , t h e i r common f u n c t i o n o f f o s t e r i n g a sense o f communion between p e o p l e and r u l e r , and the i n v o l v e ment o f t h e Aldermen and l e a d i n g members o f t h e g r e a t Companies i n t h e i r organization.  C e r t a i n l y i n 1532 H a l l comments t h a t t h e C i t y ' s p r e p a r a t i o n s  16 t o accompany Anne B o l e y n on the Thames to her c o r o n a t i o n were o f a s i m i l a r 24  n a t u r e t o t h o s e i t made f o r the L o r d Mayor.  A f t e r t h e 1604  e v e r , the L o r d Mayor's Show, by r e a s o n o f i t s f r e q u e n c y eclipses i t s royal  and  E n t r y , howgrandeur,  counterpart.  The most i m p o r t a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s between the two r i d i n g s were the e a r l y  use o f s p e e c h e s i n t h e Royal E n t r y (customary from t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h and i t s use o f f i x e d r a t h e r than p e r i p a t e t i c s t a g e s .  century)  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  s p e e c h e s i n t o t h e L o r d Mayor's Show i n the m i d - s i x t e e n t h  c e n t u r y opens up  a n o t h e r a r e a o f i n f l u e n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u b j e c t m a t t e r . And as the mayoral Show became more e l a b o r a t e , s t a t i o n a r y s t a g e s , sometimes b u i l t a r o u n d the c o n d u i t s and f o u n t a i n s used so o f t e n i n the E n t r i e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y e r e c t e d .  W i t h the a d v e n t o f the p r i n t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f  t a b l e a u x and speeches we a r e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o compare e f f e c t i v e l y the two r i d i n g s .  C e r t a i n l y the d e s c r i p t i o n o f E l i z a b e t h ' s C o r o n a t i o n  was  a d i r e c t s o u r c e f o r Heywood's Londons Jus H o n o r a r i u m ( 1 6 3 1 ) ; more g e n e r a l l y 25 Sheila Williams  has t r a c e d the i n f l u e n c e o f i t s s t y l e i n P e e l e s p a g e a n t s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes c l o s e r s t i l l o f the t h r e e d r a m a t i s t s e x t a n t 1605  i n the c a s e o f James I's E n t r y , f o r  i n v o l v e d , J o n s o n w r o t e the s p e e c h e s f o r the  L o r d Mayor's Show, and Dekker and M i d d l e t o n  non-  were r e g u l a r l y  employed by t h e Companies, and d i d , i n f a c t , draw h e a v i l y on t h i s i n i t i a l experience  w i t h the pageant form i n t h e i r mayoral Shows.  I I I . The Development o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show  For a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show i n embryo we must t u r n t o 26 Henry Machyn's a c c o u n t o f t h e 1553 Show. T h e r e i s one p a g e a n t , t h a t o f  17 S t . John t h e B a p t i s t t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o f t h e Merchant T a y l o r s , t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e Midsummer Show t o t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f 29 O c t o b e r ; by t h i s t i m e i t has a c q u i r e d some " g o o d l y s p e e c h e s . "  The p r o c e s s i o n i t s e l f w i t h m u s i c i a n s ,  g i a n t s , greenmen, and a d e v i l , i s i n e s s e n c e t h e same as t h e l a t e r ones. By 1575 when W i l l i a m Smythe d e s c r i b e d the Show, the f u n c t i o n o f t h e  pageant  has a l r e a d y become f o r m a l i z e d : "Then comes the Pageant o f Tryumphe r y c h l y decked, whereuppon by c e r t a i n e f y g u r e s & w r i t i n g e s , ( p a r t l y towchinge  the  name o f t h e s a y d Mayor) some m a t t e r towchinge J u s t i c e , & t h e o f f i c e o f a majestrate i s represented."  In t h e next t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s t h e show became  l a r g e l y s e c u l a r i z e d , with h i s t o r i c a l or mythological characters r e p l a c i n g s a i n t s ; f o r example, J a s o n r a t h e r than t h e V i r g i n becomes t h e m a i n s t a y o f Drapers' iconography.  A t t h e same time t h e number o f t a b l e a u x i n c r e a s e d  from one t o between f o u r and s i x , sometimes i n c l u d i n g a water show, and the employment o f men w i t h a known t h e a t r i c a l background  and i n t e r e s t i n  s e e i n g t h e i r work i n p r i n t became h a b i t u a l . T h e s e l a s t c o i n c i d e w i t h the i n c r e a s e d w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e Companies t o pay o u t l a r g e sums o f money t o honour t h e i r b r e t h r e n and t h e i r c i t y .  Speeches came l a t e t o the L o r d Mayor's Show.  We know t h a t Machyn  mentions t h a t t h e y were " g o o d l y " i n 1553 and t h a t t h o s e f o r 1556 were w r i t t e n by "Mr. G r i m b a l d , "  presumably  N i c h o l a s G r i m a l d (MSC I I I , pp.39-40).  In 1561, however, t h e Merchant T a y l o r s p r e s e r v e d the speeches i n t h e i r Books. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e s e a l r e a d y c o r r e s p o n d t o the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by Smythe i n 1575; the L o r d Mayor was W i l l i a m H a r p e r , and a c c o r d i n g l y such famous h a r p e r s as D a v i d , O r p h e u s , Amphion, A r i o n , and I o p a s expound upon t h e n a t u r e 27 o f good government.  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s we b e g i n t o g e t t h e names o f  a u t h o r s more r e g u l a r l y : James P e e l e , f a t h e r o f George, d e v i s e d the  speeches  18 f o r t h e 1566 show, and R i c h a r d M u l c a s t e r t h o s e f o r 1568.  In 1585  the  pageant was w r i t t e n by George P e e l e , the f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f t h e employment of a p r a c t i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d r a m a t i s t and a l s o t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t a p r i n t e d t e x t , The D e v i c e o f t h e Pageant Borne B e f o r e W o o l s t a n e D i x i , s u r vives.  The c o i n c i d e n c e i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y f o r t u i t o u s . From then u n t i l  the  c e s s a t i o n o f t h e Shows i n 1639 i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r a r e f o r someone o u t s i d e t h e t h e a t r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n t o be c a l l e d i n .  Inevitably, this re-  s u l t e d i n the d r a m a t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e p a g e a n t s ; t h e p r o c e s s , howe v e r , was not an e v o l u t i o n a r y one, f o r t h e most " d r a m a t i c " o f t h e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Shows a r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y  Troia-Nova  by Dekker and The Triumphs o f T r u t h (1613) by M i d d l e t o n .  seven-  Triumphans (1612) Perhaps more im-  p o r t a n t t o the Companies was t h a t t h e i r employment o f t h e d r a m a t i s t s ena b l e d them t o draw on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s e men's s k i l l than t h e mere a b i l i t y t o w r i t e e f f e c t i v e s p e e c h e s , s u c h as t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h d e a l i n g 28 w i t h a c t o r s , s t a g e b u s i n e s s , p r o p s , and costumes.  IV.  The L o r d Mayor's Show and Drama  The q u e s t i o n o f how f a r t h e pageants were " d r a m a t i c " i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r of l a t e t h e a t t e m p t t o r e s c u e t h e s t u d y o f p a g e a n t r y  i n g e n e r a l , and  L o r d Mayor's Shows i n p a r t i c u l a r , from t h e c o n f i n e s o f mere a n t i q u a r i a n i s m and t o see t h e s e pageants  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e whole range o f d r a m a t i c  a c t i v i t y o f the E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean in a d i s t o r t i o n of t h e i r true nature.  p e r i o d has sometimes r e s u l t e d Stephen Orgel has i n s i s t e d t h a t we  s h o u l d not v i e w t h e masque as "drama manque," and t h e same i s t r u e o f 29 pageantry.  As O r g e l argues "drama e x i s t s i n t i m e : t h i n g s happen and  c h a r a c t e r s a c t on each o t h e r " ; but t h i s e x c l u d e s most o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  19 f e a t u r e s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show.  On t h e whole t h i n g s do n o t happen,  t h e y a r e o n l y expounded, and c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t p r i m a r i l y o n l y as s t a t i c e x e m p l a r s , not as f i g u r e s c a p a b l e o f change. o f p r o c e s s , and l i t t l e p l o t o r d i a l o g u e . s p e c t a c l e and i t s e x p o s i t i o n .  In s h o r t t h e r e i s no s e n s e  The emphasis i n s t e a d i s on  Of c o u r s e t h e L o r d Mayor's Shows do have  d r a m a t i c e l e m e n t s , sometimes, as i n T r o i a - N o v a  Triumphans and The Triumphs  o f T r u t h , more pronounced than a t o t h e r t i m e s , but n e v e r combined i n t o a whole.  P a g e a n t s , t h e n , must be a c c o r d e d  t h e i r own  laws; i t i s a d i s t o r -  t i o n to use t h e e x t e n t to which t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e d r a m a t i c as a c r i t e r i o n of t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e .  T h i s i s not t o deny, as G l y n n e Wickham has so c l e a r l y  d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f p a g e a n t r y i s e s s e n t i a l to an under-  s t a n d i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f drama d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d or t h a t t h e r e a r e many c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between p a g e a n t r y and the r e g u l a r drama, but r a t h e r t h a t , i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, i t i s e s s e n t i a l not t o f o r g e t t h a t t h e o c c a s i o n w h i c h i t c e l e b r a t e d , i t s n a t u r e , i t s f o r m , and i t s 30  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y i n h i b i t e d any t r u l y d r a m a t i c  action.  A m a j o r impediment t o t h e d r a m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Show was s t r i c t c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by t h e Companies.  the  The day's t r i u m p h s were  o r g a n i z e d and p a i d f o r by w h i c h e v e r Company t h e new L o r d Mayor b e l o n g e d to.  As t h e H a b e r d a s h e r s ' s t a t e m e n t q u o t e d e a r l i e r s u g g e s t s , t h e Companies  had a c l e a r i d e a o f what t h e y wanted and s i n c e t h e y p a i d t h e p i p e r t h e y c a l l e d t h e tune.  T h e i r i n c r e a s i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay out l a r g e sums o f  money f o r t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s i s as i m p o r t a n t  f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e  f o r m as t h e i r employment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d r a m a t i s t s .  Without t h i s f i n a n -  c i a l s u p p o r t , t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n t h e number o f t a b l e a u x and t h e g r o w i n g  20 e l a b o r a t i o n c o u l d n e v e r have o c c u r r e d .  I t i s probably not c o i n c i d e n c e  t h a t t h e most e x p e n s i v e Show b e f o r e t h e R e s t o r a t i o n , t h e G r o c e r s ' c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r S i r Thomas M y d d l e t o n ,  1613  i n c l u d e s t h e most d r a m a t i c o f t h e  p a g e a n t s , w r i t t e n by M i d d l e t o n f o r h i s namesake, w h i l e one o f t h e l e a s t d r a m a t i c (and one o f t h e w o r s t , a l t h o u g h t h e two a r e by no means synonymous), M i d d l e t o n ' s The Triumphs  o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y ( 1 6 2 6 ) , formed p a r t o f t h e  cheapest triumph, t h a t f o r Cuthbert Hacket, Draper.  The G r o c e r s p a i d o u t  about t1300 o f which j u s t l e s s t h a n h a l f was expended on t h e pageant  itself;  the D r a p e r s s p e n t -k545. 13. 08 o f which a b o u t one q u a r t e r went on t h e pageant (MSC I I I , pp.86, 110).  The heavy e x p e n d i t u r e e n t a i l e d c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n by Company o f f i c i a l s ; i n a m a t t e r as i m p o r t a n t as t h e honour o f t h e C i t y and i t s own memb e r s , no Company would h a v e . r e l i n q u i s h e d much i n t h e way o f c o n t r o l t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e dangerous  p r o f e s s i o n of the t h e a t r e .  On t h e w h o l e ,  the Companies g o t what t h e y wanted and were w e l l - s e r v e d by t h e men  they  employed; however, t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r c o n t r o l c o u l d n o t but i n h i b i t i n novation.  F o r i n s t a n c e , as l o n g as t h e t a b l e a u x were s k i l f u l l y e x e c u t e d , t h e  D r a p e r s c o u l d be r e l i e d upon t o be. s a t i s f i e d w i t h ones f e a t u r i n g sheep and s h e p h e r d s , o r J a s o n and t h e Golden F l e e c e .  Or, as Ben Jonson more  d i s p a r a g i n g l y put i t i n h i s s a t i r i c a l p o r t r a i t o f Munday i n The Case i s A l t e r e d , "such t h i n g s e v e r a r e l i k e b r e a d , w h i c h t h e s t a l e r i t i s , t h e 31 more holesome."  C e r t a i n l y when t h e Companies c o m p l a i n e d , i t was  on a c c o u n t o f t h e t a b l e a u x p e r s e , but r a t h e r t h e " i l l performance of."  not there-  In 1609 t h e Ironmongers o b j e c t e d . t h a t "the c h i l d r e n weare not i n -  s t r u c t e d t h e i r s p e e c h e s . . . t h a t t h e M u s i c k and s i n g i n g e weare w a n t i n g , t h e a p p a r r e l l most o f i t o l d and borrowed, w i t h o t h e r d e f e c t s " (MSC I I I ,  21 p.76). i n 1626.  S i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may have prompted 32  the Drapers' complaints  In such c a s e s , however, t h e Company had e f f e c t i v e  remedies;  f i r s t i t c o u l d w i t h h o l d p a r t o f t h e payment and s e c o n d , i t c o u l d d e c l i n e t o employ t h e o f f e n d i n g d r a m a t i s t o r a r t i f i c e r i n t h e f u t u r e . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n on t h e d r a m a t i c development  o f t h e L o r d Mayor's  Show was i t s o c c a s i o n a l n a t u r e and i t s f u n c t i o n as a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e mutual s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f r u l e r and r u l e d . Stephen O r g e l has argued t h a t i n t h e case o f t h e masque i t t o o k t h e t a l e n t s o f Jonson t o overcome t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e f o r m , u n i f y i t s d i s p a r a t e e l e m e n t s , and c r e a t e 33 a t e x t independent o f performance.  T h i s n e v e r happened w i t h t h e L o r d  Mayor's Show, and one i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n why i t d i d n o t was t h a t i t s o u t d o o r , p e r i p a t e t i c f o r m made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t , even i f d r a m a t i s t and Company had so d e s i r e d , t o a c h i e v e a n y t h i n g o t h e r than what O r g e l c a l l s t h e u n i t y o f a pageant-- t h a t i s , a v a r i e t y o f d i s c r e t e d e v i c e s , u n i f i e d e s s e n t i a l l y by s y m b o l i c a n d t h e m a t i c means r a t h e r t h a n by d r a m a t i c i n t e r p l a y o f c h a r a c 34 ter.  I t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e Royal E n t r y n e v e r d e v e l o p e d  beyond  t h i s p o i n t e i t h e r , d e s p i t e t h e d i s b u r s e m e n t i n 1604 o f v a s t sums o f money and t h e employment o f J o n s o n , Dekker, and M i d d l e t o n .  Jean J a c q u o t ' s  comments on t h e e s s e n t i a l d i v e r s i t y o f t h e Royal E n t r y a r e e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e L o r d Mayor's Show:  "Le p o u v o i r monarchique  s e donne en  s p e c t a c l e a l a c i t e ; l a c i t e s e donne en s p e c t a c l e au s o u v e r a i n — e t a elle-meme c a r e l l e p r e n d a l o r s c o n s c i e n c e de s o n u n i t e , de son harmonie dans l a d i v e r s i t e des r e s p o n s a b i l i t e s , des r a n g s , des p r o f e s s i o n s . Les s e n t i m e n t s de f i d e l i t e e t de p r o t e c t i o n , l ' i d e e de c o n c o r d e n e c e s s a i r e au t r a v a i l p a c i f i q u e e t a l a pros p e r i t e ne s ' e x p r i m e n t pas seulement  22 dans un c o r t e g e s o l o n n e l aux costumes e c l a t a n t s e t accompagne de m u s i q u e , mais pas des d e c o r s , des t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s commentes par des d e v i s e s ou 35 des d i s c o u r s . "  S i n c e , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e w r i t e r s were o b l i g e d t o c e l e b r a t e  t h e same e v e n t i n v e r y much t h e same way y e a r i n and y e a r o u t t h e y p r o b a b l y • d e s e r v e c o n g r a t u l a t i o n f o r t h e changes t h e y managed t o r i n g on t h e b a s i c themes and t a b l e a u x t h a n c r i t i c i s m f o r t h e i r l a c k o f i n v e n t i o n . The problem was s t i l l f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e occasion.  The p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f both t h e L o r d Mayor's Show and Royal  E n t r y i n e v i t a b l y a c t e d as a b r a k e on t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n i n t o t h e pageant form.  M i d d l e t o n t r i e d t o surmount t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n  The Triumphs o f T r u t h ( 1 6 1 3 ) , t o a modern r e a d e r t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g o f and s a t i s f y i n g o f t h e Shows, by u s i n g a m o r a l i t y - l i k e s t r u c t u r e t o u n i f y its parts.  But i t was an e x p e r i m e n t t h a t n e i t h e r he ( n o r Dekker who a t -  tempted s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r i n T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans,  1612) e v e r r e p e a t e d ,  and i t i s f a i r t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r grounds f o r t h i s than t h e 36  "dotage" s u g g e s t e d by D a v i d B e r g e r o n .  He a r g u e s t h a t t h e s e f i r s t shows  by Dekker and M i d d l e t o n a r e p r a i s e w o r t h y because t h e y a r e "an a t t e m p t to add d r a m a t i c v a l u e by g i v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between v i r t u e and v i c e a s i g n i f i c a n t , d r a m a t i z e d t e n s i o n , not m e r e l y a v i s u a l s t a t e m e n t . "  In  c o m p a r i s o n , t h e l a t e r shows a r e " s o r e l y l a c k i n g " : " r i c h i n s p e c t a c l e t h e y may be, but t h e d r a m a t i c ' s o u l ' i s a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . " a r g u a b l e t h a t t h i s development  However, i t i s  o f t h e d r a m a t i c " s o u l " was e s s e n t i a l l y a t  odds w i t h t h e s p e c t a c u l a r , o c c a s i o n a l , and p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, t h a t Dekker and M i d d l e t o n r e c o g n i z e d t h i s , and so abandoned t h e i r i n i t i a l experiments.  C e r t a i n l y one wonders how many p e o p l e under-  23 s t o o d t h e i n n o v a t i o n s o f The Triumphs o f T r u t h ; indeed as R. C. B a l d comments, the s u s t a i n e d a l l e g o r y o f t h i s pageant must have been " q u i t e un37 i n t e l l i g i b l e t o any e x c e p t t h e L o r d Mayor and t h o s e b e s i d e him. V.  Audience  I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t g i v e n the c o n d i t i o n s l i k e l y t o p r e v a i l on the day--a good chance o f bad weather and an enormous c r o w d - - t h e e f f e c t i v e p a r t o f t h e Show f o r most o f t h o s e who watched i t must have been the s p e c tacle.  Only t h o s e c l o s e t o t h e L o r d Mayor h i m s e l f c o u l d have been a s s u r e d  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s p e e c h e s , and whether t h e y a l w a y s l i s t e n e d v e r y a t t e n t i v e l y may be doubted.  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y must c e r t a i n l y have been e x a c e r -  b a t e d by t h e t u r b u l e n c e o f t h e crowd.  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e triumphs  of  1617, f o r which M i d d l e t o n w r o t e The Triumphs o f Honor and I n d u s t r y , by O r a z i o B u s i n o , c h a p l a i n t o t h e V e n e t i a n Ambassador, makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the s p e c t a t o r s was f a r from  sedate:  On l o o k i n g i n t o t h e s t r e e t we saw a s u r g i n g mass o f p e o p l e , moving i n s e a r c h o f some r e s t i n g p l a c e w h i c h a f r e s h mass o f s i g h t s e e r s grouped h i g g l e d y p i g g l e d y r e n d e r e d i m p o s s i b l e . I t was a f i n e m e d l e y : t h e r e were o l d men i n t h e i r d o t a g e ; i n s o l e n t y o u t h s and boys, e s p e c i a l l y the a p p r e n t i c e s a l l u d e d t o ; p a i n t e d wenches and women o f t h e lower c l a s s e s c a r r y i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a l l a n x i o u s t o see t h e show. We n o t i c e d but few coaches and s t i l l fewer horsemen; o n l y a few gentlewomen coming i n t h e i r c a r r i a g e s f o r a v i e w a t some house i n t h e Row belonging to t h e i r f r i e n d s or r e l a t i o n s , f o r the i n s o l e n c e o f the mob i s extreme. They c l i n g b e h i n d t h e coaches and s h o u l d t h e coachman use h i s whip, t h e y jump down and p e l t him w i t h mud. In t h i s way we saw them bedaub t h e smart l i v e r y o f one coachman, who was o b l i g e d t o put up w i t h i t . In t h e s e g r e a t u p r o a r s no sword i s e v e r u n s h e a t h e d , e v e r y t h i n g ends i n k i c k s , f i s t y c u f f s and muddy f a c e s .  24 From t h e windows an i n c e s s a n t shower o f s q u i b s and c r a c k e r s were thrown i n t o t h e mass b e n e a t h , f o r which t h e boys s c r a m b l e d when t h e y were c o l d . On s u r v e y i n g t h e windows a l o n g t h e s t r e e t , as f a r as t h e eye c o u l d r e a c h , we p e r c e i v e d s u n d r y g a l l a n t s i n a t t e n d a n c e on f i n e l a d i e s . . . w e were a s s u r e d t h a t the g a l l a n t s were t h e s e r v a n t s o f t h e s e l a d i e s , which i n p l a i n language means t h e i r l o v e r s Some o f our p a r t y saw a w i c k e d woman i n a rage w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l supposed t o b e l o n g : t o t h e S p a n i s h embassy. She urged t h e crowd t o mob him, s e t t i n g t h e example by b e l a b o u r i n g him h e r s e l f w i t h a cabbage s t a l k and c a l l i n g him a S p a n i s h r o g u e , and a l t h o u g h i n v e r y b r a v e a r r a y h i s garments were f o u l l y smeared w i t h a s o r t o f s o f t and v e r y s t i n k i n g mud which abounds here a t a l l s e a s o n s . ™ When we r e a d M i d d l e t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e " n o b l e S o l e m n i t i e s " we s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h e r e a l i t y o f p u s h i n g , s h o v i n g , and r e v e l r y t h a t l a y beh i n d them.  F o r i f the r i d i n g s were on one l e v e l t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f a  m y s t i c s o c i a l communion, on a n o t h e r t h e y had always p r o v i d e d f o r such as Perkin Revelour, the For Out Til And  i r r e s i s t i b l e opportunity f o r a holiday:  whan t h e r any r i d y h g was i n Chepe o f t h e shoppe t h i d e r wolde he l e p e - t h a t he hadde a l t h e s i g h t e y s e i n , daunced w e l , he wolde n a t come a y e y n - -  The s p e c t a t o r s a r e i n d e e d one o f t h e f a s c i n a t i n g elements o f t h e Show, f o r b e h i n d t h e d e s i r e t o honour C i t y and Company comes t h e i n t e n t i o n o f entertaining the c i t i z e n s .  The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e Shows i s a d e q u a t e l y  a t t e s t e d t o by t h e d e c i s i o n t o e x e c u t e S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h on 29 O c t o b e r s o " t h a t t h e pageants and f i n e shewes might drawe away t h e p e o p l e f r o m be40 holding the t r a g o e d i e of the g a l l a n t s worthies t h a t ever England bred." The prime a u d i e n c e was, o f c o u r s e , t h e L o r d Mayor and h i s r e t i n u e ; however, 41 t h e y , i n t u r n formed p a r t o f t h e show f o r e v e r y o n e e l s e . London was t h e r e .  And i n d e e d a l l  The Companies were, i n a s e n s e , a microcosm o f t h e  25  s o c i e t y o f the c a p i t a l .  Although e s s e n t i a l l y representing the e s t a b l i s h e d  merchant c l a s s o f London, k i n g s , queens, and n o b l e s b e l o n g e d t o them, w h i l e the humblest a p p r e n t i c e might a s p i r e , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f London success s t o r i e s , to r i s e through t h e i r ranks to the u l t i m a t e d i g n i t y of L o r d Mayor.  As S p e n d a l l i n Greenes Tu Quoque e x c l a i m s "by t h i s L i g h t I  doe not t h i n k e but t o bee L o r d M a i o r o f London b e f o r e I d i e , and have 42 t h r e e Pageants c a r r i e d b e f o r e me, b e s i d e s a S h i p p e and an U n i c o r n e . " In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s t h e t r i u m p h s were sometimes g r a c e d by members o f the r o y a l f a m i l y ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l were always t h e r e , and f a s h i o n a b l e s o c i e t y t u r n e d out t o amuse i t s e l f by l o o k i n g a t e v e r y o n e e l s e . And the g r e a t mass o f c i t i z e n s were p r e s e n t s i n c e i t was t h e i r show. t h e d e v i s e r s o f the pageants  Thus  had t o p l e a s e an a u d i e n c e o f g r e a t s o c i a l  d i v e r s i t y , t h e " s h a r p e and l e a r n e d " and t h o s e o.f "grounded  judgements.  