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Interorganizational relations in local-use planning Low, William James 1979

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INTERORGANIZATIONAL  RELATIONS  IN LOCAL  LAND-USE  PLANNING  by WILLIAM B.Eng., R o y a l  JAMES'iLOW  Military  College  o f C a n a d a , 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l Planning)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  May  (c)  William  1979  James Low,  1979  In  presenting  requirements  this for  thesis  an  advanced  British  Columbia, I agree  freely  available  that  permission  scholarly by  for  for  purposes  allowed  of  without  degree  that  the  extensive may  this  partial  reference  It  thesis  understood  for financial  and E e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  of  Planninq  Columbia  of  the  the.University of shall  make  I further this  i t  agree  thesis  for  by t h e Head o f my S c h o o l o r  my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  S c h o o l o f Community  at  Library  copying  i s  fulfilment  and s t u d y .  be g r a n t e d  his representatives.  publication  in  that  copying  gain s h a l l  or  n o t be  ABSTRACT  INTERO EG AHIZATIONAL RELATIONS IN The  complexity  reflected  i n the  and  leading  competition,  and  jurisdictions for  and  twentieth  number  overlapping i n the f i e l d  conflicting  rather  o f the  size  to  conflict  with  productive  turbulence  increasing  agencies,  LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING  of  century  government  responsibilities,  of p l a n n i n g .  Multiple  g o a l s have s t i m u l a t e d t h e  than  is  symbolic  need  interorganizational  structures. Local land-use  land-use  planning  d e c i s i o n s are  interest.  In  particularly  Canada,  direction  of e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s .  and  federal  area, these meet t h e i r land-use of  land-use  harmful is  agencies  perceived The  are  Within  decision-making  efficient It (ios)  regional  cooperative  plans,  t h a t an  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed would  planning  conflicts  p r o v i d e an and  missed  to  be the  ignores  provincial planning  their  land  r e g a r d l e s s of  to  local  and o b j e c t i v e s have  adjacent  led land  to uses,  opportunities  for  planning.  i s hypothesized  criteria  belief  a local  organizations  and  public  under  of  varied responsibilities  interorganizational c o n f l i c t , incompatible ineffective  staff  f r e e t o use  responsibilities,  the  thought  However, t h i s  agencies.  uncoordinated  to  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l independence  independent  policies.  where  government's p l a n n i n g  government  own  field  planning  by  r e a l i t y of the  local  this  controlled  the  the  i s one  interorganizational  according to  effective  structure  theoretically-derived  mechanism f o r r e d u c t i o n  promotion of c o o p e r a t i v e  local  of  land-use  i i i planning, hoc  and  be  superior  thesis  between t h e agency,  the  their  planner  actions  e x i s t i n g r e l i a n c e on  ad  of  power  struggles.  This  understanding  the  plus  case s t u d i e s , provide criteria.  The  model f o r l o c a l Finally, using  an  the  group  i s fundamental  of  and  criteria planning  for  revealed  development  are  used  in British  to  to  to  the  determine  situation. whenever more  risk  for  cooperation  Organizations they  will  frequently  will  benefit in  the  shown  than  make use  ios  that  does  test an  ios  so.  designed  studies  effect the  on ios  opportunities the  of these  from d o i n g  design  its  p r o v i d i n g both  reduced  ios  to  case  would and  of  the  Columbia.  It i s  at  by  e x i s t i n g models  decision-making  i o s model i s a p p l i e d  much more e f f e c t i v e  to  interorganizational  interorganizational cooperation. be  dynamics,  interorganizational  compared a g a i n s t  scenarios  of  ios.  framework are  bases  nature  of  and  DND  and  Columbia.  practical, considerations  land-use  realistic  between two  terms  followed  conflicts  the  understanding  These  the  land-use  r e l a t i o n s h i p s theory  criteria  validity.  This i s  in British  in  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning  their  Defence.  explores  dynamics of  the  independent  negotiations,  theoretical  relations,,  representative  arising  relations  psychology  relationship  both  communities  social  contextual  National  next  interorganizational  the  one  currently  thesis  This  and  which i l l u s t r a t e  neighbouring  The  examines  Department o f  case s t u d i e s  and  first  local  cooperative  of  to the  arrangements. The  by  would  existing  opportunities  This  will  according  occur to  theoretically-derived While criteria studies for  the  developed  and p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s  land-use  than  i o s i s designed  are soundly  understanding in  criteria  planning gained  the c r u c i a l f i e l d  here  otherwise.  for a specific situation,  from  both  t h e o r y and  f o r design of s i m i l a r  anywhere i n Canada.  $$$$$$$$$ #  case  mechanisms  Furthermore,  c o n t r i b u t e s t o our l i m i t e d  of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  the  the  the  knowledge  relations.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7  1: THE CONTEXT Introduction F e d e r a l Land Management The M i l i t a r y Base P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n The L o c a l and Base P l a n n i n g I n t e r f a c e . P o l i c y and P o l i t i c s i n L o c a l L a n d - u s e P l a n n i n g ... Conclusions  CHAPTER 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  2: CASE STUDIES IN LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING Introduction . 24 Case One: The C o l u m b i a V a l l e y , 26 C a s e Two: V i c t o r i a ' s O i l S t o r a g e Tanks 34 C a s e T h r e e : C h i l l i w a c k Sewage C o n n e c t o r . . . . . . . . . . 40 C a s e s F o u r To Seven: B r o a d e n i n g t h e P e r s p e c t i v e . . 4 4 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 52  CHAPTER 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6  3: THE NATURE OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS Introduction Group B e h a v i o u r i n t h e IOS .... W i e l d i n g Power i n t h e IOS R e s i s t i n g Power A t t e m p t s i n t h e IOS P r o m o t i o n o f C o o p e r a t i o n .,. A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o L o c a l Land-use P l a n n i n g  CHAPTER 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9  4: INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CRITERIA AND DESIGN Introduction .....73 S p e c t r u m o f I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ........ 74 C r i t e r i a f o r a L o c a l IOS . 78 Structural Criteria 79 Process C r i t e r i a .. . 85 Summary T a b l e o f IOS C r i t e r i a 90 T e s t o f C r i t e r i a A g a i n s t E x i s t i n g Models 93 D e s i g n o f t h e IOS f o r L o c a l Land-use P l a n n i n g .... 97 Conclusions 100  CHAPTER 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5  5: DESIGN APPLICATION AND CONCLUSIONS Introduction 103 P o s t u l a t e d IOS f o r t h e C a s e S t u d i e s ..............104 A C h i l l i w a c k Case R e v i s i t e d ...106 An E s q u i m a l t Case R e v i s i t e d ...............115 Conclusions 120  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ..  APPENDICES A p p e n d i x 1: Maps o f t h e C a s e S t u d y A r e a s A p p e n d i x 2: Base Development P l a n R e q u i r e m e n t s A p p e n d i x 3: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o C o n s u l t a n t s F o r BDP  5 6 10 12 14 16 21  55 57 60 65 66 70  . . 126 .130 136 .......144  vi  L I S T OF  FIGURES  F i g u r e 1: Political  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Base  F i g u r e 2: Political  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n Local Planning  F i g u r e 3: Conflict Figure 4: Group  Planning  Of G o a l s  I d e n t i t y i n t h e IOS  F i g u r e 5: Braybrooke  and L i n d b l o m D e c i s i o n M o d e l  . . . . . . . . . . . .18  19  56  60  94  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  To  P r o f e s s o r Brahm  demanding  brainstorming  continuing To for  encouragement  my w i f e  their  when t h e  approach  Walter,  Dr.  and of  f o r those  sessions  in  fascinating  his office  and  and h i s  when t h i n g s g o t r o u g h .  Jennifer,  support  temperamental To  Wiesman  and d a u g h t e r s  Julie  and  Stephanie,  understanding  throughout,  especially  thesis  deadlines  turned  me  into  a  bear. Peter  and  Alan  Oberlander, Sutton  Professor Irving  f o r their  assistance.  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Fox, Dr.  valuable  advice  Skip and  1 INTRODUCTION  The waning  i n c r e a s i n g complexity years  capability  of  the  of An  the  and  variables  operation  or  man  has  organizations  uncertainties  In  this  between  conflicts, has  the  In and  on  the  urgency  *  overlapping  In  and  will  issues.  be  Formalized  i n a framework r e f e r r e d  s t r u c t u r e , or i o s .  agencies,  1  and  power  found  such  the  much o r  Some v e r y  at t h e  more  important  end  o f each  goals  struggles need  for  planning  mechanisms  promoting c o o p e r a t i v e  to  *  conflicting  stimulate  of  mechanism as  these  relations  decorative interorganizational  and  and  conflict  r e c o g n i t i o n of  jurisdictions,  and and  interests  before.  occur  effectiveness  of the  of the  Footnotes  s h r i n k i n g environment  bureaucracies  conflicts  its  i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e  never  among p l a n n i n g  The  design  by  The  of  overlapping  productive r a t h e r than  resolving  affect  environment,  as  threatened  structures.  will  uncertain  interorganizational  priorities  among  longer either f o r e c a s t  f o r m a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  planning,  their  t u r b u l e n t and  interorganizational relations a s an  the  complementary  organizations.  flourished  here  manage  have l e d t o g r e a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n  government  the  a c t i o n s of  number  responsibilities  to  no  in  have d i m i n i s h e d  which  sought t o i n c r e a s e c o n t r o l  growing  of l i f e  i n f l u e n c e the  number o f g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . the  century  o r g a n i z a t i o n can  directly  organizations.  turbulence  twentieth  man's  environments.  and  for  a c t i o n s depends than  on  issues will  chapter.  the never  2 be r e s o l v e d i n a p o o r l y  designed  This t h e s i s looks at l o c a l where p l a n n i n g  conflicts  are  particularly  use  planning  municipal direction the  of the  responsibilities, extent  of these  example, t h e 5168  to  be  hectares The  in Victoria  lead to c o n f l i c t  adjacent  land-uses,  3397  planning.  Despite  past  joint  attempted planning would  before.  planning In  The  be  has  mechanism, t h e faulty  conflict  For  The  has  in  land-use  land-using  regional  cooperative problems  proper not  really  been the  cooperation be  designed  cooperation  planning  by  design  been t h a t i f  i o s can  promoting  to  incompatible  brought together,  at  local  amount  2  i o s , has  effective  their  is significant.  ineffective  t h a t an  and  The  efficient  assumption  the  ignores  meet  Vancouver  been m i n i m a l .  I t i s hypothesized more  to  attempts to resolve these  o r g a n i z a t i o n s were j u s t  which w i l l  local  planning  result.  reducing  success  local  under  o b j e c t i v e s of  for  the  policies.  hectares. and  land-  provincial  planning  i n a p p r o p r i a t e uses, opportunities  the  land  in  Local  belief  between o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  missed  of  local  alone  p l a n s , and  planning,  their  independent land-holdings  and  staff  a u t h o r i t y of  use  varied responsibilities  agencies  joint  planning  field  decisions  by  However t h i s  r e g a r d l e s s of  f e d e r a l holdings  land-use  controlled  jurisdictional to  a s one  public interest.  district  government a g e n c i e s  planning  uncoordinated  to the  thought  regional  land-use  of e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s .  reality  federal  harmful  is  or  and  ios.  than  and  existing  arrangements. Chapter  planner  1, t h e  and  one  contextual independent  relationship land-user,  between  the:Department  the of  3 National  Defence  understanding  (DND),  of t h e  is  presented.  This  environment f o r the  will  case  ensure  studies  an  which  follow. In and  C h a p t e r 2,  cooperation  case s t u d i e s of between l o c a l  National  Defence are  agency  representative  organizations  provincial  federal  DND/community of  British  concern  Canadian  and In  urban  Columbia Forces  p a r t s o f BC  Chapter  3,  the  psychology  interorganizational f u n c t i o n i n g of an this  an  an  Chapter  in  terms of  would be  theoretical  studies  development of h y p o t h e t i c a l c r i t e r i a  checked  against  local  and  studies in  nature  of  dynamics  of  the  key  willing  provide  to  DND  Esquimalt,  the of  A  revealed  applicable  number  and  Some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  case  The  negotiations,  exploration.  this  an  other  case  what i t e x p e c t s f r o m t h i s  4,  the  between  explores  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and by  Any  a larger  The  of  land-use  have b e e n used.  issues  struggles.  organization  i o s a t a l l and In  could  area.  as  interorganizational structure i s  theoretical  emerges i s why in  power  only  C h i l l i w a c k and  thesis  groups,  social  Department  respectively.  relations  from  local  communities. Bases  conflicts  independent  were s e l e c t e d from  interorganizational  the  a  the  chosen  the  conflict/cooperation  various  rural  in  and  was  land-user  case s t u d i e s  land-use  DND all  decision-making or  planners  presented. of  land-use planning  land-use  e x i s t i n g models  concept  planning.  which  to participate participation.  practical  for  gained  understanding  the  of  considerations framework  design The  of  of  an  criteria  interorganizational  for ios are  planning  4 and Using  decision-making these  planning In test  criteria,  situation  accomplished  on  by  scenarios  conclusions thesis,  an i o s  i n British  C h a p t e r 5, t h i s  i t s effect  logical  f o r some c o n f i r m a t i o n  are  model  for  the  local  i o s i s a p p l i e d t o the c a s e  re-enacting involving drawn  from  validity. land-use  Columbia i s developed.  interorganizational  and s u g g e s t i o n s  of t h e i r  two the what  of  relations. the case  ios has  f o r further research  This  studies  model. been  studies to i s  using  Finally,  learned  i n the  are offered.  FOOTNOTES IN INTRODUCTION  1  This abbreviation f o r i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structures w i l l used t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s .  2  Swan, p11, b a s e d on t h e C e n s u s M e t r o p o l i t a n  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  Areas.  be  5 CHAPTER 1  THE  1.1  CONTEXT  INTRODUCTION Within several They  every  independent may  be  airports,  or they  may  land,  such  least  one  use  fulfill user  such be  jurisdiction  government  institutions  experimental a s BC  agencies  such  farms;  feature  as  they  control  land their  is  penitentiaries, may  r a t h e r than  Railways;  occupy  Crown  A l l have  S e n i o r governments a r e f r e e  to  they  in  to  Department  of  cooperation  One  way such  National  between  communities serve  very w e l l as  inadequacies  existing  of  any  are independent  at  jurisdiction. control  they  Crown  the  responsibilities.  and  be  of  the  conflicts  common —  are  agencies.  Hydro o r C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l  which  in  there  land-using  as t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e o r E n v i r o n m e n t .  planner's the  planning  senior  large  or  corporations  local  local  case  deemed n e c e s s a r y independent Defence.  military  landPlanning  bases  s t u d i e s t o demonstrate  interorganizational  relations  and the in  planning. This chapter base,  and  local  appreciation problems  the  land-use  of the  with  between t h e exposed.  develops  the  local  case  the context  This should  federal,  planning i n order  s t u d i e s i n Chapter  existing  planner  of  and  reliance the  2.  on ad  military  military  to gain a b e t t e r ' Some  of  the  hoc c o n s u l t a t i o n base  p r o v i d e a sound b a s i s f o r  are  also  understanding  dynamics of the i s s u e s r e v e a l e d i n t h e case s t u d i e s .  6 1.2 FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT  Local  planning  broad  powers  their  boundaries.  official  by  plans  jurisdictions the  in  provinces  Desired  are  to control land  land  and e n f o r c e d  Canada  uses  are  by z o n i n g  delegated  uses  within  designated  on  b y - l a w s and t h e p e r m i t  process. This holdings,  control  satisfactorily  but  jurisdictionally  is  regulates  private  impotent  with  land  owned by s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e i r a g e n c i e s .  and  provincial  l a n d i s owned by t h e Crown  Canada o r a P r o v i n c e ) . including pleasure  local  jurisdiction  administrations  local  land  over  lands  owned  lands,  l a n d use c o n f l i c t s  1970  the  own  departmental  (in right of either  exist  only  at  Land  was  It  was  in tri-level  regarding  and  had  on  no  since  t h e use o f  t h e tremendous impact  In  various  Canada s  urban  1  a coordinating  umbrella  over  departments.  recognized  achievement o f f e d e r a l goals environment.  governments,  have  o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Orban  programs o f v a r i o u s ownership  plans  the  laws.  between t h e two do a r i s e .  activities  The f o r m a t i o n  and  priorities  was an a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e  urban  In  by  government r e c o g n i z e d  environment.  leverage  (which  controls  their  federal  their  use  have  the  Federal  The Crown i s s u p e r i o r t o h e r s u b j e c t s ,  governments  Affairs  respect to  o f t h e p r o v i n c e ) , and i s n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e i r  Since  land  in  both  as  a key f a c t o r  the  urban  i n the  and  a l s o s e e n a s a means o f p r o v i d i n g  rural some  negotiations.  1975, t h e F e d e r a l Land  Management  Policy  was  published  7 as  T r e a s u r y B o a r d C i r c u l a r 1975-80.  principle the  that  f e d e r a l land  efficient  provision  achievement  of  objectives.  The  federal  wider  i m p o r t a n c e and  lands  been u s e d  The  new  policy  needs of In  local of  the  The  numerous,  acquisition  and  agencies.  The  well  as  land  with  local  DND  Treasury  have  Board A d v i s o r y  (TBAC/FLM)  to  review  a  Land  more  integrated federal needs. that  addition  federal the  of  of the  land  need  to  uses  and  conflicting,  f e d e r a l departments land land  use use  management  Committee  and as  compatibility  policy.  been exempted  policy,  the  f r o m some  of  A p a r t i c u l a r procedure with  comply  with  for integration  broad p r i n c i p l e s of the  and  strategic  program  in  of  Management P o l i c y  competing  D e f e n c e has  to  them  management p r o c e s s  Federal  management, and  the  magnitude  Historically,  mandate i n c l u d e d  became p a r t  the  agencies.  disposal a c t i v i t i e s FLMP  with  the  public interest  frequently  embracing  not  land  combine  environmental  specific  coordinate  a p p l i c a t i o n procedures. does  a  as t o  the  and  gives for  policy recognized  Department o f N a t i o n a l the  need  meet  the  to  ownership  plans  While  wider  years,  that  management.  mainly t o  attempted  plans.  the  land  d e p a r t m e n t s and  recent  (FLMP) has  the  so  services  economic,  holdings  established  takes i n t o account the  rural  federal  managed  recognizes  justifies  to  be  p o l i c y expressed  government  social,  and  approach had  of  policy  urban  should  This  is on  the  which  requirement f o r  Federal  Land  a p p r o v e c h a n g e s i n use  the  Management of l a n d  by  departments. T h e . s u b m i s s i o n s f o r TBAC/FLM r e v i e w  require  consideration  8 of t h e f o l l o w i n g Social 1  factors:  a) c o n g r u e n c e w i t h development extent  c)  relationship  of l o c a l  acceptance  between  or  and  provincial  resistance;  federal  i n s t a l l a t i o n s and  local  and a m e n i t i e s .  E c o n o m i c : a) i m p a c t o f f e d e r a l vitality  b)  regional,  p l a n s and s t r a t e g i e s ;  b)  services  local,  of  the  federal  economic  impact  with  locality  and  the  economic  i t s relationship  to  objectives;  respect  opportunity  i n s t a l l a t i o n s on  cost  to  of  local  adapting  investment land  use  cost for  and  public  purposes; c)  impact housing  of the federal and employment  Environmental: terms  of  land-use  conformity guidelines  DND  disposal  land  passed  the  with and  of  with the l o c a l  possibilities,  Department  land  able  the  land  and  Environment  i n t h e FLMP i n s o f a r  i s concerned.  to  land sell  as  acquisition  I n 1975, D N D - c o n t r o l l e d  i n v e n t o r y a n d no l o n q e r i t s surplus  land  in  was the  budqet.  However DND i s n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n q i n t h e FLMP federal  local  environment i n  aesthetics,  of  marketplace f o r c r e d i t t o i t s departmental  that  the  regulations.  i n t o the federal  Department  on  characteristics;  does p a r t i c i p a t e  and  development  situations.  a) c o m p a t i b i l i t y  neighbourhood b)  land  u s e s be shown t o be c o m p a t i b l e  requirement with  local  9 plans  before  changes  TB&C/FLM.  Land  uses  Defence p r i o r i t i e s local  in  land on  use  DND  can  lands  and s o m e t i m e s  be  by  the  a r e n a t u r a l l y based  upon  reflect  approved  little  regard  for  needs. The  impact  o f DND l a n d  should  n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  every  province  settings. mi),  about  and  slightly  1  smaller  upon  or  jurisdiction. buildings, dollars.. owner"  territory,  three  in  and  rural  1.87 m i l l i o n  than I s r a e l .  The  both  and  urban  hectares  (7,219  times the s i z e of Prince  lies  within  plant  some k i n d  is  Edward  Island  More t h a n 80% o f t h i s  replacement  facilities  scene  The Department c o n t r o l s l a n d i n  These p r o p e r t i e s c o v e r  sg  borders  and  management on t h e C a n a d i a n  of l o c a l  value  estimated  I n some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , DND  government  of  to  i s , the  land  the  land,  be 6.6  billion  largest  "land-  and i t s a c t i v i t i e s have t r e m e n d o u s i m p a c t on t h e l o c a l  way o f l i f e . DND been  and l o c a l  community  compatible.  costly  When  remedial action  relations,  land-use plans  conflicts  on  with  For  zoned  local  relationship  2  resolve  Manhours  for  economies  are  conflicts  cooperation.  disruption  of  wasted  which  through when  could  uses  always  of  public  DND  facilities  land, may  interference  valuable  symbiotic  may r e s u l t .  For both,  joint  senior have  bad of  pressure,  the  with t h e DND i n s t a l l a t i o n  opportunities lost.  use  government, p u b l i c  u s e s , and  F o r DND,  operational  a n d / o r abandonment o r l e s s e f f i c i e n t result.  not  between t h e . t w o do a r i s e ,  may be r e q u i r e d .  restrictions  have  been  p r o j e c t s may be  officials  t r y to  avoided  by e a r l y  10 1.3  THE MILITARY BASE PLANNING FUNCTION  Base p l a n n i n g National  Defence,  structure.  reflecting  The l e v e l s  Headquarters (small  i s tri-level  (NDHQ).  The  carried with  of  Each o f t h e 32  Mobile,  major  o u t a t NDHQ.  the  new b a s e s , closure  surplus  changes a r e prepared concerned  bases. by NDHQ  The  with  only  monitoring  plans prepared  Command  and  a r e i n accord  Command a n d t h e B a s e .  this  27  stations functional  Communications.  planners  a t bases, of  are  planners  concerned  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  obsolete  Detailed  level a  facilities  plans with  f o r such input  and major  from  the  in  amount  control  with  tank  of  firing  conceptual  i s directed needs  long-range  Command p l a n n e r s  F o r example, M o b i l e  planning  a m o n i t o r i n g and  a t B a s e s meet t h e  plans regarding f a c i l i t i e s Command.  i s mainly  minor  and  that  fully  and  i n u s e o f DND f a c i l i t i e s i s  level,  performed  ensuring  own  bases  t o one o f t h e f i v e  chanqes  a t t h e Command  function  planning.  NDHQ  o f command  Command and B a s e .  Planning control  of  under t h e c o n t r o l o f NDHQ.  major r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  levels  A i r , T r a i n i n g , or  At t h i s  roles being  Department  a r e B a s e , Command, and N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e  Commands i n t u r n f a l l Planning  the  the three  b a s e s ) i n Canada b e l o n g s  Commands: M a r i t i m e ,  within  Command ranges,  of the  plans f o r t h e  also provide  peculiar  toward  t o the role would  input  to  of their  participate  a facility  unique t o  Command. At t h e B a s e , p l a n n i n q i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Enqineer This l e v e l  ( o r Base  Construction  o f p l a n n i n g i s mainly  Enqineering site  planning,  of  the  Officer,  Base  BCEO).  although  the  11 Base  Engineer  will  also  provide  input t o long-range  p l a n s f o r h i s Base w h i c h a r e p r e p a r e d consultants. Engineer,  The  site  i s reviewed  planning,  by  NDHQ,  while  by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  master  Command,  originated  trained  or  by t h e  planners  at  Command a n d NDHQ. Master  plans,  being prepared for  f o r every  about seven  completed.  called  years  BDP's  B a s e Development P l a n s  base.  now and most  are prepared  NDHQ and Command p l a n n e r s . may be f o u n d Engineer  i n Appendix  in  This process  local  of  These  planning  h a s been underway major  bases  are  by c o n s u l t a n t s o r by teams o f  An o u t l i n e  2.  the  (BDP), a r e  o f t h e BDP  requirements  master p l a n s guide  by  reflecting  the  t h e Base long-term  i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t r e g a r d i n g h i s Base. In the  a l l DND p l a n n i n g , t h e Base E n g i n e e r  site.  He i s t h e Base  management,  property  construction  of facilities  source  o f advice  concerns Engineer's duration  and  area.  Engineer's  example, t h e draughtsmen full-time  engineering draughting  and  the  planning,  three staff  on  land-use  property  manager and a c l e r k .  and  planning by t h e  and t h e  short  available  for  years. resources  those  of the l o c a l  planning  resources are established t o  responsibilities  office  land  He i s a l s o t h e b e s t  responsibilities  f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y exceed  the  on  T h i s f u n c t i o n i s hampered  department, T h i s i s because these fulfill  advisor  site  Command  of postings, normally Base  key  and u t i l i t i e s .  wide r a n g e o f o t h e r  The planning  agreements,  t o NDHQ  i n the l o c a l  Commander's  i s t h e e x p e r t on  usually records  as  has office  The p r o p e r t y  well.  four  or  For five  usually has a  management s y s t e m  12 is  computerized,  much  making  records  access  and  decision-making  easier.  1.4 THE LOCAL PLANNING FUNCTION  Local Regional  planning  Districts  Permanent  British  Columbia  and/or M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  planning  districts private  in  staff  is  i s carried  (including  provided  in  and t h e more u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ;  p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s when  most  o u t by  cities) . regional  many o t h e r s  hire  necessary.  I n C h i l l i w a c k , f o r example, t h e r e a r e two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the  Township o f C h i l l i w h a c k  and  a regional district,  all  concerned  (CFB)  with  Chilliwack.  the C i t y  the Fraser-Cheam  As  of Chilliwack,  Regional  District,  p l a n n i n g i s s u e s around Canadian F o r c e s The T o w n s h i p h a s a permanent  and t h e R e g i o n a l  continuing  ( s i c ) and t h e C i t y  District  use  a  planner  consultant  Base while on  a  basis. another  jurisdictions  example,  main  i n v o l v e d w i t h CFB E s q u i m a l t  Esquimalt,  the  City  District.  The  latter  departments,  the  while  of  Victoria,  two  Esquimalt  have  local  administration  a r e t h e Township  and t h e C a p i t a l large  permanent  Township h i r e s  of  Regional planning  a c o n s u l t a n t when  necessary. The council  local  planner i s responsible to the e l e c t e d  or to the r e q i o n a l  controls  are  authorized  BC) and i n s t i t u t e d Table planning:  3  district  board.  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  by b y - l a w s e n a c t e d  Local  mayor and planning  Municipal Act(in  by t h e l o c a l  1 provides a comparison of m i l i t a r y  council.  b a s e and  local  TABLE_Jl  COMPARISON OF MILITARY BASE AND  CANADIAN  ARMED FORCES  r  LOCAL PLANNING  LOCAL C I V I L I A N  JURISDICTION  L e g a l Foun d a t i o n Can.  Forces  P u b l i c a t i o n 120  Planning Base C o n s t r u c t i o n Section  Engineering  or Private  Consultants  by  CFP  Agency Planning  Department o r P r i v a t e by  Contract  Contract  Committee  Planning National  A c t Of BC  Consultants  Planning Base Development  Municipal  Defence Headquarters  120 C h a p t e r  Review Planning  Commission  Approval Municipal Council  Zoning^ C o n t r o l s I 10 | Zoning  B y - l a w s and  Map  14 1.5  THE  LOCAL  AND  BASE PLANNING  Several  factors  consultation  INTERFACE  account  between  for  military  the  base  present  planners  lack  and  of  local  planners. The  military  occupied  with  -commanding  planner,  the  Base  his responsibilities  officer  of  about*  Engineer,  is  fully  as:  200  military  and  civilian  subordinates; -the  Base  Commander's a d v i s o r on  planning, employer -manager  property  matters  management, and  o p e r a t i o n of the  engineering,  f r e g u e n t l y , as  of p u b l i c servants, c i v i l i a n of the  of base  the  largest  employment;  Base C o n s t r u c t i o n  Engineering  Section; -manager -and,  of an  annual  a s a key  committees  staff  ranging  t o Community  officer  of  from F i r e  the  a b o u t $6  Base,  Prevention  o f d e a d l i n e s and  commodity.  