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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical edition of four entertainments by Thomas Middleton for the Drapers’ Company: "The Sunne in… Burridge, Christina J. 1978

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A CRITICAL EDITION OF FOUR ENTERTAINMENTS.BY THOMAS MIDDLETON FOR THE DRAPERS'' COMPANY: THE SUNNE IN  ARIES (1621), THE TRIUMPHS OF INTEGRITY (1623), THE TRIUMPHS OF HEALTH AND PROSPERITY (1626), AND AN INVENTION PERFORMED FOR...EDWARD BARKHAM (1622) by CHRISTINA J . BURRIDGE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f L e i c e s t e r , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1978 ^ C h r i s t i n a J . B u r r i d g e 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of th i s thes i s for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ENGL ISH The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 9 October 1978 i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l o l d - s p e l l i n g e d i t i o n o f Thomas M i d d l e t o n ' s t h r e e : Lord Mayor's Shows f o r the D r a p e r s ' Company, The  Sunne in A r i e s (1621), The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y (1623), The Triumphs o f  H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626), and the r e l a t e d An I n v e n t i o n (1622) f o r the Draper L o r d Mayor, Edward Barkham. The g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the e d i t i o n s e t s t h e s e f o u r p i e c e s i n the t r a d i t i o n o f London c i v i c p a g e a n t r y . I t d i s c u s s e s the h i s t o r y , n a t u r e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the L o r d Mayor's Show and i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , as w e l l as d r a m a t i c , c o n t e x t , c o n c e n t r a -t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y on the e x t e n t t o which such shows can be s a i d t o r e -p r e s e n t the growing p o l i t i c a l independence o f London. The importance, o f t e n : u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , o f the c i v i c work t o M i d d l e t o n ' s c a r e e r i s demon-s t r a t e d , and h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the form summarized. The c r i t i c a l i n t r o -d u c t i o n t o each t e x t p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the e n t e r t a i n m e n t , drawing on m a t e r i a l i n the D r a p e r s ' Company a r c h i v e s t o examine the r e -l a t i o n s h i p between Company, d r a m a t i s t , and o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the Show. Problems o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e a c c o r d e d a s p e c i a l importance. The c r i t i c a l n otes f o l l o w i n g each t e x t e x p l a i n s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s , r e l a t e images, i d e a s , and t e c h n i q u e s t o o t h e r works by M i d d l e t o n and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and g l o s s d i f f i c u l t passages. The t e x t s themselves have been e d i t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the p r i n c i -p l e s f o r m u l a t e d by S i r W a l t e r Greg, R. B. McKerrow, and Fredson Bowers. Each t e x t i s accompanied by: a t e x t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n d i s c u s s i n g the t e x t and i t s copy, p r i n t i n g - h o u s e p r o c e d u r e s , and any b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l problems i i i a r i s i n g from t h i s ; a l i s t o f s u b s t a n t i v e changes; a t e x t u a l commentary d i s c u s s i n g such a l t e r a t i o n s , r e f u s a l s to emend, t e x t u a l c r u c e s , e t c . ; a l i s t o f p r e s s - v a r i a n t s ; a l i s t o f emended a c c i d e n t a l s . A statement o f e d i t o r i a l p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w s t he g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . An I n v e n t i o n i s in MS and has t h e r e f o r e been t r e a t e d more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y . The t e x t u a l i n -t r o d u c t i o n o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y and s t a t e o f the MS and the m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d . Appendix I i s a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r i n t i n g o f L o r d Mayor's Shows. Appendix II c o n s i s t s o f e x t r a c t s from the Dr a p e r s ' Company r e -cord s r e l a t i n g t o M i d d l e t o n and the Shows he wrote f o r the Company. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f Contents i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i P r e f a c e v i i INTRODUCTION 1 I. 29 O c t o b e r : The L o r d Mayor's Show 1 I I . The G e n e s i s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show: t h e P r o c e s s i o n o f Oct o b e r 29, the Midsummer Watch, and t h e Royal E n t r y 7 I I I . The Development o f the L o r d Mayor's Show 16 IV. The L o r d Mayor's Show and Drama 18 V. Audience 23 VI. The L o r d Mayor's Show and i t s Au t h o r s 25 VI I . D e v i c e s , Machines, and Stages 29 V I I I . A c t o r s 46 IX. F i n a n c e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n : 48 X. The P o l i t i c a l C ontext o f the Lord Mayor's Show ... 59 XI. The Drapers' Company i n the E a r l y S e v e n t e e n t h Century 66 X I I . The Company and the Drama 68 X I I I . "The P o l i t i c s o f S p e c t a c l e " 70 XIV. M i d d l e t o n and C i v i c Pageantry 74 • Notes 86 EDITORIAL PROCEDURES 100 THE SUNNE IN ARIES 104 C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 106 T e x t u a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 128 Tex t 135 T e x t u a l Apparatus 148 C r i t i c a l Notes 152 Notes 168 Page THE TRIUMPHS OF INTEGRITY 172 C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 173 T e x t u a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 189 T e x t 196 T e x t u a l Apparatus 209 C r i t i c a l Notes 212 Notes 221 THE TRIUMPHS OF HEALTH AND PROSPERITY 224 C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 225 T e x t u a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 238 Tex t 243 T e x t u a l Apparatus 253 C r i t i c a l Notes 256 Notes 267 AN INVENTION 269 C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 270 T e x t u a l I n t r o d u c t i o n 276 Tex t 282 T e x t u a l Apparatus 287 C r i t i c a l Notes 291 Notes 293 SELECTED REFERENCES 295 APPENDIX I." 308 APPENDIX II 312 v i LIST OF FIGURES Page I. P l a n o f London showing the t r a d i t i o n a l r o u t e o f the Lord Mayor's Show 5 I I . C h r y s a n a l e i a : The F i s h i n g Busse 36 I I I . C h r y s a n a l e i a : The King o f the Moors 37 IV. C h r y s a n a l e i a : Merman and Mermaid 38 V. C h r y s a n a l e i a : The C h a r i o t o f R i c h a r d II 39 VI. Londons Tempe: The C h a r i o t o f Oceanus, Tet h y s on a s e a - l i o n , an I n d i a n boy on an o s t r i c h 40 V I I . Londons Tempe: The Lemnian F o r g e , the F i e l d o f H a p p i n e s s , and the P a l a c e o f A p o l l o 41 V I I I . A Greenman; from John Bate, The M y s t e r i e s o f Nature and A r t 57 IX. T i t l e - p a g e o f The Sunne i n A r i e s , H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y copy 104 X. T i t l e - p a g e o f The Sunne i n A r i e s , N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f S c o t l a n d copy ( s l i g h t l y e n l a r g e d ) 105 XI. La S e r r e ' s e n g r a v i n g o f the e n t r y o f Marie de M e d i c i s (1638), showing the Cheapside C r o s s and the new S t a n d a r d 122 X I I . T i t l e - p a g e o f The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y , H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y copy 172 X I I I . T i t l e - p a g e o f The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y , H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y . c o p y 224 XIV. Two pages o f the Crane MS o f An I n v e n t i o n 269 XV. Edward Barkham's c r e s t 281 v i i PREFACE M i d d l e t o n ' s e n t e r t a i n m e n t s f o r the D r a p e r s ' Company form a s m a l l p a r t o f the c i v i c p a g e a n t r y o f R e n a i s s a n c e London. By the e a r l y seventeenth- c e n t u r y the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e p u b l i c d i s p l a y s was the L o r d Mayor's Show, a complex e v e n t whose development owed much t o thft v a r i o u s medieval and Tudor r i d i n g s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the Mayor's i n a u g u r a l p r o c e s s i o n on 29 O c t o b e r , the Midsummer Watch, and the Royal E n t r y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s on the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l , as w e l l as the d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t o f c i v i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i n g e n e r a l and M i d d l e t o n ' s f o r the Drapers i n p a r t i c u l a r . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e l a t t e r works i s r e s e r v e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s , The Sunne in A r i e s (1621), The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y (1623), The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626), and An I n v e n t i o n performed f o r . . . Edward Barkham (1622). Except f o r t h e s e f o u r e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , a l l q u o t a t i o n s from the works o f M i d d l e t o n are from A. H. B u i l e n ' s e d i t i o n (London, 1885); t h e s e have been checked a g a i n s t the o r i g i n a l t e x t s . I have s u b s t i t u t e d the modern use o f 1/JL and u/v_ i n q u o t a t i o n s from M i d d l e t o n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and have expanded a l l MS c o n t r a c t i o n s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s i n the e x t r a c t s from Company r e c o r d s quoted i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , but have o t h e r w i s e r e t a i n e d the s p e l l i n g and p u n c t u a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l s . Those e n t r i e s from the D r a p e r s ' Company r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o M i d d l e t o n ' s work f o r the Company a r e t r a n -s c r i b e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Malone S o c i e t y p r o c e d u r e s , i n the Appendix. v i i i I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d to the Dr a p e r s ' Company f o r i t s g e n e r o s i t y i n f i n a n c i n g much o f my graduate work and f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o use i t s a r c h i v e s and l i b r a r y d u r i n g my r e s e a r c h . In p a r t i c u l a r , I wish t o thank the Company's E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Mr. Robert Brown, f o r h i s ki n d n e s s i n p r o -v i d i n g me w i t h c o p i e s o f documents and f o r h i s c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t i n my p r o j e c t . My thanks are due a l s o t o my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r J o e l H. Ka p l a n , whose h e l p and encouragement a t a l l s t a g e s have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the f i n a l r e s u l t . L a s t l y , I wish t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e o f Pro-f e s s o r S. K. H e n i n g e r , J r . and Mr. Roy Stokes i n c h e c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and o f f e r i n g a d v i c e . INTRODUCTION Search a l l c h r o n i c l e s , h i s t o r i e s , r e c o r d s , i n what language o r l e t t e r s o e v e r ; l e t the i n q u i s i t i v e man waste the dear t r e a s u r e s o f h i s time and e y e s i g h t , he s h a l l c o n c l u d e h i s l i f e o n l y i n t h i s c e r t a i n t y , t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b j e c t upon e a r t h r e c e i v e d i n t o t he p l a c e o f h i s government w i t h the l i k e s t a t e and m a g n i f i c e n c e as i s the Lord Mayor o f the c i t y o f London. Thomas M i d d l e t o n The flamboyant h y p e r b o l e o f M i d d l e t o n ' s c l a i m reminds us t h a t the L o r d Mayor's Show rea c h e d i t s z e n i t h i n the t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s from 1605-39, a p e r i o d c o r r e s p o n d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o the growth o f London's c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f i t s e l f as a m e t r o p o l i s , a c e n t r e o f p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and c u l t u r a l l i f e , a b l e to compete w i t h any i n Europe. The u n p a r a l l e l e d m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h e Show became a v i s i b l e symbol o f London's p r o s p e r i t y and e f f e c t i v e government; as a n o t h e r w r i t e r o f the Show, Thomas Dekker, e x p l a i n e d : "London i n F o r r a i n e C o u n t r i e s i s c a l l e d the Queene o f C i t i e s , and the Queene-mother o v e r her owne....As thus i n S t a t e , shee her s e l f e i s G l o r i o u s ; so have a l l our Kings h e l d i t f i t t o make her c h i e f e R u l e r eminent, and answerable t o her g r e a t n e s s e . I. 29 October : The L o r d Mayor's Show The. L o r d Mayor's Show was, from i t s i n c e p t i o n , the major p u b l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s " g r e a t n e s s e . " Designed t o c e l e b r a t e the formal i n a u g u r a t i o n o f the L o r d Mayor on 29 O c t o b e r , i t was o r g a n i z e d and p a i d f o r by the C i t y Company t o which t h e new L o r d Mayor belonged. As the Haberdashers' Court o f A s s i s t a n t s e x p r e s s e d i t s u c c i n c t l y i n 1586, i t s 2 2 f u n c t i o n was " t h e honor o f the C i t i e & w o r s h i p p o f t h i s Company." To t h i s , a l l e l s e was s u b o r d i n a t e . The triumph f o c u s e d on t h r e e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s : the L o r d Mayor's swearing o f t h e oath a t W e s t m i n s t e r , the f e a s t a t G u i l d h a l l , and the t h a n k s g i v i n g s e r v i c e a t S t . P a u l ' s . The t h r e e t o -g e t h e r s i g n i f i e d t he harmony o f t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s o f the C i t y government, and the t r i u m p h , i n t h e o r y i f not always i n p r a c t i c e , c e l e b r a t e d t h i s . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s triumph was an e l a b o r a t e p r o c e s s i o n whose v a r i o u s components were d e s i g n e d t o honour the c h i e f m a g i s t r a t e and, i n so d o i n g , e n t e r t a i n the c i t i z e n s , u n i t i n g a l l i n a f e s t i v e oc-c a s i o n t h a t f o s t e r e d t h e Londoners' sense o f community. One o f the most im p o r t a n t o f t h e s e components was t h e s e m i - d r a m a t i c p a g e a n t s , e s s e n t i a l l y p r o c e s s i o n a l t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s , which from the t u r n o f the s i x t e e n t h cen-3 t u r y became both more numerous and complex. The b a s i c elements o f the p r o c e s s i o n remained the same from t h e e a r l y Shows i n t h e m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h a t o f 1639, t h e l a s t Show b e f o r e the Interregnum. In 1575 the day's e v e n t s were d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m Symthe, a c i t i z e n and Haberdasher of London. The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s pro-c e s s i o n t o t h o s e f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r and the v i v i d d e t a i l o f Smythe's a c c o u n t make i t worth q u o t i n g i n f u l l : The day o f S t . Simon and Jude he ( t h e Mayor) e n t r e t h i n t o h i s e s t a t e and o f f y c e : and the n e x t d a i e f o l l o w -i n g he goeth by water t o Westmynster, i n most tryumph-l i k e manner. H i s barge beinge g a r n i s h e d w i t h t h e armes o f t h e c i t i e : and n e r e the sayd barge goeth a shypp-bote o f the Queenes M a j e s t i e , b e i n g e trymed upp, and r i g g e d l y k e a s h i p p e o f w a r r e , w i t h dyvers peces o f o r d i n a n c e , s t a n d a r d s , penons, and t a r g e t t s o f the p r o p e r armes o f t h e sayd Mayor, the armes o f the C i t i e , o f h i s company; and o f the marchaunts a d v e r t u r e r s , o r o f 3 t h e s t a p l e , o r o f the company o f the newe t r a d e s ; next b e f o r e hym goeth the barge o f the l y v e r y of h i s owne company, decked w i t h t h e i r owne p r o p e r armes, then the b a c h e l e r s barge and so a l l the companies i n London, i n o r d e r , e v e r y one havinge t h e i r owne p r o p e r barge g a r n i -shed w i t h the armes o f t h e i r company. And so p a s s i n g e a l o n g e t h e Thamise, l a n d e t h a t Westmynster, where he t a k e t h h i s othe i n Thexcheker, b e f f o r e t h e judge t h e r e (which i s one o f the c h i e f e j u d g e s o f E n g l a n d ) , which done, he r e t u r n e t h by water as a f f o r s a y d , and l a n d e t h a t Powles wharfe, where he and t h e r e s t o f t h e Aldermen take t h e i r h o r s e s , and i n g r e a t pompe passe t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e s t r e e t e o f the c i t i e , c a l l e d C h eapside. And f y r s t e o f a l l cometh i j g r e a t e s t a n d a r t s , one h a v i n g the armes o f the c i t i e , and the o t h e r t h e armes o f t h e Mayors ; company: next them i j drommes and a f l u t e , then an e n s i g n o f t h e c i t i e , and then about Ixx or Ixxx poore men marchinge i j and two t o g e a t h e r i n blewe gownes, w i t h redd s l e e v e s and capps, e v e r y one b e a r i n g e a pyke and a t a r g e t , whereon i s paynted the armes o f a l l them t h a t have byn Mayor o f t h e same company t h a t t h i s newe mayor i s o f . Then i j banners, one o f the kynges armes, the o t h e r o f the Mayors owne p r o p e r armes. Then a s e t t o f h a u t b o i t s p l a y i n g e , and a f t e r them c e r t a y n e w y f f l e r s , i n v e l v e t t c o t e s , and chaynes o f g o l d e , w i t h w h i t e s t a v e s i n t h e i r handes, then the pageant of tryumphe r y c h l y decked, whereuppon by c e r t a y n e f y g u r e s and w r y t i n g e s ( p a r t l y towchinge the name o f the sayd Mayor) some ma t t e r t o u c h i n g e j u s t i c e , and the o f f i c e o f a m a j e s t r a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d . Then x v j t r u m p e t e r s , v i i j and v i i j i n a company, ha v i n g e banners o f t h e Mayors company. Then c e r -t a y n e w y f f l e r s i n v e l v e t c o t e s and chaynes, w i t h w h i t e s t a v e s as a f o r e s a y d e . Then the b a c h e l e r s i j and two t o g e t h e r , i n longe gownen, w i t h crymson hoodes on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s o f s a t t y n ; which b a c h e l e r s a r e chosen e v e r y y e a r e o f the same company t h a t t h e Mayor i s o f (but n o t o f t he l y v e r y ) , and s e r v e as gentlemen on t h a t and o t h e r f e s t i v a l ! d a i e s , t o wayte on the Mayor, beinge i n nomber a c c o r d i n g e t o the q u a n t e t i e o f the company, sometimes s i x t y or one hundred. A f t e r them x i j t r o m p e t e r s more, w i t h banners o f t h e Mayors company, then the dromme and f l u t e o f the c i t i e , and an e n s i g n e o f the Mayors company, and a f t e r , the waytes o f t h e c i t i e i n blewe gownes, redd s l e e v e s and cappes, e v e r y one havinge h i s s i l v e r c o l l e r about h i s neck. Then t h e y o f the l i v e r e y i n t h e i r l onge gownes, e v e r y one havinge h i s hood on h i s l e f t e s h o u l d e r , h a l f e b l a c k and h a l f e r e d d , the nomber o f them i s a c c o r d i n g e to the g r e a t n e s o f the companye whereof t h e y a r e . A f t e r them f o l l o w e S h e r i f f e s o f f i c e r s , and then the Mayors o f f i c e r s , w i t h o t h e r o f f i c e r s o f the c i t i e , as the comon s a r g e n t , and the chamberlayne; next b e f o r e the Mayor goeth the swordbearer, h a v i n g on h i s headd the cappe o f honor, and the sworde o f the c i t i e i n h i s r i g h t hande, i n a r i c h e s k a b a r d e , s e t t w i t h p e a r l e , and on h i s l e f t e hande goeth t h e comon c r y e r o f the : c i t i e , w i t h h i s g r e a t mace on h i s s h o u l d e r , a l l g i l t . The Mayor hath on a l o n g e gowne o f s k a r l e t , and on h i s l e f t e s h o u l d e r , a hood o f b l a c k v e l v e t , and a r i c h c o l l e r o f g o l d o f SS. about h i s neck. Then a l l t h e Aldermen i j and i j t o g e t h e r (amongst whom i s t h e R e c o r d e r ) , a l l i n s k a r l e t gownes; and t h e s e t h a t have been Mayors, have chaynes o f g o l d , the o t h e r have b l a c k v e l v e t t t i p p e t t s . The i j S h e r e f f e s come l a s t o f a l l , i n t h e i r b l a c k s k a r l e t gownes and chaynes o f g o l d e . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the Show as Smythe d e s c r i b e s i t and t h e mature s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y form i s t h e v a s t l y e l a b o r a t e d p a g e a n t r y . In 1575 t h e r e i s one t a b l e a u o n l y , but i n 1602 the Merchant T a y l o r s a r -5 range to have "a p a g e o n [ t ] , a s h i p p , a Lyon And a Cammell." T h e i r next show, The Triumphs o f Re-United B r i t a n n i a (1605) by Anthony Munday, i s s t i l l more e l a b o r a t e , h a v i n g f o u r t a b l e a u x , each w i t h a speech o r d i a l o g u e . H e r e a f t e r , f o u r o r f i v e t a b l e a u x a r e customary. Each o f t h e s e was s t a t i o n e d a t some p o i n t a l o n g t h e r o u t e from t h e Thames t o the G u i l d h a l l and S t . P a u l ' s , and g e n e r a l l y j o i n e d the p r o c e s s i o n a f t e r i t had been seen by the Mayor. In 1591, w i t h P e e l e ' s Descensus A s t r a e a e , the pagean-t r y i n c l u d e d a water show, a t a b l e a u mounted on a barge which accompanied the Lord Mayor on h i s j o u r n e y by water to Westminster and back. T h i s q u i c k l y became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c e l e b r a t i o n s ; i t s e l a b o r a t e n e s s , h o w e v e r , v a r i e d f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . The e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f the L o r d Mayor's Show e n a b l e s us t o use Smythe's 1575 d e s c r i p t i o n as a supplement to Company r e c o r d s and the p r i n t e d t e x t s i n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t the day's e v e n t s . The c e l e b r a t i o n s began e a r l y i n the morning when the new L o r d Mayor, ac-companied by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r and t h e most i m p o r t a n t members o f the C i t y 6 Companies, p r o c e s s e d from the G u i l d h a l l t o Three Cranes Wharf where they embarked f o r Westminster. There the L o r d Mayor took h i s o a t h b e f o r e the King o r , more u s u a l l y , h i s J u s t i c e . On the r e t u r n j o u r n e y he was honoured by s a l u t e s f i r e d from both the s h o r e and a g a l l y f o i s t (a barge laden w i t h o r d n a n c e ) , and by t h e water show,jn M i d d l e t o n ' s Show o f 1623 "a p r o p e r and s i g n i f i c a n t M a i s t e r - p e e c e o f Triumph, c a l l e d the I m p e r i a l 1  Canopy, b e i n g t h e A n t i e n t Armes o f the Company" (11.29-30). (The t a b l e a u i s r e - u s e d by M i d d l e t o n l a t e r i n t h i s Show, The Triumphs o f  I n t e g r i t y . ) The L o r d Mayor and h i s entourage disembarked, u s u a l l y a t P a u l ' s Wharf, and were j o i n e d by a l l the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s who had mean-time been b r e a k f a s t i n g . The p r o c e s s i o n , f o l l o w i n g the o r d e r d e s c r i b e d by Smythe ( t h a t i s , e s s e n t i a l l y one o f a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f importance then began i n e a r n e s t . In 1623 t h e f i r s t h a l t was i n S t . P a u l ' s Churchyard where the L o r d Mayor was e n t e r t a i n e d w i t h "a Mount R o y a l l , on which Mount a r e p l a c ' t c e r t a i n e Kings and g r e a t Commanders...that were o r i g i n a l l y sprung from Shepheards" (11.37-9). T h i s d e v i c e was t h e n c a r r i e d a t t h e r e a r o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n and t h e Lord Mayor was " g r a c e f u l l y conducted toward the l i t t l e C o n d u i t i n Cheape" (11.1:06-7-) and the C h a r i o t o f S a c r e d Memory where worthy Drapers were r e p r e s e n t e d under f i g u r e s o f t h e i r v i r t u e s . The f i n a l t a b l e a u o f t h e "Fore-noones Triumph" took p l a c e near S t . Lawrence Lane, from t h i s complex s t r u c t u r e , the C r y s t a l Temple o f I n t e g r i t y , the L o r d Mayor was i n s t r u c t e d i n the v i r t u e s and d u t i e s o f m a g i s t r a c y . The a f t e r n o o n was o c c u p i e d by the G u i l d h a l l f e a s t , a f t e r which t h e p a r t i c i -pants p r o c e s s e d to S t . P a u l ' s f o r d i v i n e s e r v i c e , accompanied by the v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x of the pageant. These a w a i t e d the L o r d Mayor a f t e r w a r d s , and, decked e l a b o r a t e l y w i t h t o r c h e s and l i n k s , e s c o r t e d him homeward. 7 T h i s e f f e c t was o f t e n most s p e c t a c u l a r : M i d d l e t o n d e s c r i b e s the g o l d , s i l v e r , and c r y s t a l Temple o f I n t e g r i t y "adorned a n d . b e a u t i f i e d w i t h many L i g h t s , d i s p e r s i n g t h e i r g l o r i o u s Radiances on a l l s i d e s thorough the C r i s t a ! ! " (11.195-7). On the way, a t the e n t r a n c e t o Wood S t r e e t , t h e p r o c e s s i o n h a l t e d f o r the f i n a l t a b l e a u , the I m p e r i a l Canopy, p r e v i o u s l y seen i n the water show. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a t y p i c a l o r d e r f o r the day; v a r i a t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , were f r e q u e n t . Sometimes d i f f e r e n t wharves were used, and t h i s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e t a b l e a u x . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , as w i t h The Triumphs o f T r u t h i n 1613, the p a g e a n t r y might s t a r t e a r l i e r w i t h a t a b l e a u s t a t i o n e d on t h e Lord Mayor's r o u t e from the G u i l d h a l l t o t h e water. E s s e n t i a l l y , however, the p r o c e e d i n g s were governed by a mixr t u r e o f c o n v e n i e n c e and custom. I I . The G e n e s i s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show: the P r o c e s s i o n o f 29 O c t o b e r , the Midsummer Watch, and the Royal E n t r y . The s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y L o r d Mayor's Show had i t s r o o t s i n two o t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n s o f the d i g n i t y o f London's c h i e f c i t i z e n s , the Mayor's i n -a u g u r a l p r o c e s s i o n on 29 O c t o b e r and t h e Midsummer Watch. A f u r t h e r im-p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on the development o f the e a r l y Show was t h e Royal E n t r y . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , the p r o c e s s i o n accompanying t h e Mayor when he went t o take h i s o a t h b e f o r e the King or h i s J u s t i c e , d a t e s from King John's e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f y e a r l y e l e c t i o n s f o r the o f f i c e i n 1215 and gave the Show i t s form. From t h e e a r l i e s t days t h i s p r o c e s s i o n to Westminster was a d i g n i f i e d a f f a i r ; the Mayor b e i n g accompanied by the Aldermen, the s e n i o r b r e t h r e n o f h i s Company, and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r d i g n i t a r i e s and o f f i c i a l s . 8 By 1400 the p r o c e s s i o n was e l a b o r a t e enough t o r e q u i r e m a r s h a l l s and m i n s t r e l s . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s p l a y can be gauged by t h e c o s t o f S i r Robert O t t l e y ' s p r o c e s s i o n i n 1436; the charges f o r c l o t h i n g a l o n e amounted t o 4.100 and a n o t h e r 155. 13. 09h was spe n t on t h e r e s t o f the r i d i n g . 7 A t f i r s t t h e Mayor and h i s a s s o c i a t e s r o d e to Westminster a l o n g the S t r a n d , but from 1422 i t became customary t o go by barge a l o n g t h e r i v e r . M i d d l e -t o n and the o t h e r pageant p o e t s , f o l l o w i n g Fabyan and Stow, m i s t a k e n l y a t t r i b u t e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s custom to a Draper, S i r John Norman. Again the d i s p l a y was m a g n i f i c e n t , the barges were f e s t o o n e d w i t h banners and pennants and draped w i t h p l u n k e t . Norman's barge i n p a r t i c u l a r seems to have made a g r e a t i m p r e s s i o n , i t s s i l v e r o a r s and g e n e r a l o p u l e n c e were s t i l l b e i n g commented upon two hundred y e a r s l a t e r . However, the b e h a v i o u r o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d d i d not always c o r r e s p o n d to t h e grandeur o f the o c c a s i o n . In 1483 the r i v a l r y o f the S k i n n e r s and Merchant T a y l o r s o v e r precedence r e s u l t e d i n l o s s o f l i f e ; 150 y e a r s l a t e r i n 1638 the Dra p e r s ' Company p a i d t h e i r bargemen 2/6 " f o r t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a i n e s i n o u t r o w i n g the L o r d M a i o r s Barge and l a n d i n g t h e Company b e f o r e the Lo r d Major and Aldermen were la n d e d (the L o r d M a i o r s Barge being a l m o s t out o f o s i g h t rowing towards Westminster b e f o r e our Company tooke w a t e r ) . " T h i s d i f f i c u l t y o f e n s u r i n g an o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s t o and from Westminster was a c o n s t a n t problem f o r the o r g a n i z e r s . D e s p i t e i t s e l a b o r a t e n e s s , the pro-c e s s i o n d i d not i n c l u d e any pageants u n t i l t he 1540s when the Midsummer Watch was i n d e c l i n e . The Midsummer Watch was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f Midsummer f o l k f e s t i v a l , c i v i c muster, and g u i l d c e l e b r a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Stow n't was i n s t i t u t e d by Henry I I I " f o r the b e t t e r o b s e r v i n g o f peace and q u i e t n e s s e amongst h i s 9 g p e o p l e " and was kept on the eves o f the F e a s t s o f S t . John the B a p t i s t and S t . P e t e r , 24 and 29 June. The f u s i o n o f the v a r i o u s elements i s w e l l -caught i n Stow's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e v e n t : e v e r y mans doore b e i n g shadowed w i t h greene B i r c h , l o n g F e n n e l , S t . Johns wort, O r p i n , w h i t e L i l l . i e s , and such l i k e , g a r n i s h e d upon w i t h G a r l a n d s o f b e a u t i f u l l f l o w e r s , had a l s o Lampes. o f g l a s s e , w i t h o y l e b u r n i n g i n t h e m . a l l the n i g h t , some hung out braunches of y r o n c u r i o u s l y wrought, c o n t a y n i n g hundreds o f Lampes 1 i g h t a t once, which made a g o o d l y shew, namely i n new F i s h s t r e e t , Thames s t r e e t e , &c. Then had y e b e s i d e s t h e s t a n d i n g watches, a l l i n b r i g h t harnes i n e v e r y ward and s t r e e t e o f t h i s C i t i e and Sub-u r b s , a marching watch, t h a t passed t h r o u g h the p r i n c i -pal s t r e e t s t h e r e o f , to w i t , from t h e l i t l e C o n d u i t by P a u l e s g a t e , through west Cheape, by t h e S t o c k s , t h r o u g h C o r n h i l l , by Leaden h a l l t o A l d g a t e , t h e n backe downe Fenchurch s t r e e t e , by G r a s s e c h u r c h , about G r a s s e c h u r c h C o n d u i t e , and up G r a s s e Church s t r e e t e i n t o C o r n h i l l , and through i t i n t o west Cheape a g a i n , and so broke up: the whole way o r d e r e d f o r t h i s march-ing watch, e x t e n d e t h to 3200. T a y l o r s y a r d s o f a s s i z e f o r t h e f u r n i t u r e whereof w i t h l i g h t s , t h e r e were a p p o i n t e d 700. C r e s s e t e s , 500. o f them b e i n g found by the Companies, the o t h e r 200. by the Chamber o f London: b e s i d e s t h e which l i g h t e s e v e r y C o n s t a b l e i n London, i n number more than 240. had h i s C r e s s e t , t h e charge o f e v e r y C r e s s e t was i n l i g h t two s h i l l i n g e s f o u r e pence, and e v e r y C r e s s e t had two men, one t o beare o r h o l d i t , an o t h e r t o beare a bag w i t h l i g h t , and t o s e r v e i t , so t h a t the poore men p e r t a y n i n g t o the C r e s s e t s , t a k i n g wages, b e s i d e s t h a t e v e r y one had a strawne h a t , w i t h a badge p a i n t e d , and h i s b r e a k f a s t i n the morning, amounted i n number t o a l m o s t 2000. The marching watch c o n t a i n e d i n number about 2000. men, p a r t e o f them b e i n g o l d e S o u l d i e r s , of s k i l l t o be C a p t a i n s , L i e u t e n a n t s , S e r g e a n t s , C o r p o r a l s , &c. W i f l e r s , Drommers, and F i f e s , S t a n d a r d and E n s i g n e b e a r e r s , Sword p l a y e r s , Trumpeters on h o r s e b a c k e , Demi-launces on g r e a t h o r s e s , Gunners w i t h hand Guns, o r h a l f e l hakes, A r c h e r s i n c o a t e s o f w h i t e f u s t i a n s i g n e d on t'he b r e a s t and backe w i t h the armes o f the C i t t i e , t h e i r bowes bent i n t h e i r handes, w i t h s h e a f e s o f arrowes by t h e i r s i d e s , P i k e men i n b r i g h t C o r s l e t s , B u r g a n e t s , &c. Hoi b a r d s , the l i k e B i l l men i n Almaine R i v e t s , and Apernes o f Mayle i n g r e a t number, t h e r e were a l s o d i v e r s Pageants, M o r r i s d a n c e r s , C o n s t a b l e s , the one 10 h a l f e which was 120. on S. Johns Eve, the o t h e r h a l f e on S. P e t e r s Eve i n b r i g h t h a r n e s s e , some o v e r g i l t e , and e v e r y one a J o r n e t o f S c a r l e t t h e r e u p o n , and a c h a i n e o f g o l d e , h i s Hench man f o l l o w i n g him, h i s M i n s t r e l s be-f o r e him, and h i s C r e s s e t l i g h t p a s s i n g by him, t h e Waytes o f the C i t y , the Mayors O f f i c e r s , f o r h i s guard b e f o r e him, a l l i n a L i v e r y o f w o l s t e d or Say J a c q u e t s p a r t y c o l o u r e d , the Mayor h i m s e l f e w e l l mounted on horse-back, the sword b e a r e r b e f o r e him i n f a y r e Armour w e l l mounted a l s o , the Mayors footmen, & the l i k e T o r c h b e a r e r s about him, Hench men t w a i n e , upon g r e a t s t i r r i n g h o r s e s f o l l o w i n g him. The S h e r i f f e s watches came one a f t e r t h e o t h e r i n l i k e o r d e r , but n o t . s o l a r g e i n number as the Mayors, f o r where t h e Mayor had b e s i d e s h i s G i a n t , t h r e e Pageants, each of the S h e r i f f e s had b e s i d e s t h e i r G i a n t e s but two Pageants, ech\ t h e i r M o r r i s Dance, and one Hench man t h e i r O f f i c e r ' s i n J a c q u e t s o f W o l s t e d , o r say p a r t y c o l o u r e d , d i f f e r i n g from the Mayors,.and each from o t h e r , but h a v i n g h a r n i s e d men a g r e a t many, &c. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the more e n t e r t a i n i n g a s p e c t s o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, the pageants, the g i a n t s , and the C i t y W a i t s , as w e l l as some o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , came from t h e Midsummer Show. The arrangements f o r the Watch were, from i t s i n c e p t i o n , i n the hands of t h e g u i l d s . In the e a r l y days t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g the armed men and t h e c r e s s e t s , but as the Watch became more e l a b o r a t e the major C i t y Companies seem to have taken an i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent r o l e , making use o f t h e o c c a s i o n t o honour t h e i r members who had a c h i e v e d t h e o f f i c e o f Mayor or S h e r i f f , i l 1 u s t r a t e t h e i r h i s t o r y and a s s o c i a t i o n s , and g e n e r a l l y e n t e r t a i n t h e c i t i z e n r y . The e a r l i e s t mention o f pageants i n the Watch makes i t p l a i n t h a t t h e y were p r o v i d e d by the Companies who p r o v i d e d the Mayor and S h e r i f f s . The f i r s t r e c o r d o f any pageants i s from 1504 when t h e Drapers' Company p a i d L38. 13. 10% " f o r x i i j pageantes f o r mydsomerwatch f o r the s a i d M a i r . " ^ The " x i i j " i s most l i k e l y a s c r i b a l e r r o r . A c c o r d i n g t o Stow the Mayor had t h r e e pageants and the 11 S h e r i f f s two each, and even a t the h e i g h t o f the Midsummer Show t h e Mayor had no more than f o u r and each S h e r i f f t h r e e . The pageants, as Stow s a y s , were p e r i p a t e t i c , b e i n g "boren b e f o r e the M a i r " i n the p r o c e s s i o n . They were g e n e r a l l y on r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s , f a m i l i a r from both t h e Royal E n t r y and the g u i l d drama, a l t h o u g h , as S h e i l a W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t , t h e y seem t o have been i n "a d i s c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f b e i n g s e c u l a r i z e d " t h r o u g h o u t the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . ^ Pageants were f r e q u e n t l y made new, a l t h o u g h ones from p r e v i o u s y e a r s were a t t i m e s r e f u r b i s h e d and made t o s e r v e a g a i n . In a d d i t i o n t h e y were o c c a s i o n a l l y 12 borrowed, a l o n g w i t h the G i a n t s , from r e l i g i o u s g u i l d s or o t h e r Companies. C h a r a c t e r s i n t h e pageants were g e n e r a l l y p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n ; however, 13 a d u l t a c t o r s and Company members a l s o sometimes took p a r t . The c a s t was a l s o o f t e n supplemented by f i g u r e s c o n s t r u c t e d o f w i r e and paper. There i s no e v i d e n c e o f speeches b e f o r e 1541, a l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y " p l a y e d and sang" (MSC I I I , p . x x i - i i ) . I f the meaning o f the t a b l e a u x needed t o be made c l e a r , w r i t t e n i n s c r i p t i o n s were a f f i x e d , but most o f the pageants must have been v e r y f a m i l i a r t o the s p e c t a t o r s . In a d d i t i o n t o the s i n g i n g c h i l d r e n , p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n s were o f t e n h i r e d f o r the pageant; t h e s e i n c l u d e d p l a y e r s o f v i r g i n a l s , r e g a l s , h a r p s , l u t e s , shawms, and r e b e c k s . By 1522 the Midsummer Show was i m p r e s s i v e enough f o r L o d o v i c o S p i n e l l i , s e c r e t a r y t o the V e n e t i a n Ambassador, to send home an e n t h u s i a s t i c account o f i t . A l l the t a b l e a u x he d e s c r i b e s , except S t . George and S t . John the B a p t i s t , were p r o v i d e d by t h e D r a p e r s ; Next came a n o t h e r band o f m u s i c i a n s , w i t h 50 men and naked boys dyed b l a c k l i k e d e v i l s , w i t h the d a r t and b u c k l e r i n t h e i r hands, g o a d i n g the f o l l o w e r s o f P l u t o , 12 who was on a p u l p i t under a canopy s e a t e d on a s e r p e n t t h a t s p a t f i r e ; he h i m s e l f b e i n g naked, w i t h a drawn sword i n h i s hand: so- c o n t r i v e d t h a t , when he b r a n d i s h e d \ i t , i t made the s e r p e n t vomit v e r y f e t i d s u l p h u r i c f i r e -b a l l s : and on the p u l p i t i n f r o n t o f P l u t o were f i g u r e s o f an ox, a l i o n , and some s e r p e n t s . Another band o f s t e e l - c l a d h a l b e r d i e r s marched n e x t , p r e c e d i n g a l l the P r o p h e t s , w i t h t h e t r e e o f l i f e s p r o u t -i n g from t he b e l l y o f a recumbent male f i g u r e , and by c e r t a i n mechanism t h e Pr o p h e t s t u r n e d about from one s i d e t o t h e o t h e r . They were f o l l o w e d by a band o f h a l b e r d i e r s , next t o whom came a p l a t f o r m on which was a c a s t l e accompanied by m u s i c i a n s , and w i t h i n i t some armed men, who as they moved caused t he draw-bridges t o f a l l and r i s e , and on the w a l l s were men s t a n d i n g w i t h s t o n e s i n t h e i r hands f o r i t s de-f e n c e a g a i n s t a T u r k i s h horseman i n p u r s u i t , armed w i t h a v e r y l o n g t i n sword t i n g e d w i t h b l o o d , who t e r r i f i e d t h o s e w i t h i n , s h o u t i n g i n E n g l i s h ["wo b e " ? ] . Then came a n o t h e r band o f h a l b e r d i e r s , f o l l o w e d by c h o r i s t e r s on f o o t i n wh i t e s u r p l i c e s , who preceded a st a g e on which was a v e r y b e a u t i f u l l i t t l e g i r l under a canopy o f brocade, r e p r e s e n t i n g t he V i r g i n Mary, w i t h f o u r boys, a l s o i n w h i t e s u r p l i c e s , c h a n t i n g " l a u d s " . . . . Next came a band o f h a l b e r d i e r s w i t h a s t a g e , on which was S a i n t George, i n armour, c h o k i n g a b i g dragon and d e l i v e r i n g S a i n t M a r g a r e t . Then came a m o r r i s dance, f o l l o w e d by t h e Mayor, S h e r i f f s , and t h e i r e n t o u r -age, and f i n a l l y more pageants: "the i s l e o f Patmos w i t h S a i n t John t h e E v a n g e l i s t and some tow e r s , from one o f which he was l e a n i n g , and beneath were two l i t t l e boys" and "Herod a t t a b l e , w i t h H e r o d i a s ' d a u g h t e r , the t u m b l e r , and the e x e c u t i o n e r who beheaded S t . John t he B a p t i s t , who was r e p r e s e n t e d as being i n p r i s o n on the p u l p i t d e s c r i b e d above." S p i n e l l i ' s a c c o u n t pays the Show a c o n s i d e r a b l e compliment: "nor do I b e l i e v e t h a t 14 anywhere e l s e i n the w o r l d a s i m i l a r mark o f r e j o i c i n g i s u s u a l . " The Drapers had two f a v o u r i t e pageants; one, o f the Assumption, honoured t h e i r p a t r o n e s s t he V i r g i n Mary, the o t h e r , the C a s t l e o f War, sometimes borrowed the name o f t h e S h e r i f f o r Mayor f o r the y e a r , hence the C a s t l e o f 13 Monmouth i n 1536. Both o f t h e s e were sometimes p a i d f o r by the B a c h e l o r s o r Yeomanry o f the Company whereas a l l the o t h e r s were p a i d f o r by the L i v e r y . Other pageants o f t h e i r s i n c l u d e S t . B l y t h e , A c h i l l e s , the S t o r y o f J e s s e , S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t , S t . U r s u l a , and a King o f the Moors and h i s p a v i l i o n . In 1522, p r o b a b l y as a r e s u l t o f C h a r l e s V's 15 e n t r y i n t o London, t h e y planned a pageant o f t h e Golden F l e e c e . The r e l i g i o u s theme o f most o f t h e s e pageants suggests t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e d e c l i n e o f the Midsummer Show i n the l a t e 1530s and 1540s may have been a r e s u l t o f an attempt t o s u p p r e s s them on r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l g rounds, p a r a l l e l i n g t h e c o n t r o l and u l t i m a t e s u p p r e s s i o n o f the C y c l e p l a y s i n t h i s p e r i o d . The e d i t o r s o f Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t i o n s I I I c l a i m t h a t the reason f o r the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Midsummer Show was t h a t i t s " p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s had been t r a n s f e r r e d to the day o f the L o r d Mayor's i n a u g u r a t i o n " ( p . x x i i i ) . But a l t h o u g h t h i s i s what happened, i t n e i t h e r e x p l a i n s the r e a s o n f o r the t r a n s f e r nor t h e r e d u c t i o n i n p a g e a n t r y i n the e a r l y L o r d Mayor's Show. And on the f a c e o f i t t h i s d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s f e r the pageantry t o 29 O c t o b e r i s s t r a n g e , f o r from t h e p o i n t o f view o f both p a r t i c i p a n t s and s p e c t a t o r s 24 and 29 June a r e e m i n e n t l y p r e f e r a b l e days, g i v e n t h e E n g l i s h c l i m a t e f o r o u t d o o r c i v i c f e s t i v i t i e s . The o f f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n was f i n a n c i a l . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e were indeed c o m p l a i n t s from members o f t h e Companies c o n c e r n i n g the expense, but t h i s i s so t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Show. In 1541 the Wardens o f the Drapers complained to t h e i r C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s " t h a t t h e y f o r e v y r y g r o t e i n tyme p a s t / a r now Fayne t o gyve v...Whiche hathe r y s y n e by a wanton and s u p e r f l u o w s precydence begon by mayres and S h e r e f f e s o f 14 the mercery/ And a f t e r the same so r e c y t e d The seyd A s s i s t e n s sayd what remedy but go t h r o u g h wyth a l l . " 1 6 F u r t h e r m o r e , the Show o f 1539 was s u p p r e s s e d by o r d e r o f Henry V I I I on the grounds o f expense. S i n c e , how-e v e r , the c i t i z e n s were not informed u n t i l two days b e f o r e the Show was due to t a k e p l a c e when a l l the money had a l r e a d y been s p e n t , the King's e x p l a n a t i o n seems d i s t i n c t l y s p e c i o u s . 1 7 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no f i r m e v i d e n c e t o go on, we may be j u s t i f i e d i n assuming t h a t t h e o v e r t r e l i g i o u s c o n t e n t o f most o f the pageants, a t a time when the crown was b e g i n n i n g t o c e n s o r and r e s t r i c t o t h e r forms o f t h e a t r i c a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the c o n v e n i e n t excuse o f t h e i r c o s t , caused t h e i r d e c l i n e . P. D. Lusher has argued t h a t the D r a p e r s ' pageant o f the Assumption o f 1534 p r o v i d e s an example o f t h e i r dangerous p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . In-s t e a d o f r e f e r r i n g to i t as a pageant o f the Assumption as was u s u a l , the Drapers' books d e s c r i b e i t as "A pagentt o f A l a d y e h a v y i n g A Romayn M. g i l t i n her hond or A dyademe i i i j sqware w i t h A g r e t e M. a t e v e r y e c o r -19 ner." Lusher argues t h a t such an a t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , coming a mere two months a f t e r the o f f i c e r s o f the Company, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r C i t y d i g n i -t a r i e s , had sworn to a c c e p t the i l l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f P r i n c e s s Mary, i n d i -c a t e s a d e l i b e r a t e g e s t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r her. T h i s i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y g o i n g too f a r ; i t i s hard t o imagine Henry i g n o r i n g such b l a t a n t d e f i a n c e . However, even w i t h o u t the s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e t h a t Lusher s u g g e s t s , pageants o f the Assumption were u n l i k e l y t o be t h o u g h t h i g h l y o f by r o y a l a u t h o r i t y . I t i s noteworthy t h a t among the e a r l y changes i n the C y c l e p l a y s a f t e r t h e break w i t h Rome i s the abandoning o f p l a y s on t h i s v e r y s u b j e c t . 2 0 15 Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the t r a n s f e r and adumbra-t i o n o f the p a g e a n t r y was a d e l i b e r a t e l y j u d i c i o u s move by the C i t y F a t h e r s to c u t the c o s t s o f the Show, but a t the same time r e t a i n i t , i n s p i t e o f any r o y a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f C i t y t r a d i t i o n . T h i s would be consonant w i t h t h e attempts by o t h e r m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r e s e r v e 21 t h e i r C y c l e p l a y s . F o r d e s p i t e t h e c o m p l a i n t s about the expense o f the pageants, Londoners must have b e n e f i t e d , c o m m e r c i a l l y from them. As Dekker p o i n t s o u t i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y " b e s i d e s a l l the t w e l v e Companies, ( e v e r y one o f which i s a gayner by t h i s imployment:) i t would p u z z l e a good memory t o r e c k o n up a l l t h o s e Trades-men (with o t h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y 22 P r o f e s s i o n s which l i v e not i n t h e C i t y ) who g e t money by t h i s A c t i o n . " The f u l l y d e v e l o p e d L o r d Mayor's Show o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l s o owes much t o the Royal E n t r y , a l r e a d y a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c e r e m o n i a l i n the m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Indeed the e a r l i e s t example o f a t r a d e pageant o c c u r s i n t h e v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r the B a t t l e o f F a l k i r k i n 1298 when the Fishmongers had "4 s t o r i o n s [ s t u r g e o n s ] g y l d e d c a r y e d on 4 horses and a f t e r 4 h o r s e s c a r y e d 3 samons of s y l v e r and a f t e r x l v i knyghts a l l 23 armed uppon l u c e s o f the water [ p i k e ] and S t Magnus among the r e s t . " The e a r l y Shows seem t o have borrowed the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e i r pageants from the Royal E n t r y , but as t h e y grew more complex, the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween the two r i d i n g s became one o f mutual i n f l u e n c e . T h i s i s n o t s u r -p r i s i n g i n view o f the p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f b o t h , t h e i r common f u n c t i o n o f f o s t e r i n g a sense o f communion between peop l e and r u l e r , and the i n v o l v e -ment o f the Aldermen and l e a d i n g members o f the g r e a t Companies i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y i n 1532 H a l l comments t h a t t h e C i t y ' s p r e p a r a t i o n s 16 t o accompany Anne Boleyn on the Thames to her c o r o n a t i o n were o f a s i m i l a r 24 n a t u r e t o t h o s e i t made f o r the L o r d Mayor. A f t e r t h e 1604 E n t r y , how-e v e r , the L o r d Mayor's Show, by r e a s o n o f i t s f r e q u e n c y and g r a n d e u r , e c l i p s e s i t s r o y a l c o u n t e r p a r t . The most im p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two r i d i n g s were the e a r l y use o f speeches i n t h e Royal E n t r y (customary from t h e m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) and i t s use o f f i x e d r a t h e r than p e r i p a t e t i c s t a g e s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f speeches i n t o t h e L o r d Mayor's Show i n the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y opens up a n o t h e r a r e a o f i n f l u e n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u b j e c t m a t t e r . And as the mayoral Show became more e l a b o r a t e , s t a t i o n a r y s t a g e s , some-times b u i l t around the c o n d u i t s and f o u n t a i n s used so o f t e n i n the E n t r i e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y e r e c t e d . With the advent o f the p r i n t e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t a b l e a u x and speeches we a r e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o compare e f f e c t i v e l y the two r i d i n g s . C e r t a i n l y the d e s c r i p t i o n o f E l i z a b e t h ' s C o r o n a t i o n was a d i r e c t s o u r c e f o r Heywood's Londons Jus Honorarium (1631); more g e n e r a l l y 25 S h e i l a W i l l i a m s has t r a c e d the i n f l u e n c e o f i t s s t y l e i n P e e l e s pageants. The r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes c l o s e r s t i l l i n the c a s e o f James I's E n t r y , f o r o f the t h r e e d r a m a t i s t s i n v o l v e d , Jonson wrote the speeches f o r the non-e x t a n t 1605 L o r d Mayor's Show, and Dekker and M i d d l e t o n were r e g u l a r l y employed by t h e Companies, and d i d , i n f a c t , draw h e a v i l y on t h i s i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e with the pageant form i n t h e i r mayoral Shows. I I I . The Development o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show For a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show i n embryo we must t u r n t o 26 Henry Machyn's a c c o u n t o f t h e 1553 Show. There i s one pageant, t h a t o f 17 S t . John t h e B a p t i s t the p a t r o n s a i n t o f t h e Merchant T a y l o r s , t r a n s f e r r e d from the Midsummer Show t o the p r o c e s s i o n o f 29 O c t o b e r ; by t h i s t i m e i t has a c q u i r e d some " g o o d l y speeches." The p r o c e s s i o n i t s e l f w i t h m u s i c i a n s , g i a n t s , greenmen, and a d e v i l , i s i n e s s e n c e t h e same as t h e l a t e r ones. By 1575 when W i l l i a m Smythe d e s c r i b e d the Show, the f u n c t i o n o f the pageant has a l r e a d y become f o r m a l i z e d : "Then comes the Pageant o f Tryumphe r y c h l y decked, whereuppon by c e r t a i n e f y g u r e s & w r i t i n g e s , ( p a r t l y towchinge the name o f the sayd Mayor) some m a t t e r towchinge J u s t i c e , & t h e o f f i c e of a m a j e s t r a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d . " In the next t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s the show became l a r g e l y s e c u l a r i z e d , w i t h h i s t o r i c a l o r m y t h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s r e p l a c i n g s a i n t s ; f o r example, Ja s o n r a t h e r than t h e V i r g i n becomes t h e m a i n s t a y o f Drapers' i c o n o g r a p h y . At the same time the number o f t a b l e a u x i n c r e a s e d from one t o between f o u r and s i x , sometimes i n c l u d i n g a water show, and the employment o f men w i t h a known t h e a t r i c a l background and i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g t h e i r work i n p r i n t became h a b i t u a l . These l a s t c o i n c i d e w i t h the i n c r e a s e d w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e Companies t o pay o u t l a r g e sums o f money t o honour t h e i r b r e t h r e n and t h e i r c i t y . Speeches came l a t e t o the L o r d Mayor's Show. We know t h a t Machyn mentions t h a t they were "go o d l y " i n 1553 and t h a t t h o s e f o r 1556 were w r i t -ten by "Mr. G r i m b a l d , " presumably N i c h o l a s G r i m a l d (MSC I I I , pp.39-40). In 1561, however, t h e Merchant T a y l o r s p r e s e r v e d the speeches i n t h e i r Books. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e s e a l r e a d y c o r r e s p o n d to the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by Smythe i n 1575; the L o r d Mayor was W i l l i a m H a r p e r , and a c c o r d i n g l y such famous h a r p e r s as D a v i d , Orpheus, Amphion, A r i o n , and Iopas expound upon the n a t u r e 27 o f good government. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s we b e g i n t o get t h e names o f a u t h o r s more r e g u l a r l y : James P e e l e , f a t h e r o f George, d e v i s e d the speeches 18 f o r t he 1566 show, and R i c h a r d M u l c a s t e r t h o s e f o r 1568. In 1585 t h e pageant was w r i t t e n by George P e e l e , the f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f the employment o f a p r a c t i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d r a m a t i s t and a l s o the f i r s t time t h a t a p r i n t e d t e x t , The D e v i c e o f the Pageant Borne B e f o r e Woolstane D i x i , s u r -v i v e s . The c o i n c i d e n c e i s not c o m p l e t e l y f o r t u i t o u s . From then u n t i l t he c e s s a t i o n of t h e Shows i n 1639 i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r a r e f o r someone o u t s i d e the t h e a t r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n t o be c a l l e d i n . I n e v i t a b l y , t h i s r e -s u l t e d i n the d r a m a t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f the pageants; t h e p r o c e s s , how-e v e r , was not an e v o l u t i o n a r y one, f o r the most " d r a m a t i c " o f the seven-t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Shows a r e the r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans (1612) by Dekker and The Triumphs o f T r u t h (1613) by M i d d l e t o n . Perhaps more im-p o r t a n t t o the Companies was t h a t t h e i r employment o f the d r a m a t i s t s en-a b l e d them t o draw on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s e men's s k i l l than t h e mere a b i l i t y t o w r i t e e f f e c t i v e speeches, such as t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h d e a l i n g 28 with a c t o r s , s t a g e b u s i n e s s , p r o p s , and costumes. IV. The L o r d Mayor's Show and Drama The q u e s t i o n o f how f a r the pageants were " d r a m a t i c " i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r o f l a t e the attempt t o r e s c u e the s t u d y o f p a g e a n t r y i n g e n e r a l , and L o r d Mayor's Shows i n p a r t i c u l a r , from the c o n f i n e s o f mere a n t i q u a r i a n i s m and t o see t h e s e pageants i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the whole range o f d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y o f the E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean p e r i o d has sometimes r e s u l t e d i n a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e i r t r u e n a t u r e . Stephen Orgel has i n s i s t e d t h a t we s h o u l d not view the masque as "drama manque," and the same i s t r u e o f 29 p a g e a n t r y . As O r g e l argues "drama e x i s t s i n t i m e : t h i n g s happen and c h a r a c t e r s a c t on each o t h e r " ; but t h i s e x c l u d e s most o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t 19 f e a t u r e s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show. On t h e whole t h i n g s do n o t happen, they a r e o n l y expounded, and c h a r a c t e r s e x i s t p r i m a r i l y o n l y as s t a t i c exemplars, not as f i g u r e s c a p a b l e o f change. In s h o r t t h e r e i s no sense o f p r o c e s s , and l i t t l e p l o t o r d i a l o g u e . The emphasis i n s t e a d i s on s p e c t a c l e and i t s e x p o s i t i o n . Of c o u r s e t h e L o r d Mayor's Shows do have d r a m a t i c e l e m e n t s , sometimes, as i n T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans and The Triumphs  o f T r u t h , more pronounced than a t o t h e r t i m e s , but n e ver combined i n t o a whole. Pageants, t h e n , must be a c c o r d e d t h e i r own laws; i t i s a d i s t o r -t i o n to use t h e e x t e n t to which t h e y approach t h e d r a m a t i c as a c r i t e r i o n o f t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e . T h i s i s not t o deny, as Glynne Wickham has so c l e a r l y d emonstrated, t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f pageantry i s e s s e n t i a l to an under-s t a n d i n g o f the development o f drama d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d or t h a t t h e r e a r e many c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between p a g e a n t r y and the r e g u l a r drama, but r a t h e r t h a t , i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, i t i s e s s e n t i a l not t o f o r g e t t h a t the o c c a s i o n which i t c e l e b r a t e d , i t s n a t u r e , i t s form, and i t s 30 o r g a n i z a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y i n h i b i t e d any t r u l y d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . A major impediment t o the d r a m a t i c development o f t h e Show was t h e s t r i c t c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by the Companies. The day's triumphs were o r g a n i z e d and p a i d f o r by whichever Company t h e new L o r d Mayor belonged t o . As the Haberdashers' statement quoted e a r l i e r s u g g e s t s , the Companies had a c l e a r i d e a o f what they wanted and s i n c e they p a i d t h e p i p e r t h e y c a l l e d t h e tune. T h e i r i n c r e a s i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay out l a r g e sums o f money f o r t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s i s as i m p o r t a n t f o r the development o f t h e form as t h e i r employment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d r a m a t i s t s . Without t h i s f i n a n -c i a l s u p p o r t , the p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n the number o f t a b l e a u x and the growing 20 e l a b o r a t i o n c o u l d never have o c c u r r e d . I t i s p r o b a b l y not c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e most e x p e n s i v e Show b e f o r e the R e s t o r a t i o n , t h e G r o c e r s ' 1613 c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r S i r Thomas Myddleton, i n c l u d e s the most d r a m a t i c o f the pageants, w r i t t e n by M i d d l e t o n f o r h i s namesake, w h i l e one o f the l e a s t d r a m a t i c (and one o f t h e w o r s t , a l t h o u g h t h e two a r e by no means synonymous), M i d d l e t o n ' s The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626), formed p a r t o f the c h e a p e s t t r i u m p h , t h a t f o r C u t h b e r t Hacket, Draper. The G r o c e r s p a i d out about t1300 o f which j u s t l e s s than h a l f was expended on the pageant i t s e l f ; the Drapers s p e n t -k545. 13. 08 o f which about one q u a r t e r went on the pageant (MSC I I I , pp.86, 110). The heavy e x p e n d i t u r e e n t a i l e d c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n by Company o f f i -c i a l s ; i n a m a t t e r as i m p o r t a n t as t h e honour o f the C i t y and i t s own mem-b e r s , no Company would h a v e . r e l i n q u i s h e d much i n the way o f c o n t r o l t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e dangerous p r o f e s s i o n o f the t h e a t r e . On the whole, the Companies got what they wanted and were w e l l - s e r v e d by the men they employed; however, the e x t e n t o f t h e i r c o n t r o l c o u l d not but i n h i b i t i n -n o v a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , as l o n g as the t a b l e a u x were s k i l f u l l y e x e c u t e d , the Drapers c o u l d be r e l i e d upon to be. s a t i s f i e d w i t h ones f e a t u r i n g sheep and shepherds, o r J a s o n and the Golden F l e e c e . Or, as Ben Jonson more d i s p a r a g i n g l y put i t i n h i s s a t i r i c a l p o r t r a i t o f Munday i n The Case i s A l t e r e d , "such t h i n g s e v e r a r e l i k e b r e a d , which t h e s t a l e r i t i s , the 31 more holesome." C e r t a i n l y when t h e Companies c o m p l a i n e d , i t was not on a c c o u n t o f the t a b l e a u x per s e , but r a t h e r the " i l l performance t h e r e -o f . " In 1609 the Ironmongers o b j e c t e d . t h a t "the c h i l d r e n weare not i n -s t r u c t e d t h e i r s p e e c h e s . . . t h a t the Musick and s i n g i n g e weare w a n t i n g , the a p p a r r e l l most o f i t o l d and borrowed, w i t h o t h e r d e f e c t s " (MSC I I I , 21 p.76). S i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may have prompted t he D r a p e r s ' c o m p l a i n t s 32 i n 1626. In such c a s e s , however, the Company had e f f e c t i v e r e m e d i e s ; f i r s t i t c o u l d w i t h h o l d p a r t o f the payment and second, i t c o u l d d e c l i n e t o employ t h e o f f e n d i n g d r a m a t i s t o r a r t i f i c e r i n the f u t u r e . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n on the d r a m a t i c development o f the L o r d Mayor's Show was i t s o c c a s i o n a l n a t u r e and i t s f u n c t i o n as a c e l e b r a t i o n o f the mutual s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f r u l e r and r u l e d . Stephen Orgel has argued t h a t i n the case o f t h e masque i t took t he t a l e n t s o f Jonson t o overcome t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the form, u n i f y i t s d i s p a r a t e e l e m e n t s , and c r e a t e 33 a t e x t independent o f performance. T h i s n e v e r happened w i t h t h e L o r d Mayor's Show, and one im p o r t a n t reason why i t d i d not was t h a t i t s o u t d o o r , p e r i p a t e t i c form made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t , even i f d r a m a t i s t and Company had so d e s i r e d , to a c h i e v e a n y t h i n g o t h e r than what Orgel c a l l s t h e u n i t y o f a pageant-- t h a t i s , a v a r i e t y o f d i s c r e t e d e v i c e s , u n i f i e d e s s e n t i a l l y by s y m b o l i c and t h e m a t i c means r a t h e r than by d r a m a t i c i n t e r p l a y o f c h a r a c -34 t e r . I t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e Royal E n t r y never d e v e l o p e d beyond t h i s p o i n t e i t h e r , d e s p i t e t he d i s b u r s e m e n t i n 1604 o f v a s t sums of money and t he employment o f Jonson, Dekker, and M i d d l e t o n . Jean J a c q u o t ' s comments on the e s s e n t i a l d i v e r s i t y o f the Royal E n t r y a r e e q u a l l y a p p l i -c a b l e to the L o r d Mayor's Show: "Le p o u v o i r monarchique s e donne en s p e c t a c l e a l a c i t e ; l a c i t e se donne en s p e c t a c l e au s o u v e r a i n — e t a elle-meme c a r e l l e p rend a l o r s c o n s c i e n c e de son u n i t e , de son harmonie dans l a d i v e r s i t e des r e s p o n s a b i l i t e s , des r a n g s , des p r o f e s s i o n s . Les sen t i m e n t s de f i d e l i t e e t de p r o t e c t i o n , l ' i d e e de concorde n e c e s s a i r e au t r a v a i l p a c i f i q u e e t a l a pros p e r i t e ne s'expriment pas seulement 22 dans un c o r t e g e s o l o n n e l aux costumes e c l a t a n t s e t accompagne de musique, mais pas des d e c o r s , des t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s commentes par des d e v i s e s ou 35 des d i s c o u r s . " S i n c e , i n a d d i t i o n , the w r i t e r s were o b l i g e d t o c e l e b r a t e the same e v e n t i n v e r y much t h e same way y e a r i n and y e a r out t h e y prob-a b l y • d e s e r v e c o n g r a t u l a t i o n f o r t h e changes t h e y managed t o r i n g on t h e b a s i c themes and t a b l e a u x than c r i t i c i s m f o r t h e i r l a c k o f i n v e n t i o n . The problem was s t i l l f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e o c c a s i o n . The p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f both the L o r d Mayor's Show and Royal E n t r y i n e v i t a b l y a c t e d as a brake on the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n i n t o the pageant form. M i d d l e t o n t r i e d t o surmount t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n The Triumphs o f T r u t h (1613), to a modern r e a d e r the most i n t e r e s t i n g o f and s a t i s f y i n g o f t h e Shows, by u s i n g a m o r a l i t y - l i k e s t r u c t u r e t o u n i f y i t s p a r t s . But i t was an experiment t h a t n e i t h e r he (nor Dekker who a t -tempted something s i m i l a r i n T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans, 1612) e v e r r e p e a t e d , and i t i s f a i r to c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r grounds f o r t h i s than the 36 "dotage" s u g g e s t e d by David Bergeron. He argues t h a t t h e s e f i r s t shows by Dekker and M i d d l e t o n a r e p r a i s e w o r t h y because t h e y a r e "an attempt to add d r a m a t i c v a l u e by g i v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between v i r t u e and v i c e a s i g n i f i c a n t , d r a m a t i z e d t e n s i o n , not m e r e l y a v i s u a l s t a t e m e n t . " In comparison, t h e l a t e r shows a r e " s o r e l y l a c k i n g " : " r i c h i n s p e c t a c l e they may be, but the d r a m a t i c ' s o u l ' i s a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . " However, i t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t t h i s development o f t h e d r a m a t i c " s o u l " was e s s e n t i a l l y a t odds with t h e s p e c t a c u l a r , o c c a s i o n a l , and p r o c e s s i o n a l n a t u r e o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, t h a t Dekker and M i d d l e t o n r e c o g n i z e d t h i s , and so abandoned t h e i r i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s . C e r t a i n l y one wonders how many p e o p l e under-23 s t o o d the i n n o v a t i o n s of The Triumphs o f T r u t h ; indeed as R. C. B a l d com-ments, the s u s t a i n e d a l l e g o r y o f t h i s pageant must have been " q u i t e un-37 i n t e l l i g i b l e t o any e x c e p t the L o r d Mayor and t h o s e b e s i d e him. V. A u d i e n c e I t i s r e a s o n a b l e to suppose t h a t g i v e n the c o n d i t i o n s l i k e l y t o p r e v a i l on the day--a good chance o f bad weather and an enormous crowd--the e f f e c t i v e p a r t o f the Show f o r most o f t h o s e who watched i t must have been the s p e c -t a c l e . Only t h o s e c l o s e t o the L o r d Mayor h i m s e l f c o u l d have been a s s u r e d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the speeches, and whether they always l i s t e n e d v e r y a t t e n -t i v e l y may be doubted. T h i s d i f f i c u l t y must c e r t a i n l y have been e x a c e r -bated by the t u r b u l e n c e o f t h e crowd. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e triumphs o f 1617, f o r which M i d d l e t o n wrote The Triumphs o f Honor and I n d u s t r y , by O r a z i o B u s i n o , c h a p l a i n t o t h e V e n e t i a n Ambassador, makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the s p e c t a t o r s was f a r from s e d a t e : On l o o k i n g i n t o the s t r e e t we saw a s u r g i n g mass o f p e o p l e , moving i n s e a r c h o f some r e s t i n g p l a c e which a f r e s h mass o f s i g h t s e e r s grouped h i g g l e d y p i g g l e d y r e n d e r e d i m p o s s i b l e . I t was a f i n e medley: t h e r e were o l d men i n t h e i r d o t a g e ; i n s o l e n t youths and boys, e s p e c i a l l y the a p p r e n t i c e s a l l u d e d t o ; p a i n t e d wenches and women o f the lower c l a s s e s c a r r y i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a l l a n x i o u s t o see the show. We n o t i c e d but few coaches and s t i l l fewer horsemen; o n l y a few gentlewomen coming i n t h e i r c a r r i a g e s f o r a view a t some house i n t h e Row b e l o n g i n g to t h e i r f r i e n d s or r e l a t i o n s , f o r the i n -s o l e n c e o f the mob i s extreme. They c l i n g behind t h e coaches and s h o u l d t h e coachman use h i s whip, t h e y jump down and p e l t him w i t h mud. In t h i s way we saw them bedaub t h e smart l i v e r y o f one coachman, who was o b l i g e d t o put up w i t h i t . In t h e s e g r e a t u p r o a r s no sword i s e v e r unsheathed, e v e r y t h i n g ends i n k i c k s , f i s t y c u f f s and muddy f a c e s . 24 From the windows an i n c e s s a n t shower o f s q u i b s and c r a c k e r s were thrown i n t o the mass beneath, f o r which t h e boys scrambled when th e y were c o l d . On s u r v e y i n g the windows a l o n g the s t r e e t , as f a r as the eye c o u l d r e a c h , we p e r c e i v e d sundry g a l l a n t s i n a t t e n d a n c e on f i n e l a d i e s . . . w e were a s s u r e d t h a t the g a l l a n t s were the s e r v a n t s o f t h e s e l a d i e s , which i n p l a i n language means t h e i r l o v e r s Some o f our p a r t y saw a wicked woman i n a rage w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l supposed t o b e l o n g : t o the S p a n i s h embassy. She urged the crowd t o mob him, s e t t i n g the example by b e l a b o u r i n g him h e r s e l f w i t h a cabbage s t a l k and c a l l i n g him a S p a n i s h r o g u e , and a l t h o u g h i n v e r y b r a v e a r r a y h i s garments were f o u l l y smeared w i t h a s o r t o f s o f t and v e r y s t i n k i n g mud which abounds here a t a l l s e a s o n s . ™ When we r e a d M i d d l e t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e "noble S o l e m n i t i e s " we s h o u l d not f o r g e t the r e a l i t y o f p u s h i n g , s h o v i n g , and r e v e l r y t h a t l a y be-h i n d them. For i f the r i d i n g s were on one l e v e l the c e l e b r a t i o n o f a m y s t i c s o c i a l communion, on a n o t h e r t h e y had always p r o v i d e d f o r such as P e r k i n R e v e l o u r , t h e i r r e s i s t i b l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a h o l i d a y : For whan t h e r any r i d y h g was i n Chepe Out of t h e shoppe t h i d e r wolde he l e p e - -T i l t h a t he hadde a l the s i g h t e y s e i n , And daunced w e l , he wolde nat come ayeyn--The s p e c t a t o r s a r e i n d e e d one o f t h e f a s c i n a t i n g elements o f the Show, f o r b e h i n d the d e s i r e to honour C i t y and Company comes the i n t e n t i o n o f e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e c i t i z e n s . The p o p u l a r i t y o f the Shows i s a d e q u a t e l y a t t e s t e d t o by the d e c i s i o n t o e x e c u t e S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h on 29 October so " t h a t t h e pageants and f i n e shewes might drawe away t h e p e o p l e from be-40 h o l d i n g the t r a g o e d i e o f t h e g a l l a n t s w o r t h i e s t h a t e v e r England b r e d . " The prime a u d i e n c e was, o f c o u r s e , the L o r d Mayor and h i s r e t i n u e ; however, 41 t h e y , i n t u r n formed p a r t o f the show f o r everyone e l s e . And indeed a l l London was t h e r e . The Companies were, i n a s e n s e , a microcosm o f t h e 25 s o c i e t y o f the c a p i t a l . A l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h e d merchant c l a s s o f London, k i n g s , queens, and n o b l e s b e l o n g e d t o them, w h i l e the humblest a p p r e n t i c e might a s p i r e , i n the t r a d i t i o n o f London s u c c e s s s t o r i e s , to r i s e t h r o u g h t h e i r ranks t o the u l t i m a t e d i g n i t y o f L o r d Mayor. As S p e n d a l l i n Greenes Tu Quoque e x c l a i m s "by t h i s L i g h t I doe not t h i n k e but t o bee L o r d Maior o f London b e f o r e I d i e , and have 42 t h r e e Pageants c a r r i e d b e f o r e me, b e s i d e s a S h i p p e and an U n i c o r n e . " In keeping w i t h t h i s t h e triumphs were sometimes g r a c e d by members o f the r o y a l f a m i l y ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l were always t h e r e , and f a s h i o n a b l e s o c i e t y t u r n e d out t o amuse i t s e l f by l o o k i n g a t everyone e l s e . And the g r e a t mass o f c i t i z e n s were p r e s e n t s i n c e i t was t h e i r show. Thus the d e v i s e r s o f the pageants had t o p l e a s e an a u d i e n c e o f g r e a t s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y , t h e "sharpe and l e a r n e d " and t h o s e o.f "grounded judgements. B u s i n o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h o s e o f any s o c i a l s t a n d i n g d i d not mingle with the crowds i n t h e s t r e e t but s t a t i o n e d themselves a t t h e windows o f houses a l o n g the r o u t e . T h i s suggests t h a t they may have f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t to hear the speeches ( B u s i n o makes no mention o f them) o r d i s c e r n much o f what was happening i n t h e pageants. So i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Dekker and M i d d l e t o n were r i g h t t o s t r e s s t h a t "The m u l t i t u d e i s now t o be our A u d i e n c e , whose heads would m i s e r a b l y runne a wool 1 - g a t h e r i n g , 44 i f we doo but o f f e r t o breake them w i t h hard words." VI. The L o r d Mayor's Show and i t s Authors A l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h t t h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n s when the pageant p o e t s r e l y on f o r m u l a - w r i t i n g ( M i d d l e t o n ' s 1626 Show, e s s e n t i a l l y c o b b l e d up from 26 e a r l i e r ones i s a case i n p o i n t ) , on the whole they took t h e i r r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y and produced e f f e c t i v e pageants. " I n e v i t a b l e monotony i n s p i t e o f e n d l e s s v a r i a t i o n s " i s the comment o f a modern r e a d e r , one 4 who has r e a d too many pageants too q u i c k l y t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r d i v e r s i t y . C e r t a i n l y i f we t u r n t o what the a u t h o r s themselves had to say about what they were d o i n g we f i n d t h a t t h e y had a f i r m g r a s p o f both the p o t e n t i a l and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the form i n which they were working. D e k k e r 1 s comments on triumphs a r e e s p e c i a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g : Tryumphes, a r e the most c h o i c e and d a i n t i e s t f r u i t t h a t s p r i n g from Peace and Abundance; Love begets > them; and Much Cost b r i n g s them f o r t h . E x p e c t a t i o n f e e d s upon them, but seldome t o a s u r f e i t e , f o r when she i s most f u l l , her l o n g i n g wants something t o be s a t i s f i e d . So i n t i c i n g a shape t h e y c a r r y , t h a t P r i n c e s themselves t a k e p l e a s u r e t o b e h o l d them; t h e y w i t h d e l i g h t ; common peopl e w i t h a d m i r a t i o n . They a r e now and then t h e R i c h and G l o r i o u s F i r e s o f Bounty, S t a t e , and M a g n i f i c e n c e , g i v i n g l i g h t and beauty t o the Courts o f K i n g s : And now and t h e n , i t i s but a debt payd t o Time and Custome:. And out o f t h a t debt come These. ( I l l , 230) His c l e a r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t peace and abundance a r e n e c e s s a r y p o l i t i c a l con-d i t i o n s f o r the f l o u r i s h i n g o f such events i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r the Shows were abandoned when i t became obvious t h a t London's p e a c e a b l e e s t a t e ( L o n d i n i S t a t u s "Pacatus was t h e t i t l e o f Heywood's 1639 Show, the l a s t b e f o r e the Interregnum) was a myth. B e s i d e s Dekker and M i d d l e t o n t h e two major w r i t e r s o f mayoral pageants b e f o r e 1639 were Munday and Heywood. Munday has had the m i s f o r t u n e t o be 46 m a l i g n e d by both contemporary and modern c r i t i c s . However, a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f h i s pageants suggests t h a t some, a t l e a s t , o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s 27 m i s p l a c e d . S h e i l a W i l l i a m s comments t h a t h i s pamphlets r e a d " l i k e the work o f a man who i s i n v e n t i n g the form o f what he i s w r i t i n g as he goes 47 a l o n g . " T h i s i s t r u e ; the c r e d i t f o r a l o g i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d t e x t appears t o b e l o n g to Dekker. But t h i s does n o t mean t h a t Munday c o u l d n o t w r i t e a good pageant, s i m p l y t h a t he had not l e a r n t how t o o r g a n i z e a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e v e n t . In f a c t , o n e s u s p e c t s t h a t some o f h i s pageants, e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n s t a n c e M e t r o p o l i s Coronata (1615) w i t h i t s speech and song from Robin Hood and h i s Merry Men and t h e i r r e q u e s t f o r f u r t h e r employment a t C h r i s t m a s , were foun d more e n t e r t a i n i n g by many o f the s p e c t a t o r s and even Company o f f i c i a l s than some o f the more p i o u s m o r a l i z i n g s o f M i d d l e t o n o r Dekker. Munday, w r i t i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the heyday o f the Show, has l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f the f o r m ; the same i s t r u e o f Heywood w r i t i n g a t i t s c l o s e . In h i s c a s e t h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f the reduced s t a t u s o f t h e w r i t e r , f o r , as i n the case o f t h e masque, by the mid-16305 t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the " d e v i s e " and " i n v e n t i o n " o f the pageant has c l e a r l y passed t o t h e a r i t f i c e r ; i n 1638 and 1639 the Drapers n e g o t i a t e with John and Mathias C h r i s t m a s who a r e made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g Hey-48 wood. By t h i s time the t e x t s were p r i n t e d b e f o r e the p erformance, but Heywood uses the freedom o f no l o n g e r h a v i n g to d e s c r i b e the t a b l e a u x i n d e t a i l , n o t to e x p l a i n the n a t u r e o f triumphs but r a t h e r t o d i s p l a y h i s e r u d i t i o n and expound a t l e n g t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h i s r a t h e r i d i o -s y n c r a t i c and r e c o n d i t e symbolism. Indeed S i r M o r r i s Abbot ( f o r whom P o r t a P i e t a t i s , 1638, was w r i t t e n ) may w e l l have f e l t v e r y g r a t e f u l f o r an 49 e x p l a n a t i o n o f why he was t o resemble a r h i n o c e r o s . M i d d l e t o n , however, l i k e Dekker, i s c o n c e r n e d t o e x p l a i n both what a 28 triumph i s and what i t s h o u l d do, but i n h i s case the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s i s reduced by h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o prove h i m s e l f a b e t t e r a r t i s t than h i s r i v a l Munday. The opening t o The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y (1619) shows t h a t he had a f i r m g r a s p o f what was r e q u i r e d : " t h e r e i s f a i r hope t h a t t h i n g s where i n v e n t i o n f l o u r i s h e s , c l e a r A r t and her g r a c e f u l pro-p r i e t i e s s h o u l d r e c e i v e f a v o u r and encouragement from the c o n t e n t o f t h e s p e c t a t o r , w h i c h , next t o the s e r v i c e o f h i s honour and h o n o u r a b l e S o c i e t y , i s t h e p r i n c i p a l reward i t l o o k s f o r " ( V I I , 315). The honour o f t h e magi-; s t r a t e and the c o n t e n t o f the s p e c t a t o r a r e not i n t h e m s e l v e s , however, s u f f i c i e n t ; as Dekker had a l s o emphasized, the e n t i c i n g shape o f t h e pageant i s a means t o an end--the i n s t r u c t i o n o f both m a g i s t r a t e and p e o p l e i n t h e i r mutual d u t i e s : "Nor have t h e s e k i n d o f triumphs an i d l e r e l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y be a r t f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d : under such an esteemed s l i g h t -ness may o f t e n l u r k t h a t f i r e t h a t may shame the b e s t p e r f e c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e what g r e a t e r means f o r the i m i t a t i o n o f v i r t u e and n o b l e n e s s can anywhere p r e s e n t i t s e l f w i t h more a l a c r i t y t o t h e b e h o l d e r , than the memor-a b l e fames o f t h o s e w o r t h i e s i n the c a s t l e . . . " (The Triumphs o f Honor  and I n d u s t r y , V I I , 295). So t h e pageants o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show a r e i n -t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n as m i n i a t u r e M i r r o r s f o r M a g i s t r a t e s , and i t i s as w e l l to r e c a l l t h a t t h e age g e n u i n e l y b e l i e v e d i n the p o t e n t i a l o f a r t t o a f f e c t d i r e c t l y t he moral b e h a v i o u r o f an i n d i v i d u a l . To us t h e pageant poets seem a t times t o be i n d u l g i n g i n g r o s s l y unwarranted f l a t t e r y ; however, a t a time when f l a t t e r y was an a c c e p t e d mode o f e x p r e s s i o n , t h e y were endeavour-i n g ( a d m i t t e d l y w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s and l i t t l e o f Ben Jonson's l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y ) t o be " m i r r o r s o f mans l i f e , whose ends, f o r the e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e i r e x h i b i t e r s (as b e i n g the d o n a t i v e s , o f g r e a t P r i n c e s , t o t h e i r p e o p l e ) ought alwayes t o c a r r y a m i x t u r e o f p r o f i t , w i t h them, no l e s s e 50 then d e l i g h t . " And second i n the manner d e s c r i b e d by Bacon, "a form due i n c i v i l i t y t o kings and g r e a t p e r s o n s , laudando p r a e c i p e r e , when by 51 t e l l i n g men what t h e y a r e , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t o them what t h e y s h o u l d be." V I I . D e v i c e s , Machines and Stages The d e v i c e s on which the pageant poets r e l i e d were the f a m i l i a r ones o f medieval and Tudor t h e a t r e and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . V a r i a t i o n s on the mount, a r b o u r , tower, f o u n t a i n , and c h a r i o t abound i n the L o r d Mayor's Show; e s s e n t i a l l y , the s k i l l o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r l a y i n the changes t h e y c o u l d r i n g on t h e s e b a s i c d e v i c e s r a t h e r than i n the i n v e n t i o n o f new ones. So, f o r i n s t a n c e , M i d d l e t o n ' s C h a r i o t o f Honour i n The Triumphs  o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626) seems u n s a t i s f a c t o r y not because i t i s y e t a n o t h e r use o f a c h a r i o t , but because M i d d l e t o n ( a l t h o u g h C h r i s t m a s must presumably s h a r e some o f the blame) has s i m p l y l i f t e d the C h a r i o t o f S a c r e d Memory from The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y (1623), renamed i t , and a t t a c h e d a speech which has l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n to the t a b l e a u . He has f a i l e d t o i n v e n t a new f i c t i o n f o r an o l d d e v i c e and the one he does p r o v i d e , by i t s breach o f decorum, draws a t t e n t i o n t o h i s l a c k o f o r i g i -n a l i t y . The Drapers would have been j u s t i f i e d i f t h e y had f e l t they had seen i t b e f o r e . The c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e v i c e s and t h e i r im-p o r t a n c e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R e n a i s s a n c e s t a g e c r a f t have been w e l l -52 demonstrated by George K e r n o d l e and Glynne Wickham; a c c o r d i n g l y I propose t o examine o n l y t h o s e d e v i c e s used r e g u l a r l y by M i d d l e t o n . The two most u b i q u i t o u s a r e the c h a r i o t and the m o u n t / i s l a n d ; t h e y appear i n a l l h i s Shows. The p o p u l a r i t y o f the c h a r i o t i n p r o c e s s i o n s may owe some t h i n g t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the R e n a i s s a n c e t r i u m p h a l parade, but i t i s more l i k e l y t o have been adapted from the C o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s where i t 53 was i n r e g u l a r use by a t l e a s t t h e 1540s. And o f c o u r s e c h a r i o t s a l s o appear on t h e p u b l i c s t a g e i n p l a y s l i k e Tamburlaine and The B a t t l e o f 54 A l c a z a r ; one i s l i s t e d i n Henslowe's 1598 I n v e n t o r y . For the L o r d Mayor's Show the c h a r i o t p r o v i d e d an a d a p t a b l e means o f t r a n s p o r t f o r a group o f k i n g s , w o r t h i e s , v i r t u e s , o r whatever, whether l i v e o r c a r v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to a p r o c e s s i o n . I t was g e n e r a l l y drawn by the m y t h o l o g i c a l o r h e r a l d i c b e a s t s , c a r v e d o r made o f l a t h and p l a s t e r , t h a t were a c o n s t a n t element o f the Show's a t t r a c t i o n s . C h a r i o t s i n t h e D r a p e r s ' pageants were always drawn by two p e l l i t e d ( i . e . s p o t t e d ) l i o n s , t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e Company's arms. The d e v i c e i t s e l f c o u l d v a r y con-s i d e r a b l y i n s i z e from the s c a l l o p s h e l l o f Oceanus i n Dekker's B r i - t a n n i a s Honor (1628) to the m a s s i v e c h a r i o t i n Munday's C h r y s a n a l e i a : The Golden F i s h i n g (1616) which c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t n i n e t e e n f i g u r e s . The c h a r i o t c o u l d a l s o be combined w i t h o t h e r d e v i c e s : Dekker c o n s i d e r s i t t o be synonymous w i t h t h r o n e i n both T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans and B r i t a n n i a s  Honor, a g l a n c e a t t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement o f the s e a t i n g i n the C h r y s a n a l e a i a drawing c o n f i r m s t h e g e n e s i s o f t h i s . The mountain i s a b a s i c d e v i c e o f e a r l y pageants, e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , tournaments, and the C y c l e p l a y s . I t s s y m b o l i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e o b v i o u s o f t e n i t r e p r e s e n t s the commonwealth. The two mountains i n the pageants f o r P r i n c e A r t h u r and C a t h e r i n e o f Aragon i n 1501 r e p r e s e n t England and Spain r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s used t o p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t i n E l i z a b e t h ' s C o r o n a t i o n Show where a green mountain and a b a r r e n mountain s y m b o l i z e R e s p u b l i c a bene i n s t i t u t a and Ruinosa R e s p u b l i c a . T h i s d e v i c e was con-55 s c i o u s l y r e - u s e d by Heywood i n Londons Jus Honorarium (163T). M i d d l e -t o n ' s p r o p e n s i t y f o r the m o u n t / i s l a n d can be e x p l a i n e d b y ' t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e Companies f o r which he wrote. Of h i s seven Shows t h r e e were w r i t t e n f o r the G r o c e r s and t h r e e f o r the D r a p e r s . The G r o c e r s always e x p e c t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s p i c e i s l a n d s from which t h e y d e r i v e d t h e i r w e a l t h and the Drapers were e q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r sheep. The m o u n t / i s l a n d i s an o b v i o u s c h o i c e t o f u l f i l both t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . A g a i n v a r y i n g degrees o f e l a b o r a t i o n a r e p o s s i b l e . In 1613, when t h e G r o c e r s s p e n t a small f o r t u n e on t h e Show, M i d d l e t o n and h i s a r t i f i c e r produce f i v e i s l a n d s , a c a s t l e on the l a r g e s t , m i d d l e one, and a s h i p as w e l l ; i n 1617, when they spent l e s s , they g o t o n l y t h e C o n t i n e n t o f I n d i a . F o r the Drapers M i d d l e t o n uses the mount as an a r b o u r on whose beauty " w o o l l y c r e a t u r e s " g r a z e , but i t a l s o appears as a mount r o y a l f o r t h o s e shepherds who " r i s e t o be k i n g s " i n The Triumphs o f  I n t e g r i t y . In The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y (1619) the P a r l i a m e n t o f Honour, a d e v i c e which we might have e x p e c t e d t o be o f the s a n c t u a r y t y p e i s d e s c r i b e d by M i d d l e t o n as "a Mount o f R o y a l t y . " Other i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e s used by M i d d l e t o n a r e t h e t o w e r / c a s t l e , the f o u n t a i n , and t h e s a n c t u a r y / p a v i l i o n . The tower i s a common d e v i c e i n p a g e a n t r y from a t l e a s t t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y a t the c o n d u i t s which p r o v i d e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e m i - c a s t e l l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e a r t i -f i c e r t o base h i s d e s i g n s upon. L i k e the mountain, the tower was o f t e n used i n both medieval drama and l a t e r p a g e a n t r y to s y m b o l i z e the c i t y o r the kingdom. However, t h e r e a r e good grounds f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e c l a s s i c a l t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s o f James I's Royal E n t r y i n 1604 a f f e c t e d the 56 type o f d e s i g n . C e r t a i n l y the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f M i d d l e t o n and Dekker o f t e n seem c l o s e r t o a c a s t l e o r temple than a tower. F o r i n s t a n c e , B r i t a n n i a ' s Watch Tower i n B r i t a n n i a s Honor (1628) i s "a M a g n i f i c e n t S t r u c t u r e , A d vancing i t s e l f e from the P l a t f o r m e , o r Ground-worke up-ward w i t h the Bewty o f e i g h t A n t i q u e Termes, By whose s t r e n g t h i s sup-p o r t e d a Foure square B u i l d i n g ; The Toppe o f which i s a Watch-Tower, o r L a n t h o r n e , w i t h e i g h t Columnes o f s i l v e r " ( I V , 91). The f o u n t a i n i s d e s c r i b e d by K e r n o d l e as "perhaps t h e most p r o t e a n o f the s c e n i c d e v i c e s . On one o c c a s i o n a symbol o f a garden, on o t h e r s i t was an independent monumental and s c e n i c form; a t s t i l l o t h e r times i t became an open p a v i l i o n , a c a s t l e , a temple, a g r o t t o , a c r o s s , a f l e u r - d e - l i s , an Agnus D e i , a t r e e , a t r i u m p h a l a r c h , o r a s t r u c t u r e t o 57 s u p p o r t an upper s t a g e o r an o r c h e s t r a o f m u s i c i a n s . " I t was v e r y p o p u l a r i n f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Royal E n t r i e s when i t was o f t e n b u i l t around one o f the c o n d u i t s , as f o r i n s t a n c e w i t h Lydgate's t h r e e w e l l s c e l e b r a -t i n g the r e t u r n o f Henry VI from h i s P a r i s C o r o n a t i o n i n 1432. However, the f o u n t a i n became 1 l e s s p o p u l a r i n l a t e r c i v i c p a g e a n t r y , a p p e a r i n g o n l y some f i v e t i m e s . P e e l e uses i t Descensus A s t r a e a e (1591), and Dekker has a F o u n t a i n o f V i r t u e i n the Nova F e l i x A r a b i a a r c h o f The M a g n i f i c e n t  E n t e r t a i n m e n t (1604), as does Heywood i n L o n d i n i A r t i u m & S c i e n t a r u m  S c a t u r i g o (1632). M i d d l e t o n uses i t The Sunne i n A r i e s and The Triumphs  o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y . None o f the t e x t s o f t h e s e pageants i n c l u d e s 33 much i n the way of d e s c r i p t i o n o f the d e v i c e ; t h i s may be because o f i t s f a m i l i a r i t y r a t h e r than the d r a m a t i s t ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . 5 8 L i k e many o f the o t h e r d e v i c e s , the e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f the s a n c t u a r y v a r i e s ; a t one end o f t h e s c a l e i s the s i m p l e p a v i l i o n , sometimes con-t a i n i n g a t h r o n e , and a t the o t h e r i s such a complex n e o - G r e c i a n s t r u c t u r e as the Temple o f I n t e g r i t y i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y whose c r y s t a l appearance i s t h e v i s u a l embodiment o f the moral p u r i t y o f i t s o c c u p a n t . At times t h e s a n c t u a r y c l o s e l y resembles the t o w e r / c a s t l e , d o u b t l e s s t h i s owes much t o the i n f l u e n c e o f c l a s s i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . The Booth s k e t c h o f Dekker's P a l l a c e o f A p o l l o from Londons Tempe (1629) g i v e s some idea o f the appearance o f such s t r u c t u r e s (see p.41). One i n t e r e s t i n g 59 f e a t u r e o f t h i s s k e t c h i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c u r t a i n s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e i r use i n e a r l i e r drama as i n the "cowncel hous" o f the Ludus  C o v e n t r i a e . The c u r t a i n s were presumably used on o c c a s i o n f o r d i s c o v e r i e s or scene changes. The f o g which c o v e r s London's Triumphant Mount i n The  Triumphs o f T r u t h seems to be a c u r t a i n d e v i c e and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t was by t h i s means t h a t the Temple o f I n t e g r i t y opened a t " f i t and con-v e n i e n t Times." C u r t a i n s , however, were among the s i m p l e r s p e c t a c u l a r e f f e c t s o f the L o r d Mayor's Show. Again the c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n between medieval drama and e n t e r t a i n m e n t and l a t e r t h e a t r e and p a g e a n t r y i s a p p a r e n t . The mechanical m a r v e l s i n the Shows range from the g o l d - s p o t t e d l a u r e l t r e e t h a t "shoots up" from the t o p o f the Pageant o f S e v e r a l N a t i o n s i n The  Triumphs o f Honor and I n d u s t r y t o the Globe o f Honor i n The Triumphs o f 34 Honor and V e r t u e "which Globe s u d d e n l y opening and f l y i n g i n t o e i g h t c a n t s , o r d i s t i n c t p a r t s , d i s c o v e r s i n a t w i n k l i n g e i g h t b r i g h t personages most g l o r i o u s l y decked, r e p r e s e n t i n g (as i t were) t h e inward man..." ( V I I , 365). T h i s o p e n i n g g l o b e was an e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r d e v i c e , b e i n g used by Dekker, Webster, and Heywood as w e l l as M i d d l e t o n . The b a s i c machine used to c o n t r i v e t h e s e e f f e c t s was the v i c e o r w i n d l a s s , p r e -fif) sumably u s u a l l y c o n c e a l e d i n the framework o f the s t r u c t u r e . By the l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y such machines were i n r e g u l a r use i n the C y c l e p l a y s , Royal E n t r i e s , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s ; i n d e e d , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g mechani-c a l i n the Lord Mayor's Show t h a t cannot be p a r a l l e l e d i n t h e pageants f o r the r e c e p t i o n o f C a t h e r i n e o f Aragon i n 1501. However, i t i s a l s o p r o -b a b l e t h a t t he development o f e l a b o r a t e s c e n i c machinery f o r the masque a f f e c t e d t he L o r d Mayor's Show. C e r t a i n l y G a r r e t C h r i s t m a s ' s p e c i a l e f -f e c t s i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y seem t o resemble some o f t h o s e con-t r i v e d by I n i g o Jones f o r Oberon. Most o f the t a b l e a u x j o i n e d t he p r o c e s s i o n a f t e r they had done t h e i r p a r t i n welcoming t h e Lor d Mayor. The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p r a c t i c e a r e r a r e . Sometimes, as i n Dekker's F o r l o r n C a s t l e from T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans, the s t a b i l i t y o f a f i x e d s t a g e seems t o have been d e s i r a b l e and the L i t t l e C o n d u i t p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e backdrop t o t h e s t a g e - c a s t l e . At o t h e r times the d e v i s e r s wanted t o use a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o r s y m b o l i c a s s o c i a -t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g s and so i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s e i n t o a t a b l e a u , as i n t h a t a t the new S t a n d a r d i n The Sunne i n A r i e s . The c o n t i n u i n g use of the p e r i p a t e t i c s t a g e i s c l e a r l y a s u r v i v a l from the e a r l i e r Midsummer Show when the pageants were "boren b e f o r the M a i r " ; i t i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g 35 t h a t the advantages o f a f i x e d s t a g e were so r a r e l y drawn upon, but one reason f o r the r e l i a n c e on the e a r l i e r t y p e must have been t h e added s p e c t a c l e which t h i s gave t o the p r o c e s s i o n — a f t e r a l l the h e a r t o f t h e 61 show. There i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e use o f f i x e d s t a g e s be-came more common towards the end o f t h e p e r i o d ; a t any r a t e t h e t e x t s a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c about t h i s , and some o f t h e more e l a b o r a t e t a b l e a u x a r e l i k e l y t o have been s t a t i o n a r y . N o n e t h e l e s s , the c o n t i n u e d payments f o r " L a n d - c a r r i a g e by p o r t e r s " c o n f i r m t h a t most o f the t a b l e a u x were s t i l l 6? c a r r i e d around i n the p r o c e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h both d e v i c e s and t a b l e a u x were o f the t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e i t i s n o t always easy t o v i s u a l i z e what they l o o k e d l i k e . The t a s k i s made e a s i e r by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two s e t s o f drawings. The f i r s t , p r e s e r v e d i n the Fishmongers' Company a r c h i v e s , and r e p r o d u c e d i n John Gough N i c h o l s 1 e d i t i o n o f C h r y s a n a l e i a i s the most u s e f u l , p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n of a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f Munday's 1616 pageant. The second group, the s k e t c h e s made by Abram Booth, s e c r e t a r y t o the d e l e g a t i o n o f the N e t h e r l a n d s E a s t I n d i a Company, o f Dekker's Londons Tempe (1629) g i v e s a r e l i a b l e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f each t a b l e a u , but t h e d e t a i l s by no means always c o r r e s p o n d t o Dekker's d e s c r i p t i o n . The two s e t s , however, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e t a i l s g l e a n e d from Company r e c o r d s and t h e t e x t s them-s e l v e s , p r o v i d e a n e c e s s a r y c o u n t e r p o i s e t o the w i l d e r f l i g h t s o f imagina-t i o n o f many o f the c r i t i c s who have c o n s i d e r e d the problems o f the ap-pearance and t r a n s p o r t o f the pageant s t r u c t u r e s . Students o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show have g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r f a i l e d to t r e a t t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s or have produced t h e o r i e s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t the e v i d e n c e o f the d r a w i n g s ; drawings which they f r e q u e n t l y r e p r o d u c e . F i g u r e 2: C h r y s a n a l e i a : The F i s h i n g Busse F igure 3. Ch r y s ana l e i a : The King of the Moors. F i g u r e 4; C h r y s a n a l e i a ; Merman and Mermaid I t i s c l e a r from the C h r y s a n a l e i a s e t t h a t the t a b l e a u x were mounted on a c u b i c s t r u c t u r e , the "Quadrangle frame" mentioned by Munday i n C h r u s o - t h r i a m b o s , the Triumphes o f Golde (1611, s i g . A4). The o b v i o u s purpose o f t h i s was t o p r o v i d e a r a i s e d p l a y i n g a r e a ; i t presumably super-seded the hogsheads r e q u i r e d i n the e a r l y Shows (MSC I I I , p.46). The con-t i n u e d use o f t h i s frame i s c o n f i r m e d on the whole by t h e Booth s k e t c h e s . In a d d i t i o n i t may have p r o v i d e d an a r e a i n which the sometimes complex machinery f o r the t a b l e a u c o u l d be c o n c e a l e d . I am u n a b l e t o f i n d any c o n v i n c i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r the a s s e r t i o n s made by J . G. N i c h o l s , S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , and Glynne Wickham t h a t the space was used t o c o n c e a l e i t h e r w h e e l s, h o r s e s , o r men. N i c h o l s c l a i m s , i n d i s c u s s i n g the C h r y s a n a l e i a F i s h i n g Busse, t h a t " i t was drawn a l o n g t h e s t r e e t s upon wheels, which 64 were hidden by t h e dependant c u r t a i n s . " The wheels a r e an i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y ; a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no mention o f them i n contemporary a c c o u n t s , t h e i r use would be a l o g i c a l way o f e a s i n g the problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The c u r t a i n s a r e i m p r o b a b l e , b e i n g s c a r c e l y w a r r a n t e d by t h e drawing which s u g g e s t s , as would presumably be n e c e s s a r y , a more s o l i d base f o r the pageant, a f t e r a l l a r a t h e r heavy s t r u c t u r e . S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , more j u s t i f i a b l y , sees t h e p l a t e s as i n d i c a t i n g "the e x t e n s i v e , indeed a l m o s t e n t i r e use o f p o r t e r s , " but her i n f e r e n c e from t h i s , t h a t the c u b i c s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y c o n c e a l horses but more l i k e l y t h e p o r t e r s , 65 i s e q u a l l y s u s p e c t . I t seems c l e a r from Dekker's d e s c r i p t i o n i n 1612 t h a t the t a b l e a u x were n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d o p e n l y by t h e p o r t e r s . T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by Company r e c o r d s : i n 1610 the Merchant T a y l o r s pay 100 p o r t e r s •kl2. 10. 