B u s i n o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h o s e o f any s o c i a l s t a n d i n g d i d n o t m i n g l e w i t h the crowds i n t h e s t r e e t but s t a t i o n e d t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e windows o f houses a l o n g the r o u t e . i t d i f f i c u l t t o hear the speeches d i s c e r n much o f what was happening  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y may have f o u n d ( B u s i n o makes no mention o f them) o r in the pageants.  So i t seems l i k e l y  t h a t Dekker and M i d d l e t o n were r i g h t t o s t r e s s t h a t "The m u l t i t u d e i s now t o be o u r A u d i e n c e , whose heads w o u l d m i s e r a b l y runne a wool 1 - g a t h e r i n g , 44 i f we doo but o f f e r t o breake them w i t h h a r d words."  VI.  The A l t h oLuogrhd Mayor's i t i s t r Show u e t h and a t t hi etrse Aaurteh o or cs c a s i o n s when the pageant  poets  r e l y on f o r m u l a - w r i t i n g ( M i d d l e t o n ' s 1626 Show, e s s e n t i a l l y c o b b l e d up from  26 e a r l i e r ones i s a c a s e i n p o i n t ) , on the whole t h e y t o o k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y and produced e f f e c t i v e p a g e a n t s .  " I n e v i t a b l e monotony  i n s p i t e o f e n d l e s s v a r i a t i o n s " i s t h e comment o f a modern r e a d e r , one 4  who has r e a d t o o many pageants t o o q u i c k l y t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r d i v e r s i t y . C e r t a i n l y i f we t u r n t o what t h e a u t h o r s t h e m s e l v e s had t o say a b o u t what t h e y were d o i n g we f i n d t h a t t h e y had a f i r m g r a s p o f b o t h t h e p o t e n t i a l and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e form i n which t h e y were w o r k i n g . comments on t r i u m p h s a r e e s p e c i a l l y  Dekker s 1  illuminating:  Tryumphes, a r e t h e most c h o i c e and d a i n t i e s t f r u i t t h a t s p r i n g from Peace and Abundance; Love begets > them; and Much C o s t b r i n g s them f o r t h . E x p e c t a t i o n f e e d s upon them, b u t seldome t o a s u r f e i t e , f o r when she i s most f u l l , her l o n g i n g wants something t o be s a t i s f i e d . So i n t i c i n g a shape t h e y c a r r y , t h a t P r i n c e s t h e m s e l v e s t a k e p l e a s u r e t o b e h o l d them; t h e y w i t h d e l i g h t ; common p e o p l e w i t h a d m i r a t i o n . They a r e now and t h e n t h e R i c h and G l o r i o u s F i r e s o f Bounty, S t a t e , and M a g n i f i c e n c e , g i v i n g l i g h t and beauty t o t h e C o u r t s o f K i n g s : And now and t h e n , i t i s but a d e b t payd t o Time and Custome:. And out o f t h a t d e b t come These. ( I l l , 230) H i s c l e a r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t peace and abundance a r e n e c e s s a r y p o l i t i c a l  con-  d i t i o n s f o r the f l o u r i s h i n g of such events i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r t h e Shows were abandoned when i t became o b v i o u s t h a t London's p e a c e a b l e e s t a t e ( L o n d i n i S t a t u s "Pacatus was t h e t i t l e o f Heywood's 1639 Show, t h e l a s t b e f o r e t h e Interregnum) was a myth.  B e s i d e s Dekker and M i d d l e t o n t h e two major w r i t e r s o f mayoral b e f o r e 1639 were Munday and Heywood. m a l i g n e d by both contemporary  pageants  Munday has had t h e m i s f o r t u n e t o be 46  and modern c r i t i c s .  However, a c a r e f u l  r e a d i n g o f h i s pageants s u g g e s t s t h a t some, a t l e a s t , o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s  27 misplaced.  S h e i l a W i l l i a m s comments t h a t h i s pamphlets r e a d " l i k e the  work o f a man who 47 along."  i s i n v e n t i n g t h e form o f what he i s w r i t i n g as he goes  T h i s i s t r u e ; the c r e d i t f o r a l o g i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d t e x t a p p e a r s  t o b e l o n g to Dekker.  But t h i s does n o t mean t h a t Munday c o u l d n o t w r i t e a  good p a g e a n t , s i m p l y t h a t he had n o t l e a r n t how t o o r g a n i z e a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e v e n t .  In f a c t , o n e s u s p e c t s t h a t some o f h i s  e s p e c i a l l y f o r instance M e t r o p o l i s Coronata  pageants,  (1615) w i t h i t s speech and song  from Robin Hood and h i s Merry Men and t h e i r r e q u e s t f o r f u r t h e r employment a t C h r i s t m a s , were f o u n d more e n t e r t a i n i n g by many o f the s p e c t a t o r s and even Company o f f i c i a l s than some o f the more p i o u s m o r a l i z i n g s o f o r Dekker.  Middleton  Munday, w r i t i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the heyday o f the Show, has  l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f the f o r m ; t h e same i s t r u e o f Heywood w r i t i n g a t i t s c l o s e .  In h i s c a s e t h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f the  reduced s t a t u s o f t h e w r i t e r , f o r , as i n the case o f t h e masque, by the  mid-  16305 t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e " d e v i s e " and " i n v e n t i o n " o f t h e pageant has c l e a r l y passed t o t h e a r i t f i c e r ; i n 1638 and 1639 the Drapers  negotiate  w i t h John and M a t h i a s C h r i s t m a s who a r e made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g 48 wood.  Hey-  By t h i s time t h e t e x t s were p r i n t e d b e f o r e the p e r f o r m a n c e , but  Heywood uses t h e f r e e d o m o f no l o n g e r h a v i n g to d e s c r i b e t h e t a b l e a u x i n d e t a i l , n o t to e x p l a i n the n a t u r e o f triumphs  but r a t h e r t o d i s p l a y h i s  e r u d i t i o n and expound a t l e n g t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h i s r a t h e r i d i o s y n c r a t i c and r e c o n d i t e symbolism.  Indeed S i r M o r r i s Abbot ( f o r whom  P o r t a P i e t a t i s , 1638, was w r i t t e n ) may w e l l have f e l t v e r y g r a t e f u l f o r an 49 e x p l a n a t i o n o f why he was t o r e s e m b l e a r h i n o c e r o s . M i d d l e t o n , however, l i k e Dekker, i s c o n c e r n e d  t o e x p l a i n both what a  28 triumph i s and what i t s h o u l d do, but i n h i s c a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s i s r e d u c e d by h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o prove h i m s e l f a b e t t e r a r t i s t t h a n his  r i v a l Munday.  The o p e n i n g t o The Triumphs  o f Love and A n t i q u i t y (1619)  shows t h a t he had a f i r m g r a s p o f what was r e q u i r e d : " t h e r e i s f a i r hope t h a t t h i n g s where i n v e n t i o n f l o u r i s h e s , c l e a r A r t and her g r a c e f u l p r o p r i e t i e s s h o u l d r e c e i v e f a v o u r and encouragement from the c o n t e n t o f t h e s p e c t a t o r , w h i c h , n e x t t o t h e s e r v i c e o f h i s honour and h o n o u r a b l e S o c i e t y , i s t h e p r i n c i p a l reward i t l o o k s f o r " ( V I I , 315).  The honour o f t h e magi-;  s t r a t e and t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s p e c t a t o r a r e not i n t h e m s e l v e s , however, s u f f i c i e n t ; as Dekker had a l s o emphasized,  t h e e n t i c i n g shape o f t h e  pageant i s a means t o an end--the i n s t r u c t i o n o f b o t h m a g i s t r a t e and p e o p l e in t h e i r mutual d u t i e s :  "Nor have t h e s e k i n d o f t r i u m p h s an i d l e r e l i s h ,  e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y be a r t f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d : under s u c h an esteemed  slight-  ness may o f t e n l u r k t h a t f i r e t h a t may shame the b e s t p e r f e c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e what g r e a t e r means f o r t h e i m i t a t i o n o f v i r t u e and n o b l e n e s s can anywhere p r e s e n t i t s e l f w i t h more a l a c r i t y t o t h e b e h o l d e r , t h a n t h e memora b l e fames o f t h o s e w o r t h i e s i n t h e c a s t l e . . . " (The Triumphs o f Honor and I n d u s t r y , V I I , 295).  So t h e pageants o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show a r e i n -  t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n as m i n i a t u r e M i r r o r s f o r M a g i s t r a t e s , and i t i s as w e l l to r e c a l l t h a t t h e age g e n u i n e l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a r t t o a f f e c t d i r e c t l y t h e moral b e h a v i o u r o f an i n d i v i d u a l .  To us t h e pageant  poets  seem a t t i m e s t o be i n d u l g i n g i n g r o s s l y unwarranted f l a t t e r y ; however, a t a t i m e when f l a t t e r y was an a c c e p t e d mode o f e x p r e s s i o n , t h e y were ing  ( a d m i t t e d l y w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s and l i t t l e o f Ben  endeavourJonson's  l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y ) t o be " m i r r o r s o f mans l i f e , whose ends, f o r t h e e x c e l l e n c e of t h e i r e x h i b i t e r s (as b e i n g t h e d o n a t i v e s , o f g r e a t P r i n c e s , t o t h e i r  p e o p l e ) o u g h t alwayes t o c a r r y a m i x t u r e o f p r o f i t , w i t h them, no l e s s e 50 then d e l i g h t . " And second i n the manner d e s c r i b e d by Bacon, "a form due i n c i v i l i t y t o k i n g s and g r e a t p e r s o n s , laudando p r a e c i p e r e , when by 51 t e l l i n g men what t h e y a r e , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t o them what t h e y s h o u l d be."  V I I . D e v i c e s , Machines and S t a g e s The d e v i c e s on which t h e pageant poets r e l i e d were t h e f a m i l i a r ones o f m e d i e v a l and Tudor t h e a t r e and e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  V a r i a t i o n s on t h e mount,  a r b o u r , tower, f o u n t a i n , and c h a r i o t abound i n t h e L o r d Mayor's Show; e s s e n t i a l l y , t h e s k i l l o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r l a y i n t h e changes  they  c o u l d r i n g on t h e s e b a s i c d e v i c e s r a t h e r than i n t h e i n v e n t i o n o f new ones.  So, f o r i n s t a n c e , M i d d l e t o n ' s C h a r i o t o f Honour i n The  Triumphs  o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626) seems u n s a t i s f a c t o r y not because i t i s y e t a n o t h e r use o f a c h a r i o t , but because M i d d l e t o n ( a l t h o u g h C h r i s t m a s must presumably s h a r e some o f t h e blame) has s i m p l y l i f t e d t h e C h a r i o t o f S a c r e d Memory from The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ( 1 6 2 3 ) , renamed i t , and a t t a c h e d a s p e e c h which has l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n t o the t a b l e a u .  He has  f a i l e d t o i n v e n t a new f i c t i o n f o r an o l d d e v i c e and t h e one he does p r o v i d e , by i t s b r e a c h o f decorum, draws a t t e n t i o n t o h i s l a c k o f o r i g i nality.  The D r a p e r s would have been j u s t i f i e d i f t h e y had f e l t t h e y had  seen i t b e f o r e . The c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e v i c e s and t h e i r imp o r t a n c e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R e n a i s s a n c e s t a g e c r a f t have been w e l l 52 d e m o n s t r a t e d by George K e r n o d l e and Glynne Wickham;  accordingly I  p r o p o s e t o examine o n l y t h o s e d e v i c e s used r e g u l a r l y by M i d d l e t o n .  The  two most u b i q u i t o u s a r e the c h a r i o t and t h e m o u n t / i s l a n d ; t h e y a p p e a r i n a l l h i s Shows.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e c h a r i o t i n p r o c e s s i o n s may owe some  t h i n g t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the R e n a i s s a n c e t r i u m p h a l p a r a d e , but i t i s more l i k e l y t o have been a d a p t e d from t h e C o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s where i t 53 was i n r e g u l a r use by a t l e a s t t h e 1540s. And o f c o u r s e c h a r i o t s a l s o appear on t h e p u b l i c s t a g e i n p l a y s l i k e T a m b u r l a i n e and The B a t t l e o f 54 A l c a z a r ; one i s l i s t e d i n Henslowe's 1598 I n v e n t o r y .  For t h e L o r d  Mayor's Show t h e c h a r i o t p r o v i d e d an a d a p t a b l e means o f t r a n s p o r t f o r a group o f k i n g s , w o r t h i e s , v i r t u e s , o r whatever, w h e t h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to a p r o c e s s i o n .  l i v e or carved,  I t was g e n e r a l l y drawn by t h e  m y t h o l o g i c a l o r h e r a l d i c b e a s t s , c a r v e d o r made o f l a t h and p l a s t e r , t h a t were a c o n s t a n t element o f t h e Show's a t t r a c t i o n s . C h a r i o t s i n t h e D r a p e r s ' p a g e a n t s were always drawn by two p e l l i t e d ( i . e . s p o t t e d ) l i o n s , t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e Company's arms.  The d e v i c e i t s e l f c o u l d v a r y con-  s i d e r a b l y i n s i z e f r o m the s c a l l o p s h e l l o f Oceanus i n Dekker's B r i t a n n i a s Honor  (1628) t o the m a s s i v e c h a r i o t i n Munday's C h r y s a n a l e i a :  The Golden F i s h i n g (1616) which c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t n i n e t e e n f i g u r e s .  The  c h a r i o t c o u l d a l s o be combined w i t h o t h e r d e v i c e s : Dekker c o n s i d e r s i t t o be synonymous w i t h t h r o n e i n both T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans and B r i t a n n i a s Honor, a g l a n c e a t t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement  o f t h e s e a t i n g i n the  Chrysanaleaia drawing confirms the genesis of t h i s . The m o u n t a i n i s a b a s i c d e v i c e o f e a r l y p a g e a n t s , tournaments,  and t h e C y c l e p l a y s .  entertainments,  Its symbolic p o s s i b i l i t i e s are obvious  o f t e n i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e commonwealth.  The two m o u n t a i n s i n the  f o r P r i n c e A r t h u r and C a t h e r i n e o f Aragon  pageants  i n 1501 r e p r e s e n t E n g l a n d  and  Spain r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I t i s used t o p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t i n E l i z a b e t h ' s  C o r o n a t i o n Show where a green mountain and a b a r r e n mountain R e s p u b l i c a bene i n s t i t u t a and R u i n o s a R e s p u b l i c a .  symbolize  T h i s d e v i c e was  con-  55  s c i o u s l y r e - u s e d by Heywood i n Londons J u s Honorarium  (163T).  Middle-  t o n ' s p r o p e n s i t y f o r t h e m o u n t / i s l a n d can be e x p l a i n e d b y ' t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e Companies f o r w h i c h he wrote.  Of h i s seven  Shows t h r e e were w r i t t e n f o r t h e G r o c e r s and t h r e e f o r t h e D r a p e r s .  The  G r o c e r s always e x p e c t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s p i c e i s l a n d s from which t h e y d e r i v e d t h e i r w e a l t h and t h e D r a p e r s were e q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e i r sheep.  The m o u n t / i s l a n d i s an o b v i o u s c h o i c e t o f u l f i l both t h e s e  requirements.  A g a i n v a r y i n g degrees o f e l a b o r a t i o n a r e p o s s i b l e . In  1613, when t h e G r o c e r s s p e n t a s m a l l f o r t u n e on t h e Show, M i d d l e t o n and h i s a r t i f i c e r p r o d u c e f i v e i s l a n d s , a c a s t l e on t h e l a r g e s t , m i d d l e  one,  and a s h i p as w e l l ; i n 1617, when t h e y s p e n t l e s s , t h e y g o t o n l y t h e Continent of India.  F o r t h e D r a p e r s M i d d l e t o n uses t h e mount as an  a r b o u r on whose beauty " w o o l l y c r e a t u r e s " g r a z e , but i t a l s o a p p e a r s as a mount r o y a l f o r t h o s e shepherds who " r i s e t o be k i n g s " i n The Triumphs Integrity.  of  In The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y (1619) t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f  Honour, a d e v i c e which we m i g h t have e x p e c t e d t o be o f t h e s a n c t u a r y t y p e i s d e s c r i b e d by M i d d l e t o n as "a Mount o f R o y a l t y . " O t h e r i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e s used by M i d d l e t o n a r e t h e t o w e r / c a s t l e , t h e f o u n t a i n , and t h e s a n c t u a r y / p a v i l i o n .  The tower i s a common d e v i c e i n  p a g e a n t r y from a t l e a s t t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e c o n d u i t s which p r o v i d e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e m i - c a s t e l l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e a r t i f i c e r t o base h i s d e s i g n s upon.  L i k e t h e m o u n t a i n , t h e tower was o f t e n  used i n both m e d i e v a l drama and l a t e r p a g e a n t r y t o s y m b o l i z e t h e c i t y o r the kingdom.  However, t h e r e a r e good grounds f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e  c l a s s i c a l t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s o f James I's Royal E n t r y i n 1604 a f f e c t e d the 56 type o f d e s i g n .  C e r t a i n l y t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f M i d d l e t o n and Dekker  o f t e n seem c l o s e r t o a c a s t l e o r temple t h a n a tower.  For i n s t a n c e ,  B r i t a n n i a ' s Watch Tower i n B r i t a n n i a s Honor (1628) i s "a M a g n i f i c e n t S t r u c t u r e , A d v a n c i n g i t s e l f e from the P l a t f o r m e , o r Ground-worke upward w i t h the Bewty o f e i g h t A n t i q u e Termes, By whose s t r e n g t h i s supp o r t e d a Foure s q u a r e B u i l d i n g ; The Toppe o f which i s a Watch-Tower, o r L a n t h o r n e , w i t h e i g h t Columnes o f s i l v e r " ( I V , 91). The f o u n t a i n i s d e s c r i b e d by K e r n o d l e as "perhaps t h e most p r o t e a n o f the s c e n i c d e v i c e s .  On one o c c a s i o n a symbol o f a g a r d e n , on o t h e r s  i t was an i n d e p e n d e n t monumental and s c e n i c form; a t s t i l l o t h e r t i m e s i t became an open p a v i l i o n , a c a s t l e , a t e m p l e , a g r o t t o , a c r o s s , a f l e u r - d e - l i s , an Agnus D e i , a t r e e , a t r i u m p h a l a r c h , o r a s t r u c t u r e t o 57 s u p p o r t an upper s t a g e o r an o r c h e s t r a o f m u s i c i a n s . "  I t was  very  p o p u l a r i n f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Royal E n t r i e s when i t was o f t e n b u i l t  around  one o f the c o n d u i t s , as f o r i n s t a n c e w i t h L y d g a t e ' s t h r e e w e l l s c e l e b r a t i n g the r e t u r n o f Henry VI from h i s P a r i s C o r o n a t i o n i n 1432.  However,  the f o u n t a i n became l e s s p o p u l a r i n l a t e r c i v i c p a g e a n t r y , a p p e a r i n g o n l y 1  some f i v e t i m e s .  P e e l e uses i t Descensus  A s t r a e a e ( 1 5 9 1 ) , and Dekker has  a F o u n t a i n o f V i r t u e i n t h e Nova F e l i x A r a b i a a r c h o f The M a g n i f i c e n t E n t e r t a i n m e n t (1604), as does Heywood i n S c a t u r i g o (1632).  Londini Artium & Scientarum  M i d d l e t o n uses i t The Sunne i n A r i e s and The Triumphs  o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y . None o f t h e t e x t s o f t h e s e pageants  includes  33 much i n t h e way o f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d e v i c e ; t h i s may be b e c a u s e o f i t s f a m i l i a r i t y r a t h e r than the d r a m a t i s t ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t .  5 8  L i k e many o f t h e o t h e r d e v i c e s , the e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f t h e s a n c t u a r y v a r i e s ; a t one end o f t h e s c a l e i s the s i m p l e p a v i l i o n , sometimes cont a i n i n g a t h r o n e , and a t the o t h e r i s such a complex n e o - G r e c i a n  structure  as t h e Temple o f I n t e g r i t y i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y whose c r y s t a l a p p e a r a n c e i s t h e v i s u a l embodiment o f the moral p u r i t y o f i t s o c c u p a n t . At times t h e s a n c t u a r y c l o s e l y resembles  the t o w e r / c a s t l e , doubtless t h i s  owes much t o the i n f l u e n c e o f c l a s s i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . The Booth s k e t c h o f Dekker's P a l l a c e o f A p o l l o from Londons Tempe (1629) g i v e s some i d e a o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f such s t r u c t u r e s (see p.41). One i n t e r e s t i n g 59 feature of t h i s sketch i s the existence of c u r t a i n s . t o t h e i r use i n e a r l i e r drama as i n t h e "cowncel Coventriae.  This  corresponds  hous" o f t h e Ludus  The c u r t a i n s were p r e s u m a b l y u s e d on o c c a s i o n f o r d i s c o v e r i e s  o r scene changes.  The f o g which c o v e r s London's T r i u m p h a n t Mount i n The  Triumphs o f T r u t h seems t o be a c u r t a i n d e v i c e and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t was by t h i s means t h a t the Temple o f I n t e g r i t y opened a t " f i t and  con-  v e n i e n t Times." C u r t a i n s , however, were among the s i m p l e r s p e c t a c u l a r e f f e c t s o f the L o r d Mayor's Show.  A g a i n the c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n between medieval  drama and e n t e r t a i n m e n t and l a t e r t h e a t r e and p a g e a n t r y mechanical  marvels  i s apparent.  The  i n t h e Shows range from t h e g o l d - s p o t t e d l a u r e l t r e e  t h a t " s h o o t s up" from the t o p o f t h e Pageant o f S e v e r a l N a t i o n s i n The Triumphs o f Honor and I n d u s t r y t o the Globe o f Honor i n The Triumphs o f  34 Honor and V e r t u e "which Globe s u d d e n l y o p e n i n g and f l y i n g i n t o e i g h t c a n t s , or d i s t i n c t p a r t s , d i s c o v e r s i n a t w i n k l i n g e i g h t b r i g h t personages most g l o r i o u s l y decked, r e p r e s e n t i n g (as i t were) t h e inward man..." ( V I I , 3 6 5 ) . T h i s o p e n i n g g l o b e was an e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r d e v i c e , b e i n g used by Dekker, W e b s t e r , and Heywood as w e l l as M i d d l e t o n .  The b a s i c  machine used t o c o n t r i v e t h e s e e f f e c t s was t h e v i c e o r w i n d l a s s , p r e fif)  sumably u s u a l l y c o n c e a l e d i n t h e framework o f t h e s t r u c t u r e .  By t h e  l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y such machines were i n r e g u l a r use i n t h e C y c l e p l a y s , Royal E n t r i e s , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s ; i n d e e d , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g m e c h a n i c a l i n t h e L o r d Mayor's Show t h a t c a n n o t be p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e pageants f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f C a t h e r i n e o f Aragon i n 1501. However, i t i s a l s o p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e development o f e l a b o r a t e s c e n i c m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e masque a f f e c t e d t h e L o r d Mayor's Show.  C e r t a i n l y Garret Christmas' special e f -  f e c t s i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y seem t o resemble some o f t h o s e cont r i v e d by I n i g o Jones f o r Oberon. Most o f t h e t a b l e a u x j o i n e d t h e p r o c e s s i o n a f t e r t h e y had done t h e i r p a r t i n welcoming t h e L o r d Mayor. rare.  The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p r a c t i c e a r e  Sometimes, as i n Dekker's F o r l o r n C a s t l e from T r o i a - N o v a  Triumphans,  the s t a b i l i t y o f a f i x e d s t a g e seems t o have been d e s i r a b l e and t h e L i t t l e C o n d u i t p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e backdrop t o t h e s t a g e - c a s t l e . A t o t h e r times t h e d e v i s e r s wanted t o use a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o r s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g s and s o i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s e i n t o a t a b l e a u , as i n t h a t a t t h e new S t a n d a r d i n The Sunne i n A r i e s .  The c o n t i n u i n g u s e o f  the p e r i p a t e t i c s t a g e i s c l e a r l y a s u r v i v a l from t h e e a r l i e r Midsummer Show when t h e pageants were "boren b e f o r t h e M a i r " ; i t i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g  35  t h a t the a d v a n t a g e s o f a f i x e d s t a g e were so r a r e l y drawn upon, but  one  reason f o r the r e l i a n c e on t h e e a r l i e r t y p e must have been t h e added s p e c t a c l e w h i c h t h i s gave t o the p r o c e s s i o n — a f t e r a l l the h e a r t o f t h e 61 show.  T h e r e i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e use o f f i x e d s t a g e s  be-  came more common towards t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d ; a t any r a t e t h e t e x t s a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c a b o u t t h i s , and some o f t h e more e l a b o r a t e t a b l e a u x l i k e l y t o have been s t a t i o n a r y . "Land-carriage  Nonetheless,  the c o n t i n u e d  are  payments f o r  by p o r t e r s " c o n f i r m t h a t most o f the t a b l e a u x were s t i l l 6?  