member and  When t i m e  can  daily be  crises,  found,  p l a n n i n g o f p h y s i c a l development  liaison  the  every  time  are  priorities. planner  The to the  planners  soon  engineer  often  posting i s over  local  planner  same e x t e n t .  may with  be  numerous Safety  and  of  is  programs.  plans,  under subsequent  such higher  meeting  the  fails  t o be  realized  before  a new  officer  p r o b l e m i s more one  to  as d e s i r a b l e  area  pressure  a  While  just  i s a l s o under  His  time  i t i s devoted  recognized  local  submerged a g a i n  Even t h e i n t e n t i o n  and  three-year  local  there i s a c o n f l i c t  priorities  of  5  Industrial  longer-range with  million;  C o u n c i l , f o r example.  Under p r e s s u r e precious  budget t o t a l l i n g  local the  arrives. of  time,  but  not  of viewpoint.  He  ,15 sees  as  region  his responsibility or  municipality.  provincial local as  fact  that there  p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l s seems t o be 2 will  "should"  are plans in  The  sensible planning  landowners within h i s area  Chapter  those  the  the  area  are  i n the  cover  the  or  affected  by  most  planners, prepares  "Should"  6  being  "should  will  occur.  do  such  implemented  They  7  plans  entire  federal  blithely  at  l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n by  comprehensive  p a r t i c i p a t e and  by  planner  Odegard.  t h a t they  p l a n not  up  by  are not  ignored  local  are  u n c o n t r o l l e d s e n i o r government  told  that coordination effective  The  plans r i d i c u l e d  i n which t h e  resulting plans  show.  who  of h i s  are  plans agencies  and  such",  a l l .  falsely the  Such  implying  opposite  i n which a l l a f f e c t e d  commit t h e m s e l v e s t o a c t i o n b e f o r e  of  parties  the  plan  is  finalized. There down  may  a l s o be  upon  installation  responsibilities size  of  district airport  their  seem  less  for  critical  lessen  the  installation  h i s own  a r e supposed  on  prestige.  t o approach  local  him  to control  planner  whose  Hence  reluctant  the  latter's expects  instead.  look  planning  the  is  He  to  because o f the  area.  example,  or p e n i t e n t i a r y planner  may  the  planners  jurisdictional  planner,  it  plans  a t e n d e n c y by  compact regional  to v i s i t  the  territory the' p l a n n e r  After  what i s h a p p e n i n g  for  a l l , his  i n the  entire  region. Another f a c t o r the a  i s t h a t the  local  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the military  base.•  Many l o c a l  planner  does  installation,  planners  t h e r e i s someone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g  do n o t on  a  not  know  particularly  even know t h a t base;  but  i f  16 they  do,  They a r e  they  naturally  encountering military with  Engineer. that  identical  military  civilians familiar  or  can  be a  shock.  The  local  i s just  planner  an  may  perhaps  surprised  t o hear  effective  functioning  between t h e s e  two  the  finally  a  harried  been  Base E n g i n e e r  may  his of  planners  own the  should  on  a  place  them  plans base.  are The  that  Canadian  unaware o f outside  attitude  planner  that local  may  disrupting initial  r e v e a l new  of  state,  a j o b which s u p e r s e d e s local  Base  civilian  those  even have an  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  that  and  reminding  a base p l a n n i n g p o l i c y  Armed F o r c e s a r e t h e r e t o do On  layout  ( f o r some), a m i l i t a r y  find  Base E n g i n e e r  considerations.  the  of  eyes  ordinary garden-variety  the the  site  and to  means  Penetrating a l l that to f i n d  of  The  caps,  him.  questions  hostile-looking  historically  Old Country  the r a m i f i c a t i o n s Base.  a complicated  access  life,  a repressive childhood.  t h e Base E n g i n e e r  and  It  I t i s d i s c o n c e r t i n g f o r the  service  wartime, p r i s o n , the  to contact  i n t o a base.  buildings,  base has  avoid.  with  gate,  immediate  how  procedures  black-brimmed  barring  The  to drive  a guarded  under  receptionist  i t i s and  identification  policemen,  seemingly  know who  reluctant  the  moustaches  not  don't  be the  contact  p o i n t s o f view  to  both.  1.6  POLICY AND A key the the  POLITICS IN  LOCAL  LAND-USE-PLANNING  aspect of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  community  and  joint  planning  government i n s t a l l a t i o n s  planners to decision-makers.  The  local  between  i s the a c c e s s  planner  has  of  direct  17 access  t o the p o l i t i c i a n s  must  face  their  who must make p o l i c y  constituents  satisfactory.  Hence t h e a c t i o n s  closely  tied  to  security  i s b a s e d on h i s p r o p e r  politician's is  i n turn  the  wishes  i f the of  of  the  decisions  results  local  the l o c a l  policy decisions.  planner  of  The p o l i t i c i a n ' s  b a s e d on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of  are not  people.  implementation  the  and  are  His job  the  local  job security electorate's  wishes. The  Base  political  process.  Commander, Cabinet. and  planner,  however,  Policy decisions  Only  disagreeable  the highest indirectly  level  even  vote  their  Member o f  i s responsible  cannot  Parliament). alone.  Nor  by  the  Base  t o the  public Ifa  government  through  the i n s t a l l a t i o n  Defence  can  they  They  cannot  (unless vote  he i s  out the  The p u b l i c ' s weapons a g a i n s t bad  i n a government i n s t a l l a t i o n  tactics  vote him out.  out the M i n i s t e r of National  government  pressuring  made  p o l i c y d e c i s i o n i s made by t h e Base Commander t h e  r e s i d e n t s of t h e area  the  are  from t h e  t h r o u g h t h e government c a u c u s .  local  policy  f a r removed  t h e Commander o f t h e Command, NDHQ, o r t h e f e d e r a l  then only  federal  i s  their  are local  officials  limited  lobbying  representatives  directly.  were u s e d i n C a s e One d e s c r i b e d  to  and  Both o f t h e s e  i n C h a p t e r 2.  18 These l i n k s Fiqure  1:  may  be  illustrated  as  Political^Responsibility  follows: i n Base  Planning  PRESSURE" Ne&ATi>/e efpeers OP  The  BASE  PLAhi  Base p o p u l a t i o n  i s also disenfranchised.  planner  can  implement  policies  fear of  local  political  reprisals.  Base  personnel  to the  Cabinet,  coercion pressuring might from  to  a local  opposition would  at  limited  who  can  sway  the  the  range  are  local from  probably  pressure local  threatening  next municipal comprise  only  of  cooperation,  a major d e t r i m e n t a l  recourses  "over the Province  to  effect  on  the  without  small  financial  viewpoint), Local  local  or  ( i n which  or  pressure support  expressing the  Base  the  total  because of  lack  part  c l o s e the  the  ( v i a NDHQ  withdraw f i n a n c i a l  rumours t h a t ,  Ottawa might  local  open t o  with  directly.  election a  Base  top"  recreation organization,  anyway), t o s t a r t i n g  in  the  the  administration's  electorate local  The  going  administration  s e r v i c e or the  to  harmful to  The  of  Base,  economy.  resulting  19 These  links  2.1  may be i l l u s t r a t e d  Political  as f o l l o w s :  Eesponsibility. i n Local  Planning  PRESSURE wtb/tTive OF uOCAu  EFFECTS Ft-AtJ  o e P e/v c e  oe>  TH  e  LOCALBASE  This the  imbalance  problem  political  of lack  government  counterpart official  responsibility  of coordination.  responsibility  federal  characterizes  installations.  i n these  installations  The mayor's p r i o r i t y  public  servant's  The i s not  responsibilities.  The  to  two  from  a l l p r o v i n c i a l and  i sto satisfy  i s  contributes to  T h e same r e m o t e n e s s  but the i n s t a l l a t i o n ' s chief o f f i c e r ,  servant. The  of political  fulfill  priorities  local  mayor's  another  elected  a career  public  h i s constituents. his may  agency's be  quite  incompatible. Major  policy  d e c i s i o n s c a n be made by t h e mayor b u t n o t  by  t h e B a s e Commander.  to  Command a n d NDHQ.  require making  Cabinet  The l a t t e r Policies  decisions.  hierarchy  federal/provincial  with  This  between bureaucracies  must r e f e r c e r t a i n  matters  n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s may  imbalance local  in  the p o l i c y -  administrations  was s e e n a s a m a j o r  and  obstacle  20 to  joint  planning  certainly  restricts  Base p l a n n e r the  DND  command  and t h e Base Commander. as  which aggravate  with the l o c a l Another municipal  factor  i s  that  well publicized  a  of  up t h e c h a i n o f  because  of  the  of or u n f a m i l i a r i t y  information  to  by t h e l o c a l  that  he  press.  studies w i l l  know"  show.  The  The  policies,  This  openness  On t h e  Information  basis.  needs  control.  most d e c i s i o n s ,  a c l o s e d system.  "need  demonstrate  the  situation.  DND o p e r a t e s on  to  I t may c o n t r i b u t e t o  misunderstanding  be a p r o b l e m a s t h e c a s e  only  down.  s c e n e i s q u i t e open, w i t h  plans  hand,  i s passed  the l o c a l c o n f l i c t  decision-maker's  It  8  I t also causes delays i n  information  and t h e d e c i s i o n i s p a s s e d  ultimate  can  the Vancouver A i r p o r t e x p a n s i o n .  the freedom o f response a v a i l a b l e  response  decisions  and  of  other  i s qiven out  recipient  the information  must  to carry out h i s  responsibilities. T h r e e e l e m e n t s a r e a t work t o m i n i m i z e o f DND p l a n s .  First  i s the r e s t r i c t i o n  t o a "need t o know" b a s i s .  Second  decision-making  management  bureaucracies.  and This i s  a  about  your  plans,  advantage o f you. Third,  there  management. image  of  Information  the  less  This w i l l  of information  release  within measure  government based  on  d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s chance  they  be e l a b o r a t e d  i s a public relations Press  knowledge  i s the natural concavity o f  defensive  premise t h a t the l e s s t h a t other  public  aspect  have  on  in  t o DND  of  the know  taking  Chapter  3.  information  r e l e a s e s a r e made r e q u l a r l y t o promote  the  t h e D e p a r t m e n t a s a n a t i o n a l and community b e n e f i t . which  doesn't  promote  a  good  public  relations  21 image i s n o t n o r m a l l y of  a l l this  affecting until  information  the  conflict  compatible fails  occur. his  occurs.  and j o i n t  Similarly,  area,  control  s e n i o r government  or u n w i l l i n g  f a r enough t o s e e t h e i r  knowledge  for effective  facility.  Regular  plans  l a n d uses i n h i s  c o n f l i c t s before  they  t o p r o j e c t t h e impact  of  e f f e c t s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c o n s u l t a t i o n would a t l e a s t  make him more aware o f t h e c o n c e r n s  1.7  public  plans  by a s s u m i n g t h a t h i s  to recognize the p o t e n t i a l  the independent  land-use  This i s too late  planner,  planned  He seems u n a b l e  plans  become  The r e s u l t  planning.  the l o c a l with  good c a u s e .  i s t h a t DND  o u t s i d e r e s i d e n t s may n o t  consultation  are  r e l e a s e d without  of the f a c i l i t y  planner.  reliance  hoc  CONCLUSIONS It  i s evident that the present  consultation the  other  i s  overly optimistic.  places  counterpart,  the  between m i l i t a r y  high  joint  Even when one p l a n n e r o r  priority  likelihood  on ad  on  meeting  with  his  of regular planning c o n s u l t a t i o n  b a s e s and c o m m u n i t i e s  is  low  the  cause  under  present  circumstances. Many  of  elaborated. a.  factors  which  They c a n be summarized  The b a s e  planner's  main  this  have  been  as f o l l o w s :  responsibility  i s  engineering  management, n o t p l a n n i n g ; b.  The  base  therefore an c.  planner  i s  transferred  d o e s n o t have t h e t i m e  interpersonal relationship  Military  base p l a n n i n g  every  t h r e e y e a r s and  or i n c l i n a t i o n  with  the l o c a l  to  develop  planner;  authority i s centralized  a t Ottawa,  22 not d.  delegated  The  base  priority e.  locally, planner  except i s  responsibilities  f o r minor s i t e  pre-occupied  with  a s a key o f f i c e r  S e n i o r government a g e n c i e s ,  particularly  to the idea of d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r  planning;  land-use  h i s many  high  on t h e Base; DND,  are not used  plans  with  other  jurisdictions; f.  The  local  the a r e a  i n that  development with  of  views h i m s e l f a s t h e s e n i o r p l a n n e r i n  his the  plans  are  area, while  e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e community  expects g.  planner  such  The l o c a l  supposed  to  guide  the  agency p l a n n e r s o n l y  deal  master p l a n .  T h e r e f o r e he  p l a n n e r s t o come t o him i n s t e a d o f v i c e  planner i s r e l u c t a n t  to  enter  the  environment o f a s e n i o r government i n s t a l l a t i o n the f a c i l i t y h.  The l o c a l  unfamiliar t o seek o u t  planner;  planner i s also  responsibilities facilities'  versa;  to  too occupied  with h i s day-to-day  consider i n i t i a t i n g  planners except  when r e q u i r e d  c o n s u l t a t i o n with by  conflict  or  c r i s i s ; and i.  The  political  senior  qovernment  resulting public  In  responsibility planners  differences  in  differs  p l a n n e r and  siqnificantly,  with  perspective regarding the l o c a l  case  studies  which  significance  of these f a c t o r s  shown  interorganizational  that  arise  consultation than  the l o c a l  interest.  the  conflicts  of  is  not  does o c c u r ,  i t c o u l d be.  the  follow,  will  the  become e v i d e n t .  practical It will  consultation before  usual  case.  planning  Furthermore  i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t and l e s s  be  when  effective  FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 1  1  DND owns 597,139 ha and l e a s e s p9 and p58.  1,266,610 h a .  Source:  Swan,  2  M i l i t a r y b a s e s and n e i g h b o u r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s usually share recreational and other facilities to b e n e f i t both. For example, t h e community s c h o o l s m i g h t use the Base indoor pool and the Base hockey team might use t h e community hockey r i n k .  3  Adapted  from H o l l i n g s w o r t h ,  p7  * The a c t u a l number v a r i e s w i d e l y d e p e n d i n g on the size r o l e of the Base. T h i s i s an a p p r o x i m a t e a v e r a g e .  and  5  T h i s amount i s an a p p r o x i m a t e a v e r a g e f o r b a s e s i n 1978. It i n c l u d e s l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l , c o n t r a c t s , u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s , and overhead, within the Base Engineer's financial responsibility.  6  Odegard,  7  Brewis  8  St.  p8  and  Pacquet,  Pierre,  p128  p107  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  24 CHAPTER  CASE STUDIES IN  2.1  2  LOCAL LAND-USE PLANNING  INTRODUCTION The  s e l e c t i o n of case  carefully  chosen  from  conflict/cooperation Defence  and  selected involved  and  cooperate,  are  ill-will  and  to  larger  British  studies  the  a  which  generated  of  been  land  use  National  communities.  to i l l u s t r a t e  in failure  the  has  Department o f  Columbia included  identify  follows  number  i s s u e s between the  various  case  studies  to  The  the  costs  consult  benefits gained  and  from  joint  planning. The  first  unilateral Columbia  case study  bid Valley  in  to  years,  the  vicinity  of  was  probably  achievable  without  these  as  i n terms of  —  an  second  a t t e m p t by  case the  the  use  consult  of a l a r g e  in  manhours, and  by  The  protagonist  part of  cost  the  thousands  of  the  of  case  public goodwill  Ironically,  was  the  this  the  end  interorganizational  issue  a  District  c o s t l y f o r the  manhours, f r u s t r a t i o n , and DND  in  Regional  hundreds  Chilliwack.  costs.  burden i n o p p o s i n g t h e The  land  probably  i n administrative CFB  as  Fraser-Cheam  Failure  Department t h r e e  well,  DND  t o change t h e  (Chilliwack).  dollars  has  in  result planning  community  administrative  action.  study  illustrates  l o c a l community  without  consultation.  The  Capital  proposed  to r e l o c a t e the  o i l storage  the  opposite  situation  t o impose i t s w i l l Regional  on  District  tanks i n V i c t o r i a  DND (CRD)  harbour  25 to  a site  consult  owned by in  DND  this  thousands of  in  case  the  cost  Colwood  the  dollars in studies,  administration,  the  CRD  the  goodwill  of the  CFB  Esguimalt.  This  been  settled  interorganizational institutional The planning  to  Chilliwack  i n the  presently  unresolved  issue  satisfactorily  case  across  Chilliwack  a the  sewage  interorganizational Township  will  reap  through  economies  the of  elimination  of  participants.  an The  scale,  different  consultative  a  demonstrated of  detriment  both the  of  Base  large  of  to  Base  the  City  and  the  sewage c o n t r o l  capital  cost and  community, problem  mechanism c o n s i s t s o f which i n c l u d e s  of  the  toward each other  and  CFB  thorough  b o t h DND  reduced  goodwill  joint  various  and  for  both  a  loose  federal,  participating  at  planning.  c a s e s which a r e  preparation  by  of  By  negotiation,  representatives  the  ago  r u n n i n g from  f o u r t h s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a b r i e f e r look  relevant  include  structure  local  stages of  The other  and  the  existing  interorganizational provincial,  and  namely  other  use  plant.  benefits  b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s between  the  Chilliwhack  treatment planning  and  landowners.  sewer c o n n e c t o r  Township of  and  and  probably  years  DND,  demonstrates  shared  region,  five  between CRD,  study  and  members  could  to  years,  municipalities,  employers  planning  plan  and  key  or p u b l i c waterfront  third  least five  c o m i t y between R e g i o n a l B o a r d e l e c t o r a l areas  have  at  Failure  meetings, presentations,  between r e p r e s e n t e d o f one  area.  and DND  lack  not of  at  several  analyzed  in detail.  These  joint  consultation  community installation  in  master  plans,  and  community  the  to  the the  (Case  26 Four:  Base  community Five: and  and  Community  unilateral  P o i n t , and  another  example  t h i s time  planners  look  for  installation to  2.2  plan  in  those  of the  on  problem  the  the  regional  and  the  jurisdiction  to avoid  t o buy  after  at  tendency large  of  to the  government  more s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c i t y  than  of each  the  the  land  The  of g r a s s  o f r e s i d e n t f a r m e r s and  results the  area  of  knowledge  Map  used m a i n l y  absentee the  This  need  backfire i f i n the  plan  case with  and  the  hills United  for grazing  landlords.  among a  1. and  score  Some o f  same f a m i l y s i n c e t h e  the  area.  3 i n Appendix  Ownership i s d i s p e r s e d  been owned by  obtain  rolling  (south of C h i l l i w a c k )  a few  plan  Valley f o r training  l o c a t i o n i s shown on  crops.  public  Such was  rural  farmland  a  prudent to  market c a n  subterfuge  purchase.  Lake  is  Where  speculative prices.  most o f t h e C o l u m b i a  border.  had  i t  p r i c e before  the  Columbia V a l l e y i s a  properties  serve  and  property,  affecting  i s sparsely populated  raising  (Case  VALLEY  of  outrage  between C u l t u s  States  joint  other,  results in inflated  scrapped  lying  Plan),  district  the  of  (Case  s u c c e s s f u l ongoing  a t hand —  i t at a current f a i r  ensuing  plan  Base  These s h o r t c a s e s  community  i s s u e s are  purchase  plan  The  It  by  i n Nanaimo).  COLUMBIA  planning  secrecy  being DND  apparently  t o d i s r e g a r d the  THE  for  options  the  DND  i n v o l v i n g a change i n o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d .  calls  for  local  examples  isolation.  CASE ONE: Few  of  a t the  both  the  two  Case S i x : C h i l l i w a c k Road G r i d  initiated  Seven: J o i n t P l a n n i n g b r o a d e n our  Plans),  action affecting  Clover  planning,  Master  the  valley  27 was  first  settled.  identified of  the  leased and  required  by  new On  17 J u l y  1973  with then  Resources  of  agreed t o  and  on  the  for  the  additional sole  Chilliwack relocation  Fraser  Valley  training  basic  areas  t r a i n i n g base  the  other  parcels.  This  meeting  exchange o f  be  was  letters,  requirement  should  one  i n V e r n o n and  than  the  i n more d e t a i l to the  up  o f which  included  released  to the  Water of  the they  handled  this  the  by  provincial They  further  relying  market.  on  in  1973  maps  or  Accordingly  i t s requirements  i n August  CFB  and  Generally  province  followed  and  (NDHQ) i n  problem  (ELUC).  rather  f o r t r a i n i n g i n the  w h i c h m i g h t be  be  through  Committee  released  the  base.  c o n s t r a i n t s of  identify  Properties  Forests,  to present  Chilliwack  Use  of  Lands,  for coordination  which c o u l d  This  of  negotiations  to the  for  General  Defence Headquarters  seek exchanges of l a n d  land  lands  Director  Williams,  Land  proceeded to  exchange  by  further  showing  Chilliwack province,  and  the  area  and  including  Vancouver.  intergovernmental  representations  from  training  area  problem.  for  training  new  of  Minister  Bob  ministry  subjected  parcels  located  National  further  the  the  at  BC,  that  Environment  land  the  requirements of  provincial  DND  areas  CFB  officers.  Ottawa met  being  1970«s,  most s u i t a b l e a r e a  i t s expanded r o l e as  (DGPU)  agreed  early  f o r development  Utilities  land  the  as t h e  training  flatlands  for  area  In  the  areas  activity  Base t o NDHQ t o The and  had  resolve  a c t u a l review of the  resulted the  from severe  possible  recommendation  that  sites the  28 Columbia dated  Valley  28  July  recommended residents, On  4  be  obtained  1972.  No  solution  took or  February  1974,  in a  Minister  Lands,  of  Pearson.  The  ownership of of  These the $1  two  are  on  to  Base i n a  problems  between t h e  study  or  Base and  further  clarified  Executive  Assistant  and  Water  the local  ownership of  a  the  west s i d e  the  shown on  Map  access road transfer  the  DND  DND  Norman  obtaining  Provincial  Parks  part  of  Vedder  Columbia; 1.  west  lands  BC  shore  offered  a l o n g the  the  purchasing p r i v a t e l y -  3 i n Appendix  parcels,  the  DND  west  large  of  to  included  t r a i n i n g a r e a on from  the  Resources,  requirements  leased  provincially-owned  and/or  these  P r o v i n c i a l Crown, and  holdings  million public  Lake  to t h e  land  then  from t h e  areas  DGPD  Forests,  Department, o b t a i n i n g  owned l a n d  place  watermanship  Lake  of  at the  officials.  letter  DND  the  Cultus  Mountain  discussions  planners,  requirements  originated  In  Valley.  return  for  to construct  side  of  a  Cultus  e l s e w h e r e i n BC  to  the  province. The  aspect  indication as  realm  marketplace  and  of to  i n the  qetting  a  land  private  i n Columbia  Valley  buyer land.  Columbia V a l l e y  assurances that  DND  study  (DND)  be  province  issue,  except  usage o f  any  the  met  Valley.  by This  from  the  agreements  operating  The  is  were o b t a i n e d  acquisitions  planned, intergovernment  private acquire  case  requirements could  holdings  Columbia  negotiated,  realm  involved  of  this  P r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d s  remaining  removed any  of  i n t e r e s t .to  i f these  the  purchase  basically  the  that  outlined,  the  of  was for  in no  to the  lonqer  demandinq  a g r i c u l t u r a l land  29 i n the  Columbia  agricultural  V a l l e y would n o t  use.  There  1975,  DND  was  preclude  still  no  i t s future return  p u b l i c knowledge o f  to the  plan. In  March  landowners obtained time,  valley  of the  s e v e r a l o f the  was  to being  in  Progress  the and  rhetoric some o f  26  to  bought o u t .  on  them.  a  need t o had  The  and  short  rumour as t h e  Those who  t o r e n e g e on  full  Neighbours unify  their  signed  uproar  options was  big  subsequent i s s u e s of the C h i l l i w a c k  i n a c c u r a t e and used  the  private  purchase  Within  a n g e r and  v a l u e s and  March and  phrases  offers  parcels.  a l s o appeared i n other  was the  with  approached  p u r c h a s e p l a n became known.  land  were u n d e r p r e s s u r e news  buzzing  military  e x c h a n g e d v i e w s on opposition  officers  Columbia V a l l e y with  o p t i o n s on  the  scope  i n the  property  out  newspapers.  Much  of p r o p o r t i o n .  in a Victoria  For  Times e d i t o r i a l  of  the  example, were:  1  "Department of National Defence agents are s e e k i n g o p t i o n s on and t h r e a t e n i n g e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f 700 a c r e s o f f a r m l a n d . . . " "... an apparently insensitive government g o b b l e s up scarce farmland m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g ground..." "From dried, At  the  Regional by  David  being  way  25.March  District, Way,  discussion, the  Ottawa's bust the  the  the  circulated was  for Electoral  , among to  and  Columbia Defence  of the  DND  Area  to r e g i s t e r  were o b t a i n e d ,  sent  board  s u b j e c t of the  Board voted  options  resolution  point of view, i t i s cut f a r m e r s and pay them o f f . "  meeting o f the  director  federal for a  Fraser-Cheam  l a n d b i d was E.  raised  Following  an o f f i c i a l  a l s o to support Valley  and  p r o t e s t at a  petition  residents.  M i n i s t e r James  angry  The  Richardson,  30 Prime M i n i s t e r T r u d e a u , F r a s e r V a l l e y the  provincial  Department  Land  Commission. A C h i l l i w a c k Progress  sympathetic with the  to  DND,  but  of  uproar.  It  suggested  been a b l e t o come up r e s i d e n t s with In  the  expressed might  that local  ensuing  weeks, DND  C h i l l i w a c k wrote a l e t t e r  the  rationale  to c l a r i f y  behind  signed 16  but we  our  could  a great  by  moving  response we  on  to e x p l a i n i t s p o s i t i o n The  Base  Commander  to the P r o g r e s s e x p l a i n i n g  2  r e s i d e n t s was  Further  explanations  of  Valley,  Throughout  will  pay  a fair  crowded  summer o f t o MPs, agreed  we  1975,  MLAs, and  the  to  general  surprise,  plans  ahead  province  price,  will  be  as of  agreed  we c o n t r i b u t e  moving o u r  Valley  by  letters  we've a l w a y s e n j o y e d  Fraser done  our  The  emanated  The  of hurt  you  polite,  what have we  DND  one  couldn't t e l l  community,  the  by l e t t e r s  of F r a s e r - C h e a m .  we  more  so  seemed t o be  l o c a l community,  the the  Member o f P a r l i a m e n t .  were v e r y  proceed,  ranges  out  in  answered  issue.  agents  with  hot  before  have  Valley  "Well,  relations  kept  p l a n n e r s might  Columbia  April  d e a l to the  Columbia  DND  land.  o f t h e DND  that  and  whole  f o r Columbia V a l l e y  tone  time,  BC  somewhat  the  M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Defence i n response  say:  the  t h e need  c o n s t i t u e n t s to t h e i r  to  was  prevented  the i n a c c u r a c i e s .  from  if  and  t h e view t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n  tried  CFB  the  Patterson,  options.  of  from  2 April  with a l t e r n a t i v e s  and  NDHQ i n t h e  on  have  publicly  petition  Alex  Municipal Affairs,  editorial  regional district  E a s t MP  i f  good  firing we  get  wrong?" the  controversy  t o the R e g i o n a l  t o meet w i t h  any  simmered, District  specific  group  31 to  further  clarify  i t sintentions,  b u t no s u c h  m e e t i n g was  arranged. In  September a C o l u m b i a V a l l e y r e s i d e n t ,  submitted answered in  a  list  by DND.  responding  and  o f 29 q u e s t i o n s  priorities,  acquisition capability  requested  s i n c e they  federal/provincial  procedures, of t h i s  and o t h e r  the  to  the  Regional  District  elaborate  on  the  answers  at  further  thei n i t i a l  options  success  were  obtained  by  who  to  costs of the  the conclusion  by p u r c h a s e was no  was  alternative,  these  Valley As  longer  Therefore  re-examination  of  the expressed  desire  program  l e d the  feasible.  the  Base  Base  of the  Expropriation advisable carried  under  o u t an  a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e Columbia  plan. a  result,  15  a  alternative  o f developing  Valley.  brief  on  submitted  River  The . u n i t e d p u b l i c  b u t was n o t p o l i t i c a l l y  circumstances.  internal  with  that successful acquisition  property an  meeting  s i g n e d o p t i o n s t o somehow back o u t o f t h e  and t h e e s c a l a t i n g  staff  and o f f e r e d t o  next  DND.  of  deal,  the Currie  o f t h e p r o p e r t y n e g o t i a t o r s , no  t o the property a c q u i s i t i o n , had  1975 t h e  Association.  opposition those  beyond t h e  to  Board,  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e Ratepayers'  clearly  response  policy  property  On 6 December  questions  After  relations,  3  NDHQ  NDHQ a s s i s t a n c e  i n v o l v e d "DND  matters  Base t o a n s w e r . "  Base Commander f o r w a r d e d  Currie,  which t h e r e s i d e n t s wanted  The Base Commander  to the questions  Arlene  to  March  NDHQ  1976, t h e  proposing  training  areas  a in  Base less  Commander favourable  the Chilliwack  T h i s area i s mountainous, almost  uninhabited.  32 heavily  forested,  long-term  lease  construction The the  concept  consultation District,  area,  were  the  issued  now  the  involved  immediately.  planning  authority,  a press  being  as  well.  Board  Columbia  though  i t  i s  and  facilities.  the  The  Board  Chilliwack  Chairman  leases  Valley  not  of  Chilliwack would  "the best  as  that  DND  alternative  and i f t h e p r o v i n c e  plan  i f DND  saying  be d r o p p e d .  