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Bonding behaviour in newly married couples Delisle, Mary Ann 1979

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BONDING BEHAVIOUR IN NEWLY MARRIED  COUPLES  by Mary Ann D e l i s l e B.A., U n i v e r s i t y B.S.W., U n i v e r s i t y  o f Windsor, o f Windsor,  1976 1977  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  (SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK) We  accept to  this thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1979 ^cT)  Mary Ann D e l i s l e , 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  the  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  granted by  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  the Head of  agree for  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be  allowed without my  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 2075 Westbrook Place, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1W5, Canada  written  permission.  ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was  to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the  c o n s t r u c t , "bonding behaviour", and to develop a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e n t o r y to measure the concept i n newly married couples. The study was  conducted with t h i r t y  than one year.  couples, married  less'  The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d once, w i t h a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e completed  i n the presence of the r e s e a r c h e r .  A standardized marital s a t i s f a c t i o n G l i s s o n 1976) was  completed  i n v e n t o r y I.M.S.: (Hudson/  immediately  a f t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The study i n v o l v e d four v a r i a b l e s - care, intimacy, t r u s t , communication - each of which was c o r r e l a t e d with the I.M.S.  inter-correlated,  and  and  The study i n c l u d e d demographic  items which were c o r r e l a t e d with the study v a r i a b l e s and w i t h the I.M.S.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the four v a r i a b l e s  e x i s t s e p a r a t e l y to some extent, but c l e a r l y  tend to o v e r l a p .  The m a j o r i t y of the items c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a c l u s t e r of the four v a r i a b l e s , and suggests that they measure one c o n s t r u c t which c o u l d be r e l a b e l l e d The four v a r i a b l e s are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  bonding.  in their  with the I.M.S., and show that the v a r i a b l e s are an of m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n .  may  correlations indication  G e n e r a l l y , the f i n d i n g s supported the  r e s e a r c h premise  that bonding  i s a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y  and attachments,  that i t i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l competence, and  that i t i s present i n the f i r s t  year of marriage.  relationships  The  study  suggests i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d i n g a follow-up study.  Since t h i s r e s e a r c h used a convenience  sample,  of  utmost concern  sample.  The s t u d y c i t e d  case e x p l o r a t i o n , marriage  i s a replication  programs.  o f t h e s t u d y , on a random  relevance f o r practice  and f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y  in  single  i n preparation for  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE . .'  i  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  .  LIST OF TABLES.  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Chapter I  iv  vi i i  THE FORMATION OF THE PROBLEM  1  A  Purpose o f the Study...  1  B  Hypotheses and Assumptions o f the Study.....  3  C  Theoretical Rationale  9  D  Persons Concerned With the Research Problem.  Chapter II A B C  D  f o r the Study  SELECTED FORMULATIONS ON BONDING THEORY  The S e l e c t e d V a r i a b l e s . a s Processes  11 15  Developmental .  17  The R e l a t i o n s h i p of E a r l y P a r e n t - C h i l d Bonding to Future Attachments  20  The Development o f a Capacity f o r Care, T r u s t , Intimacy, and Communication i n Adult Relationships  22  The Development  o f a Sense of P e r s o n a l  Competence  27  E  Interpersonal  Competence.  29  F  Bonding Behaviour i n Newly Mar-ried Couples.  31  G  Summary  33  Page Chapter I I I  STUDY DESIGN  34  A  L e v e l o f Research Design  34  B  Sampling Procedures  40  C  Methods of Gathering Data....  41  D  Program of Data A n a l y s i s  43  Chapter IV A  STUDY FINDINGS  44  Implementation of the Research Design: Problems i n Sampling, Data C o l l e c t i o n , and/or Analysis  44  B  D e s c r i p t i v e Data on Study Sample  47  C  F i n d i n g s on Study Questions  49  D  Refinement of Measurement Instrument  58  E  The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Demographic Data to the Four V a r i a b l e s  F  and the I.M.S  Conclusion  Chapter V Summary  B  Implications  FOOTNOTES  77  SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY  A  74  84 84  of the Study  92 99  REFERENCES  102  APPENDIX A  108  APPENDIX B  110  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table I  MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 1-40 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  Table II  MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 41-80 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  Table I I I  MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 81-120 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  Table IV  MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 121-160 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  Table V  CORRELATIONS OF THE TOTAL SCORES ON EACH OF THE FOUR VARIABLES WITH THE TOTAL SCORES ON THE OTHER THREE VARIABLES AND THE I.M.S.  Table VI  CORRELATION CO-EFFICIENTS OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH COMMUNICATION ONLY  Table VII  CORRELATION CO-EFFICIENTS OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH COMMUNICATION AND OTHER VARIABLES  Table VIII  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLES  Table IX  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 41-80 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH INTIMACY ONLY  Table X  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES ITEMS 41-80 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH INTIMACY AND OTHER VARIABLES  Table XI  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 41-80 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLES  Table XII  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH TRUST ONLY  vii  Table XIII  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH TRUST AND OTHER VARIABLES  Table XIV  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLES  Table XV  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH CARE ONLY  Table XVI  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNFICANTLY WITH CARE AND OTHER VARIABLES  Table XVII  CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLES  Table XVIII  MEAN RANKS OF EDUCATION AND AGE WITH THE FOUR VARIABLES AND WITH THE I.M.S.  Table XIX  MEAN RANKS ON THE TOTAL SCORE ON THE VARIABLES AND THE I.M.S. WITH SEX OF THE RESPONDENT  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes t o thank Dr. John Crane, Mrs. E l a i n e S t o l a r , and Mr. H a l Goodwin, at the School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r help and encouragement.  1 Chapter 1 THE A  FORMATION OF THE PROBLEM  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY T h i s study, through  seek to determine alization  the use o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i l l  i f four v a r i a b l e s provide a useful  and measure of the c o n s t r u c t "bonding  newly married couples.  behaviour", i n  This conceptualization i s c r i t i c a l l y  assessed i n the study by examining of  conceptu-  p a t t e r n s of c o r r e l a t i o n s  items r e p r e s e n t i n g each o f the four v a r i a b l e s , and a p r e -  d i c t i o n t h a t each of the v a r i a b l e s w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d with marital satisfaction.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s between these four  v a r i a b l e s w i l l be compared with the r e s u l t s of a measure of marital satisfaction, W.W.  (The Index o f M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n , I.M.S.,  Hudson/D.H. G l i s s o n , 1976) administered immediately  completion  after  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The hope of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i s that t h i s study  will  p r o v i d e a beginning step, l e a d i n g to f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area, e v e n t u a l l y l e a d i n g to a h i g h l y v a l i d measure of bonding behaviour. Bonding w i l l be d e f i n e d as a process i n the development of  r e l a t i o n s h i p , very s i m i l a r to the bonding  parent  and c h i l d at b i r t h .  t h a t occurs between  I t i s a form o f attachment  behaviour  which w i l l be examined under the four major areas mentioned above Many q u e s t i o n s e x i s t on the p e r i p h e r y o f t h i s study p r o v i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n g as w e l l as c h a l l e n g i n g goals f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h - i s bonding  behaviour  a p o s i t i v e p r o c e s s ? ; i s there a  2 critical  o r s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d ? ; t h e e f f e c t s o f mate c h o i c e ? ; t h e  e f f e c t s of a second relationships?;  marriage?;  does b o n d i n g  o c c u r i n common-law  the e f f e c t s of e a r l y p a r e n t - c h i l d bonding?; the  e f f e c t s o f p s y c h o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; - and o f u t m o s t to  the c l i n i c i a n ,  importance  c a n i t become a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l ?  Researchers  and c l i n i c i a n s  are beginning t o gather a  great deal of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e areas of care, t r u s t , cation,  and i n t i m a c y .  ment and i m p o r t a n c e  o f each  t h i s study i s , t o p u l l b e t t e r understand of  We a r e s t a r t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d to the i n d i v i d u a l .  together this  the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d .  another.  I t i s expected  development examining  These a r e i n t e r - r e l a t i n g  operate i n i s o l a t i o n  that these v a r i a b l e s ,  a valuable beginning step i n understanding t h i s  process.  o f one  t o g e t h e r , may  w e l l become more t h a n t h e sum o f t h e p a r t s - and t h i s be  of  group o f v a r i a b l e s , t o  t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h e e a r l y  t h a t do n o t , and c a n n o t ,  the develop-  The p u r p o s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n e w l y m a r r i e d c o u p l e s - by  systems,  communi-  too w i l l  intricate  3  B  HYPOTHESES AND  ASSUMPTIONS OF  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be of c l i n i c i a n s  and  v a r i a b l e s t o be  s t u d i e d - and  the e a r l i e s t  and  growth of t h i s necessary these  trust,  One  are  and  in  the a  interactionist  relationship.  p r o v i d e me  j u s t how  t e s t i n g o f an  of bonding  couples.  The  I  for  data  pull  hypothesis. preliminary  t o measure b o n d i n g  hypotheses that guide  four v a r i a b l e s , a l l items  c o r r e l a t e w i t h the t o t a l  sentiments this  will  significantly  score.  These c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l on  am  are:  In each of the  t o t a l scores  explore  variables  searching  i n v o l v e s t h e c r e a t i o n , and  inventory designed  newly m a r r i e d  these  information required to  assumptions i n t o a researchable This study  i s to  I do n o t know, n o r  - r a t h e r I am  w i t h the  researchers  fields.  of the main p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y ,  t o guess at t h i s s t a g e ,  that w i l l  researcher  i n congruence w i t h these  c o n s i t u t e bonding behaviour,  2.  intimacy,  c y c l e , a p p e a r s t o be  c l u s t e r of assumptions that t h i s  t h i s early developing  1.  initiation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  life  four  adults, in a loving relationship.  f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  study  i s , t h a t the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and  throughout the  b r i n g s t o the study,  in  this  the  antecedent f o r the e x i s t e n c e of a " c a p a c i t y " f o r  The  these  that links together  most s i g n i f i c a n t  f o u r v a r i a b l e s as  willing  STUDY  a c o n s e n s u s among a l a r g e number  researchers,  development of c a r e ,  THE  be  l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h  each of the o t h e r  three v a r i a b l e s .  4  3.  These  correlations  the  total  score  4.  The  with  total  total  on  the  score  scores  will  dropped, will do  be  the  moved used  to  to  drop  fail  evaluate if  one  improved  version  majority  of  the  the  to  the  will  correlations  the  significantly  four  category,  with  (1) a n d / o r  or  (2) w i l l  reworded.  performance  of  modify  of  the  four  scale  for  further  prove  correlate  variables.  -  more  items  than  satisfy  necessary  or  of  I.M.S. of  another  following,  concepts,  the  each  Items which  larger  I.M.S.  on  on  be  the  the  The  findings  scale,  and  definitions  variables,  to  or  if  design  to  of  the  produce  testing,  unsatisfactory,  be  an the  another  scale. If can or  be  the  performed  more  of  identify  the  on  be  selected  relationship,  to  "self-report"  questionnaire.  components  what  of  process  -  however,  include  them  in  of for  it  this  is  care,  study.  of  It  is  the  cluster total this  in  would  present  refers  intent  of  be  they  in  to  as  this  to  and the  and to  clinical marriage  there the  couples.  appear  themselves that  one  married  literature,  likely  on  intimacy,  because  lend  analysis  score  newly  trust,  and t o  researcher not  of  study  processes  defineable,  this  same  sentiments  my r e v i e w  affectional be  the  The p u r p o s e  bonding  (through  satisfactory,  with  variables  were  researcher to  persons  of  four  communication,  practice)  proves  subscales.  patterns  The  this  scale  to are  a other  bonding  researcher  to  5 a)  CARE Care w i l l be examined  child  as a product of the parent -  attachment, (having been n u r t u r e d and eared f o r ) which  i s assumed t o be a f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to  care i n h i s / h e r own marriage.  now,  I t w i l l a l s o be seen as a  concern f o r the o t h e r ' s growth and development. The q u e s t i o n s w i l l draw out f a c t s ,  f e e l i n g s , and  o p i n i o n s about the respondent's mother, f a t h e r , peers - and the  spouse and the present marriage.  b)  TRUST T r u s t i s d e f i n e d as a m u t u a l i t y , stemming from the  ability  to r e l y on the spouse, and a t r u s t of one's own  and one's own c a p a c i t y . variable,  Inherent i n the o b s e r v a t i o n o f the  i s the respondent's memory, a t t i t u d e s , and f e e l i n g s  about the development  of a sense of t r u s t with the mother,  f a t h e r , and f a m i l y , degree of t r u s t own sense o f t r u s t  c)  self  i n the spouse, and h i s / h e r  in self.  COMMUNICATION Communication  i s a f u n c t i o n of the a b i l i t y  and t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . the  non-verbal communication,  the  ability  We are not as concerned here with and incongruent messages, as w i t h  t o send and r e c e i v e that message.  w i l l be examined  t o send  This  variable  by an a n a l y s i s of the l e v e l o f communication  from u n w i l l i n g to communicate, communicating c o n t r o l , competing, p e r s u a s i o n ) , to p o s i t i v e  negatively,  -  (seeking  communication,  ( l i s t e n i n g , understanding, p o s i t i v e feedback, s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) ,  6 and of  the  possibility  communication, Here  to  questions  nature  of  of  a  "meta-communication",  idiosyncratic  too,  the  seeking  to  the  respondent  facts,  communication  in  the  individual  will  feelings,  a unique  be  and  marriage,  asked  couple. to  respond  attitudes, and  in  system  the  about  the  family  of  origin.  d)  INTIMACY Intimacy  continuum, mutual  bond,  feelings  to  about  communication, may b e  placed  degree  of  marital  -  variables  examined  emotional  care,  continuum in be  the  to  they  with  in  all  seeking  data, a  They  aspects.  well  reported  The  primary  limitation  to  the  degree is  this  of  the level  and  and or  as  well  negative  indeed  A series  of  events,  opinions,  feelings,  comparative  respondent marital  and  study  picture  his/her  satisfaction.  questionnaire of  the  and  are  facts, as  (a  family.  a positive  comprehensive,  apply  at  as  opinions,  other,  both  a  intimacy,  intimacy,  each  signify  and the  appropriate  trust,  on  comparing  to  relationship.  covered  provide as  attachment  bond,  "self-report",  be  attitudes,  correlated  and b e h a v i o u r a l should  will to  facts,  a questionnaire,  and b e l i e f s , these  a  bondedness  conditions,  of  respondent's  may b e on  in  intimacy  variables  and cannot  questions  marriage  and n o n - p o s s e s s i v e n e s s ) ,  memory  the  These  complex,  the  from p h y s i c a l  accessibility  marital  of  in  when  as we  a are  7  e x p l o r i n g the parameters, but n e c e s s i t a t i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , and b r o a d e r r e l i a b i l i t y The  checks  at a l a t e r s t a g e .  realm of assumptions  underlying this  i n v o l v e aspects of the respondent's e a r l y  study  attachment  and  d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , as w e l l as t h o s e which  a r e deemed u n i q u e  to the m a r i t a l  factors  bond.  T h i s r e s e a r c h e r assumes t h a t t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s b e i n g s t u d i e d a r e f a c e t s o f what t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t o as b e h a v i o u r " , and t h a t t h e y a r e r e s e a r c h a b l e . self-inventory  That  "bonding through  ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) i t i s f e a s i b l e t o examine  a and  measure t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n the r e s p o n d e n t , and t o p l a c e them on a c o n t i n u u m , the  degree  of the v a r i a b l e ,  thereby  and t h u s t h e d e g r e e  of  measuring  bonding  behaviour. Bonding of  relationship,  i s assumed t o be a p r o c e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i m i l a r t o , and i n f l u e n c e d by t h e  t h a t o c c u r s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d It  at  bonding  birth.  i s assumed t h a t e a r l y p a r e n t - c h i l d  attachment,  and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t relationships, w i l l It  affect  attachment  i s s e e n as a f o r m o f a t t a c h m e n t  trust,  i n t i m a c y , and It  behaviour, i n v o l v i n g care,  i s assumed t h a t n e w l y m a r r i e d c o u p l e s t e n d t o behaviour, that they tend to  a t t a c h m e n t , and t h a t a t t a c h m e n t  Furthermore,  partner.  communication.  d e v e l o p some f o r m o f a t t a c h m e n t seek t h i s  with the m a r i t a l  i s a p o s i t i v e process.  i t i s assumed t h a t m a r r i a g e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y  8 f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c l o s e a n d m u t u a l b o n d , and t h a t human b e i n g s h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y  t o form t h a t bond.  There a r e a host o f assumptions, a t t h e l e v e l o f h u n c h e s and i n s i g h t s ,  and y e t u n p r o v e n , t h a t t h i s  researcher  brings  These a r e - t h a t t h e r e  critical  t o the study.  or s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d  f o r t h e development o f bonding, t h a t i t  i n v o l v e s and n e c e s s i t a t e s p e r s o n a l difficult it  remedial  i t i s more and t h a t  to the marriage.  This researcher  an e f f o r t  competence, t h a t  i n subsequent m a r r i a g e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  i s crucial  research  i sa  sees the study  o f b o n d i n g as  i n p u r s u i t o f human d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h - as to obtain  and d e v e l o p p r e v e n t a t i v e  p r o g r a m s and t h e r a p e u t i c  methods.  rather  than  9  C  THEORETICAL RATIONALE FOR A North American  THE STUDY  t r a d i t i o n that many of us are  taught from c h i l d h o o d , i s that the h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g of families,  and of s o c i e t y as a whole, i s deeply r o o t e d i n the  continuance and success of marriage.  As i n d i v i d u a l s , we  p l a c e our g r e a t e s t hopes f o r f u l f i l l m e n t  often  and happiness i n the  marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p - and yet these are e x p e c t a t i o n s which for  some of us, w i l l  remain  unrealized.  As h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n a romantic c u l t u r e , have much to l e a r n about the process of the marriage I t i s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumption  that the  we  relationshi first  year of marriage i s the time of the g r e a t e s t hope f o r the marriage, the time when both p a r t n e r s w i l l u s u a l l y i n v e s t  the  g r e a t e s t amount of time and energy i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p - a unique time i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s u n l i k e l y to be repeated with the same innocence, genuineness, honesty, and i n t e n s i t y - at any o t h e r time or sequence  reciprocity, i n the marriage.  "Bonding" has become a f a m i l i a r term i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , not because  i t e x p l a i n s the m a t e r n a l / i n f a n t r e l a t i o n s h  to which i t i s most o f t e n r e f e r r e d , but because  i t signifies a  "uniqueness" about that r e l a t i o n s h i p - that something is special, For  about i t  important, and most of us would agree - necessary.  t h i s reason, t h i s w r i t e r too uses the term bonding - to  examine the f i r s t marriage  year of marriage, and i t s import on the  relationship.  10  Just how  t h i s bond occurs, i s i n s t i g a t e d , or  how  w e l l i t i s formed, i s b e l i e v e d to be, by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , the cumulative e f f e c t of each p a r t n e r ' s e a r l i e s t  attachments  with p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , peers, and f r i e n d s , throughout developmental  his/her  process.  Much has been s a i d about the concept of periods".  -  T h e o r i s t s have argued  "critical  t h a t the m a t e r n a l / i n f a n t  bond i s e s s e n t i a l to the p a r e n t / c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  and that  i t must occur w i t h i n a c e r t a i n span of time; that u n l e s s our e a r l i e s t needs are g r a t i f i e d , we w i l l  not as a d u l t s possess  a s u f f i c i e n t a b i l i t y or c a p a c i t y to meet these needs i n our own  r e l a t i o n s h i p s or w i t h our own  unique  c h i l d r e n ; that there are  and e s s e n t i a l tasks i n a s e r i e s of developmental  each of which must be learned, b e f o r e one  stages,  can move on t o the  next. Whether the developmental l e a r n i n g are as important  stages and our  earliest  as some s c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e , or  whether there are or are not c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s i n the p r o c e s s , i s not the major i s s u e here.  Salient to t h i s  i s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s u n d e r l y i n g assumption indeed tasks i n the developmental l e a r n e d or accomplished than at o t h e r s .  The  p e r i o d when bonding  learning study,  t h a t there are  process, and that they  are  with more ease at some times r a t h e r  f i r s t year of marriage  then, being the  can occur with the most ease and f a c i l i t y  -  perhaps n a t u r a l l y - although that i s not to say i t cannot occur at l a t e r stages i n the marriage.  The assumption  as time passes i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t ,  and  unlikely.  i s , that  11  D  PERSONS CONCERNED WITH THE  RESEARCH PROBLEM  The r e s e a r c h problem of  i s of concern to a wide  persons, from s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h e r s , c l i n i c i a n s ,  p o l i c y makers, to c l i e n t  groups  range and  and l a y persons.  T h i s study concerns the s e l e c t i o n of four v a r i a b l e s which t h i s r e s e a r c h e r proposes of  marriage.  of  the f i r s t  are present i n the f i r s t  The r e l e v a n c e f o r r e s e a r c h i s i n the  year  isolation  year, i n the study of the newly married couple,  and i n the development of the concept of bonding. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r has chosen t r u s t , i n t i m a c y , and communication,  four v a r i a b l e s - care, to determine  they form the c o n s t r u c t known as bonding.  i f together  I f t h i s i s so,  each v a r i a b l e w i l l r e q u i r e f u r t h e r development and refinement, u n t i l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to each, c l e a r l y measure that  variable,  and not one or more of the v a r i a b l e s . I f the v a r i a b l e s p a r t i a l l y  d e f i n e bonding,  then i t  w i l l be necessary to s i n g l e out those items which are a s i g n i f i c a n t measure of the c o n s t r u c t , and as w e l l to r e s e a r c h other v a r i a b l e s which may If  a l s o be components of bonding.  the v a r i a b l e s have no r e l a t i o n s h i p to bonding,  i t w i l l be necessary to t e s t out .other v a r i a b l e s b e f o r e the n o t i o n of bonding i s dropped. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should develop t h i s concept of bonding i n the f i r s t  year of marriage,  gradually  clarifying  and broadening the theory - by g a t h e r i n g data from the couple, and from the couple's parents and f a m i l y , i n order t o p r o v i d e f a c t s , i n f o r m a t i o n about observed behaviour, as w e l l as  12  feelings, beliefs,  and sentiments.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would  encourage c l e a r and c o n c i s e statements  about  the f i r s t  year,  b e f o r e the r e s e a r c h i s e x t r a p o l a t e d to o t h e r times i n the marriage, to determine about  the f i r s t If  bonding,  i f there i s i n f a c t anything  unique  year.  t h i s study c o n t r i b u t e s to the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of  i t w i l l provide f o r researchers a preliminary  instrument to measure bonding  i n newly married couples.  It  i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e that w i l l r e q u i r e refinement, as the concept  of bonding  i s f u r t h e r developed,  and more c l e a r l y  understood. The c l i n i c a l gains from t h i s study seem obvious, the e a r l i e s t n o t i o n and assumption r e s e a r c h e r ' s own  practice."*"  being i n s t i g a t e d by  I f the concept, of bonding i s  r e l e v a n t and important to the marriage it  i s most e a s i l y developed  r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i f  i n the f i r s t  year - the p r a c t i t i o n e r  working w i t h m a r r i e d couples must know and understand process of bonding, facilitate in  this  the  and i t s components, and must be able to  couples i n t h e i r development of bonding,  that e s s e n t i a l f i r s t  particularly  year.  C l i n i c i a n s as w e l l , should be prepared to examine t h e i r own  p r a c t i c e f o r evidence of bonding,  and to share with  the r e s e a r c h e r i n the development and understanding of t h i s process. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r has a b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g r e l e v a n c e f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s .  A l f r e d Kahn has argued f o r  " u n i v e r s a l " s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , a v a i l a b l e to a l l persons, on the b a s i s of need.  He  felt  that the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l view of s o c i a l  13  welfare  holds that out of i t s normal f u n c t i o n i n g the s o c i e t y  c o n s t a n t l y develops pressures 2 emerging needs." prepared  f o r new  p r o v i s i o n s f o r meeting  In a p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i e t y we  must  be  to o f f e r s e r v i c e s f o r the f a m i l y on a u n i v e r s a l  basis. In developing we  humane s o c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r f a m i l i e s ,  must n e c e s s a r i l y address marriage, and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  marriage.  Without r e s e a r c h knowledge about what f a c t o r s  c o n t r i b u t e to the development of a secure p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i r s t  year of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , we  face blanket programs, enforced by without  c l e a r conceptions  and happy marriage,  law,  could  on s o c i e t y at l a r g e ,  about what i s being  done or  why.  Advancing knowledge i n t h i s area of the newly married  r e l a t i o n s h i p , may  encourage a s e n s i t i v i t y  teenage marriage, and the p o s s i b i l i t y at r i s k .  that they  are a p o p u l a t i o n  T h i s would suggest f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y makers, the need  f o r unique or s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s designed Research on the process  for this  population.  of the marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p  could l e n d much to p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the development of marriage prepatory provide  towards  l a y persons a l i k e , i n courses.  It could  c u r r i c u l u m f o r programs s e t t i n g out to t r a i n c l e r g y  and p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage course,  would suggest the i s s u e s that couples  be encouraged to d i s c u s s together,  should  and examine more c l o s e l y ,  as they prepare f o r marriage. It i s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s hope that t h i s r e s e a r c h can be a p a r t of an ongoing process  beginning  of r e s e a r c h  on  14 bonding  i n the  many a r e a s o f school, and of and  as  as  life,  a part  about  family.  that  will  eventually  encompassing e a r l y  of  a commitment  learning the  marriage,  family by  and  life  community  learning  education and  overlap  i n high  s o c i e t y to  becoming a c t i v e l y  in  involved  the  into  elementary school, importance  i n marriage  15 Chapter I I SELECTED FORMULATIONS ON BONDING THEORY It  i s customary a t t h i s stage t o i n c l u d e a  systematic review of the l i t e r a t u r e , under study. tradition, be  relevant to the topic  T h i s r e s e a r c h e r has chosen t o veer  from  that  p a r t l y because o f t h e i m p o s s i b l e t a s k i t would  t o p r e s e n t t o t h e r e a d e r , a c l e a r and c o n c i s e  description  o f t h e b o u n t e o u s l i t e r a t u r e t h a t e x i s t s on a t t a c h m e n t development o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  and a l s o because o f t h i s  researcher's personal preference, t o take the reader a historical selection  and  of l i t e r a t u r e ,  that w i l l  through  allow the  r e a d e r t h e much n e e d e d l o o k a t t h e r o o t s o f t h e s t u d y for the researcher, i n order t o c l e a r l y understand t o p i c h a s come f r o m ,  and how i t was f o r m u l a t e d .  a s s i s t the reader then, i n b e t t e r understanding perhaps as w e l l , and  topic  where t h e  This  should  t h e t o p i c , and  developing questions f o rfuture direction  study. Those r e a d e r s who w o u l d p r e f e r a b r o a d e r  background  o f l i t e r a t u r e may r e f e r t o - M e a s u r i n g  Security i n Personal  Adjustment  and P e r s o n a l Development  ( A i n s w o r t h : 1958);  ( B l a n c k and B l a n c k :  1968);  Marriage  Attachment and Loss  E a r l y E x p e r i e n c e : Myth a n d E v i d e n c e C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y ( E r i k s o n : ( K l a u s and K e n n e l l : 1976); (Rauch,Barry, (Rodgers:  Hertel,  1972);  (Bowlby:  ( C l a r k e and C l a r k e :  1963);  Maternal  1976);  Infant Bonding  Communication, C o n f l i c t ,  and Swain: 1974);  1969);  and M a r r i a g e  Becoming P a r t n e r s  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l T h e o r y o f P s y c h i a t r y  16 (Sullivan: and  1 9 5 3 ) ; I d e n t i t y and  Cottrell The  and  Competence  f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n s of t h e o r e t i c a l this  viewpoints  researcher.  They  t h e m a j o r s o u r c e s o f s t i m u l a t i o n t h a t have b r o u g h t  researcher  to the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t attachment i n  m a r r i a g e may  i n v o l v e a very  the  s t a g e o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p - n a m e l y an  earliest  attachment, along trust,  (Foote  1955)  p r o p o s i t i o n s w e r e s e l e c t e d by  represent this  Jr.:  Personal  intimacy,  marriage - that The  i m p o r t a n t and  e s s e n t i a l task  initial  the major a f f e c t i o n a l systems of and  communication, i n the  i s r e f e r r e d t o as  reader then, w i l l  s e l e c t i o n of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , background information  for this  first  in  year  care, of  "bonding".  be  taken through a  that study.  are  really  historical  the  17  A  THE SELECTED  trust,  complex  of  a  between  the  system  newly  experiences  which  continue  married  at to  and  growing  families marital to  of  an  the  the  of  They  the  are  for  this  developmental  (1974)  pointed  to  an  communication  in  of  communication She  may  (1974)  stressed  very  disatisfying  failures  well  that  proposed  families,  that  life-cycle. increasing human  in  relations  troubled  "dysfunctional  reflect,  marriage."  researcher  process,  Matteson  of  together  developing  the  importance  disturbed  process,  throughout  communication  between  couple.  intimacy,  change  and m a r r i a g e s .  Satir  and  PROCESSES  and  evidence  unhappy,  care,  affective  core  grow  Roberta awareness  AS D E V E L O P M E N T A L  Communication, make-up  the  VARIABLES  and a l s o  contribute  3  "there  dysfunctional  is  a  relationship  marriages,  and  low  4 self-esteem."  is  clear,  developed they in  negative  but  much  provide  his  their  for  remains  skills  rules  to  of  communication  be  learned  skills,  and  the  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  pioneering  to  effect  communicative  awareness  how  The  work, in  reported  couples,  and i n t e r a c t i o n  meta-communicate  -  to  is,  to  highly  effects Paul  on,  or  function  Watzlawick  in  which  enable  patterns.  that  about  on ways  skills  difficulties  to  (1967)  increase  them  to  change  can  be  taught  "People  communicate  about  their  communication." Erik to  refer  because  to it  Erikson  that  (1963)  process  implies  of  naivete  said  human  that  he  used  attachment  and m u t u a l i t y .  and  the  word  "trust"  development,  For him,  trust  18 implied,  "having  learned to rely  f r o m o u t e r p r o v i d e r s , - but and  y o u r own  trust  of  identity,  "all  as  sameness and c o n t i n u i t y  a l s o t h a t you  trust  yourself  capacity."^  Erikson of  on  t h e o r i z e d t h a t the  a baby,  forms t h e b a s i s i n t h e  which l a t e r  right",  development  of being  combines w i t h  o n e s e l f , and  of  of a  child  sense  for a  a sense of  sense  being  " b e c o m i n g what  other  7  people  trust  one  Out the  will  of the  become." development  c a p a c i t y to care.  word  "tenderness"  Harry  Stack  to d e s c r i b e the  recognized  the  of a sense of t r u s t , Sullivan  (1953) u s e d  complex n a t u r e  importance  comes the  of c a r i n g  contact.  He  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  emotional  l e a r n i n g b e y o n d t h e f i r s t few y e a r s . " . . . c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and d e p r i v e d o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t , have t h e g r e a t e s t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the c a p a c i t i e s for loving, g i v i n g , a l t r u i s t i c behaviour, c o n s c i e n c e , and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "  and  8  Sullivan  suggests  development of these appears w i t h  other  maturity.  is  the  a p p e a r a n c e and  by  a sensitivity  that intimacy affectional  "The  last  follows  the  processes,  and  of these  growth o f t h e n e e d  to the  great  that i t  developments  for intimacy  needs o f o t h e r s ,  and  - marked  the i n t e r p e r s o n a l  9 security." Alan into  Dahms (1974) d i v i d e d t h e  development of  t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s - i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  emotional. concept  of  Intellectual "right",  accepted  things.  shoulds,  taboos,  and  intimacy i s the  guilt  and  i s s h a p e d by s o c i e t y ' s  s a y i n g and  P h y s i c a l intimacy and  physical,  intimacy  feelings,  doing  of  socially  i s l e a r n e d through and  i s s e t by  oughts,  societal  19 limits  and g u i d e l i n e s .  developed  Emotional intimacy i s a highly  and m a t u r e s e n s e  accessibility  o f i n t i m a c y , and i n v o l v e s mutual  and n o n p o s s e s s i v e n e s s .  Dahms f e l t  that,  " I t may b e u s e f u l t o a d o p t t h e p r e m i s e t h a t a t b i r t h t h e human b e i n g i s m a x i m a l l y able to experience intimacy at a l l l e v e l s e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l . . . as human d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r e s s e s , a p e r s o n may lose the capacity to experience higher levels of intimacy,"10 Dahms, r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n t e n s e i m p o r t a n c e of  a l l of these emotional processes  m a t t e r o f human b o n d i n g bond i s e s t a b l i s h e d , be  difficult.  and impact  together states that, "the  i s a s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s , f o r once t h e  e m o t i o n a l d i s e n g a g e m e n t f r o m t h e b o n d may  P e o p l e who have e x p e r i e n c e d an u n f o r t u n a t e  bond may b e h a u n t e d  by r e g r e t , o r may be u n a b l e  t o stop  caring.  20 B  THE RELATIONSHIP OF EARLY PARENT-CHILD BONDING TO FUTURE ATTACHMENTS A wide number of t h e o r i s t s s t r e s s that these major  concepts of - communication, developmental earliest  t r u s t , care, and i n t i m a c y , are  i n nature, and are g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by  our  attachments. Klaus and K e n n e l l (1976) i n t h e i r work on maternal-  i n f a n t bonding, s t r e s s e d t h a t , "The o r i g i n a l mother-infant bond i s the w e l l s p r i n g f o r a l l the i n f a n t ' s subsequent attachments, and i s the formative r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the course of which the c h i l d develops a sense of h i m s e l f . Throughout h i s l i f e t i m e , the s t r e n g t h and c h a r a c t e r of t h i s attachment w i l l i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y of a l l f u t u r e bonds to other individuals."-'2  They have r e f e r r e d to attachment between two people, that endures  as a r e l a t i o n s h i p  through time.  would agree, s t a t i n g that once an attachment  Sullivan  has been  e s t a b l i s h e d , the bond has a s t r e n g t h that i s remarkably r e s i s t e n t to d i s r u p t i o n . intensity,  Robert Sears spoke of the  and prolonged i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y  of  suddenness,  attachment.  Harry Harlow, i n h i s famous study of mothering  i n primates,  s a i d t h a t , "the infant-mother a f f e c t i o n a l system i s  enormously  powerful, and probably l e s s v a r i a b l e than any o t h e r of the 13 functional  systems." Although the nature of attachment  eludes us,  and  does not seem to f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g theory - one t h i n g remains  c l e a r - that t h i s e a r l y attachment  the b a s i s of a l l l a t e r attachments  and l o v i n g  w i l l become  relationships.  21 S u l l i v a n urged t h a t ,  "These gross p a t t e r n s  of learned  attachment become the u t t e r l y v a r i e d but q u i t e f i r m foundations 14 on which a great The  deal more i s superimposed o r b u i l t . "  course that the attachment process takes i n  adulthood, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n marriage, i s not as c l e a r as that between mother and i n f a n t - but that i t i s a f f e c t e d , and i n f l u e n c e d by that e a r l y attachment, i s s u r e l y  undisputable.  Mary Ainsworth (1958) during her work on s e c u r i t y and p e r s o n a l adjustment, concluded t h a t , "There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e disagreement about the o r i g i n s o f need f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l relations. Some b e l i e v e that i t i s innate i n man. Others b e l i e v e that i t i s a secondary or d e r i v e d need...But d e s p i t e disagreement on o r i g i n s , there i s a consensus that the need f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s s t r o n g and important i n the human s p e c i e s , and that i t i s f i r s t manifested i n r e l a t i o n s with the parents, e s p e c i a l l y the mother."-^ Although the path of attachment behaviour i n subsequent years and a f t e r i n f a n c y  i s not w e l l  chronicled,  John Bowlby (1969) also has suggested t h a t i t i s very  directly  r e l a t e d t o t h i s e a r l y attachment. "That attachment behaviour i n a d u l t l i f e i s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c o n t i n u a t i o n of attachment behaviour i n c h i l d h o o d i s shown by the circumstances that l e a d an a d u l t ' s attachment behaviour to become more r e a d i l y e l i c i t e d . . . i n c o n d i t i o n s o f sudden danger o r d i s a s t e r a person w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y seek p r o x i m i t y to another known or t r u s t e d person...To dub attachment behaviour i n adult l i f e r e g r e s s i v e , i s indeed t o overlook the v i t a l r o l e that i t p l a y s i n the l i f e o f man from the c r a d l e t o the g r a v e . " I 6  22 C  THE AND  DEVELOPMENT OF A CAPACITY FOR CARE, TRUST, INTIMACY, COMMUNICATION IN ADULT RELATIONSHIPS S u l l i v a n spoke of man's b a s i c needs during  development, - of care, t r u s t , intimacy, of these needs by our e a r l i e s t our peers.  He  felt  that out  - and  the  care g i v e r s , our  his  satisfaction  family,  and  of the s a t i s f a c t i o n of need,  arose "experience", or what he r e f e r s to as an a n t i c i p a t i o n of and  a " c a p a c i t y " f o r these a f f e c t i o n s i n our own  lives  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . "I have f i n a l l y come to the d e c i s i o n that the only approach i s the developmental route. In other words, i f we go with almost m i c r o s c o p i c care over how everybody comes to be what he i s at adulthood, then perhaps we can l e a r n a good deal of what i s h i g h l y probably about l i v i n g and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l i v i n g . " I 7  Erik Erikson  (1963) and  Rubin Blanck (1967) would  agree that the e a r l y l e a r n e d t r u s t or l a c k of t r u s t has intense  impact on our  " c a p a c i t y " f o r t r u s t as  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n t i m a t e  an  adults,  r e l a t i o n s h i p of marriage.  