c a r r i e d a r o u n d i n the Although  procession.  both d e v i c e s and t a b l e a u x were o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e i t i s  n o t a l w a y s e a s y t o v i s u a l i z e what t h e y l o o k e d l i k e .  The t a s k i s made  e a s i e r by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two s e t s o f d r a w i n g s .  The f i r s t , p r e s e r v e d  in  the F i s h m o n g e r s ' Company a r c h i v e s , and r e p r o d u c e d  i n John Gough N i c h o l s  1  e d i t i o n of Chrysanaleia  i s the most u s e f u l , p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d r e p r e s e n t a -  t i o n of a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f Munday's 1616  pageant.  The second g r o u p ,  the s k e t c h e s made by Abram B o o t h , s e c r e t a r y t o the d e l e g a t i o n o f t h e Netherlands  E a s t I n d i a Company, o f D e k k e r ' s Londons Tempe (1629) g i v e s a  r e l i a b l e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f each t a b l e a u , but t h e d e t a i l s by no means always c o r r e s p o n d  t o Dekker's d e s c r i p t i o n .  The two s e t s , however, i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e t a i l s g l e a n e d f r o m Company r e c o r d s and t h e t e x t s themselves, provide a necessary counterpoise t i o n o f many o f the c r i t i c s who  t o the w i l d e r f l i g h t s o f  imagina-  have c o n s i d e r e d the problems o f t h e  p e a r a n c e and t r a n s p o r t o f the pageant s t r u c t u r e s .  Students  ap-  of the Lord  Mayor's Show have g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r f a i l e d to t r e a t t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s or have p r o d u c e d t h e o r i e s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e d r a w i n g s ; d r a w i n g s which t h e y f r e q u e n t l y  reproduce.  F i g u r e 2:  C h r y s a n a l e i a : The F i s h i n g Busse  F i g u r e 3.  C h r y s a n a l e i a : The King o f the Moors.  F i g u r e 4;  C h r y s a n a l e i a ; Merman and Mermaid  I t i s c l e a r from the C h r y s a n a l e i a s e t t h a t the t a b l e a u x were mounted on a c u b i c s t r u c t u r e , t h e " Q u a d r a n g l e frame" m e n t i o n e d by Munday i n Chruso-thriambos,  the Triumphes o f G o l d e (1611, s i g . A4).  The  obvious  p u r p o s e o f t h i s was t o p r o v i d e a r a i s e d p l a y i n g a r e a ; i t p r e s u m a b l y s u p e r seded the hogsheads r e q u i r e d i n the e a r l y Shows (MSC  I I I , p.46).  The  t i n u e d use o f t h i s frame i s c o n f i r m e d on t h e whole by t h e Booth In a d d i t i o n i t may  con-  sketches.  have p r o v i d e d an a r e a i n w h i c h t h e sometimes complex  m a c h i n e r y f o r the t a b l e a u c o u l d be c o n c e a l e d .  I am u n a b l e t o f i n d  any  c o n v i n c i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r the a s s e r t i o n s made by J . G. N i c h o l s , S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , and G l y n n e Wickham t h a t t h e s p a c e was used t o c o n c e a l e i t h e r w h e e l s , h o r s e s , o r men.  N i c h o l s c l a i m s , i n d i s c u s s i n g the C h r y s a n a l e i a  F i s h i n g B u s s e , t h a t " i t was drawn a l o n g t h e s t r e e t s upon w h e e l s , which 64 were h i d d e n by t h e dependant c u r t a i n s . "  The wheels a r e an i n t e r e s t i n g  p o s s i b i l i t y ; a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f them i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  accounts,  t h e i r use would be a l o g i c a l way o f e a s i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The c u r t a i n s a r e i m p r o b a b l e ,  being s c a r c e l y warranted  by t h e d r a w i n g  which s u g g e s t s , as w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y be n e c e s s a r y , a more s o l i d base f o r t h e p a g e a n t , a f t e r a l l a r a t h e r heavy s t r u c t u r e .  S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , more  j u s t i f i a b l y , sees t h e p l a t e s as i n d i c a t i n g "the e x t e n s i v e , indeed  almost  e n t i r e use o f p o r t e r s , " but her i n f e r e n c e from t h i s , t h a t t h e c u b i c s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y c o n c e a l h o r s e s but more l i k e l y t h e p o r t e r s , 65 is equally suspect.  I t seems c l e a r from Dekker's d e s c r i p t i o n i n  t h a t the t a b l e a u x were n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d o p e n l y by t h e p o r t e r s . confirmed  This i s  by Company r e c o r d s : i n 1610 t h e M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s pay 100  •kl2. 10. 00 f o r c a r r y i n g t h e p a g e a n t s , some a n i m a l s .  1612  porters  a p p a r e n t l y three major tableaux  P o r t e r s c o s t t h e same Company t l O i n 1612  (MSC  and  I I I , p.85);  43 presumably again a large number were required.  62  So many men are u n l i k e l y  to have been concealed within the s t r u c t u r e .  Glynne Wickham, also deals with the problem of moving the pageants. He claims that the h e r a l d i c beasts of the Companies' arms "were taken out of t h e i r normal s e t t i n g and used again and again i n l i f e s i z e or larger re-creations to conceal the men who pulled the pageant-wagons  through the  s t r e e t s or rowed them on the water," but while such a procedure may sometimes have been f o l l o w e d , i t would seem to have been unnecessarily cumbersome.  In the case of the water show the tableau seems u s u a l l y to have  been mounted on a g a l l y f o i s t and i t is u n l i k e l y that there would have been any need to conceal the oarsmen.  S i m i l a r l y , the evidence f o r the  procession points overwhelmingly to the open p u l l i n g or c a r r y i n g of pageants and beasts through the s t r e e t s .  Wickham r e p r i n t s a good se-  l e c t i o n of the Chrysanaleia drawings, but there i s nothing in any of them to confirm his a s s e r t i o n .  Indeed, the drawing of the merman and  mermaid who pulled the chariot suggests p r e c i s e l y the opposite.  And i t  is probable that the h e r a l d i c beasts generally bore a greater resemblance to the leopard from Chrysanaleia than to Wickham's d e s c r i p t i o n .  The only contrary evidence comes from Dekker's Troia-Nova Triumphans, a pageant p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g for the i n s i g h t i t o f f e r s into cond i t i o n s of production.  Almost a l l commentators on the Lord Mayor's Show  have noted i t s importance, but few have endeavoured to determine i t s precise significance.  Most, l i k e David Bergeron (who i s conspicuous f o r lack  of i n t e r e s t in production matters), are content to remark that " c e r t a i n  changes i n p r o d u c t i o n a r e t a k i n g p l a c e . "  The c r u c i a l p a s s a g e d e s c r i b e s  t h e C h a r i o t o f Neptune: B e f o r e t h i s C h a r i o t r i d e f o u r e T r y t o n s , who a r e f e y n e d by P o e t s t o bee t r u m p e t e r s t o Neptune, a n d f o r t h a t c a u s e make way b e f o r e him, h o l d i n g s t r a n g e Trumpets i n t h e i r hands, w h i c h t h e y sound a s t h e y p a s s e a l o n g , t h e i r h a b i t s b e i n g A n t i c k e , and S e a - l i k e , and s i t t i n g upon f o u r e s e v e r a l 1 f i s h e s , v i z , two D o l p h i n s , and two Mer-maids, w h i c h a r e n o t ( a f t e r t h e o l d p r o c r e a t i o n ) , b e g o t t e n o f p a i n t e d c l o a t h and browne p a p e r , but a r e l i v i n g b e a s t s , s o q u e i n t l y d i s g u i s e d l i k e t h e n a t u r a l f i s h e s , o f p u r p o s e t o a v o y d t h e t r o u b l e and p e s t e r i n g o f P o r t e r s , who w i t h much noyse and l i t t l e c o m l i n e s s e a r e e v e r y y e a r e most u n n e c e s s a r i l y imployed. ( I l l , 232-3) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e meaning o f t h i s p a s s a g e i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y mind boggles a t d e c i d i n g e x a c t l y what s o r t o f " l i v i n g b e a s t s "  clear; the (horses?  68 men?) were " q u e i n t l y d i s g u i s e d " as d o l p h i n s and mermaids.  The e x t r a c t  does c o n f i r m t h a t p o r t e r s n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d t h e pageant s t r u c t u r e s the s t r e e t s , and a l s o suggests  through  t h a t t h e e a r l y pageant f i g u r e s were r a t h e r  c r u d e a f f a i r s o f c l o t h and brown paper.  Perhaps t h e r e f e r e n c e i s s i m p l y  intended t o s t r e s s t h e l i f e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o f these p a r t i c u l a r dolphins and mermaids i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o l d e r , c r u d e r o n e s , b u t t h i s would p r e sumably s t i l l e n t a i l t h e use o f p o r t e r s . Dekker's i n n o v a t i o n , i t d i d n o t s u c c e e d for  Whatever t h e p r e c i s e f o r m o f i n d i s p l a c i n g t h e p o r t e r s ; even  t h i s Show t h e M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s found i t n e c e s s a r y  t o employ a l a r g e  number o f " p o r t e r s w h i c h c a r r i e d some p a r t o f t h e shows" (MSC I I I , p.85). And i n t h i s y e a r t h e r e was a n o t h e r  tableau, the F o r l o r n C a s t l e , which,  b e i n g b u i l t on a s t a t i o n a r y s t a g e , d e f i n i t e l y d i d n o t r e q u i r e p o r t e r s . Twelve y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1624, p o r t e r s a r e s t i l l c l e a r l y t h e r u l e ; Webster draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e use o f h o r s e s t o p u l l t h e C h a r i o t o f Kings i n  45 Monuments o f Honor: 69 improperly."  " f o r P o r t e r s would have made i t move t o t t e r i n g and  Even a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n payments t o as many as  one  hundred p o r t e r s a r e not i n f r e q u e n t . ^ 7  However, Dekker was e v i d e n t l y r i g h t i n commenting on t h e  growing  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e s and f i g u r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d . Robertson  As Jean  has p o i n t e d o u t , t h e c r e d i t f o r much o f t h i s b e l o n g s t o G a r r e t  C h r i s t m a s , who,  u n l i k e most o f h i s r i v a l s , was an a r c h i t e c t and c a r v e r  r a t h e r than a p a i n t e r . ^ 7  T h i s was r e c o g n i z e d by Heywood who  extravagantly  compared him t o A u g u s t u s f i n d i n g Rome b u i l t o f b r i c k but l e a v i n g i t b u i l t of marble:  "So he who f o u n d t h e s e P a g e a n t s and Showes o f Wicker and  Paper,  r a t h e r a p p e a r i n g m o n s t r o u s and p r o d i g i o u s B i r t h s , t h e n any B e a s t ( p r e s e n t e d i n them) i n the l e a s t k i n d i m i t a t i n g N a t u r e : hath r e d u c ' t them t o t h a t s o l l i d i t y and s u b s t a n c e f o r t h e M a t e r i a l l s , t h a t t h e y a r e so f a r r e from one dayes w a s h i n g t o d e f a c e them, t h a t the w e a t h e r i n g  o f many W i n t e r s  can n o t impeach them: and f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t F i g u r e s and w e l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d l i n e a m e n t s , (by none p r e c e d i n g him) t h a t c o u l d be s a y d t o bee p a r a l l e l e d . "  There a r e no e x a c t i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e s i z e s o f t h e t a b l e a u x g i v e n i n e i t h e r t e x t s o r Company r e c o r d s , and t h e danger o f e s t i m a t i n g t h i s from the d r a w i n g s i s o b v i o u s . accurate dimensions Show.  However, L. J . M o r r i s s e y has produced  reasonably  f o r t h e wagons o f t h e p o s t - R e s t o r a t i o n L o r d Mayor's  H i s i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e e s t i m a t e t o R i c h a r d  H o s l e y ' s o f the s i z e o f m e d i e v a l  pageant wagons, a r g u i n g t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l  c o n d i t i o n s (narrow s t r e e t s , e t c . ) and the i n h e r e n t c o n s e r v a t i s m o f p a g e a n t r y make i t r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t the wagons o f t h e p o s t -  L  46 R e s t o r a t i o n show "were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r e and s i z e 73 f r o m t h o s e t h a t moved t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f m e d i e v a l London."  This  i s d e b a t a b l e , b u t i t i s much s a f e r t o assume, g i v e n t h e r e l i a n c e o f t h e Companies on p r e c e d e n t and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r developments  dur-  i n g t h e Commonwealth, t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p r e - R e s t o r a t i o n wagons were c l o s e t o t h o s e used a f t e r .  M o r r i s s e y a r g u e s t h a t t h e t y p i c a l wagon  was r e c t a n g u l a r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 by 14 f e e t , w i t h a s t r u c t u r e ( c h a r i o t , a r b o u r , e t c . ) " f i l l i n g most o f t h e e i g h t - f o o t f r o n t t o a depth o f t h r e e 74 or f o u r f e e t , with the stage s t r e t c h i n g out behind."  He c o n c l u d e s  " s q u a r e wagons 8 f e e t by 8 f e e t , o r a t most 10 f e e t by 10 f e e t , and r e c t a n g u l a r ones 8 f e e t by 14 f e e t w i t h s t r u c t u r e s on them from 6 t o 12 f e e t h i g h , and c e r t a i n l y under 15 f e e t , would have been e x t r e m e l y by p o r t e r s i n t h e n a r r o w e s t VIII. Actors  maneuverable  streets."  I t has been g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r o l e s i n t h e pageants were u s u a l l y t a k e n by c h i l d r e n (MSC I I I , p. x x x i ) .  C e r t a i n l y c h i l d r e n seem t o have t a k e n .  p a r t i n a l l t h e Shows from t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y u n t i l 1639, and a t t i m e s , as i n 1566, 1568, 1585, 1602, and 1604 75 roles.  undoubtedly took the speaking  In 1609, however, Munday, w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e use o f c h i l -  d r e n was c u s t o m a r y , had r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n d e e d seems n o t t o have used them.  In t h e t e x t o f Camp-bell o r t h e  Ironmongers  F a i r e F i e l d he comments on t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s : " t h e weake voyces o f so many C h i l d r e n , which such shewes as t h i s doe u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e , f o r p e r s o n a t i n g each d e v i s e , i n a crowde o f such noyse and u n c i v i l 1 t u r m o y l e ,  47 are not any way a b l e t o be u n d e r s t o o d , n e i t h e r t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s t o r e a c h t h e f u l l h e i g h t o f e v e r y i n t e n t i o n , i n so s h o r t a l i m i t a t i o n f o r s t u d y , 76  p r a c t i s e , and i n s t r u c t i o n . "  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e  Ironmongers  c o m p l a i n e d t h i s y e a r t h a t " t h e c h i l d r e n weare n o t i n s t r u c t e d t h e i r speeches"  (MSC I I I , p.76).  Despite such disadvantages, f i r m evidence of  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a d u l t a c t o r s i s scant.  In 1611 t h e G o l d s m i t h s " r e -  q u i r e d " t h e i r b r o t h e r John Lowen, a K i n g ' s Man, t o p l a y L e o f s t a n e i n Chruso-thriambos  and i n 1639 t h e D r a p e r s p a i d W i l l i a m H a l l , a member o f  the K i n g ' s R e v e l s , f o r "musicke and a c t i o n s " and one Mumford (John Mounts e t t ? ) f o r " f e a t e s and A c t i o n s . "  7 7  The e d i t o r s o f Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t -  i o n s I I I t h i n k t h a t t h e s e payments were f o r a s e p a r a t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t t h a t was n o t p a r t o f Heywood's L o n d i n i S t a t u s P a c a t u s ; however, D a v i d B e r g e r o n 78 has s u g g e s t e d t h a t H a l l t o o k t h e r o l e o f Orpheus. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n i n Company r e c o r d s t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, a d u l t s were more o f t e n i n v o l v e d than has g e n e r a l l y been r e a l i z e d .  So i n 1613 t h e G r o c e r s  d i s t i n g u i s h t w i c e between c h i l d r e n and p l a y e r s , i n 1624 t h e Merchant  Tay-  l o r s a r r a n g e d i n n e r f o r t h e men and c h i l d r e n o f t h e p a g e a n t s , and i n both 79  1629 and 1635 t h e Ironmongers  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c h i l d r e n and s p e a k e r s .  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t as t h e Shows became more e l a b o r a t e , the major  roles,  a t l e a s t , were more o f t e n t a k e n by a d u l t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r most m a t t e r s of p r o d u c t i o n has o b s c u r e d t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d .  In t h e l a t e  s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c h i l d r e n came from s c h o o l s such as S t . A n t h o n y ' s , S t . P a u l ' s , W e s t m i n s t e r , and Merchant T a y l o r s ' , but a f t e r 1602 t h e y a r e  48 i d e n t i f i e d o n l y as "the c h i l d r e n o f the p a g e a n t s . "  Some may w e l l have  been the o f f s p r i n g o f Company members, as was sometimes the c a s e w i t h both the Midsummer Show and t h e p o s t - i R e s t o r a t i o n L o r d Mayor's Show, a l t h o u g h s i n c e the p r o v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n was g e n e r a l l y t h e a u t h o r ' s  responsibility,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e a k i n g r o l e s had some p r o fessional training.  I t has p r o v e d s i m i l a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e  whether t h e men and s p e a k e r s r e f e r r e d t o i n Company a c c o u n t s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s o r a s s o c i a t e d i n some way w i t h t h e Company.  IX.  F i n a n c e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Show as a whole was d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Company i n v o l v e d .  The arrangements  made by t h e d i f f e r e n t Companies  o f c o u r s e v a r i e d somewhat, but u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g e n e r a l l y l a y w i t h 80 t h e g o v e r n i n g body, t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s .  The most common p r o c e d u r e ,  which was f o l l o w e d by the D r a p e r s , was f o r the Court- t o u n d e r t a k e t h e i n i t i a l arrangements  i  and then d e l e g a t e a l l f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  the p r o c e s s i o n and pageants t o a committee o r committees  a p p o i n t e d by i t .  T h i s as a r u l e i n c l u d e d the s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the B a c h e l o r s o r Yeomanry who were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f the c e l e b r a tions.  The c h o i c e o f t a b l e a u x , w r i t e r , and a r t i f i c e r l a y e i t h e r w i t h t h e  C o u r t o r w i t h the committee;  t h e y sometimes f o r m u l a t e d t h e i r wishes  and  a p p o i n t e d a w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r t o c a r r y them out o r , a t o t h e r t i m e s , 81 a c c e p t e d t e n d e r s from i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s .  Whatever t h e e x a c t p r o c e d u r e ,  t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t t h e c h o i c e was d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e most p o w e r f u l men o f the Company.  The D r a p e r s ' C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s i n 1621  49  a p p o i n t e d t h e M a s t e r , t h e f o u r Wardens, and two s e n i o r members o f the L i v e r y " t o t a k e viewe and c o n s i d e r a c i o n o f suche p l o t t e s & t h i n g e s as a r e o f f e r e d t o be p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s Companie by s e v e r a l ! p e r s o n s the pageantes and shoues"  (p.320).  touchinge  I t was p r e s u m a b l y t h i s committee t h a t  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c c e p t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l o f M i d d l e t o n , C h r i s t m a s , and Munday.  In 1623 and 1626 t h e C o u r t o r d e r e d t h a t "the fower M a s t e r wardens  s h a l l t a k e p r e s e n t c o u r s e f o r the f i t t i n g e p r o v i d i n g e and compoundinge f o r o f a l l t h i n g s as s h a l b e e f i t t and n e c e s s a r i e f o r o r t o w c h i n g e the s a i d showes and t r i u m p h e s "  (p.331).  From t h i s p o i n t on, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  o v e r s e e i n g the making o f the pageants and o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Wardens o f t h e B d c h e l o r s .  The d e c i s i o n as t o the e x a c t means o f f i n a n c i n g the whole a f f a i r a l s o l a y w i t h t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s , as d i d the f i n a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the e x p e n d i t u r e .  A g a i n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h the Bache-  l o r s p a i d i n one way o r a n o t h e r f o r the t r i u m p h s , the most i m p o r t a n t p r o c e d u r a l d e c i s i o n s belonged t o the g o v e r n i n g body.  The Companies,  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t r a d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s , used a v a r i e t y o f means t o r a i s e t h e n e c e s s a r y money.  The most common was t h e l e v y on  t h o s e B a c h e l o r s a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e i n the p r o c e s s i o n , w i t h h e a v i e r f i n e s op  f o r any who r e f u s e d .  A v a r i a n t on t h i s was a f i n e l e v i e d on a l l members  o f the B a c h e l o r s , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l dues from t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the procession.  In a d d i t i o n c e r t a i n B a c h e l o r s might be r a i s e d t o the L i v e r y  on payment o f a s e t amount.  O t h e r methods i n c l u d e d t h e c a r r y - o v e r o f  s u r p l u s e s from p r e v i o u s y e a r s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s from t h e L i v e r y o r C o u r t 83 of Assistants.  50 The D r a p e r s seem g e n e r a l l y t o have c o l l e c t e d between 1/3 and 1/2 o f t h e n e c e s s a r y money from r a i s i n g e i g h t t o t e n o f " t h e f i t t e s t  and most  s u f f i c i e n t p e r s o n s o f t h e yeomandry o f t h i s Company s e l e c t e d o u t and a d m i t t e d by t h e M a s t e r warden o f t h i s Company i n t o t h e L i v o r y o f t h e Company e v e r y o f them p a y i n g e b e f o r e hee bee a d m i t t e d t h e a c c u s t o m e d f y n e of x x v j  1 1  xiij  S  iiij^"  (p.331).  In 1615 t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s a u t h o r i z e d 84  the a d m i t t i n g o f t e n a t t h e same r a t e ,  and i n 1621 t h e Wardens' A c c o u n t s  r e c o r d t h e payment t o t h e Wardens B a c h e l o r s o f " t h e moneyes r e c e i v e d o f such as weare l a t e l y t a k e n i n t o t h e c l o t h i n g e t h e some o f CCC^  1  t o w a r d s t h e de-  f r a y i n g e o f t h e charge o f t h e showes & t r i v m p h e s f o r t h e day S i r Edward Barkeham l o r d Mayor t o o k e h i s o a t h a t W e s t m i n s t e r "  (MSC I I I , pp'j 100^101).  In 1623 f o r M a r t i n Lumley's t r i u m p h t h e C o u r t a u t h o r i z e d t h e e n t r y o f e i g h t t o t e n B a c h e l o r s t o t h e L i v e r y , b u t , i n t h e e v e n t , t w e l v e were a d m i t t e d , t h e r e b y r a i s i n g 4320 (p.332).  In 1626 t h e same p r o c e d u r e was f o l -  lowed f o r C u t h b e r t H a c k e t , t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s f i r s t s u g g e s t i n g t h e r a i s i n g o f some s i x o r e i g h t B a c h e l o r s , b u t f i n a l l y a c c e p t i n g t e n . The b u l k o f t h e r e s t o f t h e money f o r a l l t h e D r a p e r s ' Shows was r a i s e d by n o m i n a t i n g and f i n i n g B a c h e l o r s t o s e r v e i n e i t h e r f o y n e s ( t h e s k i n o f t h e beech marten) o r budge ( l a m b s k i n w i t h t h e wool d r e s s e d o u t wards) i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n .  In 1614 f o r t y were a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e i n f o y n e s  85  and f o r t y i n budge; in budge.  i n 1621 t h i r t y - n i n e s e r v e i n f o y n e s and t h i r t y - t w o  In 1623 t h e f o r t y - t w o i n f o y n e s p a i d -LI22. 10. 00 and t h i r t y -  t h r e e i n budge 4.98. 10. 00 ( t o t a l : 4.269. 10. 00, p.335).  I f t h e s e two  methods were i n s u f f i c i e n t , any s u r p l u s from t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e n t r y f i n e s was made o v e r t o t h e B a c h e l o r s , o r t h e C o u r t i t s e l f m i g h t make a  51 QC  c o n t r i b u t i o n , as i n i t s g i f t o f -L50 i n 1623.  In a d d i t i o n , the L i v e r y  g e n e r a l l y p a i d the c o s t o f b e a u t i f y i n g t h e new Mayor's house,  provided  cakes and wine f o r i t s b a r g e , and on o c c a s i o n p a i d p a r t o f the t r u m p e t e r s ' fees.  8 7  The problem- of f i n a n c i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s was f r e q u e n t l y a t h o r n y  one.  