suitable  more  He s a i d  to  parties  remote  the  areas,  department's  t h e B a s e Commander a d v i s e d  that River  the province Valley  plan  had a g r e e d  and  the  therefore  the  the  Commander's a c t i o n  cooperation  in  Base  helping  The B o a r d r e s o l v e d  letters to that  DND  to  Regional  i n principle to  praised  s  Valley  i n t e r e s t s o f most  acquired  would  River  Board  The  the  T h e n , on 8 J u n e , t h e  At i t s m e e t i n g on 22 J u n e  Service  Regional  of  was dead.  sent  time,  Base Commander  proposal  areas".  with  This  Valley  full  on-site  *  Two weeks l a t e r District  release  considered  would be s e r v e d  purposes."  the  began  p u b l i c was i n f o r m e d .  he h a d c o n c l u d e d t h a t  even  land  for  by Ottawa and n e g o t i a t i o n s  District  a g r e e t o t h e p r o p o s e d DND  that  Crown  called  t o seek a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e C o l u m b i a V a l l e y t r a i n i n g  Base Commander  areas,  proposal  r a n g e s and t r a i n i n g  immediately  Regional  before  areas  government  with t h e l o c a l  the  The  Provincial  was a p p r o v e d  began  intention  of  of the necessary  provincial  advised  and more remote.  Columbia 1976, t h e  and o f f e r e d " i t s  relocate  the  training  t o s u p p o r t t h e new l o c a t i o n and  t o t h e Base Commander and t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Forest  effect.  Board Chairman's l e t t e r  t o the  Base  Commander  also  said: "The Board r e s o l v e d t h a t I p e r s o n a l l y f o r w a r d a vote of thanks to yourself for the courtesy shown in advising me, as Chairman of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , o f DND's p r o p o s e d p l a n s p r i o r t o y o u r news r e l e a s e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . " 6  During province Valley  the  past  for the have  been  Valley  w h i c h DND  wished  their  minds  absentee  begun.  Valley.  or  about  property  uses and  few  the  of  in  were p u r c h a s e d to  those  Those  with  Chilliwack  construction  returned  are  in  negotiations  properties  options  selling.  landlords,  This  The had  to s e l l  more f a v o u r a b l e  land  completed  has  still  years,  desired  facilities on  two  the the  the  River  required Columbia  from t h o s e  who  had  purchased,  who  changed  mainly  from  used f o r n o n - f i r i n g t r a i n i n g r e q u i r i n g  terrain  than  a v a i l a b l e i n the  amounts t o a b o u t  120  acres  of  the  Chilliwack  of the  River  original  700  acres. The  speedy  alternative Columbia  compared Valley  cooperation of  joint  of  the  to  the  delays  plan  can  be  of the  public  and  new  by  the  the  of  the  attributed  to  the  Board's  from  the  p r o v i n c i a l bureaucracy to bring  the  Columbia  and  became a hot  public  Valley  of reaction  p i q u e a t not and  explicit the  the  constituents  initiation  from  to a successful close.  a combination  Valley  stalemate  The  a l t e r n a t i v e discouraged  oiled  River  f o l l o w i n g the  Base.  negotiations  from  and  opposition  e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups, encouraged  m e d i a , and  original  Chilliwack  partly  Regional D i s t r i c t ,  consultation  support  local  development  The  Board's o p p o s i t i o n  alternative to  the  being  political  support  probably  angry p r o t e s t  consulted  issue.  by  DND  to  resulted from  their  before  i t  34  Interorganizational and  the  all  p a r t i e s at the  could  regional d i s t r i c t  a fourth  participant  Association and  yielded  could  one  of  needed a r e a s w i t h (monetary  or  development  s a v i n g s i n t i m e and  2.3  CASE TWO:  planning that a  public  discussion judgment. immediate  views  DND  of  would  more  have  residents,  i n t e r e s t s and  alternatives  the  compensation or  earlier  opposition  with  and  considerable  agency, t h e r e  i s a c e r t a i n amount  done " s e c r e t l y " .  That  secret,  work i s p r o c e e d i n g  and  only  that  not  with  other j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  l a n d s and  Such  planners f e e l  sufficiently idea. the  predictable  was  plan  The  ready  to  negotiation  t r a n s f e r of  not  is  is  the  the  a c q u i s i t i o n of  and  or  Ratepayers'  idea  been  When  District  STORAGE TANKS  foreknowledge.  of  Valley  for  money.  At o t h e r t i m e s ,  yet  Regional  the  plans involve  Valley. not  or  issues  Negotiation  support  displaced  of v i a b l e  planning  in-house  the  province,  residents'  Columbia  residents'  i t is explicitly  discussion  by  for  which must be  proposal  such  any  the  public  VICTORIA'S OIL  Within  Columbia V a l l e y  results: successful  the  the  rewards f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s  qeneral  of  Fraser-Cheam  participated.  of  other)  identification earlier  the  have  two  The  from  bargaining  between DND,  would have i d e n t i f i e d  outset.  have r e p r e s e n t e d  issues  planning  could  the  for  be  the  worked  out  to  latter  situation  by  those  on  public Often  Columbia  details allow is  d o e s become p u b l i c , t h e r e  opposition  say  jeopardized  case i n the  that  of  affected  have public  one  of  will  be  who  were  not  consulted  point  i n the  before  the  parties  are  before  i t  became a p l a n .  process, affected  p a r t i e s have  p r o p o s a l becomes an involved in  Therefore,  the  to  inflexible  process  be  plan.  from  to p r e s e n t a t i o n of a plan to a Regional  public,  their  Capital case  Regional  is  District  more  (CRD)  Harbour  beautification  and  had  affected  failed  of  a  Board and  the  i s what  the  This  f o r s e v e r a l years  restoration.  industries  were g r a d u a l l y b e i n g  marinas,  restaurants,  eyesores  which c o u l d  storage  tanks  Their  to  t o do  The  new  consolidation h a r b o u r and  site  of  r e p l a c e d by  boutigues.  easily along  a l l  be  in  this  the  I t was  over  seven s i t e s  provincial  farm  l a n d on  (1978-1987). renew t h e  site.  The  The  to permit  20  acres  wharf and sites  l e a s e s which e x p i r e o v e r  alternative  for  now  government expiry,  site.  fire  planning  The  of  8  allow  along  bulk  tanks  o i l  harbour.  l a r g e enough t o  facilities  covering  leases annually after  d e v e l o p m e n t o f an  of the  development  o i l storage  provincial  large  and  existing  T h e r e would a l s o h a v e t o be a t a n k e r tank  were t h e  major  the  delivery  t h a t a minimum o f 7 a c r e s  accommodate a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e scattered  the  desirable  storage  and  walkways,  was  would have t o be  estimated  warehouses  public  west s h o r e  c l o s e enough t o t i d e w a t e r  tanker.  undergoing  However  ousted  protection,  the  been  I t s waterfront  some o t h e r a r e a  environmental  reasons.  and  not  spread  relocation  hazard,  the  If  study. Victoria  by  likely.  planners  consulted  evaluation  proposal  support  a t some  would  7  which  are  waterfront.  pipeline(s)  now  i n use  are  a period of  has  said  to  encourage  to on  years  i t will  only  speedy  F o r t Rbdd l o c a t i o n  is  36 shown on  Map  Early asked  5 i n Appendix  i n 1973  by  the  1.  the C a p i t a l  Regional  District  alternative  l o c a t i o n s f o r the  considered  eleven  DND  property  presented local the  press as  owner, No  CRD  "The  P l a n " , without  Board  was  to  site  Appendix  with  the  any  had  by  not  They  the  proposal next  day  on was  in  the  P a r k s Canada Affairs  issue.  taken As  in  has was  April as  of the as  the  that  the  to  be  was  Department  parkland.  late  to  similarly  1973  i t  that  agreed  f o r future expansion  Fort  a public  will  public  loss  of  sixties,  of The  Fort after  Rodd a r e a i s shown on  stand, f e l t  implementation of  i t had  be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r  strengthens  face.  wrote t o the  l a n d be  Esquimalt  branch  since  The  newspaper  u n l e s s he  (DINA) f o r use  Park  CRD.  the  Map  5  1.  preventing the  the  with  recommended one the  available  one's  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g , but  Campbell  and  in  DND  been d e s i q n a t e d  with  having  policy  public  up  p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with  his property  was  the  Northern  consultation  CRD,  come  were  dangerous t a n k s .  appeared  t o read  advised  Rodd N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c  in  and  to  point,  Base Commander o f CFB  i n question  and  wooded  and  this  the  CRD  transferred Indian  At  p l a n s t o use  The  angered. property  Board  planners  DND.  has  use.  ugly  District  locations,  p r o p e r t y owner l i k e s  someone the  different  a t Colwood.  to  Regional  In  limits  on  making  a  3,  position  in  flexibility  by  of a l t e r n a t i v e  policies  June  Board  M i n i s t e r of  made a v a i l a b l e  also  to carry  f o r the  1973,  CRD  without  Chairman  JM  DINA r e q u e s t i n g t h a t p a r t  of  storage  tank  site.  Mr.  37 Campbell  called  the  within the region". On  19 J u l y  Western told for  "the best  DINA a d v i s e d  CRD t h a t  site  f o r the purpose  9  R e g i o n would  the  site  Campbell  look i n t o their  that their  the matter.  Director  for  On 10 O c t o b e r DINA  r e s p o n s e had t o be e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e  two r e a s o n s : "... t h e a r e a a v a i l a b l e would only partially solve t h e o v e r a l l s t o r a g e t a n k r e q u i r e m e n t s and another s i t e i s necessary i n any c a s e and, secondly, the storage tanks i n that v i c i n i t y • would d e f e a t t h e p u r p o s e o f o u r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e parkway r o a d . " i o  This reply Ministry  of  monitoring the  was  State  not  received  f o r Urban  Affairs  coordinate  federal meetings  organized  a  joint  decided activity  with  to in  with  urban from  representation.  monthly  m e e t i n g o f t h e CRD T e c h n i c a l  already  comprised o f f i c i a l s  constituent certain  The m e e t i n g  municipalities  provincial  according  CRD.  ministries*  well  had been of  i t s mandate  to  DINA  Following and DND, MSUA  provincial,  was t o be b a s e d  as  and  upon t h e  P l a n n i n g Committee  of the regional d i s t r i c t as  The  most  areas.  federal,  regional  the  copies of  exercise  officials  meeting  by  (MSU&), w h i c h  t h e d i s c u s s i o n and had r e c e i v e d  correspondence,  separate  well  which  and i t s  representatives  The p u r p o s e  of t h e  meeting,  t o MSUA, was:  "... t o r e d r e s s any d o u b t s a s t o t h e f a i r n e s s o f t h e f e d e r a l d e c i s i o n on t h i s m a t t e r (because) i t a p p e a r s t o be f e l t t h e r e ( i n CRD) that the decision was made without sufficient consideration o f the l o c a l problem of fuel storage and without any e f f o r t t o engage community representatives in any genuine d i s c u s s i o n on t h e m e r i t s o f t h e p r o p o s a l . " 1  2  of  38 The subject the  meeting was  l o n g and  questions  carried  took place 8 January  raised  of f e d e r a l  and  was  committee*  turned  Affairs  much more i n v e s t i g a t i o n could  be  made.  to  a  to  The  weak under at  of the  the  had  CED  the  from to  be  analysis  questioninq  meetinq.  newly-formed  special  The  workinq  CED.  the meetinq, the M i n i s t e r  wrote  f o r CRD  the  Discussion  i t became a p p a r e n t  representatives over  within  3  and  looked p a r t i c u l a r l y other  Following  need  that  out b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n  of a l t e r n a t i v e s  issue  comprehensive  1974.  the  CRD  Chairman  t o do i t s homework on  of  State  for  Urban  to seemingly c l a r i f y  the  the  issue:  "... In view of these inter-related considerations, i t was appropriate for the Committee t o s e t up a w o r k i n g g r o u p to examine the entire problem without r e s t r i c t i o n to the Colwood s i t e . I trust that t h i s fresh appraisal of a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s will quickly resolve the matter on the basis of local i n t e r e s t s and needs. " • 1  Since that more f u l l y DND  has  t h e DND  remained  property from  and  time, other  alternatives  s i t e has  committed  t o Parks Canada.  have  been  studied  been r e q u e s t e d a q a i n .  However  throuqhout t o the t r a n s f e r The  issues  were a i r e d  of  i n the  that media  time t o time. Occasionally  January  1975  Campbell  took  tank farm  and  the  Mayor  issue Pollen  of  Senator P e r r a u l t t h e DND  site,  site.  Perrault  the  Minister  Richardson to release a  major  split  up.  For  Victoria on  for  promised the s i t e  i n t h e CRD  and  a helicopter  and a s k e d  qetting  caused  heated  his to  to the  Board,  example, CED tour  in  Chairman over  the  assistance  in  approach  Defence  Region.  with d i r e c t o r s  This from  39 Langford and  and  View R o y a l  Campbell  of t r y i n g  (near  the  DND  to s c u t t l e  t o dump a V i c t o r i a  eyesore  in  outlying  The  Richardson  areas.  r e j e c t e d Senator  accusing  plans f o r parkland  a r e a and the  site)  and  issue  problem died  Perrault's  on  Pollen in  their  residents  down a g a i n  request  for  after  the  DND  site. An CRD  interesting  Board  aside  apparently  didn't learn  failure  to consult  prior  acquire  someone's  land.  1977 a  when a n o t h e r  report  proposal John  t o the  to  site  was  site  Albany,  was  quoted  i n the  its  the  intentions  demonstrated  f o r the tanks,  to the Board, i n v o l v e d I n d i a n a l s o became p u b l i c . . The  issue i s that  from t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i t s  announcing  This  alternative  DND  reserve  to  i n November proposed  land.  Songhee I n d i a n  This  i s  band  in  chief,  newspaper:  " 'Who do they t h i n k they a r e ? ' Albany asked, a d d i n g t h a t t h e CRD n e v e r c o n s u l t e d him or the band a b o u t u s i n g I n d i a n l a n d . " i * To  date  a new  site  f o r the  o i l storage tanks  has  not  been  selected. The  m a j o r owners o f  Victoria, DND,  where  DINA,  planning resulted ago.  and with  the the  least  these  three  some w a t e r f r o n t  property  inland.  the  within the specific  in  tank farm  r e g i o n , an  west  exist,  exchange  of are  site  might five  have years  a w i l l i n g n e s s to give for  relocation  interorganizational  purpose should  t h e CRD  tank farm  expressed  and  Interorganizational  l a n d - h o l d e r s and  has  north  c o a s t a l areas  Crown.  of a s u i t a b l e  F o r e x a m p l e , DND  property  developed  Provincial  in selection  When  waterfront  suitable  first  up  parcels  became an  issue  s t r u c t u r e with  that  have been e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  objective,  40 to  r e l o c a t e the  is  one  that  to  i o s would  site.  DND  and  t o w a r d CED already  therefore  This setting  agreement t h a n  where  away f r o m t h e  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s should  purpose of the acceptable  dangerous f a c i l i t y  the  be  able  be  should  conflict-laden  to be  f a c e o f the  committed  to  a  t h r e a t , and no-win  to  harbour,  support.  find  a  The  mutually  much more c o n d u c i v e  expanded  P a r k s Canada were a l r e a d y  i n the  city  TPC  hostile  and  where  the  position  by  meeting defensive CRD  its  was  public  announcement.  2.4  CASE THREE: CHILLIWACK In  s i t u a t i o n s where an  approval  for activity  joint  planning  likely  t o take  Chilliwack the had  to  sewage  the  place.  plant  p l a n t , the  method and DND  local  T h i s i s the  the  the  contracted  problem  updated  costs  Chilliwhack the  environment.  an  a proposal  means o f a t r u n k  would f e e d  earlier were  for July  any 1977  Since into  a  by  CFB  line  to  the  self-evident.  Environment federal  Canada,  activities  Environment  Canada  to  update  study  by  in  1974.  negotiations.  form  the  These and  with  The  not.  Services  done  line  non-DND  Engineering  to  right-of-way  In  was  hands o f  department  boundary,  case with  planning  i n the  seek  a u t h o r i t y i s more  of C h i l l i w a c k .  and  must  jurisdictional  need f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n was  Associated on  jurisdiction  planning  i t s sewage by  i n the C i t y  responsible  estimates  its  mechanism f o r j o i n t  put  affecting  with  outside  with  deliver  independent  t o c r o s s non-DND p r o p e r t y  owned  the  SEWAGE CONNECTOR  them  cost The  b a s i s f o r DND/Township  negotiations  were  cost-sharing  i f the  to  of  deal  Township  41 wished the t r u n k l i n e  t o be e n l a r g e d  developed areas along  the r o u t e .  September  1977  t o Environment  m e e t i n g w i t h t h e Township  from  the D i r e c t o r a t e  and t h e Base to  bring  Canada and t h e  provide  u p - t o - d a t e on  and  some i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e T o w n s h i p  BC  Land  Commission was allow  that  Commission  areas within  t h e ALB  to  tie  Commission  may  not f a v o u r  would  into  the  increase  T h i s meeting  served  on DND  requirements.  proposal  and  report.  inform  to send t h e  The  reasoning  p r o p o s e d by t h e c o n s u l t a n t  along the any  Services  Canada u n d e r t o o k t o  copies of the c o n s u l t a n t ' s  connector  which  of  some o f t h e o p t i o n s  representative  the c o n s u l t a n t ' s p r o g r e s s and t o  a t t h e same t i m e . E n v i r o n m e n t the  (NDHQ) a r r a n g e d  Miscellaneous  Chilliwack.  of  Township.  Headquarters  of U t i l i t i e s  servicing  were p r o v i d e d i n  Engineer for t h e i r  E n g i n e e r f o r CFB  DND  allow  These c o s t s  In October, N a t i o n a l Defence a  to  the  line.  route  of  I t was  development  sewage  thought t h a t  such  pressure f o r release  the  would  as  the  sewering,  o f more l a n d  from  the r e s e r v e f o r development. Following with  a r e g u e s t by t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n  federal  officials.  p r e l i m i n a r y meeting were  this  i n Vancouver  representatives  Headquarters,  Environment  CFB  from  on 28  Chilliwack,  and  m e e t i n g , t h e Land Commission  opposition existing  t o any  scheme which would  agricultural  Environment  to  which would  allow  was  ask  land.  It  the consultant  servicing  Canada  November  Environment,  to  encourage had  meeting called  1977.  Defence  Commission. emphasize development  earlier  At its of  persuaded  to prepare a f i f t h  of the upland area, l e s s  a  Present  National  t h e Land able  for a  scheme  suitable  42 for  agriculture,  known a s R y d e r L a k e - P r o m o n t o r y .  was f a v o u r e d  by t h e C o m m i s s i o n .  its  base sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t  existing  the  effluent  into  t h e Vedder  Environment because t h e stream  and  A DND  because  river  some  option  River i s a  scheme  f o r upgrading  and c o n t i n u i n g  t o put  was n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o major  downstream  This  salmon  residents  draw  spawning drinking  water from t h e r i v e r . Another f a c t o r Military sewage  Engineering plant  existing the  a t t h e Base  operators.  At  i n training  present  p l a n t would e n t a i l  more  studies on  17  construction of a small  training  the  representatives  mainly f o r t h e Township r e g a r d i n g  costs of  scheme  and  were  and i t s f i n a n c i n g .  and  from  both  centered  Some m i n o r  over  which  project,  ie.  who was h e l p i n g  recalculated the  party  a  and  NDHQ  the  and four  conflict  whom.  decision  the  to  regard  DND  Base.  The  A l d e r m e n , and t h e o f a scheme  i s evident  to benefit The  DND, t h e  Canada.  around s e l e c t i o n  was g o i n g  i t s o p t i o n s with  Township  financing  between  Environment  by t h e Mayor,  minutes  with  of  project.  Township,  Discussions  unresolved,  methods  1978, a m e e t i n g was h e l d  was r e p r e s e n t e d  Engineer.  plant f o r t r a i n i n g . carried  each  April  consultant,  Township  i s done a t t h e  the consultant  m u n i c i p a l s h a r e o f any j o i n t On  as  use o f  o r a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r use o f t h e c i t y  variations  to  this  servicemen  with  T h r o u g h o u t t h e n e x t s i x months, out  the School o f  b a s e sewage p l a n t , b u t i t s r e p l a c e m e n t  city  plant  i n t h e i s s u e was t h e r o l e . o f  most  meeting  reconvene  from t h e adjourned  when  to financial  i n the  DND  had  commitments  when t h e c o n s u l t a n t h a d d e t e r m i n e d t h e  43 d e t a i l s o f o b t a i n i n g a CMHC g r a n t On  10 May  proposals 1978,  on  the  1978, the  DND  wrote to the  f i n a n c i n g of  Township had  f o r 25%  not  of the  Township  total with  several options.  yet  agreed  to  By  cost. detailed  the  proceed  end  with  of the  project. Whatever enabled  outcome,  development  current the  the  delay  of. a  i n the  Township's  this  study  comprehensive  joint  planning  has  project.  The  d e c i s i o n i s u n r e l a t e d t o the conduct  interorganizational  are p o s s i b l e i n  interorganizational  planning area.  of  itself,  The  although  delay  is  of  improvements  caused  by  the  v a r i o u s schemes t o f i n a n c e i t s s h a r e  of  the p r o j e c t . Interorganizational all  participants  members. the  DND  same  time  "buy" about  Chilliwack.  have  familiarized  concerns  environmental  of the  concerns  training  Township  but  support  has from  Commission  does  not  want  to  further  an e l e c t o r a t e a l r e a d y on  conversion  residential  and  of  with  pressure  Fraser  commercial  DND  is  miss area  p r o b l e m s g e t t i n g o u t s i d e f i n a n c i n g and  i s concerned  at  o f sewage p l a n t o p e r a t o r s  o p p o r t u n i t y t o sewer a l a r g e p a r t o f i t s d e v e l o p e d cost,  other  and  some g o o d w i l l i n t h e community.  the  The  sessions  t h e p r o b l e m s and  wants t o s a t i s f y  a l s o concerned CFB  with  planning  septic being  Valley use.  The  on  at  The  i t to  agricultural f e d e r a l and  the low  eliciting  tanks.  put  Land allow  land  to begin  a  upgrading  While  Base e f f l u e n t  already  t r e a t e d and  minute  part  of  the  dechlorinated afterwards,  the  sewage dumped i n t o  the  long  and river  to  provincial  Environment departments are anxious o f the F r a s e r watershed.  at  overdue  represents  is a  system, i t s  44 federal plant  status  makes i t e a s i e r t o  upgrading  These and  and  other  harder to  concerns  get  ignore  were  financing  exposed  and  sessions,  thus  planning  understanding  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the  The case  actual interorganizational  could  Chapter  have  4.  been  improved.  S u f f i c e i t t o say  politicians, unaffected  of  decision-makers  bureaucrats  administrators  i s not  and the  long-term, conseguential the  correspondence  did  not  lend  itself  and  to e f f e c t i v e  T h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s do from the  the way  to  improving  2.5  haphazard  not  better the  as  the  better  in  this  i s explored  of t e c h n i c i a n s  and  advisors,  affected,  and  of  and  disorganized  in and  remote  concerned  for negotiating  such  nature  m e e t i n g s between t h e  of  parties  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning.  t a k e away f r o m t h e  consultation,  used  mix  The  in  problem.  the  most e f f e c t i v e  issue.  promoting  structure  local  issues.  shared  This aspect  that  sewage  a public welfare  interorganizational of the  for  discussed  benefits  above, but  means o f b e n e f i t t i n g from t h e  derived  simply  point  experience  by  process.  CASES FOUR TO  SEVEN: BROADENING THE  PERSPECTIVE  Introduction This  section  describes  d e t a i l than the  first  reader  understanding  a for  a better  broader  perspective,  approaching the  Chapter  4.  three.  even  design  four The  more  cases  main p u r p o s e i s t o g i v e  of the  s c o p e of  within  the  o f an  i n much l e s s  the  problem,  DND/community  i o s , which i s  the and  subset,  considered  in  45 Case Four:  Base and  Case Four by  a  DND  without  deals  with the  installation  here  are:  and  CFB  Regional D i s t r i c t  Settlement  P l a n , and  DND  certain  Esquimalt  without  prior  Township  of  In  the  regarding  local  Development surprising  that  E s q u i m a l t , was interest  that  groups plan.  some  proposed  proposed  shared before  When t h e  the  with  also  CFB  surrounding  and  and  master  future  local  being  DND  of  to  the  reasons,  consultants Base  i t i s not Plan  very  for  CFB  planners, p o l i t i c i a n s , t o the  p l a n d i d become p u b l i c , adjacent  structure  on  appendix  i n preparing the  released  the  p r e s s as i t was  residents.  recreation  of t h a t p a r t o f E s q u i m a l t .  entirely  depended  impacts.  Development  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a major  interorganizational  of  each p r e p a r e d  community  two  Lang C o v e a r e a t h r e a t e n s t o b l o c k residents  Plan.  projects occurred  considered  Base  aspects affected  Metchosin  the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t  Esguimalt.  these  new  Plan,  joint consultation.  t o be  For the  not  Plan,  with  pertinent instructions  Plan.  plans  w i t h i n the boundaries  a r e a s have a l s o  o f CFB  factors  The  Settlement  both  communities  two.  Regional  Similarly  the  plans  Base Development  consultation  consultants to i d e n t i f y  3 i s a copy o f t h e  official  Esquimalt  without  case,  within the boundaries civilian  the  the o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y  again  DND  between  changes  unincorporated  Esquimalt,  the n e i g h b o u r i n g  Official  Esquimalt.  p l a n s which a f f e c t CFB  by  Western Community  planned  the nearby  Plans  p r e p a r a t i o n of master  adequate c o n s u l t a t i o n  considered Capital  Community - M a s t e r  complex  views of t h e Joint  For  the  found  example, in  harbour  consultation in  would have i d e n t i f i e d  and  this  the for an and  46 other  problems with The  Plan  the plan before  Capital Regional  was d e v e l o p e d  significant  over  District  a three year  implications  consultation planners.  took For  i t became  f o r CFB  place  between  example,  large  official.  (CRD)  Official  period  1972-1974.  Esguimalt, CRD  DND  but  planners land  Regional I t has no  prior  and  Base  h o l d i n g s at Royal  Roads, A l b e r t Head, Work P o i n t , and Rocky P o i n t a r e d e s i g n a t e d as  parkland.  The P l a n  states:  "The P l a n Map d e s i g n a t e s as Major Park Areas those lands which a r e p r e s e n t l y d e d i c a t e d as p u b l i c p a r k s o r t h o s e which e v e n t u a l l y s h o u l d be s o d e d i c a t e d and t h e r e f o r e must be p r o t e c t e d i n the interim period from irreversible and i r r e t r i e v a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s which by p r e - e m p t i o n would d e s t r o y t h e i r p a r k p o t e n t i a l . " 1  While t h e r e a s o n i n g certainly land. the  implies  an  policy  understood,  attempt  such  to r e s t r i c t  DND  a  statement  u s e o f i t s own  and  Langford  areas  f o r urban expansion.  area  areas  with  leading  would c o m p l e t e t h e e n c i r c l i n g  h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l  to  activity military commuting  o f t h e Base  restriction  of  noisy  and/or  dirty  of This  h a s major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e Base a s u r b a n i z a t i o n  that  of  activity  use p e r h a p s industrial  (such as s h i p r e p a i r ) on t h e b a s e , i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h traffic times  movement t o and from f o r servicemen  the  Base,  and c i v i l i a n  and  employees,  longer among  effects. In the Metchosin  are  is  A n o t h e r example i n t h e same p l a n i s t h e d e s i g n a t i o n Colwood  other  here  7  designated  Settlement  as parks.  Plan,  some DND c o a s t a l  The p l a n f u r t h e r s t a t e s :  "Appropriate a g e n c i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l government s h o u l d be n o t i f i e d a t t h e e a r l i e s t opportunity of t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a system o f b e a c h e s , b e a c h t r a i l s , and view points on DND  areas  47 lands and I n d i a n R e s e r v e l a n d s w i t h i n M e t c h o s i n and t o i n t e g r a t e such a m a r i n e p a r k s y s t e m with c o a s t a l lands having high r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n t h e Western Community." 1  It  is  surprising  intentions  were n o t  government program  be  owning  the  this  Roads  no  unilateral  a  attitude  The  on  ios  The  the  interorganizational  C o l l e g e are proposed f o r park  or  Plan  in  was  While  the CRD,  could  of  the  immediate l i m i t e d  p r e p a r a t i o n of these out  should  be  monitoring  jurisdictions  by  with the  use  of the  Base  p l a n , who  dynamic  the  and  to  of  More  obtained  l o n g term  by  future  lands.  process.  take.  are  DND.  plans  a l w a y s bound  process  the such  There a r e o t h e r  planning  planning  been  DND  use  a  uncooperative  community  are not  i s a better direction  or  f o r the  tunnel v i s i o n .  drawn i n t o a  planning  such  strategy  land-owner, have  this  parkland, a  stubborn the  through  DND  with  such  consultation  lands,  inhibit  of  possibly  interorganizational  no  federal  to  a  the  1 9  there  merits  part  results  carried  who  ambitious  of  attempts  i f i t results  actors affected and  of  a u t h o r i t y over  range.  satisfactory  been  Such  an  an  the  grounds  Once a g a i n  designation  rifle  and  these  land.  grounds f o r purposes i n c o m p a t i b l e  CRD/DND  admit t h a t  n e g o t i a t i o n s with  Settlement  designation.  official  questionable  use  should  joint  objective  Military  arbitrary  p l a n , has  as  of the  Western Community  Royal  College  authors  result  open s p a c e p u b l i c u s e . on  the  group.  In the DND's  the  agencies  should  planning  that  8  An  by  has major i t ,  ongoing  encompassing a l l  48  Case F i v e : C l o v e r The  C a p i t a l Regional  proposal  to  Victoria.  