00 f o r c a r r y i n g t h e pageants, a p p a r e n t l y t h r e e major t a b l e a u x and some a n i m a l s . P o r t e r s c o s t t h e same Company t l O i n 1612 (MSC I I I , p.85); 43 62 presumably again a large number were required. So many men are un l i ke ly to have been concealed within the structure. Glynne Wickham, also deals with the problem of moving the pageants. He claims that the heraldic beasts of the Companies' arms "were taken out of t he i r normal sett ing and used again and again in l i f e s i z e or larger re-creations to conceal the men who pulled the pageant-wagons through the streets or rowed them on the water," but while such a procedure may some-times have been fol lowed, i t would seem to have been unnecessarily cumber-some. In the case of the water show the tableau seems usually to have been mounted on a g a l l y f o i s t and i t is un l ike ly that there would have been any need to conceal the oarsmen. S im i l a r l y , the evidence for the procession points overwhelmingly to the open pul l ing or carrying of pageants and beasts through the s t reets . Wickham repr ints a good se-lect ion of the Chrysanaleia drawings, but there is nothing in any of them to confirm his assert ion. Indeed, the drawing of the merman and mermaid who pulled the chariot suggests precisely the opposite. And i t is probable that the heraldic beasts generally bore a greater resemblance to the leopard from Chrysanaleia than to Wickham's descr ipt ion. The only contrary evidence comes from Dekker's Troia-Nova Triumphans, a pageant pa r t i c u l a r l y interest ing for the ins ight i t offers into con-dit ions of production. Almost a l l commentators on the Lord Mayor's Show have noted i t s importance, but few have endeavoured to determine i t s pre-c ise s ign i f i cance. Most, l i k e David Bergeron (who is conspicuous for lack of interest in production matters), are content to remark that " cer ta in changes i n p r o d u c t i o n a r e t a k i n g p l a c e . " The c r u c i a l passage d e s c r i b e s t h e C h a r i o t o f Neptune: B e f o r e t h i s C h a r i o t r i d e f o u r e T r y t o n s , who a r e f e y n e d by Poets t o bee tr u m p e t e r s t o Neptune, and f o r t h a t cause make way b e f o r e him, h o l d i n g s t r a n g e Trum-pets i n t h e i r hands, which they sound as t h e y passe a l o n g , t h e i r h a b i t s b e i n g A n t i c k e , and S e a - l i k e , and s i t t i n g upon f o u r e s e v e r a l 1 f i s h e s , v i z , two D o l p h i n s , and two Mer-maids, which a r e not ( a f t e r the o l d pro-c r e a t i o n ) , b e g o t t e n o f p a i n t e d c l o a t h and browne p a p e r , but a r e l i v i n g b e a s t s , so q u e i n t l y d i s g u i s e d l i k e t h e n a t u r a l f i s h e s , o f purpose t o avoyd t h e t r o u b l e and p e s t e r i n g o f P o r t e r s , who w i t h much noyse and l i t t l e c o m l i n e s s e a r e e v e r y y e a r e most u n n e c e s s a r i l y imployed. ( I l l , 232-3) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the meaning o f t h i s passage i s not c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r ; t h e mind boggles a t d e c i d i n g e x a c t l y what s o r t o f " l i v i n g b e a s t s " ( h o r s e s ? 68 men?) were " q u e i n t l y d i s g u i s e d " as d o l p h i n s and mermaids. The e x t r a c t does c o n f i r m t h a t p o r t e r s n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d the pageant s t r u c t u r e s t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s , and a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e a r l y pageant f i g u r e s were r a t h e r crude a f f a i r s o f c l o t h and brown paper. Perhaps the r e f e r e n c e i s s i m p l y i n t e n d e d t o s t r e s s t h e l i f e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r d o l p h i n s and mermaids i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o l d e r , c r u d e r ones, but t h i s would pre -sumably s t i l l e n t a i l the use o f p o r t e r s . Whatever the p r e c i s e form o f Dekker's i n n o v a t i o n , i t d i d not succ e e d i n d i s p l a c i n g t he p o r t e r s ; even f o r t h i s Show the Merchant T a y l o r s found i t n e c e s s a r y t o employ a l a r g e number o f " p o r t e r s which c a r r i e d some p a r t o f the shows" (MSC I I I , p.85). And i n t h i s y e a r t h e r e was a n o t h e r t a b l e a u , the F o r l o r n C a s t l e , which, b e i n g b u i l t on a s t a t i o n a r y s t a g e , d e f i n i t e l y d i d not r e q u i r e p o r t e r s . Twelve y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1624, p o r t e r s a r e s t i l l c l e a r l y t h e r u l e ; Webster draws a t t e n t i o n t o the use o f horses t o p u l l t h e C h a r i o t o f Kings i n 45 Monuments o f Honor: " f o r P o r t e r s would have made i t move t o t t e r i n g and 69 i m p r o p e r l y . " Even a f t e r the R e s t o r a t i o n payments t o as many as one hundred p o r t e r s a r e not i n f r e q u e n t . 7 ^ However, Dekker was e v i d e n t l y r i g h t i n commenting on the growing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e s and f i g u r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d . As Jean Robertson has p o i n t e d o u t , the c r e d i t f o r much o f t h i s belongs t o G a r r e t C h r i s t m a s , who, u n l i k e most o f h i s r i v a l s , was an a r c h i t e c t and c a r v e r r a t h e r than a p a i n t e r . 7 ^ T h i s was r e c o g n i z e d by Heywood who e x t r a v a g a n t l y compared him t o Augustus f i n d i n g Rome b u i l t o f b r i c k but l e a v i n g i t b u i l t o f m a r b l e : "So he who f o u n d t h e s e Pageants and Showes o f Wicker and Paper, r a t h e r a p p e a r i n g monstrous and p r o d i g i o u s B i r t h s , then any Beast ( p r e -s e n t e d i n them) i n the l e a s t k i n d i m i t a t i n g Nature: hath r e d u c ' t them to t h a t s o l l i d i t y and s u b s t a n c e f o r t h e M a t e r i a l l s , t h a t they a r e so f a r r e from one dayes washing t o d e f a c e them, t h a t the w e a t h e r i n g o f many W i n t e r s can not impeach them: and f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t F i g u r e s and w e l l - p r o p o r t i o n e d l i n e a m e n t s , (by none p r e c e d i n g him) t h a t c o u l d be s a y d t o bee p a r a l l e l e d . " L There a r e no e x a c t i n d i c a t i o n s o f the s i z e s o f t h e t a b l e a u x g i v e n i n e i t h e r t e x t s or Company r e c o r d s , and the danger o f e s t i m a t i n g t h i s from the drawings i s o b v i o u s . However, L. J . M o r r i s s e y has produced r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d i m e n s i o n s f o r the wagons o f the p o s t - R e s t o r a t i o n L o r d Mayor's Show. H i s i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e e s t i m a t e t o R i c h a r d H o s l e y ' s o f the s i z e o f medieval pageant wagons, a r g u i n g t h a t the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s (narrow s t r e e t s , e t c . ) and the i n h e r e n t c o n s e r v a t i s m o f p a g e a n t r y make i t r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t the wagons o f the p o s t -46 R e s t o r a t i o n show "were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r e and s i z e 73 from t h o s e t h a t moved through the s t r e e t s o f medieval London." T h i s i s d e b a t a b l e , but i t i s much s a f e r t o assume, g i v e n t h e r e l i a n c e o f the Companies on p r e c e d e n t and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r developments dur-in g the Commonwealth, t h a t the dimensions o f the p r e - R e s t o r a t i o n wagons were c l o s e to t h o s e used a f t e r . M o r r i s s e y argues t h a t the t y p i c a l wagon was r e c t a n g u l a r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 by 14 f e e t , w i t h a s t r u c t u r e ( c h a r i o t , a r b o u r , e t c . ) " f i l l i n g most o f t h e e i g h t - f o o t f r o n t t o a depth o f t h r e e 74 or f o u r f e e t , w i t h t h e s t a g e s t r e t c h i n g out b e h i n d . " He c o n c l u d e s "square wagons 8 f e e t by 8 f e e t , o r a t most 10 f e e t by 10 f e e t , and r e c -t a n g u l a r ones 8 f e e t by 14 f e e t w i t h s t r u c t u r e s on them from 6 t o 12 f e e t h i g h , and c e r t a i n l y under 15 f e e t , would have been e x t r e m e l y maneuverable by p o r t e r s i n the n a r r o w e s t s t r e e t s . " V I I I . A c t o r s I t has been g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r o l e s i n the pageants were u s u a l l y taken by c h i l d r e n (MSC I I I , p. x x x i ) . C e r t a i n l y c h i l d r e n seem t o have taken. p a r t i n a l l the Shows from the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y u n t i l 1639, and a t t i m e s , as i n 1566, 1568, 1585, 1602, and 1604 undoubtedly took the s p e a k i n g 75 r o l e s . In 1609, however, Munday, w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e use o f c h i l -d ren was customary, had r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n d e e d seems no t t o have used them. In the t e x t o f Camp-bell o r t h e Ironmongers  F a i r e F i e l d he comments on t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s : " the weake voyces o f so many C h i l d r e n , which such shewes as t h i s doe u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e , f o r p e r -s o n a t i n g each d e v i s e , i n a crowde o f such noyse and u n c i v i l 1 t u r m o y l e , 47 a r e not any way a b l e t o be u n d e r s t o o d , n e i t h e r t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s t o r e a c h the f u l l h e i g h t o f e v e r y i n t e n t i o n , i n so s h o r t a l i m i t a t i o n f o r s t u d y , 76 p r a c t i s e , and i n s t r u c t i o n . " I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the Ironmongers complained t h i s y e a r t h a t " t h e c h i l d r e n weare not i n s t r u c t e d t h e i r s p eeches" (MSC I I I , p.76). D e s p i t e such d i s a d v a n t a g e s , f i r m e v i d e n c e o f the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a d u l t a c t o r s i s s c a n t . In 1611 the G o l d s m i t h s " r e -q u i r e d " t h e i r b r o t h e r John Lowen, a King's Man, t o p l a y L e o f s t a n e i n Chruso-thriambos and i n 1639 t h e Drapers p a i d W i l l i a m H a l l , a member o f the K i n g ' s R e v e l s , f o r "musicke and a c t i o n s " and one Mumford (John Mount-s e t t ? ) f o r " f e a t e s and A c t i o n s . " 7 7 The e d i t o r s o f Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t - ions I I I t h i n k t h a t t h e s e payments were f o r a s e p a r a t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t t h a t was not p a r t o f Heywood's L o n d i n i S t a t u s P a c a t u s ; however, David Bergeron 78 has s u g g e s t e d t h a t H a l l took the r o l e o f Orpheus. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n i n Company r e c o r d s t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y a t the h e i g h t o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, a d u l t s were more o f t e n i n v o l v e d than has g e n e r a l l y been r e a l i z e d . So i n 1613 t h e G r o c e r s d i s t i n g u i s h t w i c e between c h i l d r e n and p l a y e r s , i n 1624 the Merchant Tay-l o r s a r r a n g e d i n n e r f o r the men and c h i l d r e n o f the pageants, and i n both 79 1629 and 1635 t h e Ironmongers d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c h i l d r e n and s p e a k e r s . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t as the Shows became more e l a b o r a t e , the major r o l e s , a t l e a s t , were more o f t e n taken by a d u l t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r most m a t t e r s of p r o d u c t i o n has o b s c u r e d the i d e n t i t y o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d . In the l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c h i l d r e n came from s c h o o l s such as S t . Anthony's, S t . P a u l ' s , Westminster, and Merchant T a y l o r s ' , but a f t e r 1602 t h e y a r e 48 i d e n t i f i e d o n l y as "the c h i l d r e n o f the pageants." Some may w e l l have been the o f f s p r i n g o f Company members, as was sometimes the c a s e w i t h both the Midsummer Show and t h e p o s t - i R e s t o r a t i o n L o r d Mayor's Show, a l t h o u g h s i n c e the p r o v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n was g e n e r a l l y the a u t h o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e a k i n g r o l e s had some pro-f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . I t has proved s i m i l a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e whether the men and s p e a k e r s r e f e r r e d t o i n Company a c c o u n t s were pro-f e s s i o n a l s o r a s s o c i a t e d i n some way w i t h t h e Company. IX. F i n a n c e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Show as a whole was d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e Company i n v o l v e d . The arrangements made by t h e d i f f e r e n t Companies o f c o u r s e v a r i e d somewhat, but u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g e n e r a l l y l a y w i t h 80 the g o v e r n i n g body, t h e C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s . The most common p r o c e d u r e , which was f o l l o w e d by the D r a p e r s , was f o r the Court- to u n d e r t a k e t h e i i n i t i a l arrangements and then d e l e g a t e a l l f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o c e s s i o n and pageants t o a committee o r committees a p p o i n t e d by i t . T h i s as a r u l e i n c l u d e d the s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the B a c h e l o r s or Yeomanry who were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f the c e l e b r a -t i o n s . The c h o i c e o f t a b l e a u x , w r i t e r , and a r t i f i c e r l a y e i t h e r w i t h the C o u r t o r w i t h the committee; t h e y sometimes f o r m u l a t e d t h e i r wishes and a p p o i n t e d a w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r t o c a r r y them out o r , a t o t h e r t i m e s , 81 a c c e p t e d t e n d e r s from i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . Whatever t h e e x a c t p r o c e d u r e , the i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t the c h o i c e was d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the most powerful men o f the Company. The D r a p e r s ' C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s i n 1621 49 a p p o i n t e d the M a s t e r , t h e f o u r Wardens, and two s e n i o r members o f the L i v e r y " t o take viewe and c o n s i d e r a c i o n o f suche p l o t t e s & t h i n g e s as a r e o f f e r e d to be p r e s e n t e d to t h i s Companie by s e v e r a l ! persons t o u c h i n g e the pageantes and shoues" (p.320). I t was presumably t h i s committee t h a t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c c e p t i n g the p r o p o s a l o f M i d d l e t o n , C h r i s t m a s , and Munday. In 1623 and 1626 t h e C o u r t o r d e r e d t h a t "the fower Master wardens s h a l l take p r e s e n t c o u r s e f o r the f i t t i n g e p r o v i d i n g e and compoundinge f o r o f a l l t h i n g s as s h a l b e e f i t t and n e c e s s a r i e f o r o r towchinge the s a i d showes and t r i u m p h e s " (p.331). From t h i s p o i n t on, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o v e r s e e i n g the making o f the pageants and o r g a n i z i n g the p r o c e s s i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Wardens o f the B d c h e l o r s . The d e c i s i o n as t o the e x a c t means o f f i n a n c i n g the whole a f f a i r a l s o l a y w i t h the C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s , as d i d the f i n a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the e x p e n d i t u r e . A g a i n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h the Bache-l o r s p a i d i n one way or a n o t h e r f o r the t r i u m p h s , the most impor t a n t p r o c e d u r a l d e c i s i o n s belonged t o the g o v e r n i n g body. The Companies, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t r a d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s , used a v a r i e t y o f means t o r a i s e the n e c e s s a r y money. The most common was t h e l e v y on t h o s e B a c h e l o r s a p p o i n t e d to s e r v e i n the p r o c e s s i o n , w i t h h e a v i e r f i n e s op f o r any who r e f u s e d . A v a r i a n t on t h i s was a f i n e l e v i e d on a l l members of the B a c h e l o r s , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l dues from t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o c e s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n c e r t a i n B a c h e l o r s might be r a i s e d t o the L i v e r y on payment o f a s e t amount. Other methods i n c l u d e d the c a r r y - o v e r o f s u r p l u s e s from p r e v i o u s y e a r s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s from t h e L i v e r y o r C o u r t 83 o f A s s i s t a n t s . 50 The Drapers seem g e n e r a l l y t o have c o l l e c t e d between 1/3 and 1/2 o f the n e c e s s a r y money from r a i s i n g e i g h t to ten o f "the f i t t e s t and most s u f f i c i e n t persons o f the yeomandry o f t h i s Company s e l e c t e d out and ad m i t t e d by the Master warden o f t h i s Company i n t o the L i v o r y o f the Company e v e r y o f them payinge b e f o r e hee bee a d m i t t e d the accustomed f y n e o f x x v j 1 1 x i i j S i i i j ^ " (p.331). In 1615 the Court o f A s s i s t a n t s a u t h o r i z e d 84 the a d m i t t i n g o f t e n a t the same r a t e , and i n 1621 t h e Wardens' Accounts r e c o r d t h e payment t o the Wardens B a c h e l o r s o f "the moneyes r e c e i v e d o f such as weare l a t e l y taken i n t o the c l o t h i n g e the some o f CCC^ 1 towards the de-f r a y i n g e o f the charge o f the showes & trivmphes f o r the day S i r Edward Barkeham l o r d Mayor tooke h i s oath a t Westminster" (MSC I I I , pp'j 100^101). In 1623 f o r M a r t i n Lumley's triumph the C o u r t a u t h o r i z e d the e n t r y o f e i g h t t o ten B a c h e l o r s t o the L i v e r y , but, i n the e v e n t , twelve were a d m i t t e d , t h e r e b y r a i s i n g 4320 (p.332). In 1626 the same procedure was f o l -lowed f o r C u t h b e r t Hacket, the Cour t o f A s s i s t a n t s f i r s t s u g g e s t i n g the r a i s i n g o f some s i x or e i g h t B a c h e l o r s , but f i n a l l y a c c e p t i n g t e n . The b u l k o f the r e s t o f the money f o r a l l the D r a p e r s ' Shows was r a i s e d by n o m i n a t i n g and f i n i n g B a c h e l o r s t o s e r v e i n e i t h e r f o y n e s ( t h e s k i n o f the beech marten) o r budge (lambskin w i t h the wool d r e s s e d o u t -wards) i n the p r o c e s s i o n . In 1614 f o r t y were a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e i n f o y n e s 85 and f o r t y i n budge; i n 1621 t h i r t y - n i n e s e r v e i n f o y n e s and t h i r t y - t w o i n budge. In 1623 the f o r t y - t w o i n f o y n e s p a i d -LI22. 10. 00 and t h i r t y -t h r e e i n budge 4.98. 10. 00 ( t o t a l : 4.269. 10. 00, p.335). I f the s e two methods were i n s u f f i c i e n t , any s u r p l u s from the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e n t r y f i n e s was made o v e r t o the B a c h e l o r s , o r the Cour t i t s e l f might make a 51 Q C c o n t r i b u t i o n , as i n i t s g i f t o f -L50 i n 1623. In a d d i t i o n , the L i v e r y g e n e r a l l y p a i d the c o s t o f b e a u t i f y i n g t h e new Mayor's house, p r o v i d e d cakes and wine f o r i t s b a r g e , and on o c c a s i o n p a i d p a r t o f the t r u m p e t e r s ' f e e s . 8 7 The problem- of f i n a n c i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s was f r e q u e n t l y a t h o r n y one. From the days o f the Midsummer Show u n t i l t h e changes t h a t took p l a c e i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y members o f t h e Companies c o m p l a i n e d , w i t h v a r y i n g d e g rees o f b i t t e r n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , about t h e c o s t . The G r o c e r s e x p e r i e n c e d the w o r s t d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g t h e i r B a c h e l o r s t o pay up; d o u b t l e s s t h i s was due, i n l a r g e p a r t , t o t h e e x p e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e i r triumphs. C e r t a i n l y e v e r y Show o f t h e i r between 1613 and 1639 met w i t h po grumbles and o f t e n r e f u s a l s t o pay. The D r a p e r s , d e s p i t e h a v i n g e i g h t L o r d Mayors between 1614-40, had l e s s t r o u b l e than might be e x p e c t e d . T h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t Edward Barkham i n t o t h e i r number i n 1621 be-cause of t h i s v e r y problem was a s p e c i a l c a s e - - f o r once the e n t i r e Company, 89 A s s i s t a n t s , L i v e r y , and B a c h e l o r s were i n complete agreement. More u s u a l l y t h e o p p o s i t i o n came o n l y from t h o s e who had t o pay, the B a c h e l o r s . For i n s t a n c e , i n 1623 the Company had t o r e s o r t t o t h e s a n c t i o n s o f t h e L o r d Mayor: the Wardens' Accounts note the payment o f 2/6 "to Mr. A t k i n s f o r h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t the h a l l when d i v e r s o b s t i n a t e young men r e f u s e d t o pay t h e i r e f i n e s and bee Conformable to the chardge f o r the L o r d M a i o r s Showes" (p.333). T h i s may i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l l a c k o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r p r o v i d i n g M a r t i n Lumley's triumph so soon a f t e r Edward Barkham's. Some-what s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f any r e l u c t a n c e t o pay f o r C u t h b e r t Hacket's i n 1626; t h i s may have been because he was Master o f 52 the Company a t the same t i m e , but more l i k e l y because t h e Company, pre -sumably d e l i b e r a t e l y , c o n t r i v e d t o keep t h e expenses down t o -L545. 13. 08. In the l a t e 1630s t h e c o m p l a i n t s b e g i n a g a i n , but A. H. Johnson i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t i n s e e i n g t h i s as p a r t o f the l a r g e r problem o f c o l l e c t i n g dues o f any k i n d from the B a c h e l o r s who were i n c r e a s i n g l y a t odds w i t h the p o l i t i -90 c a l sympathies o f l e a d i n g members o f the Company. Undoubtedly, one r e a s o n f o r the r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y o f c o m p l a i n t d u r i n g the 1620s was the C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s ' awareness o f t h e " s t a t e " o f the B a c h e l o r s and i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r " b e t t e r ease" by keeping c o s t s down and even c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e m s e l v e s . In most Companies, i n c l u d i n g the D r a p e r s ' , t h e Wardens of the B a c h e l o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g the Show i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by the g o v e r n i n g body. From the time p r e p a r a t i o n s were s t a r t e d , f r e q u e n t l y a mere f i v e o r s i x weeks b e f o r e 29 O c t o b e r , t h e y 91 worked har d t o a r r a n g e a l l t h e d e t a i l s o f the p r o c e s s i o n . The payments f o r " d i v e r s e d i n n e r s and meetinges w h i l e s t we s a t t and weare d a y l y employed in the b u s i n e s " were w e l l - e a r n e d ( p . 3 ^ ' i ) . As S h e i l a W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t , the r o u t i n e c h o i c e o f t a b l e a u x and the awarding o f c o n t r a c t s to the same i n d i v i d u a l s eased t h e i r p o s i t i o n , but t h e i r l a c k o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e 92 must have been a handicap*, hence the keeping o f f u l l and m e t i c u l o u s a c c o u n t s which s e r v e d as hand-books and g u i d e s t o b a r g a i n i n g f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t f o r M i d d l e t o n ' s D r a p e r s ' Shows a l l d e t a i l s o f the p r o d u c t i o n o f the pageants a r e d i s m i s s e d i n t h e s e a c c o u n t s by making the w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " a l l Chardges i n c i d e n t to t h o s e showes" (p.329). The r e m a i n i n g items d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e 53 p r o c e s s i o n , e x c l u d i n g the pageant, f o r which the Company i t s e l f undertook a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h i s we do l e a r n a c e r t a i n amount about the pageants' p r o d u c t i o n from the a c c o u n t s , and, moreover, the r e s t o f the i n f o r m a t i o n sheds v a l u a b l e l i g h t on the c e l e b r a t i o n s as a whole. T h i s can p r o v i d e a u s e f u l c o r r e c t i v e t o our tendency to c o n s i d e r the Shows as more l i t e r a r y / d r a m a t i c than t h e y i n f a c t were. The e x a c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r appear t o have v a r i e d from y e a r t o y e a r . As a r u l e , however, e i t h e r t o g e t h e r or s e p a r a t e l y , t h e y were p a i d a lump sum f o r d e v i s i n g , making, and d e c o r a t i n g the t a b l e a u x , p r o v i d i n g c h i l d and a d u l t a c t o r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r costumes and p r o p s , and l a n d and water c a r r i a g e . In a d d i t i o n , they seem sometimes t o have p r o v i d e d m u s i c i a n s f o r t h e pageant, greenmen and f i r e w o r k s , b r e a k f a s t and d i n n e r f o r the c h i l d r e n , and to have a r r a n g e d p r i n t i n g o f the t e x t . The D r a p e r s ' r e c o r d s a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c than many o f the o t h e r Companies' about t h e s e d u t i e s ; however, a f u l l c o n t r a c t e x i s t s f o r Dekker and C h r i s t m a s ' Londons Tempe (1629) which g i v e s a thorough a c c o u n t not o n l y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s but a l s o o f some o f the s p o i l s . The two c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the Ironmongers' Company t o p r o v i d e a s e a l i o n , two sea h o r s e s , an o s t r i c h , Lemnion's f o r g e , the Tempe or F i e l d o f H a p p i n e s s , and the Seven L i b e r a l S c i e n c e s . F o r t h i s they demanded 4.200 which t h e i s p r e s e n t c o n c e i v e d t o be an o v e r v a l u e , and thereupon o f f e r r e d them 180^i which t h e y a c c e p t e d o f f o r t h e making and f i n i s h i n g o f the s a i d Pageants t o be f u r n i s h e d w i t h C h i l d r e n and Speakers and t h e i r a p p a r e l l and n e c e s s a r i e s t h e r e u n t o b e l o n g i n g . L a n d c a r i a g e by, P o r t e r s ; W a t e r c a r i a g by boats and Watermen as i s a c -customed. The Green-men w i t h t h e i r F i r e w o r k s ; the Musicke 54 f o r t he Pageant; And t o g i v e t h e company 500 bookes o f the d e c l a r a t i o n o f the s a i d Shewe And the C o m i t t e e s demanded t h a t the Sea Lyon 1 The 2: Sea horses y be brought i n t o t h e h a l l & the E s t r i d g e J ( a f t e r the S o l e m n i t y ) t h e r e t o be s e t t upp f o r t h e Companies use, whereunto Mr Crismas e x c e p t e d but was c o n t e n t e d t o d e l i v e r backe the Sea Lyon and t h e E s t r i g e , and d e s i r e d t o r e t a i n e the Seahorses t o h i m s e l f e . A l l t h e r e s t he undertooke t o performe f o r the s a i d some o f 180^ 1 e f f e c t u a l l y and s u f f i c i e n t l y t o the Companies L i k i n g In w i t n e s whereof t h e y have h e r u n t o s u b s c r i b e d , Tho: Dekker., G a r e t t C h r i s m a s , (MSC I I I , p.115) Records o f o t h e r Companies c o n f i r m t h a t on o c c a s i o n a Company kept and sometimes r e - u s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c t a c u l a r components o f a t a b l e a u , w h i l e 93 o t h e r s were kept by the a r t i f i c e r who presumably r e m o d e l l e d them. I t i s a g a i n u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the custom o f p a y i n g a lump sum makes i t almost i m p o s s i b l e t o determine what was spent on what and how much p r o f i t both w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r c o u l d hope t o make. Undoubtedly the b i d d i n g system e n t a i l e d w o r k i n g t o a t i g h t budget; t h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by o c c a s i o n a l 94 r e q u e s t s f o r e x t r a money. A. M. C l a r k , w i t h o u t g i v i n g any a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s t a t e m e n t , c l a i m s t h a t Heywood n e t t e d -L10 a y e a r from w r i t i n g t h e 95 Shows; t h i s f i g u r e i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y t o o h i g h . The d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between poet and a r t i f i c e r seems t o have v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the e x p e r i e n c e 96 o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and the development o f the Show i t s e l f . In the e a r l y days the a r t i f i c e r was t h e most i m p o r t a n t , f r e q u e n t l y d e v i s i n g the t a b l e a u x b e f o r e a poet was h i r e d t o w r i t e t h e speeches. T h i s i s c l e a r l y a r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a t i v e n o v e l t y o f h a v i n g speeches a t a l l ; however, as t h e s e became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the Show and as the w r i t e r became p r e -55 pared to t a k e on more o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , f u n c t i o n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y as a p r o d u c e r , he a c h i e v e d primacy. But the l o n g s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r o f G a r r e t C h r i s t m a s and h i s sons r e d r e s s e d the b a l a n c e . There a r e s i g n s o f t h i s i n Londons Tempe (1629) where Dekker, d e s p i t e h i s j o i n t c o n t r a c t w i t h C h r i s t m a s , c l a i m s o n l y t o have " w r i t t e n " the show and p r a i s e s h i s p a r t n e r f o r i t s " i n -v e n t i o n " ( I V , 97, 112). By 1638 a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n the hands o f 97 the C h r i s t m a s b r o t h e r s who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a y i n g Heywood. The pageants f o r the Drapers i n the 1620s, however, bespeak a m u t u a l l y harmoni-ous r e l a t i o n s h i p between M i d d l e t o n ~ a n d C h r i s t m a s which r e f l e c t s a t the same time t h e development o f the show to "a p o i n t where each o f the com-ponent items needed to be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f a s i n g l e a r t i s t i c scheme, 98 not o n l y i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r terms o f r e f e r e n c e . " In c o n t r a s t to t h e q u a r r e l o f Ben Johson and I n i g o Jones over the masque, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r remained harmonious t h r o u g h o u t a l l i t s f l u c t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s a measure not o n l y o f the men i n v o l v e d , but a l s o o f the reduced s t a k e s : " l e s poetes q u i composaient l e s v e r s pour l e c o r t e g e du Lord M a i r e ne semblent pas a v o i r c o n s i d e r ! " comme T' (<[ ame^ des pageants l e u r s v e r s de bons o u v r i e r s des l e t t r e s — e t G a r r e t t C h r i s t m a s non p l u s ^ 99 n ' a v a i t pour ses c o n s t r u c t i o n s de p r e t e n t i o n p a r e i l l e . " While w r i t e r and d e s i g n e r took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e pageant, the Wardens B a c h e l o r s , i n a d d i t i o n to keeping an eye on t h e i r p r o g r e s s , o r g a n i z e d t h e p r o c e s s i o n . In the 1620s t h i s was i n essence t h e same as t h a t d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m Smythe i n 1575. From t h e i r p o i n t o f view the major headache was t h e poor men, t o the number o f between 70 and 100, who had t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h c a p s , gowns o r c o a t s i n t h e Company c o l o u r s ( r e d , a z u r e , and y e l l o w f o r the D r a p e r s ) , b a n n e r s , j a v e l i n s , and s t a v e s , and watched c a r e f u l l y t o see t h a t they d i d not evade t h e i r r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; hence the p r o v i s i o n o f d i n n e r ( u s u a l l y i n B l a c k w e l l H a l l a b u t t i n g on t o the G u i l d h a l l ) t o keep them t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the f e a s t J 0 ^ S i m i l a r p r e c a u t i o n s had t o be taken f o r the c h i l d r e n and the t r u m p e t e r s . These poor men were the n u c l e u s o f t h e p r o c e s s i o n ; i n a d d i t i o n t o them were the s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s , the B a c h e l o r s p r e v i o u s l y deputed t o s e r v e i n f o y n e s or budge, and the gentlemen ushers or r i c h w h i f f l e r s . ^ A v a r i e t y o f means was used t o keep the p r o c e s s i o n - - a n d the c r o w d s — i n o r d e r . The Company g e n e r a l l y p a i d the C i t y marshal 1 t o p r o v i d e men f o r t h i s purpose and sometimes p a i d a m a r s h a l l o f t h e i r own as w e l l . In a d d i -t i o n t h e D r a p e r s ' B a c h e l o r s ' Accounts mention payment t o s e v e r a l poor men who were g i v e n t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f keeping "the Crowde from o f the Company as they went i n the s t r e e t " (p.355). More s p e c t a c u l a r , i f l e s s s a f e , were the sword p l a y e r s and t h e greenmen w i t h t h e i r f i r e w o r k s . The Drapers r e g u l a r l y p a i d Thomas J o n e s , Master Swordsman, f o r h i s men t o c l e a r the way, t w e n t y - f i v e i n 1621, t w e n t y - f i v e a g a i n i n 1623 and e i g h t i n 1626. They a r e perhaps a s u r v i v a l o f t h e m i l i t a r y a s p e c t o f t h e Mid-summer Watch. Another s u r v i v a l , the greenmen, were to j u d g e from con-temporary r e f e r e n c e s , one o f the most p o p u l a r i n g r e d i e n t s o f the e n t i r e Show. These seem sometimes t o have appeared i n the g u i s e o f g i a n t s or d e v i l s as w e l l as the more c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i r e i l l u s t r a t e d h e re. They used s q u i b s and f i r e w o r k s t o c l e a r the way, a p p a r e n t l y sometimes w i t h un-f o r t u n a t e e f f e c t s : "Come t h e r e a Pageant b y / l i e s t a n d o u t o f the greene 102 mens way, f o r b u r n i n g my vestment." Anothe r a c c o u n t c l a i m s t h a t t h e y 103 "put the people i n such a f e a r e , / T h a t some t h e i r hose anoy'd t h e r e . " Figure 8 : A Greenman 58 Music i n the p r o c e s s i o n was p r o v i d e d by a band o f t r u m p e t e r s , most o f t e n the K i n g ' s , and the C i t y ' s drums and f i f e s . The C i t y w a i t s , who had o r i g i n a l l y marched i n the p r o c e s s i o n , were from t h e e a r l y 1600s s t a t i o n e d a l o n g the r o u t e , u s u a l l y on the p o r c h of S t . P e t e r ' s , C h e a p s i d e . 