From the days o f the Midsummer Show u n t i l t h e changes t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h  c e n t u r y members o f t h e Companies c o m p l a i n e d , w i t h  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f b i t t e r n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a b o u t t h e c o s t . Grocers experienced up; d o u b t l e s s triumphs.  The  the w o r s t d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g t h e i r B a c h e l o r s  t h i s was due,  to  pay  i n l a r g e p a r t , to the expensiveness of t h e i r  C e r t a i n l y e v e r y Show o f t h e i r between 1613 and 1639 met  with  po grumbles and o f t e n r e f u s a l s t o pay.  The D r a p e r s , d e s p i t e h a v i n g  eight  L o r d Mayors between 1614-40, had l e s s t r o u b l e t h a n m i g h t be e x p e c t e d . T h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t Edward Barkham i n t o t h e i r number i n 1621  be-  cause of t h i s v e r y problem was a s p e c i a l c a s e - - f o r once the e n t i r e Company, 89 A s s i s t a n t s , L i v e r y , and B a c h e l o r s  were i n c o m p l e t e agreement.  u s u a l l y t h e o p p o s i t i o n came o n l y f r o m t h o s e who For i n s t a n c e , i n 1623  More  had t o pay, the  Bachelors.  the Company had t o r e s o r t t o t h e s a n c t i o n s o f t h e  L o r d Mayor: the Wardens' A c c o u n t s note the payment o f 2/6  "to Mr.  f o r h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t the h a l l when d i v e r s o b s t i n a t e young men  Atkins  refused  to  pay t h e i r e f i n e s and bee C o n f o r m a b l e to the c h a r d g e f o r the L o r d M a i o r s Showes" (p.333).  T h i s may  i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l  lack of enthusiasm f o r  p r o v i d i n g M a r t i n Lumley's t r i u m p h so soon a f t e r Edward Barkham's.  Some-  what s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f any r e l u c t a n c e t o pay f o r Cuthbert  H a c k e t ' s i n 1626;  t h i s may  have been because he was M a s t e r o f  52 the Company a t t h e same t i m e , but more l i k e l y because t h e Company, p r e sumably d e l i b e r a t e l y , c o n t r i v e d t o keep t h e expenses down t o -L545. 13.  08.  In the l a t e 1630s t h e c o m p l a i n t s b e g i n a g a i n , b u t A. H. Johnson i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t i n s e e i n g t h i s as p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r problem o f c o l l e c t i n g dues o f any k i n d f r o m the B a c h e l o r s who were i n c r e a s i n g l y a t odds w i t h t h e p o l i t i 90 cal sympathies  o f l e a d i n g members o f t h e Company.  Undoubtedly,  one  r e a s o n f o r t h e r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y o f c o m p l a i n t d u r i n g t h e 1620s was the C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s ' awareness o f t h e " s t a t e " o f the B a c h e l o r s and i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r " b e t t e r e a s e " by k e e p i n g c o s t s down and even c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e m s e l v e s . In most Companies, i n c l u d i n g the D r a p e r s ' , t h e Wardens o f t h e B a c h e l o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g the Show i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by t h e g o v e r n i n g body.  From the t i m e p r e p a r a t i o n s  were s t a r t e d , f r e q u e n t l y a mere f i v e o r s i x weeks b e f o r e 29 O c t o b e r , t h e y 91 worked h a r d t o a r r a n g e a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n .  The payments  f o r " d i v e r s e d i n n e r s and meetinges w h i l e s t we s a t t and weare d a y l y employed in t h e b u s i n e s " were w e l l - e a r n e d ( p . 3 ^ ' i ) .  As S h e i l a W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t ,  t h e r o u t i n e c h o i c e o f t a b l e a u x and t h e awarding o f c o n t r a c t s t o t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s e a s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n , but t h e i r l a c k o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e 92 must have been a handicap*,  hence t h e k e e p i n g o f f u l l and m e t i c u l o u s  a c c o u n t s which s e r v e d as hand-books and g u i d e s t o b a r g a i n i n g f o r t h e i r successors.  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t f o r M i d d l e t o n ' s D r a p e r s ' Shows a l l  d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the pageants a r e d i s m i s s e d i n t h e s e a c c o u n t s by making the w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " a l l Chardges i n c i d e n t to t h o s e showes" ( p . 3 2 9 ) .  The r e m a i n i n g items d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e  53  p r o c e s s i o n , e x c l u d i n g t h e pageant, f o r which the Company i t s e l f a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  undertook  D e s p i t e t h i s we do l e a r n a c e r t a i n amount about the  pa ge an ts ' p r o d u c t i o n f r o m t h e a c c o u n t s , and, m o r e o v e r , the r e s t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n sheds v a l u a b l e l i g h t on t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s as a whole.  T h i s can  p r o v i d e a u s e f u l c o r r e c t i v e t o our t e n d e n c y t o c o n s i d e r the Shows as more l i t e r a r y / d r a m a t i c than t h e y i n f a c t were.  The e x a c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r appear t o have v a r i e d from y e a r t o y e a r .  As a r u l e , however, e i t h e r t o g e t h e r o r s e p a r a t e l y ,  t h e y were p a i d a lump sum f o r d e v i s i n g , m a k i n g , and d e c o r a t i n g t h e t a b l e a u x , p r o v i d i n g c h i l d and a d u l t a c t o r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r costumes and and l a n d and water c a r r i a g e .  props,  In a d d i t i o n , t h e y seem sometimes t o have  p r o v i d e d m u s i c i a n s f o r t h e p a g e a n t , greenmen and f i r e w o r k s , b r e a k f a s t and d i n n e r f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , and t o have a r r a n g e d p r i n t i n g o f t h e t e x t .  The  D r a p e r s ' r e c o r d s a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c than many o f t h e o t h e r Companies' about t h e s e d u t i e s ; however, a f u l l c o n t r a c t e x i s t s f o r Dekker and  Christmas'  Londons Tempe (1629) which g i v e s a t h o r o u g h a c c o u n t not o n l y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but a l s o o f some o f the s p o i l s . the Ironmongers'  The two c o n t r a c t e d w i t h  Company t o p r o v i d e a s e a l i o n , two sea h o r s e s , an o s t r i c h ,  Lemnion's f o r g e , t h e Tempe o r F i e l d o f H a p p i n e s s , and the Seven L i b e r a l Sciences.  F o r t h i s t h e y demanded 4.200 which t h e i s p r e s e n t c o n c e i v e d t o be an o v e r v a l u e , and t h e r e u p o n o f f e r r e d them 1 8 0 ^ i which t h e y a c c e p t e d o f f o r t h e making and f i n i s h i n g o f the s a i d Pageants t o be f u r n i s h e d w i t h C h i l d r e n and Speakers and t h e i r a p p a r e l l and n e c e s s a r i e s t h e r e u n t o b e l o n g i n g . L a n d c a r i a g e by, P o r t e r s ; W a t e r c a r i a g by b o a t s and Watermen as i s a c customed. The Green-men w i t h t h e i r F i r e w o r k s ; the M u s i c k e  54 f o r t h e Pageant; And t o g i v e t h e company 500 bookes o f t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e s a i d Shewe And t h e C o m i t t e e s demanded t h a t t h e Sea Lyon 1 The 2: Sea h o r s e s y be b r o u g h t i n t o t h e h a l l & the E s t r i d g e J ( a f t e r t h e S o l e m n i t y ) t h e r e t o be s e t t upp f o r t h e Companies u s e , whereunto Mr Crismas e x c e p t e d but was c o n t e n t e d t o d e l i v e r backe t h e Sea Lyon and t h e E s t r i g e , and d e s i r e d t o r e t a i n e t h e S e a h o r s e s t o h i m s e l f e . A l l t h e r e s t he u n d e r t o o k e t o performe f o r t h e s a i d some o f 180^ e f f e c t u a l l y and s u f f i c i e n t l y t o t h e Companies L i k i n g In w i t n e s whereof t h e y have h e r u n t o s u b s c r i b e d , Tho: Dekker., Garett Chrismas, (MSC I I I , p.115) 1  Records o f o t h e r Companies c o n f i r m t h a t on o c c a s i o n a Company kept and sometimes r e - u s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c t a c u l a r components o f a t a b l e a u , w h i l e 93 o t h e r s were kept by the a r t i f i c e r who presumably r e m o d e l l e d them. I t i s a g a i n u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e custom o f p a y i n g a lump sum makes i t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e what was s p e n t on what and how much p r o f i t both w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r c o u l d hope t o make.  Undoubtedly the b i d d i n g  s y s t e m e n t a i l e d w o r k i n g t o a t i g h t budget; t h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by o c c a s i o n a l 94 r e q u e s t s f o r e x t r a money. A. M. C l a r k , w i t h o u t g i v i n g any a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t , c l a i m s t h a t Heywood n e t t e d -L10 a y e a r from w r i t i n g t h e 95 Shows; t h i s f i g u r e i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y t o o h i g h . The d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between p o e t and a r t i f i c e r seems t o have v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e 96 o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and t h e development  o f t h e Show i t s e l f .  In  the e a r l y days t h e a r t i f i c e r was t h e most i m p o r t a n t , f r e q u e n t l y d e v i s i n g t h e t a b l e a u x b e f o r e a p o e t was h i r e d t o w r i t e t h e s p e e c h e s .  This is  c l e a r l y a r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a t i v e n o v e l t y o f h a v i n g speeches a t a l l ; however, as t h e s e became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the Show and as t h e w r i t e r became p r e -  55 pared to t a k e on more o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , f u n c t i o n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y as a p r o d u c e r , he a c h i e v e d primacy. Christmas  But t h e l o n g s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r o f G a r r e t  and h i s sons r e d r e s s e d the b a l a n c e .  There are signs of t h i s i n  Londons Tempe (1629) where Dekker, d e s p i t e h i s j o i n t c o n t r a c t w i t h  Christmas,  c l a i m s o n l y t o have " w r i t t e n " t h e show and p r a i s e s h i s p a r t n e r f o r i t s " i n v e n t i o n " ( I V , 97, 112).  By 1638 a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n t h e hands o f 97  t h e C h r i s t m a s b r o t h e r s who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g Heywood. pageants f o r t h e D r a p e r s  The  i n t h e 1620s, however, bespeak a m u t u a l l y  ous r e l a t i o n s h i p between M i d d l e t o n ~ a n d  harmoni-  Christmas which r e f l e c t s a t the  same time t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e show to "a p o i n t where e a c h o f t h e component items needed to be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f a s i n g l e a r t i s t i c scheme, 98 n o t o n l y i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r terms o f r e f e r e n c e . "  In c o n t r a s t to t h e  q u a r r e l o f Ben J o h s o n and I n i g o Jones over t h e masque, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r r e m a i n e d harmonious t h r o u g h o u t fluctuations.  T h i s i s a measure not o n l y o f the men  the r e d u c e d s t a k e s :  all its  i n v o l v e d , but a l s o o f  " l e s poetes q u i c o m p o s a i e n t l e s v e r s pour l e c o r t e g e  du L o r d M a i r e ne s e m b l e n t pas a v o i r c o n s i d e r ! " comme T' (<[ ame^ des p a g e a n t s l e u r s v e r s de bons o u v r i e r s des l e t t r e s — e t G a r r e t t C h r i s t m a s ^ 99 n ' a v a i t pour ses c o n s t r u c t i o n s de p r e t e n t i o n p a r e i l l e . "  non  plus  W h i l e w r i t e r and d e s i g n e r t o o k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p a g e a n t , t h e Wardens B a c h e l o r s , i n a d d i t i o n to keeping an eye on t h e i r progress, organized the procession.  In the 1620s t h i s was  same as t h a t d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m Smythe i n 1575. view t h e m a j o r headache was t h e poor men, 100, who  in essence  the  From t h e i r p o i n t o f  t o t h e number o f between 70  had t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h c a p s , gowns o r c o a t s i n t h e Company  and  c o l o u r s ( r e d , a z u r e , and y e l l o w f o r the D r a p e r s ) , b a n n e r s , j a v e l i n s , and s t a v e s , and watched c a r e f u l l y t o see t h a t t h e y d i d not evade t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; hence t h e p r o v i s i o n o f d i n n e r ( u s u a l l y i n B l a c k w e l l H a l l a b u t t i n g on t o the G u i l d h a l l ) t o keep them t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the f e a s t J ^ 0  S i m i l a r p r e c a u t i o n s had t o be taken f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e  trumpeters.  These poor men were t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n ; i n a d d i t i o n t o them were t h e s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s , t h e B a c h e l o r s p r e v i o u s l y deputed t o s e r v e i n f o y n e s o r budge, and t h e gentlemen ushers o r r i c h w h i f f l e r s . ^  A v a r i e t y o f means was used t o keep the p r o c e s s i o n - - a n d t h e c r o w d s — in order.  The Company g e n e r a l l y p a i d t h e C i t y marshal 1 t o p r o v i d e men f o r  t h i s purpose and sometimes p a i d a m a r s h a l l o f t h e i r own as w e l l .  In a d d i -  t i o n t h e D r a p e r s ' B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s m e n t i o n payment t o s e v e r a l poor  men  who were g i v e n t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f k e e p i n g "the Crowde from o f t h e Company as t h e y went i n the s t r e e t " (p.355).  More s p e c t a c u l a r , i f l e s s  s a f e , were t h e sword p l a y e r s and t h e greenmen w i t h t h e i r f i r e w o r k s . D r a p e r s r e g u l a r l y p a i d Thomas J o n e s , M a s t e r Swordsman, f o r h i s men c l e a r t h e way, i n 1626.  to  a g a i n i n 1623 and e i g h t  They a r e perhaps a s u r v i v a l o f t h e m i l i t a r y a s p e c t o f t h e Mid-  summer Watch. temporary Show.  t w e n t y - f i v e i n 1621, t w e n t y - f i v e  The  A n o t h e r s u r v i v a l , t h e greenmen, were t o j u d g e from  con-  r e f e r e n c e s , one o f t h e most p o p u l a r i n g r e d i e n t s o f the e n t i r e  These seem sometimes t o have appeared  i n the g u i s e o f g i a n t s o r  d e v i l s as w e l l as t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i r e i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e . used s q u i b s and f i r e w o r k s t o c l e a r the way, fortunate effects:  They  a p p a r e n t l y sometimes w i t h  "Come t h e r e a Pageant b y / l i e s t a n d o u t o f t h e  un-  greene  102 mens way, f o r b u r n i n g my v e s t m e n t . " Another account claims t h a t they "put the p e o p l e i n such a f e a r e , / T h a t some t h e i r hose anoy'd t h e r e . " 103  Figure 8 :  A Greenman  58 Music i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n was p r o v i d e d by a band o f t r u m p e t e r s , most o f t e n the K i n g ' s , and the C i t y ' s drums and f i f e s .  The C i t y w a i t s , who  had  o r i g i n a l l y marched i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n , were from t h e e a r l y 1600s s t a t i o n e d a l o n g t h e r o u t e , u s u a l l y on t h e p o r c h o f S t . P e t e r ' s , C h e a p s i d e . a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was o f t e n m u s i c f o r i n d i v i d u a l t a b l e a u x .  In  1 0 4  Some L o r d Mayor's  Show's, f o r example M e t r o p o l i s C o r o n a t a , T r o i a - N o v a T r i u m p h a n s , and  The  Triumphs o f T r u t h , i n c l u d e songs i n t h e p r i n t e d t e x t s ; f o r o t h e r s , Company r e c o r d s c o n f i r m t h a t m u s i c i a n s were h i r e d t o p l a y f o r s p e c i f i c t a b l e a u x . So i n 1623, t h e D r a p e r s ' B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s n o t e payments t o "a 1 i t l e boye a drumer o f t h e A r g o e , " "a f i f f e f o r the A r g o e , " and "a l i t l e boy a drumer i n M i d d l e t o n s shewes"  (p.338).  A n a l y s i s o f t h e D r a p e r s ' Company r e c o r d s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e men to work on the Show f a l l  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s .  employed  Some, such as Thomas Hinxman  the c a p p e r , o r T i l b u r y S t r a n g e who p r o v i d e d t h e g a l l i f o i s t and John R i c h a r d son who s u p p l i e d greenmen and f i r e w o r k s , a r e employed y e a r a f t e r y e a r whate v e r the Company.  O t h e r s , such as W i l l i a m U f f i n g t o n t h e w a x c h a n d l e r and  Edward Snowden t h e u p h o l s t e r , seem t o owe t h e i r employment t o t h e i r e i t h e r 105 b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Company o r b e i n g c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . c o u r s e , t h e c a t e g o r i e s do, t o some e x t e n t , o v e r l a p .  Of  Anthony Munday's son  R i c h a r d , who l i k e h i s f a t h e r was a freeman o f t h e Company, was y e a r r o u n d , as w e l l as a t pageant t i m e , i n p a i n t i n g and renewing  employed banners  and p i c t u r e s ; he was a l s o employed by o t h e r Companies, s u c h as the G r o c e r s , for  s i m i l a r work.  The q u e s t i o n , i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t has sometimes been  a r g u e d t h a t c e r t a i n o f t h e w r i t e r s and a r t i f i c e r s were h i r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r Company c o n n e c t i o n s . ^ 1 0  Undoubtedly  one o f t h e many r e a s o n s f o r the  59 employment o f Munday was h i s membership o f t h e Drapers but t h e p r e c i s e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d ; more c l e a r l y Webster seems t o owe h i s employment i n 1624 t o h i s membership i n the M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s ' Company.  S i m i l a r l y , F r a n c i s T i p s l e y , the a r t i f i c e r o f S q u i r e ' s Tes  I r e n e s T r o p h a e a o r The Tryumphs o f Peace ( 1 6 2 0 ) , was l i k e the L o r d Mayor a Haberdasher.  X.  The P o l i t i c a l C o n t e x t o f the L o r d Mayor's Show  I have a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was no a c c i d e n t t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e growth o f London's awareness o f i t s e l f as " t h e f l o w e r o f c i t i e s , " m e t r o p o l i s c o r o n a t a . r e s p e c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e Show i s n o t an i s o l a t e d phenomenon.  In t h i s  As M u r i e l B r a d -  b r o o k puts i t "a new sense o f m e t r o p o l i t a n community e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f , c l o s e l y j o i n e d t o a new s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a t r i c a l experience.  T h e s e two k i n d s o f awareness d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r . " ^ 1 0  However,  the p r e c i s e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e Shows can be s a i d t o r e f l e c t t h e a s p i r a t i o n s and t e n s i o n s o f t h e C i t y i s open t o q u e s t i o n .  On the one hand,  F r e d e r i c k F a i r h o l t , one o f t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d e n t s o f mayoral  pageantry,  c l a i m e d t h a t . " i n f o r m e r t i m e s , t h e s e pageants and t h e i r a l l u s i o n s , connected themselves  i n no s m a l l d e g r e e w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c o u n t r y , and  i t s p o l i t i c a l movements; and shadowing f o r t h as t h e y do, t h e o p i n i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i s , t h e y a r e w o r t h y o f more a t t e n t i o n than may 108 imagined...."  be a t f i r s t  In c o n s c i o u s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s , A. M. C l a r k has  argued  t h a t " T h e i r ' h i s t o r y ' i s l o r e from the p a s t , r a t h e r than t h e e v e n t s o f a s i x t e e n t h - or seventeenth-century  p r e s e n t ; and t h e i r ' p o l i t i c s ' a r e  60  p u r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l " and t h a t t h i s must c o n s i d e r a b l y q u a l i f y F a i r h o l t ' s 109 assertion.  Nonetheless, F a i r h o l t i s r i g h t : recent s t u d i e s o f pageantry  have emphasized t h e importance o f " t h e p o l i t i c s o f s p e c t a c l e , " a n a l y s i n g the ways i n w h i c h i t c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y p o l i t i c a l  ends. ^ 1  0  The L o r d Mayor's Show does n o t s t a n d a l o o f from t h i s ; i n d e e d t h e v e r y conv e n t i o n a l i t y o f some o f t h e r h e t o r i c i s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f . In a g e n e r a l s e n s e , t h e pageants as an e x p r e s s i o n o f London's p r i d e i n i t s e l f a r e n e c e s s a r i l y a p o l i t i c a l g e s t u r e , a l b e i t one t h a t i s n o t always e a s y t o i n t e r p r e t , w h i l e a t t h e same time i n d i v i d u a l pageants  or tableaux  may a l s o r e f l e c t on c o n t e m p o r a r y s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e m a t u r i t y o f t h e form c o m i n g , as i t does, i n t h e 1620s and 1630s, a time when s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were u n d e r g o i n g p l e x i t y , g i v e s an added impetus s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e pageants  changes o f c o n s i d e r a b l e com-  t o t h e need t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e c i s e  i n h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l terms.  The im-  p o r t a n c e o f t h i s g e n e r a l i s s u e f o r t h e t h r e e Shows M i d d l e t o n w r o t e f o r t h e Drapers i s t w o f o l d .  F i r s t , between 1614 and 1640 t h e D r a p e r s  provided  e i g h t L o r d Mayors and s o were i n a p o s i t i o n t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r C i t y p o l i t i c s ; and s e c o n d , Margot Heinemann i n an i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e on M i d d l e t o n has a r g u e d t h a t h i s " P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n  sympathies"  were i n c l o s e a c c o r d w i t h t h o s e o f h i s C i t y p a t r o n s , some o f whom may have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o t e c t i n g him from any u n f o r t u n a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f the Game a t Chess a f f a i r .  ^  It i s necessary, t h e r e f o r e , t o consider the p o l i t i c a l outlook o f London, and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e D r a p e r s ' Company r e f l e c t e d i t , i n t h e p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o t h e " E l e v e n Y e a r s T y r a n n y " o f 1629-40.  The r o l e o f  the g u i l d s i n t h i s i s o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , f o r t h e y s u p p l i e d most o f t h e o f f i c i a l s o f C i t y government; however, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been r e l a t i v e l y 112 l i t t l e studied. are anything  The d i f f i c u l t y h e r e i s t h a t , i f t h e D r a p e r s '  records  t o go by, t h e Companies s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d e d commenting on c u r -  r e n t e v e n t s u n l e s s t h e y t o u c h e d d i r e c t l y upon t h e i r t r a d i n g and f i n a n c i a l interests.  T h i s makes i t hard t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s  a f f i l i a t i o n s o f both i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e Companies t h e m s e l v e s . any c a s e , g i v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s f a r from p r e c i s e .  These, i n  o f t h e t i m e , were i n e v i t a b l y  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s h o u l d be remembered;  i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o be both s t r o n g l y P u r i t a n and s t r o n g l y r o y a l i s t a t t h e same t i m e , and m o r e o v e r , s h i f t s o f emphasis w i t h i n any i n d i v i d u a l 113 p o s i t i o n were common. The government o f t h e C i t y was e s s e n t i a l l y t r i p a r t i t e . "popular"  The most  body was Common H a l l , an e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l y made up o f t h e  L i v e r y m e n , summoned and d i s s o l v e d by t h e L o r d Mayor.  The l e g i s l a t i v e  body was Common C o u n c i l , t h e o r e t i c a l l y e l e c t e d by t h e freemen a t t h e wardmote; i n f a c t t h e C o u r t o f Aldermen e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y o v e r both t h e e l e c t i o n s and i t s l e g i s l a t i v e power. assemblies  The most p o w e r f u l o f t h e  was t h e C o u r t o f A l d e r m e n ; "Chosen f o r l i f e f r o m among t h e /  w e a l t h i e s t c i t i z e n s , by t h e i n d i r e c t e l e c t i o n o f t h e Aldermen t h e m s e l v e s , 114 the C o u r t was o l i g a r c h i c and a l m o s t s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g . "  Basically,  t h e n , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y was i n t h e hands o f an o l i g a r c h i c a l group o f t h e most p o w e r f u l members o f t h e L i v e r y Companies. mass o f s h o p k e e p e r s , a r t i s a n s , and a p p r e n t i c e s i t s government.  