construct Over a  2 0  advanced design  Point  to  the  period  At  no  Property  t i m e was  the  (RPO)  letter,  the  the the  for  RPO  and  CRD  years  an  Clover required  and  to  near  proposal having  the  property  easement*  Pacific  led  Point  Point  attention of  DND  in-house  the  a consultant  p r o j e c t came t o t h e  Officer  with  at Clover  several  of h i r i n g  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between him one  of  approached regarding  Finally  proceeded  a sewage o u t f a l l  stage  prepared.  owner, DND,  District  the  Reqional  Region,  and  negotiations.  In  said:  "... I t i s c o n s t a n t l y a source of astonishment to this office that the Capital Regional District c o u l d be u n d e r t a k i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f a project of this size for approximately four y e a r s without c o n t a c t i n g the p a r t i e s h o l d i n g the land in question. At the time of this Department's meeting with Mr. Howard (CRD Engineer), we were shown a letter from the consulting engineers written over a year ago which explained to them that the Federal Government owned Clover Point and that this would have t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Why t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t a c t e d upon until this l a t e date i s a puzzle t o the w r i t e r . " 2 1  Eventually  the  negotiations  such t h a t  the  outfall  of across  the  property.  design Early  meant joint  would be  additional  planning  r e s u l t e d i n a change i n the  The  run  along  negotiations  delay  and  the and  foreshore the  extra costs  would have r e s o l v e d  the  instead  change f o r the  conflict.  plan  of CRD.  49 Case  S i x : Road G r i d The  a  Township  comprehensive  when  this  of Chilliwhack  new  road  and  While  plan  office  changes  Base  could  hamper Base o p e r a t i o n s by a f f e c t i n g  Base,  or  by  emergency living  increasing  off  the  Base.  the  the  pattern  traffic  Seven: One  Joint of  the  governments  convenor relative  military  role  time,  that  this  affairs of  these  because ios.  ineffectiveness.  employees  employer  mobility  i n the  is  arises  i s p r o p o s e d i s who  very  committees It  was  t h e heavy the This  whenever  should  o f S t a t e f o r Drban  as i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  was  and  asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  which  Ministry  officials.  of the  In.Nanaimo  a r e a s , and s e t up t r i - l e v e l  local  of  changes  for i t s environs.  planninq The  single  be  consult  These  routing  which  been  questions  authority.  local  for  have  planning  Planning  (MStTA) t o o k on t h i s  in  to  travelling  As t h e l a r g e s t  Base s h o u l d  interorganizational  and  certainly  i n the v i c i n i t y  congestion,  a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n  important,  convening  traffic  plan  existing  r e s p o n s e t i m e f o r s e r v i c e m e n and c i v i l i a n  t o w n s h i p and  Case  civilian  The  to  made  on t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s .  by i n c r e a s i n g  township  1978.  will  no a t t e m p t was  completing  the  changes  with  traffic,  for  i n July  proposed  these  t o CFB C h i l l i w a c k , authorities  p l a n n e r s were j u s t  network  their  arterials  patterns.  important  grid  author v i s i t e d  d e s i g n a t e d new traffic  Plan  the  view  hand  of f e d e r a l  view  the  Affairs  i n metropolitan  of f e d e r a l ,  federal  be  of  provincial, the  government contributed  P e r h a p s a more s u c c e s s f u l  junior  "meddling" was to  the their  approach  50 is  for  the l o c a l  what t h e R e g i o n a l On 25 A p r i l work  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be t h e c o n v e n o r . District  (BDN) i s d o i n g .  1978, t h e B o a r d o f RDN r e s o l v e d  on t h r e e O f f i c i a l  responsible  o f Nanaimo  planner  Technical Planning  Settlement  recognized Committee  This i s  Plans  during  to  commence  the year.  t h e need f o r a s p e c i a l  f o rthis  type  The of  task:  "... Due t o t h e h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e o f some components o f t h e p l a n we a n t i c i p a t e t h e need f o r a major i n v o l v e m e n t by various ministries and other agencies i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the plans. The f o r m a t i o n o f a T e c h n i c a l Settlement Plan Committee i s t h e r e f o r e a p r i o r i t y . " 2 2 He of The  b r o a d e n e d t h e membership a l llevels planner,  Regional  and  Ferries;  staff;  federal local  participation  Agriculture, Forests,  BC Hydro,  ministries Economic and  of  towns,  school  regional  Commission.  The f i r s t  At t h e f i r s t schedule  even a t t h i s  Municipal  Affairs;  and  and  BC  D e f e n c e , and  districts,  Islands  of Georgia),  and t h e  the  Nanaimo  Harbour  m e e t i n g , t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e work and c l a r i f i e d .  own a g e n c i e s stage. i t  "that  involved  i n the resolution level."  or levels  Representatives  concern  Provincial  of Health,  m e e t i n g was h e l d 8 June 1978.  were d i s c u s s e d  participants'  district;  the  Development,  Environment,  ( r e p r e s e n t i n g i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t  neighboring  by:  t h e BC Land C o m m i s s i o n ,  departments cities,  a l l agencies  have a s a y i n t h e p l a n .  provincial  Recreation,  agencies  Transport;  who s h o u l d  P Hoemberg, i n v i t e d  Environment,  provincial  Trust  Mr.  District  Highways, Parks  o f government  to include virtually  appeared  2  3  this of  This  Some p r o t e c t i o n i s m  o f government  of the province Committee  policies was  was  may  evident  expressed be g e t t i n g  established  denied  of  at  the  by t h e c o m m i t t e e  51 chairman,  Mr.  committing concern staff, this  Hoemberg.  their  about  agencies  the schedule  priorities  concern."  2  of  meetings  and  t h e n e e d s and  goals of  and  failures  far.  2 5  areas: concerns  He  citing  have  begun t h e  the  other  progress  was  due  policies of  of the the  committee and  with the  trust  very  sharing and  f a r with  w i t h i n the  and  and  to  making p o s i t i v e  the  of  of for  or  me  On  participating  building  After the  six  successes  experiment  progress  in  the  and  articulated  he  This  was  failure  community  plans  planning-related  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  power among r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , who  r e p o r t back r a t h e r t h a n  and  reduction  o t h e r hand,  progress..  so two  plans, i n t e n t i o n s ,  development o f the poorly  of  l e a r n i n g about  identification  l a c k of p l a n n i n g  to non-existent  listen  reasons  process  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning  exchange  decision-making  to  other  as l a c k  participants.  of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s .  to  and  about  expressing  " f a c t o r s such  interorganizational  of p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  disappointed  cautious  heavy w o r k l o a d ,  committee chairman i d e n t i f i e d  saw  the  and  a  Ministry o f f i c i a l s  interpersonal  the  to  were  *  Subsequent  months,  Others  the  lack  were  there  t o n e g o t i a t e and  make  decisions. In t h i s resolution that  case, is  c o n s u l t a t i o n i s underway and  resulting.  improvements i n the  result  i n more p r o g r e s s  The  design toward  identified of  the  that  i t i s b e t t e r t o have a s l o w p l a n n i n g  end  product  than  as i n many o f t h e  t o have t o other  cases  backtrack cited.  and  conflict  shortcomings  ios  i t s goals.  some  BDN  would has  process revise  show  probably recognized and  valid  needlessly,  6 CONCLUDING REMARKS While t h e s e c a s e s t u d i e s segment  of  the  planning,  they  do d e m o n s t r a t e  throughout  overall  this  occurring  planning  have  that  illustrate cooperation  subset  British has  the spectrum  of  concerning  large  made  I  of have  defence i n s t a l l a t i o n s . to  been s e l e c t e d  the  small  subset  i n the l a s t  decade.  t h e few  interorganizational the  than the p o l i t i c i a n s , although  narrow  number  situations,  Columbia  primarily  very  interorganizational  the  myself  a  the p o i n t s being  conflict  restricted  i n southwestern  from  rather  very well From  from of  t h o s e between c o m m u n i t i e s and  From t h e s e I  And  problem  thesis.  interorganizational selected  a r e drawn  local the  cases  which  conflict  and  l e v e l planners  latter  are  never  excluded. In  Chapter  3,  interorganizational  relations  better  understanding  Chapter  4,  structures and  from  various c r i t e r i a will  on  these  will  for  be d e r i v e d f r o m  the  theoretical be  aspects  presented t o  provide  o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f the i o s p r o c e s s .  practicalities  appropriate design f o r based  the  criteria.  this  interorganizational  a In  planning  the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l of  of  theory  the  case  studies.  application  will  be  An  developed  53 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 2  1  Victoria  Daily  2  Chilliwack  3  Letter  Chilliwack  5  P r o g r e s s , 9 A p r 1975  from  * Chilliwack  T i m e s , 9 A p r 1975  Base Commander  t o NDHQ, 14 O c t 1975  P r o g r e s s , 9 J u n 1976 Progress,  23 J u n 1976  Letter from Board Chairman, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of F r a s e r Cheam, t o Base Commander, CFB C h i l l i w a c k , 28 J u n 1976  6  Minutes o f T e c h n i c a l  7  P l a n n i n g Committee  m e e t i n g . Item  5,  8  J a n 1974 8  Victoria  9  L e t t e r from CRD B o a r d C h a i r m a n t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , 14 J u n 1973 Letter from the Executive Assistant of the Minister of I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s t o t h e CRD Board Chairman, 10 Oct 1973  1 0  Daily  Times,  13 Aug 1974  M  The TPC normally had representatives from CRD municipalities and electoral areas plus provincial representatives f r o m t h e M i n i s t r i e s o f Highways, M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , A g r i c u l t u r e , and, a s n e e d e d , P a r k s a n d t h e B u r e a u of Transit. The f o l l o w i n g a l s o a t t e n d e d t h i s t i m e : CFB E s q u i m a l t , F o r t Rodd N a t i o n a l P a r k , P a r k s C a n a d a (part o f DINA) , and MSOA.  *  Letter Director  2  from the Reqional Coordinator f o r MSUA t o t h e o f P a r k s Canada (DINA), 13 Dec 1973  1 3  The w o r k i n q committee consisted of p o l i t i c i a n s and two CRD s t a f f planners.  *•  L e t t e r from M i n i s t e r C h a i r m a n , 1 F e b 1974  1 5  This  i*  Victoria  *  7  CRD, O f f i c i a l Reqional_Plan 1975, p18, p a r a 2.10  »  8  CRD, M e t c h o s i n  1 9  reserve  of State  two  municipal  f o r Orban A f f a i r s  t o t h e CRD  i s shown on Map 5 i n Appendix 1.  D a i l y T i m e s , 8 Nov 1977  Settlement  CRD, Western.Community  Plan  Victoria Draft,  Metropolitan  Sep 1977,  O f f i c i a l .Settlement  Plan,  Area,  p28 1978,  p7  54 See  Map  4 in  2*  Letter from Mar 1976  22  Letter  2  3  Technical  2  *  2S  from  Appendix.1.  RDN  DND  EPO  to National  p l a n n e r t o DND,  Defence  3 May  S e t t l e m e n t P l a n Committee  c o n v e r s a t i o n , . 1 8 Dec  1978  minutes,  Ibid Telephone  Headquarters,  1978  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  8 Jun  1978  12  55 CHAPTER•3  THE NATURE  1  OF INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS  INTRODUCTION In the turbulence modern  world,  organizations ever  more  the  and  complexity  overlapping  has i n c r e a s e d  adds t o t h e problem.  its  responsibilities  As each  within  diverse  independently  are even  Sutton*  that  three  b.  i t i s sensitive to external power o f r e s p o n s i b l e i t i s perceived different  which  recent  complexity  tries  policies  in  fact  that  they  to  meet  and a c t i o n s  inter-related. cannot  operate  own s p h e r e o f a u t h o r i t y .  sources  with  other  The  of complexity  i n any  i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s ;  f a c t o r s which  a s a f f e c t i n g and b e i n g  i n t e r e s t s who w i l l  i n c r e a s i n g complexity  of planning years  are  the  and  a f f e c t e d by a number  have d i f f e r e n t  organizations  v i e w s as t o  are not.  interdependence  h a s r e s u l t e d i n some s p e c t a c u l a r  when  beyond  p o l i c y makers t o i n f l u e n c e ; and  outcomes a r e d e s i r a b l e and w h i c h  This field  of  policy issue:  i t i s inter-dependent  of  man's  manageable.  a.  c.  t o cope w i t h  diverse  are  within their  identifies  of  the  The d e v e l o p m e n t  organization  discovering  e n v i r o n m e n t i s no l o n g e r  in  a n a r r o w frame o f r e f e r e n c e , i t  organizations  Organizations  existence  interacting  dramatically.  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t  public  and  governmental bureaucracies  only  by  of  pursued t h e i r  in  the  failures i n own g o a l s i n  56 isolation. of  new  I t has a l s o l e d t o t h e development o f a interorganizational  mechanisms whose main f u n c t i o n actions  by m u t u a l l y  attempts  to  impacting  identify  the  interorganizational conflict is  general  and  structures  and  i s the reduction  of c o n f l i c t i n g  and  This  in  chapter  characteristics of  and c o o p e r a t i o n .  theoretical  coordinating  organizations. nature  multitude  The  framework  i t s applicability  to l o c a l  planning. Interorganizational "organizations". achieve  They  common g o a l s .  reduction  by  structures  In this  c a s e t h e main g o a l Each  interorganizational  structure represents  while  in  organizations goals  have  this  is  joint  trouble  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  problem  making goals  much more s e r i o u s  3:  h i s own  their mutually  of Goals  to  i s conflictof  the  organization  organization.  f o r i o s having  Conflict  together  member  goals: Figure  themselves  c o n s i s t o f people working  cooperation.  participating  are  members'  If  personal  supportive, a third  most  the  level of  57 3.2 GROUP BEHAVIOUR An  IN INTERORGANIZATIONAL  iosi s itself  members  are  negotiators  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s is  who  that  They  may be s u p p o r t e d  which  meet and form  the  required,  typically  by  a  working  a group.  interests  from two t o t w e n t y  secretariat  One o r i s  members.  structure  provided  o r by one o f t h e members.  This  neqotiating  group  exhibits  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l formal long  in  f o r each o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g  all  jointly  an o r g a n i z a t i o n  STRUCTURES  time  develop.  for  the  The g r o u p described  to  goals  However i t w i l l  characteristics pressure  tendencies group  groups.  to  by J a n i s ,  2  most o f t h e b e h a v i o u r  o f an i n f o r m a l  conform,  the  take  a  group t o  "groupthink"  and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o y a l t y  may n e v e r e v o l v e  i n many i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  groups. Informal removal  of  their  group  characteristics  t h e members from  own  organizations.  federal  would  provide  federal  conferences, enough o f an  representatives  F u r t h e r m o r e i t would i o s of t h e i r  concessions  while  same  for  A  to the  in  Toronto  a few  of the negotiations  hotel  environmental  yielding little  that  advantage  unbalance federal  the  regularly That  f o r the  negotiations.  representatives  own o r g a n i z a t i o n  in  t o win  i n the bargaining.  may be f o s t e r e d by r e g u l a r  participants..  by  tri-level  e x a m p l e , would n o t do.  obligation to their  Group i d e n t i t y the  remind  encouraged  a  conference  them i n a " n e u t r a l " h o t e l .  held  this  In  a g o , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s  to hold  be  t h e a u t h o r i t y and environment of  (federal/provincial/municipal) years  can  Socializing  over  meetings dinner  with  or coffee  58 between  discussions  i shelpful.  someone  you  identity  f o r t h e i o s would h e l p .  very  just  chatted  I t  successful a t this,  Even  with  with  UN p e a c e - k e e p i n g t r o o p s  identify  with  of t h e i r  own  this  i s  difficult  over c o f f e e . The U n i t e d  i t s own f l a g ,  wear a UN b e r e t  i o s i n s t e a d o f with  to  insult  Symbols o f an  N a t i o n s has  been  c r e s t , pins, e t c . t o help  them  t h e more p a r o c h i a l  to aims  organizations.  According  to  Schein,  3  "The fundamental problem of intergroup competition i s the c o n f l i c t of goals and t h e breakdown of i n t e r a c t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e groups; this breakdown i n turn p e r m i t s and s t i m u l a t e s p e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n and mutual n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p i n g . " He  suggests  reducing  three  conflict,  tactics  f o r implementing  here i n t e r p r e t e d  a strategy of  f o r application  to the  ios: a.  Identifying organizations in  an  a  may f i n d  ios to  opponent.  common  i ti n their  jointly  For  enemy.  solve  example,  Normally  interests to participate  the  problem  competing  to  federal  deal  presence  jurisdiction. cooperate b.  informal  i t  has  a  no  common  government cooperative to oust t h e  constitutional  W i t h o u t t h e common t h r e a t , t h e i n c e n t i v e t o reduced,  i fnot eliminated; which  i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n with  actual liaison  Participation  a.  provincial threat  a negotiation strategy  organizations the  a  where  i s severely  Inventing  to  with  of  federal  d e p a r t m e n t s on t h e u r b a n s c e n e may a g r e e t o structure  competing  design to  of a  the  formal  brings  each other.  competing This  leads  i o s . I t could  range  joint  committee.  action  c a n range from a t o k e n s u b o r d i n a t e  from  manager t o  59 the  c h i e f executive.  and  legitimacy  c.  Locating action to  o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ; and  a superordinate  a p o l l u t e d lake  would be j o i n t install  a  Schein conflict. following  action  also  discusses  Four  methods  two ways. to  i s  and,  s e c o n d , on  are  interpreted  The  of  example  common  reducing  applicable  F i r s t , on one l e v e l ,  a  lower  level,  decisions  member  to  to  goal i s  t h e purpose  successful  requires  intergroup  the i o s i n the  between i t s member  between t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  the  Another  municipalities  system.  methods  reduce c o n f l i c t  conflict-reducing  of the  organizations, negotiation  that c o n f l i c t  who p r o t e c t t h e  orqanizations.  Schein's  four  of  first  be  interests methods,  f o r use i n i o s q r o u p s , a r e a s f o l l o w s :  Emphasize t o t a l and  and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s  neighbouring  sewer  joint  as advantageous t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  ios  a.  An example would be  from e x t i n c t i o n .  by  regional  recognized  of  goal.  by government, i n d u s t r y ,  rescue  reduced  S u c c e s s p a r t l y d e p e n d s upon t h e power  organizational effectiveness  t h e r o l e o f t h e member o r g a n i z a t i o n s  of  the i o s  i n contributing to  it; b.  Stimulate communication of  c.  high  degree  of  interaction  between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  to  and f r e q u e n t  resolve  problems  interorganizational coordination; Encourage  of  a  the  v i s i t s of representatives  other  representatives  to the organizations  to  stimulate  higher  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and empathy f o r one a n o t h e r ' s p r o b l e m s ; and d.  Avoid  win-lose  organizations  into  situations; direct  t r y t o avoid  competition;  putting emphasize  member the  60 overall  goal of cooperation  f o r the greater benefit to a l l  members. It  is  behavioural  apparent traits  that  both  the  ios  i s  as a g r o u p i t s e l f  between  two o r more s e p a r a t e  involved  i n more t h a n  one  groups.  ios.  It  subject  to  group  and a s a c o n j u n c t i o n  And e a c h g r o u p may  be  could  represented  be as  follows:  3 WIELDING POWER IN INTERORGANIZATIONAL R.  H.  individual other and  Tawney  defined  power  o r group o f i n d i v i d u a l s  individuals  t o prevent  or  STRUCTURES as  " t h e c a p a c i t y o f an  t o modify  the  conduct  of  g r o u p s i n t h e manner which he d e s i r e s ,  h i s own c o n d u c t  from  being  modified  in  the  manner which he does n o t . " * Within group  a l l groups t h e r e  members.  representative  In  i s an e x e r c i s e o f power by some  interorganizational  draws upon a s e p a r a t e  source  groups,  each  o f power, h i s own  61 organization. more on  the  personal "power  a  attribute The  relative  the of  actor."  organizations  power  somehow  i n the  organizations  b.  and  of  B's  Improving rewards  accepting recipient d.  Reducing requires stealing  on  conflict.  identify  7  power  one's are  goals,  other  member  yield  some  s e v e n methods by  over  B  without  which  a  penalizing  B: The  This prevents  one  with  more  more power;  B from  using  the  A;  be  to  deliver  low-cost  rewards, B  of f a v o u r s B's  of  to  a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s has  something v a l u e d the  exert  Accordingly,  i n f l u e n c e the or  an  6  f o r each  attainment  g i v i n g counter-power to  ability  should  not  organizations  activities  alternatives.  A's  friendship,  other  ...  view.  the  said,  i o s want t o  a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r A.  above t a c t i c c.  exert  favourable  Reducing  their  Kelley  A could  Developing  to  this  main r e a s o n  this  anxious  Emerson  relation  i n the  successful  reduce  based  activities.  severely or  choice  may  As  supports  The  be  o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a n on  social  participating  to a l t e r  Thibault  a.  the  Mott  5  one's  is  over t h e i r  power a g e n t  of  i o s i s t h a t the  hampering  participant  himself  member's power w i l l  h i s own  over each o t h e r .  whereas c o o p e r a t i o n  control  power o f  property  the  participation  each  large extent,  a t t r i b u t e s that influence others. is  their  To  from  skills.  interfering  rewards  to  A,  such  more  by  B  r e d u c e s h i s own  to  B.  Such  as f l a t t e r y  than  by  power.  A. B is  or In the  A;  This  i s easier  with,  useful instruments  but  dangerous.  distracting,  f r o m , and  otherwise  It  disturbing, sabotaging  62 B while  he  i s performing.  I t may  h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to a c q u i r e new e.  B u i l d i n g up output  f.  the  compared  Devaluing impression little  g.  value  o f A's  t o B's,  B's  the  This  A's  reduced  present and  It  i s not  seeking  power  time  the  the but  participant French  of  and  Raven  8  B t o be In the  offer b.  him  seem n o t  the  the  is  of and  I f A can  defer  more  distant  future  h i s d e p e n d e n c y on  to B is  increased. organization  change the  relative  others' perceptions  just  other  accept  i s b a s e d on  the  management  participants  g r e a t e r than  can  i f he  to apply  punishment  can  is  B's  of of  give  one  power  of  power  attempts:  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i f he I f the reward  base,  on  comply.  t o the i o s , but take  types  one  is he  does  deemed will  organization  do  must  to gain i t s concessions;  based  d o e s not  five  the c o s t of compliance,  i o s , using t h i s  power  A's  r e w a r d him.  rewards to another  Coercive punish  has;  values i t highly;  actually  have i d e n t i f i e d  what A wants, A w i l l  it.  to  A's  more power.  Reward power  by  more v a l u e d  participating  to a l t e r  to  b a s e s under which B w i l l a.  a  Often  value  The  B i s consequently  ios  only  instruments;  cooperating  relatively  for  interdependencies.  information  in  l e s s e r advantages,  necessary  interdependencies  up  limit  include A giving  perspective.  h i s power o v e r  in  can  A secretly  a d v a n t a g e o u s outcomes t o t h e up  product.  possible to  or  more power A  product.  when i n f a c t  Lengthening  give  skills  t h a t what B i s g i v i n g  value  a l s o be  B's  recognition that  At f i r s t when  we  glance  A  can  i t would  consider  that  many f o r m s , i t becomes a u s e f u l power  base.  F o r example,  coercive  power  in  remove t h e n u c l e a r or  the  United  punishment provinces  defensive  In  of  reducing  power i s d e r i v e d  to influence  it.  This  chairman  seat  most  chairman  or  have  accepted  readily  by  wields  transfer  a  major  payments  organizational  i f  members  the as  that  A has t h e accept  when A i s a p p o i n t e d an  ios,  an  elected  An  outside  by a s u p e r i o r  organization  organization  legitimate  power  example,  legitimate  i s no s o u r c e o f s u p e r i o r  organization  accepted  as  an  Supreme C o u r t  exists  impartial  justices  favour of the f e d e r a l of  an  ios  Legitimate for  to  which  are  a  appoint  authority  by  considered  position.  choose  can  power.  chairman  a l l . be  for  Even t h e  biased  in  I t r e m a i n s f o r t h e members  mutually  power i s i n f r e q u e n t l y  to  a  i s  source.  negotiations  No  be  affiliation.  However, i n f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l / m u n i c i p a l there  to a  power, b u t i t would  superior a  to  to municipalities;  some l e g i t i m a t e  power  the  often  In  mediator appointed  more  to  o r c u t o f f arms a i d ,  f r o m B's b e l i e f  of a u t h o r i t y .  would have  weakened by h i s  threatening  him and he h a s t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o  occurs  hierarchical  considerable  federal/provincial/municipal  and d i r e c t a i d p r o g r a m s  right  would  umbrella,  t h e f e d e r a l government threat  Legitimate  uses  i t s a l l i a n c e s by s u b t l y  c u t o f f economic t r a d e .  negotiations,  States  acceptable  chairman.  a v a i l a b l e as a power  base  i o s members.  Referent  power  when B i s a b l e embrace  is  even  less  likely  in ios.  to identify  with  and e m u l a t e A,  A's v a l u e s and w i s h e s a s h i s own.  The  This  occurs  and t h u s  to  differences  between members o f an i o s which of  the  that  cooperative  gave r i s e  structure i n i t i a l l y ,  any o f t i e member o r g a n i z a t i o n s  power  over another.  widely  unbalanced  example,  in  Only  i s referent  Greater  like  Vancouver, referent  giving  power  power  knowledge  of  Regional  planning,  potentially  District  to  held  of  City of  on  GVRD  discussed,  information.  specialist  The  to other  expert  has  members a n d t h i s  Airport  i n some i o s .  Planning  by  runway  him power. For  Committee  t h e Department o f Environment  on  On t h e o t h e r  Transport  destroyed,  knowledge r e g a r d i n g  environmental  representative  was  in  consisting of expert  power  representative  the e f f e c t s  of  a  the Fraser  power o f t h e M i n i s t r y diminished,  when t h e p u b l i c g r o u p s d i s p u t e d  MOT'S s p e c i a l i s t s '  This  example,  concerns along  hand, t h e e x p e r t  knowledge  i t i n amounts a n d a t  h i s own o b j e c t i v e s g i v e s  because o f h i s expert  River.  electoral  the  representative  government and p u b l i c g r o u p r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,  third  (GVRD),  a weak p a r t i c i p a n t  emulate  h i s freedom t o d i s p e n s e  suit  Vancouver  was  and  For  i s b a s e d on t h e e a r l i e r c o n c e p t  power b a s e i s a l s o p r e s e n t the  referent  conceivable.  municipalities  Vancouver's  unavailable  combined w i t h times  could  wield  power o v e r t h e m i n o r member's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Expert the  Bay  make i t u n l i k e l y  will  power  Vancouver  participate i n joint  Lions  formation  i f t h e power base o f members was  where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f 17 districts  t o the  i f  not  and d i s c r e d i t e d  forecasts of future a i rtravel  needs.  65 3.4  RESISTING POWER ATTEMPTS IN INTERORGANIZATION AL- STRUCTURES Participants as  i n interorganizational structures  anxious to thwart  are  to  power p l a y s by o t h e r  successfully  organization's  goals.  responsibility  and  influence  wield The  power  his  just  p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e y  themselves t o serve  representative  lets  are  who  organization  their  fumbles  fall  of another, faces  h u m i l i a t i o n o r worse a t  is  resist  this  under  the  his  home  office. It  easier  representative has the  to  i s not alone  no a l l i a n c e s w i t h i n power o f a n o t h e r  Asch's  experiments  9  of  the  power  attempt  i f  i n r e j e c t i n g the proposal.  the i o s then the o r g a n i z a t i o n  should show  member p e r m i t s a s u b j e c t 35%  a  insist that  on t w o - p e r s o n peer  to reject  t i m e compared t o o n l y  If  he  fearing  delegations. from  one  other  an o t h e r w i s e m a j o r i t y 5% o f t h e t i m e when can withstand  view alone.  For  example, t w o - p e r s o n  power  plays  in  a 10-member i o s much e a s i e r t h a n one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  can i n  a  delegations  support  the  5-member i o s . Earlier,  be more  t h e power of t h e member o r g a n i z a t i o n  important  However, initial  a  weak r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  power  representative concerned  position. for  the  about r e s i s t i n g  indicated  that  willingness therefore  than the p e r s o n a l i t y of i t s  to  the  be one who  independence.  representative.  can reduce h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  Therefore  the  choosing  i o s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r an power a t t e m p t s .  personality  resist  was s a i d t o  influence.  of  a  of  a  organization  S c h r o d e r and H u n t person  affects  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t with  a strong  1 0  his  should  need  for  66  Strong  loyalty  representative power p l a y s within the  h i s own  organization  to protect his organization's  by  others.  