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The effects of dietary restriction during the growth period on rate of growth, mature body weight, tissue… Ballam, Gordon C. 1979

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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING THE GROWTH PERIOD ON RATE OF GROWTH, MATURE BODY^WEIGHT, TISSUE PROPORTIONS, AND ADIPOSE TISSUE CELLULARITY OF BROILER-TYPE CHICKENS by GORDON C. BALLAM B. Sc., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1978 (3) Gordon C. B a l l a m , 1978 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . P o u l t r y S c i e n c e Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n couver, B.C. V6T 1W5 „ ^ J a n u a r y 1979 Date J \ ABSTRACT Male and fema l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k s were s u b j e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n between t h e ages o f 0 and 14 weeks o f age. Feed was r e s t r i c t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e by l i m i t i n g f e e d c onsumption t o 30 m i n u t e s o f f e e d i n g p e r day. Growth r a t e o f t h e b i r d s and mature body w e i g h t s were measured. The p r o p o r t i o n o f o r g a n s and t i s s u e s , and a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and number i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s were d e t e r m i n e d i n mature f e m a l e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s : 1. Male and fema l e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age had s i m i l a r body w e i g h t s a t t h e end o f any g i v e n p e r i o d o f f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n . However, f o l l o w i n g ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g , t h e male b i r d s p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s , grew a t a g r e a t e r r a t e and o b t a i n e d a g r e a t e r f i n a l body w e i g h t t h a n d i d t h e f e m a l e s . 2. D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d m o r t a l i t y i n b o t h male and femal e b i r d s . There was, however, no sex d i f f e r e n c e i n m o r t a l i t y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . Cropbound b i r d s and b i r d s w i t h l e g weakness a c c o u n t e d f o r most o f t h e m o r t a l i t y . - I l l -I, D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age caused s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n t h e mature body w e i g h t s o f female b i r d s . The l i g h t e r w e i g h t s appeared t o be due t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e g r o w t h o f a l l t i s s u e s s i n c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l -w e i g h t s o f t h e M. p e c t o r a l i s m a j o r , l i v e r , t i b i o t a r s u s , r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s were s i m i l a r i n t h e r e s t r i c t e d and t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s . The t i b i o t a r s u s and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t were t h e t i s s u e s most s e n s i t i v e t o t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . S i n c e t h e w e i g h t o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t , t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e average, r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r a t 17-19 weeks and 40-43 weeks o f age, r e v e a l e d t h a t a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t o c c u r r e d i n a l l t r e a t m e n t s between t h e ) two ages. A d i p o c y t e s from t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t h a n a d i p o c y t e s from t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t r e g a r d l e s s o f d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t . D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n r e d u c e d t h e ave r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f ^ a g e ; and t h e e f f e c t on c e l l s i z e was s t i l l a p p a r e n t a t 40-43 weeks o f age. - i v -7. A d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t was s i m i l a r f o r a l l t r e a t m e n t s s t u d i e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h i s d e p o t was u n a f f e c t e d by e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . I n the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t , however, b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f rom 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age had s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a d i p o c y t e s t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s . Whether t h i s i n c r e a s e i n o b s e r v a b l e a d i p o c y t e s r e f l e c t e d an i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o r an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i p i d - f i l l i n g o f p r e - a d i p o c y t e s i s n o t c l e a r from t h i s s t u d y The d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s e t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n e x h i b i t e d by t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s may r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r p r o p e n s i t y o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t t o m u l t i p l y . - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . i i , TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES . v i i i LIST OF FIGURES ^ x LIST OF TABLES IN'APPENDIX x i -LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. . x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i v INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW . . 3 H i s t o r i c a l Perspective 3 Adipose Tissue C e l l u l a r i t y 11 Avian Adipose Tissue 17 The Influence of N u t r i t i o n on the C e l l u l a r i t y of Adipose Tissue 24 The Influence of N u t r i t i o n on the Development of Adipose Tissue i n the Avian Species 29 EXPERIMENTAL '. .36 I. Experimental Treatments . . . . 36 A. Management of birds 36 I I . Experimental Materials and Methods . .39 A. Determination of the average adipocyte diameter at 17-19 weeks- of age . 3 9 - v i -B. Removal o f or g a n s and t i s s u e s a t 40-43 weeks o f age f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t i s s u e p r o p o r t i o n s and f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and c e l l u l a r i t y . .42 C. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e av e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and c e l l u l a r i t y a t 40-43 weeks o f age . x . 44 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 51 I : The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on growth r a t e and t mature body w e i g h t s o f male and femal e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s . . . .51 I I . The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e m o r t a l i t y o f male and f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s 64 I I I . The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on egg p r o d u c t i o n from 24-38 weeks o f age 72 IV. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e mature body w e i g h t , p r o p o r t i o n o f t i s s u e s and a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and c e l l u l a r i t y o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s 76 A. Mature body w e i g h t and p r o p o r t i o n o f t i s s u e s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 76 B. The e f f e c t s o f age and e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n an a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e "depot , . ^ , 81 C. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e ave r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r a n d t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b i r d s a t 40-43 weeks o f age 91 - v i i -BIBLIOGRAPHY • . , 108 APPENDIX. 127 i j \ 'I i - v i i i -LIST OF TABLES T a b l e .) Page I C o m p o s i t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t . . . 50 I I The e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e body w e i g h t s o f male and femal e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s t o 14 weeks o f age — 54 I l i a E f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body w e i g h t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 38 weeks o f age . . -56 I l l b E f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body w e i g h t s o f male b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 38 weeks o f age • • • «56 IV a Growth r a t e , (m), o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n -62 IVb Growth r a t e , (m), o f male b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . . . . . . . .62 V M o r t a l i t y i n male and f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s •-: s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e 65 V I A c o m p a r i s o n o f t o t a l m o r t a l i t y between male and f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s from 2 t o 38 weeks o f age , . . . 68 V I I The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f cropbound b i r d s between 2 and 38 weeks o f age 69 V I I I The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b i r d s d e v e l o p i n g l e g weakness between 2 and 38 weeks o f age 71 IX a The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on egg p r o d u c t i o n between' 24 and 38 weeks o f age 73 IXb The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on egg w e i g h t s between 36 and 38 weeks o f age . . . . . . . . 75 X The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body w e i g h t , w e i g h t s o f s e l e c t e d o r g a n s and l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s i n b r o i l e r - t y p e f e m a l e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age. 77 - i x -X I E f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body w e i g h t , r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s o f s e l e c t e d o rgans and l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s i n b r o i l e r - t y p e f e m a l e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age .78 X l l a The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t d i f f e r e n t ages 83 X l l b A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showing main e f f e c t s on a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r (urn) 84 X I I c A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showing t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n homogeneity o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o -p e r i t o n e a l depot o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s w i t h age and d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . . 85 X I I I E s t i m a t e s o f t h e numbers o f s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s l e s s t h a n 30 um i n d i a m e t e r r e m a i n i n g . i n clumps f o l l o w i n g c o l l a g e n a s e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e b i o p s y samples t a k e n between 17-19 weeks of age. The numbers n o t e d were e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f 600 a d i p o c y t e s m e a s u r e d / b i r d . . 89 X l V a The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age 94 X l V b A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f t h e d a t a showing t h e main e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n and a d i p o s e depot on t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r ( u m ) . . . 96 X I V c A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showing t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n homogeneity o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s depot o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s w i t h depot and d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . . 97 XVa The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e t o t a l l i p i d , a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e volume and a d i p o s e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age 102 XVb The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e M. s a r t o r i u s and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b i r d s a t 40-43 weeks o f age • .104 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e • Page 1 Summary o f p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s i z e and t h e c e l l u l a r i t y o f a d i p o s e 3 t i s s u e . . 49 2 Growth r a t e s ' o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e . . . j 52 3 Growth r a t e s o f male b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e . i. 53 4 A d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t a g e s , f o r t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s s u b j e c t e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 87 5 P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f a d i p o c y t e i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t o f a c o n t r o l b i r d (69X). B i r d number 8023 98 6 P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f a d i p o c y t e i s o l a t e d from t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t o f a c o n t r o l b i r d / (69X) . B i r d number 8023 - 98 7 P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f a d i p o c y t e s i s o l a t e d from t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t o f a b i r d s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks o f age (67X) . B i r d number 8154. ' 99 8 P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f a d i p o c y t e s i s o l a t e d from t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t o f a b i r d s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks o f age (67X) . B i r d number 8154 99 - x i -LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX I S t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis comparing the body weights to 14 weeks of age, of male and female b r o i l e r -type chickens subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . . . .127 II S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the body weights of female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 38 weeks of age, previously subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . . . . . 133 III S t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis comparing the body weights of male b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 38 weeks of age, previously subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 134 IV S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the egg weights of b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens between 36 and 38 weeks of age, previously subjected to e a r l y dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 135 V S t a t i s t i c a l a n alysis comparing the body weight, weights of selected organs and length of the t i b i o t a r s u s i n female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 40-43 weeks of age, previously subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 136 VI S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the r e l a t i v e weights of selected organs and length of the t i b i o t a r s u s i n b r o i l e r - t y p e female chickens at 40-43 weeks of age, previously subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . Calculations were performed on " a r c s i n a" transformed data . 139 VII S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the average adipocyte diameter i n the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot of female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at d i f f e r e n t ages 142 VIII S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the average c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n of the mean adipocyte diameter ( r e l a t i v e dispersion) i n the re t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot of b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens with age and dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 143 IX S t a t i s t i c a l analysis comparing the average adipocyte diameter between the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s adipose depots of female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 40-43 weeks of age, previously subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 144 - x i i -S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s c omparing t h e a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r ( r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n ) , i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s w i t h depot and d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n - x i i i L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACTH a d r e n o c o r t i c o t r o p i c hormone o ' ' A angstrom - 1 Avg average BW body w e i g h t cAMP c y c l i c a d e n o s i n e 3' - 5' monophosphate DNA d e o x y r i b o n u c l e i c a c i d g grams I.U. i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i t I.C.U. i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h i c k u n i t meg microgram LH l u t e i n i z i n g hormone pm m i c r o n mg m i l l i g r a m s NADH n i c o t i n a m i d e a d e n o s i n e d i n u c l e o t i d e (reduced form) NADPH n i c o t i n a m i d e a d e n o s i n e d i n u c l e o t i d e p hosphate (reduced form) p i p i c o l i t e r s TSH t h y r o t r o p i c hormone \ - XXV -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r B.E. March o f t h e Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e f o r h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o my academic development. Her i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement a r e d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I would a l s o l i k e t o e x t e n d a f u l l measure o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r members o f my T h e s i s Committee: Dr. D.B. Bragg Chairman, Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e Dr. R.C. F i t z s i m m o n s Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e Dr. R. Reeves Department o f Z o o l o g y S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n Dr. J . B i e l y ( R e s e a r c h P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e ) f o r h i s encouragement i n my academic a c h i e v e m e n t s and f o r h i s h e l p f u l a d v i c e . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. Bragg and Dr. F i t z s i m m o n s f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n my p r o g r e s s and f o r t h e s t i m u l a t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h t h e y h e l p t o p r o v i d e . L a s t l y , i t i s my p l e a s u r e t o i n c l u d e a n o t e o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e t e c h n i c a l s t a f f and fa r m o p e r a t o r s f o r s e r v i c e so o f t e n and c o n g e n i a l l y r e n d e r e d . - 1 -INTRODUCTION The a d i p o s e t i s s u e can no l o n g e r be termed, as i t was by W e l l s i n t h e e a r l y 40's, " t h e n e g l e c t e d s u b j e c t " , ( W e l l s , 1940). R e s e a r c h i n t h e l a s t 35 y e a r s has e v o l v e d t h e c o n c e p t o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e , from, "an i n e r t s i t e o f f a t s t o r a g e " t o t h e v i e w t h a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e i s an i m p o r t a n t h o r m o n e - r e g u l a t e d m e t a b o l i c a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g o r g a n . Two t y p e s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a d i p o s e t i s s u e o c c u r i n many s p e c i e s o f v e r t e b r a t e s : w h i t e f a t , w h i c h c o m p r i s e s t h e b u l k o f a l l a d i p o s e t i s s u e , and brown f a t , w h i c h o c c u r s i n r e s t r i c t e d l o c a t i o n s such as t h e i n t e r s c a p u l a r r e g i o n and i s e s p e c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t i n r o d e n t s and h i b e r n a t i n g a n i m a l s . Brown f a t f u n c t i o n s as a s o u r c e o f h e a t p r o d u c t i o n i n a n i m a l s , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g a r o u s a l f r o m h i b e r n a t i o n . W hite f a t , t h e o n l y t y p e p r e s e n t i n t h e a v i a n s p e c i e s , s e r v e s p r i m a r i l y as an energy s o u r c e , as i n s u l a t o r y m a t e r i a l and as a p r o t e c t i v e c u s h i o n . I n t e r e s t i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e development i n t h e p a s t 10 y e a r s has f o c u s e d on t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f w h i t e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e p r o b l e m o f o b e s i t y . O b e s i t y r e s u l t s from t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e body o f e x c e s s i v e amounts o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The e n l a r g e m e n t o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e may r e s u l t from an i n c r e a s e i n e i t h e r a d i p o c y t e s i z e , ( h y p e r t r o p h y ) o r c e l l number, ( h y p e r p l a s i a ) . C e l l u l a r development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n man, r a t s , meat a n i m a l s and p o u l t r y , - . I n a l l s p e c i e s , a d i p o s e t i s s u e d e v e l o p s by h y p e r p l a s t i c g r o w th u n t i l one o r more s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s i n t h e development o f t h e a n i m a l a f t e r w h i c h f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n a d i p o s i t y r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y . - 2 -I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know whether a d i p o s e t i s s u e c o n t a i n s , a f t e r some p h y s i o l o g i c a l age i s a t t a i n e d , a f i x e d number o f a d i p o c y t e s , because i f s o , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l c e l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n by d i e t and t h u s c o n t r o l t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o b e s i t y can s u b s e g u e n t l y o c c u r . The p r o b l e m o f o b e s i t y i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e mammalian s p e c i e s . The c o m m e r c i a l p o u l t r y b r e e d e r s have l o n g been aware o f t h e p r o b l e m o f e x c e s s i v e f a t d e p o s i t i o n i n b r e e d i n g f l o c k s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s . The f o l l o w i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a d i p o c y t e s i z e and c e l l u l a r i t y o f a d i p o s e d e p o t s i n b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s . - 3 -LITERATURE REVIEW H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e A d i p o s e t i s s u e was o r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t o f as o r d i n a r y c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e i n w h i c h f a t had been d e p o s i t e d . (Flemming, 1871). The c o n c e p t t h a t c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e a c t e d as a s t o r a g e o r g a n f o r f a t c h a l l e n g e d t h e e a r l i e r v i e w s o f T o l d t • (1870). T o l d t had o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e was a s p e c i f i c o r g a n , e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t f r om t h e c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e i n w h i c h i t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d . However, s i n c e T o l d t c o u l d n o t show how t h e v a s c u l a r i z e d embryonic f a t l o b u l e s d e v e l o p e d , and he had no e v i d e n c e f o r t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e f a t c e l l , t h e c o n t r o v e r s y seemed t o r e s t i n f a v o u r o f Flemming (Hammar, 1895; B e l l , 1909; F o o t , 1912). R e f l e c t i o n on Flemming's v i e w s , i n d i c a t e s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s c o n c e p t , f o r i t i s known t h a t f a t does n o t become g e n e r a l l y and d i f f u s e l y d e p o s i t e d i n c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e human body, even i n o b e s i t y . The hands, t h e f e e t , t h e e a r s , and t h e n o s e , a r e seen t o undergo much l e s s t h i c k e n i n g i n o b e s i t y t h a n t h e a b d o m i n a l w a l l , t h i g h s , b u t t o c k s and s h o u l d e r s . The i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e was c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d by S t r a n d b e r g (1915). S k i n f r o m t h e a n t e r i o r a b d o m i n a l w a l l was g r a f t e d t o t h e dorsum o f t h e hand f o r t r e a t m e n t o f a b u r n i n a 12 y e a r o l d g i r l . L a t e r i n l i f e t h i s t r a n s p l a n t e d s k i n d e p o s i t e d f a t t o p r o d u c e a g r o t e s q u e b o x i n g g l o v e e f f e c t . - 4 -H i s t o l o g i c a l and embryological studies i n the 1920's supported Toldt's concept of the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of adipose ti s s u e (Rasmussen, 1923; I n g l i s , 1927). F i n a l r e s o l u t i o n of the views held by Toldt and Flemming was achieved when i t was demonstrated that adipocytes develop from non-differentiated mesenchymal c e l l s (Maximow, 1927). The key to the understanding of the development of adipose tissue was found to be i n the histogenesis of t h i s p r i m i t i v e organ. Studies from the laboratory of Frederick Wasserman from 1926-1931 gave r i s e to the hypothesis that p r i m i t i v e adipose c e l l s belonged to the r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l system (Wasserman, 1965). The concept that adipose ti s s u e i s part of the r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l system i s i n harmony with the gland-like h i s t o l o g i c a l structure of the adipose t i s s u e before f a t accumulation, and establishes the morphological basis f o r the complex metabolic a c t i v i t i e s of the f a t c e l l . P o r t i s (1924) demonstrated that the c e l l s of the omentum were able to form antibodies and that t h i s a b i l i t y was correlated with the occurrence, i n t h i s adipose organ, of aggregates of r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l c e l l s . H i s t o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s c e l l c l o s e l y resembled p r i m i t i v e adipose c e l l s , p r i o r to f a t storage. According to Wasserman (1926), the blood-forming function of adipose tis s u e could be re-established i n depleted adipose t i s s u e under appropriate conditions. An a d d i t i o n a l property of the r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l system i s that i t s c e l l s are capable of ingesting v i t a l dyes. D o g l i o t t i (1928) f i r s t showed that both brown and white f a t c e l l s stored v i t a l dyes, and t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y well seen i n c e l l s depleted of l i p i d - 5 -( M c C u l l o u g h , 1944). Bremmer (1938) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t even t h e t h i n c y t o p l a s m i c r i n g o f mature a d i p o c y t e s e x h i b i t e d t h e p r o p e r t y o f t a k i n g up c o l l o i d a l p a r t i c l e s o f v i t a l d y e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by H a u s b e r g e r , (1938) f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n c e p t t h a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e was d i s t i n c t f r om c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e and t h a t a d i p o c y t e s a r o s e from s p e c i a l mesenchymal c e l l s . H ausberger (1938) t r a n s p l a n t e d embryonic t i s s u e , from a s i t e t h a t d e v e l o p e d a d i p o s e t i s s u e , i n t o n o r m a l a d u l t r a t s and f o u n d t h e t r a n s p l a n t e d t i s s u e formed n o r m a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e . Upon s i m i l a r t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f embryonic c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e , no a d i p o s e t i s s u e was formed. The t r a n s p l a n t e d embryonic a d i p o s e t i s s u e was l i p i d - f r e e and was m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from embryonic c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e . The t i s s u e was r e c o g n i z e d by i t s s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n and development. Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h e h i s t o g e n e s i s o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e have s u p p o r t e d Wasserman's r e t i c u l o e n d o t h e l i a l t h e o r y , on t h e o r i g i n o f f a t c e l l s (Simon, 1965; Wasserman, 1965). D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were b e i n g c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o r i g i n o f a d i p o c y t e s , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s were d e t e r m i n i n g th e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r o l e o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e body. The d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t p i t u i t a r y e x t r a c t s caused an a c u t e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f a d i p o s e l i p i d ( B e s t and C a m p b e l l , 1936) , and t h a t t h e r e was a r a p i d t u r n o v e r o f a d i p o s e l i p i d i n t h e t i s s u e (Schoenheimer and R i t t e n b e r g , 1 937), i n d i c a t e d a more dynamic r o l e f o r t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n body m e t a b o l i s m . I n a r e v i e w a r t i c l e by Wertheimer and S h a p i r o (1948), i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e was a t i s s u e w i t h a s p e c i a l s t r u c t u r e and a s p e c i a l -t y p e o f c e l l . A t t h i s t i m e , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s were s u p p l i e d by a c o m p a r a t i v e l y dense c a p i l l a r y network (Gersh and - 6 -S t i l l , 1945), and were innervated by sympathetic nerve f i b e r s (Beznak and Harris, 1937). I t was also known that the deposition and mobi l i z a t i o n of f a t i n the adipose t i s s u e was an a c t i v e process, inv o l v i n g accumulation of glycogen (Tuerkischer and Wertheimer, 1942); and that synthesis of new f a t t y acid from carbohydrate, as well as the transformation of one f a t t y acid i n t o another, proceeded continuously i n t h i s t i s s u e (Schoenheimer and Rittenberg, 1937)• The discovery i n 1956 of c i r c u l a t i n g free f a t t y acids, the recognition that adipose t i s s u e was the main source of f a t t y acids i n the plasma and the demonstration that the l e v e l s of f a t t y acids i n the plasma fluctuated i n response to changes i n carbohydrate intake,led to the conclusion that the adipose t i s s u e was p a r t i c i p a t i n g on a minute to minute basis i n the accumulation and l i b e r a t i o n of t h i s metabolic f u e l (Gordon and Cherkes, 1965; Dole, 1956; L a u r e l l , 1956). I t was recognized that since adipose ti s s u e was the major s i t e of synthesis, oxidation, storage and release of f a t t y acids, i t was a major s i t e f o r the metabolic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between carbohydrates and l i p i d s (Wertheimer and S h a f r i r , 1960; Renold e_t a l . , 1960). The l a t e 1950's and early 1960's represented an explosive period i n the f i e l d of adipose ti s s u e research. A tremendous number of papers were published e l u c i d a t i n g metabolic pathways and t h e i r hormonal cont r o l i n adipose t i s s u e . By 1960 i t was c l e a r l y established that the metabolism of the r a t adipose t i s s u e was a l t e r e d by nearly every known hormone (reviews by B a l l and Jungas, 1964; and Renold, et a l . , 1965). - 7 -The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e r e s p onded t o such an a r r a y o f hormones p l a c e d i n q u e s t i o n t h e p r e v i o u s c o n c e p t o f t a r g e t t i s s u e s e l e c t i v i t y f o r hormones, and o f c o u r s e , t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f hormone a c t i o n . I t was n o t u n t i l a method was d e v e l o p e d by R o d b e l l (1964a), f o r i s o l a t i n g a d i p o c y t e s from t h e s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r f r a c t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e , making a d i p o c y t e s more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a c t i o n s o f hormones, t h a t a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e hormonal c o n t r o l o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e was a c h i e v e d . By 1965 i t was c l e a r t h a t hormones c o u l d be s e p a r a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i r i n t r a c e l l u l a r mode o f a c t i o n . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f S u t h e r l a n d , B u t c h e r , R o b i n s o n , and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , showed t h a t g l u c a g o n , ACTH, LH, TSH and •; c a t e c h o l a m i n e s a l t e r e d t h e m e t a b o l i s m o f f a t , g l y c o g e n and p r o t e i n by s t i m u l a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c y c l i c AMP i n i s o l a t e d f a t c e l l s , . (R o b i n s o n , B u t c h e r and Sutherland,.' 1967) . Subsequent r e p o r t s by B u t c h e r (1966) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i n i s o l a t e d a d i p o c y t e s , i n s u l i n d i m i n i s h e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c y c l i c AMP formed i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e l i p o l y t i c hormones. Recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown one e f f e c t o f i n s u l i n on t h e i s o l a t e d a d i p o c y t e t o be e l i c i t e d t h r o u g h i n h i b i t i o n o f a d e n y l a t e c y c l a s e a c t i v i t y ( R o d b e l l , 1970). D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e when i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were b e i n g c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r o l e o f hormones on a d i p o s e t i s s u e , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r s p e c i e s v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e o f a d i p o c y t e s t o hormones. E x a m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e from a number o f s p e c i e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t mouse a d i p o s e - 8 -t i s s u e was i d e n t i c a l i n m e t a b o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and hormonal r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h a t o f t h e l e a n r a t b u t t h a t t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e s o f o t h e r s p e c i e s s t u d i e d (hamster, g u i n e a p i g and p i g e o n ) , d i f f e r e d f rom t h a t o f t h e l e a n rat'= o r mouse i n one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s : t h e form i n w h i c h s t o r e d t r i g l y c e r i d e f a t t y a c i d s were m o b i l i z e d ; t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l e x t r a c e l l u l a r c a r b o h y d r a t e w h i c h was m e t a b o l i z e d by t h e f a t c e l l ; t h e c a p a c i t y t o c o n v e r t g l u c o s e t o g l y c e r i d e f a t t y a c i d s ; t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o g l u c o s e - t r a n s p o r t e f f e c t o f i n s u l i n ; t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e a n t i l i p o l y t i c a c t i o n o f i n s u l i n ; t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e v a r i o u s n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g l i p o l y t i c a g e n t s (Rudman and D i G i r o l a m o , 1967). I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e o f t h e a v i a n s p e c i e s was shown t o have n e g l i g i b l e l i p o g e n i c a c t i v i t y ; t o be u n r e s p o n s i v e t o i n s u l i n ; and t o be h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e l i p o l y t i c a c t i o n o f g l u c a g o n ( G o o d r i d g e , 1964; L e v e i l l e e t a l . , 1968; Hazelwood, 1971). I n t h e 1970's r e s e a r c h on a d i p o s e t i s s u e has f o c u s e d on i t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n o b e s i t y . A d i p o s e t i s s u e development i n a n i m a l s and humans, has been shown t o r e s u l t from a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y u n t i l s e x u a l m a t u r i t y , a f t e r w h i c h t i m e a d i p o s e e n l a r g e m e n t c o n t i n u e s s o l e l y by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y ( H i r s c h and Han, 1969; H i r s c h , 1972). The a d i p o s e t i s s u e c o n s i s t s o f two b a s i c c e l l t y p e s , t h e a d i p o c y t e and t h e s t r o m a l v a s c u l a r c e l l s ( c a p i l l a r y , e n d o t h e l i a l , mast, macrophage, and e p i t h e l i a l c e l l s ) . The a d i p o s e o r g a n i s h i g h l y v a s c u l a r i z e d so t h a t few f a t c e l l s escape c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a t l e a s t - 9 -one c a p i l l a r y (Wertheimer and S h a p i r o , 1948), and i s i n n e r v a t e d by a network o f n e r v e s (Gersh and S t i l l , 1 948). I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by R o d b e l l (1964b) have shown t h a t t h e s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r f r a c t i o n o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e c o n t a i n s 35% o f t h e DNA and 50% o f t h e p r o t e i n i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The f i r s t a d i p o s e c e l l s appear i n t h e " p r e s t r u c t u r a l " t e r r i t o r i e s , t h e mesenchymatous l o b u l e s (Hausberger, 1938). The b e g i n n i n g o f a d i p o g e n e s i s o c c u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p e n e t r a t i o n o f c a p i l l a r y buds i n t o t h e l o b u l e . The p r i m i t i v e f a t c e l l s o r p r e a d i p o c y t e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e from r e t i c u l a r c e l l s , n o t from p r e - e x i s t e n t f i b r o b l a s t s (Wasserman, 1965; P o z n a n s k i , e t a l _ . , 1973). The c y t o l o g i c a l change i n a c e l l as i t p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f w h i t e f a t c e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was c o n c i s e l y r e v i e w e d by N a p o l i t a n o (1965). "There i s a change i n shape o f t h e c e l l , from t h e s p i n d l e - s h a p e d f i b r o b l a s t -l i k e s t r u c t u r e t o t h e n e a r l y s p h e r i c a l form o f a mature a d i p o s e c e l l . T here i s an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g a c c u m u l a t i o n o f l i p i d , f i r s t as s m a l l i n c l u s i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d t o w a r d one p o l e o f t h e c e l l and f i n a l l y as l a r g e l i p i d masses i n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n o f t h e c e l l . As t h e p r e a d i p o c y t e a c c u m u l a t e s more and more l i p i d , t h e d r o p l e t s f u s e and s u r r o u n d t h e n u c l e u s w h i c h r e m a i n s c e n t r a l . I n i t i a l l y a l l m i t o c h o n d r i a a r e o f s p h e r i c a l shape, b u t as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p r o g r e s s e s more f i l a m e n t o u s forms a r e o b s e r v e d . The e n d o p l a s m i c r e t i c u l u m i s abundant and h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n t h e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s b u t by t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e , i t s o r g a n i z e d form has d i s a p p e a r e d and i t now o c c u r s o n l y as s h o r t d i s c r e t e s e c t i o n s o f g r a n u l a t e d membrane l y i n g s c a t t e r e d i n t h e c y t o p l a s m . The G o l g i a p p a r a t u s i s n e v e r v e r y p r o m i n e n t i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g - 10 -a d i p o s e c e l l . G l y c o g e n i s f i r s t o b s e r v e d a t m i d s t a g e i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a p p e a r i n g as an a g g r e g a t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200-300 R i n d i a m e t e r i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f l i p i d d r o p l e t s . Towards t h e end o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h e n u c l e u s becomes f l a t t e n e d a t one s i d e o f t h e c e l l , and t h e l a r g e a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f l i p i d appear t o c o a l e s c e i n t h e c e n t e r . U l t i m a t e l y t h e c e l l d i s p l a y s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mature s i g n e t -r i n g shape a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mature a d i p o s e t i s s u e . " The mature l i p i d l a d e n a d i p o c y t e i s u n a b l e t o d i v i d e (Cameron and S e n e v i r a t n e , 1947; G r o s s , 1966). T h e r e f o r e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y development o f t h e t i s s u e , p r o c e e d s by a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t and/or a d i p o c y t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o r l i p i d - f a i l i n g o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s ( H i r s c h , 1972). H o l l e n b e r g and V o s t (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t when a d i p o s e t i s s u e was removed f r o m r a t s i n t h e i r p o s t w e a n i n g , p r e p u b e r t a l g r o w t h p e r i o d 3 0-2 days a f t e r an i n j e c t i o n w i t h ( H ) - t h y m i d i n e , l e s s t h a n 1% o f t h e r a d i o a c t i v i t y was p r e s e n t i n t h e a d i p o c y t e f r a c t i o n . However, d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g 2-5 d a y s , t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e a d i p o c y t e f r a c t i o n r o s e . A s i m i l a r e f f e c t , i n i n v i t r o c u l t u r e d a d i p o s e t i s s u e from r a t s a t weaning was a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d ; t h e r e was a s l i g h t r i s e i n DNA s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e a d i p o c y t e f r a c t i o n a f t e r 3 d a y s ( F r o h l i c h e_t a l . , 1972). These s t u d i e s ( H o l l e n b e r g and V o s t , 1968; and F r o h l i c h e t a l . , 1972) were i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t w i t h i n t h e s t r o m a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e , t h e r e a r e p r i m o r d i a l a d i p o s e c e l l s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o new a d i p o c y t e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f p r e p u b e r t a l g r o w t h . - 11 -In the adult, however, i t i s uncertain whether or not preadipocyte m u l t i p l i c a t i o n occurs. Although some forms of obesity i n man and animals are characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia (Hirsch e_t a l . , 1966; Salans et a l . , 1968), i t i s generally agreed that i n the "normal adipose t i s s u e " m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of preadipocytes i s r e s t r i c t e d to the period of prepubertal growth, and that once sexual maturity i s reached, adipose ti s s u e expansion proceeds s o l e l y by adipocyte hypertrophy or by l i p i d f i l l i n g of preadipocytes (Greenwood and Hirsch, 1974). Adipose Tissue C e l l u l a r i t y Mature adipocytes are often considered to be "non-mitotic" c e l l s and therefore may have a f i x e d number i n the adult animal, even though each c e l l remains capable of great change i n si z e (Cameron and Seneviratne, 1947; Simon, 1965; Gross, 1966). A study of the p o s s i b i l i t y of f i xed adipocyte number i n adult organisms i s of general b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t as well as c l i n i c a l relevance, since i t has been shown that some obese i n d i v i d u a l s have a great increase i n adipocyte number, (Hirsch et_ al_. , 1966) and also, that adipocyte si z e and numbers are important parameters of adipose t i s s u e metabolism (Salans et a l . , 1968). Furthermore, i t i s important to know whether adipose depots contain, a f t e r some p h y s i o l o g i c a l age i s attained, a f i x e d number of adipocytes; because i f so, i t may be possible to control adipocyte m u l t i p l i c a t i o n by early d i etary manipulation and thus c o n t r o l the extent to which obesity can subsequently occur. - 12 -The s i z e a c h i e v e d by a p a r t i c u l a r a d i p o s e d e p o t depends upon t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s , t h e s i z e o f t h e a d i p o c y t e s , and t h e e x t e n t o f s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r t i s s u e ( Z i n g e t a l . , 1961, 1962; Enesco and L e b l o n d , 1962); and i s t h u s i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g e i t h e r a d i p o c y t e d i v i s i o n and/or a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t . I n v e s t i g a t o r s , have been p u z z l e d as t o w h e t h e r , i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l , a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a c o n t r i b u t e s t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The e a r l y s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s p r o b l e m gave e q u i v o c a l r e s u l t s . Reh, i n h i s h i s t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f human a d i p o s e t i s s u e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t n u t r i t i o n a l e f f e c t s i n d u c e g r e a t changes i n c e l l s i z e , t h u s e m p h a s i z i n g c e l l e n l a r g e m e n t o r h y p e r t r o p h y as a mechanism f o r c h a n g i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e a d u l t a d i p o s e o r g a n (Reh, 1953). Enesco and L e b l o n d (1962), Peckman, Entenman and C a r r o l (1962), as w e l l as Z i n g , A n g e l and S t e i n b e r g (1961, 1962), c o n c l u d e d t h a t changes i n b o t h c e l l s i z e and c e l l number c o u l d o c c u r i n a d u l t r a t s . These i n v e s t i g a t o r s u s e d e i t h e r t o t a l f a t - f r e e d r y w e i g h t s o f t i s s u e o r t o t a l DNA c o n t e n t o f t h e t i s s u e as a measure o f c e l l u l a r i t y . I n t h e l i g h t o f r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , however, t h e i r f i n d i n g s must be r e - e v a l u a t e d . Modern methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y have i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e DNA i s p r e s e n t i n t h e s u p p o r t i v e t i s s u e m a t r i x ( s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r c e l l s ) b u t n o t i n t h e a d i p o c y t e s ( R o d b e l l , 1964b; H i r s c h and Han, 1969). A method f o r i s o l a t i n g a d i p o c y t e s from t h e s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r t i s s u e o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t was d e v e l o p e d by R o d b e l l (1964a), and f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e p e r m i t t e d a d i r e c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y . - 13 -Two o f t h e major t e c h n i q u e s f o r m e a s u r i n g a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y , d e v e l o p e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s by R o d b e l l , were t h e m i c r o s c o p i c t e c h n i q u e (Bray, 1969) and t h e osmium f i x a t i o n t e c h n i q u e o f H i r s c h and G a l l i a n (1968). These t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y , a l t h o u g h t h e f o r m e r has had subsequent m o d i f i c a t i o n ( D i G i r o l a m o e t a l . , 1971; Lavau e t a l . , 1977). G o l d r i c k (1967) s u g g e s t e d , from h i s t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , t h a t a d u l t r a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e grew by c e l l u l a r e n l a r g e m e n t . T h i s was i m m e d i a t e l y c o n f i r m e d by H i r s c h and Han (1969), who, u s i n g t h e osmium f i x a t i o n t e c h n i q u e o f H i r s c h and G a l l i a n (1968), d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r a t e p i d i d y m a l a d i p o s e depot grew by an i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e s i z e and number u n t i l 15 weeks o f age when t h e i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e number ceased and f u r t h e r change i n d e p o t s i z e o c c u r r e d by a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t . T h i s was s u p p o r t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t s o f Johnson et. a l _ . , (1971) , who d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e e p i d i d y m a l and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f r a t s grew by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y u n t i l t h e 1 4 t h week o f age, when t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s became f i x e d and f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n d e p o t s i z e o c c u r r e d by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y . S i m i l a r s t u d i e s on t h e h y p e r p l a s t i c and h y p e r t r o p h i c n a t u r e o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e have been u n d e r t a k e n i n man (Sims e t a l . , 1968; H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1971; B j o r n t r o p and S j o s t r o m , 1971) r a t s , (Hubbard and Matthew, 1971; H i r s c h and G a l l i a n , 1968; Johnson e t a l . , 1971; Lau e t a l . , 1976) mice (Johnson and H i r s c h , 1 9 7 2 ) . c a t t l e , (Hood and A l l e n , 1973, A l l e n , 1976) s w i n e , (Anderson and Kauffman, 1973; - 14 -Hood and A l l e n , 1977) c h i c k e n s , ( P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1976) and d u c k s , (Evans, 1972b). From t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e above s t u d i e s i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e p o s t n a t a l , p r e p u b e r t a l growth p e r i o d a d i p o s e t i s s u e d e v e l o p s by b o t h h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y . When s e x u a l m a t u r i t y i s r e a c h e d , a maximum number o f a d i p o c y t e s i s a t t a i n e d and f u r t h e r growth i s a r e s u l t o f a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a d i p o c y t e p r o l i f e r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s have shown t h a t i n obese a n i m a l s , i n c l u d i n g man, r e d u c t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s i z e does n o t r e d u c e c e l l number ( H i r s c h and Han,- 1969; H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970); l e n d i n g f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f a c o n s t a n t a d i p o c y t e number i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y i n meat a n i m a l s , have shown t h a t t h e r e i s v a r i a b i l i t y i n the s i z e and number o f a d i p o c y t e s among th e a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f t h e s e a n i m a l s ( A l l e n , 1976; Hood and A l l e n , 1977). I n t h e p o r c i n e a n i m a l , s u b c u t a n e o u s , i n t e r s c a p u l a r and t h i g h a d i p o c y t e s had t h e s m a l l e s t mean d i a m e t e r and t h e p e r i r e n a l a d i p o c y t e s had t h e l a r g e s t mean d i a m e t e r , (Anderson, et_ a l _ . , 1972). On t h e o t h e r hand Hood, and A l l e n (1977), d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r o f t h e m i d d l e back f a t subcutaneous f a t l a y e r , was s i m i l a r t o t h e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r o f t h e p e r i r e n a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e . I t a ppears t h a t t h e p e r i r e n a l a d i p o c y t e s o f the o v i n e (Haugebak e t a l _ . , 1974) and b o v i n e (Hood and A l l e n , 1973) a r e a l s o l a r g e r t h a n the subcutaneous a d i p o c y t e s . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d i p o c y t e s i z e s between a d i p o s e d e p o t s have been o b s e r v e d i n r a t s and man ( B j u r u l f , 1959; Lemmonier, 1972; Johnson & H i r s c h , 1972; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1971; B r o o k , 1971). - 15 -There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y among a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f t h e same s p e c i e s i n t h e t i m e a t w h i c h h y p e r p l a s i a i n t h e d e p o t s c e a s e s and development c o n t i n u e s by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y (Hood and A l l e n , 1973; Anderson and Kauffman, 1973) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t e r d e p o t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e h y p e r p l a s i a , i t appears t h a t i n t h e b o v i n e (Hood and A l l e n , 1973) and p o r c i n e (Anderson and Kauffman, 1973; Hood and A l l e n , 1977) s p e c i e s a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a i s a r e l a t i v e l y more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f l i p i d i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , i n v e r y obese a n i m a l s , a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a may n o t be complete i n t h e sub-c u t a n e o u s depot o f t h e b o v i n e a n i m a l by 14 months o f age (Hood and A l l e n , 1973) o r i n t h e t o t a l c a r c a s s a d i p o s e t i s s u e o f t h e p o r c i n e a n i m a l by 5 months o f age (Anderson and Kauffman, 1973) . The r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s w i t h meat a n i m a l s , when c o u p l e d w i t h t h e s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n obese and nonobese i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e same s p e c i e s , ( B j u r l f , 1959; B r a y , 1969; H a u s b e r g e r , 1965; H e r b e r g e t a l . , 1974; H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970; H i r s c h e t a l . , 1966; Johnson e t a l . , 1971) t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t i n t h e s t a g e o f development beyond w h i c h no i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e number o c c u r s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e mature a d u l t p a y n o t be f i x e d J P l n l o r d e r . . t o i n t e r p r e t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n obese i n d i v i d u a l s , o b e s i t y has been c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e : e i t h e r h y p e r p l a s t i c o b e s i t y u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n e a r l y l i f e when a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a i s a c t i v e ( H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1971); o r h y p e r t r o p h i c o b e s i t y w h i c h o c c u r s i n the s e x u a l l y mature a d u l t a f t e r a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a has c e a s e d (Sims et. a l _ . , 1968; H i r s c h and Han, 1969; B j o r n t o r p and S j o s t r o m , 1971). H y p e r p l a s t i c o b e s i t y i n v o l v e s a d i p o c y t e - 16 -h y p e r t r o p h y -- b u t h y p e r t r o p h i c o b e s i t y n e v e r i n v o l v e s a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a . H y p e r p l a s t i c o b e s i t y a l s o i n c l u d e s t h o s e forms o f g e n e t i c o b e s i t y i n w h i c h t h e r e i s b o t h a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y ( B r a y , 1969; H a u sberger, 1965; H i r s c h et_ a l _ . , 1966; Lemmonier, 1972; Johnson and H i r s c h , 1972; J o h nson e t a l . , 1971; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1968; W a l k l e y e t a l . , 1978). C o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a d i p o s e c e l l u l a r i t y i n man and a n i m a l s must be drawn w i t h c a u t i o n . A l t h o u g h most o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e i n man and r a t s (Greenwood and H i r s c h , 1974) and i n meat a n i m a l s ( A l l e n , 1 9 76), s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f a f i x e d number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e s e x u a l l y mature a n i m a l — v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e degree o f h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y o b s e r v e d i n a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f obese a n i m a l s , c o m p l i c a t e s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a on t h e c o n t r o l o f a d i p o s e development i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l . F u r t h e r -more i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r , whether t h e i n c r e a s e i n mass o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l i s due t o m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f p r e c u r s o r a d i p o c y t e s o r t o the f i l l i n g o f p r e - a d i p o c y t e s ( H i r s c h , 1972). Greenwood and H i r s c h (1974), m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p e r i o d o f g r o w t h p r i o r t o s e x u a l m a t u r i t y and t h a t once s e x u a l m a t u r i t y i s a t t a i n e d , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e o b s e r v e d a d i p o s e c e l l u l a r i t y i s d e r i v e d from l i p i d f i l l i n g o f t h e e x i s t e n t p r e a d i p o c y t e s . T h i s c o n c e p t was based on t h e e a r l y i n v i t r o e x p e r i m e n t s o f H o l l e n b e r g , and V o s t (1968) and the o rgan c u l t u r e e x p e r i m e n t s o f F r o l i c h , e t aJL. (1972) , who found an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e a d i p o c y t e f r a c t i o n a t v a r i o u s 3 t i m e s a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o ( H ) - t h y m i d i n e . These s t u d i e s have been i n t e r -p r e t e d t o mean t h a t w i t h i n the s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r e l e m e n t s o f the a d i p o s e t i s s u e , t h e r e a r e p r i m o r d i a l a d i p o s e c e l l s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o new a d i p o c y t e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f ' p r e p u b e r t a l growth. Subsequent e x p e r i m e n t s by - 17 -P o z n a n s k i e_t a l _ . (1973) have a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s . P o z n a n s k i (1973); a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d i n v i t r o , however, t h a t t h e s t r o m a l c e l l s o f t h e a d u l t human a d i p o s e t i s s u e a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r e c u r s o r s ( p r e -a d i p o c y t e s ) w i t h a p o t e n t i a l f o r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and f o r e v o l v i n g i n t o mature a d i p o c y t e s . S i m i l a r l y t h e s t u d i e s by H o l l e n b e r g e t a l . (1970), have shown t h a t a d i p o c y t e DNA i n a d u l t a n i m a l s i n c o r p o r a t e s some t r i t i a t e d t h y m i d i n e , i n d i c a t i n g some t u r n o v e r o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s . The c o n t r o v e r s y as t o whether o r n o t p r e a d i p o c y t e s c o n t i n u e t o 3 d i v i d e i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l i s u n r e s o l v e d . The s m a l l t u r n o v e r o f ( H ) -t h y m i d i n e i n t h e s t u d i e s o f b o t h P o z n a n s k i (1973) and H o l l e n b e r g e t a l . (1970), has been t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p r e a d i p o c y t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t o a d i p o s e t i s s u e development i n t h e a d u l t i s s m a l l ; and t h a t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o s e t i s s u e e x p a n s i o n i n t h e s e x u a l l y mature a n i m a l a r e t h e enl a r g e m e n t o f a d i p o c y t e s and the l i p i d f i l l i n g o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e s t r o m a l f r a c t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e (Greenwood and H i r s c h , 1974). F u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e s h o u l d a r i s e f rom t h e new p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d by B j o r n t o r p and a s s o c i a t e s f o r i s o l a t i n g p r e a d i p o c y t e s from t h e f a t d e p o t s o f r a t s ( B j o r n t o r p e t a l _ . , 1978) . A v i a n A d i p o s e T i s s u e U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e m e t a b o l i s m o f t h e a v i a n a d i p o s e t i s s u e has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n compared t o t h e m e t a b o l i s m o f t h e mammalian a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The a v i a n s p e c i e s d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from most mammalian s p e c i e s i n many aspects'Tof c a r b o h y d r a t e and l i p i d m e t a b o l i s m . A l s o - 18 -several differences with regard to the influence of hormonal factors on carbohydrate and l i p i d metabolism have been demonstrated. The adipose tissue of the r a t and mouse has been most extensively investigated and seems to be the most important s i t e f o r lipogenesis i n these animals, with the l i v e r playing a less important ro l e ( F e l l e r , 1954; Hausberger et a l . , 1954; Jansen, 1966). In f a c t , i n vivo studies have demonstrated that over 50 percent of t o t a l f a t t y a c i d synthesis i n the mouse and r a t occurs i n adipose tissue (Favarger, 1965; L e v e i l l e , 1967; Romsos and L e v e i l l e , 1974). Adipose ti s s u e i s responsible f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l f a t t y acids synthesized i n the p i g (O'Hea and L e v e i l l e , 1969b). Adipose tissue of rats and mice i s also markedly i n s u l i n s e n s i t i v e (Winegrad and Renold, 1958; Randle, 1963). The major e f f e c t of i n s u l i n i n t h i s t i s s u e i s r e l a t e d to i t s f a c i l i t a t i o n of glucose uptake (Renold and C a h i l l , 1965). The many reports of adipose tissue metabolism have led to the generally accepted concept that, i n mammals, t h i s t i s s u e i s a major target organ for i n s u l i n and that i t i s l a r g e l y responsible f or the synthesis as well as storage and release of f a t t y acids (Wertheimer and S h a f r i r , 1960; Dole, 1965). A major difference between avian and mammalian adipose tissue i s that the avian species contain only white adipose t i s s u e ; brown adipose tis s u e i s absent at a l l ages (Freeman, 1967; Johnston, 1971). The c i r c u l a t i n g l e v e l of glucose i s approximately twice that of a number of mammals (Be l l and Sturkie, 1965), yet the chicken i s r e s i s t a n t to acute hypoglycemia (Houpt, 1958) and t o l e r a n t of low-carbohydrate, high-fat d i e t s (Hazelwood, 1965; Brambolia and H i l l , 1966). - 19 -I n v i t r o , c h i c k a d i p o s e t i s s u e s y n t h e s i z e s o n l y m i n u t e q u a n t i t i e s o f f a t t y a c i d s b u t has s u b s t a n t i a l a b i l i t y t o c o n v e r t p r e c u r s o r s s u c h as g l u c o s e and p y r u v a t e t o g l y c e r i d e - g l y c e r o l ; whereas l i v e r t i s s u e i s e x t r e m e l y a c t i v e i n de_ novo f a t t y a c i d s y n t h e s i s (O'Hea and L e v e i l l e , 1968; L e v e i l l e , 1969; G o o d r i d g e , 1968a). A l t h o u g h c h i c k a d i p o s e t i s s u e has a low c a p a c i t y f o r f a t t y a c i d s y n t h e s i s , i t does have t h e a b i l i t y t o e s t e r i f y f a t t y a c i d s t o t r i g l y c e r i d e s ( L e v e i l l e e t a l ^ . , 1975) . S t u d i e s in_ v i v o have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c h i c k l i v e r a c c o u n t s f o r a t l e a s t 70 p e r c e n t o f de_ novo f a t t y a c i d s y n t h e s i s ( L e v e i l l e et. a l _ . , 1968) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e c h i c k i s m a i n l y one o f s t o r a g e and r e l e a s e o f l i p i d s r a t h e r t h a n s y n t h e s i s . I n v i v o s t u d i e s by O'Hea and L e v e i l l e (1969a), c o n f i r m e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t between 90 and 95 p e r c e n t o f de_ novo f a t t y a c i d s y n t h e s i s i n t h e c h i c k t o o k p l a c e i n t h e l i v e r ; and t h a t t h e newly formed t r i g l y c e r i d e s i n t h e plasma o c c u r r e d as low d e n s i t y l i p o p r o t e i n s w h i c h were t h e main t r a n s p o r t form o f l i p i d f rom t h e l i v e r t o t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e (O'Hea and L e v e i l l e , 1969a; L e v e i l l e ejt a l . , 1975) . I t has a l s o been shown t h a t t h e l i v e r i s t h e major s i t e o f l i p o g e n e s i s i n t h e p i g e o n (Goodridge and B a l l , 1966, 1967) and i n t h e duck, (Evans, 1972a). Korn and Q u i g l e y (1957) were t h e f i r s t t o r e p o r t t h a t c h i c k a d i p o s e t i s s u e p o s s e s s e d an a c t i v e l i p o p r o t e i n l i p a s e system. Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by Husbands (1972) and Benson and Bensadoun (1977) , have a l s o r e v e a l e d an a c t i v e l i p o p r o t e i n l i p a s e system i n c h i c k a d i p o s e t i s s u e ; and a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d f o r t h e p i g e o n a d i p o s e t i s s u e (Goodridge and B a l l , 1967) and f o r t h e duck a d i p o s e t i s s u e - 20 -(Evans, 1972a). The n e c e s s i t y f o r an a c t i v e l i p o p r o t e i n l i p a s e i s a p p a r e n t i f i t i s assumed t h a t f a t t y a c i d s and n o t t r i g l y c e r i d e s e n t e r t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l s . Reduced NADP i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e r e d u c t i v e s t a g e s o f f a t t y a c i d b i o s y n t h e s i s , and i n mammals t h e p e n t o s e p h o s p h a t e pathway i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f t h e c y t o p l a s m i c r e d u c i n g e q u i v a l e n t s . S t u d i e s o f t h e m e t a b o l i s m o f s p e c i f i c a l l y l a b e l l e d r a d i o a c t i v e g l u c o s e t o c a r b o n d i o x i d e (Duncan and Common, 1967) by l i v e r s l i c e s showed t h a t g l u c o l y s i s i s t h e major pathway o f g l u c o s e d i s s i m i l a t i o n i n b o t h t h e immature and mature d o m e s t i c f o w l , and t h a t t h e p e n t o s e phosphate pathway i s not an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f NADPH f o r f a t t y a c i d s y n t h e s i s i n t h e c h i c k . G o o d r i d g e (1968c, d) has s u p p o r t e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s . P e a r c e (1972a) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f g l u c o s e - 6 - p h o s p h a t e dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase i n l i v e r e x t r a c t s from l a y i n g hens and c o c k e r e l s and found no s i g n i f i c a n t s ex d i f f e r e n c e s . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s pathway i s n o t i n v o l v e d i n h e p a t i c l i p o g e n e s i s i n t h e f o w l . S i m i l a r d a t a have been r e p o r t e d f o r the p i g e o n (Goodridge and B a l l , 1966, 1967). I n a d d i t i o n NADP-dependent i s o c i t r a t e dehydrogenase, a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f c y t o p l a s m i c r e d u c i n g e q u i v a l e n t s , does n o t appear t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d f o r th e s u p p o r t o f l i p o g e n e s i s i n c h i c k l i v e r ( G o o d r i d g e , 1 9 6 8 c ) . M a l i c enzyme a c t i v i t y however, i s much h i g h e r i n c h i c k l i v e r s t h a n e i t h e r t h e p e n t o s e phosphate pathway o r t h e NADP-dependent i s o c i t r a t e dehydrogenase enzyme sy s t e m , w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t i t may s e r v e an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e d u c i n g e q u i v a l e n t s f o r f a t t y acidr" ;- 21 -s y n t h e s i s i n t h i s o r g a n (O'Hea and L e v i l l e , -1968; G o o d r i d g e , 1968a, b) . . G o o d r i d g e and B a l l (1964) a r r i v e d a t a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i n t h e i r s t u d i e s w i t h t h e p i g e o n . The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l i p o g e n i c enzymes A T P - c i t r a t e l i p a s e and t h e " m a l i c " enzyme have been shown t o be c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the r a t e o f l i p o g e n e s i s i n t h e c h i c k e n l i v e r ( G o o d r i d g e , 1968c, d; Yeh e t a l . , 1970; P e a r c e , 1971a) and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e enzymes have been shown t o be g r e a t e r i n t h e l i v e r t h a n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e ( G o o d r i d g e , 1968c; O'Hea and L e v e i l l e , 1968). D i e t a r y l i p i d has been r e p o r t e d by Yeh and L e v e i l l e (1969), Yeh e t a l . (1970), Mason and Donaldson (1972), P e a r c e (1968, 1971a) and Cunningham and M o r r i s o n (1977) t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e h e p a t i c l i p o g e n e s i s and m a l i c enzymes. Cunningham and M o r r i s o n (1977) , however, have shown t h a t t h e i n d u c e d d e p r e s s i o n s i n l i p o g e n i c enzyme a c t i v i t i e s ( c i t r a t e - c l e a v a g e and m a l i c enzymes) w i l l n o t l o w e r t o t a l c a r c a s s f a t c o n t e n t s i n c e t h e d i e t a r y l i p i d seems t o be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n p l a c e o f de_ novo s y n t h e s i z e d l i p i d . P e a r c e (1972b) r e p o r t e d a h i g h l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y o f b o t h c i t r a t e -c l e a v a g e and m a l i c enzymes i n r e p l a c e m e n t p u l l e t s from 4 t o 7 weeks o f age; b u t between 7 t o 10 weeks o f age t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f b o t h enzymes d e c r e a s e d and remained unchanged from 10 t o 22 weeks o f age. R a h e j a e t al./> (19711) o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r h e p a t i c m a l i c enzyme a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o c k e r e l . The s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l i p o g e n i c enzymes, c i t r a t e - c l e a v a g e , and m a l i c i n t h e l i v e r o f l a y i n g hens have been r e p o r t e d t o be g r e a t e r t h a n i n p u l l e t s i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f s e x u a l - 22 -m a t u r i t y ( P e a r c e , 1971a, 1972b) and s i m i l a r t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e young p u l l e t between 4 and 7 weeks o f age ( P e a r c e , 1972b). I n t h e mature c o c k e r e l , where t h e r e i s no demand f o r egg p r o d u c t i o n and t h u s h i g h l i p o g e n i c a c t i v i t y , t h e l i p o g e n i c enzyme a c t i v i t i e s r e m a i n low ( P e a r c e , 1971a). The e n d o c r i n e c o n t r o l o f g l u c o s e m e t a b o l i s m i n t h e c h i c k e n i s known t o d i f f e r i n many r e s p e c t s f r o m o t h e r s p e c i e s (Hazelwood, 1971; P e a r c e , 1971b). I n s u l i n i s h y p o g l y c e m i c i n t h e c h i c k e n b u t , i n c o n t r a s t t o i t s e f f e c t i n most s p e c i e s , i n s u l i n e l e v a t e s c i r c u l a t i n g f r e e f a t t y a c i d l e v e l s ( G o o d r i d g e , 1964; L epkovsky ejt a l _ . , 1967; Langslow e t a l . , 1970) . G l u c a g o n i s l i p o l y t i c i n t h e c h i c k e n and may be one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t e n d o c r i n e s e c r e t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g a v i a n m e t a b o l i s m (Hazelwood, 1971) . C h i c k e n a d i p o c y t e s a r e e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e l i p o l y t i c a c t i o n o f g l u c a g o n ( G o d d r i d g e , 1968b; Langslow, 1972). The a d i p o c y t e s o f c h i c k s a r e i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e l i p o l y t i c a c t i o n o f a d r e n a l i n e , n o r a d r e n a l i n e and ACTH, hormones w h i c h p o t e n t i a t e l i p o l y s i s i n r a t a d i p o s e t i s s u e ; i n s u l i n has n e i t h e r l i p o l y t i c n o r a n t i - l i p o l y t i c a c t i o n s i n c h i c k a d i p o c y t e s ( G o o d r i d g e , 1968b; La n g s l o w , 1971). D e s p i t e t h e r e c e n t i n t e r e s t d e v o t e d t o l i p i d b i o s y n t h e s i s i n t h e c h i c k , t h e r e has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h p e r f o r m e d on t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n a l development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e w i t h i n t h e a v i a n embryo o r g r o w i n g c h i c k . Langslow and L e w i s (1972), showed t h a t t h e amount o f subcutaneous a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e t h o r a c i c and t h i g h m u s c l e s o f Rhode I s l a n d Red c h i c k s i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g embryonic l i f e u n t i l t h e f i r s t day p o s t - e m b r y o n i c l i f e , a t w h i c h t i m e i t began t o d e c l i n e . From t h e - 23 -t w e l f t h day o f i n c u b a t i o n , t h e subcutaneous a d i p o c y t e s r a p i d l y f i l l e d w i t h t r i g l y c e r i d e w h i c h s e r v e s as an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f energy d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 3 weeks o f l i f e (Langslow and L e w i s , 1972). March and Hansen (1977), f o u n d i n b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k s , t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e amount o f l i p i d p r e s e n t i n t h e l a t e r a l t h o r a c i c depot d e c l i n e d a f t e r h a t c h i n g , t h e d e c l i n e was q u i c k l y r e v e r s e d , and by 29 days o f age t h e amount o f l i p i d p r e s e n t i n t h i s d e p o t was more t h a n d o u b l e t h a t a t one day o f age. A s p e c i e s d i f f e r e n c e i n a d i p o c y t e s i z e and number was f o u n d between b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k s and White L e g h o r n s , w i t h t h e l a t t e r h a v i n g a s m a l l e r a d i p o c y t e number and s i z e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t , (March and Hansen, 1977). A d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e growth r a t e between a d i p o s e d e p o t s was f o u n d , w i t h t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot g r o w i n g a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n t h e s a r t o r i a l d e p o t , w h i c h i n t u r n i n c o r p o r a t e d more l i p i d t h a n t h e l a t e r a l t h o r a c i c d e p o t . F u r t h e r m o r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s i z e o f a d i p o c y t e s i n young c h i c k s was f o u n d between t h e l a t e r a l t h o r a c i c and the r e t r o -p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s — w i t h t h e l a t t e r h a v i n g s m a l l e r a d i p o c y t e s . However t h e f a s t e r r a t e o f h y p e r p l a s i a o b s e r v e d i n t h e a d i p o c y t e s o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e s l o w e r r a t e o f a d i p o c y t e e n l a r g e m e n t seen i n t h i s d e p o t (March and Hansen, 1 9 7 7 ) . A d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a was f o u n d t o c o n t i n u e i n b o t h d e p o t s up t o 6 weeks o f age. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by P f a f f and A u s t i c (1977) showed t h a t a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot o f W h i t e Leghorn p u l l e t s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 12 t o 16 weeks o f age, a t w h i c h t i m e a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a c e a s e d , and t h e a d i p o s e development c o n t i n u e d by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y . - 24 -A l t h o u g h h y p e r t r o p h i c g r o w th o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t development o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t , i t was most pronounced a f t e r 7 weeks o f age. The r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y o b s e r v e d b e f o r e 7 weeks o f age ( P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1 9 77), .may e x p l a i n t h e low r a t e o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e g r o w t h seen i n p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s (Langslow and L e w i s , 1972; March and Hansen, 1977). Between 7 and 24 weeks o f age, l a r g e amounts o f l i p i d were d e p o s i t e d i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t , p r o d u c i n g a 2 7 - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e d e p o t ( P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1977). P e a r c e (1972b) showed a c o n t i n u e d d e c r e a s e i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f l i p o g e n i c enzymes o f t h e l i v e r d u r i n g t h e p r e l a y i n g growth p e r i o d . I t seems l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t d e c r e a s e d m o b i l i z a t i o n o f l i p i d s t o r e s from a d i p o s e t i s s u e may be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e s i n g r o w i n g c h i c k s . The I n f l u e n c e o f N u t r i t i o n on t h e C e l l u l a r i t y o f A d i p o s e T i s s u e C e l l u l a r development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e has been s t u d i e d i n man ( H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1 9 7 0 ) , swine (Hood and A l l e n , 1 9 7 7 ) , c a t t l e (Hood and A l l e n , 1973), r a t s ( H i r s c h and Han, 1969), mice (Greenwood e_t a l _ . , 1970) and p u l l e t s ( P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1976). I n a l l s p e c i e s , a d i p o s e t i s s u e d e v e l o p s by h y p e r p l a s t i c growth u n t i l one o r more s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s i n the a n i m a l s development i s r e a c h e d , a f t e r w h i c h f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n a d i p o s i t y r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from c e l l u l a r h y p e r t r o p h y . Thus, i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e g r owth and development, t h e f i n a l d i m e n s i o n a c h i e v e d by t h i s o r any o r g a n i n t h e body w i l l be m o d i f i e d by f a c t o r s t h a t e x e r t t h e i r e f f e c t on c e l l d i v i s i o n and/or c e l l e n l a r g e m e n t . I t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n o t h e r - 25 -organ systems that the degree to which ei t h e r of these mechanisms i s modulated by n u t r i t i o n a l factors depend i n part on the age of the animal. The e a r l i e r i n l i f e that they exert t h e i r influence, the greater the l i k e l i h o o d that permanent a l t e r a t i o n s i n body s i z e and organ s i z e w i l l occur (Dickerson and McCance, 1960; Pratt and McCance, 1961; McCance and Widdowson, 1962; Winick and Noble, 1965; L i s t e r et a l . , 1966). Clark and Clark (1940) were the f i r s t to show the e f f e c t s of n u t r i t i o n on the development of adipose t i s s u e i n the rabbit. Pace and Rathbun (1945) pointed out that f a t i s the only component of the whole body which may be expected to fluctuate widely i n a "normal population". Montemurro and Stevenson (1957) concluded that the only major change i n the gross body composition, even as a r e s u l t of hypothalamic hyperphagia and obesity i n the r a t , was excessive f a t . Diets d i f f e r e n t i n f a t content were shown to produce differences i n body weight; the composition of which could be accounted for by the differences i n f a t content (Peckman et a l . , 1962). K n i t t l e and Hirsch (1968) were the f i r s t to show an e f f e c t of early n u t r i t i o n on the ultimate s i z e of s p e c i f i c adipose bodies. Rats n u t r i t i o n a l l y deprived during the f i r s t 21 days of l i f e p r i o r to weaning showed a permanent reduction i n the s i z e and number of adipocytes developing i n the epididymal adipose depots. Subsequent experiments have shown that exercise i n addition to food r e s t r i c t i o n , early i n l i f e (Oscai et_ a l . , 1972), and protein r e s t r i c t i o n imposed immediately a f t e r weaning (Lau e_t a l . , 1976) may cause a permanent reduction i n the number - 26 -o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e e p i d i d y m a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s o r p a r a m e t r i a l and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These s t u d i e s i m p l y t h a t a permanent r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f a d i p o s e d e p o t s c a n r e s u l t o n l y from a d e c r e a s e i n t h e a d i p o s e c e l l number; and t h a t t h i s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e h y p e r p l a s t i c p e r i o d o f a d i p o s e development e a r l y i n l i f e . The i n a b i l i t y o f s t a r v a t i o n ( H i r s c h and Han, 1969; Rakow, 1971), e x e r c i s e (Palmer and T i p t o n , 1973; O s c a i e t a l . , 1 972), and c o l d e x p o s u r e ( T h e r r i c a u l t and M e l l i n , 1971); t o reduce a d i p o c y t e number p e r m a n e n t l y i n s e x u a l l y mature r a t s l e a d s t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a permanent r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s can r e s u l t o n l y from a d e c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e c e l l numbers ( H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970). S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f h y p o t h a l a m i c o b e s i t y o r o v e r f e e d i n g i n r a t s ( H i r s c h and Han, 1969; Johnson e t a l . , 1971) o r humans (Sims e t a l . , 1968; H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1971), t o a l t e r a d i p o s e c e l l u l a r i t y s u p p o r t s t h e c o n c e p t o f a c o n s t a n t number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e a d u l t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t i n obese man o r a n i m a l s , r e d u c t i o n i n depot s i z e does n o t r e d u c e a d i p o c y t e number ( H i r s c h and Han, 1969; H i r s c h and K n i t t l e , 1970). Lemonnier (1972) , who r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n a d u l t a d i p o c y t e number i n r a t s and mice when f e d h i g h f a t d i e t s , f o u n d t h a t the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on c e l l u l a r i t y o c c u r r e d when t h e n u t r i t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n was s t a r t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e n s i v e a d i p o c y t e f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e weaning. Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by H e r b e r g et_ a l _ . (1974) i n m i c e , and R u z y l l o and S z o s t a k (1978) i n r a t s , have a l s o f o u n d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s f o l l o w i n g e a r l y d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n . These s t u d i e s can - 27 -c e r t a i n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t i n " normal" a d i p o s e t i s s u e , a p r e d e t e r m i n e d a d i p o c y t e number e x i s t s i n t h e d e p o t , t h a t when r e a c h e d p e r m i t s no f u r t h e r a d i p o c y t e a d d i t i o n b u t o n l y c e l l s i z e f l u c t u a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f Lemonnier (1972) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t a d i p o s e d e p o t s w i t h i n mice responded d i f f e r e n t l y t o h i g h f a t d i e t s . I n c r e a s e s i n a d i p o s e d e p o t s i z e f o l l o w i n g h i g h f a t d i e t s d u r i n g weaning, were a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e p e r i r e n a l depot by h y p e r p l a s i a ; i n t h e e p i d i d y m a l and subcutaneous d e p o t s by h y p e r t r o p h y and i n t h e p a r a m e t r i a l d e p o t by h y p e r p l a s i a and h y p e r t r o p h y . R e s u l t s from W a l k l e y e t a l . (1978) have a l s o f ound s i t e - s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s t o o v e r n u t r i t i o n . I t must be remembered, however, t h e o b s e r v e d i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e number, i n d u c e d g e n e t i c a l l y o r by d i e t , does n o t e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i p i d f i l l i n g o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s l a i d down e a r l y i n l i f e . J o hnson and a s s o c i a t e s (1973) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e degree o f o b e s i t y e s t a b l i s h e d i n mice was due t o an i n t e r a c t i o n between genotype and e a r l y n u t r i t i o n . W h i l e e a r l y o v e r f e e d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d a d i p o c y t e number i n b o t h obese and nonobese r a t s , e a r l y u n d e r f e e d i n g r e d u c e d a d i p o c y t e number o n l y i n t h e nonobese. T h e r e f o r e , e a r l y n u t r i t i o n had o n l y l i m i t e d e f f e c t s i n t h e g e n e t i c a l l y obese r a t s -- i n c r e a s i n g a d i p o c y t e number by p r e w e a n i n g o v e r n u t r i t i o n and by d e c r e a s i n g a d i p o c y t e s i z e b u t n o t a d i p o c y t e number i n p r e w e a n i n g u n d e r n u t r i t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n meat a n i m a l s have a l s o shown t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g e n e t i c background i n d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y . Hood and A l l e n (1977) have shown t h a t t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f p i g s o f t h e same l i t t e r have s i m i l a r - 28 -a d i p o c y t e numbers, .but win ch may be; d i f f e r e n t / f rom the_a~dipose numbers i n t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f p i g s from t h e same b r e e d b u t from d i f f e r e n t l i t t e r s . T here have been s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f e a r l y d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n on a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y i n a d u l t meat a n i m a l s . E a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n lambs f a i l e d t o r e d u c e a d i p o c y t e numbers i n t h e a d u l t (Haugebak e_t a l . , 1974) . S i m i l a r l y Lee e t a l _ . (1973a, b) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n p i g s was u n a b l e t o redu c e c e l l numbers d e s p i t e a 2-4 f o l d r e d u c t i o n i n t h e subcutaneous a d i p o s e depot. The i n a b i l i t y o f d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n s e a r l y i n l i f e t o l i m i t a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n meat a n i m a l s may be due t o t h e a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n a d i p o s e d e p o t s w i t h i n t h e a n i m a l t o a c h i e v e t h e i r maximum number o f a d i p o c y t e s e a r l y i n l i f e ( A l l e n , 1976). Some i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have f o c u s e d on t h e r o l e o f m a t e r n a l n u t r i t i o n d u r i n g l a c t a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y and m e t a b o l i s m i n t h e young ( K n i t t l e , 1972). R e c o v e r y from u n d e r n u t r i t i o n has been f o u n d t o be l e s s l i k e l y i f t h e i n s u l t o c c u r s e a r l y i n l i f e , f o r example, d u r i n g g e s t a t i o n o r t h e n e o n a t a l p e r i o d (McCance and Widdowson, 1962; K n i t t l e and H i r s c h , 1968; K n i t t l e , 1972). I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e have been m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e d i e t s o r f e e d i n g h a b i t s o f mice and r a t s (Lemonnier, 1972; H e r b e r g e t a l . , 1 974), d u r i n g g e s t a t i o n o r s u c k l i n g have p r o d u c e d i n c r e a s e d i n a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l . These i n v e s t i g a t o r s , however, have c o n c l u d e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s • i n c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e a d u l t a n i m a l s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o e a r l y n u t r i t i o n , b u t must a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o l a t e r f e e d i n g p a t t e r n s and b e h a v i o r . - 29 -I n a d d i t i o n , Schemmel and a s s o c i a t e s (1973) have o b s e r v e d t h a t , d epending upon t h e d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i e t a f t e r weaning has a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e u l t i m a t e o b e s i t y , w h i c h may c o m p l e t e l y overshadow t h e e f f e c t o f d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t 3 weeks o f age. The I n f l u e n c e o f N u t r i t i o n on t h e Development o f A d i p o s e T i s s u e i n t h e A v i a n S p e c i e s The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g c a r c a s s c o m p o s i t i o n o f c h i c k e n s r e a r e d f o r meat p u r p o s e s has l o n g been a p p r e c i a t e d ( P f e i f f e r , 1887; K o h l e r , 1900; Lee, 1911; J u l l and Maw, 1923; Hepburn and H o l d e r , 1922; and Harshaw, 1936, 1938). A l t h o u g h much work has been done i n d e v e l o p i n g r a t i o n s t o f i n i s h b r o i l e r c h i c k e n s (Donaldson et_ a l . , 1955, 1956; B i e l y and March, 1957; Summers ejt a l _ . , 1 9 65), ducks ( S c o t t e t a l . , 1959; Evans, 1972b) and t u r k e y s (Donaldson e t a l . , 1958; B i x l e r e t a l . , 1968) much l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f d i e t on t h e c a r c a s s , c o m p o s i t i o n o f r e p l a c e m e n t p u l l e t s a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y . The degree o f f a t n e s s on p u l l e t s i s a f f e c t e d by b o t h n o n - n u t r i t i o n a l and n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Age and sex seem t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t non-n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f a t i n t h e c a r c a s s i n c r e a s i n g w i t h age (Combs, 1968; Kubena ,-et a l . , 1972) w h i l e f e m a l e s c o n t a i n more ; f a t t h a n males (Summers e t a l . , 1965; Edwards e t a l . , 1973; F a r r e l l , 1974; Kubena e t a l . , 1974)'.'