1 0 4 In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was o f t e n music f o r i n d i v i d u a l t a b l e a u x . Some Lor d Mayor's Show's, f o r example M e t r o p o l i s C o r o n a t a , T r o i a - N o v a Triumphans, and The  Triumphs o f T r u t h , i n c l u d e songs i n the p r i n t e d t e x t s ; f o r o t h e r s , Company r e c o r d s c o n f i r m t h a t m u s i c i a n s were h i r e d t o p l a y f o r s p e c i f i c t a b l e a u x . So i n 1623, the D r a p e r s ' B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s note payments t o "a 1 i t l e boye a drumer o f t h e Argoe," "a f i f f e f o r the Argoe," and "a l i t l e boy a drumer i n M i d d l e t o n s shewes" (p.338). A n a l y s i s o f the D r a p e r s ' Company r e c o r d s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e men employed to work on the Show f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . Some, such as Thomas Hinxman the c a p p e r , o r T i l b u r y S t r a n g e who p r o v i d e d the g a l l i f o i s t and John R i c h a r d -son who s u p p l i e d greenmen and f i r e w o r k s , a r e employed y e a r a f t e r y e a r what-e v e r the Company. O t h e r s , such as W i l l i a m U f f i n g t o n the waxchandler and Edward Snowden t h e u p h o l s t e r , seem t o owe t h e i r employment t o t h e i r e i t h e r 105 b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Company o r b e i n g c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Of c o u r s e , the c a t e g o r i e s do, t o some e x t e n t , o v e r l a p . Anthony Munday's son R i c h a r d , who l i k e h i s f a t h e r was a freeman o f the Company, was employed y e a r round, as w e l l as a t pageant t i m e , i n p a i n t i n g and renewing banners and p i c t u r e s ; he was a l s o employed by o t h e r Companies, such as the G r o c e r s , f o r s i m i l a r work. The q u e s t i o n , i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t has sometimes been argued t h a t c e r t a i n o f t h e w r i t e r s and a r t i f i c e r s were h i r e d because o f t h e i r Company c o n n e c t i o n s . 1 0 ^ Undoubtedly one o f t h e many reaso n s f o r the 59 employment o f Munday was h i s membership o f the Drapers but the p r e c i s e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s cannot be d e t e r m i n e d ; more c l e a r l y Webster seems t o owe h i s employment i n 1624 to h i s membership i n the Merchant T a y l o r s ' Company. S i m i l a r l y , F r a n c i s T i p s l e y , the a r t i f i c e r o f S q u i r e ' s Tes  Irenes Trophaea o r The Tryumphs o f Peace (1620), was l i k e the L o r d Mayor a Haberdasher. X. The P o l i t i c a l Context o f the L o r d Mayor's Show I have a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was no a c c i d e n t t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f t h e L o r d Mayor's Show c o i n c i d e d w i t h the growth o f London's awareness o f i t s e l f as "the f l o w e r o f c i t i e s , " m e t r o p o l i s c o r o n a t a . In t h i s r e s p e c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e Show i s not an i s o l a t e d phenomenon. As M u r i e l Brad-brook puts i t "a new sense o f m e t r o p o l i t a n community e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f , c l o s e l y j o i n e d t o a new s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . These two kinds o f awareness dev e l o p e d t o g e t h e r . " 1 0 ^ However, the p r e c i s e e x t e n t t o which the Shows can be s a i d t o r e f l e c t the a s p i r a -t i o n s and t e n s i o n s o f t h e C i t y i s open t o q u e s t i o n . On the one hand, F r e d e r i c k F a i r h o l t , one o f t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d e n t s o f mayoral p a g e a n t r y , c l a i m e d t h a t . " i n f o r m e r t i m e s , t h e s e pageants and t h e i r a l l u s i o n s , con-n e c t e d themselves i n no s m a l l degree w i t h the h i s t o r y o f the c o u n t r y , and i t s p o l i t i c a l movements; and shadowing f o r t h as they do, the o p i n i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i s , they a r e worthy o f more a t t e n t i o n than may be a t f i r s t 108 imagined...." In c o n s c i o u s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s , A. M. C l a r k has argued t h a t " T h e i r ' h i s t o r y ' i s l o r e from the p a s t , r a t h e r than t h e events o f a s i x t e e n t h - o r s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r e s e n t ; and t h e i r ' p o l i t i c s ' a r e 60 p u r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l " and t h a t t h i s must c o n s i d e r a b l y q u a l i f y F a i r h o l t ' s 109 a s s e r t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , F a i r h o l t i s r i g h t : r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f pa g e a n t r y have emphasized the importance o f "the p o l i t i c s o f s p e c t a c l e , " a n a l y s i n g the ways i n which i t c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y p o l i t i c a l e n d s . 1 ^ 0 The L o r d Mayor's Show does not s t a n d a l o o f from t h i s ; i ndeed t he v e r y con-v e n t i o n a l i t y o f some o f t h e r h e t o r i c i s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f . In a g e n e r a l s e n s e , t he pageants as an e x p r e s s i o n o f London's p r i d e i n i t s e l f a r e n e c e s s a r i l y a p o l i t i c a l g e s t u r e , a l b e i t one t h a t i s n o t always easy t o i n t e r p r e t , w h i l e a t the same time i n d i v i d u a l pageants o r t a b l e a u x may a l s o r e f l e c t on contemporary s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the m a t u r i t y o f the form coming, as i t does, i n the 1620s and 1630s, a time when s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were un d e r g o i n g changes o f c o n s i d e r a b l e com-p l e x i t y , g i v e s an added impetus t o the need t o determine t h e p r e c i s e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e pageants i n h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l terms. The im-po r t a n c e o f t h i s g e n e r a l i s s u e f o r the t h r e e Shows M i d d l e t o n wrote f o r t h e Drapers i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , between 1614 and 1640 the Drapers p r o v i d e d e i g h t L o r d Mayors and so were i n a p o s i t i o n t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n -f l u e n c e o v e r C i t y p o l i t i c s ; and second, Margot Heinemann i n an imp o r t a n t a r t i c l e on M i d d l e t o n has argued t h a t h i s " P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n sympathies" were i n c l o s e a c c o r d w i t h t h o s e o f h i s C i t y p a t r o n s , some o f whom may have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o t e c t i n g him from any u n f o r t u n a t e consequences o f the Game a t Chess a f f a i r . ^ I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n s i d e r the p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k o f London, and the e x t e n t to which t h e Dr a p e r s ' Company r e f l e c t e d i t , i n the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o the " E l e v e n Years Tyranny" o f 1629-40. The r o l e o f the g u i l d s i n t h i s i s o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , f o r th e y s u p p l i e d most o f t h e o f f i c i a l s o f C i t y government; however, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has been r e l a t i v e l y 112 l i t t l e s t u d i e d . The d i f f i c u l t y here i s t h a t , i f the D r a p e r s ' r e c o r d s a r e a n y t h i n g to go by, the Companies s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d e d commenting on c u r -r e n t e v ents u n l e s s t h e y touched d i r e c t l y upon t h e i r t r a d i n g and f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . T h i s makes i t hard to d e t e r m i n e the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f both i n d i v i d u a l s and the Companies t h e m s e l v e s . These, i n any c a s e , g i v e n t he p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s of the t i m e , were i n e v i t a b l y f a r from p r e c i s e . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s h o u l d be remembered; i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e to be both s t r o n g l y P u r i t a n and s t r o n g l y r o y a l i s t a t the same t i m e , and moreover, s h i f t s o f emphasis w i t h i n any i n d i v i d u a l 113 p o s i t i o n were common. The government o f the C i t y was e s s e n t i a l l y t r i p a r t i t e . The most " p o p u l a r " body was Common H a l l , an e l e c t o r a l assembly made up o f the Liverymen, summoned and d i s s o l v e d by t h e L o r d Mayor. The l e g i s l a t i v e body was Common C o u n c i l , t h e o r e t i c a l l y e l e c t e d by t h e freemen a t the ward-mote; i n f a c t t he C o u r t o f Aldermen e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y over both the e l e c t i o n s and i t s l e g i s l a t i v e power. The most powerful o f t h e a s s e m b l i e s was the Court o f Aldermen; "Chosen f o r l i f e from among the / w e a l t h i e s t c i t i z e n s , by the i n d i r e c t e l e c t i o n of t h e Aldermen t h e m s e l v e s , 114 the Co u r t was o l i g a r c h i c and almost s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g . " B a s i c a l l y , t h e n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the C i t y was i n t h e hands o f an o l i g a r c h i c a l group o f the most powerful members o f the L i v e r y Companies. The g r e a t mass o f shopkeepers, a r t i s a n s , and a p p r e n t i c e s had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on i t s government. I t i s h a r d l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a l l t h e C i t y f a t h e r s 62 115 "tradesmen"; the days when such as t h e s e had been c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the t r a d e o f the g u i l d t o which t h e y belonged was l o n g p a s t . By the t u r n o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e y were the g r e a t merchants o f t h e time and had l i t t l e i n common w i t h s m a l l masters and journeymen. T h e i r eminence, as R. H. Tawney p o i n t s o u t , was due to t h e i r " v e r s a t i l i t y as economic p l u r a l i s t s , " a c t i v e i n o v e r s e a s r a t h e r than d o m e s t i c t r a d e T h e most powerful o f them, the L o r d Mayor, was "the master o f the m y s t e r i e s o f 117 t r a d e , the steward o f the kingdom's s t o c k , the p e r f e c t merchant." I n e v i t a b l y t h e n , the t i e s between C i t y and C o u r t were c l o s e , and t h i s was compounded by t h e C i t y ' s dependence on t h e Crown f o r i t s c h a r t e r e d p r i -v i l e g e s . W i t h i n t h i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e was room f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s , some o f t h e C i t y f a t h e r s had c l o s e r t i e s o f f a m i l y , b u s i n e s s , and patronage 118 than o t h e r s . In a d d i t i o n the ascendancy o f L i o n e l C r a n f i e l d , C i t y merchant t u r n e d r o y a l s e r v a n t , from 1616-24, d e s p i t e h i s p e r s o n a l un-p o p u l a r i t y , gave t h e t r a d i n g i n t e r e s t a h i g h l y p l a c e d spokesman, thus m i t i g a t i n g James I's unease a t d e a l i n g w i t h the f i n a n c i a l community. Cran-f i e l d saw c l e a r l y t h a t " p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y had as i t s c o n d i t i o n a p r o -119 sperous economy and a c o n t e n t e d C i t y " ; hence the n e c e s s i t y to i n c l u d e i t s views i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y , i f the government were t o be a b l e t o draw on i t s w e a l t h w i t h o u t unduly a n t a g o n i z i n g i t . D u r i n g the 1620s, however, the r e l i g i o u s t e n o r o f the C o u r t o f Aldermen was m o d e r a t e l y P u r i t a n , and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y brought i t s members i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the King and P r i v y C o u n c i l : "as l a t e as 1629 the C i t y government o p e n l y s u p p o r t e d a c t i v i t i e s which smacked s t r o n g l y o f P u r i t a n i s m , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t the C i t y was s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u a l . p r e s -63 s u r e from two h i g h p l a c e s , the P r i v y C o u n c i l and the B i s h o p o f London That t h e C i t y c o n t i n u e d f o r ten y e a r s t o s u p p o r t P u r i t a n p r o j e c t s i n the f a c e o f o p p o s i t i o n from t h e K i n g , P r i v y C o u n c i l , A r c h b i s h o p , and B i s h o p 120 i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g P u r i t a n m o t i v a t i o n among the Aldermen. The most im p o r t a n t o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s was the f i n a n c i n g o f the S t . A n t h o l i n ' s l e c -t u r e s ; i n 1621 the Lord Mayor, Edward Barkham, f o r whom M i d d l e t o n wrote The Sunne i n A r i e s , a p p o i n t e d a committee t o c o n s i d e r p r o v i d i n g a "com-p e t e n t s u p p l y o f mayntenance toward the d a y l y e x e r c i s e o f p r e a c h i n g e 121 e v e r y morning a t s i x o f the c l o c k a t S t . A n t h o l y n e s . " T h i s committee i n c l u d e d t h r e e o t h e r p a t r o n s o f M i d d l e t o n , S i r Thomas Myddleton, P e t e r Proby, and M a r t i n Lumley and recommended a g r a n t o f -L40. However, t h i s g e s t u r e o f P u r i t a n sympathy was m o d i f i e d somewhat by the i n c r e a s i n g a t -tempts o f the C o u r t o f Aldermen between 1622 and 1630 t o impose c o n t r o l o v e r the l e c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y o v e r the r i g h t o f appointment. Other i n -d i c a t i o n s o f P u r i t a n i s m i n c l u d e the appointment o f p r e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r o c c a s i o n a l sermons, and attempts t o e n f o r c e S a b b a t a r i a n i s m , t h i s l a s t i n v o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h the Bishop o f London i n 1629. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s dangerous t o o v e r s t r e s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s . The P u r i t a n i s m o f , s a y , S i r Thomas Myddleton was f a r removed from the s e c t a r i a n a c t i v i t y o f a G r o c e r journeyman, and does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply h o s t i l i t y t o o t h e r government p o l i c y . The peace o f 1604 was w e l l - r e c e i v e d by C i t y merchants and, a l t h o u g h by the 1620s when the cause o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m was more o b v i o u s l y a t s t a k e , o p i n i o n had s h i f t e d towards war, the e n t h u s i a s m o f the Companies was not n o t i c e a b l e when i t came down t o 122 p a y i n g f o r men and m u n i t i o n s f o r England's e n t r y i n t o the war. So a l -though many merchants f a v o u r e d a naval war w i t h S p a i n on m e r c a n t i l i s t grounds, C r a n f i e l d was not the o n l y one t o p r e f e r peace. 64 A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r not o v e r - e m p h a s i z i n g the P u r i t a n i s m o f t h e C o u r t o f Aldermen i s the r e l a t i v e speed w i t h which i t s a t t i t u d e changed i n the 1630s, d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t i n u i t y o f p e r s o n n e l . T h i s i s most o b v i o u s i n r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s , i n p a r t due t o the i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e d i o c e s e o f London a f t e r Laud took o v e r , and i s demonstrated by the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o h i s p r o j e c t s . In p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s d i f f e r e n c e s with t h e Crown grew more s e r i o u s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y g i v e n the crude attempts t o e x t r a c t money from the C i t y , but as the y e a r s o f p e r s o n a l r u l e c o n t i n u e d a g e n e r a l r e a l i z a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t among many o f t h e l e a d i n g members o f London government t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s 123 l a y w i t h the Crown. V a l e r i e P e a r l a s s e s s e s the s i t u a t i o n a c c u r a t e l y : " C h a r l e s I enjoyed t h r o u g h o u t h i s r e i g n a s m a l l but powerful n u c l e u s o f s u p p o r t i n the C i t y government . . . i n p a r t i c u l a r the most i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e a l d e r m a n i c Bench and p r o b a b l y o f the C o u r t o f Common C o u n c i l , a l t h o u g h u n w i l l i n g t o commit themselves t o s u p p o r t C h a r l e s i n 1640, p r e -f e r r e d t o back the Crown by the autumn o f 1641 a n d . . . s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the C i t y government were needed to g i v e power to the s u p p o r t e r s o f P a r l i a -m e n t . " 1 2 4 The main d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i c y between government and C i t y , o t h e r than o v e r r e l i g i o n , were e s s e n t i a l l y f i n a n c i a l . The 1620s were a p e r i o d o f marked decay i n t r a d e , and concern o v e r t h i s u n i t e d both L i v e r y and Yeomanry o f a Company l i k e the D r a p e r s , c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h e x p o r t s . C r a n f i e l d d e s c r i b e d the s i t u a t i o n i n 1621: "the C i t y undone; the t r a d e o f the kingdom l o s t ; the merchants, t o use t h e i r own term, 'bought and s o l d . " ' S i n c e no one knew the p r e c i s e cause o f t h e d e c l i n e , i t was n a t u r a l , and o f t e n j u s t i f i e d , to blame i n e p t government p o l i c y . The importance o f t h i s t o the Drapers may be judged by Tawney's c l a i m t h a t " t h r e e - q u a r t e r s t o n i n e - t e n t h s o f the v a l u e o f London e x p o r t s were e s t i -1 og mated under James t o c o n s i s t o f w o o l l e n t e x t i l e s . " T h i s u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n was e x a c e r b a t e d i n 1625 by t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f the new r e i g n , the o u t b r e a k o f the p l a g u e , and the subsequent f a i l u r e o f the h a r v e s t . Given the decay o f t r a d e , the attempts o f t h e Crown t o t a p the w e a l t h o f London, e s p e c i a l l y when P a r l i a m e n t was r e c a l c i t r a n t about v o t i n g 126 s u p p l i e s , were much r e s e n t e d . S i n c e t h e r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h , t h e Crown had c l a i m e d t o c o l l e c t Corn money and e n f o r c e l o a n s by r i g h t n o t g r a c e ; however, where E l i z a b e t h a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y r e p a i d e v e n t u a l l y the money she borrowed, the f i r s t two S t u a r t s were both l e s s s c r u p u l o u s and more d e s p e r a t e , and some o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l e x p e d i e n t s were dubious i n the 128 extreme. The Companies' o b j e c t i o n t o the l o a n s a t l e a s t , however, was not always on t h e grounds o f p r i n c i p l e , r a t h e r t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e and o c c a s i o n a l r e f u s a l t o pay s h o u l d be seen as attempts t o g e t b e t t e r terms 129 and i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y f o r t h e i r money. More damaging t o harmony was the Crown's a t t i t u d e to the problem o f c o n c e a l e d l a n d s and the Companies' 1 3fi I r i s h h o l d i n g s . However, the c h i e f h o s t i l i t y t o government p o l i c y b e f o r e 1640 d i d not d e r i v e so much from t h e s e m i - o l i g a r c h i c a l g o v e r n i n g bodies o f the g r e a t e r Companies and t h e C i t y government i t s e l f . R a t h e r , t h i s stemmed from the Companies' l e s s e r members, e s p e c i a l l y the B a c h e l o r s , on whom the demands o f the Crown f o r money f e l l more h e a v i l y , from t h e minor Companies, and from t h o s e Londoners o u t s i d e the Companies who r e s e n t e d t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s . XI. The Drapers' Company i n the E a r l y S e v e n t e e n t h Century The p o s i t i o n o f the Drapers as the t h i r d o f the London Companies and t h e i r growing i s o l a t i o n from the c r a f t a s p e c t s o f the wool t r a d e con-t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t f o r the King. A l t h o u g h i n the 1620s such i m p o r t a n t members as Edward Barkham, M a r t i n Lumley, A l l e n C o t t o n , and John Ranye seem t o have been among the more s t r o n g l y P u r i t a n s e c t i o n o f the A l d e r m a n i c Bench, by the l a t e 1630s t h e Company was c l e a r l y i n the hands o f r o y a l i s t s y m p a t h i z e r s . Then a s u c c e s s i o n o f f o u r r o y a l i s t M a s t e r s , two o f whom, M o r r i s Abbot and Henry Garway, were a l s o L o r d Mayors ( i n 1638-39 and 1639-40) made the Company r e l a t i v e l y 131 a c q u i e s c e n t t o the demands o f t h e K i n g . In comparison t o some o f t h e o t h e r Companies, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e where the c r a f t element was s t i l l s t r o n g , t h e Drapers p a i d t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h o u t much demur. The Company h i s t o r i a n , A. H. Johnson, s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t t h i s a c q u i -e s c e n c e was i n l a r g e measure a r e s u l t o f the c o n t r o l o v e r the Company e x e r c i s e d by the C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t , g i v e n the h o s t i l i t y o f Londoners e v i d e n t a t t h e 1638 e n t r y o f M a r i e de M e d i c i s , mother o f H e n r i e t t a M a r i a , Abbot's mayoral triumph ( P o r t a P i e t a t i s by 13 Heywood) cannot have been r e c e i v e d w i t h much ent h u s i a s m by them e i t h e r . The c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e Drapers w i t h d r a p e r y per se had l o n g been i n d e c l i n e . O r i g i n a l l y m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f r v ; p o l l e n c l o t h , by the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e y had become p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l e r s o f i t and, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h 67 t h i s t r e n d , soon were c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n the e x p o r t not o n l y o f wool and c l o t h but a l s o c o r n and o t h e r s t a p l e s . Throughout t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x -t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h e number o f members who had no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a d e grew t o the p o i n t where, by the r e i g n o f James I, "the Company i s r a p i d l y coming t o be composed, as i t i s t o - d a y , o f a motley group o f men o f numerous p r o f e s s i o n s and c a l l i n g s , whose o n l y bond o f union i s t o be found i n t h e i r common a s s o c i a t i o n i n one F r a t e r n i t y — a F r a t e r n i t y , o r Company, which i s 133 r a p i d l y assuming the c h a r a c t e r o f a mere F r i e n d l y S o c i e t y . " T h i s i n -c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y a f f e c t e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Company. By t h e mid-f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y the s p l i t between the B a c h e l o r s o r Yeomanry and the L i v e r y or C l o t h i n g was a l m o s t complete. The B a c h e l o r s were a s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n composed o f s m a l l s h o p k e e p e r s , r e t a i l d e a l e r s i n c l o t h , t a i l o r i n g and h a b e r d a s h e r y , and journeymen o f o t h e r t r a d e s ; t h e more s u c -c e s s f u l o f them o r those w i t h c o n n e c t i o n s i n the L i v e r y w e r e from time t o time c a l l e d to the s e n i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , h a v i n g u s u a l l y f i r s t s e r v e d as Wardens o f the B a c h e l o r s , u n l e s s the expenses o f a mayoral triumph made i t d e s i r a b l e t o admit more t o the L i v e r y than u s u a l . The l i v e r y m e n , on the o t h e r hand, from whose most powerful members the A s s i s t a n t s were drawn, were e s s e n t i a l l y merchants, f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the j o i n t -s t o c k companies and with o v e r s e a s t r a d e . S e v e r a l i n d e e d had t h e i r p r i n c i -134 pal r e s i d e n c e s o v e r s e a s , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e Levant. The r e i g n o f E l i z a b e t h had been a d i f f i c u l t one f i n a n c i a l l y f o r t h e D r a p e r s ; the 1585 r e c o r d s c l a i m " n o t h i n g remayning o f v a l u e t o showe i n s t o r e but deedes o f c h a r i t i e and too savage Lawe and souche l i k e Compari-135 sons," but by t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f j u d i c i o u s 68 investment i n j o i n t s t o c k companies, t h e s i t u a t i o n improved and the D r a p e r s , a l o n g w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o t h e r Companies, f e l t i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l i n e d to spend t h e i r s u r p l u s funds on f e a s t s and pageants. T h i s w i l l -i n g ness was, as I have a l r e a d y a r g u e d , a s i n e qua non f o r the development o f the Show i t s e l f , and must have been p a r t l y due t o the r i s e i n member-s h i p o f the Company which s p r e a d the burden o f c o s t more equab l y . In 1603 the L i v e r y , i n c l u d i n g the M a s t e r , Wardens, and A s s i s t a n t s , t o t a l l e d 116; 1 3fi t h i s number sunk t o a mere 71 i n 1612. But by 1621 the L i v e r y was a t i t s l a r g e s t w i t h 136 members. F i g u r e s f o r the B a c h e l o r s a r e h a r d e r to come by because r e g u l a r r e c o r d s o f Quarterage payments ( t h e i r annual dues) were not kept b e f o r e 1617; i t was, however, a much l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n than the L i v e r y , a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f members were not a c t i v e i n Company a f f a i r s . In 1574 487 p a i d Q u a r t e r a g e . T h i s compares w i t h 617 (out o f a t o t a l o f 2,106) i n 1617 and 644 i n 1619. But numbers d e c l i n e d a g a i n i n the mid-1620s as a r e s u l t o f the p l a g u e ; p r o b a b l y a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the r e l a t i v e i n e x p e n s i v e n e s s o f C u t h b e r t Hacket's triumph. C e r t a i n l y i n 1626 the L i v e r y had d e c l i n e d to 108 members. No f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the B a c h e l o r s , but as t h e y would presumably be more s u s c e p t i b l e to death by the p l a g u e , t h e i r l o s s e s were p r o b a b l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r . The numbers d i d not r i s e a g a i n i n the 1630s, due i n p a r t , as Johnson sug-g e s t s , to the p o l i t i c a l unrest--membership o f a Company made one more 1 Of l i a b l e to the demands o f the Crown. X I I . The Company and the Drama The a t t i t u d e o f t h e Drapers and the o t h e r Companies t o the drama i s o f 69 c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , a c r i t i c a l commonplace t h a t the C i t y f a t h e r s were h o s t i l e to the drama, but t h i s view needs some m o d i f i c a -t i o n . One o f the v a l u a b l e a s p e c t s o f Margot Heinemann's s t u d y o f A Game  a t Chess" i s her i n s i s t e n c e t h a t P u r i t a n s were not opposed " r o o t and branch" to the drama, and moreover t h a t some, i n c l u d i n g M i d d l e t o n ' s C i t y p a t r o n s , were aware t h a t p r o p e r l y c o n t r o l l e d , i t c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e means o f 1 37 propaganda. In the e a r l y y e a r s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e h a l l s o f t h e C i t y Companies, l i k e t h e h a l l s o f the n o b i l i t y and g e n t r y , were r e -g u l a r p l a y i n g p l a c e s f o r groups o f p l a y e r s . The Drapers r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t "companies o f p l a y e r s were engaged t o p e r f o r m a p l a y a f t e r d i n n e r on both Monday and Tuesday i n e v e r y y e a r between 1515 and 1541 i n which 1 oo d i n n e r s were h e l d . " A f t e r t h i s , d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y a t t h e H a l l seems to have d e c l i n e d enormously, d o u b t l e s s f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s i n c l u d i n g l a c k o f money, the growth o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and the i n c r e a s i n g h o s t i l i t y 139 towards drama. By the 1570s and 1580s, o f c o u r s e , the C i t y government had become the s p e a r h e a d o f the a t t a c k on permanent a c t i n g c o m p a n i e s — i n 1582 the L i v e r y Companies were o r d e r e d by the C i t y not t o " s u f f e r any o f t h e r s a r v a n t s , a p p r e n t i c e s , journemen, o r c h i l d r e n , to r e p a r e t o go Ae;to annye p l a y e s , p e i c e s , o r e n t e r l u d e s . " 1 ^ 0 By the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , however, i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f the C i t y government was not e s s e n t i a l l y on grounds o f p r i n c i p l e , but r a t h e r on the i s s u e o f c o n t r o l - -and the a c t i o n s o f James i n the next r e i g n soon s e t t l e d t h a t . From t h i s p o i n t on, a l t h o u g h t h e C i t y might oppose the development o f p a r t i c u l a r playhouses or endeavour t o e n f o r c e S a b b a t a r i a n r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t must have f e l t t h a t the drama was t h e r e t o s t a y . In t h i s atmosphere, d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t y r e v i v e d a g a i n i n the h a l l s o f the Companies, a l t h o u g h n o t on the e a r l i e r s c a l e . In any case p r i v a t e performances t h e r e had always been exempt from most r e s t r i c t i o n s . How-e v e r , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a r e g u l a r p a r t o f the h a l l f e a s t s , d r a m a t i c p e r -formances seem t o have been o f an e s s e n t i a l l y o c c a s i o n a l n a t u r e , i n -tended p r i m a r i l y t o honour and e n t e r t a i n g u e s t s . These i n c l u d e d p l a y s , masques, and such s l i g h t p i e c e s as The I n v e n t i o n performed for...Edward  Barkham i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n . M i d d l e t o n was one o f t h o s e most o f t e n employed t o c r e a t e t h e s e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s . In J a n u a r y 1613/14 he wrote the no l o n g e r e x t a n t Masque o f Cupid t o honour the Somerset m a r r i a g e on be-h a l f o f the L o r d Mayor and Aldermen; t h i s took p l a c e a t Merchant T a y l o r s ' H a l l . H i s appointment as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r i n 1620 meant an i n c r e a s e o f such commissions; i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t he wrote more than the t e n p i e c e s c o l l e c t e d i n Honourable E n t e r t a i n m e n t s (1621) and t h e 1622 An  I n v e n t i o n . These o c c a s i o n s were not always as s u c c e s s f u l as t h e i r o r g a n i z e r s wished; John Chamberlain i n f o r m s S i r Dudley C a r l e t o n i n 1616 t h a t "on S a t e r d a y the K n i g h t s o f the Bath were e n t e r t a i n e d by the Lord Mayor a t Dr a p e r s H a l l w i t h a supper and a p l a y , where some o f them were so rude and u n r u l y and c a r i e d t hemselves so i n s o l e n t l y d i v e r s wayes but s p e c i a l l y i n p u t t i n g c i t i z e n s wives t o the squeake, so f a r f o o r t h t h a t one o f the s h e r i f f e s brake open a doore upon S i r Edward S a c k v i l e , which gave such o c c a s i o n o f s c a n d a l ! , t h a t they went away w i t h o u t the banket 141 though y t were redy and p r e p a r e d f o r them." X I I I . "The P o l i t i c s o f S p e c t a c l e " The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s o f Company a t t i t u d e s and London p o l i t i c s sug-g e s t s t h a t i t would be p o i n t l e s s t o e x p e c t d i r e c t t r e a t m e n t i n the Shows 71 o f the views o f e i t h e r the P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n o r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f Londoners. The e n t i r e p r o c e e d i n g s were t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the g o v e r n i n g body o f each Company o r by committees a p p o i n t e d by i t . Such men, even i f a t times t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were t h o s e o f the P a r l i a m e n t a r y -P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n , were not l i k e l y to s a n c t i o n a n y t h i n g w i t h even r e -m o t e l y s e d i t i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s ; hence the o r t h o d o x y , the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f which C l a r k c o m p l a i n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e sheer m a g n i f i c e n c e o f the d i s -p l a y , r e a c h i n g i t s z e n i t h i n the 1620s and 1630s i s i t s e l f , however f r e -q u e n t l y combined with p i o u s p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y t o the k i n g , an a s s e r t i o n o f London's new sense o f i t s e l f . And w i t h t h i s e v e r y Londoner c o u l d i d e n t i f y . Both Glynne Wickham and M u r i e l Bradbrook have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " i n the u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s o f f l a t t e r y and i n f l a t e d s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t h e e x t r a v a g a n c e o f the e x p e n d i t u r e , and i n the s p e c t a c u l a r q u a l i t y " o f both masque and L o r d Mayor's Show, we may p e r c e i v e "a s i m i l a r l y dangerous and 142 a g g r e s s i v e s p i r i t beneath t h e t h e a t r i c a l c l o a k . " P r o f e s s o r Bradbrook goes f u r t h e r and argues t h a t "As t h e s p l i t between c o u r t and c i t y widened, the L o r d Mayor's pageants c o n c e n t r a t e d r a t h e r on t h e h i s t o r y o f the c i t y i t s e l f than on the g l o r i e s o f a u n i t e d monarchy." T h i s needs p a r t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n . The e a r l y pageants a r e indeed remarkable f o r the emphasis t h e y p l a c e on the s o v e r e i g n r a t h e r than the C i t y ; P e e l e ' s Descensus  A s t r a e a e i s more co n c e r n e d with E l i z a b e t h than W i l l i a m Webbe, the new Lord Mayor. More e q u a b l y , Munday i n The Triumphs o f Re-United B r i t a n n i a (1605) c a r e f u l l y uses the Brutus myth t o honour both James, the u n i f i e r o f t h e kingdom, and L eonard H o l l i d a y , a t the same time a c h i e v i n g a p r e v i o u s l y unknown degree o f u n i t y among t h e v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x . However, even a t the end o f James' r e i g n when, we a r e t o l d , h i s p o p u l a r i t y had waned.from t h o s e 72 heady e a r l y d a y s , the pageant poets s t i l l c e l e b r a t e a t l e n g t h h i s v i r t u e s as peacemaker and second B r u t u s . So i n 1623, M i d d l e t o n devotes an e n t i r e t a b l e a u , based on the D r a p e r s ' Company arms t o l a u d i n g " t h a t R o y a l ! Peace-maker, our K i n g " ( l . 