UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Historical and ideological aspects of the prose and dramatic works of A.N. Tolstoi Tyrras, Nicholas Serge 1978

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1978_A1 T97.pdf [ 13.43MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094540.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094540-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094540-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094540-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094540-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094540-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094540-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094540-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094540.ris

Full Text

HISTORICAL AND IDEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PROSE AND DRAMATICSWORKS OF A. N. TOLSTOI by NICHOLAS.SERGE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y M.A.,  TYRRAS  o f Waterloo, 1969  U n i v e r s i t y o f Waterloo, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 19 78 N i c h o l a s Serge T y r r a s , 197 8  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the L i b r a r y I  further  for  this  freely  available  for  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e  scholarly  by h i s of  s h a l l make it  the  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  that  reference and study. copying o f  this  thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  representatives. thesis for  It  financial  i s understood that gain shall  not  copying or  publication  be allowed without my  written permission.  N i c h o l a s Serge T y r r a s  Department of  Slavonic Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  for  3 May 1978  Columbia  ABSTRACT In l a r g e measure the l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n of A l e k s e i Nikolaevich Tolstoi Peter the F i r s t .  (1883-1945) r e s t s on the h i s t o r i c a l  Before  a l s o wrote s t o r i e s  the novel  novel  and d u r i n g i t s w r i t i n g , he  and p l a y s s e t i n the p a s t .  However,  l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n t t h e S o v i e t Union very o f t e n needs t o be considered  a g a i n s t the background.of.current events,  h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y cannot be regarded apart s t a t e i d e o l o g y o r the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the p o l i t i c a l  and from  climate.  Between 1917 and 1945, S o v i e t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Russian p a s t changed from contentious  class-consciousness  and d i a l e c -  t i c a l r e j e c t i o n , t o a determined r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of s e l e c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s whose l i f e  and accomplishments were supposed  to i n c u l c a t e S o v i e t p a t r i o t i s m . With h i s heightened sense o f h i s t o r y , T o l s t o i sought, t o r a t i o n a l i z e contemporary c o n d i t i o n s through s e n t a t i o n s o f analogous p e r i o d s i n Russian  often repre-  h i s t o r y , and i n  t h i s manner some of the works which are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study  may be viewed as r e f l e c t i o n s of c u r r e n t events.  On  the other hand, a l t e r e d p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s - o f the Russian p a s t r e q u i r e d him t o make r a d i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n works w r i t t e n a few years  e a r l i e r , and t o make is:omes d i s t o r t i o n s  of h i s t o r y i n works he was about t o w r i t e .  But i n a d d i t i o n  to h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the  d i s c u s s i o n of T o l s t o i ' s separate works w i l l demand as w e l l t h a t some a t t e n t i o n be p a i d to the w r i t e r ' s use of the Russian  language as an instrument  f o r c r e a t i n g a sense of  the p a s t . To f a c i l i t a t e the d i s c u s s i o n of T o l s t o i ' s  historical  f i c t i o n i n t h i s study, the works are grouped by genre and then arranged  i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order.  Chapter  I, however,  o f f e r s a b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch of A. N. T o l s t o i . important  This i s  f o r the t h e s i s because the w r i t e r ' s views and  a t t i t u d e s provide a key  f o r a b e t t e r understanding  of the  e x t r a - l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e s which a f f e c t e d h i s work.  In the  second chapter, s h o r t s t o r i e s are d i s c u s s e d , beginning the anecdotes from 1909,  i n which there i s l i t t l e  history  save f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of costumes and manners. s t o r i e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g and immediately  a f t e r the  with  But Russian  r e v o l u t i o n r e f l e c t T o l s t o i ' s i n i t i a l h o s t i l i t y to the B o l s h e v i k s , then h i s apparent  l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n the  political  antagonisms between the White Emigre's and the Reds, and f i n a l l y h i s gradual acceptance  of the S o v i e t regime.  h i s r e t u r n to S o v i e t R u s s i a , the s t o r i e s assume an b e l l i g e r e n t , Marxist  almost  tone.  T o l s t o i ' s magnum opus i s d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter.  After  Peter the F i r s t i s presented  third  i n context of the  h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i n g e n e r a l , the contemporary S o v i e t h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l , and f i n a l l y r  i n 'context-of contemporary  criticism.  iv A glimpse i n t o the P e t r i n e theme i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o o f f e r e d as a f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t t o T o l s t o i ' s n o v e l . v  H i s t o r i c a l plays  are reviewed i n the f o u r t h chapter, o f f e r i n g  the b e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n of that p o l i t i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n t h a t so blatantly  f o r c e d the w r i t e r t o change h i s work and t o a l t e r  h i s t o r y as w e l l . general  Chapter V concludes the study w i t h a  and c h r o n o l o g i c a l summation o f the works  discussed;  i t demonstrated t h a t i n .spite of the v a r i o u s e x t r a - l i t e r a r y 1  i n f l u e n c e s , A l e k s e i T o l s t o i remains a major and t a l e n t e d f i g u r e among twentieth-centurya.?Russian w r i t e r s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE " i'-i '1' 5 0 7J U  ^  "V x Ql-f  INTRODUCTION  . . . .  1  CHAPTER I.  II.  III.  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH  7  A.  To Is,toils E a r l y Years  . . . . . . . . . .  7  B.  The R e v o l u t i o n s of 1917  17  C.  E m i g r a t i o n : 1919-1923  22  D.  Smena vekh  26  E.  RefeUin. M s § © ^ i e t R u s s i a . .  37  SHORT STORIES  48  A.  H i s t o r i c a l F i c t i o n Before 1917 . . . . . .  49  B.  The R e v o l u t i o n and P e t e r t h e Great . . . .  58  C.  S t o r i e s o f Fantasy  74  D.  "Povest*  . . .  77  E.  Stories Written i n Soviet Russia . . . . .  83  . . . . . . . . . . . .  smutnogo vremeni"  THE NOVEL PETR PERVYI  . . . . . . . . . . . .  A.  The Hero, i n a H i s t o r i c a l Novel  B.  Peter, the Great i n Russian L i t e r a t u r e (i)  (iii) (iv) C.  N. M. Karamzin  95 95  . .  . . . . . . . . . . .  98 100  A. Pushkin  103  L. T o l s t o i  106  D. M e r e z h k o v s k i i  . .  The S o v i e t . H i s t o r i c a l Novel v  . . . . . . . .  109 I l l  vi CHAPTER '  IV.  V.  PAGE  D.  P e t r P e r v y i and Contemporary C r i t i c i s m  E.  The Novel P e t r P e r v y i  THE PLAYS  . .  113 124  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  181  A.  Smert' Dantona  183  B.  L i u b o v — Kniga z o l o t a i a  C.  Three V e r s i o n s of P e t r I  203  D.  Ivan Groznyi  224  1  . . . . . . . . .  194  CONCLUSION'. . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . .  234  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION  243  ;  . . . . . . .  NOTES TO CHAPTER I . . . . . . . . . . . •  244  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I  248  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I  251  NOTES TO CHAPTER IV BIBLIOGRAPHY  . .  255 2 60  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s e r , Dr. M. F u t r e l l f o r h i s c o u n s e l ; t o the readers from the Department, Dr. B. Monter, Dr. C. Turner and Dr. N. Poppe, and t o Dr. G. Good from the ©.rpg-r^mmet-infC6ropa.gS4tMeLi4i*afeure'-; I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s ;  I wish  t o acknowledge as w e l l the h e l p f u l i n t e r e s t shown by P r o f e s s o r V . Revutsky. Research -for t h i s study a l s o i n c l u d e d the academic y e a r 1974-75 i n Moscow.  I wish t o acknowledge my i n d e b t e d -  ness t o t h r e e persons whom I met then, a l l o f whom c o n t r i b uted t o a s p e c i a l i n s i g h t i n t o the w r i t e r : Madame L i u d m i l a I l ' i n i c h n a T o l s t a i a , the l a t e I u r i i Aleksandrovich K r e s t i n s k i i , who was T o l s t o i ' s s e c r e t a r y a t one time, and t h e l a t e A r s e n i i Vi&adimirovich A l p a t o v , who was a T o l s t o i  specialist  and my study a d v i s e r a t MGU. To Marika Kahle ,1 express my thanks  for translating  from the German.a passage which helped me t o understand b e t t e r t h e d r a m a t i s t Geprg Buchner. thanks  I extend a s p e c i a l  t o Ruby Toren f o r a l l t h e care and a t t e n t i o n t o  d e t a i l t h a t she a p p l i e d i n t y p i n g t h i s And  thesis.  f i n a l l y , I acknowledge w i t h g r a t i t u d e the m a t e r i a l  and moral support o f my p a r e n t s .  vii  INTRODUCTION When a student scans a l i s t o f S o v i e t w r i t e r s he w i l l certainly  take note o f the name A l e k s e i N i k o l a e v i c h  (1883-1945).  Who was t h i s S o v i e t T o l s t o i , t h i s s o - c a l l e d  "third Tolstoi"?  Described  by the S o v i e t s as a l i n k i n  Russian l i t e r a t u r e t h a t j o i n e d the o l d order has  Tolstoi  t o the new, he  a l s o been damned w i t h f a i n t p r a i s e by such emigre  w r i t e r s as Z i n a i d a G i p p i u s ,  Ivan Bunin, Razumnik Ivanov-  Razumnik, and Gleb Struve.  The study t h a t f o l l o w s w i l l n o t  presume t o end the controversy rehabilitate  t h a t surrounds h i s name or t o  him completely i n the eyes of s c h o l a r s o f  Russian l i t e r a t u r e i n the West, but i t w i l l endeavour a t l e a s t t o present  A l e k s e i T o l s t o i i n a more o b j e c t i v e l i g h t ,  f o r the f a c t remains t h a t he has made a s u b s t a n t i a l and, i t is  g e n e r a l l y agreed, a very  respectable  Russian l i t e r a t u r e o f the S o v i e t  contribution to  period.  In h i s long l i t e r a r y c a r e e r which began i n 1907 and continued poetry,  w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n u n t i l h i s death, T o l s t o i wrote  folk-tales,  plays, science  children's s t o r i e s , short n a r r a t i v e s ,  f i c t i o n , and n o v e l s from contemporary  life.  His r e p u t a t i o n , however, rests, p r i m a r i l y on a book t h a t has s i n c e become a c l a s s i c , the h i s t o r i c a l novel P e t r (Peter the F i r s t ) .  Pervyi  Indeed, had T o l s t o i w r i t t e n nothing  else,  he would s t i l l be l i s t e d among the b e s t w r i t e r s i n S o v i e t literature.  Of course, he i s a l s o w e l l known f o r another  1  2 Soviet  classic,  but  though t h i s  and  civil  war,  historical  K h o z h d e n i e po  mukam  trilogy  with  deals  strictly  speaking  (The the  Road t o  Russian  i t c a n n o t be  Calvary),  revolution considered  a  novel.  But  what e x a c t l y  s c h o l a r , H.  constitutes  B u t t e r f i e l d , defines  ahfristorical novel?  the  One  genre i n t h e s e words:  L i k e a s o n g , i n w h i c h m u s i c and p o e t r y a r e i n t e r l o c k e d , and become one harmony, t h e h i s t o r i c a l novel i s a fusion. I t i s one o f t h e a r t s t h a t are born o f the marriage o f d i f f e r e n t a r t s . A h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t i s " p u t t o f i c t i o n " as a poem i s p u t t o m u s i c : i t i s t u r n e d i n t o a s t o r y as words are turned into, a song.^ A.  T.  ical  S h e p p a r d o f f e r s a more c o n c i s e novel  must o f n e c e s s i t y  be  definition:  a story  of  the  "An  past  histori n which  o  imagination  comes t o t h e  own  definition  but  he  "In  every  a i d of  of h i s t o r i c a l  fact."  fiction  Aleksei Tolstoi's  echoes Sheppard's  carefaDly- d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e w r i t e r literary  work," s t a t e d  Tolstoi  views  from the h i s t o r i a n . i n 193 8,  i n c l u d i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l and t h e h i s t o r i c a l s h o r t s t o r y , we vaifeue above a l l e l s e t h e a u t h o r ' s f a n t a s y w h i c h can r e c o n s t r u c t a l i v i n g p i c t u r e , w h i c h can t h i n k o u t an e p o c h f r o m o n l y a f r a g m e n t o f a s u r v i v i n g document. H e r e i n l i e s t h e fundament a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a w r i t e r and a h i s t o r i a n o r researcher. A s c h o l a r r e q u i r e s a c h a i n of sequent i a l f a c t s t o t e l l the t r u t h . A w r i t e r has the d a r i n g o r a u d a c i t y t o s p e a k b o l d l y and convincingly a b o u t an e p o c h b a s e d on j u s t a f r a g m e n t o f some i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , and h i s f a n t a s y and intuition.3 Sheppard a l s o mentions the given  by  Jonathan N i e l d .  