} - 30 -E a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f n u t r i t i o n on the c a r c a s s c o m p o s i t i o n o f p u l l e t s between 0 and 20 weeks o f age ( r e v i e w s by Lee e t a l . , 1971;' > and B a l n a v e , 1973). V a r i o u s n u t r i e n t r e s t r i c t i o n methods have been t e s t e d i n c l u d i n g d a i l y r e s t r i c t i o n o f e a t i n g and/or f e e d q u a n t i t y ; s k i d - a - d a y programs; r e s t r i c t i o n o f e n e r g y , w a t e r o r p r o t e i n i n t a k e ; low e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d ( s ) f o r m u l a s (e.g. low l y s i n e f o r m u l a ) and v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n t o complement n u t r i e n t r e s t r i c t i o n . The f i r s t r e p o r t e d s t u d y on t h e e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on subsequent growth p e r f o r m a n c e was by Temperton and Dudley (1941). S i n c e t h e n numerous s t u d i e s have been p e r f o r m e d l i m i t i n g d a i l y f e e d i n g t i m e (Heuser e t a l . , 1945; N o v i k o f f and B i e l y , 1945; L u t h e r e t a l . , 1976) o r u s i n g " s k i p - a - d a y " f e e d i n g (Yates and S c h a i b l e , 1963; Pepper e t a l . , 1966). However, t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s have n o t met w i t h s u c c e s s because t h e b i r d s soon l e a r n t o e a t q u i c k l y and s a t i s f y t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e l i m i t e d t i m e a v a i l a b l e (Lepkovsky e t a l _ . , 1960) . E a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n ( S c h n e i d e r ejt a_l. , 1955; F u l l e r and Dunahoo, 1962; Deaton and Q u i s e n b e r r y , 1963; S t r a i n e t al., 1965) were shown t o l o w e r t o t a l f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n , i n c r e a s e f e e d c o n v e r s i o n , d e l a y s e x u a l m a t u r i t y , and i n c r e a s e egg p r o d u c t i o n . However, no i n f o r m a t i o n was f o u n d on t h e e f f e c t s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n on body c o m p o s i t i o n . More r e c e n t l y , s t u d i e s by Watson (1975), Gous, and S t r i e l a u (1976) and L u t h e r ejt a l . (1976) have shown t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n r e d u c e s body w e i g h t , e i t h e r i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s egg p r o d u c t i o n d e p e n d i n g upon t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e d i e t a r y - 31 -r e s t r i c t i o n ; and i n some i n s t a n c e s d e c r e a s e s c a r c a s s f a t . Other r e p o r t s ( K a r i ejt a l . , 1977) d e m o n s t r a t e no d i f f e r e n c e i n egg p r o d u c t i o n o r f a t c o n t e n t w i t h f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s i n egg p r o d u c t i o n and c a r c a s s f a t c o m p o s i t i o n t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n o b s e r v e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s a r i s e from d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e f e s t r i c t i o n ~ s and from d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t a g e o f growth a t w h i c h t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was implemented ( e i t h e r g r o w i n g o r l a y i n g p e r i o d ) . The e f f e c t s o f n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s on t h e body c o m p o s i t i o n o f p u l l e t s were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by F r a p s (1943) who was a b l e t o pro d u c e c a r c a s s e s w i t h w i d e l y v a r y i n g amountsfci.f body f a t by a d j u s t i n g d i e t a r y c o n s t i t u e n t s . Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on q u a l i t a t i v e f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n u s i n g low energy d i e t s (Berg and B e a r s e , 1958; B e r g , 1959; Summers e t a l . , 1967; B o l t o n et_ a l . , 1970; o r low p r o t e i n d i e t s o r amino a c i d i m b a l a n c e s (Berg and B e a r s e , 1958; B e r g , 1959; Harms and Waldrup, 1962; S i n g s e n e t a l . , 1965; L i l l i e and Deaton, 1966, 1967; L i p s t e i n e t a l . , 1975; B a l n a v e , 1976) have a l s o been shown t o reduc e body w e i g h t g a i n , f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n , d e l a y o n s e t o f s e x u a l m a t u r i t y , i n c r e a s e egg p r o d u c t i o n and i n some s t u d i e s d e c r e a s e f a t c o n t e n t o f t h e b i r d . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f c a l o r i e t o p r o t e i n r a t i o i n subsequent p e r f o r m a n c e and body c o m p o s i t i o n ( H i l l and Dansky, 1954; Donaldson e t a l . , 1956; Combs e t a l . , 1964; Kubena e t a l . , 1972; F a r r e l l , 1974; B a r t o v e t a l . , 1974, 1976; G r i f f i t h s e t a l . , 1977). These s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t as t h e d i e t a r y C:P r a t i o was widened, energy i n t a k e and c a r c a s s f a t d e p o s i t i o n i n c r e a s e d w h i l e w a t e r c o n t e n t d e c r e a s e d . - 32 -Kubena e_t a l . (1974) showed t h a t as t h e r e a r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e d , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l f a t i n c r e a s e d i n b r o i l e r s . Deaton and a s s o c i a t e s (1974) showed t h a t b r o i l e r s r e a r e d on l i t t e r - f l o o r pens had l e s s f a t t h a n t h o s e r e a r e d i n cages a t 9 weeks o f age. D e s p i t e t h e numerous r e p o r t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y o r r e a r i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n s on subsequent c a r c a s s c o m p o s i t i o n , few such r e p o r t s appear i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o b r o i l e r - t y p e r e p l a c e m e n t p u l l e t s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e body c o m p o s i t i o n i n b r o i l e r b r e e d e r s r e s u l t s from t h e b r o i l e r ' s r a p i d g rowth and p r o p e n s i t y t o become obese i n a d u l t h o o d . The e x c e s s i v e f a t d e p o s i t i o n o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e growth p e r i o d and w e l l i n t o a d u l t h o o d , r e s u l t i n g i n o b e s i t y and u n e c o n o m i c a l f e e d : e g g r a t i o s . I t i s u n c e r t a i n whether o r n o t t h e e x c e s s i v e f a t d e p o s i t i o n d e c r e a s e s egg p r o d u c t i o n ( B o l t o n , ejt a l _ . , 1970) o r i n c r e a s e s m o r t a l i t y and t h e r e b y i n d i r e c t l y r e d u c i n g egg p r o d u c t i o n (Chaney and F u l l e r , 1975). Brobeck (1946) was t h e f i r s t t o show t h a t o b e s i t y o b s e r v e d i n r a t s w i t h h y p o t h a l a m i c l e s i o n s was t h e consequence o f o v e r e a t i n g . White L e g h o r n c o c k e r e l s i n r e s p o n s e t o h y p o t h a l a m i c v e n t r o m e d i a l l e s i o n s were shown t o a c q u i r e a new " s e t - p o i n t " w h i c h r e q u i r e d l a r g e r amounts o f f a t t o be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a d i p o s e depots (Lepkovsky and Yasuda, 1966). The l e s i o n s i n t h e hypothalamus were p o s t u l a t e d e i t h e r t o a c t c e n t r a l l y , e v o k i n g u r g e s t o e a t ( a p p e t i t e ) , o r t o a c t i n d i r e c t l y , and u p s e t h o m e o s t a s i s i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e , and t h e r e b y e l i c i t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f a b n o r m a l l y l a r g e amounts o f f a t i n t h e d e p o t s . Lepkovsky (1973) s u p p o r t s t h e l a t t e r - 33 -h y p o t h e s i s , and m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e hypothalamus r e g u l a t e s t h e amount o f f a t d e p o s i t i o n by g i v i n g t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e a v i a n s p e c i e s a " s e t -p o i n t c o n t r o l " t o r e g u l a t e i t s own h o m e o s t a s i s . The amount o f f a t i n t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t i s r e g u l a t e d by l i p o l y s i s and l i p o g e n e s i s . When t h e amount o f f a t i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n c r e a s e s above t h e " s e t - p o i n t " l e v e l , l i p o l y s i s i s a c c e l e r a t e d , t h e r a t e o f a b s o r p t i o n o f f o o d i s d e c r e a s e d and f o o d i n t a k e d e c r e a s e s . C o n v e r s e l y , when t h e amount o f f a t i n t h e a d i p o s e ' t i s s u e i s below t h e " s e t - p o i n t " , l i p o g e n e s i s and d e p o s i t i o n o f f a t i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e s i n c r e a s e s , a b s o r p t i o n o f food, i s a c c e l e r a t e d and f o o d i n t a k e i n c r e a s e s (Lepkovsky, 1973). L e s i o n s i n t h e v e n t r o m e d i a l a r e a o f t h e hypothalamus o f c o c k e r e l s a c c o r d i n g l y change t h e " s e t - p o i n t " o f t h e c o n t r o l system o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e s w h i c h t h e n r e q u i r e more f a t (Lepkovsky r and Yasuda, 1966). On t h e o t h e r hand, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by Lepkovsky and F u r u t a (1971) showed t h a t e x c e s s i v e f a t d e p o s i t i o n r e s u l t i n g from f o r c e -f e e d i n g e x c e s s i v e amounts o f f o o d , w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g t h e " s e t - p o i n t " i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e , r e s u l t s i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f f a t above t h e - l e v e l r e q u i r e d by t h e " s e t - p o i n t " i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e . When t h e b i r d s were f e d ad_ l i b i t u m , t h e y s t o p p e d e a t i n g u n t i l t h e amount o f f a t i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e s d e c r e a s e d t o w a r d t h e l e v e l e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e " s e t - p o i n t " , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e b i r d s s t a r t e d t o e a t and a t e n o r m a l l y u n t i l t h e amount o f f a t i n t h e d e p o t s r e t u r n e d t o no r m a l (Lepkovsky and F u r u t a , 1971). S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been r e p o r t e d f o r n ormal r a t s made obese by f o r c e f e e d i n g (Cohn and J o s e p h , 1962.) and by e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n o f / t h e l a t e r a l hypothalamus (Steinbaum and M i l l e r , 1965). - 34 -R e l a t i v e l y few studies have been undertaken to determine the e f f e c t s of n u t r i t i o n a l manipulation on the development of adipose tissue i n chickens. March and Hansen (1977) demonstrated that r e s t r i c t i n g nutrient intake by dietary d i l u t i o n from hatch u n t i l 6 weeks of age, decreased growth rate and l i p i d accumulation i n the r e t r o -p eritoneal adipose depot of both b r o i l e r - t y p e and White Leghorn chicks (although adipocyte m u l t i p l i c a t i o n continued). When feed was withheld from newly hatched chicks, a loss of l i p i d from the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot d i d not occur u n t i l the subcutaneous adipose depots had undergone considerable depletion (March and Hansen, 1977). Upon refeeding, m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of adipocytes occurred i n 20 hours, at a reduced rate compared to the controls, but r a p i d l y attained a normal rate. On the other hand, when f a s t i n g was imposed on 10-day old chicks, refeeding d i d not immediately stimulate adipocyte m u l t i p l i c a t i o n although the l i p i d l o s t from the c e l l s was r a p i d l y repleted (March and Hansen, 1977). P f a f f and Austic (1976) showed that, although feeding low energy or high protein d i e t s to White Leghorn chickens, l i m i t e d adipose ti s s u e accumulation and delayed the time at which hyperplastic growth ceased, i t d i d not a l t e r the c e l l u l a r i t y of the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot at maturity. Feeding d i e t s low i n energy or high i n protein from hatch to 9.5 weeks of age, or from hatch to 22 weeks of age, tended to lower the l e v e l of f a t accumulation i n the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depots by 22 weeks of age. In both cases, the adipose depot c e l l u l a r i t y was s i m i l a r among groups; the reduced adipose depot stature resulted from a reduced adipocyte si z e (Pfaff and Austic, 1976). i t i s not known, hoever, whether these e f f e c t s of early d i e t would p e r s i s t i n d e f i n i t e l y . - 35 -A t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e f i n d i n g o f P f a f f and A u s t i c (197*6) t h a t a d i p o s e depot growth c o u l d be r e d u c e d by t h e f e e d i n g o f e i t h e r low energy o r h i g h p r o t e i n d i e t . Cunningham and M o r r i s o n (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e energy l e v e l o f t h e d i e t had no e f f e c t a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y on r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s w e i g h t s , l i v e r w a t e r , f a t , p r o t e i n , t o t a l body w a t e r o r a s h , o f White L e g h o r n p u l l e t s . S u rvey o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i d n o t r e v e a l f u r t h e r r e p o r t s on t h e development o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e a v i a n s p e c i e s . » - 36 -EXPERIMENTAL I . E x p e r i m e n t a l T r e a t m e n t s Two-hundred and f i f t y - s i x d a y - o l d b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s (Hubbard), o f mixed s e x e s were used. The d i e t , (Table 1 ) , was c a l c u l a t e d t o c o n t a i n 15.2% o f p r o t e i n and 2861 k c a l o f m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy p e r kg. The d i e t was f e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t . O y s t e r - s h e l l was p r o v i d e d ad l i b i t u m a f t e r t h e o n s e t o f l a y . A. Management o f b i r d s B i r d s were g i v e n f r e e a c c e s s t o w a t e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h a t c h ; however f e e d was w i t h h e l d f o r 2-3 days (48-72 h r s ) , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t r e a t m e n t . The b i r d s were t h e n randomly d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t s . Each t r e a t m e n t was imposed on 28 b i r d s d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o two r e p l i c a t e l o t s o f 14 b i r d s e ach. (1) Treatment 1, t h e c o n t r o l l o t was f e d 48 h o u r s a f t e r h a t c h , and f e d ad l i b i t u m t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . (2) T r e a t m e n t s 2-10, t h e r e m a i n i n g c h i c k s were g i v e n f r e e a c c e s s t o f e e d a t 72 h o u r s (day 4) and f e d f o r 24 h o u r s . F o l l o w i n g 24 h o u r s f e e d i n g , t h e f e e d was w i t h d r a w n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 24 h o u r s (water ad l i b i t u m ) , and t h e b i r d s were r e f e d on - 37 -t h e 6 t h day. On day 7 and t h e r e a f t e r , t h e b i r d s were r e s t r i c t e d t o 30 m i n u t e s f e e d i n g / d a y . Treatment 2, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l week; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 2 weeks o f age. Tr e a t m e n t 3, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 2 weeks; ad_ l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 3 weeks o f age. Treatment 4, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 3 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 4 weeks o f age. Treatment 5, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 4 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 5 weeks o f age. Treatment 6, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 5 weeks; ad_ l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 6 weeks o f age. Tre a t m e n t . 7 , s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 7 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 8 weeks o f age. Treatment 8, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 9 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 10 weeks o f age. Treatment 9, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 11 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 12 weeks o f age. - 38 -T r e a tment 10, s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 13 weeks; ad l i b i t u m f e e d i n g from 14 weeks o f age. The b i r d s were r e a r e d i n b a t t e r y b r o o d e r s . Water was g i v e n ad l i b j t u m . The b i r d s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o l a r g e b a t t e r y cages f o l l o w i n g 2 weeks ad l i b i t u m , . f e e d i n g a f t e r t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e imposed f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n . The b i r d s were housed 4-5 b i r d s p e r cage. M a l e s and f e m a l e s were s e g r e g a t e d a t 15 weeks o f age, e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b i r d s on t r e a t m e n t s 9 and 10 whose s e x u a l development had been r e t a r d e d . T r e a t m e n t s 9 and 10 were sexed a t 17 weeks o f age, and as w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s t r e a t m e n t s , t h e b i r d s were h e l d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e cages f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The b i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n were weighed w e e k l y , b e f o r e t h e d a i l y f e e d i n g p e r i o d , u n t i l 14 weeks o f age and t h e n b i - w e e k l y w i t h o u t t h e r e m o v a l o f f e e d . The c o n t r o l b i r d s were weighed w e e k l y w i t h o u t th e r e m o v a l o f f e e d u n t i l 14 weeks o f age, and b i - w e e k l y t h e r e a f t e r . The age a t w h i c h b i r d s on each t r e a t m e n t commenced l a y i n g was n o t e d . Egg p r o d u c t i o n was r e c o r d e d from 24 weeks o f age u n t i l t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . Egg w e i g h t s f o r t r e a t m e n t s 1, 2, 9 and 10 were measured f o r 3 weeks between '36> and 38 weeks o f age. M o r t a l i t y was r e c o r d e d f o r each t r e a t m e n t . S e v e r e l y cropbound b i r d s , whose growth r a t e was i m p a i r e d , were k i l l e d and i n c l u d e d i n the f i g u r e s o f m o r t a l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , b i r d s w i t h weak l e g s , whose growth r a t e was i m p a i r e d , were k i l l e d and i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i g u r e s f o r m o r t a l i t y . - 39 -I I . E x p e r i m e n t a l M a t e r i a l s and Methods A. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r a t 17-19 weeks o f age Between 17 and 19 weeks o f age f o u r p u l l e t s from t r e a t m e n t 1, ( c o n t r o l ) , and f i v e p u l l e t s from t r e a t m e n t s 9 and 10 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were s e l e c t e d a t random f o r b i o p s y o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e . On each day o f a d i p o s e b i o p s y , t h r e e b i r d s were examined, one b i r d randomly s e l e c t e d from each t r e a t m e n t . The b i r d s were a n e s t h e t i z e d by i n t r a v e n o u s i n j e c t i o n o f sodium p e n t o b a r b i t a l a t a dose o f 30 mg p e r k i l o g r a m o f body w e i g h t ( C l a r k s o n e t a l _ . , 1957) . A d i p o s e t i s s u e w e i g h i n g 400-600 mg was removed from t h e retrop.el:itqheal~\ >"depot o f each b i r d . The a d i p o s e t i s s u e was removed from t h e midline'^) o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t , 2-5 cm d i s t a l t o t h e p o i n t o f a d h e s i o n w i t h t h e m u s c u l a t u r e o f t h e a b d o m i n a l w a l l . The s m a l l i n c i s i o n i n t h e abdominal w a l l was s u t u r e d , and a f t e r t h e b i r d s had r e g a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e b i r d s were r e t u r n e d t o t h e cages from w h i c h t h e y had been t a k e n . The e n t i r e p r o c e d u r e l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour p e r b i r d . Two samples o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e from each b i r d , w e i g h i n g 200-300 mg each were i n c u b a t e d i n 3 ml o f K r e b s - R i n g e r b i c a r b o n a t e medium ( C a C l ^ c o n c e n t r a t i o n 1.22%) c o n t a i n i n g , p e r m l : 3- j j i m o l e s g l u c o s e , 40 mg b o v i n e serum a l b u m i n (Sigma Chem. Co., F r a c t i o n V ) , and c o l l a g e n a s e from C l o s t r i d i u m h i s t o l y t i c u m (Sigma>Chem. Co.) a t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 10 mg/g - 40 -a d i p o s e t i s s u e ( D i G i r o l a m o ejt a l . , 1971) . The medium was g a s s e d f o r 5 m i n u t e s w i t h 95% 0^-5% C 0 2 " T n e pH o f t h e medium was a d j u s t e d t o 7.4. The i n c u b a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t i n a s h a k e r b a t h a t 37°C f o r lh h o u r s , a t 20-30 s t r o k e s / m i n u t e . The g l a s s w a r e was s i l i c o n i z e d w i t h D r i - c o t e ( F i s h e r S c i e n t i f i c C o . ) . The i s o l a t i o n , w a s h i n g ( i n medium l a c k i n g c o l l a g e n a s e ) , c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p e r s i n g o f a d i p o c y t e s were done f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by R o d b e l l (1964a), b u t w i t h o u t c e n t r i f u g a t i o n , M a r t i n s s o n (1968). A f t e r s h a k i n g , t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f c e l l s was m a n i f e s t e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t u r b i d i t y o f t h e medium. Fragments o f t i s s u e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t were removed w i t h f o r c e p s . The i n c u b a t i o n t u b e s were a l l o w e d t o s t a n d and t h e a d i p o c y t e s r o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e ; t h e u n d e r l y i n g s o l u t i o n was removed by a s p i r a t i o n and r e p l a c e d by f r e s h medium (not c o n t a i n i n g c o l l a g e n a s e ) . T h i s was r e p e a t e d t h r e e t i m e s . The f a t l i b e r a t e d by t h e p r o c e d u r e f l o a t e d t o t h e s u r f a c e and was p a r t i a l l y removed. Complete removal was n o t r e q u i r e d ' s i n c e t h e f a t l a y e r s appeared t o be i n t a c t d u r i n g r o t a t i o n o f t h e v e s s e l f o r r e m o v a l o f a d i p o c y t e s . The f i n a l c e l l s u s p e n s i o n was i m m e d i a t e l y drawn up i n t o 18 cm o f p l a s t i c t u b i n g ( p o l y e t h y l e n e ) I.D. 1.14 mm, a t t a c h e d t o a 2 m l c a l i b r a t e d s y r i n g e and t h e n d i s c h a r g e d i n t o v i a l s . The volume o f t h e t u b i n g was s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n t a i n 1.0 ml o f c e l l s u s p e n s i o n . The 1 ml a l i q u o t o f i s o l a t e d f a t c e l l s u s p e n s i o n was added t o 4 ml o f warm medium i n a v i a l c o n t a i n i n g 1 mg o f methylene b l u e . A f t e r s t a i n i n g f o r 2 T 5 m i n u t e s , s u c c e s s i v e 0.2-0.4 ml a l i q u o t s o f t h e s t i r r e d s u s p e n s i o n o f s t a i n e d c e l l s - 4 1 -were p l a c e d on s i l i c o n i z e d g l a s s s l i d e s and examined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The i n s e r t i o n o f a m i c r o m e t e r d i s c i n a f o c u s s i n g e y e p i e c e p r o d u c e d a p r o j e c t e d c a l i p e r s c a l e . A t . a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f 160X, t h e m i c r o m e t e r s c a l e was c a l c u l a t e d t o have a c o n s t a n t i n t e r v a l o f 6 um between t h e s m a l l e s t c a l i b r a t i o n s . The f r e e a d i p o c y t e s f l o a t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e o f the medium, were r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r s p h e r i c a l shape, s t a i n e d c y t o p l a s m and s t a i n e d n u c l e u s ; a l l f e a t u r e s r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e a d i p o c y t e s from o c c a s i o n a l d r o p l e t s o f f l o a t i n g l i p i d . S i x s l i d e s o f each f a t c e l l s u s p e n s i o n were p r e p a r e d and 300-400 a d i p o c y t e s were measured by b r i n g i n g t h e c e l l s i n t o t h e c a l i p e r f i e l d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c m o t i o n o f t h e s t a g e c o n t r o l knobs. The c e l l s were a l i g n e d on t h e c a l i p e r s c a l e , t h e e q u i t o r i a l p l a n e o f t h e c e l l was b r o u g h t i n t o f o c u s , and t h e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r was d e t e r m i n e d . I n t h i s f a s h i o n , c e l l d i a m e t e r s between 24 and 150 um were r e c o r d e d i n c l a s s e s w i t h midpoints':.? o f s u c c e s s i v e 6 um m u l t i p l e s t o p r o v i d e a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d i a m e t e r s • i n 21 c a t e g o r i e s o f s i z e . C e l l s l e s s t h a n 24 um were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n the f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them from s m a l l l i p i d d r o p l e t s . The mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were d e t e r m i n e d f o r each f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 300-400 a d i p o c y t e s u s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m u l a s ( Z a r , 1974). Each mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 300-400 c e l l s , r e p r e s e n t e d measurements o f one t i s s u e fragment o r c e l l s u s p e n s i o n . The avera g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r f o r an a d i p o s e d e p o t was t a k e n as t h e mean o f the two mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s o f t h e d u p l i c a t e samples o f a d i p o s e - 42 -t i s s u e removed upon b i o p s y . The s l i d e s were coded so t h a t t h e ex-p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e b i r d s from w h i c h the c e l l s were t a k e n was unknown a t t h e t i m e t h e c e l l s were measured. Many o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s o f a d i p o c y t e s were f o u n d t o c o n t a i n clumps o f 10 t o 100 s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s l e s s t h a n 30 um i n d i a m e t e r . The number o f t h e s e s m a l l clumped c e l l s were r e c o r d e d i n two s i z e c a t e g o r i e s , v i z . 6-12 um and 18-30 um, whenever t h e y were seen. B. Removal o f o r g a n s and t i s s u e s a t 40-43 weeks o f age . f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t i s s u e p r o p o r t i o n s and f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and c e l l u l a r i t y A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t (40-43 weeks o f a g e ) , b i r d s from t r e a t m e n t s 1, 2, 9 and 10 were k i l l e d f o r t h e s t u d y o f t i s s u e p r o p o r t i o n s , a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y . On any one day o f e x a m i n a t i o n , 3 b i r d s were randomly s e l e c t e d (one from each t r e a t m e n t ) , weighed, and k i l l e d by c e r v i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n . The a d i p o s e t i s s u e was i m m e d i a t e l y removed f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r . Two a d i p o s e d e p o t s w i t h w e l l d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n . The a d i p o s e d e p o t l y i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e M u s c u l a r i s s a r t o r i u s (M. s a r t o r i u s depot) was removed and weighed. I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r r e m o v a l , samples o f t i s s u e w e i g h i n g 200-300 mg were c u t from t h e d i s t a l p o r t i o n o f t h e d e p o t , r i n s e d w i t h warm i s o t o n i c s a l i n e (37°C) and b l o t t e d d r y ( H i r s c h and G a l l i a n , 1968) , and weighed. Three samples were f r o z e n a t ~\ -20°C f o r subsequent l i p i d e x t r a c t i o n , and two were p l a c e d i n warm medium o (37 C) c o n t a i n i n g c o l l a g e n a s e f o r i s o l a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s as d e s c r i b e d above. - 43 The r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t was s i m i l a r l y removed and weighed. The r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e t h a t was removed and i m m e d i a t e l y weighed was t h e f a t t h a t s u r r o u n d s t h e g i z z a r d and l a y between t h e a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s and t h e i n t e s t i n e s . The l a y e r o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e e x t e n d e d w i t h i n t h e i s c h i u m and s u r r o u n d e d t h e b u r s a o f F a b r i c i u s and c l o a c a where i t was a t t a c h e d t o t h e a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s i n t h e a r e a o f t h e b u r s a o f F a b r i c i u s and t h e c l o a c a (Kubena e t a l . , 1974)'. • A f t e r t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot was removed and weighed, samples o f t i s s u e w e i g h i n g 200-300 mg were removed from t h e a r e a t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e m i d - l i n e n e a r t h e a t t a c h m e n t o f t h e a d i p o s e depot t o t h e g i z z a r d . Samples o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e f r o m , t h i s a r e a were p r e f e r r e d f o r m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s because t h i s r e g i o n was t h e l e a s t damaged upon r e m o v a l o f t h e a b d o m i n a l d e p o t . Samples o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e t a k e n , f r o m o t h e r a r e a s had c o n s i d e r a b l e c e l l b r e a k a g e . The samples o f t i s s u e were r i n s e d w i t h warm i s o t o n i c s a l i n e , and b l o t t e d d r y , and weighed. Three samples were f r o z e n a t -20°C f o r subsequent l i p i d e x t r a c t i o n . Two samples were p l a c e d i n warm medium c o n t a i n i n g c o l l a g e n a s e (37°C), f o r i s o l a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s as d e s c r i b e d above. F o l l o w i n g t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e , s p e c i f i c t i s s u e s and organs were removed f o r e x a m i n a t i o n . The l e f t p e c t o r a l m u s c l e v ( M u s c u l a r i s p e c t o r a l i s m a j o r ) , t h e l i v e r , o v a r y and o v i d u c t were removed and i m m e d i a t e l y weighed. The l e f t t i b i o t a r s u s ( T i b i a ) , was a l s o removed, s c r a p e d c l e a n , p l a c e d i n an oven f o r 48 hours t o d r y and t h e n weighed. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s was measured. T i s s u e and o r g a n w e i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e w e i g h t s o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s , 'were r e c o r d e d and e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e body w e i g h t . s - 44 -C. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e ave r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and c e l l u l a r i t y a t 40-43 weeks o f age An e s t i m a t e o f t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n an a d i p o s e d e p o t can be o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t by t h e ave r a g e l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a d i p o c y t e s . The l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e was d e r i v e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e mean a d i p o c y t e volume by t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e l i p i d . The mean a d i p o c y t e volume o f an a d i p o s e depot was d e r i v e d from an e s t i m a t e o f t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r u s i n g G o l d r i c k ' s f o r m u l a ( G o l d r i c k , 1967). T h i s method i s bas e d on two a s s u m p t i o n s : t h a t a l l o r most o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e l i p i d i s i n t r a c e l l u l a r ( R o d b e l l , 1964); and t h a t t h e i s o l a t e d a d i p o c y t e s assume s p h e r i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n so t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s v e r s e d i a m e t e r o f t h e c e l l e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i a m e t e r o f t h e l i p i d d r o p l e t o f t h e c e l l (Reh, 1953; D i G i r o l a m o e t a l . , 1971; and M a r t i n s s o n , 1968). The two i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y a r e : 1) t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e mean c e l l volume, and 2) t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t . 1. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and the mean a d i p o c y t e volume o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s - 45 -Adipose ti s s u e samples were excised from both the re t r o p e r i t o n e a l and the M. sarto r i u s depots. Two samples from each depot were removed and incubated i n medium containing collagenase, as previously described. The i s o l a t i o n and dispersing of the adipocytes were performed i n a fashion s i m i l a r to that mentioned e a r l i e r , except the adipocytes were not stained and the average adipocyte diameter was determined using photomicroscopy. From each adipose t i s s u e sample the i s o l a t e d adipocytes were dispersed on s i x s i l i c o n i z e d s l i d e s and 3 or 4 photomicrographs were taken per s l i d e . Photographs were taken using yellow l i g h t and a t o t a l magnification i n the f i l m plane between 65 and 75X. Under these conditions, the depth of the f i e l d was large compared with the mean c e l l radius of the adipocyte populations, so that a l l c e l l s , regardless of t h e i r s i z e , appeared c l e a r l y defined, i n d i c a t i n g that t h e i r e q u i t o r i a l planes were i n focus. A micrometer scale was photographed a f t e r every 12th p i c t u r e to determine the correct magnification. Oval and c i r c u l a r areas i n the photographs, were shown to represent membranes of i n t a c t f a t c e l l s f l o a t i n g on the surface. The adipocytes were translucent and could be e a s i l y distinguished from the more transparent l i p i d droplets which were occasionally present. A membrane i n c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n was taken to indi c a t e that the plane of focus coincided with the maximal c e l l diameter, and only these c e l l s e x h i b i t i n g t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were evaluated. Measurement of c e l l s was confined to the c e n t r a l regions of each photograph ( a l l c e l l s being measured), and c e l l s bordering on the perimeter of the photograph ignored. This - 46 -was done t o a v o i d any d i s t o r t i o n o f c e l l s i z e due t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g and p r i n t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . A d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s between 24 and 150 um were r e c o r d e d i n c l a s s e s w i t h m i d p o i n t s ; > o f s u c c e s s i v e 7 um m u l t i p l e s t o p r o v i d e a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n 18 c a t e g o r i e s o f s i z e . C e l l s l e s s t h a n 24 um were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n because o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them f r o m s m a l l l i p i d d r o p l e t s . The s l i d e s were coded so t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e b i r d s f r o m w h i c h t h e c e l l s were t a k e n was unknown a t t h e t i m e t h e c e l l s were measured. A d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s were measured by hand and t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r each c e l l s u s p e n s i o n was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m u l a s ( Z a r , 1974). The mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r was d e t e r m i n e d from t h e d i a m e t e r s o f 300-400 c e l l s . The mean a d i p o c y t e volume was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d from t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u s i n g G o l d r i c k ' s f o r m u l a , ( G o l d r i c k , 1967); and t h e mean a d i p o c y t e w e i g h t was d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g t h e d e n s i t y o f t r i o l e i n (0.915). A d i p o s e c e l l volume was c a l c u l a t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t ' t h e a d i p o c y t e s were s p h e r i c a l from t h e mean d i a m e t e r (x) 2 2 2 — 1 and t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e d i a m e t e r (C ) u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a , (j[/6) (30 +x ) x . A d i p o c y t e volume was e x p r e s s e d as p i c o l i t e r s ( p i ) p e r a d i p o c y t e . The d i a m e t e r D, i s a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d v a r i a b l e , b u t i t s cube i s skewed. Hence, t h e . a r i t h m e t i c mean o f (D ) cann o t be used i n t h ^ c a l c u l a t i o n o f c e l l volume. The e x p e c t e d volume (E) o f (D ) = E(D )y^where x" i s t h e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d v a r i a b l e and x, a, and a a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and v a r i a n c e . (E (D ) = ( x 3 ) ( ~h ( X I X ) ) dx J O 2 T T "°° 3 2 _ 2 _ T h i s r e s o l v e j t o E(D )=(3a +x ) x . Thus E ( c e l l volume) = (TT/6) (3a +x ) x . ( c i t e d from G o l d r i c k , 1967). - 47 •<-The average c e l l volume f o r each d e p o t was d e t e r m i n e d as t h e mean o f t h e mean c e l l volume o f t h e two t i s s u e f r a g m e n t s ( d u p l i c a t e s ) p e r a d i p o s e d e p o t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s method o f d e t e r m i n i n g c e l l volume f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n i n g c e l l u l a r i t y a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o Lavau e t a l . (1977), i n e x c e l l e n t agreement w i t h t h e more e l a b o r a t e osmium f i x a t i o n method o f H i r s c h and G a l l i a n (1968). 2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e Three a l i q u o t s o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e w e i g h i n g 200-300 mg from each a d i p o s e d e p o t were p l a c e d i n c h l o r o f o r m - m e t h a n o l (2:1) and t h e t o t a l l i p i d was e x t r a c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by F o l c h e_t a l . , 1957. T h i s p r o c e d u r e c o n s i s t e d o f two s u c c e s s i v e s t e p s . I n t h e f i r s t s t e p t h e t i s s u e s were homogenized i n a . P o t t e r - E l v e h j e m t y p e homogenizer w i t h a 2:1 c h l o r o f o r m - m e t h a n o l m i x t u r e (w/v) t o a f i n a l d i l u t i o n 2 0 - f o l d t h e volume o f t h e t i s s u e sample. The homogenate was t h e n f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h f a t - f r e e p a p e r i n t o a g l a s s - s t o p p e r e d v e s s e l . The second s t e p c o n s i s t e d o f m i x i n g t h e e x t r a c t w i t h 20% o f i t s volume o f a s p e c i f i e d s a l t s o l u t i o n ( F o l c h e t a l . , 1 9 5 7), and a l l o w i n g t h e m i x t u r e t o s e p a r a t e i n t o two p h a s e s . The l o w e r phase c o n t a i n s a l l t h e t i s s u e l i p i d s . As much o f t h e upper phase as p o s s i b l e was removed by a s p i r a t i o n and complete r e m o v a l was a c c o m p l i s h e d by r i n s i n g t h e i n t e r p h a s e t h r e e t i m e s w i t h s m a l l amounts o f p u r e s o l v e n t s upper phase a c c o r d i n g t o F o l c h et_ a l . (1957). F i n a l l y , the l o w e r phase - 48 -and t h e r e m a i n i n g r i n s i n g f l u i d were made i n t o a s i m p l e phase by t h e a d d i t i o n o f methanol and t h e r e s u l t i n g s o l u t i o n was e v a p o r a t e d i n a w a t e r b a t h . The l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e t i s s u e was d e t e r m i n e d on t r i p l i c a t e a l i q u o t s o f e x t r a c t by m i c r o g r a v i m e t r i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n a f t e r c o m p lete e v a p o r a t i o n o f t h e s o l v e n t . The r a t i o o f l i p i d t o wet w e i g h t o f t h e t i s s u e was e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e . The d e f a t t e d d r y r e s i d u e (DDR) o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e was d e t e r m i n e d by m i c r o g r a v i m e t r i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t i s s u e f r a g m e n t , removed from t h e f i r s t e x t r a c t , p l a c e d i n 10 ml o f f r e s h s o l v e n t f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 24 h o u r s , removed from t h e s o l v e n t and d r i e d o v e r n i g h t i n an oven. The r a t i o o f DDR t o wet w e i g h t o f a d i p o s e d e p o t was e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e . 3. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s The e s t i m a t e o f t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n a sample o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e was o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e t i s s u e by t h e ave r a g e l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e a d i p o c y t e s . The l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e ave r a g e a d i p o c y t e was d e r i v e d by t h e mean c e l l volume X the d e n s i t y o f t h e l i p i d ( t a k e n as t h e d e n s i t y o f t r i o l e i n , 0.915). The o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. - 49 -F i g u r e 1. Summary o f p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s i z e and t h e c e l l u l a r i t y o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e . ADIPOSE DEPOT L I P I D EXTRACTION L i p i d C o n t e n t o f T i s s u e A d i p o s e t i s s u e — • f r a g m e n t s — INCUBATION WITH COLLAGENASE I s o l a t e d A d i p o c y t e s Average A d i p o c y t e D i a m e t e r Average A d i p o c y t e Volume Average A d i p o c y t e = .1 <r L i p i d C o n t e n t ADIPOSE CELLULARITY IN ADIPOSE DEPOTS X - T r i g l y c e r i d e D e n s i t y (0.915) - 50 -Table I, Composition of experimental d i e t . Ingredients Wheat Corn Oats Soybean meal Dehydrated c e r e a l grass Iodized s a l t Limestone Calcium phosphate Micronutrients 31.0 31.0 20.0 12.8 2.0 0.5 1.2 1.5 * per kg of d i e t : manganese s u l f a t e 150 mg, z i n c oxide 62 mg, choline c h l o r i d e 1320 mg, r i b o f l a v i n 3 mg, vitamin B 12 13.2 meg, vitamin A 4400 I.U. vitamin D 440 I.C.U. , Amprol** 125 mg. Amprol (coccidiostat) supplied courtesy of Merckr Sharp and Dohme Canada Ltd. - 51 -RESULTS AND DISCUSSION I . The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on growth r a t e and mature body w e i g h t s o f male and f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s The body w e i g h t s o f t h e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n and o f t h e b i r d s f e d ad l i b i t u m from day 2 ( c o n t r o l s ) , a r e shown i n T a b l e I I and i n F i g u r e s 2 and 3. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s t r i c t i o n o f f e e d i n t a k e s e v e r e l y r e d u c e d growth r a t e i n b o t h male and femal e b i r d s . I n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n u n t i l 14 weeks o f age, t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e male b i r d s were 19% o f t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e i r c o n t r o l c o u n t e r p a r t s ; and t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e femal e b i r d s were o n l y 27% o f t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e i r c o n t r o l c o u n t e r p a r t s . A t 14 weeks o f age t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e c o n t r o l males were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e c o n t r o l f e m a l e s . The g r e a t e r growth r a t e o f male b i r d s f e d ad l i b i t u m ( c o n t r o l ) r e s u l t e d i n a d i f f e r e n c e i n body w e i g h t s a p p e a r i n g a t week 5. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t male and female b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n had s i m i l a r body w e i g h t s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n (Table I I ) . The s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e body w e i g h t s between male and femal e b i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e male b i r d s n o r m a l l y have a g r e a t e r growth r a t e (Edwards e_t aJL. , 1973) ; and were t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o e a t more and have a g r e a t e r body w e i g h t t h a n t h e s l o w e r g r o w i n g f e m a l e s . The growth r a t e s o f t h e femal e and male b i r d s f o l l o w i n g - 52 -Figure 2. Growth rates of female broiler-type birds subjected to dietary r e s t r i c t i o n for d i f f e r e n t periods of time. - 53 -Dxetary r e s t r i c t i o n 0-5 weeks Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 0-10 weeks Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 0-12 0-14 weeks weeks i 24 12 16 2 0 AGE (WEEKS) — i 28 3 2 3 6 Growth rates of male broiler-type birds subjected to dietary r e s t r i c t i o n for different periods of time. Table I I . The e f f e c t s of die t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on the body weights of male and female broiler-type chickens to 14 weeks of age. Period of Dietary .Restriction (weeks) Age of Birds (weeks) Average Body Weights of Birds Subjected to Dietary R e s t r i c t i o n From 0-14 Weeks (g) Males Females Average Body Weights • of Control Birds (g) Males Females 0-2 2 54 a+8(51)* 54 a+7(73)* 99 b+9(12)* 103 b+16(9)* 0-3 -. 3 72a+12(43) 7i a+10(67) 202b+27(12) 190b+38(9) 0-4 .4 104a+19(37) 103a+15(57) 342b+58(12) 320b+&3(9) 0-5 5 139a+26(34) 14l a+21(45) 565°+84(12) b~ 489 +86(9) • 0-6 6 ; 185a+41(27) 187a+28(37) 816°+114(12) b" 679 +98(9) 0-7 7 259a+58(27) 255a+42(29) 1074C+126(12) 887b+105(9) 0-8 8 289a+63(27) 290a+47(29) 1281C+161(12) 1077b+91(9) . 0 - 9 9 339a+82(21) ' 343a+59(24) 1674°212(12) 1333b+126(9) 0-10 10 396a+104(21) 415a+75(24) 2030°+217(12) b" 1591 +120(9) 0-11 11 414a+96(13) 433a+65(21) 2330°+269(12) b-1792 +116(9) . 0-12 12 48i a+128(13) 508a+80(21) : . 2695C+331(12) b" 2057 +123(9) 0-13 13 575a+167(7) 584a+81(10) 2997C+353(12) 2294b+133(9) 0-14 14 642a+195(7) 667a+107(10) 3296C+278(10) b~ 2498 +127(9) * Number of birds abed Values with the same superscript f o r body weights are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at P < 0.05. - 55 -t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 and F i g u r e 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e g r o w t h r a t e s o f femal e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . The d a t a from t r e a t m e n t s 2, 3 and 5 were o m i t t e d from t h i s g r a p h f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . The f i n a l body w e i g h t s a t 38 weeks o f t h e s e o m i t t e d t r e a t m e n t s (2, 3 and 5) a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e I l i a . F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e growth r a t e s o f male b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . T r e a t m e n t s 2 & 3 and t r e a t m e n t 7 have been s i m i l a r l y o m i t t e d . The f i n a l body w e i g h t s a t 38 weeks o f t h e s e o m i t t e d t r e a t m e n t s (2, 3 & 7) a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e I l l b . The d a t a from t r e a t m e n t s 4 and 6 were o m i t t e d from a l l r e s u l t s because t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s o n l y c o n t a i n e d one b i r d a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . A t 33 weeks o f age t h e b i r d s i n a l l t r e a t m e n t s were a c c i d e n t a O i l y ' l e f t w i t h o u t f e e d f o r 3-4 d a y s . The b i r d s were u n a b l e t o r e g a i n the r e s u l t a n t w e i g h t l o s s by 34 weeks o f age and so t h e body w e i g h t a t t h i s t i m e , a l t h o u g h r e c o r d e d on F i g u r e s 2 & 3, were n o t i n c l u d e d as p o i n t s on t h e g r o w t h c u r v e s . The body w e i g h t s o f t h e b i r d s i n t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s by 36 weeks o f age had r e t u r n e d t o v a l u e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d b e f o r e 33 weeks. A t 38 weeks o f age the body w e i g h t s seemed u n a f f e c t e d by t h e p e r i o d o f f e e d d e p r i v a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r r e d a t 33 weeks o f age. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by Douglas and a s s o c i a t e s (1978), d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f e e d d e p r i v a t i o n o f up t o 72 h o u r s a t 65 weeks o f age had no e f f e c t on f i n a l body w e i g h t s o f White Leghorn p u l l e t s f o l l o w i n g r e f e e d i n g . These f i n d i n g s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e d a t a i n F i g u r e s 2 & 3, i n d i c a t e Table I l i a . E f f e c t s of e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body weights of female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 38 weeks of age. T R E A T M E N T S * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 Average Body Weights (g) Control Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-2 weeks) Peed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-3 weeks) Feed R e s t r i c tlon (0-4 weeks) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-5 weeks) Feed ..Restriction (0-6 weeks) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-8 weeks) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-12 weeks) Feed 'Restriction (0-14 weeks) (7)*** (5) (6) (9) (6) (6) (4) (6) (7) Mean 3980 b 3954 b 3976 b 3953 b 3882 b 3873 b 3833 b 3453* • 3543* S.D. +254 +278 +470 +449 +337 +341 +331 +344 +202 Table I I l b . E f f e c t s of ea r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on body weights of male b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens at 38 weeks of age. Average Body Weights (g) Control (8)*** T R Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-2 weeks) (5) E A 3 T H E N T 5 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-3 weeks) (5) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-5 weeks) (5) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-8 weeks) (3) 8 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-10weeks) (5) Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-12 weeks) (2) 10 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-14 weeks) (3) i4o an S-D. 4704 +424 4691 +530 4880 +635 4735° +413 4375 +899 4841 +504 4382 +1524 4546 +482 ab Treatment 8 had only 1 b i r d (data not included) Treatments, 4 and 6 had only 1 b i r d (data not included) Number of b i r d s Values with the same supe r s c r i p t f o r each body weight are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at P < 0.05. - 57 -that the f i n a l body weights at 38 weeks of age were unaffected by the e a r l i e r feed deprivation occurring at 33 weeks. The e f f e c t s of the early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on the mature body weights of the female and male birds at 38 weeks are given i n Tables I l i a and I l l b r e s p e c t i v e l y . Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n i n female b i r d s , as previously mentioned, retarded growth during the period when r e s t r i c t i o n was p r a c t i s e d (Table I I ) . A f t e r ad l i b i t u m feed was i n s t i t u t e d , however, the female birds i n treatments 2-8 were able to compensate during the period of dietary r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and at 38 weeks of age achieved body weights s i m i l a r to the body weights of the control birds (Table I l i a ) . A c e r t a i n degree of caution must be exercised i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n because the data from treatment 8 were not included i n the r e s u l t s . Therefore i t cannot be conclusively shown that these birds r e s t r i c t e d from 0-10 weeks of age were unaffected by the dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . - However, the body weights of these birds at 22 weeks of age (data from 3 b i r d s ) , Figure 2, were s i m i l a r to the body weights of treatment 7 (feed r e s t r i c t e d from 0-8 weeks). This indicated that the birds were able to compensate following dietary r e s t r i c t i o n and achieve body weights s i m i l a r to other treatments i n which the birds f u l l y compensated for the early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . I t seems l i k e l y , therefore, that the birds r e s t r i c t e d from 0-10 weeks (treatment 8), were also able to f u l l y compensate for the early growth r e s t r i c t i o n . The female b i r d s i n treatments 9 and 10 had body weights at 38 weeks of age which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the body weights of the female control birds (Table I l i a ) . The s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n the - 58 -r e d u c e d body w e i g h t o f t h o s e b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks i m p l i e s t h a t t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n had a permanent e f f e c t s on t h e development o f t h e s e b i r d s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e f f e c t o f r e s t r i c t i o n f o r l e s s e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e . These r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f McCance (1976), t h a t t h e r e a r e " c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s o f g r o w t h " d u r i n g an a n i m a l ' s l i f e w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e u l t i m a t e s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e a n i m a l . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r up t o 10 weeks o f age, when f e d ad l i b i t u m , were a b l e t o compensate f u l l y , showed " c a t c h - u p " growth and a t t a i n e d a body s i z e s i m i l a r t o t h e f u l l y n o u r i s h e d c o n t r o l b i r d s . However, when t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was e x t e n d e d from 0-12 o r from 0-14 weeks o f age, d e s p i t e e a r l y compensatory g r o w t h , t h e fema l e b i r d s were n o t a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r f u l l g e n e t i c s i z e , i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s . The e x i s t e n c e o f " c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s o f g r o w t h " , beyond w h i c h complete c o m p e n s a t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e , has a l s o been o b s e r v e d i n p i g s and r a t s (McCance, 1976). The e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n d i d n o t appear t o r e d u c e t h e f i n a l body w e i g h t s o f male b i r d s , F i g u r e 3, T a b l e I l l b . The male b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d from 0-12 and 0-14 weeks o f age seemed t o compensate d u r i n g t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p e r i o d and a t 38 weeks, a c h i e v e body w e i g h t s w h i c h were s i m i l a r t o t h e body w e i g h t s o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s . However, t h e s m a l l number o f b i r d s i n e i t h e r t r e a t m e n t 9 o r t r e a t m e n t 10 p r e v e n t s a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n as t o whether e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n had any permanent e f f e c t on t h e mature body w e i g h t s o f male b i r d s . The h i g h - 59 -mortality, 67%, i n male birds subjected to dietary r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks of.age (Table V) indicates that t h i s dietary r e s t r i c t i o n had an adverse e f f e c t on the mortality of these b i r d s . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that the dietary r e s t r i c t i o n imposed i n treatments 9 & 10 caused an increase i n male mortality, with the r e s u l t that only those birds which were able to f u l l y compensate for the early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n were able to survive. In female b i r d s , Figure 2, growth rates following dietary r e s t r i c t i o n were constant u n t i l 22 weeks of age (treatments 2-8) or 24 weeks of age (treatments 9 & 10). In the former case the i n f l e c t i o n point for the change i n growth rates i n treatments 2-6 occurred between 3500 and 4000 g, and i n treatment 7 between 3400-3500 g.- The i n f l e c t i o n i n the growth curves correspond to the times at which the birds reached sexual maturity as judged by the onset of lay, Table IX. Treatments 2-7 came in t o lay at 18-22 weeks corresponding to t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n points; whereas treatments 9 & 10 came i n t o lay between 22-24 weeks of age corresponding to t h e i r i n f l e c t i o n points. A s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n the nature of the i n f l e c t i o n points was observed between those birds unaffected permanently by dietary r e s t r i c t i o n and those birds permanently affected by dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . Those birds > apparently unaffected permanently by dietary r e s t r i c t i o n (treatments 2-7), had a very sharp change i n t h e i r growth rate at 20-24 weeks of age whereas those birds permanently affected by the dietary r e s t r i c t i o n (treatments 9 & 10) had a very gradual a l t e r a t i o n of t h e i r growth - 60 -r a t e . The s h a r p change i n growth r a t e o f t h o s e b i r d s u n a f f e c t e d by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h e change i n g r o w t h rate„at s e x u a l m a t u r i t y o b s e r v e d i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s ( t r e a t m e n t 1 ) . The s h a r p change i n growth r a t e a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y o f t h e f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s , f u l l y - n o u r i s h e d o r a p p a r e n t l y u n a f f e c t e d p e r m a n e n t l y by t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r s t r a i n s o f c h i c k e n s (McCance, 1960; L i s t e r e t a l . , 1966). The s h a r p change i n t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y o b s e r v e d i n t h e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s , may t h e r e f o r e be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e f a s t e r g r o w t h r a t e o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s . I n male b i r d s t h e change i n growth r a t e s a t s e x u a l m a t u r i t y (22 w eeks), was n o t as pronounced as i t was i n f e m a l e s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The i n f l e c t i o n i n t h e g r o w t h c u r v e s o f male b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n o c c u r r e d a t h i g h e r body w e i g h t s : 4500-5000 g f o r t r e a t m e n t s 2-8, and 4000-4500 g f o r t r e a t m e n t s 9 and 10. D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n had a p ronounced e f f e c t on t h e age a t w h i c h t h e i n f l e c t i o n i n g r o w t h r a t e o c c u r r e d . The more s e v e r e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n ( t r e a t m e n t s 9 & 10) d e l a y e d t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s t o 28-30 weeks o f age; compared w i t h t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t a t 20 weeks o f age f o r t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s , and 24 weeks o f age f o r t h o s e b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f rom 0-5 weeks o f age. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the shape o f t h e i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s between male ( g r a d u a l ) , and f e m a l e b i r d s ( s h a r p ) , f u l l y n o u r i s h e d o r p e r m a n e n t l y u n a f f e c t e d by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , may r e s u l t i n t h e f e m a l e b i r d s , from the"sudden o n s e t o f egg p r o d u c t i o n and t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s n ewly a c q u i r e d r e p r o d u c t i v e c o n d i t i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n between t h e r a t e s o f g r o w t h o f b i r d s f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e s IVa and IVb. - 61 -The growth rate was calculated from the slope of the l i n e s , m, i n Figure 2 and Figure 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y , where y = mx + b. The units are i n grams gained per day. In female b i r d s , Figure 2, the growth rate on a l l treatments was f a i r l y constant below 3000 g. The rate of growth following dietary r e s t r i c t i o n was accordingly investigated between two l e v e l s of body weight: 700 to 1700 and 1700 to 3000 g (Table IVa). The growth rates for birds r e s t r i c t e d f o r the longest period of time tended i n i t i a l l y to be the greatest as evidenced by the larger slope. The control birds grew at an average growth rate of 32 g/day between 700 and 1700 g of body weight, whereas those b i r d s on dietary r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-10, 0-12 and 0-14 weeks of age grew at a rate of 49, 39 and 50 g/day res p e c t i v e l y , fo r the same gain i n weight. However, t h i s i n i t i a l greater growth rate i n b irds subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was only temporary, and between the body weights of 1700 and 3000 g the rates of growth i n these birds decreased and were s i m i l a r to that of the control b i r d s . In f a c t the average growth rate i n the birds r e s t r i c t e d from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks of age was eventually lower than that of the control birds (Figure 2, Table IVa) r e s u l t i n g i n mature body weights s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the controls (Table I l i a ) . Growth rates following d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n the male birds followed a s i m i l a r pattern to those observed i n the female birds (Table IVb). In t h i s Table, growth rates of male birds following dietary r e s t r i c t i o n were calculated f o r 2 l e v e l s of body weight from 700 to 1700 g Table IVa. Growth rate, (m)*, of female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens following periods of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . Average Growth i Rate, (m), for gain i n body weight " Feed Feed Feed Feed Feed Feed R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n Body Weight Gain (g) Control (9)** g/day (0-4 weeks) (11) g/day (0-6 weeks) (8) g/day (0-8 weeks) (5) g/day (0-lO^weeks) g/day (0-12 weeks) (8) g/day (0-14 weeks) (8) g/day 700-1700 32 37 36 42 49 39 50 1700-3000 30 32 29 27 33 23 27 Table IVb. Growth rate, (m)*, of male b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens following periods of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . Average Growth Rate, (m), for gain i n body weight Feed Feed Feed Feed R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n R e s t r i c t i o n . R e s t r i c t i o n Body Weight Gain Control (0-5 weeks) (0-10 weeks) (0-12 weeks) (0-14 weeks) (12)** (6) (8) (5) (5) (g) g/day g/day g/day g/day g/day 700-1700 39 44 51 44 60 1700-4000 41 39 34 27 33 * (m) i s the rate of growth (weight gain per un i t time), representing the slope of the l i n e s i n Figure 1 and Figure 2 res p e c t i v e l y , where y = m x + b ** Number of b i r d s . - 63 -and from 1700 t o 4000 g o f body w e i g h t . Male b i r d s a c h i e v e d h e a v i e r body w e i g h t s and so t h e l a t t e r body w e i g h t i n t e r v a l was e xtended t o 4000 g i n s t e a d o f t h e 3000 g l i m i t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e growth r a t e f o r f e m a l e b i r d s . The growth r a t e s o f males f o l l o w i n g d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n were i n i t i a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s f o r t h e g a i n i n w e i g h t between 700 and 1700 g. B i r d s r e s t r i c t e d from 0-8, 0-12, and from 0-14 weeks had growth r a t e s o f 51, 44 and 60 g/day r e s p e c t i v e l y compared t o t h e growth r a t e o f 39 g/day o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s , f o r t h e g a i n i n w e i g h t between 700 and 1700 g. However, t h i s g r e a t e r g r o w t h r a t e f o r b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was o n l y t e m p o r a r y and t h e g r o w t h r a t e d e c r e a s e d and became s i m i l a r t o , o r l e s s t h a n , t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s f o r t h e g a i n i n w e i g h t between 1700 and 4000 g (Table I V b ) . These r e s u l t s c o n f i r m t h e e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f McCance (1960) and L i s t e r e t a l _ . (1966) , who d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a f t e r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f u n d e r n u t r i t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e (0-6 m o n t hs), b o t h male and f e m a l e b i r d s i n i t i a l l y grew a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n t h e f u l l y n o u r i s h e d male and f e m a l e b i r d s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r t h e same g a i n i n w e i g h t . L i s t e r and a s s o c i a t e s a l s o showed t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f u n d e r n u t r i t i o n , t h e b i r d s t o o k a s i m i l a r l e n g t h o f t i m e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r f i n a l body w e i g h t s as d i d t h e f u l l y n o u r i s h e d c o n t r o l s ( L i s t e r e t a_l. , 1966) . - 64 -I I . The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e m o r t a l i t y o f male and femal e b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s The e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on m o r t a l i t y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s V and V I . The t o t a l number o f d e a t h s o c c u r r i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d a r e shown i n T a b l e V. M o r t a l i t y was summarized a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . The p e r i o d s were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n and t h e g r o w i n g s t a g e s o f t h e b i r d s . M o r t a l i t y was c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t two weeks o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n ; f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p e r i o d o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n (weeks 3-14); f o r t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d t e r m i n a t i n g w i t h s e x u a l m a t u r i t y (weeks 15-24); and f o r t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e from s e x u a l m a t u r i t y t o t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t (weeks 25-38). M o r t a l i t y was h i g h e s t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two weeks o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n r e a c h i n g 18% d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week and 20% by t h e end o f the second week. B i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n had h i g h e r m o r t a l i t y t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s . The b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week were s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d and were n o t a b l e t o s u r v i v e f u r t h e r f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n . The s e v e r i t y o f t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week was i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t when f e e d was w i t h h e l d on day 5, t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f d e a t h s , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 29 o f t h e t o t a l 42 d e a t h s f o r t h e e n t i r e f i r s t week ( d a t a n o t shown). C h i c k s a r e a b l e t o s u r v i v e f o r p e r i o d s o f t i m e a f t e r h a t c h i n g w i t h o u t f e e d , p r o v i d e d w a t e r i s s u p p l i e d ad l i b i t u m . P e r i o d s o f up t o Table V. Mor t a l i t y * i n male and female b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens subjected to dietary r e s t r i c t i o n for d i f f e r e n t periods of time. Treatments To t a l Number of Birds Week 1 Number of deaths (male and female) Week 2 Week 3-14 Weeks 15-24 Weeks 25-38 Control Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : * * 0-2,0-3, & 0-4 wks 0-5, &" 0-6 wks 0-8, 6 0-10 wks 0-12, & 0-14 wks Total mortality i n bi r d s placed on dietary r e s t r i c t i o n Percent m o r t a l i t y i n birds placed on dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 23 72 54 49 58 233 8 12 11 11 42 18% 15 12 11 9 47 20% 3 2 4 5 14 6% 8 4 4 6 22 9% 7 6 5 9 27 12% ** Mo r t a l i t y includes b i r d s which were cropbound. Data from treatments were combined to increase sample s i z e . - 66 -72 hours posthatch without feed (water ad libitum) have been found to have no e f f e c t on mortality (March and Hansen, 1977). In t h i s regard, periods of feed and water deprivation up to 48 hours i n duration posthatch have been found to have no e f f e c t on f i n a l body weights, mortality, carcass q u a l i t y , or feed conversion (Conners et a l . , 1971; Proudfoot, 1975). During the f i r s t few days posthatch the chick r e l i e s on the l a t e r a l thoracic adipose depot as an energy source f o r s u r v i v a l (Langslow and Lewis, 1972). The l a t e r a l thoracic adipose depot i s quickly depleted following hatch and by the 8th day contains only 40% of the l i p i d content which was present on day 1 (Langslow and Lewis, 1972). If feed i s withheld f o r longer periods of time, 72 hours or 120 hours, mortality r i s e s to 18% (as e a r l i e r mentioned) or 27% (March and Hansen, 1977), r e s p e c t i v e l y . There also appears to be a genetic difference i n the a b i l i t y of birds to survive without feed following hatching. When feed was withheld for 120 hours a f t e r hatch, b r o i l e r - t y p e birds suffered 27% mortality i n contrast to White Leghorns who only suffered 6% mortality (March and Hansen, 1977). Following the f i r s t two weeks of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n the death rate decreased to 6% for the re s t of the period of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . Following 14 weeks of age the death rate was between 9 and 12% for the duration of the experimental period. The mortality i n birds subjected to early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n was greater than the mortality i n the control birds during the f i r s t few weeks of l i f e and for the r e s t of the experimental period, Table V. Table VI compares the mortality between male and female birds - 67 -from 2 t o 38 weeks o f age. The d a t a on t h e m o r t a l i t y i n b i r d s p r i o r t o two weeks was o m i t t e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e l e v e l s o f m o r t a l i t y i n b i r d s d u r i n g t h e subsequent g r o w i n g p e r i o d . The m o r t a l i t y i n b i r d s p l a c e d on e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n ( T a b l e V I ) . The m o r t a l i t y i n b i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age was 53% and was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e m o r t a l i t y i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s ( 2 6 % ) . The m o r t a l i t y i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-8 and 0-10 weeks ( 4 8 % ) ; from 0-5 and 0-6 weeks ( 4 0 % ) ; and from 0-2, 0-3 and 0-4 weeks (37%) was a l s o g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s n e v e r p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n ( 2 6 % ) . The m o r t a l i t y i n b o t h male and f e m a l e b i r d s was i n c r e a s e d i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t can n o t be s t a t e d whether o r n o t one sex was a f f e c t e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e o t h e r . Cropbound b i r d s were k i l l e d and i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i g u r e s f o r m o r t a l i t y . Cropbound b i r d s were k i l l e d because t h e e a t i n g h a b i t s o f t h e s e b i r d s would n o t r e f l e c t t h e e a t i n g h a b i t s o f a normal p o p u l a t i o n o f b i r d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e growth r a t e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e o f cropbound b i r d s w o u l d be a l t e r e d and would be d i f f e r e n t from b i r d s w i t h o u t bound c r o p s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d a t a from cropbound b i r d s were o m i t t e d from t h e r e s u l t s on g r o w t h r a t e s and body w e i g h t . The o c c u r r e n c e o f cropbound b i r d s i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I . D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e a p p eared t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f cropbound b i r d s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f cropbound b i r d s seemed t o i n c r e a s e i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i n b o t h male and f e m a l e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n w i t h o u t e v i d e n c e o f a sex d i f f e r e n c e . Table VI. A comparison of t o t a l mortality* between male and female broiler-type chickens from 2 to 38 weeks of age. TOTAL MORTALITY (male and female) Treatments T o t a l No.of Birds (male and female) at 2 weeks of age % Total Mortality No. of Males Mortality i n Males No.of Females Mo r t a l i t y i n Females Control Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : * * 0-2, 0-3, and 0-4 weeks 0-5, and 0-6 weeks 0-8 and 0-10 weeks 0-12 and 0-14 weeks Total mortality i n birds subjected to dietary r e s t r i c t i o n 23 49 30 27 38 144 26% 37 40 48 53 44 13 18 12 16 15-61 38% 39 50 50 67 51 10 31 18 11 23 83 10% 35 33 45 43 39 Mo r t a l i t y includes birds which were cropbound. Data from treatment were combined to increase sample s i z e . Table VII. The e f f e c t s of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on the occurrence of cropbound birds between 2 and 38 weeks of age. BIRDS BECOMING CROPBOUND (male and female) Treatments To t a l No.of Birds (male and female) at 2 weeks of age Birds Becoming No. of Cropbound Males No. of Cropbound No. of Males Females No. of Cropbound Females Control 23 13 10 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : * 0-2, 0-3, and 0-4 weeks 0-5 and 0-6 weeks 0-8 and 0-10 weeks 0-12 and 0-14 weeks 49 30 27 38 18 12 16 15 31 18 11 23 Tot a l cropbound birds i n birds subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 144 17 61 83 11 Percent cropbound b i r d s i n birds subjected to die t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 144 Percent cropbound b i r d s i n control 23 11.8% 8.7% 61 13 9.8% 7.7% 83 10 13.2% 10.0% Data from treatments were combined to increase sample s i z e . - 70 -F e e d i n g management o f b i r d s may a f f e c t t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f b i r d s t o become cropbound by p r o m o t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e growth- o f u n d e s i r a b l e m i c r o o r g a n i s m s i n t h e c r o p and/or t h e f a i l u r e o f d e s i r a b l e m i c r o o r g a n i s m s t o a t t a c h t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e c r o p w a l l ( B r o o k e r and F u l l e r , 1975; F u l l e r and B r o o k e r , 1974). The major cause o f m o r t a l i t y i n a l l b i r d s was t h e development o f l e g p r o b l e m s . P e r o s i s o r s l i p p e d - t e n d o n a c c o u n t e d f o r 43% o f t h e l e g p r o b l e m s . The i n c i d e n c e o f l e g weakness i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I I I . E a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d t h e development o f l e g weakness i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n t o 18.7% compared w i t h 13% i n t h e c o n t r o l p o p u l a t i o n . The o c c u r r e n c e o f l e g weakness i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s was h i g h , 13%, and r e f l e c t s t h e r e a r i n g p r o b l e m i n b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s i n t h e p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y . Female b i r d s p l a c e d on e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n seemed more s u s c e p t i b l e t o l e g weakness t h a n t h e m a l e s . Leg weakness i n f e m a l e b i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 0% i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s t o 14.5% i n t h o s e b i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n ; whereas t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f l e g weakness i n male b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f l e g weakness i n t h e c o n t r o l p o p u l a t i o n , 23.1% and 24.6% r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, c a u t i o n must be employed when e v a l u a t i n g t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f b i r d s t o leg-weakness f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c e r e l a t i v e l y few b i r d s were i n v o l v e d . McCance (1960) found t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o l l o w i n g e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t e d b i r d s d e v e l o p e d v a r y i n g d e g r e s s o f l e g weakness.-Table V l l l . The e f f e c t s of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on the occurrence of birds developing leg weakness* between 2 and 38 weeks of age. BIRDS DEVELOPING LEG WEAKNESS (male and female) To t a l No.of Birds (male and female) Treatments at 2 weeks of age Birds Developing Leg Weakness No. of Males Males Developing Leg Weakness No.of Females Females Developing Leg Weakness Control 23 3 13 .3 10 0 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : * * 0-2, 0-3, and 0-4 weeks 49 6 18 2 31 4 0-5 and 0-6 weeks 30 8 12 5 18 3 0-8 and 0-10 weeks 27 6 16 4 11 2 0-12 and 0-14 weeks 38 7 15 . 4 23 3 To t a l birds with weak legs i n birds subjected to die t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 144 27 61 15 83 12 Percent leg weakness i n birds subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n 144 18.7% 61 24.6% 83 14.5% Percent leg weakness i n cont r o l birds 23 13.0% 13 23.1% 10 0% Perosis or slip-tendon accounted for 43% of the birds developing leg weakness. Data from treatments were combined to increase sample s i z e . - 72 -I I I . The e f f e c t s of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on egg production from 24 to 38 weeks of age Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n delayed sexual maturity i n female birds subjected to early d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , Table IXa. Female birds subjected to the longest periods of dietary r e s t r i c t i o n , r e s t r i c t e d from 0-8, 0-12 and 0-14 weeks of age, had t h e i r sexual maturity delayed the l o n g e s t — 2 2 , 22.5 and 24 weeks of age re s p e c t i v e l y . Birds which were never subjected to di e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n (controls) or r e s t r i c t e d from 0-2 weeks of age reached sexual maturity at 18.5 and 19 weeks of age r e s p e c t i v e l y . Egg production was measured from 24 to 38 weeks of age. However, as mentioned e a r l i e r , feed was accidently withheld for several days at 33 weeks of age, r e s u l t i n g i n lower subsequent egg production. Therefore, data for egg production during weeks 33, 34 and 35, were omitted from the ca l c u l a t i o n s of average egg production (Table IXa). At 36 weeks of age and thereafter, egg production i n a l l treatments was s i m i l a r to the l e v e l s of egg production occurring before 33 weeks of age. Douglas and associates (1978) showed that food deprivation up to 72 hours i n duration, although i n i t i a l l y reducing egg production, had no e f f e c t on subsequent egg production or egg weight, once egg production returned to the l e v e l s occurring before the food deprivation. Therefore, egg production from 36 to 38 weeks of age was included i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of average egg production (Table IXa). - 73 -Table IXa. The e f f e c t s of ea r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on egg production between 24 and 38 weeks of age. Age of Birds at Egg Production* from Treatments Onset of Lay 24-38 weeks of age (weeks) (%) Control (7)*** 18.5 30.4 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : * * 0-2 weeks (5) 19.0 49.5 0-3 weeks (6) 21.5 35.0 0-4 weeks (9) 22.5 34.0 0-5 weeks (6) 20.0 35.9 0-6 weeks (6) 21.0 ' • 32.8 0-8 weeks (4) 22.0 24.5 0-12 weeks (6) 22.5 41.5 0-14 weeks (7) 24.0 27.1 Egg production was c a l c u l a t e d on hen-day b a s i s . Treatment 8 (feed r e s t r i c t i o n 0-10 weeks) had only 2 b i r d s , (data not included) Number of b i r d s - 74 -Egg p r o d u c t i o n c a l c u l a t e d on a hen-day b a s i s seemed u n a f f e c t e d by t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n (Table I X a ) . B i r d s p l a c e d on d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-14 weeks, o f age had a l o w e r t o t a l egg p r o d u c t i o n from 24 weeks t o 38 weeks o f age. However, t h e s e b i r d s came i n t o l a y l a t e r t h a n a l l o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s and t h e r e f o r e t h e t o t a l egg p r o d u c t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o be l o w e r t h a n t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . Toward t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d , weeks 35-38, t h e egg p r o d u c t i o n i n b i r d s p l a c e d on f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks o f age were s i m i l a r t o t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ( d a t a n o t shown). The egg w e i g h t s o f b i r d s between 36 and 38 weeks o f age i n d i c a t e d t h a t egg s i z e was n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n (Table I X b ) . Egg w e i g h t s were o n l y measured on t h o s e b i r d s whose body w e i g h t seemed t o be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . The r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e b i r d s d i d n o t appear t o have been a f f e c t e d by t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n imposed d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d . O t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t m i l d e r forms o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d d e l a y "> t h e o n s e t o f s e x u a l m a t u r i t y ; have n o - e f f e c t on mature egg s i z e a l t h o u g h t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n may redu c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s m a l l eggs l a i d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e ; and i n c r e a s e s u bsequent egg p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h a h i g h e r peak-l a y and a s l o w e r r a t e o f d e c l i n e t h e r e a f t e r ( F u l l e r and Dunahoo, 1962; Gowe e t a l . , 1960; S t r a i n e t a l . , 1965). - 75 -Table IXb. The e f f e c t s of ea r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on egg weights between 36 and 38 weeks of age. Treatments No. of Eggs Average Egg Weight : : (g) Control (7)* 45 60.6a+7.9 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : 0-2 weeks (5)* 45 59.4a+4.7 0-12 weeks (6) 32 62.4a+7.5 0-14 weeks (7) 70 60.5a+5.3 Number of b i r d s - 76 -IV. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e mature body' w e i g h t , p r o p o r t i o n o f t i s s u e s , c e l l u l a r i t y o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e and a d i p o c y t e s i z e o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s A. Mature body w e i g h t and p r o p o r t i o n o f t i s s u e s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r -t y p e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n The growth c u r v e s f o r t h e f e m a l e b i r d s ( F i g u r e 1 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t 38 weeks o f age, t h o s e b i r d s w h i c h had f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n r e s t r i c t e d from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r mature body w e i g h t s ( T a b l e I l i a ) . T h e r e f o r e , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e d u c t i o n i n body w e i g h t o f t h e s e b i r d s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e amount o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e o r was due t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e w e i g h t s o f o t h e r o r g a n s o r t i s s u e s as w e l l . S i n c e r e s t r i c t i o n o f f e e d i n t a k e from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age were t h e o n l y t r e a t m e n t s t o cause s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n s i n body w e i g h t s , o n l y t h e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . B i r d s r e s t r i c t e d from 0-2 weeks o f age had body w e i g h t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s and were i n v e s t i g a t e d to" d e t e r m i n e whether m i l d d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e had a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on body c o m p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e shown i n T a b l e X & X I . The b i r d s w h i c h had f e e d c o n s u m p t i o n r e ' s t r i c t e d from 0-2 weeks o f age were s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s i n a l l p a r a m e t e r s t u d i e d , T a b l e X. The p r o p o r t i o n o f t i s s u e s i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y ' r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-2 weeks o f age c o r r e s p o n d t o t h o s e o f t h e c o n t r o l s , T a b l e X I . T h e r e f o r e , i Table X. The effects of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on body weight, weights of selected organs and length of the tibiotarsus i n broiler-type female chickens at 40-43 weeks of age. Treatment 1 . """ Control Mean + (7)* Treatment 2 ' Feed Restriction (0-2 weeks) Mean + (5)* Treatment 9 Feed Restriction (0-12 weeks) Mean .+ (6)* Treatment 10 Feed Restriction (0-14 weeks) Mean + (7)*~ Body weights (g) 3813b+240 •. 3926b+346 3410a+304 3403a+212 M.pectoralis manor (q) 197.8a+35.5 210.4a+39.2 159.7a+34.6 169.43+20.0 Liver (g) 61.4a+8.8 65.6a+15.2 62.6 a+ll.l 57.0a+10.0 Ovary (g) 82.3a+14.2 72.0a+10.7 87.4a+10.5 77.9a+16.2 Oviduct (g) 64.9a+4.0 63.8a+5.7 64.8a+5.6 67.8a+6.3 Tibiotarsus (g) 13.8b+1.7 13.9b+1.7 11.8a+1.6 10.9a+1.2 Tibiotarsus length (cm)12.63+0.5 12.4a+0.4' 11.8a+1.0 11.9a+0.6 Retroperitoneal adipose depot (g) 243.8 +65.2 246.0a+120. 3 226.9a+60.6 198.2a+24.7 M. sartorius adipose ^. depot (g) • 9.0 +1.7 9.1b+4.6 5.3a+0.5 ab Number of birds Values with the same superscript for each parameter are not si g n i f i c a n t l y different P < 0.05. Table XI. Effects of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on body weight, re l a t i v e weights of selected organs and length of the tibiotarsus in broiler-type female chickens at 40-43 weeks of age. -Treatment 1 Control Mean + (7)* Treatment 2 Feed Restriction (0-2 weeks) Mean + (57* Treatment.3 Feed Restriction (0-12 weeks) Mean + (67* Treatment 4 Feed Restriction (0-14 weeks) Mean + (7)* Body weights (g) 3813 +240 ,a. M.pectoralis major (%) 5.2 +0.7 Liver (%) Ovary (%) Oviduct (%) 1.6a+0.2 2.ia+0.3 1.7a+0.1 3926 +346 5.4a+0.9 1.7 +0.4 1.8 +0.3 1.6+0.2 3410 +304 4.6 +0.'6 +0.2 2.6 +0.5 1.9 +0.3 3403 +212 5.03+0.4 1.7+0.3 2.3 +0.5 2.0b+0.2 Tibiotarsus (%) 0.36+0.04 0.35 +0.04 0.34 +0.4 0.32 +0.03 Tibiotarsus length(cm) 12.6 +0.05 12.4+0.04 11.8 +1.0 11.9 +0.6 Retroperitoneal adipose depot (%) 6.4 +1.9 6.2a+2.i 6.4 +1.7 5.8 +0.6 M. sartorius adipose depot (%) 0.24 +0.04 0.23 +0.1 0.18a+0.07 0.16 +0.01 Number of birds. ab Values with the same superscript for each parameter are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different P < 0.05. - 79 -d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-2 weeks o f age d i d n o t seem t o have any permanent e f f e c t on t h e body c o m p o s i t i o n o f mature f e m a l e b i r d s . A t 40-43 weeks o f age, t h e av e r a g e body weights' o f t h o s e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h e av e r a g e body w e i g h t o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s and t h o s e b i r d s p l a c e d on f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-2 weeks o f age, T a b l e X. The av e r a g e w e i g h t s o f t h e t i s s u e s and o r g a n s s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t , were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the' d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 o r from 0-14 weeks o f age. The w e i g h t s o f t h e M. p e c t o r a l i s m a j o r , l i v e r , o v a r y , o v i d u c t and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n t r o l s . A l t h o u g h t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s was u n a f f e c t e d by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , t h e d r y w e i g h t o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e wet w e i g h t o f t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d i n b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d ^ f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age. S i n c e t h e ' t i b i o t a r u s and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t were t h e o n l y t i s s u e s examined t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e t i s s u e s and o r g a n s were more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by P r a t t and McCance (1961) and L i s t e r et_ a l _ . (1966) have a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t bone development i s s e n s i t i v e t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . L i s t e r e t a l . (1966) a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e was a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f bone development t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e femur i n f e m a l e p u l l e t s r e s t r i c t e d t o 140-170 g o f body w e i g h t a t 6 months o f age, upon r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , were a b l e t o a c h i e v e d i m e n s i o n s s i m i l a r - 80 -to those of the controls. In contrast, the dimensions of the femurs i n cockerels, s i m i l a r l y r e s t r i c t e d , upon r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were unable to achieve the same stature of the femurs of the control birds ( L i s t e r et a l . , 1966). The r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot seemed unaffected permanently by the early d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . Although the weights of the abdominal adipose depot appeared to be l o w e r i i n birds having feed r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks, t h i s reduction i n depot si z e was not s i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.05). Dietary r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks of age seemed to permanently, l i m i t the development of the M. s a r t o r i u s adipose depot since f u l l development of the depot was not achieved despite 26-29 weeks of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n following d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , Table X. Therefore, i t seems l i k e l y that d i f f e r e n t adipose depots may show d i f f e r e n t responses to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n and one p a r t i c u l a r adipose depot may not be representative of a l l adipose ti s s u e i n the body. Investigations by Lemonnier (1972) and Walkley e_t al_. (1978) have also demonstrated considerable v a r i a b i l i t y i n the response of d i f f e r e n t adipose depots to dietary manipulations. The reduction i n growth caused by the d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks of age, probably represented permanent stunting since the b i r d s remained s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i g h t e r i n weight when the / experiment was terminated at between 40 and 43 weeks of age. The l i g h t e r weights appeared to be due to s l i g h t reduction i n the growth of a l l tissues since the proportional weights of the M. p e c t o r a l i s major, l i v e r , - 81 -t i b i o t a r u s , ovary, and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s adipose depots were s i m i l a r i n the r e s t r i c t e d and the controls, Table XI. The r e l a t i v e proportional weight of the oviduct increased i n sexually mature birds subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks of age, Table XI. The increase i n the r a t i o of oviduct:body weight i n the sexually mature birds should be expected i n birds with s i g n i f i c a n t l y lowered body weights, i f egg s i z e and egg production were unaltered by d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . Table XI indicates f that the r e l a t i v e proportion of both ovary and oviduct increased with the reduction i n body weight observed i n treatments 9 and 10, although -the increase was only s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the oviducts of b i r d s . B. The e f f e c t s of age and e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on adipocyte diameter i n the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot The development of adipose ti s s u e i s characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy. In the avian species, as i n other species, hyperplasia i n i t i a l l y occurs followed by hypertrophy. Adipocytes continue to increase i n si z e a f t e r adipocyte hyperplasia has terminated. Therefore, a measurement; of adipocyte diameter would provide an assessment of adipose tissue development. To assess the ongoing process of adipose development i n birds following various periods of d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , adipocyte diameter was determined i n the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot at 17-19 weeks of - 82 - • \ i age. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e shown i n T a b l e X l l a , b and c. The average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e b i r d s i n t r e a t m e n t 1 ( c o n t r o l ) s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t o r o f n o r m a l a d i p o c y t e development. W h i l e r e m o v i n g f r a g m e n t s o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e from t h e a n e s t h e t i z e d b i r d s , 2 b i r d s i n t r e a t m e n t 1 and 1 b i r d i n t r e a t m e n t 9 were a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e a n e s t h e s i a and d i e d d u r i n g t h e b i o p s y o p e r a t i o n ( T a b l e X l l a ) . I n t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e between t h e b i o p s y o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e and t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e " e x p e r i m e n t a t 40 weeks o f a g e , l b i r d i n t r e a t m e n t 9 and 1 b i r d i n t r e a t m e n t 10^ d i e d o f c a u s e s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e b i o p s y p r o c e d u r e ( l e g weakness and p r o l a p s e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a d i p o s e b i o p s y p r o c e d u r e d i d n o t a f f e c t subsequent growth r a t e , f i n a l body w e i g h t , p r o p o r t i o n o f s e l e c t e d t i s s u e s o r o r g a n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s , o r a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r o r c e l l u l a r i t y ( d a t a n o t shown). I n f a c t , upon r e m o v a l o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s a t 40-43 weeks o f age t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f s c a r t i s s u e on t h e a b d o m i n a l w a l l o r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t . T a b l e X l l b ''shows t h a t b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n f r om 0-14 weeks o f age had an a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r w h i c h was ••' >• s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r .than t h e a d i p o c y t e ^ d i a m e t e r o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e age a t w h i c h t h e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s were measured.. D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-14 weeks o f age, t h e r e f o r e , r e t a r d e d a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y a t 17-19 weeks o f age t o such an e x t e n t t h a t r e c o v e r y t o normal a d i p o c y t e s i z e (judged by a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s ) , was n o t c o m p l e t e by 40-43 weeks o f age. - 83 -The e f f e c t s of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on adipocyte diameter i n the retroperitoneal depot of female b r o i l e r -type chickens at d i f f e r e n t ages. Average Adipocyte Diameter at 17-19 Weeks of Age Average Adipocyte Diameter at 40-43 Weeks of Age Average B i r d Adipocyte Number Diameter (um) TREATMENT 1; (Control Dispersion*** Around the Average Adipocyte Diameter C V. 805 98.1 13.9 0.14 8024 84.7 18.2 0.21 8015 89.4 14.5 0.16 8019 101.3 15.2 0.15 8013 8028 8023 8025 8012 X 93.4 15.4 0.16 a a +7.7 +1.9 +0.03 TREATMENT 9 (Feed R e s t r i c t i o n : 0-12 weeks): 8044 87.4 14.9 0.17 8176 78.7 12.5 0.16 8178 75.2 10.7 0.14 8050 102.5 11.5 0.11 8180 92.8 10.7 0.12 8173 8049 8046 X 87.3 12.0 0.14 a +11.0 +1.8 +0.02 Average Adipocyte Dispersion Around the Average Adipocyte Diameter Diameter C V . ipm) lum) 105.6 11.7 0.11 96.9 12.2 0.12 * * 104.7 11.8 0.11 100.9 11.3 0.11 115.6 12.6 0.11 136.2 10.7 0.08 99.1 11.0 0.11 108.4 11.6 0.11 +13.7 +0.1 +0.01 126.0 12.9 0.10 78.5 9.8 0.13 ** * 97.3 8.8 0.09 90.1 9.3 ' 0.10 89.0 9.5 0.11 106.2 10.8 0.10 97.8 10.2 0.11 +16.6 +1.5 +0.02 C e l l Diameter at 17-19 Weeks of Age TREATMENT 10 (Feed R e s t r i c t i o n 0-14 weeks): C e l l Diameter at 40-43 Weeks of Age 8059 8064 8150 8154 8111 8153 8065 8115 ** *** x a c.v. 74.7 76.5 60.8 79.8 62.4 x a 70.8 +8.6 18.9 0.25 100.2 8.4 0.08 15.2 0.19 104.7 9.8 0.09 9.9 0.16 ** 11.9 0.15 91.9 1 9.9 0.11 9.7 0.15 90.9 8.1 0.08 98.1 9.6 0.10 93.6 8.4 0.09 84.7 11.7 0.13 13.1 0.18 94.9 9.4 0.10 +3.9 +0.04 + 6.6 +1.3 +0.02 Died during biopsy for retroperitoneal adipose ti s s u e Died l a t e r i n experimental period of causes unrelated to biopsy Dispersion refers to the standard deviation of the average adipocyte diameter of an adipose depot. The dispersion around the average adipocyte diameter measures the va r i a t i o n i n adipocyte diameters, within an adipose depot, around the average adipocyte diameter. Mean c e l l diameter per treatment Standard deviation of treatment means C o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (a/X") T a b l e X l l b . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e * showing main e f f e c t s on a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r (um). Age o f B i r d A t Time o f Measurement TREATMENT 1 C o n t r o l TREATMENT 9 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n 0-12 weeks TREATMENT 10 Feed R e s t r i c t i o n 0-14 weeks E f f e c t s o f Age At' Time o f Measurement 17-19 weeks 40-43 weeks 93.4+7.7 108.4+13.7 87.3+10.9 97.8+16.6 70.8+8.6 94.9+6.6 83.2+13.1 100.5+13.5 E f f e c t of Treatment 103.0D+13.7 93.1 a-+14.7 84.9 C 1+14.3 93.4+15.7 ab: V a l u e s w i t h t h e same s u p e r s c r i p t f o r c e l l d i a m e t e r a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t P < 0.05 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , a p p e n d i x , T a b l e VIT'(A). : .• - 85 -Table XIIc. Analysis of variance showing the variations i n homogeneity of adipocyte diameter i n the retro-peritoneal depot of broiler-type chickens with age and dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . , TREATMENT ,'" Age of ".. Birds Control Restricted Restricted Age . . (0-12 weeks) (0-14 weeks) Avg CV 1 of Avg CV of Avg CV of Avg CV of mean adipocyte mean adipocyte mean adipocyte mean adipocyte diameter diameter diameter diameter 18 weeks 0.16 0.14 0.18 0.16b 42 weeks . 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.103 Treatment, Avg of •:. • mean adipocyte diameter 0.13a . 0.123 0.133 Coefficient of variation ab Average values with the same superscript are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different, P < 0.05. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between treatment effect and the age of the birds when the adipocytes were measured, appendix, Table VIII(A). - 86 -The r e d u c t i o n i n s i z e o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot o f b i r d s p l a c e d on e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks o f age i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n b ecause c e l l s i z e may d e t e r m i n e t h e m e t a b o l i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e ( S a l a n s e t a l . , 1968). A d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y was n o t c o m p l e t e a t 17-19 weeks of age, b u t was shown t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot t o between 40 and 43 weeks o f age, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , T a b l e X l l b . These f i n d i n g s a r e i n agreement w i t h P f a f f and A u s t i c (1976) who f o u n d t h a t i n W h i t e L e g h o r n p u l l e t s , a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a was c o m p l e t e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot by 12-16 weeks of age, a f t e r w h i c h t i m e a d i p o s e t i s s u e e n largement was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i p o c y t e h y p e r t r o p h y . The a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , was d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o c y t e s i n t o s i z e c l a s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t r e a t m e n t a t 17-19 weeks, (18 weeks) and a t 40-43 weeks, (42 weeks) o f age a r e shown i n F i g u r e 4. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o c y t e c l a s s s i z e s between 18 (17-19) weeks o f age and 42 (40-43) weeks o f age was due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t methods of d e t e r m i n i n g a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r employed a t t h e t i m e o f a n a l y s i s . A d i p o c y t e s g r e a t e r t h a n 96 um were p r e s e n t i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s and t h e b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f o r o n l y 2 weeks, t h a n i n b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f o r 14 weeks. > 0 a •D n CONTROL FEED RESTRICTION FEED RESTRICTION FEED RESTRICTION 0-2 wk 0-12 wk 0-14 wk <54 60 78 96 >II4 <54 60 78 96 >II4 <54 60 >8 96 >IU Retroperitoneal depot adipocyte diameter In pm at 18 weeks J j j L U j i f L U J U L <56 63 84 I03>U6 «56 A3 84 I03HJ6 < 56 63 84 I03MJ6 < 56 63 n 4 I03>I76 R e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r In p m at 42 weeks 60 <56 63 84 103 >I26 < 56 63 84 103 >I36 < 56 63 6 4 103 >I26 <56 63 8 4 103 >l?6 M. sartorius depot adipocyte' diameter In pm at 42 weeks 00 Figure 4. Adipocyte diameter d i s t r i b u t i o n at d i f f e r e n t ages., . tor the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and the M. s a r t o r i u s depots of b r o i l e r - t y p e chickens subjected to varying degrees o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . - 88 -T h i s was t r u e f o r b i r d s a t 18 weeks (40-43 weeks) and a t 42 weeks (40-43 weeks) o f age. B i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f o r 12 and 14 weeks had a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c e l l s l e s s t h a n 78 pm i n d i a m e t e r a t 18 weeks and a t 42 weeks o f age. I t was s t a t e d above t h a t a d i p o c y t e s l e s s t h a n 24 Lim i n d i a m e t e r were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t was found however, t h a t many o f t h e a d i p o c y t e p r e p a r a t i o n s f r o m t h e t i s s u e t a k e n by b i o p s y a t 17-19 weeks o f age c o n t a i n e d clumps o f 10 t o 100 s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s l e s s t h a n 30 um i n d i a m e t e r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f r a g m e n t s o f c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e numbers o f t h e s e clumped c e l l s were made when t h e l a r g e r a d i p o c y t e s were b e i n g measured. The s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s were p l a c e d i n c l a s s e s o f 6-12 um and 18-30 um i n d i a m e t e r as shown i n T a b l e X I I I . These s m a l l clumped a d i p o c y t e s appeared i n g r e a t e s t numbers i n t h e most s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d b i r d s . S m a l l clumped a d i p o c y t e s were n o t a p p a r e n t i n t h e c e l l p r e p a r a t i o n s examined when t h e b i r d s were 40-43 weeks o f age. I t i s a p p a r e n t f r o m T a b l e X I I I , t h a t a t 17-19 weeks o f age, a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a was c o n t i n u i n g i n b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-14 weeks o f age, as shown by t h e number o f s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s f o u n d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t i s s u e f r a g m e n t s . S i n c e s i m i l a r numbers of s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s were n o t found i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s a t t h i s t i m e , i t can be assumed t h a t a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a i n t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s was n o t o c c u r r i n g a t t h e same r a t e . O t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t e a r l y d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n w i l l p r o l o n g t h e p e r i o d o f a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a , a l t h o u g h a d i p o c y t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n c o n t i n u e s - 89 -Table XIII. Estimates of the numbers of small adipocytes less than 30 um i n diameter remaining i n clumps following collagenase treatment of the re t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose t i s s u e biopsy samples taken between 17-19 weeks of age. The numbers noted were expressed i n terms of 600 adipocytes measured/bird. Number of Small Adipocytes Treatment Bi r d No. Diameter 6-12 um Diameter 18-30 um 1 (control) 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 8 0 3 (Feed 1 0 0 R e s t r i c t i o n 0-12 weeks) 2 190 0 3 r 190 60 4 0 0 5 0 0 4 (Feed 1 \ 100 70 R e s t r i c t i o n 0-14 weeks) 2 410 70 3 . 110 90 4 ^ 120 30 5 170 40 / / - 90 -a t a r e d u c e d r a t e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n ( K n i t t l e and H i r s c h , 1968; P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1976). I n a d d i t i o n t o showing t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s on t h e average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r of t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t , T a b l e X l l a a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r . The a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r ( d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ) was d e t e r m i n e d as t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r o b t a i n e d from two f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f 300-400 c e l l s / f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n . C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r from a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n p e r m i t s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r . E x p r e s s i n g t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s i n terms o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n p e r m i t s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n between two p o p u l a t i o n means. A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r between t r e a t m e n t s and ages i s shown i n T a b l e X I I c . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n was found t o be n o r m a l and t h e e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n and age on t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d by a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( T a b l e V I I I ( A ) , A p p e n d i x ) . The r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e d i s p e r s i o n around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot measured a t 17-19 weeks o f age t h a n i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot measured a t 40-43 weeks of age. The g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot o f younger b i r d s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a g r e a t e r number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f development t h a n a r e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot o f o l d e r b i r d s . L o o k i n g a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f t h e o l d e r b i r d s , t h e l o w e r degree o f d i s p e r s i o n - 91 -i n t h e a d i p o c y t e s o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e s a c h i e v i n g s i m i l a r s i z e s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e n l a r g i n g a d i p o c y t e s may have a l i m i t f o r c e l l e x p a n s i o n , s i n c e d u r i n g h y p e r t r o p h y , as t h e a d i p o c y t e s get c l o s e r t o t h e i r maximal s i z e , t h e r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n i n t h e s i z e o f t h e c e l l w ould d e c r e a s e . The maximal c e l l s i z e a t t a i n e d by a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e a v i a n s p e c i e s , may be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h e s p e c i e s , and more i m p o r t a n t l y may be an i m p o r t a n t r e g u l a t o r o f t h e c e l l s m e t a b o l i c a c t i v i t i e s . D i G i r o l a m o e t a l . (1971) found t h a t a d i p o c y t e h y p e r p l a s i a d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g p e r i o d o f f o u r mammalian s p e c i e s , r a t , h a m s t e r , g u i n e a p i g , and dog, l e d t o a d i p o c y t e p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h were more homogeneous i n s i z e . The i n c r e a s e i n homogeneity o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i p o c y t e e nlargement i n mammalian and a v i a n s p e c i e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s may be a b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e common t o a d i p o s e t i s s u e f r o m a l l s p e c i e s . C. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s of f e m a l e b i r d s a t 40-43 weeks o f age. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b i r d s a t 40-43 weeks o f age a r e shown i n T a b l e s X l V a and X l V b . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e - 92 -i n t e r d e p o t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e - a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r between t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s , T a b l e X l V b . The average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s depot t h a n i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t r e a t m e n t . The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s depot has a g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o i n c o r p o r a t e and t o s t o r e l i p i d t h a n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s depot. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s i z e o f a d i p o c y t e s between t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s was v i s u a l l y a p p a r e n t as shown i n F i g u r e s 5 & 6 and F i g u r e s 7 & 8. F i g u r e s 5 & 6 d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s between t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t s i n a c o n t r o l b i r d , w h i l e F i g u r e s 7 & 8 d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s between t h e two d e p o t s i n a b i r d s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age. S i m i l a r i n t e r d e p o t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f a d i p o c y t e s has been o b s e r v e d i n r a t s and man ( B j u r u l f , 1959; Lemmonier, 1972; Johnson and H i r s c h , 1972; S a l a n s e t a l . , 1971; Brook, 1971; D i G i r o l a m o et^ a l . , 1971). I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e c e l l u l a r i t y i n meat a n i m a l s have a l s o shown v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e s i z e and number o f a d i p o c y t e s among t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s w i t h i n t h e a n i m a l , ( A l l e n , 1976; Hood and A l l e n , 1977). D i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was shown t o r e d u c e t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age, T a b l e IVb. The r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h o s e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 weeks - 93 -o f age was s u r p r i s i n g b ecause a s i m i l a r r e d u c t i o n was n o t e a r l i e r o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s , T a b l e X l l b . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e s u l t s between t h e s e two a n a l y s e s , T a b l e X l l b and T a b l e X l V b r e s p e c t i v e l y , i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o r m e r a n a l y s i s by t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y one a d i p o s e depot was o b s e r v e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a s m a l l e r number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . As a consequence o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y few numbers of o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s between t h e b i r d s i n t r e a t m e n t 9 ( r e s t r i c t e d 0-12 weeks) and t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s were n o t l a r g e enough t o p r o d u c e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , T a b l e X l V b , t h e e f f e c t s o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n were a n a l y z e d on two a d i p o s e d e p o t s , r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e d sample s i z e and d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s between b i r d s o f d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s w h i c h were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . S i n c e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e e f f e c t of t h e depot and t h e e f f e c t o f d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n , T a b l e I X ( A ) , ( A p p e n d i x ) ; t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n r e d u c e d t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h o s e b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age. K n i t t l e and H i r s c h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n r e d u c e d t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e s i z e i n t h e e p i d i d y m a l a d i p o s e depot i n r a t s . Subsequent e x p e r i m e n t s have shown t h a t e x e r c i s e i n a d d i t i o n t o f o o d r e s t r i c t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e ( O s c a i a t _ a l . , 1 9 7 4), and p r o t e i n r e s t r i c t i o n imposed i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r weaning (Lau e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) , may cause a permanent r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e e p i d i d y m a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s o r p a r a m e t r i a l and r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f r a t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r - 9 4 -Table XlVa. The effects of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on the average adipocyte diameter of the retroperitoneal and M. sartorius depots of female broiler-type chickens at 40-43 weeks of age. Average Adipocyte Diameter i n the M.sartorius Average Adipocyte Diameter i n the Adipose Depot Retroperitoneal Adipose Depot Dispersion* Dispersion Around the Around the Average Average Average Average Bird Adipocyte Adipocyte Adipocyte Adipocyte Number Diameter Diameter CV. Diameter Diameter CV. (pm) (pm) (um) (um) TREATMENT 1 (Control): 8013 88.9 9.9 0.11 104.7 11.8 0.11 8028 92.3 10.5 .0.11 100.9 11.3 0.11 8023 96.2 9.5 0.10 115.6 12.6 0.11 8024 82.8 9.3 0.11 96.9 12.2 0.12 805 95.6 7.9 0.08 105.6 11.7 0.11 8025 96.1 11.8 0.12 136.2 10.7 0.08 8012 83.9 9.4 0.11 99.1 11.0 0.11 X 90.8 9.8 0.11 108.4 11.'6 0.11 a +5.7 +1.2 +0.01 +13.7 +0.7 +0.01 TREATMENT 2 (Feed Restriction: 0-2 weeks): 8010 102.7 10.7 0.10 127.0 10.6 0.08 8107 . 85.9 9.0 0.10 100.0 8.8 0.09 8003 77.2 8.7 0.11 90.7 8.7 0.09 8006 100.6 11.0 0.11 119.8 11.0 0.09 8009 98.0 8.5 0.08 125.1 14.0 0.11 X 92.9 9.6 0.10 112.6 10.6 0.09 a +10.9 +1.2 +0.01 +16.1 +2.1 +0.01 Cont'd - 95 -Bird Number Average Adipocyte Diameter (pm) Dispersion Around the Average Adipocyte Diameter (um) C V . Average Adipocyte Diameter (um) Dispersion Around the Average Adipocyte Diameter (um) C V . Average Adipocyte Diameter i n the M_. sartorius Adipose Depot Average Adipocyte Diameter i n the Retroperitoneal Adipose Depot TREATMENT 9 (Feed Restriction: 0 - 1 2 weeks): 8 1 7 3 8 0 4 4 8 1 8 0 80-49 8 1 7 6 8 0 4 6 7 5 . 3 1 0 1 . 6 7 5 . 0 7 7 . 1 7 0 . 8 9 2 . 4 x 8 2 . 0 a + 1 2 . 1 9 . 8 9 . 9 9 . 5 1.0.1 9 . 1 9 . 4 9 . 6 + 0 . 4 1 3 0 9 1 2 1 3 1 3 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 + 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 1 2 6 . 9 7 . 8 9 . .78. 1 0 6 . 9 7 . 8 + 1 6 . 6 9 . 3 1 2 . 9 8 . 8 9 . 5 1 3 . 6 1 0 . 8 1 0 . 8 + 2 . 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 7 . 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 1 + 0 . 0 3 TREATMENT 10 (Feed Restriction: 0 - 1 4 weeks) 8 0 6 4 8 1 1 1 8 0 5 9 8 1 5 3 8 1 5 4 8 0 6 5 8 1 1 5 x a r . 5 . 7 7 0 . 7 8 1 . 6 8 0 . 4 7 0 . 4 8 2 . 6 7 6 . 9 7 8 . 3 + 5 . 9 7 . 9 9 . 2 9 . 1 9 . 1 9 . 6 8 . 8 9 . 4 9 . 0 + 0 . 5 0 9 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 1 + 0 . 0 1 1 0 4 . 7 9 0 . 9 1 0 0 98 .• 9 1 9 3 84 9 4 . 9 + 6 . 6 9 . 8 . . 8 . 9 . 9 . 8 . 1 1 . 9 . 4 + 1 . 3 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 0 o.ii 0 . 0 9 0 . 1 3 -0 . 1 0 + 0 . 