2:74). There seems n o t h i n g p e r f u n c t o r y i n M i d d l e t o n ' s and Webster's e u l o g i e s o f James i n the 1620s; however, such p r a i s e f o r the Crown does seem t o d e c r e a s e d u r i n g C h a r l e s ' r e i g n . I t i s perhaps p o s s i b l e to see t h i s p r o c e s s a t work i n the f i r s t Show o f the new r e i g n , M i d d l e -t o n ' s The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y (1626). C e r t a i n l y , g i v e n h i s e a r l i e r work, i t i s s t r a n g e not t o f i n d M i d d l e t o n making t h e most o f the a c c e s s i o n o f a new monarch. Is i t s t r a i n i n g the e v i d e n c e too much to i n t e r p r e t h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e C i t y owes t o the s o v e r e i g n " a l l d u t i e s t h a t j u s t s e r v i c e comprehends" and w i l l always be f i r s t i n any "duty [ t h a t ] toward good s u p p l i e s (11. 156, "180; my i t a l i c s ) as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f the a b s o l u t e l o y a l t y o f C i t y to Crown u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n the e a r l i e r Show's And i n Heywood's Shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between C i t y and s o v e r e i g n i s o f a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e importance. Heywood's f i n a l Show, L o n d i n i S t a t u s Pacatus (1639), which i n c l u d e s a t a b l e a u c o n t r a s t i n g the h o r r o r s o f "the C a l a m i t i e s o f War, cV^the b l e s s e d -nesse o f peace" has been s i n g l e d out by C l a r k as i n d i c a t i n g the r e l u c t a n c e o f the pageant poets t o admit t h a t " t h e r e was or c o u l d be a c l o u d i n the 143 sky." T h i s i s u n f a i r t o Heywood; h i s Show, i r o n i c a l l y the l a s t b e f o r e the R e s t o r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h s e t t i n g t h e ravages of c i v i l war i n Germany, must have been i n t e n d e d , and was undoubtedly r e a d , as a comment on the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . And as such, i t shows, as Wickham has p o i n t e d o u t , "a degree o f common-sense r e a l i s m e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g among t h e c o u r t i e r s 73 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f Davenant's Sa l m a c i d a S p o l i a i n the same ,,144 y e a r . W i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l framework o f a g r a d u a l inward t u r n i n g t o con-c e n t r a t e on t h e g l o r i e s of London, and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s as a p o l i t i -c a l g e s t u r e , r e f e r e n c e t o contemporary events can sometimes be d i s c e r n e d i n p a r t i c u l a r pageants. S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , c o n s i d e r i n g The Triumphs o f T r u t h (1613), comments t h a t T r u t h i n the pageant i s a r e l i g i o u s T r u t h , i n f a c t , a s t r o n g l y P r o t e s t a n t one, and su g g e s t s t h a t the Show i s "a s e r i o u s i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n 1613"; the 145 y e a r o f t h e m a r r i a g e o f P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h t o the E l e c t o r P a l a t i n e . Sometimes contemporary a l l u s i o n s a r e o b v i o u s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , the r e l i e f o f the e n t i r e n a t i o n a t P r i n c e C h a r l e s ' s a f e , b r i d e l e s s r e t u r n from S p a i n i n O c t o b e r 1623. i s r e f l e c t e d i n The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y l a t e r t h a t month. In o t h e r s c u r r e n t happenings may have g i v e n added meaning t o o t h e r w i s e c o n v e n t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t s . So i n The Sunne i n A r i e s (1621) M i d d l e t o n , as he had f r e q u e n t l y done b e f o r e , d e p l o r e s b r i b e r y i n the m a g i s t r a t e ; the f a l l o f Bacon i n the same y e a r sharpens the p o i n t . And i n The Triumphs o f H e a l t h  and P r o s p e r i t y i n 1626 the unaccustomed heavy emphasis on Drake's v i c t o r i e s may have been i n t e n d e d t o r e c a l l t h e C a d i z f i a s c o o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . P a r t o f M i d d l e t o n ' s work f o r the C i t y i n v o l v e d c o m p i l i n g a c c o u n t s o f s i g n i -f i c a n t e v e n t s and what we know o f the c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e now l o s t works a s s u r e s us o f h i s keen i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f the day, i n -c l u d i n g t h e f a l l o f Bacon. A c c o r d i n g t o Oldys they were e n t i t l e d I. A n n a l e s : o r a C o n t i n u a t i o n o f C h r o n o l o g i e ; c o n t e y n i n g e Passages and Occurences proper t o the Honnorable C i t t y o f London: B e g i n n i n g e i n t h e Yeare o f 74 o u r Lorde 1620. By Thomas M i d l e t o n then r e c e i v e d by t h e i r Honnorable Senate as C h r o n o l o g e r f o r the C i t t y e . There a r e i n i t , t h e s e A r t i c l e s under the y e a r 1621.--On Good Fr y d a y i n the Morn d i e d John (King) L o r d B i s h o p o f London.--28 May F r a n c i s L o r d Verulam committed to the Tower. ( S e a l t a k e n from him the l a s t day o f A p r i l ) . - - 2 7 December S i r Edward Coke Committed to the Tower.—December The F o r t u n e P l a y House, s i t u a t e between White C r o s s S t r e e t and G o l d i n g Lane, b u r n t , &c. I I . M i d d l e t o n ' s F a r r a g o : In which t h e r e i s — T h e E a r l o f Essex h i s Charge a g a i n s t V i s -count Wimbleton, & the V i s c o u n t s Answer.--The T r e a t y and A r t i c l e s o f M a r r i a g e between P r i n c e C h a r l e s & H e n r i e t t a M a r i a . — P a r i i a m e n t a r y M a t t e r s , 1625-26.— Habeas Corpus 1627 &C.146 XIV. M i d d l e t o n and C i v i c Pageantry M i d d l e t o n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h c i v i c p a g e a n t r y spans a l m o s t h i s e n t i r e d r a m a t i c c a r e e r ; he w r i t e s p l a y s from 1602-24 and pageants from 1604-26. We f i r s t know o f him as a p l a y w r i g h t i n 1602, from Henslowe's d i a r y , when, i n c o n j u n c t i o n with Dekker, Munday, D r a y t o n , and Webster, he c o n t r i b u t e d 147 t o a l o s t p l a y c a l l e d Caesars F a l l or Two Shapes. Two o f t h e s e COIT l a b o r a t o r s , Dekker and Munday, were to be i m p o r t a n t i n h i s pageant c a r e e r . A l t h o u g h t h e d i a r y a l s o t e l l s us t h a t M i d d l e t o n was w r i t i n g p l a y s on h i s own a t t h i s t i m e , h i s f i r s t u n d i s p u t e d e x t a n t p l a y i s The Phoenix o f 1603-4. Meanwhile h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Dekker c o n t i n u e d : the two produced The  Honest Whore I i n 1604 and i n the same y e a r Dekker presumably c o - o p t e d M i d d l e t o n and g e n e r o u s l y c r e d i t e d him w i t h the speech o f Zeal i n the New World A r c h o f the C o r o n a t i o n Show f o r James I. T h i s was M i d d l e t o n ' s f i r s t v e n t u r e i n t o c i v i c p a g e a n t r y ; one not r e -p e a t e d u n t i l 1613. In the i n t e r i m he produced the s e t o f comedies o f 75 London l i f e which r e p r e s e n t t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the c o i n d i s p l a y e d i n t h e mayoral e n t e r t a i n m e n t s . In t h e s e p l a y s M i d d l e t o n p r e s e n t s an i r o n i c view o f the seamy s i d e o f London s o c i e t y , a w o r l d where t h e o l d t i e s o f k i n s h i p and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y have been p e r v e r t e d by the rampant d e s i r e f o r money or sex. Here we f i n d such c i t i z e n s as Quomodo, the scheming Draper o f Michaelmas Term, a f a r c r y from t h e moral paragons o f M i d d l e t o n ' s l a t e r Shows f o r t h a t Company. Quomodo e x u l t s a t the p r o s p e c t o f the w e a l t h to be d e r i v e d from term time: "you know ' t i s term t i m e , and Michaelmas term t o o , the d r a p e r s ' h a r v e s t f o r f o o t - c l o t h s , r i d i n g - s u i t s , w a l k i n g -s u i t s , chamber-gowns, and h a l l gowns.'" ( I , 254). In t h e D r a p e r s ' Shows, however, t h e i r t r a d e i s metamorphosed i n t o a symbol o f o r d e r : " t h e r e we ' s h a l l . f i n d e the whole L i v e r y o f t h i s most renowned and famous C i t y , as upon t h i s Day, and a t a l l Solemne m e e t i n g s , f u r n i s h e d by i t ; i t c l o t h e s the Honorable S e n a t o r s i n t h e i r h i g h e s t and r i c h e s t H e a r i n g s , a l l Courts o f J u s t i c e , M a g i s t r a t e s , and Judges o f the Land" (JJ_, 11. 99-104;' THP, 11. 55-9). The h o s t i l i t y o f M i d d l e t o n ' s a t t i t u d e to t h e c i t i z e n r y i n t h i s p e r i o d has l e d M u r i e l Bradbrook t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t perhaps t h e Companies 148 "thought him worth b u y i n g o f f . " I t i s more p l a u s i b l e , however, t h a t M i d d l e t o n , always something o f an o p p o r t u n i s t , p e r c e i v e d the p r o s p e c t s f o r a s k i l f u l w r i t e r o f c i t y e n t e r t a i n m e n t s and s e i z e d upon t h e e n t r e e g i v e n to him i n 1613. That h i s a t t i t u d e t o h i s c i v i c p a t r o n s remained a t l e a s t somewhat a m b i v a l e n t i s s u g g e s t e d by H e n g i s t , King o f Kent ( c . 1616-20). Here Simon the Mayor and h i s f e l l o w townsmen p r e p a r e , a c c o r d i n g to the p r e c e d e n t o f the Town Book, a " c o n c e i t o f m i c k l e wight" f o r V o r t i g e r n ; he, however, i s not impressed by t h e i r " t e d i o u s and r i d i c u l o u s d u t i e s " ( I I , 69). 76 M i d d l e t o n ' s f i r s t mayoral e n t e r t a i n m e n t , The Triumphs o f T r u t h (1613), was produced, i n some s o r t o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the more e x p e r i e n c e d Munday, f o r S i r Thomas Myddleton. To judge from the fu l s o m e a d d r e s s t o S i r Thomas i n t he opening o f the pageant, M i d d l e t o n may w e l l have owed h i s employment to t he i n t e r v e n t i o n o f h i s namesake. The " c o l l a b o r a t i o n " w i t h Munday, however, was e v i d e n t l y not a happy one. Over the p r e v i o u s f i f t e e n y e a r s Munday had a c q u i r e d an e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n as u n o f f i c i a l f a c t o t u m i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f Lo r d Mayor's Shows; he i s known t o have w r i t t e n f i v e be-tween 1602 and 1611 and was l i k e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f the m i s s i n g 149 ones from 1597-1601. The in v o l v e m e n t o f t h e w r i t e r i n a l l a s p e c t s of the p a g e a n t — d e v i s i n g , w r i t i n g , and o r g a n i z i n g t he p r o d u c t i o n — i s / d u e ,to him. M i d d l e t o n appears to have r e g a r d e d The Triumphs o f T r u t h as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u p p l a n t Munday. T h i s l e a d s t o the s l i g h t l y l u d i c r o u s s p e c t a c l e o f h i s a t t a c k i n g t he a r t i s t i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s r i v a l , "the impudent common w r i t e r , " and l a m e n t i n g "so g l o r i o u s a f i r e i n bounty and goodness o f f e r i n g to match i t s e l f w i t h f r e e z i n g A r t , s i t t i n g i n d a r k n e s s , w i t h the c a n d l e o u t , l o o k i n g l i k e t h e p i c t u r e o f B l a c k Monday," but y e t be i n g c o m p e l l e d a t the end o f the t e x t t o commend him f o r the f u r n i s h i n g o f a p p a r e l and p o r t e r s ( V I I , 233-4, 262). As Jean Robertson p o i n t s o u t , the d i s p u t e between the two s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t enough was a t s t a k e 150 f i n a n c i a l l y to provoke such r i v a l r y . The G r o c e r s ' A c c o u n t s , however, suggest an a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n . Munday i s p a i d f o r the "devyse o f the Pageant and o t h e r shewes," f o r p r o v i d i n g p o r t e r s , and a l s o a c t o r s and costumes f o r a l l t a b l e a u x e x c e p t the pageant. M i d d l e t o n i s p a i d f o r "the o r d e r i n g o v e r s e e i n g and w r y t i n g o f the whole Devyse & a l s o e f o r t h e 151 a p p a r e l i n g t he personage i n the Pageant." . The d i f f i c u l t y here l i e s i n 77 the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f terms. C l e a r l y , however, Munday was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a l d e v i s i n g o r i n v e n t i o n o f the whole scheme, a l t h o u g h t h i s b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n may w e l l have changed d u r i n g the w r i t i n g . Such a r e -l a t i o n s h i p , as the h i s t o r y o f the masque shows w e l l , p r o v i d e s ample ground f o r q u a r r e l s , and i f we assume t h a t M i d d l e t o n was eager f o r f i n a n c i a l and a r t i s t i c r e a s o n s t o t a k e o v e r as much o f Munday's work as p o s s i b l e , then the f r i c t i o n caused by such an arrangement i s not s u r p r i s i n g . T h i s would a l s o e x p l a i n M i d d l e t o n ' s i n s i s t e n c e on the t i t l e - p a g e t h a t the pageant was " D i r e c t e d , W r i t t e n , and Redeem'd i n t o Forme, from the Ignorance o f some for m e r t i m e s , and t h e i r Common W r i t e r , By Thomas M i d d l e t o n " ( V I I , 229). Such h o s t i l i t y i n t h e i r f i r s t c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t bodes i l l f o r f u t u r e j o i n t work. The s p e c t a c u l a r e f f e c t s and g e n e r a l m a g n i f i c e n c e o f The Triumphs o f  T r u t h must have p l e a s e d t h e G r o c e r s and ensured s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r any f u t u r e p r o j e c t s d e v i s e d by M i d d l e t o n . T h i s i s borne out by h i s employ-ment i n 1614, by the L o r d Mayor, S i r Thomas Myddleton, and the Aldermen t o w r i t e a (no l o n g e r e x t a n t ) masque i n honour o f the Somerset m a r r i a g e . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1617, he competes s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t Munday t o w r i t e h i s second mayoral pageant, t h i s time f o r George Bowles, a n o t h e r G r o c e r . The s t r e n g t h o f Munday's p o s i t i o n , however, l a y i n h i s v e r s a t i l i t y . T h i s has g e n e r a l l y been a t t r i b u t e d to h i s b e i n g a p r a c t i s i n g d r a p e r . D i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s are b e d e v i l l e d by l a c k o f a c c u r a c y o v e r what a d r a p e r a c t u a l l y was: n o n e t h e l e s s , most concur t h a t he kept a d r a p e r ' s shop. But I have been un-152 a b l e to f i n d any e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s . T h at he was, as J . H. P. 15 3 P a f f o r d d e s c r i b e s him, "a keeper and a p p a r e n t l y a h i r e r - o u t o f c l o t h i n g 78 and p r o p e r t i e s used i n pageants" i s u n d e n i a b l e , but i t i s much more l i k e l y t h a t he r e l i e d on h i s c o n t a c t s both i n the t h e a t r i c a l w o r l d and i n the Company t o do t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y . Munday was indeed to prove hard t o s u p p l a n t . The Ironmongers r e -mained f a i t h f u l t o him i n 1618, and he uses the o p p o r t u n i t y o f t h a t pageant, S i d e r o - T h r i a m b o s o r S t e e l e and I r o n Triumphing t o p r o t e s t h i s v i l i f i c a t i o n . However, i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r M i d d l e t o n a g a i n triumphed and c o n t i n u e d the q u a r r e l by s n e e r i n g i n the opening t o The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y ( h i s pageant f o r the S k i n n e r , W i l l i a m Cokayne) a t p r e v i o u s triumphs "wherein A r t hath been but weakly i m i t a t e d and most b e g g a r l y worded" ( V I I , 315). The two a r e a g a i n yoked t o g e t h e r i n The Sunne i n A r i e s i n 1621. The Drapers' B a c h e l o r s ' Accounts make i t c l e a r t h a t the Company c o n t r a c t e d w i t h M i d d l e t o n , C h r i s t m a s , and Munday f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e pageant (p. 322). S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , something o f a p a r t i s a n o f Munday's, comments t h a t "the o n l y r e a s o n f o r t h i n k i n g Munday second to M i d d l e t o n i s t h a t the D r a p e r s ' Company bought s c a r v e s to be worn f o r C h r i s t m a s and M i d d l e t o n 154 but not f o r the poor o l d d r a p e r Anthony Munday." However, the e v i d e n c e o f the t e x t s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y t h a t M i d d l e t o n was s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s w r i t i n g even i f Munday d i d have a c o n s i d e r a b l e say i n t h e p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Show. Undoubtedly the employment o f Munday by the Drapers i n t h e s e y e a r s owed something t o h i s b e i n g a member o f the Company as w e l l as to h i s command over o r g a n i z a t i o n . To judge from t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1623 t h e chances a r e t h a t the c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f 1621 was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y happy. T h i s time 79 t h e Company employed both M i d d l e t o n and Munday but on an e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e b a s i s . Munday p r e p a r e s t h e Argoe f o r the water show, a t a b l e a u o f J a s o n , Medea, and the Argonauts w i t h no s p e e c h e s , and w r i t e s a s e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t , The Triumphs o f the Golden F l e e c e . I t makes no mention o f any o t h e r t a b l e a u x . M i d d l e t o n w r i t e s the pageant p r o p e r , but f a r from c r e d i t i n g Munday w i t h the water show, c l a i m s t h a t i t c o n s i s t e d o f h i s own I m p e r i a l Canopy. I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e D r a p e r s , w i s h i n g to employ M i d d l e t o n w h i l e not n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r b r o t h e r Munday, h i t on t h i s as a s a t i s f a c t o r y way o f e l i m i n a t i n g any bad f e e l i n g engendered by t h e p r e v i o u s c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The p e r i o d 1613-20 marks M i d d l e t o n ' s growing i n t e r e s t i n " p u b l i c " and o c c a s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . D u r i n g t h i s time h i s o u t p u t i n c l u d e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the mayoral pageants, The New R i v e r E n t e r t a i n m e n t (1613), C i v i t a t i s Amor (1616), The Peacemaker (1618), The Inner Temple Masque (1619), and some o f the e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i n Honorable E n t e r t a i n m e n t s (1621). In 1620, d u r i n g t h e m a y o r a l t y o f Cokayne, h i s a p t i t u d e f o r t h i s s o r t o f work was r e c o g n i z e d by h i s appointment as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , h i s d u t i e s b e i n g t o " c o l l e c t and s e t down a l l memorable a c t s o f t h i s C i t y , and o c c u r r e n c e s t h e r e o f , and f o r such o t h e r employments as t h i s C o u r t s h a l l 155 have o c c a s i o n to use him i n , " f o r which he was p a i d L6. 13. 04. The " o t h e r employments" i n c l u d e d such p i e c e s as t h o s e i n Honourable E n t e r t a i n - ments (1621) and An I n v e n t i o n (1622). These, d e s p i t e being e s s e n t i a l l y p r i v a t e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , c l o s e l y resemble i n f u n c t i o n and t e c h n i q u e the more e l a b o r a t e , p o p u l a r L o r d Mayor's Show. The more im p o r t a n t works, t h e s o - c a l l e d "Annales" and " M i d d l e t o n ' s F a r r a g o , " were e x t a n t i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . M i d d l e t o n ' s performance i n t h i s o f f i c e , u n l i k e t h a t o f h i s 80 s u c c e s s o r Ben J o n s o n , must have been h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r he was g i v e n a pay i n c r e a s e i n J a n u a r y 1620/21, f r e q u e n t g r a n t s o f money, and the o c c a s i o n a l n o m i n a t i o n o f one person to the freedom o f the C i t y ; i n a d d i t i o n 156 h i s widow r e c e i v e d a f r e e g i f t o f money a f t e r h i s death. A f t e r t h i s appointment he wrote a l l but one o f the i n a u g u r a l pageants u n t i l h i s death i n 1627, and was i n a d d i t i o n employed i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h C h r i s t m a s t o 157 produce the a b o r t i v e C o r o n a t i o n Show f o r C h a r l e s I i n 1625-26. The i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s d i s p l a y e d by M i d d l e t o n i n t h e s e works emerges p o w e r f u l l y i n h i s f i n a l p l a y , A Game a t Chess (1624). The d r a m a t i s t here combines h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h p o l i t i c s and both t h e s a t i r i c t e c h n i q u e o f the London comedies and the emblematic t e c h n i q u e o f the pageants, t h u s c r e a t i n g the g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s o f t h e p r e - R e s t o r a t i o n t h e a t r e . Moreover, the p l a y may have more in common w i t h the pageants than p o l i t i -c a l i n t e r e s t and t e c h n i q u e . Margot Heinemann p o i n t s out t h a t M i d d l e t o n had used the f i g u r e o f E r r o r t o g r e a t e f f e c t t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r i n The  Triumphs o f T r u t h ; she a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the S p a n i a r d i n The Triumphs o f 1 CO Honor ' and I n d u s t r y (1617) was an e a r l y s k e t c h f o r the B l a c k K n i g h t . C e r t a i n l y B u s i n o ' s a c c o u n t o f t h i s Show makes i t c l e a r t h a t the S p a n i a r d , a l t h o u g h r e s p e c t a b l e on the page, behaved so r i d i c u l o u s l y as to " e l i c i t r o a r s o f l a u g h t e r from the m u l t i t u d e " (CSPV, XV, 62). M i d d l e t o n , i n e f f e c t the p r o d u c e r o f the Show, must have s a n c t i o n e d t h i s c a p i t a l i z i n g on p o p u l a r p r e j u d i c e ; i t was a t e c h n i q u e he was t o e x p l o i t to the f u l l i n A Game a t Chess. In t h a t c a s e , t o o , contemporary a c c o u n t s o f the p l a y remind us o f the d i s c r e p a n c y between what a c t u a l l y happened onstage and the t e x t i t s e l f . A c c o r d i n g t o John Chamberlain the p l a y e r s " c o u n t e r -81 f e i t e d h i s [Gondomar] person t o the l i f e , w i t h a l l h i s g r a c e s and f a c e s , and had g o t t e n (they say) a c a s t s u t e o f h i s a p p a r e l 1 f o r the purpose, and h i s L y t t e r . " 1 5 9 As a r e s u l t o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n contemporary a f f a i r s , attempts have been made t o d e f i n e M i d d l e t o n ' s p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s . Margot Heinemann i s p r o b a b l y r i g h t i n s e e i n g him as a moderate P u r i t a n , but her attempt t o a l l y him c l o s e l y w i t h the P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n needs some q u a l i f i c a t i o n . F i r s t , a l t h o u g h some o f the d r a m a t i s t ' s p a t r o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d as committed P u r i t a n s , o t h e r s such as W i l l i a m Cokayne and 1 gg F r a n c i s Jones were not. Second, she f a i l s t o deal w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such works as The Peacemaker (1618) which so c l o s e l y conformed t o r o y a l 1 gi p o l i c y as t o be d i r e c t l y encouraged by James I. T h i s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e v i r t u e s o f peace i s d u p l i c a t e d i n a l m o s t a l l the " p u b l i c " works w r i t t e n by M i d d l e t o n , and t h e r e i s no reason t o doubt t h e genuineness o f h i s p r a i s e . I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o remember t h a t the views e x p r e s s e d i n A Game a t Chess s h o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be taken as a d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f M i d d l e t o n ' s own. A t the v e r y l e a s t , M i d d l e t o n was e m i n e n t l y c a p a b l e o f w r i t i n g w e l l whatever h i s p a t r o n s o r employers wished to have p r e s e n t e d . The importance o f t h i s o c c a s i o n a l work, e s p e c i a l l y t h a t done f o r the C i t y , has g e n e r a l l y been u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , even i g n o r e d , i n s t u d i e s of 1 g2 M i d d l e t o n . In f a c t , f a r from being an i s o l a t e d a s p e c t o f h i s c a r e e r , i t forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t , and an awareness of t h i s i s v a l u a b l e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s p l a y s . The i n t e r e s t i n a l l e g o r y and emblem remains c o n s t a n t from The Phoenix (concerned l i k e t h e pageants w i t h t h e 82 w e l l - b e i n g o f the commonwealth) to A Game a t Chess. R e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o n g e n i a l i t y o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s o f v a l u e even t o a stu d y o f the c i t y comedies, r e d u c i n g t h e tendency t o over-emphasize t h e i r " p h o t o g r a p h i c I g o r e a l i s m , " and thus e l i m i n a t i n g many o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h scenes such as t h o s e w i t h Dampit i n A T r i c k t o Catch t h e Old One (1604-5) o r P e n i t e n t B r o t h e l ' s r e p e n t a n c e i n A Mad World, My Masters (1604-5). A Game a t Chess then becomes a f i t t i n g c u l m i n a t i o n t o both a s p e c t s o f M i d d l e -t o n ' s c a r e e r , the d r a m a t i s t and the c h r o n o l o g e r . M i d d l e t o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the form o f the Lor d Mayor's Show l i e s , as Dav i d Bergeron has s u g g e s t e d , i n h i s endeavour t o use the t e c h n i q u e s o f the 164 moral i n t e r l u d e to u n i f y t h e v a r i o u s t a b l e a u x . In h i s f i r s t pageant, The Triumphs o f T r u t h , he experiments w i t h u s i n g the d r a m a t i c form i t s e l f o f t h e moral i n t e r l u d e as t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Show. Man i n the person o f the Mayor i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e ongoing c h o i c e between T r u t h and E r r o r : i f he chooses E r r o r t h e n h i s d e s t r u c t i o n w i l l be as a s s u r e d as t h a t o f 165 E r r o r i n t h e Show, f o r T r u t h a l o n e can en s u r e s a l v a t i o n . T h i s e x p e r i -ment, however, can a t b e s t be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s ; c e r t a i n l y M i d d l e t o n abandons i t and c o n c e n t r a t e s i n s t e a d on u s i n g images o f l i g h t and d a r k , s u g g e s t i n g t he r e c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t , t o u n i f y o t h e r w i s e e s s e n t i a l l y d i s c r e t e t a b l e a u x . A l l M i d d l e t o n ' s Shows a r e moral a l l e g o r i e s ; he demonstrates l i t t l e o f Munday's o r Dekker's i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y and none o f Heywood's i n " h i e r o g l y p h s . " T h i s p a r a l l e l s t h e i n f l u e n c e of the moral i n t e r l u d e on h i s p l a y s . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to compare the t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e Jason t a b l e a u i n t h r e e Shows by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s f o r t he Dr a p e r s ' Company, M i d d l e t o n ' s The Sunne i n A r i e s (1621), Munday's Me- t r o p o l i s C oronata (1615), and Heywood's L o n d i n i S t a t u s Pacatus (1639). 83 In The Sunne i n A r i e s Jason appears as a t y p e o f h e r o i c v i r t u e , a p r e c e d e n t f o r the L o r d Mayor on h i s voyage f o r the F l e e c e o f Fame. M i d d l e t o n sub-o r d i n a t e s e v e r y t h i n g t o the moral a l l e g o r y , i g n o r i n g a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the myth, and,even o n l y m e n t i o n i n g the hero's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Company i n so f a r as t h i s makes him p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d t o be the s p e a k e r from t h e C h a r i o t o f Honour. Munday and Heywood, w h i l e not n e g l e c t i n g Jason the h e r o i c exemplar, a r e l e s s s i n g l e - m i n d e d . In b o t h , the p r e s e n c e o f J a s o n ' s a s s o c i -a t e s , Medea and the Argonauts i n M e t r o p o l i s Coronata and Medea a l o n e i n L o n d i n i S t a t u s P a c a t u s , s i g n i f i e s t he community o f e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y i n C i t y government, an e s s e n t i a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e r a t h e r than the h e r o i c s t r u g g l e o f one man. And both s t r e s s t h e F l e e c e as the symbol o f England's p r o s p e r i t y . Munday's t a b l e a u a l s o r e l i e s h e a v i l y on s p e c t a c l e : the Argo " i s rowed by d i v e r s comely Eunuches, which c o n t i n u a l l y a t t e n d e d on Medea, and she f a v o u r i n g them but to passe under the f l e e c e o f G o l d e , had a l l t h e i r garments immediatly s p r i n k l e d o v e r w i t h g o l d e , even as i f i t had showred downe i n droppes upon them" ( s i g . A4). And Heywood, t y p i c a l l y , uses h i s t a b l e a u t o d i s c o u r s e upon the s y m b o l i c and n a t u r a l v a l u e o f c a m e l s , both B a c t r i a n and A r a b i a n , and sheep. The l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s o f M i d d l e t o n ' s pageants a r e not g r e a t , but i t must be remembered t h a t t h e form o f t h e pageant r e q u i r e d l i t t l e more than the a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t i m e n t s i n a c c e p t a b l e , d i g n i f i e d v e r s e . The Shows were not d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e showcases f o r the w r i t e r ' s l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s . Remembering t h i s , t he c e n s u r e heaped upon M i d d l e t o n and the o t h e r pageant poets i s not g e n e r a l l y d e s e r v e d . W r i t i n g o f Munday's Chruso- thriambos (1611), J . H. P. P a f f o r d argues t h a t the s t y l e i s " r a t h e r heavy 84 and s t i l t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the v e r s e , but t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h i s was c o n v e n t i o n a l . Some o f t h e speeches a r e from g h o s t s of the-iong-ideparted, and an a n t i q u e form o f speech i s i n c h a r a c t e r . But i t i s the speech used f o r c h o r u s e s and sometimes by a p p a r i t i o n s i n Shakespeare and t h i s s t y l e was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y an e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e n t i o n f o r the pageants. Hence 7 w h i l e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n Chruso-thriambos t o j u s t i f y t he c l a i m t h a t Munday was a poet o f e x c e l l e n t m e r i t , i t must be noted t h a t such p o e t r y would not be e x p e c t e d i n a pageant." T h i s a p p l i e s t o M i d d l e t o n t o o , a poet o f r a t h e r g r e a t e r m e r i t than Munday. C e r t a i n l y , the choruses and songs o f H e n g i s t , King o f Kent (1616-20) a r e i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same s t y l e as the pageants. M i d d l e t o n wrote i n a l l seven mayoral e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , one f o r the S k i n n e r s ' Company, and t h r e e each f o r the G r o c e r s ' Company and the D r a p e r s ' Company. Two o f th e s e t h r e e f o r the Drapers a r e t y p i c a l o f M i d d l e t o n ' s mayoral pageants. By 1621 he has eschewed almo s t a l l elements o f the d r a m a t i c ; each t a b l e a u i s p e o p l e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f f i g u r e s , none o f whom has any dr a m a t i c re lat ionsh ip to the others, apart frortKtheir p r e s e n c e on the same s c a f f o l d . There i s no d i a l o g u e , o n l y an e x p o s i t o r y , h o r t a t o r y speech by the most a p p r o p r i a t e o f the f i g u r e s . The u n i t y o f the t a b l e a u x i s e n t i r e l y t h e m a t i c and s y m b o l i c , and i s most e f f e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e d i n The Sunne i n A r i e s where M i d d l e t o n uses the m a n i f o l d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the image o f t h e sun t o draw the d i f f e r e n t elements o f the pageant t o -g e t h e r . The Drapers would, I t h i n k , have f e l t t h a t they g o t good v a l u e f o r money w i t h both t h i s Show and the r a t h e r more s p e c t a c u l a r Triumphs  o f I n t e g r i t y i n 1623, but t h e pageant f o r 1626, The Triumphs o f H e a l t h 85 and P r o s p e r i t y , i s a d i f f e r e n t c a s e . The Drapers w i t h h e l d money from v a r i o u s employees, but p r i n c i p a l l y M i d d l e t o n and C h r i s t m a s , on a c c o u n t o f i t s " i l l performance." T h i s i s d e a l t w i t h f u l l y i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the pageant, but t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y good grounds f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t M i d d l e t o n had become r a t h e r t i r e d o f w r i t i n g such shows by the end o f h i s c a r e e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I can see l i t t l e ground f o r t h e charge o f p e c u l a -t i o n t h a t R. C. B a l d b r i n g s a g a i n s t the t w o . 