definition "A  novel  of  a historical  i s rendered  novel  historical,"  wrote N i e l d , "by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d a t e s , personages, o r 4  events, t o which i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be r e a d i l y g i v e n . "  But  were t h i s s o , then what happened f i v e minutes ago o r y e s t e r day, to  o r l a s t year t o a well-known f i g u r e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  belong  to history.  From t h i s p o i n t o f view a n o v e l  Khozhdenie po mukam c o u l d c e r t a i n l y , be considered  like  historical  However, although such a view seems t o f i t t h e p h r a s i n g o f the d e f i n i t i o n , i t does not r e a l l y agree w i t h i t s i n t e n t . To avoid such c o m p l i c a t i o n s , i t i s b e s t t o agree w i t h John Buchan, another w r i t e r mentioned by Sheppard, who e x p l a i n e d t h a t "an h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s simply a n o v e l which attempts to  r e c o n s t r u c t the l i f e , and r e c a p t u r e the atmosphere, o f an 5  age other than t h a t o f the w r i t e r . "  Khozhdenie po mukam,  t h e r e f o r e , w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  study.  But P e t r P e r v y i was n o t T o l s t o i ' s only work o f h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n and t h i s study w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r h i s s t o r i e s as w e l l as h i s p l a y s which d e a l w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t . "What a t t r a c t e d me t o the e p i c P e t e r the F i r s t ? " wrote T o l s t o i i n 1943.  "Probably  I chose t h a t epoch because I  c o u l d make a c o n j e c t u r e about the present," he e x p l a i n e d . For the same reason I am drawn t o the d e p i c t i o n o f four epochs: the epoch o f Ivan the T e r r i b l e , P e t e r the Great, the c i v i l war o f 1918-1920, and the p r e s e n t war, unheard o f i n scope and s i g n i f i c a n c e . ^ This study w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how c u r r e n t events T o l s t o i ' s l i f e passed  through which  found t h e i r -Eeflection i n h i s c h o i c e  4  of h i s t o r i c a l t o p i c s . In d i s c u s s i n g these v a r i o u s works, s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w i l l be considered. ability  F i r s t of a l l we  to recapture, and  past era. dress, and  Not  reconstruct  must note the w r i t e r ' s the atmosphere of a  only the e x t e r n a l environment, t h a t i s the  f u r n i s h i n g , but a l s o the s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n i n g of  the personages appearing i n the work i n q u e s t i o n correspond w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d , and be  the reader must  convinced of the r e a l i s m of the d e s c r i p t i o n .  i n an address to the B r i t i s h H i s t o r i c a l explained  must.  Helen  Cam,  Association,  the importance of atmosphere i n h i s t o r i c a l  fiction  i n these words: The h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t w i t h a proper r e s p e c t f o r h i s t o r y has a very s t i f f task b e f o r e him; not only must h i s f a c t s and h i s concrete d e t a i l s be c o n s i s t e n t with, those e s t a b l i s h e d by r e s e a r c h ; but the atmosphere of b e l i e f , the a t t i t u d e s and assumptions of s o c i e t y t h a t he conveys, must be i n accordance w i t h what i s known o f the mental and emotional c l i m a t e of the p l a c e and p e r i o d . ^ A good i l l u s t r a t i o n of a w r i t e r ' s s u c c e s s f u l conveyance o f h i s t o r i c a l atmosphere may Sienkiewicz. published  As h i s h i s t o r i c a l t r i l o g y was  i n i n s t a l l m e n t s , Sienkiewicz  from readers beseeching him endangered c h a r a c t e r s . those who  be found i n Henryk originally  often received  to spare one  or another of h i s  Sometimes even.mass was  were k i l l e d i n the n a r r a t i v e .  letters  served  for  To achieve such a  degree of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , the w r i t e r must possess an  intimate  5 knowledge o f t h e s o c i a l history,  as w e l l  customs, p o l i t i c a l  and e c o n o m i c  as a f i n e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s p i r i t  of the  p e r i o d 'about w h i c h he w r i t e s . S e c o n d , a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n contributes of a p a s t archaic  s o much t o t h a t  atmosphere.  e p o c h t h e w r i t e r may be t e m p t e d  language.  Though a p p r o p r i a t e  l a n g u a g e w o u l d be h a r d quickly  t o t h e language which  tire  to understand  of the e f f o r t .  To c r e a t e  t o u s e t o o much  to the period, the and t h e r e a d e r w o u l d  I f t h e w r i t e r , however,  to use the modern•idiom, the reader would e a s i l y the be  t e x t but the i l l u s i o n lost.  archaic  An a p p r o p r i a t e  of a h i s t o r i c a l  language;  t h a t t h e w r i t e r must t a k e c a r e speech o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s  chose  understand  atmosphere would  b a l a n c e must b e s t r u c k  and c o n t e m p o r a r y  the e f f e c t  between  an o b v i o u s r e q u i r e m e n t i s  t o keep neologisms o u t o f t h e  and a r c h a i s m s o u t o f h i s own  narrative. Finally, climate  consideration  must be g i v e n  t o the p o l i t i c a l  i n w h i c h T o l s t o i was w r i t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e h i s  h i s t o r i c a l works a r e v e r y  often  the  Literature published  contemporary m i l i e u .  a reflection  U n i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l regarded the in  apart  political  from s t a t e atmosphere.  t h e decade f o l l o w i n g  a p p e a r e d as t o l e r a n c e  ideology  fiction,  of currents i n i n the Soviet  c a n n o t be  or the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  The S o v i e t  view o f R u s s i a n h i s t o r y  t h e r e v o l u t i o n was a v a c i l l a t i o n  of non-Marxist h i s t o r i a n s .  that  But t h i s  6 s i t u a t i o n came t o an end i n 192 8, when every segment o f S o v i e t l i f e was subordinated was harnessed t o support five-year plan.  t o communist s u p e r v i s i o n and  the implementation o f the f i r s t  I t was a t t h i s time t h a t M. N. P o k r o v s k i i ,  whose views could be reduced t o h i s well-known —  history i s politics  proclamation  immersed i n the past —— emerged as  the head o f S o v i e t h i s t o r i o g r a p h y .  By 193 6, however, the  needs of the S o v i e t regime had s h i f t e d away from P o k r o v s k i i ' s dialectical  r e j e c t i o n o f Russia's  past t o a determined  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f s e l e c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s whose l i f e and achievements were supposed t o c u l t i v a t e S o v i e t p a t r i o t i s m . These e x t r a - l i t e r a r y a s p e c t s , which T o l s t o i understood and heeded, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n t h i s study.  Consequently, the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the s h o r t s t o r i e s , the novel P e t r P e r v y i , and  the p l a y s has n e c e s s i t a t e d modest ventures i n t o a l l i e d  d i s c i p l i n e s such as the h i s t o r y o f R u s s i a as w e l l as t h a t o f its  political  and c u l t u r a l changes.  CHAPTER I BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH  CMHTan Ba>KHefiiiiHM ycJioBHeM nJiofloTBOPHOrO p a 3 B H T H H TBOp^eCTBa TeCHyiO  CBH3B  JIHTepaTypH  C  2XH3HBI0,  MU He MOXCeM He HHTepeCOB aTBCH $aKTaMH 6Horpa$Hfi xyitoscHHKOB, He M O K e M He BCMaTpHBaTfcCH B Te OGCTOHTeJIBCTBa H C 0 6 H T H H H X 5 K H 3 H H , KOTOpbie OKa3aJIH Ha H H X BJIHJIHHe. A. B. AJinaTOB.l This study begins w i t h a b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch main reasons.  f o r two  F i r s t , t h i s i s the " t h i r d T o l s t o i , " the most  recent member o f t h a t i l l u s t r i o u s f a m i l y o f w r i t e r s , but one whose l i f e  so far i s l i t t l e  known.in the West.  i t should prove u s e f u l t o glimpse i n t o the l i f e whose works a r e considered literature.  Therefore, o f a man  t o be c l a s s i c s o f S o v i e t  And second, T o l s t o i ' s l i f e ,  Russian  and some o f h i s  views and a t t i t u d e s are e s p e c i a l l y important f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of works o f h i s t o r i c a l A.  fiction.  T o l s t o i ' s E a r l y Yeafcs. Born on January 10, 1883 (December 29, 1882 by the  old  calendar),  Count A l e k s e i N i k o l a e v i c h  T o l s t o i was d i s t a n t l y  r e l a t e d t o two famous f a m i l i e s , the T o l s t o i s and the Turgenevs.  H i s f a t h e r , N i k o l a i A l e k s a n d r o v i c h T o l s t o i (whose  great-great-grandfather  was a b r o t h e r  f a t h e r o f both Lev N i k o l a e v i c h  t o the great-grand-  and A l e k s e i  Konstantinovich  8  T o l s t o i ) , was a boor and a m i s f i t who was f o r c i b l y from the army.  retired  In f a c t , he was so o f f e n s i v e as t o be 2  f o r b i d d e n t o l i v e i n e i t h e r S t . Petersburg o r Moscow.  A. N.  T o l s t o i ' s mother, nee A l e k s a n d r a Leontevna Turgenev, was t h e n i e c e o f N i k o l a i Ivanovich Turgenev, the Decembrist emigre. A f i n e and s e n s i t i v e woman, h e r marriage t o Count  Tolstoi  was a c r u e l p r o b a t i o n which l a s t e d t e n years,.and when she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she was pregnant w i t h A l e k s e i , she decided to make a complete and f i n a l break w i t h her husband. she l e f t him, she l e f t as w e l l her t h r e e c h i l d r e n ,  When  Elizaveta  aged e i g h t , A l e k s a n d r aged t h r e e , and M s t i s l a v aged two. I t was an enormously d i f f i c u l t rigidity  step t o take, c o n s i d e r i n g the  of s o c i a l standards o f the time, and even members  of h e r own f a m i l y would n o t f o r g i v e her.  But A l e k s a n d r a  Leontevna T o l s t o i now went t o the man w i t h whom she had f a l l e n i n l o v e , A l e k s e i A p o l l o n o v i c h Bostrom, and the f u t u r e w r i t e r was born i n the home o f h i s s t e p - f a t h e r .  Unhappily,  because of heraapparent d e s e r t i o n , the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  court  which d i v o r c e d the T o l s t o i s r u l e d i n favour o f the Count, and t h i s d e c i s i o n prevented A l e k s a n d r a Leontevna from b e i n g l e g a l l y married t o Bostrom. T o l s t o i ' s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d was spent a t Sosnovka, Bostrom's. r a t h e r rundown e s t a t e , some two days' r i d e from Samara (now c a l l e d K u i b y s h e v ) .  Sosnovka p r o v i d e d t h a t  r u s t i c m a t e r i a l which T o l s t o i l a t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y  incorporated  9 into his autobiographical  n o v e l l a Petstvo N i k i t y .  same time, the f a m i l y c i r c l e p r o v i d e d t h a t moulded the the p r o g r e s s i v e and  the  a c u l t i v a t e d background  f u t u r e w r i t e r ' s outlook. t h i n k e r s of the  At  In t h a t  circle  1860's were h e l d i n r e s p e c t  Russian c l a s s i c s were read aloud  i n the  o f t e n l e a d i n g t o heated d i s c u s s i o n s .  l i v i n g room,  T o l s t o i ' s mother,  h e r s e l f an authoress, hoped t h a t her son would a l s o take up 3 literature.  In her  l i f e t i m e , however, he showed  lxttle  promise of becoming a w r i t e r . U n t i l the.age of n i n e , T o l s t o i ' s education ducted by h i s mother. where he was  used t h e r e a f t e r only as a summer home. to e n t e r  entrance t o the t h i r d grade. tunate but k i n d l y t u t o r was  Sosnovka  Then, s i n c e h i s  But  engaged to prepare him a f t e r two  dismissed:  years,  . . i s  b l u n t i n g L e l i a ' s [ T o l s t o i ' s pet name] more or l e s s  and  from r e a d i n g . " ^  i n Samara i n May  the  for unfor-  Bostrom complained t o  T o l s t o i ' s mother t h a t h i s language t u t o r i n g ".  abilities,  was  a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l i n s t e a d of a  c l a s s i c a l gymnasium, a t u t o r was  literary  con-  A f t e r t h a t the f a m i l y moved to Samara,  e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e s c h o o l , and  parents wished him  was  as w e l l as those he a c q u i r e d  simply  innate  from  you  A f t e r f a i l i n g the entrance examinations  1897,  T o l s t o i s t u d i e d a l l summer and  gained  admission t o a s i m i l a r s c h o o l i n S y z r a n , a nearby town on 1  the V o l g a , where he  and h i s mother l i v e d f o r a y e a r .  s u c c e s s f u l l y completed the f o u r t h grade i n Syzran', he  Having finally  10 o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n t o continue h i s t e c h n i c a l education back in  Samara.  By t h i s time, Bostrom, who had t r i e d t o run h i s ,  e s t a t e a c c o r d i n g t o Marxian t h e o r i e s , had been, f o r c e d t o s e l l i t ; and the f a m i l y ' s permanent home was s i t u a t e d h e n c e f o r t h i n Samara. I t was i n t h e Samara p u b l i c l i b r a r y t h a t t h e young T o l s t o i was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o the f a n t a s t i c and adventurous w o r l d s - o f J u l e s Verne and Feaimore Cooper.  His f i r s t  intro-  d u c t i o n t o h i s t o r y o c c u r r e d a t t h i s time w i t h h i s r e a d i n g o f Hugo's famous novel about t h e Notre Dame C a t h e d r a l . Hunchback o f Notre Dame," he wrote, "was my f i r s t French mediaeval  h i s t o r y ; probably  "The  lesson i n  t h a t ' s how I got my t a s t e  5  for  history."  