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Construct validation of a tool for measuring job satisfaction for nurses Faris, M. Dawn 1979

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CONSTRUCT VALIDATION OF A TOOL FOR MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION FOR NURSES  by M. DAWN FARIS B.A.Sc. (Nursing), University of B.C., 1955  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Nursing  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1979 (c)  M. Dawn F a r i s , 1979  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department n f  ujr$)*-9]r  .  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  iii  ABSTRACT CONSTRUCT VALIDATION OF A TOOL FOR MEASURING JOB  SATISFACTION FOR NURSES  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the Index o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n  developed  to measure j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s .  by S l a v i t t and o t h e r s (1978)  Based upon need  satisfaction  t h e o r i e s , t h e s c a l e c o n t a i n e d seven s u b s c a l e s w h i c h were b e l i e v e d t o explain job s a t i s f a c t i o n . i n an attempt  A g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l i t e m was added  t o o b t a i n a s e p a r a t e measure o f the dependent v a r i a b l e .  A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t a v a l i d t o o l f o r measuring n u r s e s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n does n o t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t . The  i n s t r u m e n t was m o d i f i e d , p i l o t - t e s t e d  f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and  a f t e r a second phase o f m o d i f i c a t i o n , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a v o l u n t e e r sample o f 177 s t a f f n u r s e s r e p r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l h o s p i t a l and community work s e t t i n g s .  M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s  were performed on t h e d a t a , and t h e r e s u l t s o f these a n a l y s e s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n scale. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s c a l e i s h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , and t h a t t h r e e of the s u b s c a l e s e x p l a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  30 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n  the s c o r e s on t h e g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n measure o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . intercorrelation  High  o f t h e s u b s c a l e s w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h e t o t a l  s c o r e s h i n d e r e d the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e t o t a l s c o r e s e x p l a i n e d by each o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s .  iv The  r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s e s  suggest t h a t the h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y o f  t h i s v e r s i o n o f the t o o l makes i t a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s ,  t o the extent  comprised o f the seven components c o n t a i n e d construct v a l i d i t y ,  u s e f u l measurement  that job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s  i n the s c a l e .  Regarding i t s  t h e r e i s c o n c l u s i v e evidence t h a t the l i n e a r a d d i t i v e  model o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n on which the instrument i s based does n o t a l l o w a complete view o f the c o n s t r u c t .  Whether the t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s  of the t o t a l s c o r e , P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  and I n t e r a c t i o n ,  are p a r t o f one broader c o n s t r u c t , o r whether they i n t e r a c t i n some unique way, c o u l d not be determined because o f the m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y  pro-  blem. A major d i f f i c u l t y  throughout the study was t h e l a c k o f a r e l i a b l e  a l t e r n a t e measure o f t h e c r i t e r i o n .  The g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  responses d i d not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h  the t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , and t h i s  s e l f - r e p o r t , L i k e r t - t y p e item would be s u b j e c t as the q u e s t i o n n a i r e Apart  itself.  be  to gather evidence i n  o f the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h e m o d i f i e d  Slavitt scale.  concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the s c a l e ' r e l i a b l y measures some  of job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s , it  Status,  and I n t e r a c t i o n components appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the  measurement of the c o n s t r u c t , the study f a i l e d support  t o the same response b i a s  from the demonstration t h a t the P r o f e s s i o n a l  Administration,  item  but one cannot s t a t e w i t h  I t can aspects  confidence  that  a c t u a l l y measures the complex a t t i t u d e which comprises the c o n s t r u c t  "job s a t i s f a c t i o n . "  Recommendations have been made f o r a p p r o p r i a t e use  of the t o o l and f o r f u r t h e r c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s .  V  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  Introduction  1  Rationale  2  Purpose  f o r the Study  o f t h e Study  Definition  4  o f Terms  5  Assumptions  5  Description  II  of the Following  Chapters  REVIEW OF L I T E R A T U R E  5  7  Introduction  7  Nurses' Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Perceived Variable  as a  Nurses' Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Interaction  as an  Situationally 7 Individual-Situation 14  D e v e l o p i n g a Measure o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n f o r Nurses  20  Conclusions  III  27  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Overview  29  Modification  o f t h e I n d e x o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n  Reliability Decription Data  29 30  o f t h e Sample  Collection  Statistical  29  Procedures  Procedures  31 33 34  vi CHAPTER IV  V  ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION  36  D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Sample  36  Psychometric A n a l y s i s  42  M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses  45  Discriminant Function Analysis  50  Discussion  52  SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  5 5  Summary.  55  Limitations  57  Conclusions.  58  Recommendations Regarding  Use o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research  61 62  BIBLIOGRAPHY  64  APPENDIX A^ Cover Page.  69  A£ Demographic Data  71  A^ Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  73  B  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Test T o t a l , and G l o b a l S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g  Items, 80  vii LIST OF TABLES  TABLE 1  PAGE INTERNAL CONSISTENCY RELIABILITIES OF THE SUBSCALE, USING THE PILOT SAMPLE (N = 31)  3  1  2.  SAMPLING PLAN  3  2  3.  COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLE (N = 177)  36  4.  CROSS-TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "YEARS OF EXPERIENCE" VARIABLE CROSS-TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "YEARS I N PRESENT POSITION" VARIABLE.  5. 6.  CROSS-TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "TYPE OF SETTING" VARAIABLE  8.  CROSS-TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "WORK SCHEDULE" VARIABLE  7  38  CROSS-TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "MONTHLY SALARY" VARIABLE  7.  9.  3  38 39  3  9  SUMMARY OF ONE-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE OF COMPONENT AND TOTAL SCORES FOR HOSPITAL (GROUP I ) AND COMMUNITY (GROUP I I ) NURSES  40  10.  SUMMARY OF SUBTEST AND TOTAL TEST STATISTICS  43  11.  CORRELATION MATRIX OF COMPONENT, TOTAL TEST, AND GLOBAL QUESTION SCORES (N = 177)  44  SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION OF COMPONENTS ONTO TOTAL SCORES  45  CORRELATION MATRIX OF PREDICTED, RESIDUAL, AND ACTUAL VALUES OF TOTAL SCORES  49  SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION OF COMPONENTS ONTO GLOBAL QUESTION RESPONSE  50  DISCRIMINATING VARIABLES AND CLASSIFICATION OF WORK \ SETTING GROUPS '  ' '  12 13. 14. 15.  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  PAGE FIGURE 1  SCATTER-PLOT OF PREDICTED VALUES VERSUS RESIDUAL VALUES FOR TOTAL JOB SATISFACTION SCORE  47  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h to express my thanks to my committee, M a r i l y n Willman, Bob  Conry, and Jack Yensen, f o r t h e i r continued  support  throughout t h i s study.  classmates,  interest,  guidance and  A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended to my  whose encouragement c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the  c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s study. . I am g r a t e f u l by  completing  to a l l t h e nurses who p a r t i c i p a t e d  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  o r by a s s i s t i n g w i t h  i n this project i t s administration.  S p e c i a l thanks a r e due t o Don, Ken, Murray, and P e t e r f o r continuing  l o v e and i n s p i r a t i o n .  their  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Introduction Occupational  s a t i s f a c t i o n and methods o f measuring t h i s  construct  are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n .  Rapid  changes i n the h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y system have r e s u l t e d i n a l t e r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r n u r s e s , which may i n t u r n be r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y i n t h e i r performance i n the work s e t t i n g . w i t h high turnover with work-related ( S a l e h 1964).  Nurses have become concerned  r a t e s , and i t has been r e p o r t e d  that d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  f a c t o r s accounted f o r 32 p e r c e n t o f n u r s e r e s i g n a t i o n s  The c o s t t o U.S. h o s p i t a l s was e s t i m a t e d  i n 1974 (McCloskey 1974).  a t $20 m i l l i o n  The c o s t i n terms o f q u a l i t y o f p a t i e n t  care  and a l s o i n decreased morale o f i n d i v i d u a l n u r s e s i s immeasurable (Kramer 1972).  S l a v i t t and o t h e r s  (1978) have i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r  an i n s t r u m e n t which c o u l d p r o v i d e a measure o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s , and have developed the Index o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n , a s c a l e which measures o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n terms o f v a r i o u s components based upon h i e r a r c h y o f needs t h e o r i e s .  The t o o l was t e s t e d on two samples  of n u r s e s employed i n urban h o s p i t a l s , and on one sample o f n u r s e s working i n a p r i v a t e c l i n i c . have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  I t s i n t e r s c a l e and i n t r a s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was used t o a s s e s s the content  v a l i d i t y o f the s c a l e , and to p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the components and r e g r o u p i n g  o f the s c a l e i t e m s . 1  Further refinement of t h i s  s c a l e would r e s u l t i n a t o o l w h i c h c o u l d be used t o determine how  the  components o r f a c t o r s i n t e r c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , j o b satisfaction.  As w e l l as enhancing the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the t o o l ,  this  i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the construct.  R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Study F u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n o f the Index o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n would i n c r e a s e i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n s t u d y i n g groups o f n u r s e s ; would p r o v i d e group and i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s w h i c h would have many p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , and would make the t o o l i t s e l f e a s i e r t o a d m i n i s t e r and score. A v a l i d a t e d measure o f b e f o r e - a n d - a f t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s of employee n u r s e s would e n a b l e management t o i d e n t i f y work s i t u a t i o n s where s a t i s f a c t i o n i s low, and t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e m e d i a l programs.  T o t a l s c o r e s and/or component s c o r e s c o u l d a l s o be s t u d i e d i n  r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s known about the s u b j e c t s , such as t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n or a s p e c i f i c j o b s e t t i n g .  Group s c o r e s c o u l d  a l s o be compared w i t h o t h e r measures of group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as a t t i t u d e s towards f e m i n i s m , o r a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . I n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s of work s a t i s f a c t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e a h e l p f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n to job s a t i s f a c t i o n theory.  Vroom (1964) has s u g g e s t e d  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s may y i e l d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t a v a i l a b l e from group s t u d i e s , r e g a r d i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o b satisfaction.  I n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s would a l s o be u s e f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g  p e r s o n n e l and placement problems.  As new measures of q u a l i t y c a r e and  p r o d u c t i v i t y a r e d e v e l o p e d , i n d i v i d u a l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s c o u l d be  3 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h these f a c t o r s to determine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  s a t i s f a c t i o n and d e l i v e r y of n u r s i n g c a r e . Refinement o f the t o o l would a l s o e l i m i n a t e the need f o r c o m p l i c a t e d weighting procedures, general p u b l i c . may  thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g i t s use and s c o r i n g by  the  I n a d d i t i o n , a n a l y s i s of the d a t a o b t a i n e d i n the study  r e v e a l s p e c i f i c s u b s e t s of items w h i c h c o u l d be used i n an a b b r e v i a t e d  s c a l e without l o s s of i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n i s an on-going  e v a l u a t i o n of the e x t e n t t o  which the s u b j e c t ' s t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e i n g measured i s a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the t e s t s c o r e .  Due  to the  theoretical  n a t u r e of the c o n s t r u c t b e i n g s t u d i e d , the r e s e a r c h e r i s f a c e d w i t h the problem o f p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t h i s e m p i r i c a l measurement does i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t the a b s t r a c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . K e r l i n g e r (1973) s t a t e s t h a t " c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t advances i n modern measurement t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . . . b e c a u s e i t u n i t e s psychometric  n o t i o n s w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s . " ( K e r l i n g e r 1973,  p.  461).  The measurement of a c o n s t r u c t can be v a l i d a t e d i n . many ways, depending upon the n a t u r e of the c o n s t r u c t and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o t h e r measures o f r e l a t e d and/or component c o n s t r u c t s .  The problem becomes one of .  d e s c r i b i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the c o n s t r u c t , and then measuring whether the c o n s t r u c t behaves a c c o r d i n g to h y p o t h e s i z e d Nunnally  relationships.  (1970) has d e s c r i b e d t h r e e major a s p e c t s o f the p r o c e s s  of  d e v e l o p i n g v a l i d measures of c o n s t r u c t s "...(1) s p e c i f y i n g the domain of o b s e r v a b l e s ; (2) d e t e r m i n i n g to what e x t e n t a l l , o r some of  those  o b s e r v a b l e s c o r r e l a t e w i t h one another or a r e a f f e c t e d a l i k e by t r e a t m e n t s ; and  experimental  (3) d e t e r m i n i n g whether or not one, some, o r a l l measures  of such v a r i a b l e s a c t as though they measured the c o n s t r u c t . " ( N u n n a l l y  1970,  p. 141)'. S l a v i t t (1978) used h i e r a r c h y o f needs t h e o r i e s developed by Maslow (1954) and m o d i f i e d  by H e r z b e r g (1966) t o i d e n t i f y a domain o f  items w h i c h were thought t o c o n t r i b u t e t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s . Through a n a l y s i s o f t h e way i n which t h e i r t o o l behaved on s u c c e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , these a u t h o r s were a b l e t o p r o v i d e  evidence that i t i s  r e l i a b l e , i . e . t h a t i t w i l l g i v e s t a b l e , dependable and p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t s on r e p e a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f the t o o l  i n d i c a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f seven component s u b s c a l e s  which a r e r e a s o n a b l y  s i m i l a r t o f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework. One can assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the c o n s t r u c t , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s , has seven components and t h a t the Index o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n provides faction.  a r e l i a b l e measure o f each component and o f t o t a l j o b s a t i s On t h e b a s i s o f these assumptions one can proceed w i t h  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e t o o l by d e t e r m i n i n g extent  t h e components c o r r e l a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r and w i t h  measure o f t h e c o n s t r u c t .  t o what  another  One can a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  between t h e components, because a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e components has n o t y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d .  Purpose o f t h e Study The  purpose o f t h i s study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n s t r u c t  of t h e Index of Work S a t i s f a c t i o n . satisfaction-which--have analyzed job  validity  The seven components o f j o b  been i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d by S l a v i t t w i l l be  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e ,  satisfaction.  5  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Job S a t i s f a c t i o n - The a f f e c t i v e response o f t h e n u r s e towards her j o b , as measured by h e r t o t a l s c o r e on t h e m o d i f i e d  Index  of Work S a t i s f a c t i o n .  Components o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n (as d e f i n e d by S l a v i t t ) Pay - D o l l a r r e m u n e r a t i o n and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d f o r work done. Autonomy - Amount o f j o b - r e l a t e d independence, i n i t i a t i v e , and freedom e i t h e r p e r m i t t e d o r r e q u i r e d i n d a i l y work activities. Tcuk Re.quAJizme.nt6 - Tasks t h a t must be done as a r e g u l a r p a r t o f t h e j o b and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e amount o f time a l l o t t e d to p a t i e n t c a r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n work. Adm-LnAJ>tACUtl.on - E f f e c t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on j o b p r o c e d u r e s , p e r s o n n e l p o l i c y , and the amount o f s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n making t h e s e p o l i c i e s . InteAjCLctton - O p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e s e n t e d f o r b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s . Vh.o{eJii>i.OnoJl Status - Generated f e e l i n g s toward the p r o f e s s i o n - s k i l l s , u s e f u l n e s s , and s t a t u s o f t h e j o b . Voctofi-NuAAe. ReJLcittonAktpA - Amount and type o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n among p h y s i c i a n s and n u r s e s ( S l a v i t t 1978, p.118).  Assumptions F o r the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y i t i s assumed t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e " j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " e x i s t s and t h a t i t can be measured.  I t i s also  assumed t h a t n u r s e s can r e p o r t t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n by responding to a s i n g l e - i t e m g l o b a l  D e s c r i p t i o n of the F o l l o w i n g  question.  Chapters  T h i s t h e s i s i s composed of f i v e c h a p t e r s .  The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d  l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter I I i s a c r i t i q u e of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g to s t a f f n u r s e s .  Chapter I I I c o n t a i n s  research the research  methodology, i n c l u d i n g s e l e c t i o n , and description  the procedures  of the sample and  appear i n Chapter  IV.  study and a d i s c u s s i o n research  the r e l i a b i l i t y  findings.  study, the c r i t e r i a  f o r sample  f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l  Chapter V i n c l u d e s  The  analyses  a summary o f the v a l i d a t i o n  of the l i m i t a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s  of the  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction One s t r a t e g y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t i s to conduct a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the c o n s t r u c t . I t can then be determined where the t e s t f i t s i n terms o f p r e v i o u s research  i n measurement and i n the f i e l d .  