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Interorganizational relations in local-use planning Low, William James 1979

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INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS IN LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING by WILLIAM JAMES'iLOW B.Eng., Royal M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e of Canada, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1979 (c) W i l l i a m James Low, 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at t h e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r ex t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my School or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. School o f Community and E e g i o n a l Planninq The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT INTERO EG AHIZATIONAL RELATIONS IN LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING The complexity and t u r b u l e n c e of the t w e n t i e t h century i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e and number of government ag e n c i e s , l e a d i n g to o v e r l a p p i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o m p e t i t i o n , and c o n f l i c t i n the f i e l d of p l a n n i n g . M u l t i p l e j u r i s d i c t i o n s with c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s have s t i m u l a t e d the need f o r p r o d u c t i v e r a t h e r than symbolic i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . L o c a l land-use planning i s one f i e l d where uncoordinated land-use d e c i s i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y harmful to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . In Canada, t h i s p l a n n i n g i s thought t o be c o n t r o l l e d by the l o c a l government's planning s t a f f under the d i r e c t i o n of e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . However, t h i s b e l i e f i g n o r e s the r e a l i t y of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l independence of p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government agencies. Within a l o c a l p l a n n i n g area, these independent agencies are f r e e t o use t h e i r l a n d to meet t h e i r own p e r c e i v e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of l o c a l land-use p o l i c i e s . The v a r i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s of land-use decision-making o r g a n i z a t i o n s have l e d to i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , i n c o m p a t i b l e adjacent land uses, i n e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l plans, and missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e f f i c i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e planning. I t i s hypothesized t h a t an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e (ios) s p e c i f i c a l l y designed a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y - d e r i v e d c r i t e r i a would p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e mechanism f o r r e d u c t i o n of p l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t s and promotion of c o o p e r a t i v e l o c a l land-use i i i p l a n n i n g , and would be s u p e r i o r to the e x i s t i n g r e l i a n c e on ad hoc arrangements. The t h e s i s f i r s t examines the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o c a l planner and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e independent agency, the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by case s t u d i e s which i l l u s t r a t e both land-use c o n f l i c t s and c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n s c u r r e n t l y a r i s i n g between two DND bases and t h e i r neighbouring communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h e s i s next e x p l o r e s the nature of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n terms of group dynamics, s o c i a l psychology of n e g o t i a t i o n s , and i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power s t r u g g l e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s theory i s fundamental to understanding the dynamics of an i o s . T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , , p l u s the p r a c t i c a l , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e v e a l e d by the case s t u d i e s , p r o v i d e the framework f o r development of i o s c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a are compared a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g models of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning and decision-making to t e s t t h e i r v a l i d i t y . These c r i t e r i a are used to design an i o s model f o r l o c a l land-use planning i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F i n a l l y , the i o s model i s a p p l i e d to the case s t u d i e s u s i n g r e a l i s t i c s c e n a r i o s to determine i t s e f f e c t on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . I t i s shown t h a t the i o s would be much more e f f e c t i v e at p r o v i d i n g both o p p o r t u n i t i e s and reduced r i s k f o r c o o p e r a t i o n than does the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l make use of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s whenever they w i l l b e n e f i t from doing so. T h i s w i l l occur more f r e q u e n t l y i n the i o s designed a c c o r d i n g to t h e o r e t i c a l l y - d e r i v e d c r i t e r i a than otherwise. While the i o s i s designed f o r a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , the c r i t e r i a are soundly developed from both theory and the case s t u d i e s and provide the b a s i s f o r design of s i m i l a r mechanisms f o r land-use p l a n n i n g anywhere i n Canada. Furthermore, the understanding gained here c o n t r i b u t e s to our l i m i t e d knowledge i n the c r u c i a l f i e l d of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ # V TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1: THE CONTEXT 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 1.2 F e d e r a l Land Management 6 1.3 The M i l i t a r y Base Planning Function .............. 10 1.4 The L o c a l Planning F u n c t i o n 12 1.5 The L o c a l and Base Pl a n n i n g I n t e r f a c e . 14 1.6 P o l i c y and P o l i t i c s i n L o c a l Land-use Planning ... 16 1.7 C o n c l u s i o n s 21 CHAPTER 2: CASE STUDIES IN LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 24 2.2 Case One: The Columbia V a l l e y , 26 2.3 Case Two: V i c t o r i a ' s O i l Storage Tanks 34 2.4 Case Three: C h i l l i w a c k Sewage Connector .......... 40 2.5 Cases Four To Seven: Broadening the P e r s p e c t i v e . . 4 4 2.6 Concluding Remarks 52 CHAPTER 3: THE NATURE OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 55 3.2 Group Behaviour i n the IOS .... 57 3.3 Wielding Power i n the IOS 60 3.4 R e s i s t i n g Power Attempts i n the IOS 65 3.5 Promotion of Cooperation .,. 66 3.6 A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o L o c a l Land-use Planning 70 CHAPTER 4: INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CRITERIA AND DESIGN 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n .....73 4.2 Spectrum o f I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ........ 74 4.3 C r i t e r i a f o r a L o c a l IOS . 78 4.4 S t r u c t u r a l C r i t e r i a 79 4.5 Process C r i t e r i a .. . 85 4.6 Summary T a b l e of IOS C r i t e r i a 90 4.7 Test of C r i t e r i a A g a i n s t E x i s t i n g Models 93 4.8 Design of the IOS f o r L o c a l Land-use Planning .... 97 4.9 C o n c l u s i o n s 100 CHAPTER 5: DESIGN APPLICATION AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 103 5.2 P o s t u l a t e d IOS f o r the Case S t u d i e s ..............104 5.3 A C h i l l i w a c k Case R e v i s i t e d ...106 5.4 An Esquimalt Case R e v i s i t e d ...............115 5.5 C o n c l u s i o n s 120 BIBLIOGRAPHY .. . . 126 APPENDICES Appendix 1: Maps of the Case Study Areas .130 Appendix 2: Base Development Plan Requirements 136 Appendix 3: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o C o n s u l t a n t s For BDP .......144 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: P o l i t i c a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Base Planning ........... .18 F i g u r e 2: P o l i t i c a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n L o c a l Planning 19 F i g u r e 3: C o n f l i c t Of Goals 56 F i g u r e 4 : Group I d e n t i t y i n the IOS 60 F i g u r e 5: Braybrooke and Lindblom D e c i s i o n Model 94 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman f o r those f a s c i n a t i n g and demanding b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n s i n h i s o f f i c e and h i s c o n t i n u i n g encouragement when t h i n g s got rough. To my wife J e n n i f e r , and daughters J u l i e and Stephanie, f o r t h e i r support and understanding throughout, e s p e c i a l l y when the approach of t h e s i s d e a d l i n e s turned me i n t o a temperamental bear. To Dr. Peter Oberlander, P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g Fox, Dr. Skip Walter, and Alan Sutton f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e advice and a s s i s t a n c e . Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 1 INTRODUCTION The i n c r e a s i n g complexity and turbulence of l i f e i n the waning years of the t w e n t i e t h century have dim i n i s h e d the c a p a b i l i t y of man's o r g a n i z a t i o n s to manage t h e i r environments. An o r g a n i z a t i o n can no longer e i t h e r f o r e c a s t the v a r i a b l e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s which w i l l a f f e c t i t s o p e r a t i o n or d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n s of complementary o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In t h i s t u r b u l e n t and u n c e r t a i n environment, man has sought to i n c r e a s e c o n t r o l by i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e and number of government agencies. The s h r i n k i n g environment and the growing number o f o v e r l a p p i n g i n t e r e s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have l e d to g r e a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f l i c t between government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In r e c o g n i t i o n of these c o n f l i c t s , the f o r m a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s has f l o u r i s h e d as never be f o r e . Formalized i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s occur i n a framework r e f e r r e d t o here as an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , or i o s . 1 * In p l a n n i n g , o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s , c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s and p r i o r i t i e s among planning a g e n c i e s , and power s t r u g g l e s among threatened bureaucracies s t i m u l a t e the need f o r p r o d u c t i v e r a t h e r than d e c o r a t i v e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such mechanisms f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s and promoting c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n s depends on the design of the mechanism as much or more than on the urgency of the i s s u e s . Some very important i s s u e s w i l l never * Footnotes w i l l be found at the end of each chapter. 2 be r e s o l v e d i n a p o o r l y designed i o s . T h i s t h e s i s l o o k s a t l o c a l land-use planning as one f i e l d where plann i n g c o n f l i c t s and uncoordinated land-use d e c i s i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y harmful to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . L o c a l l a n d -use p l a n n i n g i s thought t o be c o n t r o l l e d by the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g s t a f f under the d i r e c t i o n of e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . However t h i s b e l i e f i g n o r e s the r e a l i t y of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y of p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government agencies t o use t h e i r land t o meet t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of l o c a l planning p o l i c i e s . The extent of these independent l a n d - h o l d i n g s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . For example, the f e d e r a l holdings alone i n Vancouver amount t o 5168 h e c t a r e s and i n V i c t o r i a 3397 h e c t a r e s . 2 The v a r i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s of l a n d - u s i n g agencies l e a d to c o n f l i c t between o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c o m p a t i b l e adjacent land-uses, i n a p p r o p r i a t e uses, i n e f f e c t i v e r e g i o n a l plans, and missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e f f i c i e n t c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . Despite past attempts to r e s o l v e these problems by j o i n t p l a n n i n g , success has been minimal. The proper design of the j o i n t p l a n n i n g mechanism, the i o s , has not r e a l l y been attempted b e f o r e . The f a u l t y assumption has been t h a t i f the planning o r g a n i z a t i o n s were j u s t brought t o g e t h e r , c o o p e r a t i o n would r e s u l t . I t i s hypothesized that an i o s can be designed which w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e a t promoting c o o p e r a t i o n and reducing c o n f l i c t i n l o c a l land-use planning than e x i s t i n g planning arrangements. In Chapter 1, the c o n t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o c a l planner and one independent la n d - u s e r , the:Department of 3 N a t i o n a l Defence (DND), i s presented. T h i s w i l l ensure an understanding of the environment f o r the case s t u d i e s which f o l l o w . In Chapter 2, case s t u d i e s of land-use p l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t s and c o o p e r a t i o n between l o c a l p l a n n e r s and the Department o f N a t i o n a l Defence are presented. DND was chosen only as an agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l the independent land-use decision-making o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a l o c a l area. Any o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l land-user c o u l d have been used. The DND/community case s t u d i e s were s e l e c t e d from a l a r g e r number of land-use c o n f l i c t / c o o p e r a t i o n i s s u e s between DND and v a r i o u s B r i t i s h Columbia communities. The case s t u d i e s concern Canadian F o r c e s Bases C h i l l i w a c k and Esquimalt, i n r u r a l and urban p a r t s of BC r e s p e c t i v e l y . In Chapter 3, the t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the nature o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n terms of the dynamics of groups, s o c i a l psychology of n e g o t i a t i o n s , and i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power s t r u g g l e s . Some understanding of the f u n c t i o n i n g of an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s gained from t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . A key concept which emerges i s why an o r g a n i z a t i o n would be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i o s at a l l and what i t expects from t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In Chapter 4, t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l understanding o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and the p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e v e a l e d by the case s t u d i e s provide the framework f o r development of h y p o t h e t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r design of an i o s a p p l i c a b l e to l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g . The c r i t e r i a are checked a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g models i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g 4 and decision-making f o r some c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e i r v a l i d i t y . Using these c r i t e r i a , an i o s model f o r the l o c a l land-use planning s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s developed. In Chapter 5, t h i s i o s i s a p p l i e d to the case s t u d i e s t o t e s t i t s e f f e c t on i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s i s accomplished by r e - e n a c t i n g two of the case s t u d i e s using l o g i c a l s c e n a r i o s i n v o l v i n g the i o s model. F i n a l l y , c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn from what has been l e a r n e d i n the t h e s i s , and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are o f f e r e d . FOOTNOTES IN INTRODUCTION 1 T h i s a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be used throughout the t h e s i s . 2 Swan, p11, based on the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx CHAPTER 1 5 THE CONTEXT 1.1 INTRODUCTION Within every l o c a l p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n there are s e v e r a l independent s e n i o r government l a n d - u s i n g a g e n c i e s . They may be l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s such as p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , a i r p o r t s , or experimental farms; they may be Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s such as BC Hydro or Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways; or they may be agencies which c o n t r o l r a t h e r than occupy Crown l a n d , such as the F o r e s t S e r v i c e or Environment. A l l have at l e a s t one f e a t u r e i n common — they are independent of the l o c a l planner's j u r i s d i c t i o n . Senior governments are f r e e t o use the l a n d they c o n t r o l i n any way deemed necessary to f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . One such independent l a n d -user i s the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence. P l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t s and c o o p e r a t i o n between m i l i t a r y bases and communities serve very w e l l as case s t u d i e s t o demonstrate the inadequacies of e x i s t i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n planning. T h i s chapter develops the context of f e d e r a l , m i l i t a r y base, and l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g i n order to gain a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the case s t u d i e s i n Chapter 2. ' Some of the problems with the e x i s t i n g r e l i a n c e on ad hoc c o n s u l t a t i o n between the l o c a l planner and the m i l i t a r y base are a l s o exposed. T h i s should provide a sound b a s i s f o r understanding the dynamics of the i s s u e s r e v e a l e d i n the case s t u d i e s . 6 1.2 FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT L o c a l planning j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n Canada are delegated broad powers by the provinces to c o n t r o l l a n d uses w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries. Desired land uses are designated on o f f i c i a l p l ans and enforced by zoning by-laws and the permit process. T h i s c o n t r o l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e g u l a t e s p r i v a t e l a n d h o l d i n g s , but i s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l y impotent with r e s p e c t t o land owned by s e n i o r governments and t h e i r agencies. F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l land i s owned by the Crown ( i n r i g h t o f e i t h e r Canada or a P r o v i n c e ) . The Crown i s s u p e r i o r to her s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s (which e x i s t only at the pleasure of the p r o v i n c e ) , and i s not s u b j e c t to t h e i r laws. Since l o c a l land use c o n t r o l s and plans have no j u r i s d i c t i o n over lands owned by governments, and s i n c e governments have t h e i r own p r i o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the use of t h e i r l a n d s , l a n d use c o n f l i c t s between the two do a r i s e . In 1970 the government r e c o g n i z e d the tremendous impact v a r i o u s f e d e r a l departmental a c t i v i t i e s had on Canada 1s urban environment. The form a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of St a t e f o r Orban A f f a i r s was an attempt t o provide a c o o r d i n a t i n g umbrella over the urban programs of v a r i o u s departments. Land ownership was recognized as a key f a c t o r i n the achievement o f f e d e r a l goals i n both the urban and r u r a l environment. I t was a l s o seen as a means of p r o v i d i n g some leve r a g e i n t r i - l e v e l n e g o t i a t i o n s . I n 1975, the F e d e r a l Land Management P o l i c y was p u b l i s h e d 7 as Treasury Board C i r c u l a r 1975-80. T h i s p o l i c y expressed the p r i n c i p l e t h a t f e d e r a l land should be managed so as to combine the e f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n of government s e r v i c e s with the achievement of wider s o c i a l , economic, and environmental o b j e c t i v e s . The p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the magnitude of f e d e r a l urban and r u r a l h o l d i n g s g i v e s them s t r a t e g i c importance and j u s t i f i e s the need f o r a more i n t e g r a t e d approach to f e d e r a l l a n d management. H i s t o r i c a l l y , f e d e r a l l a n d s had been used mainly t o meet s p e c i f i c program needs. The new p o l i c y e s t a b l i s h e d a land management process t h a t takes i n t o account the wider p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n a d d i t i o n to the needs of departments and agencies. In r e c e n t years, the F e d e r a l Land Management P o l i c y (FLMP) has attempted to c o o r d i n a t e f e d e r a l l a n d uses with l o c a l p l a n s . The p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of the numerous, f r e q u e n t l y competing and c o n f l i c t i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n and d i s p o s a l a c t i v i t i e s of f e d e r a l departments and a g e n c i e s . The FLMP mandate i n c l u d e d land use management as w e l l as land ownership management, and land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y with l o c a l plans became part o f the p o l i c y . While embracing the broad p r i n c i p l e s of t h e p o l i c y , the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence has been exempted from some o f the a p p l i c a t i o n procedures. A p a r t i c u l a r procedure with which DND does not have to comply i s the requirement f o r the Treasury Board A d v i s o r y Committee on F e d e r a l Land Management (TBAC/FLM) t o review and approve changes i n use of l a n d by departments. The.submissions f o r TBAC/FLM review r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n 8 f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1 a) congruence with l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , and p r o v i n c i a l development plans and s t r a t e g i e s ; extent of l o c a l acceptance or r e s i s t a n c e ; r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e d e r a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s and l o c a l s e r v i c e s and amenities. Economic: a) impact of f e d e r a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s on the economic v i t a l i t y o f the l o c a l i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f e d e r a l economic o b j e c t i v e s ; b) impact with res p e c t to l o c a l investment c o s t and op p o r t u n i t y c o s t of adapting land use f o r p u b l i c purposes; c) impact of the f e d e r a l l a n d development on the l o c a l housing and employment s i t u a t i o n s . Environmental: a) c o m p a t i b i l i t y with the l o c a l environment i n terms of land-use p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a e s t h e t i c s , and neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; b) c o n f o r m i t y with Department of the Environment g u i d e l i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . DND does p a r t i c i p a t e i n the FLMP i n s o f a r as a c q u i s i t i o n and d i s p o s a l of land i s concerned. In 1975, DND-controlled land passed i n t o the f e d e r a l land i n v e n t o r y and no lonqer was the Department able to s e l l i t s s u r p l u s la n d i n the marketplace f o r c r e d i t t o i t s departmental budqet. However DND i s not p a r t i c i p a t i n q i n the FLMP requirement t h a t f e d e r a l l a n d uses be shown to be compatible with l o c a l of the S o c i a l b) c) 9 plans b e f o r e changes i n land use can be approved by the TB&C/FLM. Land uses on DND lands are n a t u r a l l y based upon Defence p r i o r i t i e s and sometimes r e f l e c t l i t t l e regard f o r l o c a l needs. The impact of DND land management on the Canadian scene should not be underestimated. The Department c o n t r o l s l a n d i n every p r o v i n c e and t e r r i t o r y , i n both r u r a l and urban s e t t i n g s . These p r o p e r t i e s cover 1.87 m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s (7,219 sg m i ) , 1 about three times the s i z e of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r than I s r a e l . More than 80% of t h i s l a n d borders upon or l i e s w i t h i n some ki n d of l o c a l government j u r i s d i c t i o n . The pl a n t replacement value of the l a n d , b u i l d i n g s , and f a c i l i t i e s i s estimated to be 6.6 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . . In some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , DND i s , the l a r g e s t " l a n d -owner" and i t s a c t i v i t i e s have tremendous impact on the l o c a l way of l i f e . DND and l o c a l community land-use plans have not always been compatible. When c o n f l i c t s between the.two do a r i s e , c o s t l y r e m e d i a l a c t i o n may be r e q u i r e d . For DND, bad p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , r e s t r i c t i o n s on o p e r a t i o n a l uses of DND l a n d , and/or abandonment or l e s s e f f i c i e n t use of f a c i l i t i e s may r e s u l t . For l o c a l government, p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , i n t e r f e r e n c e with zoned uses, and d i s r u p t i o n of the v a l u a b l e s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p 2 with the DND i n s t a l l a t i o n may r e s u l t . For both, o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r economies through j o i n t p r o j e c t s may be l o s t . Manhours are wasted when s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s t r y to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s which c o u l d have been avoided by e a r l y c o o p e r a t i o n . 10 1.3 THE MILITARY BASE PLANNING FUNCTION Base planning i s t r i - l e v e l w i t h i n the Department o f N a t i o n a l Defence, r e f l e c t i n g the thr e e l e v e l s of command s t r u c t u r e . The l e v e l s are Base, Command, and N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters (NDHQ). Each of the 32 bases and 27 s t a t i o n s (small bases) i n Canada belongs t o one of the f i v e f u n c t i o n a l Commands: Maritime, Mobile, A i r , T r a i n i n g , or Communications. The Commands i n t u r n f a l l under the c o n t r o l of NDHQ. Plann i n g of major chanqes i n use of DND f a c i l i t i e s i s c a r r i e d out a t NDHQ. At t h i s l e v e l , planners are concerned with the r o l e s b e i ng performed a t bases, the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new bases, major r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f obso l e t e f a c i l i t i e s and c l o s u r e of s u r p l u s bases. D e t a i l e d plans f o r such major changes are prepared by NDHQ planners with i n p u t from the concerned Command and Base. P l a n n i n g a t the Command l e v e l i s mainly a monitoring and c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n with only a minor amount of c o n c e p t u a l p l a n n i n g . The monitoring and c o n t r o l i s d i r e c t e d toward ensuring t h a t plans prepared at Bases meet the needs of the Command and are i n accord with long-range plans f o r t he Command and the Base. Command planners a l s o provide i n p u t t o NDHQ plans r e g a r d i n g f a c i l i t i e s p e c u l i a r to the r o l e of t h e i r own Command. For example, Mobile Command would p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n planning tank f i r i n g ranges, a f a c i l i t y unique to t h i s Command. At the Base, planninq i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Base Enqineer (or Base C o n s t r u c t i o n E n q i n e e r i n g O f f i c e r , BCEO). T h i s l e v e l of plann i n g i s mainly s i t e p l a n n i n g , although t he 11 Base Engineer w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e input t o long-range master plans f o r h i s Base which are prepared by NDHQ, Command, or c o n s u l t a n t s . The s i t e p l a n n i n g , while o r i g i n a t e d by the Engineer, i s reviewed by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d planners a t Command and NDHQ. Master plans, c a l l e d Base Development Plan s (BDP), are being prepared f o r every base. T h i s process has been underway f o r about seven years now and most of the major bases are completed. BDP's are prepared by c o n s u l t a n t s or by teams o f NDHQ and Command planners. An o u t l i n e of the BDP requirements may be found i n Appendix 2. These master plans guide the Base Engineer i n l o c a l planning by r e f l e c t i n g the long-term i n t e n t i o n s of the Department r e g a r d i n g h i s Base. In a l l DND plannin g , t he Base Engineer i s the expert on the s i t e . He i s the Base Commander's key a d v i s o r on l a n d management, property agreements, s i t e p l a n n i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and u t i l i t i e s . He i s al s o the best source o f advice t o NDHQ and Command on land-use p l a n n i n g concerns i n the l o c a l area. T h i s f u n c t i o n i s hampered by the Engineer's wide range o f other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the s h o r t d u r a t i o n of p o s t i n g s , normally t h r e e years. The Base Engineer's s t a f f resources a v a i l a b l e f o r planning f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y exceed those of the l o c a l p l a n n i n g department, T h i s i s because these r e s o u r c e s are e s t a b l i s h e d t o f u l f i l l the en g i n e e r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l . For example, the draughting o f f i c e u s u a l l y has f o u r or f i v e draughtsmen and the property r e c o r d s o f f i c e u s u a l l y has a f u l l - t i m e manager and a c l e r k . The property management system 12 i s computerized, making r e c o r d s access and decision-making much e a s i e r . 1.4 THE LOCAL PLANNING FUNCTION L o c a l p l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s c a r r i e d out by Regional D i s t r i c t s and/or M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g c i t i e s ) . Permanent p l a n n i n g s t a f f i s provided i n most r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and the more urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; many others h i r e p r i v a t e planning c o n s u l t a n t s when necessary. In C h i l l i w a c k , f o r example, there are two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Township of C h i l l i w h a c k (sic) and the C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k , and a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , the Fraser-Cheam Region a l D i s t r i c t , a l l concerned with planning i s s u e s around Canadian Forces Base (CFB) C h i l l i w a c k . The Township has a permanent planner while the C i t y and the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t use a c o n s u l t a n t on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . As another example, the main l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d with CFB Esquimalt are the Township of Esquimalt, the C i t y of V i c t o r i a , and the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The l a t t e r two have l a r g e permanent p l a n n i n g departments, while Esquimalt Township h i r e s a c o n s u l t a n t when necessary. The l o c a l planner i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the e l e c t e d mayor and c o u n c i l or to the r e q i o n a l d i s t r i c t board. L o c a l planning c o n t r o l s are a u t h o r i z e d by the p r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l Act ( i n BC) and i n s t i t u t e d by by-laws enacted by the l o c a l c o u n c i l . Table 1 p r o v i d e s a comparison of m i l i t a r y base and l o c a l p l a n n i n g : 3 TABLE_Jl COMPARISON OF MILITARY BASE AND LOCAL PLANNING CANADIAN ARMED FORCES r LOCAL CIVILIAN JURISDICTION L e g a l Foun Can. Forces P u b l i c a t i o n 120 Planning Base C o n s t r u c t i o n Engineering S e c t i o n or P r i v a t e C o n s u l t a n t s by C o n t r a c t Base Development Committee Planning N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters d a t i o n M u n i c i p a l Act Of BC Agency Planning Department or P r i v a t e Consultants by C o n t r a c t Planning Review Planning Commission Approval M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l Zoning^ C o n t r o l s I CFP 120 Chapter 10 | Zoning By-laws and Map 14 1.5 THE LOCAL AND BASE PLANNING INTERFACE S e v e r a l f a c t o r s account f o r the present l a c k of c o n s u l t a t i o n between m i l i t a r y base planners and l o c a l p l a n n e r s . The m i l i t a r y planner, the Base Engineer, i s f u l l y occupied with h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s : -commanding o f f i c e r of about* 200 m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n s u b o r d i n a t e s ; -the Base Commander's a d v i s o r on matters of base e n g i n e e r i n g , p l a n n i n g , property management, and f r e g u e n t l y , as the l a r g e s t employer of p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , c i v i l i a n employment; -manager of the o p e r a t i o n of the Base C o n s t r u c t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g S e c t i o n ; -manager of an annual budget t o t a l l i n g about $6 m i l l i o n ; 5 -and, as a key s t a f f o f f i c e r of the Base, member of numerous committees ranging from F i r e Prevention and I n d u s t r i a l S a f e t y t o Community C o u n c i l , f o r example. Under pressure of d e a d l i n e s and d a i l y c r i s e s , time i s a p r e c i o u s commodity. When time can be found, i t i s devoted to longer-range planning of p h y s i c a l development programs. While l i a i s o n with the l o c a l planners may be recognized as d e s i r a b l e every time there i s a c o n f l i c t with l o c a l area plans, such p r i o r i t i e s are soon submerged again under subsequent higher p r i o r i t i e s . Even the i n t e n t i o n of j u s t meeting the l o c a l planner and engineer often f a i l s t o be r e a l i z e d before the t h r e e - y e a r p o s t i n g i s over and a new o f f i c e r a r r i v e s . The l o c a l planner i s a l s o under pressure of time, but not to the same extent. His problem i s more one of viewpoint. He ,15 sees as h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the s e n s i b l e planning of h i s e n t i r e r e g i o n o r m u n i c i p a l i t y . The f a c t t h a t there are f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l landowners within h i s area who are not a f f e c t e d by l o c a l p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s seems to be ignored by most p l a n n e r s , as Chapter 2 w i l l show. The l o c a l planner b l i t h e l y prepares those "should" plans r i d i c u l e d by Odegard. 