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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of the data administration function in large Canadian organizations McCririck, Ian Bryce 1979

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A SURVEY OF THE DATA ADMINISTRATION FUNCTION IN  LARGE CANADIAN  ORGANIZATIONS  by IAN B.Sc,  BRYCE MCCRIRICK  University of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE MASTER  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE  (Commerce  and B u s i n e s s  STUDIES  Administration)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  June 1979 ©  Ian Bryce  M c C r i r i c k , 1979  DE-6  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  C&7?lr?^tM>  ur^c/  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  BP  75-51 1 E  Sua^Pss  AzUr^oniS.  ii  ABSTRACT The  o b j e c t of t h i s study  organizations 1)  i n order  was  to  survey  large  Canadian  to:  determine the extent t o which these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have  e s t a b l i s h e d a separate  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  function,  2) e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t Nolan's Stage Model of EDP p r e d i c t o r of a separate  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  3) survey the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  Data  function  that  in  those  organizations  Growth as a  function,  and  Administration have  formally  e s t a b l i s h e d such a s p e c i a l i t y . A survey package c o n t a i n i n g two 555  l a r g e Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s  sectors.  The  Manager of the  "EDP EDP  the  existence  Administration  guestionnaire  in  a  the  Data  Questionnaire" in is  the  the  was  with  performed  on 254  EDP  sent  and  The to  the  f u n c t i o n s and  69 Data  Data This  characteristics function.  and  "Data  organizations.  the  the  organizations.  growth process  directed  to  public  d i r e c t e d to  Administrator.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  was  surveyed  surveyed  concerned  was  private  i s concerned with the EDP of  Administrator  in  P r o f i l e Questionnaire" Activity  This q u e s t i o n n a i r e  questionnaires  and  Analysis  Administration  functions. The  r e s u l t s obtained  f u n c t i o n i s not where  the  w i t h i n the with  very  prevalent  function EDP  EDP  in  large  Data  Canadian  Administration organizations;  does e x i s t i t s r o l e i s a f a i r l y  activity.  large  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  This study found a c t i v i t i e s and  that  minor  one  organizations  many years of  experience  iii  with computers  were more l i k e l y  Administration  function than-smaller  Certain  organizational  available)  were more  function  than  predictor sampled  of  dispersion time  performed  Data  likely  to  both  on  have  types. was  existence  of  appeared  Management  a  primarily  ones. funds  Administration  to  of  the  a  good  be-  A d m i n i s t r a t o r . , The  performed  a  wide  a n d t h e amount o f  setting*  activities  were  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  on t h o s e  "data bases"  using  Organizational conflicts  with  the  the  support  a  and a  o f t h e f u n c t i o n by EDP Management  h e l d back t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  involved  found  Data  policy  System.  misunderstanding  Data  functions " exhibited-  t o be f o c u s e d  Data  discretionary  "maturity"  not  the a c t i v i t i e s Few  a  The  activity  each.  with  by t h e D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  Base  general  likely,  a  and l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d  (those  Administration  in  spent  function  EDP the  Data  types  other  organization's  ' t o ' have'• e s t a b l i s h e d '  have  function  beyond  of  application  DBMS  one  systems* Future conflicts  research should and  decision  fully among  misperceptions  process  Administration understand  involved  function;, the data  organizational  N o l a n ' s S t a g e Growth determining variables  in  be d i r e c t e d  An  through in  types.  an  and  Before  should how  a r e and how t h e y  the Data  differ  u s e i s made o f  should  be g i v e n  might b e s t be measured.  C.  of  be made t o more  what t h e EDP g r o w t h  .-Robert  these  the  i t - might  further  model, s e r i o u s thought  more p r e c i s e t e r m s  analysis  establishing  attempt-  resource  at- u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Goldstein  to  process  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  CHAPTEE I . . INTRODUCTION ................................. Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Objectives Scope o f t h e S t u d y . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Data R e s o u r c e ^ . . ^ , 4 «..i . S t a g e M o d e l o f EDP Growth .........................  T 1 3 3 4 7  CHAPTER I I . HYPOTHESES 'i, ...... . The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n l a r g e Canadian O r g a n i z a t i o n s ......................... N o l a n ' s S t a g e M o d e l c f EDP Growth ... .............. D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S p e c i a l i z a t i o n » .. i,i ,«, ......... . Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  CHAPTER I I I . METHOD ii .. . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .......... ................ . ..... The EDP P r o f i l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r o f i l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ........ The P r e t e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Survey Package F o l l o w Up . . . . . . . . . . . ... ......... .. . . . , ... ... - . .  16 16 17 19 21 21 22 23  CHAPTER I V . ANALYSIS AND RESULTS P r e l i m i n a r y S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s ..................... Survey Package R e s p o n s e ............................. The D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u n c t i o n i n Large Canadian O r g a n i z a t i o n s Hypothesis Tests Stage M o d e l o f EDP Growth Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S p e c i a l i z a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ..  24 24 24  CHAPTER V.. SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIIONS ........ Survey Package Response The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u n c t i o n i n L a r g e C a n a d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n s .. S t a g e M o d e l o f EDP Growth,.., i.. D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S p e c i a l i z a t i o n . . ... ..>i-. . . . . . - .. Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .................. Role o f t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r ....................... C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.i,,*.*. ...... REFERENCES APPENDICES  . . . . . . . . . . . . L i ..... . ... .......................  11 12 12 14  27 39 39 43 50 55' 55 57 59 60 63 66 69 71 74  V  APPENDIX A. APPENDIX E. Questionnaire APPENDIX C. APPENDIX D.  EDP P r o f i l e Questionnaire ............... Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r o f i l e ......... ...... ...... •>•.. . ............. Covering L e t t e r Follow Up Card .................. ........  74 81 90 92  vi  L I S T OF TABLES  Page  TABLE I .  Response T a b u l a t i o n  TABLE I I .  Private Sector  TABLE III.  Public  TABLE I V . TABLE V.  Sector  ................  ..... -  24  Responses ....................  26  Responses  27  R e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n 7 o f EDPPQ ............. DA vs Number o f EDP E m p l o y e e s  28  ................  30  ......................................  30  TABLE VI DA v s Number o f EDP E m p l o y e e s One-tailed TABLE  T-test  VIIw  DA v s Montby  TABLE V I I I .  Hardware  E x p e n d i t u r e ..........  Da vs M o n t h l y Hardware  One-tailed  T  -  t  Expenditure-  e  s  TABLE IX., DA v s E x p e r i e n c e With Computers TABLE X.  DA v s E x p e r i e n c e With  One-tailed  DA vs A v a i l a b i l i t y  TABLE X I I I .  EDP E m p l o y e e s  TABLE XIV.  3  2  .............  Reporting  TABLE X V I I . TABLE X V I I I .  Size  34  Computers-  Type  Level  (Freguencies)  vs A v a i l a b i l i t y  of Funds  .... 33 .  42  o f DA ........,.......,,..,..>..  44  Variables  ............  44  o f DA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45  Scope o f DA- F r a c t i o n  R e a d a b l e D a t a Under  38  Maturity  o f DA- Number o f E m p l o y e e s  Experience  . . . . . 37  o f Funds  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f DA w i t h  TABLE XVI.  TABLE XIX.  ,  34  TABLE X I . . DA v s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  TABLE XV.  t  T-test  TABLE XII*  32  o f Machine-  DA R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  S i z e o f M a c h i n e R e a d a b l e Data R e s o u r c e  46 46  vii  TABLE XX.  Sharing  TABLE XXI.  ...............  47  Use of DA T o o l s ............................  48  TABLE XXII.  Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s Using  TABLE XXIII. TABLE XXIV. TABLE XXV.  of Data  DBMS ..........  48  DA Experience vs Use of T o o l s ............  49  Background o f Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  ........... 49  DA Experience and Time Spent on  T e c h n i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e TABLE XXVI.  Responsibilities  DA Experience and Time Spent on T e c h n i c a l  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - One-tailed T-test TABLE XXVII.  52  DA Experience and Time Spent on  Administrative R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - One-tailed TABLE XXVIII.  51  Responsibilities  T-test  53 54  V l l l  LIST OF FIGORES  Page FIGURE 1.  Roles o f the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  FIGURE 2.  R e l a t i o n s h i p of P l a y e r s i n the D e c i s i o n  to Form a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u n c t i o n  .................  65  68  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study appreciated  would not have been p o s s i b l e ' w i t h o u t  help,  advice,  and  encouragement  committee: Dr. Robert C*  Goldstein  Dexter, and Dr. C r a i g C*  Pinder.  my  employer,  B.  C.  my  (chairman) , Dr.  thesis  A l b e r t I.  I would a l s o l i k e t o  Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y f o r t h e i r  i n p r i n t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  The f i n a n c i a l support  mail survey  was provided  Of  a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t returned  course  of  t h e much  from t h e Accounting  deserve mention, as without not have been performed*  t h e i r responses  thank help  f o r the  Development Fund*  this  questionnaires study  could  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n In  the  past few years many o r g a n i z a t i o n s have recognized  t h a t data are a v a l u a b l e steps  to  corporate  resource  manage and c o n t r o l t h i s r e s o u r c e .  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a c t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n the separate group to manage the data r e s o u r c e .  and  have  taken  For some o f these  establishment  of  a  The most  important  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the d a t a  resource  function  i s the  appearance  position i n organizations. In  general,  the  of  the  Data Base A d m i n i s t r a t o r  2  Data  Administration  a s s o c i a t e d c l o s e l y with the EDP a c t i v i t y . has been the resource. This  major  1  impetus  to  f u n c t i o n has been  C l e a r l y the computer  specialization  in  the  data  3  relationship  computerized,  or  evolved because of the l a r g e volume o f  machine  readable,  data  that  application  systems used.  Throughout t h i s study the terms Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r and Data Administration will be used to refer to the separate organizational u n i t concerned with managing the c o r p o r a t e data resource. 1  R i c h a r d L. Nolan, e d . Managing The Data Resource West P u b l i s h i n g , 19:74, page 5. 2  #  3  loc* c i t .  Function,  2  During the 1960's, the computerized application systems were designed with their own data files.. Both t h e d a t a and the responsibility for the data were fragmented and many o f t h o s e a r e s t i l l o p e r a t i n g today. During the 1970's one major t r e n d has been t o w a r d s t h e use o f t h e shared-data-base that serves multiple applications. Numerous b e n e f i t s a r e being obtained from data bases, i n c l u d i n g the reduction of undesired redundancies and incompatibilities of data* But, at the same t i m e , d a t a bases have brought into focus t h e need f o r a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and control of the organization's data resource. The d a t a a d m i n i s t r a t o r f u n c t i o n is being set up and given this responsibility. * :  In s h o r t , the management corporate The job  the data  much  need  concerned  as t h e  with c o r p o r a t e  funds;  infrastructure  for  and  planning  e x e c u t i v e or s/he  In  has  the  the  Nolan, i b i d ,  corporate the  maintaining, i n the  page  24.  job  oriented  strategy.  Data  data  resource,  i s the  custodian  of  data  base  t o machine r e a d a b l e  data)  in a  the  of  The  the  controlling  potential  and  policy  up  summary, t h e D a t a  understanding,  a  accountant  setting  evolution  Administrator i s responsible developing,  resource  * Canning,Richard G., "Installing A n a l y z e r , ( 1 6 : 1 ) , 1978 J a n u a r y , page 5  to  control of  of the c o r p o r a t e  (not n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d  integrating  revealed  of D a t a a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s  financial  corporation.  has  f o r b e t t e r management and  i s the c u s t o d i a n  of c o r p o r a t e  systems  activity  resource.  position  Administrator  EDP  a 1.  employing  data.  Data  and  s  Dictionary",  EDP  3  Objectives The  object  organizations 1)  of  i n order  determine  established 2) a  this  the  study  to survey l a r g e  Canadian  to: extent  a separate  empirically test p r e d i c t o r of  was  to  which t h e s e  Data  organizations  Administration  N o l a n ' s S t a g e Model"  a separate  Data  5  have  function, o f EDP  Administration  Growth  as  function,  and 3)  survey  function  the in  established  Scope o f t h e  the  by  those such a  organizations  Data  that  Administration have  formally  speciality.  Study  This study in  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  surveyed the  p r i v a t e and  500  l a r g e s t Canadian  public sectors.  s a l e s , a s s e t s , number o f  'Largeness'  employees  or  organizations was  size  determined  of  computers  used. According development structure; when  of He  selecting  organizational the  6  to  Kimberly the  there  concept  of  has  been  size  a  measure  structure..  model i s d i s c u s s e d  of  size  The  function  later  to  optimum was  little  theoretical  i n s t u d i e s of s i z e  contends that a contingency  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The  7  not  approach use  i s required  in  measure f o r established  and  analyzing analyzing a  priori  i n Chapter I A ;  J o h n E. K i m b e r l y * " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S i z e and t h e S t r u c t u r a l i s t Perspective, A E e v i e w , C r i t i q u e , and P r o p o s a l " , Administrative S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , ( 2 1 : 4 ) , December 1976, pages 571-579. 7  4  because  a  surveyed.  Data  to select  organizational  a number o f  types  were  being  known measurements o f  Resource  corporate  data  in  general  use  r e s o u r c e , f o r example,  base*.  Data  may  be  when  discussing  formed  or s p e c i a l Thus electronic quantity  from  symbols such data  of  defined  as  as  groups of  *,  the  and  t h e form  non-random  %.  alphabetic,  o f c h a r a c t e r s on  of the  t o the  information,  i n any  to the  numeric,  and  documents,  so  on.  total  processing capacity organizational  This subset  t h a t has  recipient  been p r o c e s s e d and  is  data  (or i n f o r m a t i o n )  which i s  data  i s usually  of  i n c u r r e n t or p r o s p e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s .  data base i s a l l the  The  organization i s obviously  manager.  or data  Data  a  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  A subset  interest  value  $,  be  a manager's k n o w l e d g e ,  that i s meaningful  perceived  as  take  beyond  individual.  known  These may  data t h a t e x i s t s  r e s o u r c e i s of  form  may  impulses,  v o l u m i n o u s and o f an  characters*  the  'data*, •*information', or  s y m b o l s which r e p r e s e n t q u a n t i t i e s , , a c t i o n s , t h i n g s , e t c . is  size  respondents.  S e v e r a l terms a r e  •data  of  Consequently,  were u s e d  The  multiplicity  9  into  a  real  or  Thus  the  maintained  Gordon B. D a v i s , Manaqement I n f o r m a t i o n Systems-Conceptual F o u n d a t i o n s , S t r u c t u r e , and Development^ McGraw-Hill* 1974, p a g e s 32-33 . 8  9  OP.  cit.  ,page  32.  5  by  an  organization  Clearly,  managing  in  order  to f a c i l i t a t e  the data r e s o u r c e  any o r g a n i z a t i o n , as d a t a  i t s operations.  i s an i m p o r t a n t  are  the  raw  input  the  corporate  1 0  function in  to  managerial  decisions. In  order  to  useful to c l a s s i f y 1)  study  data  resource, i t i s  d a t a a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g  dichotomies:  Public/Private,  2) F o r m a l / I n f o r m a l ,  and  3) M a c h i n e R e a d a b l e / N o n M a c h i n e R e a d a b l e * Public  data r e f e r s  authorized confined *black  t o d a t a t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o anyone  t c o b t a i n the d a t a ,  t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  whereas  personal  private  collections  processes  data  refers  to data  Examples  storage,  'ad  computer  market, c o r p o r a t e  programs.  similar  The  1 1  Machine  readable  computers o r s i m i l a r  1  1  see  C.  'politics'  of  programmed  d e c i s i o n s - are  data  to data of  s t u d i e s conducted to and  and  programmed d e c i s i o n s a r e r e p e a t e d  nonprogrammed  pay  'one-shot'  dichotomy of f o r m a l / i n f o r m a l data i s  t o ,the. dichotomy  decisions:  R.  in  m a i n t e n a n c e and  data r e f e r s  hoc' n a t u r e , f o r example, s p e c i a l  assess a product  °  data  of f o r m a l data a r e job b u l l e t i n s ,  c h e q u e s and i n v e n t o r y r e c o r d s . . I n f o r m a l  l  i s usually  t h a t has r e g u l a r r o u t i n e s o r  a s s o c i a t e d with i t s c a p t u r e ,  dissemination.  whereas  of  is  books'.  Formal  an  data  who  refer  and  occasional  t o data  t h a t c a n be  nonprogrammed well defined and  unique.  processed  by  machines.  G o l d s t e i n , i n Nolan, i b i d  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of- programmed D a v i s , i b i d , p a g e s 144-145.  x  pages 349-350. .  and nonprogrammed d e c i s i o n s  6  I n any one o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e c a t e g o r y generally  larger  than  that  informal/non-machine-readable formal/machine-readable management In  decision  i t  from  the data  making l e v e l s  strategic  planning.  machine-readable making  data  the 1 3  as  For  developed  is  'ad  'external d a t a ' .  1 5  will  More o f t h e  likely  become  technology  resource, i t i s also of  used  useful  Anthony's  and  a  large.  for  to  management control  fraction  operational  in  hoc'  decision  and  of the  decision  strategic  studies,  making. * 1  planning  personal  the  d a t a r e s o u r c e f u n c t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by t o p  be  quite  from  is  usually  contacts  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e i m p o r t a n c e  different  is  p r o p o r t i o n o f the non-machine-readable  used  from  2  data  levels.  example,  f o r strategic  Information  data* .  - o p e r a t i o n a l , management  category  i s used  public  computer  perspective  whereas a s i m i l a r  category  private  data  e x p e r t i s e e v o l v e t o new  understanding  consider  of  of  and  o f managing  management  may  tha-t p e r c e i v e d by o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l  management i  1 2  Davis, i b i d  T  Robert N. Framework for Administration, 1 3  page 19 9. Anthony, P l a n n i n g - and C o n t r o l Systems: A A n a l y s i s , Harvard Graduate School of Business B o s t o n , 1965.  *• B i c h a r d L . N o l a n , "Managing t h e . C r i s e s i n D a t a P r o c e s s i n g " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , ( 5 7 : 2 ) , M a r c h - A p r i l , 1979 , page 119.. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n c o m p a r i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d a t a used in strategic planning, management control, and o p e r a t i o n a l level decision making, see A. G o r r y and M. S. Scott M o r t o n , "A Framework f o r Management I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s " , S l o a n Management Review^ F a l l 1971. 1  S  7  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the EDP  f u n c t i o n has  developed  public/formal/machine-readable/operational-level category.  As a conseguence,  probably privacy  not and  well  aware  security  top of  of  middle  the  data resource management  are  the data resource concept.  The  data,  and  around  however,  are  two  Data  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . i s s u e s t h a t should be of major concern t o them.. For  example, the i n a d v e r t e n t d i s c l o s u r e of customer data could  result  i n the l o s s of  financial  a  valued  client;  destruction  Nolan*  6  Growth  contends  t h a t data i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resource  and, as such, should be managed as any (manpower* money, m a t e r i a l e t c . ) .  other c o r p o r a t e resource  I n o r g a n i z i n g t o manage  r e s o u r c e , a c e r t a i n degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  of labour) function  w i l l emerge.  Nolan  a s s e r t s t h a t the  w i l l emerge from the EDP  the  (or d i v i s i o n  data  resource  f u n c t i o n , which i s , i n f a c t ,  the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o manage c o r p o r a t e data r e s o u r c e . of  the  evolution  organizations.  1 6  Nolan,  of  data could make an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s o l v e n t . .  Stage Model of EDP  data  the  He has developed  cf .  the  data  a s i x stage  resource  S e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s are used to  Managing The  the  model  function  determine  17  in  where  Data Resource F u n c t i o n , page 22.  Nolan o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a f o u r stage model but now has expanded the model to s i x s t a g e s . Over the l a s t s i x years s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s on t h i s model have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In addition to the work r e f e r e n c e d i n f o o t n o t e s above, Nolan has a l s o p u b l i s h e d , "Thoughts about the Fifth Stage", - Data Base, (7:2), 1975, pages 4-10; and " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Response and Information Technology", Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l Computer Conference 1978. pages 517-524. 1 7  8  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s EDP contends  that  characteristic Dearden*  the  f u n c t i o n i s on a 'maturity' s c a l e * appointment  of  a  Data  Administrator i s  of the f i f t h stage of maturity; on  8  the  other hand, contends t h a t  the c o n t r o l of a company's i n f o r m a t i o n  system  feasible*  impossible  He  suggests  that  i n d i v i d u a l whc  combines  the  technology  Nolan  with  an  it  is  requisite  understanding  is  skills  of  centralizing  all  simply to  in  not  find  an  computing  the. f u n c t i o n a l  a p p l i c a t i o n areas of b u s i n e s s and a knowledge of the management process.  Thus, i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l to  the c o r p o r a t e data Dearden  centralize  control  resource.  begins  with  the  assumption  that  management  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a s u b j e c t f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; t h a t i s , the resource and  is  sufficiently  i n f o r m a t i o n needs and s a t i s f y i n g them.  of  all  management  He then counters t h a t a  i n f o r m a t i o n system c o n s i s t s of such a huge  d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s  possess  a  broad  data  homogeneous f o r a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s  p r a c t i c e s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g  complete  over  that  no  single  assortment person  can  enough s e t of s k i l l s t o apply to even a s m a l l  p o r t i o n of them. Nolan's  assertion  is  supported  by  Ackoff  1 9  who  suggests  that managers do not r e a l l y know what i n f o r m a t i o n they need manage s u c c e s s f u l l y .  1 8  John Dearden, "MIS  (50: 1),  to  Ackoff suggests t h a t there i s a place f o r  i s a Mirage",  Harvard  1972 January-February, pages 30-99. .  Business  Review,  R u s s e l l Ackoff, "Management Misinformation Systems", Manaqement S c i e n c e , (14:4), 1967 December, pages B147-156. 1 9  9  the  specialist  information Nolan between  to  with  t h e manager i n d e t e r m i n i n g h i s  needs. states that  2 0  line  and  data resource* data  work  entry  staff  and  r e f e r s t o the  division  g r o u p r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r managing  F o r example,  activity  regulations  specialization  the l i n e  but t h e s t a f f  policies  group  group  governing  may  would  the  perform  establish  entry  of  the the  rules,  data  to  computers. According stages-  t o N o l a n , t h e growth  Initiation,  Contagion,  Administration  and  Application  Portfolio  Organization, Awareness the  Data  stage  of  n e v e r made e x p l i c i t be m e a s u r e d . consequently  t o be  0  N o l a n , Managing  2  1  Nolan,  Robert Processinq University 2  each p r o c e s s .  of v a r i a b l e s  "Manaqinq  has s i x  Integration,  Data  growth  processes-  Data  Processing  Control,  and  A number o f v a r i a b l e s  User  determine  N o l a n , however,  lacks  has  they are to  precision  and  of h i s studies i s d i f f i c u l t . draws  upon t h e work o f Mantha  a suitable l i s t o f t h e EDP  2  2  o f v a r i a b l e s t o measure  activity.  as i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e EDP  2  2  study  o f development used  P l a n n i n g and  activity  what t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e o r how  replication  Nolan, i n b u i l d i n q staqe  for  His discussion  present  four  Development,  Processing  growth  Control,  and  w i t h i n each stage.  2 1  The  Maturity,  o f t h e EDP  t h e Data R e s o u r c e  qrowth  The  paqe  Processinq",  Mantha, "An A n a l y s i s o f S k i l l Environments", unpublished of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978.  the  variables  process are:  Function*  the C r i s e s i n Data  major  and  23. ibid  Requirements i n Data master's "thesis,  10  1)  EDP a c t i v i t y s i z e as measured  by  the  number  of  EDP  employees and/or monthly computer hardware e x p e n d i t u r e , 2)  user  awareness  as  measured  management and EDP u s e r s i n  by  involvement  computer  system  of top  development  activities, 3)  planning  existence  and  control  of a chargeback process,  development  tasks,  position  of  as measured by the  standards  f o r system  p r o j e c t reviews, a S t r a t e g i c  Committee and a c o r p o r a t e 4)  mechanisms  EDP  data flow  activity  in  Planning  model, the  organizational  s t r u c t u r e as measured by the r e p o r t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t o top management, 5)  age  of  the EDP a c t i v i t y as measured by the number of  years s i n c e computers were f i r s t 6)  used by the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  a p p l i c a t i o n s p o r t f o l i o development as measured  by  the  f r a c t i o n of the EDP budget spent on o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l type computer systems, and 7)  EDP f u n c t i o n performance e v a l u a t i o n as measured by t h e  importance of c l e r i c a l user s a t i s f a c t i o n  staff  savings,  meeting  budgets,  and c o n t i b u t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  goals.  11  CHAPTER I I  HYPOTHESES  The  Data  Administration  Function  In  Large  Canadian  Organizations According should  now  to C a n n i n g  have  a large fraction  2 3  established  because the net b e n e f i t s are estimate  a  of  organizations  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  substantial.  This  2 4  function  study  will  the f r a c t i o n c f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have e s t a b l i s h e d a  Data A d m i n i s t a t i o n  f u n c t i o n , and  compare  these  organizations  with those t h a t don't have the f u n c t i o n , f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n EDP activity  size,  experience  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  is  management o f the data with  very  large  EDP  to  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l type. play  resource,  a  coordinating  one might expect  activities  to  be  the  number  computers* of  their  2 3  i n the  organizations  Experience  refers  years that the o r g a n i z a t i o n has been using  Various o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s , because o f the nature business,  differently. department  of  role  more l i k e l y t o have  e s t a b l i s h e d the f u n c t i o n than s m a l l e r ones. to  Since the  For stores  may  assimilate  example* more  than  point they  computer  of do  sale  technology  terminals  metal  impact  producers.  Canning, i b i d  * For a d i s c u s s i o n of b e n e f i t s see G* K. Wiorkowski and J . J. Wiorkowski, "Does a Data Base Management System Pay O f f ? " , Datamation, A p r i l 1978, pages 109-114; and GOIDE I n t e r n a t i o n a l Corporation, E s t a b l i s h i n g the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u n c t i o n , 2  1977.  12  Consequently, 'the emergence of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n may  occur  at  organizational  different  stages  EDP  growth i n d i f f e r e n t  types.  N o l a n s Stage Model of EDP 1  Function  Nolan's Stage Model of EDP Administrator  of  function  position  Growth  Function  emerging  at  Growth p o s i t s  the  fifth  a  stage;  Data i f his  assumptions are c o r r e c t , those o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t score high i n growth process^ v a r i a b l e s should  be more l i k e l y t o have f o r m a l l y  e s t a b l i s h e d a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  than those  This study w i l l t e s t the hypothesis H1:  The  term,  that  score  low.  that:  More mature o r g a n i z a t i o n s are more l i k e l y to have e s t a b l i s h e d a Data Administration f u n c t i o n than l e s s mature o r g a n i z a t i o n s . mature, as a p p l i e d to the EDP  activity,  w i l l mean a  l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n with r e s p e c t to Nolan's growth  process  variables.  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S p e c i a l i z a t i o n For  those  organizations  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n the  function  will  t h a t have e s t a b l i s h e d a  f u n c t i o n * the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be  reported  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t has evolved structure,  experience,  data  Generally,  the  the  Administrator, it  higher  to  determine  the degree of  sharing, reporting  scope,  and  position  the more s p e c i a l i z e d the f u n c t i o n .  Experience  of  i n the f u n c t i o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i s not unusual to see a Vice P r e s i d e n t  resource).  separate  for  of  tools. the Data  For example,  Finance  (money  i s a measure of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as time  13  is  required  to  l e a r n about and apply the c o n c e p t s .  r e d u c t i o n i n the amount o f data redundancy i s a attributable  to  Data  Administration  2 6  more  practical. specialized,  a p p l i c a t i o n systems should have been i n t e g r a t e d ,  consequence  integration of  benefit  the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  As the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n becomes  a  data  of  redundancy  reduced.  The  As  evidence  degree  of  of  data  the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n becomes more  s p e c i a l i z e d , one might expect i t s r o l e to expand include,  and as  2 7  the data resource as manifested i n the concept  shared f i l e s , i s a p o s s i b l e measure o f the  redundancy.  Since a  major  should attempt to i n t e g r a t e data where f e a s i b l e and  more  2 5  f o r example,  The a p p l i c a t i o n of new  in  scope  to  the non-machine-readable data resource. t o o l s to manage the data resource  measure of the degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the f u n c t i o n .  is 2 8  a  This  a s s e r t i o n could be rephrased as the hypothesis: H2:  More experienced Data Administration functions will be more l i k e l y to use certain tools (e.g. Data D i c t i o n a r y / D i r e c t o r y ) than l e s s experienced ones.  "Experience"  is  Administration  the  number  function  of  has  C. Babbage, i n Nolan, Managing page 7. 2 5  years been  a  separate  established  the Data Resource  in  Data the  Function,  2 6 wiorkowski, i b i d . Richard L. Nolan, "Computer Data Bases: The Future I s Now", Harvard Business Review, September-October. 1973, page 113-114. 2  7  2 8  Babbage, i b i d .  14  organization.  The study w i l l a l s o r e p o r t  background of the Data  the  experience  and  Administrators.,  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s For - those Data  o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have e s t a b l i s h e d a  Administration  responsibilities  function,  and  hypotheses  experience  f u n c t i o n w i l l be t e s t e d ;  of  the  "Experience"  separate  about  Data  the  Administration  r e f e r s t o the number  of  years the group has been i n e x i s t e n c e * H3:  More experienced Data Administration f u n c t i o n s w i l l spend a l a r g e r f r a c t i o n of their time on administrative responsibilities than less experienced ones.  H4:  More experienced Data Administration f u n c t i o n s w i l l spend a s m a l l e r f r a c t i o n of their time cn t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than l e s s experienced ones.  H5:  A l l Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n functions will spend a^ l a r g e r f r a c t i o n o f t h e i r time on administrative responsibilities than technical responsibilities;  The  time  currently  spent  on d i f f e r e n t  responsibilities  w i l l be compared t o the expected time t o be spent on responsibilities  twc  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are tasks  (policy  Technical technology  years  concerned  setting  or  responsibilities  hence.  with data  are  concerned  or  clerical  maintenance). with  computer  (the p h y s i c a l storage o f data o r maintaining  Base Management System).  same  Administrative  managerial dictionary  the  T h i s dichotomy of t a s k s i s put  a Data forth  15  by  Secrest  activity. the  2 9  without any i n d i c a t i o n of the importance of each  I f Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s  data r e s o u r c e ,  technical  tasks  Administration Nolan,  a  trend  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  with  managing  an emphasis on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e as opposed to  would is  concerned  an  be  expected.  evolving  should  Furthermore,  speciality*  develop  towards  away from t e c h n i c a l  as  if  Data  suggested  by  administrative  responsibilities.  Richard D. S e c r e s t , "The Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r " , i n McFarlan & Nolan, The Information Systems Handbook* Dow Jones-Irwin, 1975, pages 647-658. 2 9  16  CHAPTEH I I I  METHOD  Questionnaires This  study  organizations; that  required*  The  the  for  gives  technique  1) a low  and  wide  500  funds  3  geographically dispersed were  coverage  q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach  ofctaininq  possibilities:  t o survey  S i n c e time  technique  means  planned  at was  at  a  premium,  minimal selected  expense as the  data.. Several disadvantages  include,  for  example,  a was  best  inherent i n  the  following  0  response  rate,  w h i c h may  bias  the  sample  being  examined, 2)  q u e s t i o n s may  3) a n s w e r s 4) in the  may  be  a n s w e r s may a direction  be  m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by  missing,  the  respondent,  and  be p u r p o s e f u l l y favourable to the  or i n a d v e r t e n t l y sponsor  of the  distorted survey  or  to minimize  the  jeopardize  the  respondent.  Several occurrence  counter of  these  measures events  can which  be tend  taken to  The l i s t i s n o t e x h a u s t i v e * A more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a i l s u r v e y method can be f o u n d i n L,. Charach, "An Exploratory Investigation Toward The Development Of A B e s e a r c h D e s i g n F o r The S t u d y o f Youth Work T r a n s i t i o n " , unpublished master's t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. (Mantha, i b i d , i n a s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g EDP managers of British Columbia based companies used Charach's methodology and a c h i e v e d a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 57 %)<. 3  0  17  reliability and  and  validity  professional  of a mail survey.  looking  questionnaire  A well  that  presented  attracts  the  i n t e r e s t o f the respondent, a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r from a person has  c r e d i b i l i t y i n the subject area*  r e t u r n envelope and  a pre-paid  self-addressed  a f o l l o w up card a f t e r the i n i t i a l  are p r e r e q u i s i t e s to o b t a i n i n g a good reponse r a t e , Two The  "EDP  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were designed, Profile  Questionnaire"  the Manager of the EDP  (Appendix A) was  This q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s concerned with the EDP the  existence  Administration Data  of  Data  Questionnaire"  Administrator  questionnaire  a  in  is  the  concerned  d i r e c t e d to  growth process  (Appendix B) was  with  pretested.  organizations.  Administrator;  surveyed  The  organizations. the  the  Administrator  are  held  by  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r a t h e r than one  The  EDP The  Profile  different  individuals,  p u r p o s e f u l l y pink  two  were developed.  to  Profile  three blank pages.  distinguish  it  Questionnaire.  from The  provided t o allow the respondent to express  Charach,.cp.  Data  Questionnaire  by f i v e pages of questions and  3 1  and  Because  Manager and  f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s of a cover  Administration  the This  characteristics  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the p o s i t i o n s of EDP  and  "Data  d i r e c t e d to  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . of  mailing  3 1  developed and  A c t i v i t y i n the surveyed  who  cit.  the  page f o l l o w e d The  cover i s  yellow  Data  blank pages were extended  answers,  18  i f desired. Twenty-five (25) questions are contained i n the body of the A l l but questions 1,  questionnaire.  with measurinq the i s a simple structure As  far  •maturity  1  4,  6,  of the EDP  qraphic q u e s t i o n on the EDP  and  activity..  as  Data  Administration  s t r u c t u r e s (eg*  or d e c e n t r a l i z e d system  is  concerned,  activity,.  may  Questions  the s i z e of the responding employees,  sales  organizational  not  The  32  were  and  After revised  or d i f f i c u l t  4 and  assets.  