An anecdote r e l a t e d by A l p a t o v a l s o t e l l s o f  such an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y .  One o f T o l s t o i ' s  class-  mates r e c a l l e d t h a t when t h e i r teacher asked what the students would l i k e t o w r i t e about, young A l e k s e i T o l s t o i r e p l i e d , "I want.to w r i t e about. P e t e r the Great."  I t i s interesting to  note here t h a t h i s f i r s t s h o r t s t o r y mentions P e t e r I , and the s t o r i e s w r i t t e n immediately eighteenth-century  a f t e r are a l s o s e t i n  Russia.  I t was i n Samara, t o o , t h a t T o l s t o i began w r i t i n g as a hobby. of  At f i r s t  i t was only verses j o t t e d i n the albums  f r i e n d s , but soon he was w r i t i n g r e g u l a r l y i n h i s own  notebooks.  By 1899 he had ventured  took t o w r i t i n g s m a l l p l a y s .  i n t o prose, and even  During h i s year i n Syzran', he  had  j o i n e d an amateur t h e a t r e group, and now  i n Samara he  continued to p a r t i c i p a t e i n amateur p r o d u c t i o n s . When h i s f a t h e r d i e d i n 1900,  young T o l s t o i r e c e i v e d  t h i r t y thousand r o u b l e s , and t h i s sum made i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to study But  at the S t . P e t e r s b u r g T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e .  f i r s t he had  examinations.  to prepare  f o r y e t another  s e t of  entrance  T h i s he d i d at a p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l near St.  P e t e r s b u r g , which s p e c i a l i z e d i n t u t o r i n g p r o v i n c i a l s i n mathematics, p h y s i c s , and the Russian  language.  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n T o l s t o i ' s notebook f o r the language t h e r e were many essays  composed on  It is Russian  historical  themes, some i n the form of l i t e r a r y sketches, others m e d i t a t i o n s , w i t h such t i t l e s Rule," and of  "A Country's  as "Consequences of the T a t a r  I n f l u e n c e on the Character and  Its Inhabitants."  There was 7 the f a l l of the Roman Empire. In 1902,  them.  i n Samara.  Life  a l s o a p l a n f o r an essay  at the end of h i s f i r s t year at the  t u t e , A l e k s e i T o l s t o i married whom he had met  as  on  Insti-  I u l i a V a s i l e v n a Rozhanskaia,  A year l a t e r a son was  born  to  T o l s t o i ' s i n t e r e s t i n h i s s t u d i e s soon waned, and  when the schools were c l o s e d because of the events  of. 1905,  the young f a m i l y moved to Kazan' to be w i t h the e l d e r RozhanskiiSi  I t was  i n a Kazan' paper t h a t T o l s t o i f i r s t  i n p r i n t , w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of three poems.  appeared  During  next s e v e r a l years he continued to w r i t e p o e t r y , and  the  in April  12 19 0 7 he p u b l i s h e d  (at h i s own  expense) a c o l l e c t i o n of h i s  verse under the t i t l e L i r i k a . in  a r t and  However, h i s growing i n t e r e s t  l i t e r a t u r e l e d t o a r i f t between him  and h i s w i f e .  A few months l a t e r , w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g . i n Europe, the q u a r r e l l e d s e r i o u s l y , and T o l s t o i returned to S t .  couple  Petersburg  alone. On h i s r e t u r n he e n r o l l e d i n an a r t s c h o o l , which a l s o attended was  by. S o f i a Isaakovna Dymshits , the woman  at l e a s t p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s d i v o r c e .  together  allowed her t o witness  Tolstoi's f i r s t  what he d e s c r i b e d as "the murky waters of According  to her, i t was  who  Their  life  steps i n t o  literature."  L. Bakst, the famous p a i n t e r  t h e i r p a i n t i n g i n s t r u c t o r , who  was  and  suggested t h a t T o l s t o i  give  up the e a s e l f o r the pen, which h e l d g r e a t e r promise of 8  success  f o r him.  the reason sketch.  This e x p l a n a t i o n  seems more p l a u s i b l e than  o f f e r e d by T o l s t o i . i n h i s l a s t  autobiographical  There,he suggested t h a t he plunged i n t o l i t e r a t u r e  because he had  only one hundred r o u b l e s , and, w i t h h i s 9  formal  s t u d i e s u n f i n i s h e d , he had n o t o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n . Although he had destroyed c o u l d f i n d , T o l s t o i continued next few y e a r s .  t o w r i t e mainly poetry  solitary  he  f o r the  In a l e t t e r from P a r i s , he e x p l a i n e d t o h i s  s t e p f a t h e r , "For the time b e i n g , prose.  a l l the copies of L i r i k a  I t i s too e a r l y f o r me contemplation  I have stopped w r i t i n g  to w r i t e t h a t which demands  and reasoning."  Another l e t t e r , ..  a l s o to Bostrom, i n d i c a t e s t h a t T o l s t o i ' s poetry was r e c e i v e d by the Russian  poets who  well  were, then l i v i n g i n the  French c a p i t a l ; he w r i t e s : In the l a s t two weeks there was a s e r i e s of triumphs. V o l o s h i n , Bal'mont, V a l . B r i u s o v , M i n s k i i , V i l k i n a , Vengerov, O l ' s h t e i n a l l s a i d t h a t I Have an o r i g i n a l and major t a l e n t . Imam not b o a s t i n g , because a t a l e n t i s something contained w i t h i n us, something about which we may speak objectively. They are sending my t h i n g s to s e v e r a l journals. . . . I f you c o u l d hear my t h i n g s then you and mother would take p r i d e i n the knowledge t h a t you p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t bad i n f l u e n c e s , and guarded and nourished t h a t tender flower which I now p o s s e s s . H The  "triumphs" t o which he r e f e r r e d were.his s u c c e s s f u l  readings  i n the cafes of Montmartre, and the f a i r l y  regular  p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s works i n a wide v a r i e t y of p e r i o d i c a l s : Luch, Obrazovanie, Z h i z n ' , N i v a , A p o l l o n , S a t i r i k o n , Vesy. In 1909  he  f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g h i s second —  'and  last —  book  of v e r s e , Za sihaimi rekami. In 1909  V o l o s h i n i n v i t e d him  h i s dacha i n the Crimea.  I t was  t o spend some time at  t h e r e , wrote S o f i a Dymshits  i n her memoirs, t h a t T o l s t o i began to experiment w i t h historical  fiction:  Using V o l o s h i n ' s l i b r a r y , he f i r s t began t e s t i n g h i s a b i l i t y i n the h i s t o r i c a l genre by s t u d y i n g the epoch of C a t h e r i n e II and the l i n g u i s t i c c u l t u r e of t h a t period.12 T h i s i s confirmed  by the f o l l o w i n g excerpt  l a s t autobiographical sketch, w r i t t e n i n  from T o l s t o i ' s 1943:  14 To my a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p o e t and t r a n s l a t o r M.M. V o l o s h i n I am i n d e b t e d f o r t h e s t a r t o f my work i n novellas. . . . I was s t r u c k by t h e r e l i e f q u a l i t y o f t h e images [ i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s ] . The S y m b o l i s t s , w i t h t h e i r s e a r c h f o f . f o r m , and s u c h a e s t h e t e s as R ^ g n i e r p r o v i d e d me w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , w i t h t h a t w h i c h I d i d n o t have t h e n , and w i t h o u t w h i c h . t h e r e c a n be no c r e a t i v i t y : f o r m and technique.13 Voloshin him He  recognized T o l s t o i ' s . t a l e n t  to direct suggested  his efforts  towards p r o s e  t h a t some s t o r i e s by  as m o d e l s , a d d i n g ,  "You  f o r n a r r a t i o n , and i n s t e a d of  Henri Regnier  are probably  the  last  poetry.  might  in  urged  serve  literature 14  still This  carrying counsel  t h e old traditions  resulted  o f noblemen's n e s t s . "  in Tolstoi's  first  historical  anecdotes. From 1909  until  t h e G r e a t War,  however, most o f h i s  stories,  p l a y s , and  familial  s t o r i e s , most o f w h i c h were p r o v i d e d by  Mar'ia  Leontievna  n o v e l s were b a s e d  Turgeneva.  from  but  his  In these  perhaps  that p e r i o d , belongs  stories  Tolstoi  dismal existence of that vanishing c l a s s , gentry.  In c o n t r a s t t o I v a n B u n i n , who  nostalgia,  his harratives.  Tolstoi One  often injected  critic  observed,  the  on  aunt,  group of f a m i l y c h r o n i c l e s which t o g e t h e r comprised  'jZavolzh'e" c y c l e .  with  on h i s t o r y  "A Week i n T u r e n e v o , "  t h e most famous o f h i s s t o r i e s that  not  described  to the  the  provincial  w r o t e on  such  a satirical  themes  tone  f o r example:  The r e a l i t y and r u t h l e s s n e s s o f t h e e x p o s u r e o f t h e degenerating n o b i l i t y sharply contrasted T o l s t o i w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s , who drew t h e e s t a t e s in e l e g i a c tones. The r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e c l i n e o f  into  15 the land-owning c l a s s T o l s t o i f i n d s i n i t s morale t h i c a l decomposition. . . . That i s why a l l e f f o r t s of h i s heroes t o occupy•themselves w i t h any. s o r t o f p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y appear f o o l i s h and end in f a i l u r e . ^ Another c r i t i c saw i n T o l s t o i ' s w r i t i n g a S l a v o p h i l e ' s e v a l u a t i o n of contemporary  Russia:  Young T o l s t o i ' s c r i t i c i s m of the p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y order r e f l e c t e d h i s impressions of l i f e and the b e s t t r a d i t i o n s o f Russian r e a l i s t l i t e r a t u r e , as w e l l as a S l a v o p h i l e r e j e c t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m and the c a p i t a l i s t c u l t u r e . ^ In 1912 T o l s t o i moved t o Moscow and began t o concent r a t e on w r i t i n g plays which were, i n f a c t , of the Zavolzh'e s t o r i e s .  dramatizations  The d i r e c t o r of MKhAT, V. I .  Nemirovich-Danchenko, was very c o r d i a l and encouraged T o l s t o i i n h i s w r i t i n g , although Tolstoi's plays.  he never accepted  any o f  He f a r e d b e t t e r with A. I . I u z h i n , the  d i r e c t o r of the M a l y i Theatre, who accepted  the play which  was t o become T o l s t o i ' s f i r s t b i g success: Nas11'niki. premiere was on September 30, 1913. it:  Aleksandr  Its  Blok wrote o f  "A good i d e a , good l a n g u a g e , . t r a d i t i o n s , but a l l i s  s p o i l e d by h o o l i g a n i s m ,  by immature a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e , 17  and  the absence o f the a r t i s t i c mean."  The exposure o f  the samodurs (petty t y r a n t s ) o f the p r o v i n c i a l gentry on the stage o f the M a l y i caused such r e g u l a r uproars  t h a t the p l a y  was banned from the stages o f a l l I m p e r i a l t h e a t r e s a f t e r . only t e n performances.  Occasionally, police authorities  f e l t o b l i g e d t o ban i t from p r o v i n c i a l t h e a t r e s as w e l l .  16 By  1914  and p l a y s had of  h i s s t o r i e s , novels almost exhausted  (Khromoi b a r i n , Chudaki)  Tolstoi's literary  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and f a m i l y anecdotes.  w o r r i e d him  resources  T h i s so  t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d abandoning l i t e r a t u r e .  the d e c l a r a t i o n of war,  however, he s e t . o f f f o r the f r o n t  a r e p o r t e r f o r the Moscow paper Russkie vedomosti. t u r n i n h i s l i f e was literary  in  as  This  of importance both i n p e r s o n a l and i n  terms.  The war masses.  With  "I saw  brought T o l s t o i i n c o n t a c t w i t h the real l i f e , "  i t , having t o r n o f f my  Russian  he wrote, "I began to p a r t i c i p a t e  t i g h t l y buttoned,  black symbolist  18 jacket.  I saw  the war,  say S o v i e t c r i t i c s , was  but  What T o l s t o i wrote of  p a t r i o t i c , even t r u t h f u l ,  limited: C l a s s r e s t r i c t i o n s d i d not allow T o l s t o i t o comprehend the a n t i - n a t i o n a l essence of the war, or see the caste d i f f e r e n c e , the d i v i s i o n s between the noble-of farcea; p a r t and the common l i n e p a r t of the t s a r i s t army. . . . But along w i t h t h i s h i g h l y erroneous a p p r a i s a l of the essence and meaning of the i m p e r i a l i s t war, T o l s t o i was s t i l l able t o say a t r u t h f u l word about the h i g h p a t r i o t i s m and the s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of the Russian s o l d i e r , to show the f o r t i t u d e , manliness and heroism of the Russian people who "went to war not f o r g l o r y , not from h a t r e d , but f o r the common cause."19  Tolstoi's all  the Russian people."  "erroneous"  b e l i e f was  t h a t i n the f i r e of b a t t l e  s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s were being erased, and t h a t somehow  the s p i r i t of the a l i e n a t e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a was  being  For example, i n h i s s t o r i e s ."Obyknovennyi chelovek"  cleansed. (An,  17 Ordinary Man),  "Na Kavkaze"  (In the Caucasus),  "Na  gore"  (On  the H i l l ) , " S h a r l o t a " ( C h a r l o t t e ) , T o l s t o i drew a r a t h e r i d y l l i c p i c t u r e of the Russian s o l d i e r whose s i m p l i c i t y  and  moral s u p e r i o r i t y were admired by f a s h i o n a b l y l i b e r a l  intel-  lectuals.  he  A f t e r the p u r i f y i n g experience of the war,  b e l i e v e d , a new  Russian  s o c i e t y would emerge, and  would thus f u l f i l l her S l a v o p h i l e m i s s i o n i n the B.  The  Revolutions of The  Russia world.  1917.  