l o g i c i s necessary i n order  T h i s awareness o f p r e v i o u s  t o demonstrate how and why t h e t e s t d i f f e r s  from e x i s t i n g measures. W h i l e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n among i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s has been s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y , a review of nursing l i t e r a t u r e covering reveals a paucity of research profession.  regarding  t h e p a s t two decades  job s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the nursing  E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s tend t o  f o c u s on t h e c o n s t r u c t from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a s i t u a t i o n a l l y p e r c e i v e d v a r i a b l e , as a p e r s o n - s i t u a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n , and as a measurement problem. reviewed w i t h i n t h e framework p r o v i d e d  The l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be  by t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s .  Nurses' Job S a t i s f a c t i o n as a S i t u a t i o n a l l y P e r c e i v e d  Variable  Several s t u d i e s of n u r s i n g s e r v i c e personnel r e p o r t attempts to i d e n t i f y job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which lead to f e e l i n g s of s a t i s f a c t i o n o r dissatisfaction.  White and Maguire (1973) s t u d i e d h o s p i t a l n u r s i n g  s u p e r v i s o r s , and C r o n i n - S t u b b s (1977) s t u d i e d new graduate s t a f f n u r s e s , 7  8 f o r the purpose o f e l i c i t i n g  j o b - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  m o t i v a t o r s and hygienes d e s c r i b e d  by Herzberg  (1966).  These s t u d i e s d i d  not a s s e s s the a c t u a l l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n the s u b j e c t s j o b s , b u t .concentrated  upon e v a l u a t i n g  felt  i n their  the r e l a t i v e importance of the  f a c t o r s f o r each group of n u r s e s . Herzberg developed the d u a l - f a c t o r theory motivation, are  i n which he p o s t u l a t e d  two u n i p o l a r  t r a i t s rather  o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and  t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  than o p p o s i t e  ends o f a continuum.  He  c a l l e d f a c t o r s which a r i s e from the content of the work i t s e l f , and which a r e thus i n t r i n s i c  to the j o b , " m o t i v a t o r s . "  to f e e l i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and p e r s o n a l to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . describe  These f a c t o r s l e a d  growth, and c o n t r i b u t e  minimally  The d i s s a t i s f i e r s a r e e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s which  the worker's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t  j o b , and a r e termed "hygienes.! . 1  of h i s  Herzberg f u r t h e r suggested t h a t h i s  m o t i v a t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Maslow's h i e r a r c h y  o f human needs, s i n c e  a worker's a t t i t u d e i s ' c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s needs.  Because hygienes  c o r r e l a t e w i t h animal needs, which serve merely to reduce  displeasure,  hygiene f a c t o r s do n o t p o s s e s s the q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l growth and thus a r e n o t conducive to the g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f human needs (Herzberg 1966). White and Maguire (1973) were i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s e s s i n g of Herzberg's theory hospitals.  f o r a group of n u r s i n g  Using a s t r a t i f i e d  h o s p i t a l s , they f o l l o w e d f a c t o r s the s u b j e c t s  i n general  random sample o f 34 s u p e r v i s o r s  Herzberg's i n t e r v i e w  c o n s i s t e n t l y described  job s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . the c o n s i s t e n c y  supervisors  the v a l i d i t y  from s i x  s c h e d u l e to i d e n t i f y the  as l e a d i n g  to f e e l i n g s of  They f u r t h e r attempted  o f t h e i r f a c t o r s w i t h those d e s c r i b e d  to a s s e s s  by H e r z b e r g .  A  p i l o t s t u d y was two  conducted to e s t a b l i s h the i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of  i n t e r v i e w e r s and  gain p r a c t i c e i n gathering  and a n a l y z i n g  the  the  data.  No c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d , but no changes i n the method were deemed necessary.  F o l l o w i n g H e r z b e r g ' s method of d a t a a n a l y s i s , 13 f a c t o r s  were i d e n t i f i e d , of which s i x f e l l i n t o the m o t i v a t o r were i n the h y g i e n e c a t e g o r y , contentment) was  researchers  f a c t i o n and  one  six  ( e n t i t l e d competence .- commitment  c a l l e d a "mogiene" because i t o c c u r r e d  s t o r i e s of s a t i s f a c t i o n and The  and  category,  equally often i n  dissatisfaction.  found t h a t the f a c t o r s t h a t produced job  satis-  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h i s group of s u b j e c t s were n o t a b l y  s i m i l a r to H e r z b e r g ' s l i s t of m o t i v a t o r s  and h y g i e n e s .  Chi-square  and  F i s h e r ' s e x a c t p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t s were used to a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y  of  the H e r z b e r g model, and  to  three motivators:  found the l a t t e r to be u p h e l d i n r e l a t i o n  work i t s e l f , p o s s i b i l i t y f o r growth, and  and one h y g i e n e , s u p e r v i s i o n - t e c h n i c a l .  The  recognition;  authors conclude that  more e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n of the s u p e r v i s o r s would o n l y d e c r e a s e t h e i r l e v e l of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , whereas s a t i s f a c t i o n c o u l d be improved by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r more c r e a t i v e work, more r e c o g n i t i o n of a b i l i t i e s , and  chances f o r advancement (White and Maguire 1973).  C r o n i n - S t u b b s ' study i s a p a r t i a l r e p l i c a t i o n of White and investigation.  The  a u t h o r proposed t h a t new  graduate n u r s e s i n t h e i r  f i r s t y e a r of employment would i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t s a t i s f y i n g d i s s a t i s f y i n g f a c t o r s than d i d the sample of s u p e r v i s o r s . study was  concerned w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g these f a c t o r s and  w i t h the f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d  Achievement and  and  Therefore  the  comparing them  i n the White and M a g u i r e and H e r z b e r g s t u d i e s .  T h i r t y s u b j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d , and method.  Maguire'  i n t e r v i e w e d using Herzberg's  r e c o g n i t i o n were the f a c t o r s most c o n s i s t e n t l y  10 described  as l e a d i n g to j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , but o n l y r e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d  termed s i g n i f i c a n t u s i n g t h i s method of d a t a a n a l y s i s .  be  Responsibility,  and White and Maguire's "mogiene," competence-commitment - contentment, were the most d i s s a t i s f y i n g subordinates,  factors.  Interpersonal relations  with  and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , were a l s o mentioned s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more o f t e n i n a c c o u n t s of j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  than i n a c c o u n t s of  satisfaction. Where the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by the  new  graduates were compared w i t h those i d e n t i f i e d by H e r z b e r g ' s a c c o u n t a n t s and  e n g i n e e r s and by White and Maguire's s u p e r v i s o r s , r e c o g n i t i o n  the o n l y common s a t i s f i e r .  The  C r o n i n - S t u b b s c o n c l u d e s t h a t new other  two p o p u l a t i o n s ,  and  t h r e e s t u d i e s had no common d i s s a t i s f i e r s . graduate s t a f f n u r s e s d i f f e r from  s t a t e s t h a t because her s u b j e c t s  f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t d i s s a t i s f i e r s and job c o n t e x t  was  o n l y one  the  identified  significant satisfier,  the  i s as i m p o r t a n t as the job c o n t e n t f o r t h i s sample  ( C r o n i n - S t u b b s 1977). One  c o u l d argue t h a t the method of a n a l y z i n g the d a t a does not  p e r m i t m e a n i n g f u l f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d f o r example, was and  significant.  mentioned 27 times i n events d e s c r i b i n g j o b  16 times i n events d e s c r i b i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  occurred  was  However, because  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s means t h a t i t must appear s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more o f t e n i n one considered  satisfaction,  This f a c t o r  mentioned more than t w i c e as o f t e n as any o t h e r f a c t o r . "significance"  Achievement,  c a t e g o r y than i n the o t h e r , achievement cannot be  e i t h e r a s a t i s f i e r or a d i s s a t i s f i e r .  T h i s same problem  i n the W h i t e and Maguire s t u d y , w i t h competence - commitment -  contentment, o b v i o u s l y an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r to many s u b j e c t s , but e x c l u s i v e l y r e l a t e d to one  of the two a r b i t r a r y  categories.  not  11 A  recent  classify  study  a l l the  traditional  which  identified  elements  intrinsic  of  job  - extrinsic  These  employed  a factor  a n a l y s i s procedure  from  as  four metropolitan  composed  of  Respondents  a  list  percent  18  items  i n d i c a t e d the their  the  total  importance with  independent  and  reliability  i s not  instrument  that  144  coding  scheme. held  Factor  accounted  administration policies. ( E v e r l y and  for  analysis for  orientation, internal  reported  nurses  developed,  each item  t h e i r work.  and  dimensions  consisted of  f a c t o r s which  relationship  and  population  A L i k e r t - t y p e t o o l was  of  the  of E v e r l y  a broader-based  T h e i r sample  satisfaction  variance:  their  that  to  into  to determine underlying  r e w a r d s , e x t e r n a l work r e w a r d s , of  attempting  s e l e c t e d from Herzberg's  degree  four s t a t i s t i c a l l y of  used  satisfying. hospitals.  of  them i n d e t e r m i n i n g revealed  researchers  of  f o r nurses  d i c h o t o m y was  (1976).  factors perceived  fallacy  satisfaction  Falcione  of  the  58.8  work  The Falcione  1976). The  appearance  for  24  its  relationship  study, and  percent  and  Maguire  importance nature than  the  the  relationship explained  to both  the  competence -  study.  motivator  commitment  Everly  or  -  the  i n the  contentment three  and  factor  to s p e c u l a t i o n  factor  these  f o r nurses  - hygiene  leads  achievement  supports  satisfaction  o r i e n t a t i o n as  variance  Whether o r not  to nurses  of job  the  of  of  1  factor  i n the  -  suggestion  extrinsic  White  related,  r e q u i r e s a more complex  intrinsic  regarding  Cronin-Stubbs  f a c t o r s are  Falcione s  accounting  theories  that  their the  explanation can  provide. Munson Porter the  and  Heda  instrument,  (1974) h a v e r e p o r t e d  an  p h y s i o l o g i c a l need  adaptation category  of  the  their  attempt  needs h i e r a r c h y  i s eliminated  and  the  to modify approach  the i n which  autonomy n e e d  is  12 added between the s e l f - e s t e e m The  and  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n l e v e l s ( P o r t e r 1968).  p r i m a r y f o c u s of t h i s study was  n u r s e s s h a r e common p e r c e p t i o n s  t o d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h  of a h i g h l y s i m i l a r job  environment.  Matched p a i r s and matched groups of n u r s e s were used to p r o v i d e respondent c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the 12 items and  4 subscales.  Low  intercorrela-  t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n the m a t c h e d - p a i r sample, w h i l e most of the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the matched group sample were s i g n i f i c a n t , l e a d i n g the  researchers  t o conclude t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o average out i n d i v i d u a l d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s , and  t h a t low i n t e r r e s p o n d e n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s are a f u n c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  r a t h e r than o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . s e c u r i t y , and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s )  The  e x t r i n s i c s u b s c a l e (wages,  showed the h i g h e s t  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n both  samples. The Munson and Heda study makes an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , t h a t  consistency  a c r o s s p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e i s ah  aspect  of r e l i a b i l i t y w h i c h needs to be e s t a b l i s h e d i f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i a b l e .  The  v a l i d i t y of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  measures c o u l d a l s o b e n e f i t from t h i s type of approach, i n t h a t our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n does n o t  consider  present  individual differences  i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by p e o p l e w i t h the same j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Kalleberg  (1977) s u g g e s t s t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e because of  v a r i a t i o n s 'in;- what p e o p l e seek t o o b t a i n from t h e i r work; i n o t h e r words job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n not o n l y of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the but a l s o of the m o t i v e s of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m i n g the j o b . t o S m i t h , K e n d a l l , and H u l i n i s t i c may  (1969), the p e r c e p t i o n  According  of each j o b  character-  be f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the s u b j e c t i v e anchors or end  f e l t by the worker i n r e l a t i o n to h i s a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s .  job,  points  If a  worker f e e l s t h a t h i s j o b i s v e r y s i m i l a r to the b e s t j o b he can  imagine,  13 then he would e x p e r i e n c e a h i g h degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n . i n the same s i t u a t i o n may s c a l e of a l t e r n a t i v e s , job  p l a c e the job  and  A n o t h e r worker  lower down on h i s  perceived  w i l l therefore f e e l less s a t i s f i e d .  s a t i s f a c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of the  To  view  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e of  the  j o b s p e o p l e occupy i s to i g n o r e t h e s e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s upon i n d i v i d u a l responses to s i t u a t i o n a l Closely related  variables.  t o the  time element to the  above concerns i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p  longitudinal  job  s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s o f the  I f s a t i s f a c t i o n i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as needs r e s o l u t i o n , Maslow's t h e o r y , the  Does he  needs are r e s o l v e d ?  ion i s a transitory T h e r e f o r e job  following  T h i s v i e w would suggest t h a t j o b  s t a t e r e l a t i v e to the  degree of needs  an i n d i c a t i o n  s a t i s f a c t i o n of h i s needs r e l a t i v e to h i s own  satisfact-  resolution.  of the  respondent's  v a l u a t i o n of the  available  given time.  A different views job  individual.  then become a d i s s a t i s f i e d worker u n t i l  s a t i s f a c t i o n measures are  rewards at any  then,  the  s a t i s f i e d worker i s f r e e d to seek to s a t i s f y a  h i g h e r l e v e l of needs. these new  of  interpretation  of the  same measure c o u l d r e s u l t i f  one  s a t i s f a c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of the w o r k e r ' s a b i l i t y to a d j u s t  to  a g i v e n work s i t u a t i o n , or t o modify the work s i t u a t i o n t o meet-his needs. I f t h i s i s the is actually carries  interpretation  the  a p p l i e d to the measure, then  degree of adjustment to the  this thinking  a step f u r t h e r .  tends to i n c r e a s e f o r p e o p l e who s u g g e s t s t h a t the  To  say  Reporting that job  and  Taylor  (1977)  satisfaction  s t a y on j o b s over a p e r i o d of t i m e ,  l o n g e r a worker spends on a j o b ,  i d e n t i f y w i t h the job himself.  inevitable.  satisfaction  the more he  he  comes t o  confuse assessment of the job w i t h assessment of  t h a t h i s job  i m p a c t , over t i m e , on what he  i s unsatisfactory  has  sees h i m s e l f to be.  increasingly Smith, K e n d a l l  more and  14 Hulin  (1969) suggest t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n may need to  d e c i d e whether they w i s h to study the c o n s t r u c t or s h o r t - t e r m time p e r s p e c t i v e , be p r e d i c t e d .  i n terms o f a l o n g - t e r m  depending upon the k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r t o  The time frame d e c i d e d upon w i l l then i n f l u e n c e  the  d e s i g n of the measurement d e v i c e , as w e l l as i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and i n t e r pretation.  Nurses' Job S a t i s f a c t i o n as an I n d i v i d u a l - S i t u a t i o n  Interaction  A few r e c e n t s t u d i e s have r e l a t e d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s to o t h e r variables  i n the n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n .  need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and c o r r e l a t e d  Slocum and o t h e r s (1972) compared  and p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l  n u r s i n g employees  s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s . w i t h j o b performance l e v e l s .  (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d  Bullough  j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s i n r e l a t i o n t o one t r a d i t i o n a l  and two s p e c i a l i z e d n u r s i n g r o l e s and MacEachron (1977) examined the construct  i n terms o f the i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s of j o b l e v e l and an  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e , f i e l d independence. The Slocum s t u d y was d e s i g n e d to t e s t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l based r e s e a r c h on Maslow's need t h e o r y t o a h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g .  Based  upon h i s own e a r l i e r work w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l managers, Slocum h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r the w o r k e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s a t i s f a c t i o n of b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n the magnitude o f the d i f f e r e n c e s  needs.  the g r e a t e r  He was a l s o  interested  i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f each need between  job l e v e l s , and i n the c o r r e l a t i o n o f the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs w i t h j o b performance. the needs h i e r a r c h y ,  He used Lyman P o r t e r ' s  a d a p t a t i o n of  i n w h i c h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l need c a t e g o r y i s  e l i m i n a t e d : and-:the::; autonomy- need - i s added between the s e l f - e s t e e m and v  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n l e v e l s ( P o r t e r 1968).  The sample was composed o f 39  15 p r o f e s s i o n a l ( a l l l e v e l s o f graduate n u r s e up t o head n u r s e ) and 41 p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l employees  ( p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s , n u r s e s a i d e s and f l o o r  clerks).  Performance c r i t e r i a were d e v e l o p e d f o r each o f the two groups o f personnel.  The need s a t i s f a c t i o n d a t a f o r b o t h groups was o b t a i n e d by  u s i n g P o r t e r ' s p e r c e i v e d need d e f i c i e n c y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which measures the d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e c t a t i o n s and f u l f i l l m e n t on 12 need i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g the f i v e l e v e l s of the need h i e r a r c h y . Slocum found t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n h i s s t u d y d i d have l o w e r d e f i c i e n c y s c o r e s t h a n the p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r a l l b a s i c needs, w i t h t h r e e o f the f i v e d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p<.05.  Self-actualization  needs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d than a l l o t h e r needs e x c e p t autonomy f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and f o r these workers s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h performance (Slocum, Susman, and S h e r i d a n 1972).  This l a t t e r f i n d i n g r a i s e s questions  c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b performance and  self-actualization,  and the a u t h o r s p o i n t out t h a t P o r t e r and L a w l e r have d e v e l o p e d a model which s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l j o b performance l e a d s t o g r e a t e r need s a t i s f a c t i o n ( P o r t e r and L a w l e r 1968).  