0 2 x o cv. Dispersion refers to the standard deviation of the average adipocyte diameter of an adipose depot. The dispersion around the average adipocyte diameter measures the variation i n adipocyte diameters, within an adipose depot, around the average adipocyte diameter. Mean per treatment , Standard deviation of treatment means. Coe f f i c i e n t of variation (o/x) Table XlVb. Analysis of variance* of the data showing the main effects of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n and adipose depot on the average adipocyte diameter (um). Adipose Depot TREATMENT 1 Control TREATMENT 2 TREATMENT 9 TREATMENT 10 Effect of Feed Restriction Feed Restriction Feed Restriction Adipose (0-2 weeks) (0-12 weeks) (0-14 weeks) Depot M. sartorius depot 90.8 +5.7 92.9 +10.9 82.0 +12.1 78.3 +5.9 85.6 +10.2 Retroperitoneal depot 108.4 +13.7 112.6 +16.1 97.8 +16.6 94.9 +6.6 102.9 +14.6 Effects of Treatment x 99.6" a ' +13.6 102.8" r+16.6 89.9° +16.1 86.6° +10.5 94.3 +15.2 ab Values with the same superscript for adipocyte diameter i n different adipose depots or for d i f f e r e n t treatments are :not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different at P<0.05. There was.no significant.interaction, appendix, Table IX(A). Table XIVc. Analysis of variance showing the variations i n homogeneity of adipocyte diameter in the retroperitoneal and M. sartorius depot of broiler-type chickens with depot and dietary r e s t r i c t i o n . ' . . ' Age of Birds Control Restricted (0-2 weeks) Restricted (0-12 weeks) Restricted (0-14 weeks) Depots Avg. CV of mean adipocyte diameter Avg. CV of mean adipocyte diameter Avg. CV of mean adipocyte diameter Avg. CV of . mean adipocyte diameter Avg. CV of mean adipocyte diameter Retroperitoneal adipose depot 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.10 0.10° M. sartorius adipose depot 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.11 o . i r Treatment, Avg. of mean adipocyte, diameter 0.11 0.10" 0.11' a 0.10" Coefficient of variation ab Average values with the same superscript are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different P < 0.05. There was no significant interaction between treatment effect and the depot examined, appendix, Table X(A). . - 98 -Figure 5. Photomicrograph of adipocytes i s o l a t e d from the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot of a c o n t r o l b i r d (69X). Bir d number 8023. Figure 6. Photomicrograph of adipocytes i s o l a t e d from the M. s a r t o r i u s adipose depot of a c o n t r o l b i r d (69X). B i r d number 8023. - 99 -Figure 7. Photomicrograph of adipocytes i s o l a t e d from the r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l adipose depot of a b i r d subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks of age (67X). B i r d number 8154. Figure 8. Photomicrograph of adipocytes i s o l a t e d from the M. s a r t o r i u s adipose depot of a b i r d subjected to d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n from 0-14 weeks of age (67X). B i r d number 8154. - 100 -i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n meat a n i m a l s have shown t h a t d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e has r e d u c e d a d i p o c y t e s i z e i n lambs (Haugebak et_ a l . , 1 9 7 4 ), and p i g s (Lee e t a l . , 1973b). The d i s p e r s i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i s s i m i l a r i n a l l t r e a t m e n t s s t u d i e d , T a b l e X I V c . The s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e degree o f d i s p e r s i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s around t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r between t r e a t m e n t s and between d e p o t s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e a d i p o c y t e s have r e a c h e d t h e i r maximum a t t a i n a b l e s i z e f o r t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t i n t h e b i r d s a t t h e t i m e o f measurement. The a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e volume a c c o r d i n g t o G o l d r i c k ' s f o r m u l a : a d i p o c y t e 2 —2 — — volume = IT /6 (3a + x )x> where x and a a r e t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e ' d i a m e t e r and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y ( G o l d r i c k , 1967). The a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e number p e r a d i p o s e depot was t h e n d e t e r m i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e a v e r a g e l i p i d c o n t e n t p e r a d i p o s e depot by t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e volume (as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e XVa. The e f f e c t o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s a r e shown i n T a b l e XVb. The r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot responded d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n t h a n d i d t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t , T a b l e XVb. The a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e M. s a r t o r i u s depot was u n a f f e c t e d by e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a permanent r e d u c t i o n i n t h e amount o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t , T a b l e X, a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y was n o t o b s e r v e d . The r e d u c t i o n i n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s depot i s a c c o u n t e d - 101 -f o r by t h e r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , T a b l e X l V b , and t h e r e f o r e t h e amount o f l i p i d p e r c e l l . E a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age seemed t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e r e t r o -p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e d e p o t , T a b l e XVb. The amount o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d e p o t , however, seemed u n a f f e c t e d by t h e e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n imposed upon t h e b i r d s f r o m 0-12 and fr o m 0-14 weeks o f age, T a b l e X. I n t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was shown t o d e c r e a s e t h e a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age, T a b l e X l V b . The d e c r e a s e d a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot would e x p l a i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y t o i n c r e a s e w i t h o u t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f a d i p o s e t i s s u e . The e f f e c t o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n may a f f e c t a d i p o s e development by i m p o s i n g a l i m i t on t h e s i z e w h i c h a d i p o c y t e s may a t t a i n . A l t h o u g h t h e mechanism by w h i c h e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n may impose a l i m i t on a d i p o c y t e s i z e i n unknown; t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n e a r l y i n l i f e r e d u c e d a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n b o t h t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s , r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e forme r and a d e c r e a s e d l i p i d c o n t e n t i n t h e l a t t e r . K n i t t l e and H i r s c h (1968) were a b l e t o r e d u c e b o t h a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r and a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e a d i p o s e - 102 -Table XVa. The effects of early dietary r e s t r i c t i o n on the t o t a l l i p i d , average adipocyte diameter, average adipocyte volume* and adipose c e l l u l a r i t y in the adipose depots of female b r o i l e r -type chickens at 40-43 weeks of age. / . . . . . . . . . M. sartorius adipose depot Retroperitoneal adipose depot Bird Average Average Average Average Average Averagi Total Adipocyte Adipocyte Adipocyte Total Adipocyte . Adipocyte Adipocy Number Li p i d Diameter Volume Number Li p i d Diameter Volume Number (g) (pi) (pi)** (X10b) (g) (um) (pl) (X10b) TREATMENT 1 (control): 8013 9.4 88.9 382.2 27.0 230. 1 104. 7 625. 1 402.3 8028 6.8 92.3 427.5 17.3 170. 5 100. 9 559. 0 333. 3 8023 9.0 96.2 479.4 ,20.4 252. 9 . 115. 6 838. 9 329.5 8024 5.3 82.8 309.2 18.6 212. 5- 96. ,9 499. 2 465.2 805 8.2 95.6 466.8 19.1 . 192. 2 105. 6 640. 5 328.0 8025 8.9 96.1 486.0 20.0 340. 2 136. 2 1348. 8 275.7 8012 6.7 83.9 321.2 22.7 149. 5 99. 1 528. 3 309.2 X 7.8 90.8 ... 410.3 20.7 221. 1 108. 4 720. 0 • 349.0 a • +1.5 +5.7 +74.1 +3.2 +63. 1 +13. 7 +299. 0 +63.7 TREATMENT 2 (Feed Restriction: 0-2 weeks): 8010 15.1 ' 102.7 . 586.4 28.2 381. 6 127. 0 1095. 4 380.7 8009 8.0 98.0 504.4 17.4 239. 9 125. 1 . 1064. 8 246.2 8006 8.2 • 100.6 602.9 14.8 306. 3 119. 8 924. 6 362.0 8170 5.5 . 85.9 343.4 17.6 99. 6 100. 6 545. 1 199.7 8003 3.7 77.2 250.3 16.0 125. 2 90. 7 402. 1 340.2 x 8 .1 92.9 457.5 18.8 230. 5 112. 6 806. 4 305.8 a+4.3 +10.9 : +154.8 +5.4 +119. 3 +16. 1 +314. 6 + 78.7 Cont *d M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t Retroperitoneal adipose depot B i r d A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g i T o t a l A d i p o c y t e A d i p o c y t e A d i p o c y t e T o t a l A d i p o c y t e A d i p o c y t e A d i p o c y N u m b e r L i p i d D i a m e t e r V o l u m e N u m b e r L i p i d D i a m e t e r V o l u m e Number (g) (jam) ( p l ) -<X10 b ) (g) (um) ( p l ) ( X 1 0 b ) TREATMENT 9 ( F e e d R e s t r i c t i o n 0 - 1 2 w e e k s ) : 8 1 7 3 4 . 0 7 5 . 3 2 3 5 . 4 1 8 . 4 1 6 4 . 7 9 0 , .1 3 9 5 , . 6 4 5 5 . 0 8 0 4 4 7 . 4 1 0 1 . 6 5 6 5 . 2 1 4 . 3 2 9 5 . 1 1 2 6 . . 0 , 1 0 8 1 . .7 298.2, 8 1 8 0 5 . 6 7 5 . 0 2 3 1 . 8 2 6 . 5 2 1 2 . 1 9 7 . . 3 4 9 4 . . 8 4 6 8 . 5 8 0 4 9 5 . 6 7 7 . 1 2 5 2 . 3 2 4 . 2 1 5 4 . 3 8 9 . . 0 3 8 2 . . 3 4 4 1 . 1 8 1 7 6 2 . 0 7 0 . 8 1 9 5 . 5 1 1 . 2 1 3 1 . 9 7 8 . . 5 , 2 7 7 . .7 . 4 7 9 . 6 8 0 4 6 7 . 5 9 2 . 4 4 2 6 . 4 1 9 . 2 2 6 1 . 8 1 0 6 . .2 6 4 0 . .4 442.6 X 5 . 3 8 2 . 0 3 1 7 . 8 1 9 . 0 2 0 3 . 3 9 7 , •8 5 4 6 . .4 4 3 0 . 8 " a + 2 . 1 + 1 2 . 1 + 1 4 6 . 0 + 5 . 8 •• +64 . 7 +16. .6 +290 . . 2 + 6 6 . 6 TREATMENT 10 ( F e e d R e s t r i c t i o n 0 - 1 4 w e e k s ) : 8 0 6 4 4 . 7 8 5 . 7 3 3 8 . 5 . 1 5 . 1 2 0 6 . 9 1 0 4 . .7 6 1 6 . ;6 . 3 6 6 . 7 8 1 1 1 4 . 5 7 0 . 7 1 9 5 . 1 2 5 . 3 1 6 8 . 1 9 0 . ,9 . 4 0 3 . .2 4 5 5 . 7 8 0 5 9 4 . 3 8 1 . 6 2 9 5 . 2 1 5 . 9 1 6 2 . 5 1 0 0 . .2 5 3 8 . .1 3 3 0 . 1 8 1 5 3 4 . 6 8 0 . 4 2 8 2 . 6 1 7 . 9 1 6 7 . 8 9 8 . 1 5 0 8 . . 9 . 360.4 8 1 5 4 4 . 3 7 0 . 4 1 9 3 . 3 2 4 . 1 1 8 2 . 0 9 1 . .9 4 2 0 . .5 4 7 2 . 9 8 0 6 5 5 . 2 8 2 . 6 3 0 5 . 3 1 8 . 6 2 0 6 . 7 9 3 . .6 4 3 9 . .6 5 1 3 . 8 8 1 1 5 4 . 1 7 6 . 9 2 4 9 . 1 1 8 . 1 1 5 3 . 2 8 4 . 7 3 3 7 . .1 4 9 6 . 7 X 7 4 . 5 7 8 . 3 2 6 5 . 6 1 9 . 3 1 7 8 . 2 9 4 . 9 4 6 6 . .3 4 2 8 . 0 a+o.4 + 5 . 9 + 5 5 . 6 + 3 . 9 + 2 1 . 3 +6 . 6 +94 . .0 + 7 3 . 9 A v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e v o l u m e w a s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e G o l d r i c k ' s f o r m u l a , A d i p o c y t e v o l u m e = IT / 6 (30" ' . + X ) x , ( G o l d r i c k , 1 9 6 7 ) . A d i p o c y t e v o l u m e u n i t s a r e p i c o l i t e r s ( p l ) . T a b l e XVb. The e f f e c t s o f e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e M. s a r t o r i u s a n d - _ r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l "adipose d e p o t s o f _ f e m a I e . b i r d s a t .40-43, weeks o f age. TREATMENT 1 TREATMENT 2 TREATMENT 9 TREATMENT 10 A d i p o s e Depot C o n t r o l Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-2 weeks) x \ O Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-12 weeks) x a Feed R e s t r i c t i o n (0-14 weeks) x ' a (X 1 0 6 c e l l s ) ( X 1 0 6 c e l l s ) (X10 c e l l s ) (X10 c e l l s ) M. s a r t o r i u s d epot 20.7 + 3 . 2 :•: 18.8 + 5.' 19.0 + 5.8 19.3 + 3.9 o R e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d epot 349.0+63.7 305.8+78.7 430.8 +66.6 428.0+73.9 i ab V a l u e s w i t h t h e same s u p e r s c r i p t f o r a d i p o c y t e number a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t as P < 0.05. - 105 -t i s s u e o f r a t s by e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . I n t h i s l a b o r a t o r y , however, e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n was shown o n l y t o d e c r e a s e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e d e p o t s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e b i r d s and was u n a b l e t o d e c r e a s e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y . The i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f o b s e r v a b l e a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-12 and 0-14 weeks o f age s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot may r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y t o d i e t a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n t h a n t h e M. s a r t o r i u s d e p o t , and t h e r e f o r e may'not be i n d i c a t i v e o f o t h e r a d i p o s e d e p o t s i n t h e body ( P f a f f and A u s t i c , 1976). A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l d epot i n b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f r o m 0-12 and from 0-14 weeks o f age; i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s must be v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n b ecause t h e a c t u a l number o f a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e i s unknown. The m i c r o s c o p i c t e c h n i q u e d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t o n l y measured o b s e r v a b l e a d i p o c y t e s g r e a t e r t h a n 25 um and t h e r e f o r e was u n a b l e t o d e t e c t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e s t r o m a l - v a s c u l a r p o r t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e (Greenwood and H i r s c h , 1974). The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f rom 0-12 and f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age, r e f l e c t e d t h e f i l l i n g o f p r e a d i p o c y t e s rath'er::than i n i n c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l number o f a d i p o c y t e s . - 106 -M i c r o s c o p i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r s p e r m i t t e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e . T h e r e was, as mentioned e a r l i e r , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s m a l l a d i p o c y t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e o f b i r d s s u b j e c t e d t o d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n f r o m 0-14 weeks o f age, F i g u r e 4. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a g r e a t e r number o f a d i p o c y t e s l e s s t h a n 30 jim i n d i a m e t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e f r a g e m e n t s o f b i r d s r e s t r i c t e d f rom 0-14 weeks o f age t h a n o f t h e c o n t r o l b i r d s , T a b l e X I I I . I t seems l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s e d a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y o f t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l depot c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from t h e o b s e r v e d i n c r e a s e d numbers o f newly formed a d i p o c y t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s depot. I t i s n o t known how a d i p o c y t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d . Greenwood and H i r s c h (1974) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r a t e a t w h i c h p r e f o r m e d a d i p o c y t e s f i l l w i t h l i p i d i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e amount o f l i p i d p r e s e n t e d t o t h e t i s s u e and may p r o v i d e a f e e d b a c k s i g n a l t o r e g u l a t e c e l l p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n t h e g r o w i n g r a t . The i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o c y t e s i n t h e b i r d s i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h were s u b j e c t e d t o f e e d r e s t r i c t i o n u n t i l t h e y were 12 o r 14 weeks o l d may have r e s u l t e d from t h e s h i f t i n t h e f e e d i n g p a t t e r n r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e d a i l y n u t r i e n t i n t a k e . The p e r i o d i c s u r g e i n t h e amount o f f a t a v a i l a b l e f o r a c c u m u l a t i o n by a d i p o c y t e s i n b i r d s g i v e n f e e d f o r o n l y 30 m i n u t e s p e r day may have had a s t i m u l a t o r y e f f e c t on a d i p o c y t e p r o l i f e r a t i o n d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t o t a l amount o f f a t a v a i l a b l e p e r day f o r s t o r a g e i n t h e d e p o t s was s m a l l . - 107 -The l i v e r i s t h e p r i m a r y s i t e f o r l i p i d s y n t h e s i s i n t h e c h i c k e n i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e as t h e i m p o r t a n t s i t e f o r s y n t h e s i s i n t h e r a t . However, t h e a d a p t a t i o n of t h e r a t t o p e r i o d i c h y p e r p h a g i a may be p e r t i n e n t . Kazdova e t a l . (1968) found t h a t r a t s adapt t o a s i n g l e 2-hr meal p e r day by a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e r a t e o f RNA s y n t h e s i s i n t h e a d i p o c y t e s o f t h e p a r a m e t r i a l a d i p o s e t i s s u e compared t o t h a t i n r a t s f e d ad l i b i t u m . The a u t h o r s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e enhanced RNA and p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s i n t h e a d i p o s e t i s s u e o f m e a l - f e d r a t s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h de_ novo s y n t h e s i s o f enzymes i n v o l v e d i n a d a p t i v e h y p e r l i p o g e n e s i s . A l t h o u g h t h e r a t e o f f i l l i n g o f a v i a n a d i p o c y t e s i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i p o g e n e s i s i n t h e s e c e l l s , b i r d s may n e v e r t h e l e s s adapt t o p e r i o d i c h y p e r p h a g i a and p e r i o d i c r e l e a s e o f newly s y n t h e s i z e d l i p i d f r o m t h e l i v e r t o t h e c i r c u l a t i o n by an i n c r e a s e i n a d i p o c y t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o r i n t h e number o f t h e a d i p o c y t e s w h i c h f i l l w i t h l i p i d . - 108 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Al l e n , C.E. 1976. C e l l u l a r i t y of adipose t i s s u e i n meat animals, Fed. Proc. 35: 2302-2307. Anderson, D.B. and R.G. Kauffman. 1973. C e l l u l a r and enzymatic changes i n porcine adipose t i s s u e during growth. J . L i p i d Res. 14: 160-168. Anderson, D.B., R.G. Kauffman, and L.L. Kastenschmidt. 1972. 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S t u d i e s on t h e number and volume o f f a t c e l l s i n a d i p o s e t i s s u e . Canad. J . Biochem. P h y s i o l . 40: 437-442. APPENDIX TABLES - 127 -T a b l e 1 ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e body w e i g h t s t o 14 weeks o f age, o f male and f e m a l e b r o i l e r -t y p e c h i c k e n s s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a. 2 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups b. 3 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups c. 4 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups d. 5 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups e. 6 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups d f 3 141 d f 3 127 d f 3 111 df 3 95 df 3 81 MS 13011.3 70.3 MS 93040.5 256.4 MS 302240.0 875.9 MS. 798830.0 1788.3 MS 1746600.0 3560.3 F 185.17 F 362.80 F 352.29 F 446.69 F 490.48 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 - 128 -•' f . 7 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups g. 8 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups h. 9 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups i . 10 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups j . 11 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups k. 12 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups d f 3 73 d f 3 75 df 3 62 df 3 62 df 3 50 d f 3 51 MS 2810400.0 5762.8 MS 4274900.0 7168.2 MS 6919451.6 13518.6 MS 10167460.4 15847.2 MS 12486611.8 21864.0 MS 16718566.8 32354:9 F 487.68 F 596.37 F 511.80 F 641.60 F 571.10 F 516.70 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 - 129 -1. 13 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups m. 14 weeks o f age Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n g r o u p s d f MS F P 3 14859792.4 289.90 P < 0.05 34 51265.8 d f MS F P 3 19036362.4 494.46 P < 0.05 34 38499.0 - 130 -i i . I n dividual degree of freedom contrast (multiple range) a. 2 weeks of age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body weight) 54 54 99 103 Conclusion (P < 0.05) a a b b b. 3 weeks of age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 Ranked sample means (X\, i n grams body weight) 1 71 • 72 190 202 Conclusion (P < 0.05) a a b b c. 4 weeks of age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 Ranked sample means (X*, i n grams body weight) 1 103 104 320 342 Conclusion (P < 0.05) a a b b d. 5 weeks of age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 Ranked sample means (X%, i n grams body weight) 139 141 489 565 Conclusion (P < 0.05) a a b c e. 6 weeks of age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body weight) 1 185 187 679 816 Conclusion (P < 0.05) a a b - c - 131 -f . 7 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w e i g h t ) 255 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a g. 8 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w e i g h t ) 1 289 C o n c l u s i o n ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) a h. 9 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w e i g h t ) 339 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a i . 10 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w e i g h t ) 396 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a j . 11 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w e i g h t ) 414 C o n c l u s i o n ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) a k. 12 weeks o f age Ranks of sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., i n grams body w i g h t ) 481 C o c l u s i o n ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) a259 290 343 415 433 508 887 b 1077 b 1333 b 1591 b 1792 b 2057 b 1074 1281 1674 2030 2330 2695 - 132 -1. 13 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) Ranked sample means (Xv, i n grams body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) m. 14 weeks o f age Ranks o f sample means ( i ) Ranked sample means , i n grams body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P< 0.05) 1 2 3 4 575 584 2294 2997 a a b c 1 2 3 4 642 667 2498 3296 a a b c - 133 -T a b l e 1 1 ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e body w e i g h t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 38 weeks of age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups d f 47 MS 244810.0 121990.0 F 2.01 P > 0.05 i i . I n d i v i d u a l d e g r e e o f freedom c o n t r a s t ( m u l t i p l e range) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ranked sample means (X., 3453 3543 3833 3873 3882 3953 3954 3976 3980 i n grams body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a a b b b b b b b - 134 -T a b l e I I I ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e body w e i g h t s o f male b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 38 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e S ource o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups d f MS F 7 122090.0 0.34 28 360630.0 P > 0.05 i i . I n d i v i d u a l degree o f freedom c o n t r a s t ( m u l t i p l e range) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 4 5 Ranked sample means (X ., i n grams body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) 4375 4382 4546 4691 4704 4735 4841 4880 - 135 -T a b l e I V ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e egg w e i g h t s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s between 36 and 38 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among groups W i t h i n groups df 3 188 MS 99.3 38.4 F 2.59 P > 0.05 - 136 -T a b l e V ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e body w e i g h t , w e i g h t s o f s e l e c t e d o rgans and l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s i n f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a. Body w e i g h t (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df MS Among groups 3 441210.0 W i t h i n groups 21 74146.0 b. M. p e c t o r a l i s m ajor (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df MS Among groups 3 3281.6 W i t h i n groups 21 1090.2 c. L i v e r (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df MS Among groups 3 77.4 W i t h i n groups 21 123.1 d. Ovary (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS Among groups 3 238.0 W i t h i n groups 21 181.2 e. O v i d u c t (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df MS Among groups 3 18.69 W i t h i n groups 21 29.17 F P 5.95 P < 0.05 F 3.01 F 0.63 F 1.31 P > 0.05 P > 0.05 P >0.05 F P 0.64 P >0.05 - 137 -f . T i b i o t a r s u s (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 g. T i b i o t a r s u s l e n g t h (cm) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 h. R e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 i . M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e depot (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 MS 14.3 2.4 MS 0.9746 0.4472 MS 3191.3 5091.5 MS 22.8 6.3 F 5.93 F 2.18 F 0.64 F 3.61 P < 0.05 P > 0.05 P > 0.05 P < 0.05 - 138 -i i . I n d i v i d u a l degree o f freedom c o n t r a s t ( m u l t i p l e r ange) a. Body w e i g h t (g) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) Ranked sample means (X':., grams o f body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) b. T i b i o t a r s u s (g) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) Ranked sample means (X*., grams o f t i s s u e weight^" 3403 10.9 C o n c l u s i o n (P <0.05) a c. M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e depot (g) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X., grams o f ' t i s s u e weight^" C o n c l u s i o n ( P </0.05) 5.3 3410 11.8 6.3 ab 3813 b 13.8 b 9.0 b 3926 b 13.9 b 9.1 b - 139 -T a b l e V I ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s o f s e l e c t e d o r g a n s and l e n g t h o f t h e t i b i o t a r s u s i n b r o i l e r - t y p e f e m a l e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . C a l c u l a t i o n s were p e r f o r m e d on " a r c s i n a" t r a n s f o r m e d d a t a . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a. Body w e i g h t (g) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 b. M. p e c t o r a l i s major (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 c. L i v e r (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 d. Ovary (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 e. O v i d u c t (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n df Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 MS 441210.0 74146.0 MS 1.91 0.63 F 5.95 MS F 0.8966 1.28 0.7013 MS F 0.2712 0.68 0.4003 F 3.03 MS F 0.8233 6.0 0.1371 P< 0.05 P > 0.05 P > 0.05 P >. 0.05 P <0.05 - 140 -f # T i b i o t a r s u s (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F • P Among groups 3 5.34 1.72 P > 0.05 W i t h i n groups 21 3.09 g. T i b i o t a r s u s l e n g t h (cm) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F P Among groups 3 0.9746 2.18 P > 0.05 W i t h i n groups 21 0.4472 h. R e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F P Among groups 3 1.09 0.23 P > 0.05 W i t h i n groups 21 4.67 - 141 -i i . M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e depot (%) Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 MS 0.36 0.15 F 2.42 P > 0.05 i i i . I n d i v i d u a l degree o f freedom c o n t r a s t ( m u l t i p l e r a n g e ) a. Body w e i g h t (g) Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 Ranked sampled means (X,, grams of body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) b. O v i d u c t (%)* Ranks o f sample means ( i ) Ranked sample means (X., % o f body w e i g h t ) C o n c l u s i o n (P <0.05) 3403 7.332 3410 7.491 3810 b 7.937 b 1926 b 8.113 b v a l u e s a r e a r c s i n / a - 142 -T a b l e V I I ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s c o mparing t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot o f fe m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t d i f f e r e n t ages. i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F Among Tre a t m e n t s 2 892.8 6.72 Among Ages 1 2233.0 16.81 I n t e r a c t i o n 2 133.6 1.01 E r r o r 28 132.8 i i . S t u d e n t Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e range: a. Treatment e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 Ranked sample means (X., aver a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , um) 84.9 93.1 103. C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a ab b b. Age e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 Ranked sample means (X, , aver a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , um) 83.2 100.5 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P > 0.05 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) - 143 -T a b l e V I I I ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n o f t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r ( r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n ) i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s w i t h age and d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . D ' A g o s t i n o ' s assessment f o r n o r m a l i t y ( Z a r , 1974, p.82) SS = 0.0496 D = T/ / n 3 SS; where T = Y, ( i - n * 1 ) X 2 l D = 0.2661 S i n c e D i s n e i t h e r < 0.2609 no r > 0.2873, a t P < 0.01; ( T a b l e D.26, Z a r , 1974), do n o t r e j e c t H^; i . e . t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n came from a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d p o p u l a t i o n , i i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n Among T r e a t m e n t s Among Ages I n t e r a c t i o n E r r o r i i i . S t u d e n t Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e r ange a. Treatment e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 Ranked sample means (X., average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , um) 0.12 0.13 0.13 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a a a b. Age e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 Ranked sample means (X,, average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , um) 0.10 0.16 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a b d f MS F P 2 0.655 X 1 0 ~ 3 1. 03 P > 0.05 1 26.955 X 1 0 ~ 3 42. 24 P < 0.05 2 1.847 X 1 0 ~ 3 2. 89 P > 0.05 28 0.638 X 1 0 ~ 3 - 144 -T a b l e I X ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e a v e r a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r between t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . A n a l a y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F Among Tre a t m e n t s 3 722.9 5.60 Among Depots 1 3723.9 28.90 I n t e r a c t i o n 2 8.1 0.06 E r r o r 28 129.0 i i . S t u d e n t Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e range a. Treatment e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 3 Ranked sample means (X., average a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r , um) 86.6 89.9 99.6 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a a b b. Depot e f f e c t Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 2 Ranked sample means (X. , aver a g e a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r um) 85.6 102.9 P < 0.05 P < 0.05 P > 0.05 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) - 145 -T a b l e X ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e a v e r a g e c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n o f t h e mean a d i p o c y t e d i a m e t e r ( r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n ) , i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s w i t h depot and d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . D ' A g o s t i n o ' s assessment f o r n o r m a l i t y ( Z a r , 1974, p.82) SS = 0.0150 D = T/ / n 3 SS; where T = E ( i - n ^ 1 )X D = 0.2672 S i n c e D i s n e i t h e r < 0.2655 n o r > 0.2874 a t P <0.01, ( T a b l e D.26, Z a r , 1974), do n o t r e j e c t H q i . e . t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n came from a n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d p o p u l a t i o n , i i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f MS F P Among Tr e a t m e n t s 3 6.0497 X 1 0 ~ 4 2.10 P > 0.05 Among Depots 1 5.7800 X I O " 4 2.01 P > 0.05 I n t e r a c t i o n 3 1.7614 X I 0 ~ 4 0.61 P > 0.05 E r r o r 42 2.8802 X 1 0 ~ 4 - 146 -T a b l e X I ( A ) . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s comparing t h e ave r a g e a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y i n t h e r e t r o p e r i t o n e a l and M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e d e p o t s o f f e m a l e b r o i l e r - t y p e c h i c k e n s a t 40-43 weeks o f age, p r e v i o u s l y s u b j e c t e d t o e a r l y d i e t a r y r e s t r i c t i o n . i . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a. R e t r o p e r i t o n e a l a d i p o s e depot Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 b. M. s a r t o r i u s a d i p o s e depot Source o f v a r i a t i o n d f Among groups 3 W i t h i n groups 21 i i . I n d i v i d u a l degree o f freedom cont Ranks o f sample means ( i ) 1 Ranked sample means (X^, g a d i p o c y t e c e l l u l a r i t y X10 ) 305.8 C o n c l u s i o n (P < 0.05) a MS F P 21939.9 4.42 P < 0.05 4958.1 MS F P 3.63 0.17 P > 0.05 21.01 t ( m u l t i p l e range) 2 3 4 349.0 430.8 428.0 a b b 

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