1 ^ 7 M i d d l e t o n ' s mayoral pageants appear i n the "modernized" V i c t o r i a n e d i t i o n s o f A l e x a n d e r Dyce and A. H. B u l l e n o f t h e dramatist.'s works. The l a t t e r a l s o c o n t a i n s t h e 1622 An I n v e n t i o n . . . f o r Edward Barkham. T h e i r t e x t s , however, a r e n e i t h e r r e l i a b l e nor f u l l y a n n o t a t e d . I t t h e r e f o r e seemed w o r t h w h i l e t o t a k e one o f the two main groups o f M i d d l e t o n ' s pageants and, u s i n g Company r e c o r d s , produce a c r i t i c a l , o l d - s p e l l i n g e d i t i o n . The kindness o f t h e Drapers' Company i n a l l o w i n g me the run o f i t s a r c h i v e s determined my c h o i c e o f the pageants w r i t t e n f o r them. T h i s c h o i c e proved f o r t u n a t e i n two o t h e r r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , t he Company's r e c o r d s f o r the p e r i o d o f the development o f the Midsummer Watch, the p r e d e c e s s o r o f the L o r d Mayor's Show, a r e u n u s u a l l y f u l l , thus p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y the e a r l y f l o u r i s h i n g o f c i v i c p a g e a n t r y . Second, the number o f L o r d Mayors drawn from t h e D r a p e r s ' Company d u r i n g the peak p e r i o d o f the Shows, e i g h t between 1614 and 1639, has a l l o w e d me t o compare the ways i n which M i d d l e t o n on the one hand, and Munday and Heywood, on the o t h e r , t a c k l e w r i t i n g Shows f o r t h e Company. NOTES 86 Dekker, B r i t a n n i a s Honor i n Dramatic Works, IV, ed. Fredson Bowers (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1961), 82. A l l q u o t a t i o n s from Dekker's d r a m a t i c works w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . '"Quoted i n S h e i l a W i l l i a m s , "The L o r d Mayor's Show from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " D i s s . London U n i v . , 1957, p.50. 3 "Pageant" o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d to t h e s c a f f o l d i t s e l f , whether f i x e d or n o t , and l a t e r came t o s i g n i f y the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h a t s c a f f o l d . The term f i n a l l y comes t o i n c l u d e t h e e n t i r e e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Company r e c o r d s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r to the p r i n c i p a l t a b l e a u as the "pageant," the o t h e r s b e i n g s u b s i d i a r y "shows." I t s h o u l d always be c l e a r from the con-t e x t which sense i s i n t e n d e d here. ^ G u i l d h a l l MS 2463; p r i n t e d i n Nathan Drake, Shakspear- and h i s Times, 2nd ed. (1838; r p t . New York: F r a n k l i n , 1969), p.424. 5 Jean Robertson and D. J . Gordon,-.eds., A C a l e n d a r o f Dramatic  Records i n the Books o f t h e L i v e r y Companies o f London, 1485-1640, Malone S o c i e t y C o l l e c t i o n s , I I I ( O x f o r d : Malone S o c , 1954), p.58; h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as MSC I I I . c Of t h e t h r e e LMSs i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n , The Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ( h e r e a f t e r JJ_) p r o v i d e s the f u l l e s t a c c o u n t o f the p r o c e s s i o n ' s r o u t e ; I have a c c o r d i n g l y used i t t o f l e s h out t h e day's e v e n t s . For t h i s purpose I have i g n o r e d the problems r a i s e d by Munday's The Triumphs o f t h e Golden  F l e e c e (London, 1623) i n r e l a t i o n t o TI_, see pp. 174-6 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s . S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS i n Tudor and S t u a r t Times," G u i l d h a l l  M i s c e l l a n y , 1, No. 10 (1959), 3; "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.2. Robert W i t h i n g t o n , E n g l i s h P a g e a n t r y , 2nd ed. (1918; r p t . New York: Blom, 1963), I, 9. D r a p e r s ' Co. B a c h e l o r s ' Accounts 1615-91, f o . 88. g John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C.L. K i n g s f o r d ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1908), I, 101-3. A l l f u r t h e r q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . 1 0 D r a p e r s ' Co. Warden's A c c o u n t s , 1475-1509, +403, 7 7 a ; MSC I I I , p . l . The a c c u r a c y o f t h e " x i i j " i s c o n s i d e r e d i n MSC I I I , p . x i x . ] 1 S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.18. 87 ""Glynne Wickham, E a r l y E n g l i s h S t a g e s , II , i(London: R o u t l e d g e , 1963), 325-6 ( h e r e a f t e r E E S ) , c o n s i d e r s whether the Midsummer pageants might not be " s u r v i v o r s o f a London g u i l d c y c l e or c y c l e s . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e e v i d e n c e i s t o o s c a n t y t o admit o f any c o n c l u s i o n s . The t a b l e a u x c a n , however, a l l be p a r a l l e l e d i n the b e t t e r documented Royal E n t r y . 13 MSC I I I , p. x x i i ; L . J . M o r r i s s e y , " T h e a t r i c a l Records o f London G u i l d s 1655-1708," T h e a t r e Notebook, 29 (1975), TOO, 108." . 1 C a l e n d a r o f S t a t e Papers V e n e t i a n , 1520-26 (London, 1869), I I I , 136-7 ( h e r e a f t e r CSPV). T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n r a i s e s ; i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s about the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f the t a b l e a u x . The ed. o f CSPV s u g g e s t s t h a t "the t u m b l i n g g i r l , Salome, may have p l a y e d a more prominent p a r t than u s u a l . . . t o remind Londoners o f her mother, H e r o d i a s , ' f o r John had  s a i d unto Herod, i t i s n o t " l a w f u l f o r t h e e t o have t h y b r o t h e r ' s w i f e . ' " C e r t a i n l y , i t was j u s t a t t h i s time t h a t Henry V I I I ' s i n i t i a l qualms about h i s m a r r i a g e became p u b l i c ; a l l o t h e r d r a m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f John the B a p t i s t t h a t I know o f d e a l w i t h h i s p r e a c h i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s r a t h e r than h i s e x e c u t i o n . There i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a l l u s i o n to t he s i e g e o f B e l g r a d e , a l t h o u g h Sydney A n g l o , S p e c t a c l e , Pageantry and  E a r l y Tudor P o l i c y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1969), p.177, d i s p u t e s t h i s on the grounds t h a t t a b l e a u x such as t h i s c a s t l e a r e too common i n t h e Shows f o r any s p e c i f i c meaning t o be i n t e n d e d . The pageants o f S t . George and S t . John the B a p t i s t were p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e d by the S k i n n e r s and the "Merchant . T a y l o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the S h e r i f f s . 15 The pageant never a c t u a l l y took p l a c e , but i t i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as the f i r s t e.g. o f c l a s s i c a l symbolism i n a t r a d e pageant. T h i s honour may, however, b e l o n g t o the A c h i l l e s who f e a t u r e d i n the 1512 Show f o r S i r Roger A c h i l l y . T h i s depends on whether he was the Greek hero o r an o b s c u r e k i n g o f I c e l a n d , see F.P. W i l s o n , ed., A C a l e n d a r o f the Dramatic  Records i n the Books o f t h e London C l o t h w o r k e r s ' Company, Malone Soc. C o l l e c t i o n s , V ( O x f o r d : Malone S o c , 1959), p.4 n.2. 1 d r a p e r s ' Co. R e p e r t o r i e s 7, 642, 13 June; MSC I I I , p.32. ^ A c c o r d i n g t o W r i o t h e s l e y "the watche kept i n London a t Midsommer was put downe by t h e k i n g e s commaundement because t h e c i t i z e n s had bene a t g r e a t charge i n t h e i r muster; howebeyt the mayor and s h e r i f f e s had p r e p a r e d d i v e r s pageantes w i t h l i g h t e s and o t h e r t h i n g e s f o r t o have had the s a i d watche, and had no knowledge t i l l two dayes a f o r e Midsommer t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t be k e p t , which was a g r e a t l o s s e to poore men" ( W i t h i n g t o n , I , 42). Monarchs were f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t o the e x p e n d i t u r e o f the Companies on f e s t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f they were r e l u c t a n t t o pay Crown l e v i e s and dues. 1 8P.D. L u s h e r , " S t u d i e s i n t h e G u i l d Drama, 1515-1550," D i s s . London U n i v . , n.d. p.81. 88 1 9 D r a p e r s ' Rep. 7, 468-9; MSC I I I , p.21. 20 The p l a y s on the V i r g i n i n the York C y c l e were e x c i s e d i n 1548, see H.C. G a r d i n e r , M y s t e r i e s End (New Haven: Y a l e Univ. P r e s s , 1946), p. 61. 2 1 G a r d i n e r , pp.80-85. 22 B r i t a n n i a s Honor, Bowers IV, 83. 2 3 W i t h i n g t o n I, 124. 24 S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS i n Tudor and S t u a r t Times," p.3, from E. H a l l , C h r o n i c l e . (London, 1578), f o . C C x i i i v . 2 5 " T h e LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.208. 26 The D i a r y o f Henry Machyn, ed. J.G. N i c h o l s (London, 1848), p.47f. 27 P r i n t e d i n MSC I I I , pp.42-3; the eds. s u g g e s t t h a t R i c h a r d M u l c a s t e r may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t M u l c a s t e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n drama, d e v e l o p i n g i t as p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m o f Merchant T a y l o r s ' S c h o o l . T h i s s c h o o l sometimes p r o v i d e d the c h i l d r e n f o r the e a r l y Shows. 2 8Wickham, EES, II,/,240. 29 Stephen O r g e l , The J o n s o n i a n Masque (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1965), pp.129,194. 30 The most r e c e n t study o f c i v i c p a g e a n t r y , David Bergeron's E n g l i s h C i v i c Pageantry (London: A r n o l d , 1971), uses t h e i r d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s ( p l o t , c h a r a c t e r c o n f l i c t , d i a l o g u e , e t c . ) t o j u d g e t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e ; see a l s o Wickham, EES, I , 51-111, I I , 206-44. 31 Ben J o n s o n , ed. C H . H e r f o r d and Percy and E v e l y n Simpson, I I I , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1927), 107; a l l q u o t a t i o n s from Jonson w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n , c i t e d as H&S. 3 2 S e e p.226. 33 The J o n s o n i a n Masque, passim. 34 The J o n s o n i a n Masque, pp.32-34. 89 35 Les Fgtes de l a R e n a i s s a n c e ( P a r i s : C e n t r e N a t i o n a l de l a Recherche S c i e n t i f i q u e , 1956), I , 11. 36 B e r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , pp.177, 164 (Dekker) and pp.179,200 ( M i d d l e t o n ) . " S o u l " i s used i n both pageant and masque to r e f e r t o the p o e t i c and a l l e g o r i c a l e lements. The "body" was t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a r t i f i c e r . 3 7 " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," Modern P h i l o l o g y , 31 (1933), 75. op CSPV,"1617-19, XV, 60-61. The c o n t r a s t between i d e a l and a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r was sometimes a p p a r e n t a t masques t o o , see the H a r i n g t o n a c c o u n t o f the d i s o r d e r s a t the. e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r t he King o f Denmark a t T h e o b a l d s , E.K. Chambers, The E l i z a b e t h a n S t a g e , 2nd ed. (1923; r p t . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1951), I , 172. 39 Chaucer, "The C o k e s - T a l e , " Works, ed. F.N. Robinson, 2nd ed. (1933; B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1957), p.61. 40 John Aubrey, quoted i n MSC I I I , p . x l i i . 41 The f o c u s s i n g o f the mayoral shows on a VIP who i s both s p e c t a t o r and p a r t i c i p a n t p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e masque. 42 J o . Cooke, Greenes Tu Quoque (London, 1614), s i g , C2. 4 3H&S, V I I , 91. 44 Dekker, The M a g n i f i c e n t E n t e r t a i n m e n t , Bowers, I I , 255. 45 H 0 S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.200. 46 He was s a t i r i z e d i n The Case i s A l t e r e d , H i s t r i o - m a s t i x , and K i n d  H e a r t s Dream. M i d d l e t o n a t t a c k s him i n h i s 1613 and 1619 Shows and Dekker's 1612 c r i t i c i s m o f e a r l i e r Shows i s perhaps d i r e c t e d a t him. 4 7 S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.28. 4 8MSC I I I , pp.127,129. 49 Heywood, P o r t a P i e t a t i s (London, 1638), s i g . B3 V. 90 50 H&S, V I I , 735. I doubt i f Jonson would a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g h i s a n a l y s i s o f the purpose o f t h e masque t r a n s f e r r e d t o p a g e a n t r y ; c e r t a i n l y i n h i s p a r t o f James 1 C o r o n a t i o n Show he was concerned t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between h i s own c r e a t i o n and mere pag e a n t r y ( V I I , 104). N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f we s u b s t i t u t e the L o r d Mayor f o r Jonson's g r e a t p r i n c e s , h i s remarks a r e e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r the LMS. 51 "Of P r a i s e , " i n Works, ed. James Sp e d d i n g , R.L. E l l i s , and D.D. Heath, 2nd ed. (1860; r p t . London, 1870), V I , 502. George R. K e r n o d l e , From A r t to T h e a t e r ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f Chicago P r e s s , 1944), pp.72-108; Wickham, EES, I I , 209-225. K e r n o d l e , p.62; f o r R e v e l s O f f i c e payments f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c h a r i o t s , see Wickham, EES, I I , 296. Hens 1 owe's D i a r y , ed. R.A. Foakes and R.T. R i c k e r t (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1961) p.319. 55 The Quenes M a j e s t i e s Passage, ed. James M. Osborn (New Haven: E l i z a b e t h a n C l u b , 1960), pp..46-7; Heywood, Londons Jus Honorarium (London, 1631), s i g s . B2-B3 V. Be r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , p.267. 57 K e r n o d l e , p.73. 58 Wickham, EES, II,f,217, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f M i d d l e t o n ' s use o f the f o u n t a i n i n The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y ( h e r e a f t e r THP). In t h i s c a s e , however, M i d d l e t o n ' s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t extends t o the e n t i r e pageant. See Wickham, EES, II,i,221 f o r the g e n e s i s o f c u r t a i n s . 'Wickham, EES, I, 93-7, I I , 225-6. In a d d i t i o n , v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the pageants were sometimes kept by e i t h e r Company o r a r t i f i c e r ( s e e pp.54,93); t h e i r c o n cern f o r v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y may be a n o t h e r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n f o r the c o n t i n u e d use o f p r o c e s s i o n a l s t a g i n g . C e r t a i n l y , we know from M i d d l e t o n ' s The B l a c k Book (1604) what c o u l d happen to a n y t h i n g p o r t a b l e on c i v i c o c c a s i o n s . He d e s c r i b e s P i e r c e P e n n y l e s s ' c o v e r l e t as "made o f p i e c e s a' b l a c k c l o t h c l a p t t o g e t h e r , such as was s n a t c h e d o f f the r a i l s i n K i n g ' s - s t r e e t a t the queen's f u n e r a l ( V I I I , 25). 91 6 2 E . g . i n 1613, 1622, 1629, and 1635; see MSC I I I under t h e s e y e a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none o f t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s how many were h i r e d . C O C h r y s a n a l e i a , ed. J.G. N i c h o l s (London, 1844) 64 C h r y s a n a l e i a , p.12. 6 5 S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.70. cc EES, I I , 228. I t seems c l e a r from Wickham's notes t o the i l l u s t r a -t i o n o f the a r t i f i c i a l a n i m a l s from the A l s l o o t p a i n t i n g o f the A r c h -duchess I s a b e l l a ' s e n t r y i n t o B r u s s e l s , EES, I, 395, t h a t he bases t h i s a s s e r t i o n on i n f e r e n c e s from t h i s p a i n t i n g and a r e f e r e n c e t o a t o u r n a -ment c h a r i o t "drawyn w* f o u r e m ( a ) r v e l l o u s b e s t s . . . e v ( e r ) y oon havyng wt i n them two men" I I , 224). However, i t seems more l i k e l y t o me t h a t t h e massive a n i m a l s i n t h e A l s l o o t p a i n t i n g c o n c e a l e d wheels not men; f u r t h e r -more, c o n c e a l i n g the manpower w i t h i n a n i m a l s would be more p r a c t i c a b l e f o r a tournament o r i n d o o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t than a p r o c e s s i o n c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l m i l e s . fi7 C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , p.165. Cp We know t h a t horses i n tournaments were sometimes a l l e g o r i c a l l y decked. Nashe i n The U n f o r t u n a t e T r a v e l l e r , d e s c r i b e s the e l a b o r a t e t r a p p i n g s o f S u r r e y ' s h o r s e , d e s i g n e d to resemble an o s t r i c h , Works, ed. R.B. McKerrow, II ( O x f o r d ; B l a c k w e l l , 1958), 272-3. 69 Webster, Complete Works, ed. F.L. Lucas (London: C h a t t o , 1927), 111,321. A l l q u o t a t i o n s from Webster w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n . ^ M o r r i s s e y , " T h e a t r i c a l Records," p.106. 7 1 " R a p p o r t s du Poete e t de I ' A r t i s t e dans l a P r e p a r a t i o n des C o r t e g e s du L o r d M a i r e (Londres 1553-1640)" i n F£tes de l a R e n a i s s a n c e , I, 275. L o n d i n i A r t i u m & S c i e n t a r u m S c a t u r i g o (London, 1632), s i g . C 2 V ; r e p r i n t e d , ed. A.M. C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y ( O x f o r d : L u t t r e l l S o c ) , p.45. 73 L . J . M o r r i s s e y , " E n g l i s h Pageant-Wagons," E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  S t u d i e s , 9 (1976), 360. 74 I I M o r r i s s e y , "Pageant-Wagons, pp.368-9. 92 75 See MSC I I I e n t r i e s f o r t h e s e y e a r s . 76 Camp-bell (London, 1609), s i g . B2 V-B3; because o f t h e s e problems the speeches were d e l i v e r e d by S t . George and S t . Andrew, "men o f a c t i o n and a u d i b l e v o i c e s . " 7 7MSC I I I , pp.81,130. For Lowen see Edwin Nungezer, A D i c t i o n a r y o f  A c t o r s (New Haven: Y a l e Univ. P r e s s , 1929), pp.238-42 and G.E. B e n t l e y , The Jacobean and C a r o l i n e S t a g e , II ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1941), 499-506; H a l l : Nungezer, p.171 and B e n t l e y I I , 458-9; M o u n t s e t t : B e n t l e y I I , 515. 78 MSC I I I , p.128; B e r g e r o n , " A c t o r s i n E n g l i s h C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , " R e n a i s s a n c e P a p e r s , 1972 (1973), 27. 7 9MSC I I I , pp.87,108,115,123. 80 The C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s , which i n c l u d e d the Master and Wardens o f the Company, was drawn from s e n i o r members o f the L i v e r y o r C l o t h i n g . The Company's j u n i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the B a c h e l o r s or Yeomanry, was governed by f o u r wardens, s u b j e c t to the a u t h o r i t y o f the C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s . 81 F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1635 two p a r t i e s b i d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the pageant:- Robert Norman, and John T a y l o r proposed f i v e t a b l e a u x f o r -LI90 and John C h r i s t m a s and Thomas Heywood o f f e r e d f i v e f o r L I 8 0 . The I r o n -mongers a c c e p t e d t he l a t t e r b i d , see MSC I I I , pp.122-123. 82 The Merchant T a y l o r s and the Haberdashers c o v e r e d a l l t h e i r c o s t s i n t h i s way, MSC I I I , p . x x i x . 83 The L i v e r y o f the S k i n n e r s ' Co. g e n e r a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d about 2/7 o f t h e c o s t , MSC I I I , p.xxx. P.4 Drapers' Rep. +131, 116 a. 8 5 R e p . +131, 105 a. QC A.H. Johnson, The H i s t o r y o f the W o r s h i p f u l Company o f Drapers o f  London, IV ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1922), 91. 8 7 S e e p.332 and MSC I I I , p.xxx. 8 8 S . W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.54. 89 ° 3 S e e pp.107-9. 93 90 Johnson, I I I , 173-5. ^ O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s began i n June o r J u l y , but September, o r even e a r l y O c t o b e r , was more common. The Drapers began p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e 1621 Show on 19 Sept. 9? S. W i l l i a m s , "The LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.61. When the Wardens B a c h e l o r s had s e r v e d t h e i r term they were a d m i t t e d t o the L i v e r y . 93 The o s t r i c h from 1629 i s s t i l l a t Ironmongers' H a l l . The s h i p from the G r o c e r s ' 1613 Show, f o r i n s t a n c e , was retrimmed f o r the 1617 Show. ^ E . g . 1566, 1616, 1618; see MSC I I I e n t r i e s f o r t h e s e y e a r s . QC A.M. C l a r k , Thomas Heywood ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1931), p.112. Even a f t e r the R e s t o r a t i o n the w r i t e r r a r e l y c l e a r e d more than 18. 96 The b e s t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s i s Robertson's "Les R a p p o r t s , " pp. 264-78. Much o f t h e c r e d i t f o r the r i s e o f the w r i t e r must be g i v e n to Munday; i n c o n t r a s t t o Ben J o n s o n , who m e r e l y wrote the s p e e c h e s , he was a v e r i t a b l e f a c t o t u m . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r as p r o d u c e r i s drawn from Wickham, EES, I I , 242, I am n o t s u r e , however, t h a t h i s con-t e n t i o n t h a t the poet was p a i d more than the a r t i f i c e r i s c o r r e c t . The c o n t r a c t i n g t o them i n tandem, e s p e c i a l l y i n the 1620s, makes i t hard t o be c e r t a i n . " " T h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e s and by 1708 speeches a r e abandoned a l t o g e t h e r . 9 8Wickham, EES, II,i,242. 99 R o b e r t s o n , "Les R a p p o r t s , " p.277. ^ I n 1621 the Drapers bought "27 pownds weight o f cheese...7 dozen o f bread...a b a r r e l l o f b e e r e . . . a n d . . . p o t t e s t o d r i n k e i n . . . w h i c h was p r o v i d e d t o make a l l the blewe gowne men dyne i n the C e l l o r t o keepe them w i t h i n the h a l l u n t i l 1 the Companyes goin g e t o P a u l e s " (p.324). ^ W h i f f l e r s were o r i g i n a l l y m a r s h a l l s armed w i t h s t a v e s o r j a v e l i n s t o keep t h e crowds o f f . In t h e o r y , the s t a v e s were p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e by the 1620s. Robert W i l s o n , The C o b b l e r s Prophecy (London, 1594), s i g . C l v . 94 103 From an anonymous, humorous 17th c e n t u r y poem on the LMS, p r i n t e d in F.W. F a i r h o l t , L o r d Mayor's Pageants, P e r c y Soc. X (London, 1844). p. 263. 104 F o r t he d u t i e s o f the w a i t s on c i v i c o c c a s i o n s , see Wa l t e r L. W o o d f i l l , M u s i c i a n s i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y from E l i z a b e t h t o C h a r l e s I ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1953), pp.33-53. 105 U f f i n g t o n was a t e n a n t o f the Company and Snowden.was one o f the B a c h e l o r s i n foynes i n 1621. In 1540 t h e Co u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s o r d e r e d t h a t "the Company s h a l l a t a l l a s s e m b l i e s p r e f e r n e such as be b r o t h r e n o f t h i s f e l y s c h i p a f o r e a s t r a u n g e r i n a l l maner o f t h y n g s , f o r the wyche e l s e they s c h a l l d y s b u r s e any money, be y t f o r wares, workmanschepe, v y t a y l l s , o r any o t h e r thyngs n e c e s s a r i e , p r o v i d e d always t h a t t h e y may be s e r v e d as w e l l and as good chepe o f our s a i d b r o t h r e n as o f a s t r a u n g e r " (Johnson, I I , 76;from Rep. 7, 469). I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t t h i s p o l i c y was s t i l l adhered t o i n the 17th c e n t u r y . 1 gg Johnson, I I I , 10, n.3, c l a i m s t h a t M i d d l e t o n was a Draper. T h i s was scotched'by B a l d who p o i n t s o u t t h a t the Thomas M i d d l e t o n i n the Freedom L i s t was the son o f R i c h a r d M i d d l e t o n , not the W i l l i a m M i d d l e t o n who was the d r a m a t i s t ' s f a t h e r , " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," p.73 n.24. The t i t l e page o f t h e B r i t i s h L i b r a r y copy o f Dekker's T r o i a - N o v a  Triumphans has "marchant t a y l o r " added i n an e a r l y hand. The l a c k o f s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e makes t h i s d o u b t f u l . ^ M u r i e l Bradbrook, The L i v i n g Monument (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1976), p.84. 108 c . , ,. F a i r h o l t , p . n . 109 C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y , p.3. ^ S e e f o r i n s t a n c e , A n g l o , S p e c t a c l e , passim, arid Roy S t r o n g , S p l e n d o u r a t Court (London: W e i d e n f e l d , 1973), pp.19-78. ^ M a r g o t Heinemann, " M i d d l e t o n ' s A Game a t Chess: P a r l i a m e n t a r y -P u r i t a n s and O p p o s i t i o n Drama," E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y R e n a i s s a n c e , 5 (1975), 233-35, 247-9. She c i t e s William.Hammond, d e d i c a t e e o f the Malone MS o f A Game a t Chess, and S i r Thomas Myddleton who; she c l a i m s must have been a b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e o f the E a r l o f Pembroke, t h e l i k e l y p a t r o n o f t h e p l a y . 112 The Recorder and t h e Remembrancer were g e n e r a l l y r o y a l nominees. Johnson, t he h i s t o r i a n o f the Drapers i s a t y p i c a l i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n he g i v e s t o p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l h i s t o r y . The b e s t a c c o u n t s o f C i t y p o l i t i c s b e f o r e 1642 a r e V a l e r i e P e a r l , London and the Outbreak o f the P u r i t a n 95 R e v o l u t i o n ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d Univ. P r e s s , 1961), and D.A. W i l l i a m s , " P u r i t a n i s m i n C i t y Government 1610-1640," G u i l d h a l l M i s c e l l a n y , I, No. 4 (1955), 3-14; I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e a n a l y s e s . 113 T h i s i s a f l a w i n Heinemann's argument; she tends t o assume t h a t p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s were more s t a b l e i n the 1620s than t h e y i n f a c t were. I am not s u r e t h a t i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t because S i r Thomas Myddleton was a " s t r o n g P u r i t a n " (p.233) he was a u t o m a t i c a l l y a member o f the " P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n . " 1 1 4 P e a r l . p.60. 11 5 C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y , p.4. 116 R.H. Tawney, B u s i n e s s and P o l i t i c s under James I (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1958), p.79. 1 1 7 M u n , Englands T r e a s u r e by F o r r a i g n T r a d e , quoted i n Tawney, p.77. I I P C f , f o r i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m Cokayne ( L o r d Mayor 1619-20) who m a r r i e d h i s d a u g h t e r t o Baron Howard o f E f f i n g h a m , and S e b a s t i a n Harvey ( L o r d Mayor 1618-19) who, d e s p i t e t h r e a t s and c a j o l e r i e s on the p a r t o f James, r e f u s e d t o marry h i s daughter t o Buckingham's f e c k l e s s b r o t h e r K i t V i l l i e r s . Other L o r d Mayors w i t h c l o s e C o u r t c o n n e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d John Swinnerton (1612-13) and F r a n c i s Jones (1620-21), both Customs Farmers. 119 Tawney, p.284. C r a n f i e l d i s a good example o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f London p o l i t i c s ; h i s s harp b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s and C o u r t c o n n e c t i o n s made him many enemies among the a l d e r m a n i c Bench, but he was no f r i e n d t o t h e Cokayne p a r t y e i t h e r , and may indeed have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r James' abandonment o f him. R.C. B a l d i n h i s e d i t i o n o f A Game a t Chess (Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge Univ. P r e s s , 1929), p.11, i d e n t i f i e s t h e White King's Pawn as C r a n f i e l d . 120 Quoted i n D.A. W i l l i a m s , p.3. 1 2 1 C o r p o r a t i o n o f London Record O f f i c e ( h e r e a f t e r CLR0) Rep. 36, 2 0 5 v , quoted i n D.A. W i l l i a m s , p.5; S t . A n t h o l i n ' s was the most f a s h i o n a b l e P u r i t a n c h u r c h . I t s l e c t u r e s l a t e r formed the b a s i s f o r the o p e r a t i o n s o f the F e o f e e s f o r I m p r o p r i a t i o n s . 1 2 2 J o h n s o n , I I I , 70-72. 123 So i n 1627 we f i n d Barkham, Lumley, C o t t o n , H a c k et, Ranye, Abbot, and Garway among t h e Drapers w i l l i n g to l e n d money to C h a r l e s , Johnson, I I I , 119 n.3. 96 1 2 4 P e a r l , p.3. 125 Quoted i n Tawney, p.186. 1 2^Tawney, p.34. 1 p7 C l a r e n d o n ( q u o t e d i n P e a r l , p.71) commented a f t e r the R e s t o r a t i o n t h a t "the C i t y of London was (by the c o u r t ) l o o k e d upon too much o f l a t e time as a Common Stock n o t e a s i l y t o be e x h a u s t e d , and as a body not t o be g r i e v e d by o r d i n a r y a c t s o f i n j u s t i c e . " T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what the B l a c k K n i g h t c l a i m s t o have a c h i e v e d i n A Game a t Chess: "The c o u r t hath h e l d the c i t y by the horns / W h i l s t I have m i l k ' d her" ( V I I , 65). One s o u r c e o f resentment was James' l o t t e r i e s . On o c c a s i o n t he p r i z e s were t r i v i a l o r even n o n - e x i s t e n t . W i l l i a m H e r b e r t , The H i s t o r y o f  the Twelve G r e a t L i v e r y Companies o f London (London, 1837), I , 154, r e c o r d s t h i s amusing a n n o t a t i o n from t h e Merchants T a y l o r s Books, 1612: "One byrde i n the hand i s worth two i n the wood, / I f we g e t the g r e a t l o t i t w i l l do us [no] good." 1 2 9 P e a r l , p.72. 130 The f i r s t i s s u e a r o s e i n t h e 1570s and i n v o l v e d a d i s p u t e between Crown and Companies ov e r t h e amount o f r e n t charges f i x e d f o r l a n d s p r e -v i o u s l y devoted t o " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " uses. I t was not s e t t l e d u n t i l 1623 when s u b j e c t s were p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t a c c u s a t i o n s o f concealment by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t . Johnson, I I , 208, was not a b l e t o f i n d any t r a c e o f c o n c e a l -ment by t h e D r a p e r s , a l t h o u g h they were accused o f so d o i n g . In 1609-10 James persuaded t he Companies t o s e t t l e U l s t e r ; i n 1625 C h a r l e s I attempted u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o s e q u e s t e r the l a n d s , but i n 1638, as a r e s u l t o f Went-worth's I r i s h p o l i c y , t he Companies were f o r c e d t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r h o l d i n g s by o r d e r o f t h e S t a r Chamber. 131 The d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t e g o r i z i n g p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s o p i n i o n s i s a p p a r e n t here. Abbot, t he b r o t h e r o f A r c h b i s h o p Abbot, had e a r l i e r opposed government f i s c a l p o l i c y , r e f u s i n g t o pay t h e t a x on c u r r a n t s i n 1628, but by 1637 (perhaps as a r e s u l t o f j o b b e r y - - h e had been charged w i t h r e m i s s n e s s i n f i t t i n g o ut the C i t y ' s quota o f s h i p s and t h i s c harge was dropped i n 1637) he was c l e a r l y a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e K i n g ' s . S i m i l a r l y , Garway was a t f i r s t r e l u c t a n t to e n f o r c e t he c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e 1639/40 l o a n . 132 Johnson, I I I , 1414. There i s not d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s , b u t , g i v e n t h e i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n and Abbot's p o l i t i c a l change o f h e a r t , i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e . Garway's L o n d i n i S t a t u s Pacatus was the l a s t pageant b e f o r e the Interregnum, t he e r a o f l o v e , peace, and abundance b e i n g c l e a r l y over. 97 133 Johnson, I I I , 95. The Company's d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n away from the c l o t h t r a d e i s i n d i c a t e d by i t s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n any of the r a m i f i c a -t i o n s o f the Cokayne p r o j e c t . 134 Johnson IV, 96-102 a n a l y s e s the t r a d e s and o c c u p a t i o n s o f members o f the Comapny. 135 Quoted i n Johnson, I I , 236. 1 3 6 J o h n s o n I I I , 87-88, 191-93; t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s a r e a l l from t h i s s o u r c e . 1 3 7 H e i n e m a n n , pp.249-50. 1 oo L u s h e r , " G u i l d Drama," p.158. The companies i n c l u d e d the King's P l a y e r s , t h e P r i n c e ' s , t h e Duke o f N o r f o l k ' s , t h e Duke o f S u f f o l k ' s , John S l y e ' s , John E n g l i s h ' s , Thomas Y e l y ' s , D a v i d S o t h u r n e ' s , H i n s t o k ' s , and K i l l i n g w o r t h ' s . At times the p e r s o n n e l o f t h e s e companies seems t o have o v e r l a p p e d . 139 The r e i g n o f Edward VI marks the b e g i n n i n g o f the C o u r t o f Aldermen's a t t e m p t s to i n h i b i t p l a y s and p l a y e r s . In 1549 they a p p o i n t e d two S e c o n d a r i e s o f t h e Compters t o " p e r u s e " p l a y s (Chambers, I , 275). 1 4 0 Q u o t e d i n Wickham, I I , 84. 141 The L e t t e r s o f John C h a m b e r l a i n , ed. N. McClure ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1939), I I , 35. 142 Wickham, EES, II,i,237 and Bradbrook, The L i v i n g Monument, p.78; a t t h e same time t h e r e i s an element o f the C i t y a p i n g the C o u r t ' s m a g n i f i c e n c e . 143 C l a r k , i n T h e a t r e M i s c e l l a n y , p.3. 144 EES, I I , 238. 145 "Two 17th Century Semi-Dramatic A l l e g o r i e s o f T r u t h t h e Daughter o f Time," G u i l d h a l l M i s c e l l a n y , 2, No. 5 (1963), 212-16. 146 P r i n t e d i n A l e x a n d e r Dyce, Works o f M i d d l e t o n (London, 1840), I, x x i i i - i v . Note to p.370, Langbaine's Account o f E n g l i s h Dramatic Poets (BM) 1 4 7 D i a r y , pp.201,202. 98 148 Bradbrook, The L i v i n g Monument, p.94. 149 P e a r l , p.9, r e f e r s t o Munday as the o f f i c i a l C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , but I have found no e v i d e n c e t h a t he e v e r o c c u p i e d the p o s i t i o n . He d i d , however, undertake a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f work e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n -d i r e c t l y on b e h a l f o f t h e C i t y from a t l e a s t 1580 on. 150 u R o b e r t s o n , "Les Ra p p o r t s , " p.273. 