conducive  6 are used to v e r i f y number  of  8  addresses  a  originally  drawn  directly  p r e - t e s t , however, s e v e r a l of these because  the  repondents  to answer without  found  development  standards  expanded i n scope because the r e s e a r c h e r suspected  wide  range  of User  actual  situations  awareness  could  elicit  that a  positive  measures were c o n s i d e r e d f o r each  phase i n the system development l i f e  Mantha, i b i d .  them  considerable research.  were  3 2  to  In these types of  Question  q u e s t i o n s on chargeback and p r o j e c t  responses.  areas  type.  Mantha .  unclear  be  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n terms of  •maturity• questions were  questions  certain  f u n c t i o n a l , r a t h e r than c o r p o r a t e p e r s p e c t i v e s are  held by the EDP  from  respondent.  segmented by a p p l i c a t i o n  analysis)  1  activity orqanizational  e s t a b l i s h i n g a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . structures,  concerned  Question  desiqned t o invoke the c u r i o s i t y of the  organizational  The  8 are  cycle.  19  The  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n This  questionnaire  consists  the  Data  Administrator.  given  with  Questions Administrator  Part  function,  and whether  the  Part  activities  dichotomy;  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r , .  number  Quesion  measures  i n reducing  data  for  Administrator.  of  the  the c u s t o d i a n s h i p  of  size  resource;. how  f a r t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  redundancy.  some  of  Administrator:  Data  Base  Management  3 3  i n the  13 measures t h e . a b s o l u t e  with  Methodology.  employees  the  readable/non-machine-  under  concerned  Facilities  of  since  measures the f r a c t i o n  that f a l l s  of t h e machine-readable data  Query  1 t o ensure that the  t o d e t e r m i n e where t h e D a t a  t h e machine  The q u e s t i o n  resource  14  about  Instructions  r e p o r t s t o t h e Data  readable  data  of  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l group r e s p o n s i b l e  12 i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  are  in  11 a t t e m p t  Question  progressed  Administrator.  1  to reply.  established*  technical  Question  Part  o f t h e Data  r e p o r t s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , how l o n g  was  the  parts.  2 c o n s i s t s o f 38 g u e s t i o n s  question  1 through  function  corporate  two  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t h e Data  each  r e s p o n d e n t knows how  the  about  into  f u n c t i o n , t h e t o o l s u s e d , and t h e b a c k g r o u n d  responsibilities  are  Questionnaire  i s divided  o f 34 q u e s t i o n s  Administration the  Profile  and i n f o r m a t i o n  the  Question  tools  used  System,  Requirements  F o r a l l b u t t h e IRA p r o c e d u r e ,  has  15 t h r o u g h by  Data  the  Data  Dictionary,  Analysis these  30  (IRA)  questions  For a discussion of various tools used by t h e Data Administrator see: GUIDE International, Data Base Administration Project, The D a t a Base A d m i n i s t r a t o r . November 3, 1972, p a g e s 2.1-2.15. 3  3  20  ask,  how  long has the t o o l  machine-readable Question formal  32  with  indicates  the  the e x i s t e n c e of formal  Question  34  work  experience  influential Question  standards  i n the l i f e  i s  Administrator is  how  i s i n t h e EDP a c t i v i t y .  major p r o c e s s e s  and  of the  and  e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  Administrator  the  and what f r a c t i o n  h a s i t been a p p l i e d a g a i n s t ?  31 i s c o n c e r n e d  Question  with  resource  been u s e d  cycle  concerned  related  33 i s c o n c e r n e d tool), for  of  of  with  a  piece  how  to Question  Data  (a management  i s i n v o l v e d with d e v e l o p i n g  directly  the  closely  data.  the  information  Data  systems  33(a)- the d e f i n i t i o n of  data i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Questions  35  to  Administrator  is  responsible  activities,  much  that  how  amount o f t i m e  Again,  each  dichotomy  statements  these  3  4  changes  activity.  Secrest,  for  i s spent  ibid  a  or  not  number  on t h o s e  of  effectively  and how now.  the administrative/technical These  v a r i o u s s o u r c e s b u t h e a v y use  from  Data  particular  activities,  Administation function.  culled  the  t o c h a n g e two y e a r s from  reflects  q u e s t i o n s because the o r i q i n a l one  whether  The p r e - t e s t r e s u l t e d  3  of  from  ask  i s expected  of the Data  Secrest *. original  time  activity  were s e l e c t e d  72  i n some  statement  made  of  minor c h a n g e s t o t h e  the l i t e r a t u r e . split  was  activities  The  majority  a question into several contained  more  than  21  The  Pretest A  pretest  organizations thirty  i n the  minute  forty-five:to While the the  sixty  on  estimatinq  with  an  important  completed  One  because  lack  of  of  a  e s t a b l i s h e d the  management  questionnaires  sectors.  Financial  Financial  in  top  of  activity Data  manager and  the  pretest  to complete  in  as  were  Several  were  invaluable  many  pretest  persons  had  the  a lack of  changes  arose.  questionnaires;  discontinued  because of  they  respondents  how  the  a  guestionnaire  the  determining  a  Administrator.  management i n t e r e s t and  function  the  Post  job  1978  titles  Processing)  i n the  a  Data  function had  not  f u n d s and  top  to  one  the  draft  pretest;  sample came f r o m b o t h  Private Post  Companies(1978).  for  consisted  Sample  public  from  It  These s e s s i o n s  r e s u l t e d from t h i s  Organizations  the  based  answered g u e r i e s  recently  commitment.  Vancouver  appropriate  organization had  three  with the  by  time r e q u i r e d  one  The  and  consideration  respond.  EDP  the  encountered  Administrator,  yet  the  minute s e s s i o n  sat s i l e n t l y  the  on  population.  a blank q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  in  would  sample  respondent  difficulties  noted  conducted  session  researcher  All  was  sector  Survey  Survey Public  of of  C o r p u s Almanac o f r e l a t e d to the  i n p r o v i n c i a l and  EDP  private  c o m p a n i e s were s e l e c t e d Industrials(1978)  the  sector  the  300  Largest  organizations Canada. activity  federal  and  were  the  selected scanned  Director,  ministries;  from  Canadian  T h i s book was (eg..  and  To  Data  ensure  22  that  organizations  with l a r g e computer i n s t a l l a t i o n s  l e f t o f f the l i s t s , the 1978 Society's  Survey  of  Canadian  Computers  was  Information compared  were not Processing  to  the  lists  e x t r a c t e d from the aforementioned p u b l i c a t i o n s * .  A survey  package c o n s i s t i n g of a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r  C) , a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d p r e - p a i d r e t u r n envelope, an Questionnaire was  survey  organizations selected  package was  s e c t o r only) activity  a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r o f i l e  to the 555  mailed  The  and  were  EDP  Questionnaire the  obtained  activity.  from a Canadian  of  ( p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l m i n i s t r i e s o n l y ) .  of  the  available, company* f o r two in  EDP  the  manager  package  was  The P r e s i d e n t was reasons.  large  in  to  the  1978  private  Corpus  Almanac Where the  sector  was  s e l e c t e d i n s t e a d of the EDP  F i r s t , EDP  not  Manager  Managers have v a r i o u s t i t l e s ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a package simply  addressed to the  Second, a package  l i n e . f r o m top management t o the EDP  coming  and 'EDP down  manager i s more l i k e l y  be r e c e i v e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t e n t i o n . The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r f o l l o w e d the format and content  covering l e t t e r  3 5  EDP  addressed to the P r e s i d e n t of the  Manager* could be m i s d i r e c t e d . the  and the  of  Information  S o c i e t y membership l i s t  name  sample*.  Names  Processing Canada  Profile  d i r e c t e d e i t h e r at a P r e s i d e n t ( p r i v a t e  or a manager i n the EDP  managers  in  (Appendix  Mantha, i b i d  i n Mantha's  3S  survey.  The  of  the  instructions  and  23  confidentiality/anonymity the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . briefly  the  determininq  were placed on the cover  E s s e n t i a l l y , the  purpose who  details  in  of  the  the  coverinq  letter  of  stated  survey  and  instructions  for  organization  was  to  complete  the  on January 10,1979, r e q u e s t i n q  that  questionnaire. The  package was  mailed  completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s be returned  by February 6,1979.  Follow rjp On January 26, to  all  orqanizations,  f o l l o w up l e t t e r Administration Questionnaire Profile  was  and  a f o l l o w up card whether  to 1  Questionnaire,  Questionnaire respondent  had  failed  mailed t o a respondent who  to One  had  the  return  returned  additional  returned  Data survey  r e c e i v e d a f o l l o w up  r e c e i v e a survey  an EDP  existence a  package.  sent  r e p l i e d or not.  without  who  indicating  Questionnaire;  not, apparently*  they  (Appendix D) was  sent to 4 respondents who  Profile  A d m i n i s t r a t o r , but Profile  1979  of  a  A  Data  Profile an  EDP  a Data  Administration package card  but  was did  24  CHAPTER I V  ANALYSIS AND RESULTS  Preliminary  Survey Package Table  Statistical  Analysis  Response  I gives  a breakdown o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s u r v e y .  r  "  1  1  1  I  TABLE I  |  I  Response T a b u l a t i o n  I  |  1. I n i t i a l  I  2. S e c o n d  mailings mailing  | 3.. D u p l i c a t e  .  .555 |  (by r e q u e s t ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  initial  | 4. R e t u r n e d l e t t e r s | t h a t no r e s p o n s e  1 |  mailings*........................  17 |  I « 33 |  or telephone c a l l s i n d i c a t i n g would be f orthcoming;;;.* , v»  j 5. T o t a l r e t u r n e d EDPPQ with o r w i t h o u t DAPQ I | attached,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. ...262 | | 6. R e t u r n e d EDPPQ w i t h o r w i t h o u t DAPQ r e c e i v e d J more t h a n 3 weeks a f t e r r e g u e s t e d r e t u r n d a t e ; . . . . .  j 4 |  | 7* D u p l i c a t e  4 |  EDPPQs r e t u r n e d  j 8. EDPPQs used i n t h e a n a l y s i s |  9. R e t u r n e d  (5-6-7)........  .....254 |  DAPQs..................................... 101 |  110. DAPQs r e t u r n e d by o r q a n i z a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t j | t h e y d i d n o t h a v e a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . . . 47 | 111. R e t u r n e d DAPQ r e c e i v e d more t h a n 3 | weeks a f t e r r e g u e s t e d r e t u r n d a t e  I 1 |  25  Because  the  survey  list  without an exhaustive two  survey  available. was  In  intentional, The  compiled  comparison, 17  packages.  m a i l i n g was  was  a few since  organizations  more  than  one  by 47 respondents who  should  Data  not  Administration  closely  to  determine  s t a t e d on' the EDP  function.  function*  indicate  the  function.  some form of a Data  presence  The  of  recoding  a  separate  organizations not  have  d i d not  complete answers on Part  had  Administration few  completed DAPQ was  indicated function  dollars  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to  on  the on  indicate  Data  Administration  the  Data this  Administration  Data  returned  by 4  of  EDPPQ.  Management  a  organizations separate  These  These Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  a  used none of  Data  Data  organizations  Consequently, these responses absence  person  2.  existence the  of the  Base  computer hardware and  tools.  more  follow  As a r e s u l t of  c r i t e r i a were the t i t l e  System and  A partially  a  recoded 16 responses on the EDPPQ to  the DAPQ, the e x i s t e n c e of a  function.  have  examined these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  completing  recoded  not  Since  r e p o r t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  i n s p e c t i o n , the researcher  was  Profile  Note t h a t Question 1 on the DAPQ asks where the  Administrator  spent  did  i f the respondent simply  i n s t r u c t i o n s or a c t u a l l y had  that  address  be able t o respond to the DAPQ i f they do  the f u n c t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r  sent  P r o f i l e Questionnaire(DAPQ)  Questionnaire (EDPPQ) t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n separate  were  i n s t a n c e s , however, a second  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  completed  from s e v e r a l sources  the were  Administration  f u n c t i o n s were not, i n the  o p i n i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r , ones that the  survey was  attempting  26  to  reach. As  shown i n T a b l e I , 33  or telephone t h a t  they  guestionnaires.  The  organization  did  guestionnaires not  complete To  in  distributed  not  that  sector  shown  two  not  going  prime  have  responded  to  reasons  the  time  return  by  letter  completed  g i v e n were t h a t  the  to  the  complete  as a c o r p o r a t e p o l i c y , d i d  questionnaires.  compared t o t h e As  were  or the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  verify  private  organizations  a reasonable cross  was  received,  lists  list  cf companies used  Table  over the  the  section  II,  total  of  of  total  respondents  to s e l e c t  responses  the  was  respondents.  were  uniformily  sample. TABLE I I  Private Out by  o f l a r g e s t 120  Sector  Canadian  s a l e s . .................  Responses  Industrials  .........  . . . . . . ...... i  Out o f l a r g e s t 6 R e a l E s t a t e Companies by a s s e t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . i .... Out by  o f l a r g e s t 10 M e r c h a n d i s i n g s a l e s * ........... ...  58  responses  5  responses  Companies  J •• ...........  •• 7  responses  Out o f l a r g e s t 25 F i n a n c i a l Companies by a s s e t s . ....... . ... .......... . ... . .... .. ...... .12 Out o f l a r g e s t 15 I n s u r a n c e by a s s e t s .  To public total  verify sector  was  mailings  section  of  that  was  a  Companies ........  reasonable cross  responses  As shown  'was  also  in  Table  evenly  9  section  r e c e i v e d , a simple comparison made._  responses  responses  of the  total  of r e s p o n s e s III,  the  to  cross  d i s t r i b u t e d over  the  27  sample,.  There  government  was  only  one  ministries.  questionnaires  were n o t  i  response  This  from t h e  was  to  be  translated into  Quebec p r o v i n c i a l expected,  as  the  French*  "i  1  |  I  TABLE I I I  I  I  I  P u b l i c Sector  Item Federal  Government  Provincial  •  Government  67 23  Cities  8  Data  Administration  I  Responses  27  Universities  The  I  Responses Mailed  Function  in  17  |  32  I  15  I  6  I  Large  Canadian  Organizations Detailed cases to  3 6  .  analysis  Table  Question  IV 7,  gives on  Administration  function*  organizations  had  considerinq of the  the  separate  Data  the  EDPPQ  a frequency  was  existence  Only  60,  of  or  orqanizations Administration  of  24%  reponses Question  performed  distribution  the  positive  recodinq  responding  Of  a of  to t h i s  of  the  function.  Data  respondinq  question.  that  254  responses  separate  7 answers, only  indicated  on  72,  they  Even or had  Consequently,  28% a the  All statistical a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d u s i n q t h e s o f t w a r e p r o d u c t S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS). . A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p a c k a g e can be f o u n d i n Norman H. Nie et al, Statistical Package : f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , s e c o n d e d i t i o n , McGraw H i l l Book Company, 1975; 3 6  28  concept cannot be considered to be p e r v a s i v e i n l a r g e organizations. 7 responses. Administration  Canadian  A new v a r i a b l e , DA, was computed from Question A DA value of 1 was a s s i g n e d i f a  separate  Data  f u n c t i o n e x i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a value o f  0, o t h e r w i s e .  i  ~  '  ;  1  |  TABLE IV  I  I i  Besponses to Question 7 of EDPPQ (Do you have a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n ? )  | I  |  Response  Freguency  |  No  |  No, because...  |  No, we used t o . . .  |  Percentage  |  84  33  |  22  9  I  4  2  I  No, but we are t h i n k i n g  67  26  I  j  Yes  56  22  I  |  Recoded  from No to Yes  16  6  I  1  Recoded  from Yes t o No  4  2  I  253  100  :  |  ' '  |  |  M i s s i n g cases=  1  I  |  TToottaall analysed analysed  254 254  j  | I  Note: Note: 1. 1. TToottaall YES YES ==5 56 6 ++ 16 16 == 72 72 2. T o t a l NO = 8 4 + 22 * 4 + 67 + 4 = 181 3. 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n s answering YES d i d n o t r e t u r n a DAPQ.  L.  I |  29  EDP  A c t i v i t y S i z e and the E x i s t e n c e of a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r To t e s t f o r a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  existence  of  a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n and the s i z e of the  EDP  a c t i v i t y , a c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n was  the  number  Question  EDP  employees  (Question  between  2).  DA  and  Responses  to  2 were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups by the number of  activity size*  of  performed  employees,  The  Question  so  that  the  groups were about egual i n  c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n between 2 resulted  organizations  DA  and  the  transformed  i n a c h i - s g u a r e of 40.84966 with 2  of freedom a-hd p < .001  (Table V).  EDP  This r e s u l t  degrees  suggests  that  with a very l a r g e number of employees i n the  EDP  a c t i v i t y a r e more l i k e l y t o have a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n function  than  smaller  ones.  The  c o e f f i c i e n t between DA and number of EDP is, two  however,  only  .1890  Pearson  correlation  employees  (Question 2)  (n=251, p=.001), suggesting t h a t the  v a r i a b l e s are not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d .  was  performed  to  test  if  the  A  one-tailed  mean number of EDP  employees  (Question 2) f o r DA value 1 i s g r e a t e r than the mean of of EDP  employees  (Question 2) f o r a DA  value of 0.  Table  VI, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means.  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the v a r i a n c e s of each equal  was  rejected,  a  t-test  based  used r a t h e r than one based  on  estimates.  The  the  larqe  variances  in  a t t r i b u t e d t o the wide ranqe of responses  3 7  Nie e t a l , i b i d , page  270.  number  As shown i n Because  population  are  on a separate v a r i a n c e  estimate was 37  t-test  a  pooled  variance  p o p u l a t i o n s may  to Question 2 ( 3  be to  30  2800),, witii  s e v e r a l respondents a t the extreme t o p and bottom  ends of the s c a l e not having a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  TABLE V DA vs Number o f EDP Employees EDP F u n c t i o n Employees < 28 29-79 > 79  DA=0  83  56  42  181  DA=1  5  24  41  70  88  80  83  n=251  i  Column T o t a l  .  Chi-square= 40.84966 with 2 d f . (p=0. 0000) M i s s i n g cases= 3  TABLE VI DA vs Number o f EDP Employees One-tailed T-test DA=1  Item  DA=0 181  70  Number o f cases Mean number o f EDP employees Standard d e v i a t i o n F Value 2 - t a i l probability T Value Degrees o f freedom 1-tail probability  191 4000 376. 683  4. 21 0.000 - 2 . 29 81.99 .012  83.5525 183. 533  As another approach t o t e s t i n g f o r a p o s s i b l e between  the existence  of  a  separate  Data  relationship  Administration  31  function was  and  the  performed  s i z e of the EDP  between DA  hardware e x p e n d i t u r e ) . into  three  qroups  and  activity, a crosstabulation  Question  15  (monthly  computer  Responses to t h i s question were d i v i d e d  by  dollars  of  monthly computer hardware  expenditure, so t h a t the three qroups were of about equal The  c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n between DA and the transformed  resulted and  p  Question  i n a c h i - s q u a r e of 30.00696 with 2 deqrees <_  .001  (Table  VII).  