h i s own  other  toward  The  organization  representatives  status  of  will  the  the  representative  i s important to the p e r c e p t i o n  position.  interorganizational limiting  the  organization. becomes  is  However  available  more  important This  than  i t  obtaining  in  triads  coalitions theory  to  Sometimes  even  PROMOTION OF Given the  face  publicly at  the  1 3  between  situations  t h e most  extended  likely  the  same  o f weaker o r g a n i z a t i o n s  o f power by a  stronger  the t h r e a t o f such a c o a l i t i o n organization  by  participating  s i x power  Willis  the exercise  coalitions,  identified  Coalitions  backfire  by c o a l i t i o n s  which w o u l d r e s u l t . tetrads.  ploy i n  i f one o r more o f  and p r e d i c t e d  neutralize  conflicting  1 2  strengthens  results  (three-member groups)  power of a s t r o n g  3.5  Caplow  to  based.  Power a t t e m p t s c a n a l s o be d e f e a t e d members o f t h e i o s .  can the  true  prior  common  t o lose  i s particularly  p a r t i c i p a n t s are p o l i t i c a l l y  a  to  At t i m e s t h e r e l u c t a n c e  conference t a b l e . the  This  1 1  situations.  options  of  o f h i s i m p o r t a n c e and power.  in interorganizational negotiations,  organization's  a  interests against  Announcement o f a p u b l i c p o s i t i o n on an i s s u e , participation  help  can  organization. will  check t h e  i n an i o s .  COOPERATION problems power  of  member  attempts,  organization  defensive  public positions, posturing,  and  and s o on,  interests, offensive is  there  67 any  hope  for  successful  cooperation  ininterorganizational  structures? Marwell the  content  for  each  social  and  Schmitt *  of cooperation:  coordination.  escalates  action.  The  I n an  elements: and  distributed  that  at  goals  least  opportunities  be t o  reasons  for  One  member may  for  one  ios  support  behaviour  In  any  i n the  as  cooperation  I n a hockey team, f o r  rewards  responses.  The  i s shared,  may  a l s o be  clean  up  a  the  goal to  goals.  community  case,  the  ios  does  not  explore times,  i o s members. lake  or  to  g o a l i s common, goal  may  exhibits  are  from  not.  others  support  h i s concern  s e n s e t h a t i t s members s h a r e  each  At  get c o o p e r a t i o n  with  for  i s to  by  of t h e  A n o t h e r member  first  compatible,  polluted  While the  the  first  that  shared  member's s u p p o r t  to impress the  well-being.  of  each  of h i s other  goal  occur  behaviour,  c o n s t r u c t a r e g i o n a l sewage s y s t e m . the  any  b e n e f i c i a l cooperation.  common g o a l s  e x a m p l e s would  essential to  to observe a t l e a s t  goal  f o r mutually  explicit  and  of a l l i o s members a r e  one  rewards  coordination,  are  may  define  exist.  would e x p e c t  mean t h a t a l l o f t h e  Two  two  remainder  goal-directed  behaviour,  responses,  first  e l e m e n t s would  i o s , one  participant,  more  e l e m e n t s which  toward complete i n t e g r a t i o n .  example, a l l f i v e  but  The  five  goal-directed  participant, distributed  cooperative  three  identify  1  the  for public  goal-directed  the  common  goal  cooperation. The  essential  second element, to  an  ios.  member's e x p e c t a t i o n s  of  rewards  for  each  Participation rewards  or  is  participant,  is  p r e d i c a t e d on  the  benefits.  Rewards  for  68 participating their  members  individual  cooperative The extent  could  goals  or  include in  e a s i e r accomplishment o f  social  approval  of  their  actions.  third  that  element, d i s t r i b u t e d responses,  s o l u t i o n of problems r e q u i r e s  participants.  r e f e r s to the  input  by  a l l the  I n t h e case o f i o s such i n p u t i s a requirement.  It  is  n o t a r e q u i r e m e n t , f o r example, i n a c o m m i t t e e  the  s o l u t i o n t o a problem  where  only  one  of  the  seekinq  committee  members needs t o come up w i t h t h e answer. The  remaining  coordination  two  between  ios  members.  reflect The  coordination  of  orqanizations,  may o r may n o t be r e q u i r e d ,  nature  of  element,  the  being  coordination, is  not  toward  the  members  participatinq  depending  meaning found of  the other  on The  the fifth  interpersonal  i n the i o s s i t u a t i o n . teams  and  close-knit  an i n t i m a c y  both on and o f f t h e j o b .  would i n c l u d e  element,  by t h e i o s .  where i n d i v i d u a l members f e e l  other  social l i f e  o r bond  The member's  members o f t h e i o s a s p a r t  t h e t e a m , gang, o r " f a m i l y " . Two v a r i a b l e s v i t a l l y  organizations Inequity  corrected  i n i o s when t h e r e w a r d s  distributed  of people or  among  risk.  f o r cooperation  participants.  This  1 5  are  can  be  solution  to  by:  altering reflect  a f f e c t the willingness  t o c o o p e r a t e : i n e q u i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  occurs  unevenly  a.  usually  increasinq  fourth  of  tackled  element i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  work g r o u p s ,  of  activities  problem  social  synchronization, This  the  elements  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f members expected  rewards; o r  to  the  69 b.  altering  the  However,  reward d i s t r i b u t i o n t o more  frequently  w i t h d r a w a l from the  qroup.  the  This  make i t more response  may  equitable.  to inequity  result in failure  is  for a l l  participants. Cooperation  entails  participant  in  reduces  extent  of  he  experience.  the  consequences organization risk  taken  opening  by  an  ios  may  itself  the  Risk markets,  key  i n an  Risk  be  includes  can  Mott  i o s as  resources.  shed l a t e r  potential  ideas,  result  agencies These  of and  could  autonomy and  the an  cost.  1 6  power,  resources,  t a k e s advantage of i t s  can  access  to  ios. be  developing  reduced  an  an  violations offensive  the  p u b l i c s u p p o r t , which  by:  establishing protective conditions  promoting  the  an  i n r o l e s or a l l i a n c e s  of  or  the  Participation in  without  loss  over  identifies  being  organization's  a  a p p l i e s to  influences.  organization  organization  representatives c.  ios.  i n an  and  the  mutual t r u s t d i f f i c u l t b.  same r i s k  that  substantially  control  The  external  personnel,  o c c u r when one  a.  t o new  involve  which cannot e a s i l y  in  relationship  personal  participating  may  risk  of i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r  of i t s f u n c t i o n s  also  another  his  organization  channels  thus exposing  security  cooperative  p a r t i c i p a t i n q i n an  new  threaten  a  interpersonal  interpersonal on  the  of  nonprofitable; relationship  between  ios;  a t t i t u d e o f o p e n n e s s and of  to  or  which m a k e . v i o l a t i o n s  trust, observers  while and  "pacifism"  easier,  are  such  that  particularly  reputation-damaging  to  the  70 violator; d.  reducing may  3.6  and the  continue  size in spite  A P P L I C A B I L I T Y TO Using  planning  reduce c o n f l i c t  achieve  on  approach  to  When  the  modification  other  local  at stake  land  more  Concessions  cooperation  participants.  by  are  very  valuable  than  Metropolitan controlled  secretariat.  of  rather  activities  participants.  requiring a and  in  land  an  to The  coordinated  directed  affects  itself  ios  may  involve land of  land  structures planning  by an  ios  actions  l a n d use,  as  a  be  the of  commodity. of  a  more  uses because o f agreements  British  Committees i n the  Regional some  already  exist  i n federated  cities  consisting  participating  though t h e  of  is  to  such  the as  rights-of-way.  In  representatives  latter  T h i s i s because c o n t r o l  the  nature  Interorganizational  even  high.  wiere they  l e a s e s , and  representatives  u s i n g them  existing  problems  participants  nature  than  local  solution.  transfers,  districts,  of  outcomes f o r most  planning  continuing  really  The  hand, i s a c t i v e ,  and  is  that  PLANNING  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning  interests  planning..  t o the  between o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  toward a b e n e f i c i a l  permanent  risks  so  i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t  more f a v o u r a b l e  former,  legal  of the  itself  LOCAL LAND USE  requiring  is  risk  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s to accomplish goals  passive,  of the  of  the  staff  Columbia, Districts provincial  the bring  i s like  local  like  GVRD  board  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  planning  in  of  electoral  a  permanent  Technical  Planning  together  regional  departments  and  local  71 planners.  T h i s i s an i o s i n t e n d e d  and  conflicting  the  same r e g i o n .  tried The  to  programs  coordinate  by d i f f e r e n t  The M i n i s t r y  establish  to  of  agencies  State  overlapping operating i n  f o r Urban  permanent i o s i n C a n a d i a n  p u r p o s e was t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t r i - l e v e l  Affairs  urban  centers.  activities  and  programs i n t h e c i t y . However,  many  satisfactorily  planning  not considered.  an  occur.  We assume  is  I t must  he  that will  behave r a t i o n a l l y . best  discussed  properly-designed  cooperating,  type  of  interests.  i o s do  affecting earlier  not  work  successful  i n this  chapter  The i o s must be c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i g n e d  promote c o o p e r a t i o n . with  these  b e c a u s e t h e many f a c t o r s  interorganizational were  of  be r e a l i z e d ,  however, t h a t  i o s , cooperation  i f a  member  cooperate.  will  foresees  But  even  n o t always  rewards  for  p e o p l e do n o t a l w a y s  They sometimes a c t c o n t r a r y t o What a p r o p e r l y - d e s i g n e d  increase the Opportunities  to  their  own  i o s c a n do, t h o u g h ,  f o r cooperative . action  between  organizations. In  the  next c h a p t e r ,  this  r e l a t i o n s and t h e p r a c t i c a l case  studies  will will  be  The  criteria  and  promote c o o p e r a t i o n  used  theory  of interorganizational  considerations  revealed  by  the  t o derive a set of i o s c r i t e r i a .  d e f i n e i o s c o n d i t i o n s which in local  land-use  reduce  planning.  conflict  72 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 3 Personal 1978  1  2  Janis,  communication  w i t h A l a n S u t t o n , BC R e s e a r c h , Sep  pp118-127  S c h e i n , p195  3  * M a r t i n and Sims, 5  Emerson, p32  8  Mott,  7  J a c o b s o n , p47  8  Ibid,  9  A s c h , p33  p4  p58  i°  J a c o b s o n , p63  M  Ibid,  12  Caplow,  1  Ibid,  3  p515  p64 pp23-25  pp35-36  i*  M a r w e l l and S c h m i t t , p5  is  ibid,  pp12ff  i*  Mott,  pp69-72  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  73 CHAPTER 4  INTERORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE CRITERIA  AND  DESIGN  4.1 INTRODUCTION The have  characteristics  been e x p l o r e d  concerned few  with  attempt  to  of  how  the  existing  design  an  designs  identified  interorganizational  by many r e s e a r c h e r s  describing  Furthermore such satisfy  of  ios  are  criteria,  structure  and a u t h o r s .  coordinative for  not  a  Most a r e  mechanisms;  specific situation.  rigorously  but a r e r a t h e r should  structures  developed  general  operate  and  to  statements who  should  participate. In to  t h i s chapter,  an i o s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  of independent operating  tested  check t h e i r which  the  planning  expecting ios  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  and  departments developers  jurisdiction.  applicable namely  and  agencies  within  Then, t h e s e  that  a  local  criteria  will  s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l i o s models t o  general  validity.  the  the c r i t e r i a design  Finally, will  of this  an  appropriate  method  of  setting thesis.  i o s includes  discussion  Suffice  to  more f r o m  i t than they  means d e m o n s t r a t i n g t o a l l p r o s p e c t i v e  will.  o f who  should  up an i o s i n a l o c a l  o f a n i o s i s s u s p e c t e d by p r o s p e c t i v e t o gain  ios  be d e s i g n e d .  of interorganizational consultation  beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s promoter  criteria  against  initiator actual  develop the  government  landowners  satisfies While  the  senior  as  government be  I will  say  be,  area i s  that  the  participants of Initiating  members t h a t  an  their  benefits  will  exceed  their  costs  and  risks,  p r o p o n e n t h a s no s p e c i a l a d v a n t a g e from t h e i o s . done I w i l l  2 SPECTRUM  leave  f o r future  defined  endeavours.  an  relations  organizations and a.  Within  escalating from  very  this  is  BELATIONS  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between o r g a n i z a t i o n s integrated  How  researchers.  OF INTEEOBGANIZATIONAL  Interorganizational  and t h a t t h e  this  scale loose  of  range  from  to joint spectrum,  occasional  participationin one  relationships  and u n s t r u c t u r e d  study*  has  between two  to  close-knit  of  the  integrated: director  awareness  of  the  existence  other  organization; b.  d i r e c t o r a c q u a i n t a n c e between  c.  d i r e c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n between  organizations;  d.  information  newsletters,  exchange  of  organizations;  reports,  and  releases; e.  resource  exchange o f funds, m a t e r i a l s , o r  f.  overlapping  g.  joint  h.  written  board  membership o f s t a f f  programs t o p l a n agreements  and i m p l e m e n t to  share  personnel;  o r members; a c t i v i t i e s ; and activities  between  organizations. In range  a narrower frame o f r e f e r e n c e ,  Goff  2  identified  of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n a regional  context.,  These  a.  periodic  b.  a planning  were as f o l l o w s  contacts; conference;  (my  ordering):  the  planning  c.  annual  d.  joint  meetings; participation  e. exchange f. . r e v i e w g.  of plans; of plans to public  h. t e c h n i c a l planning  assistance  to  even  more  other  explicit  would be a s f o l l o w s .  escalating  bodies  f o r feedback; agencies  and  by  regional  staff.  interorganizational relations here  hearings;  of plans;  referral  An  i n public  and  realistic  f o r the cases  range  under  of  examination  The o p t i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f  d e g r e e o f commitment and  increasing  tangible  and  intangible costs: Option  A.  Short T i t l e  Description  Technical Liaison  Informal between  technical  local B.  Bilateral  Joint  Planning  local  the  installation  liaison DND  p l a n n e r and t h e  planner.  Participation  on  established  joint  committee level, planners  at  the  between from  j u r i s d i c t i o n (s) .  a  formally planning technical DND  and local  76 Multilateral  Joint  Planning  Participation established committee and  on  a formally  joint  with  planning  local  planners  technical representatives  from  those:  provincial agencies  federal  and  departments which  and  affect  local  planning. Local  Policy  Consultation  Regular policy the  informal  planning  consultation  Base  mayor  Commander of  between and  the  jurisdiction  the local  (or  their  proposed  plans  equivalents) . Plan  Review  Exchange between body and  of the  local  planning  and t h e Base f o r r e v i e w comments  approval  before  and  seeking  fundinq  for  implementation. Plan  Approval  Exchange between  of the  proposed local  plans  planning  body and t h e Base f o r  review  and  before  mutual  seeking  approval funding  i mplementation.  for  77 Option  A,  consideration is is  in  fact  Technical  as an e f f e c t i v e the inadequate  supposed t o occur  and  illustrated  present  further that its  F, P l a n  a federal sovereiqn  priorities,  or  to  that  will  develop a  agencies  because  i t  which 1  f a c t o r s render t h e  ineffective. also  d e p a r t m e n t would s u r r e n d e r riqht  provincial  various  from  out i n Chapter  be  I t i s not r e a l i s t i c  locally  allow p r i v a t e developers and  As p o i n t e d  2,  Approval,  consideration.  be e l i m i n a t e d  ad hoc c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t y  Chapter  on l i a i s o n  will  i o s f o r these cases  at present.  in  reliance  Option  Liaison,  land  eliminated t o suqqest  to local  according  from either  authorities to  national  e l e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would  or l a n d l o r d s  (as i t c o n s i d e r s  t o be) t o d e c i d e  federal  what i s b e s t f o r i t s  constituents. Option options. does  E,  P l a n Review, i s one o f t h e f e a s i b l e  I t i s different not  require  representatives. participatinq  from O p t i o n s meetinqs  plans to the other its  current plans.  to  the  between  of this  members whenever c h a n g e s Other  originator.  option  land-use  conflicts  a plan i s approved,  before  conflicts  promoting c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n .  meetings i n t h e other o p t i o n s never  written  interpersonal  into  a  by m a i l .  are  members c a n m a i l t h e i r  While t h i s  by  provides  document  c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  proposed  an e x c e l l e n t potential effective  advantage o f t h e  viewpoints  or  to  comments back  i t i s not very  i s that  Each  copies of i t s  exposing  The s p e c i a l  i t  orqanization  i o s can d i s t r i b u t e  means o f r e d u c i n g  at  B, C, and D b e c a u s e  P l a n Review c a n be c o n d u c t e d  member  remaining  and  values  p l a n a r e exposed i n t h e  representatives.  Visual  78 and  verbal  communication  between o r g a n i z a t i o n provide  this  regular  representatives.  except  where  the  for establishing trust Plan  Review  process  is  does  not  c a r r i e d out  in  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meetings.  To  benefit  understanding,  from  an  representatives. calls  i s important  for  effective ios will Therefore  the  meetings of  interpersonal  plan  only  review  communication  include  a version  meetings  of O p t i o n  process to take  participants will  be  included  place  for  and  between E  at  which regular  consideration  here. In  the  next  theoretically determination  section, hypothetical  derived. of  These  ios criteria  criteria  which o f O p t i o n s B t o  will  will  be  permit  E i s preferable  as  an  ios.  4.3  CRITERIA FOR ft LOCftL INTERORG ANIZATIONAL Criteria for  local  criteria which  governing  land-use  and  the  design  planning  can  process c r i t e r i a .  establish  the  o f an be  STRUCTURE effective  separated  for  the  Process c r i t e r i a  are  those  which  functional  interaction  the  ios.  A  The  at the  end  criteria  interorganizational evidence  of  are  and  criteria  do  the not  derivation  derived  from  in  revealed  author's pre-judge  Chapter by  judgment the  the and  those  establish  summary  following  relations  of p r a c t i c a l i t y  studies,  the  are  interorganizational  relations.  presented  model  into structural  Structural criteria  framework  in  ios  of  the 3,  table  is  criteria. theory  the  context  the  of  empirical and  case  experience.  The  spectrum  of  feasible  interorganizational  relations  criterion  and  i s derived  some o p t i o n s  4  may  (the  options) ,  i t s optimal  satisfy  i t better  but  as  characteristics  than other  each  defined,  options.  STRUCTURAL CRITERIA Initiator. planning trying in  gain  i s going to  the  ios will  initiator  any  start  from  will  initiator  up  such c o n s u l t a t i o n .  from i t  municipality  or  local  risks  i s not  because  they  initiated  the  wielded be the  the  by  coerced option  the  than  to  t h e y can  local  power,  that  level  participants has  they  more do.  he.does not  go  I f the  government  governments.  The all  expect  Therefore  This  will  Senior  along  with  what  the  reduce  government the.  would  idea  knowing or  senior  governments  had  would  feel  local not  they  the  want  power, and The  to  of government, i e .  them.  a l w a y s do  coercive  withdrawing.  about  government p a r t i c i p a n t s b e c a u s e  i o s anyway.  senior  goes  participants that  district.  i n t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g and of  proponent  land-use  some b e n e f i t s f r o m c o o p e r a t i o n ,  i o s , the  reward  he  others.  weakest  same t i m e t h a t t h e y c a n from  the  foresee  the  a threat  might r e a s o n t h a t  by  than  regional  for senior  government  withdraw  the  how  Possible  structure  from t h e  agencies  at the  matter  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  be  and  ios for local  c a p a b l e of c o n v i n c i n g  from  gains  no  convinced that  should  costs  suspect  o f an  be  cooperative  must be  greater  initiator  to  be  the  benefit  the  The  pressured  legitimate  power  government  would  feel  i t really  had  80 Location.  The  increases  i o s should  the  not  presumed  government a g e n c i e s .  locations  are  independent offices, ios  government  neutrality  either  on  agencies  The i o s c o u l d  in  other cases)  more e f f e c t i v e four  the  i ti s .  i t seriously  process,  leading  Otherwise,  Permanency. This  will  representatives.  and  the  so  as  to  from  two t o t h i r t y o r in  Nanaimo  hand, an i o s o f f e w e r i t s representatives  losing  their  o r postponed  commitment meetings. with  than  failing to  the  A meeting one  other  engagement.  i o s should  i t s dissolution  be p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d . at the  whim  Permanency c a n be p r e s e r v e d  to participate  directives  or  standard  operating  of  the  local  by i n c l u d i n g t h e  i n t h e i o s i n both  the  procedures  departmental  and t h e l o c a l  terms of r e f e r e n c e .  Frequency o f Contact. depends  the  advantage.  On t h e o t h e r  requirement  planner's  of  i n d i c a t e s that the smaller the i o s , the  The  prevent  meeting  the i o s should  However t h e e x p e r i e n c e  t o missed  becomes a f l e x i b l e  or  government's  offices,  with t h r e e o t h e r s i s a s e r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; it  which  federal  property  or i n the l o c a l  member o r g a n i z a t i o n s may f i n d  take  the  p o s s i b l e nearby  range i n s i z e  more member o r g a n i z a t i o n s . (and  location  of  or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t  t h e s e n i o r governments'  Size.  a  c o u l d b e s t be a t t a i n e d by a l t e r n a t i n g  meet i n t h e m u n i c i p a l  to  Since  m e e t i n g p l a c e between t h e two.  offset  in  superiority  provincial  probably  meet  to  negotiated.  a  great  deal  The on  frequency the  of  ios  contacts  substantive issues  A mere i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e i n  a  static  being region  81 could of  be a c c o m p l i s h e d  significance  participants. have  the  semi-annually.  may r e q u i r e  established  themselves,  with  the  documentation.  qeneral  three on  a  minimum  land-use planninq  minimum  frequency  for  short  duration  exceed the  The c o s t  the  value  This  would  important  f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n  participation  Monetary  costs  attending  or  satisfying  interorganizational  resources,  modifying  maps,  cost  and  Participation hirinq  even  by  participants, imposed  by  of  activities, secretarial the  use  cost  of  i s  posting  the  based and t h e  visible, keep  for  spent  such  by  meetings,  as  loaning  r e p o r t s and  stationary  not  of  and  a t meetings. require  by any p a r t i c i p a n t . facilities  i t is  i o s , the costs o f  refreshments  definitely  the  i t s costs  ios  producing  services,  of  the  recoqnizinq  or  while  manhours  the  never  B e c a u s e most o f  highly  agreements  i n the i o s should  the  judgment  unquantifiable,  preparing  behalf  of a d d i t i o n a l personnel  reduced  costs  of  on  in  for a  semi-annually,  benefits.  include:  contracts  postage,  be  of the i o s t o  consultant  the  designated  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i o s should  cost  representatives  participants  and program c y c l e i n DND.  benefits of participation are  minimal.  ios  i s a subjective  of the perceived  of  the  o f t h e base p l a n n e r ' s  monetary  be  by  I t i s feasible to  DND/community s i t u a t i o n would be  nature o f the annual planning Cost.  range.  W h i l e t h e minimum f r e q u e n c y  the  issue  m e e t i n g s between a f f e c t e d  number o f m e e t i n g s  ios  meetings per year.  the  weekly  This i s the p r a c t i c a l  frequency  enabling  A rapidly-evolving  the  C o s t s can  one  of  the  and e q u a l i z i n q any i n e q u i t a b l e  on a member by t h e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n recommended  82 by  t h e i o s , a n d by m i n i m i z i n g  the documentation  supporting  the  ios. Membership. for  The o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t h e DND/community  neighbouring could  be  municipalities, expanded  provincial  to  i s again  Chapter  involved  2  organizations.  raised.  role  in  local  but  planning  affecting  those other  will  organizations membership  nature  be fall  of  which  required into  or  chief  playing  according  also to  "Key"  least  once  However,  to temporarily  be  decisions  as  year.  to which  the  initial  Also,  join  be  land-*-  per  b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e .  a  local  can  planning  t h i s category.  be a d j u s t e d  On t h e  a l l "key" i n d e p e n d e n t  at  in  different  would  initiator  other  the i o s f o r  as n e c e s s a r y .  of Representation. the  executive  a subordinate  vary  land-use  by  o f s i z e and  22  the  A  organization's  Should t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a  make  f e d e r a l and  t o be e f f e c t i v e .  planning  or  discussed  from  organizations.  c a n be r e q u e s t e d  issues  Level  include  organizations  can  organizations specific  should  decision-making  as  relevant  The q u e s t i o n  use  ios  t o the Base,  organizations  will  an  district,  The Nanaimo i o s  land  requirements,  Judgment  other  excludes  Participation  defined  regional  representatives  which  in  be l i m i t e d  the  include  ineffective.  use  and  I t was t o o cumbersome  hand, an i o s  major  could  d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s .  effectiveness  other  situation  participating  officer,  critical  representation  be a p o l i t i c a l  leader  the organization's  technocrat?  criteria on  i s  the  the i o s .  or eguivalent, chief  S h o u l d he be a l o c a l  planner,  official  or  83 from  a  larger  hierarchy? and  jurisdiction  Should  we s a c r i f i c e  decision-making  commitment The  within  the  some d e g r e e  capability  to  policy-making expertise  and  i n the ios?  i o s i s not intended  t o be a p o l i c y - m a k i n g  o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . decision-makers best  of  achieve  o b j e c t i v e s a r e t h e exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n  the  organization's  within  information  the  Its  and t h e e x p l o r a t i o n  I t i s a means o f p r o v i d i n g  participating organizations  available and  body.  plans,  concerning  the  the  of  different  policies  range  available,  and t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r j o i n t  with  effects  of  alternatives  planning  with  other  organizations. To a c h i e v e partisan  as  this,  the representative  possible  political  tradeoffs,  upmanship  are  and  attempts  less  avoidance  of  importance than based  fear  setting  of  of  non-  This  the  weakness,  and  higher  among  suggests  elimination  MP  Board,  in  politically  or c h i e f executives,  District  the  of  rank  t h e Mayor, t h e l o c a l  Eegional  on  protection  often  one-  achieving  i t depends  and c o o p e r a t i o n  by p o l i t i c i a n s  the  than  indicating  precedents  compromise  DND/community c a s e ,  Chairman  as  constitutional  While  posturing,  representatives.  representation the  image,  at  important  political  organization's  be  so t h a t i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s ,  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l cooperation. individual,  should  of  such a s , i n  or and  MLA,  the  the  Base  Commander. On t h e o t h e r the  organization's  hand, i f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e hierarchy,  he w i l l  is  too  low  in  be u n a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e  84 in  negotiations  will  not  without  have the  participant,  and  on  the  the  i o s by  problem  with  the  status required he  the  will  be  reference  to  to  Nanaimo  symbolic  ios  of the  as  low  he  an  equal  value  placed  This i s another  in  Chapter  DND's,  are  only  token  technical staff.  They  have  including  organization's  superiors,  negotiate  participating organization.  representatives, from  constant  2.  Many  of  the  delegates no  real  a u t h o r i t y. The the  representative  participating  provincial  levels  jurisdictions, level  should  be  be  the  and  representing tendency  to b e n e f i t  rejected.  to  from  The  local  concern  here.  His  generate  f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s to  uninformed officials and  in  ability In  senior level  summary t h e n , t h e directly  jurisdiction  ios  local  meetings:  appointment of  the  of the  larger  and  ios  ios  of  and  ability  to  plans  is  more  make p o s s i b l y  meetings.  Senior  upon t h e  judgment  on  the  representative  responsible  local  scale  to  rely  representative  a  power  knows the  area  unacceptable  should  from  policy-making  the  during  four larger  site-specific  with  of and  or  representation  capability  organization  of t h e i r  person  the  decisions  the  Chairmanship. the  than  federal three  send  the  familiarity  ios  policy  at  component  have  representative  especially  this  local most  increased  scene,  to  While  agencies  planning  useful  from the  organization.  departments  hierarchical  higher  should  ios.  should  for planning  be  i n the  the local  participating organization.  