f a l l of the monarchy i n February  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y by the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  1917  was  greeted  T o l s t o i wrote:  A new e r a of u l t i m a t e l i b e r a t i o n , of complete freedom has a r r i v e d , when not only heaven and e a r t h w i l l become equal f o r a l l , but when the very s o u l of man w i l l f i n a l l y leave i t s dark, s t u f f y confinement. In March, T o l s t o i was  appointed commissar f o r the  r e g i s t r y of the press i n Moscow.  I t was  a t t h i s time, wrote  N a t a l ' i a Vasil^evna K r a n d i e v s k a i a i n her memoirs, t h a t he became keenly i n t e r e s t e d i n Russian h i s t o r y . read S. M.  Solov'ev's  famous multi-volumed  meet P r o f e s s o r V. V. K a l l a s h , who  He began to  h i s t o r y , and  provided him w i t h a  v a l u a b l e p i e c e of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l : At the head of the divan on which T o l s t o i s l e p t was a n i g h t t a b l e on which l a y P r o f e s s o r Novombergskii's book, "Slovo i d e l o " (notes made d u r i n g i n t e r r o g a t i o n s by s c r i b e s at the end of the seventeenth c e n t u r y ) . T o l s t o i was r e a d i n g t h a t book and making notes. In t h i s way • "Den'•:"Petra!'. a^'^Nava'zKdenie" were ^prepared.21 :  1  to  18 The  summer of 1917  was  a time of d e p r e s s i n g news from  the f r o n t , of n o i s y meetings, and of growing anxiety t h a t Russian honour would be s t a i n e d i f a separate peace were made w i t h Germany.  Then the B o l s h e v i k coup i n Petrograd  was  f o l l o w e d by s i x . days o f f i g h t i n g i n the s t r e e t s of Moscow. A t the entrance tenants kept  t o the house i n which T o l s t o i l i v e d ,  a samovar heated  and t i r e d c a d e t s , i f o r the p o p u l a t i o n was  f o r the convenience of c o l d  around the A r b a t where T o l s t o i  lived,  mostly.opposed t o the B o l s h e v i k s .  the f i g h t i n g ceased  and the T o l s t o i f a m i l y ventured  the s t r e e t s , t h e r e o c c u r r e d a scene which T o l s t o i remembered.  the  A crowd had gathered  i s s u e d by the v i c t o r s .  t o read a  When out  into  long  proclamation  An e l d e r l y gentleman read the p o s t e r  and s i g h e d , "Russia i s f i n i s h e d . "  A young man  nearby responded j o y f u l l y , "For you,  dad,  standing  i t ' s finished.  22 For us i t ' s j u s t  beginning." *  Tolstoi's is  life,  *  i n R u s s i a d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1917-1919  not very w e l l documented.  raphers  of  life  *  On  the one hand, S o v i e t b i o g -  g e n e r a l l y choose t o pass over t h i s p e r i o d i n h i s  s a y i n g only t h a t he was  hostile  literary  elements" who  leave Moscow f o r the "white" into exile.  e v i d e n t l y under "the i n f l u e n c e affected his decision to  t e r r i t o r i e s , and  On the other hand, t h e r e are  finally  to go  conflicting  records which, i f they can be h e l d to show anything  at  all,  19 simply  show T o l s t o i ' s ambivalent  a t t i t u d e towards the  new  order. One  n i g h t i n Moscow d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1917-1918,  T o l s t o i and some f r i e n d s were r e t u r n i n g home from a l i t e r a r y evening. a fire,  At one  i n t e r s e c t i o n a group.of people  l i s t e n i n g to someone d e c l a i m i n g p o e t r y .  stood around "Ah,  Count!"  a v o i c e c a l l e d out, and T o l s t o i r e c o g n i z e d M a i a k o v s k i i . "Please, come t o the p r o l e t a r i a n f i r e , your e x c e l l e n c y ! Make y o u r s e l f , at home." at  A f t e r a pause, M a i a k o v s k i i p o i n t e d  T o l s t o i and then d e l i v e r e d t h i s impromptu d i t t y : H cna6ocTb K T H T H J i a M nHTaio, H 3 T O T rpa<J) MHe no H y T p y , Bcex. cHHTeubCTB  Ho  Ero  cHHTeji&CTBy —  When the l a u g h t e r had  ycTynaio  KOCTpy!23  d i e d down, A n d r e i S o b o l ' , who  was  T o l s t o i , s a i d , " I t doesn't look good f o r you, A l e k s e i . get away from here." for  C o n t i n u i n g home, T o l s t o i was  with Let's  silent  a long time, but at l a s t he muttered, "That M a i a k o v s k i i  i s a t a l e n t e d f e l l o w , but somehow he's  unpleasant.  Like a  24 lumbering little  horse  i n a room."  C e r t a i n l y T o l s t o i had  i n common w i t h such zealous supporters  very  of the  B o l s h e v i k coup as M a i a k o v s k i i . A d i f f e r e n t viewpoint account of a l i t e r a r y evening  appears i n Ivan Bunin's c a u s t i c at which he and T o l s t o i quar-  r e l l e d , i n which the l a t t e r i s p o r t r a y e d as a f a s h i o n a b l y revolutionary  aristocrat:  V  20 The Moscow w r i t e r s o r g a n i z e d an e v e n i n g a t w h i c h "The T w e l v e " was r e a d and d i s c u s s e d , and I went t o it. The r e a d i n g was done by somebody, I do n o t remember who, s i t t i n g between I l y a E h r e n b u r g and T o l s t o i : and as by t h a t t i m e t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h a t p i e c e o f w r i t i n g , w h i c h f o r some r e a s o n was r e f e r r e d t o as a poem, was q u i t e above d i s p u t e , when t h e r e a d i n g was o v e r a r e v e r e n t s i l e n c e f e l l f o r some t i m e In t h e room, f o l l o w e d by a few m u f f l e d e x c l a mations, "Wonderful!" "Amazing!" I p i c k e d up t h e t e x t o f "The T w e l v e " and, t u r n i n g o v e r t h e p a g e s , s a i d approximately the following: Here Bunin quoted h i s v i r u l e n t p a g e s , and e n d i n g  attack,  occupying  nearly  four  as f o l l o w s :  "'The T w e l v e ' i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s h o r t rhymes, some pseudo-tragic> some w r i t t e n i n t h e r h y t h m o f a p o p u l a r dance,. and as a w h o l e p r e t e n d i n g t o be somet h i n g R u s s i a n and p o p u l a r i n t h e e x t r e m e . . . . B l o k ' s i n t e n t i o n was t o r e p r o d u c e i n t h i s 'poem' o f h i s t h e l a n g u a g e and t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e p e o p l e , b u t what came o u t i s . c l u m s y and v u l g a r b e y o n g m e a s u r e . And as a ' c u r t a i n l i n e ' he f l i n g s o u t a p a t h o l o g i c a l blasphemy: C h r i s t d a n g l i n g a bloody banner, w i t h a crown o f w h i t e r o s e s on H i s h e a d , i n f r o n t o f a l l t h o s e b e a s t s , r o b b e r s and m u r d e r e r s : t r e a d , a h u n g r y dog b e h i n d them and J e s u s C h r i s t a h e a d , a b l o o d - r e d b a n n e r i n h i s hands, white r o s e s on h i s head.'" 1  They march w i t h  sovereign  W i t h t h i s I f i n i s h e d my s p e e c h . And i t was t h e n t h a t T o l s t o i k i c k e d up a row. He t u r n e d on me l i k e a f i g h t i n g c o c k and y e l l e d i n t h e a t r i c a l t o n e s t h a t he w o u l d n e v e r f o r g i v e me t h a t s p e e c h : t h a t h e , T o l s t o i , was a B o l s h e v i k h e a r t and s o u l , w h e r e a s I was a r e t r o g r a d e , a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y , and s o forth. 2 5  Like  the Bolsheviks,  Bunin.  When t h e y  explained  T o l s t o i was u n s c r u p u l o u s ,  met some months l a t e r  t h a t he h a d d e f e n d e d  suggested  i n Odessa,  Tolstoi  "The T w e l v e " t o d e c e i v e t h e  Moscow a u t h o r i t i e s s o t h a t he c o u l d  f l e e t o the south.  But  Bunin continued was  to be s u s p i c i o u s , even,claiming  connected w i t h a s i n i s t e r gambling den  that T o l s t o i  i n Odessa.  However, T o l s t o i s ~ l i t e r a r y works were the b e s t 1  i n d i c a t o r of h i s f e e l i n g s d u r i n g those y e a r s . a man  whose naivete  1  They r e f l e c t e d  and i d e a l i s m c l a s h e d with the  bloody  r e a l i t y of the time.  From h i s f f e r v e n t l y p a t r i o t i c w r i t i n g s  about, the war,  turned to anxious  he now  R u s s i a undergoing a ruinous upheaval. s t o r y , "Rasskaz proezzhego.cheloveka" expresses  c l e a r l y h i s concern  b e l i e f t h a t no war,  t a l e s of contemporary A.frequently  cited  (Story of a P a s s e r b y ) ,  f o r R u s s i a , but a l s o h i s  no r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d d e s t r o y her.  Pro-  f e s s o r Novombergskii's Slovo 1 d e l o gosudarevy prompted  him  at t h i s time to w r i t e three h i s t o r i c a l s t o r i e s s e t i n the p e r i o d of the P e t r i n e r e v o l u t i o n . ' These s t o r i e s ,  "Pervye_  terroristy"  (Delusion) ,  and  (The F i r s t T e r r o r i s t s ) ", "Navazhdenie"  "Den* P e t r a "  ( P e t e r s Day), 1  T o l s t o i ' s h o s t i l i t y toward  ddw.express i n some degree  the,Bolsheviks.  In Odessa, the s u b j e c t of the Russian r e v o l u t i o n occupied  a much s m a l l e r p l a c e i n T o l s t o i ' s w r i t i n g s .  one work .which r e i t e r a t e d h i s a n t i - B o l s h e v i k (indeed, i t expressed was  sentiments  r e g r e t f o r the p a s s i n g of the monarchy)  Smert' Dantona (The Death of Danton).  Other works, s e t  i n the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , were a comedy, L j u b o v ' — zolotaia  The  (Love Is a Golden Book), and  "Graf  kniga  Kaliostro"  (Count C a g l i o s t r o ) , a s h o r t s t o r y of mystery and  romance.  Both of these were s e t i n the p e r i o d o f C a t h e r i n e the Great. Another s t o r y , " S i n i t s a " Rus'  (The Titmouse), was s e t i n a n c i e n t  and r e f l e c t e d T o l s t o i ' s i n t e r e s t i n f o l k l o r e . His w r i t i n g thus f a r can be s a i d t o have prepared the  author f o r h i s f u t u r e l i t e r a r y monuments.  During h i s e x i l e ,  h i s h i s t o r i c a l concepts had t o be m o d i f i e d i n order t o accommodate h i s o p t i m i s t i c C.  patriotism.  E m i g r a t i o n : 1919-1923. T o l s t o i and h i s f a m i l y s a i l e d from Odessa i n m i d - A p r i l  1919.  A f t e r some t e n days aboard s h i p , they were f i n a l l y  allowed t o disembark  on an i s l a n d near C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , t o  await the next development i n t h e i r f a t e . they were p e r m i t t e d t o immigrate  A month  later,  t o France, and s e t t l e d at  the o u t s k i r t s of P a r i s , i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f June.  In j u s t  a f o r t n i g h t T o l s t o i began work on what was t o become the great t r i l o g y , Khozhdenie  po mukam.  I t was a sense of moral  o b l i g a t i o n t o work t h a t made him begin w r i t i n g To do n o t h i n g , he s a i d , was almost Khozhdenie  immediately.  criminal.  pommukam was planned i n i t i a l l y  as a h i s t o r y  of the " r a s p y l e n i e n a t s i i " or the s c a t t e r i n g o f the Russian nationiu  I t became, i n f a c t , an examination of the r e l a t i o n  between t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a and the r e v o l u t i o n .  In t h i s  T o l s t o i ' s d e s i r e t o rationaaiizeethe r e c e n t upheaval  way,  produced  what V. R. Shcherbina has c a l l e d a "roman i s p o v e d ' , " t h a t i s ,  a novel of c o n f e s s i o n ,  and not merely an.account o f the  events l e a d i n g up t o the r e v o l u t i o n .  However, what i s  p e r t i n e n t here i s T o l s t o i ' s changing viewpoint.. R u s s i a , p a s t and p r e s e n t ,  had been a t the c e n t r e o f  a t t e n t i o n i n a l l o f T o l s t o i ' s w r i t i n g s s i n c e the f i r s t r e v o l u t i o n in. 1 9 1 7 .  As governmental a u t h o r i t y eroded, and  as Russian statehood seemed t o casumble, he asked "What i s happening t o Russia?"  Having f l e d from Moscow t o  Odessa, and thence t o P a r i s , he d i s c o v e r e d tormented by the same q u e s t i o n , go.  himself,  t h a t he was  still  only now he had nowhere t o  A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s important t o s t r e s s the f a c t  T o l s t o i ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o the B o l s h e v i k s  that  d i d not stem from any  support o f another p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n , but r a t h e r from his. b e l i e f t h a t the B o l s h e v i k  t h e o r i s t s were bent on conducting  a s o c i a l experiment, an experiment which was Russia.  destroying  He b e l i e v e d t h a t , f o r the B o l s h e v i k s ,  the most important t h i n g was t o t e s t t h e i r t h e o r i e s by experiment, and they regarded a l l o f Russia as their laboratory. "A man, an i n d i v i d u a l , people, the happiness o f these same Ivanovs and Petrovs i s of no i n t e r e s t o r concern t o t h e m . " 2 7 Two months e a r l i e r the Treaty and  o f V e r s a i l l e s had been  signed,  the hopes of the Russian.emigres were r a i s e d w i t h the  expectation  t h a t the A l l i e s would now d i r e c t t h e i r  towards t e r m i n a t i n g  the B o l s h e v i k  "experiment."  forces  T h e i r hopes  of course, came t o naught. T o l s t o i ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l needs as an e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r  24  and even more p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s u n r e m i t t i n g edged him towards a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . c o u l d not be nourished such as P a r i s . concerning  love f o r R u s s i a ,  His l i t e r a r y talents  and s u s t a i n e d ^ i n an a l i e n environment  Undoubtedly, t o o , there was some anxiety  h i s future.  