This  result  size.  of freedom  suggests  o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t have very high monthly hardware  15  that  expenditures  are more l i k e l y t o have a separate Data a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n than  those  Pearson  that  correlation coefficient for  however,  only  v a r i a b l e s are showed  have low monthly hardware e x p e n d i t u r e s .  .1722 not  t e s t was  based  assumption  cn a  correlated.,  Question  15- i s ,  t-test  d i f f e r e n c e i n means (Table V I I I ) .  The t -  the  variance  population  A  two  one-tailed  separate  that  and  (n=244, p=.004), suggesting t h a t the  highly  a significant  Da  The  estimate  variances  because  the  equal  was  are  violated; The r e s u l t s o f the above a n a l y s i s suggest t h a t only Canadian  organizations  with l a r g e EDP  f u n c t i o n s are l i k e l y  have formed a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . is  by  no  means  a  hardware  But  to  size  good p r e d i c t o r of the e x i s t e n c e of a Data  Administration function. monthly  large  Only  expenditure  43%  of of  organizations $100,000  e s t a b l i s h e d a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n .  or  with  more  a had  32  TABLE V I I DA v s M o n t h l y  Hardware E x p e n d i t u r e  Monthly  Hardware E x p e n d i t u r e ($000's) 32-100 > 100 < 32  r  r  r  •  DA=0  I  79  |  50  |  46  |  175  DA=1  I  6  |  28  |  35  |  69  I Total  L 85  C h i - s q u a r e = 30.00696 M i s s i n g cases=10  1  L—  81  78 with 2 d f .  n=244  (p=0.0000) i  TABLE  VIII  DA v s M o n t h l y Hardware E x p e n d i t u r e One-tailed T-test Item Number o f c a s e s Mean m o n t h l y h a r d w a r e e x p e n d i t u r e ($ OOO's) Standard d e v i a t i o n ($ OOO's) F Value 2 Tail probability T Value D e g r e e s of freedom 1 Tail probability  DA^O  DA=J  175  69  115.513  251.749 518.004  260.592 3.95 0.000 -2.08 81.93 .02  33  Experience  with  Computers  and  the  Existence  of  a  Data  administrator To of  t e s t f o r a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x i s t e n c e  a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n and  of  the  organization  performed  with  between DA and  organization  has  used  computers,  Question  experience  crosstabulation  (number of years t h a t  computers).  were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups* the  16  a  the  Responses t o Question  by years of computer  usage  was the 16 in  o r g a n i z a t i o n , so t h a t the t h r e e groups were about equal i n  size,;  The  Question of  crosstabulation  16 r e s u l t e d  freedom and  between  DA  and  the  transformed  i n a c h i - s q u a r e of 12.85600 with 2  p < .002  (Table I X ) .  degrees  T h i s r e s u l t sugqests t h a t  o r q a n i z a t i o n s with many years o f experience with computers more  likely  than  less  to  have  experienced  are  a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n ones.  The  Pearson  correlation  c o e f f i c i e n t i s , however, o n l y .2020  (n=252, p = i 0 0 1 ) , i n d i c a t i n q  a  one-tailed  weak  linear  siqnificanct  relationship;  A  d i f f e r e n c e i n means (Table X).  The r e s u l t s of the  above a n a l y s i s suqqest t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s with experience  with  computers are more l i k e l y  t - t e s t showed a  many  with  computers.  However,  of  to have e s t a b l i s h e d  the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n than those with few experience  years  even  among  of  the  EDP  f u n c t i o n s with  16 or more years of experience  only  e s t a b l i s h e d a separate Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n group  30%  had  (Table IX) ,.  with  years  computers,  34  TABLE IX DA v s E x p e r i e n c e  W i t h Computers  Number o f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e < 10 10-15 > 15  DA = 0  I  68  |  60  |  53  |  181  DA=1  |  11  |  37  |  23  I  71  J_ Column  total  |_ 79  C h i - s q u a r e = 12. 85600 M i s s i n g cases= 2  i  t 97  76  with 2 d f .  <P=  n=252 0.0016)  TABLE X DA v s E x p e r i e n c e W i t h Computers One-tailed T-test Item Number o f c a s e s Mean y e a r s o f Experience Standard d e v i a t i o n F Value 2 Tail probability T Value Degrees of freedcm 1 Tail probability  DA=1 71  DA=0 181  15.5634 5.477  13.2044 5.041 1* 18 .384 -3.26 250 .0005  35  Organizational  Type and  the  Responses to Question frequency  cf  function  are  21,  23  and  Data  occurence  shown i n T a b l e have t h e  Telecommunications  agency,  organizations  Canada  and  To  test  performed The  a  Question 22  were  8.  can  of  14,  r  18,  Coal  utility.  be  and  ones  19,  organizations  and  Bank,  economic  did  slowdown  20,  with  a  Products, processing deposit  University). that  the  Administration  b e i n g " u n i v e r s i t i e s which a r e  DA  and  (with  "included  two  or  These  not  suffer  prevalent  in  perpetually  funds  23  the  category funds  instrumental  crosstabulation  consisted  03,  14,  were n o t  >because  a  was  groups of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  funds)  responded  in this find  of  Administrator,  Responses of  usually  to  recent  Data  that  Administrators  water  availability  group  organizations  proportion  showing  3 8  between  first  Administrator  Data  Responses 03  insurance,  the  if  establishing  separate  XX..  or  a l s o happen  funds).  a Data  communications, Information  gas  (the e x c e p t i o n  short of  a  (Petroleum  Life  during  of  ( o r g a n i z a t i o n a l type)  highest  equipment, E l e c t r i c ,  adversely  8 of  Administrator  credit  Existence  of and  the  18,  of 19,  20,  included.. large  number  The  sample or  22  Responses  because government  somewhere.  was  types.  the 21,  in  of  to of  Data  agencies  second  group  A comparison over the last few years of the "Earnings Adjusted t o Index" i n d i c a t o r of the Toronto Stock Exchange '300' Stock P r i c e I n d e x System f o r t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s showed t h a t t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d n o t s u f f e r adversely over the last few years. The indices showed that the other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l types did-have reduced p r o f i t levels over the l a s t few years. 3 8  36  (without  funds)  consisted  of  except " o t h e r " (response of 24) . in  a  chi-square  (Table X I I ) . funds"  a l l other types i n the sample, The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n  of 5.96955 with 1 degree  This r e s u l t  "with  are more l i k e l y t o have a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r than  those  A  crosstabulation  that  of freedom, p < .02 organizations  "without funds".  suggests  resulted  between  the  transformed  Question 2 (number o f EDP employees) and t h i s same dichotomy of types  resulted  freedom,  p  <  in .001  a c h i - s q u a r e o f 20.32210 with 2 deqrees o f (Table  XIII),  suqqesting  that  o r g a n i z a t i o n s "with funds" a l s o have more EDP employees.  those  TABLE DA Type 1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.  XI  v s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Type  (Freguencies) Frequency  Wood, p u l p and p a p e r P r i m a r y m e t a l s and f a b r i c a t i o n P e t r o l e u m and c o a l p r o d u c t s C h e m i c a l and c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s F o o d , b e v e r a g e and t o b a c c o A c c o m o d a t i o n and f o o d s e r v i c e s E l e c t r i c a l products Automotive products P r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g Miscellaneous manufacturing I n d u s t r i a l equipment Construction Transportation Telecommunications, communications Department, supermarket, variety stores H o u s e h o l d and p e r s o n a l p r o d u c t s P r o p e r t y d e v e l o p m e n t , management I n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g equipment E l e c t r i c , gas o r w a t e r u t i l i t y Bank, d e p o s i t o r c r e d i t a g e n c y L i f e insurance Government d e p a r t m e n t o r agency University Other  DA=1  (%)  9 11 19 11 18 1 1 4 6 1 3 3 7 8  0 2 7 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 5  ( 0) (18) (37) (27) (22) ( 0) ( 0) ( 0) ( 0) ( 0) (33) ( 0) ( 0) (63)  10 3 5 2 14 12 13 40 15 37  1 1 1 1 6 5 4 10 7 12  (10) (33) (20) (50) (43) (42) (31) (25) (47) (32)  253  71  (28)  38  TABLE X I I DA  vs A v a i l a b i l i t y  o f Funds  Funds A v a i l a b l e ' Yes No DA=0  |  70  |  38  |  I DA=1  I Column T o t a l  21  |  I u  ,  157  I 59  I  I  1  108  C h i - s g u a r e = 5.96955 M i s s i n g cases= 1  |  I  | I  87  108  with 1 d f .  n=216  ( p=.0146 )  With Funds= Q u e s t i o n 8 r e s p o n s e s 03,14,18,19,20,21,22 W i t h o u t Funds= A l l o t h e r r e s p o n s e s e x c e p t 24  TABLE EDP  XIII  Employees vs A v a i l a b i l i t y  o f Funds  EDP E m p l o y e e s < 28 29- 79 > 80 T—  i  ~~  —  With Funds  25  1  31  I  50  106  Without Funds  49  |  38  |  21  108  Column t o t a l  74  C h i - s q u a r e = 20.32210 M i s s i n g cases= 3  __i  69 with 2 Df.  71  n=214  ( p=0.0000 )  IWith Funds= Q u e s t i o n 8 r e s p o n s e s 03,14,18,19,20,21,22 I W i t h o u t Funds= A l l o t h e r r e s p o n s e s e x c e p t 24  | I  39  Hypothesis T e s t s Stage Model of EDP  Growth  Hypothesis H1 : More mature o r g a n i z a t i o n s are more l i k e l y to have e s t a b l i s h e d a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n than l e s s mature o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  t e s t e d using l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n .  DA  with  values  of  Administrator).  0  (no  The dependent v a r i a b l e  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r ) and  The independent  was  1 (a Data  v a r i a b l e s were the EDP  growth  v a r i a b l e s r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter I . In  general,  multiple  regression  requires  v a r i a b l e s be measured on an i n t e r v a l or r a t i o s c a l e . the  possible  and Question  responses to Question 3 (EDP 9  (chargeback  characteristics,  A value of 1  r e p o r t i n g t o top management  reporting position) not  exhibit  (answers  1  or  2)-  indicated  such  an  (answers of 3 or 4)  a value of 0 i n d i c a t e d an EDP a c t i v i t y management  Because  The v a r i a b l e LEVEL with v a l u e s of 0 or 1  computed from Question 3..  activity  did  3 9  the  responses to these q u e s t i o n s were transformed  to "dummy" v a r i a b l e s ; was  process)  that  not  reporting  EDP while  to  Wherever a response of 5  top was  coded, the r e s e a r c h e r c l a s s i f i e d the answer as 1, 2, 3, or 4 by examining respondent,*  the  charts The  or  variable  computed from Question 9. of a chargeback  descriptions  procedure  CHARGE  with  supplied  values of 0 or 1  Nie e t a l , i b i d , page  the was  A value of 1 i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e f o r use  of  EDP  activity  (answers 3 and 4) while a value of 0 i n d i c a t e d the  3 9  by  320.  resources  nonexistence  40  of  a  chargeback  response as  1,  of  5 was  2,  3  respondent  or  4  responses  'yes  relatively  1  few  measure Next,  of a  'yes'  20(a),  answers  to  was  First,  raw  scores  a  on  answer the  The  The  Question  answers t o these 0,  weighting the  7  questions  performed score  7  i f  on t h e  was  are  This seen  proper  of  responses there  is  10  seven  variance  question.  b i a s i s i n the  Alpha  f o r systems  f o r each of the  to  the  of  (mean o f  higher  answers  is  as  a  direction. sum  .80055,  OSCALE, r e p r e s e n t i n g u s e r  computed  21(a), these  the  a  of  these  indicating  a homogeneous s c a l e *  variable,  activity,  19(b),  form  7).  t e s t * ° was  variables.  items  Wherever  e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by  composite  Z scores  'yes*  reliability  A new EDP  the  a  to  'maturity'.  standardized that the  from  answers  a c c e p t a b l e , as e a c h  2).  '5'.  1 through  were c o n v e r t e d  give  and  SSCALE, r e p r e s e n t i n g s t a n d a r d s  Standardizing  will  1  researcher c l a s s i f i e d  examining the  computed  (items  questions  by  variable,  d e v e l o p m e n t , was  (answers  coded, the  f o r answering  A new  1).  procedure  22(a), 7  from  a composite  22(b),  guestions  23(a) were  awareness o f  of Q u e s t i o n s and  24(a).  converted  the  19(a), First,  to Z scores.  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d so t h a t e a c h q u e s t i o n i s  based  the  performed  same  s c a l e and  therefore direct  a d d i t i o n can  be  on  •° A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t can be found in the SPSS updates t o Nie e t a l * (1975) A l p h a i s a s i n q l e i n d e x o f the s t r e n g t h of the relationship between variables. If a number of v a r i a b l e s p u r p o r t t o measure a p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t (in t h i s case ' e x i s t e n c e of system development standards'), t h e n t h e y s h o u l d be h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d .  41  without one question weighting Next,  a  reliability  test  standardized variables.  the  was  attempt  responses  a  was  on  the  t h e sum of the  to  measure  scale. construct  of  the  from  objectives  can  example, user s a t i s f a c t i o n  conflict  may  Question  criteria  Management i n e v a l u a t i n g the performance of because  l  The Alpha score was .80247, i n d i c a t i n g  made  single  disproportionately.*  performed  t h a t t h e items form a homogeneous No  sum  reguire  used by Senior  the: EDP  with  activity  each other.  that  11  the  budget  For be  exceeded. The l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n equation then becomes: DA = AO • A1 (Question 2) + A2(Question 13) + A3 (Questionl 4) + A4 (Question 16) + A5 (Question 17(a)) + A6 (Question 11(a)) + A7 (Question 11(b)) + A8 (Question 11(c)) + A9 (Question 11(d)) + A10 (LEVEL) + A11 (CHAEGE) + A12(0SCALE) + A13 (SSCALE) .  Question 15 was not i n c l u d e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n e g u a t i o n because i t correlated highly The  with Question 2 (over . 8 ) .  regression  (proportion  of  regression)  was  the only  analysis variance .12890.  indicated accounted  for  that  E  Squared  by  the  linear  The r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  l i n e a r combination o f 'maturity' v a r i a b l e s cannot p r e d i c t the e x i s t e n c e of a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  be  used  to  The c o r r e l a t i o n  between each independent v a r i a b l e and DA i s shown i n Table XIV. •i  Nie e t a l , i b i d , page 187.  42  There is  i s no r e a s o n  a relationship  variables In to  between  view o f t h e s e  see  i f  the  variables  results,  of  the  to  "maturity"  so  data,  test  'maturity'  variables  was p e r f o r m e d  were,  variables are  not  in  fact,  condition f o r  a common c o n s t r u c t .  that these  there  Administrator.  but not s u f f i c i e n t  measure  that  called  a reliability  "maturity"  a necessary  .53896 i n d i c a t i n g common  any  and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a D a t a  intercorrelated, the  t o b e l i e v e , b a s e d on t h e s e  The A l p h a aspects  was  of  a  concept. TABLE XIV  Correlations  of DA W i t h M a t u r i t y V a r i a b l e s  Maturity Variable  Correlation  Number o f EDP e m p l o y e e s S t r a t e g i c P l a n n i n g Committee Data Flow Model Experience with computers F r a c t i o n o f EDP b u d g e t s p e n t on o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l s y s t e m s User a w a r e n e s s Systems d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n d a r d s EDP r e p o r t i n g l e v e l Chargeback of c o s t s Eerformance-cost savings Performance-user s a t i s f a c t i o n Performance-meeting budgets Performance-organizational goals  . 1890 . 1373 .0793 .2020  (n=251, p=.001) (n=252, p=.015) (n=251, p=.105) (n=252,p=i 001)  .0919 .1530 .1427 .1157 .1059 *0762 .0324 .0602 .0614  (n=239,p=. 078) (n=251,p=. 008) (n=247,p=. 012) (n=253,p=. 033) (n=253 , p=.046) (n=253,p=. 113) (n=253, p=.304) (n=253,p=. 170) (n=2 52 , p=.166)  I  Since  larger  EDP  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r t h a n researcher the  very  performed  considered  activities smaller  on  "greater than  a  ones,  t h a t perhaps  l a r g e EDP a c t i v i t i e s . selected  28 e m p l o y e e s " .  were more l i k e l y as  shown  "maturity"  The same l i n e a r  subset  of  above,  the  applied only to regression  t h e sample  The r e s u l t i n g  t o have a  was  - Question  E Sguared  was  2  only  43  .12244. Based there  on t h i s  islittle  Data  was  answers.  Only  "maturity'  a  variables.  •no').  Table  within  individuals  of  53  t o Q u e s t i o n 7 on t h e EDPPQ and  *no* b u t were  recoded  to 'yes'  they  'responded  although  level The  indicated that  t h e EDP a c t i v i t y  XV g i v e s  orqanizationi  Data  comprised  a DAPQ.  Structure  reporting  Administration  cases  7 on t h e EDPPQ, d i d n o t r e t u r n  5 organizations  not report  69  organizations,  t c Question  Organizational  on  •yes"  who answered  Three  positively  performed  whc answered  16 o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the  on s e v e r a l  of  Administraticn Specialization  organizations  the  and s c o r e s  that  H1 must be r e j e c t e d .  Analysis  did  must c o n c l u d e  i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e x i s t e n c e  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r Hypothesis  analysis, the researcher  a frequency of  the  number  f u n c t i o n ranqed  Administration  t h e Data  (Question  1  distribution  Data of  answer  Administrator  between  in  1 and 21. consisted  of  t o Question  employees  functions  Administrator  Over of  3,  in  the  the  Data  80%  of  5 o r fewer  (Table X V I ) .  Experience E x p e r i e n c e o f t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 6)  ranqed  from  less  experience  the  function  0 t o 8 years (Table  XVII).  with  (Question  a l m o s t 70% h a v i n q  3 years or  A response  was i n t h e p r o c e s s  s u r v e y p a c k a q e was r e c e i v e d .  function  of beinq  of 0  indicated  that  e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e  44  |  TABLE XV  I | | | |  Reporting Number of L e v e l s Between DA and' Head o f Orqanization  | I  L e v e l of DA  Frequency  1 2 3 4 5 6  4 18 28 16 2 1 69  Relative Frequency (%) 5.8 26,. 1 40.6 23.2 2.9 1.4 100.0  TABLE XVI Size of DA-Number o f Employees Number o f DA Employees  Frequency  Relative Freguency (%)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > 7  15 15 16 3 6 4 3 5 67  1  21.7 21.7 23.2 4; 3 8.. 7 5i8 4.3 7.0 100.0  j I I I  45  I  TABLE  XVII  Experience Years of Experience  of  DA Relative Frequency  Frequency  0.0 0. 5 1.0 1.2 1. 5 2.0 2.5 3. 0 3.5 4.0 5.0 6. 0 7.0 8,0  (%)  3 5 15 1 3 14 2 5 1 9 6 3 1 1  4.3 7i2 21.7 1.4 4.3 20:3 2.9 7; 2 1.4 13.0 8.7 4*3 1.4 1.4  69  100.0  Scope Responses Administrators (53  or  77%  indicated all  the  to  Question  are  responsible  responded  that  13  characters  ranqed of  data  between  be  constraints  shared  in  (Table  XX).  the  (Table 15  XIX).  there  are  The  data 12(b)  of t h i s  for  responses millions  data  expectation of  Data  Question  110,000  i s some  few  even r e s p o n s i b l e  XVIII).  Little  absence  to  not  and  that  machine r e a d a b l e  Responses  data  (Table  indicated  f o r non  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  between a p p l i c a t i o n s b u t could  0%) ;  machine r e a d a b l e  Question  12(a)  technical  is that and  to of  shared more other  TABLE  XVIII  Scope o f DA F r a c t i o n o f Machine R e a d a b l e Under DA B e s p o n s i b i l i t y Fraction cf Machine Readable Data 25 % o r 26 - 50 51.