Vroom-(1964),"on. t h e o t h e r hand,  has r e v i e w e d the r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and s t a t e s t h a t as y e t t h e r e i s no s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b performance: "The absence of a marked o r c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n  ...  c a s t s some doubt on the g e n e r a l i t y o r i n t e n s i t y o f e i t h e r e f f e c t s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on performance or performance on s a t i s f a c t i o n . "  (Vroom  1964, p.187). B u l l o u g h (1974) c i t e s the Slocum f i n d i n g s as p a r t o f her r a t i o n a l e f o r /studying;:- job' f s a t ' i s f a c t i o n - i n ' r e l a t i o n t o new n u r s i n g r o l e s w h i c h presumably p r o v i d e the n u r s e w i t h more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o f u l f i l l her  16 s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs. nurses:  Her  sample c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e groups of  17 s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g a seven-month c o u r s e w h i c h would q u a l i f y  them as p e d i a t r i c n u r s e - p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; 18 extended r o l e n u r s e s i n a community h e a l t h s e t t i n g ; and community s e t t i n g .  The  38 t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e n u r s e s i n the same  n u r s e - p r a c t i t i o n e r s t u d e n t s were t e s t e d a t  b e g i n n i n g as w e l l as a t the end  of t h e i r c o u r s e .  Four measures o f work s a t i s f a c t i o n were i n c l u d e d tool.  The  subjects  f i r s t was  i n the B u l l o u g h  a f i v e - i t e m L i k e r t - t y p e scale which required  the  to r a t e t h e i r j o b i n terms of f i v e " a l i e n a t i o n " i t e m s .  These  items were adapted from Seeman's (1967) s t u d i e s of i n t r i n s i c j o b faction. The  The  c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y of the s c a l e , however, appears  f i v e items do not seem to r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y  factors described  by Seeman, and  the  satis-  questionable.  the f i v e a l i e n a t i o n  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether the meaning of  each f a c t o r c o u l d be encompassed f o r a l l the s u b j e c t s  i n j u s t one  item.  A l s o , the items a r e a l l worded i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , l e a d i n g one  to  expect some response b i a s . There a r e two response f o r each.  s i n g l e - i t e m measures w i t h f o u r c h o i c e s The  "how  on a s c a l e d  s a t i s f i e d w i t h your work are you?"  i s a h e l p f u l check on the v a l i d i t y of the o t h e r measures, but question  " i f you  c o u l d s t a r t o v e r a g a i n ....  would you  p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n ? " seems i r r e l e v a n t to the s t u d y , and provided The  question  the  choose y o u r i t actually  some q u i t e unexpected answers. f o u r t h measure on the B u l l o u g h t o o l was  s c a l e which a l l o w e d  respondents to d e s c r i b e  e l e v e n b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s or p h r a s e s .  a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  t h e i r j o b s i n terms of  Unfortunately  the p h r a s e s which  were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the u s u a l a d j e c t i v e p a i r s convey a j u d g e m e n t a l meaning, and  t h i s c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d  to the f a i l u r e of the s c a l e to  17 s e p a r a t e t h e t h r e e groups o f n u r s e s . pay —  F o r example, one p a i r was " h i g h  low pay," whereas t h e s u b j e c t would have been r e q u i r e d t o i m p l y  more of h e r own meaning i n t o t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n i f t h e p a i r had been "enough pay —  n o t enough pay."  Three of t h e items i n t h i s p a r t o f  the t o o l p r o v i d e d the o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s u b j e c t s t o r a t e t h e extrinsic factors i n their jobs. The p r e - and p o s t - t e s t responses of the n u r s e p r a c t i t i o n e r group showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . A three-way comparison o f t h e responses o f t h e t h r e e groups, u s i n g t h e p o s t - t e s t r e s p o n s e s o f t h e n u r s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s , showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e v e l s o f intrinsic  j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as measured by t h e L i k e r t s c a l e .  The  graduates  of the seven-month course s c o r e d h i g h e s t , the agency extended r o l e had i n t e r m e d i a t e s c o r e s , and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e n u r s e s lowest.  nurses  scored the  The answers t o the q u e s t i o n about o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n r e v e a l e d  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , and "the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g c h o o s i n g a c a r e e r i n n u r s i n g over a g a i n produced the h i g h e s t s c o r e s from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l nurses and t h e l o w e s t from t h e new n u r s e p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The a u t h o r concludes  t h a t new and expanded r o l e s do i n c r e a s e  i n t r i n s i c j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s , b u t wonders why t h i s does n o t r e s u l t i n p o s i t i v e findings regarding o v e r a l l job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Among  the p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , she c o n s i d e r s such f a c t o r s as pay and more f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e work s e t t i n g , ing  conclud-  t h a t f o c u s i n g on i n t r i n s i c rewards does n o t p r o v i d e an adequate  measure o f t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n job-.-.satisfaction f o r nurses  (Bullough  1974). The complex n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t o o t h e r s i t u a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s was i n v e s t i g a t e d by MacEachron  (1977).  18 She reasons and  t h a t each j o b i s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y composed o f v a r i o u s  facets,  t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l may v i e w and e v a l u a t e h i s j o b from many d i f f e r -  ent p e r s p e c t i v e s .  Thus i t i s s i m p l i s t i c t o s t a t e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t  j o b l e v e l s h o u l d be e m p i r i c a l l y faction.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l types o f j o b s a t i s -  T h i s l e a d s MacEachron t o examine t h e commonly-used measures  of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . by Smith, K e n d a l l  She d e s c r i b e s t h e Job D e s c r i p t i o n Index  and H u l i n  (1969) as a j o b - r e f e r e n t  s a t i s f a c t i o n , whereas the P o r t e r Need S a t i s f a c t i o n  s e l f - r e f e r e n t measure ( P o r t e r 1968). support a j o b l e v e l / j o b  developed  measure o f Questionnaire i s a  The former measure was found t o  s a t i s f a c t i o n h y p o t h e s i s whereas t h e l a t t e r d i d  n o t , a c c o r d i n g t o a study r e p o r t e d by Herman and H u l i n  (1973).  B e s i d e s t h e problem i n h e r e n t i n measuring j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , MacEachron c o n s i d e r s t h e m e d i a t i n g e f f e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . She c i t e s s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t o i n t r i n s i c work v a l u e s and h i g h e r o r d e r need s t r e n g t h , and d e v e l o p s  two i n t e r a c t i o n models  s a t i s f a c t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l and j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  predicting  One model p r e d i c t s  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who p r e f e r " n o r m a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e " work w i l l  achieve  h i g h s a t i s f a c t i o n from j o b s i n v o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n o r m a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e work, and low s a t i s f a c t i o n from j o b s w h i c h do n o t have t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whereas i n d i v i d u a l s who do n o t p r e f e r n o r m a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e work w i l l a c h i e v e low s a t i s f a c t i o n from j o b s i n v o l v i n g  norma-  t i v e l y p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and h i g h s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m j o b s w h i c h do n o t have these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The second model i s t h e same except  i t p r e d i c t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who do n o t p r e f e r n o r m a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e work w i l l be n e u t r a l i n s a t i s f a c t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . MacEachron's s t u d y i n v o l v e d 70 female n u r s i n g s t a f f i n an urban pediatric hospital.  The s u b j e c t s ' j o b l e v e l s ranged from n u r s i n g s u p e r v i s o r  19 to n u r s i n g a i d e and i t was d e c i d e d  to designate  the 31 graduate n u r s e s  as t h e top l e v e l , t h e 17 l i c e n s e d p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s as t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l , and the 21 n u r s i n g a i d e s as the l o w e s t l e v e l .  The j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  v a r i a b l e was measured by S m i t h , K e n d a l l and H u l i n ' s Job D e s c r i p t i o n Index (1969).  Workers who p r e f e r n o r m a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e work a r e d e s c r i b e d as  those w i t h h i g h o r d e r need s t r e n g t h and low a l i e n a t i o n from m i d d l e c l a s s work norms; r e s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d  t o support  the n o t i o n t h a t  these  i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d have a f i e l d independent c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , and t h e r e f o r e t h a t a measure o f t h i s v a r i a b l e c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by the P o r t a b l e Rod and Frame Test developed by Oltman  (1968).  The r e s u l t s o f the study i n d i c a t e t h a t f i e l d dependence moderates the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b l e v e l and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h i s group of employees.  I t was a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t w o r k e r s ,  the c o r r e l a t i o n s between j o b l e v e l and a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n dimensions were p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t .  A c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between  these two v a r i a b l e s was e v i d e n t f o r f i e l d independent w o r k e r s . f i e l d dependent w o r k e r s , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e  For  correlation  between j o b l e v e l and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t co-worker s a t i s f a c t i o n d e c r e a s e s as j o b l e v e l i n c r e a s e s . only c o r r e l a t i o n to support  T h i s was the  t h e f i r s t model d e s c r i b i n g the i n d i v i d u a l - j o b  f i t a s s u m p t i o n f o r f i e l d dependent w o r k e r s , the r e m a i n i n g  insignificant  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b o t h models a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h i s group o f n u r s i n g personnel. The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s  t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n models a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  i n c r e a s i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n (MacEachron 1977).  She  was n o t c o n c e n t r a t i n g h e r study on p r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s e s per s e , however.  20 An e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b l e v e l and ence s c o r e s  independ-  r e v e a l s t h a t a l l 31 of the graduate n u r s e s were c l a s s i f i e d  as f i e l d independent, w h i c h would o b v i a t e v a r i a b l e i f t h i s study had reasoning  field  could apply  the need f o r i n c l u d i n g t h i s  used o n l y graduate n u r s e s u b j e c t s .  The  same  to the j o b l e v e l v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e  a l l the graduate n u r s e s were i n the " h i g h " job l e v e l .  However, i t  should be p o s s i b l e t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y u s i n g a p o p u l a t i o n of i o n a l n u r s e s of v a r i o u s job l e v e l s , and  profess-  a l t e r i n g the a r b i t r a r y s c o r e  p o i n t used by MacEachron t o d i v i d e the s u b j e c t s i n t o f i e l d independent f i e l d dependent c a t e g o r i e s .  A s t u d y of t h i s n a t u r e c o u l d  provide  v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e r a c t i o n of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , job l e v e l  and  personality variables.  D e v e l o p i n g a Measure of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n f o r Nurses The  f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s have a l l i n v o l v e d some measure of  perception  of or need f o r job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  the  Each has used o r adapted  an  e s t a b l i s h e d t o o l developed f o r use i n i n d u s t r i a l and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l management s e t t i n g s .  A l s o , because the r e s e a r c h has  r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s , we  f o c u s e d on group  s t i l l have v e r y l i m i t e d knowledge of  the meaning o f job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l n u r s e s ,  yroom (1964) has  suggested t h a t i t i s too o f t e n assumed t h a t the e x p l a n a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n ' r e p o r t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n l i e s i n the n a t u r e of the performed.  I n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h has  shown t h a t some p e r s o n s a r e  job satisfied  and o t h e r s a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d , r e g a r d l e s s of the n a t u r e of t h e i r work. p r e d i c t s t h a t more r e s e a r c h i n job s a t i s f a c t i o n may construct.  He  i n t o the n a t u r e of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  y i e l d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the meaning of  Another c o n c e r n i s t h a t the measures used i n the  the  previously  d e s c r i b e d s t u d i e s may not p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the unique meaning of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s and the f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e to that  meaning.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a more p r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g a measurement of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s would be i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a management t o o l .  An  identification  of i n d i v i d u a l and/or group s a t i s f a c t i o n problems c o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r remedying d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n n e l o r s e t t i n g , and h o p e f u l l y l e a d t o improved m o r a l e , reduced t u r n o v e r r a t e s and u l t i m a t e l y t o h i g h e r q u a l i t y of nursing.care. Two problems r e l a t e d t o measuring the c o n s t r u c t a r e , f i r s t of a l l i d e n t i f y i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r e t i c a l framework w h i c h e x p l a i n s as w e l l as p o s s i b l e the meaning of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s , and s e c o n d l y , d e v i s i n g a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e method of measuring the degree t o w h i c h the c o n s t r u c t i s p o s s e s s e d by each r e s p o n d e n t . to the p r a c t i c a l use of the d a t a .  A t h i r d concern r e l a t e s  I f one of the purposes o f the  measure i s i t s use as a management t o o l , t h e n i t must be s i m p l e to a d m i n i s t e r , s c o r e , and i n t e r p r e t .  T h i s would tend t o e l i m i n a t e the  H e r z b e r g "sequence o f . e v e n t s " i n t e r v i e w approach used by White and Maguire and C r o n i n - S t u b b s . W h i l e H e r z b e r g defends t h i s methodology  as  the one w h i c h b e s t a s s u r e s t h a t a r e a l a t t i t u d e e x i s t s and i s b e i n g tapped ( H e r z b e r g 1966, p . 9 5 ) , problems o f c o s t and r e l i a b i l i t y would i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n a management s e t t i n g .  limit  I t becomes apparent t h a t a  w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e or a t t i t u d e s c a l e would be the most a p p r o p r i a t e method o f measuring t h e c o n s t r u c t . A t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p such a measurement t o o l have been r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Neumann (1973) attempted t o i d e n t i f y the b a s i c  factor  22 s t r u c t u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s i n g s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l through a f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c s t u d y , u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f a measure developed by S e d l a c e k (1966).  Neumann c o n c e p t u a l i z e d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a  complex m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s e t o f a t t i t u d e s o r f e e l i n g s towards one's j o b , determined p a r t l y by t h e worker's i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t l y by h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n . s a t i s f a c t i o n i s f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by norms and r o l e s .  Job  Respondents  were  asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l o f agreement w i t h 70 i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r j o b s , and t o i n d i c a t e t h e l e v e l o f importance they a t t a c h e d t o each i t e m .  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y ,  u s i n g 760 s u b j e c t s , were s u b m i t t e d t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r a l components o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and o f importance r e s p o n s e s . These two s e t s o f components were a l s o g e n e r a t e d f o r two subsample groups, r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e (N = 501) and l i c e n s e d p r a c t i c a l n u r s e (N = 259), thus a l l o w i n g a comparison o f t h e f a c t o r s f o r t h e s e two types of  workers. The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f a t t i t u d e s toward t h e j o b  combines t h e c o n c e r n f o r r e n d e r i n g s e r v i c e w i t h a s e e m i n g l y f a c t o r , f i n a n c i a l g a i n f o r t h e worker.  independent  F a c t o r s which f o l l o w these i n  importance a r e " w o r k s t r e s s , " " a u t h o r i t y , " and " i n - s e r v i c e , " t h e l a t t e r r e f e r r i n g t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o g a i n a d d i t i o n a l w o r k - r e l a t e d knowledge and s k i l l s .  The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f these f a c t o r s changes, however,  when t h e sample i s a n a l y z e d as two subsamples, r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s and l i c e n sed p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s .  Another f a c t o r , " i n t r i n s i c , " emerges as most i m p o r t -  ant f o r each group. T h i s f a c t o r i n c l u d e s t h o s e f a c e t s o f t h e j o b d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the work i t s e l f , such as u s i n g one's a b i l i t i e s and r e c e i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n f o r achievement.  The o n l y o t h e r f a c t o r common t o t h e f i v e  23  most i m p o r t a n t  f o r b o t h groups i s " f i n a n c i a l advancement."  of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of Neumann's t o o l would be  More e v i d e n c e necessary  b e f o r e one c o u l d agree w i t h her c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s  on  each i t e m i n each f a c t o r a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the a s p e c t of work d e s c r i b e d i n the  item.  T o o l s w h i c h use the Maslow h i e r a r c h y of needs as a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, a l o n g w i t h H e r z b e r g ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e l i m i n a t i n g l o w e r l e v e l needs c a t e g o r i e s because of the f a i l u r e of unmet needs i n these areas t o a f f e c t s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s , have been developed by two of researchers  (Stember e t a l . 1978;  Maslow's t h e o r y i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d  S l a v i t t e t a l . 1978).  groups  Although  as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , a comprehensive l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w by Wahba and B r i d w e l l (1976) shows t h a t the t h e o r y has a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c l e a r or c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t the work s i t u a t i o n . the t h e o r y i t s e l f and  from the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d to T h i s may  b e - p a r t l y due  t o the u n t e s t a b l e n a t u r e  of  the l a c k of o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f i t s u n d e r l y i n g  c o n s t r u c t s , r a t h e r than t o the i n a b i l i t y o f the t h e o r y to p r o v i d e e x p l a n a t i o n of needs and  their satisfaction.  