E r i k s o n expressed t h a t , "Through t h i s e a r l y bond, which i s l i t e r a l l y v i t a l , the mother f i r s t helps her i n f a n t develop a b a s i c t r u s t i n her, and then g r a d u a l l y prepares him to e n t e r i n t o human a c t i v i t i e s and human s o c i e t y . It i s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s mother which may determine h i s emotional f u t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the emotional h e a l t h and r i c h n e s s of h i s interpersonal r e l a t i o n s . " ^ 1  Blanck f e l t  that when an i n d i v i d u a l had  s u c c e s s f u l l y passed through the p s y c h o s o c i a l vs m i s t r u s t " , was  the most frequent  a readiness  other o b j e c t s ,  to d i v o r c e  expression  the p a r t n e r ,  and  as i n numerous e x t r a - m a r i t a l  not  stage of " t r u s t  of t h i s i n marriage the t u r n i n g affairs.  to  23 He f e l t  that,  "The n a t u r e o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a p e r s o n w i l l e s t a b l i s h , depends on h i s c a p a c i t y to i n t e r n a l i z e the o b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e during the e a r l i e r y e a r s , and the k i n d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n he h a s made. A l l human b e h a v i o u r i s b a s e d on models."I® Willard comes t o v e r y are  vital  Gaylin  (1976) i n h i s r e s e a r c h  s i m i l a r conclusions  to future  - that  on c a r i n g ,  the e a r l i e s t  attachments  a t t a c h m e n t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  "Caring o f course i s not j u s t a f u n c t i o n o f the m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Caring, that i s the p r o t e c t i v e , p a r e n t a l , tender aspects of l o v i n g - i s a part of r e l a t i o n s h i p among p e e r s , c h i l d t o p a r e n t , f r i e n d t o f r i e n d , lover to lover, person to animal, and m u l t i p l e p a t t e r n s . The f a c t t h a t . . . I attend almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o the p a r e n t c h i l d aspect o f c a r i n g i s because i t i s the e s s e n t i a l p a r a d i g m whose p r e s e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y for the d i f f u s i o n o f t h i s q u a l i t y i n t o the other aspects of r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l i f e . " 2 0 Gaylin be  cared  that  w o u l d a g r e e w i t h E r i c h Fromm  f o r i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the capacity  " i t i s being  loved  i n t h i s way t h a t  (1956),  that to  t o be c a r i n g , and  initiates  the capacity  21 in  the c h i l d ,  to give  love  to others."  Norman Cameron (1963) s t a t e s process  throughout  infant-parent capacity  life,  attachment,  particularly  that  the attachment  r e l a t i n g back t o t h e  a f f e c t s , i n a very  m a j o r way, o u r  f o r i n t i m a c y as a d u l t s . " T h e r e i s i n most p e r s o n s a n o t h e r d e r i v i t i v e of the symbiotic (mother-child) r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t e x p e r i e n c e d on an a d u l t , heterosexual l e v e l - t h e need f o r a d e p e n d a b l e , i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h a l o v e d and l o v i n g p e r s o n , s u c h ^ as s l e e p i n g w i t h a m a r i t a l p a r t n e r provides.'. 1  24 Satir communication  feels  strongly,  are i n f l u e n c e d  that  and  even  patterns of  a f f e c t e d by  early  experience,  "that c h i l d r e n learn inadequate communication p a t t e r n s from t h e i r p a r e n t s , which c o n t r i b u t e s t o low s e l f - e s t e e m and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , l o n l i n e s s , and a n x i e t y . " 2 3 Lily marriage  Pincus  (1971) p o i n t e d t o p r o b l e m s  i f t h e r e were c o n f l i c t s  i n the  i n the e a r l i e s t  attachments,  " a t b o t h c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l s , h u s b a n d s and w i v e s t r a n s f e r u n t o e a c h o t h e r , f e e l i n g s f o r the important p e o p l e o f the p a s t , and u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s f r o m t h e s e e a r l i e r p h a s e s o f development a r e l i k e l y t o be s t i r r e d t o l i f e again."24 Frederic and  learning  through  as  life  own  (1978) spoke  of the e a r l y  "unconscious blue p r i n t s "  - urging that  a d u l t h o o d was patterns,  Flack  t o shake  that  can  attachments follow  t h e t a s k o f a d o l e s c e n c e and  o f f some o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s  i n an a t t e m p t  t o become f r e e r  to determine  us  early  and one's  future. " S i g n i f i c a n t t r a c e s o f an u p b r i n g i n g r e s i d e w i t h i n our p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s ) . . . t h i s imprint c o n t a i n s our e a r l i e s t i m p r e s s i o n s o f what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f marriage i s about." ^ 2  Most t h e o r i s t s w o u l d a g r e e , for  success i n marriage,  intimate  caring  that  the g r e a t e s t  comes f r o m e i t h e r  relationships,  the e x p e r i e n c e of  f r o m h a v i n g been  loved, or  by  a s h r u g g i n g o f f o f t h e p a s t , and e x p e r i e n c i n g new  in  intimate  the  relationships.  more d i f f i c u l t The  necessitates  This  latter,  chance  i s most  learning  definitely,  task.  development a separation  of a s u c c e s s f u l  marriage  from the e a r l i e s t  relationship,  attachments,  and  25 for  some, a t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h e l e a r n e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f c a r e ,  trust, has  i n t i m a c y , and communication.  developed  a concept  Margaret  Mahler  (1961)  of " s e p a r a t i o n - i n d i v i d u a t i o n " ,  which  o c c u r s as a r e s u l t o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l t e r m i n a t i o n o f a symbiotic  relationship. " T h i s phase o f development o f c o u r s e , precedes t h e o e d i p a l p h a s e , and i t i n v o l v e s t h e c a p a c i t y t o s e p a r a t e from the p r i m a r y l o v e o b j e c t , the mother...In the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , each m a r i t a l p a r t n e r w i l l have had a s a t i s f a c t o r y symbiotic experience with h i s m o t h e r d u r i n g i n f a n c y , b u t he a l s o w i l l have had t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f i n d i n g t h a t he h a s d r i v e s n o t f u l l y g r a t i f i e d i n t h e p r i m a r y dyad."26 W a l t e r Towman ( 1 9 6 9 ) , a g r e e s w i t h M a h l e r  t h i s concept  i n t o h i s framework o f complementariness  e x p e r i e n c e , when he s a y s ,  "...new s o c i a l  more e n d u r i n g and s u c c e s s f u l , earlier,  and p l a c e s  and e a r l i e s t  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  t h e more t h e y r e s e m b l e t h e  (intrafamilial) social  relationships  27 of  the person The  involved." point i s clear,  our attachments  that developmentally, a l l of  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  cumulatively affect  we a r e a t a d u l t h o o d , and t h u s o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p and h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l b o n d o f m a r r i a g e . to  i n the important  T h i s d o e s n o t mean  say t h a t the e f f e c t s of s e p a r a t i o n o r i n c o n s i s t e n t  and p a r e n t i n g h a s l a s t i n g e f f e c t s ,  that individuals  e v e r a c h i e v e happy a n d s a t i s f y i n g m a r r i a g e s , i s not w i t h i n and t o l e a r n .  a l l persons Rather t h i s  what  attachment  cannot  or that there  t h e c a p a c i t y t o grow, t o c h a n g e , serves the purpose  l i g h t on t h o s e p r o c e s s e s t h a t e f f e c t m a r r i a g e ,  of shedding positively  26 and n e g a t i v e l y , levels,  and  and  thus may  encourage an awareness at a l l  avenues f o r change.  Blanck made t h i s c l e a r , so that the reader would never l o s e s i g h t of i t - t h a t , "When one comes to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e determining f o r c e s that can come to focus i n marriage, one i s compelled to abjure the myth that marriage i s e i t h e r healthy or n e u r o t i c . It i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p of such complexity, i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t two p a r t n e r s who f a l l i n love and marry have both reached the u l t i m a t e l e v e l of development i n a l l areas d e s c r i b e d , and that they f u l l y complement each other."28 L i l y Pincus (1971) s t r e s s e d as w e l l , that a l l marriages have f r u s t r a t i o n s and should for  aim  a n x i e t i e s , and  f o r , i s ways i n which to b u i l d up  that what  the  we  capacity  mutually s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n adulthood. Heinz Hartmann (1958) proposed h i s concept of  autonomous ego,  and  the process of adaptation,  the  when he s a i d ,  "....an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y to s u s t a i n a good m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p depends, among other t h i n g s on the c a p a c i t y of h i s ego to deal with the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . The c a p a c i t y i n turn depends on the extent to which ego development and adaptation, have taken place."29  1  27 D  THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSE OF PERSONAL COMPETENCE Out  trust,  of the development of c a p a c i t i e s f o r care,  intimacy,  and communication i n our a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  of being able t o s u c c e s s f u l l y separate,  of meeting one's own  needs, may come a sense of p e r s o n a l competence or mastery. S u l l i v a n speaks o f a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n , o f experience that r i s e s out of knowing what one needs and l i k e s , and being able to f i t i t i n t o the r e s t of l i f e . Pincus s a i d o f t h i s experience  that,  "Marriage a f f o r d s at one and the same time, an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r growth and maturation, and f o r a r e t u r n to and a r e p e t i t i o n o f the c e n t r a l aspects of past experiences. To most people, f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e e a r l y childhood, marriage o f f e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an e x c l u s i v e two-person r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r c l o s e p h y s i c a l intimacy, and the experience o f g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g direct bodily satisfaction."30 Klaus  and K e n n e l l s a i d o f the a t t a c h i n g process,  that i t can cause i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m ,  " e l a t i o n " , and  "engrossment". Sullivan  f e l t t h a t the c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s had, coupled with i t , a great d e a l of p o s i t i v e potential.  That "one i s able at adulthood  to e s t a b l i s h  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of love f o r some other person, r e l a t i o n s h i p the other person  i s as s i g n i f i c a n t , 31  as s i g n i f i c a n t as one's s e l f . "  i n which or n e a r l y  28 R.W. of " e f f i c a c y " ,  White has c a l l e d  this  sense of s e l f a  and d e s c r i b e d i t i n t h i s  way,  "Competence, i n o t h e r w o r d s , i s t h e cumulative r e s u l t of the whole h i s t o r y of one's t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s b u i l t upon o u r e x p e r i e n c e s o f o u r s e l v e s as a d o e r we c a n t r u s t and r e l y upon."32  feeling  29 E  INTERPERSONAL COMPETENCE R.W.  White f e l t  then t h a t  " c o m p e t e n c e " comes f r o m  successful transactions with  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , S u l l i v a n saw  it  and y o u r own c a p a c i t y ,  as a t r u s t i n g o f y o u r s e l f  from c o n t i n u i t y from our o u t e r  providers.  stemming  Some t h e o r i s t s  have p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s s e n s e o f competence i s a n e c e s s a r y o r a t l e a s t an i m p o r t a n t a n t e c e d e n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a high there  l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  That  c o u l d be s o m e t h i n g known a s an " i n t e r p e r s o n a l  c o m p e t e n c e " , a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n two m a t u r e p e r s o n s w h i c h possessed a mutuality, It  accessibility,  and n o n - p o s s e s s i v e n e s s .  i s t h i s experience i n marriage that t h i s  researcher  feels  i s an e s s e n t i a l component o f b o n d i n g , o r s u c c e s s f u l and p o s i t i v e bonding f o r the couple. Mary A i n s w o r t h ( 1 9 5 8 ) i n s t u d y i n g personal  adjustment s a i d  s e c u r i t y and  that,  "a m a t u r e b a s i s o f d e p e n d e n t s e c u r i t y i m p l i e s something beyond a p u r e l y r e c i p i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i t i n v o l v e s a mutual dependence o f two p e o p l e , b o t h o f them c o n t r i b u t i n g , and b o t h r e c e i v i n g . " 3 3 This is  i s n o t a c h i e v e d by a l l p e r s o n s , and f o r some  achieved t o a greater  Sullivan  felt  that  extent  t h a n i t w i l l be f o r o t h e r s .  i n d i v i d u a l s were p r o h i b i t e d from t h i s  d e v e l o p m e n t i n human r e l a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f a n x i e t y , of problems w i t h  the "self-system"  or i n a p p r o p r i a t e  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the self.  was t h a t some p e o p l e c a n s t a n d grow by i t , w h i l e  others  full  because  f u n c t i o n i n g - an i n a d e q u a t e  anxiety,  H i s premise  and c a n l e a r n and  a r e p l a g u e d by i t , f e a r i t , a n d  cannot help themselves. Nelson Foote and Leonard C o t t r e l l J r . , i n  1955,  f u r t h e r developed S u l l i v a n ' s theory, and e l a b o r a t e d the concept of " i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence".  They r e f e r to i t  as "the development of e x t r a o r d i n a r y competence i n interpersonal  relations.  31 F  BONDING BEHAVIOUR IN NEWLY MARRIED COUPLES Sherod M i l l e r  (et a l ) (1976) a p p l i e d Foote  and  C o t t r e l l ' s work to t h e i r work w i t h newly married and engaged couples.  They spoke of the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as an  "engaging" process - a " f l u i d process of i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p 35 formation".  I t i s here that the t h e o r i s t s a r r i v e at  the concept  t h i s r e s e a r c h e r r e f e r s to as "bonding", - the  process of attachment, e s s e n t i a l to the marriage, as t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has proposed, to the f i r s t  particularly  year of  marriage. Foote  and C o t t r e l l emphasize the importance o f ,  "developing the i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence to accommodate  and  c r e a t e change, i n order to keep the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 36 v i a b l e over  time."  The  encouragement of bonding i n the m a r i t a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p means r e f i n i n g each p a r t n e r ' s  self-awareness,  "heightening each p a r t n e r ' s awareness of h i s own c o n t r i b u t i o n to i n t e r a c t i o n and h e l p i n g couples explore t h e i r own 37 of  rules  relationship." Competence denotes the c a p a b i l i t y to meet and  with a changing them.  world,  deal  to formulate ends and to implement  Foote and C o t t r e l l conclude t h a t , "from the standpoint of i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour, p e r s o n a l i t y development i s a continuous p r o c e s s . Not only must there be i n t e r m i t t e n t adaptation to those c o n d i t i o n s , beyond the c o n t r o l of the person, but a person must c o n s t a n t l y s e t h i m s e l f a f r i n g e of new o b j e c t i v e s . " 3 8  32 O ' N e i l l and O ' N e i l l Foote  and C o t t r e l l , and adapt  of "open marriage".  (1973) would agree the theory t o t h e i r  Open marriage  with concept  i s a relationship in  which the p a r t n e r s are committed to t h e i r own and each o t h e r ' s growth, and t h r i v e s on t r u s t , and open and honest  care, intimacy, r e s p e c t ,  communication.  "The system operates on the p r i n c i p l e of synergy, which means t h a t two p a r t n e r s i n a marriage, or i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p can accomplish more p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l growth together while s t i l l r e t a i n i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t i e s , than they c o u l d separately."39 Graham B. Spanier (1976) views t h i s process o f development and adjustment  i n the marriage,  much l i k e  this  r e s e a r c h e r does - as a continuum, from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e , a d e v e l o p i n g process, which c l i n i c i a n s may, with more knowledge, be able t o s t i m u l a t e and encourage. He s t a t e s t h a t , " m a r i t a l or dyadic adjustment may be viewed i n two d i s t i n c t ways - as a process o r a q u a l i t a t i v e s t a t e . . . t h e process c o n s i s t s o f those events, circumstances, and i n t e r a c t i o n s , which move a couple back and f o r t h along t h i s continuum...dyadic adjustment i s a process of movement along a continuum which can be e v a l u a t e d i n terms of p r o x i m i t y to good or poor adjustment."40  33 G  SUMMARY  Bonding  i s viewed  as a l i f e l o n g process,  stems out of i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence.  It involves care,  r e s p e c t , t r u s t , open communication, mutual non-possessiveness,  intimacy, and a concern  growth and development. occurs i n the f i r s t  that  accessibility, f o r the o t h e r ' s  T h i s r e s e a r c h proposes  that i t  year of marriage, with the u n d e r l y i n g  hypothesis that the f i r s t  year may  be a c r i t i c a l  or s e n s i t i v e  time f o r i t s development. The study i s narrowed down, by s e l e c t i n g four v a r i a b l e s , to determine  i f they are measures of bonding,  and  i f they are, as w e l l , an i n d i c a t i o n of m a r i t a l - s a t i s f a c t i o n . By h e l p i n g to c l a r i f y  the concept  of bonding,  the r e s e a r c h e r ,  i n t h i s r e s p e c t , has l a i d groundwork f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n the study of bonding,  and i n the process of i t s development  i n the marriage. Chapter three  concerns the s e l e c t i o n of an approp r i a t e  l e v e l of r e s e a r c h design f o r the study, and w i l l  o u t l i n e the  measurement instrument to be used, the s e l e c t i o n of a study sample, and the planned program of data a n a l y s i s .  34 Chapter  III  STUDY DESIGN A  LEVEL OF RESEARCH DESIGN This study i s e x p l o r a t o r y , with the major emphasis on  the d i s c o v e r y of i n s i g h t s . develop  The purpose of the study  i s to  a h y p o t h e s i s , and to d e f i n e the v a r i a b l e s that c o n s t i t u t e  "bonding behaviour".  The  r a t i o n a l e f o r undertaking  an  e x p l o r a t o r y study, i s that the components and nature of the development of r e l a t i o n s h i p between newly married couples i s yet u n c l e a r .  Research i n t h i s area must begin at the  of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and c l a r i f y i n g concepts. the i n i t i a l  step i n what can, and should, become a  level  It i s continuous  research process. Data w i l l be c o l l e c t e d through administered  the use of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  i n group s e s s i o n s , e n s u r i n g that both  complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  partners  to prevent  contamination.  chosen because i t i s more  than an i n t e r v i e w , a l l o w i n g the respondent  g r e a t e r anonymity,  which i s important  i n a study  charged  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s inexpensive, i s not  data.  The  impersonal  i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n a l and  emotionally time  consuming, allows f o r r e l a t i v e ease i n coding and a n a l y s i s , can be administered to a group at one  time.  An i n t e r v i e w might w e l l have been a v a l u a b l e particularly  and  at the e x p l o r a t o r y l e v e l , but i t was  tool,  thought  with only t h i r t y s u b j e c t s , one might gather too much data and show nothing - as w e l l as the ease of contamination  by  that  35  interviewer's bias i n questioning, leading, influencing of responses,  and i n a n a l y s i s .  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l l o w s f o r the r e p o r t i n g o f : i ) f a c t s (personal h i s t o r y data, behaviour h i s t o r y and b e h a v i o u r  data,  personal  data about persons known t o the respondent,  d a t a about events and c o n d i t i o n s ) ; and i i ) o p i n i o n s , f e e l i n g s , and b e l i e f s (reasons behaviour  f o r the  specified  and a t t i t u d e s , o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s ) .  ( S e l l t i z et a l ) There w i l l be a p r e - t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n t o s i x couples p r i o r t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  s i x c o u p l e s w i l l be i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e to determine i f the q u e s t i o n s were u n d e r s t o o d as i n t e n d e d ,  i f the respondents i n t e r p r e t e d the  i n a s i m i l a r way,  questions  i f the q u e s t i o n s appeared b i a s e d or l e a d i n g ,  and i f they f e l t the responses g i v e n c l e a r l y covered f e e l i n g s , thoughts,  their  and a t t i t u d e s , o r i f t h e r e were gaps,  or items they f e l t had been l e f t  out.  