- 75 76 % c r missing  less 35 % more  Frequency  Data  Eelative Frequency (%)  20 10 6 30 3  29 14 9 44 4  69  100  TABLE XIX S i z e o f Machine M i l l i o n s of Characters  < 500 500 - 1000 1001 - 1500 1501 - 3000 3001 - 7500 > 7500 missing  E e a d a b l e Data  Frequency  Besource Eelative Frequency  12 12 6 7 10 13 9  17 17 9 10 15 19 13  69  100  47  i  Table  XX  Sharing of Data Range  Number of Respondents Potentially A c t u a l l y Shared  (%)  0-25 26 - 50 51 - 75 76 -100 missing answer  44 16 3 3 3  16 16 18 12 7  69  69  Sharable  L  I  Tools Questions Query  20  (Data  Facility),  26  (Online Parametric Facility),  and  transformed  30 to  Dictionary), (Batch  25  (Online  Generalized  Query F a c i l i t y ) ,  28  Query F a c i l i t y ) ,  variables  Methodology)  with  a  value  were of  i n d i c a t i n g the use of the t o o l and 0 i n d i c a t i n g the non-use the  tool.  Table  XXI  gives  usage of the v a r i o u s t c c l s .  a freguency  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  As  shown  experience tools*  H2, in  was  1 of the  Data Base Management System i s  not used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r the management of data Hypothesis  27  (Batch G e n e r a l i z e d Query  (Information Requirements dichotomous  Generalized  (Table  XXII)*.  t e s t e d u s i n g Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s .  Table  XXlli,  Data  Administration  function  i s not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with the use of any of the  Hypothesis  H2  must t h e r e f o r e be r e j e c t e d .  TABLE XXI Use  o f DA T o o l s  Tool  With  Dafa Base Management System Data D i c t i o n a r y D i r e c t o r y O n l i n e g e n e r a l i z e d guery f a c i l i t y Online p a r a m e t r i c guery f a c i l i t y B a t c h - g e n e r a l i z e d guery f a c i l i t y B a t c h p a r a m e t r i c guery f a c i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n r e g u i r e m e n t s methodology  Table  64 44 31 31 45 24 28  Without 5 25 38 37 22 44 40  XXII  P e r c e n t a g e o f Computer A p p l i c a t i o n s U s i n g DBMS Percentage < 20 21 - 40 41-60 61-80 81 -100 no DBMS  Number 28 13 10 10 3 5 69  F r e q u e n c y (%)  '  40.6 18.8 14.5 14.5 7.2 7.2 100.0  49  TABLE DA  Experience  XXIII v s Use  of  Pearson  Tool D a t a Base Management S y s t e m s Data D i c t i o n a r y D i r e c t o r y O n l i n e G e n e r a l i z e d Query F a c i l i t y B a t c h G e n e r a l i z e d Query F a c i l t y O n l i n e P a r a m e t r i c Query F a c i l i t y B a t c h P a r a m e t r i c Query F a c i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Reguirements Methodology  D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t o r B a c k g r o u n d and Table computer  XXIV  Tools  suggests  technology  that  Data  p=. 036) p=. 306) p=.257) p=.404) p=.026) p=. 03 1) p=.308)  (n=69, (n=69, )n=69, (n=69, (n=68, (n=68, (n=68.  Experience Administrators  b a c k g r o u n d s and  have s t r o n g m a n a g e r i a l  . 2179 .0623 ,.0798 .0303 . 2369 .2270 .0617  Correlation  backgrounds or  have  experience.but  they  strong do  experience,.  TABLE XXIV Background of Data  Administrator  Item  No.  (%)  Computer t e c h n o l o g y b a c k g r o u n d 1 y e a r ' s exp. i n a f u n c t i o n a l a r e a >2 y e a r s ' exp. i n a f u n c t i o n a l a r e a B a c h e l o r degree-Computer S c i e n c e B a c h e l o r d e g r e e - B u s i n e s s Admin. Bachelor degree-Arts Bachelor degree-Science T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l diploma P o s t g r a d d e g r e e - B u s i n e s s Admin. P o s t grad degree-Computer S c i e n c e Post grad degree-other >3 y e a r s ' s u p e r v i s o r y e x p e r i e n c e ' DBMS e x p e r i e n c e Systems development e x p e r i e n c e  61 12 24 20 11 5 13 6 3 8 2 51 41 62  (91) (18) (35) (30) (16) ( 8) (19) ( 9) ( 5) (12) (3) (76) (61) (93)  Missing  cases=  2  not  50  Data  Administration In  first  order to t e s t had  to  "technical" time  spent  to  "technical".  as  the  72  were  Data  classified a l l  reliability  Administration  the  responses  to  had  'PERCENT  adjusted t o a f r a c t i o n questions no to  exceeded  adjustment  responses  1%).  TIME  SPENT ON  100%.  .5%)  Second,  Secrest's  performed  was  classified  TIME  SPENT ON  Where t h e t o t a l  were r o u n d e d  Third,  ACTIVITY*  for  suggest  was l e s s  not  All  were.first  percentage  for a l l  than  100%,  were assumed  queried  up t o t h e n e x t  APSCALE  for  correctly.  in  this  fractional  whole  number  t o t h e a d j u s t e d 'PERCENT OF  ACTIVITY* were t r a n s f o r m e d t o Z s c o r e s of 1).  the  Alpha  the percentaqes,  a l l responses  on  results  these respondents  adjustinq  was  Alpha  These  as  (responses to  .81700.,  o f 100%, i f t h e t o t a l  Before  (eg.  (eg.  been OF  The  classified  responsibilities  t i m e on o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s  questionnaire.  the  classification  were  was .86117.  was made b e c a u s e  be s p e n d i n g  of  "administrative"  were  i f the  tests  responsibilities  questions  using  Responsibility?").  "technical" responsibilities that  measure  as  others  In o r d e r to determine  "administrative"  a single  Q u e s t i o n s 38 t o 49, 51 t o 55, 57,  " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " and " t e c h n i c a l " "A  72  " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " or  classification  while  correctly,  Q u e s t i o n s 38 t o  either  Second,  (see C h a p t e r I I ) . . 68  H3 and H4,  s e t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was r e q u i r e d -  performed  responsibilities  done  classified  on e a c h  dichotomy and  be  hypotheses  reponsibilities.  researcher  66,  Responsibilities  0,  variance  the  a d j u s t e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d r e s p o n s e s t o t h e  (mean  of  was computed a s t h e sum o f 'administrative'  51  questions  'PEBCENT OF TIME  questions, Table scales low  a similar XXV  and  sum,  gives  Data  correlations  correlation  suggest  years  function  and the time The  of  that  there  experience spent  time  on  versus  experienced  responsibility  one-tailed  'technical'  spent  ones;  is  the  little  The  relationship  o f t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  on  or  technical  technical activities more  experienced  Further testing  hypotheses  composite  (Question 6 ) .  administrative  however, a p p e a r t o be g r e a t e r f o r less  For  between  Administration experience  the  than  ACTIVITY'.  TPSCALE, was computed..  the  between  activities.  SPENT ON  (H3 and  H4)  would,  functions  of t h e e x p e r i e n c e was  done  using  t-tests.  |  TABLE XXIV  I  I i I  J3A E x p e r i e n c e and T i me S p e n t on T e c h n i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n  I I I  |  Composite  Variable  Correlation  .0716 . 2589  APSCALE TPSCALE  with  Experience  |  (n=63, p=. 288) (n=64., p=.019)  • | I  I  I ;  I  A  one-tailed  Administration APSCALE. of  Question  experience is  t-test  experience  Table  performed  (Question  on p a r t i t i o n s  6)  against  XXVI and XXVII show t h e r e s u l t s  6 into  2 groups-  and t h o s e  a significant  was  I  with  difference  those  more  with  than  2  years  of Data  TPSCALE of a or  partition less  2 years experience.  i n means f o r TPSCALE  but  and  not  of  There for  52  APSCALE.  The  results  suggest  that  more  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s spend a g r e a t e r  experienced  percentage . of  Data their  time on t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than l e s s experienced ones. There  is  little  d i f f e r e n c e i n the times spent by experienced  and i n e x p e r i e n c e d f u n c t i o n s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e The  analysis  experience.and  indicates  responsibilities  that  the  responsibilities*  two  hypotheses  on  (H3 and H4) must be r e j e c t e d .  r  1 TABLE XXVI DA Experience and Time Spent on Technical R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s One-tailed T-test Item Number of cases Mean time spent (Standardized) Standard d e v i a t i o n F Value 2 tailed probability T Value Degrees of freedom 1-tailed probability  < 2 Years Experience  >= 2 Years Experience 27 2* 0432  35 -1.5684 4.486  1.000 .983 .0015  4.490  53  TABLE XXVII DA Experience and Time Spent on Administrative R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s One-tailed T-test < 2 Years Experience  Item Number of cases Mean time spent (Standardized) Standard d e v i a t i o n F Value 2 tailed probability T Value Degrees of freedom 1-tailed probability  The  sum  of  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was spent  >= 2 Years Experience  34 -.0090 6.888  mean  times  27 .7117 5. 544  1.54 .258 -.44 59 .165  spent  on  63.971% whereas the sum  on t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . w a s  of the mean  19.257%.  Data A d m i n i s t a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . s p e n d more time on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than t e c h n i c a l ones; be accepted; distributed  administrative times  O v e r a l l then administrative  The h y p o t h e s i s (H5)  must  The mean times spent on the a c t i v i t i e s are evenly and  no  one  activity  stands out above the o t h e r s  (Table XXVIII). Most respondents i n d i c a t e d that more time 2 years from now  they  would  spending  on n e a r l y a l l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Questions 42, 45, 49, 50 and 55 can be viewed and  be  as s t a r t up tasks  t h e r e f o r e one might expect l e s s time t o be spent on them 2  years from  now.  54  I  TABLE  XXVIII  Besponsibilities  |Question  Besp. (%)  |  66.7 82.4 79.7 79.7 69.6 97. 1 76.8 92,. 8 65.2 84. 1 82.6 49.3 91.3 53.6 82.6 76.8 68. 1 17.4 76.8 68. 1 78.3 75.4 46.4 82.6 76.8 63.8 82.6 72.5 58*0 63.8 79.7 31.9 55. 1 31.9 43.5 81.2 50.7 66.7  J  | | | 1 |  I  | |  j  ] | | |  I I I I  | |  I  | |  I  |  I  1 | | 1 | 1 | 1 1 1 |  35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72  Mean Time S p e n t (%) 2.277 5.263 3.832 2.011 1.194 3.901 3.076 4.389 1.059 1.567 2.687 .999 3.043 1.035 2.900 2.833 2.487 .194 5.672 1.609 4.586 3.929 .599 1.659 1.318 .902 1.920 1.321 .95 8 1.896 1.067 .340 1.433 .333 .527 5.228 1.179 1.163  Standard Deviation 3.720 5.572 4.406 2.508 2. 157 3.92 8 4.822 4.688 1.706 1.945 3^425 1.695 3.367 2.097 3.585 3.840 6.567 .721 7*603 3.063 5.117 4.444 1.675 3.303 1^ 852 1.619 2.916 2.003 1.577 3.137 1.600 1.004 2.437 .969 1.641 10. 203 3.337 1.485  2 Y e a r s Hence {%) | LESS MOEE 2.9 0. 0 2.9 2. 9 2.9 0.0 1.4 5. 8 1. 4 0.0 5* 8 0. 0 2.9 2* 9 7*2 11.6 219 1. 4 1.4 1. 4 8.7 4. 3 1.4 1.4 2.9 1.4 1.4 0. 0 1*4 1.4 1*4 0,. 0 2. 9 0.0 1.4 2. 9 1.4 0. 0 ;  58.0 68.1 66.7 63.8 65.2 71.0 68.1 60.9 47.8 53.6 44.9 46.4 53.6 50.7 34.8 36.2 60.9 17.4 50.7 46.4 37.7 36.2 46.4 59.4 55.1 49.3 42.0 36.2 33.3 37.7 37.7 36.2 33.3 33.3 36.2 50.0 46.4 50.7  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |  55  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS  Survey Package Response The I).  m a i l survey  As  achieved  a response r a t e of 47.12%  (Table  shown i n t a b l e s I I and I I I , t h e responses were evenly  d i s t r i b u t e d over the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , . The need t o recode s e v e r a l responses t o Question EDPPQ  (dealing  with  the  existence  f u n c t i o n ) leads t o s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t guestion  is  constructed  low.  from  a  A  of a Data the  reliability  random  Administration  reliability  index  sample  of  could the  reliability  warrant use population.  of  of  this  guestion  the  data  for projections  The  measurement  in  this  have  been  Nevertheless,  j  i s probably  "error"  of  respondents;  u n f o r t u n a t e l y time and funds were not a v a i l a b l e . the  7 on the  high enough to  over this  the  question can  r e s u l t only i f respondents answer 'yes' when t h e " t r u e " is  •no',  •yes'.  or respondents answer "no  In the  first  v e r i f y the r e l i a b i l i t y DAPQs  or  the  completed DAPQ. not  return  t h e i r Data established  situation,  1  when the " t r u e " answer i s  the  researcher  given  for failing  Only 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n s answered  can  easily  to  'yes*  return a and d i d  One of , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x p l a i n e d  Administration and,  answer  of the answers by examininq the returned  explanations  a DAPQ.  entire  function  had  only  recently  that been  as a consequence, they d i d n o t want to spend  the "great deal of time" t h a t might be r e q u i r e d to research the  56  a n s w e r s t o t h e DAPQ. that the  returned  a  Only 4 o r g a n i z a t i o n s  In  the  function second  d i d not  Data  Administration  situation,  the researcher  o f "Data  literature*  2  Data  Administrator.  separate  could  researcher  Data  verify the recoded  Base  responsible managing  that  there  technical  data*.  Since  the results  Administrators,*  responding similarily  3  t o Question  highly  i n t e r p r e t e d by o t h e r  affected.  this  * GOIDE, E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e D a t a page 25. This conclusion  recent  i s discussed  and  a  study  types  suggest  of  that these  Data If  associated  Data recoded  Administrator this  when  question  was  r e s p o n d e n t s who d i d n o t r e t u r n  study,  Since  2  of t h i s  probable  7 o f t h e EDPPQ.  of  activities  "different"  had i n mind a " c o r p o r a t e "  a DAPQ, t h e r e s u l t s materially  several  i t is  Some  the  r e p o r t s t o t h e f o r m e r and  more  be  of a  DAPQ ( s e e  between a D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t o r The l a t t e r  16  the person completing  for the  may  organizations  cases  a.completed  Base - A d m i n i s t r a t o r " .  differentiates  with  3  The  function but returned  I V ) . I n many o f t h e s e  DAPQ h a d a t i t l e  *  a  where t h e r e s p o n d e n t had i n d i c a t e d t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e  Chapter  is  have  T h e i r answers t o  ( s s C h a p t e r IV) .  r e s p o n s e i f a DAPQ was r e t u r n e d . cases  ' y e s ' answers  DAPQ were r e c o d e d t o 'no*.  DAPQ i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y  Administration  with  clearly,  considerable  would  interest  Administration  later  i n this  not  i n the  Function,  chapter.  be  ibid,  57  results  was  shown by  responding  the  p a r t i c i p a n t s , * * i t i s not  organizations  with  purposefully  answered  The  Administration  Data  a "corporate"  Data  likely  that  Administrator  'no'.  Function  i£  Large  Canadian  Organizations The 1.  results  Few  of  t h i s study  large  suggest  Canadian  that:  organizations  have  a  Data  are  more  Admin i s t r a t o r . 2.  Organizations likely  3.  to  Organizations  than those  more t h a n  less  to  types  that  correlation  between  correlation  and  the  between  experience suggesting  of t h e that  size the  have  than s m a l l e r  a  could  of  be  ones.  of experience Data  with  Administrator  with  existence  and  to  more l i m i t e d  the the  considered  more l i k e l y  existence EDP  to  experience  a  funds.  of  activity,  computers are are  have  have  a and  o f a Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  o r g a n i z a t i o n with size  activities  10 years  funds a v a i l a b l e are than those  Administrator  EDP  experience,  Administrator  The  low,  large  more l i k e l y  with  discretionary  the  with  Organizational  Data  very  have a D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t o r  computers are  4.  with  probably  both  Data the and very  necessary  A comment r e c e i v e d f r o m a l a r g e i n t e g r a t e d m i n i n g company i s t y p i c a l of many r e s p o n s e s r e c e i v e d . . " I f e e l t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - as p e r c e i v e d by y o u r s t u d y - i s a l c n g o v e r l o o k e d e s s e n t i a l component n e e d e d to s u c c e s s f u l l y b r i n g computer "based Management Information Systems to play t h e i r expected r o l e i n large o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " O n l y two o r g a n i z a t i o n s b o t h e r e d t o r e t u r n guestionnaires with negative commentary (a l a r g e s t e e l p r o d u c e r and a l a r g e t r u s t company), 4 4  58  but  not s u f f i c i e n t  conditions  f o r the  presence  of  a  Data  Administrator* According to  t o GUIDE,  establish  a  Data  4 5  considerable  f u n d s m i g h t be r e q u i r e d  Administration  function.  suggests that the b e n e f i t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o  the  of  a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and enforcement o f c e r t a i n  policies.  function are achieveable  consequence,  the  of e x i s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n  expenditure  of  a D a t a B a s e Management S y s t e m * w o u l d benefits  data  run,  but  realizable  as  improved  data  the  benefits  are  required  Administration. Data  Administrators  discussed  •  5  Some  GUIDE,  later  ibid.  purchasing  to  achieve data  visible.in  the  short  more i n t a n g i b l e a n d p r o b a b l y n o t  Therefore,  the  other  long  of  the  organizations  term  Data with  t o embark on  benefits  of  Data  r e a s o n s f o r t h e low occurence o f  i n large  i nthis  a  degree of data  d i s c r e t i o n a r y f u n d s a v a i l a b l e w o u l d be more l i k e l y path towards a c h i e v i n g  As  reduced  f o r many y e a r s a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t function.  without a  f u n d s , beyond  availability,  I n s h o r t , the costs are very  Administration  the  management  f u n c t i o n and  be  through  systems.  r e d u n d a n c y , i m p r o v e d d a t a s e c u r i t y , and a h i g h e r integrity;  only  considerable  merely s t a f f i n g t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  also  implementation  Some o f t h e s e p o l i c i e s c a n n o t b e e n f o r c e d  "rewrite" or redesign  such  GUIDE  chapter.,  Canadian  organizations  are  59  Stage Model of EDP The  Growth  "maturity"  found to be a  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  good  predictor  Administrator;  Furthermore,  construct  must  used  variables  were  intercorrelated* the  "maturity"  be  not The  of the  found  his  a  "maturity"  highly  positively  however,  never published of  psychometric evidence of the c o n s t r u c t  Data  "maturity"  validate  used i n t h i s study  measurement  not  the  could not,  measurement c r i t e r i a  for  be  of  of the  since  to  researcher  a c t i v i t y was  existence  validity  guestioned  Nolan's s t u d i e s because Nolan has formulation  the  EDP  against  an  "maturity",  explicit nor  any  v a l i d i t y of t h i s concept  or i t s measure. Nolan's w r i t i n g s a l s o f a i l companies United  (EDP  States  to  mention  organizations  are, 6  as  data  management  a  whole,  Therefore,  t h a t Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s are j u s t not of  size  employees o r hardware expenditures) he  s i m i l a r Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s . *  problem  the  it  of  studied.  l a r g e r than is  possible  'large enough* f o r the  t o have become s e r i o u s .  Several  other reasons were given by the respondents to e x p l a i n why d i d n ' t have a Data  b)  management  support  and  therefore  the  budget,  organizational  decentralization  (functional  46 j "The Fortune D i r e c t o r y of the 500 Largest US Corporations"-, the 500th o r g a n i z a t i o n had s a l e s of ( FORTUNE, May 7, 1979). This would have o r g a n i z a t i o n at about the 80th p o s i t i o n i n the top I n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( Canadian Business. J u l y n  they  Administrator:  a) a l a c k of top necessary  the  and/or  Industrial $379,948,000 placed this 400 Canadian 1978).  60  geographical)  is  Administration c)  a  compatible  with  the  degree  of  user  o f a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n ,  departments-  are  compatible  with  the  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r managing  their  resource,  e)  a D a t a Base Management  is  a need  comments  suggest  not  i n the systems  establishment  data  i s  involvement  process  user  Data  concept,  development  d)  The  high  not  that  understood  f o r a Data  about the  Administrator  decentralization  and  Data  before  user  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n concept organizations.  does not h i n d e r  as  i s necessary  there  Administrator.  