The  an  f a c t i s , however,  t h a t no o t h e r s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e framework appears t o e x i s t a t the present  time to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  the worker and  the  s a t i s f a c t i o n he o b t a i n s from h i s j o b . Recognizing  t h a t no a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l .existed f o r measuring j o b  s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s i n a complex community h e a l t h agency, Stember and o t h e r s (1978) e s t a b l i s h e d c a t e g o r i e s o f needs f o r these employees.  They c o n s t r u c t e d an 80  twelve item  L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e on w h i c h respondents were to i n d i c a t e t h e i r degree of agreement or disagreement w i t h the s t a t e m e n t s .  A 74 p e r c e n t  response  24 r a t e was 221  obtained  from the 298  agency employees, and  respondents were p r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s e s .  i n the r e p o r t , but  provided  Sample items are not  i t i s apparent; from the s c o r e s r e p o r t e d  k i n d of d i f f e r e n c e i n d e x was v a r i a b l e s , and  the o b t a i n e d  were grouped a c c o r d i n g employees, and  t h a t some  t h a t a v e r a g i n g each person's s c o r e s on the 12  The  12  12  variables  Reliability,  c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s are r e p o r t e d .  the  included  s c o r e f o r each of the  the i n d i v i d u a l job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s .  v a l i d i t y , and  80 p e r c e n t of  face  variables  to the degree to w h i c h they were s a t i s f i e d f o r a l l  ranked a c c o r d i n g  to the degree to w h i c h they were s a t i s -  f i e d f o r each'worker c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  The  components were a l s o  correlated  w i t h demographic v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g y e a r s of w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e l o n g e v i t y w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n . -  A c o r r e l a t i o n matrix  indicates  and that  a l l 12 v a r i a b l e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r - c o r r e l a t e d . Stember and her c o l l e a g u e s  recognize  t h a t the h i g h degree of  i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r v a r i a b l e s may meaning of the c a t e g o r i e s .  be due  to the  overlapping  They have not i n c l u d e d an "autonomy" v a r i a b l e ,  i n s p i t e of e v i d e n c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s i m p o r t a n t t o nurses.  Further  information  regarding  the items and method of  scoring  t h i s t o o l would be h e l p f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the measurement of job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the Index of Work S a t i s f a c t i o n developed by S l a v i t t and her co-workers (1978) was  d e s i g n e d t o measure the r e l a t i v e  importance of v a r i o u s components of n u r s e s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s towards the components, and p r o v i d e The  o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t was  per component, but  an o v e r a l l summary s c o r e .  a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g of 12  subsequent r e v i s i o n s and  items  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the items  r e s u l t e d i n a 7-component, 48-item s c a l e w i t h as few as t h r e e or as many  25 as t e n items per component.  A w e i g h t i n g procedure had o r i g i n a l l y been  i n c l u d e d i n an attempt to measure the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t of the components, but when weighted s c o r e s were found to c o r r e l a t e .86 w i t h s c o r e s i t was  d e c i d e d t h a t w e i g h t i n g was unnecessary and  unweighted inefficient.  The Cronbach c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y of the 4 8 - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  .912.  The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s used to s u p p o r t the v a l i d i t y of the  t o o l w i t h s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d : the a n a l y s i s was  conducted  on  responses from a h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g , where 62 p e r c e n t of the n u r s e s r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , l e a d i n g one to s u s p e c t a b i a s e d group; low v a r i a n c e o f s c o r e s showed t h i s to be a homogeneous group; and  the the  seven components were s e l e c t e d from 19 f a c t o r s produced by Varimax r o t a t i o n t h a t accounted f o r 59 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e among the items ( S l a v i t t e t a l . 1978). The a u t h o r s p o i n t out the d i f f i c u l t y  of measuring  self-actualization  needs, and f e e l t h a t t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t does not a d e q u a t e l y cover need l e v e l .  this  They have a l s o d e l i b e r a t e l y e x c l u d e d some a s p e c t s of o t h e r  f a c t o r s such as achievement  and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , where these  a s p e c t s a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r management to i n f l u e n c e .  In addition,  they  appear to have assumed t h a t because the weighted s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h the unweighted meaning to the r e s p o n d e n t s .  s c o r e s , the components have e q u a l l y - w e i g h t e d T h i s r a t h e r dangerous assumption r e s u l t s i n  a l i n e a r a d d i t i v e model f o r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n .  However r e s e a r c h has  c o n s i s t e n t l y shown t h a t w e i g h t i n g by importance adds l i t t l e to the p r e d i c t i v e power of the j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e o r y b e i n g t e s t e d (Ewen 1967; Waters 1969; P r v z e k and F r e d e r i c k 1978; and M i t c h e l l 1974).  Because of  the measurement problems i n h e r e n t i n w e i g h t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , the b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn from the r e s e a r c h i s t h a t an  unweighted  26 s c o r e on the dependent v a r i a b l e , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i l l c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h a w e i g h t e d s c o r e . •• T h i s i i s " r i o t • to~say t h a t c e r t a i n o f the components do n o t have more importance i n the p r e d i c t i v e sense; i t i s simply  t o say t h a t the importance o f the meaning o f the components  cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d through the use of w e i g h t i n g Further  t e s t i n g and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the S l a v i t t t o o l may l e a d to a  more a c c u r a t e  p i c t u r e of job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r nurses.  p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l prove t o be i n a d e q u a t e . conceptual  procedures.  Hierarchy  I t i s quite  framework f o r the c o n s t r u c t  o f needs t h e o r i e s have p r o v i d e d  will the  framework f o r many o f the r e c e n t s t u d i e s of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n .  W h i l e t h i s model has been defended on s e v e r a l grounds by i t s p r o p o n e n t s , many i n f l u e n c e s upon the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d unexplained.  These i n c l u d e the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e i n g i v e n  s i t u a t i o n s , the e x p e c t a t i o n s short-term  s a t i s f a c t i o n s are l e f t  time p e r s p e c t i v e s .  and e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r k e r , and l o n g - and I n a d d i t i o n , i t may be a m i s t a k e t o  assume t h a t any precoded s e l f - r e p o r t s a t i s f a c t i o n measure can p r o v i d e  an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t a t e of the worker i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s work situation.  Taylor  (1977) d i s c u s s e s  the q u e s t i o n o f what j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  s t u d i e s r e a l l y mean, p o i n t i n g out t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the measure a p p l i e d , the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f workers r e p o r t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work.  He c i t e s s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t  t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n measures and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l " b e h a v i o r s such as g r i e v a n c e s , rates.  a b s e n t e e i s m and  turnover  Nord (1977) s t a t e d t h a t "some of the most i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h a r e r e v e a l e d n o t by the r e s u l t s of what has been s t u d i e d , b u t by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t o p i c s t h a t have gone u n a n a l y z e d . " (Nord 1977, p. 1026).  27 The a u t h o r s  of the n u r s i n g s t u d i e s reviewed  t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a complex and  h e r e have emphasized  i n a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d concept.  Ongoing r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e whether our understanding new  p r o v i d e s a v a l i d measure o f the c o n s t r u c t , and  present  to i d e n t i f y  approaches which c o u l d shed l i g h t on the meaning and dimensions of  nurses'  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work.  Conclusions The  f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s r e v i e w o f  the  literature: 1.  S t u d i e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a s i t u a t i o n a l l y p e r c e i v e d  v a r i a b l e f a i l to a c c o u n t f o r the n u r s e ' s own  l e v e l of job  satisfaction.  A s k i n g "What i s i t t h a t you f i n d s a t i s f y i n g about your j o b ? " i s not e q u i v a l e n t to i d e n t i f y i n g the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t by the worker. These s t u d i e s have been h e l p f u l , however, i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n regarding s i t u a t i o n - r e l a t e d  f a c t o r s which are important  to  nurses.  A n o t h e r b e n e f i t i s t h a t these s t u d i e s a l s o have p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y , i n the sense t h a t they can suggest ways i n which employers can j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n by m a n i p u l a t i n g 2.  job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Research t r e a t i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as an  improve  under t h e i r  control.  individual-situation  i n t e r a c t i o n has been hampered by the l a c k of a t o o l w h i c h a c c u r a t e l y measures t h i s c o n s t r u c t .  R e s e a r c h a b l e problems i n v o l v i n g j o b  as a v a r i a b l e a r e l i m i t l e s s i n the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n , and  satisfaction  the  usefulness  of f u t u r e s t u d i e s depends to a g r e a t e x t e n t upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure of the c o n s t r u c t . 3. reported.  Three r e c e n t a t t e m p t s a t a d d r e s s i n g Increased  understanding  the above concerns have been  of the u n d e r l y i n g meaning o f  the  28  construct i s required at this point.  The importance o f t h i s approach t o  job s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s e a r c h has been s t r e s s e d by Locke, who s t a t e s  that  "To understand a phenomenon, one must b e g i n w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s . A t l e a s t some o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must be i d e n t i f i e d b e f o r e s p e c i f i c amounts o f i t can be measured." (Locke 1969, pp. 333-334). The d e f i n i t i o n and t h e o r e t i c a l model w i l l determine t o a g r e a t e x t e n t the method t o be employed i n t h e measurement o f t h e c o n s t r u c t .  While  m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e method may be i n d i c a t e d i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e t h e n e c e s s a r y p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f the measurement t o o l , the b a s i c method w i l l be d i c t a t e d by the c o n c e p t u a l framework.  CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Overview The Index'of"* Work. S a t i s f a c t i o n was r e v i s e d t o c o n s i s t o f an e q u a l number o f items i n each s u b s c a l e i n o r d e r to a l l o w f o r f u r t h e r across subscales i n l a t e r s t u d i e s . was p i l o t - t e s t e d  comparisons  T h i s v e r s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o r r e l i a b i l i t y , m o d i f i e d as i n d i c a t e d , and a d m i n i s t e r e d  to the s e l e c t e d sample.  S e v e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l procedures were a p p l i e d to  the data i n o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and to o b t a i n evidence r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s u b s c a l e s to each o t h e r , to the t o t a l s c o r e , and to the l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n the g l o b a l q u e s t i o n . sample and the psychometric  D e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  p r o p e r t i e s o f the t o o l were a l s o  investigated.  M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the Index of Work S a t i s f a c t i o n The  Slavitt  t o o l was m o d i f i e d i n order to p r o v i d e e i g h t items i n  each o f the seven components.  F o r those components which o r i g i n a l l y  c o n t a i n e d more than e i g h t items, a v e r s i o n of the S l a v i t t t o o l which was r e p o r t e d by Stamps and o t h e r s l o a d i n g s o f the 48-item items to omit.  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and which r e p o r t e d the f a c t o r  s c a l e , f a c i l i t a t e d d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g which  Items were c o n s t r u c t e d where i t was n e c e s s a r y  the components, t h e content of these items b e i n g based  to add to  upon the l i t e r a t u r e  and upon the e x p e r i e n c e of the r e s e a r c h e r (Bates 1967; B u l l o u g h  29  1974).  I n a d d i t i o n , a g l o b a l q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h work was  p l a c e d on t h e demographic page, i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a check on t h e  v a l i d i t y of the t o t a l test score.  T h i s q u e s t i o n asked respondents t o  r a t e t h e i r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , u s i n g a 4 - p o i n t response "Very d i s s a t i s f i e d " t o "Very s a t i s f i e d . "  (See Appendix  r a n g i n g from .  Reliability The m o d i f i e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t - t e s t e d , u s i n g a sample o f t h i r t y - o n e n u r s e s , i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e new items.  The sample c o n s i s t e d o f nurses from t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t t i n g s :  community h e a l t h , community home c a r e , a 154-bed suburban h o s p i t a l , and a 75-bed extended c a r e u n i t . The Hoyt i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e f o r each o f t h e components i s shown i n T a b l e 1.  The Hoyt e s t i m a t e f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t was 0.84, and  the Cronbach's a l p h a f o r t h e composite was 0.47, an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s u b s c a l e s were a c t u a l l y measuring d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u b c o n s t r u c t s . An i t e m a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d , and any items w h i c h were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d (p<.05) w i t h t h e i r s u b t e s t t o t a l were r e v i s e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether they were o r i g i n a l o r newly-added i t e m s . v e r s i o n appears i n Appendix A^.  This  final  Items w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t b u t low c o r r e l a -  t i o n s a l s o underwent r e v i s i o n , and comments made by t h e respondents  were  taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s phase o f m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t o o l .  The  pay component i t e m s , f o r example, were e d i t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t pay s c h e d u l e s f o r nurses t u t i o n to another.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia do n o t v a r y from one i n s t i -  Because t h e nurses i n t h e community s e t t i n g s seldom  had o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h d o c t o r s , they f r e q u e n t l y used t h e  31  " n o n - a p p l i c a b l e " response f o r Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p i t e m s . Another comment made by a few o f t h e h o s p i t a l n u r s e s was t h a t t h e i r responses might v a r y from day t o day, depending upon the many changeable f a c t o r s i n t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n s .  Two sentences were t h e r e f o r e added t o  the Cover Page, a s k i n g respondents t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r u s u a l o r t y p i c a l f e e l i n g s about t h e i r j o b s (See Appendix A ^ ) . The g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n - d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m on t h e demographic  page  was a l t e r e d t o p r o v i d e s i x c h o i c e s i n an attempt t o e l i c i t a h i g h e r v a r i a n c e on t h i s i t e m (See Appendix A „ ) .  TABLE 1 INTERNAL CONSISTENCY RELIABILITIES OF THE SUBSCALES, USING THE PILOT SAMPLE CSI=31) Component Pay  Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y 0.86  Professional status  0.72  Administration  0.84  Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p  0.86  Autonomy  0.73  Task Requirements  0.66  Interaction  0.71  S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Sample Because o f the l a r g e numbers o f responses r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o conduct m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , and because o f the r e s t r a i n t s upon t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s time and r e s o u r c e s , a n o n p r o b a b i l i t y quota s a m p l i n g  32 p l a n was used.  The number o f s t a f f n u r s e s employed i n the a r e a bounded  by and i n c l u d i n g G r e a t e r Vancouver  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n the West, the U.S.  boundary t o t h e s o u t h , and C h i l l i w a c k t o t h e E a s t , was approximated a t 5200, u s i n g a v a i l a b l e h o s p i t a l s t a t i s t i c s and a t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y .  This  f i g u r e was b r o k e n down i n t o t y p e s o f s e t t i n g s , p e r c e n t a g e s o f n u r s e s w o r k i n g i n each s e t t i n g , and numbers o f n u r s e s r e q u i r e d from each s e t t i n g t o a c h i e v e a sample s i z e o f 25 (See T a b l e 2 ) .  A g e n c i e s were  i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study,and w i t h i n each agency v o l u n t e e r s were r e c r u i t e d , t a k i n g care t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r those on n i g h t duty and days o f f t o p a r t i c i p a t e . i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y .  Only f u l l - t i m e s t a f f n u r s e s were  Because t h i s i s i n e f f e c t a c l u s t e r sample o f  convenience, no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s beyond t h e sample can be made from study.  TABLE 2 SAMPLING PLAN Type o f Agency o r Institution  % o f t o t a l nonmanagement n u r s e s  General Hospitals: Rural Urban ^ 400 beds < 400 beds  10 48 25  25 120 63  Psychiatric Hospitals:  2  5  C h r o n i c , Extended Care and R e h a b i l i t ation Hospitals  4.6  Community H e a l t h : R u r a l PHN Home Care Urban PHN Home Care Total  1.7 1.7 5.4 1.6 100.0  No. r e q u i r e d f o r sample  12 4 4 13 4 250  this  33  Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures Directors of nurses i n agencies which agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study were v i s i t e d by the researcher, and a plan to administer the questionnaire was devised according to each agency's needs and circumstances.  I t was found that meetings of s t a f f nurses were seldom held  and i n some situations were poorly attended, making i t impractical to use these occasions for obtaining data.  Some of the agencies allowed  small groups of nurses time o f f to complete the questionnaire, while i n other settings the researcher was available at a designated place during meal times and at change of s h i f t .  V i s i t s were repeated at dates and  times which would ensure as much representativeness as possible i n the sample.  The concern of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Screening  Committee for Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects that supervisory s t a f f should neither be aware of nor involved i n the p a r t i c i pation of the s t a f f nurses was attended to i n each s e t t i n g . Insofar as possible, the nature of the study was explained b r i e f l y to the respondents, i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups, and the questionnaire was f i l l e d out at that time.  