6 "Should" plans are plans i n which the u n c o n t r o l l e d s e n i o r government agencies i n the area are t o l d t h a t they "should do such and such", r e s u l t i n g i n the p l a n not being implemented a t a l l . Such plans cover up the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n by f a l s e l y i m p l y i n g t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n w i l l o c c u r . 7 They are the opposite of e f f e c t i v e comprehensive plans i n which a l l a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e and commit themselves to a c t i o n b e f o r e the plan i s f i n a l i z e d . There may a l s o be a tendency by the l o c a l planner to look down upon i n s t a l l a t i o n p l a n n e r s whose pl a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s seem l e s s c r i t i c a l because of the compact s i z e of t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l area. Hence the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t planner, f o r example, i s r e l u c t a n t to v i s i t the a i r p o r t or p e n i t e n t i a r y planner on the l a t t e r ' s t e r r i t o r y i t may l e s s e n h i s own p r e s t i g e . He expects the' planner f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n t o approach him i n s t e a d . A f t e r a l l , h i s plans are supposed t o c o n t r o l what i s happening i n the e n t i r e r e g i o n . Another f a c t o r i s t h a t the l o c a l planner does not know the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the i n s t a l l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a m i l i t a r y base.• Many l o c a l p lanners do not even know t h a t t h e r e i s someone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g on a base; but i f 16 they do, they don't know who i t i s and how t o c o n t a c t him. They are n a t u r a l l y r e l u c t a n t to d r i v e i n t o a base. I t means encountering the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedures and q u e s t i o n s o f m i l i t a r y policemen, a guarded gate, a complicated s i t e l a y o u t with seemingly i d e n t i c a l b u i l d i n g s , h o s t i l e - l o o k i n g eyes and moustaches under black-brimmed caps, and f i n a l l y a r e c e p t i o n i s t b a r r i n g immediate access to the h a r r i e d Base Engineer. The m i l i t a r y base has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a p l a c e that c i v i l i a n s a void. I t i s d i s c o n c e r t i n g f o r the c i v i l i a n not f a m i l i a r with s e r v i c e l i f e , perhaps reminding them o f wartime, p r i s o n , the Old Country ( f o r some), a m i l i t a r y s t a t e , or a r e p r e s s i v e c h i l d h o o d . P e n e t r a t i n g a l l t h a t to f i n d t h a t the Base Engineer i s j u s t an o r d i n a r y g a r d e n - v a r i e t y Canadian can be a shock. The l o c a l planner may f i n d the Base Engineer unaware o f the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of a base p l a n n i n g p o l i c y on those o u t s i d e the Base. The Base Engineer may even have an a t t i t u d e t h a t the Armed Forces are there to do a job which supersedes l o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . On the other hand, the l o c a l planner may be s u r p r i s e d t o hear t h a t h i s own plans are d i s r u p t i n g the e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of the base. The i n i t i a l c o n t a c t between these two planners should r e v e a l new p o i n t s of view to both. 1.6 POLICY AND POLITICS IN LOCAL LAND-USE-PLANNING A key a s p e c t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of j o i n t planning between the community and government i n s t a l l a t i o n s i s the access o f the planners to decision-makers. The l o c a l planner has d i r e c t 17 access t o the p o l i t i c i a n s who must make p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and must f a c e t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i f the r e s u l t s are not s a t i s f a c t o r y . Hence the a c t i o n s of the l o c a l planner are c l o s e l y t i e d t o the wishes of the l o c a l people. His job s e c u r i t y i s based on h i s proper implementation of the l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n ' s p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . The p o l i t i c i a n ' s job s e c u r i t y i s i n t u r n based on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e l e c t o r a t e ' s wishes. The Base planner, however, i s f a r removed from the p o l i t i c a l process. P o l i c y d e c i s i o n s are made by the Base Commander, the Commander of the Command, NDHQ, or the f e d e r a l Cabinet. Only the hi g h e s t l e v e l i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the p u b l i c and then only i n d i r e c t l y through the government caucus. I f a d i s a g r e e a b l e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n i s made by the Base Commander the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s of the area cannot vote him out. They cannot even vote out the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Defence (unless he i s t h e i r Member of P a r l i a m e n t ) . Nor can they vote out the f e d e r a l government a l o n e . The p u b l i c ' s weapons a g a i n s t bad p o l i c y i n a government i n s t a l l a t i o n are l i m i t e d t o l o b b y i n g the government through t h e i r l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and p r e s s u r i n g the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f f i c i a l s d i r e c t l y . Both of these t a c t i c s were used i n Case One d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2. 18 These l i n k s may be i l l u s t r a t e d as f o l l o w s : Fiqure 1: P o l i t i c a l ^ R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Base Planning PRESSURE" Ne&ATi>/e efpeers OP B A S E PLAhi The Base p o p u l a t i o n i s a l s o d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d . The l o c a l planner can implement p o l i c i e s harmful to the Base without f e a r of l o c a l p o l i t i c a l r e p r i s a l s . The recourses open t o the Base pe r s o n n e l are l i m i t e d t o going "over the top" ( v i a NDHQ to the C a b i n e t , who can pressure the Province with f i n a n c i a l c o e r c i o n to sway the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s v i e w p o i n t ) , or p r e s s u r i n g the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i r e c t l y . L o c a l pressure might range from t h r e a t e n i n g to withdraw f i n a n c i a l support from a l o c a l s e r v i c e or r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , or e x p r e s s i n g o p p o s i t i o n a t the next m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n ( i n which the Base would probably comprise on l y a s m a l l p a r t of the t o t a l e l e c t o r a t e anyway), to s t a r t i n g rumours t h a t , because of l a c k of l o c a l c o o p e r a t i o n , Ottawa might c l o s e the Base, r e s u l t i n g i n a major d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the l o c a l economy. 19 These l i n k s may be i l l u s t r a t e d as f o l l o w s : 2.1 P o l i t i c a l E e s p o n s i b i l i t y . i n L o c a l Planning P R E S S U R E wtb / tT ive EFFECTS OF uOCAu Ft-AtJ o e P e/v c e oe> TH e L O C A L -BASE T h i s imbalance of p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the problem of l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n . The same remoteness from p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e s a l l p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The l o c a l mayor's co u n t e r p a r t i n these i n s t a l l a t i o n s i s not another e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l but the i n s t a l l a t i o n ' s c h i e f o f f i c e r , a career p u b l i c servant. The mayor's p r i o r i t y i s t o s a t i s f y h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . The p u b l i c s e r v a n t ' s i s t o f u l f i l l h i s agency's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The two p r i o r i t i e s may be q u i t e i n c o m p a t i b l e . Major p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s can be made by the mayor but not by the Base Commander. The l a t t e r must r e f e r c e r t a i n matters t o Command and NDHQ. P o l i c i e s with n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s may r e q u i r e Cabinet d e c i s i o n s . T h i s imbalance i n the p o l i c y -making h i e r a r c h y between l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s was seen as a major o b s t a c l e 20 to j o i n t p l a n n i n g of the Vancouver A i r p o r t e x p a n s i o n . 8 I t c e r t a i n l y r e s t r i c t s the freedom of response a v a i l a b l e to the Base planner and the Base Commander. I t a l s o causes d e l a y s i n the DND response as i n f o r m a t i o n i s passed up the chain o f command and the d e c i s i o n i s passed down. I t may c o n t r i b u t e t o d e c i s i o n s which aggravate the l o c a l c o n f l i c t because of the u l t i m a t e decision-maker's misunderstanding of or u n f a m i l i a r i t y with the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Another f a c t o r i s t h a t of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l . The mu n i c i p a l scene i s q u i t e open, with most d e c i s i o n s , p o l i c i e s , and plans w e l l p u b l i c i z e d by the l o c a l p r ess. T h i s openness can be a problem as the case s t u d i e s w i l l show. On the o t h e r hand, DND operates a c l o s e d system. Information i s qiven out only on a "need t o know" b a s i s . The r e c i p i e n t must demonstrate t h a t he needs the i n f o r m a t i o n to c a r r y out h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Three elements are a t work to minimize p u b l i c knowledge of DND pl a n s . F i r s t i s the r e s t r i c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e to a "need t o know" b a s i s . Second i s the n a t u r a l c o n c a v i t y o f decision-making and management w i t h i n government b u r e a u c r a c i e s . T h i s i s a d e f e n s i v e measure based on the premise t h a t the l e s s t h a t other departments and agencies know about your p l a n s , the l e s s chance they have of t a k i n g advantage of you. This w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on i n Chapter 3. T h i r d , there i s a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s aspect to DND i n f o r m a t i o n management. Press r e l e a s e s are made r e q u l a r l y t o promote the image of the Department as a n a t i o n a l and community b e n e f i t . Information which doesn't promote a good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 21 image i s not normally r e l e a s e d without good cause. The r e s u l t of a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l i s t h a t DND land-use plans a f f e c t i n g o u t s i d e r e s i d e n t s may not become p u b l i c knowledge u n t i l the c o n f l i c t o ccurs. T h i s i s too l a t e f o r e f f e c t i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n and j o i n t p l a n n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the l o c a l planner, by assuming t h a t h i s pl a n s are compatible with planned s e n i o r government lan d uses i n h i s area, f a i l s to r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s b e f o r e they occur. He seems unable or u n w i l l i n g t o p r o j e c t the impact o f h i s plans f a r enough t o see t h e i r e f f e c t s on the o p e r a t i o n o f the independent f a c i l i t y . Regular c o n s u l t a t i o n would at l e a s t make him more aware of the concerns of the f a c i l i t y planner. 1.7 CONCLUSIONS I t i s evident t h a t the prese n t r e l i a n c e on ad hoc j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n i s o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c . Even when one planner or the o t h e r p l a c e s high p r i o r i t y on meeting with h i s c o u n t e r p a r t , the l i k e l i h o o d of r e g u l a r planning c o n s u l t a t i o n between m i l i t a r y bases and communities i s low under p r e s e n t circumstances. Many of the f a c t o r s which cause t h i s have been e l a b o r a t e d . They can be summarized as f o l l o w s : a. The base planner's main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s e n g i n e e r i n g management, not planning; b. The base planner i s t r a n s f e r r e d every t h r e e years and t h e r e f o r e does not have the time or i n c l i n a t i o n t o develop an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the l o c a l planner; c. M i l i t a r y base planning a u t h o r i t y i s c e n t r a l i z e d at Ottawa, 22 not delegated l o c a l l y , except f o r minor s i t e p l a n n i n g ; d. The base planner i s pre-occupied with h i s many hig h p r i o r i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a key o f f i c e r on the Base; e. Senior government agencies, p a r t i c u l a r l y DND, are not used to the idea of d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r land-use plans with o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; f . The l o c a l planner views h i m s e l f as the s e n i o r planner i n the area i n t h a t h i s plans are supposed t o guide the development of the are a , while agency p l a n n e r s only d e a l with e x c e p t i o n s t o the community master plan. T h e r e f o r e he expects such planners t o come t o him i n s t e a d of v i c e v e r s a ; g. The l o c a l planner i s r e l u c t a n t to enter the u n f a m i l i a r environment of a s e n i o r government i n s t a l l a t i o n to seek out the f a c i l i t y planner; h. The l o c a l planner i s a l s o too occupied with h i s day-to-day r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to c o n s i d e r i n i t i a t i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n with f a c i l i t i e s ' p l anners except when r e q u i r e d by c o n f l i c t o r c r i s i s ; and i . The p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l o c a l planner and s e n i o r qovernment planners d i f f e r s s i q n i f i c a n t l y , with r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e r e g a r d i n g the l o c a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . In the case s t u d i e s which f o l l o w , the p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these f a c t o r s w i l l become e v i d e n t . I t w i l l be shown t h a t i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n before p l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t s a r i s e i s not the us u a l case. Furthermore when c o n s u l t a t i o n does occur, i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and l e s s e f f e c t i v e than i t could be. FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 1 1 DND owns 597,139 ha and l e a s e s 1,266,610 ha. Source: Swan, p9 and p58. 2 M i l i t a r y bases and neighbouring communities u s u a l l y share r e c r e a t i o n a l and other f a c i l i t i e s to b e n e f i t both. For example, the community s c h o o l s might use the Base i n d o o r pool and the Base hockey team might use the community hockey r i n k . 3 Adapted from H o l l i n g s w o r t h , p7 * The a c t u a l number v a r i e s widely depending on the s i z e and r o l e of the Base. This i s an approximate average. 5 This amount i s an approximate average f o r bases i n 1978. I t i n c l u d e s l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l , c o n t r a c t s , u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s , and overhead, w i t h i n the Base Engineer's f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 6 Odegard, p8 7 Brewis and Pacquet, p128 8 St. P i e r r e , p107 Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 24 CHAPTER 2 CASE STUDIES IN LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING 2.1 INTRODUCTION The s e l e c t i o n of case s t u d i e s which f o l l o w s has been c a r e f u l l y chosen from a l a r g e r number of land use c o n f l i c t / c o o p e r a t i o n i s s u e s between the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence and v a r i o u s B r i t i s h Columbia communities. The s e l e c t e d case s t u d i e s are i n c l u d e d to i l l u s t r a t e the c o s t s i n v o l v e d and the i l l - w i l l generated i n f a i l u r e to c o n s u l t and cooperate, and to i d e n t i f y the b e n e f i t s gained from j o i n t p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t case study has DND as the p r o t a g o n i s t i n a u n i l a t e r a l b i d to change the l a n d use of a l a r g e p a r t o f the Columbia V a l l e y i n Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( C h i l l i w a c k ) . F a i l u r e t o c o n s u l t i n t h i s case c o s t the Department t h r e e y e a r s , probably hundreds of thousands o f d o l l a r s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e manhours, and the p u b l i c g o o d w i l l i n the v i c i n i t y of CFB C h i l l i w a c k . I r o n i c a l l y , the end r e s u l t was probably a c h i e v a b l e by i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g without these c o s t s . The i s s u e was c o s t l y f o r the community as w e l l , i n terms of manhours, f r u s t r a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e burden i n opposing the DND a c t i o n . The second case study i l l u s t r a t e s the opposite s i t u a t i o n — an attempt by the l o c a l community to impose i t s w i l l on DND without c o n s u l t a t i o n . The C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t (CRD) proposed to r e l o c a t e the o i l s t o r a g e tanks i n V i c t o r i a harbour 25 to a s i t e owned by DND i n the Colwood area. F a i l u r e to c o n s u l t i n t h i s case c o s t the CRD a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s , thousands of d o l l a r s i n s t u d i e s , meetings, p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the comity between R e g i o n a l Board members and between re p r e s e n t e d e l e c t o r a l areas and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the g o o d w i l l of one of the key employers i n the r e g i o n , namely CFB Esguimalt. T h i s p r e s e n t l y unresolved i s s u e c o u l d probably have been s e t t l e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f i v e years ago by i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning between CRD, DND, and other l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n a l or p u b l i c waterfront landowners. The t h i r d case study demonstrates the use of j o i n t planning to plan a shared sewer connector running from CFB C h i l l i w a c k a c r o s s the Township of C h i l l i w h a c k to the C i t y o f C h i l l i w a c k sewage treatment p l a n t . By thorough i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning and n e g o t i a t i o n , both DND and the Township w i l l reap the b e n e f i t s of reduced c a p i t a l c o s t through economies of s c a l e , g o o d w i l l toward each other and b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s between the Base and the community, and e l i m i n a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g sewage c o n t r o l problem f o r both p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c o n s u l t a t i v e mechanism c o n s i s t s of a l o o s e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which i n c l u d e s v a r i o u s f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t d i f f e r e n t stages of the planning. The f o u r t h s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a b r i e f e r look at s e v e r a l other r e l e v a n t cases which are not analyzed i n d e t a i l . These i n c l u d e a demonstrated l a c k of j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of Base and community master p l a n s , to the detriment of both the DND i n s t a l l a t i o n and the community (Case 26 Four: Base and Community Master P l a n s ) , two examples o f community u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g the l o c a l DND Base (Case F i v e : C l o v e r P o i n t , and Case S i x : C h i l l i w a c k Road Gr i d P l a n ) , and another example of a p p a r e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l ongoing j o i n t p l a n n i n g , t h i s time i n i t i a t e d by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t (Case Seven: J o i n t Planning i n Nanaimo). These shor t cases serve t o broaden our look a t the problem at hand — the tendency of the planners f o r both the community and the l a r g e government i n s t a l l a t i o n t o d i s r e g a r d the j u r i s d i c t i o n of each other, and to plan i n i s o l a t i o n . 2.2 CASE ONE: THE COLUMBIA VALLEY Few planning i s s u e s are more s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c i t y than those i n v o l v i n g a change i n ownership of l a n d . Where a plan c a l l s f o r purchase of p r o p e r t y , i t i s prudent to o b t a i n o p t i o n s on i t at a c u r r e n t f a i r p r i c e before p u b l i c knowledge of the p l a n r e s u l t s i n i n f l a t e d s p e c u l a t i v e p r i c e s . T h i s need f o r s e c r e c y t o a v o i d a f f e c t i n g the land market can b a c k f i r e i f the ensuing outrage at the s u b t e r f u g e r e s u l t s i n the p l a n being scrapped a f t e r the purchase. Such was the case with the DND plan to buy most of the Columbia V a l l e y f o r t r a i n i n g area. The Columbia V a l l e y i s a r u r a l area of r o l l i n g h i l l s l y i n g between C u l t u s Lake (south of C h i l l i w a c k ) and the U n i t e d S t a t e s border. The l o c a t i o n i s shown on Map 3 i n Appendix 1. I t i s s p a r s e l y populated farmland used mainly f o r g r a z i n g and r a i s i n g of g r a s s crops. Ownership i s d i s p e r s e d among a s c o r e of r e s i d e n t farmers and a few absentee l a n d l o r d s . Some of the p r o p e r t i e s had been owned by the same fami l y s i n c e the v a l l e y 27 was f i r s t s e t t l e d . In the e a r l y 1970«s, CFB C h i l l i w a c k i d e n t i f i e d the area as the most s u i t a b l e area f o r r e l o c a t i o n of l e a s e d t r a i n i n g areas l o c a t e d on the F r a s e r V a l l e y f l a t l a n d s and f o r development of a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g areas r e q u i r e d by i t s expanded r o l e as the s o l e b a s i c t r a i n i n g base f o r new o f f i c e r s . On 17 J u l y 1973 the D i r e c t o r General of P r o p e r t i e s and U t i l i t i e s (DGPU) at N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) i n Ottawa met with then M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water Resources of BC, Bob W i l l i a m s , to present the problem of the land requirements of the C h i l l i w a c k base. G e n e r a l l y they agreed t h a t f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s should be handled by t h i s p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n through the p r o v i n c i a l Environment and Land Use Committee (ELUC). They f u r t h e r agreed t o seek exchanges of l a n d r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on or being s u b j e c t e d to the c o n s t r a i n t s of the market. A c c o r d i n g l y DND proceeded t o i d e n t i f y i n more d e t a i l i t s requirements and the land which c o u l d be r e l e a s e d to the province i n exchange f o r other p a r c e l s . T h i s meeting was f o l l o w e d up i n August 1973 by f u r t h e r exchange of l e t t e r s , one of which i n c l u d e d maps showing the l a n d requirement f o r t r a i n i n g i n the CFB C h i l l i w a c k area and the lands which might be r e l e a s e d to the p r o v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g p a r c e l s i n Vernon and Vancouver. T h i s i ntergovernmental a c t i v i t y had r e s u l t e d from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from the Base to NDHQ to r e s o l v e the severe t r a i n i n g area problem. The a c t u a l review of p o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r new t r a i n i n g areas and the recommendation that the 28 Columbia V a l l e y be obtained o r i g i n a t e d at the Base i n a study dated 28 J u l y 1972. No d i s c u s s i o n s of these problems or the recommended s o l u t i o n took p l a c e between the Base and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , planners, or o f f i c i a l s . On 4 February 1974, DGPD f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d the DND requirements i n a l e t t e r to the E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to the BC M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water Resources, Norman Pearson. The DND l a n d requirements i n c l u d e d o b t a i n i n g ownership of the watermanship t r a i n i n g area on the west shore of C u l t u s Lake then l e a s e d from the P r o v i n c i a l Parks Department, o b t a i n i n g ownership of a l a r g e p a r t of Vedder Mountain from the P r o v i n c i a l Crown, and purchasing p r i v a t e l y -owned l a n d h o l d i n g s on the west s i d e of the Columbia; V a l l e y . These areas are shown on Map 3 i n Appendix 1. In r e t u r n f o r the two p r o v i n c i a l l y - o w n e d p a r c e l s , DND o f f e r e d to c o n s t r u c t a $1 m i l l i o n p u b l i c access road along the west s i d e of C u l t u s Lake and/or to t r a n s f e r DND lands elsewhere i n BC to the p r o v i n c e . The aspect of i n t e r e s t .to t h i s case study i s the i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i f these P r o v i n c i a l Crown lands were o b t a i n e d as o u t l i n e d , the remaining l a n d requirements c o u l d be met by the purchase of p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s i n Columbia V a l l e y . T h i s b a s i c a l l y removed any Columbia V a l l e y a c q u i s i t i o n s from the realm of n e g o t i a t e d , planned, intergovernment agreements to the realm of a p r i v a t e buyer (DND) o p e r a t i n g i n the marketplace to a c q u i r e l a n d . The province was no l o n q e r i n v o l v e d i n the Columbia V a l l e y i s s u e , except f o r demandinq and q e t t i n g assurances t h a t DND usage o f any a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d 29 i n the Columbia V a l l e y would not preclude i t s f u t u r e r e t u r n to a g r i c u l t u r a l use. There was s t i l l no p u b l i c knowledge of the p l a n . In March 1975, DND property o f f i c e r s approached p r i v a t e landowners i n the Columbia V a l l e y with o f f e r s t o purchase and obtained o p t i o n s on s e v e r a l of the p a r c e l s . Within a s h o r t time, the v a l l e y was buzzing with anger and rumour as the f u l l scope o f the m i l i t a r y purchase p l a n became known. Neighbours exchanged views on land values and on the need to u n i f y t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o being bought out. Those who had signed o p t i o n s were under pressure to renege on them. The uproar was b i g news i n the 26 March and subsequent i s s u e s of the C h i l l i w a c k Progress and a l s o appeared i n other newspapers. Much of the r h e t o r i c was i n a c c u r a t e and out of p r o p o r t i o n . For example, some of the phrases used i n a V i c t o r i a Times e d i t o r i a l 1 were: "Department of N a t i o n a l Defence agents are s e e k i n g o p t i o n s on and t h r e a t e n i n g e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f 700 acres of farmland..." "... an apparently i n s e n s i t i v e f e d e r a l government gobbles up s c a r c e farmland f o r a m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g ground..." "From Ottawa's point of view, i t i s cut and d r i e d , bust the farmers and pay them o f f . " At the 25.March meeting of the board of the Fraser-Cheam Regional D i s t r i c t , the s u b j e c t of the DND l a n d b i d was r a i s e d by David Way, d i r e c t o r f o r E l e c t o r a l Area E. F o l l o w i n g angry d i s c u s s i o n , the Board voted to r e g i s t e r an o f f i c i a l p r o t e s t at the way o p t i o n s were obta i n e d , and a l s o t o support a p e t i t i o n being c i r c u l a t e d , among Columbia V a l l e y r e s i d e n t s . The r e s o l u t i o n was sent t o Defence M i n i s t e r James Richardson, 30 Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau, Fraser V a l l e y East MP Alex P a t t e r s o n , the p r o v i n c i a l Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , and the BC Land Commission. A C h i l l i w a c k Progress e d i t o r i a l on 2 A p r i l was somewhat sympathetic t o DND, but expressed the view t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n with the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t might have prevented the whole uproar. I t suggested t h a t l o c a l and DND p l a n n e r s might have been able to come up with a l t e r n a t i v e s before moving i n on r e s i d e n t s with o p t i o n s . In the ensuing weeks, DND t r i e d to e x p l a i n i t s p o s i t i o n p u b l i c l y and to c l a r i f y the i n a c c u r a c i e s . The Base Commander of CFB C h i l l i w a c k wrote a l e t t e r 2 to the Progress e x p l a i n i n g the r a t i o n a l e behind the need f o r Columbia V a l l e y l a n d . The p e t i t i o n signed by Columbia V a l l e y r e s i d e n t s was answered by NDHQ i n the 16 A p r i l i s s u e . F u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s emanated from the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Defence i n response to l e t t e r s from c o n s t i t u e n t s to t h e i r Member of Parliament. The g e n e r a l tone of the DND response seemed to be one of hurt s u r p r i s e , as i f to say: "Well, we couldn't t e l l you our plans ahead o f time, but our agents were very p o l i t e , the province agreed t h a t we c o u l d proceed, we w i l l pay a f a i r p r i c e , we c o n t r i b u t e a great deal to the l o c a l community, we've always enjoyed good r e l a t i o n s with the community, we w i l l be moving our f i r i n g ranges out of the more crowded F r a s e r V a l l e y i f we get Columbia V a l l e y , so what have we done wrong?" Throughout the summer of 1975, the c o n t r o v e r s y simmered, kept hot by l e t t e r s t o MPs, MLAs, and to the Regional D i s t r i c t of Fraser-Cheam. DND agreed t o meet with any s p e c i f i c group 31 to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i t s i n t e n t i o n s , but no such meeting was arranged. In September a Columbia V a l l e y r e s i d e n t , Arlene C u r r i e , submitted a l i s t of 29 que s t i o n s which the r e s i d e n t s wanted answered by DND. The Base Commander requested NDHQ a s s i s t a n c e i n responding to the questions s i n c e they i n v o l v e d "DND p o l i c y and p r i o r i t i e s , f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , p roperty a c q u i s i t i o n procedures, and other matters c l e a r l y beyond the c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s Base to answer." 3 On 6 December 1975 the Base Commander forwarded the NDHQ response t o the C u r r i e q u e s t i o n s to the Regional D i s t r i c t Board, and o f f e r e d to e l a b o r a t e on the answers at the next meeting with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r the i n i t i a l success of the property n e g o t i a t o r s , no f u r t h e r o p t i o n s were obtained by DND. The . u n i t e d p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to the property a c q u i s i t i o n , the expressed d e s i r e of those who had signed o p t i o n s t o somehow back out o f the d e a l , and the e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s of the program l e d the Base s t a f f t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a c q u i s i t i o n o f the property by purchase was no l o n g e r f e a s i b l e . E x p r o p r i a t i o n was an a l t e r n a t i v e , but was not p o l i t i c a l l y a d v i s a b l e under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Therefore the Base c a r r i e d out an i n t e r n a l re-examination of a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the Columbia V a l l e y p l a n . As a r e s u l t , on 15 March 1976, the Base Commander submitted a b r i e f to NDHQ proposing a l e s s f a v o u r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e o f deve l o p i n g t r a i n i n g areas i n the C h i l l i w a c k River V a l l e y . T h i s area i s mountainous, almost u n i n h a b i t e d . 