by t h e sampled  decentralization  System  involvement  may  Clearly,  n o t be w e l l f o r example,  the establishment  Administration i s a policy  of  a  Data  s e t t i n g and  coordinating function. Nolan  does n o t seem t o h a v e i n c l u d e d  such  individual  misperception  the  misperception  issue  is  does n o t seem t o be a c c o u n t e d be  discussed later  Data  Administration  Organizational The 1.  i n this  Very  i n h i s model. corporate  possibility  Closely related to  "politics",  f o r by N o l a n .  of  These  which items  also will  chapter.  Specialization  Structure  results few  the  of t h i s Data  study  suggest  Administrators  that: report  outside  the  EDP  61  activity. 2.  The  Data  Administrators  organizational 3.  Few p e o p l e  report  fairly  low  in  the  hierarchy.  work i n t h e D a t a  Administration  function.  Experience The quite The  sample D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  published  function  only  become  literature  began t o appear  Perhaps a l o n g e r  were f o u n d t o be  a s most had e x i s t e d f o r l e s s t h a n 3  inexperienced  first  functions  time  on  the  Administration  i n 1971, o r a b o u t 8 y e a r s a g o .  period i s required  aware o f and e v a l u a t e  Data  years.  f o r orqanizations  to  the concept.  Scope This 1.  study  Except  found  for  responsible  a  that: few  for  cases.  any  of  Data the  Administrators  were n o t  non-machine-readable  data  resource* 2.  Only for  3.  one-third the entire  The  size  of  considerably 4.  Little  o f t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  were  machine-readable data  resource.  the  data  machine-readable  among.the s a m p l e d  of the machine-readable  responsible  resource  varied  organizations. data  resource  was  shared  among a p p l i c a t i o n s y s t e m s . 5.  There  was  little  Administrators potentially  agreement  a s t o how much o f  shareable.  among the  the data  sampled resource  Data was  62  Tools T h i s study found t h a t : 1.  Nearly  a l l the  System  respondents  used a Data Base Management  (DBMS) and there were 14  organizations  that  used  more than one DBMS. 2.  The Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the a c q u i s i t i o n of a DBMS i n 67% of the cases.  3..-.  The  DBMSs  were  Administration 4..  Many  of  not used e x t e n s i v e l y by the sampled  functions.  the  respondents  Dictionary/Directory.. as  to  the  Data  number  did  not  have  a  Data  Only 7 respondents ventured a quess of  data elements that e x i s t i n t h e i r  organization. 5.  About 50% of the facilities of  6.  but  Administrators  had  online  t h e i r use was l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l  query  fraction  the machine-readable data r e s o u r e .  In  59%  of  determining the 7.  Data  the  cases  the  approach  to  be  used  for  the i n f o r m a t i o n needs of managers was l e f t to  d i s c r e t i o n of the systems a n a l y s t .  The use of c e r t a i n t o o l s was not r e l a t e d to the experience cf the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r Background Most  of  the  Data  technology  background  background  with  of  function.  and Experience  Administrators and  level  a  strong  had a strong systems  computer  development  s e v e r a l years o f s u p e r v i s o r y e x p e r i e n c e .  had any experience i n the f u n c t i o n a l areas of management u n i v e r s i t y degree i n b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n *  or  Few a  63  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s T h i s study found t h a t : 1.  All  but  5  Data  Administrators  technical a c t i v i t i e s associated resource 2.  Few  had  with  managing  the  data  7 of the DAPQ).  (Question  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s had  capture,  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  implemented standards  maintenance or d i s s e m i n a t i o n  developed standards  of  data,  f o r the d e f i n i t i o n and  f o r the  but  most  storage  of  data. 3.  A l l Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s spent c o n s i d e r a b l y  more  time  on  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than t e c h n i c a l ones. 4.  More experienced  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s spent  r e l a t i v e l y more  time on t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s than l e s s experienced 5.  The  relative  amount o f time spent  on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s was  by Data  ones;  Administrators  not a f u n c t i o n  of  their  experience. 6.  The  major  administrative  Administrators function users.  were a s s o c i a t e d  About  performed  with  Few  of  the  policy  20%  of  the  by  providing  between the "data bases" and  performed by the Data 7.  tasks  setting  the a  Data  liason  system a n a l y s t s activities  and were  Administrators. time spent by Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  unaccounted f o r by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  queried  in  was this  survey. 8.  The  sampled Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s e x h i b i t e d a wide  . d i s p e r s i o n i n both the a c t i v i t i e s performed and o f time spent  on  each.  the amount  64  9-i  Very  few  spending  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s less  activities. from  one-^third t o they  years  hence.  responsibilities  that these Many  there  activities  The  75%  "different" of a trend  Organizations  can  Administrator. could  e x h i b i t the  existence  on  of the  more t i m e on  the  i n the  in  fact  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " t e c h n i c a l " and  c h o o s e one Therefore  be of  a  that  Data  oriented  functions.*  several roles with as  as  respondents  there  had  one  7  may  be  The  lack  "administrative"  explained  same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the  *yes»;.  towards  function  a  2  responsibilities.  strongly managerially  suggest  all  of  were  also  activity  literature  c o n c e n s u s among t h e their  the  indicated  however, t h a t a l t h o u g h descibed  be  anywhere  respondents  no  would  of  responsibility,  responsibilities  are  would  any  was  may  for several  Figure  the  now  respondents answering  of  away from  responsibilities  were  results  types  from  spending  to note,  that  c f the  above  on  major  activities  fewer than  be  gueried  the  Administrator,  years  two-thirds  would  is interesting  constituting  2  Depending  that  It  time  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  in for  this  way.  their  Data  little  experience  which has  been i n  years.  1 d e p i c t s the  different  r o l e s o f the  Data  Adminis-  * In a s t u d y o f 25 D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n s i n t h e New York a r e a , Weldon o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s ( J * L. Weldon, Data Base A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : O r g a n i z a t i o n and T a s k s , W o r k i n g P a p e r #78-143, November 1978, New York U n i v e r s i t y , G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f Business Administration) 7  65  trator;.  In  t h i s s i m p l i f i e d view, the scope of the data under  the c o n t r o l o f the Data a d m i n i s t r a t o r can  e i t h e r be a p p l i c a t i o n  s p e c i f i c or corporate  the  can  be  wide.  Similarily,  tasks  performed  c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e *  o r g a n i z a t i o n can choose  either  p e r s p e c t i v e and  assign t e c h n i c a l and/or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  responsibilities  then can to  the  Data  an  application  administrator.  a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s to play a support EDP  activity,  then  the  or a d v i s o r y  or  an  If  corporate  the  r o l e within  benefits attributable to a  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n are not p o l i c i e s can not be c r e a t e d at t h i s  FIGUBE Roles of the Data  likely level.*  Data  to  be  the  corporate achieved:  8  1 Administrator PERSPECTIVE  Application  I Corporate  |  Technical  1  |  2  I  Administrative  3  i  4  |  TASKS  * A large insurance company r e p l i e d t h a t they had made two false s t a r t s at g e t t i n g the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n concept established i n the EDP a c t i v i t y . They are now convinced t h a t the f u n c t i o n , i f i t i s to manage the corporate data resource, must be set up o u t s i d e the EDP a c t i v i t y . T h i s company i s now e s t a b l i s h i n g the f u n c t i o n i n i t s c o r p o r a t e planning department. 8  66  Bole o f Data The  Administrator  above r e s u l t s suggest  function  function  DBMS.  the Data  i n l a r g e Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s  stage o f " e v o l u t i o n . the  that  was  The high i n c i d e n c e  Administration  i s not a t an advanced  o f DBMSs suggests  probably formed around the a c g u i s i t i o n o f a  Note t h a t the sampled "functions were s t a f f e d by  competent  the r o l e t h a t the Data Administrator organization.  That  Administrator  likely  i s , i f the DBMS i s used t o manage a small  has a  l a c k o f a p o s i t i v e and high  of  Query  perspective  and  correlation  o f systems.  by  tool  does  not n e c e s s a r i l y  Administration Administration the  tools  resource,  function.  Query F a c i l i t i e s f o r  so that the e x i s t e n c e  indicate The  "application"  low  an  of t h i s  "advanced"  incidence  t o be a p p l i e d  Data  o f use o f Data  t o o l s , other than the DBMS, plus the f a c t  tend  that  t o a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e data  suggest t h a t the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  coordinated data  processing  an  the Data  Some a p p l i c a t i o n s , such  as banking, may r e q u i r e the use of Online transaction  between the  the e x p e r i e n c e . o f  f u n c t i o n may be explained  t o the design  the Data  more l a t e r i n the chapter.  The  Facilities  then  minor r o l e i n the EDP a c t i v i t y .  This minor r o l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  Administration  indicate  i s expected t o play i n the  f r a c t i o n o f the machine-readable data resource,  routine  persons  i n "the use and a p p l i c a t i o n of a DBMS.. The extent to  which t h i s t o o l i s used, which seems to be s m a l l , may  use  that  approach t o t h e management of the  are not t a k i n g a machine-readable  resource. In  order  to  explain  the  finding  that  the Data  67  Administration function usually role  within  the  EDP  occupies  activity,  we  a  relatively  consider  the  minor  following  hypothetical decision: Should our o r g a n i z a t i o n form a separate Data Administration function? I f so, what r o l e should i t perform i n managing the data resource? Since very few separate  small EDP  Data  activities  Administration  (i.e.  functions,  <  28  persons)  those  organizations  have e i t h e r not considered t h i s d e c i s i o n or concluded coordinating  rcle  of  r e q u i r e d when so few the  data  EDP  Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  The  i n the l a r g e r EDP  researcher  was  that  the  i s u n l i k e l y to  people are i n v o l v e d i n the  resource.  interested Data  a  had  management  be of  therefore primarily  a c t i v i t i e s i n the sample.  If  the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s to perform a minor r o l e i n the group, then  EDP  f u n c t i o n without Some  EDP  Management  can  probably  implement  the  c o n s u l t a t i o n with Users or Senior Management.  Managers might have done j u s t t h i s , a n t i c i p a t i n g t h a t  the r o l e would l a t e r expand i n scope* The  literature,  Administrator role.  Therefore  the The  should  one  however,  stresses  that  perform a c o o r d i n a t i n g and  policy  Senior Manaqement should be the "choice  to make the d e c i s i o n to have a Data  Users and  the  EDP  Manaqement are considered  u n i t s " - s u p p l i e r s of i n f o r m a t i o n units"-implementors  of  to be  unit"  "information  to the c h o i c e u n i t * and  "action  the ch o i c e u n i t ' s d e c i s i o n (see F i g u r e  Having l i t t l e exposure to the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and  perhaps  associated  setting  Administrator.  2).  being  Data  relatively  uninterested  with managing the data r e s o u r c e .  in Senior  concept  the problems Management  68  is  u n l i k e l y t o i n i t i a t e the implementation of a c o r p o r a t e  Administrator  Data  (see Chapter I ) .  FIGURE 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p of P l a y e r s i n t h e D e c i s i o n t o Form a Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  I  I  | |  SENIOR | MANAGEMENT|  i  I  I  I  I  | |  USERS  Management low  or  I  I  I  I  I EDP | | MANAGEMENT]  | |  AND ACTION UNITS  of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t o r  r o l e by Users and EDP  c o n f l i c t s between them may a l s o account f o r the  l e v e l of Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  organizations.  CHOICE UNIT  I  INFORMATION  Misperceptions  Function  Three  activity  possible  i n large  scenarios  Canadian  illustrate  this  conclusions 1.  EDP  Management,  functional  areas  because of  of  i t s involvement  management and exposure t o the Data  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n concept, p e r c e i v e s a need Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n . and other  with a l l  and  separate  This need i s c o r p o r a t e  t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s the support p r o j e c t , the Users  for a  EDP  o f Users.. Management  wide  As with any develop  a  69  c o s t / b e n e f i t statement* intangible visible.. project with  in As  B e n e f i t s are found t o be e n t i r e l y  the short a  run  consequence,  i s placed  measurable b e n e f i t s .  When  approached  Administration  the  Data  a r e extremely Administration  at t h e end of a lonq l i s t When  reduced. Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2.  yet costs  by  backlog  has  been  a  Data  they  are  w i l l be implemented.  EDP  project.  this  of p r o j e c t s  Management  Users  suggest  about that  a l r e a d y performing t h e f u n c t i o n , and very w e l l a t Without  the  support  of  Users,  of  weakening  necessary  Management* f o r  the User-EDP a c t i v i t y  f o r successful  4 9  EDP Management would be  u n l i k e l y t o make a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Senior fear  that.  r e l a t i o n s h i p so  implementation  of  computer  systems. 3.  EDP Management examines t h e Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  literature  concludes t h a t the concept i s not a p p l i c a b l e to t h e i r  organization company  (eg. t h e d e c e n t r a l i z e d environment of  i s considered  Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  t o be incompatible  with  their  a corporate  concept).  Conclusions The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study suggest t h a t Data  has not emerged t c any l a r g e extent speciality  in  large  Canadian  as  a  Administration  separate  organizations..  functional  Organizational  The accounting and f i n a n c e departments have t r a d i t i o n a l y played a major r o l e i n supplying i n f o r m a t i o n t o management f o r decision making purposes. These groups l i k e l y have i n s t i t u t e d over many years s e v e r a l p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r the c o n t r o l of t h e non-machine readable data r e s o u r c e . 4 9  70  c o n f l i c t s and a g e n e r a l misunderstanding Management  have  likely  held  back  of the f u n c t i o n by  the  development  of  EDP the  f u n c t i o n beyond" one i n v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y with the support of DBMS application  systems.  Future conflicts  r e s e a r c h should be d i r e c t e d at understanding and  decision  misperceptions  process  involved  administration function; analysis  in  in  analysis  establishing  particular,  should be made to more and  how  fully  how  a  EDP  of the  the Data  cost/benefit  understand  performed. the  data  i t might d i f f e r among o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s .  Indepth i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be conducted Canadian  an  of the Data A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s or might be  An attempt resource  through  these  within  the  very  large  f u n c t i o n s u s i n g t h e i r responses t o t h i s survey as  a p o i n t of departure* Before f u r t h e r use i s made of Nolan's serious  "model,  "thought•should be given to determining i n more p r e c i s e  terms what the EDP  growth process v a r i a b l e s a r e . and  might best be measured.  Without  of  possible.  the  Stage Growth  model  is  not  how  such a base, e m p i r i c a l  they  testing  I t might a l s o be u s e f u l to  conjecture what ether v a r i a b l e s , such as c o r p o r a t e e x i s t that a f f e c t the growth of an EDP  activity.  "politics",  71  REFERENCES  £1]  Ackoff, R u s s e l l L., "Management M i s i n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s " , Manaqement S c i e n c e (14:4), 1967 December, p a g e s B147 156.  i.2f]  Anthony, Robert N., Planning and C o n t r o l Systems: A Framework for A n a l y s i s , Harvard Graduate School of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , B o s t o n , 1965.  £3J  B e r d i e , D o u g l a s R. and John F. Anderson, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : D e s i g n and Use, S c a r e c r o w P r e s s I n c , N. . J . , 1974.  £4]  C a n n i n g , R i c h a r d G., "The D a t a Administrator EDP A n a l y z e r , ( 1 0 : 1 ) , November 1972, 14 p a g e s .  i. 5 3  Canning, Richard G*, "Toward t h e B e t t e r Management o f D a t a " , EDP A n a l y z e r ^ ( 1 4 : 1 2 ) , December 1976, 13 p a g e s .  £6]  C a n n i n g , R i c h a r d G., " I n s t a l l i n g a D a t a Dictionary", A n a l y z e r , ( 1 6 : 1 ) , January 1 978, 13 pages.  £7]  Charach, L., An E x p l o r a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n - Toward T,he Development o f a R e s e a r c h D e s i g n F o r a S t u d y o f Youth Work T r a n s i t i o n , unpublished master's thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977.  i. 83  Davis, Gordon B., Manaqement Information SystemsConceptual Foundations, Structure, and Development, M c G r a w - H i l l Eook Company, 1974.  £9J  D e a r d o n , John, "MIS i s a M i r a g e " , H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s ( 5 0 : 1 ) , J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1972, pages 90-99.,  £10$  Everest, Gordon . C , "Database Management Systems Tutorial", Fifth Annual Midwest AIDS Conference P r o c e e d i n g s , V o l . 1, M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a , 1974 May 101 1 , e d i t e d by Norman 1. Chervany, M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e a p o l i s , C o l l e g e o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1974, pages A1-A12.  Function",  EDP  Review,  •.113 G o r r y , G. A., and M. S. S c o t t M o r t o n , "A Framework f o r Management I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s " , S l o a n Manaqement Review, F a l l 1971, [12 3 GUIDE International Corporation, A d m i n i s t r a t o r , November 1972. —T  The  Data  Base . .  *  £13(J  GUIDE I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n a g e r i a l o f D a t a Base Systems JGP 4 4 ) , 1977.  £14(3  GUIDE International Corporation, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F u n c t i o n , 1977.  Considerations  Establishing  t h e Data  72  [ 1 5 3 GUIDE International Corporation, M e t h o d o l o g y D r a f t P a p e r , May 1978.  Data  Administration  J.163 GUIDE I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n , The D a t a A d m i n i s t r a t o r : C a t a l y s t o f C o r p o r a t e Change, O c t o b e r 1975.  A  J.17/J K i m b e r l y , John E. , "Organizational Size and theStructuralist Perspective: A Review, Critique, and Proposal", Administrative Science Quarterly. (21:4), December 1976, pages 571-597. J.18/J L y o n , Sons,  John K. , The D a t a B a s e New York 1976.  