Where this was not possible, the responses  were placed i n sealed envelopes by the respondents and returned to a staff nurse who  took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o l l e c t i n g them.  The number of  respondents did not exceed the quotas required f o r any of the settings, and therefore a selection of volunteers was not necessary.  Questionnaires  were distributed only to those nurses who volunteered to complete them, and this procedure resulted i n 95.4 percent return rate. coded and keypunched for computer analysis.  The data were  34 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures S e v e r a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses  were a p p l i e d t o the data i n  an e f f o r t t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the m o d i f i e d questionnaire.  I n a d d i t i o n , the p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i s  of the t o o l as a p p l i e d t o t h i s sample were a l s o  between a dependent v a r i a b l e and ( K e r l i n g e r 1973)  version  studied.  M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n i s a method o f a n a l y z i n g  variables  Slavitt  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  a s e t o f o p t i m a l l y combined independent  U s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n and  r e g r e s s i o n , an e q u a t i o n i s developed which b e s t  explains  the  relative  c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the independent v a r i a b l e s t o the dependent v a r i a b l e . A f i x e d e f f e c t s l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n model was used t o determine how the seven component v a r i a b l e s combine to form the t o t a l s c o r e , and  whether  c e r t a i n o f the components are the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s o f the t o t a l  score.  The  computer program employed was the M i c h i g a n I n t e r a c t i v e Date A n a l y s i s  System (MIDAS), a m u l t i p u r p o s e data m a n i p u l a t i o n and program (Fox and  Guire  1976).  statistical  Because i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  the  independent v a r i a b l e s might be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r the t o t a l s c o r e ,  t h i s procedure was repeated u s i n g  global s a t i s f a c t i o n question  and  with  the response t o the  as the dependent v a r i a b l e .  A s p e c i a l type of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n , d i s c r i m i n a n t was  analysis  function analysis,  used t o determine whether the job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e a c t s as a  d i s c r i m i n a t o r o f group membership, f o r the groups o f nurses formed by the "Type o f U n i t " demographic v a r i a b l e r e s p o n s e s . d i s c r i m i n a t e s groups from one ( K e r l i n g e r 1973). or d i s c r i m i n a n t  T h i s procedure  ..  another on the b a s i s o f s e t s of measures  I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , one  or more r e g r e s s i o n  equations,  f u n c t i o n s , are formed, u s i n g l i n e a r combinations o f the  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e b e i n g  group membership.  The  weighting c o e f f i c i e n t which i s applied  to each  v a r i a b l e s e r v e s to i d e n t i f y t h a t v a r i a b l e ' s differentiation.  Once the respondents had  discriminating  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  p l a c e d themselves i n t o  f i v e groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r response to the i t e m , a f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was  predictors  accuracy of that p r e d i c t i o n . a n a l y s i s was  discrimin-  of group membership, and  (Nie et a l . 1975).  the  discriminant  used to i n d i c a t e w h i c h s u b s c a l e s , o r  a t i n g v a r i a b l e s , a c t as  the  the  I n o t h e r words,  used to s p e c i f y w h i c h of "the seven components  the  discriminate  between the groups of n u r s e s a c c o r d i n g to the f i v e work s e t t i n g s , to what e x t e n t each of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s The  MIDA program was  used f o r t h i s  The  psychometric properties  contributes  to the  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a n a l y z e d , Package (LERTAP),  t e s t a n a l y s i s o f an a f f e c t i v e t e s t ( U n i v e r s i t y  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978). istics;  discrimination.  analysis.  u s i n g the L a b o r a t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Research Test A n a l y s i s a program f o r i t e m and  and  The  analysis provides test-subtest  s c o r e s f o r each s u b j e c t on s u b t e s t s ,  t o t a l t e s t , an  c r i t e r i o n and precoded s u b t e s t s ;  summary i t e m s t a t i s t i c s ,  point b i s e r i a l correlations with  the s u b t e s t ,  of  characterexternal  including  t o t a l t e s t and  external  c r i t e r i o n ; s u b t e s t s t a t i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g the Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y ; t o t a l t e s t s t a t i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g the Hoyt e s t i m a t e f o r t e s t and  the Cronbach's a l p h a f o r the c o m p o s i t e ; h i s t o g r a m s of the  t e s t and  s u b t e s t s c o r e s ; and  total.  c o r r e l a t i o n s of a l l s u b t e s t s and  the  the total  test  CHAPTER I V ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Sample The  t o t a l number o f responses  c o l l e c t i o n procedures was  o b t a i n e d was 177, f o l l o w i n g the d a t a  d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I .  Considerable d i f f i c u l t y  e x p e r i e n c e d i n g a i n i n g access t o l a r g e numbers o f h o s p i t a l n u r s e s ,  and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t o t a l sample s i z e .  An adequate r e p r e s e n -  t a t i o n from the v a r i o u s s i z e s and types o f h o s p i t a l s was o b t a i n e d .  The  r e l a t i v e number o f community n u r s e s was d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c r e a s e d t o a l l o w comparisons  w i t h h o s p i t a l nurses.  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f the sample i s  p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3.  TABLE 3 COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLE (N = 177)  Type o f Agency o r Institution General H o s p i t a l s : Rural Urban >400 beds <400 beds Psychiatric Hospital: Extended Care Hospital: Community H e a l t h R u r a l PHN R u r a l Home Care Urban PHN Urban Home Care  Number o f Cases  % o f Obtained .. Sample  % Proposed f o r Sample  18 84 32  10.2 47.5 18.0  10.0 48.0 25.0  6  3.4  2.0  4  2.3  4.6  9 8 13 3 177  5.1 4.5 7.3 1.7 100.0 36  1.7 1.7 5.4 1.6 100.0  37 The demographic v a r i a b l e s were c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h the response the g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  i t e m , and  these f i g u r e s appear i n T a b l e s 4 to  Because the sample c o n t a i n e d o n l y one male nurse, the sex v a r i a b l e not i n c l u d e d i n the c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s .  The  the two was  types o f community s e t t i n g s i n t o a second  group.  was  group and This variable  f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d by p e r f o r m i n g one-way a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e on  means o f the two  8.  was  "Type of U n i t " v a r i a b l e  t r e a t e d by c o l l a p s i n g the t h r e e h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s i n t o one  the  groups f o r each component and f o r the t o t a l s c o r e .  summary o f these r e s u l t s i s shown i n T a b l e  A  9.  TABLE 4 CROSS TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISACTION RATING WITH "YEARS OF EXPERIENCE" VARIABLE  T o t a l Years o f N u r s i n g L e v e l of Very  dissatisifed  Somewhat Rather Very  dissatisifed  satisfied  satisfied  Extremely Total  Satisfaction  satisfied  Experience  <1  1-4  5-10  11-16  0  2  3  3  0  0  8  3  8  13  7  1  3  35  8  19  19  14  4  5  69  4  12  24  9  2  4  55  0  1  4  1  1  3  10  15  42  63  34  8  15  177  16-20  to  >20  Total  TABLE 5 CROSS TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION" VARIABLE  L e v e l of S a t i s f a c t i o n Very  dissatisfied  <1  - -1-3  Years i n P r e s e n t P o s i t i o n >5 Total ."•3-5  2  4  1  1  8  16  9  6  4  35  Rather s a t i s f i e d  30  24  7  7  69  Very s a t i s f i e d  25  16  7  7  55  1  4  2  3  10  74  57  23  22  177  Somewhat  dissatisfied  Extremely s a t i s f i e d Total  TABLE 6 CROSS TABULATION OF GLOBAL SATISFACTION RATING WITH "MONTHLY SALARY" VARIABLE  Level of S a t i s f a c t i o n Very d i s s a t i s i f e d  $1200-1399  Current Monthly S a l a r y $1400-1599 $1600-1799 • . T o t a l  3  5  0  8  17  15  3  35  Rather s a t i s f i e d  34  28  7  69  Very s a t i s f i e d  25  24  6  55  1  7  2  10  80  79  18  ' 177  Somewhat  dissatisfied  Extremely s a t i s f i e d Total  39 TABLE CROSS TABULATION  7  OF GLOBAL S A T I S F A C T I O N  WITH "TYPE OF S E T T I N G "  Level Very  of S a t i s f a c t i o n  Somewhat Rather Very  HOSPITAL  dissatisifed dissatisifed  satisfied  satisfied  Extremely  COMMUNITY  1  8  35  0  35  59  10  69  39  16  55  5  5  10  145  32  177  TABLE  8  CROSS TABULATION OF GLOBAL S A T I S F A C T I O N WITH "WORK SCHEDULE' VARIABLE  Level  of  Satisfaction  Week days only  TOTAL  7  satisfied  Total  RATING  VARIABLE  RATING  T y p e o f Work Rotating 8hr s h i f t  Rotating 12hr s h i f t  Schedule  Rotating 8hr days  Other*  Total  Very dissatisfied  0  Somewhat dissatisfied  1  13  16  35  Rather fied  9  23  27  69  satisfied  17  11  17  55  Extremely satisfied  7  0  1  9  10  34  49  66  21  177  satis-  Very  Total ^Includes evenings  9-day  fortnight  (N = 5 ) , f l e x - t i m e  (N = 2 ) , n o r e p l y  (N = 1 ) , o t h e r  (N = 4 ) , p e r m a n e n t 8 - h o u r  single  variations  (N = 9 ) .  40 TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF ONE-WAY 'ANALYSES' OF VARIANCE OF COMPONENT AND TOTAL SCORES FOR HOSPITAL (GROUP I ) AND COMMUNITY (GROUP I I ) NURSES  F  Group I I fN = S.D. x"  Probability  Component.  Group I • - fN = 145 ) X S.D.  Pay  25.76  6.85  29.41  8.20  6.91  .009  Professional status  39.59  6.54  43.22  5.15  8.68  .004 •  Adminis t r a t i o n  •27.81  7.04  30.03  7.58 ,  2.55  .112  36.81  7.12  33.16  9.33 •;,  6.14  Autonomy  37.84  5.64  40.88  5.38  7.70  ; .006  Task R e q u i r e ments  26.63  6.93  29.78  6.01 '  5.67  .018  Interaction  40.09  6.69  41.22  5.46  .79  : .374  T o t a l Test  '234.52  30.35  247.69  25.81  5.19  Doctor-Nurse Relationship  1  i  None o f t h e respondents used t h e " e x t r e m e l y d i s s a t i s i f e d " to t h e g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  item, but a f a i r l y symmetrical  d i s t r i b u t i o n was e l i c i t e d by t h e o t h e r f i v e r e s p o n s e s .  :  ,  .014  .024  response  unimodal  Nurses who r a t e d  themselves most s a t i s f i e d were those who worked week-days only, had 5-10 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , had been l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e i r  present  41 p o s i t i o n , and r e c e i v e d a monthly  s a l a r y o f $1400-1599.  Table 7  i n d i c a t e s an a p p a r e n t l y normal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s f o r n u r s e s i n h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s , whereas o n l y one community agency nurse chose e i t h e r o f t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d c a t e g o r i e s .  Nurses w o r k i n g r o t a t i n g  12-hour s h i f t s had w i d e l y v a r y i n g response t o t h e f i v e levels, following a normal-distribution pattern.  satisfaction  Responses i n d i c a t i n g  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n were most o f t e n s e l e c t e d by n u r s e s i n h o s p i t a l w o r k i n g a r o t a t i n g 12-hour s h i f t .  settings,  These f r e q u e n c i e s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h these j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t may s i m p l y be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e s i n t h e s c o r e s o f t h e l a r g e numbers of n u r s e s i n these p a r t i c u l a r  situations.  The a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e o f the h o s p i t a l and community n u r s e s ' component and t o t a l s c o r e s need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n due t o the i n e q u a l i t y o f sample s i z e and the f a c t t h a t the u n i v a r i a t e F s t a t i s t i c i s b e i n g used on m u l t i v a r i a t e d a t a , thus v i o l a t i n g the assumption o f independence.  However, n o r m a l i t y o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s c o r e s i s  apparent from the h i s t o g r a m s , t h e samples a r e l a r g e , and t h e v a r i a n c e s appear t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l .  I n s p e c t i n g T a b l e 9 f o r t r e n d s , i t can  be noted t h a t the community n u r s e s s c o r e d h i g h e r on the t o t a l t e s t and on a l l components except Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h a t each o f these d i f f e r e n c e s i n means was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p-<.05 l e v e l except f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and I n t e r a c t i o n .  The mean s c o r e f o r t h e Doctor-Nurse  R e l a t i o n s h i p component was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t the p< .05 l e v e l f o r h o s p i t a l nurses than f o r community n u r s e s .  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e  "0" responses were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n s , and t h i s f a c t would account f o r p a r t o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s .  42 Psychometric The  Analysis  i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s and Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s p r o v i d e d  the LERTAP a n a l y s i s appear i n Appendix B.  by  I t can be noted t h a t o n l y  two  of the items f a i l e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d (p<.05) w i t h b o t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b t e s t and  the t e s t t o t a l s , and  t h a t i n a d d i t i o n , one  i t e m f a i l e d to a c h i e v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the t e s t  total.  The Hoyt e s t i m a t e s of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y were between and 0.82  f o r the components, and one can assume t h a t the two  items c o n t r i b u t e d to the r a t h e r low e s t i m a t e s and Autonomy components.  uncorrelated  f o r the P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s  W i t h two e x c e p t i o n s , the items a l l c o r r e l a t e d  more h i g h l y w i t h the component and q u e s t i o n , and  0.68  t o t a l t e s t than w i t h the g l o b a l r a t i n g  twenty-one of the items were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h the g l o b a l q u e s t i o n . The h i s t o g r a m s r e v e a l f a i r l y normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each s u b t e s t , w i t h a s l i g h t n e g a t i v e skew apparent f o r the D o c t o r - N u r s e R e l a t i o n s h i p and P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s components.  The  f o l l o w s a f a i r l y smooth normal c u r v e . component and  total test  t o t a l test score  distribution  T a b l e 10 i s a summary o f  the  statistics.  The h i g h e s t means o c c u r r e d i n the I n t e r a c t i o n and P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s components, and  the l o w e s t mean was  t h a t f o r the Pay  component.  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the h i g h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r the Pay  One  component i s t h a t  respondents chose the " n o n - a p p l i c a b l e " response f o r some of these  items  q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the items had been e d i t e d to be more r e l e v a n t to the p r o v i n c e - w i d e  wage c o n t r a c t s i t u a t i o n .  response c h o i c e a f f e c t e d the Doctor-Nurse component mean and Nurses i n community s e t t i n g s where they had  The  same  range.  l i t t l e contact with  doctors  used the zero response on some i t e m s , whereas h o s p i t a l n u r s e s tended to  43 feel s a t i s f i e d with their interaction with physicians. components seldom e l i c i t e d t h e " n o n - a p p l i c a b l e "  The o t h e r  response.  TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF SUBTEST AND TOTAL TEST STATISTICS  X  S.D.  Lowest Score  Highest Score  26.42  7.22  10.00  45.00  40.24  6.45  18.00  54.00  Administration  28.21  7.17  9.00  45.00  Doctor-Nurse Relationship  36.15  7.67  9.00  56.00  Autonomy  38.39  5.70  23.00  53.00  Task Requiements  27.20  6.87  10.00  43.00  Interaction  40.29  6.48  25.00  54.00  T o t a l Test  245.33  30.37  155.00  320.00  •Component  Pay Professional  Status  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the s u b t e s t s , t o t a l t e s t and g l o b a l responses a r e shown i n T a b l e 11.  item  I t i s apparent t h a t a l l o f t h e  components a r e h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d except f o r D o c t o r - N u r s e R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Pay.  Furthermore, the f i v e  components  correlate  w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e s w i t h r ' s o f from .603 t o .764.  These h i g h  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t f i v e of t h e components share t h e same meaning to a l a r g e e x t e n t , and t h a t t h e t e s t t o t a l i s l a r g e l y a measure o f one meaning r a t h e r than a t o t a l o f s e v e r a l r e l a t e d b u t f a i r l y  independent  44 TABLE 11 CORRELATION MATRIX OF COMPONENT, TOTAL TEST, AND GLOBAL QUESTION SCORES (N = 177)  Component  PS  P  ' AD  AU :  DN .  TT  I  TR  Pay  .79*  Professional Status  .142  .74  Adminis t r a t i o n  .284**  .401 .  .78  Doctor-Nurse Relationship  .022  .353  .300  .82  Autonomy  .172  .407  .440  .252  Task Requirements  .234  .304  .541  .284  i  ;. 4 n  .70  . .014  .407  .401  .266 •  .435  .247  .75  .446  .665  .764  .573  .674  .681  .603  .166  .488  .457  .180  .333  .313  ' .341  Interaction Total  Test  Global Question  *Hoyt e s t i m a t e s  .68 • 1  .89  ;520  ( t o '2 s i g n i f i c a n t decimals) appear,on the d i a g o n a l .  **An r o f .161 o r more w i t h N = 150 l e a d s to r e j e c t i o n a t < * = .05 (Hopkins and G l a s s 1978, p. 409).  o f Ho: p = 0  2  meanings.  This s i t u a t i o n  which i t i s d i f f i c u l t the  results  i n the problem o f m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y , i n  t o separate out the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n  independent v a r i a b l e s  to the dependent v a r i a b l e  l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e s i n the s c o r e s ( K e r l i n g e r The  global  1973,  o f each o f  because o f the over-  p.622).  s a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m has s i g n i f i c a n t b u t r a t h e r low  w i t h the component s c o r e s .  correlations  I t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the t o t a l t e s t i s .52,  45 r e s u l t i n g i n a c o e f f i c i e n t of determination f o r t h i s single-item of ;  2 r  -" .27." T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g l o b a l q u e s t i o n  i s n o t measuring t h e same  meaning o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as i s b e i n g measured by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses The  r e s u l t s o f the f i x e d model l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n  s u b s c a l e s onto the t o t a l s c o r e  o f t h e component  a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12.  TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION OF COMPONENTS ONTO TOTAL SCORES  b  3  .023  .014  .295  .217  .527  2.886  •  004  Adminis t r a t i o n  .339  .855  4.684  •  000  Doctor-Nurse Relationship  .121  .225  1.589  •  114  Autonomy  .044  .122  .575  •  566  Task R e q u i r e ments  .057  -.132  -.745  •  457  Interaction  .254  -.619  -3.407  •  001  Component  Pay Professional  Status  M u l t i p l e R = .518  R  2  =  .268  Independent v a r i a b l e s which c o n t r i b u t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e , the Administration,  t-statistic  Standard  Probability -  768  error  = 13.05  s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<  .05) to  t o t a l s c o r e , were P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s ,  and I n t e r a c t i o n .  Together these v a r i a b l e s e x p l a i n e d  26.8  46 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e  i n the scores.  T h i s means t h a t these  three  v a r i a b l e s a r e the o n l y ones which would appear i n a f i x e d model l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n used t o p r e d i c t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s . s t a n d a r d e r r o r of 13.05  i n d i c a t e s t h a t on the a v e r a g e , the  The predicted  t o t a l s c o r e s w i l l d e v i a t e from the a c t u a l t o t a l s c o r e s by 13.05 As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y was  points.  e x p e c t e d t o cause  problems w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  analysis.  Because t h r e e of the h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e components were the ones i d e n t i f i e d as the p r e d i c t i v e - v a r i a b l e s , the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (b's) may p.340; K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur 1973,  be u n r e l i a b l e (Nie  p.442).  