As one s c h o l a r observed,  A w r i t e r , with a p l a c e i n the l i t e r a r y l i f e of h i s n a t i v e land, f i n d s i t more d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o e x i l e than, l e t us say, an engineer or a chemist. Enamored with the very sound o f h i s n a t i v e language, the w r i t e r draws h i s emotional sustenance from h i s n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e and i s unable t o face the f u t u r e with the same composure as e x i l e d members of other p r o f e s s i o n s or occupations. He i s more s e n s i t i v e t o t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n to a f o r e i g n s o i l , because he a n t i c i p a t e s h i s doom as a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t and the e x t i n c t i o n o f h i s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r o l e i n an a l i e n environment.28 Years l a t e r , r e f e r r i n g t o h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  novella  Detstvo N i k i t y , which was w r i t t e n i n 1920, T o l s t o i  expressed  the importance of the language, and i t s p a r t i n h i s l i f e during the emigre" p e r i o d w i t h these words: I t i s a Russian book and i t i s w r i t t e n i n the Russian language. . . . I t i s the Russian language which i s spoken i n the Samara c o u n t r y s i d e . That Russian language was l u r i n g me home t o the Bolsheviks.^9 By  1920 T o l s t o i ' s a r t i c l e s , which were appearing i n  emigre papers, had n o t i c e a b l y a l t e r e d i n tone. in  Poslednie  riovosti  For example,  (The L a t e s t News) f o r 20 September 19 20,  T o l s t o i no longer mentions the wicked B o l s h e v i k  experiments,  but speaks i n s t e a d o f the need f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the Whites and the Reds.  "On the c o n t r a r y , " wrote T o l s t o i ,  25 I f we s h a l l b e l i e v e t h a t i n every Red Army man's cap, t h a t underneath every muzhik's s o i l e d s h i r t there i s a robber and a s c o u n d r e l , o r t h a t everyone wearing a cockade of the White Guard was i n v o l v e d i n pogroms, o r i s a r e a c t i o n a r y , o r t h a t underneath every worn jacke>tlo-f au'RussiannintMaectuaiLhthere beats a f l a b b y r a b b i t ' s h e a r t , then I ask, how can there be any good anywhere?30 In another a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n only nine days l a t e r , T o l s t o i ' s f e e l i n g s were expressed more b l u n t l y than ever b e f o r e .  With  r e s p e c t t o R u s s i a there c o u l d be only two a t t i t u d e s , he suggested: e i t h e r i t s t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n and o b l i t e r a t i o n from the pages of h i s t o r y , or a passionate  faith in i t s  31 ability  to survive.  T h i s was a major step away from the  p o s i t i o n which T o l s t o i had h e l d i n the summer of 1919. About a year l a t e r , i n August 1921, he f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of Khoz hd enie pornmukam, t h a t i s , "Sestry."  What i s noteworthy about i t s ending i s the  apparent r e f e r e n c e t o the d e f e a t o f Baron Wrangel and the implied ideology  o f Smena vekh o r "change o f landmarks."  "See what happened. . . .  So even now we s h a l l n o t be l o s t  . . ." says T e l e g i n , one o f the heroes o f the n o v e l , "Great Russia was l o s t ! But the grandsons of these same ragged muzhiks, who w i t h p i t c h f o r k s went t o rescue Moscow, defeated Charles X I I , drove the Tataes'S over the Perekop, brought L i t h u a n i a t o h e e l , s t r o l l e d i n b a s t shoes on the shores o f the P a c i f i c Ocean. . . . And the grandson of t h a t boy who was f o r c i b l y brought t o Moscow i n a s l e i g h , b u i l t Petersburg! . . . Great R u s s i a i s l o s t ! I f one county i s l e f t t o us, then even from t h a t w i l l a r i s e the Russian land.32 For Tolstoi's , readers 1  i n 1921, the r e f e r e n c e t o Perekop,  26 L i t h u a n i a and the P a c i f i c was  a c l e a r but unhappy  reminder  of  the r e c e n t events of the c i v i l war.  —  t h a t Russia c o u l d be r a i s e d from the s m a l l e s t patch of  land —  But the l a s t  sentence  r e i t e r a t e d the appeal made by the "change of l a n d -  marks" group t o come t o the a s s i s t a n c e of the B o l s h e v i k s i n r e b u i l d i n g the Russian s t a t e . D.  Smena vekh. An important l i t e r a r y event took p l a c e i n 1921  which  was  to e x e r t a powerful i n f l u e n c e upon T o l s t o i and many of  his  contemporaries.  T h i s was  the appearance  a book of essays by d i v e r s e hands. J u l y 1921,  of Smena vekh,  Although i t appeared i n  i t i s probable t h a t T o l s t o i became acquainted  w i t h i t b e f o r e he f i n i s h e d w r i t i n g the c o n c l u d i n g chapter of Khozhdenie  po mukam.  His w i f e r e c a l l e d the nervous  t i o n t h a t T o l s t o i expressed at the time. to  irrita-  When he was  going  the p u b l i s h e r w i t h the completed manuscript he exclaimed:  "Understand,  . . . Europe i s a cemetery.  . . .  I not work here, I can't breathe here. . . .  Not only can  We must f l e e  33 from here."  Then, only two weeks l a t e r , he sent h i s  f a m i l y a i - l e t t e r : c l e a r l y ! : s t a t i n g _ h i s - . d e s i r e :to r e t u r n : L i f e has s h i f t e d from dead c e n t r e . I t has caused a great commotion i n our f r i e n d s ' s a l o n s . That's exciting. I'm burning a l l my b r i d g e s , I must be born anew. My work demands immediate d e c i s i o n . Do you understand the c a t e g o r i c a l meaning of these words? Come back. Give up our apartment. We are going t o B e r l i n , and i f you wish, then even f u r t h e r . 3 4  The cause o f the commotion t o which T o l s t o i  referred  was the s e n s a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n i n Prague, the academic centre o f the emigres, o f Smena vekh..  The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o  t h i s book d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a p o l i t i c a l l y u n i f i e d  group  although, as Gleb S t r u v e observes i n Russkaia l i t e r a t u r a v izgnanii  (Russian L i t e r a t u r e , i n E x i l e ; 1956), they were from  the r i g h t wing of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum.  They advocated a  u n i f i e d a t t i t u d e towards R u s s i a , an approach t h a t o f f e r e d T o l s t o i a most g r a t i f y i n g r e l e a s e f o r h i s own sentiments. E s s e n t i a l l y . t h e Smena vekh group proposed t h a t the Russians who had f l e d d u r i n g t h e . r e v o l u t i o n r e s i g n themselves t o the f a c t t h a t the c i v i l war had been l o s t and t h a t they must go to the a s s i s t a n c e o f the only r e a l government i n R u s s i a . For.example,  S. S. Chakhotkin, one of the.group, d e s c r i b e d  two important tasks t h a t a repentant emigre  1  c o u l d perform on .  his return t o Russia:. 1) vWitheevery e f f o r t a s s i s t i n the e n l i g h t e n ment of the common masses, and support w i t h every p o s s i b l e means a l l , t h a t t h e new R u s s i a undertakes i n t h i s endeavour; y o u r s e l f show^the most i n t e n s i v e , the broadest i n i t i a t i v e ; 2) Most a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the economic r e s t o r a t i o n o f our F a t h e r l a n d . ^ 5  Among some emigres Smena vekh was i n t e r p r e t e d as a d e s p e r a t e l y n a t i o n a l i s t document, b u t as such i t o f f e r e d A l e k s e i T o l s t o i a r e p l y t o the c o n s t a n t l y - n a g g i n g q u e s t i o n : What i s happening t o Russia?  In October 1921 he moved t o  B e r l i n , the l i t e r a r y c e n t r e of the emigres, and soon  after  28 j o i n e d the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f of the Smena vekh paper, Nakanune (On the E v e ) . To e l u c i d a t e f u r t h e r t h a t sentiment which  attracted  T o l s t o i t o the "change of landmarks" movement, i t may  be  h e l p f u l t o mention a t t h i s p o i n t the a r t i c l e by the h i s t o r i a n N. V. U s t r i a l o v , which appeared i n the f i r s t i s s u e of Nakanune i n March  1922:  The speaking-trumpet of the r e v o l u t i o n was the B o l s h e v i k p a r t y , a l s o w i t h o u t doubt the Russian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , who were, as we have a l r e a d y seen, the most orthodox, the most Russian by t h e i r c a s t of mind and temperament. . . . In the B o l s h e v i k s and through Bolshevism the Russian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a surmounts i t s h i s t o r i c a l estrangement from the people and i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l estrangement from the government.^ ^ Such a statement appealed t o T o l s t o i ' s p a t r i o t i s m , and i t made h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o S o v i e t R u s s i a seem more l i k e a n a t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l development intelligentsia.  i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the  Under a B o l s h e v i k government, i t seemed to  the "change of landmarks" group, the Russian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a c o u l d end i t s p a r a d o x i c a l c o n d i t i o n of b e i n g at once  isolated  from the people and i n o p p o s i t i o n to the government.  More-  over, by j o i n i n g the "change o f landmarks" group, A l e k s e i T o l s t o i was  j o i n i n g an e x c e p t i o n a l company o f men who  contin-  ued t o look at R u s s i a through the eyes of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y S l a v o p h i l e s , which e x p l a i n e d at l e a s t i n p a r t t h e i r  discom-  f o r t i n Europe and t h e i r wish to r e t u r n .  "A s m a l l m i n o r i t y  of emigres ," w r i t e s Maurice F r i e d b e r g ,  i  29  t h e s e p e o p l e appear t o have been d r i v e n t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n by t h e t r i b u l a t i o n s o f r e f u g e e e x i s t e n c e , by h o m e s i c k n e s s , and i n t h e c a s e o f a h a n d f u l o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i n k e d W i t h t h e change o f l a n d m a r k s g r o u p (Smena lyekh) , by a b e l i e f i n t h e M e s s i a n i c r o l e of. R u s s i a , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f i t s present rulers.37 A n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e Smena v e k h i d e o l o g y , A. Bobrishchev-Pushkin, example, i n t h e s e  explained Russia's  leading role,  p a s s i o n a t e words w h i c h echo  V.•  for  Blok's  Bolshevik patriotism: From a. n a t i o n a l R u s s i a n p o i n t o f v i e w we can s a y : "We a r e now t h e most r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o u n t r y i n Europe. So we w i l l l e a d t h e r e v o l u t i o n . " . . . F a i t h , but not orthodoxy. Firm a u t h o r i t y , but not autocracy. Nationalism, but not i n o p p o s i t i o n t o o t h e r n a t i o n s , b u t f u s i n g w i t h them, l e a d i n g them. B l o k ' s C h r i s t l e a d s t h e Red Army men w i t h a b l o o d y b a n n e r — - t h e o n l y C h r i s t i n w h i c h one c a n s t i l l b e l i e v e i s t h e new Rus', i f one can s t i l l b e l i e v e i n C h r i s t at a l l . 3  It w i l l initial of  be  8  shown i n t h e n e x t  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e B o l s h e v i k s was  them as  an  annihilating  and  a l l things Russian.  and  he  now  heritage; to  regarded  tinued t o express significant time  this  S o v i e t R u s s i a appeared  a Europe which he,  this  But  from  as  Tolstoi's  on h i s v i e w  destroying Russia changed  completely  of the n a t i o n a l  a cultural  a nationalist,  also  counterweight  disliked.  the m a j o r i t y of emigre w r i t e r s  hostility  to observe those  v i e w had  as  that  based  f o r c e w h i c h was  them as g u a r d i a n s  Understandably,  is  chapter  t o w a r d s t h e new  how  regime; but i t  G o r k i i ' s views d i f f e r e d  of T o l s t o i .  While  the  con-  latter's  at thoughts  30 were occupied w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s such as statehood,. the superpower nature of R u s s i a , i t s n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s , i t s c u l t u r e , G o r k i i ' s thoughts were concentrated on human problems and.questions b e f o r e h i s departure  of everyday  life.  A short  time  from R u s s i a , f o r example, G o r k i i  expressed h i s apprehension  t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n had  turned  r u r a l R u s s i a . a g a i n s t urban c e n t r e s , and he f e a r e d f o r the l i v e s of the remaining n i n e thousand i n t e l l e c t u a l s . conceding  After  t h a t the S o v i e t s represented the only f o r c e capable  of overpowering Russian  i n e r t i a , he added, "Mais toute  s t r u c t u r e mentale f a i t que  je ne puis e t r e d'accord  ma  avee 39  1 ' a t t i t u d e du pouvoir s o v i ^ t i q u e envers  1'intelligentcija."  Then, w r i t i n g from B e r l i n i n June,1922, G o r k i i expressed  the  same a n x i e t y f o r the f a t e of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n a l e t t e r t o the American, Jane Addams: They are the b e s t b r a i n s o f the country, the c r e a t o r s of Russian s c i e n c e and c u l t u r e , people more needed i n R u s s i a than i n any other country. Without them i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o l i v e , as i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o l i v e without a s o u l . These people are a p r e c i o u s t h i n g on a worldwide, g e n e r a l and human s c a l e . In a l l R u s s i a t h e r e are only 9,000 o f them — a n i n s i g n i f i c a n t number f o r s© huge a land and f o r the c u l t u r a l work needed i n R u s s i a . These 9,,000 most p r e c i o u s people are g r a d u a l l y dying, without having succeeded i n c r e a t i n g those who should r e p l a c e t h e m . The d i f f e r i n g concerns  of the two w r i t e r s at t h i s  have been i n c i s i v e l y s t a t e d by Guy  40  juncture  Verret:  G o r k i j a v a i t .quitte' l a R u s s i e , malade e t p e s s i m i s t e , A l e x i s Tolstoj- s ' a p p r e t a i t a y r e t o u r n e r avec une  31 ardeur de c o n v e r t i , pour y d^penser ses f o r c e s b o u i l l o n n a n t e s ; G o r k i j p e n s a i t au s o r t des i n t e l - . l e c t u e l s , A l e x i s T o l s t o j a sa t e r r e n a t a l e t 4 1  This c l e a r l y e x p l a i n s  the sentiment t h a t drove T o l s t o i  towards e a r l y r e p a t r i a t i o n .  