32 h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d , and more remote. The proposal c a l l e d f o r long-term l e a s e of P r o v i n c i a l Crown land and o n - s i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the necessary ranges and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The concept was approved by Ottawa and n e g o t i a t i o n s with the p r o v i n c i a l government began immediately. T h i s time, c o n s u l t a t i o n with the l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y , the Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , began immediately as w e l l . The Base Commander advised the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board Chairman of the DND i n t e n t i o n to seek a l t e r n a t i v e s to the Columbia V a l l e y t r a i n i n g area, b e f o r e the p u b l i c was informed. Then, on 8 June, the Base Commander i s s u e d a press r e l e a s e saying t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e areas were now being c o n s i d e r e d and i f the province would agree to the proposed DND l e a s e s o f C h i l l i w a c k River V a l l e y areas, the Columbia V a l l e y p l a n would be dropped. He s a i d that he had concluded t h a t "the best i n t e r e s t s o f most p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d would be served i f DND a c q u i r e d more remote a r e a s , even though i t i s not as s u i t a b l e to the department's purposes." * Two weeks l a t e r the Base Commander advised the Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board t h a t the province had agreed i n p r i n c i p l e t o the C h i l l i w a c k River V a l l e y plan and t h e r e f o r e the Columbia V a l l e y p r o p o s a l was dead. At i t s meeting on 22 June 1976, the Board p r a i s e d the Base Commander's a c t i o n and o f f e r e d " i t s f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n i n h e l p i n g DND to r e l o c a t e the t r a i n i n g areas". s The Board r e s o l v e d to support the new l o c a t i o n and sent l e t t e r s to the Base Commander and the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e to t h a t e f f e c t . The Board Chairman's l e t t e r t o the Base Commander a l s o s a i d : "The Board r e s o l v e d t h a t I p e r s o n a l l y forward a vote of thanks t o y o u r s e l f f o r the c o u r t e s y shown i n a d v i s i n g me, as Chairman of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , of DND's proposed plans p r i o r t o your news r e l e a s e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . " 6 During the past two years, p r o p e r t y n e g o t i a t i o n s with the p r o v i n c e f o r the d e s i r e d land uses i n the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y have been completed and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r e q u i r e d f a c i l i t i e s has begun. The few p r o p e r t i e s i n the Columbia V a l l e y on which DND had o p t i o n s were purchased from those who s t i l l wished t o s e l l or returned to those who had changed t h e i r minds about s e l l i n g . Those purchased, mainly from absentee l a n d l o r d s , are used f o r n o n - f i r i n g t r a i n i n g r e q u i r i n g more f a v o u r a b l e t e r r a i n than a v a i l a b l e i n the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y . T h i s amounts to about 120 a c r e s of the o r i g i n a l 700 a c r e s . The speedy development of the C h i l l i w a c k River V a l l e y a l t e r n a t i v e compared to the d e l a y s and stalemate of the Columbia V a l l e y plan can be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a t i o n of j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n by the Base. The Board's e x p l i c i t support of the new a l t e r n a t i v e discouraged o p p o s i t i o n from the p u b l i c and environmental groups, encouraged support from the l o c a l media, and o i l e d the p r o v i n c i a l bureaucracy t o b r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s t o a s u c c e s s f u l c l o s e . The Board's o p p o s i t i o n t o the o r i g i n a l Columbia V a l l e y a l t e r n a t i v e probably r e s u l t e d from a combination of r e a c t i o n to the angry p r o t e s t from t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s and pique a t not being c o n s u l t e d by DND before i t became a hot p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . 34 I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning between DND, the p r o v i n c e , and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t would have i d e n t i f i e d the i s s u e s f o r a l l p a r t i e s at the o u t s e t . The Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o u l d have represented the Columbia V a l l e y r e s i d e n t s ' views or a f o u r t h p a r t i c i p a n t from the Columbia V a l l e y Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n could have p a r t i c i p a t e d . N e g o t i a t i o n of the i s s u e s and b a r g a i n i n g of rewards f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s would have y i e l d e d one of two r e s u l t s : s u c c e s s f u l DND a c q u i s i t i o n of the needed areas with q e n e r a l p u b l i c support and more compensation (monetary or other) f o r d i s p l a c e d r e s i d e n t s , or e a r l i e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and o p p o s i t i o n and e a r l i e r development of v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s with c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s i n time and money. 2.3 CASE TWO: VICTORIA'S OIL STORAGE TANKS Within any p l a n n i n g agency, there i s a c e r t a i n amount o f planning which must be done " s e c r e t l y " . That i s not to say t h a t i t i s e x p l i c i t l y s e c r e t , o n l y t h a t work i s proceeding on a proposal in-house and the i d e a i s not ready f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n or n e g o t i a t i o n with other j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Often such plans i n v o l v e t r a n s f e r of lands and could be j e o p a r d i z e d by p u b l i c foreknowledge. Such was the case i n the Columbia V a l l e y . At o t h e r times, planners f e e l t h a t the d e t a i l s have not yet been s u f f i c i e n t l y worked out t o allow p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of the i d e a . The l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n i s one o f judgment. When the plan does become p u b l i c , there w i l l be immediate p r e d i c t a b l e o p p o s i t i o n by those a f f e c t e d who were not c o n s u l t e d before i t became a p l a n . T h e r e f o r e , at some poi n t i n the p r o c e s s , a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s have t o be c o n s u l t e d before the p r o p o s a l becomes an i n f l e x i b l e p l a n . I f a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s are i n v o l v e d i n the process from e v a l u a t i o n of a proposal to p r e s e n t a t i o n of a plan to a Regional Board and the p u b l i c , t h e i r support i s more l i k e l y . T h i s i s what the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (CRD) p l a n n e r s f a i l e d t o do i n t h i s case study. V i c t o r i a Harbour had f o r s e v e r a l years been undergoing b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n . I t s waterfront warehouses and i n d u s t r i e s were g r a d u a l l y being r e p l a c e d by p u b l i c walkways, marinas, r e s t a u r a n t s , and boutigues. However the major eyesores which c o u l d not e a s i l y be ousted were the l a r g e o i l storage tanks spread along the west shore of the harbour. T h e i r r e l o c a t i o n t o some other area was d e s i r a b l e f o r f i r e hazard, environmental p r o t e c t i o n , and development p l a n n i n g reasons. The new s i t e would have to be l a r g e enough to a l l o w c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a l l the storage f a c i l i t i e s now along the harbour and c l o s e enough t o t i d e w a t e r to permit bulk d e l i v e r y by tanker. I t was estimated that a minimum of 7 a c r e s 7 would accommodate a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g tanks which are s c a t t e r e d over seven s i t e s c o v e r i n g 20 a c r e s 8 of w a t e r f r o n t . There would a l s o have to be a tanker wharf and p i p e l i n e ( s ) t o the tank farm s i t e . The o i l storage s i t e s now i n use are on p r o v i n c i a l l a n d on l e a s e s which e x p i r e over a p e r i o d of years (1978-1987). The p r o v i n c i a l government has s a i d i t w i l l only renew the l e a s e s a n n u a l l y a f t e r e x p i r y , t o encourage speedy development of an a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e . The F o r t Rbdd l o c a t i o n i s 36 shown on Map 5 i n Appendix 1. E a r l y i n 1973 the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t planners were asked by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board to come up with a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r the ugly and dangerous tanks. They c o n s i d e r e d eleven d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , and recommended one on DND property at Colwood. At t h i s p o i n t , the proposal was presented to the CRD Board and appeared the next day i n the l o c a l press as "The P l a n " , without any p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with the owner, DND. No property owner l i k e s t o read i n the newspaper t h a t someone has plans t o use h i s property unless he has agreed to the use. The Base Commander of CFB Esquimalt was s i m i l a r l y angered. CRD was advised by DND i n A p r i l 1973 t h a t the property i n q u e s t i o n was not a v a i l a b l e as i t was to be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Parks Canada branch of the Department o f Indian and Northern A f f a i r s (DINA) f o r use as parkland. The wooded s i t e had been desiqnated f o r f u t u r e expansion of F o r t Rodd N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Park s i n c e the l a t e s i x t i e s , a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with CRD. The Fo r t Rodd area i s shown on Map 5 i n Appendix 1. CRD, having taken a p u b l i c stand, f e l t i t had to c a r r y on with the i s s u e . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, making a p o l i c y p u b l i c strengthens one's p o s i t i o n i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g , but a l s o l i m i t s f l e x i b i l i t y by p r e v e n t i n g the implementation of a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s without p u b l i c l o s s of f a c e . In June 1973, CRD Board Chairman JM Campbell wrote to the M i n i s t e r of DINA r e q u e s t i n g t h a t p a r t o f the land be made a v a i l a b l e f o r the storage tank s i t e . Mr. 37 Campbell c a l l e d the s i t e "the best s i t e f o r the purpose w i t h i n the r e g i o n " . 9 On 19 J u l y DINA advised Campbell t h a t t h e i r D i r e c t o r f o r Western Region would look i n t o the matter. On 10 October DINA t o l d the CRD t h a t t h e i r response had to be e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e f o r two reasons: "... the area a v a i l a b l e would only p a r t i a l l y s o l v e the o v e r a l l storage tank requirements and another s i t e i s necessary i n any case and, secondly, the storage tanks i n t h a t v i c i n i t y • would defeat the purpose of our land a c q u i s i t i o n and development of the parkway road." i o T h i s r e p l y was not w e l l r e c e i v e d by the CRD. The M i n i s t r y of State f o r Urban A f f a i r s (MSU&), which had been monitoring the d i s c u s s i o n and had r e c e i v e d c o p i e s of most o f the correspondence, decided t o e x e r c i s e i t s mandate to co o r d i n a t e f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y i n urban areas. F o l l o w i n g separate meetings with o f f i c i a l s from DINA and DND, MSUA organized a j o i n t meeting with f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The meeting was to be based upon the monthly meeting of the CRD T e c h n i c a l Planning Committee which alr e a d y comprised o f f i c i a l s o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as we l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s * The purpose of the meeting, a c c o r d i n g t o MSUA, was: "... t o r e d r e s s any doubts as t o the f a i r n e s s o f the f e d e r a l d e c i s i o n on t h i s matter (because) i t appears to be f e l t there ( i n CRD) t h a t the d e c i s i o n was made without s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l o c a l problem of f u e l s t o r a g e and without any e f f o r t t o engage community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n any genuine d i s c u s s i o n on the merits of the p r o p o s a l . " 1 2 38 The meeting took p l a c e 8 January 1974. D i s c u s s i o n o f the s u b j e c t was long and comprehensive and i t became apparent from the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d t h at much more i n v e s t i g a t i o n had t o be c a r r i e d out before a d e c i s i o n could be made. The CED a n a l y s i s of a l t e r n a t i v e s looked p a r t i c u l a r l y weak under the q u e s t i o n i n q of f e d e r a l and other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s at the meetinq. The i s s u e was turned over to a newly-formed s p e c i a l workinq committee* 3 w i t h i n the CED. F o l l o w i n g the meetinq, the M i n i s t e r of S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s wrote to the CRD Chairman to seemingly c l a r i f y the need f o r CRD t o do i t s homework on the i s s u e : "... In view of these i n t e r - r e l a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the Committee to set up a working group to examine the e n t i r e problem without r e s t r i c t i o n to the Colwood s i t e . I t r u s t t h at t h i s f r e s h a p p r a i s a l of a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l q u i c k l y r e s o l v e the matter on the b a s i s of l o c a l i n t e r e s t s and needs. " 1 • S i n c e t h a t time, other a l t e r n a t i v e s have been s t u d i e d more f u l l y and the DND s i t e has been requested a q a i n . However DND has remained committed throuqhout t o the t r a n s f e r of t h a t property t o Parks Canada. The i s s u e s were a i r e d i n the media from time to time. O c c a s i o n a l l y the i s s u e heated up. For example, i n January 1975 Mayor P o l l e n of V i c t o r i a and CED Chairman Campbell took Senator P e r r a u l t on a h e l i c o p t e r t o u r over the tank farm and the DND s i t e , and asked f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n q e t t i n g the s i t e . P e r r a u l t promised t o approach Defence M i n i s t e r Richardson t o r e l e a s e the s i t e t o the Region. T h i s caused a major s p l i t i n the CRD Board, with d i r e c t o r s from 39 Langford and View Royal (near the DND s i t e ) accusing P o l l e n and Campbell of t r y i n g t o s c u t t l e p lans f o r parkland i n t h e i r area and to dump a V i c t o r i a eyesore and problem on r e s i d e n t s i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s . The i s s u e died down again a f t e r Richardson r e j e c t e d Senator P e r r a u l t ' s request f o r the DND s i t e . An i n t e r e s t i n g a s i d e t o the DND s i t e i s s u e i s t h a t the CRD Board ap p a r e n t l y d i d n ' t l e a r n from the consequences of i t s f a i l u r e to c o n s u l t p r i o r to announcing i t s i n t e n t i o n s t o a c q u i r e someone's l a n d . T h i s was demonstrated i n November 1977 when another a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e f o r the tanks, proposed i n a r e p o r t to the Board, i n v o l v e d I n d i a n reserve l a n d . i s T h i s proposal a l s o became p u b l i c . . The Songhee Indian band c h i e f , John Albany, was quoted i n the newspaper: " 'Who do they t h i n k they are?' Albany asked, adding that the CRD never c o n s u l t e d him or the band about using Indian l a n d . " i * To date a new s i t e f o r the o i l storage tanks has not been s e l e c t e d . The major owners of waterfront property north and west o f V i c t o r i a , where the l e a s t developed c o a s t a l areas e x i s t , are DND, DINA, and the P r o v i n c i a l Crown. I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning with these three l a n d - h o l d e r s and the CRD might have r e s u l t e d i n s e l e c t i o n of a s u i t a b l e tank farm s i t e f i v e years ago. For example, DND has expressed a w i l l i n g n e s s to g i v e up some w a t e r f r o n t property i n exchange f o r s u i t a b l e p a r c e l s i n l a n d . When the tank farm r e l o c a t i o n f i r s t became an i s s u e w i t h i n the r e g i o n , an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e with t h a t s p e c i f i c purpose should have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The o b j e c t i v e , 40 to r e l o c a t e the dangerous f a c i l i t y away from the c i t y harbour, i s one t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s should be able to support. The purpose of the i o s would t h e r e f o r e be to f i n d a mutually a c c e p t a b l e s i t e . T h i s s e t t i n g should be much more conducive to agreement than the c o n f l i c t - l a d e n expanded TPC meeting where DND and Parks Canada were a l r e a d y h o s t i l e and d e f e n s i v e toward CED i n the f a c e of the t h r e a t , and where the CRD was a l r e a d y committed t o a no-win p o s i t i o n by i t s p u b l i c announcement. 2.4 CASE THREE: CHILLIWACK SEWAGE CONNECTOR In s i t u a t i o n s where an independent j u r i s d i c t i o n must seek approval f o r a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l boundary, j o i n t p l a n n i n g with the l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y i s more l i k e l y t o take p l a c e . T h i s i s the case with a proposal by CFB C h i l l i w a c k t o d e l i v e r i t s sewage by means of a trunk l i n e t o the sewage p l a n t i n the C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k . Since the l i n e had to c r o s s non-DND property and would feed i n t o a non-DND owned p l a n t , the need f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n was s e l f - e v i d e n t . The method and mechanism f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g was not. DND put the problem i n the hands of Environment Canada, the r e s p o n s i b l e department f o r any f e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i n g the environment. In J u l y 1977 Environment Canada c o n t r a c t e d A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s to update c o s t e s t i m a t e s on an e a r l i e r study done by them i n 1974. The updated c o s t s were to form the b a s i s f o r DND/Township of C h i l l i w h a c k n e g o t i a t i o n s . These n e g o t i a t i o n s were to d e a l with the right-of-way and with c o s t - s h a r i n g i f the Township 41 wished the trunk l i n e t o be enl a r g e d to a l l o w s e r v i c i n g o f developed areas along the r o u t e . These c o s t s were provided i n September 1977 t o Environment Canada and the Township. In October, N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) arranged a meeting with the Township Engineer f o r t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the D i r e c t o r a t e of U t i l i t i e s and M i s c e l l a n e o u s S e r v i c e s and the Base Engineer f o r CFB C h i l l i w a c k . T h i s meeting served to b r i n g DND up-to-date on the c o n s u l t a n t ' s p r o g r e s s and to provide some i n f o r m a t i o n t o the Township on DND requirements. at the same time. Environment Canada undertook to inform the BC Land Commission of the proposal and to send the Commission c o p i e s of the c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t . The r e a s o n i n g was t h a t some of the o p t i o n s proposed by the c o n s u l t a n t would allow areas w i t h i n the ALB along the route of the sewage connector to t i e i n t o the l i n e . I t was thought t h a t the Commission may not favour any development such as sewering, which would i n c r e a s e pressure f o r r e l e a s e of more land from the r e s e r v e f o r development. F o l l o w i n g a reguest by the Land Commission f o r a meeting with f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s . Environment Canada c a l l e d a p r e l i m i n a r y meeting i n Vancouver on 28 November 1977. Present were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Environment, N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters, CFB C h i l l i w a c k , and the Land Commission. At t h i s meeting, the Land Commission was a b l e t o emphasize i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o any scheme which would encourage development of e x i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land. I t had e a r l i e r persuaded Environment to ask the c o n s u l t a n t t o prepare a f i f t h scheme which would allow s e r v i c i n g of the upland area, l e s s s u i t a b l e 42 f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , known as Ryder Lake-Promontory. T h i s scheme was favoured by the Commission. A DND o p t i o n f o r upgrading i t s e x i s t i n g base sewage treatment p l a n t and c o n t i n u i n g t o put the e f f l u e n t i n t o the Vedder R i v e r was not ac c e p t a b l e t o Environment because the r i v e r i s a major salmon spawning stream and because some downstream r e s i d e n t s draw d r i n k i n g water from the r i v e r . Another f a c t o r i n the i s s u e was the r o l e . o f the School o f M i l i t a r y E ngineering at the Base i n t r a i n i n g servicemen as sewage p l a n t o p e r a t o r s . At present t h i s i s done a t the e x i s t i n g base sewage p l a n t , but i t s replacement with use o f the c i t y p l a n t would e n t a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n of a sm a l l t r a i n i n g p l a n t or arrangements f o r use of the c i t y p l a n t f o r t r a i n i n g . Throughout the next s i x months, the c o n s u l t a n t c a r r i e d out more s t u d i e s mainly f o r the Township r e g a r d i n g c o s t s of v a r i a t i o n s on each scheme and methods of f i n a n c i n g the muni c i p a l share of any j o i n t p r o j e c t . On 17 A p r i l 1978, a meeting was held between DND, the c o n s u l t a n t , the Township, and Environment Canada. DND r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were from both NDHQ and the Base. The Township was represented by the Mayor, f o u r Aldermen, and the Engineer. D i s c u s s i o n s centered around s e l e c t i o n of a scheme and i t s f i n a n c i n g . Some minor c o n f l i c t i s evident i n the minutes over which party was going to b e n e f i t most from the p r o j e c t , i e . who was h e l p i n g whom. The meeting adjourned unresolved, with a d e c i s i o n t o reconvene when DND had r e c a l c u l a t e d i t s o p t i o n s with regard t o f i n a n c i a l commitments to the Township and when the c o n s u l t a n t had determined the 43 d e t a i l s o f o b t a i n i n g a CMHC grant f o r 25% of the t o t a l c o s t . On 10 May 1978, DND wrote to the Township with d e t a i l e d p roposals on the f i n a n c i n g of s e v e r a l o p t i o n s . By the end of 1978, the Township had not yet agreed to proceed with the p r o j e c t . Whatever the outcome, i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning has enabled development of. a comprehensive j o i n t p r o j e c t . The c u r r e n t delay i n the d e c i s i o n i s u n r e l a t e d t o the conduct o f the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning i t s e l f , although improvements are p o s s i b l e i n t h i s area. The d e l a y i s caused by the Township's study of v a r i o u s schemes to f i n a n c e i t s share o f the p r o j e c t . I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning s e s s i o n s have f a m i l i a r i z e d a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s with the problems and concerns of the other members. DND wants to s a t i s f y environmental concerns and at the same time "buy" some g o o d w i l l i n the community. DND i s a l s o concerned about the t r a i n i n g of sewage p l a n t operators a t CFB C h i l l i w a c k . The Township does not want to miss the o p p o r t u n i t y to sewer a l a r g e part of i t s developed area a t low c o s t , but has problems g e t t i n g o u t s i d e f i n a n c i n g and e l i c i t i n g support from an e l e c t o r a t e a l r e a d y on s e p t i c tanks. The Land Commission i s concerned with pressure being put on i t to a l l o w f u r t h e r conversion of F r a s e r V a l l e y a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d to r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial use. The f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l Environment departments are anxious to begin a long overdue upgrading of the F r a s e r watershed. While the Base e f f l u e n t i s a l r e a d y t r e a t e d and d e c h l o r i n a t e d afterwards, and r e p r e s e n t s a minute part of the sewage dumped i n t o the r i v e r system, i t s 44 f e d e r a l s t a t u s makes i t e a s i e r to get f i n a n c i n g f o r sewage p l a n t upgrading and harder to ignore a p u b l i c welfare i s s u e . These and other concerns were exposed and shared i n the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning s e s s i o n s , thus promoting b e t t e r understanding of the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the problem. The a c t u a l i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e used i n t h i s case c o u l d have been improved. T h i s aspect i s explored i n Chapter 4. S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t the mix of t e c h n i c i a n s and p o l i t i c i a n s , of decision-makers and a d v i s o r s , and of remote u n a f f e c t e d b u r e a u c r a t s and l o c a l a f f e c t e d , and concerned a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s not the most e f f e c t i v e f o r n e g o t i a t i n g such long-term, c o n s e g u e n t i a l i s s u e s . The d i s o r g a n i z e d nature o f the correspondence and haphazard meetings between the p a r t i e s d i d not lend i t s e l f t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . These d e f i c i e n c i e s do not take away from the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the c o n s u l t a t i o n , as d i s c u s s e d above, but simply p o i n t the way to b e t t e r means of b e n e f i t t i n g from the experience by improving the process. 2.5 CASES FOUR TO SEVEN: BROADENING THE PERSPECTIVE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s f o u r more cases i n much l e s s d e t a i l than the f i r s t t h r e e . The main purpose i s to g i v e the reader a b e t t e r understanding of the scope of the problem, and a broader p e r s p e c t i v e , even w i t h i n the DND/community subset, f o r approaching the design of an i o s , which i s c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter 4. 45 Case Four: Base and Community - Master Pla n s Case Four d e a l s with the p r e p a r a t i o n of master plans both by a DND i n s t a l l a t i o n and by the neighbouring communities without adequate c o n s u l t a t i o n between the two. The plans c o n s i d e r e d here are: CFB Esquimalt Base Development P l a n , C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n , Metchosin Settlement P l a n , and Western Community Settlement Plan. DND planned c e r t a i n changes w i t h i n the boundaries of CFB Esquimalt without p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with the surrounding Township of Esquimalt. S i m i l a r l y the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the nearby unincorporated areas have a l s o each prepared master plans which a f f e c t the o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y and f u t u r e o f CFB Esquimalt, again without j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n . In the DND case, the proposed p r o j e c t s o c c u r r e d e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the boundaries of CFB Esguimalt. also DND depended on c i v i l i a n c o n s u l t a n t s to i d e n t i f y community impacts. appendix 3 i s a copy of the p e r t i n e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s to the c o n s u l t a n t s r e g a r d i n g l o c a l f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d i n p r e p a r i n g the Base Development Plan. For these two reasons, i t i s not very s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the new Base Development Plan f o r CFB Esquimalt, was not shared with l o c a l p l a n n e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , and i n t e r e s t groups before being r e l e a s e d t o the press as the o f f i c i a l p l a n . When the plan d i d become p u b l i c , i t was found t h a t some a s p e c t s a f f e c t e d a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t s . For example, proposed c o n s t r u c t i o n of a major r e c r e a t i o n complex i n the Lang Cove area t h r e a t e n s to block the views of the harbour f o r r e s i d e n t s of t h a t p a r t of Esquimalt. J o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n i n an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would have i d e n t i f i e d t h i s and 46 other problems with the plan before i t became o f f i c i a l . The C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (CRD) O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l Plan was developed over a three year p e r i o d 1972-1974. I t has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r CFB Esguimalt, but no p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n took p l a c e between CRD planners and Base p l a n n e r s . F o r example, l a r g e DND land h o l d i n g s at Royal Roads, A l b e r t Head, Work P o i n t , and Rocky P o i n t are designated as parkland. The Plan s t a t e s : "The P l a n Map designates as Major Park Areas those lands which are p r e s e n t l y d e d i c a t e d as p u b l i c parks or those which e v e n t u a l l y should be so d e d i c a t e d and t h e r e f o r e must be p r o t e c t e d i n the i n t e r i m p e r i o d from i r r e v e r s i b l e and i r r e t r i e v a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s which by pre-emption would destroy t h e i r park p o t e n t i a l . " 1 7 While the reasoning here i s understood, such a statement c e r t a i n l y i m p l i e s an attempt to r e s t r i c t DND use of i t s own la n d . Another example i n the same plan i s the d e s i g n a t i o n o f the Colwood and Langford areas f o r urban expansion. T h i s p o l i c y has major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Base as u r b a n i z a t i o n of th a t area would complete the e n c i r c l i n g of the Base a c t i v i t y areas with h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial use perhaps l e a d i n g to r e s t r i c t i o n of n o i s y and/or d i r t y i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y (such as s h i p r e p a i r ) on the base, i n t e r f e r e n c e with m i l i t a r y t r a f f i c movement to and from the Base, and l o n g e r commuting times f o r servicemen and c i v i l i a n employees, among other e f f e c t s . In the Metchosin Settlement P l a n , some DND c o a s t a l areas are designated as parks. The plan f u r t h e r s t a t e s : " A p propriate agencies of the f e d e r a l government should be n o t i f i e d at the e a r l i e s t o p p o r t u n i t y of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a system of beaches, beach t r a i l s , and view p o i n t s on DND 47 lands and Indian Reserve lands w i t h i n Metchosin and to i n t e g r a t e such a marine park system with c o a s t a l l a n d s having h i g h r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n the Western Community." 1 8 I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the authors should admit that these i n t e n t i o n s were not the r e s u l t of j o i n t n e g o t i a t i o n s with the government agencies owning the l a n d . Such an ambitious program should be the o b j e c t i v e of an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning group. In the Western Community Settlement P l a n 1 9 the grounds o f DND's Royal Roads M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e are proposed f o r park or open space p u b l i c use. Once again there was no c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h i s a r b i t r a r y d e s i g n a t i o n . While the CRD, through t h i s p l a n , has no o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t y over f e d e r a l l a n d s , such a u n i l a t e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n attempts to i n h i b i t DND use of the C o l l e g e grounds f o r purposes i n c o m p a t i b l e with parkland, such as a r i f l e range. The merits of such a s t r a t e g y are q u e s t i o n a b l e i f i t r e s u l t s i n a stubborn o r uncooperative a t t i t u d e on the part of the land-owner, DND. More s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s could p o s s i b l y have been obtained by CRD/DND i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning f o r the long term f u t u r e use and the immediate l i m i t e d use of the DND l a n d s . The p r e p a r a t i o n of these Base and community plans has been c a r r i e d out with t u n n e l v i s i o n . There are other major a c t o r s a f f e c t e d by the p l a n , who are not always bound by i t , and who should be drawn i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . An ongoing i o s monitoring a dynamic plan n i n g process encompassing a l l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i s a b e t t e r d i r e c t i o n t o take. 48 Case F i v e : C l o v e r P o i n t The C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t proceeded with an in-house pr o p o s a l to c o n s t r u c t a sewage o u t f a l l a t C l o v e r Point near V i c t o r i a . 