One  way  1975,  of  confirming  whether t h i s problem i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the a b i l i t y of the  regression  e q u a t i o n t o p r e d i c t the t o t a l s c o r e s i s by examining a s c a t t e r - p l o t of the p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s v e r s u s the r e s i d u a l v a l u e s f o r the t o t a l These p l o t t e d v a l u e s are shown i n F i g . 1.  The  r e s i d u a l s are  d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l t o t a l s c o r e s and Residuals  the  the p r e d i c t e d  t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t e r r o r s i n measurement, and  scores.  an  total  scores.  examination  of a s c a t t e r - p l o t of the p a t t e r n of r e s i d u a l s g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of whether t h i s e r r o r i s random or whether i t f o l l o w s some abnormal p a t t e r n (Nie 1975, The  pp.340-342).  predicted t o t a l score values,  equation, variables.  c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the  regression  are a composite of the w e i g h t e d v a l u e s of the independent The w e i g h t s are the c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i c h g i v e the b e s t p r e d i c t i o n ,  i n the sense t h a t the sum  of the squared d e v i a t i o n s of the p r e d i c t e d  from the a c t u a l s c o r e s i s a minimum.  The  higher  scores  the c o r r e l a t i o n of t h e s e  two v a l u e s , the more a c c u r a t e the p r e d i c t i o n ( K e r l i n g e r 1973,  p.608).  One  47  FIGURE 1  S C A T T E R P L C T V A L U E S 2 3 5 . 9 * 9  O F  P R E D I C T E D  F O R  T O T A L  J O B  V A L U E S  V E R S U S  S A T I S F A C T I O N  +  *  *  226.49  +  + •  * *  *  *  w o w j H °  *  *  *  . * *  * .  §  +  ' *  M  § ^  207.48  •  *  *  *  *  *  * * *  *  *  **  *  *  * *  *  *  *  *  +  *  *  • 216.98  R E S I D U A L S C O R E  *  *  **2 * 2 *2** * * * * * * * 2 *2 * * * * ** 2 2*3* * * * *** *** *2 * 3 * * 4 * 2 2* * * 2 * 2 * * * * * * 222 2 * ** 2 * 2* * * * * * * 3 * * 2** * * 2 2  *  w•  *  *  2  **  *  *  *  2  J.PM 1 9 7 . 9 8  188.47  *  + +—  +  -48.482  -i  __+  * +—  +  -17.7E1 -33.132  = 177  +  _  +  12.920 -2.4306  RESIDUAL VALUES FOR TOTAL SCORE Number o f O b s e r v a t i o n s  +  r = —.000  Each * r e p r e s e n t s 1 o b s e r v a t i o n P l o t t e d numbers r e p r e s e n t numbers o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  28.271  4.83 would hope, t h e r e f o r e , t o f i n d a random c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e r e s i d u a l s and t h e p r e d i c t i o n s c o r e s and between t h e r e s i d u a l s and t h e a c t u a l s c o r e s , and a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e a c t u a l and p r e d i c t e d s c o r e s .  Table  13 i s a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f these t h r e e s e t s o f v a l u e s .  TABLE 13 CORRELATION MATRIX OF PREDICTED, RESIDUAL, AND ACTUAL VALUES OF TOTAL SCORES  Score  Predicted  Residual  Predicted  1.000  Residual  - .000  1.000  .518  .855  Actual  Actual  1.000  T a b l e 13 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e s i d u a l s and t h e p r e d i c t e d t o t a l s c o r e v a l u e s .  As F i g u r e 1 shows, t h e v a r i a n c e  of the r e s i d u a l s appears t o be independent o f t h e p r e d i c t e d s c o r e s .  Thus,  t h e r e i s no c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f any a b n o r m a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the terms i n t h e e q u a t i o n .  The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e  p r e d i c t e d and a c t u a l s c o r e s must be c o n s i d e r e d  l o w , an i n d i c a t i o n o f  o n l y m o d e r a t e l y a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n , and a f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e g r e s s i o n equation.  The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e  r e s i d u a l s w i t h the t o t a l scores i s i n d i c a t i v e of the strong l i n e a r  relation-  s h i p t o be e x p e c t e d when t h e a c t u a l s c o r e i s a t o t a l o f t h e s c o r e s o f h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d independent v a r i a b l e s . The a b i l i t y o f t h e independent v a r i a b l e s t o p r e d i c t the response t o  49 the g l o b a l q u e s t i o n i s shovzn i n T a b l e 14.  Comparing these r e s u l t s w i t h  those  TABLE 14 SUMMARY OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION OF COMPONENTS ONTO GLOBAL QUESTION RESPONSE  Component  b  3  t-statistic  Probability  .033  .004  .423  .671  .327  .050  4.495  .000  .228  .037  3.040  .003  -.069  -.008  -.907  .366  Autonomy  .036  .006  .466  .642  Task Requirements  .046  .006  .598  .551  Interaction  .092  .013  1.207  .229  Pay Professional  Status  Administration Doctor-Nurse Relationship  2 R ..= .332  M u l t i p l e R = .576  Standard  e r r o r = .792  i n T a b l e 12, one must bear i n mind the l i m i t e d v a r i a n c e i n s c o r e s on the dependent v a r i a b l e imposed by the s i x response  categories.  Therefore  2 the h i g h e r R  and lower  s t a n d a r d e r r o r i n T a b l e 14 do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  r e p r e s e n t an improvement i n t h e a b i l i t y explain  the v a r i a n c e i n g l o b a l  previously  selected  Administration,  independent  contributed  dependent v a r i a b l e .  o f the r e g r e s s i o n  item responses.  Two o f t h e t h r e e  variables, Professional  significantly  e q u a t i o n to )  S t a t u s and  t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f the  50 Discriminant  Function  Analysis  A ^demonstration of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s between groups of nurses a c c o r d i n g  ability  to  discriminate  to t h e i r work s e t t i n g s would have  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r m o d i f y i n g the t o o l f o r use nurse-employee's l i k e l i h o o d of a c h i e v i n g  i n assessing  a  prospective  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the  various  settings.  T a b l e 15 p r e s e n t s  the r e s u l t s of t h i s d i s c r i m i n a n t  analysis.  U s i n g the "Type of U n i t " demographic response as the  variable,  the a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e s f o u r components, P r o f e s s i o n a l  Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p , Autonomy, and group membership.  function  Each c o e f f i c i e n t can be  i n t e r p r e t e d as the  relative differenti-  Autonomy makes the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r e d i c t i o n  f o r a l l groups, and  P r o f e s s i o n a l Status  the community groups.  The  i s second i n importance f o r both  Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p  l i t t l e weight f o r the community groups, and achieved  Status,  I n t e r a c t i o n , as p r e d i c t o r s of  weight, or importance, of that v a r i a b l e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the ation.  dependent  s i g n i f i c a n c e i f these groups had  no  component has  doubt would not  been analyzed  These r e s u l t s suggest that the p r o f i l e of job  very  have  separately.  s a t i s f a c t i o n varies with  type of work s e t t i n g , i n the sense that some of the s i g n i f i c a n t  the  components  are more important to nurses i n c e r t a i n s e t t i n g s . In a d d i t i o n to the above procedures, a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was i n an attempt to g a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n  regarding  the u n d e r l y i n g  performed assumpt-  i o n s of the seven-component l i n e a r a d d i t i v e job s a t i s f a c t i o n model. This analysis f i n d i n g s and  proved  to be  of l i m i t e d use  t h e r e f o r e i s not d i s c u s s e d  i n addding to the  or appended.  previous  TABLE ,15 DISCRIMINATING VARIABLES AND CLASSIFICATION OF WORK SETTING GROUPS  Coefficients  Variable  F  Probability  Acute Care  Extended Care  Psychiatry  Community PHN  Community Home Care  Professional Status  7.11  .000  .513  .315  .210  .615  .688  Doctor-Nurse Relationship  7.13  .000  .184  .280  .386  .059  .078  Autonomy  5.95  .000  .656  1.055  .817  .764 '  .798  Interaction  3.45  .010  .456  .194  .312  .453  .327  A c t u a l ;groups Classified  groups  134  5  6  25  7  83  15  16  35  28  P e r c e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d : /52.'5%.'  (N = 177)  Uii h-  1  52 Discussion Before proceeding  w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  s t u d i e s , a b r i e f comment s h o u l d be made r e g a r d i n g the sample.  The  d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g l a r g e numbers of h o s p i t a l n u r s e s f o r the sample appeared t o be due  i n p a r t to two f a c t o r s .  D i r e c t o r s of n u r s e s were  r e l u c t a n t to have j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s s t u d i e d i n t h e i r  institutions  a t a time when f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t s and budget cutbacks might be abnormal s t r e s s among employees. would not be a n a l y s e d , and  Once a s s u r e d  causing  that t h e i r h o s p i t a l s  t h a t h i g h v a r i a n c e i n the s c o r e s  actually  f a c i l i t a t e the s t u d y , the n u r s i n g d i r e c t o r s became q u i t e w i l l i n g encourage t h e i r s t a f f n u r s e s to c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the p r o j e c t . t h e i r enthusiasm was  to  However  somewhat f r u s t r a t e d by the e t h i c a l r e s t r a i n t  on  the i n f l u e n c e of s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l on s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Nursing  d i r e c t o r s , s u p e r v i s o r s , and head n u r s e s a s s i s t e d by p u b l i c i z i n g  the  project.  A much l a r g e r sample c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d , however, i f  they c o u l d a l s o have been more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r e c r u i t i n g  subjects  and making arrangements f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e . The purpose of t h i s study was  to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  of the m o d i f i e d S l a v i t t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e .  The a n a l y s e s  have c o n t r i b u t e d the f o l l o w i n g to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the meaning of  job s a t i s f a c t i o n as i t i s measured by the t o t a l s c o r e on the  1. 177  The v e r s i o n o f the t o o l w h i c h was  described  test.  used on the study sample of  s t a f f n u r s e s p r o v i d e d a r e l i a b l e measure of the components and  total  the  score. 2.  The  subscales.  t o t a l s c o r e i s not a l i n e a r a d d i t i v e f u n c t i o n of the seven Three component s u b s c a l e s , P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s , A d m i n i s t r a -  53 t i o n , and variance  I n t e r a c t i o n , accounted f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t of i n the s c o r e s , but  i n t e r p r e t e d due T h e r e f o r e we e n t , but we  the n a t u r e of t h i s v a r i a n c e  the  cannot be  to the f a c t t h a t these v a r i a b l e s a r e so h i g h l y  can c o n c l u d e t h a t these t h r e e s u b c o n s t r u c t s  correlated.  are not  cannot s t a t e whether they are p a r t s of one b r o a d e r  independconstruct,  such as "Feedback" f o r example, o r whether they i n t e r a c t i n some unique way.  The  Status  discriminant  function analysis indicated that P r o f e s s i o n a l  i s more i m p o r t a n t than A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  levels.  I t may  be p o s s i b l e t h a t n u r s e s who  i n predicting satisfaction are happy w i t h the  t i v e a s p e c t s of t h e i r work w i l l p e r c e i v e h i g h e r t h a t those whose needs f o r s t a t u s a r e met f i e d with administration. Administration  administra-  l e v e l s of s t a t u s , or  do not r e a d i l y become d i s s a t i s -  A l s o , s i n c e b o t h the P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s  components c o n t a i n items p e r t a i n i n g t o  and  interpersonal  a c t i v i t i e s , the s c o r e s on these components c o u l d be measuring some of same meaning as the I n t e r a c t i o n component. the e x i s t e n c e  of an u n d e r l y i n g  from these three The  The  the  f a c t o r a n a l y s i s supported  component which c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of items  subscales.  e f f e c t s of the r e m a i n i n g components c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d  multiple regression  s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l f o r the v a r i a n c e  three p r e d i c t o r s , but s i n c e b o t h Autonomy and  of the  Task Requirements  by first  are  i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s to be c o n t r o l l e d , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e i r v a r i a n c e  c o u l d a l s o be c o n t r o l l e d and  not be a v a i l a b l e to e n t e r  the r e g r e s s i o n  3.  The  t h e r e f o r e would  equation.  g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n measures some, but n o t a l l ,  of the meaning measured by  the t o t a l s c o r e on the t e s t .  of t h i s s t u d y , the i t e m d i d not possess the r e l i a b i l i t y  For the purpose one would have  l i k e d f o r another measure of the dependent v a r i a b l e . meaning of job  s a t i s f a c t i o n , however, t h i s may  some other dimension of job This question  may  the  be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  s a t i s f a c t i o n i s b e i n g measured by  t h i s item.  e l i c i t responses r e l a t e d to the nurse's p r e s e n t  of s a t i s f a c t i o n , whereas the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i t s e l f may  underlying  her  trait  Regarding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s regarding  be  state  measuring  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  her  work.  4.  The  r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t  of work s e t t i n g s as  function analysis using  the dependent v a r i a b l e p r o v i d e s a p r o f i l e of  types the  importance of the f o u r p r e d i c t o r s f o r each of the s e t t i n g s , f o r t h i s sample.  These f i n d i n g s c o u l d be  applied  to the development of  an  instrument f o r c o u n s e l l i n g nurses to seek j o b s i n s e t t i n g s which meet t h e i r needs.  55  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, L I M I T A T I O N S ,  CONCLUSIONS,  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary This a  tool  study by the  report presents  f o r measuring nurses' was a m o d i f i e d  Slavitt  scale contained  The  (1978).  Based  seven subscales  upon need  The s c a l e used  satisfaction  was c r i t i c a l l y  level  reviewed  status of job satisfaction  a second  instrument  i t e m was a d d e d  to provide  research  nurses  pilot-tested  representing several hospital  theories,  i n an attempt  a background  f o rr e l i a b i l i t y , to a volunteer  data,  and t h e r e s u l t s  the  construct v a l i d i t y Results  indicated  the subscales scores  o f these  analyses  explained  approximately  of the subscales with  of the  and a f t e r sample o f settings.  were p e r f o r m e d on  i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f  scale.  the scale i s highly r e l i a b l e ,  on t h e g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  intercorrelation  were  of the job s a t i s f a c t i o n that  variable.  and community work  r e g r e s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s  the  developed  i n nursing.  p h a s e o f m o d i f i c a t i o n , was a d m i n i s t e r e d  177 s t a f f Multiple  was m o d i f i e d ,  f o r the  which were b e l i e v e d t o e x p l a i n j o b  A global satisfaction  literature  The  the  job satisfaction.  o b t a i n an o p e r a t i o n a l l y independent measure o f t h e dependent  current  of  of the construct v a l i d i t y of  v e r s i o n o f t h e I n d e x o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n  and o t h e r s  satisfaction. to  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  30 p e r c e n t  and t h a t  three  of the variance i n  measure o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . each o t h e r  and w i t h  the t o t a l  High scores  56 hindered  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e  i n the t o t a l s c o r e s  explained  by each o f the s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . The  r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s  suggest t h a t the h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y o f  t h i s v e r s i o n of the t o o l makes i t a p s y c h o m e t i c a l l y of job s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s ,  to the extent  comprised o f the seven components c o n t a i n e d construct v a l i d i t y ,  u s e f u l measurement  t h a t job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s  i n the s c a l e .  Regarding i t s  t h e r e i s c o n c l u s i v e evidence t h a t the l i n e a r a d d i t i v e  model of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n on which the instrument i s based does n o t a l l o w a complete view o f the c o n s t r u c t .  Whether the t h r e e  significant  p r e d i c t o r s o f the t o t a l s c o r e , P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , andI n t e r a c t i o n , a r e p a r t o f one b r o a d e r c o n s t r u c t , o r whether they i n t e r a c t i n some unique way, c o u l d not be determined because o f the m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y problem. A major d i f f i c u l t y  throughout the study was the l a c k o f a r e l i a b l e  a l t e r n a t e measure o f the c r i t e r i o n .  The g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n  responses d i d not c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h  the t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , and t h i s  s e l f - r e p o r t , L i k e r t - t y p e item would be s u b j e c t as the q u e s t i o n n a i r e Apart  itself.  and I n t e r a c t i o n components appear to c o n t r i b u t e t o the  measurement o f the c o n s t r u c t , the study f a i l e d o f the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  and  to gather e v i d e n c e i n  of the m o d i f i e d  l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study, and the c o n c l u s i o n s provide  to the same response b i a s  from the d e m o n s t r a t i o n that the P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s ,  Administration,  support  item  Slavitt scale.  The  which can be drawn,  d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e  the measurement o f the c o n s t r u c t .  57 Limitations This study i s subject  1.  The  i n biased  s i z e and  t o the f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s :  s e l e c t i o n of the sample can be expected to r e s u l t  e s t i m a t e s of the r e g r e s s i o n  coefficients.  Pedhazur (1973, p.447) s t a t e t h a t m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s e v e r a l independent v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d have 200 to m i n i m i z e t h i s problem. to add  to the b i a s of the  2.  The  s u b j e c t s who  The  Kerlinger analysis  and involving  or more s u b j e c t s  i n order  l a c k of random s e l e c t i o n can be  expected  statistics.  f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y cannot be expected to a p p l y are b e i n g s t u d i e d under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  to  The  data  o b t a i n e d from the same s u b j e c t s would l i k e l y d i f f e r , f o r example, i f the s c a l e were a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r management purposes and were not  3.  the  subjects  anonymous.  S e l f - r e p o r t measures of a t t i t u d e s , such as the s c a l e used i n  t h i s s t u d y , are l i m i t e d to what the respondent knows about h i s a t t i t u d e and  i s w i l l i n g to r e l a t e ( N u n n a l l y 1970,  t h i s s t u d y may  not  p.421).  c o r r e l a t e w i t h b e h a v i o r p e r t a i n i n g to job  f a c t i o n , such as a b s e n t e e i s m , g r i e v a n c e s , and 4.  Thus, the d a t a from satis-  resignations.  Both measures of the dependent v a r i a b l e , job s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  u t i l i z e s e l f - r e p o r t , L i k e r t - t y p e responses and response c o n s i s t e n c y .  are therefore  to  I n a d d i t i o n , b o t h of these measures a r e l i m i t e d  to the a s p e c t s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h can be r e p o r t e d pencil test.  subject  on a paper-and-  58 5.  The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n  analyses  u s i n g t h e g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n responses as the c r i t e r i o n a r e s u b j e c t to the l i m i t e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f s i n g l e - i t e m measures.  Conclusions The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y l e a d t o the f o l l o w i n g 1.  conclusions:  The study was s u c c e s s f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g and i m p r o v i n g the  psychometric usefulness  of the t o o l .  The s u b s c a l e s  s i s t e n t , and t h e t o o l was e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s .  a r e i n t e r n a l l y con-  and u n d e r s t o o d i n a w i d e  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the v e r s i o n of the t o o l , as i t i s  p r e s e n t l y worded, i s a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r b o t h h o s p i t a l and community s e t t i n g s  i f the D o c t o r - N u r s e R e l a t i o n s h i p items a r e d e l e t e d f o r n u r s e s i n community h e a l t h s e t t i n g s where such i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e r a r e . 