Unfortunately,  V e r r e t proceeds  t o conclude, from t h i s d i f f e r e n c e there followed, a d e f i n i t e c o o l i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n , and perhaps even o u t r i g h t ity.  S o v i e t sources c l a i m j u s t the o p p o s i t e .  i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d autobiographical  hostil-  B o r i s Leonov,  i n 1973, r e f e r s t o an unpublished  sketch by A l e k s e i T o l s t o i i n which he  s p e c i f i c a l l y says t h a t h i s meeting w i t h G o r k i i i n t h e s p r i n g of 1922 decided  his fate.  His c r o s s i n g " t o the other  shore"  42 was apparently  encouraged by G o r k i i .  In P a r i s , the p o l i t i c a l centre of the emigres, Count T o l s t o i ' s c r o s s i n g " t o the other  shore," t h a t i s , h i s c o l -  l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the smenavekhovtsy, h i s involvement i n t h e i r pro-Bolshevik  paper Nakanune ( T o l s t o i e d i t e d the - l i t e r a r y  supplement), and f i n a l l y the S o v i e t government's  favourable  response t o the Smena vekh movement, caused a d e r i s i v e reaction.  ( I n c i d e n t a l l y , the S o v i e t government understood  very w e l l t h a t the "change o f landmarks" movement d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a f o r c e capable o f f u n c t i o n i n g as a p o l i t i c a l a l l y , but s i n c e the movement had expressed a d e s i r e t o part i c i p a t e i n t h e post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the country, the new regime was prepared t o reap any b e n e f i t s t h a t these repentant emigres could o f f e r . )  An example o f the h o s t i l i t y  32 of the P a r i s emigres i s the f o l l o w i n g d i a t r i b e i n verse which appeared i n P o s l e d n i e N o v o s t i  on A p r i l  13, 1922:  Hx HeMHoro... HO ecTB B H X K p y r y ^eJiOBeK, y KOToporo-HMH! —  H eMy H npocTHTB He Mory,  ^ T O H OH O^ySHJICH MeX HHMH . OKyHyjtcH B 6OJTOTO. . . K ^eMy? 3a c o B e T C K H H c e p e S p e H H K , *ITO JIH, BpOCHJI CJiaBHOe HMH BO TBMy JiHiieMepHH, o 6 M a H a , HeBOJiH? HeyaceJiH n n c a T e j i B , „TBopeu;" B n e H B r p K f l y i i J i H H n p o H H K H y T B He MoaceT, H H e . B H f l H T , 1 T O 6J1H30K KOHeUi H I T O T e H y n „HM" He n o M o x e T ?  —  43  W r i t i n g h i s memoirs i n h i s eighty-second  year,  Ivan  Bunin  r e s t a t e d t h i s same u n f o r g i v i n g a t t i t u d e . "He [ T o l s t o i ] was remarkable i n many.respects," wrote Bunin, but what made him a . t r u l y a s t o n i s h i n g f i g u r e was h i s e x c e p t i o n a l l a c k o f moral sense (which a f t e r , his r e t u r n t o R u s s i a made him an equal o f h i s immoral c o l l e a g u e s , who, l i k e h i m s e l f , had taken up the p r o f i t a b l e c a r e e r o f . s e r v i c e t o the S o v i e t Kremlin) . . , 4  It.is  4  i n t e r e s t i n g t o . c o n t r a s t - T o l s t o i ' s f e e l i n g s with  regard t o Bunin and Kuprin.  In an i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d i n  the Moscow magazine Zhizn' I s k u s s t v a  (The L i f e o f A r t ) i n  May 1923, T o l s t o i expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t these two w r i t e r s were being h e l d c a p t i v e by Merezhkovskii,. whose negative  influence*;  .  was keeping them out o f Russian  literature.  45  For p o l i t i c a l reasons, suggested T o l s t o i , the two w r i t e r s had  stopped working. But  46  i n addition t o c r i t i c i s m s of T o l s t o i ' s c o l l a b o r a t i o n  which were pouring out of the emigre press i n P a r i s , was  a l s o a demand f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n from the emigre estab-  lishment. of  there  N. V. C h a i k o v s k i i , the former supreme commander  the n o r t h e r n government d u r i n g the B r i t i s h i n t e r v e n t i o n  i n Murmansk, and P.N.  M i l i u k o v , the former f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r  under K e r e n s k i i , wrote t o T o l s t o i asking how understand  they were to  h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the b l a t a n t l y  pro-Bolshevik  47 paper, Nakanune.  T o l s t o i ' s response was  contained i n h i s  "Open l e t t e r to N. V. C h a i k o v s k i i " which was i n Nakanune on A p r i l A p r i l 25,  1922.  14, 1922,  f i r s t printed  and then i n I z v e s t l i a  on  For the purposes of t h i s study, the impor-  tance of the l e t t e r to C h a i k o v s k i i l i e s i n i t s unambiguous testimony  to T o l s t o i ' s change of heart.towards  and the new The  the B o l s h e v i k s  Soviet Russia. aim of the paper Nakanune, e x p l a i n e d T o l s t o i ,  not to s p l i t the emigres, vennost'v(statehood).  but t o defend Russian  was  gosudarst-  F u r t h e r , as members of the Smena vekh  group, the c o n t r i b u t o r s worked f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of the economy and the r e a s s e r t i o n of Russia's (imperial greatness).  The  T o l s t o i , the Whites had now  c i v i l war  ve1ikoderzhavie  had ended, continued  l o s t , and i t was  the B o l s h e v i k s  who  formed the a c t u a l government t h a t p r o t e c t e d Russian  f r o n t i e r s , supported Russian-unity.  Russian i n t e r e s t s i n Genoa, and  guarded  In c o n t r a s t to t h i s r e a l i t y , the emigres  continued to l i v e under the i n e r t i a of past combat, they  p e r s i s t e d i n w a i t i n g f o r the c o l l a p s e o f the B o l s h e v i k s , b u t time a f t e r time the date o f t h a t cojbjhapse was postponed u n t i l t h e i r hopes had degenerated  into fantasy.  For T o l s t o i ,  the d e c i s i o n t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h Nakanune was a p a i n f u l and d i f f i c u l t one, f o r he had been on the s i d e o f the Whites. "I hated the B o l s h e v i k s p h y s i c a l l y , " he wrote, I c o n s i d e r e d them the d e s t r o y e r s o f the Russian s t a t e , the cause o f a l l woe. In those years my two b r o t h e r s d i e d ; one was c u t down, the other d i e d o f wounds. Two u n c l e s were shot, e i g h t r e l a t i v e s d i e d of d i s e a s e and famine. My f a m i l y and I s u f f e r e d terribly. I had reason t o hate.^8 But now v i o l e n c e and t e r r o r were i n the p a s t and what R u s s i a needed was r e s t and q u i e t , l i k e a p a t i e n t r e c o v e r i n g from a serious operation.  In the process o f h e a l i n g , as NEP was  beginning t o show, coarse and r a d i c a l t h e o r e t i c s was being r e p l a c e d w i t h simple e m p i r i c i s m .  B l o o d - l e t t i n g and v i v i s e c -  t i o n would s t o p , concluded T o l s t o i , and the form o f government would r e f l e c t the wisdom and the w i l l o f the Russian people.  T h i s optimism was the element t h a t formed the core  of T o l s t o i ' s p o l i t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g the Smena vekh movement. But T o l s t o i o f f e r e d as w e l l two other reasons f o r "changing  landmarks."  These were, f i r s t , the war w i t h  Poland, and next, the famine: I was among the many, many others who c o u l d not sympathize with the P o l e s , who had conquered Russian l a n d ; I c o u l d not wish f o r the r e t u r n o f the boundaries of. I 7 2 nor f o r tK? .•irr~:i _vr o f ' 7  r  35 the boundaries o f 1772 nor f o r the surrender o f Smolensk t o t h e , P o l e s . Four hundred years ago i n e x a c t l y the same s i t u a t i o n Smolensk was defended by Shein w h i l e a P o l i s h army, a l s o c a l l e d i n by Russians, l a y s e i g e t o the c i t y . With a l l my being I wished the Reds v i c t o r y . What a paradox...49 C l e a r l y T o l s t o i ' s change o f sentiment w i t h r e s p e c t t o the B o l s h e v i k s was generated of Russian b o r d e r s .  by a f e e l i n g o f the i n v i o l a b i l i t y  Thus, a t a time o f war between Poland  and S o v i e t Russia., Tolstoi''s p a t r i o t i s m drew him towards a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the new regime. Famine was the other c o n s i d e r a t i o n which swayed T o l s t o i t o j o i n the Smena vekh and Nakanune. r i p e f o r another  trial,"  "The time i s  he wrote,  These are the times o f the a p o c a l y p t i c a l Russian famine. R u s s i a i s dying out. Who i s t o blame? What does i t matter who i s t o blame, when c h i l d r e n ' s corpses are p i l e d up l i k e stacks o f wood a t r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s , o r when human f l e s h .is eaten. A l l , a l l of us t o g e t h e r , c o l l e c t i v e l y share i n the blame s i n c e long ago. But, of course, some i r r e c o n c i l ables are t o be found. The famine i s t e r r i b l e , they say, b u t we w i l l not r e c o n c i l e o u r s e l v e s t o the b a n d i t s who have usurped power i n R u s s i a . We w i l l n o t allow a s i n g l e c a r l o a d of g r a i n t o e n t e r R u s s i a i f t h a t c a r l o a d w i l l extend the B o l s h e v i k s ' power by a s i n g l e day. Happily such persons are few. G r a i n was brought i n t o R u s s i a , and the s t a r v i n g were fed.50 A n a t u r a l and understandable  sense o f p i t y f o r h i s own  people, t h e r e f o r e , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o T o l s t o i ' s d e c i s i o n t o return.  And s i n c e he had now come round t o the view t h a t  the Russian s t a t e had n o t p e r i s h e d , and the p o p u l a t i o n o f R u s s i a was n o t a t a l l concerned  w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f whether  36  or not some p o l i t i c a l group o u t s i d e of R u s s i a agreed  or  d i s a g r e e d w i t h the government i n R u s s i a , the emigres  had  only three ways, he s a i d , to achieve a common aim: p r e s e r v a t i o n and The ment and  a s s e r t i o n o f Russian N  f i r s t was  "the  statehood."  to e n l i s t the a i d of a f o r e i g n govern-  invade Russia t o f o r c e the B o l s h e v i k s out of power.  But, T o l s t o i , o b j e c t e d , n e i t h e r i s there such a government, nor c o u l d f u r t h e r f i g h t i n g and dying be t o l e r a t e d by c o n s c i e n t i o u s Russian. b o y c o t t of R u s s i a .  The  second c h o i c e was  any  an economic  However, T o l s t o i p o i n t e d out, t h a t would  cause the s t a r v i n g people  even g r e a t e r s u f f e r i n g w h i l e  r u l e r s of the country would remain u n a f f e c t e d . c h o i c e , which would preserve Russian  The  statehood, was  r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s i g n a t i o n to the f a c t t h a t Russia r u l e d by the B o l s h e v i k s .  the  iastsimple was  T h i s simple but f a r - r e a c h i n g  d e c i s i o n o f f e r e d the emigres the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r country's  a f f a i r s and i n some .way  f u t u r e course of i t s development.  i n f l u e n c e the  Therefore,  Tolstoi  advised the emigres, Having r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t , do e v e r y t h i n g to a s s i s t the l a s t phase of the Russian r e v o l u t i o n to go i n the d i r e c t i o n o f enrichment of Russian l i f e , i n the d i r e c t i o n of e x t r a c t i o n from the r e v o l u t i o n a l l t h a t i s good and j u s t , and to a s s e r t t h a t good; to go i n the d i r e c t i o n of d e s t r o y i n g a l l t h a t i s e v i l and u n j u s t which was a l s o brought i n by the same r e v o l u t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , t o go i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r e s e r v i n g our q u a l i t i e s of a mighty s t a t e . I choose t h i s t h i r d way.51  Having h i m s e l f s e l e c t e d the t h i r d way, T o l s t o i c a l l e d upon the emigres n o t t o h i d e i n t h e i r P a r i s i a n c e l l a r s , b u t t o come t o terms w i t h p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s , and t o come t o the aid  o f the new R u s s i a .  He concluded.  And my conscience b i d s me not t o descend i n t o the c e l l a r , but t o go t o R u s s i a and d r i v e a t l e a s t one n a i l i n t o the s p l i n t e r e d s h i p of s t a t e . J u s t as..jr.' Peter d i d . 5 2  Of course, the S o v i e t government was p l e a s e d t o see such a pronouncement, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t came from an established literary in  figure.  When the l e t t e r was r e p r i n t e d  I z v e s t i i a i t was accompanied by.an a r t i c l e  "Raskol e m i g r a t s i i "  entitled  (A S p l i t Among the 'Emigres)- which  clearly  53 r e f l e c t e d governmental s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Tolstoi's l e t t e r to  C h a i k o v s k i i was, i n f a c t , h i s p a s s p o r t t o S o v i e t R u s s i a .  In  the s p r i n g of 1923, he went alone t o Moscow and Petrograd i n order t o s e t t l e p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s ; then on August 1, 1923, he and h i s f a m i l y stepped off the s h i p i n Petrograd t o begin once again t h e i r l i f e i n R u s s i a . E.  