2 0 Over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l years the p r o p o s a l advanced to the stage of h i r i n g a c o n s u l t a n t and having the design prepared. At no time was the C l o v e r P o i n t p r o p e r t y owner, DND, approached r e g a r d i n g the r e q u i r e d easement* F i n a l l y the p r o j e c t came to the a t t e n t i o n o f the R e q i o n a l Property O f f i c e r (RPO) f o r DND P a c i f i c Region, and correspondence between him and CRD l e d t o n e g o t i a t i o n s . In one l e t t e r , the RPO s a i d : "... I t i s c o n s t a n t l y a source of astonishment t o t h i s o f f i c e t h a t the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o u l d be undertaking the p l a n n i n g of a p r o j e c t of t h i s s i z e f o r approximately f o u r years without c o n t a c t i n g the p a r t i e s h o l d i n g the l a n d i n q u e s t i o n . At the time of t h i s Department's meeting with Mr. Howard (CRD E n g i n e e r ) , we were shown a l e t t e r from the c o n s u l t i n g engineers w r i t t e n over a year ago which e x p l a i n e d to them t h a t the F e d e r a l Government owned Cl o v e r P o i n t and t h a t t h i s would have to be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Why t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not acted upon u n t i l t h i s l a t e date i s a puzzle t o the w r i t e r . " 2 1 E v e n t u a l l y the n e g o t i a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a change i n the p l a n such t h a t the o u t f a l l would be run along the f o r e s h o r e i n s t e a d of a c r o s s the property. The n e g o t i a t i o n s and the change o f design meant a d d i t i o n a l delay and e x t r a c o s t s f o r the CRD. E a r l y j o i n t planning would have r e s o l v e d the c o n f l i c t . 49 Case S i x : Road G r i d Plan The Township of C h i l l i w h a c k p l a n n e r s were j u s t completing a comprehensive new road g r i d network p l a n f o r the township when t h i s author v i s i t e d t h e i r o f f i c e i n J u l y 1978. The plan designated new a r t e r i a l s and proposed changes to e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s . While these changes w i l l c e r t a i n l y be important to CFB C h i l l i w a c k , no attempt was made to c o n s u l t with Base a u t h o r i t i e s on the proposed changes. These changes c o u l d hamper Base o p e r a t i o n s by a f f e c t i n g r o u t i n g of m i l i t a r y t r a f f i c , by i n c r e a s i n g c i v i l i a n t r a f f i c i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Base, or by i n c r e a s i n g c o n g e s t i o n , t r a v e l l i n g time, and emergency response time f o r servicemen and c i v i l i a n employees l i v i n g o f f the Base. As the l a r g e s t s i n g l e employer i n the township and as an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r which m o b i l i t y i s very important, the Base should have been asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t r a f f i c p a t t e r n planning f o r i t s e n v i r o n s . Case Seven: J o i n t Planning In.Nanaimo One of the q u e s t i o n s which a r i s e s whenever i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planninq i s proposed i s who should be the convening a u t h o r i t y . The M i n i s t r y of State f o r Drban A f f a i r s (MStTA) took on t h i s r o l e as i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, and s e t up t r i - l e v e l committees of f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . I t was the view of the j u n i o r governments t h a t t h i s was the heavy hand of f e d e r a l "meddling" i n l o c a l a f f a i r s because the f e d e r a l government was the convenor of these i o s . T h i s view c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Perhaps a more s u c c e s s f u l approach 50 i s f o r the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be the convenor. T h i s i s what the Regiona l D i s t r i c t of Nanaimo (BDN) i s doing. On 25 A p r i l 1978, the Board o f RDN r e s o l v e d to commence work on th r e e O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans during the year. The r e s p o n s i b l e planner r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r a s p e c i a l type of T e c h n i c a l Planning Committee f o r t h i s t a s k : "... Due t o the h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l nature of some components o f the pl a n we a n t i c i p a t e the need f o r a major involvement by v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s and other agencies i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the plans. The formation of a T e c h n i c a l Settlement Plan Committee i s t h e r e f o r e a p r i o r i t y . " 2 2 He broadened the membership to i n c l u d e v i r t u a l l y a l l agencies of a l l l e v e l s of government who should have a say i n the pla n . The planner, Mr. P Hoemberg, i n v i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by: the Regional D i s t r i c t s t a f f ; p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s of H e a l t h , Highways, Environment, A g r i c u l t u r e , Economic Development, Parks and R e c r e a t i o n , F o r e s t s , and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ; p r o v i n c i a l agencies BC Hydro, the BC Land Commission, and BC F e r r i e s ; f e d e r a l departments of Environment, Defence, and Transport; l o c a l c i t i e s , towns, s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , I s l a n d s T r u s t ( r e p r e s e n t i n g i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a ) , and the neighb o r i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ; and the Nanaimo Harbour Commission. The f i r s t meeting was held 8 June 1978. At the f i r s t meeting, the terms of r e f e r e n c e and the work schedule were d i s c u s s e d and c l a r i f i e d . Some p r o t e c t i o n i s m of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own agencies or l e v e l s of government was e v i d e n t even at t h i s stage. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the pro v i n c e expressed concern " t h a t i t appeared t h i s Committee may be g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n of p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d at the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . " 2 3 T h i s was denied by the committee 51 chairman, Mr. Hoemberg. Others were c a u t i o u s about committing t h e i r agencies t o a heavy workload, e x p r e s s i n g concern about the schedule and c i t i n g " f a c t o r s such as l a c k o f s t a f f , p r i o r i t i e s of M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s and other reasons f o r t h i s concern." 2 * Subsequent meetings have begun the process of b u i l d i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t r u s t and l e a r n i n g about the needs and goals of the other p a r t i c i p a n t s . A f t e r s i x months, the committee chairman i d e n t i f i e d to me the successes and f a i l u r e s of the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning experiment so f a r . 2 5 He saw the committee making p o s i t i v e progress i n two areas: the exchange and s h a r i n g of plans, i n t e n t i o n s , and concerns of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . On the other hand, he was d i s a p p o i n t e d with the l a c k of p l a n n i n g progress.. T h i s f a i l u r e t o progress very f a r with development of the community plans was due to non-existent or poorly a r t i c u l a t e d p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d p o l i c i e s w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the l a c k of decision-making power among r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , who were t h e r e to l i s t e n and r e p o r t back r a t h e r than t o n e g o t i a t e and make d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s case, c o n s u l t a t i o n i s underway and some c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s r e s u l t i n g . The i d e n t i f i e d shortcomings show t h a t improvements i n the design of the i o s would probably r e s u l t i n more progress toward i t s g o a l s . BDN has r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t i s b e t t e r to have a slow p l a n n i n g process and v a l i d end product than t o have to backtrack and r e v i s e n e e d l e s s l y , as i n many of the other cases c i t e d . 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS While these case s t u d i e s are drawn from a very narrow segment of the o v e r a l l problem of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , they do demonstrate very w e l l the p o i n t s being made throughout t h i s t h e s i s . From the l a r g e number of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , I have s e l e c t e d those between communities and defence i n s t a l l a t i o n s . From these I have r e s t r i c t e d myself t o the small subset o c c u r r i n g i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia i n the l a s t decade. And from t h a t subset has been s e l e c t e d the few cases which i l l u s t r a t e the spectrum of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t and c o o p e r a t i o n concerning p r i m a r i l y the l o c a l l e v e l p l a n n e r s r a t h e r than the p o l i t i c i a n s , although the l a t t e r are never excluded. In Chapter 3, the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i l l be presented t o provide a b e t t e r understanding of the dynamics of the i o s process. In Chapter 4, v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be d e r i v e d from the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theory and from the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of the case s t u d i e s . An a p p r o p r i a t e design f o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be developed based on these c r i t e r i a . 53 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 2 1 V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, 9 Apr 1975 2 C h i l l i w a c k P r o g r e s s , 9 Apr 1975 3 L e t t e r from Base Commander t o NDHQ, 14 Oct 1975 * C h i l l i w a c k Progress, 9 Jun 1976 5 C h i l l i w a c k P r o g r e s s , 23 Jun 1976 6 L e t t e r from Board Chairman, Region a l D i s t r i c t of F r a s e r -Cheam, t o Base Commander, CFB C h i l l i w a c k , 28 Jun 1976 7 Minutes o f T e c h n i c a l P lanning Committee meeting. Item 5, 8 Jan 1974 8 V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, 13 Aug 1974 9 L e t t e r from CRD Board Chairman t o the M i n i s t e r of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , 14 Jun 1973 1 0 L e t t e r from the Executive A s s i s t a n t of the M i n i s t e r of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s to the CRD Board Chairman, 10 Oct 1973 M The TPC normally had r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from CRD m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and e l e c t o r a l a reas p l u s p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the M i n i s t r i e s of Highways, M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , A g r i c u l t u r e , and, as needed, Parks and the Bureau o f T r a n s i t . The f o l l o w i n g a l s o attended t h i s time: CFB Esquimalt, Fo r t Rodd N a t i o n a l Park, Parks Canada (part o f DINA) , and MSOA. * 2 L e t t e r from the Reqional C o o r d i n a t o r f o r MSUA to the D i r e c t o r of Parks Canada (DINA), 13 Dec 1973 1 3 The workinq committee c o n s i s t e d of two m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s and two CRD s t a f f p l a n n e r s . *• L e t t e r from M i n i s t e r of S t a t e f o r Orban A f f a i r s t o the CRD Chairman, 1 Feb 1974 1 5 T h i s r e s e r v e i s shown on Map 5 i n Appendix 1. i * V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, 8 Nov 1977 * 7 CRD, O f f i c i a l Reqional_Plan V i c t o r i a M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, 1975, p18, para 2.10 » 8 CRD, Metchosin Settlement Plan D r a f t , Sep 1977, p28 1 9 CRD, Western.Community O f f i c i a l .Settlement Pl a n , 1978, p7 54 See Map 4 i n Appendix.1. 2 * L e t t e r from DND EPO to N a t i o n a l Defence Headquarters, 12 Mar 1976 2 2 L e t t e r from RDN planner to DND, 3 May 1978 2 3 T e c h n i c a l Settlement Plan Committee minutes, 8 Jun 1978 2 * I b i d 2 S Telephone conversation,.18 Dec 1978 Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 55 CHAPTER•3 THE NATURE OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION In the turbul e n c e and complexity o f e x i s t e n c e i n the modern world, the o v e r l a p p i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g of man's o r g a n i z a t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . The development o f ever more governmental b u r e a u c r a c i e s t o cope with complexity only adds to the problem. As each o r g a n i z a t i o n t r i e s to meet i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n a narrow frame of r e f e r e n c e , i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y evident t h a t d i v e r s e p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s by d i v e r s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n f a c t i n t e r - r e l a t e d . O r g a n i z a t i o n s are d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t they cannot operate independently even w i t h i n t h e i r own sphere of a u t h o r i t y . The environment i s no longer manageable. Sutton* i d e n t i f i e s three sources of complexity i n any p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e : a. i t i s inter-dependent with other i s s u e s and concerns; b. i t i s s e n s i t i v e t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s which are beyond the power of r e s p o n s i b l e p o l i c y makers t o i n f l u e n c e ; and c. i t i s perceived as a f f e c t i n g and being a f f e c t e d by a number o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s who w i l l have d i f f e r e n t views as to which outcomes are d e s i r a b l e and which are not. T h i s i n c r e a s i n g complexity and interdependence i n the f i e l d of pl a n n i n g has r e s u l t e d i n some s p e c t a c u l a r f a i l u r e s i n rece n t years when o r g a n i z a t i o n s pursued t h e i r own g o a l s i n 56 i s o l a t i o n . I t has a l s o l e d to the development of a mul t i t u d e of new i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanisms whose main f u n c t i o n i s the r e d u c t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i o n s by mutually impacting o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r attempts to i d e n t i f y the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t and c o o p e r a t i o n . The framework i s g eneral and t h e o r e t i c a l i n i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to l o c a l p l a n n i n g . I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s are themselves " o r g a n i z a t i o n s " . They c o n s i s t o f people working together t o achieve common g o a l s . In t h i s case the main g o a l i s c o n f l i c t -r e d u c t i o n by c o o p e r a t i o n . Each member o f the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t s h i s own o r g a n i z a t i o n while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s j o i n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f most o r g a n i z a t i o n s have t r o u b l e making t h e i r members' p e r s o n a l g o a l s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s goals mutually s u p p o r t i v e , the problem i s much more s e r i o u s f o r i o s having a t h i r d l e v e l o f g o a l s : F i g u r e 3: C o n f l i c t of Goals 57 3.2 GROUP BEHAVIOUR IN INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES An i o s i s i t s e l f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which the working members are n e g o t i a t o r s who meet and form a group. One or more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r each of the c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d , t y p i c a l l y from two t o twenty members. They may be supported by a s e c r e t a r i a t s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d j o i n t l y or by one of the members. T h i s n e q o t i a t i n g group e x h i b i t s most of the behaviour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l formal groups. However i t w i l l take a long time f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i n f o r m a l group t o develop. The group pressure to conform, the "groupthink" tendencies d e s c r i b e d by J a n i s , 2 and the development of l o y a l t y to group g o a l s may never evolve i n many i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l groups. Informal group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be encouraged by removal of the members from the a u t h o r i t y and environment of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a t r i - l e v e l ( f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l / m u n i c i p a l ) conference i n Toronto a few years ago, i t was important t o the success of the n e g o t i a t i o n s to h o l d them i n a " n e u t r a l " h o t e l . A h o t e l t h a t r e g u l a r l y held f e d e r a l conferences, f o r example, would not do. That would provide enough of an environmental advantage f o r the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o unbalance the n e g o t i a t i o n s . Furthermore i t would remind the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h i s i o s of t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n t o win con c e s s i o n s while y i e l d i n g l i t t l e i n the b a r g a i n i n g . Group i d e n t i t y may be f o s t e r e d by r e g u l a r meetings with the same p a r t i c i p a n t s . . S o c i a l i z i n g over dinner or c o f f e e 58 between d i s c u s s i o n s i s h e l p f u l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n s u l t someone you j u s t c h a t t e d with over c o f f e e . Symbols o f an i d e n t i t y f o r the i o s would h e l p . The United N a t i o n s has been very s u c c e s s f u l a t t h i s , with i t s own f l a g , c r e s t , p i n s , e t c . Even UN peace-keeping troops wear a UN beret t o he l p them t o i d e n t i f y with t h i s i o s i n s t e a d o f with the more p a r o c h i a l aims of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . According t o S c h e i n , 3 "The fundamental problem of i n t e r g r o u p c o m p e t i t i o n i s the c o n f l i c t of goals and the breakdown of i n t e r a c t i o n and communication between the groups; t h i s breakdown i n tu r n p e r mits and s t i m u l a t e s p e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n and mutual ne g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p i n g . " He suggests t h r e e t a c t i c s f o r implementing a s t r a t e g y of reducing c o n f l i c t , here i n t e r p r e t e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to the i o s : a. I d e n t i f y i n g a common enemy. Normally competing o r g a n i z a t i o n s may f i n d i t i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i o s t o j o i n t l y s o l v e the problem of a common opponent. For example, competing f e d e r a l government departments on the urban scene may agree t o a. c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e to d e a l with a p r o v i n c i a l t h r e a t to oust the f e d e r a l presence where i t has no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Without the common t h r e a t , the i n c e n t i v e to cooperate i s s e v e r e l y reduced, i f not e l i m i n a t e d ; b. I n v e n t i n g a n e g o t i a t i o n s t r a t e g y which b r i n g s competing o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n with each other. T h i s l e a d s to the a c t u a l design of the i o s . I t cou l d range from i n f o r m a l l i a i s o n to a formal j o i n t a c t i o n committee. P a r t i c i p a t i o n can range from a token subordinate manager t o 59 the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e . Success p a r t l y depends upon the power and l e g i t i m a c y of the s t r u c t u r e ; and c. L o c a t i n g a sup e r o r d i n a t e g o a l . An example would be j o i n t a c t i o n by government, i n d u s t r y , and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups t o rescue a p o l l u t e d lake from e x t i n c t i o n . Another example would be j o i n t a c t i o n by neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o i n s t a l l a r e g i o n a l sewer system. The common go a l i s recognized as advantageous t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Schein a l s o d i s c u s s e s methods of redu c i n g i n t e r g r o u p c o n f l i c t . Four methods are a p p l i c a b l e to the i o s i n the f o l l o w i n g two ways. F i r s t , on one l e v e l , the purpose o f the i o s i s t o reduce c o n f l i c t between i t s member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and, second, on a lower l e v e l , s u c c e s s f u l n e g o t i a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t - r e d u c i n g d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t c o n f l i c t f i r s t be reduced between the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who p r o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s of the member o r q a n i z a t i o n s . Schein's f o u r methods, i n t e r p r e t e d f o r use i n i o s qroups, are as f o l l o w s : a. Emphasize t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i o s and the r o l e of the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t ; b. Stimulate a high degree o f i n t e r a c t i o n and frequent communication between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to r e s o l v e problems of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n ; c. Encourage v i s i t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o s t i m u l a t e h i g h e r understanding and empathy f o r one another's problems; and d. Avoid win-lose s i t u a t i o n s ; t r y to avoid p u t t i n g member o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n ; emphasize the 60 o v e r a l l goal o f c o o p e r a t i o n f o r the g r e a t e r b e n e f i t t o a l l members. I t i s apparent t h a t the i o s i s s u b j e c t to group b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s both as a group i t s e l f and as a c o n j u n c t i o n between two or more separate groups. And each group c o u l d be in v o l v e d i n more than one i o s . I t may be re p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : 3 WIELDING POWER IN INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES R. H. Tawney d e f i n e d power as "the c a p a c i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l or group of i n d i v i d u a l s t o modify the conduct of other i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n the manner which he d e s i r e s , and t o prevent h i s own conduct from being modified i n the manner which he does not." * Within a l l groups t h e r e i s an e x e r c i s e of power by some group members. In i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l groups, each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e draws upon a separate source o f power, h i s own 61 o r g a n i z a t i o n . To a l a r g e extent, member's power w i l l be based more on the r e l a t i v e power of h i s own o r g a n i z a t i o n than on the personal a t t r i b u t e s that i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s . As Emerson s a i d , "power i s the property of the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ... not an a t t r i b u t e of the a c t o r . " 5 Mott supports t h i s view. 6 The o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i o s want to e x e r t t h e i r power over each other. The main reason f o r each one's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i o s i s t h a t the other o r g a n i z a t i o n s are somehow hampering one's s u c c e s s f u l attainment of g o a l s , whereas c o o p e r a t i o n may reduce t h i s c o n f l i c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , each p a r t i c i p a n t i s anxious to i n f l u e n c e the other member o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a l t e r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s or t o y i e l d some c o n t r o l over t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i b a u l t and K e l l e y 7 i d e n t i f y seven methods by which a power agent A c o u l d e x e r t power over B without p e n a l i z i n g h i m s e l f s e v e r e l y or g i v i n g counter-power to B: a. Developing a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r A. The one with more c h o i c e of f a v o u r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s has more power; b. Reducing B's a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s prevents B from using the above t a c t i c on A; c. Improving A's a b i l i t y to d e l i v e r rewards to B. Such rewards should be low-cost to A, such as f l a t t e r y or f r i e n d s h i p , something valued more by B than by A. In a c c e p t i n g the rewards, B reduces h i s own power. B i s the r e c i p i e n t of f a v o u r s from A; d. Reducing B's s k i l l s . T h i s i s e a s i e r but dangerous. I t r e q u i r e s i n t e r f e r i n g with, d i s t r a c t i n g , d i s t u r b i n g , s t e a l i n g u s e f u l instruments from, and otherwise sabotaging 62 B while he i s performing. I t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e to l i m i t h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a c q u i r e new s k i l l s or instruments; e. B u i l d i n g up the value of A's product. The more valued A's output compared to B's, the more power A has; f . Devaluing B's product. T h i s can i n c l u d e A g i v i n g the impression t h a t what B i s g i v i n g up i n c o o p e r a t i n g i s o f l i t t l e value when i n f a c t A s e c r e t l y values i t h i g h l y ; and g. Lengthening A's time p e r s p e c t i v e . I f A can d e f e r more advantageous outcomes t o the r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n t f u t u r e to g i v e up present l e s s e r advantages, h i s dependency on B i s reduced and h i s power over B i s consequently i n c r e a s e d . I t i s not necessary f o r a p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n seeking power i n the i o s to a c t u a l l y change the r e l a t i v e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s but only to a l t e r the o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s . Often j u s t the management of i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e to other p a r t i c i p a n t s can g i v e one p a r t i c i p a n t more power. French and Raven 8 have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e types of power bases under which B w i l l accept A's power attempts: a. Reward power i s based on B's r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i f he does what A wants, A w i l l reward him. I f the reward i s deemed by B to be g r e a t e r than the c o s t of compliance, he w i l l do i t . In the i o s , using t h i s base, one o r g a n i z a t i o n must o f f e r rewards to another t o g a i n i t s c o n c e s s i o n s ; b. C o e r c i v e power i s based on B's r e c o g n i t i o n that A can punish him i f he does not comply. At f i r s t glance i t would seem not t o apply to the i o s , but when we c o n s i d e r t h a t punishment can take many forms, i t becomes a u s e f u l power base. For example, the United S t a t e s uses c o n s i d e r a b l e c o e r c i v e power i n i t s a l l i a n c e s by s u b t l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o remove the n u c l e a r d e f e n s i v e umbrella, or c u t o f f arms a i d , or c u t o f f economic t r a d e . In f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l / m u n i c i p a l n e g o t i a t i o n s , the f e d e r a l government o f t e n w i e l d s a major punishment t h r e a t of r e d u c i n g t r a n s f e r payments to pro v i n c e s and d i r e c t a i d programs t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; L e g i t i m a t e power i s d e r i v e d from B's b e l i e f t h a t A has the r i g h t t o i n f l u e n c e him and he has the o b l i g a t i o n t o accept i t . T h i s occurs most r e a d i l y when A i s appointed to a h i e r a r c h i c a l seat of a u t h o r i t y . In an i o s , an e l e c t e d chairman would have some l e g i t i m a t e power, but i t would be weakened by h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . An o u t s i d e chairman or mediator appointed by a s u p e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n would have more power i f the s u p e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s accepted by the members as a l e g i t i m a t e power source. However, i n f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l / m u n i c i p a l n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r example, there i s no source o f s u p e r i o r l e g i t i m a t e power. No o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t s which can appoint a chairman accepted as an i m p a r t i a l a u t h o r i t y by a l l . Even the Supreme Court j u s t i c e s are considered t o be biased i n favour of the f e d e r a l p o s i t i o n . I t remains f o r the members of an i o s to choose a mutually a c c e p t a b l e chairman. L e g i t i m a t e power i s i n f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e as a power base f o r i o s members. Referent power i s even l e s s l i k e l y i n i o s . T h i s o c c u r s when B i s able t o i d e n t i f y with and emulate A, and thus t o embrace A's val u e s and wishes as h i s own. The d i f f e r e n c e s between members of an i o s which gave r i s e t o the fo r m a t i o n of the c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n i t i a l l y , make i t u n l i k e l y t h a t any of t i e member o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l w ield r e f e r e n t power over another. Only i f the power base of members was widely unbalanced i s r e f e r e n t power c o n c e i v a b l e . For example, i n Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD), where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of 17 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n j o i n t p l a n n i n g , a weak p a r t i c i p a n t l i k e L i o n s Bay could p o t e n t i a l l y emulate the C i t y o f Vancouver, g i v i n g Vancouver's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on GVRD r e f e r e n t power over the minor member's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Expert power i s based on the e a r l i e r concept d i s c u s s e d , the power of i n f o r m a t i o n . The expert has s p e c i a l i s t knowledge u n a v a i l a b l e to other members and t h i s knowledge combined with h i s freedom t o dispense i t i n amounts and at times t o s u i t h i s own o b j e c t i v e s g i v e s him power. T h i s power base i s a l s o present i n some i o s . For example, i n the Vancouver A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g Committee c o n s i s t i n g o f government and p u b l i c group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , expert power was held by the Department o f Environment r e p r e s e n t a t i v e because o f h i s expert knowledge r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s of a t h i r d runway on environmental concerns along the F r a s e r R i v e r . On the other hand, the expert power of the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was di m i n i s h e d , i f not destroyed, when the p u b l i c groups disputed and d i s c r e d i t e d MOT'S s p e c i a l i s t s ' f o r e c a s t s of f u t u r e a i r t r a v e l needs. 65 3.4 RESISTING POWER ATTEMPTS IN INTERORGANIZATION AL- STRUCTURES P a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s are j u s t as anxious to thwart power p l a y s by other p a r t i c i p a n t s as they are to s u c c e s s f u l l y wield power themselves t o serve t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g o a l s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who fumbles t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l e t s h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n f a l l under the i n f l u e n c e of another, f a c e s h u m i l i a t i o n o r worse at h i s home o f f i c e . I t i s e a s i e r to r e s i s t a power attempt i f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s not alone i n r e j e c t i n g the p r o p o s a l . I f he has no a l l i a n c e s w i t h i n the i o s then the o r g a n i z a t i o n f e a r i n g the power of another should i n s i s t on two-person d e l e g a t i o n s . Asch's experiments 9 show t h a t peer support from one other member pe r m i t s a s u b j e c t t o r e j e c t an otherwise m a j o r i t y view 35% of the time compared t o only 5% of the time when alone. For example, two-person d e l e g a t i o n s can withstand power p l a y s i n a 10-member i o s much e a s i e r than one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e can i n a 5-member i o s . E a r l i e r , the power of the member o r g a n i z a t i o n was s a i d t o be more important than the p e r s o n a l i t y of i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . However, a weak r e p r e s e n t a t i v e can reduce h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s i n i t i a l power p o s i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e the choosing o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the i o s i s important f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned about r e s i s t i n g power attempts. Schroder and H u n t 1 0 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y of a person a f f e c t s h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to r e s i s t i n f l u e n c e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e should t h e r e f o r e be one who i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t with a s t r o n g need f o r independence. 66 Strong l o y a l t y toward h i s own o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l h e l p a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o p r o t e c t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s i n t e r e s t s a g a i n s t power p l a y s by o t h e r s . The s t a t u s of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h i n h i s own o r g a n i z a t i o n i s important to the p e r c e p t i o n o f the other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of h i s importance and power. Announcement of a p u b l i c p o s i t i o n on an i s s u e , p r i o r t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s , strengthens the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n . 