Three o p t i o n s election c h a i r m a n by  of a  are  available  the  c h a i r m a n by  superior  for the  chairing members,  organization,  or  85 rotation  o f t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p among members.  election  i s t h a t t h e chairman  do  j o b and c h o s e n  the  i s then  The a d v a n t a g e o f  someone b o t h  f o r i t by h i s p e e r s .  willing  However,  to  serving  as one o f t h e members and c h a i r m a n a t t h e same t i m e , he c a n n o t be  an o b j e c t i v e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t  continue An  to  represent  appointee could  ios  and t h u s  such  a  community  in  might  the  not  members  under  someone  However r o t a t i o n o f  i s t h e most e q u i t a b l e  unwilling  or ineffective  be r o t a t e d  rotation  or  will  discretion  appoint  study here?  appointed  the  to  locally. acceptable among  even t h o u g h some members may be  chairmen.  option  be  The  senior  chairmanship  Therefore  among members a n n u a l l y ,  the  the c h a i r .  a f e d e r a l appointee, o r the accept  will  t h e membership o f t h e  However, who  environment  and  even f r o m  a p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e e would  t o a l l members.  should  objectivity.  might n o t a c c e p t  governments Possibly  h i s organization  be named f r o m o u t s i d e  improve  person  i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s  refuse  the chairmanship  with  the  order  of  the chairmanship a t the  o f t h e i o s members.  5 PROCESS CRITERIA Authority. the  i o s should  Instead by  Tentative  decisions  n o t be b i n d i n g  on  such agreements should  the  member o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  and a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d i n  the  require This  member review  will  organizations. and  permit  e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . have  to  be  precedents. organization  as If  concerned the  about  policy  representative  by h i s a c t i o n s i n  the  ratification wider-ranging They w i l l n o t  ramifications  or  were, c o m m i t t i n g  his  i o s , he  would  be  very  86 cautious  in  the  undesirability precedent.  of  By  as  yielding  removing  representatives ultimate  negotiations  commitment.  does  not  representative  of r e d u c i n g land,  much  or  ios  conflict of  his  should  statement  expected  f o r the  servicing traffic  a g r e e d t o by in  and  natural  cooperation  for  power o v e r one  representatives, over  include  local  formation  such  the  in  of  this  of  relationships.  The  goals  servicing  the  regional  criterion. the  i o s , such a s relations,  Chapter  another  power may coercive  as  the  The  benefits  reduction and  of  improved  example.  be  to  3,  there  or  Therefore  and i t  by  to  be  attempt  a to  their  corporate  senior  government  power  Power p l a y s to  will  provincial representatives expert  Environment.  coalitions  achieve  exercised  power by  representatives,  departments  as  in  a statement of  public  discussed  Legitimate  the  explicitly-stated  improvement  p a r t i c i p a n t s of  As  d e c i s i o n s by  tendency f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  exercise goals.  should  costs, favourable  Power.  intended However  a l l participants.  land-use,  plans,  circulation,  the  without  body.  authority  have  e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , would s a t i s f y goals  i o s i s not  non-policy  a  ios frees  alternatives the  the  establishing  exploratory  within  of  planner.  The goals,  an  on-the-spot  matters  local  exchange  as  conscious  c o n s t r a i n t , the  means t h a t  body b u t  on  Goals. superordinate  this  This  preclude  organization*s  too  very  t o p u r s u e s o l u t i o n s and  a policy-making  it  and  may  by  some  lead to  unproductive  i s d e s i r a b l e f o r the  the  adversary i o s to  be  87 designed use.  so a s t o e q u a l i z e  A weak member  representatives  could  on  among  sanctions  enlist  also  this  of  While  member's  of  and  requirement opposition  with  must  key  varying  be  vote  are  encourages  full  to the proposal a l l the  c o n s e n s u s does r e s u l t restructuring  because t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s '  made  by  may f a i l t o  ios participants. behind-the-  (I'll  vote f o r  still  possible,  exploration  into  i n very  of  the  limited  relationships.  awareness of  among i o s members i n h i b i t s  the  b y t h e whole g r o u p ,  issues  of  hand  d e g r e e s o f commitment.  linkages  Onfortunately,  agreement  the power-player.  C o n s e n s u s on t h e o t h e r  bringing  and  two  interpersonal  of c o a l i t i o n s ,  theoretically  innovation  ios  the  me i n t h a t ) .  coalitions  consensus  of  A majority  formation  unanimity, a l b e i t  allowed  3 showed how t h e u s e o f  h i d d e n a g e n d a s , and l i n k a g e s  i f you s u p p o r t  requires  some  encourages  scenes b a r g a i n i n g ,  by b e i n g  against  the  t h a n by v o t i n g .  the support  Voting  in  minimize i t s  and by t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f  publicity  Decisions  rather  and  by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  and u n f a v o u r a b l e  consensus  Chapter  representatives  Processes,  power  be s t r e n g t h e n e d  the i o s .  power c a n be d i s c o u r a g e d relations  members'  the  a thus  open.  scope f o r This  3  necessity  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  is for  proposals  w h i c h u p s e t t h e s t a t u s quo i n i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Analytic  processes  bargaining  processes  processes  include  logic,  and  on  should  exchange  other  prevail  persuasion,  willingness to yield gains  and compromise p r o c e s s e s  of  in  presentation  viewpoint.  on c e r t a i n i s s u e s  issues.  the  Bargaining,  rather  ios.* of  than  Analytic  information,  Compromise  is  without l i n k i n g on t h e o t h e r  the  this to  hand,  does  88 include  linked  interfering  trade-offs,  with  progress  promoting c o n f l i c t ) This linked  argument  and  compromise p r o c e s s e s  political making  or  substantive  planning  issue  process  representation. feasible  exploratory executive  ( o r even  elsewhere. i s  closely  The  with  a n a l y t i c and  technical-level  discussions  representatives  than  with  and  policy-  days o f i n c r e a s i n g  pressure  decisions.  Confidentiality. for  organizations  t o force a concession  a r e more  senior  in  i n t h e d e r i v a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a f o r  of  and  results  a  fora rational  level  representatives  on  i n order  to considerations  authority  and  open  In  these  government, p u b l i c  freedom  of  participation  information,  interorganizational  planning  in  planning,  advocating  process  may be  a  a  and  closed  losing  cause.  However, t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f i n - c a m e r a i o s m e e t i n g s o u t w e i g h t h e public's  need  t o know t h e d e t a i l s  of the i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  negotiations. First,  since  participating must  be  alternative pressures. the which  into  processes was  i n t h e i o s would  subject  of  that  be  hampered  representatives  of  needlessly t o explore  will  every  limit  limited  the  policy-makers  the options  by  opportunities  P u b l i c c o n c e r n s must be  of the i o s e x p l o r a t i o n s . .  i o s negotiations  i f  The  t o p u b l i c d e b a t e and i n t e r e s t g r o u p  generate p u b l i c a c t i v i s m .  results  interest  by t h o s e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s .  The a l t e r n a t i v e s would be  reluctance  the  d e c i s i o n s a r e made by t h e  not the i o s , the p u b l i c  account  when d e c i s i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d with  and f i n a l  organizations,  taken  exploratory  policies  faced  presented  I t i s recoqnized finally  presented  89 to  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , but  have  permitted  opportunities  the  wider  i n the  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of  consideration  first  for  media i s w a t c h i n g . how  they  are  the  i o s , and  and  important  could  their  of  They w i l l  show t h e i r  organization.  resort  do  this  A  or  ability  of  interests  do  appearing  the  so to  sake  the  superiors within capable  representative  not  Such f a l s e a n t i c s f o r t h e  s e r i o u s l y hamper t h e  and  and  know t h a t  n e i g h b o u r s what  are.  i o s might  posturing  show t h e i r  organization's  they  weakness  to  i f they  to  f r i e n d s and  negotiators  showing  will  more a l t e r n a t i v e s  organization  compromise i n a c l o s e d  fear  will  p r o t e c t i n g the  to  ios  place.  S e c o n d , even t e c h n o c r a t s image-building  of  the  who  i n public  for  sell-out  his  of  the  i o s to achieve  public  cooperative  b e h a v i o u r between p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Third, issues  the  ios  consensus  is  organizations, inflation on so  of  forward  various  reached could  values,  a f f e c t land proposals  and  i t  result  hasty  suppositions  discussing  personal about the  values  land-use  i n the  region.  under d i s c u s s i o n ,  is  in  critical  presented  land  member  speculation,  decisions, issue  to  before  false  protests  being  based  discussed,  and  on. It  That the  be  whose r e s o l u t i o n w i l l  P u b l i c knowledge o f a  will  i s not  i s the ios*  up  to  function  the  ios to  of the  recommendations.  especially  to  representatives. representatives  be The  public  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s who The  protected democratic  responsible  bear these  to  local by  process the  will  public's the  pressures.  interest  local makes  people,  act  upon is  government the  and  the  elected public  servant  (local  planner)  representative. be  punished The  Failure  to protect  local  planner should  of  of  H i s sources  h i s job. media,  local  the l o c a l  and  planner  discussions. exploratory pressure  A  «  to  process  for  these  contact  are  elected  interests  will  reflect this  i n the i o s ,  i o s members w i l l  be  not  concerns part  the  expect  in  their  of the r a t i o n a l ,  result  of  outside  g r o u p s o r t h e media.  the  i o s meetings should  full  and f r a n k  and c o o p e r a t i v e  officials,  residents at public  community will  and  to a l l aspects  elected  with  The o t h e r  on t h e i o s by i n t e r e s t  doors to permit  6 SUMMARY  citizens'  p u b l i c , a s he s h o u l d  direct  However,  Therefore  reducing  the  bring t o the i o s t h e values  m e e t i n g s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . the  to  a t the p o l l s .  perceptions  local  responsible  be h e l d  explorations  opportunities  of  behind the  i n land-use  closed  conflictplanning.  TABLE OF IOS CRITERIA  Structural  Criteria  Initiator  --weakest  Location  —  member  neutral  or  organization in territory  o f weak  member Size  — see  H t o 10 also  members  membership  formally  Permanency  established institutional Frequency o f Contact  —  as  preferably, criterion and  by  permanently  each  operating  required  but  member's  procedures  by s i t u a t i o n ,  but a t  91 least Cost  —  three  times per year  minimal;  less  than  perceived  hidden  i n host  benefits —  some c o s t s  member's  overhead should additional Membership  —  not  require  a l l key  independent  5  --  i n the area  representative  senior for  person  planning  in  participating —  should  directly  jurisdictional  Chairmanship  the  •  Process  be  the  responsible local  unit  level  of  the  organization  r o t a t i o n of chairmanship  among members, w i t h  B  land-use  decision-making  organizations Level  of  staff  planning  Representation  hirinq  option  annually to decline  Criteria  Authority  --  ios  agreements  ratification Goals  —  by member  explicitly  qoals  plus  stated  require  orqanizations superordinate  statement o f b e n e f i t s o f  ios to participants Power  — t  equalize  members*  relative  power  a s much a s p o s s i b l e —  discouraqe  use o f power by members  Processes  —  decisions/agreements  not  Confidentiality Returning  to  relations i n Options  B,  C,  D,  further best  and compromise  processes,  bargaining closed  the  Section  interorganizational studies.  —  consensus,  vote analytic  not  by  sessions  spectrum  4.2, and  a  the  processes  of  interorganizational  reader  modified  should  recall  that  E were c o n s i d e r e d  valid  s t r u c t u r e s f o r the s i t u a t i o n  Development o f the i o s c r i t e r i a test  fits  of the Options  the  and s e l e c t i o n  above now of  the  the  case  permits one  Appropriate  Options  Initiator  — a l l  Location  — a l l  Size  —  Multilateral  Permanency  —  a l l except  Policy  all  Plan  Contact  except  Cost  — a l l  Membership  -—  Multilateral  —  a l l except  Representation  Level  Joint  Planning Consultation  Review  Joint  Policy  Planning Consultation  Chairmanship  — a l l  Authority  — a l l  Goals  —  a l l except  Plan  Review  Power  —  a l l except  Plan  Review  Processes  —  a l l except  Policy  Confidentiality  — a l l  a  which  criteria:  Criteria  Frequency of  in  Consultation  Evidently the It  Option  criteria  C,  Multilateral  f o r an e f f e c t i v e  i s t h i s O p t i o n which w i l l  ios for local be d e v e l o p e d  7 TEST OF CRITERIA AGAINST EXISTING The of  criteria  c a n be compared  best  land-use  planning.  i n t o an i o s model.  INTERORGANIZATIONAL against  meets  MODELS  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  s e v e r a l e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l models o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  relations. criteria  This  will  before  test  using  the  theoretical  them  to  b a s e d on O p t i o n C, M u l t i l a t e r a l Of  Warren's f o u r  Federative goals  organizations,  goals.  of A  This  labour  moderate  consideration  of  Joint  except  of  an a p p r o p r i a t e  most  for  the  of resources  his  organizations* inclusive  goals member  agree t o a  t o accomplish i o s  collectivity  the well-being  model  resemble  Autonomous members may  of  the  Planning.  i s i n t h e hands o f t h e  or s h a r i n g degree  validity  model has member  Authority  not the i o s .  design  my c r i t e r i a  6  disparate  f o r the ios.  division  models  Model o f i o s .  generally  defined  this  J o i n t Planning,  orientation  of the i o s -- i s expected i n  model. In  Braybrooke  below),  these  situation  in  understanding systems. rather  criteria the of  than  version  locate  Second the  In such cases  professionals graphic  and L i n d b l o m ' s d e c i s i o n  or  the  and  and  the rather  (Figure  7  required  method  by chanqe is  model i s p r e s e n t e d  politicians. below:  high to  synoptic  decision-makers than  5  f o r our  defined  incremental  analytical  specialists  of t h e i r  ios  Quadrant,  problem  disjointed  the  model  are A  9H Figure  5:  Braybrooke  and Lindblora  Decision  Model  H I 6 M  i ; i o n  Dec  t^trtUvd  Analytical  ••  n t < * k >'•-•j  —  Sjmopfia  CHA*&E  revo/uhonr  W a M ,  me. ni~<x 1  Po//*f»cs  (  C ' r j £ i  Me-tUod.'•  Analytic*.!  (  of  formalized  or- uje.ll w>d*.rsi~oo  ^QuAMA'JT fq»¥»9n^  o"tVc  d.  ^ r-js3 ) L6W innt>eA,srA*JP"i)€>  In define  the that  Oakland  understanding  coordinative  game  as t o i n t e r short  i n this  planning  and  and  dialogue,  strategies generate planning  Nuttall's  i s  mutual  planning.  The  model c o n s i s t o f i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e r u l e s o f t h e  These p r o c e s s e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t planning  a  organization to  of  9  and s t r a t e g y  were  increased  than  model  purposes,  range  and p l a y i n g  model  interorganizational  planning  the  effectiveness  i s directly  interested  action i n a desired  rather  This  would  thesis.  They  be a t t a c h e d  Model.  defined  long  for local  organization  case.  our c r i t e r i a  8  and i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ,  processes f o r t h i s  defined  Bolan  models  shared  ( i e . i o sprocess rules) .  structures  --  some  persuasive  with those  our  by  functional  sharing,  Force  group's Mutual I n t e r a c t i o n  characterized  and  Task  in  applicable  what  variables  organization's  direction.  ability  of to and to  To be e f f e c t i v e , t h e  should: the  authority  center  be i n d e p e n d e n t and a d v i s o r y ;  (decision-makers)  95 use  ad  rather --  —  hoc  opportunism  than comprehensive  concentrate  on  short-term  than  long-term  and  use  selected  and  comprehensive It  is  that  with  the  B o l a n and  a  to  their  behaviour  and  rather  rather  than  and  Lindblom  hoc  Second  Quadrant  o p p o r t u n i s m and  with  in  incremental  than comprehensive  model, t h e are  of  to  political  planning.  rather  institutions Bolan  and  and  resources,  rather than  than  modify  strategies  rather to  try  than to  societal  rather  re-  change  behaviour,  than a l t e r , e x i s t i n g  organizations.  Nuttall also saw  making r e s u l t i n g f r o m  an  reinforcing  representation;  most e f f e c t i v e  maintain  b r i n g a b o u t change w i t h i n ,  a  issues  second of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  ad  organization  individual  than  ones;  information  i s more l i k e l y  distribution  body,  methods;  representatives.  planning  to  problem-solving  means-oriented  more e f f e c t i v e  allocate  and  the  Braybrooke  as  According for  and  focussed  that  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c technical  planning  goal-oriented  N u t t a l l see  problem-solving  incremental  information.  interesting  conflicts  and  and  appointed my  effective  office,  decision-  body r a t h e r t h a n an  criterion  r e s u l t i n g from  short-term  more  1 0  of  a long-term  reinforcing  my  elected  non-political office  rather  criterion  for  permanency. B o l a n and  N u t t a l l s model f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s 1  supports  the  ios c r i t e r i a  feel  the  planning  that  center  instead  of  with  two  exceptions.  agency s h o u l d  i n an  advisory  be  role.  attached  in  planning  These t o the  However my  authors power  criterion  for  Authority  puts t h e i o s  organizations this  holding  there  local/provincial/federal  land  government.  under These  problem-solving  making t h a n least  conflict calls  with for  argument already  authors  this  to  of  also  senior  for technical  would n o t be capable  that  incremental  of p o l i t i c a l  planning. decision-  decision-making,  and L i n d b l o m ,  then t h i s  at  would  of Representation  which  representative.  political  of  levels of  than comprehensive  than  these,  two  minor  a g r e e m e n t between t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l theoretical criteria.  The  representation  models  is  exceptions, criteria  and  test  The two e x c e p t i o n s  of the c r i t e r i a ,  indicate  unjustifiable  that  the  has  general  these  some a s s u r a n c e o f t h e v a l i d i t y serve  to bring  i n t o focus  r e - e x a m i n e t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r two o f t h e c r i t e r i a .  does  for  been made i n t h e c r i t e r i a .  Other  true  member  i s valid for  of a l l three  technical-level versus  It  suggest  the c r i t e r i o n f o r Level a  to  authority  super-agency  professional  Braybrooke  This  issues.  i s more t y p i c a l or  role  overall  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  technical  according  no  land-use  i s more e f f e c t i v e  t h e sense t h a t  advisory  i s  t o e s t a b l i s h some k i n d  managing  In  an  ' the r e a l a u t h o r i t y .  s i t u a t i o n because  feasible  in  t h e i r agreement with  the  or i l l o g i c a l .  criteria  are  not  While these  four o f the and t o not a models  conceptually  Applying conflict  the  situation  criteria  to  i n BC a l l o w s  the  DND/community  generation  planning  o f an i o s d e s i g n :  A r e a I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ; P l a n n i n g Committee  Goals  a.  Elimination planning  of  local  conflicts  between  land-use and  among  programs and a g e n c i e s ; b.  Elimination efforts  of  and  participating c.  resources  of among  organizations;  Development projects  duplication  of  cooperative  joint  f o r t h e b e n e f i t of the area;  and d.  Improvement social  Participating  Improved  Opportunities  Opportunities by  of  own  reduced  conflict;  for  sharing of existing  savings  to satisfy  because  interorganizational  c.  and  b e n e f i t from:  capability  objectives  b.  environment  well-being of the area.  organizations w i l l a.  of the  economies  by  resources;  for  capital  participation  in  cost joint  p r o j e c t s ; and d.  Favourable demonstration  public of  relations  by  interest  in  98 community  well-being  and  extra-organizational B.  Membership  —  organizations, of  all as  membership  d e p e n d i n g on  defined  would  the  responsibilities  key  i n the  probably  criteria be  importance  i n the  area:  local  the  such  Transport  airports,  ports,  Defence  military  facilities  Land-use  Agriculture  experimental  Northern  Affairs  farms  reservations,  parks, h i s t o r i c  or  training  penitentiaries  disposal  national  sites  redevelopment, Works  yards  ranges  federal  Indian  rail  bases,  Solicitor-General  Public  or  Departments  a r e a s and  &  list,  Facilities/re sponsibilities Local  Indian  Selection  following  Affecting Federal  planning  earlier.  of  for  interests.  land-use  from  p r e s e n c e and  Organization  1.  independent  concern  acguisition, of  federal  property 2.  Provincial Ministries Highways & P u b l i c  Works  highway  routing  upgrading,  and  provincial  buildings Agriculture  land  commission  agricultural Parks £  Recreation  provincial  land  parks  reserve  and  post-secondary  Education  educational  facilities Health  h o s p i t a l s and s a n a t a r i u m s  Environment  environmental water  protection,  rights  provincial  Attorney-General  jails  correctional forest  Forestry  and  centers  resources  use  Local Regional  regional  District  land-use  regional  plan,  parks,  sometimes  and  utilities  hospitals services local  Municipality  zoning,  permits,  development  and  utilities  services School  schools  Board  Other BC  transmission  Hydro  and  gas  lines,  transit railway  CNR/BCR/CPR  rights-of-way  and  facilities Each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e for  local  and  land-use  agreements  representatives, where  the  planning will  with  decision  representatives  will  be t h e s e n i o r p e r s o n  responsible  f o rh i s organization.  Decisions  be  made  by  a  ratification  by  member  i s  beyond  (usually the case).  the  consensus  the  organizations  authority  The m e e t i n g s  of  of are  their closed  100 to  the  public  and  no  a g r e e m e n t s and d e c i s i o n s released  to the public  members.  minutes  are recorded  shall  rotate  Only t h e  may  only  be  o f committee  annually  among  the  members o f t h e C o m m i t t e e .  Committee  will  meet q u a r t e r l y  necessary,  i n the conference  offices.  Secretarial  Regional  District.  Chairman the  be k e p t .  and t h e s e  P a r t i c u l a r s o f a sample committee The  to  w i t h t h e unanimous c o n s e n t  Chairmanship  permanent  are  Chairman  more  as f o l l o w s :  frequently  i n the Regional  services  will  Agenda i t e m s  will  or  room  up t o one week b e f o r e  might r e a d  i f  District  be p r o v i d e d  by t h e  a r e t o be a d v i s e d t o the meeting.  distribute  the  the  At that  agenda  to  time a l l  representatives. Permanent  members o f t h e Committee  organizations:i2 Municipality  Regional  of  Alpha,  District  (Gladesville Airport),  Defence  (CFB  and  Region  Gladesville), Experimental  Recreation  Ministry Ministry  of  of Agriculture  Farm  Valley,  of  of  National  Agriculture  F a r m ) , BC M i n i s t r y  (Farm (Land  Department  Department  (Cambridge  Education  of  City of G l a d e s v i l l e , Ministry of  Transport  (Western  are the f o l l o w i n g  Lake  Provincial  Valley  of  Parks  Park),  College),  and  BC BC  Commission).  4.9 CONCLUSIONS In examined which  this  chapter,  interorganizational  more c l o s e l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e r a n g e would  serve  the  purposes  of  relations of  were  relationships  interorganizational  101 planning. ad  hoc  I t was  technical  situation The 3,  found  the  context  under  that  liaison  these  the  characteristics  comparing  evidence case  were  theoretical  of  used  to  develop  of  these  they  conformed  Finally,  criteria  theoretically  ios  the  were  was  that  derived  an  the  planning. was  criteria  c o o p e r a t i o n and than  It  was  existing  tested  found of  directly  a  more  i n the  designed be  according  more  effective  in local  time.  at  This hypothesis  which  ios i s  designed  rationally  i o s i n p l a c e . ft f u r t h e r when t h i s  to  land-use  a p p l y i n g the  scenarios  a t some f u t u r e  situation  these  hypothesis stated  c h a p t e r by  in  that  model  will  o c c u r i f and  existing  develop  p l a n n i n g arrangements.  with the  by  This  reducing c o n f l i c t  i n the next  the events  to  The  verified  case s t u d i e s .  ios  the hypothesis w i l l a real  defining  characteristics  The  model t o t h e c a s e s t u d i e s i n  re-enact  criteria  used  i o s model r e l e v a n t t o t h e  Introduction  be  and  land-use  the  the  judgment  criteria  a s y n t h e s i s of the c r i t e r i a .  will  r e v e a l e d by  m o d e l s , a l t h o u g h none o f t h e models was situation.  planning  Chapter  own  relations.  to  applicable to t h i s  promoting  my  from  them a g a i n s t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e v e r a l  theory-based  specific  and  o f an i o s f o r l o c a l  validity  relations  practicality  studies,  models o f i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l generally  from  examination.  empirical and  ranged  to mutual a p p r o v a l o f p l a n s , f o r t h e  t h e o r y of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  experience  is  relationships  test  of  established  102 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 4  1  K o n g l a n e t a l , p676  2  Goff,  3  Warren, p408, and M o t t , pp107-110  •  M o t t , p106  p  s "Key" was d e f i n e d a s t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s which make l a n d - u s e planning decisions a f f e c t i n g other organizations at l e a s t once p e r y e a r . 6  Warren, p406  7  Braybrooke  a  Pitts,  and L i n d b l o m , p78  Patterson,  « B o l a n and N u t t a l l ,  and K a p l a n , p183 p31  10  I b i d , p123  11  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and C a n a d i a n Pacific Railways. While Canadian Pacific i s n o t a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n l i k e t h e o t h e r s , i t v a s t l a n d h o l d i n g s and i t s close control b y t h e f e d e r a l government b r i n g i t s p o l i c y making w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a n d - u s e i n t o t h e p u b l i c domain.  12  These a r e f i c t i o n a l , example.  provided  only  f o r purposes  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  of  this  103 CHAPTER 5  DESIGN APPLICATION AND  1  CONCLUSIONS  INTRODUCTION In growth  an i n c r e a s i n g l y t u r b u l e n t  o f a new t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e  designed  to  link  changed  existing  the  similar  to  function  continue  to  dynamics  significantly environment.  have  characteristics  s i t u a t i o n s and power s t r u g g l e s  The i m p o r t a n c e  increase  as  objectives,  of the  the  between o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  overlapping increase  has  These d y n a m i c s must be u n d e r s t o o d  effectively.  conflicts  f o r the i o s t o  ios  in  society  s i t u a t i o n s which  such  and  between  as  limited  jurisdictional  create  resources,  overcrowding,  i n frequency.  With t h i s conflict,  local  i n mind, a s p e c i f i c land-use  hypothesized  that  theoretically  based  promoting planning for  structure  bargaining  individuals.  organizations  world, the specifically  interorganizational  Interorganizational  will  and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  an  planning, ios  cooperation  an  hypothetical  ios  can  criteria and  between d i f f e r e n t  such  was  area  was  be  which  It  was  designed  according  to  will  effective  at  reducing  examined.  be  conflicting  organizations.  derived.  ios f o r local  of interorganizational  Based  A set  land-use  of  criteria  on t h e s e c r i t e r i a ,  land-use planning  organizations  a  was  evolved. It case  i s now i m p o r t a n t  studies  examined  t o apply in  this  Chapter  model  2 to test  to  two  the  of  the  hypothesis.  104 Because t h i s and  be  done i n r e a l  r e - e n a c t i n g the events  based will  on be  what  is  developed  scenarios  will  known o f t h e  to estimate  necessarily  t o disagreement  will  at l e a s t  be  far  in  thesis.  be  taken,  espoused, rational  the  case  planning  THE  An a r e few  ios  Canadian  will  siqnificant  necessarily  be  organizations  been d e v e l o p e d  Forces  activity  was  going  organizations Coqualeetza Indian  and  other  The  differ  are  rural  size  attitudes  judgment o f  affected  a  of  land-use  urban  and  planning  composition  of  q u i t e s m a l l because  exist  and  any  i n the study  of  i n the  area,  therefore  an  ios.  ios i f their  o t h e r s o r i f the  there  organizations.  would  members  their  (Dept  and  and  with  Chilliwack  decision-makinq  participate  reservations,  thus  accordingly.  static  to a f f e c t  Project  judgment  planning.  Bases  the  permanent would  The  therefore  what has  f o r Nanaimo) d e a l t  land-use  them  ios.  judgment, and  pursued,  represent  areas  of  the  However t h e  i n C h i l l i w a c k would be  most  of  i o s design  others.  S e v e r a l l a r g e government i n s t i t u t i o n s but  the  scenarios  CASE STUDIES  environments r e s p e c t i v e l y . f o r these  and  time  i s recognized that other decisions  s t u d i e s (except  These  back i n  place,  s c e n a r i o s r e p r e s e n t the best  FOB  around  Esguimalt.  