Return l o s S o v i e t R u s s i a "The years from 1924 t o 1929 were f o r A l e k s e i  Tolstoi  54 years of formation o f a new outlook."  A w r i t e r w i t h an  e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n , T o l s t o i h e l d g r e a t promise f o r S o v i e t literature.  But these f i r s t years were n o t easy.  emigre, a f o l l o w e r o f the dubious  A  former  Smena vekh, an admirer o f  the a p o l i t i c a l Serapion Brotherhood,  and s e t t l i n g  comfortably,  38  A. N. T o l s t o i was q u i c k l y n o t i c e d , l a b e l l e d a f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r , and p e r s i s t e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d by many.enemies.  Attacks  on him g r a d u a l l y subsided a f t e r the d i s s o l u t i o n o f RAPP, h i s acquaintance w i t h I . V. S t a l i n , and h i s e l e c t i o n t o the Supreme S o v i e t as a deputy from S t a r a i a Russa. S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n , T o l s t o i s t a t e d i n an i n t e r view t h a t he would begin work immediately first  on two p r o j e c t s :  an a d a p t a t i o n o f K. Capek's p l a y R. U. R., and second,  a s e q u e l t o the n o v e l he had w r i t t e n i n P a r i s , Khozhdenie po mukam.  The p l a y , Bunt mashin  was completed  (The R e v o l t o f the Machines)  s h o r t l y , b u t the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the e p i c novel  was delayed almost  f o u r years because the S o v i e t a u t h o r i t i e s  found the author's views unacceptable. still  F i r s t of a l l , T o l s t o i  regarded the r e v o l u t i o n as a c h a o t i c w h i r l w i n d which  was i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n i t s d e s t r u c t i o n .  But i n a d d i t i o n t o  t h i s , T o l s t o i ' s p a t r i o t i s m , which o f t e n reached  passionate  h e i g h t s , was completely out o f s t e p w i t h the times. the b e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n  Perhaps  o f the sentiment w i t h which he r e t u r n e d  to  R u s s i a i s found i n t h e p r e f a c e t o the 1922, B e r l i n  of  Khozhdenie.po mukam:  edition  B l e s s e d be thy name, Russian Land. Great s u f f e r i n g g i v e s b i r t h t o g r e a t good. Those who have walked the road t o C a l v a r y know t h a t l i f e i s l i v e d n o t through e v i l , b u t through good: through a w i l l t o l i f e , a w i l l t o freedom, and a w i l l t o c h a r i t y . N e i t h e r f o r death, nor f o r d e s t r u c t i o n i s the g r e a t S l a v i c expanse, but f o r l i f e , f o r the happiness o f a f r e e people. 5  39 No, T o l s t o i c o u l d n o t w r i t e l i k e t h a t i n the 1920's.  Instead  he t r a v e l l e d about European R u s s i a , speaking of the decadent West, o f the c a p i t a l i s t world's hatred f o r the new. R u s s i a , and of - the demoralized White emigres.  H i s w r i t i n g s i n the  f i r s t years a f t e r h i s r e t u r n d e a l w i t h these same t o p i c s and can be found i n such s t o r i e s as "Rukopis naidennaia pod krovat'iu"  (A Manuscript  Antuana Ribo" piatnitsa"  Found Under the Bed), and " U b i i s t v o  (The Murder o f Antoine Ribeau),  (Black F r i d a y ) , "Mirazh"  "Chernaia  (Mirage), "Pokhozhdenie  Nevzorova i i i  I b i k u s " (The Adventures o f Nevzorov or I b i k u s ) ,  "Soiuz p i a t i "  (The Union o f F i v e ) .  I t i s tempting  t o jump t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t T o l s t o i  wrote such s t o r i e s i n order t o i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f with the Soviet a u t h o r i t i e s .  But were that^the^case,'" theno.the  tance, of the Smena vekh sentiments  impor-  t h a t were so c r u c i a l t o  T o l s t o i ' s reasoning would be completely  ignored.  To i g n o r e  those sentiments would be t o i n s i s t on s u s p e c t i n g T o l s t o i ' s change of h e a r t w i t h no d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e support f o r such a suspicion.  We have seen e a r l i e r t h a t h i s emigration and  h i s r e t u r n were based upon h i s love f o r R u s s i a , and while a f t e r h i s r e t u r n he c o u l d not expressnhis o f t e n extreme f e e l i n g s toward h i s n a t i v e l a n d , he c e r t a i n l y could  continue  to express h i s d i s l i k e o f the West, i n which he was n e i t h e r alone nor prompted by h i s p r o - S o v i e t stand. W i l l i a m s has observed,  As R. C.  t o the Russian emigres i n g e n e r a l the  40  West, meaning England, France and and  cultural decline.  56  Germany, was  i n a moral  ' . Being a S l a v o p h i l e , T o l s t o i f e l t .  t h a t R u s s i a , having passed through p u r i f y i n g f i r e s of  war  and  the  r e v o l u t i o n , was  same f e e l i n g s had culture.  morally  s u p e r i o r t o the West; and  always nourished  Thus, any  h i s preference  a p p r a i s a l of h i s w r i t i n g s must a l s o take  i n t o account h i s s t r o n g . f e e l i n g s of n a t i o n a l i s m . l i k e T o l s t o i , the West had before  f o r Russian  the B o l s h e v i k s  appeared to be  came t o power and  To a  man  " r o t t e n " .even  framed an  anti-  western p o l i c y . But w h i l e T o l s t o i was porary  conditions  abroad, he was  i n t o the r e c e n t p a s t .  The  i n s e v e r a l works before "1918" — t h e  w r i t i n g s t o r i e s about contema l s o making s m a l l  Russian r e v o l u t i o n was  192 8, the year t h a t he  documentation was  u t i l i z e d was  One  of  historical  a play w r i t t e n together  P. E. Shchegolev, Zagovor i m p e r a t r i t s y the Empress).  reflected  completed  second p a r t of Khozhdenie po mukam.  the e a r l i e s t works i n which a great d e a l of  jaunts  with  (The Conspiracy of  Because the manuscript.of the p l a y has  been  l o s t , b i o g r a p h e r s have not been able to determine how  much  of the p l a y was but  w r i t t e n by T o l s t o i and how  i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t T o l s t o i took the  which h i s f r i e n d p r o v i d e d was  much by  and  then dramatized i t .  Shchegolev, material Shchegolev  a h i s t o r i a n j j a n d d a f t e r the February r e v o l u t i o n , a member  of the E x t r a o r d i n a r y  I n v e s t i g a t i n g Commission which met  to  look i n t o the c r i m i n a l machinations committed a t t h e . I m p e r i a l Court.  He e d i t e d the t r a n s c r i p t s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , which  were p u b l i s h e d  i n seven volumes e n t i t l e d Padenie tsarskogo  rezhima (The F a l l of the T s a r i s t Regime).  A t the time of  the w r i t i n g o f the p l a y , however, only three volumes of Padenie had been The and  published.  p l a y had i t s premiere i n Moscow i n January 1925,  i t isstill  staged today. . However, t h i s i s not t o say  t h a t i t i s a good p l a y ; r a t h e r Zagovor imperatri.tsy\ f u l f i l l e d an i n s t r u c t i o n a l need by exposing the c o r r u p t i o n which surrounded N i c h o l a s percent  II.  The playwright  of t h e . r e c e i p t s from every.performance, and s i n c e  the p l a y was staged i n most c i t i e s r e c e i v e d , t o use Alpatov's The  1  of the USSR, T o l s t o i  expression,  r e v o l u t i o n a l s o serves  s t o r i e s , "Drevnii put " and  r e c e i v e d two  as the f o c a l p o i n t i n t h e  (The Ancient  "Gobelen M a r i i Antuanetty"  "sacks o f money."  Route), w r i t t e n i n 1927,  (The Tapestry  o f Marie  A n t o i n e t t e ) , w r i t t e n i n 192 8. While g a t h e r i n g Russia,  m a t e r i a l f o r "1918" i n southern  Tolstoi.came across  some documents and r u i n s  back t o the p e r i o d o f Peter t h e Great. i n t e r e s t i n Tsar P e t e r ,  dating  This rekindled his  and i n the f a l l of 1928, j u s t a f t e r  the completion of the second p a r t o f Khozhdenie po mukam, T o l s t o i began w r i t i n g the play Na dybe  (On the Rack). Com-  p l e t e d i n December o f t h a t y e a r , the p l a y became t h e f i r s t  42 of  three v e r s i o n s o f the p l a y subsequently  t i t l e d Pet r I .  D e s p i t e the most severe c r i t i c i s m , t h i s f i r s t v a r i a n t of the p l a y remained on the stage u n t i l 1934, when T o l s t o i r e p l a c e d Na dybe w i t h a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n . i t was so s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d ?  How d i d Na dybe s u r v i v e i f "The MKhAT-II p r o d u c t i o n of  the f i r s t v a r i a n t o f P e t e r , " wrote T o l s t o i ,  "was greeted  w i t h bayonets by RAPP c r i t i c s , but i t was saved by comrade 57 Stalin.  . ."  Indeed, a c c o r d i n g t o R. Ivanov-Razumnik,  S t a l i n was present at the dress r e h e a r s a l o f Na dybe, and c o n t r a r y t o everyone's e x p e c t a t i o n he expressed 58 f a c t i o n w i t h the p l a y . took a l i k i n g t o T o l s t o i  great s a t i s -  I t may be presumed t h a t S t a l i n from t h a t time.  In 1930, f o r  example, when plans were being made f o r w r i t i n g a h i s t o r y o f the c i v i l war i n R u s s i a , S t a l i n wrote t o G o r k i i cally  asked  and s p e c i f i -  t h a t A l e k s e i T o l s t o i be i n c l u d e d among i t s  59 authors.  Then a few years l a t e r , as a member of o f f i c i a l  d e l e g a t i o n s t h a t had t r a v e l l e d  abroad, T o l s t o i had the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet S t a l i n a t s o c i a l gatherings.. A t one such meeting S t a l i n and T o l s t o i exchanged p i p e s . As a head o f s t a t e , S t a l i n was f l a t t e r e d by any comparison between him and Peter the Great. gleaned  This may be  from the i n t e r v i e w S t a l i n gave Emile Ludwig.  i s why, no doubt, S t a l i n to p l a y i n s p i t e  That  l i k e d T o l s t o i , and allowed Na dybe  of p e r s i s t e n t a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t T o l s t o i was  a Russian c h a u v i n i s t and even a monarchist.  43 E a r l y i n 19 29, T o l s t o i began w r i t i n g the n o v e l was  that  t o become one o f the c l a s s i c s of twentieth-century  Russian  l i t e r a t u r e , Petr Pervyi  the f i r s t Novyi mir,  (Peter the F i r s t ) .  However,  i n s t a l l m e n t , which appeared i n t h e J u l y i s s u e o f i n t r o d u c e d the work as a povest',  or s t o r y , and  no one, n o t even the author h i m s e l f , then expected P e t r P e r v y i t o expand as i t d i d . 1930.  Book One was f i n i s h e d i n May  In March 1932, T o l s t o i made h i s f i r s t  Europe s i n c e h i s r e t u r n t o S o v i e t R u s s i a . the t r i p was t o v i s i t  G o r k i i i n Sorrento  jaunt i n t o  The purpose o f and t o make a s t a r t  on the second volume o f Peter the F i r s t .  Correspondence a t  t h i s time between the two w r i t e r s r e v e a l s nothing but the most c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s , and although  they were never c l o s e  f r i e n d s , T o l s t o i appears t o have sought G o r k i i ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  In any case, T o l s t o i d i d n o t  begin h i s second volume i n Sorrento, but i n s t e a d r e s t e d f o r three weeks a t G o r k i i ' s , and then returned t o R u s s i a . However, i n h i s plans f o r the second volume of the n o v e l , which he began only toward the end o f 1932, T o l s t o i used some impressions  obtained d u r i n g the t r i p t o c o n t r a s t a .  Europe racked by severe economic d e p r e s s i o n 60 Russia r u s h i n g toward i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  and a S o v i e t " ^~ c  The second  volume o f P e t r P e r v y i wal completecl In A p r i l 193 4. completion did  With the  o f the second p a r t of the n o v e l , however, T o l s t o i  n o t put aside the s u b j e c t of Peter the Great.  By the  end o f the y e a r he had produced a new v a r i a n t o f the p l a y P e t r I , and a t the. same time he had begun work on a s c e n a r i o for  a f i l m v e r s i o n of Peter the F i r s t .  wrote t h e l i b r e t t o f o r Iu. A. Shaporin's (The  In 1935, opera  Tolstoi  Dekabristy  Decembrists). T o l s t o i now f a c e d the. problem o f the u n f i n i s h e d  t r i l o g y , Khozhdenie po mukam.  The e p i c of t h e r e v o l u t i o n  began t o appear as a problem because, i n h h i s own words, " c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r s " had c r e p t i n t o t h e f i r s t two parts.^ his  The " e r r o r s " t o which T o l s t o i was r e f e r r i n g were  f a i l u r e t o take note of the r o l e p l a y e d by K. E. Voro-  s h i l o v and S t a l i n i n the defense 6 i v i l war.  o f T s a r i t s y n d u r i n g the  The plans f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f Khozhdenie po  mukam a t t h i s time show u n c e r t a i n t y and i n d e c i s i o n as t o how the n o v e l should proceed.  A t one p o i n t , T o l s t o i  thought  t h a t the t h i r d p a r t would c o n s i s t of f o u r s e c t i o n s : "Oborona Tsaritsyna" nosti"  (The Defense o f T s a r i t s y n ) , "Respublika v opas-  (The R e p u b l i c i n Danger), "Plan S t a l i n a "  P l a n ) , and "Nachalo pobed" (The Beginning Together  of V i c t o r i e s ) .  these f o u r p a r t s would comprise the t h i r d volume of  the t r i l o g y , which would be t i t l e d Horses!).  (Stalin's  "Po koniam!" (Mount Your  A l l these plans came t o naught, and having  promised a book d e d i c a t e d t o the t w e n t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f the October R e v o l u t i o n , T o l s t o i d e s c r i b e d t h e defense o f T s a r i t s y n i n t h e book t h a t came t o be t i t l e d Khleb  (Bread),  and which was In  f i n i s h e d i n October  1937.  