151 MSC I I I , p.87. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t even i n such a u n i f i e d Show as The Triumphs o f T r u t h ( h e r e a f t e r T T ) , the G r o c e r s see the whole i n t h e o l d way as a pageant ( i . e . t h e p r i n c i p a l t a b l e a u , i n t h i s case t he Mount Triumphant) and s u b s i d i a r y t a b l e a u x . 152 The Company Q u a r t e r a g e Books (+259, 168, +261 , 163) r e f e r t o him o n l y as a poet and, i n f a c t , g i v e n t he i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t o f Drapers i n t r a d e s o t h e r than d r a p e r y , t h e l i k e l i h o o d i s s m a l l . In a d d i t i o n , a l -though Munday was a Draper by pat r i m o n y , h i s f a t h e r C h r i s t o p h e r was one o f th o s e members who were i n f a c t s t a t i o n e r s , and a p p r e n t i c e d h i s son. t o John A l l d e , t h e p r i n t e r , see Mark E c c l e s , "Anthony Munday," i n S t u d i e s i n the  E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e Drama, ed. J o s e p h i n e W. Benne t t (New York: New York Univ. P r e s s ) , p.97. 153 A-Munday, C h r u s o - t h r i a m b o s , ed. J.H.P. P a f f o r d (London: p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d , 1962), p. 45. 1 5 4 " T h e LMS from P e e l e t o S e t t l e , " p.142. 155 Quoted i n B a l d , " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," p.67. 156 B a l d , p.67, but see Dyce I , x i x - x x v i i f o r f u l l d e t a i l s . 157 The C o r o n a t i o n show was f i r s t d e l a y e d because o f the plague and then abandoned a t the King's i n s i s t e n c e . I CO Heinemann, p.255 n . l l . 1 5 9 C h a m b e r l a i n , I I , 578. l u u H e i n e m a n n , pp.247-8, i d e n t i f i e s as im p o r t a n t p a t r o n s o f M i d d l e t o n ' s the P u r i t a n s , Myddleton; W i l l i a m Hammond, d e d i c a t e e o f t h e Malone MS o f A Game a t Chess; and R i c h a r d F i s h b o r n e and John Browne, d e d i c a t e e s o f The M a r r i a g e o f t h e O l d and New Testament (1620). Y e t Cokayne, perhaps im-p r e s s e d by t h e j u d i c i o u s p r a i s e meted out t o him i n The Triumphs of Love  and A n t i q u i t y (1619); h e r e a f t e r TLA) was u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t -ing M i d d l e t o n as C i t y C h r o n o l o g e r , an i m p o r t a n t and l u c r a t i v e p o s t . And he d i d not b e l o n g t o the P a r l i a m e n t a r y - P u r i t a n o p p o s i t i o n . 99 1 C] See Rhodes Dunlap, "The Making o f The Peacemaker," i n S t u d i e s i n  the E n g l i s h Reriai s s a n c e Drama, pp.82-94. •j go One o f the most r e c e n t , D a v i d Holmes, The A r t o f Thomas M i d d l e t o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n , 1970) b a r e l y mentions the C i t y work (and then i n p a s s i n g , i n an a p p e n d i x ) , l e t a l o n e t a k i n g i t i n t o a c c o u n t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the d r a m a t i s t ' s achievement. 1 6 3 T . S . E l i o t , E l i z a b e t h a n E s s a y s : (London: F a b e r , 1934), p.99; t h i s " r e a l i s m " has become a commonplace i n M i d d l e t o n c r i t i c i s m . 164 B e r g e r o n , C i v i c P a g e a n t r y , p.200. 165 S. W i l l i a m s , "Two Semi-Dramatic A l l e g o r i e s , " p.213, notes the " c u r i o u s a m b i g u i t y " between w o r l d l y and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s t h a t t h i s g i v e s r i s e t o . 1 gg P a f f o r d , C h r u s o - t h r i a m b o s , p. 16. ^ " M i d d l e t o n ' s C i v i c Employments," p.76. 100 EDITORIAL PROCEDURES The p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i s a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Clarendon P r e s s e d i t i o n o f The Works o f Thomas M i d d l e t o n , eds. J . H. Kaplan and G. B. Shand (7 v o l s . , i n p r o g r e s s ) . The Crane MS o f An I n v e n t i o n has been t r e a t e d more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y and the p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d f o r i t i s out-l i n e d i n the t e x t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Text 1. The s p e l l i n g i s t h a t o f the c o p y - t e x t a p a r t from the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f modern forms f o r s_; j_, j _ ; u, y_; vy_ f o r w has been s i l e n t l y r e p r o d u c e d as w.. 2. D i g r a p h s i n Q have been i n d i c a t e d i n the t e x t b y ^ , e.g. a e g l e . T h e i r wide use i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M i d d l e t o n . 3. The p u n c t u a t i o n i s t h a t o f the c o p y - t e x t , a l t e r e d o n l y when c l e a r l y m i s t a k e n , o r s e r i o u s l y m i s l e a d i n g t o a r e a d e r f a m i l i a r with'Jacobean usage. A l l changes have been noted i n the a p p a r a t u s . 4. The c o p y - t e x t ' s use o f the query f o r e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s i n the form o f a q u e s t i o n has been r e t a i n e d . 5. The use o f the a p o s t r o p h e f o l l o w s the c o p y - t e x t even where p l a c e -ment does n o t c o r r e s p o n d to a m i s s i n g l e t t e r , e.g. ha's, e'm, do's. T h i s usage i s a common M i d d l e t o n form. 101 6. The c o p y - t e x t ' s use o f opening q u o t a t i o n marks t o i n d i c a t e s e n t e n t i a e has been f o l l o w e d . 7. A l l dashes have been n o r m a l i z e d t o --. 8. The s p a c i n g o f words, l i n e s , and s e c t i o n s o f the t e x t has been n o r m a l i z e d . 9. A b b r e v i a t e d forms u s i n g t he t i l d e and s u p e r s c r i p t c o n t r a c t i o n s have been expanded s i l e n t l y . The common a b b r e v i a t i o n s o f &, Mr., S t . ( f o r both s t r e e t and S a i n t ) have been r e t a i n e d . Other a b b r e v i a t e d forms such as L_. f o r L o r d have a l s o been s i l e n t l y expanded. 10. The c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t o f the c o p y - t e x t . 11. No attempt has been made t o note or re p r o d u c e the appearance o f ornamental i n i t i a l s o r o t h e r l e t t e r s , d i s p l a y o r swash c a p i t a l s , swash l e t t e r s , l i g a t u r e s , wrong-fount t y p e , broken t y p e o r t u r n e d l e t t e r s t h a t do n o t g i v e the appearance o f a new word. C a p i t a l l e t t e r s i m mediately f o l l o w i n g d i s p l a y o r ornamental c a p i t a l s have been s i l e n t l y r e d u c e d t o lower case. 12. I t a l i c s : the v e r s e speeches, which a r e p r i n t e d i n i t a l i c i n the c o p y - t e x t , have been r e p r o d u c e d i n roman i n o r d e r to a v o i d l o n g under-l i n e d passages i n the t y p e s c r i p t . Words p r i n t e d i n roman i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s o f the c o p y - t e x t have c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y been changed t o i t a l i c ; however, the i n i t i a l roman c a p i t a l o f the v e r s e speeches has been r e -t a i n e d . These changes have been noted i n the l i s t o f emended a c c i d e n -t a l s . O t h e r w i s e t he c o p y - t e x t ' s use o f i t a l i c s has been r e t a i n e d . 13. M a r g i n a l n o t e s and braces i n the c o p y - t e x t have been r e t a i n e d . Rules have been o m i t t e d . 14. Prose passages i n the t e x t have been i n d e n t e d i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h 102 the c o p y - t e x t . 15. Catchwords a r e not g i v e n i n the t e x t but non-matching catchwords have been i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t o f emended a c c i d e n t a l s . 16. L i n e numbers ( f o r e v e r y f i v e l i n e s ) have been s u p p l i e d i n the r i g h t -hand m a r g i n , commencing w i t h the f i r s t l i n e o f the d e d i c a t i o n and i n -c l u d i n g t h e head t i t l e and headings t o speeches. The l i n e a t i o n o f t h e s e f o l l o w s the c o p y - t e x t . 17. S i g n a t u r e s , have been s u p p l i e d i n the l e f t - h a n d m a r g i n ; a v e r t i c a l l i n e i s used t o mark the p r e c i s e b e g i n n i n g o f a page. T e x t u a l Apparatus Each e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s accompanied by: 1. A t e x t u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n d i s c u s s i n g the t e x t and i t s copy, p r i n t i n g -house p r o c e d u r e s , and any b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l problems a r i s i n g from t h i s . 2. A l i s t o f s u b s t a n t i v e changes and r e f u s a l s t o emend. Emendations by e a r l i e r e d i t o r s a r e i n c l u d e d where th e y p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e o r e s t a b l i s h an a c c e p t e d r e a d i n g . A l t e r a t i o n s made me r e l y t o r e g u l a r i z e M i d d l e t o n ' s v e r s e o r make the o r t h o g r a p h y conform t o modern usage a r e not r e c o r d e d . 3. A t e x t u a l commentary d i s c u s s i n g s u b s t a n t i v e changes, r e f u s a l s t o emend, t e x t u a l c r u c e s , e t c . 4. A l i s t o f p r e s s - v a r i a n t s , r e c o r d i n g c o r r e c t e d and u n c o r r e c t e d formes. 103 A l i s t o f emended a c c i d e n t a l s . i n rines* S O L E M N I T Y P E lormed through the Citic^at the fole coft a n d c h a r g e s of the Honourable and anci-ent Fraternity of D R A P E R S , at the confirmation z and cftablillunent of their moft Worthy Brother light Honourable, E D W A R D B A R K H A M , indie high Office ofhis Maicfties Lieute-nant, the Lord JMaior of the famous Citie o fLOTiT) &?(. &g b e g i n n i n g at m s L*on g&afcg* tudperfirifting itfelfe after his return© from rcjceiuing the Oath of Maioralty at W a s t-Hint T .B tt, oa the morrow after S I M O H and I v D s s day, being the 2 of Oftobcri x 6%u By T*o. M i -x> M i T o N \ Gent. A T L O N D O N : F i g . 9 NLS copy. E M N 1 kf&g:% . formed tlirdagb tl^^ti^dt: the fole c^aiid^argcsof^.Monourable andjahci-ent Fraternatyof X ) RhvzK^i&tte confirmation and tfcibliihmpoipfthdrmoftW«Khf Brother , the Right Hwmurable, EoW-fcfcD,B A R $ 6 A M , . HlthcfeSghOfficeoflasMaieftieSjLicutc-I P S g o i n g , ^ p o r f e c l f n g i t f e ^ i l t e f y s ' r a G U i ^ j i'jilM * T I a, cn dienmriowiirter S I K 6 U' ' :0flbber.r6ii. • ByTv&Mip$tt%6m Gent. A f L O N D O N l F i g u r e 10. Hun t i n g t o n L i b r a r y copy. 106 THE SUNNE IN ARIES C r i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n The Sunne i n A r i e s c e l e b r a t e d t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f Edward Barkham i n "the h i g h O f f i c e o f h i s M a j e s t i e s L i e v t e n a n t , t h e L o r d Maior o f the famous C i t i e o f London." In h i s c a p a c i t y as Alderman, Barkham was a l r e a d y one o f M i d d l e t o n ^ p a t r o n s (he i s one o f the d e d i c a t e e s o f Honourable  E n t e r t a i n m e n t s ) and the d r a m a t i s t was t o w r i t e An I n v e n t i o n f o r a f e a s t o f h i s some months l a t e r . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two men. 1 Barkham was a younger son o f a good N o r f o l k f a m i l y and f o l l o w e d a 2 s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r o f law and t r a d e i n London. He was a d m i t t e d t o Gray's Inn i n F e b r u a r y 1607/8 and became Alderman o f F a r i n g d o n W i t h i n i n 1610; froml621 u n t i l h i s death i n 1634 he was, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p r e r o g a t i v e , Alderman o f Cheap. He s e r v e d as S h e r i f f i n 1611-12, as L o r d Mayor i n 1621-22, and was k n i g h t e d w h i l e i n o f f i c e i n June 1622. He was o r i g i n -a l l y a member o f the L e a t h e r s e l l e r s ' Company and i t s M a s t e r from 1605-6 and a g a i n from 1608-9. However, C i t y custom demanded t h a t the Lord Mayor b e l o n g t o one o f the t w e l v e g r e a t Companies, and i t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t h a t Barkham be t r a n s l a t e d from the L e a t h e r s e l l e r s , a minor Company, i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s term o f m a y o r a l t y . He j o i n e d the Drapers i n J u l y 1621, and was Master o f the Company i n 1622-23. L i k e most o t h e r members o f the C i t y o l i g a r c h y , Barkham was p r i m a r i l y a r i c h merchant w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e commercial and f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n o v e r s e a s t r a d e ; he was 107 an i m p o r t a n t member o f the Levant Company. H i s son a c q u i r e d a b a r o n e t c y i n 1623, and Barkham h i m s e l f became a s u b s t a n t i a l b e n e f a c t o r t o h i s adopted Company. U n l i k e some Lo r d Mayors o f the p e r i o d , Barkham, d e s p i t e h i s t r a d i n g i n t e r e s t s , does not seem t o have had p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h 3 the C o u r t . H i s p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s were a t l e a s t m o d e r a t e l y P u r i t a n , f o r d u r i n g h i s m a y o r a l t y , as t h r o u g h o u t the 1620s, the C i t y government " o p e n l y s u p p o r t e d a c t i v i t i e s which smacked s t r o n g l y o f P u r i t a n i s m , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the f a c t t h a t the C i t y was s u b j e c t t o con-t i n u a l p r e s s u r e from two h i g h p l a c e s , the P r i v y C o u n c i l and the B i s h o p o f 4 London." I t was d u r i n g h i s term o f o f f i c e t h a t t h e C i t y government 5 s t a r t e d f i n a n c i n g the S t . A n t h o l i n ' s l e c t u r e s . Barkham's c h o o s i n g t o t r a n s l a t e t o the D r a p e r s ' Company d i d not immediately d e l i g h t i t s members and t h e y were v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t him. The prime reason f o r t h i s h o s t i l i t y was the u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s , L i v e r y , and B a c h e l o r s t o i n c u r the expense o f c e l e b r a t i n g h i s assumption o f o f f i c e . In a d d i t i o n , however, t h e Company f e l t i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y hard done by because i t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Barkham, as p a r t o f a f i n a n c i a l arrangement c o n c e r n i n g h i s house i n Dowgate which he r e n t e d from i t , had promised t o choose one o f t h e o t h e r Companies.^ The Drapers t h e r e f o r e s p e n t some s i x weeks a t t e m p t i n g t o r e f u s e him b e f o r e the t r a n s l a t i o n f i n a l l y took p l a c e i n m i d - J u l y . At one meeting o f the Company i t was r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l t h o s e who wanted Barkham "to be r e -ceaved i n t o t h i s companie s h u l d e h o l d e upp t h e i r e handes, noe one hande was h e l d e upp f o r him," but when t h e y were asked t o v o t e a g a i n s t him, then " e v e r y ; man h e l d e upp h i s hande" (p.317). The C o u r t o f A s s i s t a n t s o f the Company a c c o r d i n g l y endeavoured t o e x p l a i n t o both Barkham and the C o u r t o f the L o r d Mayor and Aldermen t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n had shown t h e s t a t e o f "the yeomandry t o be v e r y weake & t h e nomber fewe, the Chardge g r e a t e t o t h e Companie o f the yeomandry i f Mr Alderman Barkeham be o f o u r companie, & the s t o c k e o f t h e yeomandry as n o t h i h g e i n r e s p e c t e t h e r e o f . C o n s i d e r i n g e a l s o e the g r e a t e chardge t h i s Compan was L a t e l i e p u t t t o by the M a i o r a l t i e o f S i r Thomas Hayes & S i r John J o l l e s k n i g h t e s l a t e Maiors o f t h i s c i t t i e nowe deceased & the chardge s h o r t ! i e t o be e x p e c t e d when Mr Alderman Lumley & Mr Alderman C o t t e n maie come t o the o f f i c e o f M a i o r a l t i e . . . " (p.313). N e i t h e r Barkham nor t h e C o u r t o f Aldermen was a p p a r e n t l y much impressed. Barkham con-t i n u e d t o i n s i s t t h a t "he woulde never be L o r d Maior o f London ' u n l e s s he weare a Draper" (p.315), and, f i n a l l y , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e w r a n g l i n g and the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l the Drapers were o b l i g e d t o a c q u i e s c e . Even s o , they s t i l l hoped t o f r e e themselves o f complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h a r g e s o f t h e t r i u m p h : Whereas t h i s Companie by a u t h o r i t i e o f the Lordes o f h i s M a j e s t i e s moste h o n o r a b l e p r i v i e C o u n c e l l weare c o m p e l l e d f o r t h e r e c e a v i n g e o f Mr. Alderman Barkeham i n t o t h i s Companie Yet the s a i d Lordes f o r the m a t t e r o f chardge .touchinge the triumphes e x p e c t e d l e f t e t he Companie t o themselves not r e q u i r i n g e a n i e performance t h e r e o f a t t h e i r e handes I t i s o r d e r e d t h a t the Master and wardens nowe t o be chosen f o r t h e y e a r e ensewinge t o g e t h e r w i t h the nowe p r e s e n t fowre Master wardens and w i t h Mr. C a r t -w r i g h t e s h a l l r e p a i r e t o . t h e C o u r t e o f L o r d M a i o r and Aldermen and move.them t o t a k e suche good c o u r s e f o r t h i s Companies ease or fredome o f t h e m a t t e r o f chardge e x p e c t e d as a f o r e s a i d whereby t h i s c i t t i e maie not be d i s g r a c e d nor t h i s Companie 109 o c c a s i o n e d t o complaine eTHS where as t h e y w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t have byn Complayned o f / (p.319) In t h e end, however, the Company seems t o have found a l l the money i t s e l f . A ndalthough i t was u l t i m a t e l y f a i r l y g e n erous, the events l e n d some un-i n t e n t i o n a l i r o n y t o M i d d l e t o n ' s p a n e g y r i c on t h e l o v e t h a t the Company has by the pageant shown t o the new L o r d Mayor: " T h e i r Love i s showne / With a Content p a s t E x p e c t a t i o n : / A Care t h a t ha's beene comely, and a C o s t / That ha's beene Decent; c h e e r e f u l l ." (11. 277-280). The t o t a l c o s t o f the day's t r i u m p h s amounted t o something o v e r L.600. 7 The b u l k o f the money was r a i s e d from t h e Yeomanry i n the u s u a l ways: by e l e v a t i n g t w e l v e B a c h e l o r s t o t h e L i v e r y , by a p p o i n t i n g o t h e r s to s e r v e i n f o y n e s o r budge a t the a p p r o p r i a t e r a t e , and by f i n e s f o r exemption from s e r v i c e . The Wardens o f t h e B a c h e l o r s r e c e i v e d 1564. 06..08 f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s and p a i d o u t L.548. 04. 00. T h e i r Accounts break down the r e c e i p t s as f o l l o w s : o f M a ster wardens, 300. 00. 00 o f Rowland G r i f f e t h f o r h i s f y n e 013. 06. 08 o f t h e B a t c h e l e r s t h a t f y n e d 143. 18. 00 o f t h o s e as s e r v e d i n f o y n e s 075. 02. 00 of t h o s e as s e r v e d i n Budge 032. 00. 00 T o t a l R e c e i v e d 564. 06. 08 (p. 322) The a d d i t i o n a l c o s t r e p r e s e n t s the customary payment t o t h e L o r d Mayor o f 100 marks (4:66. 13. 04) f o r i m p r o v i n g h i s house. The a c t u a l payment i s r e c o r d e d i n the Wardens' A c c o u n t s : "Item p a i d t o Edward Barkeham L o r d Mayor by o r d e r o f a Court o f A s s i s t a n t s f o r the p a i n t i n g e & b e w t i f y i n g e o f h i s howse a g a i n s t h i s M a y o r o l t y L x v i 1 1 ' x i i j s i i i j ^ " (p. 320)« T h i s item b r i n g s t h e t o t a l c o s t of the c e l e b r a t i o n t o 4.614.04.01. In comparison Munday's H i m a t i a - P o l e o s (1614) c o s t t685. 04. 01 and M i d d l e t o n ' s o t h e r no Drapers' Company pageants t 7 0 7 . 18. 10. (Triumphs o f I n t e g r i t y ) and •L545. 13. 08 (Triumphs o f Health, and P r o s p e r i t y ) . Company p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e triumph began i n mid-September. A minute o f t h e Court o f A s s i s t a n t s , dated 19 September 1621, which has not p r e v i o u s l y been n o t i c e d by s t u d e n t s o f L o r d Mayors' Shows, r e v e a l s t h a t the Drapers f o l l o w e d the common p r a c t i c e o f o t h e r Companies by s e t t i n g up a committee t o a c c e p t t e n d e r s f o r the pageant. T h i s committee made i t s c h o i c e and then d e l e g a t e d r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e m a k i n g o f the t a b l e a u x and t h e o r g a n i z i n g o f the p r o c e s s i o n t o a n o t h e r committee headed by the Wardens o f t h e B a c h e l o r s : L o r d Maior Showes A b b o t t a r e e n t r e d e a n d ap-r e f e r r e d / p o i n t e d by t h i s Courte t o take viewe and c o n s i d e r a c i o n o f suche p l o t t s and t h i n g e s as a r e o f f e r e d t o be p r e s e n t e d t o t h i s Companie by s e v e r a l 1 persons t o u c h i n g e t h e pageants and showes i n t e n d e d t o be performed by t h i s Companie the d a i e as Mr Alderman Barkham i s t o be sworne t o the p l a c e o f M a i o r a l t i e and t o r e p o r t to t h i s C o u r t e o f t h e i r e d o i n g s t o u c h i n g the same (p.320) Presumably the committee found the " p l o t t , " "devyse," o r " t h i n g " o s u b m i t t e d by M i d d l e t o n and h i s p a r t n e r s t o be the most a c c e p t a b l e . The date o f the minute makes i t c l e a r t h a t a l l p a r t i e s must have worked w i t h g r e a t speed. T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d by a payment i n t h e Wardens o f the B a c h e l o r s ' A c c o u n t s : "Item p a i d t o Mr Walrond the M a r s h a l l t o p a i e a poore man f o r w a t c h i n g the Pageantes 7 d a i e s i i j s v j ^ , " s u g g e s t i n g C o n s i d e r a c i o n o f the p l o t t s and devyses f o r t h e Item t h i s d a i e the r i g h t e w o r s h i p p f u l l the Master and wardens w i t h Mr Raine & Mr t h a t work was l a r g e l y complete one week b e f o r e the date o f performance, i n October 29. T h i s would mean t h a t M i d d l e t o n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s had l e s s than f o u r weeks t o t u r n t h e i r " p l o t t " i n t o a completed pageant. The con-c e r t e d a c t i v i t y by a l l i n v o l v e d i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s e n t r y : "Item spent by o u r s e l v e s a t d i v e r s d i n n e r s & meetinges w h i l e s t wee s a t e and 1 i s weare d a y l i e ymployed i n t h e b u s i n e s x i i j xvj ." (p.329) Undoubtedly, the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the triumph must have r e q u i r e d most o f the Wardens' a t t e n t i o n f o r the month or so b e f o r e h a n d . The same Accounts show t h a t M i d d l e t o n , G a r r e t t C h r i s t m a s , and Anthony Munday c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the Company f o r t h e pageant. They were p a i d +.140 f o r the "makinge and s e t t i n g e out o f the Pageantes and showes v i z the one i n forme o r l i k e n e s o f a Mountaine one o t h e r o f a f o u n t a i n e w i t h a t r i p l e Crowne a t h i r d c a l l e d the tower o f v e r t u e o r the b r a z e n tower and the f o w r t h a C h a r i o t t drawne w i t h twoe p e l l i t e d l y o n s and f o r a l l Chardges i n c i d e n t t o t h o s e shewes" (p.322). T h i s payment s h o u l d be compared t o M i d d l e t o n and C h r i s t m a s ' r e c e i p t o f -kl50 f o r The Triumphs of I n t e g r i t y and -LI25 f o r The Triumphs o f H e a l t h and P r o s p e r i t y . The e x t e n t o f Munday's inv o l v e m e n t must, on such s c a n t e v i d e n c e , remain u n c e r t a i n . B e n t l e y l i s t s The Sunne i n A r i e s as b e i n g by M i d d l e t o n "with Anthony g Munday?"; however, t h e r e i s , no need t o go as f a r as t h i s . The e v i d e n c e o f t he p r i n t e d t e x t (pace S h e i l a W i l l i a m s ) i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r us t o c r e d i t M i d d l e t o n w i t h i t s w r i t i n g . Munday most l i k e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n s between the p a r t n e r s , and so may have been p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s "devyse"; he may a l s o have been i n v o l v e d i n the c o s t u m i n g , d e c o r a t i n g , e t c . The r e c o r d s f o r a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e Drapers' Shows demonstrate t h a t 112 w r i t e r and a r t i f i c e r were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most d e t a i l s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f th e pageant, f o r " a l l Chardges i n c i d e n t t o t h o s e shewes." The items i n the A c c o u n t s th u s r e f e r p r i m a r i l y t o the p r o c e s s i o n f o r which the Company i t s e l f was r e s p o n s i b l e . However, from the Wardens B a c h e l o r s ' Accounts f o r Barkham's triumph we l e a r n t h a t the pageant s t r u c t u r e s were b u i l t i n a barn i n W h i t e c r o s s S t . (perhaps t h e same as t h a t used by Munday i n 1623), r a t h e r than t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a c e o f t h e L e a d e n h a l l . The workmen were s u p e r v i s e d by C h r i s t m a s who would presumably have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n i n g the t a b l e a u x and a t t e n d i n g t o the more complex p a i n t i n g and c a r -v i n g . We do not know how many workmen were commonly employed; t h e Drapers g e n e r a l l y reward them w i t h 5/- f o r d r i n k . Study o f the Accounts f o r 1621, 1623, and 1626 s u g g e s t s t h a t t he b a s i c minimum reward f o r any s e r v i c e was 1/-, and t h i s would i n d i c a t e a maximum o f f i v e men. Payment f o r s c a r v e s t o M i d d l e t o n f o r Chri s t m a s (but not Munday) i m p l i e s t h a t both were e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o c e s s i o n . N e i t h e r o f the two e n t r i e s r e l a t i n g t o "the C h i l d r e n o f the Pageant" ( p r o v i d i n g t h e i r break-f a s t and recompensing t h o s e who had t o l o o k a f t e r them f o r t h e i r " t r o u b l e " ) i d e n t i f i e s them. In c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e c o r d s o f some o t h e r Companies, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any a d u l t s were i n v o l v e d , so i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some o r a l l o f the s p e a k i n g r o l e s may have been taken by t h e c h i l d r e n . O t h e r e n t r i e s i n t h e B a c h e l o r s ' Accounts f o r t h i s y e a r remind us o f the means used t o o r g a n i z e t h e p r o c e s s i o n : swordsmen, b e a d l e s , mar-s h a l I s , and greenmen w i t h f i r e w o r k s . A l s o p a r t i c i p a t i n g were thirty--two t r u m p e t e r s and an a s s o r t m e n t o f o t h e r m u s i c i a n s , some one hundred and twenty poor men c l a d i n gowns o f b l u e and y e l l o w and c a r r y i n g s t a v e s , t h i r t y - o d d s t a n d a r d b e a r e r s , a number o f gentlemen u s h e r s o r w h i f f l e r s , 113 and, o f c o u r s e , t h o s e deputed t o a t t e n d i n e i t h e r f o y n e s o r budge. Other a t t r a c t i o n s i n c l u d e d s a l u t e s o f ordnance and the C i t y w a i t s . The pay-ment t o Munday's son R i c h a r d p r o b a b l y does n o t r e l a t e t o any work done about the pageant i t s e l f ; a Draper l i k e h i s f a t h e r , as w e l l as a p a i n t e r -s t a i n e r , he was f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n r e f u r b i s h i n g banners and p i c t u r e s f o r t h e Company. The pageant i t s e l f c o s t a l i t t l e o v e r 4.150 or a p p r o x i m a t e l y one q u a r t e r o f the 4540 d i s b u r s e d by t h e B a c h e l o r s . David B e r g e r o n a s s e r t s t h a t t h e t a b l e a u x o f The Sunne i n A r i e s a r e o r g a n i z e d s i m i l a r l y t o t h o s e o f M i d d l e t o n ' s 1619 Show, The Triumphs o f Love and A n t i q u i t y , but a r e r a t h e r more e l a b o r a t e . 1 0 There seems t o be l i t t l e ground f o r t h i s ; t he S k i n n e r s ' Show was c o n s i d e r a b l y more e x p e n s i v e , c o s t i n g 4728. 04. 0 7 , 1 1 and f o r t h i s one would e x p e c t a c c o r d i n g l y more e l a b o r a t e t a b l e a u x . And t h i s appears t o be the c a s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, the f i r s t and l a s t t a b l e a u x o f The Sunne i n A r i e s a r e f a i r l y r u d i m e n t a r y and the t h i r d r e -q u i r e s l i t t l e i n the way o f s t a g e o r props. In f a c t , the e f f o r t s o f C h r i s t m a s and the b u l k o f the D r a p e r s ' money seem t o have been p r i m a r i l y employed i n the m a s t e r - t r i u m p h , the Brazen Tower o f V e r t u e : a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough s i n c e n o t o n l y does M i d d l e t o n t e l l us t h a t "Vertue b e i n g indeed as a b r a z e n w a l l t o a C i t y or Common-wealth" b r i n g s m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y as w e l l as s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g , but the d e v i c e i t s e l f has t o make a double appearance. Had M i d d l e t o n not chosen t o d e p a r t from h i s usual p r a c t i c e o f t i t l i n g h i s pageants The Triumphs o f p l u s the p a r t i c u l a r v i r t u e o r 114 v i r t u e s he had d e c i d e d t o c e l e b r a t e t h a t y e a r , he might w e l l have c a l l e d The Sunne i n A r i e s , The Triumphs of.Fame and J u s t i c e , f o r i t i s the i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s e two i n the person o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e t h a t p r e s e r v e s t h e peace and p r o s p e r i t y o f the commonwealth. Throughout the pageant M i d d l e t o n emphasizes t h a t i t i s t h e e x e r c i s e o f v i r t u e i n the h e r o i c t a s k o f j u s t government which l e a d s both p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s (who a r e " b e s t Knowne" t o t h e i r v i r t u e s ) and m a g i s t r a t e s (be t h e y L o r d Mayor o r s o v e r e i g n ) t o t h e reward o f Fame. I f Barkham i s s u c c e s s f u l (and the pageant does not admit much d o u b t ) , then he h i m s e l f w i l l , i n due c o u r s e , become one o f the l u m i n a r i e s who g u i d e s " t h o s e t o come." The a t y p i c a l t i t l e The Sunne i n A r i e s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s r e a s o n ; i t s t r e s s e s the c y c l i c a l , e n d l e s s n a t u r e o f the q u e s t f o r j u s t i c e i n t h i s w o r l d embarked on by each m a g i s t r a t e . D a v i d Bergeron has commented t h a t t h i s emphasis on the c y c l i c a l i s a t y p i c a l f e a t u r e o f c i v i c p a g eants, d e r i v i n g u l t i m a t e l y from t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the mystery c y c l e s , and a l l y i n g 1 ? t h e form c l o s e l y w i t h the h i s t o r y p l a y . In c o n n c e c t i o n w i t h The Sunne  i n A r i e s , he d i s c u s s e s t h e t y p o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e o f J a s o n and the r e f e r e n c e s t o the deeds o f former Draper w o r t h i e s . Jason and t h e w o r t h i e s a r e p r e c e d e n t s whose example the new Lord Mayor can do no'.better than t o f o l l o w : t h e i r " T r a c t s / ' T i s comely t o pursue a l l Thy L i f e s Race, / T a k i n g t h e i r V e r t u e s , as thou h o l d s t t h e i r p l a c e . " What Bergeron does not mention i s the e x t e n t t o which t h i s i d e a o f c y c l i c a l time u n i f i e s t h e pageant. In c o n t r a s t t o The Triumphs o f T r u t h t h e r e i s no attempt t o a t t a i n u n i t y through d r a m a t i c means. M i d d l e t o n s i m p l y p r e -s e n t s us w i t h f o u r r e l a t i v e l y d i s c r e t e t a b l e a u x , e x p l i c a t e d by s p e a k e r s who expound the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v i r t u e and government and a t the same 115 time honour the L o r d Mayor, who i s the c u r r e n t exemplar o f t h a t r e l a t i o n -s h i p , and the Company which, i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , has n u r t u r e d him. Per-vading a l l the t a b l e a u x , however, i s the n o t i o n t h a t t h e L o r d Mayor, by embodying t h e v i r t u e s o f h i s worthy p r e d e c e s s o r s , w i l l i n t u r n prove a guide t o h i s s u c c e s s o r s . The work o f J u s t i c e " l i g h t s i n t o a Noble hand t o Day, / And ha's p a s t many; Many more, i t may." M i d d l e t o n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the pageant emphasizes t h a t Barkham's i n a u g u r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the b e g i n n i n g o f a. new y e a r ; t h e sun has e n t e r e d A r i e s (as Barkham h i m s e l f has j o i n e d the D r a p e r s ' Company) and t h i s w i l l now prove "the S p r i n g time o f R i g h t and J u s t i c e . " The image o f the z o d i a c p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e f i c t i o n f o r b e g i n n i n g the pageant, a l t h o u g h i t a c t u a l l y took p l a c e i n October. At the same time the c o n t r o l l i n g a n a l o g y o f t h e sun, "perhaps the most u b i q u i t o u s and a n c i e n t p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s 13 image;"is i n i t i a t e d . The sun i s both Sol I u s t i t i a e and i t s i n c a r n a -t i o n on E a r t h , the m a g i s t r a t e , who owes "To J u s t i c e h i s l i f e s Flame, ( s h o t from Above)," and now must "cheere o p p r e s s e d R i g h t w i t h l o o k e s o f Love" (11. 242-43). A r i e s , which marks the e x a l t a t i o n o f the sun i s , o f c o u r s e , a most a p p r o p r i a t e p e r i o d f o r the new m a g i s t r a t e t o s t a r t h i s 14 t a s k . The image o f the Sun o f J u s t i c e i s one t h a t M i d d l e t o n uses e l s e -where. In The Triumphs of Honor and V e r t u e , 1622, a sun appears above the C o n t i n e n t o f I n d i a and the b l a c k Queen o f Merchandise e x p l a i n s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e : And as yon sun h i s p e r f e c t s p l e n d o u r shows, C h e e r i n g the p l a n t s , and no c l o u d s i n t e r p o s e , H i s r a d i a n t c o m f o r t s , so no e a r t h y p a r t , Which makes e c l i p s e s i n a r u l e r ' s h e a r t , (As i n t h a t g l o r i o u s p l a n e t ) must come n i g h The Sun o f J u s t i c e : a l l such m i s t s must f l y . ( V I I , 359) 116 The sun and the m i s t s which b l o c k i t a r e f a v o u r i t e images of M i d d l e t o n ' s , but they a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to the pageants he wrote f o r the D r a p e r s ' where th e y r e p r e s e n t t h e v e r b a l e q u i v a l e n t o f the Company's arms. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s p e c u