ios  on  approach t o i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  POSTULATED IOS The  by  c o n s i s t e n t with It  in  situation  based  other options  but  by g o i n g  the e f f e c t s  be  subject  the  life  with the i o s  are  could  5.2  cannot  plans  not Such  land-use of  other  operations.  These i n c l u d e : t h e  Health  Welfare),  Chilliwack  and  Biver Correctional  various Camp,  BC  105 Ministry  of  The  Highways, and permanent  other  at  least  i s postulated  the  Chilliwack  quarterly,  under  adequate  for  nature of  the  frequency  of  of  the  site  District  are  year.  be  likely These  those  to  affect  organizations  of  Fraser-Cheam,  CFB  Chilliwack,  ( P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s B r a n c h ) , and  the  that  would  normal  three urban  t i m e s per  would be  at  area  around  year  of p l a n n i n g  s u c h an  decisions  i o s t o meet  This  i o s and  However  the  area.  C i t y H a l l or  minimum because  The  the  is  static  i s deemed i n a d e q u a t e Chilliwack  only  frequency  s i z e of the  e i t h e r the  CFB  multitude  a  scattered (and  likely Regional  It  of  in parcels  Esquimalt i s completely d i f f e r e n t  of  The the  planners  make  An  many  extent  urban  a l l over the  Esquimalt.  large.  is  jurisdictions.  beyond), with only  a g e n c i e s and  device.  small  growth i n the  involves  local  require  government i n s t a l l a t i o n s .  Chilliwack.  quite  frequency  circumstances.  relatively  from a r o u n d  Township  the  offices.  The  (CRD)  would  C i t y of C h i l l i w a c k ,  area  the  rapid  meeting  is  structure  area  Commission.  It in  Chilliwack  Regional D i s t r i c t  Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park  Land  a  once p e r  the  Township o f C h i l l i w h a c k ,  BC  Service.  of  planning  probably include:  Cultus  Forest  whose l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n s  members  would  BC  members  interorganizational organizations  the  the  ios for this  of  land  the  ios  Even t h e  active area  federal  holdings a  urbanizing, Base  C a p i t a l Regional  most  competing  or  part  and itself  District in  would have t o and  be  provincial  beyond t h e  more n e c e s s a r y  the  control  of  coordinative  106 It key  i s beyond t h e  land-use  area.  this  decision-making  t h e s i s to  t r y to  identify  organizations  i n the  Esguimalt  However i f i o s membership i s t o o  preferable  and  f e a s i b l e to create  structures  for  the  parts  western  College, in  scope of  with  Dockyard, another  of  separate  p a r t s of the  CFB  Esquimalt  A l b e r t Head, Rocky  a smaller  along  different  ios f o r that  large,  Point,  would  region.  etc.)  For  Roads  could  be  fringe part  example, Military  represented o f the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  organizations  in that  Work  Naden  be  represented  And  therefore  Point,  i o s f o r the  and  urban p a r t of  Esquimalt  may  only  be  comprising  organizations  an  could  the  CRD.  occasional  be  interorganizational  (Royal  rural-urban  i t  area.  p a r t i c i p a n t i n an  a f f e c t i n g land-use  in  the  City  CRD, The in CFB ios of  Victoria. It in  the  monthly. the  i s postulated CFB  that  Esquimalt  area  This frequency  relatively  the  would  of the  i o s and  Capital  a  single  CRD  ios  would  the  Regional  be  an  necessary  a r e a ' s many government i n s t a l l a t i o n s . for  of planning  require  i s considered  larqe size  d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o t h the  frequency  The at  decisions  ios to in  of  r a p i d l y chanqinq  District likely  the  view  meet  and  the  meeting  site  Regional  District  offices.  5.3  A CHILLIWACK With the of  the  Columbia In  CASE STUDY REVISITED postulated  Chilliwack Valley, w i l l Case  One,  ios i n operation,  case s t u d i e s be DND  be  re-examined was  would  different? in this  concerned  the  results  C a s e One,  the  light.  about  development  107 pressures  on t h e l e a s e d  and wanted  to e s t a b l i s h  training new,  a r e a s used by CFB  permanent  facilities  would  Department,  be away from t h e u r b a n i z i n g  Base  itself,  permit  preferably  training  be w i t h i n  daily  use,  be owned  a short  driving  and be l a r g e  DND  identified  Valley,  which met  postulated concerns  instead,  i o s , the about  likelihood  Base  expiring  Other  zoning  shared  problem f o r s e v e r a l  The  been  Township the  aired.  the  o f the Base t o live  firing  shown i n C h a p t e r 2,  criteria,  the  Columbia  on  The  to  meeting o f the  outlined training  the  such  live  Base's  a r e a s and t h e  pressures  issues  existing  as  firing  B a s e ' s p r o b l e m would  around recent ranges become a  reasons:  S a r d i s and V e d d e r C r o s s i n g  urban  quarterly  needs n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l  housing.  Vedder C r o s s i n g  land  If  were the  were v a c a t e d , t h e y  in  the  vicinity  Development  pressures  forcing Base's could  conversion  training be  of  areas i n  developed  for  use;  The C i t y  The  around  to permit  Base f o r u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t .  farmland  the  distance  had  related  adjacent to  have  b.  pressures  these  planner  would  in  by t h e  As was  i n the closed  leases  Chilliwack.  of  (versus leased)  of non-renewals because o f urban  subdivision  a.  Such  and p r o c e e d e d w i t h a p u r c h a s e p l a n .  Suppose  CFB  an a r e a  areas.  enough  and d e m o l i t i o n s on s e v e r a l r a n g e s .  Chilliwack  area. Base  retail  and  training  wants t h e Base t o r e m a i n a s a v i a b l e  operation i n  The e c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f t h e Base  i s considerable.  is  single  probably the c i t y ' s  service trade. areas  i t  needs  I f DND  largest could  to f u l f i l l  not  source o f  acguire  the  the r o l e o f t h e  Base  108 (primarily  basic  training, B a s e may  and  officer  support  have t o be  Chilliwack  would  The  and  the  stability  1 Combat  downgraded o r any  Base, s u c h  District  employment  single  the  region's  sectors..  Engineer  as l a n d  residents i n unincorporated  adversely  affected  the  the  instead  of  facilities;  Base t o s t a y .  agricultural  represents  of  promotes  ownership  Regional  the  City  employer i n t h e . r e g i o n  The  by  The  which  training  engineer  Regiment),  relocated.  a l s o wants t h e  largest  to  all-ranks  plan  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new  Regional  probably  for  support  permanency o f t h e leases,  training,  and  and  District areas  establishment  It i s adds  forestry  however a l s o  who of  might  new  be  training  areas; The  Provincial  training own. on  area  The  sides  uses  military  to  the  provide  and  from  the  also provide  expand t h e  developed  the  connected  lakeshore  and  for training.  the  Parks  of m i l i t a r y  ferries  Lake s e e s the  closely  the  lake  rid itself  rafts  disturbance may  of  might  opportunity  It  p r o b l e m s as v e r y  Base u s e s p a r t o f  both  these  Parks Branch at C u l t u s  on  the  lake,  d e m o l i t i o n r a n g e on Parks Branch  p a r t of the  with  to  mountains  Any  change  new  area. location  The  Parks Branch  the  i n the  park,  and  noise  Vedder Mountain. an  park t o t h e  for military  C u l t u s Lake a r e a , would;  and  will  training  opportunity  to  west s h o r e  of  as t h e C o l u m b i a  want t o have a say if i t  to  with  C u l t u s L a k e , which i s p r e s e n t l y i n a c c e s s i b l e e x c e p t DND  its  the  Branch traffic  Base's  will  for  the  in  any  affect  Valley proposal  the  certainly  109 e.  The  BC  L a n d C o m m i s s i o n would  welcome any  increase  agricultural  developable land  provided  leased  training  around Vedder C r o s s i n g .  would  DND  r e l i e v e some o f t h e  release for  more l a n d  the  1973,  Lake. the  created  the  to  strip  V a l l e y was  protect  the  between of  the  l o s i n g 1140  land  to  release  of This  Commission  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  creation  agricultural  on  the  non-  to  Reserve  (ALR)  Chilliwack  Land  and  Commission  hectares  per  development.  The  in  year ALR  most o f  the  remaining a g r i c u l t u r a l  is  o b v i o u s t h a t the  DND  problem  one  that  1  was land  conversion.  It would be solving, could  pressure  urban  Ontil  Fraser  prime  from  from  fast-growing  Cultus  of  areas  by  in  all  members  would  f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons.  have t a k e n  place  using  the  meeting of  the  One  presented  want  to  logical  proposed  to the  ios  cooperate  in  scenario  ios  of  will  what  now  be  presented. At brings  the up  center This if  the  question  around  the  would l e a d  DND  could  part  of  should and  first  the  the  t r a i n i n g areas, areas  and  Base p l a n n e r  discussion  the  leases  local  area.  a DND only  characteristics  and  such t r a i n i n g a r e a s .  t r a i n i n g areas to a I t i s decided  study of the the He  that  p o s s i b l e new  Base p e o p l e  more  know  f e a s i b l e distance  the  the  the  next  quarterly ios  the  next  meetinq, the  undeveloped planner  both  public  desired  from  i s asked to b r i n g the  benefit  Base  sites,  would  involved.  to a c o n s e n s u s t h a t a l l members would  p r i v a t e , as  At  the  existing  r e l o c a t e the  initiate  study to  of  i o s i n which  the  site  Base  r e s u l t s of  for the  meetinq. Base p l a n n e r p r e s e n t s  the  study  110  results  showing  areas:  Columbia  Chilliwack first  was  areas  the r e q u i r e m e n t s can only  Valley,  River  Ryder  Valley,  the best  being  closest  that  in  opposed  The  military  planner  Columbia the park. members  He  NDHQ i n Ottawa The  City  DND  a  new  oppose  Regional  place  is of  District  support  is  be  Commission  agricultural  and most o f t h e v a l l e y  but  the to  bypassing warns  the  and c o n s u l t a t i o n  with  the  DND  selection  activity  there  not  They  and  t h e Ryder L a k e - P r o m o n t o r y designated  for  concerned  future  about  and Ryder  the C h i l l i w a c k  the  of  will  option housing  t h e ALE l a n d s on t h e v a l l e y  and wants t h e Base t o c h o o s e would  from  road  from C u l t u s Lake.  i n both Columbia V a l l e y  o n l y Crown l a n d  the  suffer  access  is  to follow.  trade derived  in  for  build  p r o v i d i n g the t r a i n i n g  development  used  would  between  In the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n ,  and t h e T o w n s h i p  upland area  Land  and  have  because t h i s  The  area,  f o r the  representative  t h e west s i d e o f C u l t u s L a k e ,  Commission  landowners  Branch  would  the t o u r i s t  The  training  most s u i t a b l e  i s n o t a commitment  diminish  The  was  this  Valley  Land  traffic.  along  Columbia  and  other  i s f r e e t o make s u c h a p r o p o s a l  that  area,  because C u l t u s Lake Park l i e s  proposes that  Valley  three  order of preference.  adjacent to  Parks  Base and t h e p r o p o s e d t r a i n i n g excessive  by  ( C u l t u s L a k e , V e d d e r Mountain) , i t was  requirements.  vehemently  the  that  t o t h e B a s e , and t h e t e r r a i n  training  Base  Lake-Promontory  b e c a u s e i t was  retained  be met  floor. private  Lake-Promontory,  River Valley  where  involved. p o i n t s out t h a t purposes  i s in  the  Columbia  (mainly haying ALR,  3  and  therefore  Valley  is  grazing) i t  2  would  111 oppose  any  use  which  would l e a d  The  Base p l a n n e r a s s u r e s t h e  the  t r a i n i n g use would  agricultural of  a  to  nature  meet  Base p l a n n e r  again  west  the t h i r d  side  DND's  Properties  British  Columbia r e g i o n .  Department's  the t r a i n i n g how  expropriation  isa  The land  proposal suggest  beforehand, Regional about  The i o s  to  build  the  road  legal  question  i s  (RPO) f r o m  property  and  perhaps  Victoria,  price  this  organized  and whether  react  because opponents  Other  could  and t h e T o w n s h i p r e s p o n d being  Discussion  opposes  will  appraisals  escalation  who  f o r the  representative  permit  opposition.  introduces  resolved.  residents to  the  participate i n the i o s  i s  District  DND  ownership  matters  Consensus  opposed  i f independent  opposition  along  He  p r o p o s e s t o buy t h e p r o p e r t y  organize  District  valley.  Officer  o u t how t h e RPO  the  t o Columbia V a l l e y  possibility.  prices  to that  NDHQ  i n the  The R e q i o n a l  public to find  escalate  from  The RPO w i l l  area  DND  expropriation.  proposal.  satisfied.  L a k e i f t h e y c a n g e t permanent  the  on  i s  s o o n e r t h a n s c h e d u l e d , a s soon a s t h e  o f t r a i n i n g area  Regional  ensues  would be  as wooden s h e l t e r s and p o r t a b l e  p u b l i c road  manages  until  future  meeting, t h e Base p l a n n e r c o n f i r m s t h a t  of Cultus  700 a c r e s  erected  that  Lake.  would b u i l d a paved  go  such  has a commitment  around C u l t u s At  representative  the landscape s u i t a b l e f o r  The C o m m i s s i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  decides  of  Commission  u s e s and t h a t t h e few s t r u c t u r e s  temporary  huts.  leave  t o development i n the a r e a .  use  of  wants t o t o the i t would of the  representatives  were  carried  out  be c o u n t e r e d .  The  to  by a r g u i n g  DND's  that  concern  a secretive  112 land It  b i d would a n t a g o n i z e more p e o p l e t h a n an  i s agreed  District value  during  contract  separate appraisers  o f t h e 700 a c r e s  confidentially. District again  in  The DND  f o r the cost  DND and t h e R e g i o n a l  t o appraise  question.  This  is  the c u r r e n t to  RPO a g r e e s t o r e i m b u r s e  of i t s a p p r a i s a l . *  proposal.  be  done  the Regional  The i o s i s  to  meet  when t h e a p p r a i s a l s a r e c o m p l e t e d . At  the  proposal will  t h e meeting t h a t both  open  put  fourth  meeting o f t h e i o s , i t i s agreed t h a t t h e  be made p u b l i c .  to  Association.  This  be f o l l o w e d  Base Commander  o u t l i n i n g t h e problems o f the e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g  the necessity  continuation and  by  a s an o p p o r t u n i t y  acreages  of t h e i r  reassured  that  apparent proposal,  love  release  from  the  the  an  land  physical  beauty  over the merits  anger o f r e s i d e n t s  and l a r g e  of  the  Regional  undertaken  in  by  the  f o r the  DND  dilemma by  the  t h e removal o f the e x p r o p r i a t i o n  media's p r a i s e o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n  are  staying,  occurred  defused  District  o f t h e DND  They  or  a t DND w h i c h i s  farming  While t h e r e i s  of selling  It  bid  Some s e e  uneconomic  i s not intended.  the r a t i o n a l presentation  Commander,  by  area.  Board Chairman.  does not o c c u r h e r e .  support  by t h e  i n t h e community,  homestead a n d vow n e v e r t o s e l l .  expropriation  overwhelming study  surprised  to retire  others  some i n t e r n a l a r g u i n g  case  are  the Regional D i s t r i c t  while  Base  by a p r e s s  Ratepayers  of h a v i n g adequate t r a i n i n g a r e a s f o r t h e  residents  venture  the  Valley  the reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the Columbia V a l l e y  announced  the  Columbia  o f t h e B a s e ' s r o l e and p r e s e n c e  Affected  this  will  the  not the Base,  proposal  areas,  the  The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ,  by  threat, the DND  before  113 proceeding, Crossing, their  and  land-owners  The  options  appraisals  weeks  a  t o go back  later,  to sell.  expropriation,  the  Chilliwack River could  complete,  be  considered,  Chilliwack  showing River  terrain greater,  is  solved,  t h e Base p l a n n e r  created  g u a r t e r l y meeting  requests  there.  When  chairman  and  option  the local  this  I n view o f  and  Land  suitable, distance  development  costs  training  the  new  i s area  ask t h e DND  Use  Committee  BC F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f f i c e , and  be used f o r t r a i n i n g as  again,  evaluation  of the i o s w i l l  Environment  owners  t h e Base n o t t o  the t h i r d  representatives. presents  c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d s  not  and g e t s a  f o r expropriation.  t h e n e x t m e e t i n g , t h e Base p l a n n e r  i s  the i o s  Two-thirds o f the property  meet a g a i n .  the  by t h e  t h e membership.  R i v e r C o r r e c t i o n a l Camp t o s e n d  Valley could  independent  V a l l e y , t o see i f s a t i s f a c t o r y  (ELOCS),  that  DND c a n s e e k  the  to the regular  but t o re-examine  provincial  Secretariat  At  on  He a s k s f o r s u p p o r t  the i o s w i l l  the  in  representative's  d i s c u s s i o n , t h e i o s members c o n v i n c e  use  RPO,  District  d i s c r e t i o n a r y amount a s d e t e r m i n e d  meeting of t h e i o s .  Following  being  Regional  ranges  o f the Columbia V a l l e y  B e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e problem  have r e f u s e d  areas  sentiments  and t h e RPO w i t h d r a w s from  Four special  f o r removal o f f i r i n g  on t h e p r o p e r t i e s b a s e d  members a l s o a g r e e schedule  by r e s i d e n t s i n V e d d e r  i o s m e e t i n g , members a g r e e t h a t  plus  Department.  the  5  voiced  h i sconstituents.  t h e next  purchase  mixed  allay  about  At  support  Yarrow, a n d S a r d i s  areas.  worries  the  will  be  study  i n the Chilliwack  areas, from  a  but  that  the  t h e Base i s much higher.  Various  114 problems  are  resolved  agrees t o allow existing by  DND  the  logging  full  the  access  operations  i s c o n t r o l l e d by  but  the  part  of the  ELOCS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  title  of  provincial  i n d i c a t e s he lease  can  f o r DND.  preference  The  new  will  be  continue  Service.  to  approval  area  The  offer  even  Regional  DND  adjourns  t h a t each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  organizations  agreed the  ios  to  meets  proceed  province  required.  has  by  Base Commander. further  and  with  A press  announcement  now  again the  agreed one  as  out  that  Base w i t h  any  by  range  o f the  Camp.  transfer  of  f e d e r a l Crown,  but  renewable  expresses  his  mean t h a t  Lake t o Columbia  the  Valley  T o w n s h i p , and  City  publicly in a relocation  Chilliwack River  for their  long  reguired  of a long-term  District,  to support  Service  tree-cutting  program  the  around C u l t u s  a r e a s to the  The  the  though i t w i l l  of t r a i n i n g  their  any  sites  to consider  land  as  I t turns  the  outdoor s k i l l s  Cabinet  road  built.  so  and  o f f e r s to help  refuses  Forest  f o r e s t r y areas  a f f e c t e d by  Crown  new  access  representatives  The  Parks Branch r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  f o r the  proposed not  get  to  the F o r e s t  representative  development as  meeting.  can  C o r r e c t i o n a l Camp i s n o t  DND,  The  DND  in  can  Valley. seek  The.meeting  approval  from  actions.  month l a t e r .  Chilliwack River  NDHQ Ottawa  Valley  option  has and  agreed i n p r i n c i p l e  to  the  long-term  leases  release  i n the  ios for a  joint  the The  i s prepared  Regional ios w i l l  District not  Board  Chairman and  have t o c o n s i d e r  r e v e r t s to q u a r t e r l y  m e e t i n g s of  this  the  the  matter  permanent  members. T o t a l time taken i n t h i s the  concerns  of  DND  until  scenario,  from  commitment  introduction to  an  of  acceptable  115 alternative, in in  i s about  the case study. the s c e n a r i o  cooperative up  with  has  AN  and  a l l  the  those  bad  Time i s s a v e d  of  and by  as p o s s i b l e .  months  ios  meetings  t h e use  forum  interest  36  and  to  the  resolve  to  Although  of  initiate DND  ends  same r e s u l t s  in this  scenario, the i o s  affected  great  deal  feelings,  and  a  of  time,  cost.  ESQUIMALT CASE STUDY REVISITED would  an  c h a n g e d t h e CFB  Storage Tanks,  oil  storaqe  the harbour the  a site  be  the C i t y  to  be  could  be  after  location  and  obtained.  No  was  Case Two,  was  have  Victoria's  a n x i o u s t o have  a r e a phased  restoration  to solve  p r o p e r t y which  the s i t e  for  of V i c t o r i a  a r e g i o n a l one  Regional D i s t r i c t DND  Regional D i s t r i c t  examined.  i n the harbour  beautification  on  until  will  tanks  problem  Capital  i o s i n the C a p i t a l  Esquimalt case s t u d i e s ?  I n C a s e Two,  it  as e a r l y  basically  How  Oil  spacing of decisions  conflicts  actions  saved  t o about  i n f o r m a l i t y of the i o s  and  frustration,  4  The  is realistic.  confidentiality difficulties  9 months as compared  and  it.  seemed  accordingly  t h e o i l t a n k s , and  CRD  suitable  consultation  identified  o u t as p a r t  program.  The  and  It  of  took  asked  the  planners found assumed  w i t h DND  i n t h e media  the  took  as  t h e n o n l y when DND  that place  the  new  initiated  the contact. If, up  instead,  the problem  t h e CRD  o f a new be  representative  site  f o r the o i l  moved by now.  i n an i o s had  perhaps  the  I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t no  site  tanks  would  chosen  f o r o i l storage tanks i s l i k e l y  tanks,  brought  t o be  satisfactory  to  116 those  living  compensating  near the s i t e .  be  t o make t h e r e l o c a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e  explored  members c a n s h a r e : environmental  operation At  in  i s developed regular  interorganizational organizations  ios  t h e removal  A scenario  a  of Greater  oil  storage  tank  for  any  consolidation  an  Victoria  to all.  These  eyesore  which a l l  and  possible  Harbour, t h e c e n t e r p i e c e  i n the following  planning  meeting  planning  t h e CRD  of  sea  large  consisting  of  presents  the  He o u t l i n e s t h e s i t e  large  o f a l l the o i l storage  ios  d e c i s i o n s i n the urban  problem.  h a r b o u r and c l o s e enough t o a  the  representative  location:  an  paragraphs.  structure  relocation new  losing  o f t h e same s i t u a t i o n w i t h  monthly  Victoria,  and  t o s o l v e a problem  of  making l a n d - u s e  part  criteria  an  d i s a s t e r from  of t h e r e g i o n . in  a r e t r a d e o f f s and  measures p o s s i b l e between t h e g a i n i n g  organizations could  However t h e r e  enough  facilities  harbour  to  allow  now a l o n g t h e  to  allow  tanker  delivery. Because  many  other  members would be i n v o l v e d a the  subcommittee o i l tanks.  organizations having  a  problem..  controlling  Its 7  members of  large parcels  interest are  in  CRD,  Esquimalt,  from  i o s and n o t a l l  problem, i t i s decided  6  that  the r e l o c a t i o n of  The s u b c o m m i t t e e i s t o c o n s i s t  of  government  of c o a s t a l property  the  resolution  City  of  of  Victoria,  Oak Bay, and S a a n i c h ,  R a i l w a y s , CFB E s q u i m a l t ,  officials Affairs  in this  be f o r m e d t o d e a l w i t h  particular  municipalities National  will  matters concern t h i s  (DINA) and F i s h e r i e s and E n v i r o n m e n t  this the  Canadian  t h e p r o v i n c i a l ELOCS,  the f e d e r a l Departments o f Indian  or  local  and N o r t h e r n  (DFE) ,  and  one  117 representative At  the  to l e t the feasible  this  first  CED  in  second  representative controlled  The  by  next  meeting,  a  without  regard  various  these  list  subcommittee  Discussion  because  them.  No  of  for  of  current  land  be  use  held  after  the  CRD  s i t e s and of  the  confidentiality  of  p r o t e s t the public. to  provide  agree,  however, more  the to  list  closely  their  present  organization,  the  reasons  Each  storage,  possible  of  and  alternative  on  cost  the  the  no  next  prepared  need  by  the to  superiors  organization member  does land  meeting.  The  to d i s c u s s  the  future  use  unavailability sites  of  list  p u b l i c and  b e n e f i t of  proposed  their  initially  organization's  the  a s k e d t o be  to  threatened  parcels  affected  his  for  usefulness  eliminates  before  use  by  high  i s not  f o r the  examine  sites listed,  land  m e e t i n g ends w i t h  site.  are  the  a  most  few  particularly  discussions  selection l i s t  organizations  and  the  However t h e  agreeing  requirements  the  on  sites,  and  prohibitively  member f e e l s  because  suitable  i t i s decided  proposed  sites  later,  members  ensues  of  affected  agree  list  present  weeks  appearance of h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  the  and  short  m e e t i n g would  the  or  members  prepare  six  the  privately-owned  acquiring  loudly  tanks.  subcommittee,  region,  presents  owners.  reject  the  the  i s completed.  the  including  the  department  considered.  study  private  meeting o f  Only s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  be  At  o i l companies u s i n g  planning  sites  ownership. would  f o r the  held  by  the  for o i l by  the  organization. At  the  third  meeting of  the  s u b c o m m i t t e e , members d e b a t e  118 the  m e r i t s and d e f e n c e  is  suggested  the  list.  by one member  by  the  representative  Of such  such  t h e Colwood  Work  site  and i s added t o  various s i t e s are o i l  companies'  s a f e t y and p o l l u t i o n the  grounds  holds  land  best  holdings  at  DINA.  suited  around  Esquimalt  and h e a v y  industrial  However, t h e f a v o u r e d H a r b o u r , had been  Also  CFB  by urban d e v e l o p m e n t  site,  promised  Esquimalt and t h i s  needs a t r a i n i n g  area  seems  f o r the i n f a n t r y  by  i s feeling like  out of i t s d i m i n i s h i n g land resources.  becomes c l e a r t o a l l members t h a t a s i t e  Esquimalt  Harbour  would  unit  It'  based  spoil  National  i t s planned  Historic  i t s land  site  suitable  asks  for a  for  i n the harbour  use a s a n e x t e n s i o n CFB E s q u i m a l t  elsewhere  representative harbour  Park.  i f larger  military  around DND  land  BPO,  and  claims  foro i l  tanks  to the Fort  Bodd  harbour.  The  be w i l l i n g  parcel  training.  NDHQ.  in  r e f u s e s t o g i v e up more  the  would  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h i n k s s o and wants Commander,  somewhere  be t h e b e s t c h o i c e , b u t DINA  u s e o f t h e DND Colwood s i t e  would  more  Point.  It  of  to  one more b i t e  that  Its  part of Esquimalt  everywhere  particularly at  use..  as t h e D o c k y a r d .  parkland  squeezed just  latest  i n c l u d e other f u e l storage tanks  as  One  farm.  an i n d u s t r i a l  activities  DND  the  the  a l l t h e members, CFB E s q u i m a l t  Harbour  in  install  of  d e v i c e s and t o b e a u t i f y and l a n d s c a p e  t h e new tank  for  for rejecting  willingness  to  site.  (not h i s property)  Some o f t h e r e a s o n s  countered  control  o f each proposed  to  in  ELOCS  t o exchange a  an  upland  area  The  CFB  Esquimalt  check  with  the  Base  I t i s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e ELOCS and  119 DND  officials  identify  meet a p a r t  from  a suitable training  area  undeveloped principle  upland  ios  National  now  the  The  and  companies'  ELDCS t o  province  and  time  problem as  of  a lonqer  using  key  aqrees  to  lease in  taken  to  compensatory other  as  the  place  in this  a  a  site  issue  over  the  25  by  the  will  on  a  long-  He  the  The  oil  stated  by  also  qets  renewable.  meetinq minor  next  are  chanqes.  three  years.  from i n t r o d u c t i o n CRD  5 years  i n the the  exploring could  example, the  of  representative,  i s s u e was  scenario  or  upon  about  years  with  scenario,  The  city  have  Esquimalt  discussed.  of  A  reqular ios.  for  For  in  concerns  the  the  over  RPO  site  subcommittee  forum  measures.  from  in  been a g r e e d  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l land  possible tradeoffs.  something  approvals  requirements  orqanizations  a priority  ios  in  DND  the  are  period  factor in resolving this  the  Crown l a n d  representative  Various site  a b o u t 8 months as compared t o The  ELUCS  the  i s d i s s o l v e d by  commitment  to  months l a t e r .  the  to lease  o i l companies.  i s to take  subcommittee Total  The  i s willinq  their  Implementation  and  a s u i t a b l e t a n k farm  reached  by  four  Harbours Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Agreements  until  s e e k government  A l a n d e x c h a n g e has  representative  aqree t o  approved  of  operation  Environment  subcommittee  provincial  meets a g a i n  province.  control  term b a s i s t o t h e  the  on  ios  exchange.  to attend.  and  have  Harbour.  The  the  Harbours Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  DND  desiqn  to  subcommittee  invited  between  a r e a s and  f o r s u c h an  The  been  will  exchange, case  is  study.  capability  tradeoffs  of and  have i n c l u d e d  many  province  want  regional d i s t r i c t  may  i n exchange  for  120 leasing  t h e new s i t e  intangible  as just  controversial another  expires  example would  at  the  could  project  the p u b l i c p o l i t i c a l  of a  region.,  be t h e o i l c o m p a n i e s  seeking  The i s s u e s r e s o l v e d have, taken  as  the  old site.  in  site  before  i n the  years  the  These t y p e s o f e x p l o r a t o r y  c a n be h a n d l e d w e l l i n t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l ,  setting.  be  government's p u b l i c support  p r o v i n c i a l government  have, and indeed in  This  i n c e n t i v e s t o r e l o c a t e t o t h e new  negotiations ios  the l o c a l  realistic  financial lease  t o t h e o i l companies.  ios  informal  scenario  (or even f o r e v e r )  would  to  settle  arena.  5 CONCLOSIONS an  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l planning  instrument the  i n the r e s o l u t i o n of l o c a l  promotion  of c o o p e r a t i v e  as s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t attempts  here i n theory not  a.  Regional and  b.  incomplete  Regional Plan low  d.  Committee —  Regional  The key t o i t s For  this  and  success  reason,  i n p r a c t i c e what h a s b e e n  past  demonstrated  The i o s d e s i g n  c r i t e r i a f o r t h e purposes  has  envisaged.  