A d m i n i s t r a t o r . John  £ 1 9 ] Lyon, John K., "The R o l e o f The D a t a D a t a b a s e , W i n t e r 1971, p a g e s 11-12.  Base  Wiley  &  Administrator",  £ 2 0 ] Mantha, R o b e r t W. , An A n a l y s i s - o f Skill Reguirements In Data P r o c e s s i n g E n v i r o n m e n t s , u n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. 121Q  M a r t i n , James, P r i n c i p l e s o f D a t a Base H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N . ^ ~ J . 1976.  £22] Nie, Norman H. S c i e n c e s . Second  Manage met.  Prentice  e t a l . S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l E d i t i o n , McGraw H i l l Book Company 1975.  £ 2 3 ] N o l a n , R i c h a r d L., "Computer D a t a Now", Harvard Business Review^. pages 98-114. [24;] N o l a n , R i c h a r d L., Managing t h e West P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1974.  Bases: The Future Is September-October 1973,  Data  £25] Nolan, Richard L., "Thoughts About D a t a b a s e , ( 7 : 2 ) , 1975, pages 4-10.  Resource  the  Function.  Fifth  Stage",  £26] Nolan,: Richard L., "Organizational Response and Information Technology", Proceedoings of the National Computer C o n f e r e n c e 1978, pages 517-524; £27] Nolan, Richard L,., "Managing the Processing", H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review, 1979.  Crises (57:2),  in Data March-April  J.28Q O p p e n h e i m e r , A. N., Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Design and M e a s u r e m e n t B a s i c Books, I n c . New Y o r k , 1966.  Attitude  J.29.JJ S e c r e s t , Richard D., "The Data Administrator", in M c F a r l a n , F. W. and R i c h a r d L, N o l a n , ~The Information Systems Handbook. Dow J o n e s - I r w i n , Inc* Homewood, Illinois, 1975. £30!]Seltiz,  C.  et a l . Research  Methods i n  Social  Relations,,  73  Holt,  Binehart  and W i n s t o n , I n c , B e v i s e d  Edition,  1967.  £31] Sprowls, B. C l a y , Management D a t a B a s e s , W i l e y H a m i l t o n , S a n t a B a r b a r a , 1976. i 32 J T i l l i n g h a s t , J . , " E s t a b l i s h i n g a Framework f o r P l a n n i n g " , Auerbach P u b l i s h e r s I n c . 1976.  Data  Base  £ 3 3 ] Weldon, J . L . , D a t a Base A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , O r g a n i z a t i o n and T a s k s , Working Paper #78-143, November 1978, New York U n i v e r s i t y , Graduate School of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . £34.] W i o r k o w s k i , G. Base Management pages 109-114.  K. and J . J . System Pay O f f ? " ,  Wiorkowski, Datamation,  "Does a D a t a April 1978,  £35] Yasaki, E. K., "The Many F a c e s o f t h e DBA", May 1977, pages 75-79.  Datamation,  74  APPENDIX EDP  PROFILE  A  QUESTIONNAIRE  DATA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SURVEY EDP PROFILE QUESTIONNAIRE  (TO BE COMPLETED BY THE MANAGER OF THE EDP ACTIVITY)  Name of organization  Please indicate your job position/title  This questionnaire is designed to assess the stage of development of the Electronic Data Processing (EDP) activity in large Canadian organizations. For the sake of this study, the EDP activity is considered to be the development, operation and maintenance of computer based information or data processing systems. This questionnaire will be used to generate a profile of the EDP activity in large Canadian organizations. Throughout the questionnaire the phrase "your organization" will mean your entire company, agency or institution. If we want information about only the EDP activity, we will indicate that explicitly. Please answer a l l of the questions asked. You may be assured that a l l information obtained will be used specifically for research purposes and under no circumstances will individual responses be disclosed. The questionnaire will not take more than 30_ minutes of your time. Once completed, please mail the questionnaire in the attached prepaid self addressed envelope. We would be grateful i f you could return the completed questionnaire to us by 6 February, 1979. If you wish to receive a copy of the research results please attach your business card to the-returned questionnaire. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you in advance for taking part in this study and to emphasize that we do need your cooperation.  Dr. R. C. Goldstein Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration The University of British Columbia  Page 1 SOME QUESTIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  C.  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g best d e s c r i b e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e EDP a c t i v i t y i n your o r g a n i z a t i o n ? Please c i r c l e a l e t t e r .  I EDP IEXECUI TIVE I  I USER I IEXECU- I I TIVE | I I  I I I I  A. I I I EDP | I EXECU- I | TIVE|  I IOPERAT- I I IONS I I I  I I |DEVELOP-I I MENT I I  I I IDEVELOP-I I MENT | I I  I IOPERAT- | I IONS/ | IMAINTEN-I | ANCE I  I IDEVELOPI MENT I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I PROGRAMMERS  I  I I I I I I ANALYSTS  D.  I I I I I I I I I I I I PROJECTS CONSISTING OF ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS  I | EDP | EXECUI TIVE  I I I I I I I I I I I I ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS  IDEVELOP-I I MENT/ I IMAINTEN-I j ANCE I  8. I I I EDP | IEXECU- I I TIVE I  I I I IDEVELOP-I IOPERATI MENT I I IONS I I I  I I I I I I I I I I I I PROJECTS CONSISTING OF ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS  I  I  I  E. I I  I I I I II  I ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS  IOPERAT- | | IONS I  I I I I I I I I I I I I APPLICATION AREAS CONSISTING OF ANALYSTS AND ... PROGRAMMERS  I I | IMAINTENI I ANCE I I I  I | I I  None o f the above d e s c r i b e s the s t r u c t u r e o f your EDP a c t i v i t y . Please d e s c r i b e your s t r u c t u r e on t h e back page o f t h e questionnaire. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , please attach a copy o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t f o r t h e EDP a c t i v i t y i n your o r g a n i z a t i o n .  OVER  Page 2 What i s the total staff complement reporting to the Manager of the EDP a c t i v i t y in your organization?  What i s the total number of employees in your organization? employees  individuals  Please indicate, with reference to the following structure, the organizational location of the EDP a c t i v i t y in your organization. Please c i r c l e a number . 1-  Is your organization a subsidiary of a larger one? No.  In Accounting/Finance department.  Yes, parent organization i s  In Operating department such as Marketing, Manufacturing, or Engineering. 3.  Service bureau or eguivalent.  What i s the approximate value o f your organization's assets and annual sales? Assets  Independent operating department reporting to Top Management.  dollars Annual sales  5.  None of the above. Please describe the organizational location in the space following or on the back page of the guestionnaire. Alternatively, please attach a copy of the organizational chart for your your organization depicting the location of the EDP activity.  I  TOP IMANAGEI MENT  Not applicable,  Not applicable dollars  In the past few years, many organizations have recognized that data are one of their most valuable corporate resources and have taken steps to better manage and control this resource area. For some organizations, these actions have resulted in the establishment of a separate group to manage the corporate data resource. This group i s often known as the Data Administrator. Has your organization formally established such an organizational unit?  Yes, the name of the group i s  I IOPERATING DEPT. Keg. MARKETING, I MANUFACTURING, I ENGINEERING)  I | |ACCOUNT-| | | ING/ \ | | FINANCE] | | |  No, but we are thinking of establishing such a' function. No, we used to have such a function but we decided to discontinue the function because No, because  I  I No.  Page 3 Which of the following best describes the business environment of your organization? Pleases c i r c l e a number.  SOME QUESTIONS ON PLANNING AND CONTROL  9.  1.  Wood, pulp and paper  2.  Primary metals and fabrication  3.  Petroleum and coal products  4.  Chemical and chemical products  5.  Food, beverage and tobacco  6.  Accomodation and food services  7.  E l e c t r i c a l products  8.  Automotive products  9.  Printing and publishing  10.  Miscellaneous manufacturing  11.  Industrial equipment  12.  Construction  13.  Transportation  14.  Telecommunications, communications  15.  Department, supermarket, variety stores  16.  Household and personal products  17.  Property development, management  18.  Information processing equipment  19. - E l e c t r i c , gas or water u t i l i t y 20.  Bank, deposit or credit agency  21.  L i f e insurance  22.  Government department or agency  23. University 24.  Other.  Please specify  10.  Which of the following best describes the accounting for EDP a c t i v i t y expenditures in your organization? Please c i r c l e a number. 1.  EDP costs are treated as corporate overhead and are not allocated proportionately to users.  2.  EDP costs are treated as corporate overhead and are allocated proportionately to users.  3.  Users are charged (in real dollars) for some of the EDP resources used and some costs are treated as corporate overhead.  4.  Users are charged (in real dollars) for the amount of EDP resources used.  5.  None of the above describes accounting for EDP expenditures in your organization. Please specify in the space below or on the back page of the questionnaire.  For each of the following functions in the EDP activity, please indicate whether formal standards, which are enforced, have been established in your organization. C i r c l e either Yes or No. 1.  Yes  No  Project management  2.  Yes  No  Systems definition  3.  Yes  No  Systems design  4.  Yes  No  Programming  5.  Yes  No  Systems operation  6.  Yes  No  Systems maintenance  7.  Yes  No  Systems documentation  OVER  Page 4 Please indicate how important the following c r i t e r i a are in senior management's evaluation of the performance of the EDP activity in your organization. Circle a number from 1 to 5 where 1 indicates UNIMPORTANT and 5 indicates VERY IMPORTANT.  SOME MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS 15.  A. Cost savings due to c l e r i c a l staff reductions or increased efficiency of operation support systems. UNIMPORTANT  12  3  4  5  dollars per month  VERY IMPORTANT 16.  B.  User satisfaction.  UNIMPORTANT C.  12  3  4  5  12  4  5  VERY IMPORTANT  D. Contribution to organizational goals as stated in the overall organizational plan. UNIMPORTANT  12  years 17.  3  3  4  5  Indicate the approximate number of years your organization has been using computers.  VERY IMPORTANT  Meeting budgets.  UNIMPORTANT  Please indicate the approximate average monthly rental cost of computing hardware, including communication expenditures, in your organization for the past 12 months (use rental eguivalent i f leased or purchased).  What approximate percentage of the EDP budget is spent on the following three categories of systems (includes development, operation and maintenance)? 1.  %  Operational Support Systems. Systems which perform the routine transaction level activity required in the daily operation of the organization and report on the operational status of the firm so that management i s aware of day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s , (includes order entry systems, invoicing, payroll, etc.)  2.  %  Management Control Systems. Systems which provide control information required by managers of departments, p r o f i t centres, etc to measure performance, track the efficiency and effectiveness of operations, decide on control actions, formulate new decision rules to be applied by operational personnel, allocate resources and provide for coordination between several departments, (includes manufacturing cost control systems, sales analysis systems, etc.)  3.  %  Planning Systems. Systems which provide information for strategic level management (top management). This information w i l l permit these managers to carry out their planning a c t i v i t i e s , such as formulating and revising company objectives, determining long-term goals (over 3 years) and establishing company policies, (includes financial planning systems, corporate models, etc.)  VERY IMPORTANT  Has your organization established Project Review Boards to review the progress of new systems development projects? Yes  No  Has your organization established a Long Range or Strategic Planning Committee (or equivalent) to develop the EDP activity strategy for your organization? Yes  No  Has your organization developed a model of the organization that shows data flows across functional areas and hierarchical management levels? Yes  No  100 % TOTAL  Page 5 18.  What approximate percentage of the EDP activity budget i s spent producing ad hoc reports for users for which special or "oneshot" programs are developed? 1. Less than 5% 2. 6% to 15% 3. 16% to 25% 4. More than 25%  22.  Ranking or p r i o r i t i z i n g new systems development projects.  USER  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  THE EDP ACTIVITY  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  ********** Questions 19 to 25 are concerned with the degree that Users, Senior Management and the EDP activity are involved in various new system development a c t i v i t i e s . Please c i r c l e a number from 1 to 5 to indicate the degree that the group i s involved in the activity, where '1' indicates NOT INVOLVED and '5' indicates VERY INVOLVED . **********  19.  23.  Developing a project schedule for new systems development projects. 2 3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  USER  NOT INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT THE EDP ACTIVITY  1  Identifying new systems development projects.  USER  NOT INVOLVED  1 2 3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT  NOT INVOLVED  1 2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  THE EDP ACTIVITY  NOT INVOLVED  1 2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  20.  Determining costs of new systems development projects.  USER  NOT INVOLVED  1 2 3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT  NOT INVOLVED  1  2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  THE EDP ACTIVITY  NOT INVOLVED  1  2 3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  21.  24.  Managing a new systems development project.  USER  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  THE EDP ACTIVITY  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  25.  Designing a new computer based information or data processing system. 2 3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  NOT 1 INVOLVED  2  3 4 5  VERY INVOLVED  USER  NOT INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT THE EDP ACTIVITY  1  Determining benefits of new systems development projects.  USER  NOT INVOLVED  1 2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  SENIOR MANAGEMENT  NOT INVOLVED  1  2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  THE EDP ACTIVITY  NOT INVOLVED  1  2 3 4  5  VERY INVOLVED  Thank you for your time, please use the back cover.  If you have anything to add which i s not covered by this questionnaire,  APPENDIX B DATA ADMINISTRATION  PROFILE  QUESTIONNAIRE  DATA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SURVEY DATA ADMINISTRATION PROFILE QUESTIONNAIRE  (TO BE COMPLETED BY THE DATA ADMINISTRATOR OR SIMILAR POSITION)  Name of organization  Please indicate your job p o s i t i o n / t i t l e  In the past few years many organizations have recognized that data are a valuable corporate resource and have taken steps to better manage and control this resource. This survey i s designed to assess the extent to which managing the data resource in large Canadian organizations has been recognized as a separate functional speciality, and to determine how this i s being accomplished. Throughout this questionnaire the phrase "your organization" means your entire company, agency or institution. For the sake of this study, the EDP activity i s considered to be the development, operation and maintenance of computer based information or data processing systems. The questionnaire i s divided into two (2) parts. Part 1 is concerned with various characteristics of the Data Administration function such as organizational structure, tools, planning and controlling. Part 2 is concerned with the a c t i v i t i e s of the Data Administration function in your organization. Please answer a l l of the questions asked. You may be assured that a l l information obtained w i l l be >>sed s p e c i f i c a l l y for research purposes and under no circumstances w i l l individual responses be disclosed. This questionnaire w i l l not take more than 60 minutes of your time. You may not be able to answer some of the questions precisely without considerable research. For these questions please give an approximate answer. Once completed, please mail the guestionnaire in the attached prepaid self addressed envelope. would be grateful i f you could return the completed questionnaire to us by 6 February, 1979.  We  If you wish to receive a copy of the research results please attach your business card to the returned guestionnaire. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you in advance for taking part in this study and to emphasize that we do need your cooperation.  Dr. R. C. Goldstein Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration The University of British Columbia  Page 1 PART 1  SOME QUESTIONS ON ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  8.  Does the Data Administration function in your organization report within the EDP activity? Please check one. Yes CONTINUE WITH QUESTION 2. No SKIP TO QUESTION 3. How many levels of supervision are there between you (Data Administrator) and the Manager of the EDP activity? For example, i f your supervisor reports directly to the Manager of the EDP activity there i s one (1) level of supervision between you and the Manager of the EDP activity. levels How many levels of supervision are there between you (Data Administrator) and,the head of your organization (eg. President, Deputy Minister)? For example, i f your supervisor reports to the Vice-President of Administration, who in turn reports to the President, there are two (2) levels of supervision between you and the head of your organization.  Does your organization have a separate organizational unit, not reporting to the Data Administration function, that i s responsible for the more technical a c t i v i t i e s associated with managing the data resource? Please c i r c l e a number. 1. Yes CONTINUE WITH QUESTION 9 2. No SKIP TO QUESTION 12  9.  How many levels of supervision are there between this group and the Manager of the EDP activity? levels  10.  What i s the name of this organizational unit?  11.  How many full-time c l e r i c a l , technical, professional, and management individuals are employed within this organizational unit? people  levels What i s the job t i t l e of your immediate supervisor?  How many full-time c l e r i c a l , technical, professional and management individuals are employed within the Data Administration function in your organization? people How long ago was the Data Administration function established in your organization?  SOME QUESTIONS ON THE TYPE OF DATA MANAGED BY THE DATA ADMINISTRATOR Data, for the sake of this questionnaire, are groups of non-random symbols which represent quantities, actions, things, etc. We refer to data that has regular routines associated with i t s definition, capture , storage, maintenance and dissemination as Formal data. Formal data can be further categorized as being Machine Readable or Non Machine Readable. 12.  What percentage of your organization's Formal data f a l l s under the responsibility of the Data Administrator. 1.  %  of Non Machine Readable Data.  2.  % of Machine Readable.  years Is the Data Administration function responsible for the more technical a c t i v i t i e s associated with managing the data resource(eg. Data base design, selection of storage and access methods)? Please c i r c l e a number. 1. Yes PLEASE SKIP TO QUESTION 12 2. No PLEASE CONTINUE WITH 'QUESTION 8  OVER  Page 2 13.  What i s the approximate size of the Machine Readable data resource in your organization? To answer this guestion, you may want to consider the number of disk packs of storage your organization has on i t s computers.  18.  1. Before. 2. After.  millions of characters. 14.  