1 1 T h i s i s a common ploy i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . However i t can b a c k f i r e by l i m i t i n g the o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . At times the r e l u c t a n c e t o lose face p u b l i c l y becomes more important than o b t a i n i n g r e s u l t s a t the conference t a b l e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue i f one or more of the p a r t i c i p a n t s are p o l i t i c a l l y based. Power attempts can a l s o be defeated by c o a l i t i o n s between members of the i o s . Caplow 1 2 i d e n t i f i e d s i x power s i t u a t i o n s i n t r i a d s (three-member groups) and p r e d i c t e d the most l i k e l y c o a l i t i o n s which would r e s u l t . W i l l i s 1 3 extended the same theory to t e t r a d s . C o a l i t i o n s of weaker o r g a n i z a t i o n s can n e u t r a l i z e the e x e r c i s e of power by a st r o n g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Sometimes even the t h r e a t o f such a c o a l i t i o n w i l l check the power of a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n an i o s . 3.5 PROMOTION OF COOPERATION Given the problems of member o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r e s t s , c o n f l i c t i n g power attempts, d e f e n s i v e and o f f e n s i v e c o a l i t i o n s , p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s , p o s t u r i n g , and so on, i s t h e r e 67 any hope f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o o p e r a t i o n i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ? Marwell and S c h m i t t 1 * i d e n t i f y f i v e elements which d e f i n e the content of c o o p e r a t i o n : g o a l - d i r e c t e d behaviour, rewards f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , d i s t r i b u t e d responses, c o o r d i n a t i o n , and s o c i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n . The f i r s t two are e s s e n t i a l t o any c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . The remainder may occur as c o o p e r a t i o n e s c a l a t e s toward complete i n t e g r a t i o n . In a hockey team, f o r example, a l l f i v e elements would e x i s t . In an i o s , one would expect to observe a t l e a s t the f i r s t t h r e e elements: g o a l - d i r e c t e d behaviour, rewards f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , and d i s t r i b u t e d responses. The f i r s t does not mean t h a t a l l of the goals of a l l i o s members are compatible, but t h a t at l e a s t one g o a l i s shared, t h a t i s to e x p l o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r mutually b e n e f i c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . At times, more e x p l i c i t common goals may a l s o be shared by i o s members. Two examples would be t o c l e a n up a p o l l u t e d lake or to c o n s t r u c t a r e g i o n a l sewage system. While the g o a l i s common, the reasons f o r each member's support of the goal are not. One member may support the g o a l to get c o o p e r a t i o n from o t h e r s f o r one o f h i s other g o a l s . Another member may support the i o s g o a l to impress the community with h i s concern f o r p u b l i c w e l l - b e i n g . In any case, the i o s e x h i b i t s g o a l - d i r e c t e d behaviour i n the sense that i t s members share the common g o a l of c o o p e r a t i o n . The second element, rewards f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t , i s e s s e n t i a l to an i o s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p r e d i c a t e d on the member's e x p e c t a t i o n s of rewards or b e n e f i t s . Rewards f o r 68 p a r t i c i p a t i n g members could i n c l u d e e a s i e r accomplishment of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l goals or i n s o c i a l a p p r o v a l of t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n s . The t h i r d element, d i s t r i b u t e d responses, r e f e r s t o the extent t h a t s o l u t i o n of problems r e q u i r e s input by a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In the case of i o s such i n p u t i s a requirement. I t i s not a requirement, f o r example, i n a committee seekinq the s o l u t i o n t o a problem where only one of the committee members needs to come up with the answer. The remaining two elements r e f l e c t i n c r e a s i n q c o o r d i n a t i o n between i o s members. The f o u r t h element, c o o r d i n a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n q o r q a n i z a t i o n s , may or may not be r e q u i r e d , depending on the nature o f the problem being t a c k l e d by the i o s . The f i f t h element, s o c i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , meaning i n t e r p e r s o n a l s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n , i s not u s u a l l y found i n the i o s s i t u a t i o n . T h i s element i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of teams and c l o s e - k n i t work groups, where i n d i v i d u a l members f e e l an intim a c y or bond toward other members both on and o f f the job. The member's s o c i a l l i f e would i n c l u d e the other members of the i o s as p a r t of the team, gang, or " f a m i l y " . Two v a r i a b l e s v i t a l l y a f f e c t the w i l l i n g n e s s of people or o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o cooperate: i n e q u i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r i s k . 1 5 Inequity occurs i n i o s when the rewards f o r co o p e r a t i o n are unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s can be c o r r e c t e d by: a. a l t e r i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n of members to the s o l u t i o n t o r e f l e c t expected rewards; or 69 b. a l t e r i n g the reward d i s t r i b u t i o n to make i t more e q u i t a b l e . However, more f r e q u e n t l y the response t o i n e q u i t y i s withdrawal from the qroup. T h i s may r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . C ooperation e n t a i l s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r i s k i n t h a t a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduces the extent of h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over the consequences he may experience. The same r i s k a p p l i e s to an o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n q i n an i o s . Mott i d e n t i f i e s the r i s k taken by an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n an i o s as being the r e s u l t of opening new channels of i n t e r a c t i o n with other agencies and thus exposing i t s e l f to new e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . These co u l d t h r e a t e n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s autonomy and the s e c u r i t y of i t s f u n c t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i o s a l s o may i n v o l v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r o l e s or a l l i a n c e s which cannot e a s i l y be shed l a t e r without c o s t . 1 6 Risk i n c l u d e s p o t e n t i a l l o s s of power, r e s o u r c e s , markets, key personnel, i d e a s , or p u b l i c support, which can occur when one o r g a n i z a t i o n takes advantage of i t s access to another i n an i o s . Risk can be reduced by: a. e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o t e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s which ma k e . v i o l a t i o n s of mutual t r u s t d i f f i c u l t or n o n p r o f i t a b l e ; b. developing an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the i o s ; c. promoting an a t t i t u d e of openness and " p a c i f i s m " such t h a t v i o l a t i o n s of t r u s t , while e a s i e r , are p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f e n s i v e to observers and reputation-damaging t o the 70 v i o l a t o r ; and d. r e d u c i n g the s i z e of the r i s k i t s e l f so t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n may c o n t i n u e i n s p i t e of the r i s k s t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 3.6 APPLICABILITY TO LOCAL LAND USE PLANNING Using i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s to accomplish l o c a l p l anning g o a l s i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t than using them to reduce c o n f l i c t between o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The l a t t e r i s r a t h e r p a s s i v e , r e q u i r i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o achieve more f a v o u r a b l e outcomes f o r most p a r t i c i p a n t s . The former, on the other hand, i s a c t i v e , r e q u i r i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d approach to l o c a l p lanning problems and d i r e c t e d a c t i o n s toward a b e n e f i c i a l s o l u t i o n . When i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a f f e c t s land use, the i n t e r e s t s at stake are very high. T h i s i s because c o n t r o l o f la n d i s more v a l u a b l e than the land i t s e l f as a commodity. Concessions by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an i o s may be o f a more permanent nature wiere they i n v o l v e land uses because o f the l e g a l and c o n t i n u i n g nature of l a n d agreements such as t r a n s f e r s , l e a s e s , and rights-of-way. I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n l o c a l p l a n n i n g . . M e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i n federated c i t i e s l i k e GVRD i s r e a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by an i o s c o n s i s t i n g of the board o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s , even though the p l a n n i n g s t a f f i s l i k e a permanent s e c r e t a r i a t . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the T e c h n i c a l Planning Committees i n the Regional D i s t r i c t s b r i n g t o g e t h e r r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of some p r o v i n c i a l departments and l o c a l 71 p l a n n e r s . T h i s i s an i o s intended t o c o o r d i n a t e o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f l i c t i n g programs by d i f f e r e n t agencies o p e r a t i n g i n the same r e g i o n . The M i n i s t r y of State f o r Urban A f f a i r s t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h permanent i o s i n Canadian urban c e n t e r s . The purpose was the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t r i - l e v e l a c t i v i t i e s and programs i n the c i t y . However, many of these type of i o s do not work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y because the many f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h apter were not c o n s i d e r e d . The i o s must be c o n s c i o u s l y designed t o promote c o o p e r a t i o n . I t must be r e a l i z e d , however, that even with an pr o p e r l y - d e s i g n e d i o s , c o o p e r a t i o n w i l l not always occur. We assume t h a t i f a member f o r e s e e s rewards f o r c o o p e r a t i n g , he w i l l cooperate. But people do not always behave r a t i o n a l l y . They sometimes act c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r own best i n t e r e s t s . What a pr o p e r l y - d e s i g n e d i o s can do, though, i s i n c r e a s e the O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e . a c t i o n between o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In the next chapter, t h i s theory of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and the p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e v e a l e d by the case s t u d i e s w i l l be used t o d e r i v e a set of i o s c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a w i l l d e f i n e i o s c o n d i t i o n s which reduce c o n f l i c t and promote c o o p e r a t i o n i n l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g . 72 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 3 1 P e r s o n a l communication with Alan Sutton, BC Research, Sep 1978 2 J a n i s , pp118-127 3 Schein, p195 * Martin and Sims, p515 5 Emerson, p32 8 Mott, p4 7 Jacobson, p47 8 I b i d , p58 9 Asch, p33 i ° Jacobson, p63 M I b i d , p64 1 2 Caplow, pp23-25 1 3 I b i d , pp35-36 i * Marwell and Schmitt, p5 i s i b i d , pp12ff i * Mott, pp69-72 Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 73 CHAPTER 4 INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CRITERIA AND DESIGN 4.1 INTRODUCTION The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s have been explored by many r e s e a r c h e r s and a u t h o r s . Most are concerned with d e s c r i b i n g e x i s t i n g c o o r d i n a t i v e mechanisms; few attempt t o design an i o s f o r a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Furthermore such designs are not r i g o r o u s l y developed t o s a t i s f y i d e n t i f i e d c r i t e r i a , but are r a t h e r g e n e r a l statements of how the s t r u c t u r e should operate and who sho u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . In t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l develop the c r i t e r i a a p p l i c a b l e to an i o s i n the environment under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , namely t h a t of independent s e n i o r government departments and agencies o p e r a t i n g as landowners and developers w i t h i n a l o c a l government planning j u r i s d i c t i o n . Then, these c r i t e r i a w i l l be t e s t e d a g a i n s t s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l i o s models t o check t h e i r g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y . F i n a l l y , an a p p r o p r i a t e i o s which s a t i s f i e s the c r i t e r i a w i l l be designed. While the design of t h i s i o s i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n o f who the i n i t i a t o r of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n should be, the a c t u a l method of s e t t i n g up an i o s i n a l o c a l area i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . S u f f i c e to say t h a t the promoter of an i o s i s suspected by p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f expecting t o gain more from i t than they w i l l . I n i t i a t i n g an i o s means demonstrating t o a l l p r o s p e c t i v e members th a t t h e i r b e n e f i t s w i l l exceed t h e i r c o s t s and r i s k s , and t h a t the proponent has no s p e c i a l advantage from the i o s . How t h i s i s done I w i l l leave f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s . 2 SPECTRUM OF INTEEOBGANIZATIONAL BELATIONS I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s range from o c c a s i o n a l communications between o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e g r a t e d endeavours. Within t h i s spectrum, one study* has de f i n e d an e s c a l a t i n g s c a l e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two o r g a n i z a t i o n s from very loose and unstructured to c l o s e - k n i t and i n t e g r a t e d : a. d i r e c t o r awareness of the e x i s t e n c e o f the oth e r o r g a n i z a t i o n ; b. d i r e c t o r acquaintance between o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; c. d i r e c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n between o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; d. i n f o r m a t i o n exchange of n e w s l e t t e r s , r e p o r t s , and r e l e a s e s ; e. resource exchange o f funds, m a t e r i a l s , or personnel; f . o v e r l a p p i n g board membership o f s t a f f or members; g. j o i n t programs t o plan and implement a c t i v i t i e s ; and h. w r i t t e n agreements t o share a c t i v i t i e s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a narrower frame o f r e f e r e n c e , G o f f 2 i d e n t i f i e d the range of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g context., These were as f o l l o w s (my o r d e r i n g ) : a. p e r i o d i c c o n t a c t s ; b. a planning conference; c. annual meetings; d. j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s ; e. exchange of plans; f. . review of plans; g. r e f e r r a l o f plans t o p u b l i c bodies f o r feedback; and h. t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to other agencies by r e g i o n a l pl a n n i n g s t a f f . An even more e x p l i c i t and r e a l i s t i c range o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r the cases under examination here would be as f o l l o w s . The o p t i o n s are l i s t e d i n order o f e s c a l a t i n g degree of commitment and i n c r e a s i n g t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s : Option Short T i t l e D e s c r i p t i o n A. T e c h n i c a l L i a i s o n I n f o r m a l t e c h n i c a l l i a i s o n between the l o c a l DND i n s t a l l a t i o n planner and the l o c a l planner. B. B i l a t e r a l J o i n t Planning P a r t i c i p a t i o n on a f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d j o i n t p l a n n i n g committee at the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l , between DND and planners from l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n (s) . M u l t i l a t e r a l J o i n t Planning L o c a l P o l i c y C o n s u l t a t i o n Plan Review Plan Approval 76 P a r t i c i p a t i o n on a f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d j o i n t p l a n n i n g committee with l o c a l p l a n n e r s and t e c h n i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from those: f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l departments and agencies which a f f e c t l o c a l p l a n n i n g . Regular i n f o r m a l p l a n n i n g p o l i c y c o n s u l t a t i o n between the Base Commander and the mayor of the l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n (or t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s ) . Exchange of proposed plans between the l o c a l p l a n n i n g body and the Base f o r review and comments before s e e k i n g a p p r o v a l and fundinq f o r implementation. Exchange of proposed p l a n s between the l o c a l p l a n n i n g body and the Base f o r review and mutual approval before seeking funding f o r i mplementation. 77 Option A, T e c h n i c a l L i a i s o n , w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e i o s f o r these cases because i t i s i n f a c t the inadequate ad hoc c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t y which i s supposed t o occur at present. As pointed out i n Chapter 1 and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter 2, v a r i o u s f a c t o r s render the present r e l i a n c e on l i a i s o n i n e f f e c t i v e . Option F, Plan Approval, w i l l a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t i s not r e a l i s t i c t o suqqest e i t h e r t h a t a f e d e r a l department would surrender to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i t s s o vereiqn r i q h t t o develop l a n d according t o n a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s , or t h a t a l o c a l l y e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would allow p r i v a t e developers or l a n d l o r d s (as i t c o n s i d e r s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l agencies t o be) to decide what i s best f o r i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . Option E, Plan Review, i s one of the f e a s i b l e remaining o p t i o n s . I t i s d i f f e r e n t from Options B, C, and D because i t does not r e q u i r e meetinqs between o r q a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Plan Review can be conducted by ma i l . Each p a r t i c i p a t i n q member of t h i s i o s can d i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s o f i t s plans to the other members whenever changes are proposed to i t s c u r r e n t p l a n s . Other members can mail t h e i r comments back to the o r i g i n a t o r . While t h i s o p t i o n provides an e x c e l l e n t means of reducing land-use c o n f l i c t s by exposing p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s before a plan i s approved, i t i s not very e f f e c t i v e at promoting c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . The s p e c i a l advantage of the meetings i n the other options i s t h a t viewpoints and values never w r i t t e n i n t o a document or plan are exposed i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . V i s u a l 78 and v e r b a l communication i s important f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u s t between o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Plan Review does not p r o v i d e t h i s except where the process i s c a r r i e d out i n r e g u l a r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meetings. To b e n e f i t from i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication and understanding, an e f f e c t i v e i o s w i l l i n c l u d e meetings between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e o n l y a v e r s i o n of Option E which c a l l s f o r the p l a n review process t o take place at r e g u l a r meetings of p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n here. In the next s e c t i o n , h y p o t h e t i c a l i o s c r i t e r i a w i l l be t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d . These c r i t e r i a w i l l permit det e r m i n a t i o n of which of Options B t o E i s p r e f e r a b l e as an i o s . 4.3 CRITERIA FOR ft LOCftL INTERORG ANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE C r i t e r i a governing the design of an e f f e c t i v e i o s model f o r l o c a l land-use planning can be separated i n t o s t r u c t u r a l c r i t e r i a and process c r i t e r i a . S t r u c t u r a l c r i t e r i a are those which e s t a b l i s h the framework f o r the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Process c r i t e r i a are those which e s t a b l i s h the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the i o s . A summary t a b l e i s presented at the end of the f o l l o w i n g d e r i v a t i o n of c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a are d e r i v e d from the theory o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n Chapter 3, the e m p i r i c a l evidence of p r a c t i c a l i t y r e v e a l e d by the c o n t e x t and case s t u d i e s , and the author's judgment and experience. The c r i t e r i a do not pre-judge the spectrum of f e a s i b l e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s (the options) , but as each c r i t e r i o n i s d e r i v e d and i t s o p t i m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n e d , some o p t i o n s may s a t i s f y i t b e t t e r than other o p t i o n s . 4 STRUCTURAL CRITERIA I n i t i a t o r . The i n i t i a t o r of an i o s f o r l o c a l land-use plann i n g i s going t o be suspect no matter how he goes about t r y i n g t o s t a r t up such c o n s u l t a t i o n . P o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the i o s w i l l be convinced t h a t the proponent has more to gain from the c o o p e r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e than they do. The i n i t i a t o r must be capable of c o n v i n c i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t a l l w i l l b e n e f i t from p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t he.does not expect any g r e a t e r gains from i t than the o t h e r s . Therefore the i n i t i a t o r should be from the weakest l e v e l of government, i e . the m u n i c i p a l i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . T h i s w i l l reduce c o s t s and r i s k s f o r s e n i o r government p a r t i c i p a n t s because the l o c a l government i s not a t h r e a t t o them. S e n i o r government agencies might reason t h a t they can go along with the. i d e a because they f o r e s e e some b e n e f i t s from c o o p e r a t i o n , knowing at the same time t h a t they can always do what they want or withdraw from the i o s anyway. I f the s e n i o r governments had i n i t i a t e d the i o s , the l o c a l government would f e e l p r essured by the reward power, c o e r c i v e power, and l e g i t i m a t e power wielded by the s e n i o r governments. The l o c a l government would be coerced i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g and would not f e e l i t r e a l l y had the o p t i o n of withdrawing. 80 L o c a t i o n . The i o s should not meet i n a l o c a t i o n which i n c r e a s e s the presumed s u p e r i o r i t y of the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l government agencies. Since p o s s i b l e nearby meeting l o c a t i o n s are probably e i t h e r on the prop e r t y of the independent government agencies or i n the l o c a l government's o f f i c e s , n e u t r a l i t y c o u l d best be a t t a i n e d by a l t e r n a t i n g the i o s meeting p l a c e between the two. Otherwise, the i o s should meet i n the m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s , so as to o f f s e t the s e n i o r governments' advantage. S i z e . The i o s could range i n s i z e from two t o t h i r t y o r more member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However the experience i n Nanaimo (and i n other cases) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s m a l l e r the i o s , the more e f f e c t i v e i t i s . On the other hand, an i o s of fewer than f o u r member o r g a n i z a t i o n s may f i n d i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f a i l i n g t o take i t s e r i o u s l y and l o s i n g t h e i r commitment to the process, l e a d i n g t o missed or postponed meetings. A meeting with t h r e e o t h e r s i s a s e r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; with one o t h e r i t becomes a f l e x i b l e engagement. Permanency. The i o s should be permanently e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s w i l l prevent i t s d i s s o l u t i o n at the whim of the l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Permanency can be preserved by i n c l u d i n g the requirement t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i o s i n both the departmental d i r e c t i v e s or standard o p e r a t i n g procedures and the l o c a l planner's terms of r e f e r e n c e . Frequency of Contact. The frequency of i o s c o n t a c t s depends t o a g r e a t d e a l on the s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s being n e g o t i a t e d . A mere i n f o r m a t i o n exchange i n a s t a t i c r e g i o n 81 c o u l d be accomplished semi-annually. A r a p i d l y - e v o l v i n g i s s u e of s i g n i f i c a n c e may r e q u i r e weekly meetings between a f f e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s i s the p r a c t i c a l range. I t i s f e a s i b l e t o have the frequency e s t a b l i s h e d by the i o s p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves, with a minimum number of meetings designated i n the e n a b l i n g documentation. While the minimum frequency f o r a qen e r a l land-use p l a n n i n q i o s would be semi-annually, the minimum frequency f o r the DND/community s i t u a t i o n would be t h r e e meetings per year. T h i s i s a s u b j e c t i v e judgment based on the s h o r t d u r a t i o n of the base planner's p o s t i n g and the nature o f the annual planning and program c y c l e i n DND. Cost. The co s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i o s should never exceed the value of the pe r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s . Because most o f the b e n e f i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n are u n q u a n t i f i a b l e , while the monetary c o s t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e , i t i s important f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the i o s t o keep i t s c o s t s minimal. Monetary c o s t s i n c l u d e : manhours spent by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t t e n d i n g or p r e p a r i n g f o r i o s meetings, c o n s u l t a n t c o n t r a c t s on b e h a l f of the i o s , the c o s t s o f s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l agreements such as l o a n i n g r e s o u r c e s , modifying a c t i v i t i e s , or producing r e p o r t s and maps, the c o s t of s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s , s t a t i o n a r y and postage, and even the c o s t of refreshments at meetings. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i o s should d e f i n i t e l y not r e q u i r e the h i r i n q of a d d i t i o n a l personnel by any p a r t i c i p a n t . C o s t s can be reduced by the use of the f a c i l i t i e s of one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , by r e c o q n i z i n q and e q u a l i z i n q any i n e q u i t a b l e c o s t s imposed on a member by the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n recommended 82 by the i o s , and by minimizing the documentation s u p p o r t i n g the i o s . Membership. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i o s f o r the DND/community s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be l i m i t e d to the Base, neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , or c o u l d be expanded to i n c l u d e other r e l e v a n t f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l departments and ag e n c i e s . The question of s i z e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s again r a i s e d . The Nanaimo i o s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2 i n v o l v e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from 22 d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t was too cumbersome to be e f f e c t i v e . On the other hand, an i o s which excludes o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y i n g a major r o l e i n l o c a l l a n d use planning would a l s o be i n e f f e c t i v e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a l requirements, but should i n c l u d e a l l "key" independent land-*-use p l a n n i n g decision-making o r g a n i z a t i o n s . "Key" can be d e f i n e d as those which make land-use pla n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g other o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t l e a s t once per year. Judgment w i l l be re q u i r e d by the i n i t i a t o r as to which o r g a n i z a t i o n s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t egory. However, the i n i t i a l membership can be adjus t e d based on experience. Also, other o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be requested to t e m p o r a r i l y j o i n the i o s f o r s p e c i f i c i s s u e s as necessary. L e v e l of Repre s e n t a t i o n . A c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a i s the nature of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the i o s . Should the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e be a p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r or e g u i v a l e n t , a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r , the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c h i e f planner, or a subordinate t e c h n o c r a t ? Should he be a l o c a l o f f i c i a l o r 83 from a l a r g e r j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s h i e r a r c h y ? Should we s a c r i f i c e some degree of policy-making and decision-making c a p a b i l i t y to achieve e x p e r t i s e and commitment i n the i o s ? The i o s i s not intended t o be a policy-making body. I t s o b j e c t i v e s are the exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n and the e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t i s a means of p r o v i d i n g decision-makers w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s with the best i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e concerning the e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s and plans, the range of a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e , and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . To achieve t h i s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e should be as non-p a r t i s a n as p o s s i b l e so t h a t i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s , p o l i t i c a l t r a d e o f f s , and attempts a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l one-upmanship are l e s s important than a c h i e v i n g i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . While i t depends on the i n d i v i d u a l , p o l i t i c a l p o s t u r i n g , p r o t e c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s image, f e a r of i n d i c a t i n g weakness, and avoidance of s e t t i n g precedents o f t e n rank hig h e r i n importance than compromise and c o o p e r a t i o n among p o l i t i c a l l y based r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h i s suggests e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p o l i t i c i a n s or c h i e f e x e c u t i v e s , such as, i n the DND/community case, the Mayor, the l o c a l MP or MLA, the Chairman of the E e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board, and the Base Commander. On the oth e r hand, i f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s too low i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s h i e r a r c h y , he w i l l be unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e 84 i n n e g o t i a t i o n s without co n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e to s u p e r i o r s , he w i l l not have the s t a t u s r e q u i r e d to n e g o t i a t e as an equal p a r t i c i p a n t , and he w i l l be symbolic of the low value p l a c e d on the i o s by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s i s another problem with the Nanaimo i o s i n Chapter 2. Many of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g DND's, are only token delegates from the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . They have no r e a l a u t h o r i t y. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e should be from the l o c a l component of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . While most f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l departments and agencies have t h r e e or f o u r h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t i n g l a r g e r and l a r g e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , the tendency to send r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a higher l e v e l to b e n e f i t from i n c r e a s e d policy-making power should be r e j e c t e d . The l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e knows the l o c a l p lanning scene, e s p e c i a l l y a t the s i t e - s p e c i f i c s c a l e o f concern here. His f a m i l i a r i t y with the a r e a and a b i l i t y t o generate f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s to unacceptable p l a n s i s more u s e f u l to t h i s i o s than the c a p a b i l i t y to make p o s s i b l y uninformed p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g i o s meetings. Senior o f f i c i a l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n should r e l y upon the judgment and a b i l i t y of t h e i r l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the i o s . In summary then, the i o s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e should be the s e n i o r person d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r planning i n the l o c a l l e v e l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Chairmanship. Three o p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e f o r c h a i r i n g the i o s meetings: e l e c t i o n of the chairman by the members, appointment of the chairman by a s u p e r i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , or 85 r o t a t i o n o f the chairmanship among members. The advantage o f e l e c t i o n i s t h a t the chairman i s then someone both w i l l i n g t o do the job and chosen f o r i t by h i s peers. However, s e r v i n g as one o f the members and chairman at the same time, he cannot be an o b j e c t i v e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s and w i l l continue t o repr e s e n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n even from the c h a i r . An appointee c o u l d be named from o u t s i d e the membership of the i o s and thus improve o b j e c t i v i t y . However, who w i l l appoint such a person i n the environment under study here? The community might not accept a f e d e r a l appointee, o r the s e n i o r governments might not accept someone appointed l o c a l l y . P o s s i b l y a p r o v i n c i a l government appointee would be a c c e p t a b l e to a l l members. However r o t a t i o n of the chairmanship among members i s the most e q u i t a b l e even though some members may be u n w i l l i n g o r i n e f f e c t i v e chairmen. Therefore the chairmanship should be r o t a t e d among members a n n u a l l y , with the order o f r o t a t i o n or the o p t i o n to r e f u s e the chairmanship a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the i o s members. 5 PROCESS CRITERIA A u t h o r i t y . T e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and agreements reached i n the i o s should not be binding on the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Instead such agreements should r e q u i r e review and r a t i f i c a t i o n by the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s w i l l permit wider-ranging e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . They w i l l not have to be as concerned about p o l i c y r a m i f i c a t i o n s o r precedents. I f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were, committing h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n by h i s a c t i o n s i n the i o s , he would be very 86 c a u t i o u s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s and very c o n s c i o u s of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of y i e l d i n g too much or e s t a b l i s h i n g a precedent. By removing t h i s c o n s t r a i n t , the i o s f r e e s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o pursue s o l u t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s without u l t i m a t e commitment. T h i s means t h a t the i o s i s not intended as a policy-making body but as an e x p l o r a t o r y body. However i t does not preclude on-the-spot non-policy d e c i s i o n s by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on matters w i t h i n h i s a u t h o r i t y as the o r g a n i z a t i o n * s l o c a l planner. Goals. The i o s should have e x p l i c i t l y - s t a t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e g o a l s , agreed to by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The g o a l s of r e d u c i n g c o n f l i c t i n land-use, c o o p e r a t i o n i n s e r v i c i n g l a n d , exchange of plans, and improvement of the r e g i o n a l environment, f o r example, would s a t i s f y t h i s c r i t e r i o n . The g o a l s statement should i n c l u d e a statement o f the b e n e f i t s expected f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the i o s , such as r e d u c t i o n o f s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , and improved t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n , f o r example. Power. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 3, there w i l l be a n a t u r a l tendency f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to attempt to e x e r c i s e power over one another t o achieve t h e i r c o r p o r a t e g o a l s . L e g i t i m a t e power may be e x e r c i s e d by s e n i o r government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , c o e r c i v e power by p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s over l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , or expert power by some departments such as Environment. Power plays may l e a d to the formation of c o a l i t i o n s and t o unproductive adversary r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Therefore i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r the i o s to be 87 designed so as t o e q u a l i z e members' power and minimize i t s use. A weak member c o u l d be strengthened by being allowed two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the i o s . Chapter 3 showed how the use o f power can be discouraged by the development of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s among r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and by the implementation of s a n c t i o n s and unfavourable p u b l i c i t y a g a i n s t the power-player. Processes, D e c i s i o n s i n the i o s must be made by consensus r a t h e r than by v o t i n g . A ma j o r i t y vote may f a i l t o e n l i s t the support of some of the key i o s p a r t i c i p a n t s . Voting a l s o encourages formation of c o a l i t i o n s , behind-the-scenes b a r g a i n i n g , hidden agendas, and l i n k a g e s ( I ' l l vote f o r t h i s i f you support me i n t h a t ) . Consensus on the other hand r e q u i r e s unanimity, a l b e i t with v a r y i n g degrees of commitment. While c o a l i t i o n s and l i n k a g e s are s t i l l p o s s i b l e , the consensus requirement encourages f u l l e x p l o r a t i o n of a member's o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o p o s a l by the whole group, thus t h e o r e t i c a l l y b r i n g i n g a l l the i s s u e s i n t o the open. O n f o r t u n a t e l y , consensus does r e s u l t i n very l i m i t e d scope f o r i n n o v a t i o n and r e s t r u c t u r i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 T h i s i s because the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' awareness of the n e c e s s i t y f o r agreement among i o s members i n h i b i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o p o s a l s which upset the s t a t u s quo i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . A n a l y t i c processes and compromise processes r a t h e r than b a r g a i n i n g processes should p r e v a i l i n the i o s . * A n a l y t i c processes i n c l u d e p e r s u a s i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , l o g i c , and exchange of viewpoint. Compromise i s the w i l l i n g n e s s t o y i e l d on c e r t a i n i s s u e s without l i n k i n g t h i s t o gains on other i s s u e s . B a r g a i n i n g , on the other hand, does 88 i n c l u d e l i n k e d t r a d e - o f f s , and r e s u l t s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r f e r i n g with progress on a s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e (or even promoting c o n f l i c t ) i n order t o f o r c e a c o n c e s s i o n elsewhere. T h i s argument f o r a r a t i o n a l planning process i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e d e r i v a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a f o r a u t h o r i t y and l e v e l of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a n a l y t i c and compromise processes are more f e a s i b l e with t e c h n i c a l - l e v e l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and e x p l o r a t o r y d i s c u s s i o n s than with p o l i t i c a l or s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and p o l i c y -making d e c i s i o n s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . In these days of i n c r e a s i n g pressure f o r open government, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning, and freedom of i n f o r m a t i o n , advocating a c l o s e d i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning process may be a l o s i n g cause. However, the advantages of in-camera i o s meetings outweigh the p u b l i c ' s need to know the d e t a i l s of the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . F i r s t , s i n c e p o l i c i e s and f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a re made by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , not the i o s , the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t must be taken i n t o account by those decision-makers. The e x p l o r a t o r y processes i n the i o s would be hampered i f every a l t e r n a t i v e was s u b j e c t to p u b l i c debate and i n t e r e s t group p r e s s u r e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s would be n e e d l e s s l y l i m i t e d by the r e l u c t a n c e of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o explore o p p o r t u n i t i e s which generate p u b l i c a c t i v i s m . P u b l i c concerns must be f a c e d when d e c i s i o n s are r e q u i r e d o f the policy-makers presented with the r e s u l t s of the i o s e x p l o r a t i o n s . . I t i s re c o q n i z e d t h a t i o s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l l i m i t the o p t i o n s f i n a l l y presented 89 to decision-makers, but the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the i o s w i l l have per m i t t e d wider c o n s i d e r a t i o n of more a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Second, even techn o c r a t s w i l l r e s o r t to p o s t u r i n g and i m a g e - b u i l d i n g f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i f they know t h a t the media i s watching. They w i l l do t h i s to show t h e i r s u p e r i o r s how they are p r o t e c t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the i o s , and t o show t h e i r f r i e n d s and neighbours what capable and important n e g o t i a t o r s they a r e . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who c o u l d compromise i n a c l o s e d i o s might not do so i n p u b l i c f o r f e a r o f showing weakness o r appearing t o s e l l - o u t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Such f a l s e a n t i c s f o r the sake of the p u b l i c s e r i o u s l y hamper the a b i l i t y of the i o s t o achieve c o o p e r a t i v e behaviour between p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i r d , the i o s w i l l be d i s c u s s i n g c r i t i c a l land-use i s s u e s whose r e s o l u t i o n w i l l a f f e c t l a n d values i n the r e g i o n . P u b l i c knowledge of v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s under d i s c u s s i o n , b e f o r e a consensus i s reached and i t i s presented to member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c o u l d r e s u l t i n l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , f a l s e i n f l a t i o n of v a l u e s , hasty p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , p r o t e s t s based on forward s u p p o s i t i o n s about the i s s u e being d i s c u s s e d , and so on. I t i s not up to the i o s t o bear these p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s . That i s the f u n c t i o n of the decision-makers who w i l l a c t upon the i o s * recommendations. The l o c a l p u b l i c ' s i n t e r e s t i s e s p e c i a l l y t o be p r o t e c t e d by the l o c a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The democratic process makes the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b l e to the people, and the p u b l i c servant ( l o c a l planner) r e s p o n s i b l e t o the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . F a i l u r e to p r o t e c t c i t i z e n s ' i n t e r e s t s w i l l be punished a t the p o l l s . The l o c a l planner should b r i n g t o the i o s the values and p e r c e p t i o n s of the l o c a l p u b l i c , as he should t o a l l a s p e c t s of h i s job. His sources f o r these are e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , l o c a l media, and d i r e c t c o n t a c t with r e s i d e n t s a t p u b l i c meetings and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The oth e r i o s members w i l l expect the l o c a l planner t o r e f l e c t community concerns i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s . However, t h i s w i l l be pa r t of the r a t i o n a l , e x p l o r a t o r y process i n the i o s , not the r e s u l t of o u t s i d e pressure on the i o s by i n t e r e s t groups or the media. Therefore the i o s meetings should be held behind c l o s e d doors to permit f u l l and frank e x p l o r a t i o n s of the c o n f l i c t -r e ducing and c o o p e r a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n land-use p l a n n i n g . 6 SUMMARY TABLE OF IOS CRITERIA A« S t r u c t u r a l C r i t e r i a I n i t i a t o r --weakest member o r g a n i z a t i o n L o c a t i o n — n e u t r a l or i n t e r r i t o r y o f weak member — H to 10 members p r e f e r a b l y , but see a l s o membership c r i t e r i o n f o r m a l l y and permanently e s t a b l i s h e d by each member's i n s t i t u t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g procedures Frequency of Contact — as r e q u i r e d by s i t u a t i o n , but a t S i z e Permanency 91 l e a s t three times per year Cost — minimal; l e s s than p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s — some c o s t s hidden i n host member's overhead should not r e q u i r e h i r i n q o f a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f Membership — a l l k e y 5 independent land-use planning decision-making o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the area Representation L e v e l -- r e p r e s e n t a t i v e should be the s e n i o r person d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g i n the l o c a l l e v e l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n Chairmanship — r o t a t i o n of chairmanship a n n u a l l y among members, with o p t i o n t o d e c l i n e B • Process C r i t e r i a A u t h o r i t y -- i o s agreements r e q u i r e r a t i f i c a t i o n by member o r q a n i z a t i o n s Goals — e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d s u p e r o r d i n a t e q o a l s p l u s statement o f b e n e f i t s o f i o s t o p a r t i c i p a n t s Power — e q u a l i z e members* r e l a t i v e power t as much as p o s s i b l e — discouraqe use of power by members Processes — decisions/agreements by consensus, not vote a n a l y t i c and compromise processes, not b a r g a i n i n g processes C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y — c l o s e d s e s s i o n s Returning t o the spectrum of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n S e c t i o n 4.2, the reader should r e c a l l t h a t Options B, C, D, and a modified E were considered v a l i d i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r the s i t u a t i o n i n the case s t u d i e s . Development of the i o s c r i t e r i a above now permits a f u r t h e r t e s t of the Options and s e l e c t i o n of the one which Appropriate Options — a l l — a l l — M u l t i l a t e r a l J o i n t Planning — a l l except P o l i c y C o n s u l t a t i o n a l l except Plan Review — a l l -— M u l t i l a t e r a l J o i n t Planning — a l l except P o l i c y C o n s u l t a t i o n — a l l — a l l — a l l except Plan Review — a l l except P l a n Review — a l l except P o l i c y C o n s u l t a t i o n — a l l best f i t s the c r i t e r i a : C r i t e r i a I n i t i a t o r L o c a t i o n Size Permanency Frequency of Contact Cost Membership Representation L e v e l Chairmanship A u t h o r i t y Goals Power Processes C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y E v i d e n t l y Option C, M u l t i l a t e r a l J o i n t P l a n n i n g , best meets the c r i t e r i a f o r an e f f e c t i v e i o s f o r l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g . I t i s t h i s Option which w i l l be developed i n t o an i o s model. 7 TEST OF CRITERIA AGAINST EXISTING INTERORGANIZATIONAL MODELS The c r i t e r i a can be compared a g a i n s t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l models of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s w i l l t e s t the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y o f the c r i t e r i a b efore using them to design an a p p r o p r i a t e model based on Option C, M u l t i l a t e r a l J o i n t Planning. Of Warren's f o u r models 6 my c r i t e r i a most resemble h i s F e d e r a t i v e Model of i o s . T h i s model has member o r g a n i z a t i o n s * goals g e n e r a l l y d i s p a r a t e except f o r the i n c l u s i v e g o a l s d e f i n e d f o r the i o s . A u t h o r i t y i s i n the hands of the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , not the i o s . Autonomous members may agree to a d i v i s i o n of labour or s h a r i n g of resources t o accomplish i o s g o a l s . A moderate degree of c o l l e c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the w e l l - b e i n g of the i o s -- i s expected i n t h i s model. In Braybrooke and Lindblom's d e c i s i o n model 7 (Figure 5 below), these c r i t e r i a l o c a t e the i o s r e q u i r e d f o r our s i t u a t i o n i n the Second Quadrant, d e f i n e d by high understanding of the problem and in c r e m e n t a l chanqe t o systems. In such cases the a n a l y t i c a l method i s s y n o p t i c r a t h e r than d i s j o i n t e d and the decision-makers are p r o f e s s i o n a l s or s p e c i a l i s t s r a t h e r than p o l i t i c i a n s . A graphic v e r s i o n of t h e i r model i s presented below: 9H F i g u r e 5: Braybrooke and Lindblora D e c i s i o n Model H I 6 M Analytical t^trtUvd •• Sjmopfia Dec i ; i o n — n t < * k >'•-•j CHA*&E me. ni~<x 1 Po//*f»cs f q » ¥ » 9 n ^ o"tVc r-js ) W a M , r e v o / u h o n r ( C ' r j £ i ( Analytic*.! Me-tUod.'• o f formalized or- uje.ll w>d*.rsi~oo d. ^QuAMA'JT 3^ L 6 W innt>eA,srA*JP"i)€> In the Oakland Task Force models 8 our c r i t e r i a would d e f i n e t h a t group's Mutual I n t e r a c t i o n Model. T h i s model i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by some shared d e f i n e d purposes, mutual understanding as t o i n t e r and i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , and f u n c t i o n a l s h o r t and long range p l a n n i n g . The c o o r d i n a t i v e processes f o r t h i s model c o n s i s t of i n f o r m a t i o n -s h a r i n g , p e r s u a s i v e dialogue, and p l a y i n g by the r u l e s of the game ( i e . i o s process rules) . These processes a re c o n s i s t e n t with those d e f i n e d f o r l o c a l planning i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s t h e s i s . Bolan and N u t t a l l ' s model 9 of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f planning o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r a t e g y i s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to our case. They were i n t e r e s t e d i n what v a r i a b l e s and s t r a t e g i e s i n c r e a s e d a planning o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o generate a c t i o n i n a d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . To be e f f e c t i v e , t he planning o r g a n i z a t i o n should: -- be attac h e d t o the a u t h o r i t y c e n t e r (decision-makers) r a t h e r than be independent and a d v i s o r y ; 95 use ad hoc opportunism and i n c r e m e n t a l problem-solving r a t h e r than comprehensive plan n i n g methods; -- co n c e n t r a t e on short-term and means-oriented i s s u e s r a t h e r than long-term and g o a l - o r i e n t e d ones; and — use s e l e c t e d and focussed i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the second of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n f l i c t s with the Braybrooke and Lindblom Second Quadrant i n t h a t Bolan and N u t t a l l see ad hoc opportunism and i n c r e m e n t a l problem-solving as more e f f e c t i v e than comprehensive p l a n n i n g . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s more l i k e l y with p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r than t e c h n i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . According to t h e i r model, the most e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r a planning o r g a n i z a t i o n are to maintain r a t h e r than r e -a l l o c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , t o t r y to change i n d i v i d u a l behaviour r a t h e r than modify s o c i e t a l behaviour, and to b r i n g about change w i t h i n , r a t h e r than a l t e r , e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Bolan and N u t t a l l a l s o s aw 1 0 more e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n -making r e s u l t i n g from an appointed body r a t h e r than an e l e c t e d body, r e i n f o r c i n g my c r i t e r i o n of n o n - p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and r e s u l t i n g from a long-term o f f i c e r a t h e r than a short-term o f f i c e , r e i n f o r c i n g my c r i t e r i o n f o r permanency. Bolan and N u t t a l l 1 s model f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p l a n n i n g supports the i o s c r i t e r i a with two e x c e p t i o n s . These authors f e e l t h a t the p l a n n i n g agency should be attached t o the power center i n s t e a d o f i n an a d v i s o r y r o l e . However my c r i t e r i o n f o r A u t h o r i t y puts the i o s i n an a d v i s o r y r o l e t o member o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o l d i n g ' the r e a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s i s v a l i d f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n because there i s no o v e r a l l a u t h o r i t y f o r l o c a l / p r o v i n c i a l / f e d e r a l land-use i s s u e s . I t would not be f e a s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h some kind of super-agency capable of managing land under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f government. These authors a l s o suggest t h a t i n c r e m e n t a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s more e f f e c t i v e than comprehensive p l a n n i n g . In the sense t h a t t h i s i s more t y p i c a l o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -making than t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l decision-making, a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o Braybrooke and Lindblom, then t h i s would c o n f l i c t with the c r i t e r i o n f o r L e v e l of Representation which c a l l s f o r a s e n i o r t e c h n i c a l - l e v e l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The argument f o r t e c h n i c a l versus p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has alr e a d y been made i n the c r i t e r i a . Other than these, two minor e x c e p t i o n s , the g e n e r a l agreement between the h y p o t h e t i c a l c r i t e r i a and these f o u r t h e o r e t i c a l models i s some assurance of the v a l i d i t y o f the c r i t e r i a . The two exceptions serve to b r i n g i n t o f o c u s and to re-examine the arguments f o r two of the c r i t e r i a . While not a tru e t e s t of the c r i t e r i a , t h e i r agreement with these models does i n d i c a t e t h a t the c r i t e r i a are not c o n c e p t u a l l y u n j u s t i f i a b l e or i l l o g i c a l . Applying the c r i t e r i a to the DND/community plann i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n i n BC a l l o w s g e n e r a t i o n of an i o s d e s i g n : Area I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ; P l a n n i n g Committee Goals a. E l i m i n a t i o n of l o c a l land-use plan n i n g c o n f l i c t s between and among programs and age n c i e s ; b. E l i m i n a t i o n of d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s and resources among p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; c. Development of c o o p e r a t i v e j o i n t p r o j e c t s f o r the b e n e f i t of the area; and d. Improvement of the environment and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g of the area. P a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l b e n e f i t from: a. Improved c a p a b i l i t y t o s a t i s f y own o b j e c t i v e s because of reduced i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t ; b. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r economies by s h a r i n g o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s ; c. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a p i t a l c o s t s a v i n g s by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j o i n t p r o j e c t s ; and d. Favourable p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s by demonstration of i n t e r e s t i n 98 community wel l - b e i n g and concern f o r e x t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . B. Membership — a l l key independent land-use p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as d e f i n e d i n the c r i t e r i a e a r l i e r . S e l e c t i o n of membership would probably be from the f o l l o w i n g l i s t , depending on the presence and importance of such f a c i l i t i e s or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the l o c a l a r e a : O r g a n i z a t i o n 1. F e d e r a l Departments Transport Defence S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l A g r i c u l t u r e Indian & Northern A f f a i r s P u b l i c Works 2. P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r i e s Highways & P u b l i c Works A g r i c u l t u r e Parks £ R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s / r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s A f f e c t i n g L o c a l Land-use a i r p o r t s , p o r t s , r a i l yards m i l i t a r y bases, t r a i n i n g areas and ranges f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s experimental farms Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l parks, h i s t o r i c s i t e s redevelopment, a c g u i s i t i o n , or d i s p o s a l of f e d e r a l p r o p e r t y highway r o u t i n g and upgrading, p r o v i n c i a l b u i l d i n g s l a n d commission and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e p r o v i n c i a l parks Education Health Environment Attorney-General F o r e s t r y L o c a l Regional D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y School Board Other BC Hydro CNR/BCR/CPR post-secondary e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s h o s p i t a l s and sanatariums environmental p r o t e c t i o n , water r i g h t s p r o v i n c i a l j a i l s and c o r r e c t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s use r e g i o n a l land-use p l a n , r e g i o n a l parks, sometimes h o s p i t a l s and u t i l i t i e s s e r v i c e s l o c a l zoning, development permits, and u t i l i t i e s s e r v i c e s s c h o o l s t r a n s m i s s i o n and gas l i n e s , t r a n s i t r a i l w a y rights-of-way and f a c i l i t i e s Each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l be the s e n i o r person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o c a l land-use pla n n i n g f o r h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e c i s i o n s and agreements w i l l be made by a consensus of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , with r a t i f i c a t i o n by member o r g a n i z a t i o n s where the d e c i s i o n i s beyond the a u t h o r i t y of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( u s u a l l y the c a s e ) . The meetings are c l o s e d 100 to the p u b l i c and no minutes are t o be kept. Only the agreements and d e c i s i o n s are recorded and these may only be r e l e a s e d to the p u b l i c with the unanimous consent of committee members. Chairmanship s h a l l r o t a t e a n n u a l l y among the permanent members of the Committee. P a r t i c u l a r s o f a sample committee might read as f o l l o w s : The Committee w i l l meet q u a r t e r l y or more f r e q u e n t l y i f necessary, i n the conference room i n the Re g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . S e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be provided by the Regional D i s t r i c t . Agenda items are to be advised t o the Chairman up to one week b e f o r e the meeting. At th a t time the Chairman w i l l d i s t r i b u t e the agenda to a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Permanent members of the Committee are the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s : i 2 Regional D i s t r i c t of Farm V a l l e y , M u n i c i p a l i t y of Alpha, C i t y of G l a d e s v i l l e , M i n i s t r y of Transport ( G l a d e s v i l l e A i r p o r t ) , Department of N a t i o n a l Defence (CFB G l a d e s v i l l e ) , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (Western Region Experimental Farm), BC M i n i s t r y of Parks and R e c r e a t i o n (Cambridge Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park), BC M i n i s t r y of Education (Farm V a l l e y C o l l e g e ) , and BC M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e (Land Commission). 4.9 CONCLUSIONS In t h i s chapter, i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s were examined more c l o s e l y t o i d e n t i f y the range of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which would serve the purposes of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 101 p l a n n i n g . I t was found that these r e l a t i o n s h i p s ranged from ad hoc t e c h n i c a l l i a i s o n to mutual a p p r o v a l of p l a n s , f o r the s i t u a t i o n under examination. The theory of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s from Chapter 3, the e m p i r i c a l evidence of p r a c t i c a l i t y r e v e a l e d by the context and the case s t u d i e s , and my own judgment and experience were used to develop c r i t e r i a d e f i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i o s f o r l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g . The t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y of these c r i t e r i a was v e r i f i e d by comparing them a g a i n s t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g models o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . I t was found t h a t g e n e r a l l y they conformed to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these theory-based models, although none of the models was d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s s i t u a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the c r i t e r i a were used to develop a more s p e c i f i c i o s model r e l e v a n t t o the case s t u d i e s . T h i s model i s a s y n t h e s i s of the c r i t e r i a . The hypothesis s t a t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n was t h a t an i o s designed a c c o r d i n g to t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d c r i t e r i a w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e a t promoting c o o p e r a t i o n and reducing c o n f l i c t i n l o c a l land-use planning than e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g arrangements. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be t e s t e d i n the next chapter by a p p l y i n g the designed i o s model to the case s t u d i e s i n s c e n a r i o s which r a t i o n a l l y re-enact the events with the i o s i n p l a c e . ft f u r t h e r t e s t o f the hypothesis w i l l occur i f and when t h i s i o s i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n a t some f u t u r e time. 102 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 4 1 Konglan et a l , p676 2 Goff, p 3 Warren, p408, and Mott, pp107-110 • Mott, p106 s "Key" was d e f i n e d as those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which make land-use p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g other o r g a n i z a t i o n s at l e a s t once per year. 6 Warren, p406 7 Braybrooke and Lindblom, p78 a P i t t s , P a t t e r s o n , and Kaplan, p183 « Bolan and N u t t a l l , p31 1 0 I b i d , p123 1 1 Canadian N a t i o n a l , B r i t i s h Columbia, and Canadian P a c i f i c Railways. While Canadian P a c i f i c i s not a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n l i k e the oth e r s , i t vast land h o l d i n g s and i t s c l o s e c o n t r o l by the f e d e r a l government b r i n g i t s p o l i c y -making with r e s p e c t t o land-use i n t o the p u b l i c domain. 1 2 These are f i c t i o n a l , provided only f o r purposes of t h i s example. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 103 CHAPTER 5 DESIGN APPLICATION AND CONCLUSIONS 1 INTRODUCTION In an i n c r e a s i n g l y t u r b u l e n t and u n p r e d i c t a b l e world, the growth of a new type of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o l i n k e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s has s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l environment. I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e dynamics have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and power s t r u g g l e s between i n d i v i d u a l s . These dynamics must be understood f o r the i o s to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . The importance of the i o s i n s o c i e t y w i l l continue to i n c r e a s e as the s i t u a t i o n s which c r e a t e c o n f l i c t s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , o v e r l a p p i n g o b j e c t i v e s , and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l overcrowding, i n c r e a s e i n frequency. With t h i s i n mind, a s p e c i f i c area of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , l o c a l land-use p l a n n i n g , was examined. I t was hypothesized t h a t an i o s can be designed a c c o r d i n g to t h e o r e t i c a l l y based c r i t e r i a which w i l l be e f f e c t i v e at promoting c o o p e r a t i o n and reducing c o n f l i c t i n g land-use planning between d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s e t of c r i t e r i a f o r such an i o s was d e r i v e d . Based on these c r i t e r i a , a h y p o t h e t i c a l i o s f o r l o c a l land-use pla n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s was evolved. I t i s now important t o apply t h i s model to two of the case s t u d i e s examined i n Chapter 2 t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s . 