2.  The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the S l a v i t t  s c a l e has n o t been c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated by t h i s s t u d y .  Therefore  the t o o l s h o u l d be used w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n u n t i l f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f i t s v a l i d i t y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , o r u n t i l a more s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e measure i s developed f o r measuring n u r s e s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n .  3. scores  M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n o f the s u b s c a l e  s c o r e s onto the t o t a l t e s t  i s n o t h e l p f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the  questionnaire,  and t h i s p r o c e d u r e s h o u l d be a v o i d e d i n s t u d i e s which  undertake to examine c o n s t r u c t  validity.  4.  I t may  not be p o s s i b l e t o develop  a single  paper-and-pencil  t e s t which can p r o v i d e a v a l i d measure of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r n u r s e s . The  l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s type of t e s t have been p o i n t e d out.  One  of the s t r e n g t h s o f the MacEachron (1977) study was  method approach, u s i n g a c h e c k - l i s t , the P o r t a b l e Rod and j o b l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  i t s multi-  and Frame T e s t ,  A v a r i e t y o f methods s h o u l d be used to  measure the job s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s whenever p o s s i b l e , i n an e f f o r t to  i n c r e a s e the v a l i d i t y of the measurement of the c o n s t r u c t .  5.  The j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e may  not be measuring a l l a s p e c t s  j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h i s group of w o r k e r s .  Other dimensions of  c o n s t r u c t b e s i d e s needs r e s o l u t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  As  of  the  pointed  out i n the K a l l e b e r g (1977) and Munson and Heda (1974) s t u d i e s , the e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r j o b w i l l v a r y from p e r s o n to p e r s o n at any g i v e n time, and w i l l a l s o v a r y w i t h time f o r most i n d i v i d u a l workers.  Although  s a t i s f a c t i o n may  meaning c o u l d v a r y w i d e l y . e x p e r i e n c e , may variables.  be r e p o r t e d i n each i n s t a n c e , i t s  Other v a r i a b l e s such as age, and y e a r s  of  moderate the e f f e c t s of some or a l l of the independent  S h e r i d a n and Vredenburgh (1978), u s i n g s e n i o r i t y and  age  as m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n examining j o b t e n s i o n , performance, and t u r n o v e r of n u r s i n g . e m p l o y e e s , found t h a t age had an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the nurse's p e r c e i v e d t e n s i o n t h e . j o b . i z a t i o n need s t r e n g t h was  Self-actual-  r e p o r t e d by Sims and S z i l a g y i (1976) to  moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g autonomy, v a r i e t y , and  feedback.  60 A l l of the m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s  mentioned a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the worker w h i c h i n f l u e n c e e i t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s o r behavior.  of  organizational  One p o s s i b i l i t y a r i s i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e and from the  p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n may have b o t h s t a t e and characteristics. individual's  trait  T r a i t a s p e c t s would i n c l u d e such dimensions as the  need s t r e n g t h f o r each p a r t i c u l a r need, t a s k i d e n t i t y ,  locus of c o n t r o l ,  the person's s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l work v a l u e s , and the  i n f l u e n c e of l e n g t h of e x p e r i e n c e .  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  would form a  p r o f i l e of s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h would tend t o p e r s i s t r e g a r d l e s s o f ational factors.  The s t a t e  situ-  of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , on'the o t h e r hand,  would be t h e degree o f o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n p e r c e i v e d at any g i v e n moment, depending upon the s p e c i f i c needs, t a s k s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t u n i t i e s and rewards i m m e d i a t e l y f e l t by the worker. the s t a t e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a t r a n s i e n t , a t t i t u d e , whereas the t r a i t a s p e c t lying predisposition Two the  oppor-  I n o t h e r words,  situation-contingent  of the c o n s t r u c t i s a s t a b l e  under-  t o a c e r t a i n l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n .  approaches a r e suggested f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g  these  t r a i t a s p e c t s c o u l d be used as moderator v a r i a b l e s  relationships:  i n interaction  models such as those h y p o t h e s i z e d by MacEachron (1977) and Sims and Szilagy  (1976); o r , the c o n s t r u c t i t s e l f c o u l d be viewed as two d i s t i n c t  c o n s t r u c t s , w i t h s e p a r a t e measures developed f o r s t a t e conditions.  The l a t t e r approach may  problems w h i c h remain unanswered  provide a solution  and f o r t r a i t t o the w e i g h t i n g  i n job s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s e a r c h to date.  Attempts t o w e i g h t s t a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n components w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s may have f a i l e d because they have a l l o w e d o n l y a fragmented r e c o g n i t i o n of t r a i t  satisfaction.  61 Recommendations Regarding  t h e Use o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  I f due c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e t o o l c a n p r o v i d e a u s e f u l measure o f n u r s e s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s .  The  f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e made r e g a r d i n g i t s use i n work s e t t i n g s : 1.  The Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p component s h o u l d be d e l e t e d when  u s i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n community s e t t i n g s . 2.  The Pay component s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d , b u t i n s i t u a t i o n s where  wages a r e determined  by p r o v i n c e - w i d e  or state-wide c o n t r a c t s , a f u r t h e r  e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o e l i m i n a t e any s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e items t h a t t h e employer can m a n i p u l a t e 3.  pay s c h e d u l e s . .  The t o o l i s recommended f o r u s e by management as a m o n i t o r i n g  d e v i c e f o r a s s e s s i n g s t a f f morale when changes a r e i n s t i t u t e d . the d i r e c t o r s o f nurses who were approached by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r the  f e e l i n g t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s o f t h e nurses i n t h e i r  Some o f expressed insti-  t u t i o n would be l o w because o f t h e c u r r e n t s t a f f l a y o f f s and cutbacks i n services.  I f they had been a b l e t o m o n i t o r s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s  through-  out t h i s c r i s i s , they may have been a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h e m p i r i c a l evidence.  S i m i l a r l y , changes i n n u r s i n g c a r e p a t t e r n s  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e sometimes made on t h e assumption t h a t s t a f f morale w i l l be i n c r e a s e d , o r a t l e a s t t h a t i t w i l l n o t d e t e r i o r a t e . A v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s assumption would be h e l p f u l i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f these programs.  4.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n i t s p r e s e n t form c o u l d be used i n p e r s o n n e l  counselling.  An on-going  r e c o r d o f an  individual's job s a t i s f a c t i o n  l e v e l c o u l d p r o v i d e i n d i c a t i o n s o f problems w h i c h would then be e x p l o r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n and/or p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s .  62 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  Research  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  The s t u d y s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l  l o c a t i o n and a l a r g e random sample.  K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur (1973, p.446)  d e s c r i b e . , the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s u s i n g m u l t i p l e regression studies.  C o r r e l a t i o n between independent v a r i a b l e s and e r r o r s  o f measurement w i l l always have some i n f l u e n c e upon the magnitude of regression coefficients.  I f s i m i l a r r e s u l t s appear c o n s i s t e n t l y i n o t h e r  s t u d i e s , then the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i a b l e s can be  considered  reliable.  2. pursued  The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n approach t o d a t a a n a l y s i s s h o u l d  f u r t h e r i f a p r o v e n measure of t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , u s i n g a  method o t h e r than s e l f - r e p o r t , can be 3.  be  found.  L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d be conducted,  u s i n g the t o o l t o  i n v e s t i g a t e p a t t e r n s of needs s a t i s f a c t i o n over time and r e l a t i n g f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c a t o r s of s a t i s f a c t i o n , such as g r i e v a n c e s resignations.  T h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e the d i r e c t i o n n e c e s s a r y  more s a t i s f a c t o r y models f o r a n a l y s i s . t o r v a r i a b l e s and  and  f o r developing  The d i f f i c u l t i e s of u s i n g modera-  c o n t i n g e n c y models to e x p l a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r  have been d e s c r i b e d by Korman, Greenhaus, and Baden (1977).  The main  problem l i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g a s y s t e m a t i c s e t of moderator v a r i a b l e s , as even the most c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o produce s i s t e n t r e s u l t s upon r e p l i c a t i o n . c l i n i c a l - t y p e o b s e r v a t i o n may  These a u t h o r s suggest  con-  that inductive,  be more h e l p f u l than a. p r i o r i  hypothesis  63  t e s t i n g i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the to be  studied.  4.  The  v a l i d i t y of the u n i t a r y n a t u r e of the c o n s t r u c t  s a t i s f a c t i o n should revised  be  investigated.  The  questionnaire  to c r e a t e a measure of s t a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n by  i n s t r u c t i o n s and my  independent v a r i a b l e s  should  rewording  job be the  the items to conform to the theme "...how I f e e l about  work r i g h t now."  A measure of t r a i t s a t i s f a c t i o n would need to  developed u s i n g a "what I g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r " theme and moderating v a r i a b l e s mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . v a l i d i t y of these two view of job  of  incorporating  Evidence of the  measures would l e n d support to the  satisfaction.  be the  discriminant  two-construct  BIBLIOGRAPHY B a t e s , B. 1967. The b e t t e r t h e d o c t o r does h i s j o b , the b e t t e r t h e n u r s e can do h e r s . Modern H o s p i t a l 108:72-75. B u l l o u g h , B. 1974. I s t h e n u r s e p r a c t i t i o n e r r o l e a source o f i n c r e a s e d work s a t i s f a c t i o n ? N u r s i n g Research 23:14-19. Canadian H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 1977. Canadian h o s p i t a l d i r e c t o r y , v o l . 2 6 . Ottawa: Canadian H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n . C r o n i n - S t u b b s , D. 1977. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among new graduate s t a f f n u r s e s . J o u r n a l o f N u r s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 7:44-49. Dubin, R., and Champoux, J.E. 1977. C e n t r a l l i f e i n t e r e s t s and j o b satisfaction. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human Performance 18:366-377. E v e r l y , G.S., and F a l c i o n e , R.L. 1976. P e r c e i v e d dimensions o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r s t a f f r e g i s t e r e d nurses. N u r s i n g Research 25:346-348. Ewen, R.B. 1967. W e i g h t i n g o f components of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 51:68-73.  Journal  Fox, D.J., and G u i r e , K.E. 1976. Documentation f o r MIDAS, 3 r d ed. Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . Herman, J.B., and H u l i n , C. 1973. M a n a g e r i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e s : an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of P o r t e r ' s need d e f i c i e n c y s c a l e s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 57:118-124. H e r z b e r g , F. 1966. Work and the n a t u r e o f man. P u b l i s h i n g Company.  New Y o r k : World  H o p k i n s , K.D., and G l a s s , G.V. 1978. B a s i c s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Hoppock, R.  1935.  Job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  New Y o r k : H a r p e r .  K a l l e b e r g , A.L. 1977. Work v a l u e s and j o b rewards: a t h e o r y of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 42:124-143. K e r l i n g e r , F.N. 1973. F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n .  New Y o r k :  K e r l i n g e r , F.N., and Pedhazur, E l a z a r J . 1973. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n i n b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . Korman, A.K.; Greenhaus, J.H.; and B a d i n , I . J . 1977. P e r s o n n e l a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n . A n n u a l Review o f P s y c h o l o g y 28:175-196.  64-'  65  Kramer, M.; McDonnell, C ; and Reed, J . L . 1 9 7 2 . S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and r o l e a d a p t a t i o n o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e degree n u r s e s . N u r s i n g Research 21:111-123. Locke, E.A. 1 9 6 9 . What i s job s a t i s f a c t i o n ? and Human Performance 4:309-336.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behavior  MacEachron, A.E. 1 9 7 7 . Two i n t e r a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b l e v e l and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Organizational B e h a v i o r and Human Performance 1 9 : 2 2 6 - 2 4 6 . McCloskey, J . 1 9 7 4 . I n f l u e n c e o f rewards and i n t e r a c t i o n s on s t a f f nurse t u r n o v e r r a t e . N u r s i n g Research 23:239-247. M c N e i l , K.A. 1 9 7 0 . Meeting t h e g o a l s o f r e s e a r c h w i t h m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . M u l t i v a r i a t e B e h a v i o r a l Research 5:375-386. Maslow, A.H. Row.  linear  1 9 5 4 . M o t i v a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y . New York: Harper and  M i t c h e l l , T.R. 1 9 7 4 . Expectancy models o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and e f f o r t : a t h e o r e t i c a l , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and e m p i r i c a l appraisal. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n 81:1053-1077. Munson, F.C., and Heda, S.S. 1 9 7 4 . An instrument f o r measuring n u r s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n . N u r s i n g Research 23:159-166. Neumann,' E.L. 1 9 7 3 . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n among n u r s i n g s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l . 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Homewood, 1 1 1 . : R i c h a r d D. I r w i n . Prvzek, R.M., and F r e d e r i c k , B.C. 1 9 7 8 . W e i g h t i n g p r e d i c t o r s i n l i n e a r models: a l t e r n a t i v e s to l e a s t squares and l i m i t a t i o n o f e q u a l weights. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n 85:254-266.  66  S a l e h , S. 1964. Why n u r s e s l e a v e t h e i r j o b s — an a n a l y s i s of female turnover. P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 27:25-28. S e d l a c e k , W.E. 1966. E m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Kansas S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . C i t e d i n Neumann, E.L. 1973. Communicating N u r s i n g Research 6:165-176. Seeman, M. 1967. On the p e r s o n a l consequences of a l i e n a t i o n i n work. American S o c i o l o g i s t Review 32:273-285. S h e r i d a n , J.E., and Vredenburgh, D.J. 1978. U s e f u l n e s s of l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r and s o c i a l power v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g job t e n s i o n , performance, and t u r n o v e r of n u r s i n g employees. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 63:89-95. Sims, H.P., and S z i l a g y , A.D. 1976. Job c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s : i n d i v i d u a l and s t r u c t u r a l m o d e r a t o r s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r and Human Performance 17:211-230. S l a v i t t , D.B.; Stamps, P.L.; Piedmont, E.B.; and Haase, Ann M a r i e B. 1978. N u r s e s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n . Nursing Research 27:114-120. Slocum, J.W. J r . ; Susman, G.I.; and S h e r i d a n , J.E. 1972. An a n a l y s i s of need s a t i s f a c t i o n and job performance among p r o f e s s i o n a l and paraprofessional h o s p i t a l personnel. N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h 21:338-341. Smith, P.C., and K e n d a l l , L.M. 1963. R e t r a n s l a t i o n of e x p e c t a t i o n s : an approach to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of unambiguous anchors f o r r a t i n g s c a l e s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y 47:149-155. S m i t h , P.C., K e n d a l l , L.M.; and H u l i n , C L . 1969. The measurement of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n work and r e t i r e m e n t : a s t r a t e g y f o r the s t u d y of a t t i t u d e s . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y . Stamps, P.L.; Piedmont, E.B.; S l a v i t t , D.B.; and Haase, A.M. 1978. Measurement of work s a t i s f a c t i o n among h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . M e d i c a l Care 16:337-352. Stember, M.L.; F e r g u s o n , J . ; Conway, K; and Y i n g l i n g , M. s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s e a r c h — an a i d i n d e c i s i o n making. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y 2:4, 95-105. T a y l o r , J.R. 1977. reassessment.  Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and q u a l i t y of w o r k i n g l i f e : a J o u r n a l of O c c u p a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y 50:243-252.  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Verhonick, P.J.,  ed.  1978. Job Nursing  1977.  Nursing  research  II.  1978.  ERSC LERTAP.  B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown.  67-  Vroom, V.H.  1964.  Work a n d m o t i v a t i o n .  New  Wahba, M.A., a n d B r i d w e l l , L . G . 1976. Maslow of r e s e a r c h on t h e need h i e r a r c h y t h e o r y . a n d Human P e r f o r m a n c e 1 5 : 2 1 2 - 2 4 0 .  York:  Wiley.  reconsidered: a review Organizational Behavior  W a t e r s , L.K. 1969. The u t i l i t y o f i m p o r t a n c e w e i g h t s i n p r e d i c t i n g o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement 29:519-522. W h i t e , C.H., a n d M a g u i r e , M.C. 1973. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among h o s p i t a l n u r s i n g s u p e r v i s o r s : t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f H e r z b e r g ' s theory. N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h 22:25-30.  APPENDIX A.  APPENDIX A Cover Page The  e n c l o s e d a t t i t u d e s c a l e and q u e s t i o n n a i r e have been  designed  to a s s i s t nurse r e s e a r c h e r s to d e f i n e the meaning o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n for nurses.  The i n f o r m a t i o n you p r o v i d e w i l l be anonymous, the o n l y  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b e i n g a number which i n d i c a t e s the o r d e r i n which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i s s u e d , and a number which d e s i g n a t e s your type o f i n s t i t u t i o n o r agency.  The v o l u n t a r y nature o f your  i n t h i s study i m p l i e s your consent i n f o r m a t i o n you p r o v i d e .  participation  to a l l o w the r e s e a r c h e r to use the  Your i n d i v i d u a l responses  and the r e p l i e s  of your working group w i l l be h e l d i n c o n f i d e n c e by the r e s e a r c h e r and her  three f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s and w i l l n o t be made a v a i l a b l e to your  employer. the  The name o f your agency w i l l n o t appear on the d a t a o r i n  study. We a l l have day-to-day v a r i a t i o n s i n how we f e e l about our j o b s .  P l e a s e t r y to d e s c r i b e your u s u a l or t y p i c a l f e e l i n g s when you answer the q u e s t i o n s . Your c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h  t h i s study i s a p p r e c i a t e d .  M. Dawn F a r i s , B.A.Sc. (Nursing) Graduate Student, M.S.N. Program, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  69  ;  APPENDIX A.  APPENDIX A, Demographic Total  Data  years  1. l e s s  of n u r s i n g experience (7)  2.  