Data o b t a i n e d from the p r e - t e s t and i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be used t o make any necessary  changes i n the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  36 The purpose o f an e x p l o r a t o r y study i s the clarification  of concepts  and the development of an instrument  to measure those c o n s t r u c t s t o enable us to b e t t e r understand and make r e s e a r c h a b l e statements  about the nature o f the  constructs. In such a study, the p l a n o f data a n a l y s i s turns to "construct v a l i d i t y " .  J . Nunally r e f e r s to a c o n s t r u c t as  "put together from the experimentor's  i m a g i n a t i o n . . . i t does 41  not e x i s t as an observable measure of behaviour."  I t i s the  process by which we e s t a b l i s h f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a b s t r a c t v a r i a b l e s - i n t h i s i n s t a n c e - care, t r u s t , and  intimacy,  communication. The  c o n s t r u c t , i n t h i s study, r e p r e s e n t s the b e g i n n i n g  formation of a hypothesis that the f o u r v a r i a b l e s w i l l with one another. without  Bonding cannot be s t u d i e d at t h i s  constructs.  correlate  level  The purpose then, i s t o develop measures  of the c o n s t r u c t s , and t o f i n d r e l a t i o n s between the measures of the d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s . "Constructs vary i n the extent t o which observable v a r i a b l e s are:  1) l a r g e or s m a l l , 2) t i g h t l y o r l o o s e l y  42 defined."  T h i s r e s e a r c h e r , and o t h e r s , have b e l i e f s  what of bonding behaviour  about  i s observable, but beyond t h a t we  have only hunches and guess work. Nunally speaks of the "domain" o f the v a r i a b l e that being the range o f f a c t o r s making up the v a r i a b l e - but adds t h a t the boundaries w i l l not be c l e a r .  It i s this  process  of s p e c i f y i n g the domain o f the v a r i a b l e s , determining t o what extent they c o r r e l a t e with each other, and determining whether  37  all, the  or some of the measures of the construct  being s t u d i e d  v a r i a b l e s appear to measure  - that  necessary task or research  i n new  i s the d i f f i c u l t areas of s o c i a l  but  science.  In d e f i n i n g what i s meant by bonding, i t becomes necessary to develop a theory about how study w i l l  r e l a t e to one  another.  are made between v a r i a b l e s .  the v a r i a b l e s under  In the  analysis,  When the c o r r e l a t i o n s are  the v a r i a b l e s appear to be measuring the  When a l l c o r r e l a t e near zero,  d i f f e r e n t things. should be  I f they  are  being  they are measuring  Evidence of h i g h c o n s t r u c t  a p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r , and  high,  same t h i n g .  s p l i t i n t o c l u s t e r s , a number of d i f f e r e n t things measured.  correlations  correlation  an encouragement to  further  research. Constructs i n t h i s study w i l l be proposed use  of " c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s " .  together groups of r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s : if  analyzed through a  It w i l l  assist in pulling  I t i s used to determine  a l l responses measuring a v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e , and  measure that  v a r i a b l e , and  in fact  a l s o i f there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p  c r o s s - s t r u c t u r a l l y between v a r i a b l e s , measuring the same Reliability  becomes important to a study t e s t i n g out  a measurement instrument. there w i l l be This w i l l  To  insure  internal  consistency,  f o r t y t e s t items, i n the measure of each variable.'  allow f o r a r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t , based on  c o r r e l a t i o n s among items, to t e s t i f the Important other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are - that  construct.  t e s t items are w r i t t e n  Test  length  and  related.  i n assuring  c l e a r l y , and  that r u l e s f o r s c o r i n g are e x p l i c i t , subjectivity in scoring.  items are  that  the  reliability  e a s i l y understood, there be  minimal  i s also..atfunction  of  38 reliability.  .  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d with no formal h y p o t h e s i s i n mind. of  Rather the emphasis was on the development  f o r t y homegeneous items that appeared t o measure each  individual  variable. T h i s study i s not without some e s s e n t i a l  on the p a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r .  concerns  J . Nunally suggests that there  should be t e n times as many s u b j e c t s as items.  In a study of  t h i s s c a l e , t h i s i s n e i t h e r p r a c t i c a l or f e a s i b l e . the  study i s e n t e r e d i n t o with the knowledge that  As w e l l , correlations  among items are not always high i n the case o f " a t t i t u d e , p e r s o n a l i t y , and i n t e r e s t s " . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e to be used i s designed as a "self-report". traits, the  The respondent i s asked to d e s c r i b e h i s own  feelings, beliefs,  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f f a c t s .  One o f  few means of comparison with h i s / h e r responses i s to ask  what an "average" person would do oo? f e e l i n the same s i t u a t i o n . T h i s self-repo.rt w i l l use a s i x step o r d i n a l  scale.  This w i l l not i n d i c a t e "how much" o f the a t t r i b u t e i s p r e s e n t , but w i l l  designate the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the person, i n  r e l a t i o n to the a t t r i b u t e s ; and a l l o w s f o r a comparison o f respondents with each o t h e r . The s c a l e chosen does not u t i l i z e  a neutral position -  p r i m a r i l y to f o r c e a c h o i c e , and to e l i m i n a t e the over-use of the  neutral position.  I t i s f e l t that respondents w i l l  have  an o p i n i o n , p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y on each q u e s t i o n item.  39  w  HH 03  PH  a  03  •03  O <.  >H HH EH  H  PH PH 03 O <C >H EH  O  o  GO  o  PH PH 03 O  o  >H  >H HH EH  <  EH PH O HH HH  CO  HH HH 03 O <3  CO  CO  >H HH EH  o  1  CO  HH HH  O  o co HH HH EH HH HH PH  o  CO  T h i s s c a l e a l l o w s the respondent t o f e e l the response i s on a r a t i n g continuum,  r a t h e r than a s i m p l e yes o r no.  V a l i d i t y o f a s e l f - r e p o r t i s l i m i t e d by what the i n d i v i d u a l knows about h i m s e l f , and i s w i l l i n g t o r e l a t e . The assurance o f anonymity  i s expected t o i n c r e a s e frankness.  U n d e r s t a n d i n g v e r b a l a t t i t u d e s do not always c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h t h e b e h a v i o u r p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a t t i t u d e , but i n many cases, "what p e o p l e s a y , i s more p r e d i c t i v e than what they may 43  f e e l i n any deeper  sense."  40 B  SAMPLING PROCEDURES The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study i s a l l h e t e r o s e x u a l  couples, married between February 1979  1st, 1978 and February 1 s t ,  (one y e a r ) ; both p a r t n e r s married f o r the f i r s t  i n the c i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h  time -  Columbia.  Developing a sample from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n was a difficult  task.  The only way a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample c o u l d  have been obtained was through the use o f church m a r i t a l records.  T h i s was thought  t o produce  b i a s and a skewed example.  It i s not a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e f e r t o the t h i r t y  couples  responding i n t h i s study, as a sample, as they were not i n any way "chosen" by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r .  Rather the respondents  w i l l be the couples who answer the advertisements  i n the  u n i v e r s i t y and c i t y newspapers, as w e l l as couples known t o be newlyweds, and sought  out by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r through  newspaper announcements and f r i e n d s .  Respondents w i l l be  asked i f they would be i n t e r e s t e d i n completing a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on "the development of r e l a t i o n s h i p i n newly married couples". It was presumed that a sample of t h i r t y be f e a s i b l e t o f i n d , study.  couples would  as w e l l as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an e x p l o r a t o r y  I f the assumptions  o f t h i s study h o l d t r u e , i t c o u l d  l e a d t o a study on a much l a r g e r  scale.  41 C  METHODS OF GATHERING DATA Source of data i s the respondent - h i s / h e r memory  of  f a c t s , i n c i d e n t s , behaviours, f e e l i n g s ,  and a t t i t u d e s .  No agency r e c o r d s o r p r e v i o u s l y c o l l e c t e d data w i l l Each respondent w i l l  be used.  be asked t o complete a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e of 160 q u e s t i o n s , designed t o measure t h e degree of "bonding.behaviour" of the respondent. The s i x couples who complete will  a pre-test  questionnaire,  be i n t e r v i e w e d f o l l o w i n g the p r e - t e s t , as a r e l i a b i l i t y  check to determine i f the q u e s t i o n s were understood as intended, if  respondents f e l t t h e i r answers r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r  true  o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s , and t o look f o r gaps t h a t might have been missed i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o l l o w i n g completion o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by the t h i r t y t e s t couples, each w i l l  be asked t o complete the I.M.S.  (Index o f M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n ; W.W.  Hudson/D.H. Glisson;. 1976).  The I.M.S. i s a s e r i e s o f t w e n t y - f i v e q u e s t i o n s , both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , that was designed t o measure the degree of  marital discord.  I t i s e a s i l y self-administered, contains  minimal i n s t r u c t i o n s , and "can be completed  i n three t o f i v e  44 minutes." The I.M.S. was .tested f o r r e l i a b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t methods - s p l i t reliability  h a l f and t e s t r e - t e s t .  u s i n g two The s p l i t  was .955 and . 956, c.and on t e s t r e - t e s t .966.  The v a l i d i t y  co-efficients  Locke-Wallace M a r i t a l Adjustment  (when compared w i t h the  T e s t ) , range from -.741 t o  half  42 -.806  with a mean o f -.779.*  co-efficients  tend to range  11. . . c o n c u r r e n t l y  from about  validity  .40 to . 60 with a  median of .50, and every one of the concurrent v a l i d i t y co-efficients  from the I.M.S. exceeds  45 those f i g u r e s . 11  Hudson and G l i s s o n have developed the I.M.S. as a c l i n i c a l tool.  T h i r t y was chosen  who appeared  as the c u t t i n g p o i n t  s c o r e , those  t o have a s t a b l e and s a t i s f y i n g m a r i t a l  ship s c o r i n g l e s s than t h i r t y , and those who appeared  relationt o have  m a r i t a l problems s c o r i n g g r e a t e r than t h i r t y . The  I.M.S. was developed f o r useby c l i n i c i a n s , to  monitor and assess the m a r i t a l d i s c o r d and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of c l i e n t s on a continuous b a s i s over time. The s c a l e i t s e l f to fake i f the respondent  i s obvious, the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g easy so chooses.  Hudson and G l i s s o n  state  that t h i s was d e l i b e r a t e , the respondents b e i n g informed that the t o o l i s only u s e f u l f o r him/her when completed w i t h  *  honesty.  The s c o r e s are n e g a t i v e because the Locke-Wallace measures m a r i t a l adjustment and the I.M.S. measures m a r i t a l d i s c o r d .  43 D  PROGRAM OF DATA ANALYSIS The  MIDAS (Michigan I n t e r a c t i v e Data A n a l y s i s  46 System)  was used t o analyze the data because i t i s t e r m i n a l  o r i e n t e d and p a r t i c u l a r l y  fast.  CONTROL OPTIONS = WIDE READ FI = MARYANN  C = 1-60  VAR = 1-192  2X,33F1.0,1F2.0,5F1.0) WRITE *  FO = NONE  C = 1  FO = ( 2 ( 2 X , 78F1.01),  L = *  VAR = 1-12,  184-195  TRANS  V196 = SUM  VAR = 1-40  C = 1-60  TRANS  V197 = SUM  VAR = 41-80 C = 1-60  TRANS  V198 = SUM  VAR = 81-120  TRANS  V199 = SUM  VAR = 121-160  C = 1-60  L = *  TRANS  V200 = SUM  VAR = 161-185  C = 1-60  L - *  WRITE  VAR = 196-200  FO = 5F7  .2  CORRELATE  VAR = 196- -200 ; 1-40  CORRELATE  VAR = 196- -200 ; 41-80 C = ALL  DESCRIBE CODE ONEWAY  C = ALL  TWOWAY COMPLETE KSAMPLE  C = = ALL  >END OF FILE  C = ALL  VAR = 186-194' FUN = *  VAR = 186-200  VAR =186-194  OP = MARG%  VAR = 196-200 ; 187-188  VAR = 196-200  FINISH  F l+ *  C = = ALL  VAR = 196- -200 ; 121-160  RES = 186-200  S = NONE  C = ALL  ' VAR - 196- -200 ; 8H20  C = ALL  L = *  C = ALL  VAR = 196- -200  CORRELATE  L = *  C = 1-60  CORRELATE  CORRELATE  L = *  S = V186  L = * CUM%  OP = COLUMN%, ORDINAL  44 Chapter IV STUDY FINDINGS A  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH DESIGN: PROBLEMS IN SAMPLING, DATA COLLECTION, AND/OR ANALYSIS T h i s study i n v o l v e s a sample of t h i r t y  heterosexual  couples, married l e s s than one year, married f o r the f i r s t time, and l i v i n g i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  There was  a p r e - t e s t of s i x couples, who met the same c r i t e r i a as the > sample couples. The  sample chosen was a "convenience"  sample.  The  p r e - t e s t couples were r e q u i r e d t o complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , ( s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , so as not to confer while responding), at the School of S o c i a l Work, d u r i n g the f i r s t week of February, 1979.  A f t e r completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the p r e - t e s t  couples were asked t o respond t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i t s r e a d a b i l i t y ; were q u e s t i o n s understood  as the r e s e a r c h e r had  intended them?; d i d any q u e s t i o n probe u n n e c e s s a r i l y ? All  of the p r e - t e s t respondents  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c l e a r , comprehension.  and expressed no problems with  The respondents  a p p r o p r i a t e , and none f e l t probing, o r produced  s t a t e d that the  agreed that the q u e s t i o n s were  that any one q u e s t i o n was too  an uncomfortable  f e e l i n g o r response.  There were no changes made i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , none were r e - w r i t t e n , o r rearranged, on the b a s i s of the p r e - t e s t questionnaire.  The t h i r t y couples, who comprise  the sample,  45 completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n three s e s s i o n s , and the mean completion  time was twenty minutes.  i n the study  requested  A l l couples  taking part  r e s u l t s o f the research, when the  study was completed. No changes were necessary  i n the sampling  procedure  from those s e t f o r t h i n the design. The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were coded on a f i v e p o i n t  r a t i n g continuum, ranging from none o f the time, the time,  sometime, good p a r t of the time,  of the time.  a l i t t l e of  and most o r a l l  The o r i g i n a l o r d i n a l s c a l e s e l e c t e d was a 3  range from completely  agree t o completely  disagree.  The  s c a l e was changed to the s c a l e used on the I.M.S. (Hudson/Glisson) f o r ease of s c o r i n g and a l s o because the items sample behaviour  seemed t o  that r e c u r r e d .  Each q u e s t i o n on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was coded, on a s c a l e from one to f i v e , response t o the item.  f i v e r e p r e s e n t i n g the best p o s s i b l e  The I.M.S. was r e - s c o r e d to match the  s c o r i n g system o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a score o f f i v e a high degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n .  indicating  The h i g h e s t a t t a i n a b l e score  on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 800 p o i n t s , and on the I.M.S., 125 points.  The demographic data was coded i n order i t c o u l d be  c o r r e l a t e d with t o t a l s c o r e s on each v a r i a b l e , and on the I.M.S. The Questions 41-80  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s made up o f 160 q u e s t i o n s .  1-40 represent the v a r i a b l e communication.  represent the v a r i a b l e intimacy.  represent the v a r i a b l e t r u s t . the v a r i a b l e care.  Questions  Questions  Questions  81-120  121-160 prepresent  The I.M.S. f o l l o w s the 160 item "bonding"  46 i n v e n t o r y , and nine demographic questions f o l l o w the I.M.S. Seven of the nine demographic q u e s t i o n s were coded, to i n c l u d e i n the a n a l y s i s o f data - sex, age, education, length of time married ( i n months), how long respondent  has l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, whether  respondent  l i v e d i n a r u r a l o r urban environment most o f t e n i n the f i r s t eighteen years of h i s / h e r l i f e , respondent  took a marriage  and whether or not the  p r e p a r a t i o n course.  two q u e s t i o n s , e t h n i c o r i g i n ,  The other  and length of time l i v e d i n  Canada, were not coded as there was l i t t l e  o r no v a r i a n c e  between s u b j e c t s , on these two items. There were remarkably The  few problems with t h i s  study.  data was coded and keypunched, and adapted w e l l to the  M.I.D.A.S. program of data a n a l y s i s .  The a n a l y s i s  correlated  the t o t a l scores on each v a r i a b l e ; c o r r e l a t e d each item a g a i n s t the f i v e t o t a l s c o r e s , - the f o u r v a r i a b l e s and the I.M.S. ( u s i n g Pearson's  r ) ; produced  d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the  demographic data; c r o s s - c o r r e l a t e d demographic data with the f i v e t o t a l s c o r e s ; and c o r r e l a t e d the sex o f the respondent with the f i v e t o t a l s c o r e s . To i n s u r e that adequate care and c o n s i d e r a t i o n was taken with the study sample, a p r o p o s a l of t h i s study was presented t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia E t h i c s Committee. The study was a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e i n the use of time and money.  47 B  DESCRIPTIVE DATA ON STUDY SAMPLE The study sample was  between February  1978  from 20 - 33 years. 25-30 years; 31-35  made up of couples married  and February The  1979,  and ranged  i n age  coding c a t e g o r i e s were 18-24  years; w i t h 20% f a l l i n g i n the  category, 58% i n the second,  and 21.7%  years;  first  i n the t h i r d  category.  The m a j o r i t y of the respondents were between 25 - 30 y e a r s , which seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p o p u l a t i o n married l e s s than year, and married f o r the f i r s t  time.  The education of respondents was  broken  high s c h o o l (8.3%), c o l l e g e (6.7%), u n i v e r s i t y post-graduate  (10.0%).  one  The sample was  down i n t o -  (75.0%),  and  a h i g h l y educated  one.  This c o u l d be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d through the advertisement f o r s u b j e c t s i n the c i t y newspaper and the u n i v e r s i t y newspaper, although the sample i s more h i g h l y educated than t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had expected.  I t i s p o s s i b l e that more h i g h l y  educated  people tend to seek out t h i s type of study, and are more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n e x p l o r i n g t h e i r marriage  perhaps relationship.  Perhaps i t i s that more h i g h l y educated persons l e s s threatened by, or perhaps  more accustomed to the  e x p l o r a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  length of time married, v a r i e d i n the study  sample from three months to ten months, with the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of respondents married between s i x and nine months, a t o t a l of  90%.  are  48 The m a j o r i t y of the respondents  (85%) l i v e d most  of the time, up to the age of eighteen, i n an  urban  environment. 43.3%  of the sample had l i v e d i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  l e s s than one year and 45% had l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  more  than ten years.  one  (8.3% l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  and three years; 1.7%  between  between three and f i v e y e a r s ; and  1.7%  between f i v e and ten y e a r s , ) A s u r p r i s i n g 63.3% p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage  of the sample had taken a  course.  than t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had expected. who  T h i s f i n d i n g was  much h i g h e r  I t c o u l d be that couples  had taken a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage course were the type  of people who  tended to e x p l o r e and examine t h e i r  and thus the type who  would respond to such a study.  c o u l d a l s o be, but i t i s l e s s l i k e l y , group  relationships, It  that couples i n t h i s  age  tend to take p a r t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage courses,  or that p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage programs are becoming more widespread  and popular. In summary, the sample appears to be h i g h l y  literate,  and very s i m i l a r i n age, education, and e t h n i c i t y .  They are  people p r i m a r i l y from urban backgrounds,  highly  i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage.  who  appear  49 C  FINDINGS ON STUDY QUESTIONS The  respondent-,  raw data i n t h i s study  i n c l u d e s , f o r each  a score on v a r i a b l e I, communication, from 1-200;  a score on v a r i a b l e I I , intimacy, from 1-200; a score on variable III, trust,  from 1-200; a score on v a r i a b l e IV, care,•  from 1-200; and a score on the I.M.S., from 1-125. The  scores are very high, very homogeneous, with  very l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n among respondents.  