I t i s hardly appropriate  The g r e a t  had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on  to c a l l the City fathers  62 "tradesmen";  115  t h e days when such as t h e s e had been c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d  w i t h the t r a d e o f the g u i l d t o which t h e y b e l o n g e d was l o n g p a s t .  By the  t u r n o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e y were the g r e a t m e r c h a n t s o f t h e time had l i t t l e i n common w i t h s m a l l masters and j o u r n e y m e n .  and  T h e i r eminence,  as R. H. Tawney p o i n t s o u t , was due t o t h e i r " v e r s a t i l i t y as economic p l u r a l i s t s , " a c t i v e i n o v e r s e a s r a t h e r than d o m e s t i c t r a d e T h e  most  powerful o f them, the L o r d Mayor, was " t h e m a s t e r o f the m y s t e r i e s o f 117 t r a d e , the s t e w a r d o f the kingdom's s t o c k , t h e p e r f e c t merchant." I n e v i t a b l y t h e n , the t i e s between C i t y and C o u r t were c l o s e , and t h i s  was  compounded by t h e C i t y ' s dependence on t h e Crown f o r i t s c h a r t e r e d p r i vileges.  W i t h i n t h i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e was room f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s ,  some o f t h e C i t y f a t h e r s had c l o s e r t i e s o f f a m i l y , b u s i n e s s , and 118 than o t h e r s .  In a d d i t i o n the ascendancy  patronage  of Lionel C r a n f i e l d , C i t y  merchant t u r n e d r o y a l s e r v a n t , from 1616-24, d e s p i t e h i s p e r s o n a l  un-  p o p u l a r i t y , gave t h e t r a d i n g i n t e r e s t a h i g h l y p l a c e d spokesman, thus m i t i g a t i n g James I's unease a t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l community. Cranf i e l d saw c l e a r l y t h a t " p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y had as i t s c o n d i t i o n a p r o 119 s p e r o u s economy and a c o n t e n t e d C i t y " ;  hence t h e n e c e s s i t y t o i n c l u d e  i t s views i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y , i f the government were t o be a b l e t o draw on i t s w e a l t h w i t h o u t unduly a n t a g o n i z i n g i t . D u r i n g t h e 1620s, however, t h e r e l i g i o u s t e n o r o f the C o u r t o f Aldermen was m o d e r a t e l y  P u r i t a n , and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y brought i t s members  i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e K i n g and P r i v y C o u n c i l :  "as l a t e as 1629 the C i t y  government o p e n l y s u p p o r t e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h smacked s t r o n g l y o f P u r i t a n i s m , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C i t y was s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u a l . p r e s -  63 s u r e from two h i g h p l a c e s , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l and the B i s h o p o f London That the C i t y continued f o r ten years to support  P u r i t a n p r o j e c t s i n the  f a c e o f o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e K i n g , P r i v y C o u n c i l , A r c h b i s h o p , and 120 i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g P u r i t a n m o t i v a t i o n among t h e A l d e r m e n .  Bishop  The most  i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s was the f i n a n c i n g o f the S t . A n t h o l i n ' s l e c t u r e s ; i n 1621 the Lord Mayor, Edward Barkham, f o r whom M i d d l e t o n  wrote  The Sunne i n A r i e s , a p p o i n t e d a committee t o c o n s i d e r p r o v i d i n g a "comp e t e n t s u p p l y o f mayntenance toward the d a y l y e x e r c i s e o f p r e a c h i n g e 121 e v e r y morning a t s i x o f the c l o c k a t S t . A n t h o l y n e s . "  T h i s committee  i n c l u d e d t h r e e o t h e r p a t r o n s o f M i d d l e t o n , S i r Thomas M y d d l e t o n , P r o b y , and M a r t i n Lumley  and recommended a g r a n t o f -L40.  Peter  However, t h i s  g e s t u r e o f P u r i t a n sympathy was m o d i f i e d somewhat by t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t tempts o f t h e C o u r t o f Aldermen between 1622 and 1630 t o impose c o n t r o l o v e r the l e c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y o v e r the r i g h t o f appointment. d i c a t i o n s o f P u r i t a n i s m i n c l u d e the appointment  Other i n -  of preachers, especially  f o r o c c a s i o n a l sermons, and a t t e m p t s t o e n f o r c e S a b b a t a r i a n i s m , t h i s l a s t i n v o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h t h e B i s h o p o f London i n 1629. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s dangerous  to o v e r s t r e s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s .  The P u r i t a n i s m o f , s a y , S i r Thomas Myddleton was f a r removed from the s e c t a r i a n a c t i v i t y o f a G r o c e r j o u r n e y m a n , and does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y imply h o s t i l i t y t o o t h e r government p o l i c y .  The peace o f 1604 was w e l l - r e c e i v e d  by C i t y m e r c h a n t s and, a l t h o u g h by the 1620s when t h e cause o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m was more o b v i o u s l y a t s t a k e , o p i n i o n had s h i f t e d towards  war,  the e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e Companies was n o t n o t i c e a b l e when i t came down t o 122 p a y i n g f o r men and m u n i t i o n s f o r E n g l a n d ' s e n t r y i n t o the war.  So a l -  though many m e r c h a n t s f a v o u r e d a n a v a l war w i t h S p a i n on m e r c a n t i l i s t  64 g r o u n d s , C r a n f i e l d was not the o n l y one t o p r e f e r peace.  A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r not o v e r - e m p h a s i z i n g  the Puritanism of the Court of  Aldermen i s the r e l a t i v e speed w i t h which i t s a t t i t u d e changed i n the 1630s,  despite considerable c o n t i n u i t y of personnel.  T h i s i s most o b v i o u s  i n r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s , i n p a r t due t o the i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e d i o c e s e o f London a f t e r Laud t o o k o v e r , and i s d e m o n s t r a t e d Corporation's w i l l i n g n e s s to c o n t r i b u t e to his p r o j e c t s .  by t h e  In p o l i t i c a l  a f f a i r s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e Crown grew more s e r i o u s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y g i v e n the c r u d e a t t e m p t s t o e x t r a c t money from t h e C i t y , but as t h e y e a r s o f p e r s o n a l r u l e c o n t i n u e d a g e n e r a l r e a l i z a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t among many o f t h e l e a d i n g members o f London government t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s 123 l a y w i t h t h e Crown.  V a l e r i e Pearl assesses the s i t u a t i o n a c c u r a t e l y :  " C h a r l e s I e n j o y e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s r e i g n a s m a l l but p o w e r f u l n u c l e u s o f s u p p o r t i n the C i t y government . . . i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e a l d e r m a n i c Bench and p r o b a b l y o f the C o u r t o f Common C o u n c i l , a l t h o u g h u n w i l l i n g t o commit t h e m s e l v e s t o s u p p o r t C h a r l e s i n 1640,  pre-  f e r r e d t o back the Crown by t h e autumn o f 1641 a n d . . . s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the C i t y government were needed t o g i v e power t o the s u p p o r t e r s o f P a r l i a ment."  1 2 4  The main d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i c y between government and C i t y , o t h e r than o v e r r e l i g i o n , were e s s e n t i a l l y f i n a n c i a l .  The 1620s were a p e r i o d o f  marked decay i n t r a d e , and c o n c e r n o v e r t h i s u n i t e d b o t h L i v e r y and Yeomanry o f a Company l i k e the D r a p e r s , c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h e x p o r t s . C r a n f i e l d d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1621:  " t h e C i t y undone; the t r a d e o f  the kingdom l o s t ; the m e r c h a n t s , t o use t h e i r own t e r m , 'bought and  sold."'  S i n c e no one knew the p r e c i s e c a u s e o f t h e d e c l i n e , i t was  n a t u r a l , and o f t e n j u s t i f i e d , to blame i n e p t government p o l i c y . i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t o the D r a p e r s may "three-quarters  to nine-tenths  The  be j u d g e d by Tawney's c l a i m t h a t  o f the v a l u e o f London e x p o r t s were e s t i 1 og  mated u n d e r James t o c o n s i s t o f w o o l l e n t e x t i l e s . " f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n was e x a c e r b a t e d new  i n 1625  This unsatis-  by t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f the  r e i g n , the o u t b r e a k o f the p l a g u e , and the s u b s e q u e n t f a i l u r e o f the  harvest. G i v e n the decay o f t r a d e , the a t t e m p t s o f t h e Crown t o t a p w e a l t h o f London, e s p e c i a l l y when P a r l i a m e n t 126 s u p p l i e s , were much r e s e n t e d .  the  was r e c a l c i t r a n t a b o u t v o t i n g  S i n c e t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h , t h e Crown  had c l a i m e d t o c o l l e c t Corn money and e n f o r c e l o a n s by r i g h t n o t  grace;  however, where E l i z a b e t h a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y r e p a i d e v e n t u a l l y the money she b o r r o w e d , the f i r s t two S t u a r t s were both l e s s s c r u p u l o u s d e s p e r a t e , and some o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l e x p e d i e n t s 128 extreme.  and more  were d u b i o u s i n the  The Companies' o b j e c t i o n t o the l o a n s a t l e a s t , however,  was not always on t h e grounds o f p r i n c i p l e , r a t h e r t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e  and  o c c a s i o n a l r e f u s a l t o pay s h o u l d be seen as a t t e m p t s t o g e t b e t t e r terms 129 and i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r money. More damaging t o harmony was the Crown's a t t i t u d e to the problem o f c o n c e a l e d l a n d s and the Companies' 1 3fi Irish holdings.  However, the c h i e f h o s t i l i t y t o government p o l i c y  b e f o r e 1640 d i d not d e r i v e so much from t h e s e m i - o l i g a r c h i c a l  governing  b o d i e s o f the g r e a t e r Companies and t h e C i t y government i t s e l f .  Rather,  t h i s stemmed from the Companies' l e s s e r members, e s p e c i a l l y the  Bachelors,  on whom the demands o f the Crown f o r money f e l l more h e a v i l y , from t h e  minor Companies,  and from t h o s e Londoners o u t s i d e t h e Companies who  resented t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s .  XI.  The D r a p e r s ' Company i n t h e E a r l y S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  The p o s i t i o n o f t h e D r a p e r s as t h e t h i r d o f t h e London Companies and t h e i r g r o w i n g i s o l a t i o n from t h e c r a f t a s p e c t s o f t h e wool t r a d e cont r i b u t e d to t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g support f o r the King.  Although  i n t h e 1620s such i m p o r t a n t members as Edward Barkham, M a r t i n Lumley, A l l e n C o t t o n , and John Ranye seem t o have been among t h e more s t r o n g l y P u r i t a n s e c t i o n o f t h e A l d e r m a n i c Bench, by t h e l a t e 1630s t h e Company was c l e a r l y i n t h e hands o f r o y a l i s t s y m p a t h i z e r s .  Then a s u c c e s s i o n o f  f o u r r o y a l i s t M a s t e r s , two o f whom, M o r r i s Abbot and Henry Garway, were a l s o L o r d Mayors ( i n 1638-39 and 1639-40) made t h e Company r e l a t i v e l y 131 a c q u i e s c e n t t o t h e demands o f t h e K i n g . o t h e r Companies,  In c o m p a r i s o n t o some o f t h e  e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e where t h e c r a f t e l e m e n t was  still  s t r o n g , t h e D r a p e r s p a i d t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h o u t much demur.  The  Company h i s t o r i a n , A. H. J o h n s o n , s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t t h i s a c q u i e s c e n c e was i n l a r g e measure a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e Company e x e r c i s e d by t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s .  He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t , g i v e n t h e  h o s t i l i t y o f Londoners e v i d e n t a t t h e 1638 e n t r y o f M a r i e de M e d i c i s , mother o f H e n r i e t t a M a r i a , Abbot's mayoral t r i u m p h ( P o r t a P i e t a t i s by 13 Heywood) c a n n o t have been r e c e i v e d w i t h much e n t h u s i a s m by them e i t h e r . The c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e D r a p e r s w i t h d r a p e r y p e r se had l o n g been i n decline.  O r i g i n a l l y m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f v ; p o l l e n c l o t h , by the f i f t e e n t h r  c e n t u r y t h e y had become p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l e r s o f i t and, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  67  t h i s t r e n d , soon were c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n the e x p o r t n o t o n l y o f wool and c l o t h but a l s o c o r n and o t h e r s t a p l e s . Throughout  t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x -  t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h e number o f members who had no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a d e grew t o the p o i n t where, by the r e i g n o f James I , "the Company i s r a p i d l y coming t o be composed, as i t i s t o - d a y , o f a m o t l e y group o f men o f numerous p r o f e s s i o n s and c a l l i n g s ,  whose o n l y bond o f u n i o n i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e i r  common a s s o c i a t i o n i n one F r a t e r n i t y — a F r a t e r n i t y , o r Company, which i s 133 r a p i d l y assuming  the c h a r a c t e r o f a mere F r i e n d l y S o c i e t y . "  This i n -  c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y a f f e c t e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Company.  By t h e mid-  f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y the s p l i t between t h e B a c h e l o r s o r Yeomanry and the L i v e r y o r C l o t h i n g was a l m o s t c o m p l e t e .  The B a c h e l o r s were a s u b o r d i n a t e  o r g a n i z a t i o n composed o f s m a l l s h o p k e e p e r s , r e t a i l d e a l e r s i n c l o t h , t a i l o r i n g and h a b e r d a s h e r y , and journeymen o f o t h e r t r a d e s ; t h e more s u c c e s s f u l o f them o r t h o s e w i t h c o n n e c t i o n s i n t h e L i v e r y w e r e from time t o time c a l l e d t o the s e n i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , h a v i n g u s u a l l y f i r s t s e r v e d as Wardens o f the B a c h e l o r s , u n l e s s the expenses o f a mayoral i t d e s i r a b l e t o admit more t o the L i v e r y than u s u a l .  t r i u m p h made  The l i v e r y m e n ,  on t h e o t h e r hand, from whose most powerful members the A s s i s t a n t s were drawn, were e s s e n t i a l l y m e r c h a n t s ,  f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d with the j o i n t -  s t o c k companies and w i t h o v e r s e a s t r a d e .  S e v e r a l i n d e e d had t h e i r p r i n c i 134 pal r e s i d e n c e s o v e r s e a s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e L e v a n t . The r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h had been a d i f f i c u l t one f i n a n c i a l l y f o r t h e D r a p e r s ; t h e 1585 r e c o r d s c l a i m " n o t h i n g remayning  o f v a l u e t o showe i n  s t o r e but deedes o f c h a r i t i e and t o o savage Lawe and souche l i k e  Compari-  135 sons,"  b u t by t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f j u d i c i o u s  68 i n v e s t m e n t i n j o i n t s t o c k c o m p a n i e s , t h e s i t u a t i o n improved and t h e D r a p e r s , a l o n g w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o t h e r Companies, f e l t i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l i n e d t o spend t h e i r s u r p l u s funds on f e a s t s and p a g e a n t s .  This w i l l -  i n g n e s s was, as I have a l r e a d y a r g u e d , a s i n e qua non f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f the Show i t s e l f , and must have been p a r t l y due t o the r i s e i n members h i p o f t h e Company which s p r e a d t h e burden o f c o s t more e q u a b l y .  In  t h e L i v e r y , i n c l u d i n g the M a s t e r , Wardens, and A s s i s t a n t s , t o t a l l e d 1 3fi t h i s number sunk t o a mere 71 i n 1612. i t s l a r g e s t w i t h 136 members.  1603  116;  But by 1621 the L i v e r y was a t  F i g u r e s f o r the Bachelors are harder to  come by because r e g u l a r r e c o r d s o f Q u a r t e r a g e payments ( t h e i r annual dues) were not kept b e f o r e 1617; i t was, however, a much l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n than t h e L i v e r y , a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f members were not a c t i v e in Company a f f a i r s .  In 1574 487 p a i d Q u a r t e r a g e .  T h i s compares w i t h  ( o u t o f a t o t a l o f 2,106) i n 1617 and 644 i n 1619.  617  But numbers d e c l i n e d  a g a i n i n the mid-1620s as a r e s u l t o f the p l a g u e ; p r o b a b l y a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the r e l a t i v e inexpensiveness of Cuthbert Hacket's triumph. i n 1626 the L i v e r y had d e c l i n e d t o 108 members. f o r the B a c h e l o r s , but as t h e y would presumably  Certainly  No f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o  d e a t h by t h e p l a g u e , t h e i r l o s s e s were p r o b a b l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r . The numbers d i d not r i s e a g a i n i n the 1630s, due i n p a r t , as Johnson g e s t s , t o t h e p o l i t i c a l unrest--membership 1 Of  sug-  o f a Company made one more  l i a b l e t o the demands o f the Crown.  X I I . The aCompany t t i t u d eand o f t h e DDrama r a p e r s and the o t h e r Companies t o t h e drama i s o f  69  considerable interest.  I t i s , o f c o u r s e , a c r i t i c a l commonplace t h a t t h e  C i t y f a t h e r s were h o s t i l e to t h e drama, but t h i s v i e w needs some m o d i f i c a tion.  One o f t h e v a l u a b l e a s p e c t s o f Margot Heinemann's s t u d y o f A Game  a t C h e s s " i s her i n s i s t e n c e t h a t P u r i t a n s were not opposed " r o o t and b r a n c h " to t h e drama, and moreover t h a t some, i n c l u d i n g M i d d l e t o n ' s  City  patrons,  were aware t h a t p r o p e r l y c o n t r o l l e d , i t c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e means o f 1 37 propaganda.  In the e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e h a l l s o f  t h e C i t y Companies, l i k e t h e h a l l s o f t h e n o b i l i t y and g e n t r y , were r e g u l a r p l a y i n g p l a c e s f o r groups o f p l a y e r s .  The D r a p e r s r e c o r d s r e v e a l  t h a t "companies o f p l a y e r s were engaged t o p e r f o r m a p l a y a f t e r d i n n e r  on  both Monday and Tuesday i n e v e r y y e a r between 1515 and 1541 i n which 1 oo d i n n e r s were h e l d . " A f t e r t h i s , d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y a t t h e H a l l seems t o have d e c l i n e d e n o r m o u s l y , d o u b t l e s s f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s i n c l u d i n g l a c k o f money, t h e growth o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and t h e i n c r e a s i n g h o s t i l i t y 139 t o w a r d s drama.  By the 1570s and 1580s, o f c o u r s e , the C i t y government  had become t h e s p e a r h e a d o f the a t t a c k on permanent a c t i n g c o m p a n i e s — i n 1582 the L i v e r y Companies were o r d e r e d by the C i t y not t o " s u f f e r any o f t h e r s a r v a n t s , a p p r e n t i c e s , j o u r n e m e n , o r c h i l d r e n , to r e p a r e t o go e;to A  annye p l a y e s , p e i c e s , o r e n t e r l u d e s . " ^ 1  0  By t h e t u r n o f the  century,  however, i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f the C i t y government was  not  e s s e n t i a l l y on grounds o f p r i n c i p l e , but r a t h e r on t h e i s s u e o f c o n t r o l - and the a c t i o n s o f James i n t h e next r e i g n soon s e t t l e d t h a t .  From t h i s  p o i n t on, a l t h o u g h t h e C i t y m i g h t oppose the d e v e l o p m e n t o f p a r t i c u l a r playhouses  or e n d e a v o u r t o e n f o r c e S a b b a t a r i a n  r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t must have  f e l t t h a t the drama was t h e r e t o s t a y . In t h i s a t m o s p h e r e , d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y r e v i v e d a g a i n i n t h e h a l l s o f  t h e Companies,  a l t h o u g h n o t on t h e e a r l i e r s c a l e .  In any c a s e p r i v a t e  p e r f o r m a n c e s t h e r e had always been exempt from most r e s t r i c t i o n s .  How-  ever, i n s t e a d o f being a r e g u l a r p a r t o f the h a l l f e a s t s , dramatic performances seem t o have been o f an e s s e n t i a l l y o c c a s i o n a l n a t u r e , i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o honour and e n t e r t a i n g u e s t s .  These i n c l u d e d p l a y s ,  masques, and s u c h s l i g h t p i e c e s as The I n v e n t i o n p e r f o r m e d f o r . . . E d w a r d Barkham  i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n . M i d d l e t o n was one o f t h o s e most o f t e n  employed t o c r e a t e t h e s e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s .  In J a n u a r y 1613/14 he wrote t h e  no l o n g e r e x t a n t Masque o f C u p i d t o honour t h e Somerset m a r r i a g e on beh a l f o f the L o r d Mayor and A l d e r m e n ; t h i s t o o k p l a c e a t Merchant T a y l o r s ' Hall.  H i s a p p o i n t m e n t as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r i n 1620 meant an i n c r e a s e o f  such c o m m i s s i o n s ;  i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t he wrote more t h a n t h e t e n  p i e c e s c o l l e c t e d i n H o n o u r a b l e E n t e r t a i n m e n t s (1621) and t h e 1622 An Invention.  These o c c a s i o n s were n o t always as s u c c e s s f u l as t h e i r  o r g a n i z e r s w i s h e d ; John C h a m b e r l a i n i n f o r m s S i r Dudley C a r l e t o n i n 1616 t h a t "on S a t e r d a y t h e K n i g h t s o f t h e Bath were e n t e r t a i n e d by t h e L o r d Mayor a t D r a p e r s H a l l w i t h a s u p p e r and a p l a y , where some o f them were so rude and u n r u l y and c a r i e d t h e m s e l v e s so i n s o l e n t l y d i v e r s wayes but s p e c i a l l y i n p u t t i n g c i t i z e n s wives t o t h e s q u e a k e , so f a r f o o r t h t h a t one o f t h e s h e r i f f e s b r a k e open a doore upon S i r Edward S a c k v i l e , which gave such o c c a s i o n o f s c a n d a l ! , t h a t t h e y went away w i t h o u t t h e banket 141 though y t were r e d y and p r e p a r e d f o r them." X I I I . "The P o l i t i c s o f S p e c t a c l e "  The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f Company a t t i t u d e s and London p o l i t i c s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t would be p o i n t l e s s t o e x p e c t d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t i n t h e Shows  71 o f the v i e w s o f e i t h e r the P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n majority of Londoners. the governing men,  The e n t i r e p r o c e e d i n g s  o p p o s i t i o n or the vast were t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d by  body o f e a c h Company o r by committees a p p o i n t e d  even i f a t times t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were t h o s e o f the  by i t . Such  Parliamentary-  P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n , were not l i k e l y to s a n c t i o n a n y t h i n g w i t h even r e m o t e l y s e d i t i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s ; hence t h e o r t h o d o x y , the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f which C l a r k c o m p l a i n s .  N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e sheer m a g n i f i c e n c e  o f the d i s -  p l a y , r e a c h i n g i t s z e n i t h i n t h e 1620s and 1630s i s i t s e l f , however f r e q u e n t l y combined w i t h p i o u s p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y t o t h e k i n g , an a s s e r t i o n o f London's new s e n s e o f i t s e l f .  And w i t h t h i s e v e r y Londoner  c o u l d i d e n t i f y . Both Glynne Wickham and M u r i e l B r a d b r o o k have p o i n t e d  out  t h a t " i n the u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s o f f l a t t e r y and i n f l a t e d s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t h e e x t r a v a g a n c e o f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e , and i n the s p e c t a c u l a r q u a l i t y " o f b o t h masque and L o r d Mayor's Show, we may p e r c e i v e "a s i m i l a r l y dangerous and 142 a g g r e s s i v e s p i r i t beneath t h e t h e a t r i c a l c l o a k . "  Professor Bradbrook  goes f u r t h e r and a r g u e s t h a t "As t h e s p l i t between c o u r t and c i t y w i d e n e d , the L o r d Mayor's pageants c o n c e n t r a t e d  r a t h e r on t h e h i s t o r y o f the c i t y  i t s e l f than on t h e g l o r i e s o f a u n i t e d monarchy." qualification.  