1-4  3.  5-10  than 1  1. A c u t e  Type o f unit (current) (8)  care  2. E x t e n d e d  care  3.  Psychiatry  4. 11-16  4.  Community-PHN  5. 16-20  5.  CommunityHome C a r e  6. o v e r 20 Sex  2. M  1. F  (9) No. o f  1.  years i n present position (10)  Type  o f work  schedule  2.  1-3  _3.  3-5  monthly salary  _1.  week d a y s rotating  _3. r o t a t i n g  Taking you?  a l l things  _1.  $1200-1399.  _2.  $1400-1599  3.  $1600-1799  4.  $1800+  (ID  over 5  4.  Current  than 1  4.  2.  (12)  less  only  (may i n c l u d e  8 - hour  on-call  shift  permanent  8 - hour  days, r o t a t i n g  5. p e r m a n e n t  8 - hour  evenings  _6. p e r m a n e n t  8 - hour  nights  7. p e r m a n e n t  12 - h o u r  8.  permanent  12 - h o u r  9.  other  into  hours)  shift  12 - h o u r  (please  other  days o f f  days nights  describe):  consideration,  how s a t i s f i e d  w i t h y o u r work a r e  (13) Extremely dissatisifed  (CIRCLE  Very dissatisfied  Somewhat dissatisfied  ONE NUMBER)  71.  Rather satisfied  Very satisfied  Extremely satisfied  APPENDIX A  APPENDIX A  3  Questionnaire PLEASE ANSWER EVERY QUESTION USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL RESPONSES: Don't u n d e r s t a n d o r non-applicable  0  Disagree very s t r o n g l y  1  Disagree strongly  2  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree s t r o n g l y  6  Agree v e r y s t r o n g l y  7  1. The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e p i t c h i n and h e l p one a n o t h e r out when t h i n g s g e t i n a r u s h .  0  1  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  The p e o p l e I work w i t h a r e f r i e n d l y and s u p p o r t i v e . -  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  I am sometimes r e q u i r e d t o make d e c i s i o n s on my j o b t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  The p r e s e n t r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n pay f o r n u r s i n g s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  My p a r t i c u l a r j o b doesn't r e q u i r e much s k i l l o r "know-how."  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  2. The amount o f time I must spend on t r i v i a l administration duties i s quite reasonable. 3.  5.  7.  8.  9.  2  3  4 5  6  7  There a r e p l e n t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement o f n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l at t h i s hospital/agency.  0 1 2 - 3 4 5 6 7  Administrative decision at this h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y i n t e r f e r e too much with p a t i e n t care.  0  I t ' s my g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t most of t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / agency r e a l l y l i k e t h e way t h e work i s o r g a n i z e d and done. 73  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  74 Don't u n d e r s t a n d o r Non-applicable  ^  Disagree very s t r o n g l y  1  Disagree strongly  2  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree s t r o n g l y  6  Agree v e r y s t r o n g l y  7  CIRCLE ONE 10.  There i s a good d e a l o f teamwork and c o o p e r a t i o n between v a r i o u s l e v e l s of n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  The o n l y way t h a t n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y w i l l ever get a decent pay s c h e d u l e w i l l be t o o r g a n i z e and, i f n e c e s s a r y , s t r i k e .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  On my s e r v i c e , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s make a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s , and I have l i t t l e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r my own work.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  13.  I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t what I do on my job i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  14.  I sometimes f e e l t h a t I don't know who t o answer t o when I am a t work.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  15.  The p h y s i c i a n s on my u n i t a r e g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e when I need them f o r c o n s u l t ation.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  C o n s i d e r i n g the h i g h c o s t o f h e a l t h c a r e , e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o h o l d n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l s a l a r i e s about where they a r e .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  There i s too much c l e r i c a l and "paper work" r e q u i r e d o f n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l in this hospital/agency.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  I am encouraged t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making p a t i e n t - c a r e decisions.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  11.  12.  16.  17.  18.  75 Don't understand Non-applicable  or  Q  Disagree very s t r o n g l y  1  Disagree  2  strongly  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree s t r o n g l y  6  Agree v e r y s t r o n g l y  7  19.  . I t s my g e n e r a l impressxon t h a t nursing i s a rather low-status profession.  CIRCLE ONE 0  1  2  20.  I f e e l t h a t I am s u p e r v i s e d more c l o s e l y than I need t o be.  0  1  21.  I have p l e n t y o f time and o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s p a t i e n t c a r e problems w i t h other nursing s e r v i c e personnel.  0  1 2  22.  23.  24.  25.  2  3  3  There i s a g r e a t gap between t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y and the d a i l y problems o f the n u r s i n g service.  4  4  5  5  6  6  7  7  3  4  5  6  3  4  5  6  7  The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e a r e n o t as f r i e n d l y and o u t g o i n g .as I would l i k e them t o be.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  There i s n o t enough s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n between d o c t o r s and nurses on my unit.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Even i f I c o u l d make more money i n a n o t h e r n u r s i n g j o b , I would s t a y h e r e because o f t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  5  6  7  26.  My work i n t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y makes me f e e l l i k e a w o r t h w h i l e p e r s o n .  27.  The p h y s i c i a n s on my u n i t r e c o g n i z e my s p e c i a l knowledge s k i l l s .  0  28.  I c o u l d d e l i v e r much b e t t e r c a r e i f I had more time w i t h each p a t i e n t .  0  29.  Physicians a t t h i s hospital/agency g e n e r a l l y understand and a p p r e c i a t e what t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f does.  3 1  2  1  0  3  2  1  4 4  3  2  3  5  4  4  6  7  5  6  5  6  7  76Don't understand Non-applicable  or  ^  Disagree very s t r o n g l y  1  Disagree s t r o n g l y  2  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree s t r o n g l y  6  Agree v e r y s t r o n g l y  7  30.  What I do on my j o b doesn't add up t o anything r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  31.  32.  CIRCLE ONE 2 3 4 5  0  1  The p h y s i c i a n s have u n r e a s o n a b l e expectations of the nursing s t a f f i n my work s i t u a t i o n .  0  1  2  3  4  An u p - g r a d i n g o f pay s c h e d u l e s f o r n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l i s needed a t t h i s hospital/agency.  0  1  2  3  4  6  7  5  6  7  5  6  7  33.  I don't spend as much time as I ' d l i k e to t a k i n g care o f p a t i e n t s d i r e c t l y .  34.  My work s i t u a t i o n a l l o w s me the independence I f e e l I need t o c a r e f o r my patients.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  My work r o u t i n e i s f l e x i b l e enough t o a l l o w me t o spend as much time as I need t o w i t h each p a t i e n t .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  35.  36.  C o n s i d e r i n g what i s expected o f n u r s i n g s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l , t h e pay we g e t i s reasonable.  0  1  0  2  3  4  5  6  7  37.  There i s enough support s t a f f t o a l l o w me t o d e l e g a t e r o u t i n e t a s k s .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  38.  My p r e s e n t s a l a r y i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  39.  I'm g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e way n u r s i n g work i s o r g a n i z e d and g e t s done a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  40.  From what I h e a r about o t h e r j o b s , t h e pay we g e t i s r e a s o n a b l e .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  41.  The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e don't o f t e n a c t l i k e "one b i g happy f a m i l y . "  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  77  Don't u n d e r s t a n d o r Non-application Disagree very  strongly  1  Disagree strongly  2  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree s t r o n g l y  6  Agree v e r y  7  strongly  42.  I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e types o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t I do on my j o b  0  1  CIRCLE ONE 2 3 4 5 6  7  43.  There i s a l o t o f "rank c o n s c i o u s ness on my u n i t ; n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l seldom m i n g l e w i t h o t h e r s o f lower ranks.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  I f e e l t h a t I have enough a u t h o r i t y t o carry out the patient-care decisions I make.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  45.  I t makes me proud t o t a l k t o o t h e r p e o p l e about what I do on my j o b .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  46.  The n u r s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y c o n s u l t w i t h t h e s t a f f on d a i l y problems and p r o c e d u r e s .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  P h y s i c i a n s i n g e n e r a l don't c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f i n my work situation.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  There i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n u r s i n g s t a f f to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making process.  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  50.  I enjoy w o r k i n g w i t h t h e d o c t o r s work s i t u a t i o n .  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  51.  I t h i n k I c o u l d do a b e t t e r j o b i f I d i d n ' t have so much t o do a l l t h e time.  0  1  52.  Nursing personnel a t t h i s hospital/agency do a l o t of b i c k e r i n g and b a c k - b i t i n g .  0  44.  47.  48.  49.  I have a l l t h e v o i c e i n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r my work s e t t i n g t h a t I need.  i n my  1  2  2  3  3  4  4  5  5  6  6  7  7  78 Don't u n d e r s t a n d Non-applicable  or  Q  strongly  1  Disagree  very  Disagree  strongly  2  Disagree  3  Neutral  4  Agree  5  Agree  strongly  Agree very  53.  54.  55.  56.  strongly  6 7  C I R C L E ONE  The p h y s i c i a n s I work w i t h e x p e c t n u r s e s t o p l a y t h e "hand-maiden" role.  1  2  E x c l u d i n g m y s e l f , i t i s my i m p r e s s i o n that a l o t of nursing personnel a t this h o s p i t a l agency a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r pay. I h a v e t h e f r e e d o m i n my w o r k t o make important d e c i s i o n s as I see f i t , and c a n c o u n t o n my s u p e r v i s o r s t o b a c k me' up.  0  New e m p l o y e e s a r e n o t q u i c k l y made t o f e e l " a t home" i n my w o r k s e t t i n g .  0  1  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  3  4  5  6  7  3  4  3  5  4  6  5  7  6  7  APPENDIX B  APPENDIX B C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items* W i t h S u b s c a l e T o t a l , T e s t T o t a l , and G l o b a l S a t i s f a c t i o n R a t i n g  Pay Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0.79)  1.  2.  3.  4. 5.  6. 7.  8.  (5)  The p r e s e n t r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n pay f o r n u r s i n g s e r v i c e personnel i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y  Subscale Total  Test Total  Global Rating  0.512**  0.190  0.001  (11) The o n l y way t h a t n u r s i n g personnel a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / agency w i l l ever g e t a decent pay s c h e d u l e w i l l be t o o r g a n i z e and, i f n e c e s s a r y , s t r i k e .  0.454  0.397  0.145  (16) C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h i g h c o s t o f h e a l t h c a r e , every e f f o r t s h o u l d be made to h o l d nursing personnel s a l a r i e s about where they a r e .  0.353  0.072  0.106  (32) An u p g r a d i n g o f pay s c h e d u l e s f o r n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l i s needed  0.512  0.254  0.053  (36) C o n s i d e r i n g what i s expected o f nursing s e r v i c e personnel, the pay we g e t i s r e a s o n a b l e .  0.585  0.375  0.144  (38) My p r e s e n t s a l a r y i s s a t i s factory.  0.587  0.585  0.375  (40) From what I hear about o t h e r j o b s , we i n n u r s i n g a r e b e i n g f a i r l y paid.  0.523  0.416  0.133  (54) E x c l u d i n g m y s e l f , i t i s my impression that a l o t of nursing s e r v i c e personnel at t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r pay.  0.472  0.375  0.197  The items a r e arranged by component; t h e numbers i n parentheses i n d i c a t e t h e o r d e r o f t h e i t e m on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  ** at*  An r o f 0.161 o r more w i t h N=150 l e a d s t o r e j e c t i o n o f Ho: p=0 =.05 (Hopkins and G l a s s 1978, p.409).  80-  81.  P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a t u s Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0.74) Subscale Total  Test Total  Global Rating  0.109  -0.000  0.011  (13) I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t what I do on my j o b i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t .  0.487  0.309  0.186  (19) I t ' s my g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n that nursing i s a rather low-status profession.  0.400  0.414  0.164  4. (25) Even i f I c o u l d make more money i n a n o t h e r n u r s i n g j o b , I would s t a y h e r e because o f the w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  0.396  0.527  0.460  0.568  0.599  0.465  6. (3) What I do on my j o b doesn't add up t o a n y t h i n g r e a l l y significant.  0.495  0.394  0.295  7. (12) I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e types of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t I do on my job.  0.494  0.504  0.443  8. (45) I t makes me proud t o t a l k t o o t h e r p e o p l e about what I do on my job. 0.601  0.442  0.335  1. (6) My p a r t i c u l a r j o b doesn't r e q u i r e much s k i l l o r "know-how." 2. 3.  5.  (26) My work a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y makes me f e e l l i k e a w o r t h w h i l e person.  82  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0 . 7 8 ) Subscale Total 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Test Total  Global Rating  0.236  0.354  0.239  0.294  0.390  0.292  0.593  0.544  0.414  (22) There i s a g r e a t gap between the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y and t h e d a i l y problems o f t h e n u r s i n g service.  0.605  0.557  0.278  (39) I'm g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the way n u r s i n g work i s o r g a n i z e d and g e t s done a t this hospital/agency.  0.600  0.586  0.414  (46) The n u r s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s g e n e r a l l y consult w i t h the s t a f f on d a i l y problems and procedures.  0.530  0.533  0.207  (47) I have a l l t h e v o i c e i n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r my work s e t t i n g t h a t I want.  0.507  0.430  0.275.  (49) There i s ample o p p o r t u n i t y for nursing s t a f f to p a r t i c i pate i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making process.  0.577  0.465  0.204  (7)  There a r e p l e n t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement o f n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l at t h i s hospital/agency.  (8) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s a t this hospital/agency i n t e r f e r e too much w i t h , p a t i e n t c a r e . (9)  I t ' s my g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t most o f t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f at t h i s hospital/agency r e a l l y l i k e t h e way t h e work i s o r g a n i z e d and done.  ;  83 Doctor-Nurse R e l a t i o n s h i p Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e =0.82)  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Subscale Total  Test Total  Global Rating  (15) The p h y s i c i a n s on my u n i t are g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e when I need them f o r c o n s u l t ation.  0.470  0.279  0.066  (24) There i s n o t enough s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n between d o c t o r s and nurses on my u n i t .  0.537  0.412  0.175  (27) The p h y s i c i a n s on my u n i t r e c o g n i z e my s p e c i a l knowledge and s k i l l s .  0.667  0.438  0.157  (29) P h y s i c i a n s a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / agency g e n e r a l l y understand and a p p r e c i a t e what t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f does.  0.694  0.415  0.122  (31) The p h y s i c i a n s have unreasonable expectations of the n u r s i n g s t a f f i n my work situation  0.411  0.303  0.082  (48) P h y s i c i a n s i n g e n e r a l don't cooperate w i t h t h e n u r s i n g s t a f f i n my work s i t u a t i o n .  0.668  0.404  -0.-003  (50) I enjoy working w i t h the d o c t o r s i n my work s i t u a t i o n .  0.701  0.406  0.110  (53) The p h y s i c i a n s I work w i t h expect nurses t o p l a y the "hand-maiden" r o l e .  0.364  0.453  0.229  84' Autonomy Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0.68) Subscale Total  1.  2.  3.  4.  5. 6.  7.  8.  (4)  Test Total  Global Rating  I am sometimes r e q u i r e d t o make d e c i s i o n s on my j o b t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f my r e s p o n s i bility.  0.120  0.108  0.029  (12) On my s e r v i c e , my s u p e r v i s o r s make a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s , and I have l i t t l e d i r e c t c o n t r o l over my own work.  0.408  0.305  0.137  (14) I sometimes f e e l t h a t I don't know who t o answer t o when I am a t work.  0.408  0.353  0.228  (18) I am encouraged t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making patient-care decisions.  0.538  0.464  0.174  (20) I f e e l t h a t I am s u p e r v i s e d more c l o s e l y than I need t o b e .  0.237  0.352  0.093  (34) My work s i t u a t i o n a l l o w s me t h e independence I f e e l I need t o c a r e f o r my p a t i e n t s .  0.313  0.517  0.303  (44) I f e e l t h a t I have enough a u t h o r i t y t o c a r r y out t h e p a t i e n t - c a r e d e c i s i o n s I make.  0.468  0.420  0.242  (55) I have t h e freedom i n my work to make i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s as I see f i t , and can count on my s u p e r v i s o r s t o back me up.  0.545  0.514  0.272  •"85 -Task Requirements (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0.70) Subscale Total 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Test Total  Global Rating  (2) The amount o f time I must spend on t r i v i a l administration duties i s quite reasonable.  0.235  0.360  0.239  (17) There i s too much "paper work" r e q u i r e d o f t h e nurses i n t h i s h o s p i t a l / agencies.  0.264  0.337  0.180  (21) I have p l e n t y o f time and opportunity to discuss p a t i e n t c a r e problems w i t h other nursing s e r v i c e personnel.  0.441  0.506  0.224  (28) I c o u l d d e l i v e r much b e t t e r c a r e i f I had more time w i t h each p a t i e n t .  0.511  0.379  0.141  (33) I don't spend as much time as I'd l i k e t o t a k i n g c a r e o f patients directly.  0.582  0.454  0.173  (35) My work r o u t i n e i s f l e x i b l e enough t o a l l o w me t o spend as much time as I need t o w i t h each p a t i e n t .  0.548  0.483  0.247  (37) There i s enough s u p p o r t s t a f f t o a l l o w me t o delegate r o u t i n e tasks.  0.225  0.330  0.159  (51) I t h i n k I c o u l d do a b e t t e r j o b i f I d i d n ' t have so much t o do a l l t h e time.  0.391  0.244  0.047  36  I n t e r a c t i o n Component (Hoyt E s t i m a t e = 0.75)  1.  2. 3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Subscale Total  Test Total  Global Rating  (1) The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e don't h e s i t a t e to p i t c h i n and h e l p one another o u t when t h i n g s get i n a r u s h .  0.520  0.378  0.274  (3) The p e o p l e I work w i t h a r e f r i e n d l y and s u p p o r t i v e .  0.670  0.419  0.231  (10) There i s a good d e a l o f teamwork and c o o p e r a t i o n between v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my service.  0.468  0.513  0.361  (23) The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e a r e n o t as f r i e n d l y and o u t g o i n g as I would l i k e them t o be.  0.584  0.383  0.170  (41) The n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l on my s e r v i c e don't o f t e n a c t l i k e "one b i g happy f a m i l y . "  0.519  0.356  0.180  (43) There i s a l o t o f "rank c o n s c i o u s n e s s " on my u n i t ; n u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l seldom m i n g l e w i t h o t h e r s o f lower ranks.  0.196  0.216  0.076  (52) N u r s i n g p e r s o n n e l a t t h i s h o s p i t a l / a g e n c y do a l o t o f b i c k e r i n g and b a c k b i t i n g .  0.495  0.483  0.227  (56) New employees a r e n o t q u i c k l y made t o f e e l " a t home" i n my work s e t t i n g .  0.278  0.209  0.175.  

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