The score of husband  and wife can be compared, and i n every case, when the husband's score i s high, the w i f e ' s score i s a l s o high, and when the husband's score i s low, the wife's score i s a l s o low. Scores on the f o u r study v a r i a b l e s ,  and on the I.M.S.  were homogeneous f o r a l l of the respondents. Eg.  Variable Variable Variable Variable I.M.S.  I II III IV  175 176 170 176 118  Eg.  Variable Variable Variable Variable I.M.S.  (Complete t o t a l scores f o r a l l respondents i n Appendix A) This r e s e a r c h e r expects  I II III IV  144 155 156 148 92  may be found  t h a t the responses  were  homegeneous due t o the homogenuity o f the sample - a group of people  very s i m i l a r i n age, education,  and e t h n i c i t y .  Perhaps  a l s o t h i s group i s s i m i l a r , i n t h a t they are people who to t h i s type of advertisement,  respond  who take p r e p a r a t i o n f o r marriage  courses, and who take an i n t e r e s t i n marriage  upgrading.  The  study should be r e p l i c a t e d on a l e s s homogeneous group, perhaps a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of a l l newly married  couples i n Vancouver, i n  a s i x month p e r i o d , to determine i f r e s u l t s would be s i m i l a r  50 with that  group. The  scores are extremely high on a l l four  as w e l l as on the I.M.S.  This i s an i n d i c a t i o n that a l l  four v a r i a b l e s are c o n s i s t e n t a l s o that  variables,  with m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and  t h i s i s a sample who are q u i t e  content and s a t i s f i e d  with the marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p . The 1.  research  questions of t h i s study a r e :  In each of the four v a r i a b l e s , a l l items w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c o r r e l a t e with the t o t a l 2.  score.  The c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s with  scores on each of the o t h e r three  total  variables.  3.  These c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s with  the  t o t a l score on the I.M.S.  4.  T o t a l score on the I.M.S. w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e  with t o t a l scores on each of the four  1.  variables.  In Each o f the Four V a r i a b l e s , A l l Items W i l l S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e With the T o t a l Score. Each item, 1-160, was c o r r e l a t e d with the f i v e  scores,  on communication, intimacy, t r u s t , care,  total  and the I.M.S.  This r e s e a r c h e r i s concerned with the items f o r each v a r i a b l e , producing a greater  mean c o r r e l a t i o n with  v a r i a b l e , than with the other three, to show that  variables.  or the I.M.S., i n order  the items f o r each v a r i a b l e were a measure of  that v a r i a b l e , of  that  and not o f another v a r i a b l e , or of a c l u s t e r  51 Table I shows the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s of items 1-40, with the t o t a l scores on the four v a r i a b l e s , I.M.S.  and on the  Items 1-40 i n t h i s study measure communication.  The  mean c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l score on communication w i t h items 1-40 (.3675) i s h i g h e r than the other mean c o r r e l a t i o n s , (0.2719; 0.2521; 0.2579; 0. 2146) although the d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . Table II shows the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s o f items 41-80 with the t o t a l s c o r e s on the f o u r v a r i a b l e s Items 41-80 i n t h i s study measure intimacy.  and on the I.M.S. The mean  c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l score on intimacy with items 41-80 (0.2849) i s higher than the o t h e r mean c o r r e l a t i o n s 0.2849; 0.2291; 0.1810) although the d i f f e r e n c e  (0.2181;  i s relatively  small.' Table I I I shows the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s of items with the t o t a l scores on the four v a r i a b l e s score on the I.M.S.  81-120  and on the t o t a l  Items 81-120 i n t h i s study measure t r u s t .  The mean c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l score on t r u s t with  items  81-120 (0.2989) i s h i g h e r than the other mean c o r r e l a t i o n s (0.1962; 0.1728; 0.1721; 0.1723) although the d i f f e r e n c e i s r e l a t i v e l y small. Table IV shows the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s o f items 121-160 with the t o t a l scores on the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , on the I.M.S.  and the t o t a l score  Items 121-160 i n t h i s study measure care.  The  mean c o r r e l a t i o n on the t o t a l score on care with items 121-160  52 (0.2738) i s higher than the other mean c o r r e l a t i o n s , (0.1902; 0.2148; 0.1701; 0.1882), although the d i f f e r e n c e  i s relatively  small.  2.  These C o r r e l a t i o n s W i l l Be Larger Than C o r r e l a t i o n s T o t a l Scores on Each o f the Other Three V a r i a b l e s Although the t o t a l score  With  on each v a r i a b l e does  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with a l l o f the items which s e t out t o measure that v a r i a b l e , the c o r r e l a t i o n s , i n a l l four cases, are l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the t o t a l s c o r e s on each of the o t h e r three v a r i a b l e s .  3.  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f the T o t a l Score on Each V a r i a b l e With the Items Which Measure The V a r i a b l e , W i l l be Larger Than C o r r e l a t i o n s With the T o t a l Score on the I.M.S. The mean c o r r e l a t i o n o f items 1-40 with the t o t a l  score on communication i s 0.3675.  T h i s i s l a r g e r than the  mean c o r r e l a t i o n o f items 1-40 with the t o t a l score on the I.M.S. which i s 0.2146. The mean c o r r e l a t i o n of items 41-80, with the t o t a l score on intimacy i s 0.2849.  T h i s i s l a r g e r than the mean  c o r r e l a t i o n o f items 41-80 with the t o t a l score on the I.M.S., which i s 0.1810. The mean c o r r e l a t i o n of items 81-120 with the t o t a l score on t r u s t i s 0.2989.  T h i s i s l a r g e r than the mean  c o r r e l a t i o n of items 81-120, with the t o t a l score on the I.M.S., which i s 0.1723.  53 The mean c o r r e l a t i o n o f items 121-160, with the t o t a l score on care i s 0.2738. c o r r e l a t i o n of items  T h i s i s l a r g e r than the mean  121-160, with the t o t a l score on the  I.M.S., which i s 0.1882.  4.  T o t a l Score on the I.M.S. W i l l S i g n i f i c a n t l y C o r r e l a t e With the T o t a l Score on Each o f the Four V a r i a b l e s Table V shows that  the c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l  on the I.M.S. with the t o t a l score on v a r i a b l e i s 0.5498.  score  I, communication,  The c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l score on the I.M.S.,  w i t h the t o t a l score on v a r i a b l e  I I , intimacy, i s 0.5907. The  c o r r e l a t i o n of the t o t a l score on the I.M.S. with the t o t a l score on v a r i a b l e  I I I , t r u s t , i s 0.5633.  The c o r r e l a t i o n of  the t o t a l score o f the I.M.S., with the t o t a l score on variable  IV, care i s 0.6177. A l l o f the t o t a l s c o r e s f o r the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , are  substantial,  are h i g h l y  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with  the t o t a l score on the I.M.S.  Conclusion In each of the four v a r i a b l e s ,  not a l l items  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with the t o t a l s c o r e .  T h i r t y - o n e items  c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with communication, nineteen items with intimacy, twenty-three care.  items with t r u s t , and s i x t e e n  The mean of these c o r r e l a t i o n s  items with  i s however, l a r g e r  the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the other three v a r i a b l e s , or with the I.M.S.  than  54  T h i s i s evidence that the items do measure the r e s p e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s , although there are l i k e l y  t o be some  items which are not good measures of the v a r i a b l e ^ that measure another v a r i a b l e , or a combination of v a r i a b l e s . There i s evidence that these concepts e x i s t separately,  although that evidence i s i n c o n c l u s i v e .  That the  c o r r e l a t i o n s are a l l i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n i s encouraging. The assumption  o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , that a l l o f the  four v a r i a b l e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y supported.  (I,M.S.)  The t o t a l scores on the I.M.S. c o r r e l a t e  very h i g h l y with the t o t a l s c o r e s f o r each v a r i a b l e .  55  TABLE I MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 1-40 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  VARIABLES  MEAN CORRELATION  VAR. I COMMUNICATION VAR. II INTIMACY VAR. I l l TRUST VAR. IV CARE INDEX OF MARITAL SATISFACTION  0.3675 0.2719 0.2521 0.2569 0.2146  TABLE II MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 41-80 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  VARIABLES  MEAN CORRELATION  VAR. I COMMUNICATION VAR. II INTIMACY ' VAR. I l l TRUST VAR. IV CARE INDEX OF MARITAL SATISFACTION  0.2181 0.2849 0.1868 0.2291 0.1810  56  TABLE I I I MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 81-120 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S.  VARIABLE  MEAN CORRELATION OF TOTAL SCORE ON TRUST  VAR. I COMMUNICATION VAR. II INTIMACY VAR. I l l TRUST VAR. IV CARE INDEX OF MARITAL SATISFACTION  0.1962 0.1728 0.2989 0.1721 0.1723  TABLE IV MEAN CORRELATIONS OF ITEMS 12-1=160 WITH TOTAL SCORES ON THE FOUR VARIABLES AND I.M.S. VARIABLE  VAR. I COMMUNICATION VAR. II INTIMACY VAR. I l l TRUST VAR. IV. CARE INDEX OF MARITAL SATISFACTION  MEAN CORRELATION  0.1902 0.2148 0.1701 0.2738 0.1882  57  TABLE V CORRELATIONS OF THE TOTAL SCORES ON EACH OF THE FOUR VARIABLES WITH THE TOTAL SCORES ON THE OTHER THREE VARIABLES AND THE I.M.S.  COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION INTIMACY TRUST CARE I.M.S.  1.0000 0.7330 0.6665 0.6965 0.5498  INTIMACY  1.0000 0.5820 0.7492 0.5907  TRUST  CARE  I.M.S  1.0000 0.5662 1.0000 0.5633 0.6177 1.0000  58 D  REFINEMENT OF THE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT . In r e f i n i n g  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s necessary  to s e l e c t out the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ,  and n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  items, f o r each of the four v a r i a b l e s .  In the case of  t h i s study, any c o r r e l a t i o n l a r g e r than  .2564 i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  A n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g item i s one which f a i l s t o c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the t o t a l score on the v a r i a b l e i t i s designed to measure.  Items  1-40 The  following  items s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c o r r e l a t e d with  the v a r i a b l e b e i n g measured (communication),  and d i d not  c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the ..other three v a r i a b l e s . (See Table VI)  They are thus good measures of that  variable.  They a r e : Item 3  My mate co-operates with me.  Item 5  I l i k e myself.  Item 6. I f e e l I understand my mate. Item..18 My mate t e l l s me what he/she expects of me. Item 35 My mate w i t h o l d s i n f o r m a t i o n from  me.  These items are powerful measures of communication, and they show that the v a r i a b l e , to some extent, does e x i s t s e p a r a t e l y from the o t h e r three v a r i a b l e s . Table VII shows those items which  correlated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with communication, but which a l s o  correlated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with one o r more of the other v a r i a b l e s .  These  59 are twenty-six of the f o r t y variables clearly  items, and they show t h a t the  tend t o o v e r l a p .  Table VIII shows those items which do not significantly  c o r r e l a t e with any of the v a r i a b l e s , and thus  are not good measures.  A l l e i g h t of these items should be  reworded, o r dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One item, number 26, c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y intimacy and care, but d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y communication.  with with  I t should be moved to another p l a c e i n the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , when the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e v i s e d .  TABLE VI CORRELATION CO-EFFICIENTS OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH COMMUNICATION ONLY  ITEM  COMMUNICATION  3 5 6 18 35  . 3679* . 5032* . 2825* . 3077* .2735*  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  . 1672 . 2623 .2050 . 2444 . 1427  .2637 .2508 . 1897 ^0379 .0688  . 1578 . 2487 .2167 . 1859 . 1902  * represents a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n - correlations  are Pearson's r  TABLE VII CORRELATION CO-EFFICIENTS OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH COMMUNICATION AND OTHER VARIABLES ITEM  COMMUNICATION  INTIMACY  1 2 9 10 11 14 15 16 17 19 20 22 24 25 27 28 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40  . 3654* .3423* .5231* .2934* .4452* .3506* .4851* .3903* .5810* .5580* .4665* .4208* .3095* .6328* .5029* .4580* .5887* .7141* .4005* .3313* .4018* .3976* .4002* .6153* .6117* .4790*  .4068* .2614 .3696* .0882 . 1966 .3101* .3526* .2593* .4534* .4179* .6285* .2688* .0538 .5715* .4390* .5028* .3907* .5096* .3109* .3454* .3210* .3019* .4759* .2942* .3252* .4775*  note that i n most cases the h i g h e s t i s with communication *represents a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n  TRUST . 0963 .3921* . 1620 . 2694* .2846* .4931* .2917* .4905* . 5098* .2531 .3419* . 1566 .3549* .4766* .5017* .2889* .3870* .5142* .5224* . 1394 .36 34* .3584* .2287 . 5395* .6161* . 2912*  CARE .3662* . 1972 .3224* .2005 .3200* .3977* .3059* .2429 .4593* .4371* .4154* .2183 . 1752 .5392* .3202* . 3681* .5230* .5668* . 2222 . 1705 .3083* . 1991 .3102* .4085* .4935* .3756*  correlation  62  TABLE VIII CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 1-40 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLE  ITEM  COMMUNICATION  INTIMACY  4 •7 8 12 13 21 23 29  . 1522 .0394 . 1262 . 1863 .1364 .0231 . 1673 .2030  .0150 .0166 .0835 . 1363 .3108 . 1598 . 1315 .2458  TRUST . 1830 .0686 .0132 . 1653 . 2842 . 1020 . 0256 . 0135  CARE . 1343 .0133 .0988 .1255 . 3917 .0574 . 1614 . 1418  63 Items 41 - 80 There are only two intimacy:  item 75,  items which p o w e r f u l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e  "I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t  him/her", and item 77,  t o t e l l my  mate I love  "I f e e l I can be honest w i t h my  Eighteen of the f o r t y items c o r r e l a t e  mate".  significantly  with a c l u s t e r of the v a r i a b l e s , o r a l l f o u r of the v a r i a b l e s . This emphasizes again, the tendency overlap.  of the v a r i a b l e s to  Table XI i l l u s t r a t e s f i f t e e n items which do not  significantly  c o r r e l a t e with any of the v a r i a b l e s , and which  should t h e r e f o r e be reworded, or dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There are f i v e items: significantly intimacy.  43, 60, 62,  57,  and 73, which  c o r r e l a t e w i t h another v a r i a b l e , but not with  Item 43 c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y with t r u s t ,  60. w i t h ..trust and communication, item 62 with t r u s t , and care, item 57 with care, and item 73 with  item  communication,  communication.  These f i v e items should be moved i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , to measure the v a r i a b l e s with which they have a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation.  TABLE IX CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 41-80 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH INTIMACY ONLY ITEM 75 77  COMMUNICATION 70156 .0065  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  .3352* .2715*  .0743 . 2166  . 1492 .2160  TABLE X CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES ITEMS 41-80 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH INTIMACY AND OTHER VARIABLES ITEM  COMMUNICATION  INTIMACY  46 48 49 50 51 52 56 58 59 66 67 69 70 71 72 74 78 80  .4335* .5040* .3851* .3472* .4708* .4891* .3776* . 3934* . 5771 .3338* .3496* .3392* .3699* .2836* .4328* .4291* . 1500 .5466*  .3860* .6397* .5121* .5027* .3869* .3349* .4730* .2585 .5191* .5507* . 2958* .3391* .4009* .4768* .2895* .5329* .3170* .4818*  - note that i n most cases i s with intimacy * represents a s i g n i f i c a n t  the h i g h e s t correlation  TRUST . 4973*. .3871* .5377* .4425* .3667* .4090* .4072* .5069* .6372* .2360 .3247* .3392* .2453 .1348 > .2707* .4365* .0216 .5521*  CARE .3395* .6258* .3812* .4566* .3598* .4625* .4849* .3968* .5797* .4252* .2292 .5222* .3254* .3668* .2544 .5071* . 2992* .6131*  correlation  65  TABLE XI CORRELATION  OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 41-80 ' ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLES  ITEM 41 42 4445 47 53 54 55 61 63 64 65 68 76 79  COMMUNICATION .0389 .0832 .0670 .0238 .2301 .0089 .0061 .0999 . 0009 .1161 .2030 71023 . 1011 . 1601 ' .2013  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  .0881 .2069 . 1089 .0060 .1878 . 0494 .1770 . 1867 .1806 . 1015 .2120 . 1839 .1300 . 1980 . 1426  .2854 . 1102 .0387 .0655 .0286 . 0899 .0624 .0087 . 1157 .0772 . 0046 .2266 . 1689 .2181 . 1089  . 1161 . 1029 . 0240 .2522 . 1374 .0274 .0460 . 1689 .0991 . 1432 .0349 . 1150 . 1386 . 1842 .0469  66 Items 81 - 120 There are ten items which powerfully, d i s c r i m i n a t e trust.  T h i s i s evidence that t r u s t does e x i s t as a s e p a r a t e  v a r i a b l e , and that i t can be measured.  They a r e :  ''.  Item 83  When I r e a l l y need my mate, he/she i s there.  Item 87  I can count on my p a r e n t s .  Item 92  Most couples t r u s t each other.  Item 95  I t r u s t my p a r e n t s .  Item 98  I• can look a f t e r myself, i f I have t o .  Item 99  When my mate i s w i t h me, I s l e e p w e l l .  Item 104 I wonder at times i f my mate i s u n f a i t h f u l to me. Item 106 I t h i n k my spouse l i e s t o me. Item 114 I can count on my mate. Item 119 I f e e l cared f o r . Table XIII shows that there are s i x t e e n items which are not only good measures  of t r u s t , but which a l s o  significant  c o r r e l a t e with one o r more o f the o t h e r three v a r i a b l e s .  In  t h i s case too, the evidence shows that the v a r i a b l e s tend t o overlap. Table XIV shows eleven items which f a i l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y measure any of the four v a r i a b l e s ,  and they  should be reworded, or dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There are three items which s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a v a r i a b l e o t h e r than t r u s t .  correlate  They are: "I take advantage  of my mate", w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t of..3272 w i t h communication;  item 102 "When my mate goes out, I'm unsure  67 about what he/she i s r e a l l y doing", with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t of .2615 with communication; and item 116, "I f e e l I'm not i n c o n t r o l " , with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t of  .2666 with communication.  These three items s h o u l d be  rearranged w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , to measure communication, r a t h e r than t r u s t .  y  TABLE XII CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH TRUST ONLY ITEM 83 87 92 95 98 99 104 106 114 119  COMMUNICATION .0617 . 1695 . 1984 . 1034 .2133 .0896 .0710 .2124 .2102 . 1420  INTIMACY . 1355 . 1680 .1025 .0049 .0589 .0071 .0687 .2202 .2611 .2187  TRUST .3876* .5289* .2593* .3506* .3320* .3918* .3193* .3323* .5017* .3848*  CARE .0996 . 1673 . 1725 .0401 .0948 .0020 .0042 .0478 .1541 .2432  TABLE XIII CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH TRUST AND OTHER VARIABLES ITEM 81 82 84 86 93 94 96 97 101 105 107 108 109 110 112 115  COMMUNICATION .4390* .5739* .3021* .2726* . 3934* .2494 .3147* .4273* .3334* .2976* .4494* .1129 .2733* . 389-1* .2526 .2784*  INTIMACY .3692* .4582* .2925* .2034 .4115* .4459* . 1295 .1084 . .3304* .2507 . 5269* .3398* .2663* .2878* .1941 .2514  TRUST .4230* .4770* .5676* .3129* .4216* .4373* .4348* .4043* .4761* .3703* .4736* .3780* .3634* .4742* .3997* .3502*  CARE .3999* .5352* .2397* .2831* .4293* .3161* .2504 . 1851 .3276* . 1109 .3243* .1698 .2727* .2945* .2757* .4767*  - note that i n most cases the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n i s with t r u s t * represents a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n  TABLE XIV CORRELATION  OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 81-120 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLE  ITEM 85 88 89 90 91 103 111 113 117 118 120  COMMUNICATION .0194 . 1156 . 1189 .2243 .1831 . 2262 .2221 . 1447 .1503 .0016 .0366  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  .0745 .0917 .0673 .1706 .1239 .0209 . 1752 . 0445 .0297 . 1243 . 1447  . 1574 . 1068 .0200 .0522 .0772 .0831 .2364 .1033 .0177 . 1584 .0883  . 0699 .0890 . 1595 . 1317 . 0026 .2008 . 1827 .0551 .0146 .1274 .0183  V  70 Items 121 - 160 There are only three items which s t r o n g l y d i s c r i m i n a t e care.  They a r e :  Item 131  My mate i s a happy person.  Item 132  I f e e l we've changed s i n c e we got married.  Item 152  My mate and I o f t e n q u a r r e l . This does not i n d i c a t e that care e x i s t s as a separate  variable,  although t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been unable  to .  p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e evidence of t h i s . Table XVI shows that there are f i f t e e n items which are not only good measures of care, but which a l s o c o r r e l a t e w i t h one o r more o f the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . s t r o n g evidence  significantly This i s  that a l l f o u r v a r i a b l e s tend t o o v e r l a p , and  thus measure much the same f e e l i n g s and sentiments.  