T h i s needs p a r t i a l  The e a r l y pageants a r e i n d e e d r e m a r k a b l e f o r the emphasis  t h e y p l a c e on the s o v e r e i g n r a t h e r than t h e C i t y ; P e e l e ' s Astraeae Mayor.  Descensus  i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h E l i z a b e t h than W i l l i a m Webbe, t h e new  Lord  More e q u a b l y , Munday i n The Triumphs o f R e - U n i t e d B r i t a n n i a (1605)  c a r e f u l l y uses t h e Brutus myth t o honour both James, t h e u n i f i e r o f t h e kingdom, and L e o n a r d H o l l i d a y , a t the same time a c h i e v i n g a p r e v i o u s l y unknown d e g r e e o f u n i t y among t h e v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x .  However, even a t t h e  end o f James' r e i g n when, we a r e t o l d , h i s p o p u l a r i t y had waned.from t h o s e  72 heady e a r l y d a y s , the pageant p o e t s s t i l l c e l e b r a t e a t l e n g t h h i s v i r t u e s as peacemaker and second B r u t u s .  So i n 1623, M i d d l e t o n d e v o t e s an e n t i r e  t a b l e a u , based on the D r a p e r s ' Company arms t o l a u d i n g " t h a t R o y a l ! Peacemaker, our K i n g " ( l . 2:74).  T h e r e seems n o t h i n g p e r f u n c t o r y i n  Middleton's  and Webster's e u l o g i e s o f James i n the 1620s; however, such p r a i s e f o r t h e Crown does seem t o d e c r e a s e d u r i n g C h a r l e s ' r e i g n .  I t i s perhaps p o s s i b l e  to s e e t h i s p r o c e s s a t work i n the f i r s t Show o f the new r e i g n , M i d d l e t o n ' s The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626).  C e r t a i n l y , given his  e a r l i e r work, i t i s s t r a n g e not t o f i n d M i d d l e t o n making t h e most o f the a c c e s s i o n o f a new monarch.  Is i t s t r a i n i n g t h e e v i d e n c e too much to  i n t e r p r e t h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e C i t y owes t o the s o v e r e i g n " a l l d u t i e s t h a t j u s t s e r v i c e comprehends" and w i l l always be f i r s t i n any "duty [ t h a t ] t o w a r d good s u p p l i e s (11. 156, "180; my i t a l i c s ) as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a b s o l u t e l o y a l t y o f C i t y to Crown u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d  i n the e a r l i e r Show's  And i n Heywood's Shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between C i t y and s o v e r e i g n i s o f almost n e g l i g i b l e  importance.  Heywood's f i n a l Show, L o n d i n i S t a t u s Pacatus  (1639), w h i c h i n c l u d e s  a t a b l e a u c o n t r a s t i n g the h o r r o r s o f "the C a l a m i t i e s o f War,  cV^the b l e s s e d -  nesse o f peace" has been s i n g l e d out by C l a r k as i n d i c a t i n g t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f the pageant poets t o admit t h a t " t h e r e was o r c o u l d be a c l o u d i n the 143 sky."  T h i s i s u n f a i r t o Heywood; h i s Show, i r o n i c a l l y the l a s t b e f o r e  the R e s t o r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h s e t t i n g t h e r a v a g e s of c i v i l war i n Germany, must have been i n t e n d e d , and was u n d o u b t e d l y  r e a d , as a comment on t h e c u r r e n t  p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . And as s u c h , i t shows, as Wickham has p o i n t e d o u t , "a d e g r e e o f common-sense r e a l i s m e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g among t h e c o u r t i e r s  73 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f Davenant's S a l m a c i d a S p o l i a i n the same ,,144 year. W i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l framework o f a g r a d u a l inward t u r n i n g t o conc e n t r a t e on t h e g l o r i e s o f London, and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s as a p o l i t i cal  g e s t u r e , r e f e r e n c e t o c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s can sometimes be d i s c e r n e d i n  p a r t i c u l a r pageants.  S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , c o n s i d e r i n g The Triumphs o f T r u t h  (1613), comments t h a t T r u t h i n t h e pageant i s a r e l i g i o u s T r u t h , i n f a c t , a s t r o n g l y P r o t e s t a n t one, and s u g g e s t s t h a t the Show i s "a s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n 1613"; t h e 145  y e a r o f t h e m a r r i a g e o f P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h t o the E l e c t o r P a l a t i n e . Sometimes c o n t e m p o r a r y a l l u s i o n s a r e o b v i o u s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , the r e l i e f of the e n t i r e n a t i o n a t P r i n c e C h a r l e s ' s a f e , b r i d e l e s s r e t u r n from  Spain  in O c t o b e r 1623. i s r e f l e c t e d i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y l a t e r t h a t month. In o t h e r s c u r r e n t h a p p e n i n g s may have g i v e n added meaning t o o t h e r w i s e conventional sentiments.  So i n The Sunne i n A r i e s (1621) M i d d l e t o n , as he  had f r e q u e n t l y done b e f o r e , d e p l o r e s b r i b e r y i n the m a g i s t r a t e ; the f a l l of Bacon i n the same y e a r s h a r p e n s the p o i n t .  And i n The Triumphs o f H e a l t h  and P r o s p e r i t y i n 1626 the unaccustomed heavy emphasis on Drake's v i c t o r i e s may have been i n t e n d e d t o r e c a l l t h e C a d i z f i a s c o o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . P a r t o f M i d d l e t o n ' s work f o r the C i t y i n v o l v e d c o m p i l i n g a c c o u n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s and what we know o f the c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e now l o s t works a s s u r e s us o f h i s keen i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f the day, i n c l u d i n g t h e f a l l o f Bacon.  A c c o r d i n g t o Oldys t h e y were  e n t i t l e d I. A n n a l e s : o r a C o n t i n u a t i o n o f C h r o n o l o g i e ; c o n t e y n i n g e Passages and Occurences p r o p e r t o the H o n n o r a b l e C i t t y o f London: B e g i n n i n g e i n t h e Yeare o f  74 o u r L o r d e 1620. By Thomas M i d l e t o n t h e n r e c e i v e d by t h e i r H o n n o r a b l e S e n a t e as C h r o n o l o g e r f o r t h e C i t t y e . There a r e i n i t , t h e s e A r t i c l e s under t h e y e a r 1621.--On Good F r y d a y i n t h e Morn d i e d John ( K i n g ) L o r d B i s h o p o f London.--28 May F r a n c i s L o r d V e r u l a m committed t o t h e Tower. ( S e a l t a k e n from him t h e l a s t day o f A p r i l ) . - - 2 7 December S i r Edward Coke Committed t o the T o w e r . — D e c e m b e r The F o r t u n e P l a y House, s i t u a t e between White C r o s s S t r e e t and G o l d i n g L a n e , b u r n t , &c. I I . M i d d l e t o n ' s F a r r a g o : In which t h e r e i s — T h e E a r l o f E s s e x h i s Charge a g a i n s t V i s c o u n t Wimbleton, & t h e V i s c o u n t s Answer.--The T r e a t y and A r t i c l e s o f M a r r i a g e between P r i n c e C h a r l e s & Henrietta M a r i a . — P a r i i a m e n t a r y Matters, 1625-26.— Habeas Corpus 1627 &C.146  XIV. M i d d l e t o n and C i v i c  Pageantry  M i d d l e t o n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h c i v i c p a g e a n t r y spans a l m o s t h i s e n t i r e d r a m a t i c c a r e e r ; he w r i t e s p l a y s from 1602-24 and pageants from 1604-26. We f i r s t know o f him as a p l a y w r i g h t i n 1602, from Henslowe's d i a r y , when, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Dekker, Munday, D r a y t o n , and Webster, he c o n t r i b u t e d 147 to a l o s t p l a y c a l l e d C a e s a r s F a l l or Two Shapes.  Two o f t h e s e  COIT  l a b o r a t o r s , Dekker and Munday, were t o be i m p o r t a n t i n h i s pageant c a r e e r . A l t h o u g h t h e d i a r y a l s o t e l l s us t h a t M i d d l e t o n was w r i t i n g p l a y s on h i s own a t t h i s t i m e , h i s f i r s t u n d i s p u t e d e x t a n t p l a y i s The Phoenix o f 4.  1603-  Meanwhile h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Dekker c o n t i n u e d : t h e two produced  Honest Whore I i n 1604 and i n t h e same y e a r Dekker presumably  co-opted  M i d d l e t o n and g e n e r o u s l y c r e d i t e d him w i t h t h e speech o f Z e a l i n t h e  New  World A r c h o f t h e C o r o n a t i o n Show f o r James I. T h i s was M i d d l e t o n ' s f i r s t v e n t u r e i n t o c i v i c p a g e a n t r y ; one not r e p e a t e d u n t i l 1613.  In t h e i n t e r i m he p r o d u c e d t h e s e t o f comedies  of  The  75 London l i f e which r e p r e s e n t t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n d i s p l a y e d i n t h e mayoral e n t e r t a i n m e n t s .  In t h e s e p l a y s M i d d l e t o n p r e s e n t s an i r o n i c view  o f t h e seamy s i d e o f London s o c i e t y , a w o r l d where t h e o l d t i e s o f k i n s h i p and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y have been p e r v e r t e d by the rampant d e s i r e f o r money o r sex.  Here we f i n d such c i t i z e n s as Quomodo, t h e scheming Draper o f  Michaelmas  Term, a f a r c r y from t h e moral paragons o f M i d d l e t o n ' s l a t e r  Shows f o r t h a t Company.  Quomodo e x u l t s a t the p r o s p e c t o f t h e w e a l t h  to be d e r i v e d from term t i m e : "you know ' t i s term t i m e , and  Michaelmas  term t o o , t h e d r a p e r s ' h a r v e s t f o r f o o t - c l o t h s , r i d i n g - s u i t s , w a l k i n g s u i t s , chamber-gowns, and h a l l gowns.'" ( I , 254).  In t h e D r a p e r s ' Shows,  however, t h e i r t r a d e i s metamorphosed i n t o a symbol o f o r d e r : " t h e r e we  '  s h a l l . f i n d e t h e whole L i v e r y o f t h i s most renowned and famous C i t y , as upon t h i s Day, and a t a l l Solemne m e e t i n g s , f u r n i s h e d by i t ; i t c l o t h e s t h e H o n o r a b l e S e n a t o r s i n t h e i r h i g h e s t and r i c h e s t H e a r i n g s , a l l C o u r t s o f J u s t i c e , M a g i s t r a t e s , and Judges o f t h e Land" (JJ_, 11. 99-104;' THP, 11. 55-9).  The h o s t i l i t y o f M i d d l e t o n ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e c i t i z e n r y i n t h i s  p e r i o d has l e d M u r i e l Bradbrook t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t perhaps t h e Companies 148  " t h o u g h t him worth b u y i n g o f f . "  I t i s more p l a u s i b l e , however, t h a t  M i d d l e t o n , always something o f an o p p o r t u n i s t , p e r c e i v e d t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r a s k i l f u l w r i t e r o f c i t y e n t e r t a i n m e n t s and s e i z e d upon t h e e n t r e e g i v e n to him i n 1613.  T h a t h i s a t t i t u d e t o h i s c i v i c p a t r o n s remained a t l e a s t  somewhat a m b i v a l e n t i s s u g g e s t e d by H e n g i s t , King o f Kent ( c .  1616-20).  Here Simon t h e Mayor and h i s f e l l o w townsmen p r e p a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e c e d e n t o f t h e Town Book, a " c o n c e i t o f m i c k l e w i g h t " f o r V o r t i g e r n ; he, however, i s not i m p r e s s e d by t h e i r " t e d i o u s and r i d i c u l o u s d u t i e s " ( I I , 69).  76 M i d d l e t o n ' s f i r s t mayoral  e n t e r t a i n m e n t , The Triumphs o f T r u t h  (1613),  was p r o d u c e d , i n some s o r t o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d Munday, f o r S i r Thomas M y d d l e t o n .  To j u d g e from t h e f u l s o m e a d d r e s s t o S i r Thomas  i n t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e pageant, M i d d l e t o n may w e l l have owed h i s employment to t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f h i s namesake.  The " c o l l a b o r a t i o n " w i t h Munday,  however, was e v i d e n t l y n o t a happy one.  Over t h e p r e v i o u s f i f t e e n y e a r s  Munday had a c q u i r e d an e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n a s u n o f f i c i a l  factotum i n the  p r e p a r a t i o n o f L o r d Mayor's Shows; he i s known t o have w r i t t e n f i v e between 1602 and 1611 and was l i k e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f t h e m i s s i n g 149 ones from 1597-1601.  The i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e w r i t e r i n a l l a s p e c t s o f  the p a g e a n t — d e v i s i n g , w r i t i n g , and o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n — i s / d u e ,to him.  M i d d l e t o n a p p e a r s t o have r e g a r d e d The Triumphs o f T r u t h as an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u p p l a n t Munday.  This leads to the s l i g h t l y ludicrous  spectacle o f h i s a t t a c k i n g the a r t i s t i c l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s r i v a l , "the impudent common w r i t e r , " and l a m e n t i n g "so g l o r i o u s a f i r e i n bounty and goodness o f f e r i n g t o match i t s e l f w i t h f r e e z i n g A r t , s i t t i n g i n d a r k n e s s , w i t h t h e c a n d l e o u t , l o o k i n g l i k e t h e p i c t u r e o f B l a c k Monday," b u t y e t b e i n g c o m p e l l e d a t t h e end o f t h e t e x t t o commend him f o r t h e f u r n i s h i n g o f a p p a r e l and p o r t e r s ( V I I , 233-4, 2 6 2 ) . As J e a n R o b e r t s o n p o i n t s o u t , the d i s p u t e between t h e two s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t enough was a t s t a k e 150 financially  t o provoke s u c h r i v a l r y .  s u g g e s t an a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n .  The G r o c e r s ' A c c o u n t s , however, Munday i s p a i d f o r t h e "devyse o f t h e  Pageant and o t h e r shewes," f o r p r o v i d i n g p o r t e r s , and a l s o a c t o r s and costumes f o r a l l t a b l e a u x e x c e p t t h e pageant. M i d d l e t o n i s p a i d f o r " t h e o r d e r i n g o v e r s e e i n g and w r y t i n g o f t h e whole Devyse & a l s o e f o r t h e 151 a p p a r e l i n g t h e personage i n t h e Pageant." . The d i f f i c u l t y h e r e l i e s i n  77 the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f terms.  C l e a r l y , however, Munday was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h e i n i t i a l d e v i s i n g o r i n v e n t i o n o f t h e whole scheme, a l t h o u g h t h i s b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n may w e l l have changed d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p , as the h i s t o r y o f the masque shows w e l l , p r o v i d e s ample ground f o r q u a r r e l s , and i f we assume t h a t M i d d l e t o n was e a g e r f o r f i n a n c i a l and a r t i s t i c r e a s o n s t o t a k e o v e r as much o f Munday's work as p o s s i b l e , t h e n t h e f r i c t i o n caused by such an arrangement  i s not s u r p r i s i n g .  This  would a l s o e x p l a i n M i d d l e t o n ' s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e t i t l e - p a g e t h a t t h e pageant was " D i r e c t e d , W r i t t e n , and Redeem'd i n t o Forme, from t h e  Ignorance  o f some f o r m e r t i m e s , and t h e i r Common W r i t e r , By Thomas M i d d l e t o n " ( V I I , 229).  Such h o s t i l i t y i n t h e i r f i r s t c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t bodes i l l f o r  f u t u r e j o i n t work.  The s p e c t a c u l a r e f f e c t s and g e n e r a l m a g n i f i c e n c e o f The Triumphs  of  T r u t h must have p l e a s e d t h e G r o c e r s and e n s u r e d s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r any f u t u r e p r o j e c t s d e v i s e d by M i d d l e t o n .  T h i s i s borne o u t by h i s employ-  ment i n 1614, by t h e L o r d Mayor, S i r Thomas M y d d l e t o n , and t h e Aldermen w r i t e a (no l o n g e r e x t a n t ) masque i n honour o f t h e Somerset m a r r i a g e .  to Three  y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1617, he competes s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t Munday t o w r i t e h i s second mayoral pageant, t h i s t i m e f o r George Bowles, a n o t h e r G r o c e r . s t r e n g t h o f Munday's p o s i t i o n , however, l a y i n h i s v e r s a t i l i t y . g e n e r a l l y been a t t r i b u t e d to h i s b e i n g a p r a c t i s i n g d r a p e r .  The  T h i s has  Discussions  of t h i s a r e b e d e v i l l e d by l a c k o f a c c u r a c y o v e r what a d r a p e r a c t u a l l y  was:  n o n e t h e l e s s , most c o n c u r t h a t he kept a d r a p e r ' s shop. But I have been un152 a b l e t o f i n d any e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s . T h a t he was, as J . H. P. 153  P a f f o r d d e s c r i b e s him,  "a keeper and a p p a r e n t l y a h i r e r - o u t o f c l o t h i n g  78 and p r o p e r t i e s used i n p a g e a n t s " i s u n d e n i a b l e , but i t i s much more l i k e l y t h a t he r e l i e d on h i s c o n t a c t s both i n the t h e a t r i c a l w o r l d and i n t h e Company t o do t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y .  Munday was i n d e e d t o prove h a r d t o s u p p l a n t .  The Ironmongers r e -  mained f a i t h f u l t o him i n 1618, and he uses t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f t h a t Sidero-Thriambos  pageant,  o r S t e e l e and I r o n T r i u m p h i n g t o p r o t e s t h i s v i l i f i c a t i o n .  However, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r M i d d l e t o n a g a i n t r i u m p h e d and c o n t i n u e d t h e q u a r r e l by s n e e r i n g i n the o p e n i n g t o The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y ( h i s pageant f o r t h e S k i n n e r , W i l l i a m Cokayne) a t p r e v i o u s triumphs A r t hath been but weakly  "wherein  i m i t a t e d and most b e g g a r l y worded" ( V I I , 315).  The two a r e a g a i n yoked t o g e t h e r i n The Sunne i n A r i e s i n 1621.  The  D r a p e r s ' B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s make i t c l e a r t h a t the Company c o n t r a c t e d w i t h M i d d l e t o n , C h r i s t m a s , and Munday f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e (p. 322).  pageant  S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , s o m e t h i n g o f a p a r t i s a n o f Munday's, comments  t h a t "the o n l y r e a s o n f o r t h i n k i n g Munday s e c o n d t o M i d d l e t o n i s t h a t t h e D r a p e r s ' Company bought s c a r v e s t o be worn f o r C h r i s t m a s and M i d d l e t o n 154 b u t n o t f o r the poor o l d d r a p e r Anthony Munday."  However, t h e e v i d e n c e  o f the t e x t s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y t h a t M i d d l e t o n was s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s w r i t i n g even i f Munday d i d have a c o n s i d e r a b l e say i n t h e p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Show. Undoubtedly  the employment o f Munday by t h e D r a p e r s i n t h e s e y e a r s  owed something t o h i s b e i n g a member o f t h e Company as w e l l as t o h i s command o v e r o r g a n i z a t i o n .  To j u d g e from t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1623 t h e  a r e t h a t t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f 1621 was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y happy.  chances  T h i s time  79 t h e Company employed basis.  both M i d d l e t o n and Munday but on an e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e  Munday p r e p a r e s t h e Argoe f o r t h e w a t e r show, a t a b l e a u o f J a s o n ,  Medea, and t h e A r g o n a u t s w i t h no s p e e c h e s , and w r i t e s a s e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d description of i t ,  The Triumphs o f t h e G o l d e n F l e e c e .  o f any o t h e r t a b l e a u x .  I t makes no m e n t i o n  M i d d l e t o n w r i t e s the pageant p r o p e r , but f a r from  c r e d i t i n g Munday w i t h t h e water show, c l a i m s t h a t i t c o n s i s t e d o f h i s own I m p e r i a l Canopy.  I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e D r a p e r s , w i s h i n g t o employ  M i d d l e t o n w h i l e n o t n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r b r o t h e r Munday, h i t on t h i s as a s a t i s f a c t o r y way o f e l i m i n a t i n g any bad f e e l i n g engendered by t h e p r e v i o u s collaboration.  The p e r i o d 1613-20 marks M i d d l e t o n ' s growing i n t e r e s t i n " p u b l i c " and o c c a s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .  During t h i s time his output i n c l u d e s , i n  a d d i t i o n t o t h e mayoral p a g e a n t s , The New R i v e r E n t e r t a i n m e n t  (1613),  C i v i t a t i s Amor ( 1 6 1 6 ) , The Peacemaker ( 1 6 1 8 ) , The Inner Temple Masque ( 1 6 1 9 ) , and some o f t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i n H o n o r a b l e E n t e r t a i n m e n t s  (1621).  In 1620, d u r i n g t h e m a y o r a l t y o f Cokayne, h i s a p t i t u d e f o r t h i s s o r t o f work was r e c o g n i z e d by h i s a p p o i n t m e n t as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , h i s d u t i e s b e i n g t o " c o l l e c t and s e t down a l l memorable a c t s o f t h i s C i t y , and o c c u r r e n c e s t h e r e o f , and f o r such o t h e r employments as t h i s C o u r t s h a l l 155 have o c c a s i o n t o use him i n , " f o r w h i c h he was p a i d L6. 13. 04.  The  " o t h e r employments" i n c l u d e d such p i e c e s as t h o s e i n H o n o u r a b l e E n t e r t a i n ments (1621) and An I n v e n t i o n (1622).  These, d e s p i t e being e s s e n t i a l l y  p r i v a t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e i n f u n c t i o n and t e c h n i q u e t h e more e l a b o r a t e , p o p u l a r L o r d Mayor's Show.  The more i m p o r t a n t w o r k s , t h e  s o - c a l l e d " A n n a l e s " and " M i d d l e t o n ' s F a r r a g o , " were e x t a n t i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century.  Middleton's performance  in this o f f i c e , unlike that of his  80 s u c c e s s o r Ben J o n s o n , must have been h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r he was  given  a pay i n c r e a s e i n J a n u a r y 1620/21, f r e q u e n t g r a n t s o f money, and t h e o c c a s i o n a l n o m i n a t i o n o f one p e r s o n t o t h e freedom o f t h e C i t y ; i n a d d i t i o n 156 h i s widow r e c e i v e d a f r e e g i f t o f money a f t e r h i s d e a t h . appointment  After this  he wrote a l l but one o f the i n a u g u r a l pageants u n t i l h i s d e a t h  i n 1627, and was i n a d d i t i o n employed i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h C h r i s t m a s t o 157 produce the a b o r t i v e C o r o n a t i o n Show f o r C h a r l e s I i n 1625-26. The i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s d i s p l a y e d by M i d d l e t o n i n t h e s e works emerges p o w e r f u l l y i n h i s f i n a l p l a y , A Game a t Chess  (1624).  The  d r a m a t i s t h e r e combines h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h p o l i t i c s and both t h e s a t i r i c t e c h n i q u e o f t h e London comedies and the emblematic  technique of the  p a g e a n t s , t h u s c r e a t i n g the g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s o f t h e p r e - R e s t o r a t i o n t h e a t r e . Moreover,  the p l a y may have more i n common w i t h the pageants than  c a l i n t e r e s t and t e c h n i q u e .  politi-  Margot Heinemann p o i n t s o u t t h a t M i d d l e t o n  had used the f i g u r e o f E r r o r t o g r e a t e f f e c t t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r i n The Triumphs o f T r u t h ; she a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the S p a n i a r d i n The Triumphs o f 1 CO Honor ' and I n d u s t r y (1617) was an e a r l y s k e t c h f o r t h e B l a c k K n i g h t . C e r t a i n l y B u s i n o ' s a c c o u n t o f t h i s Show makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e S p a n i a r d , a l t h o u g h r e s p e c t a b l e on the page, behaved so r i d i c u l o u s l y as t o " e l i c i t r o a r s o f l a u g h t e r from the m u l t i t u d e " (CSPV, XV, 62).  Middleton, in  e f f e c t t h e p r o d u c e r o f the Show, must have s a n c t i o n e d t h i s c a p i t a l i z i n g on p o p u l a r p r e j u d i c e ; i t was a t e c h n i q u e he was t o e x p l o i t t o t h e f u l l i n A Game a t Chess.  In t h a t c a s e , t o o , contemporary  accounts of the play  remind us o f the d i s c r e p a n c y between what a c t u a l l y happened the t e x t i t s e l f .  A c c o r d i n g t o John C h a m b e r l a i n  onstage  the p l a y e r s " c o u n t e r -  and  81 f e i t e d h i s [Gondomar] person t o the l i f e , w i t h a l l h i s g r a c e s and f a c e s , and had g o t t e n ( t h e y say) a c a s t s u t e o f h i s a p p a r e l 1 f o r t h e p u r p o s e , his L y t t e r . "  and  1 5 9  As a r e s u l t o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n contemporary  a f f a i r s , attempts  been made t o d e f i n e M i d d l e t o n ' s p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s .  