104 Because t h i s cannot be done i n r e a l l i f e by going back i n time and r e - e n a c t i n g the events with the i o s i n p l a c e , s c e n a r i o s based on what i s known of the s i t u a t i o n and the i o s design w i l l be developed to estimate the e f f e c t s of the i o s . The s c e n a r i o s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be based on judgment, and t h e r e f o r e are s u b j e c t to disagreement by o t h e r s . However the judgment w i l l at l e a s t be c o n s i s t e n t with what has been developed thus f a r i n the t h e s i s . I t i s recognized t h a t o t h e r d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be taken, o t h e r o p t i o n s pursued, and o t h e r a t t i t u d e s espoused, but the s c e n a r i o s r e p r e s e n t the best judgment o f a r a t i o n a l approach t o i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning. 5.2 POSTULATED IOS FOB THE CASE STUDIES The case s t u d i e s (except f o r Nanaimo) d e a l t with land-use planning around Canadian Force s Bases C h i l l i w a c k and Esguimalt. These represent the r u r a l and urban p l a n n i n g environments r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s i z e and composition of any i o s f o r these areas w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g l y . An i o s i n C h i l l i w a c k would be q u i t e s m a l l because t h e r e are few s i q n i f i c a n t land-use decision-makinq o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S e v e r a l l a r g e government i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t i n the study area, but most of them are s t a t i c and would t h e r e f o r e not n e c e s s a r i l y be permanent members of an i o s . Such o r g a n i z a t i o n s would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i o s i f t h e i r land-use a c t i v i t y was going to a f f e c t o t h e r s or i f the plans of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e : the Coqualeetza P r o j e c t (Dept of Health and W e l f a r e ) , v a r i o u s Indian r e s e r v a t i o n s , C h i l l i w a c k B i v e r C o r r e c t i o n a l Camp, BC 105 M i n i s t r y of Highways, and the BC F o r e s t S e r v i c e . The permanent members of a C h i l l i w a c k area i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e would be those o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose land-use d e c i s i o n s are l i k e l y to a f f e c t other members at l e a s t once per year. These o r g a n i z a t i o n s would probably i n c l u d e : the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of Fraser-Cheam, Township of C h i l l i w h a c k , C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k , CFB C h i l l i w a c k , C u l t u s Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park ( P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch), and the BC Land Commission. I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the frequency of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i n the C h i l l i w a c k area would r e q u i r e such an i o s to meet o n l y q u a r t e r l y , under normal circumstances. T h i s frequency i s adequate f o r the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e of the i o s and s t a t i c nature of the government i n s t a l l a t i o n s . However the minimum frequency of three times per year i s deemed inadequate because of the r a p i d urban growth i n the C h i l l i w a c k a r e a . The l i k e l y meeting s i t e would be a t e i t h e r the C i t y H a l l or the Regional D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . The area around CFB Esquimalt i s completely d i f f e r e n t from around C h i l l i w a c k . I t i s urban or u r b a n i z i n g , and i n v o l v e s a multitude of j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Even the Base i t s e l f i s s c a t t e r e d i n p a r c e l s a l l over the C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t (CRD) (and beyond), with only the most a c t i v e p a r t i n the Township of Esquimalt. An i o s f o r t h i s area would have to be q u i t e l a r g e . The many competing f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l agencies and the extent of l a n d h o l d i n g s beyond the c o n t r o l of l o c a l p l a n n e r s make the i o s a more necessary c o o r d i n a t i v e d e v i c e . 106 I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s to t r y to i d e n t i f y key land-use decision-making o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the Esguimalt area. However i f i o s membership i s too l a r g e , i t would be p r e f e r a b l e and f e a s i b l e to c r e a t e separate i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the r e g i o n . For example, the western p a r t s of CFB Esquimalt (Royal Roads M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e , A l b e r t Head, Rocky P o i n t , etc.) c o u l d be represented i n a s m a l l e r i o s f o r t h a t r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e p a r t of the CRD, along with m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h a t area. The Dockyard, Work P o i n t , and Naden c o u l d be represented i n another i o s f o r the urban p a r t of the CRD. And t h e r e f o r e CFB Esquimalt may only be an o c c a s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n an i o s comprising o r g a n i z a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g land-use i n the C i t y o f V i c t o r i a . I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the frequency of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i n the CFB Esquimalt area would r e q u i r e an i o s t o meet monthly. T h i s frequency i s c o n s i d e r e d necessary i n view o f the r e l a t i v e l y l a r q e s i z e of the i o s and the r a p i d l y chanqinq development of both the C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t and the area's many government i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The l i k e l y meeting s i t e f o r a s i n g l e CRD i o s would be at the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s . 5 . 3 A CHILLIWACK CASE STUDY REVISITED With the p o s t u l a t e d i o s i n o p e r a t i o n , would the r e s u l t s of the C h i l l i w a c k case s t u d i e s be d i f f e r e n t ? Case One, the Columbia V a l l e y , w i l l be re-examined i n t h i s l i g h t . In Case One, DND was concerned about development 107 pr e s s u r e s on the l e a s e d t r a i n i n g areas used by CFB C h i l l i w a c k and wanted to e s t a b l i s h new, permanent t r a i n i n g areas. Such f a c i l i t i e s would p r e f e r a b l y be owned (versus leased) by the Department, be away from the u r b a n i z i n g pressures around the Base i t s e l f , be w i t h i n a short d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e of the Base t o permit d a i l y use, and be l a r g e enough to permit l i v e f i r i n g and d e m o l i t i o n s on s e v e r a l ranges. As was shown i n Chapter 2, DND i d e n t i f i e d an area which met these c r i t e r i a , the Columbia V a l l e y , and proceeded with a purchase p l a n . Suppose i n s t e a d , i n the c l o s e d q u a r t e r l y meeting of the p o s t u l a t e d i o s , the Base planner had o u t l i n e d the Base's concerns about l e a s e s e x p i r i n g on t r a i n i n g areas and the l i k e l i h o o d of non-renewals because of urban pressures around CFB C h i l l i w a c k . Other r e l a t e d i s s u e s such as r e c e n t s u b d i v i s i o n zoning adjacent t o e x i s t i n g l i v e f i r i n g ranges would have been a i r e d . The Base's problem would become a shared problem f o r s e v e r a l reasons: a. The Township needs n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the v i c i n i t y o f the Base f o r urban development. Development pre s s u r e s i n S a r d i s and Vedder C r o s s i n g were f o r c i n g c o n v e r s i o n of farmland to housing. I f the Base's t r a i n i n g areas i n Vedder C r o s s i n g were vacated, they c o u l d be developed f o r urban use; b. The C i t y wants the Base t o remain as a v i a b l e o p e r a t i o n i n the a r e a. The economic impact of the Base i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . The Base i s probably the c i t y ' s l a r g e s t s i n g l e source o f r e t a i l and s e r v i c e t r a d e . I f DND c o u l d not a c g u i r e the t r a i n i n g areas i t needs to f u l f i l l the r o l e of the Base 108 ( p r i m a r i l y b a s i c o f f i c e r t r a i n i n g , a l l - r a n k s engineer t r a i n i n g , and support f o r 1 Combat Engineer Regiment), the Base may have t o be downgraded or r e l o c a t e d . The C i t y o f C h i l l i w a c k would support any plan which promotes the permanency of the Base, such as l a n d ownership i n s t e a d o f l e a s e s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of new t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a l s o wants the Base t o s t a y . I t i s probably the l a r g e s t s i n g l e employer i n t h e . r e g i o n and adds s t a b i l i t y to the r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t r y employment sectors.. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t however a l s o r e p r e s e n t s r e s i d e n t s i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas who might be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the establishment of new t r a i n i n g areas; The P r o v i n c i a l Parks Branch at C u l t u s Lake sees the Base's t r a i n i n g area problems as very c l o s e l y connected to i t s own. The Base uses p a r t of the lakeshore and the mountains on both s i d e s of the l a k e f o r t r a i n i n g . Any change to these uses might provide the Parks Branch with the o p p o r t u n i t y to r i d i t s e l f of m i l i t a r y t r a f f i c i n the park, m i l i t a r y r a f t s and f e r r i e s on the l a k e , and n o i s e d i s t u r b a n c e from the d e m o l i t i o n range on Vedder Mountain. I t may a l s o provide the Parks Branch with an o p p o r t u n i t y to expand the developed part of the park to the west shore of C u l t u s Lake, which i s p r e s e n t l y i n a c c e s s i b l e except f o r the DND area. The Parks Branch w i l l want to have a say i n any new l o c a t i o n f o r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g i f i t w i l l a f f e c t the C u l t u s Lake area, as the Columbia V a l l e y p r o p o s a l c e r t a i n l y would; and 109 e. The BC Land Commission would welcome any i n c r e a s e i n non-a g r i c u l t u r a l developable l a n d provided by the r e l e a s e o f l e a s e d DND t r a i n i n g areas around Vedder C r o s s i n g . T h i s would r e l i e v e some of the p r e s s u r e on the Commission to r e l e a s e more l a n d from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (ALR) f o r the fast-growing urban s t r i p between C h i l l i w a c k and C u l t u s Lake. O n t i l c r e a t i o n of the Land Commission i n 1973, the F r a s e r V a l l e y was l o s i n g 1140 h e c t a r e s per y e a r 1 o f prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d to development. The ALR was c r e a t e d to p r o t e c t most of the remaining a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d from c o n v e r s i o n . I t i s obvious t h a t the DND problem presented to the i o s would be one t h a t a l l members would want t o cooperate i n s o l v i n g , f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. One l o g i c a l s c e n a r i o o f what cou l d have taken place using the proposed i o s w i l l now be presented. At the f i r s t meeting of the i o s i n which the Base planner b r i n g s up the question of the t r a i n i n g areas, d i s c u s s i o n would center around the e x i s t i n g areas and the l e a s e s i n v o l v e d . T h i s would l e a d to a consensus t h a t a l l members would b e n e f i t i f DND c o u l d r e l o c a t e the t r a i n i n g areas t o a more undeveloped pa r t of the l o c a l a r ea. I t i s decided that the Base planner should i n i t i a t e a DND study of p o s s i b l e new s i t e s , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , as only the Base people know the d e s i r e d s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the f e a s i b l e d i s t a n c e from the Base f o r such t r a i n i n g areas. He i s asked to b r i n g the r e s u l t s of the study to the next q u a r t e r l y i o s meetinq. At the next meetinq, the Base planner p r e s e n t s the study 110 r e s u l t s showing t h a t the requirements can only be met by t h r e e areas: Columbia V a l l e y , Ryder Lake-Promontory area, and C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y , i n t h a t order of p r e f e r e n c e . The f i r s t was the best because i t was adjacent to o t h e r t r a i n i n g areas b e i n g r e t a i n e d (Cultus Lake, Vedder Mountain) , i t was c l o s e s t to the Base, and the t e r r a i n was most s u i t a b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g requirements. The Parks Branch r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s vehemently opposed because C u l t u s Lake Park l i e s between the Base and the proposed t r a i n i n g area, and would s u f f e r from e x c e s s i v e m i l i t a r y t r a f f i c . In the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n , the Base planner proposes t h a t DND b u i l d a new access road t o Columbia V a l l e y along the west s i d e of C u l t u s Lake, bypassing the park. He i s f r e e t o make such a proposal but warns the members t h a t t h i s i s not a commitment and c o n s u l t a t i o n with NDHQ i n Ottawa would have to f o l l o w . The C i t y and the Township support the DND s e l e c t i o n o f Columbia V a l l e y p r o v i d i n g the t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y t h e r e w i l l not d i m i n i s h the t o u r i s t trade d e r i v e d from C u l t u s Lake. They and the Land Commission oppose the Ryder Lake-Promontory o p t i o n because t h i s upland area i s designated f o r f u t u r e housing development i n p l a c e of the ALE l a n d s on the v a l l e y f l o o r . The Regio n a l D i s t r i c t i s concerned about the p r i v a t e landowners i n both Columbia V a l l e y and Ryder Lake-Promontory, and wants the Base t o choose the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y where only Crown l a n d would be i n v o l v e d . The Land Commission p o i n t s out t h a t Columbia V a l l e y i s used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes (mainly haying and g r a z i n g ) 2 and most of the v a l l e y i s i n the ALR, 3 t h e r e f o r e i t would 111 oppose any use which would l e a d t o development i n the area. The Base planner assures the Commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h a t the t r a i n i n g use would leave the landscape s u i t a b l e f o r f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l uses and t h a t the few s t r u c t u r e s e r e c t e d would be of a temporary nature such as wooden s h e l t e r s and p o r t a b l e huts. The Commission r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s s a t i s f i e d . The i o s decides t o meet again sooner than scheduled, as soon as the Base planner has a commitment from NDHQ to b u i l d the road around C u l t u s Lake. At the t h i r d meeting, the Base planner c o n f i r m s t h a t DND would b u i l d a paved p u b l i c road to Columbia V a l l e y along the west s i d e o f C u l t u s Lake i f they can get permanent ownership of 700 a c r e s of t r a i n i n g area i n the v a l l e y . He i n t r o d u c e s DND's R e g i o n a l P r o p e r t i e s O f f i c e r (RPO) from V i c t o r i a , who manages the Department's l e g a l property matters f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia r e g i o n . The RPO w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i o s u n t i l the t r a i n i n g area question i s r e s o l v e d . D i s c u s s i o n ensues on how DND proposes to buy the property and whether e x p r o p r i a t i o n i s a p o s s i b i l i t y . Consensus opposes use of e x p r o p r i a t i o n . The Reqional D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e wants to go p u b l i c to f i n d out how the r e s i d e n t s w i l l r e a c t t o the p r o p o s a l . The RPO i s opposed to t h i s because i t would e s c a l a t e land p r i c e s and perhaps permit opponents of the proposal t o organize o p p o s i t i o n . Other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s suggest t h a t i f independent a p p r a i s a l s were c a r r i e d out beforehand, the p r i c e e s c a l a t i o n c o u l d be countered. The Regional D i s t r i c t and the Township respond to DND's concern about o p p o s i t i o n being organized by arguing t h a t a s e c r e t i v e 112 l a n d b i d would antagonize more people than an open p r o p o s a l . I t i s agreed dur i n g the meeting t h a t both DND and the Regional D i s t r i c t c o n t r a c t separate a p p r a i s e r s t o app r a i s e the c u r r e n t value o f the 700 a c r e s i n q u e s t i o n . T h i s i s to be done c o n f i d e n t i a l l y . The DND RPO agrees t o reimburse the Regional D i s t r i c t f o r the c o s t of i t s a p p r a i s a l . * The i o s i s to meet again when the a p p r a i s a l s are completed. At the f o u r t h meeting of the i o s , i t i s agreed t h a t the proposal be made p u b l i c . The Regional D i s t r i c t , not the Base, w i l l put the proposal to the Columbia V a l l e y Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a press r e l e a s e by the Base Commander o u t l i n i n g the problems of the e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g areas, the n e c e s s i t y of having adequate t r a i n i n g areas f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the Base's r o l e and presence i n the community, and the reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the Columbia V a l l e y area. A f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t s are s u r p r i s e d by the land b i d announced by the Regional D i s t r i c t Board Chairman. Some see t h i s as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e t i r e from an uneconomic farming venture while others l o v e the p h y s i c a l beauty and l a r g e acreages of t h e i r homestead and vow never t o s e l l . They are reassured t h a t e x p r o p r i a t i o n i s not intended. While t h e r e i s some i n t e r n a l arguing over the me r i t s of s e l l i n g or s t a y i n g , the overwhelming anger of r e s i d e n t s at DND which occurred i n the case study does not occur here. I t i s defused by the apparent support of the Regional D i s t r i c t f o r the DND pr o p o s a l , the r a t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the DND dilemma by the Base Commander, the removal of the e x p r o p r i a t i o n t h r e a t , the media's p r a i s e of the c o n s u l t a t i o n undertaken by DND bef o r e 113 proceeding, and the support v o i c e d by r e s i d e n t s i n Vedder C r o s s i n g , Yarrow, and S a r d i s 5 f o r removal o f f i r i n g ranges i n t h e i r areas. The mixed sentiments o f the Columbia V a l l e y land-owners a l l a y the Regional D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s worries about h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . At the next i o s meeting, members agree t h a t DND can seek purchase o p t i o n s on the p r o p e r t i e s based on the independent a p p r a i s a l s p l u s a d i s c r e t i o n a r y amount as determined by the Department. B e l i e v i n g t h a t the problem i s s o l v e d , the i o s members a l s o agree t o go back to the r e g u l a r g u a r t e r l y meeting schedule and the RPO withdraws from the membership. Four weeks l a t e r , the Base planner r e q u e s t s and gets a s p e c i a l meeting of the i o s . Two-thirds of the p r o p e r t y owners have r e f u s e d t o s e l l . He asks f o r support f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the i o s members convince the Base not t o use e x p r o p r i a t i o n , but t o re-examine the t h i r d o ption again, the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y , t o see i f s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a i n i n g areas c o u l d be c r e a t e d t h e r e . When t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s complete, the i o s w i l l meet a g a i n . In view of the new area being c o n s i d e r e d , the chairman of the i o s w i l l ask the DND RPO, the p r o v i n c i a l Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t (ELOCS), the l o c a l BC F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e , and C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r C o r r e c t i o n a l Camp t o send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . At the next meeting, the Base planner p r e s e n t s a study showing t h a t c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l Crown lands i n the C h i l l i w a c k River V a l l e y c o u l d be used f o r t r a i n i n g areas, but t h a t the t e r r a i n i s not as s u i t a b l e , d i s t a n c e from the Base i s much g r e a t e r , and development c o s t s w i l l be h i g h e r . V a r i o u s 114 problems are r e s o l v e d i n the meeting. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e agrees t o a l l o w DND f u l l access to f o r e s t r y areas as l o n g as e x i s t i n g l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s can continue and any t r e e - c u t t i n g by DND i s c o n t r o l l e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . I t t u r n s out t h a t the C o r r e c t i o n a l Camp i s not a f f e c t e d by the s i t e s r e g u i r e d by DND, but the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f e r s t o help the Base with range development as p a r t of the outdoor s k i l l s program of the Camp. The ELOCS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e f u s e s t o c o n s i d e r any t r a n s f e r o f t i t l e of p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d to the f e d e r a l Crown, but i n d i c a t e s he can get Cabinet a p p r o v a l of a long-term renewable l e a s e f o r DND. The Parks Branch r e p r e s e n t a t i v e expresses h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the new area even though i t w i l l mean that the proposed new access road around C u l t u s Lake to Columbia V a l l e y w i l l not be b u i l t . The Regional D i s t r i c t , Township, and C i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f f e r t o support DND p u b l i c l y i n a r e l o c a t i o n of t r a i n i n g areas to the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y . The.meeting adjourns so t h a t each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e can seek approval from t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r agreed a c t i o n s . The i o s meets again one month l a t e r . NDHQ Ottawa has agreed t o proceed with the C h i l l i w a c k R i v e r V a l l e y o p t i o n and the p r o v i n c e has agreed i n p r i n c i p l e t o the long-term l e a s e s r e q u i r e d . A press r e l e a s e i s prepared i n the i o s f o r a j o i n t announcement by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board Chairman and the Base Commander. The i o s w i l l not have to c o n s i d e r t h i s matter f u r t h e r and now r e v e r t s to q u a r t e r l y meetings of the permanent members. T o t a l time taken i n t h i s s c e n a r i o , from i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the concerns of DND u n t i l commitment t o an a c c e p t a b l e 115 a l t e r n a t i v e , i s about 9 months as compared to about 36 months i n the case study. The s p a c i n g of d e c i s i o n s and i o s meetings i n the s c e n a r i o i s r e a l i s t i c . Time i s saved by the use of the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y of the i o s forum t o r e s o l v e d i f f i c u l t i e s and c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t and to i n i t i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n s as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . Although DND ends up with b a s i c a l l y the same r e s u l t s i n t h i s s c e n a r i o , the i o s has saved a l l those a f f e c t e d a g r e a t d e a l of time, f r u s t r a t i o n , bad f e e l i n g s , and c o s t . 4 AN ESQUIMALT CASE STUDY REVISITED How would an i o s i n the C a p i t a l Regional D i s t r i c t have changed the CFB Esquimalt case s t u d i e s ? Case Two, V i c t o r i a ' s O i l Storage Tanks, w i l l be examined. In Case Two, the C i t y of V i c t o r i a was anxious to have the o i l s toraqe tanks i n the harbour area phased out as p a r t of the harbour b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n program. I t took the problem to be a r e g i o n a l one and a c c o r d i n g l y asked the C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t to s o l v e i t . The CRD planners found a s i t e on DND p r o p e r t y which seemed s u i t a b l e and assumed t h a t i t c o u l d be obtained. No c o n s u l t a t i o n with DND took p l a c e u n t i l a f t e r the s i t e was i d e n t i f i e d i n the media as the new l o c a t i o n f o r the o i l tanks, and then only when DND i n i t i a t e d the c o n t a c t . I f , i n s t e a d , the CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n an i o s had brought up the problem of a new s i t e f o r the o i l tanks, perhaps the tanks would be moved by now. I t i s recognized t h a t no s i t e chosen f o r o i l s t o r a g e tanks i s l i k e l y to be s a t i s f a c t o r y to 116 those l i v i n g near the s i t e . However there are t r a d e o f f s and compensating measures p o s s i b l e between the g a i n i n g and l o s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to make the r e l o c a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l . These c o u l d be explo r e d i n an i o s to s o l v e a problem which a l l members can share: the removal of an eyesore and p o s s i b l e environmental d i s a s t e r from V i c t o r i a Harbour, the c e n t e r p i e c e of the r e g i o n . A s c e n a r i o of the same s i t u a t i o n with an i o s i n o p e r a t i o n i s developed i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. At a r e g u l a r monthly meeting of the l a r g e i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s making land-use pla n n i n g d e c i s i o n s i n the urban part of Greater V i c t o r i a , the CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e presents the o i l storage tank r e l o c a t i o n problem. He o u t l i n e s the s i t e c r i t e r i a f o r any new l o c a t i o n : l a r g e enough t o al l o w c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f a l l the o i l storage f a c i l i t i e s now along the harbour and c l o s e enough t o a sea harbour t o allow tanker d e l i v e r y . Because many other matters concern t h i s i o s and not a l l members would be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s problem, i t i s decided t h a t a subcommittee w i l l be formed to d e a l with the r e l o c a t i o n of the o i l tanks. The subcommittee i s to c o n s i s t of government o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g l a r g e p a r c e l s of c o a s t a l property or having a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem.. I t s members are CRD, 6 C i t y of V i c t o r i a , the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 7 of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and Saanich, Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways, CFB Esquimalt, the p r o v i n c i a l ELOCS, l o c a l o f f i c i a l s from the f e d e r a l Departments of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s (DINA) and F i s h e r i e s and Environment (DFE) , and one 117 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the o i l companies using the tanks. At the f i r s t meeting o f the subcommittee, members agree to l e t the CED planning department prepare a s h o r t l i s t o f f e a s i b l e s i t e s i n the r e g i o n , without r e g a r d f o r c u r r e n t ownership. Only s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and present l a n d use would be c o n s i d e r e d . The next meeting would be h e l d a f t e r t h i s study i s completed. At the second meeting, s i x weeks l a t e r , the CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e presents the l i s t of s u i t a b l e s i t e s , most c o n t r o l l e d by v a r i o u s subcommittee members and a few by p r i v a t e owners. D i s c u s s i o n ensues on the u s e f u l n e s s of i n c l u d i n g privately-owned s i t e s and i t i s decided to i n i t i a l l y r e j e c t these because of the p r o h i b i t i v e l y high c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g them. No member f e e l s p a r t i c u l a r l y threatened by the appearance of h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l a n d p a r c e l s on the l i s t of proposed s i t e s because the l i s t i s not p u b l i c and the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the d i s c u s s i o n s e l i m i n a t e s the need to l o u d l y p r o t e s t the s e l e c t i o n l i s t f o r the b e n e f i t of s u p e r i o r s or the p u b l i c . However the meeting ends with no o r g a n i z a t i o n agreeing t o provide the s i t e . Each a f f e c t e d member does agree, however, to examine h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l a n d requirements more c l o s e l y b e f o r e the next meeting. The a f f e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s are asked to be prepared to d i s c u s s the s i t e s l i s t e d , t h e i r present use and proposed f u t u r e use by the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the reasons f o r t h e i r u n a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r o i l storage, and p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s h e l d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the t h i r d meeting of the subcommittee, members debate 118 the merits and defence o f each proposed s i t e . One more s i t e i s suggested by one member (not h i s property) and i s added t o the l i s t . Some of the reasons f o r r e j e c t i n g v a r i o u s s i t e s are countered by the w i l l i n g n e s s of the o i l companies' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to i n s t a l l the l a t e s t s a f e t y and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d e v i c e s and t o b e a u t i f y and landscape the grounds at the new tank farm. Of a l l the members, CFB Esquimalt holds land best s u i t e d f o r such an i n d u s t r i a l use.. I t s h o l d i n g s around Esquimalt Harbour i n c l u d e o t h e r f u e l s t o r a g e tanks and heavy i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as the Dockyard. However, the favoured s i t e , i n the Colwood p a r t of Esquimalt Harbour, had been promised by DND as parkland t o DINA. Also CFB Esquimalt i s f e e l i n g squeezed everywhere by urban development and t h i s seems l i k e j u s t one more b i t e out of i t s d i m i n i s h i n g land r e s o u r c e s . It' p a r t i c u l a r l y needs a t r a i n i n g area f o r the i n f a n t r y u n i t based at Work P o i n t . I t becomes c l e a r t o a l l members t h a t a s i t e somewhere i n Esquimalt Harbour would be the best c h o i c e , but DINA c l a i m s t h a t use of the DND Colwood s i t e i n the harbour f o r o i l tanks would s p o i l i t s planned use as an ext e n s i o n to the F o r t Bodd N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Park. CFB Esquimalt r e f u s e s t o give up more of i t s land elsewhere around the harbour. The ELOCS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e asks i f DND would be w i l l i n g to exchange a harbour s i t e f o r a l a r g e r l a n d p a r c e l i n an upland area s u i t a b l e f o r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g . The CFB Esquimalt r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h i n k s so and wants to check with the Base Commander, BPO, and NDHQ. I t i s decided t h a t the ELOCS and 119 DND o f f i c i a l s w i l l meet apart from the i o s subcommittee to i d e n t i f y a s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g area on p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d i n undeveloped upland areas and to seek government approvals i n p r i n c i p l e f o r such an exchange. The i o s subcommittee meets again four months l a t e r . A N a t i o n a l Harbours Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and the DND RPO have been i n v i t e d to a t t e n d . A l a n d exchange has been agreed upon between DND and the province. The ELUCS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l now have c o n t r o l of a s u i t a b l e tank farm s i t e i n Esquimalt Harbour. The p r o v i n c e i s w i l l i n q to l e a s e the s i t e on a l o n g -term b a s i s to the o i l companies. Various concerns about the desiqn and o p e r a t i o n of the s i t e are d i s c u s s e d . The o i l companies' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e aqrees to requirements s t a t e d by Environment and Harbours Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . He a l s o q e t s ELDCS to aqree t o a lonqer l e a s e p e r i o d of 25 years renewable. Agreements reached i n the subcommittee meetinq are approved by t h e i r o r q a n i z a t i o n s with minor chanqes. Implementation i s t o take plac e over the next three y e a r s . The subcommittee i s d i s s o l v e d by the r e q u l a r i o s . T o t a l time taken i n t h i s s c e n a r i o , from i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the problem as a p r i o r i t y i s s u e by the CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , u n t i l commitment t o a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l land exchange, i s about 8 months as compared to over 5 years i n the case study. The key f a c t o r i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s i s s u e was the c a p a b i l i t y of using the i o s as a forum f o r e x p l o r i n g t r a d e o f f s and compensatory measures. The s c e n a r i o c o u l d have i n c l u d e d many othe r p o s s i b l e t r a d e o f f s . For example, the p r o v i n c e may want something from the c i t y or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n exchange f o r 120 l e a s i n g the new s i t e to the o i l companies. T h i s c o u l d be as i n t a n g i b l e as j u s t the l o c a l government's p u b l i c support o f a c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o v i n c i a l government p r o j e c t i n the region., another r e a l i s t i c example would be the o i l companies s e e k i n g f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s to r e l o c a t e t o the new s i t e before the l e a s e e x p i r e s a t the o l d s i t e . These types o f e x p l o r a t o r y n e g o t i a t i o n s can be handled w e l l i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l , i n f o r m a l i o s s e t t i n g . The i s s u e s r e s o l v e d i n the i o s s c e n a r i o would have, and indeed have, taken years (or even fo r e v e r ) t o s e t t l e i n the p u b l i c p o l i t i c a l arena. 