The  v a r i a b l e s do not c l e a r l y break down, even i n t o two o r three recognizable categories. Table XVII shows seventeen  items which do not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with any o f the v a r i a b l e s , and a l l seventeen  should be reworded or dropped from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There are f i v e items i n t h i s case, which c o r r e l a t e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a v a r i a b l e o t h e r than care.  They a r e :  item 122 "My parents were opposed t o my marriage",  with a  c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t of .2766 with communication; item 153 "I can't seem t o get people t o l i k e me", with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t of..2783 with communication, and .2947 with item 154 "I'm happy when my mate i s s u c c e s s f u l " , w i t h a  trust;  71 correlation  c o - e f f i c i e n t of .3842 with communication,  with intimacy; and .3506 with t r u s t ; married" with a c o r r e l a t i o n intimacy, amd  intimacy.  item 158 "I enjoy  being  c o - e f f i c i e n t o f .3943 w i t h  .2699 w i t h t r u s t ;  married", with a c o r r e l a t i o n  .3535  and item 160 "I'm g l a d I got  c o - e f f i c i e n t o f .2853 with  These f i v e items should be p l a c e d elsewhere i n  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and removed from the items measuring care.  TABLE XV CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH CARE ONLY ITEM 131 132 152  COMMUNICATION .1076 .1607 .1440  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  .2206 .1407 .1428  ^2147 .0016 .1450  .3363* .3510* .3501*  TABLE XVI CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH CORRELATE SIGNIFICANTLY WITH CARE AND OTHER VARIABLES ITEM 121 125 126 127 128 129 130 133 137 144 145 148 150 151 159  COMMUNICATION  INTIMACY  .4689* .4911* .3539* .4890* .5891* .4666* .6300* .3548* .4603* .2094* . 2662* .4017* .2405 .1365 .2879*  .3865* .4754* .4451* .5227* .5566* .5544* . 6296* .4237* .4561* .3067* . 1777 .1740 . 3235* .2335 .2712*  * represents a s i g n i f i c a n t  correlation  TRUST .3526* .2123*• .3302* .4124* .4251* .5314* .3815* .4337* .2529 . 3216* .1751 .2481 . 1805 . 3675* .3529*  CARE .5723* .5326* .5728* .5488* .5937* .5736* .6992* .4354* .5783* .4685* .3958* .3654* .4480* . 2862 .4303*  73 TABLE XVII CORRELATION OF EACH ITEM WITH TOTAL SCORES: ITEMS 121-160 ITEMS WHICH DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATE WITH ANY VARIABLE ITEM 123 124 134 135 136 138 139 140 141 142 143 146 147 149 155 156 157  COMMUNICATION . 1741 .2202 .0337 .0162 .0987 .0980 .0145 .0570 .1411 72786 . 1300 .2068 . 1591 .0784 .1071 .1200 .0755  INTIMACY  TRUST  CARE  .0182 . 1384 .0610 . 1782 .0534 .0322 .0140 .0118 .1040 .2178 . 0761 .1777 . 1289 . 1511 . 0693 .2230 .1602  . 1154 . 1963 . 0736 .0845 . 1104 .0215 . 1248 .0604 .0283 . 1924 .0148 . 1504 . 2486 . 0116 .0015 .2604 . 1442  . 1141 .0016 . 1033 .0649 .0369 .2005 . 1008 .0530 .0370 . 1589 .0685 . 2398 .2542 . 2473 .2092 . 1604 .0784  74 E  THE RELATIONSHIP OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA TO THE FOUR VARIABLES AND THE I.M.S. Table XVIII  shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  demographic data with the f o u r v a r i a b l e s and with the I.M.S. There are three s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s - education  communication; education with t r u s t ; education with with p>.05.  with intimacy,  The g r e a t e r the education the g r e a t e r the score  on the three v a r i a b l e s . It i s d i f f i c u l t  t o understand  or t o e x p l a i n why  education i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the l e v e l of communication, and  intimacy o f the respondent.  trust,  T h i s i s an unexpected and  s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g o f t h i s study.  It i s this  researcher's  f e e l i n g that education o f t e n p r o v i d e s the a b i l i t y to broaden one's scope,  to.see more s i d e s o r f a c e t s of an i s s u e , and  tends to discourage us from encompassing any one, or narrow view t o t a l l y .  Perhaps i t i s t h a t more educated  persons are  l e s s r i g i d and c o n t r o l l i n g i n t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n communication, t r u s t , and intimacy i n the marriage.  C e r t a i n l y i t i s the a b i l i t y . t o allow the p a r t n e r  h i s / h e r own s t y l e o f communication, t o l i s t e n t o , arid t o understand  the other as he/she i s , to t r u s t t h a t the other i s  a capable person;  and the achievement o f a  non-possessive  i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , that i s what t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i s s t u d y i n g and measuring as bonding behaviour.  But t h i s i s only a guess,  and i s an area that would r e q u i r e more data b e f o r e any meaningful  c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn.  \  The only other s i g n i f i c a n t  75  relationship i s equally  as i n t e r e s t i n g and p u z z l i n g to t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , - t h i s i s between sex and communication.  The  males and communication i s 34.8, i s 26.2.  average rank s c o r e . o f  and of females and  The  difference i s significant  Why  males scored higher than  at the  .05  communication level.  females on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n  of the communication i n the marriage i s u n c l e a r .  It i s  t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d that j u s t the opposite would have been true.  The  only c l u e t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has  that c o u l d e x p l a i n  t h i s comes from a s i n g l e case done on the same t o p i c as thesis.  In t h i s case,  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of why  the couple they had  i n d i c a t e d to the  researcher  come f o r c o u n s e l l i n g .  husband s a i d there were no problems, although  this  The  he mentioned  that h i s wife o f t e n complained that they never r e a l l y t a l k e d together.  He  d i d not p e r c e i v e i t as a problem.  s t a t e d t h a t her primary was  reason  The  wife  f o r seeking p r o f e s s i o n a l help  that there were problems i n communication i n the  marriage;  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the same i s t r u e of t h i s study that the husband i s l e s s apt to p e r c e i v e a problem i n communication, than the wife i s . guess, and the r e v e r s e may  However, t h i s too, i s a  a l s o be t r u e - that husbands.in  t h i s study r e a l l y do communicate b e t t e r than t h e i r wives. Only f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l be able to c l a r i f y more f u l l y .  this  finding  -  76  TABLE XVIII MEAN RANKS OF EDUCATION AND AGE WITH THE FOUR VARIABLES AND WITH THE I.M.S.  EDUCATION COMMUNICATION INTIMACY TRUST CARE I.M.S.  3.2916* 2.026* 3.2167* 1.4216 1. 1631  AGE 1.4669 -.0337 -.2202 1.0501 -0.2335  TABLE XIX C  MEAN RANKS ON THE TOTAL SCORE ON THE VARIABLES AND THE I.M.S. WITH SEX OF THE RESPONDENT  MALE COMMUNICATION INTIMACY TRUST CARE I.M.S.  34.8* 32.1 34.2 31.4 27.7  FEMALE 26.2* 28.8 26.7 29.5 33.2  represents a significant association v a r i a b l e s b e i n g compared  between  TOTAL 60 60 60 60 60  the  two  77  F  CONCLUSION The measurement instrument designed i n t h i s r e s e a r c h ,  r e v e a l s i n t e r e s t i n g and f a s c i n a t i n g data about the study v a r i a b l e s , and the concept of bonding. For  each of the four v a r i a b l e s , there are powerful  items which c o r r e l a t e only with that v a r i a b l e , and which serve to d i s c r i m i n a t e i t , as a separate e n t i t y , which can be i s o l a t e d and measured.  The v a r i a b l e of t r u s t , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  with ten items that s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h i t alone, is  s t r o n g evidence that i t e x i s t s as a separate e n t i t y , apart  from the three other v a r i a b l e s . for to  such  items  the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , and ..the mean s c o r e s on the items  tends  be very high. These twenty  items t e l l us something  about the concept of bonding. certain of  There are twenty  important  The items appear t o show a  " s t y l e " of the p a r t n e r s r a t h e r than an a c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n  what goes on i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Rather than  stating  behaviour o r f a c t s , the items i n d i c a t e an a t t i t u d e .  High  scores on these items r e p r e s e n t people who f e e l that  their  mate co-operates with them, that t h e i r mate understands that they t e l l  t h e i r p a r t n e r what they expect of each o t h e r  and do not w i t h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n . parents and themselves, t r u s t each other. do not worry them.  them,  They t r u s t t h e i r mate,  their  - and b e l i e v e that, i n g e n e r a l , people  They are ..comfort able with t h e i r mate, and  that t h e i r mate w i l l  l i e o r be u n f a i t h f u l t o  They f e e l cared f o r , f e e l that t h e i r mate i s a happy  78 person,  and e x p e c t  and  a l l o w change i n the  These a r e p e o p l e who happy f e e l i n g  year of  appear t o  t h e i r mate as w e l l .  i m p o r t a n t components o f b o n d i n g intimate relationship  and who  and be  and n o n - p o s s e s s i v e w i t h t h e i r p a r t n e r s .  They t r u s t t h e i r p a r e n t s and  i n the f i r s t  express a comfortable  about the r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  confident i n themselves,  relationship.  - the achievement  involving interpersonal  These of  are  an  competence,  marriage.  There are f i f t y - t w o items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which dp n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y which  c o r r e l a t e w i t h any o f t h e v a r i a b l e s ,  s h o u l d be e i t h e r r e w o r d e d o r d r o p p e d  T h e r e i s no  c l e a r evidence  t o e x p l a i n why  and  from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , these items d i d not  work. The  items which  deserve  t h e most a t t e n t i o n  are  t h o s e t h a t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h a number o f , o r a l l of the v a r i a b l e s .  There are s e v e n t y - f i v e such  h a l f of the items of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . although s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n almost  c o r r e l a t i n g w i t h more t h a n one  erroneous  t o assume t h a t t h e s e  poor or n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . i t e m s . have p r o d u c e d tell  which,  variable, co-efficient  they s e t out t o measure.  I t w o u l d be  bonding.  T h e s e were i t e m s  every case, obtained a higher c o r r e l a t i o n  on t h e i t e m w h i c h  and may  items, nearly  a p i c t u r e o f how us s o m e t h i n g  Rather,  i t seems t h a t t h e y  these four v a r i a b l e s  i n t e r e s t i n g and  are  relate,  v a l u a b l e about  79 It seems that although there i s evidence  that  these four v a r i a b l e s can be i s o l a t e d and measured, there i s a l s o s t r o n g evidence t h a t the tendency  i s f o r them to  s  o v e r l a p , and t o r e a c t s i m i l a r l y .  The q u e s t i o n t h i s b r i n g s  to mind i s - whether t h i s group of items measured much the same t h i n g , or i f the four are indeed separate and  unique  v a r i a b l e s , but that t o g e t h e r they measure something  that  t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has r e f e r r e d to as bonding. bonding  I t c o u l d be  that  i s a process made up of s e v e r a l important, i n s e p a r a b l e ,  and o v e r l a p p i n g a f f e c t i o n a l processes - and that care, t r u s t , intimacy, and communication are necessary components. The evidence i s c l e a r t h a t these four v a r i a b l e s do r e l a t e to each other.  A high measure on one  with a high measure on the o t h e r t h r e e .  i s congruent  T h i s group of items  on t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e e l i c i t e d responses which were very high on a c l u s t e r of the v a r i a b l e s , or on a l l f o u r . It i s important to examine t h e • r e l a t i o n s h i p  these  s e v e n t y - f i v e items have with the d e f i n i t i o n s of the f o u r v a r i a b l e s , p r o v i d e d by t h i s study. High scores on the communication items show a p r o f i l e of a person who  i n i t i a t e s c o n v e r s a t i o n with mate,  f e e l s mate i n i t i a t e s c o n v e r s a t i o n as w e l l , who mate, and i n turn f e e l s l i s t e n e d t o , who and a l s o f e e l s understood.  mixed messages.  l i s t e n s to  understands  T h i s person l i k e s and  with h i s / h e r mate, and f e e l s that they do not The respondent's  who  mate,  co-operates  communicate  parents were important i n  that the person f e l t h i s / h e r parents were s u p p o r t i v e t o , and  80 j  t a l k e d t o h i s / h e r mate. These responses are c o n s i s t e n t with the study d e f i n i t i o n s of communication as a w i l l i n g n e s s to communicate, and a presence of p o s i t i v e understanding, p o s i t i v e  communication ( l i s t e n i n g ,  feedback,  and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) .  The  p o s s i b i l i t y of a "meta-communication" i s supported by the high s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with item 22, "My mate and I communicate i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than we communicate t o other people." The n o t i o n of p e r s o n a l competence p l a y i n g an important  r o l e i n the v a r i a b l e s i s supported as w e l l by  responses that i n d i c a t e that the respondent  feels  listened  to, does not f e e l threatened by mate, does not f e e l mate c r i t i c i z e s him/her, f e e l s h i s / h e r o p i n i o n s r e a l l y matter to mate, and as w e l l f e e l s that he/she has important  t h i n g s to  say. High s c o r e s on intimacy items show a p r o f i l e o f a person who-feels  r e l a x e d with mate, g e n e r a l l y agrees w i t h mat  f e e l s cared f o r by mate, r e s p e c t s , enjoys, and admires  mate,  senses when mate i s upset, and t r i e s to understand how mate feels.  T h i s person f e e l s he/she i s accepted by mate, and  can be s e l f w i t h mate. The respondents' parents were important i n that the respondent  l i k e s h i s / h e r p a r e n t s , f e e l s parents show  him/her a f f e c t i o n ,  and f e e l s that parents accept h i s / h e r mate  81 These r e s p o n s e s intimacy  are  in this  competence, known as  and  consistent  study,  and  with  support  t h e mature l e v e l  "emotional  the' d e f i n i t i o n the  idea of p e r s o n a l  of intimacy i n  i n t i m a c y " - e x h i b i t e d by  non-possessiveness,  and  an  ability  of  relationships  empathy,  t o be o n e s e l f w i t h  one's  mate. High feels  decisions, general, Parents  feels  tells  s p o u s e how  a g a i n p l a y an  c a r e d f o r by  i n that  has  friends,  close  feels  to  the spouse,  upset,  who  cared f o r i n  a r e t o be as  the  trusted.  respondent  and  most  o f s e l f and  o f h i s / h e r own the  other  the  sees  the marriage,  c a r e s f o r and  who  the  ability capacity,  spouse.  show a p e r s o n  who  remembers t h e w e d d i n g  the marriage who  people,  study  o n e ' s own  f a m i l y and  care items  people,  likes him/herself.  are c o n s i s t e n t with  a trust  s c o r e s on  a happy occasion.,, who about  feels  g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d by  g l a d he/she g o t m a r r i e d ,  secure  i n mate's  as a m u t u a l i t y stemming f r o m  of trust  High  faith  f e e l s , l i k e d by  situations well,  of t r u s t  a sense  mate i s r e a s o n a b l y  o f p e r s o n a l competence i s s t r o n g l y  definition on  role,  the respondent  he/she h a n d l e s  rely  most p e o p l e  who  his/her parents.  These responses  feels  show a p e r s o n  he/she f e e l s ,  important  concept  supported  and  items  s e c u r e w i t h mate, has  and b e l i e v e s t h a t  The  feels  the t r u s t  a b l e t o c o n f i d e i n h i s / h e r mate, f e e l s  predictable,  feels  s c o r e s on  as  f u n , who  as  is  i s u p s e t when h i s / h e r mate i s  i s d e d i c a t e d t o mate.  gets along with h i s / h e r parents,  and  feels  that  This  person  his/her family  82 cares f o r the mate. P e r s o n a l competence i s evident i n t h i s v a r i a b l e as w e l l .  The  respondent  f e e l s that he/she i s cared f o r i n  g e n e r a l , f e e l s that people wants mate to succeed  are u s u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e ,  and  at whatever he/she does.  These items are c o n s i s t e n t with the study of for  care as an a b i l i t y  to care f o r the p a r t n e r , and a  the p a r t n e r ' s growth and development.  not however, s t r o n g l y support  concern  These items  do  the n o t i o n that a f e e l i n g of  having been cared f o r by one's own antecedent  definition  f a m i l y i s an  important  to the development of care i n the i n t i m a t e  marriage  relationship. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s impression v a r i a b l e was  not confirmed  because i t may  as w e l l as the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s parents and  his l i f e .  The  i n v e n t o r y used i n t h i s  measured p e r c e p t i o n s of present did  The  study urges  and  parents  viewpoint,  to  facilitate  of the e f f e c t s of e a r l y f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s  l e a r n i n g on bonding The evidence  to couples i n the f i r s t credibility  about the  but  that f u t u r e r e s e a r c h examine  the v a r i a b l e s , from a developmental an understanding  siblings  study  family r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  not explore past f e e l i n g s and events  and s i b l i n g s .  care  be a process a f f e c t e d more than the other three,  by the respondent's throughout  i s t h a t the  behaviour. supports  the four v a r i a b l e s as  year of marriage,  important  and as w e l l , .lends  to the n o t i o n that a l l f o u r i n t e r a c t together, to  83 f o r m what  this  process.  There  that  r e s e a r c h e r has r e f e r r e d  i s s u p p o r t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g  should lead to further  four variables  interact,  instrument  that w i l l  data  here,  r e s e a r c h - to determine  to study  a l s o be components o f t h e b o n d i n g an  t o as t h e b o n d i n g  other variables  that  these may  p r o c e s s , and t o d e v e l o p  a c c u r a t e l y measure t h i s  more i s l e a r n e d and u n d e r s t o o d  how  about i t .  concept,  as  84  Chapter V SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY A  SUMMARY The n o t i o n o f bonding,  it,  and the e f f o r t  to conceptualize  and t o develop an instrument t o measure that concept, has  been a f a s c i n a t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g task f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . It  i s an i d e a that has grown out o f my own c l i n i c a l  and as w e l l from the developmental  practice,  l i t e r a t u r e on attachment  and i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p formation. My premise, p r i o r t o d e f i n i n g the parameters  of t h i s  study, was that there was i n good marriages, and perhaps should be i n a l l marriages, a unique p e r i o d , i n the b e g i n n i n g phase of the r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i n which p a r t n e r s tended t o i n v e s t h i g h  l e v e l s o f energy i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p .  T h i s was a p e r i o d  when there was a w i l l i n g n e s s , perhaps e f f o r t l e s s l y ,  t o know  the p a r t n e r b e t t e r , t o l e a r n about and t o understand the p a r t n e r , to spend time with, and t o be i n t i m a t e with that partner.  My guess was that t h i s was n a t u r a l and easy i n the  beginning - but t h a t i f i t d i d not take p l a c e i n the beginning, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was not f i r m l y grounded,  and the p a r t n e r s d i d  not share enough o f an experience o f "uniqueness" about relationship,  as d i f f e r e n t  from o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  impression was that i t would be more d i f f i c u l t s p e c i a l attachment, absence.  their  My  t o develop  this  as time passed i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t s  85 There are a host of q u e s t i o n s t h a t are prompted by a new  i d e a or theory - and f o r me,  t h i s was.-  how  long  the c r i t i c a l or s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d , i f there indeed was that t h i s was  not n e c e s s a r i l y a process unique  but that s t u d y i n g married couples was a f f e c t e d bonding  a beginning step; what  i n intimate adult relationships?;  bonding  one?;  t o marriage,  was  p s y c h o - s o c i a l development, and p a r e n t - c h i l d bonding i n f l u e n c e ? ; was  was  a major  a process that people s t r i v e f o r i n  an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p ? ; and would c l i n i c i a n s be able to u t i l i z e the concept, in  and develop  s k i l l s to encourage  bonding  couples? The  a narrowing  study was  n e c e s s a r i l y e x p l o r a t o r y , and r e q u i r e d  down, i n order that i t would p r o v i d e that  difficult  beginning step, upon which subsequent r e s e a r c h c o u l d be based. T h i s r e s e a r c h e r chose married couples, married l e s s than year, guessing that i f the concept of bonding would, and should, be evident i n the f i r s t  one  existed, i t  year.  