have Margot  Heinemann i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t i n s e e i n g him as a m o d e r a t e P u r i t a n , but her a t t e m p t t o a l l y him c l o s e l y w i t h t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n needs some q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  F i r s t , a l t h o u g h some o f the d r a m a t i s t ' s p a t r o n s can  be i d e n t i f i e d as committed P u r i t a n s , o t h e r s such as W i l l i a m Cokayne and 1 gg F r a n c i s Jones were n o t . S e c o n d , she f a i l s t o d e a l w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such works as The Peacemaker (1618) which so c l o s e l y conformed 1 gi p o l i c y as t o be d i r e c t l y encouraged  by James I.  to royal  T h i s i n s i s t e n c e on  t h e v i r t u e s o f peace i s d u p l i c a t e d i n a l m o s t a l l t h e " p u b l i c " works w r i t t e n by M i d d l e t o n , and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o doubt t h e g e n u i n e n e s s  of his p r a i s e .  I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o remember t h a t the views e x p r e s s e d i n A Game a t Chess s h o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be t a k e n as a d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f M i d d l e t o n ' s  own.  A t the v e r y l e a s t , M i d d l e t o n was e m i n e n t l y c a p a b l e o f w r i t i n g w e l l w h a t e v e r h i s p a t r o n s o r employers w i s h e d t o have p r e s e n t e d . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s o c c a s i o n a l work, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t done f o r the C i t y , has g e n e r a l l y been u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , even i g n o r e d , i n s t u d i e s o f 1 g2 Middleton.  In f a c t , f a r from b e i n g an i s o l a t e d a s p e c t o f h i s c a r e e r ,  i t forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t , and an awareness o f t h i s i s v a l u a b l e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s p l a y s . remains c o n s t a n t from The Phoenix  The i n t e r e s t i n a l l e g o r y and emblem ( c o n c e r n e d l i k e t h e pageants w i t h t h e  82 w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e commonwealth) t o A Game a t Chess.  Recognition of the  c o n g e n i a l i t y o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s o f v a l u e even t o a s t u d y o f t h e c i t y comedies, r e d u c i n g t h e t e n d e n c y t o o v e r - e m p h a s i z e I  realism,"  their  "photographic  go  and t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g many o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  scenes such a s t h o s e w i t h Dampit i n A T r i c k t o C a t c h t h e O l d One (1604-5) o r P e n i t e n t B r o t h e l ' s r e p e n t a n c e i n A Mad W o r l d , My M a s t e r s (1604-5).  A  Game a t Chess then becomes a f i t t i n g c u l m i n a t i o n t o both a s p e c t s o f M i d d l e ton's c a r e e r , t h e d r a m a t i s t and t h e chronologer. M i d d l e t o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e form o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show l i e s , as D a v i d B e r g e r o n has s u g g e s t e d , i n h i s endeavour  t o use the techniques o f the 164  moral i n t e r l u d e t o u n i f y t h e v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x .  In h i s f i r s t  pageant,  The Triumphs o f T r u t h , he e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h u s i n g t h e d r a m a t i c form o f t h e moral i n t e r l u d e as t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Show.  itself  Man i n t h e person  o f t h e Mayor i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e o n g o i n g c h o i c e between T r u t h and E r r o r : i f he chooses E r r o r t h e n h i s d e s t r u c t i o n w i l l be a s a s s u r e d a s t h a t o f 165 E r r o r i n t h e Show, f o r T r u t h a l o n e can e n s u r e s a l v a t i o n .  This experi-  ment, however, can a t b e s t be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s ; c e r t a i n l y M i d d l e t o n abandons i t and c o n c e n t r a t e s i n s t e a d on u s i n g images o f l i g h t and d a r k , s u g g e s t i n g t h e r e c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t , t o u n i f y o t h e r w i s e e s s e n t i a l l y discrete tableaux. demonstrates  A l l M i d d l e t o n ' s Shows a r e moral a l l e g o r i e s ; he  l i t t l e o f Munday's o r Dekker's  Heywood's i n " h i e r o g l y p h s . " i n t e r l u d e on h i s p l a y s .  i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y and none o f  T h i s p a r a l l e l s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e moral  I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o compare t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e  i n e v i t a b l e J a s o n t a b l e a u i n t h r e e Shows by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s f o r t h e D r a p e r s ' Company, M i d d l e t o n ' s The Sunne i n A r i e s ( 1 6 2 1 ) , Munday's Met r o p o l i s C o r o n a t a ( 1 6 1 5 ) , and Heywood's L o n d i n i S t a t u s P a c a t u s  (1639).  83 In The Sunne i n A r i e s J a s o n a p p e a r s as a t y p e o f h e r o i c v i r t u e , a p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e L o r d Mayor on h i s voyage f o r t h e F l e e c e o f Fame.  M i d d l e t o n sub-  o r d i n a t e s e v e r y t h i n g t o t h e moral a l l e g o r y , i g n o r i n g a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e myth, and,even o n l y m e n t i o n i n g t h e h e r o ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Company i n so f a r as t h i s makes him p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d t o be t h e s p e a k e r from t h e C h a r i o t o f Honour.  Munday and Heywood, w h i l e n o t n e g l e c t i n g J a s o n t h e h e r o i c  exemplar, are l e s s single-minded. a t e s , Medea and t h e A r g o n a u t s  In b o t h , t h e p r e s e n c e o f J a s o n ' s a s s o c i -  i n M e t r o p o l i s C o r o n a t a and Medea a l o n e i n  L o n d i n i S t a t u s P a c a t u s , s i g n i f i e s t h e community o f e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y i n C i t y government, an e s s e n t i a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e r a t h e r than the h e r o i c s t r u g g l e o f one man. prosperity.  And both s t r e s s t h e F l e e c e as the symbol o f E n g l a n d ' s  Munday's t a b l e a u a l s o r e l i e s h e a v i l y on s p e c t a c l e : the Argo  " i s rowed by d i v e r s comely Eunuches, which c o n t i n u a l l y a t t e n d e d on Medea, and she f a v o u r i n g them but t o p a s s e under t h e f l e e c e o f G o l d e , had a l l t h e i r garments i m m e d i a t l y s p r i n k l e d o v e r w i t h g o l d e , even as i f i t had showred downe i n d r o p p e s upon them" ( s i g . A 4 ) .  And Heywood, t y p i c a l l y , uses h i s  t a b l e a u t o d i s c o u r s e upon t h e s y m b o l i c and n a t u r a l v a l u e o f c a m e l s , both B a c t r i a n and A r a b i a n , and  sheep.  The l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s o f M i d d l e t o n ' s pageants a r e not g r e a t , but i t must be remembered t h a t t h e form o f t h e pageant r e q u i r e d l i t t l e more t h a n the a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t i m e n t s i n a c c e p t a b l e , d i g n i f i e d v e r s e . The Shows were n o t d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e showcases f o r t h e w r i t e r ' s l i t e r a r y talents.  Remembering t h i s , t h e c e n s u r e heaped upon M i d d l e t o n and t h e o t h e r  pageant poets i s not g e n e r a l l y d e s e r v e d .  W r i t i n g o f Munday's C h r u s o -  t h r i a m b o s ( 1 6 1 1 ) , J . H. P. P a f f o r d a r g u e s t h a t t h e s t y l e i s " r a t h e r heavy  84 and s t i l t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the v e r s e , but t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h i s was c o n v e n t i o n a l .  Some o f t h e speeches a r e from g h o s t s o f t h e - i o n g - i d e p a r t e d ,  and an a n t i q u e form o f speech i s i n c h a r a c t e r .  But i t i s t h e speech  f o r c h o r u s e s and sometimes by a p p a r i t i o n s i n Shakespeare  and t h i s s t y l e  was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y an e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e n t i o n f o r the pageants. while there i s nothing in Chruso-thriambos  used  Hence  7  t o j u s t i f y t h e c l a i m t h a t Munday  was a poet o f e x c e l l e n t m e r i t , i t must b e noted t h a t such p o e t r y would not be e x p e c t e d i n a pageant."  T h i s a p p l i e s t o M i d d l e t o n t o o , a poet o f  r a t h e r g r e a t e r m e r i t than Munday.  C e r t a i n l y , the c h o r u s e s and songs o f  H e n g i s t , K i n g o f Kent (1616-20) a r e i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same s t y l e a s the pageants.  M i d d l e t o n wrote i n a l l seven mayoral  e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , one f o r the  S k i n n e r s ' Company, and t h r e e each f o r the G r o c e r s ' Company and t h e D r a p e r s ' Company. mayoral  Two o f t h e s e t h r e e f o r t h e D r a p e r s a r e t y p i c a l o f M i d d l e t o n ' s pageants.  By 1621 he has eschewed a l m o s t a l l elements o f t h e  d r a m a t i c ; each t a b l e a u i s p e o p l e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f f i g u r e s , none o f whom h a s a n y d r a m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the others, apart frortKtheir  p r e s e n c e on t h e same s c a f f o l d .  T h e r e i s no d i a l o g u e , o n l y a n e x p o s i t o r y ,  h o r t a t o r y speech by the most a p p r o p r i a t e o f t h e f i g u r e s .  The u n i t y o f the  t a b l e a u x i s e n t i r e l y t h e m a t i c and s y m b o l i c , and i s most e f f e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e d i n The Sunne i n A r i e s where M i d d l e t o n uses the m a n i f o l d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the image o f t h e sun t o draw the d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s o f the pageant t o gether.  The D r a p e r s w o u l d , I t h i n k , have f e l t t h a t t h e y g o t good v a l u e  f o r money w i t h both t h i s Show and the r a t h e r more s p e c t a c u l a r Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y i n 1623, but t h e pageant f o r 1626, The Triumphs o f H e a l t h  85  and P r o s p e r i t y , i s a d i f f e r e n t c a s e .  The Drapers w i t h h e l d money from  v a r i o u s e m p l o y e e s , but p r i n c i p a l l y M i d d l e t o n and C h r i s t m a s , on a c c o u n t i t s " i l l performance." the pageant,  of  T h i s i s d e a l t w i t h f u l l y i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  but t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y good grounds f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t  M i d d l e t o n had become r a t h e r t i r e d o f w r i t i n g such shows by t h e end o f h i s career.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , I can see l i t t l e ground f o r t h e c h a r g e o f  t i o n t h a t R. C. B a l d b r i n g s a g a i n s t the t w o . ^ 1  M i d d l e t o n ' s mayoral  pageants  pecula-  7  appear i n the "modernized" V i c t o r i a n  e d i t i o n s o f A l e x a n d e r Dyce and A. H. B u l l e n o f t h e dramatist.'s works. The l a t t e r a l s o c o n t a i n s t h e 1622 An I n v e n t i o n . . . f o r Edward Barkham. T h e i r t e x t s , however, a r e n e i t h e r r e l i a b l e nor f u l l y a n n o t a t e d . seemed w o r t h w h i l e  It therefore  t o t a k e one o f t h e two main groups o f M i d d l e t o n ' s  pageants  and, u s i n g Company r e c o r d s , produce a c r i t i c a l , o l d - s p e l l i n g e d i t i o n .  The  k i n d n e s s o f t h e D r a p e r s ' Company i n a l l o w i n g me t h e run o f i t s a r c h i v e s d e t e r m i n e d my c h o i c e o f the pageants w r i t t e n f o r them. f o r t u n a t e i n two o t h e r r e s p e c t s .  T h i s c h o i c e proved  F i r s t , t h e Company's r e c o r d s f o r the  p e r i o d o f t h e development o f the Midsummer Watch, t h e p r e d e c e s s o r o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, a r e u n u s u a l l y f u l l , t h u s p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o study the e a r l y f l o u r i s h i n g of c i v i c pageantry.  S e c o n d , the number o f L o r d  Mayors drawn from t h e D r a p e r s ' Company d u r i n g t h e peak p e r i o d o f the Shows, e i g h t between 1614 and 1639, has a l l o w e d me t o compare the ways i n w h i c h M i d d l e t o n on the one hand, and Munday and Heywood, on t h e o t h e r , t a c k l e w r i t i n g Shows f o r t h e Company.  86  NOTES  Dekker, B r i t a n n i a s Honor i n D r a m a t i c Works, IV, ed. F r e d s o n Bowers (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1961), 82. A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m Dekker's d r a m a t i c works w i l l be f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n . '"Quoted i n S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , "The L o r d Mayor's Show f r o m P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " D i s s . London U n i v . , 1957, p.50. 3  "Pageant" o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e s c a f f o l d i t s e l f , whether f i x e d or n o t , and l a t e r came t o s i g n i f y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h a t s c a f f o l d . The term f i n a l l y comes t o i n c l u d e t h e e n t i r e e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Company r e c o r d s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r t o t h e p r i n c i p a l t a b l e a u as t h e " p a g e a n t , " t h e o t h e r s b e i n g s u b s i d i a r y "shows." I t s h o u l d always be c l e a r f r o m t h e c o n t e x t which s e n s e i s i n t e n d e d h e r e . ^ G u i l d h a l l MS 2463; p r i n t e d i n Nathan Drake, S h a k s p e a r - and h i s T i m e s , 2nd ed. (1838; r p t . New Y o r k : F r a n k l i n , 1969), p.424. 5  J e a n R o b e r t s o n and D. Records i n t h e Books o f t h e Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t i o n s , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as MSC  J . Gordon,-.eds., A C a l e n d a r o f D r a m a t i c L i v e r y Companies o f London, 1485-1640, I I I ( O x f o r d : Malone S o c , 1954), p.58; III.  c  Of t h e t h r e e LMSs i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n , The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ( h e r e a f t e r JJ_) p r o v i d e s t h e f u l l e s t a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n ' s r o u t e ; I have a c c o r d i n g l y used i t t o f l e s h o u t t h e day's e v e n t s . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e I have i g n o r e d the problems r a i s e d by Munday's The Triumphs o f t h e G o l d e n F l e e c e (London, 1623) i n r e l a t i o n t o TI_, s e e pp. 174-6 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s . S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS i n Tudor and S t u a r t T i m e s , " G u i l d h a l l M i s c e l l a n y , 1, No. 10 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 3; "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.2. R o b e r t W i t h i n g t o n , E n g l i s h P a g e a n t r y , 2nd ed. (1918; r p t . New Y o r k : Blom, 1963), I , 9. D r a p e r s ' Co. B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s 1615-91, f o . 88. g  John Stow, A S u r v e y o f London, ed. C.L. K i n g s f o r d ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1908), I , 101-3. A l l f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be f r o m t h i s edition. 1 0  p.l. ] 1  D r a p e r s ' Co. Warden's A c c o u n t s , 1475-1509, +403, 7 7 ; MSC I I I , The a c c u r a c y o f t h e " x i i j " i s c o n s i d e r e d i n MSC I I I , p . x i x . a  S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS f r o m P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.18.  87 ""Glynne Wickham, E a r l y E n g l i s h S t a g e s , II,i(London: R o u t l e d g e , 1963), 325-6 ( h e r e a f t e r E E S ) , c o n s i d e r s whether t h e Midsummer pageants m i g h t n o t be " s u r v i v o r s o f a London g u i l d c y c l e o r c y c l e s . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e e v i d e n c e i s t o o s c a n t y t o admit o f any c o n c l u s i o n s . The t a b l e a u x c a n , however, a l l be p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e b e t t e r documented Royal E n t r y . 13 MSC I I I , p. x x i i ; L . J . M o r r i s s e y , " T h e a t r i c a l Records o f London G u i l d s 1655-1708," T h e a t r e Notebook , 29 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , TOO, 108." . C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e Papers V e n e t i a n , 1520-26 (London, 1869), I I I , 136-7 ( h e r e a f t e r CSPV). T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n r a i s e s ; i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e t a b l e a u x . The ed. o f CSPV s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e t u m b l i n g g i r l , Salome, may have p l a y e d a more p r o m i n e n t p a r t than u s u a l . . . t o r e m i n d Londoners o f her m o t h e r , H e r o d i a s , ' f o r John had s a i d unto H e r o d , i t i s n o t " l a w f u l f o r t h e e t o have t h y b r o t h e r ' s w i f e . ' " C e r t a i n l y , i t was j u s t a t t h i s t i m e t h a t Henry V I I I ' s i n i t i a l qualms a b o u t h i s m a r r i a g e became p u b l i c ; a l l o t h e r d r a m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f John the B a p t i s t t h a t I know o f d e a l w i t h h i s p r e a c h i n g i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s r a t h e r t h a n h i s e x e c u t i o n . There i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a l l u s i o n to t h e s i e g e o f B e l g r a d e , a l t h o u g h Sydney A n g l o , S p e c t a c l e , P a g e a n t r y and E a r l y Tudor P o l i c y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1969), p.177, d i s p u t e s t h i s on t h e grounds t h a t t a b l e a u x s u c h as t h i s c a s t l e a r e t o o common i n t h e Shows f o r any s p e c i f i c meaning t o be i n t e n d e d . The pageants o f S t . George and S t . John t h e B a p t i s t were p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e d by t h e S k i n n e r s and the "Merchant . T a y l o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the S h e r i f f s . 1  15  The pageant n e v e r a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e , but i t i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as t h e f i r s t e.g. o f c l a s s i c a l symbolism i n a t r a d e pageant. T h i s honour may, however, b e l o n g t o t h e A c h i l l e s who f e a t u r e d i n the 1512 Show f o r S i r Roger A c h i l l y . T h i s depends on w h e t h e r he was the G r e e k hero o r an o b s c u r e k i n g o f I c e l a n d , see F.P. W i l s o n , e d . , A C a l e n d a r o f t h e D r a m a t i c Records i n t h e Books o f t h e London C l o t h w o r k e r s ' Company, Malone Soc. C o l l e c t i o n s , V ( O x f o r d : Malone S o c , 1959), p.4 n.2. 1  d r a p e r s ' Co. R e p e r t o r i e s 7, 642, 13 J u n e ; MSC I I I , p.32.  ^ A c c o r d i n g t o W r i o t h e s l e y "the w a t c h e kept i n London a t Midsommer was put downe by t h e k i n g e s commaundement because t h e c i t i z e n s had bene a t g r e a t c h a r g e i n t h e i r m u s t e r ; howebeyt t h e mayor and s h e r i f f e s had p r e p a r e d d i v e r s pageantes w i t h l i g h t e s and o t h e r t h i n g e s f o r t o have had t h e s a i d w a t c h e , and had no knowledge t i l l two dayes a f o r e Midsommer t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t be k e p t , which was a g r e a t l o s s e t o poore men" ( W i t h i n g t o n , I, 4 2 ) . Monarchs were f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t o t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e Companies on f e s t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y were r e l u c t a n t t o pay Crown l e v i e s and dues. P . D . L u s h e r , " S t u d i e s i n t h e G u i l d Drama, 1515-1550," D i s s . London U n i v . , n.d. p.81. 18  88 1 9  D r a p e r s ' Rep. 7, 468-9; MSC  I I I , p.21.  20 see H.C. p. 61. 2 1  The p l a y s on the V i r g i n i n the Y o r k C y c l e were e x c i s e d i n 1548, G a r d i n e r , M y s t e r i e s End (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 4 6 ) ,  G a r d i n e r , pp.80-85.  22 B r i t a n n i a s Honor, Bowers IV, 83. 2 3  Withington  I, 124.  24 S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS i n T u d o r and S t u a r t T i m e s , " p.3, from E. H a l l , C h r o n i c l e . (London, 1578), f o . C C x i i i . v  2 5  " T h e LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.208.  26 The D i a r y o f Henry Machyn, ed. J.G. N i c h o l s (London, 1 8 4 8 ) , p.47f. 27  P r i n t e d i n MSC I I I , pp.42-3; the eds. s u g g e s t t h a t R i c h a r d M u l c a s t e r may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t M u l c a s t e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n drama, d e v e l o p i n g i t as p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m o f M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s ' S c h o o l . T h i s s c h o o l sometimes p r o v i d e d the c h i l d r e n f o r t h e e a r l y Shows. 28  W i c k h a m , EES,  II,/,240.  29 S t e p h e n O r g e l , The J o n s o n i a n Masque ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp.129,194. 30 The most r e c e n t s t u d y o f c i v i c p a g e a n t r y , David B e r g e r o n ' s E n g l i s h C i v i c P a g e a n t r y ( L o n d o n : A r n o l d , 1 9 7 1 ) , uses t h e i r d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s ( p l o t , character c o n f l i c t , dialogue, etc.) to judge t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e ; see a l s o Wickham, EES, I , 51-111, I I , 206-44. 31 Ben J o n s o n , ed. C H . H e r f o r d and P e r c y and E v e l y n Simpson, I I I , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 2 7 ) , 107; a l l q u o t a t i o n s from Jonson w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n , c i t e d as H&S. 3 2  S e e p.226.  33 The J o n s o n i a n Masque, passim. 34 The J o n s o n i a n Masque, pp.32-34.  89 35  Les F g t e s de l a R e n a i s s a n c e ( P a r i s : C e n t r e N a t i o n a l de l a Recherche S c i e n t i f i q u e , 1956), I , 11. 36  B e r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , pp.177, 164 (Dekker) and pp.179,200 ( M i d d l e t o n ) . " S o u l " i s used i n both pageant and masque t o r e f e r t o t h e p o e t i c a n d a l l e g o r i c a l e l e m e n t s . The "body" was t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e artificer. 3 7  " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," Modern P h i l o l o g y , 31 ( 1 9 3 3 ) , 75.  op  CSPV,"1617-19, XV, 60-61. The c o n t r a s t between i d e a l a n d a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r was sometimes a p p a r e n t a t masques t o o , s e e t h e H a r i n g t o n a c c o u n t o f t h e d i s o r d e r s a t the. e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r t h e K i n g o f Denmark a t T h e o b a l d s , E.K. Chambers, The E l i z a b e t h a n S t a g e , 2nd e d . (1923; r p t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1951), I , 172. 39  C h a u c e r , "The C o k e s - T a l e , " Works, e d . F.N. R o b i n s o n , 2nd ed. (1933; B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1957), p.61. 40 John Aubrey, q u o t e d i n MSC I I I , p . x l i i . 41 The f o c u s s i n g o f t h e mayoral shows on a V I P who i s both s p e c t a t o r and p a r t i c i p a n t p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e masque. 42 J o . Cooke, Greenes Tu Quoque (London, 1614), s i g , C2. 43  H & S , V I I , 91.  44 Dekker, The M a g n i f i c e n t E n t e r t a i n m e n t , Bowers, I I , 255. 45 H 0  S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS f r o m P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.200.  46 He was s a t i r i z e d i n The Case i s A l t e r e d , H i s t r i o - m a s t i x , and K i n d H e a r t s Dream. M i d d l e t o n a t t a c k s him i n h i s 1613 and 1619 Shows and Dekker's 1612 c r i t i c i s m o f e a r l i e r Shows i s perhaps d i r e c t e d a t him. S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS f r o m P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.28. 4 7  48  M S C I I I , pp.127,129.  49  Heywood, P o r t a P i e t a t i s (London, 1638), s i g . B 3 . V  90 50  H&S, V I I , 735. I doubt i f Jonson would a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e purpose o f t h e masque t r a n s f e r r e d t o p a g e a n t r y ; c e r t a i n l y i n h i s p a r t o f James C o r o n a t i o n Show he was c o n c e r n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i s own c r e a t i o n and mere p a g e a n t r y ( V I I , 104). N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f we s u b s t i t u t e t h e L o r d Mayor f o r J o n s o n ' s g r e a t p r i n c e s , h i s remarks a r e e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r t h e LMS. 1  51  "Of P r a i s e , " i n Works, ed. James S p e d d i n g , R.L. E l l i s , and Heath, 2nd ed. (1860; r p t . London, 1870), V I , 502.  D.D.  George R. K e r n o d l e , From A r t t o T h e a t e r ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1944), pp.72-108; Wickham, EES, I I , 209-225. K e r n o d l e , p.62; f o r R e v e l s O f f i c e payments f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c h a r i o t s , see Wickham, EES, I I , 296. Hens 1 owe's D i a r y , ed. R.A. Foakes and R.T. R i c k e r t Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1961) p.319.  (Cambridge:  55  The Quenes M a j e s t i e s P a s s a g e , ed. James M. Osborn (New Haven: E l i z a b e t h a n C l u b , 1960), pp..46-7; Heywood, Londons Jus Honorarium (London, 1631), s i g s . B 2 - B 3 . V  B e r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , p.267. 57 Kernodle,  p.73.  58  Wickham, EES, II,f,217, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f M i d d l e t o n ' s use o f t h e f o u n t a i n i n The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y ( h e r e a f t e r THP). In t h i s c a s e , however, M i d d l e t o n ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t e x t e n d s t o t h e e n t i r e pageant. See Wickham, EES, II,i,221 f o r t h e g e n e s i s o f c u r t a i n s . 'Wickham, EES, I , 93-7, I I , 225-6. In a d d i t i o n , v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e pageants were sometimes kept by e i t h e r Company o r a r t i f i c e r ( s e e pp.54,93); t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y may be a n o t h e r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f p r o c e s s i o n a l s t a g i n g . C e r t a i n l y , we know from M i d d l e t o n ' s The B l a c k Book (1604) what c o u l d happen t o a n y t h i n g p o r t a b l e on c i v i c o c c a s i o n s . He d e s c r i b e s P i e r c e P e n n y l e s s ' c o v e r l e t as "made o f p i e c e s a' b l a c k c l o t h c l a p t t o g e t h e r , such as was s n a t c h e d o f f t h e r a i l s i n K i n g ' s - s t r e e t a t t h e queen's f u n e r a l ( V I I I , 2 5 ) .  91 E . g . i n 1613, 1622, 1629, and 1635; see MSC I I I under t h e s e y e a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none o f t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s how many were h i r e d . 6 2  CO  C h r y s a n a l e i a , ed. J.G. N i c h o l s (London,  1844)  64 Chrysanaleia, 6 5  S.  p.12.  W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.70.  cc  EES, I I , 228. I t seems c l e a r from Wickham's n o t e s t o the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l a n i m a l s from the A l s l o o t p a i n t i n g o f t h e A r c h d u c h e s s I s a b e l l a ' s e n t r y i n t o B r u s s e l s , EES, I , 395, t h a t he bases t h i s a s s e r t i o n on i n f e r e n c e s from t h i s p a i n t i n g and a r e f e r e n c e t o a t o u r n a ment c h a r i o t "drawyn w* f o u r e m ( a ) r v e l l o u s b e s t s . . . e v ( e r ) y oon havyng wt in them two men" I I , 224). However, i t seems more l i k e l y t o me t h a t t h e m a s s i v e a n i m a l s i n t h e A l s l o o t p a i n t i n g c o n c e a l e d wheels n o t men; f u r t h e r more, c o n c e a l i n g the manpower w i t h i n a n i m a l s would be more p r a c t i c a b l e f o r a t o u r n a m e n t o r i n d o o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t than a p r o c e s s i o n c o v e r i n g several miles. fi7  C i v i c Pageantry,  p.165.  Cp  We know t h a t h o r s e s i n t o u r n a m e n t s were sometimes a l l e g o r i c a l l y d e c k e d . Nashe i n The U n f o r t u n a t e T r a v e l l e r , d e s c r i b e s the e l a b o r a t e t r a p p i n g s o f S u r r e y ' s h o r s e , d e s i g n e d to r e s e m b l e an o s t r i c h , Works, ed. R.B. McKerrow, I I ( O x f o r d ; B l a c k w e l l , 1 9 5 8 ) , 272-3. 69  Webster, Complete Works, ed. F.L. Lucas (London: C h a t t o , 1927), 111,321. A l l q u o t a t i o n s from Webster w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n . ^ M o r r i s s e y , " T h e a t r i c a l Records,"  p.106.  " R a p p o r t s du P o e t e e t de I ' A r t i s t e dans l a P r e p a r a t i o n des C o r t e g e s du L o r d M a i r e ( L o n d r e s 1553-1640)" i n F£tes de l a R e n a i s s a n c e , I , 275. 7 1  L o n d i n i A r t i u m & S c i e n t a r u m S c a t u r i g o (London, 1 6 3 2 ) , s i g . C 2 ; r e p r i n t e d , ed. A.M. C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y ( O x f o r d : L u t t r e l l S o c ) , p.45. V  73  L . J . M o r r i s s e y , " E n g l i s h Pageant-Wagons," S t u d i e s , 9 (1976), 360. 74 M o r r i s s e y , "Pageant-Wagons, pp.368-9. II  Eighteenth-Century  92 75 See MSC I I I e n t r i e s f o r t h e s e y e a r s . 76  Camp-bell (London, 1609), s i g . B 2 - B 3 ; because o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s t h e speeches were d e l i v e r e d by S t . George and S t . Andrew, "men o f a c t i o n and a u d i b l e v o i c e s . " V  M S C I I I , pp.81,130. F o r Lowen s e e Edwin Nungezer, A D i c t i o n a r y o f A c t o r s (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v . P r e s s , 1929), pp.238-42 a n d G.E. B e n t l e y , The J a c o b e a n and C a r o l i n e S t a g e , I I ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1941), 499-506; H a l l : Nungezer, p.171 and B e n t l e y I I , 458-9; M o u n t s e t t : B e n t l e y I I , 515. 77  78  MSC I I I , p.128; B e r g e r o n , " A c t o r s i n E n g l i s h C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , " R e n a i s s a n c e P a p e r s , 1972 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 27. 79  M S C I I I , pp.87,108,115,123.  80 The C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e M a s t e r and Wardens o f t h e Company, was drawn f r o m s e n i o r members o f t h e L i v e r y o r C l o t h i n g . The Company's j u n i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e B a c h e l o r s o r Yeomanry, was g o v e r n e d by f o u r wardens, s u b j e c t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s . 81 F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1635 two p a r t i e s b i d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e pageant:- R o b e r t Norman, and John T a y l o r p r o p o s e d f i v e t a b l e a u x f o r -LI90 and John C h r i s t m a s and Thomas Heywood o f f e r e d f i v e f o r L I 8 0 . The I r o n mongers a c c e p t e d t h e l a t t e r b i d , s e e MSC I I I , pp.122-123. 82 The Merchant T a y l o r s a n d t h e H a b e r d a s h e r s c o v e r e d a l l t h e i r c o s t s i n t h i s way, MSC I I I , p . x x i x . 83  The L i v e r y o f t h e S k i n n e r s ' Co. g e n e r a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d a b o u t 2/7 o f t h e c o s t , MSC I I I , p.xxx. P.4  D r a p e r s ' Rep. +131, 1 1 6 . a  8 5  R e p . +131, 1 0 5 . a  QC  A.H. J o h n s o n , The H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r s h i p f u l Company o f D r a p e r s o f London, IV ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1922), 91. S e e p.332 a n d MSC I I I , p.xxx. 8 7  8 8  S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.54.  89 ° S e e pp.107-9. 3  93 90  J o h n s o n , I I I , 173-5.  ^ O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s began i n June o r J u l y , but September, o r even e a r l y O c t o b e r , was more common. The D r a p e r s began p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e 1621 Show on 19 S e p t . 9?  S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS f r o m P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.61. When t h e Wardens B a c h e l o r s had s e r v e d t h e i r term t h e y were a d m i t t e d t o t h e L i v e r y . 93  The o s t r i c h f r o m 1629 i s s t i l l a t Ironmongers' H a l l . The s h i p from the G r o c e r s ' 1613 Show, f o r i n s t a n c e , was retrimmed f o r t h e 1617 Show. ^ E . g . 1566, 1616, 1618; s e e MSC I I I e n t r i e s f o r t h e s e y e a r s . QC  A.M. C l a r k , Thomas Heywood ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1931), p.112. a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h e w r i t e r r a r e l y c l e a r e d more t h a n 1 8 .  Even  96  The b e s t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i s R o b e r t s o n ' s "Les R a p p o r t s , " pp. 264-78. Much o f t h e c r e d i t f o r t h e r i s e o f t h e w r i t e r must be g i v e n t o Munday; i n c o n t r a s t t o Ben J o n s o n , who m e r e l y wrote t h e s p e e c h e s , he was a v e r i t a b l e f a c t o t u m . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r as p r o d u c e r i s drawn f r o m Wickham, EES, I I , 242, I am n o t s u r e , however, t h a t h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e poet was p a i d more t h a n t h e a r t i f i c e r i s c o r r e c t . The c o n t r a c t i n g t o them i n tandem, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e 1620s, makes i t hard t o be c e r t a i n . " " T h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e s and by 1708 s p e e c h e s a r e abandoned a l t o g e t h e r . 98  W i c k h a m , EES, II,i,242.  99 R o b e r t s o n , "Les R a p p o r t s , " p.277. ^ I n 1621 t h e D r a p e r s bought "27 pownds w e i g h t o f cheese...7 dozen o f b r e a d . . . a b a r r e l l o f b e e r e . . . a n d . . . p o t t e s t o d r i n k e i n . . . w h i c h was p r o v i d e d t o make a l l t h e blewe gowne men dyne i n the C e l l o r t o keepe them w i t h i n t h e h a l l u n t i l 1 t h e Companyes g o i n g e t o P a u l e s " ( p . 3 2 4 ) . ^ W h i f f l e r s were o r i g i n a l l y m a r s h a l l s armed w i t h s t a v e s o r j a v e l i n s t o keep t h e crowds o f f . In t h e o r y , t h e s t a v e s were p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e by t h e 1620s. R o b e r t W i l s o n , The C o b b l e r s P r o p h e c y (London, 1594), s i g . C l . v  94 103 From an anonymous, humorous 1 7 t h c e n t u r y poem on t h e LMS, p r i n t e d in F.W. F a i r h o l t , L o r d Mayor's P a g e a n t s , P e r c y Soc. X (London, 1844). p. 263. 104  F o r t h e d u t i e s o f t h e w a i t s on c i v i c o c c a s i o n s , s e e W a l t e r L. W o o d f i l l , M u s i c i a n s i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y from E l i z a b e t h t o C h a r l e s I ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1953), pp.33-53. 105 U f f i n g t o n was a t e n a n t o f t h e Company and Snowden.was one o f t h e B a c h e l o r s i n f o y n e s i n 1621. In 1540 t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s o r d e r e d t h a t " t h e Company s h a l l a t a l l a s s e m b l i e s p r e f e r n e such as be b r o t h r e n o f t h i s f e l y s c h i p a f o r e a s t r a u n g e r i n a l l maner o f t h y n g s , f o r t h e wyche e l s e t h e y s c h a l l d y s b u r s e a n y money, be y t f o r w a r e s , workmanschepe, v y t a y l l s , o r any o t h e r thyngs n e c e s s a r i e , p r o v i d e d always t h a t t h e y may be s e r v e d as w e l l and as good chepe o f o u r s a i d b r o t h r e n as o f a s t r a u n g e r " (Johnson, I I , 76;from Rep. 7, 469). I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t t h i s p o l i c y was s t i l l a d h e r e d t o i n t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y . 1 gg J o h n s o n , I I I , 10, n.3, c l a i m s t h a t M i d d l e t o n was a D r a p e r . T h i s was scotched'by B a l d who p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e Thomas M i d d l e t o n i n t h e Freedom L i s t was t h e son o f R i c h a r d M i d d l e t o n , n o t t h e W i l l i a m M i d d l e t o n who was t h e d r a m a t i s t ' s f a t h e r , " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," p.73 n.24. The t i t l e page o f t h e B r i t i s h L i b r a r y copy o f Dekker's T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans has "marchant t a y l o r " added i n an e a r l y hand. The l a c k o f s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e makes t h i s d o u b t f u l . ^ M u r i e l B r a d b r o o k , The L i v i n g Monument (Cambridge: P r e s s , 1976), p.84. 108  Cambridge U n i v .  . , ,. Fairholt, p . n .  c  109 C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y , p.3. ^ S e e f o r i n s t a n c e , A n g l o , S p e c t a c l e , p a s s i m , arid Roy S t r o n g , S p l e n d o u r a t C o u r t (London: W e i d e n f e l d , 1973), pp.19-78. ^ M a r g o t Heinemann, " M i d d l e t o n ' s A Game a t Chess: P a r l i a m e n t a r y P u r i t a n s a n d O p p o s i t i o n Drama," E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y R e n a i s s a n c e , 5 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 233-35, 247-9. She c i t e s William.Hammond, d e d i c a t e e o f t h e Malone MS o f A Game a t C h e s s , and S i r Thomas Myddleton who; she c l a i m s must have been a b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e o f t h e E a r l o f Pembroke, t h e l i k e l y p a t r o n o f t h e play. 112  The R e c o r d e r and t h e Remembrancer were g e n e r a l l y r o y a l nominees. J o h n s o n , t h e h i s t o r i a n o f t h e Drapers i s a t y p i c a l i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n he g i v e s t o p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l h i s t o r y . The b e s t a c c o u n t s o f C i t y p o l i t i c s b e f o r e 1642 a r e V a l e r i e P e a r l , London a n d t h e O u t b r e a k o f t h e P u r i t a n  95 R e v o l u t i o n ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , and D.A. W i l l i a m s , " P u r i t a n i s m i n C i t y Government 1610-1640," G u i l d h a l l M i s c e l l a n y , I , No. (1955), 3-14; I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e a n a l y s e s . 113  T h i s i s a f l a w i n Heinemann's argument; she t e n d s t o assume p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s were more s t a b l e i n t h e 1620s than in f a c t were. I am not s u r e t h a t i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t b e c a u s e Thomas M y d d l e t o n was a " s t r o n g P u r i t a n " (p.233) he was a u t o m a t i c a l l y member o f t h e " P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n . " 1 1 4  Pearl.  4  that they Sir a  p.60.  11 5 Clark, i n Theatre M i s c e l l a n y ,  p.4.  116  R.H. Tawney, B u s i n e s s and P o l i t i c s under James I ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1958), p.79. 1 1 7  M u n , E n g l a n d s T r e a s u r e by F o r r a i g n T r a d e , q u o t e d i n Tawney,  p.77.  IIP  C f , f o r i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m Cokayne ( L o r d Mayor 1619-20) who m a r r i e d h i s d a u g h t e r t o Baron Howard o f E f f i n g h a m , and S e b a s t i a n Harvey ( L o r d Mayor 1618-19) who, d e s p i t e t h r e a t s and c a j o l e r i e s on t h e p a r t o f James, r e f u s e d t o m a r r y h i s d a u g h t e r t o Buckingham's f e c k l e s s b r o t h e r K i t V i l l i e r s . O t h e r L o r d Mayors w i t h c l o s e C o u r t c o n n e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d John S w i n n e r t o n (1612-13) and F r a n c i s Jones (1620-21), both Customs F a r m e r s . 119  Tawney, p.284. C r a n f i e l d i s a good example o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f London p o l i t i c s ; h i s s h a r p b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s and C o u r t c o n n e c t i o n s made him many enemies among the a l d e r m a n i c Bench, but he was no f r i e n d t o t h e Cokayne p a r t y e i t h e r , and may indeed have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r James' abandonment o f him. R.C. B a l d i n h i s e d i t i o n o f A Game a t Chess (Camb r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1929), p.11, i d e n t i f i e s t h e White K i n g ' s Pawn as C r a n f i e l d . 120  Quoted i n D.A.  Williams,  p.3.  C o r p o r a t i o n o f London R e c o r d O f f i c e ( h e r e a f t e r CLR0) Rep. 36, 2 0 5 , quoted i n D.A. W i l l i a m s , p.5; S t . A n t h o l i n ' s was the most f a s h i o n a b l e Puritan church. I t s l e c t u r e s l a t e r formed t h e b a s i s f o r the o p e r a t i o n s of the Feofees f o r Impropriations. 121  1 2 2  v  J o h n s o n , I I I , 70-72.  123 So i n 1627 we f i n d Barkham, Lumley, C o t t o n , H a c k e t , Ranye, A b b o t , and Garway among t h e D r a p e r s w i l l i n g to l e n d money to C h a r l e s , J o h n s o n , I I I , 119 n.3.  96 P e a r l , p.3.  1 2 4  125 Quoted i n Tawney, p.186. 12  1  ^ T a w n e y , p.34. p7  C l a r e n d o n ( q u o t e d i n P e a r l , p.71) commented a f t e r t h e R e s t o r a t i o n t h a t " t h e C i t y o f London was (by t h e c o u r t ) l o o k e d upon t o o much o f l a t e t i m e as a Common S t o c k n o t e a s i l y t o be e x h a u s t e d , and a s a body n o t t o be g r i e v e d by o r d i n a r y a c t s o f i n j u s t i c e . " T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what t h e B l a c k K n i g h t c l a i m s t o have a c h i e v e d i n A Game a t Chess: "The c o u r t hath h e l d the c i t y by t h e horns / W h i l s t I have m i l k ' d h e r " ( V I I , 6 5 ) . One s o u r c e o f r e s e n t m e n t was James' l o t t e r i e s . On o c c a s i o n t h e p r i z e s were t r i v i a l o r even n o n - e x i s t e n t . W i l l i a m H e r b e r t , The H i s t o r y o f t h e Twelve G r e a t L i v e r y Companies o f London (London, 1 8 3 7 ) , I , 154, r e c o r d s t h i s amusing a n n o t a t i o n from t h e M e r c h a n t s T a y l o r s Books, 1612: "One byrde i n t h e hand i s worth two i n t h e wood, / I f we g e t t h e g r e a t l o t i t w i l l do us [no] good." 1 2 9  P e a r l , p.72.  130 The f i r s t i s s u e a r o s e i n t h e 1570s a n d i n v o l v e d a d i s p u t e between Crown a n d Companies o v e r t h e amount o f r e n t charges f i x e d f o r l a n d s p r e v i o u s l y d e v o t e d t o " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " u s e s . I t was n o t s e t t l e d u n t i l 1623 when s u b j e c t s were p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t a c c u s a t i o n s o f concealment by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t . J o h n s o n , I I , 208, was n o t a b l e t o f i n d any t r a c e o f c o n c e a l ment by t h e D r a p e r s , a l t h o u g h they were a c c u s e d o f s o d o i n g . In 1609-10 James p e r s u a d e d t h e Companies t o s e t t l e U l s t e r ; i n 1625 C h a r l e s I attempted u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o s e q u e s t e r t h e l a n d s , b u t i n 1638, as a r e s u l t o f Wentworth's I r i s h p o l i c y , t h e Companies were f o r c e d t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r h o l d i n g s by o r d e r o f t h e S t a r Chamber. 131 The d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t e g o r i z i n g p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s i s a p p a r e n t h e r e . Abbot, t h e b r o t h e r o f A r c h b i s h o p A b b o t , had e a r l i e r opposed government f i s c a l p o l i c y , r e f u s i n g t o pay t h e t a x on c u r r a n t s i n 1628, b u t by 1637 (perhaps as a r e s u l t o f j o b b e r y - - h e had been c h a r g e d w i t h r e m i s s n e s s i n f i t t i n g o u t t h e C i t y ' s quota o f s h i p s a n d t h i s c h a r g e was dropped i n 1637) he was c l e a r l y a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e K i n g ' s . S i m i l a r l y , Garway was a t f i r s t r e l u c t a n t t o e n f o r c e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e 1639/40 l o a n . 132 J o h n s o n , I I I , 1414. T h e r e i s n o t d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s , b u t , g i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n and Abbot's p o l i t i c a l change o f h e a r t , i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e . Garway's L o n d i n i S t a t u s Pacatus was t h e l a s t pageant b e f o r e t h e Interregnum, t h e e r a o f l o v e , peace, and abundance b e i n g c l e a r l y over.  97 133 J o h n s o n , I I I , 95. The Company's d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n away f r o m t h e c l o t h t r a d e i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n any o f t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e Cokayne p r o j e c t . 134 J o h n s o n IV, 96-102 a n a l y s e s t h e t r a d e s and o c c u p a t i o n s o f members o f t h e Comapny. 135  Quoted i n J o h n s o n , I I , 236. J o h n s o n I I I , 87-88, 191-93; t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l l f r o m this source. 1 3 6  137  Heinemann,  pp.249-50.  1 oo  L u s h e r , " G u i l d Drama," p.158. The companies i n c l u d e d the K i n g ' s P l a y e r s , t h e P r i n c e ' s , t h e Duke o f N o r f o l k ' s , t h e Duke o f S u f f o l k ' s , John S l y e ' s , John E n g l i s h ' s , Thomas Y e l y ' s , D a v i d S o t h u r n e ' s , H i n s t o k ' s , and K i l l i n g w o r t h ' s . A t t i m e s t h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e s e companies seems t o have o v e r l a p p e d . 139  The r e i g n o f Edward VI marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C o u r t o f Aldermen's a t t e m p t s to i n h i b i t p l a y s and p l a y e r s . In 1549 t h e y a p p o i n t e d two S e c o n d a r i e s o f t h e Compters t o " p e r u s e " p l a y s (Chambers, I , 275). 1 4 0  Q u o t e d i n Wickham, I I , 84.  141 The L e t t e r s o f John C h a m b e r l a i n , ed. N. M c C l u r e ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1939), I I , 35. 142  Wickham, EES, II,i,237 and B r a d b r o o k , The L i v i n g Monument, p.78; a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e i s an e l e m e n t o f t h e C i t y a p i n g t h e C o u r t ' s magnificence. 143 C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y , p.3. 144 EES, I I , 238. 145 "Two 17th C e n t u r y S e m i - D r a m a t i c A l l e g o r i e s o f T r u t h t h e Daughter o f Time," G u i l d h a l l M i s c e l l a n y , 2, No. 5 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 212-16. 146  P r i n t e d i n A l e x a n d e r Dyce, Works o f M i d d l e t o n (London, 1840), I , x x i i i - i v . Note t o p.370, L a n g b a i n e ' s A c c o u n t o f E n g l i s h D r a m a t i c P o e t s (BM) 1 4 7  Diary,  pp.201,202.  98 148 B r a d b r o o k , The L i v i n g Monument, p.94. 149  P e a r l , p.9, r e f e r s t o Munday a s t h e o f f i c i a l C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , but I have f o u n d no e v i d e n c e t h a t he e v e r o c c u p i e d t h e p o s i t i o n . He d i d , however, u n d e r t a k e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f work e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y on b e h a l f o f t h e C i t y f r o m a t l e a s t 1580 on. 150 u  R o b e r t s o n , "Les R a p p o r t s , " p.273.  151 MSC I I I , p.87. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even i n such a u n i f i e d Show as The Triumphs o f T r u t h ( h e r e a f t e r T T ) , t h e G r o c e r s s e e the whole i n t h e o l d way as a pageant ( i . e . t h e p r i n c i p a l t a b l e a u , i n t h i s c a s e t h e Mount T r i u m p h a n t ) and s u b s i d i a r y t a b l e a u x . 152 The Company Q u a r t e r a g e Books (+259, 168, +261 , 163) r e f e r t o him o n l y as a poet and, i n f a c t , g i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t o f D r a p e r s in t r a d e s o t h e r t h a n d r a p e r y , t h e l i k e l i h o o d i s s m a l l . In a d d i t i o n , a l though Munday was a D r a p e r by p a t r i m o n y , h i s f a t h e r C h r i s t o p h e r was one o f t h o s e members who were i n f a c t s t a t i o n e r s , a n d a p p r e n t i c e d h i s s o n . t o John A l l d e , t h e p r i n t e r , s e e Mark E c c l e s , "Anthony Munday," i n S t u d i e s i n t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e Drama, ed. J o s e p h i n e W. B e n n e t t (New York: New York U n i v . P r e s s ) , p.97. 153 A-Munday, C h r u s o - t h r i a m b o s , ed. J.H.P. P a f f o r d (London: p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , 1962), p. 45. 1 5 4  " T h e LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.142.  155 Quoted i n B a l d , " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," p.67. 156 B a l d , p.67, b u t s e e Dyce I , x i x - x x v i i f o r f u l l  details.  157  The C o r o n a t i o n show was f i r s t d e l a y e d because o f t h e p l a g u e and then abandoned a t t h e K i n g ' s i n s i s t e n c e . I CO  Heinemann, p.255 n . l l . C h a m b e r l a i n , I I , 578. H e i n e m a n n , pp.247-8, i d e n t i f i e s as i m p o r t a n t p a t r o n s o f M i d d l e t o n ' s the P u r i t a n s , M y d d l e t o n ; W i l l i a m Hammond, d e d i c a t e e o f t h e Malone MS o f A Game a t C h e s s ; a n d R i c h a r d F i s h b o r n e and John Browne, d e d i c a t e e s o f The M a r r i a g e o f t h e O l d and New Testament (1620). Y e t Cokayne, perhaps imp r e s s e d by t h e j u d i c i o u s p r a i s e meted o u t t o him i n The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y ( 1 6 1 9 ) ; h e r e a f t e r TLA) was u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t ing M i d d l e t o n as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , an i m p o r t a n t and l u c r a t i v e p o s t . And he did not belong t o the Parliamentary-Puritan o p p o s i t i o n . 1 5 9  luu  99 1  C]  See Rhodes Dunlap, "The Making o f The Peacemaker," t h e E n g l i s h Reriai s s a n c e Drama, pp.82-94.  in Studies in  •j go  One o f t h e most r e c e n t , D a v i d Holmes, The A r t o f Thomas M i d d l e t o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1970) b a r e l y m e n t i o n s t h e C i t y work (and t h e n i n p a s s i n g , i n an a p p e n d i x ) , l e t a l o n e t a k i n g i t i n t o a c c o u n t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e dramatist's achievement. T . S . E l i o t , E l i z a b e t h a n E s s a y s (London: F a b e r , 1934), p.99; t h i s " r e a l i s m " has become a commonplace i n M i d d l e t o n c r i t i c i s m . 1 6 3  :  164 B e r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , p.200. 165  S. W i l l i a m s , "Two S e m i - D r a m a t i