What approximate percentage of the Machine Readable data i s actually shared among application systems m your organization? What percentage of this data, in terms of characters, could in the absence of technical or other constraints, usefully be shared among application systems? 1.  %  2.  %  Was the Data Administration function established before or after the aguisition or development of a DBMS? Please c i r c l e a number.  19.  i s actually shared among applications. could usefully be shared among applications (in the absence of technical or other constraints).  What percentage of your organization's computer applications use the DRMS's. Compute an approximate percentage by estimating what portion of the EDP a c t i v i t y budget i s spent on the development, operation and maintenance of computer applications that use the DBMS's. Circle a number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Less than 20% 21% to 40% 41% to 60% 61% to 80% 81% to 100%  SOME QUESTIONS ON TOOLS USED BY THE DATA ADMINISTRATOR Data Base Management System (DBMS) i s the software that handles a l l access to the data base. A DBMS can be characterized as a generalized software tool that provides a single, flexible f a c i l i t y for accomodating different data f i l e s and operations, while demanding less programming effort than convential programming languages. A DBMS f a c i l i t a t e s operations on data (definition, capture, storage etc.); i t f a c i l i t a t e s reference by name rather than by physical location; and i t provides an environment that i s not tied to a particular set of application programs or f i l e s .  15.  Data Dictionary / Directory (DD/D) i s a software tool used to l i s t , describe, and locate each data element in a data base. It provides a centralized repository of information about each data element in order to f a c i l i t a t e management of, control of, and access to the data base. The DD/D may also contain information about f i l e s , transactions, source documents, reports, systems, programs, users, departments, projects, standards, security levels and personnel. 20.  Yes CONTINUE WITH QUESTION 16. No SKIP TO QUESTION 20.  Does your organization use a DD/D to record the characteristics of the data resource? Please c i r c l e a number. 1. Yes, a commercial package. 2. Yes, an inhouse developed package. 3. Yes, a manual record keeping system. 4. No . SKIP TO QUESTION 25.  Does your organization use a DBMS? Please c i r c l e a number. 1. 2.  16.  **********  21.  What i s the name of your DD/D?  22.  How long ago was the DD/D acquired or developed in your organization?  Does your organization use more than one DBMS? Yes we use DBMS' s. No we use only one DBMS.  years and 17.  For each DBMS your organization uses, please indicate the name of the package, whether the package was obtained commercially or developed inhouse and the number of years since the package was f i r s t installed in your organization.  23.  NAME  24.  COMMERCIAL  INHOUSE  (Please tick one)  YEARS SINCE FIRST INSTALLED  months  How many data elements are there in your organization? 1. 2.  don't know data elements  How many data elements are recorded in your DD/D? data elements  Page 3 **********  27.  Query f a c i l i t i e s can be considered as batch or inline and parametric or generalized . Periodic processing of queries i s generally referred to as 'batch processing', as contrasted with immediate or 'online processing'. Parametric means that the jser interfaces with the system in an anticipated and highly structured way by invoking transactions or procedures which have been predefined to the system. Generalized means that the user interacts with the system in an unstructured, unanticipated and ad hoc manner.  NAME  "Yes an inhouse developed package No  | YEARS I % 28.  "Yes a commercial package  "Yes an inhouse developed package  Does your organization use a batch parametric query f a c i l i t y software package? I f so please indicate the name of the package, the years since i t was f i r s t installed at your organization and the percentage of the Machine Readable sector that i s accessible by the package. NAME  No  26.  NAME  2."Yes an inhouse developed package 3.  No  I YEARS | %  "Yes a commercial package  Does your organization use an batch generalized query f a c i l i t y software package? If so please indicate the name of the package, the years since i t was f i r s t installed at your organization and the percentage of the Machine Readable sector that i s accessible by the package.  "Yes a commercial package  YEARS I %  l."Yes a commercial package  Does your organization use an online generalized query f a c i l i t y software package? If so please indicate the name of the package, the years since i t was f i r s t installed at your organization and the percentage of the Machine Readable sector that i s accessible by the package. NAME  Does your organization use an online parametric query f a c i l i t y software package? If so please indicate the name of the package, the years since i t was f i r s t installed at your organization and the percentage of the Machine Readable sector that i s accessible by the package.  "Yes an inhouse developed package No  I YEARS | % OVER  Page 4 **********  SOME QUESTIONS ON THE BACKGROUND OF THE DATA ADMINISTRATOR  Data Definition Language (DDL) i s a software tool that provides the means for writing and describing the storage structure and access strategy for the data base. 29.  Does your organization use a Data Definition Language (DDL) for defining storage structures and access strategies? Is the DDL a commercial package, an inhouse developed package or built into the DBMS? How long ago was the package acquired or developed? What percentage of applications, by EDP budget, use the DDL?  NAME  YEARS SINCE ACQUIRED DEVELOPED  1. 'Yes a commercial package  For each of the following statements please c i r c l e YES i f the statement applies to you and NO i f the statement does not apply to you. 1. Yes No - a technical background in computer technology 2. Yes No - at least 'one year's experience in each of the major functional areas of management (Personnel, Accounting, Marketing, Logistics, Manufacturing, etc.) 3. Yes No - more than two year's experience in at least one of the functional areas of management. 4. Yes No - a college bachelor's degree or equivalent in computer science. 5. Yes No - a college bachelor's degree or equivalent in business administration.  2. 'Yes an inhouse developed package 3. "Yes b u i l t into the DBMS  6. Yes No - a college bachelor's degree or equivalent in the Arts. 7. Yes No - a college bachelor's degree or eauivalent in the Sciences other than computer science.  4. No ********* Information Requirements Analysis (IRA) i s the process of determining the information needs of managers. Examples of IRA techniques are interviews, questiqnnaires, flowcharts, decision tables, simulation models and data base tracking. 30.  31.  8. Yes No - a technical school diploma i n computer science or business administration. 9. Yes No - a post graduate degree in business administration. 10. Yes No - a post graduate degree in computer science.  Does your organization have a standard methodology or approach for determining the information needs of managers? Please indicate i f the methodology was developed inhouse or acquired as a commercial package. C i r c l e a number.  11. Yes No - a post graduate degree in a discipline other than computer science or business administration.  1.  Yes  an inhouse developed methodology.  12. Yes No - more than three years supervisory experience.  2.  Yes  an acquired package methodology.  3.  No  the approach i s l e f t to the discretion of the analyst.  4. Other  please describe in the space below or on the back page of the questionnaire.  13. Yes No - a background in DBMS software technology. 14. Yes No - a background in the definition, design, and implementation of computer based information systems.  Page 5  32.  Is the Data Administrator a member of the EDP Long Range or Strategic Planning Committee or similar group? Yes  33.  No  Does the Data Administrator maintain a formal set of standards or procedures governing the following activities? Circle either Yes or No. 1.  Yes  No  the definition of data in the organization.  2.  Yes  No  the capture of data in the organization.  3.  Yes  No  the storage of data in the organization.  4.  Yes  No  the maintenance of data in the organization.  5.  Yes  No  the dissemination of data in the organization.  34.  Which of the following best describes how your organization processes requests from the User community to develop sets of data? Please c i r c l e a number. 1.  The application systems analyst, working with Users, decides what data should be collected and how the data should be stored.  2.  The Project Manager reviews the analysis of the application systems analyst and users, and then decides what data should be collected and how the data should be stored.  3.  The Data Administration function reviews the analysis of the application systems analyst and users, and then decides what data should be collected and how the data should be stored.  4.  None of the above. Please describe in the space below or on the back page of the questionnaire.  THIS IS THE END OF PART 1 OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE. IF YOU HAVE ANYTHING YOU WISH TO ADD, PLEASE USE THE SPACE BELOW. OTHERWISE, PLEASE PROCEED TO PART 2 ON THE NEXT PAGE.  Page 6  PART 2  In this part you w i l l be asked to indicate whether an activity i s the responsibility of the Data Administration function in your organization. For each activity, you w i l l also be asked to indicate the relative amount of time that the Data Administration function spends on the activity and whether you think that the Data Administration function w i l l spend more, less or the same amount of time on the activity two years from now.  *****  EXAMPLE  *****  Document and communicate what data i s available to information system users. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  % C.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  A. If this activity i s a responsibility of the Data Administration function in your organization then you would c i r c l e YES. On the other hand, i f this activity i s not a responsibility of the Data Administration function m your organization then you would c i r c l e NO. B.^ If no time i s currently spent by the Data Administration function on this activity then you would enter '°'• cases, enter the approximate percentage of the Data Administration function's time spent on this activity. I  n a  1  1 o t n e r  C. If you feel that 2 years from now the Data Administration function w i l l spend less, the same or more time on the activity than you have indicated for the present, then you would c i r c l e LESS, SAME, MORE respectively.  Page 7 35.  Know how the corporation conducts business from general and overall points of view. Understand the general thrust, p o l i c i e s , goals and objectives of the corporation. A.  39.  Establish c r i t e r i a for determining the ownership of data in the corporate data base. A. A Data Administration responsibility?  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  YES  NO  B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  • B. PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW 36.  LESS  C. SAME MORE 40.  Understand information requirements of the users of the information system. A.  B.  37.  LESS  B.  B.  C.  41.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  A.  YES  NO  B.  LESS  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE 42.  Mediate conflicting data needs and requirements of information system users.  SAME MORE  %  %  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  A Data Administration responsibility?  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY .  38.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  Develop t a c t i c a l and strategic plans regarding the evolution of the corporate data base and information system.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  %  SAME MORE -  Identify effective corporate data base applications (through understanding of present applications and planned direction of future growth). A.  SAME MORE  Integrate users' data requirements for common information to ensure data non-redundancy as well as security and privacy.  YES  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  NO  % C.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  LESS  Establish, communicate, policies and procedures upon,the corporate data dictionaries,, p r o f i l e s , and logs.  SAME MORE - •  and control the governing operations base and related glossaries, l i b r a r i e s  A. A Data Administration responsibility? YES B.  A.  NO  YES  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY B.  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  A Data Administration responsibility? NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  SAME MORE C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  Page 8 43.  Control the definitions and rules which provide for the privacy of information system users. A.  YES  NO B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  44.  LESS  48.  B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  45.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  B.  49.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  B.  B.  50.  LESS  A.  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  SAME MORE  LESS  Develop backup, recovery, restart and reorganization processes associated with the corporate data base.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  %  Define and control the auditing and monitoring reguirements of the information system with respect to the corporate data base. A.  SAME MORE  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  46.  LESS  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  LESS  NO  Define backup, recovery, restart and reorganization reguirements associated with the corporate data base. A.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility?  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  LESS  %  Control the definitions and rules which provide for the integrity of data within the corporate data base. A.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  YES  NO  % C.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  Control the content of the corporate data base by reviewing and authorizing a l l related maintenance specifications. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  C.  SAME MORE  Control the definitions and rules which provide for the security of data within the corporate data base. A.  NO  %  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  Insure standardization of terminology and codes associated with the corporate data base. A. A Data Administration responsibility?  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  47.  B.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  Page 9 51.  Document and communicate what data i s available to information systems users. A.  Design the logical data structures in the corporate data base. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  55.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  % C.  52.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  %  Define and control the p r i o r i t i e s and scheduling of computer processes against the corporate data base. A.  56.  LESS  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  % C.  53.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  Provide consultation and help to information system users. A.  B.  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW 57.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  YES  %  54.  B.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  NO  '_  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW 58.  LESS  SAME MORE  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  % LESS  %  Formulate synchronized maintenance procedures which w i l l ensure the integrity of the corporate data base and related dictionaries, profiles, glossaries, l i b r a r i e s and logs.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  SAME MORE  Define information system user educational requirements which w i l l contribute to proper maintenance and u t i l i z a t i o n of the corporate data base. A.  SAME MORE  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  NO  LESS  LESS  Develop and maintain a model of the organization that shows data flows, including sources and uses, across functional areas and hierarchical management levels.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  Design the optimal physical storage schemes and access strategies for supporting computer processes against the corporate data base. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  YES B.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  SAME MORE C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  Page 10 59.  Define parameters to be measured and used in predicting, monitoring, and optimizing the performance of the corporate data base. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  63.  Define modifications and enhancements which w i l l improve the software technologies interfacing with the corporate data base. A. A Data Administration responsibility?  NO  YES  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  B.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  % C.  60.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE  Establish f a c i l i t i e s for conducting meaningful simulation and performance analysis a c t i v i t i e s as each relates to the corporate data base. A.  B.  C.  64.  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  B.  51.  LESS  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  Evaluate and recommend the disposition of software technologies interfacing with the corporate data base, including DBMS, DD/D and query packages.  65.  B.  NO  52.  YES  LESS  SAME MORE  Participate in corporate configuration planning (hardware and software) to ensure that the corporate data base needs are adequately met.  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  A.  B.  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  NO  LESS  66. Determine the cost of aguisition of various types of data and relate this cost to the usage of that data.  A. A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  B.  %  LESS  Provide for efficient migrations from one technological environment to another as these movements relate to the corporate data base.  A. A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  . % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  LESS  Establish a flexible, reliable, and e f f i c i e n t corporate data base operating environment. A.  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  NO  LESS  SAME MORE  Page 11 67.  Provide a testing f a c i l i t y for computer processes interacting with the corporate data base.  70.  A. A Data Administration responsibility? YES B.  A.  NO  C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  B.  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW 71.  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  B.  69.  LESS  YES B.  B.  72.  A.  NO  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  Thank you for your time. please use the back cover.  SAME MORE  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  B.  %  LESS  Establish, communicate and control the policies and procedures governing access to the corporate data base.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  . C.  % C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  SAME MORE  Establish, communicate and control the policies and procedures governing the archiving of data.  YES  SAME MORE  Establish, communicate and control the policies and procedures relating to the accuracy and currency of data.  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  A. A Data Administration responsibility?  NO  % C.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  SAME MORE  Establish, communicate and control the policies and procedures governing the capture of data for the application systems.  YES  A Data Administration responsibility? YES  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  68.  Participate, as a consultant, in the conduct of f e a s i b i l i t y studies and Information Requirements Analyses for the development of application systems.  NO  PERCENT OF TIME SPENT ON ACTIVITY  %  SAME MORE C. TIME 2 YEARS FROM NOW  LESS  SAME MORE I  If you have anything to add which i s not covered by this questionnaire,  APPENDIX COVEEING  C  LETTER  92  APPENDIX D FOLLOW UP CASD  

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