As w e l l , f o u r  v a r i a b l e s - care, t r u s t , intimacy, and communication, were s e l e c t e d as the major components of A sample of t h i r t y  couples was  c i t y and i n a u n i v e r s i t y newspaper. sample, who  were h i g h l y educated.  be couples who  bonding. advertised for, in a  T h i s drew a very homogeneous The sample i s a l s o l i k e l y  are i n v o l v e d i n and committed to  e x p l o r a t i o n and upgrading.  marriage  T h i s i s not seen as a primary  weakness of the sample, as i t a s s i s t s i n c o n t r o l l i n g f o r  extraneous  f a c t o r s , and encourages that r e s u l t s are apt to be r e l a t e d to the study v a r i a b l e s .  to  I t does, however, l i m i t the a b i l i t y  to  86 g e n e r a l i z e the f i n d i n g s , but r e s e a r c h e r was should  i n an e x p l o r a t o r y  prepared to t o l e r a t e t h i s .  behaviour, i t was  involved.  an instrument to measure bonding  intended  could  by bonding, and what i t  of my  included.'  Chapter II takes the reader t h e o r i e s , presented  through a group of these  by other r e s e a r c h e r s  to the study, and  to  theory were confirmed, and what  i s s u e s I had.missed that should be  salient  studies  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d a review of l i t e r a t u r e  determine what aspects  this  random means.  e s s e n t i a l that t h i s r e s e a r c h e r  c l e a r l y d e f i n e what was  and  Future  choose a sample by a more s t a n d a r d i z e d In developing  study,  to my  and w r i t e r s , that  are  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of bonding  i t s roots. This i s a progression  from - the s e l e c t i o n of  v a r i a b l e s as developmental processes;  the  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  the  e a r l y p a r e n t - c h i l d bond to f u t u r e attachments; the development of a c a p a c i t y f o r care, t r u s t , intimacy,  and  communication i n  adult r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; the development of p e r s o n a l  competence;  i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence; to bonding between newly couples. the reader  I t was  my  i n t e n t i o n that t h i s chapter  married  would give  a b e t t e r f e e l f o r , and understanding of the One  hundred and  a questionnaire,  s i x t y questions  that would serve  of bonding behaviour. the four v a r i a b l e s , and  study.  were developed f o r  as a p r e l i m i n a r y  inventory  F o r t y items were i n c l u d e d f o r each of set out  to measure each v a r i a b l e as  87 developmental  processes.  The  measure t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s bonding  q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d  feelings  and  sentiments,  to  about  behaviour. Because of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s assumption  is a positive  p r o c e s s , and  satisfaction,  the bonding  that i t i s indicative q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  that of  1976)  As w e l l ,  marital  followed  i m m e d i a t e l y by a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n v e n t o r y o f m a r i t a l t h e I.M.S. ( H u d s o n / G l i s s o n :  bonding  satisfaction,  t h i s was  i n t r o d u c e some m e a s u r e o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y  into  done t o  the  study.  A l s o i n c l u d e d were n i n e demographic q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t u d y A p r e - t e s t was item bonding  to  sample.  done on s i x c o u p l e s u s i n g t h e  160  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e 25 i t e m I.M.S., and t h e  demographic items.  The  inventory proved  t o be u n d e r s t o o d  i n t e n d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s : represented t h e i r true feelings,  and  felt  nine  felt  as w e l l ,  their  answers  that i t  d i d n o t l e a v e s i g n i f i c a n t gaps i n what t h e y had w a n t e d t o T h e r e w e r e v e r y few p r o b l e m s i n t h e procedure,  of the p r e - t e s t .  The  sampling  s i x p r e - t e s t couples  all  expressed  an i n t e r e s t  six  expressed  to the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t they f e l t  relationship  was  t h e y had h a d ,  and  different  i n k n o w i n g more a b o u t t h e s t u d y .  from o t h e r i n t i m a t e  t h a t t h a t had b e e n u n e x p e c t e d  These c o u p l e s r e f e r r e d  much more s e c u r e , h a p p y , and they would  say.  and none o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e  c h a n g e d as a r e s u l t  married.  as  be.  their  All  marriage  relationships prior  to t h e i r relationships  c o n t e n t t h a n they had  to being as  expected  88 The married  study  s a m p l e was made up o f t h i r t y  f o r the f i r s t  l e s s t h a n one y e a r questionnaire.  time, without  The s a m p l e was p r i m a r i l y b e t w e e n 25-30 (75% e i t h e r i n , o r having  and w i t h an a s t o u n d i n g  preparation f o rmarriage  course.  homogeneous g r o u p , most l i k e l y positive and  sense,  63.3% having  completed a  little  a  unique i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t They seemed h i g h l y  v a r i a t i o n between s c o r e s .  the other three v a r i a b l e s ,  as w e l l .  Results scores  a n d a h i g h s c o r e on t h e I.M.S.  A l o w s c o r e on one v a r i a b l e showed c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w  s c o r e s on t h e o t h e r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , lowest  literate,  homogeneous,  show t h a t a h i g h s c o r e on one v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d h i g h on  in a  and c u l t u r a l l y .  f i n d i n g s on t h e s t u d y w e r e a l s o v e r y  v e r y h i g h and v e r y  years  completed  T h i s was d e f i n i t e l y  i n t h e i r marriage.  very s i m i l a r e t h n i c a l l y The  and m a r r i e d  at the time o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the  of age, h i g h l y educated, university),  children,  couples,  and on t h e I.M.S.  s c o r e s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e h i g h e r t h a n  The  70% o f t h e  t o t a l p o s s i b l e score. The  major r e s e a r c h questions  that guide  were - t h a t i n each o f t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s , significantly  a l l items  study  would  c o r r e l a t e with the t o t a l score; that the  c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d be l a r g e r t h a n  correlations with total  on e a c h o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s ; w o u l d be l a r g e r t h a n total  this  the t o t a l  that these  scores  correlations  s c o r e on t h e I.M.S.: a n d t h a t t h e  s c o r e on t h e I.M.S. w o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t o t a l s c o r e s on e a c h o f t h e f o u r  variables.  correlate  with  89 In each of the significantly  four v a r i a b l e s , not  c o r r e l a t e with the t o t a l score.  mean of these c o r r e l a t i o n s was with the  a l l items However,  l a r g e r than the mean c o r r e l a t i o n  other three v a r i a b l e s , or with the  I.M.S.  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s of t o t a l s c o r e s f o r the f o u r v a r i a b l e s w i t h I.M.S. are s u b s t a n t i a l and evidence that the  the  h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and  concepts are an i n d i c a t i o n of  the  are  marital  satisfaction. The two  f i n d i n g s showed f i v e items f o r communication,  items f o r intimacy, ten items f o r t r u s t , and  three items  f o r care, which c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with that alone.  These are good, and  some degree, the as separate  variable  powerful items, that show that  four v a r i a b l e s can be  i s o l a t e d and  to  measured  entities.  The  twenty items suggest as w e l l , that the  r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s parents, and  his/her  a sense of p e r s o n a l competence are  indeed f a c t o r s  influencing  the  i n an i n t i m a t e  relationship.'  achievement of these v a r i a b l e s There are  d i d not  own  respondent's  development of  f i f t y - t w o items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with any  of the  which  variables.  These items should be e i t h e r reworded, or dropped from  the  questionnaire. The  bulk of the  with more than one  items ( 7 5 ) , s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d  of the v a r i a b l e s , a l a r g e number of them  c o r r e l a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a l l four.  9Q  These s e v e n t y - f i v e items, are c o n s i s t e n t with r e s e a r c h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of bonding,  as an a b i l i t y  to l i s t e n  to and understand your mate, f e e l i n g l i s t e n e d to and a unique  this  understood;  form of communication with your mate, s i m i l a r to a  "meta-communication"; an a b i l i t y mate, and your own  to c o n f i d e i n and t r u s t  a b i l i t y ; the achievement of an  l e v e l of intimacy c h a r a c t e r i z e d by empathy, and b e i n g one's own  person; and an a b i l i t y  your  emotional  non-possessiveness, to l i k e o n e s e l f ,  and t o care about your p a r t n e r ' s development and success. Inherent i n the responses a l s o , was  the r e s e a r c h  premise t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the f a m i l y of o r i g i n ,  particularly  with the parents, would be r e l e v a n t to the study v a r i a b l e s although t h i s was been  not confirmed t o the degree  that might have  expected. The n o t i o n of p e r s o n a l competence b e i n g a necessary  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r bonding  i n the marriage  s t r o n g l y evident i n t h i s study. l i k e themselves,  relationship, i s  High scores show couples  f e e l c o n f i d e n t about  t h e i r own  ability,  who feel  supported by o t h e r s , f e e l they can be themselves w i t h t h e i r  own  mate, f e e l that people l i s t e n to them, and that t h e i r o p i n i o n s matter.  They are empathetic  towards t h e i r p a r t n e r , and want  him/her to succeed at whatever he/she The  chooses.  items p r o v i d e important evidence f o r the study,  i n d i c a t i n g that the v a r i a b l e s o v e r l a p , and are l i k e l y  to be,  more a c c u r a t e l y , v a r i a b l e s that measure a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t .  The e v i d e n c e seems t o p o i n t  t o a s i n g l e measure, o r v a r i a b l e ,  t h a t c o u l d be r e l a b e l l e d "bonding". many i m p l i c a t i o n s  This study, then,  raises  f o r r e s e a r c h e r s , as w e l l as f o r c l i n i c i a n s ,  and s o c i a l p o l i c y makers.  92  B  IMPLICATIONS OF THE The  STUDY  f i n d i n g s of the study have i m p l i c a t i o n s  f u r t h e r research,  f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s own  f o r p r a c t i c e and p r a c t i c e theory, and policy  and  The  f o r s o c i a l welfare  f o r Research preponderance of evidence i n t h i s study seems to  to a s i n g l e measure of "bonding".  items c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with two and  The  majority  of  the  or more v a r i a b l e s ,  i n a l a r g e number of cases, with a l l four v a r i a b l e s .  four v a r i a b l e s c l e a r l y o v e r l a p ,  and  appear to measure  v a r i a b l e , that c o u l d be r e l a b e l l e d "bonding". v a r i a b l e would i n c l u d e of care,  items that measure the  t r u s t , intimacy, and This study has  re-conceptualizing  provided a basis  bonding.  c r e a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e The  seventy-five  This four  items may  be  added, and  The  variables  for c l a r i f y i n g  study i s s i m p l i f i e d by  i s bonding.  and the  should f a c i l i t a t e  the  measurement instrument. items which c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  core of that  provide  instrument, to which  tested for s i g n i f i c a n c e .  homogeneous s c a l e , would see with the t o t a l score,  one  single  with a c l u s t e r of the v a r i a b l e s of t h i s study, c o u l d instrument, or the  The  communication.  development of t h i s s i n g l e v a r i a b l e , and  that  practice,  programs.  Implications  point  clinical  for  new  Such a  a l l items c o r r e l a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r which the most a p p r o p r i a t e  measure  93 These seventy^-five items c o n s t i t u t e a nucleus of an instrument that can be  further tested.  p r o j e c t c o u l d more a p p r o p r i a t e l y use  A larger scale  factor analysis.  study d i d not have a l a r g e enough sample f o r t h i s . research  research  step f o l l o w i n g t h i s study, should be the  of the s e v e n t y - f i v e items to a l a r g e r sample, and  This  The  next  administration the  utilization  of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on those r e s u l t s . It i s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s  hope that t h i s study  will  encourage a f u r t h e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and understanding of the bonding c o n s t r u c t .  I t i s a concept, that i s now  very beginning  Valuable  researcher  stages.  research  of i n t e r e s t to  this  i s that the concept of bonding be s t u d i e d through  a combined q u e s t i o n n a i r e - i n t e r v i e w , newly married concept.  i n the  couples,  given  to a sample of  to determine the parameters of  This researcher  recommends as w e l l , a  the  follow-up  study, which would i n c l u d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the bonding inventory  and  I.M.S. used i n t h i s study, to the same t h i r t y  sample couples, Implications  i n f i v e years  time.  for Practice  There are many i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e , and p r a c t i c e theory,  although many of them are s t i l l  the stage of i n s i g h t , and  clearly  require further c l a r i f i c a t i o n  development of the concept through  of the concept of bonding, and  development of s k i l l s  and  techniques  at and  research.  T h i s w r i t e r sees a b e t t e r understanding by i clinician,  for  eventually  the the  to encourage bonding i n  94 couples.  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of what  c o n s t i t u t e s bonding, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t s importance to the couple, and whether there i s , or i s not, a c r i t i c a l or s e n s i t i v e p e r i o d f o r i t s development. A wide range of i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s come to mind, that must be spurred on by both the c l i n i c i a n r e s e a r c h e r - the f i r s t initiated  by our own  and  the  ideas and i n s i g h t s are most o f t e n  practice.  What are the e f f e c t s of  choice, of common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p s , of subsequent and of c h i l d r e n , on bonding?  These are important  romantic  marriages, and  necessary  beginning steps that should, and must, become the task of the clinician. S. Jayaratne  and J.V.  Thompson, encourage the use  of  s i n g l e - s t u d y r e s e a r c h - by p o i n t i n g out t h a t , "A dominant question that pervades the c l i n i c a l atmosphere i s why  a  47 p r a c t i t i o n e r employs one  technique over  another?"  It i s e s s e n t i a l that c l i n i c i a n s assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d e c i p h e r i n g from t h e i r own and techniques,  from t h e i r own  practice - s k i l l s  manners and t r a i t .  There i s  much to be l e a r n e d by the p r o f e s s i o n , from what each of us has developed, own  clinical  and a r r i v e d at on our own.  M o n i t o r i n g of one's  c a s e l o a d should be a r e g u l a r event  for social  workers and i s something that workers w i t h i n an agency c o u l d .do  together. The beginning n o t i o n s of bonding f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ,  came out of my  own  c l i n i c a l practice.  I was  beginning to see  95 i n couples, t h i s process which I c a l l bonding. to be seeking care, t r u s t ,  Each seemed  intimacy, and communication w i t h  the o t h e r - and o f t e n e x p e r i e n c i n g a f e e l i n g of failure,  and anger, when the task was  managed by both p a r t n e r s . help with bonding  Couples  not  frustration,  successfully  seemed to be asking f o r  - to be taught how  to bond more a p p r o p r i a t e l y ,  to be able to separate out the i n f l u e n c e s from the p a s t i n this  learning. It was  through  "Bonding Behaviour  a s i n g l e case e x p l o r a t o r y study,  i n Newly Married Couples:  E x p l o r a t o r y Study" ( A p r i l :  1979)  A S i n g l e Case  that t h i s r e s e a r c h e r  was  able to formulate and t e s t out ideas and n o t i o n s about that had a r i s e n out of my p r a t i c e .  Although  bonding  t h i s present  study, does not p r o v i d e the l e v e l of knowledge necessary f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of p r a c t i c e techniques, i t should encourage the use of the concept  of bonding,  as a p r a c t i c e t o o l , at the  l e v e l of s i n g l e study r e s e a r c h , by the  clinician.  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l P o l i c y and Programs Nathan Cohen and Maurice  Connery, i n t h e i r  article,  "Government P o l i c y and the Family", are s u g g e s t i n g that the changing policy,  r o l e of the f a m i l y e f f e c t s , and should prompt  social  and urge t h a t , "government p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t to the  f a m i l y , must be a c t i v e , comprehensive, and h a b i l i t a t i v e , r a t h e r than r e s i d u a l ,  restrictive,  and  rehabilitative."  48  96 There are important and  policy  f o r s o c i a l p o l i c y programs, that stem out of t h i s  study. we  implications for social  In developing  research  s o c i a l p o l i c y and programs f o r f a m i l i e s ,  must concern o u r s e l v e s with marriage and p r e p a r a t i o n  for  marriage. In 1975, Marriage,  the Berger Commission on the P r e p a r a t i o n  developed g u i d e l i n e s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  solemnization and success  of marriage.  Our  experience  f o r , and  concerning  of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n i s indeed  the  for the  merits  limited - rather,  our commitment e x i s t s along the l i n e s of our concern f o r the f a m i l y and  f o r a p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n at On November 23rd, 1970,  passed a law,  C.C.  minors mandatory.  4101,  risk.  the s t a t e of  California  making pre-marriage c o u n s e l l i n g f o r  The program was  i n s t i t u t e d because of  high degree of breakdown i n teenage marriages,  and  a l s o from  a commitment p u b l i c a l l y by the s t a t e , of an i n t e r e s t i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage.  There was  the  i n the  not, however, any  previous  r e s e a r c h , or p i l o t s t u d i e s to i n d i c a t e i f such a program would be an asset or a detriment.  As w e l l , there was  a lack  of i n f o r m a t i o n about what should be i n c l u d e d i n the pre-marriage counselling. The knowledge and  Berger Commission, r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s l a c k of information  i n the area of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n ,  i s o l a t e d teenage marriage as a p o p u l a t i o n decided  at r i s k ,  that i t would be pre-mature to l e g i s l a t e ,  a concept that we  know so l i t t l e  about.  but as mandatory,  97 The Commission c a l l e d f o r f u r t h e r study, and the need t o more r i g o r o u s l y r e s e a r c h the e f f e c t s of pre-marriage programs. A recent study by Microys and Bader i n Toronto, "Do  Pre-Marriage Programs R e a l l y Work" (1977) has begun to  i n i t i a t e the r e s e a r c h necessary b e f o r e such programs can be instituted. T h i s study on bonding has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r pre-marriage programs, i n that i t i s attempting to c o n c e p t u a l i z e and measure the process of r e l a t i o n s h i p formation i n newly married couples.  T h i s i s the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n that must  be c l e a r l y understood b e f o r e determining the c u r r i c u l u m f o r such programs. In b e t t e r knowing and understanding how  successful,  i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are developed - we w i l l be able t o develop comprehensive that w i l l become a way  s o c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r marriage p r e p a r a t i o n , of l i f e - as a p a r t of high s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l u m and community based programs.  98 T h i s study c h a r a c t e r i z e d the very beginning  step of e x p l o r a t o r y  research.  difficult  I t i s the narrowing  down, and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a concept - t h a t stems from the hunches and i n s i g h t s o f a c l i n i c i a n . This researcher  has a commitment tp c l e a r l y  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the study - f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  define  researchers,  and p o l i c y makers, even though there must be e x t e n s i v e preliminary research  and study b e f o r e many o f these w i l l be  realized. I t i s the hope o f t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ,  t h a t the study  w i l l be r e l e v a n t f o r the p r o f e s s i o n , and w i l l spark i n a wide range o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , an i n t e r e s t f u r t h e r study and understanding.  that w i l l  lead to  99 FOOTNOTES 1.  D e l i s l e , Mary Ann  2.  Kahn,  3.  Matteson,  4.  Satir, Virginia  Making Contact (p. 36)  5.  Watzlawick, P a u l Beavin, Janet H. Jackson, Don H.  Pragmatics o f Human Communication (p. 11)  6.  Erikson,  Erik  Childhood and S o c i e t y  7.  Erikson,  Erik  Childhood and S o c i e t y (p. 39)  8.  