5 CONCLOSIONS an i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning s t r u c t u r e can be a v i t a l instrument i n the r e s o l u t i o n of l o c a l land use c o n f l i c t s and the promotion of c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n . The key t o i t s success as such an instrument i s i t s d e s i g n . For t h i s reason, past attempts t o accomplish i n p r a c t i c e what has been demonstrated here i n theory have l a r g e l y been f a i l u r e s . The i o s design has not been based on v a l i d c r i t e r i a f o r the purposes envisaged. Some past examples i n c l u d e : a. Regional D i s t r i c t T e c h n i c a l Planning Committees -- wrong and incomplete membership; b. MSOa's urban j o i n t p l a n n i n g committees — wrong chairmanship and sponsorship, p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ; c. Regional D i s t r i c t of Nanaimo's new T e c h n i c a l Settlement Plan Committee — too l a r g e , i n a p p r o p r i a t e membership, too low a l e v e l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r some members; d. Regional d i s t r i c t p lanning commissions — too p u b l i c , 121 incomplete membership. Even an i o s which i s p r o p e r l y designed f o r the s i t u a t i o n may f r e g u e n t l y f a i l t o generate i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s re-emphasizes one of the key p o i n t s i n Chapter 3: a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l agreement must gain i n some way. I f g a i n s cannot be found f o r a l l those i n v o l v e d , the l o s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l torpedo the agreement. Gains can be l i n k e d advantages i n u n r e l a t e d i s s u e s or be valued i n t a n g i b l e s such as p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The p r o p e r l y designed i o s does provide the best forum f o r e x p l o r i n g c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n and b a l a n c i n g expected gains among o r g a n i z a t i o n s without pre-commitment by members. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u i l t up i n the i o s w i l l permit some members t o r e s o l v e i s s u e s o u t s i d e the i o s i t s e l f . The b e n e f i t s o f the i o s i n c l u d e these s i d e n e g o t i a t i o n s and p r e l i m i n a r y agreements between members. Often t h i s n a t u r a l tendency w i l l e x p e d i t e the i o s problem-s o l v i n g r o l e and w i l l reduce the number of plann i n g c o n f l i c t s which drag a l l the i o s members i n t o i s s u e s concerning o n l y a few of the members. The f u n c t i o n of the i o s i s to b r i n g s e n i o r l o c a l p l a n n e r s together i n an i n f o r m a l , c o n f i d e n t i a l , e x p l o r a t o r y , i n f o r m a t i o n - s h a r i n g atmosphere. Whether t h i s occurs w i t h i n or o u t s i d e the i o s meeting, i o s o b j e c t i v e s can s t i l l be met. There i s no magic formula t o i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . To be r e a l i s t i c , one must assume t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s have t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s a t heart. The s u r v i v a l 122 of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the top p r i o r i t y : " O r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y s t r i v e t o maintain and enhance themselves, and must i f they are to accomplish anything. However, i n order to do so, o r g a n i z a t i o n s must have purposes t h a t are accepted as l e g i t i m a t e by the l a r g e r s o c i a l system of which they are a p a r t , and they must have access t o the r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d t o accomplish t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , such as funds, manpower, and c l i e n t s . But l e g i t i m a t e d f u n c t i o n s and needed r e s o u r c e s are i n s h o r t supply and u s u a l l y must be obtained from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . O r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l l y w i l l defend themselves v i g o r o u s l y a g a i n s t t h r e a t s to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and source of r e s o u r c e s and w i l l s e i z e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to expand t h e i r purposes and i n c r e a s e t h e i r supply of r e s o u r c e s . " 8 I f we accept t h i s r e a l i t y , then p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i o s i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b e n e f i t i n some way e i t h e r by gains due t o c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n or by g a i n i n g c o n c e s s i o n s from other p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t reduce c o n f l i c t with i t s own o p e r a t i o n s . A l l t h a t the i n i t i a t i o n and c a r e f u l design of t h i s i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e does i s c r e a t e the best environment p o s s i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , t o g a i n from c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g . S o c i e t y gains i f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s gain because these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are p u b l i c agencies u s i n g p u b l i c funds to manage p u b l i c l a n d . The savings i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o s t s and wasted e f f o r t s i n the two s c e n a r i o s j u s t d i s c u s s e d were gains f o r s o c i e t y . To summarize the c o n c l u s i o n s then: a. I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l i n c r e a s e i n number and importance as i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l competition and c o n f l i c t over s c a r c e resources i n c r e a s e i n f u t u r e ; 123 b. I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s are being e s t a b l i s h e d t o attempt to reduce i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t and promote c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n ; c. In the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n of l o c a l land-use planning, an a p p r o p r i a t e i o s can be designed which w i l l maximize o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r land-use p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s to reduce c o n f l i c t s ( u s u a l l y caused by n e g a t i v e impacts on others by a proposed land-use) and i n i t i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e planning; d. P a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l make use of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s i f they p r e d i c t b e n e f i t s f o r themselves i n doing so; and e. Reduction of land-use planning c o n f l i c t s and i n i t i a t i o n o f j o i n t p l a n n i n g by government p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l b e n e f i t s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . The i o s designed and t e s t e d here has been s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d toward the DND/local community land-use p l a n n i n g c o n f l i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as i d e n t i f i e d i n the case s t u d i e s . The design would have to vary to s a t i s f y other s i t u a t i o n s . However, the c r i t e r i a which were t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d apply to any l o c a l land-use planning s i t u a t i o n i n Canada. While the c r i t e r i a are s p e c i f i c enough t o l i m i t the i o s design v a r i a t i o n s , the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l b a s i s f o r the c r i t e r i a has broader a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the development of i o s f o r any i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be v a l u a b l e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f these c r i t e r i a to other i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning case s t u d i e s . An area o f some p r i o r i t y f o r improvement o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , f o r example, i s r e g i o n a l 124 resource use p l a n n i n g . The r e l e v a n c y of these c r i t e r i a to t h a t s i t u a t i o n should be t e s t e d . A c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the designed i o s would a l s o f u r t h e r understanding of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . M o n i t o r i n g and a n a l y s i s of such a p p l i c a t i o n c o u l d l e a d t o improvements i n the design or i n one or more of the c r i t e r i a . The importance of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s to man's f u t u r e should not be underestimated. While l o c a l land-use planning c o n f l i c t s are not always v i t a l t o a community's w e l l -being, i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s a re. The s o c i a l psychology, p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , and o p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a s p e c t s of t h i s t h e s i s are a p p l i c a b l e to the study of c o o p e r a t i o n between any groups: between n a t i o n s , r a c e s , r e l i g i o n s , i d e o l o g i e s , and haves/have-nots i n the world. Increased understanding of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s may be v i t a l to the c o n t i n u a t i o n of our e x i s t e n c e on Spaceship E a r t h . T h i s t h e s i s has c o n t r i b u t e d i n a s m a l l way to t h a t r e q u i r e d i n c r e a s e i n understanding. 125 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 5 1 For p e r i o d 1953 to 1973. Source: Ward, p69 2 A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y i n Columbia V a l l e y averages C l a s s 5 CLI. Source: BC Resource A n a l y s i s Branch 3 Most of Columbia V a l l e y i s i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. Source: Map provided by the BC Land Commission * T h i s i s a j u s t i f i a b l e DND c o s t because i t i s DND which wants the l a n d . T h i s i s simply another expense i n c l e a r i n g the way f o r the l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n . I t i s s i m i l a r to e x p r o p r i a t i o n procedures i n which the government reimburses the l a n d owner f o r both h i s own a p p r a i s a l c o s t s and h i s l e g a l expenses r e l a t e d t o the e x p r o p r i a t i o n . 5 Refer t o Map 3 i n Appendix 1 f o r these l o c a t i o n s . 6 The CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l r e p r e s e n t the e l e c t o r a l areas o f View Royal, Colwood, Langford, and Metchosin as we l l as the r e g i o n a l v i e w p o i n t . 7 These are the c o a s t a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a . 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Marwell, G e r a l d and Schmitt, David R; Cooperation: An Experimental A n a l y s i s , New York, 1975. Mogulof, Melvin B; "A Modest Pr o p o s a l f o r the Governance of America"s M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas" i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, J u l y 1975, p250. Mott, B a s i l JF; Anatomy of a _ C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l , U n i v e r s i t y . o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1968. Myrdal, Gunnar; The,.Intergovernmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s and the Role of t h e i r S e c r e t a r i a t s , The I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Canada, Toronto, 1969. N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e To Regional C o u n c i l s ; Regionalism: A New Dimension i n L o c a l Government and Intergovernment R e l a t i o n s Washington, DC, 1971. Odegard, Holtan P; The Planning_Audit, US Department of the I n t e r i o r , 1974. 128 P i t t s , Robert; P a t t e r s o n , C h a r l e s ; and Kaplan, M a r s h a l l ; F e d e r a l Decision-making and Impact i n Urban Areas, Oakland Task Force, New York, 1970. R a s h l e i g h , Ted; Advisory Planning Commissions i n , , B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1975. / Rubin, J e f f r e y Z, and Brown, Bert R; The S o c i a l Psychology o f B a r g a i n i n g and N e g o t i a t i o n , New York, 1975. S t . P i e r r e , P a u l ; P u b l i c _ P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an Inter-agency Committee: The A i r p o r t . P l a n n i n g .Committee i n Vancouver, M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. Schein, Edgar H; "Intergroup Problems i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s " i n R i t c h i e , JB and Thompson, Paul; O r g a n i z a t i o n and People, St P a u l , USA, 1976. S t a t e P l a n n i n g C o o r d i n a t o r and the Utah Dept of Community A f f a i r s ; Intergovernmental P l a n n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n : Then-_Utah Experience, US Dept of Housing and Urban Development, 1975. Swan, Hedley; F e d e r a l Lands; T h e i r Use and. Management, Land Use i n Canada S e r i e s No. 11, Environment Canada, 1978. Thayer, F r e d e r i c k C; "Regional A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : The F a i l u r e of T r a d i t i o n a l Theory i n the United S t a t e s and Canada" i n Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Vol XV, p44 9, 1972. T u i t e , Matthew; Chisholm, Roger; and Radnor, Michael (eds); I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n Making, Chicago, 1972. Urban P l a n n i n g : Who Makes the D e c i s i o n s i n Our M e t r o p o l i s ? , Conference Report, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a E xtension, Los Angeles, June 24, 1967. Ward, N e v i l l e E; Land Use Programs in_Canada: B r i t i s h _ C o l u m b i a , Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1976. Warren, Roland L; "The I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l F i e l d as a Focus For I n v e s t i g a t i o n " i n A d m i n i s t r a t i y e _ S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , Dec 1967, V o l 12, pp396-419. Webster, Donald H; Urban Planning and.Municipal P u b l i c P o l i c y , New York, 1958. Weidner, Edward W; Intergoyernment R e l a t i o n s as Seen by P u b l i c O f f i c i a l s , Minneapolis, 1960. Zander, A l v i n , and Wolfe, Donald; " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Rewards and C o o r d i n a t i o n Among Committee Members" i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Science Q u a r t e r l y , June 1964, V o l 9, pp50-69. 129 APPENDICES Appendix 1: Maps of the Case Study Areas ,....130 Appendix 2: O u t l i n e of Base Development Plan Requirements 136 Appendix 3: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Con s u l t a n t s For BDP 144 APPENDIX 1 MAPS OF THE CASE STUDY AREAS 130 Map 1: Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia , - 131 Map 2: C h i l l i w a c k Area ., 132 Map 3: C u l t u s Lake and Columbia V a l l e y . . . ....133 Map 4: Southern Coast of C a p i t a l R. D 134 Map 5: Esquimalt Area , ....135 131 MAP 1 SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA N M A P 2. C H I L L I W A C K A R E A (M»t to SCCLI*.) ' " " 133 134 135 M A P 5 V / C T © * * A (Not tm £c»J<.) 136 APPENDIX 2 OUTLINE OF BASE DEVELOPMENT PLAN REQUIREMENTS (This Appendix c o n s i s t s of an excerpt from Canadian Forces P u b l i c a t i o n 120, Chapter 10 d e s c r i b i n g what must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a Base Development Plan.) 137 CFP 120 AN 257 APPENDIX 2 ANNEX C CHAP 10 APPENDIX 2 - DEVELOPMENT PLAN - OUTLINE 1. The following outline and detail in Article 1010 shall be used in formulating the development plan. The plan should be drafted using the following headings as applicable: a. INTRODUCTION. This w i l l consist of brief statements of the aim, objectives, guidelines, and assumptions relative to the plan. (1) Aim. The aim of the development plan w i l l be to establish directions for the future development of the base. This can involve the consolidation of existing f a c i l i t i e s , the disposal and replacement of f a c i l i t i e s , and/or the prov-ision of new f a c i l i t i e s . (2) Objectives. These can include the following: (a) provide f a c i l i t i e s to accomplish assigned roles, missions and tasks. (b) provide optimum l i v i n g , working, and training environ-ment. (c) provide maximum efficiency for the use of vehicles and equipment. (d) reduce 0&M costs. (e) provide greater building use efficiency, (f) provide greater land-use efficiency. (3) Guidelines. Development plans reflect f a c i l i t i e s require-ments to provide the capability to accomplish assigned roles. Operational concepts, roles, technology equipment, and establishments are subject to change; therefore, guidelines are essential in preparing development plans. Guidelines for a particular base w i l l be obtained from NDHQ prior to the drafting of the plan. (4) Assumptions. Whenever the guidelines are not considered adequate for proper planning, assumptions may have to be made. These should be clearly stated including the rationale to support them. b. FACTORS• This part of the plan should state those factors that can have an influence on the future of the base. Consideration should be given to the following: 10C2-1 138 AN 25.7 CFP 120 APP 2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10 (1) Regional and Local Factors. A military base i s normally an integral part of the community in which i t i s located, and of the region which serves i t . Of concern are the following: (a) Transportation. The adequacy of access roads, railway or docking f a c i l i t i e s . (b) Training Areas. The relationship of f i r i n g ranges impact areas and other factors detrimental to growth and safety. (c) Resources. Those u t i l i t i e s and services supplied to or by the base through special arrangements or otherwise. Included under this general heading can be churches, schools, recreation centres, municipal u t i l i t i e s , and the l i k e . (d) Zoning. The establishment of complementary land uses and adequate fringe controls through local zoning ordinances and the external constraints which may hinder the development of the base. (e) Social or Economic Factors. Those factors which may influence the future development of the base. (2) Other Factors. The following factors should also be con-sidered; (a) Climate. (b) Optimum Size. Normally the larger the activity at a base, the lower the overhead becomes i n relation to productivity. However, for some ac t i v i t i e s , such as flying training, there i s a point beyond which i t i s either unsafe or uneconomical to go. (c) Compatibility of Act i v i t i e s . Location of several activities of types of units on a base keeps the number of bases to a minimum, thus reducing overhead. In some cases units must be co-located because, as part of a team, they must train together so they can fight together. There are some a c t i v i t i e s that are mutually incompatible and should not be co-located; e.g. a college and a jet flying unit. Knowledge of future long-range regional and local plans w i l l be important to ensure compatibiliity of base activities with future growth around the base. CFP 120 AN 257 APP 2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10 (d) Quarters for Single Personnel. Existing scales and number of single personnel l i v i n g on or off base must be considered. (e) Married Quarters. Availability on economy, vacancy rates, etc. should be included. (f) Messing/Dining. Policy and Constraints due to staff-ing. (g) Natural Resources Management. (h) Pollution. c. EXISTIING FACILITIES. This part of the plan w i l l summarize the findings made during the survey of existing f a c i l i t i e s . It should give in general terms: (1) Capacity of existing buildings and structures, their con-dition, level of maintenance and their functional suit-a b i l i t y for current uses. (2) Capacity of existing u t i l i t i e s , their conditions and cap-ab i l i t y for additional loading. (3) Capability of existing building, and structures to being put to other uses. d. BASE FUNCTIONS AND FACILITIES. This section of the development plan shall consist of a brief discussion of the existing and foreseen base functions within the context of the f a c i l i t i e s  required for these functions. This discussion should be organ-ized in a logical sequence to avoid duplication of information and ensure continuity. Emphasis should be given to those functions that require new f a c i l i t i e s . This section w i l l also provide the basis from which the land use plan i s evolved. The following sub-headings are suggested when applicable, and additional ones should be added to meet individual base requirements. (1) Operation/Training. Examples of operation/training f a c i l i t i e s are military a i r f i e l d and/or heliport with related hangars, f i r i n g ranges, Impact areas, training areas, ammo storage areas, piers and j e t t i e s , highly volatile or dangerous substances storage areas, etc. (2) Industrial. These f a c i l i t i e s include those ac t i v i t i e s essential to the maintenance and operation of the entire 10C2-3 AN 257 CFP 120 APP 2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10 installation: supply, transportation, aircraft, ship and vehicle repair f a c i l i t i e s , construction engineering, com-munications, CHPs, coal storage areas and POL compounds, etc. (3) Administration. Those f a c i l i t i e s required for base admin-istration. It would include operation/training buildings, parade grounds, medical and dental f a c i l i t i e s , etc. (4) Domestic. Examples of domestic f a c i l i t i e s are married quarters, single quarters and messing f a c i l i t i e s . (5) Community and Recreation. Examples are those f a c i l i t i e s essential for morale and welfare. They include the base exchange, shopping centre, cafeteria, bank, post office, chapels, dependents schools, hobby shops, library, theatre, curling rink, recreation centre and associate f a c i l i t i e s . (6) Parks and Open Spaces. Open space can include land reserved for future base development, security or safety zones near operation/training areas, land used as buffer zones near noisy testing sites and recreational sites, (7) U t i l i t i e s . U t i l i t i e s include water and sewage works, gas, ele c t r i c a l and steam distribution systems. (8) Transportation. Those f a c i l i t i e s not directly associated with the operation/training element such as highways, a i r -f i e l d s , railroad spur lines, and water access and berthing f a c i l i t i e s . Consider Internal base communication f a c i l i t -ies by foot and vehicle (climate may be a governing fac-tor) . (9) Future Base Expansion. The capacity for expansion both of land and f a c i l i t i e s within the base must be considered. e. LAND USE PLAN. For most bases the land use plan w i l l be dic-tated by existing f a c i l i t i e s . Nonetheless the posture of the base in future years should be the major influence. Bases are to be zoned in a manner which w i l l be responsive to their needs. The land use plan should be summarized on a drawing. A base w i l l be zoned into the following areas: (1) Operation Training Areas. Characterized by large open areas with a minimal amount of structures. These areas serve f i e l d operations and training. Included i n this category are such uses as military a i r f i e l d s , heliports, f i r i n g ranges, impact areas, training areas and military water dock f a c i l i t i e s . 10C2-4 141 CFP 120 AN 257 APP 2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10 (2) Industrial Areas. Industrial areas include those activ-i t i e s which are essential to the maintenance and operation of the base. Such areas as supply, construction engineer-ing, vehicle garaging and maintenance, ac and ship repair, coal storage, electronic workshops, petroleum storage and ammunitions storage would be examples of industrial functions. (3) Administration Areas. Administration areas include f a c i l -i t i e s that provide office accommodation for Base Head-quarters, integral and lodger units and various minor functions lik e the DND School Board. (4) Domestic Areas. The domestic areas include married quarters, single quarters and related messing f a c i l i t i e s , (5) Community Areas. Community areas include r e t a i l outlets and recreational f a c i l i t i e s such as Base Exchange, Shopping Centre, Theatre, Sports Complex, Club buildings, banking f a c i l i t i e s and medical f a c i l i t i e s essentia] to both m i l i t -ary and c i v i l i a n residents and elementary and secondary schools. (6) Open Space. Open space includes natural recreational land, land reserved for future development, buffer areas and greenbelt areas. f. SUMMARY OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS. A l i s t of a l l requir-ements forecast by the plan w i l l be included with a short just-i f i c a t i o n for each item. An Indication of the size w i l l be given whenever possible either by physical dimensions or standard buildings. This l i s t may be arranged by priority or activity/function/location depending on needs of the individual base. g. IMPLEMENTATION. Phasing of projects should be done sequentially and not tied to years. Very careful study must be given by the Base Development Committee to the priority for new construction, considering a l l factors particularly the economical use of existing f a c i l i t i e s . It i s unlikely that any particular base w i l l be able to complete i t s construction over a short period. It i s therefore necessary to indicate the requirements deemed to have the highest priority so that action can be taken to place them in the Defence Services Program (DSP). This p r i o r i t y l i s t must be reviewed annually, by the Base Development Committee i n order that revisions due to change in role, population, etc, can be recommended and the necessary action taken at CHQ/NDHQ level to keep the plan current. 10C2-5 142 AN 257 CFP 120 APP 2, ANNFX C, CHAP 10 h. ANNEXES. Annexes to the development plan shall consist of tab-ular data and the drawings necessary to supplement the narrative portion of the plan: (1) Tabular data might include: (a) forecast of costs, savings, and revenues to j u s t i f y the disposal of f a c i l i t i e s and/or consolidation at other sites; (b) other information pertinent to individual base devel-opment plans, eg, application of accommodation scales to each f a c i l i t y to show accommodation entitlement, existing capacity and variance; (c) a l i s t summarizing proposed changes i n the use of existing buildings Indicating the phasing of the change. (d) any section of the report which i s too lengthy should be given as an Annex i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the under-standing of the report. (2) Drawings shall consist of the following: (a) A regional area map at a scale suitable to show the relationship of the base to the surrounding region within a radius of 25 to 50 miles, or i n special cases, within a larger radius necessary to encompass sa t e l l i t e sites. In addition to military i n s t a l l -ations, the map should show major built-up areas and significant geographic features. The relationship of installations in localized areas such as large urban centres should be c l a r i f i e d by a "partial blow-up" of the area concerned. (b) A marked-up print of a site drawing from which the site development drawing can be prepared in accordance with Chap 15. A site v i s i t w i l l normally be made by NDHQ/CCP staff prior to preparation of the site devel-opment drawing. Since there i s seldom only one method of development, two prints showing alternative devel-opment proposals may be considered, at the discretion of the base, to aid NDHQ in formulating the f i n a l site development drawing. Areas reserved for future expan-sion shall be indicated for each function, eg, oper-ation/training, administration, support, industrial, domestic, community and recreation. 10C2-6 143 Cl'T 120 AN 257 APP 2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10 2. NOTES FOR PREPARATION OF BASE DEVELOPMENT PLAN a. Sections 1 and 2 of the BDP contain most of the background and local conditions and this detail need not be repeated unless required for emphasis. b. The plan should be in sufficient detail to permit a l l level of management to understand the requirements of the base and correctly assess the urgency of the projects i n relation to those of other bases. c. The development plan shall be i n narrative form, supported by tabular data and drawings when applicable. The terms "plan" and "drawing" are not interchangeable. d. The plan shall have an Index. The narrative portion of the plan shall be typed on 8-1/2 x 11 inch white bond paper. Summary Tables should conform to the 11 inch size. CETOs shall govern drawing standards. e. Ten copies of the development plan shall be submitted to NDHQ/ DGQ. i 10C 2-7 144 APPENDIX 3 INSTRUCTIONS TO CONSULTANTS FOR BDP GENERAL 1. The AIM of the Base Development Plan i s to provide g u i d e l i n e s (Master Plan) f o r the o r d e r l y , comprehensive and economical development and/or redevelopment of the base f o r the time frame 75/85. OBJECTIVES 2. The o b j e c t i v e s of the BDP a r e : a. Provide f a c i l i t i e s t o accomplish assigned r o l e s . b. Provide optimum l i v i n g , working and t r a i n i n g environment. c. Provide maximum e f f i c i e n c y f o r use of v e h i c l e s and equipment. d. Provide maximum e f f i c i e n c y f o r use of ship r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s . d. Provide maximum e f f i c i e n c y f o r supply and sto r a q e f a c i l i t i e s . f . Reduce OSM c o s t s . g. Provide g r e a t e r land-use e f f i c i e n c y . h. P r o v i d e g r e a t e r b u i l d i n g - u s e e f f i c i e n c y . ASSUMPTIONS 3. Development plans r e f l e c t f a c i l i t i e s requirements t o provide the c a p a b i l i t y t o accomplish assigned r o l e s . O p e r a t i o n a l concepts, r o l e s , technology, eguipment and est a b l i s h m e n t s are sub j e c t t o change; t h e r e f o r e , assumptions 145 are e s s e n t i a l i n p r e p a r i n g development p l a n s . These assumptions w i l l be provided to the c o n s u l t a n t . FACTORS 4.. The c o n s u l t a n t s should g i v e c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : a. Regional and L o c a l Factors., A m i l i t a r y base i s normally an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the community i n which i t i s l o c a t e d and o f the r e g i o n which serves i t . Of concern are the f o l l o w i n g : (1) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The adeguacy of access roads, r a i l w a y or docking f a c i l i t i e s . (2) T r a i n i n g Areas. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of f i r i n g ranges, impact areas and other f a c t o r s d e t r i m e n t a l to adjacent p r i v a t e growth and s a f e t y . (3) Resources. Those u t i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d t o or by the base through s p e c i a l arrangements or otherwise. Included under t h i s g e n e r a l heading can be churches, s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , m u n i c i p a l . u t i l i t i e s , and the l i k e . (4) Zoning. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of complementary l a n d uses and adeguate f r i n g e c o n t r o l s through l o c a l zoning ordinances and the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s which may hinder the development of the base. (5) S o c i a l , or. Economic F a c t o r s . Those f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e the f u t u r e development/redevelopment o f the base; eg. h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g s and cemetary. b. Other F a c t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s should a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d : 146 (1) Climate. (2) Optimum S i z e . Normally the l a r g e r the a c t i v i t y a t a base, the lower the overhead becomes i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . However, f o r some a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s a p o i n t beyond which i t i s e i t h e r unsafe or uneconomic to go. (3) C o m p a t i b i l i t y of A c t i v i t i e s . L o c a t i o n of s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s or types of u n i t s on a base keeps the number of bases t o a minimum, thus r e d u c i n g overhead. In some cases u n i t s must be c o - l o c a t e d because, as part of a team, they must t r a i n together so they can f i g h t t o g e t h e r . There are some a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are mutually i n c o m p a t i b l e and should not be c o - l o c a t e d ; eg. a c o l l e g e and a j e t f l y i n g u n i t . Knowledge o f f u t u r e long-range r e g i o n a l and l o c a l plans w i l l be important to ensure c o m p a t i b i l i t y of base a c t i v i t i e s with f u t u r e growth around the base. (4) Quarters f o r S i n g l e _ P e r s o n n e l . New S c a l e . L i v i n g i n / o u t . (5) Married Q u a r t e r s . A v a i l a b i l i t y on economy. (6) Messing/Dining. P o s s i b i l i t y vs P o l i c y . (7) Ecology. (8) P o l l u t i o n . (The above i s a copy of p a r t of the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the c o n s u l t a n t s p r e p a r i n g the Base Development Plan f o r CFB Esguimalt.) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

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