include:  Technical  Planning  joint  planning  and s p o n s o r s h i p ,  District  a level  conflicts  Committees  --  wrong  committees  —  wrong  membership;  urban  chairmanship c.  examples  District  MSOa's  use  h a v e l a r g e l y been f a i l u r e s .  been b a s e d on v a l i d Some p a s t  land  action.  i s i t s design.  t o accomplish  s t r u c t u r e c a n be a v i t a l  o f Nanaimo's  new  Technical  too large, inappropriate  of representation  district  p o l i t i c a l orientation;  planning  Settlement  membership, t o o  f o r some members; commissions  —  too  public,  121 incomplete Even may  membership.  an i o s which i s p r o p e r l y  freguently  cooperation. Chapter  fail  This  3:  to  generate  re-emphasizes  a l l  be  found  organizations  will  for  as  public opinion.  best  forum  expected  for  gains  one  of  must g a i n  involved,  designed  cooperative  among o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the  I f gains  the  losing  G a i n s c a n be l i n k e d  i s s u e s o r be v a l u e d  exploring  by  i n some way.  a l l those  The p r o p e r l y  t h e key p o i n t s i n  affected  t o r p e d o t h e agreement.  advantages i n unrelated  f o r the s i t u a t i o n  interorganizational  participants  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l agreement cannot  designed  intangibles  such  i o s does p r o v i d e t h e action  without  and  balancing  pre-commitment  by  members. There  is little  doubt t h a t  the relationships built  up i n  the  ios will  p e r m i t some members t o r e s o l v e i s s u e s o u t s i d e t h e  ios  itself.  The  negotiations Often  of  which  the  preliminary  t h i s n a t u r a l tendency  solving  few  and  benefits  r o l e and w i l l  include  agreements  will  these  between  expedite  the  ios  r e d u c e t h e number o f p l a n n i n g  d r a g a l l t h e i o s members i n t o i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g of  the  senior l o c a l  members. planners  The together  function i n an  exploratory,  information-sharing  occurs  or outside  still  ios  within  side  members. problemconflicts only  a  of the i o s i s t o bring informal,  confidential,  atmosphere.  the i o s meeting, i o s  Whether objectives  this can  be met. There  is  no be  magic  cooperation.  To  participants  have t h e i r  formula  realistic,  one  to  interorganizational  must  assume  own i n t e r e s t s a t h e a r t .  that  the  The s u r v i v a l  122 of  their  own  organization  i s the  top  priority:  "Organizations g e n e r a l l y s t r i v e to maintain and enhance t h e m s e l v e s , and must i f t h e y a r e to accomplish anything. However, i n o r d e r t o do s o , o r g a n i z a t i o n s must have purposes that are accepted as legitimate by the larger social s y s t e m o f w h i c h t h e y a r e a p a r t , and they must have access to the resources required to accomplish their objectives, such as funds, manpower, and clients. But legitimated f u n c t i o n s and needed resources are in short supply and u s u a l l y must be o b t a i n e d f r o m o t h e r organizations . . . Organizations, therefore, generally will defend themselves vigorously against threats to their responsibilities and source of resources and will seize opportunities to expand their purposes and increase their supply of resources." 8  If is  we  an  either  accept  opportunity by  gains  concessions its  own  design  f o r an  due  from  to  other  operations. of  this  the  best  and  therefore  a.  cooperative  to benefit action  participants that  All  that  the  society i n general,  Society  funds  discussed  by  way  gaining  conflict  initiation  gains  i f the  to  manage and  gain  and  with  careful create  importance  are  public  conflict  over s c a r c e  coordinated  public  agencies  land.  The  i n the  using  savings  two  in  scenarios  for society.  conclusions  as  from  participating organizations  wasted e f f o r t s  were g a i n s  summarize t h e  to  then:  Interorganizational relationships will and  ios  i n some  or  reduce  an  i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e does i s  organizational costs  To  participation in  organization  because these o r g a n i z a t i o n s  public  just  then  environment p o s s i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  planning. gain  this reality,  increase  interorganizational resources  increase i n  i n number  competition future;  and  123 b.  Interorganizational attempt  t o reduce  cooperative c.  In  are being  interorganizational conflict  the s p e c i f i c  situation  i o s can  of l o c a l  designed  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r land-use  planning  conflicts  (usually  by n e g a t i v e  a proposed  land-use)  Participating opportunities doing  joint  caused  and i n i t i a t e  organizations i f they  which  p l a n n i n g , an  will  maximize  o r g a n i z a t i o n s to reduce impacts  on o t h e r s by  cooperative  will  predict  of land-use  planning  p l a n n i n g by government  benefit The  make  planning;  use  of  these  b e n e f i t s f o r themselves i n  toward  the  in  British  conflicts studies.  The d e s i g n  planning  organizations  derived  t o any  While  have  the local  will  to  vary  to  planning  are s p e c i f i c  the t h e o r e t i c a l  the  criteria  ios  f o r any i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  applicability  planning  i n the case  satisfy  land-use  design  has broader  identified  w h i c h were  ios  Further  as  specifically  land-use  criteria  the c r i t e r i a  variations,  has b e e n  community  Columbia,  would  However,  apply  and t e s t e d h e r e  DND/local  situations.  Canada.  c o n f l i c t s and i n i t i a t i o n o f  society i n general. i o s designed  oriented  other  theoretically situation  in  enough t o l i m i t t h e  and p r a c t i c a l t o the  basis for  development  of  relationship.  r e s e a r c h would be v a l u a b l e i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f  criteria  studies.  promote  s o ; and  Reduction  these  and  land-use  be  d.  established to  action;  appropriate  e.  structures  An  to area  interorganizational  other of  interorganizational some  relations,  priority for  planning  f o r improvement  example,  is  case of  regional  124  resource that  use  planning.  The  s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be Actual  application  understanding of and  analysis  the  design The  future  o f such  being,  application  i o s would a l s o relations.  could  lead  underestimated.  international science,  conflicts  are.  and o p e r a t i o n a l  are a p p l i c a b l e  r e l a t i o n s t o man's  While  The s o c i a l  of c o o p e r a t i o n  races,  religions,  haves/have-nots  world.  Increased  the  interorganizational  relations  of  on  our  existence  contributed  in  understanding.  a  may  small  way  of  this  between  any and  understanding of  to the  Earth.  This  that  required  to  well-  ideologies,  be v i t a l  Spaceship  land-use  psychology,  aspects  g r o u p s : between n a t i o n s , in  local  t o a community's  research  t o the s t u d y  Monitoring  t o improvements i n  of i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  n o t be  further  criteria.  c o n f l i c t s are not always v i t a l  political thesis  of the designed  o r i n one o r more o f t h e  should  to  tested.  interorganizational  importance  planning  relevancy of these c r i t e r i a  continuation thesis increase  has in  125 FOOTNOTES IN CHAPTER 5  1  For period  2  A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y i n Columbia CLI. S o u r c e : BC R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s  3  Most o f C o l u m b i a V a l l e y i s i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land S o u r c e : Map p r o v i d e d by t h e BC Land Commission  1953 t o 1973.  S o u r c e : Ward, p69 Valley averages Class Branch  5  Reserve.  * T h i s i s a j u s t i f i a b l e DND c o s t b e c a u s e i t i s DND which wants the land. T h i s i s s i m p l y a n o t h e r expense i n c l e a r i n g t h e way f o r the land acquisition. It i s similar to e x p r o p r i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n which t h e government r e i m b u r s e s the land owner f o r b o t h h i s own a p p r a i s a l c o s t s a n d h i s l e g a l expenses r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n . 5  R e f e r t o Map 3 i n Appendix  6  The CRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e e l e c t o r a l a r e a s o f View R o y a l , C o l w o o d , L a n g f o r d , and M e t c h o s i n a s w e l l a s t h e regional viewpoint.  7  These a r e t h e c o a s t a l municipalities Victoria. See Map 4 i n A p p e n d i x 1.  a Mott,  1 f o r these l o c a t i o n s .  pp12-13  Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  in  the  vicinity  of  126 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aliensworth, Don T; New Y o r k , 1975.  The_Political  A l t s h u l a r , A l a n A; The C i t y P r e s s , USA, 1965. Asch,  Realities  Of_Orban_Planninq,  Process,  Cornell University  Planning  Solomon E; " O p i n i o n s and Social A m e r i c a n , Nov 1955, pp31-34.  Pressure" i n  Scientific  Benson, J Kenneth; "The I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l Network as a Political Economy" i n Administrative Science_Quarterly, J u n e 1975, V o l 20, pp229-249. Bolan, Richard S and Nuttall, Ronald P o l i t i c s , L e x i n g t o n , Mass, 1975. Braybrooke, David, and Lindblom, D e c i s i o n , New Y o r k , 1963.  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Planning C o o r d i n a t o r and t h e Utah Dept o f Community Affairs; I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l P l a n n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n : The _Utah E x p e r i e n c e , US Dept o f H o u s i n g and Urban D e v e l o p m e n t , 1975. n-  Swan,  Hedley; F e d e r a l L a n d s ; T h e i r Use and. Management, Land Use i n Canada S e r i e s No. 11, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1978.  Thayer, Frederick C; " R e g i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : The F a i l u r e o f Traditional Theory i n the United S t a t e s and Canada" i n C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l XV, p44 9, 1972. Tuite, Matthew; Chisholm, Roger; and Radnor, Michael I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n Making, C h i c a g o , 1972.  (eds);  Urban P l a n n i n g : Who Makes t h e D e c i s i o n s i n Our M e t r o p o l i s ? , Conference Report, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Extension, A n g e l e s , June 24, 1967. Ward,  N e v i l l e E; Land Use Programs i n _ C a n a d a : Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1976.  British_Columbia,  W a r r e n , R o l a n d L; "The I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l F i e l d as a F o c u s Investigation" i n Administratiye_Science Quarterly, 1967, V o l 12, pp396-419. Webster, New  Donald H; Urban P l a n n i n g York, 1958.  Weidner, Edward W; I n t e r g o y e r n m e n t O f f i c i a l s , Minneapolis, 1960.  Los  and.Municipal  R e l a t i o n s as  For Dec  Public Policy,  Seen by  Public  Z a n d e r , A l v i n , and W o l f e , Donald; "Administration Rewards and Coordination Among Committee Members" i n Administrative S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , June 1964, V o l 9, pp50-69.  129  APPENDICES  Appendix  1:  Maps o f t h e C a s e  Appendix  ,....130  2:  Outline  Appendix  Study Areas  o f Base  Development  Plan  Requirements  136  3:  Instructions to Consultants  F o r BDP  144  130 APPENDIX  1  MAPS OF THE CASE STUDY AREAS  Map  1: Southwestern  Map  Columbia  Area  131  132  3:  ...  Valley  ....133  4: S o u t h e r n C o a s t o f C a p i t a l R.  Map  -  .,  C u l t u s L a k e and C o l u m b i a  Map  ,  2: Chilliwack  Map  British  D  134  5: Esquimalt  Area  ,  ....135  131  MAP 1 SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA N  M A P (M»t  to  2. SCCLI*.)  C H I L L I W A C K '  "  A R E A "  133  134  135 MAP  5  V/CT©**A  (Not  tm  £c»J<.)  136  APPENDIX 2  OUTLINE OF BASE DEVELOPMENT PLAN  (This  Appendix c o n s i s t s  Publication in  120, C h a p t e r  the preparation  o f an  REQUIREMENTS  excerpt  10 d e s c r i b i n g  from  Canadian  Forces  what must be c o n s i d e r e d  o f a Base Development  Plan.)  137 CFP 120  AN  257  APPENDIX 2 ANNEX C CHAP 10 APPENDIX 2 - DEVELOPMENT PLAN - OUTLINE 1. The following outline and d e t a i l i n A r t i c l e 1010 s h a l l be used i n formulating the development plan. The plan should be drafted using the following headings as applicable: a.  b.  INTRODUCTION. This w i l l consist of b r i e f statements of the aim, objectives, guidelines, and assumptions r e l a t i v e to the plan. (1)  Aim. The aim of the development plan w i l l be to e s t a b l i s h directions for the future development of the base. This can involve the consolidation of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , the disposal and replacement of f a c i l i t i e s , and/or the provi s i o n of new f a c i l i t i e s .  (2)  Objectives.  These can include the following:  (a)  provide f a c i l i t i e s missions and tasks.  to  accomplish  assigned  roles,  (b)  provide optimum l i v i n g , working, and t r a i n i n g environment.  (c)  provide maximum e f f i c i e n c y for the use of v e h i c l e s and equipment.  (d)  reduce 0&M  (e)  provide greater b u i l d i n g use e f f i c i e n c y ,  (f)  provide greater land-use e f f i c i e n c y .  costs.  (3)  Guidelines. Development plans r e f l e c t f a c i l i t i e s requirements to provide the c a p a b i l i t y to accomplish assigned r o l e s . Operational concepts, r o l e s , technology equipment, and establishments are subject to change; therefore, guidelines are e s s e n t i a l i n preparing development plans. Guidelines for a p a r t i c u l a r base w i l l be obtained from NDHQ p r i o r to the d r a f t i n g of the plan.  (4)  Assumptions. Whenever the guidelines are not considered adequate for proper planning, assumptions may have to be made. These should be c l e a r l y stated including the rationale to support them.  FACTORS• This part of the plan should state those factors that can have an influence on the future of the base. Consideration should be given to the following: 10C2-1  138 AN 25.7  CFP 120  APP 2, ANNEX C,  (1)  (2)  CHAP 10  Regional and Local Factors. A m i l i t a r y base i s normally an i n t e g r a l part of the community i n which i t i s located, and of the region which serves i t . Of concern are the following: (a)  Transportation. The adequacy of access roads, railway or docking f a c i l i t i e s .  (b)  Training Areas. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of f i r i n g impact areas and other factors detrimental to and safety.  (c)  Resources. Those u t i l i t i e s and services supplied to or by the base through s p e c i a l arrangements or otherwise. Included under t h i s general heading can be churches, schools, recreation centres, municipal u t i l i t i e s , and the l i k e .  (d)  Zoning. The establishment of complementary land uses and adequate fringe controls through l o c a l zoning ordinances and the external constraints which may hinder the development of the base.  (e)  S o c i a l or Economic Factors. Those factors which influence the future development of the base.  Other Factors. sidered;  The following factors should also  be  ranges growth  may con-  (a) Climate. (b)  Optimum Size. Normally the larger the a c t i v i t y at a base, the lower the overhead becomes i n r e l a t i o n to productivity. However, for some a c t i v i t i e s , such as f l y i n g t r a i n i n g , there i s a point beyond which i t i s either unsafe or uneconomical to go.  (c)  Compatibility of A c t i v i t i e s . Location of several a c t i v i t i e s of types of units on a base keeps the number of bases to a minimum, thus reducing overhead. In some cases units must be co-located because, as part of a team, they must t r a i n together so they can f i g h t together. There are some a c t i v i t i e s that are mutually incompatible and should not be co-located; e.g. a college and a j e t f l y i n g u n i t . Knowledge of future long-range regional and l o c a l plans w i l l be important to ensure c o m p a t i b i l i i t y of base a c t i v i t i e s with future growth around the base.  CFP 120  AN 257 APP 2, ANNEX C,  c.  d.  CHAP 10  (d)  Quarters f o r Single Personnel. E x i s t i n g scales and number of single personnel l i v i n g on or o f f base must be considered.  (e)  Married Quarters. A v a i l a b i l i t y rates, etc. should be included.  (f)  Messing/Dining. ing.  (g)  Natural Resources Management.  (h)  Pollution.  on  economy,  vacancy  P o l i c y and Constraints due to  staff-  EXISTIING FACILITIES. This part of the plan w i l l summarize findings made during the survey of existing f a c i l i t i e s . should give i n general terms:  the It  (1)  Capacity of existing buildings and structures, t h e i r cond i t i o n , l e v e l of maintenance and t h e i r functional s u i t a b i l i t y f o r current uses.  (2)  Capacity of e x i s t i n g u t i l i t i e s , t h e i r conditions a b i l i t y for a d d i t i o n a l loading.  (3)  Capability of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , and structures to being put to other uses.  and  cap-  BASE FUNCTIONS AND FACILITIES. This section of the development plan s h a l l consist of a b r i e f discussion of the e x i s t i n g and foreseen base functions within the context of the f a c i l i t i e s required f o r these functions. This discussion should be organized i n a l o g i c a l sequence to avoid d u p l i c a t i o n of information and ensure continuity. Emphasis should be given to those functions that require new f a c i l i t i e s . This section w i l l also provide the basis from which the land use plan i s evolved. The following sub-headings are suggested when applicable, and additional ones should be added to meet i n d i v i d u a l base requirements. (1)  Operation/Training. Examples of operation/training f a c i l i t i e s are m i l i t a r y a i r f i e l d and/or h e l i p o r t with related hangars, f i r i n g ranges, Impact areas, training areas, ammo storage areas, piers and j e t t i e s , highly v o l a t i l e or dangerous substances storage areas, e t c .  (2)  Industrial. These f a c i l i t i e s include those activities e s s e n t i a l to the maintenance and operation of the e n t i r e 10C2-3  AN 257 APP  CFP 120  2, ANNEX C,  CHAP 10 i n s t a l l a t i o n : supply, transportation, a i r c r a f t , ship and vehicle repair f a c i l i t i e s , construction engineering, communications, CHPs, coal storage areas and POL compounds, etc.  e.  (3)  Administration. Those f a c i l i t i e s required for base admini s t r a t i o n . I t would include operation/training buildings, parade grounds, medical and dental f a c i l i t i e s , etc.  (4)  Domestic. Examples of domestic f a c i l i t i e s are married quarters, single quarters and messing f a c i l i t i e s .  (5)  Community and Recreation. Examples are those facilities e s s e n t i a l for morale and welfare. They include the base exchange, shopping centre, c a f e t e r i a , bank, post office, chapels, dependents schools, hobby shops, l i b r a r y , theatre, c u r l i n g rink, recreation centre and associate f a c i l i t i e s .  (6)  Parks and Open Spaces. Open space can include land reserved for future base development, security or safety zones near operation/training areas, land used as buffer zones near noisy t e s t i n g s i t e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s ,  (7)  Utilities. U t i l i t i e s include water and sewage works, gas, e l e c t r i c a l and steam d i s t r i b u t i o n systems.  (8)  Transportation. Those f a c i l i t i e s not d i r e c t l y associated with the operation/training element such as highways, a i r f i e l d s , r a i l r o a d spur l i n e s , and water access and berthing facilities. Consider Internal base communication facilities by foot and vehicle (climate may be a governing f a c tor) .  (9)  Future Base Expansion. The capacity for expansion both of land and f a c i l i t i e s within the base must be considered.  LAND USE PLAN. For most bases the land use plan w i l l be d i c tated by e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Nonetheless the posture of the base i n future years should be the major influence. Bases are to be zoned i n a manner which w i l l be responsive to t h e i r needs. The land use plan should be summarized on a drawing. A base w i l l be zoned into the following areas: (1)  10C2-4  Operation Training Areas. Characterized by large open areas with a minimal amount of structures. These areas serve f i e l d operations and t r a i n i n g . Included i n this category are such uses as m i l i t a r y a i r f i e l d s , heliports, f i r i n g ranges, impact areas, t r a i n i n g areas and m i l i t a r y water dock f a c i l i t i e s .  141 CFP 120  AN 257 APP  2, ANNEX C, CHAP 10  (2)  I n d u s t r i a l Areas. I n d u s t r i a l areas include those a c t i v i t i e s which are e s s e n t i a l to the maintenance and operation of the base. Such areas as supply, construction engineering, vehicle garaging and maintenance, ac and ship r e p a i r , c o a l storage, e l e c t r o n i c workshops, petroleum storage and ammunitions storage would be examples of industrial functions.  (3)  Administration Areas. Administration areas include facili t i e s that provide o f f i c e accommodation f o r Base Headquarters, i n t e g r a l and lodger units and various minor functions l i k e the DND School Board.  (4)  Domestic Areas. The domestic areas include married quarters, single quarters and related messing f a c i l i t i e s ,  (5)  Community Areas. Community areas include r e t a i l outlets and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s such as Base Exchange, Shopping Centre, Theatre, Sports Complex, Club buildings, banking f a c i l i t i e s and medical f a c i l i t i e s essentia] to both m i l i t ary and c i v i l i a n residents and elementary and secondary schools.  (6)  Open Space. Open space includes natural r e c r e a t i o n a l land, land reserved for future development, buffer areas and greenbelt areas.  f.  SUMMARY OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS. A l i s t of a l l requirements forecast by the plan w i l l be included with a short j u s t i f i c a t i o n for each item. An Indication of the s i z e w i l l be given whenever possible e i t h e r by physical dimensions or standard b u i l d i n g s . This l i s t may be arranged by p r i o r i t y or a c t i v i t y / f u n c t i o n / l o c a t i o n depending on needs of the i n d i v i d u a l base.  g.  IMPLEMENTATION. Phasing of projects should be done sequentially and not tied to years. Very c a r e f u l study must be given by the Base Development Committee to the p r i o r i t y f o r new construction, considering a l l factors p a r t i c u l a r l y the economical use of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y that any p a r t i c u l a r base w i l l be able to complete i t s construction over a short period. It i s therefore necessary t o indicate the requirements deemed to have the highest p r i o r i t y so that action can be taken to place them i n the Defence Services Program (DSP). This p r i o r i t y list must be reviewed annually, by the Base Development Committee i n order that revisions due t o change i n r o l e , population, e t c , can be recommended and the necessary action taken a t CHQ/NDHQ l e v e l to keep the plan current.  10C2-5  142 AN 257  CFP 120  APP 2, ANNFX C,  h.  ANNEXES. Annexes to the development plan s h a l l consist of tabular data and the drawings necessary to supplement the narrative portion of the plan: (1)  (2)  10C2-6  CHAP 10  Tabular data might include: (a)  forecast of costs, savings, and revenues to j u s t i f y the disposal of f a c i l i t i e s and/or consolidation at other s i t e s ;  (b)  other information pertinent to i n d i v i d u a l base development plans, eg, a p p l i c a t i o n of accommodation scales to each f a c i l i t y to show accommodation entitlement, e x i s t i n g capacity and variance;  (c)  a l i s t summarizing proposed changes i n the use of e x i s t i n g buildings Indicating the phasing of the change.  (d)  any section of the report which i s too lengthy should be given as an Annex i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the understanding of the report.  Drawings s h a l l consist of the following: (a)  A regional area map at a scale suitable to show the relationship of the base to the surrounding region within a radius of 25 to 50 miles, or i n s p e c i a l cases, within a l a r g e r radius necessary to encompass s a t e l l i t e s i t e s . In addition to m i l i t a r y installations, the map should show major built-up areas and s i g n i f i c a n t geographic features. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n l o c a l i z e d areas such as large urban centres should be c l a r i f i e d by a " p a r t i a l blow-up" of the area concerned.  (b)  A marked-up p r i n t of a s i t e drawing from which the s i t e development drawing can be prepared i n accordance with Chap 15. A s i t e v i s i t w i l l normally be made by NDHQ/CCP s t a f f p r i o r to preparation of the s i t e development drawing. Since there i s seldom only one method of development, two p r i n t s showing a l t e r n a t i v e development proposals may be considered, at the d i s c r e t i o n of the base, to a i d NDHQ i n formulating the f i n a l s i t e development drawing. Areas reserved f o r future expans i o n s h a l l be indicated for each function, eg, opera t i o n / t r a i n i n g , administration, support, industrial, domestic, community and recreation.  143 Cl'T 120  AN 257 APP 2, ANNEX C,  2.  CHAP 10  NOTES FOR PREPARATION OF BASE DEVELOPMENT PLAN a.  Sections 1 and 2 of the BDP contain most of the background and l o c a l conditions and t h i s d e t a i l need not be repeated unless required f o r emphasis.  b.  The plan should be i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to permit a l l l e v e l of management to understand the requirements of the base and correctly assess the urgency of the projects i n r e l a t i o n to those of other bases.  c.  The development plan s h a l l be i n n a r r a t i v e form, supported by tabular data and drawings when applicable. The terms "plan" and "drawing" are not interchangeable.  d.  The plan s h a l l have an Index. The narrative portion of the plan s h a l l be typed on 8-1/2 x 11 inch white bond paper. Summary Tables should conform to the 11 inch s i z e . CETOs s h a l l govern drawing standards.  e.  Ten copies of the development plan s h a l l be submitted to NDHQ/ DGQ.  10C 2-7 i  144 APPENDIX 3  INSTRUCTIONS TO CONSULTANTS FOR BDP  GENERAL 1.  The  guidelines  (Master  economical the  time  AIM  o f t h e Base D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n Plan)  development  f o r the and/or  orderly,  i s to provide  comprehensive  and  r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e base f o r  f r a m e 75/85.  OBJECTIVES 2.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e BDP a r e : a.  Provide  b.  Provide  facilities  t o accomplish  optimum  living,  assigned  working  roles. and  training  environment. c.  Provide  maximum  efficiency  for  use  of  v e h i c l e s and  maximum  efficiency  f o r use  of  ship  equipment. d.  Provide  repair  facilities. d.  Provide  maximum  efficiency  for  supply  and  storaqe  facilities. f.  Reduce OSM c o s t s .  g.  Provide  g r e a t e r land-use  h.  Provide  greater building-use  efficiency. efficiency.  ASSUMPTIONS 3. provide  Development p l a n s r e f l e c t the  Operational  capability  concepts,  establishments  are  to  roles,  facilities accomplish  technology,  requirements assigned eguipment  to  roles. and  s u b j e c t t o change; t h e r e f o r e , a s s u m p t i o n s  145 are  essential  in  assumptions w i l l  preparing  be  provided  development  to the  plans.  These  consultant.  FACTORS 4..  The  the a.  consultants  should  give  careful consideration  to  following factors: Regional an and  and  integral of  Local  Factors.,  p a r t o f the  the  region  A military  community  which s e r v e s  base i s  normally  i n which i t i s  located  i t .  are  Of  concern  the  following: (1)  Transportation. railway  (2)  or  areas  adjacent  other  factors  base  the  and  through  Included  churches, schools,  Zoning.  and  The  roads,  the  the  development of  external  Other F a c t o r s .  future  The  centres,  to or can  municipal  through l o c a l  constraints  the  S o c i a l , or. E c o n o m i c F a c t o r s .  historical  heading  of complementary l a n d  controls  hinder  b a s e ; eg.  arrangements  general  recreation  and  the  to  like.  fringe  influence  ranges,  services supplied  under t h i s  ordinances the  firing  detrimental  special  establishment  adeguate  considered:  access  safety.  or  .utilities,  b.  and  Those u t i l i t i e s and  by  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  Resources.  be  (5)  The  p r i v a t e g r o w t h and  otherwise.  (4)  adeguacy  docking f a c i l i t i e s .  T r a i n i n g Areas. impact  (3)  The  uses  zoning  which  may  base. Those f a c t o r s which  may  development/redevelopment o f  the  b u i l d i n g s and  following  factors  cemetary. should  also  be  146 (1)  Climate.  (2)  Optimum S i z e .  Normally  base, the  the  lower  productivity. a  point  overhead  beyond  which  types  number o f b a s e s t o a  it  is  fight  together.  a c o l l e g e and  on  must t r a i n  to  or  several  a base keeps  reducing  because,  as  so t h e y  can  together  should  regional  be  unit. and  local  to ensure c o m p a t i b i l i t y the  not  of  the  overhead.  some a c t i v i t i e s  and  f u t u r e growth a r o u n d  Quarters  unsafe  of  co-located  a jet flying  long-range  important  units  There are  incompatible  future  with  of  Location  u n i t s must be  o f a team, t h e y  eg.  at a  relation  either  minimum, t h u s  part  mutually  activity  go.  or  In some c a s e s  the  becomes i n  Compatibility of A c t i v i t i e s . activities  (4)  larger  However, f o r some a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e i s  uneconomic t o (3)  the  that  are  co-located;  Knowledge  of  plans  be  base  will  activities  base.  for Single_Personnel.  New  Scale.  Living  in/out. (5)  Married  Quarters.  (6)  Messing/Dining.  (7)  Ecology.  (8)  Pollution.  Availability Possibility  (The a b o v e i s a c o p y of part of consultants preparing the Base Esguimalt.)  vs  on  economy.  Policy.  the instructions Development Plan  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  to for  the CFB  

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