S u l l i v a n , Harry Stack  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theory o f P s y c h i a t r y (p. 61)  9.  Sullivan,  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theory of P s y c h i a t r y (p. 310)  Alfred Roberta  Harry Stack  "Bonding Behaviour i n Newly Married Couples: A S i n g l e Case E x p l o r a t o r y Study" S o c i a l P o l i c y and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s (p. 77) "Adolscent Self-Esteem, Family Communication, and M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n " (p. 37)  (p. 37)  10.  Dahms, Alan M.  "The Intimacy H i e r a r c h y " c i t e d i n Process i n R e l a t i o n s h i p (p. 75)  11.  Dahms, Alan M.  "The Intimacy H i e r a r c h y " c i t e d i n Process i n R e l a t i o n s h i p (p. 84)  12.  Klaus, M a r s h a l l H. K e n n e l l , John  Maternal Infant Bonding  13.  Harlow, Harry  c i t e d i n C a r i n g (p. 72)  14.  S u l l i v a n , Harry Stack  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theory o f P s y c h i a t r y (p. 74)  15.  Ainsworth, Mary D. Ainsworth, Leonard H.  Measuring S e c u r i t y i n P e r s o n a l Adjustment (p. 24)  16.  Bowlby, John  Attachment Attachment  and Loss: (p. 208)  (p. 2)  Volume I  100 17.  S u l l i v a n , Harry Stack  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theory of P s y c h i a t r y (p. 4)  18.  Erikson,  Erik  Childhood and S o c i e t y  19.  Blanck,  Rubin  (p.  56)  "Marriage as a Phase of P e r s o n a l i t y Development" (p.  20.  Gaylin, Willard  Caring  (p. 63)  21.  Gaylin,  Caring  (p. 63)  22.  Cameron, Norman  P e r s o n a l i t y Development and Psychopathology (p. 117)  23.  Satir,  Making Contact (p.  24.  Pincus, L i l y  25.  Flack,  26.  Mahler,  27.  Towman, Walter  28.  Blanck,  Willard  Virginia  F r e d e r i c F. Margaret  Rubin  156)  22)  "The Nature of M a r i t a l Communication" (p. 22) A New Marriage, A New (P- 1)  Life  c i t e d i n "Marriage as a Phase of P e r s o n a l i t y Development" (p. 155) Family C o n s t e l l a t i o n (p  80)  "Marriage as a Phase of P e r s o n a l i t y Development" (p.  156)  29.  Hartmann, Heinz  30.  Pincus, L i l y  31.  S u l l i v a n , Harry Stack  The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theory of P s y c h i a t r y (p. 34)  32.  White,  c i t e d i n Caring  33.  Ainsworth, Mary D. Ainsworth, Leonard H.  Measuring S e c u r i t y i n P e r s o n a l Adjustment (p. 25)  34.  Foote, Nelson N. C o t t r e l l , Leonard L. J r .  I d e n t i t y and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Competence (p. 37)  R.W.  c i t e d i n "Marriage as a Phase of P e r s o n a l i t y Development" (p. 155) "The Nature of M a r i t a l Communication" (p. 22)  (p.  88)  101 35.  M i l l e r , Sherod Nunnally, Elam Wackman, D a n i e l B.  36.  Foote, Nelson N. C o t t r e l l , Leonard L. J r ,  I d e n t i t y and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Competence (p. 10)  37.  Foote, Nelson N. C o t t r e l l , Leonard L. J r .  I d e n t i t y and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Competence (p. 11)  38.  Foote, Nelson N. C o t t r e l l , Leonard L.  I d e n t i t y and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Competence (p. 50)  39.  O ' N e i l l , Nena . O ' N e i l l , George  "Open Marriage: I m p l i c a t i o n s for- Human S e r v i c e Systems" (p. 450)  40.  Spanier, Graham  "Marriage and Dyad Adjustment: New S c a l e s f o r A s s e s s i n g the Q u a l i t y o f Marriage and S i m i l a r Dyads" (p. 77)  41.  Nunally, Jum  Psychometric Theory  (p. 85)  42.  Nunally, Jum  Psychometric Theory  (p. 85)  43.  Nunally, Jum  Psychometric Theory  (p. 518)  44.  Hudson, Walter W. G l i s s o n , Diane H.  "Assessment o f M a r i t a l D i s c o r d i n S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e " (p. 300)  45.  Hudson, Walter W. G l i s s o n , Diane H.  "Assessment o f M a r i t a l D i s c o r d i n S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e " (p. 300)  46.  Gutre, Kenneth E. Fox, D a n i e l J .  47.  Jayaratne, S r i n i k a Thompson, J . V i c t o r  "The C l i n i c i a n Researcher: The Case f o r Progress i n S o c i a l Work" (p. 39)  48.  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C l i n e b e l l , Charlotte H  The Intimate Marriage (Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s : New York; 1970)  Cohen, Nathan Connery, Maurice  "Government P o l i c y and the Family" J o u r n a l of Marriage and the Family (29; February 196 7; p. 16)  Dahms, Alan M.  "The Intimacy H i e r a r c h y " c i t e d i n Process i n R e l a t i o n s h i p eds. Powers, Edward A. Lees, Mary W. (West P u b l i s h i n g Company: New York; 1974)  D e l i s l e , Mary  Ann  "Bonding Behaviour i n Newly Married Couples: A S i n g l e Case E x p l o r a t o r y Study" (The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; A p r i l 1979)  E l k i n , Meyer  "The Essence of R e l a t i o n s h i p " C o n c i l i a t i o n Courts Review ( X I I I : December, 1975; p.p. 18-23)  Elkin,  "Pre-Marital Counselling for Minors: The Los Angeles E x p e r i e n c e " The Family C o - o r d i n a t o r (October 1977; p.p. 16-30)  Meyer  Erikson,  Erik  Fahs Beck,  Dorothy  Childhood and S o c i e t y (W.W. 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New York; 1968 The Person ( B a s i c Books: New  York;  1968)  "Adolescent Self-Esteem, Family Communication, and M a r i t a l Satisfaction" The Journal of Psychology (Volume 86: 1974; p.p. 35-47) Love and W i l l ( D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Company: New York: New York; 1969)  Meyer, John Pepper, Susan  "Need C o m p a t i b i l i t y and M a r i t a l Adjustment" J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology (Volume 35, No. 5, p.p. 331-342; 1977)  Microys, G. Bader, E.  "Do Pre-Marriage Programs R e a l l y Work" (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto; 1977)  M i l l e r , Sherod Nunnally, Elam W. Wackman, D a n i e l B.  "A Communication T r a i n i n g f o r Couples" S o c i a l Casework (January 1976)  Morris, Desmond Murphy, Donald C. Mendelson, L l o y d A.  Nunally, Jum  C.  Intimate Behaviour (Random House: New York;  Program  1971)  "Communication and Adjustment i n Marriage: I n v e s t i g a t i n g the Relationship" Family Process (Volume 12, No. 3; p.p. 317-326; 1973) Psychometric Theory (McGraw-Hill Book Co.: New York; 1967)  106 O ' N e i l l , Nena O ' N e i l l , George O ' N e i l l , Nena O ' N e i l l , George  Oppenheim,  Pincus,  A.N.  Lily  Polansky,  Norman  Open Marriage (M. Evans: New  York;  1972)  "Open Marriage: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Human S e r v i c e Systems" The Family Co-ordinator (October 1973; p.p. 449-456) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Design and A t t i t u d e Measurement ( B a s i c Books Inc. P u b l i s h e r s : New York; 1966) "The Nature of M a r i t a l Communication" The M a r i t a l R e l a t i o n s h i p as a Focus f o r Casework (The T a v i s t o c k I n s t i t u t e of Human R e l a t i o n s ; 1971) S o c i a l Work Research (The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s : Chicago; 1975)  Ramey, James  Intimate F r i e n d s h i p s ( P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc.: New J e r s e y ; 1976)  Raush, Harold L. Barry, W i l l i a m A. H e r t e l , Richard K. Swain, Mary Ann  Communication, C o n f l i c t , and Marriage (Jossey Bass Inc.: San F r a n c i s c o , California; 1974)  Reid, W i l l i a m J . E p s t e i n , Laura  Task Centred Casework (Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New York; 1972)  Rodgers,  Becoming P a r t n e r s (Delacourt P r e s s : New  Carl  Ryder, Robert G. Kafka, John S. Olson, David H.  Satir,  Virginia  York;  1972)  " S e p a r a t i n g and J o i n i n g I n f l u e n c e i n Courtship and E a r l y Marriage" American J o u r n a l of Orthopsychiatry (Volume 41-, No. 3; 1971) Making Contact (Celestial Arts: Millbrae, California; 1976)  107 Sherrod, Kathryn Vietze, Peter Friedman, Steves  Infancy (Brooks-Cole P u b l i s h i n g Company Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a ; 1978)  Spanier, Graham B.  "Marriage and Dyad Adjustment :' New S c a l e s f o r A s s e s s i n g the Q u a l i t y o f Marriage and S i m i l a r Dyads" J o u r n a l o f Marriage and the Family (February 1976)  Spanier, Graham B.  "Romanticism and M a r i t a l Adjustment" J o u r n a l of Marriage and the Family (August 1972; p.p. 181-487)  Spanier, Graham B. Lewis, Robert A. Cole, Charles L.  " M a r i t a l Adjustment Over L i f e Cycle - Issue of C u r v i l i n e a r i t y " J o u r n a l o f Marriage and the Family (May 1975; p.p. 263-275)  S u l l i v a n , Harry Stack  P e r s o n a l Psychopathology (W.W. Norton and Company Inc.: New York: New York; 1972)  Thomas, Edwin J .  M a r i t a l Adjustment and D e c i s i o n Making (MacMillan P u b l i s h i n g Company: New York; 1977)  Towman, Walter  Family C o n s t e l l a t i o n ( S p r i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company: New York; 1969)  Udry, Richard J,  The S o c i a l Context o f Marriage ( J.B. L i p p i n c o t t : P h i l a d e l p h i a ; 1971)  Watzlawick, Paul Beavin, Janet H. Jackson, Don D.  Pragmatics o f Human Communication (W.W. Norton and Company Inc. New York; 1967)  108 APPENDIX A TOTAL SCORES OF SUBJECTS ON THE FIVE MAJOR VARIABLES AND THE I .M.S. COMMUNICATION 175.00 177.00 172.00 179.00 172.00 180.00 173.00 175.00 176.00 178.00 175.00 178.00 173.00 178.00 173.00 180.00 172.00 173.00 160.00 164.00 144.00 161.00 170.00 173.00 162.00 142.00 173.00 183.00 162.00 179.00 171.00 163.00 167.00 178.00 183.00 179.00 174.00 174.00 173.00 170.00 172.00  INTIMACY 176.00 182.00 177.00:' 184.00 177.00 177.00 182.00 186.00 178.00 183.00 181.00 180.00 172.00 177.00 182.00 188.00 174.00 181.00 166.00 179.00 155.00 176.00 171.00 171.00 174.00 160.00 181.00 178.00 173.00 174.00 175.00 174.00 177.00 169.00 184.00 176.00 179.00 178.00 175.00 175.00 178.00  TRUST 170.00 178.00 173.00 179.00 169.00 169.00 179.00 180.00 175.00 170.00 175.00 180.00 174.00 175.00 177.00 180.00 179.00 182.00 171.00 173.00 156.00 179.00 174.00 186.00 175.00 164.00 178.00 174.00 172.00 188.00 179.00 184.00 179.00 182.00 175.00 173.00 178.00 173.00 178.00 170.00 172.00  CARE  I .M.S.  176.00 183.00 181.00 178.00 176.00 176.00 173.00 175.00 178.00 178.00 178.00 180.00 179.00 177.00 172.00 180.00 174.00 179.00 180.00 168. 00 148.00 173.00 173.00 180.00 171.00 150.00 180.00 170.00 171.00 171.00 162.00 173.00 175.00 165.00 181.00 167.00 181.00 175.00 173.00 174.00 171.00  118. 00 117. 00 112. 00 115. 00 109. 00 113. 00 112. 00 113. 00 120. 00 117. 00 113. 00 113. 00 116. 00 112. 00 115. 00 116. 00 117. 00 110. 00 116. 00 117. 00 92. 00 118. 00 104. 00 110. 00 116. 00 91. 00 123. 00 120. 00 116. 00 123. 00 122. 00 123. 00 109. 00 113. 00 121. 00 118. 00 120. 00 112. 00 122. 00 115. 00 117. 00  109  COMMUNICATION  INTIMACY  172.00 173.00 174.00 171.00 160.00 141.00 148.00 162.00 164.00 153.00 173.00 158.00 141.00 187.00 183.00 168.00 179.00 171.00 171.00  186.00 173.00 179.00 174.00 159.00 149.00 170.00 178.00 178.00 176.00 179.00 183.00 157.00 187.00 182.00 176.00 173.00 172.00 174.00  TRUST 178. 00 169. 00 179. 00 175. 00 160. 00 153. 00 172. 00 177. 00 164. 00 157. 00 175. 00 172. 00 159. 00 180. 00 178. 00 172. 00 187. 00 179. 00 181. 00  CARE  I.M.S.  182. 00 172. 00 170. 00 177. 00 166. 00 143. 00 172. 00 169. 00 162. 00 171. 00 178. 00 171. 00 158. 00 183. 00 178. 00 181. 00 174. 00 163. 00 169. 00  119.00 120.00 116.00 120.00 111.00 90.00 119.00 119.00 103.00 121.00 116.00 117.00 107.00 119.00 119.00 118.00 118.00 121.00 120.00  60 CASES WRITTEN FOR 5 VARIABLES  110  APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE  0  a  a  0  a  •H P  •H  0  a  CD  -p  +->  •r-i CD  I l i s t e n when my mate  3.  My mate co-operates with me.  4.  I answer my mate, when he/she speaks.  5.  I like  myself.  6.  I feel  I understand my mate.  7.  I t e l l my mate how I f e e l about him/her.  8.  My mate t r i e s t o c o n t r o l the conversation.  9.  My mate g i v e s me mixed messages.  speaks.  10.  My parents c r i t i c i z e me.  11.  My parents are s u p p o r t i v e of me.  12.  My mate and I exchange i d e a s .  13.  I say t h i n g s that only my mate understands.  O  «H  0  a ti  0  +->  o  CD  •H  CD  X3  <  CO  o  0  a o  2.  +->  «H  rH  <H  I i n i t i a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n with my mate.  0  tt  +->  1.  +->  rH  a  P< O  o  •H -P  0 X5 -P  =H  o  rH rH  GS rH  O P  w o  I l l  0  £  0  •H -P  S  •H +->  0 Xi P  9H 0  <H 0 0 d  o  14.  I understand what my mate i s saying.  15.  My parents l i s t e n to me.  16.  When I speak, I f e e l no one is listening.  17.  My mate t e l l s me what he/she i s going t o do.  18.  My mate t e l l s me what he/she expects of me.  19.  My mate i n i t i a t e s c o n v e r s a t i o n with me.  20.  My parents t a l k to my mate.  21.  I say t h i n g s that only my mate understands.  22.  My mate and I communicate i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than we communicate t o other people.  23.  My mate and I have a s p e c i a l language a l l our own.  24.  I l i k e my mate.  25.  My mate l i s t e n s when I speak.  26.  My mate t e l l s me how he/she f e e l s about me.  «H O  0 rH  0  ti  0 Xi -P  tt  S  •rH P  0 XI •P  •H rH  0  <!  s  a o CO  -P  s  •p  0 XI -P 4H  o  rH rH 0j  ai  r<  T3 O O  -P CO  QH  o  O  o  27.  I f e e l threatened by my mate.  28.  My mate c r i t i c i z e s me.  29.  My mate i s always t e l l i n g me what to do.  30.  My o p i n i o n s r e a l l y matter t o my mate.  31.  My mate l i s t e n s when I speak.  32.  My mate answers me when I speak.  33.  I expect my mate t o read my mind.  34.  My parents l i s t e n to my mate.  35.  'My mate w i t h o l d s i n f o r m a t i o n from me.  36.  My mate says he/she loves me, but a c t s as i f he/she doesnLt.  37.  I never seem to have anything important to say.  38.  My mate understands  39.  I co-operate with my mate.  40.  My mate f e e l s  41.  I touch my spouse i n p u b l i c .  me.  threatened by me.  42.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o show a f f e c t i o n t o my mate.  43.  I f e e l uncomfortable with my mate.  44.  I am a f r a i d t o t e l l my mate how I f e e l .  45.  I f e e l I got married f o r security.  46.  I am able t o r e l a x with my mate  47.  My mate embarrasses me.  48.  My mate and I agree on t h i n g s .  49.  I r e s p e c t my mate.  50.  I f e e l my mate s t i l l cares about me when we are apart.  51.  I t r y to understand mate f e e l s .  52.  My parents show a f f e c t i o n t o me  53.  I feel  54;  I t h i n k my mate f i n d s me unattractive.  55.  I wonder i f my mate loves me as I r e a l l y am.  56.  I l i k e my p a r e n t s .  when alone  how my  unattractive.  57.  I l i k e t o h o l d my mate.  58.  I enjoy spending time with my mate.  59.  With my mate, I can r e a l l y be myself.  60.  My mate and I laugh together.  61.  My mate and I are l i k e one person.  62.  I am i n t e r e s t e d i n my mate's ideas.  63.  I r e a l l y need my mate.  64.  I enjoy doing t h i n g s on my own  65.  I f e e l my; .mate i s not p e r f e c t .  66.  I p r e f e r t o be around a group, r a t h e r than alone w i t h my mate  67.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to look my mate i n the eye.  68.  I know how my mate  69.  I f e e l my mate r e a l l y me.  70.  My parents accept my mate.  71.  I have d i f f i c u l t y showing anger.  feels. accepts  72.  I f e e l alone when I'm w i t h my mate.  73.  I t e l l my mate what he/she wants to hear.  74.  I can sense when my i s upset.  75.  I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l my mate I love him/her.  76.  I enjoy my mate's company.  77.  I f e e l I can be honest with my mate.  78.  I'm a f a i r l y  79.  I admire my mate.  80.  My mate and I u s u a l l y  81.  My mate and I spend time t o gether.  82.  I can c o n f i d e i n my mate.  83.  When I r e a l l y need my mate, he/she i s t h e r e .  84.  Other people seem to l i k e me.  85.  I t h i n k I'm l e v e l headed.  86.  I have some c l o s e  spouse  adaptable person.  agree.  friends.  87.  I can count on my p a r e n t s .  88.  I f e e l confident.  89.  Married couples should do e v e r y t h i n g together.  90.  I feel  91.  When I'm not with my mate, I wonder what he/she i s up t o .  92.  Most couples t r u s t each other  93.  I f e e l I've got t o do everyt h i n g myself, i f i t ' s going to get done.  94.  My mate i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e .  95.  I t r u s t my p a r e n t s .  96.  I f e e l secure w i t h my mate.  97.  I t ' s best not t o t r u s t anyone  98.  I can look a f t e r myself, i f I have t o .  99.  When my mate i s with me, I sleep w e l l .  anxious.  100.  I take advantage o f my mate.  101.  I t h i n k my f r i e n d s use me.  102.  When my mate goes out, I'm unsure of what he/she i s r e a l l y doing.  103.  My mate takes advantage of me.  104.  I wonder at times i f my mate i s f a i t h f u l to me.  105.  I t e l l my spouse how I r e a l l y feel.  106.  I t h i n k my spouse l i e s t o me.  107.  When I'm upset, comforts me.  108.  My parents care about me.  109.  I have confidence i n myself  110.  I like  111.  I t r u s t my own judgement.  112.  I handle s i t u a t i o n s w e l l .  113.  I can c o n f i d e i n my mate.  114.  I can count on my mate.  115.  I have f a i t h i n my mate's decisions.  116.  I f e e l I'm not i n c o n t r o l .  117.  I f e e l my parents love me.  118.  I keep many t h i n g s from my spouse.  someone  myself.  CD  s  CD  •H  e  •H CD  s  -P  +->  CD XI -p  CD X! -P  o  •H  CD  o CD  fl O  119.  I f e e l cared f o r .  120.  I trust  121.  To t h i s day, my f a t h e r can s t i l l make\ me angry.  122.  My parents were opposed t o my marriage.  123.  My mate and I engage i n a c t i v i t i e s together.  124.  I t h i n k about my mate when we are apart.  125.  I f e e l that I can't imagine . , not having married my mate.  126.  I t upsets me when my mate i s upset.  127.  I f e e l we had a wonderful wedding.  128.  My wedding g i v e s me many happy memories.  129.  I f e e l cared f o r .  130.  People seem to support  131.  My mate i s a happy person.  132.  I f e e l we've changed s i n c e we got married.  my f a m i l y .  me.  P  iH -P -P  •H rH  <:  CD XI P  <H  o  CD  s  •H  -p CD  s  o CO  •p  a O O O  133.  I want my mate t o succeed at whatever he/she wants.  134.  We t a l k about t e r m i n a t i n g our r e l a t i o n s h i p .  135.  My mate leaves the house after a fight.  136.  I wonder i f our marriage was a mistake.  137.  I get along with my parents.  138.  When my mate and I argue, I wonder i f he/she s t i l l cares about me.  139.  I'm a f r a i d my mate w i l l  140.  I wish my parents would leave me alone.  141.  When my mate i s i l l , about him/her.  142.  My mate and I do e v e r y t h i n g together.  143.  When I was growing up, I f e l t cared f o r .  144.  I t h i n k our marriage  145.  My f a m i l y l i k e s my mate.  change.  I worry  i s fun.  146.  I enjoy b e i n g w i t h my mate.  147.  Things are going w e l l i n our marriage.  148.  My f a m i l y doesn't  149.  I r e g r e t that I got married.  150.  I care more about my mate every day.  151.  I f e e l secure about my  152.  My mate and I o f t e n q u a r r e l .  153.  I can't seem t o get people to l i k e me.  154.  I'm happy when my mate i s successful.  155.  My mate t h i n k s only about h i s / h e r job.  156.  I leave the house a f t e r a f i g h t  157.  I f e e l I'm r e a l l y  158.  I enjoy being  159.  I f e e l d e d i c a t e d t o my mate.  160.  I'm g l a d I got married.  l i k e my mate.  on my  marriage  own.  married.  INDEX OF MARITAL SATISFACTION (I.M.S.)  (HUDSON/GLISSON)  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s designed to measure the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n you have i n your present marriage. not  a t e s t , so there are no r i g h t or wrong  It i s  answers.  Answer each item as c a r e f u l l y and as a c c u r a t e l y as you can by p l a c i n g a number b e s i d e each one as f o l l o w s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  None of the time A l i t t l e of the time Sometime Good part of the time Most or a l l of the time  P l e a s e begin: 1.  I f e e l that my  spouse i s a f f e c t i o n a t e enough.  2.  I f e e l that my  spouse t r e a t s me badly.  3.  I f e e l that my  spouse r e a l l y cares f o r me.  4.  I f e e l that I would not marry i i ' I had to do i t over.  5.  I f e e l that I can t r u s t my  6.  I f e e l that our marriage i s b r e a k i n g up.  7.  I f e e l that my  8.  I f e e l that our marriage i s a good one.  9.  I f e e l that ours i s a very happy marriage.  the same person  spouse.  spouse doesn't understand  me.  10.  I f e e l that our l i f e  11.  I f e e l that we have a l o t of fun t o g e t h e r .  12.  I f e e l that my spouse doesn't c o n f i d e i n me.  13.  I f e e l that ours i s a very c l o s e  14.  I f e e l that I cannot r e l y on my  together i s d u l l .  relationship spouse.  I f e e l that we do not have enough i n common.  interests  I f e e l that we manage arguments and disagreements very w e l l . I f e e l that we do a good job of managing our f i n a n c e s . I f e e l that I should spouse.  never have married my  I f e e l that my spouse and I get along w e l l together. I f e e l that our marriage i s very  very  stable.  I f e e l that my spouse i s p l e a s e d with me as a sex p a r t n e r . I f e e l that we should  do more t h i n g s  together  I f e e l that the f u t u r e looks b r i g h t f o r our marriage. I f e e l that our marriage i s empty. I f e e l there  i s no excitement i n our marriage  12 3  1.  Sex:  M  2.  Age:  18-24 25-30 31-35 36-40 over 40  3.  Education:  Highschool College University Post  Graduate  4.  Ethnic Origin:  5.  Length of time married  6.  How  7.  In the f i r s t 18 years of your l i f e , d i d you l i v e most o f t e n i n a r u r a l or urban environment?  ( i n months)  long have you l i v e d i n B.C.?  Rural Urban 8.  How  long have you l i v e d i n Canada?  9.  D i d you take a marriage p r e p a r a t i o n course? Yes_ No  

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