a d d i t i o n t o h i s l i t e r a r y work, T o l s t o i was  i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s as w e l l .  At f i r s t he was  S o v i e t of Detskoe S e l o i n 1933,  active  e l e c t e d t o the  and a year l a t e r he  e l e c t e d t o the Leningrad S o v i e t .  In December 1937  was he  was  e l e c t e d to the Supreme S o v i e t of the USSR as a deputy r e p r e s e n t i n g S t a r a i a Russa.  At the f i r s t  Union of S o v i e t W r i t e r s i n 1934, he was  conference of the  one o f the d e l e g a t e s  from L e n i n g r a d , and when the conference c l o s e d , he  was  e l e c t e d t o the presiddi.umooft'theUUn-ion. Between 193 5 and 1937  T o l s t o i made s e v e r a l t r i p s t o  Europe t o attend i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n t i - f a s c i s t congresses. the summer of 1935, to  f o r example, he was  among the d e l e g a t e s  a w r i t e r s ' conference f o r the defense of c u l t u r e .  remained  In  He  abroad f o r two months, and i n a d d i t i o n t o a t t e n d i n g  the conference i n P a r i s , he a l s o v i s i t e d London, Hamburg and the Netherlands. That autumn T o l s t o i was v i s i t e d Czechoslovakia.  a l s o among S o v i e t w r i t e r s  who  Having seen i n Prague Smetana's  comic opera The B a r t e r e d B r i d e , he asked a Czech  journalist  f r i e n d t o make a Russian t r a n s l a t i o n of the l i b r e t t o .  The  t r a n s l a t i o n d i d not s a t i s f y T o l s t o i completely, so i n L e n i n grad he approached  V. R o z h d e s t v e n s k i i and t o g e t h e r they  rewrote the l i b r e t t o . 1937  The opera had i t s premiere on May  i n the Leningrad M a l y i Theatre. In  1936  T o l s t o i went t o another peace congress i n  31,  Brussels.  Afterwards he v i s i t e d P a r i s again  t h i s occasion  and i t was on  t h a t he met b r i e f l y w i t h Bunin.  In h i s memoirs  Bunin mentioned t h a t T o l s t o i had asked him t o r e t u r n t o 62 R u s s i a , b u t o f course nothing  came o f i t a t the time.  During t h a t same v i s i t t o P a r i s , T o l s t o i a l s o saw A. I . Kuprin and helped t o arrange h i s r e t u r n t o S o v i e t  Russia.  A f t e r P a r i s , T o l s t o i stopped o f f i n London where he spoke about contemporary Russian l i t e r a t u r e , and i t was on t h i s occasion in for  t h a t he met H. G. Wells and Aldous Huxley.  1937 he was i n v i t e d t o London again, t o attend "Peace and F r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e USSR."  Early  a meeting  On t h i s  occasion  he met B e a t r i c e and Sidney Webb, George Bernard Shaw, and H. G. Wells again.  In the summer of 1937 T o l s t o i was o f f t o  the second i n t e r n a t i o n a l w r i t e r s ' conference f o r the defense of c u l t u r e , hosted t h i s time by r e p u b l i c a n  Spain.  The  conference met i n V a l e n c i a and Madrid, but because o f t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n i t was f o r c e d t o conclude its  session i n Paris.  This was T o l s t o i ' s l a s t  journey  abroad. T o l s t o i r e c e i v e d s e v e r a l honours i n r e c o g n i t i o n of his  l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s .  One o f t h e f i r s t  presented t o him i n 1938, was the Order o f Lenin scenario  f o r . t h e f i l m P e t r I.  the Academy o f Sciences Prize  awards,  f o r the  In 1939 he was admitted t o  o f the USSR.  He r e c e i v e d t h e S t a l i n  (now c a l l e d the S t a t e P r i z e ) f o r the novel  Petr  Pervyi  47 i n 1941, and i n 1943 f o r the t r i l o g y Khozhdenie po mukam." On h i s s i x t i e t h b i r t h d a y , T o l s t o i Red  r e c e i v e d the Order of the  Banner. During the Second World War, T o l s t o i had ;lyery l i t t l e  time f o r h i s own l i t e r a r y work.  J u s t two months a f t e r the  German i n v a s i o n , when the f i r s t A l l - S l a v i c Congress met i n Moscow in.August 1941,.he acted as chairman, and i n subsequent meetings o f the Congress he was the p r e s i d e n t o f the Russian s e c t i o n .  In 19 42 he assumed h i s l a s t governmental  appointment as a member o f the s t a n d i n g g a t i n g Nazi war crimes.  committee  investi-  Perhaps i t i s not too s u r p r i s i n g  t h a t i t was d u r i n g these d i f f i c u l t years  of the war t h a t  Tolstoi  A p u b l i c i s t whose  gained  h i s greatest readership.  a r t i c l e s appeared i n every paper of the S o v i e t Union,  Tolstoi  s t r o v e i n h i s w r i t i n g s t o expand the s p i r i t of p a t r i o t i s m w i t h numerous h i s t o r i c a l a s i d e s .  This, his contribution to  the war e f f o r t , n e c e s s a r i l y c u t i n t o h i s l i t e r a r y p l a n s .  As  a r e s u l t he managed only t o w r i t e a two-part p l a y about Ivan the T e r r i b l e ,  and b a r e l y t o make a s t a r t on t h e t h i r d volume  of P e t e r the F i r s t . dying o f cancer,  In 19 44 i t became known t h a t he was  and he passed away on February 23, 1945.  CHAPTER I I SHORT STORIES HoBejuia — u i K O J i a HJIH —  A.  H.  .ny^inaH  nncaTejiH. TOJICTOK.  Before he began h i s e p i c about P e t e r the Great i n 1929,  T o l s t o i had p u b l i s h e d i n the p r e c e d i n g two decades a  number of s h o r t s t o r i e s on h i s t o r i c a l themes.  But what  i n f l u e n c e d him t o w r i t e as he d i d and, e q u a l l y important, what was had  h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g these s t o r i e s ?  At f i r s t  l i t t l e s e r i o u s n e s s of purpose f o r h i s c h i e f motive  as we  he was,  s h a l l see p r e s e n t l y , one of c u r i o s i t y about manners  r a t h e r than h i s t o r i c a l causes  and p r o c e s s e s .  Then, as  have seen i n the preceding chapter, the r e v o l u t i o n of  we 1917  supplanted t h i s s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the past w i t h a more s e r i o u s concern about R u s s i a and her f u t u r e . By  1919  T o l s t o i sought  t o escape from the gloomy  themes engendered by the r e v o l u t i o n and the c i v i l war w r i t i n g s t o r i e s of fantasy and the power of l o v e . was  But  this  a p e r i o d of r a p i d change, as much f o r the n a t i o n as f o r  the i n d i v i d u a l , and i t was to  by  at t h i s time t h a t T o l s t o i began  re-examine the s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s he had so f a r taken f o r  granted.  When he resumed h i s l i t e r a r y 48  career i n Soviet  R u s s i a , h i s p e s s i m i s t i c view of Russian h i s t o r y was r e p l a c e d w i t h an a f f i r m a t i v e one. extraneous  But, no matter how h i s views o r  i n f l u e n c e s changed, t h e r e remained always one  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e which was e v i d e n t from the b e g i n n i n g , and t h a t was h i s g i f t  fornarration.  In a l e t t e r t o the  U k r a i n i a n w r i t e r M. M. K o t s u b i n s k i i i n 1910, G o r k i i p r a i s e d . T o l s t o i ' s f i r s t book of s h o r t s t o r i e s .  "I am drawing t o your  a t t e n t i o n , " wrote G o r k i i , " A l e k s e i T o l s t o i ' s book i n which many o f h i s s t o r i e s have a winning become a f i r s t r a t e w r i t e r , A.  quality.  really;"  He promises t o  1  H i s t o r i c a l F i c t i o n Before 1917. As has been noted  i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter,  Tolstoi  marked the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s prose w r i t i n g from the summer spent i n 1909 a t V o l o s h i n ' s dacha.  When T o l s t o i  arrived  t h e r e , h i s host was t r a n s l a t i n g n o v e l l a s w r i t t e n by the French s y m b o l i s t , Henri de Regnier.  How much V o l o s h i n  admired Regnier may be gleaned from the a r t i c l e he wrote i n the January,  1910 i s s u e o f A p o l l o n i n which he h e r a l d e d t h e  appearance o f a new l i t e r a r y s y n t h e s i s between symbolism and impressionism.  The r e s u l t of such a union V o l o s h i n c a l l e d  n e o - r e a l i s m , and i t s master craftsman was Henri de Regnier, But, V o l o s h i n added, t h e r e were a l r e a d y n e o - r e a l i s t s among. Russian  writers:  In novels and s t o r i e s by A n d r e i B e l y i , Kuzmin, Remizov, A l e k s e i . T o l s t o i , we have a l r e a d y the beginnings o f n e o - r e a l i s m , and H e n r i de Regnier's example w i l l h e l p t o o r i e n t o u r s e l v e s . 2  50  F u r t h e r , V o l o s h i n e x p l a i n e d t h a t the most s u i t a b l e mode of e x p r e s s i o n i n n e o - r e a l i s m i s the anecdote,  because i n j u s t a  s i n g l e s t r o k e i t can give the f u l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p e r s o n a l i t y ; the anecdote i s , he wrote, an instrument of the new  realism.  F i n a l l y , V o l o s h i n p o i n t e d out t h a t Regnier's  f a v o u r i t e t o p i c i s the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French  aristocracy  with i t s d e l i c a t e c u l t u r e , sad elegance, p a s t o r a l and evening m e l a n c h o l i a .  gentility,  In the m a j o r i t y of such w r i t i n g s ,  however, V o l o s h i n observed  t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e mention of  h i s t o r i c a l or p o l i t i c a l events; i n s t e a d the  "historical  c e n t r e " r e s t s on persons whose i n t i m a t e l i v e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the France of the ancien regime. T o l s t o i , of course, had heard t h i s expounded i n the previous summer, and he acknowledged h i s debt t o V o l o s h i n on more than one o c c a s i o n .  For example, i n one of h i s e a r l i e s t  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketches, w r i t t e n i n 1916,  Tolstoi  relates:  He was t r a n s l a t i n g n o v e l l a s w r i t t e n by H e n r i de Regnier; I was so astounded by them t h a t I wrote three s m a l l n o v e l l a s s e t i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, s t y l i z i n g the language and the images. From the s t a r t I had found my own s t y l e . ^ T o l s t o i c o n s i d e r e d h i s s t a r t i n prose t o be stories  "Sorevnovatel'"  (The Jasper Notebook).  (The R i v a l ) , a n d "Iashmovaia t e t r a d ' " These two  s t o r i e s he wrote at V o l o -  s h i n 's dacha, w h i l e the t h i r d , i n i t i a l l y zloschastnyi" two  the  (The Unfortunate P o e t ) , was  l a t e r i n St. Petersburg.  titled  "Poet  w r i t t e n a month or  The i n f l u e n c e of V o l o s h i n ' s .  51 t r a n s l a t i o n s of Regnier i n these f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l i s e v i d e n t from t h e i r g e n e r a l e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y another  f a c t to note  first  La canne jaspe o r , as i t t r a n s l a t e s  "Iashmovaia t r o s t . "  between Regnier  settings;  i s t h a t the t i t l e of Regnier's  c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s was i n t o Russian,  anecdotes  1  However, the  similarities  and T o l s t o i end here, f o r whereas the  author wrote i n a tone f u l l of hopeless  French  l o n g i n g f o r the  g r a c e f u l p a s t , young T o l s t o i made a parody of t h i s  by  i n s e r t i n g amusing t w i s t s i n t o h i s n a r r a t i v e s . Being designed  as anecdotes,  these s h o r t p i e c e s have  no e l a b o r a t e p l o t s , s i n c e each d e s c r i b e s only a s i n g l e dent;  inci-  there i s no development of c h a r a c t e r , and c e r t a i n l y  e x p r e s s i o n of h i s t o r i c a l concepts.  In f a c t , T o l s t o i  no  offers  i n h i s e a r l i e s t p i e c e s only costume h i s t o r y , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t they may  be c o n s i d e r e d only p a r t i a l l y  historical  fiction. "Sorevnovatel'" and  "Iashmovaia t e t r a d " were 1  p u b l i s h e d t o g e t h e r i n the almanac Liubov'  (Love), i n  1909,  under the j o i n t t i t l e ,  "Two  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  a d e d i c a t i o n t o K. A. Somov, the  p a i n t e r who  drew i d y l l i c  This, f a c t a l s o may  anecdotes about the same t h i n g . "  scenes  from e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  life.  e x p l a i n the s a t i r i c a l humour i n T o l s t o i ' s  f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l anecdotes,  s i n c e Somov, who  belonged  t o the  M i r i s k u s s t v a group, e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d to i d e a l i z e i n h i s p a i n t i n g s the l i f e - s t y l e of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  gentry.  52  In  "Sorevnovatel'" T o l s t o i ' s humour i s r e m i n i s c e n t of  Gogol', p a r t i c u l a r l y i n some passages of lengthy, p e r i p h e r a l information.  —  Consider the f o l l o w i n g example:  — H 6 p a T , flypaK, B moptf. BtJBefly.  a T H , 6 p a T ,  B f l B o e ,  H O H e ropiofi  H. M H o r o 3 H a i H T e J i b H O n o M a x a J i TpySKoK, K O T o p a n , K a K H B e e B HHnioiiiKHHOM flOMy, 6bma K p e n K a H H B y c M b i c n e H H a : e i o 6 H B a j i O H 6ypMHCTpa, o c e H b i o o f l H a x f l a p a c n p a B H J i c n H a npoceno^Hoft nopore c T p e M H MyjKHKaMH, H o f l H a ^ c f l b i 3 a e 3 ) K H f t scHBonHceu H3o6pa3HJi e r o BepacanpiM 3 T y T p y 6 K y , K a K K o n b e , npHflaB B c e w y Buny e r o O T B a r - y H BbicoKoe ^yBCTBO.4  There i s humour as w e l l i n the very s i t u a t i o n t h a t T o l s t o i has s e t up f o r h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s .  N a r c i s s u s , a nephew who  would l i k e t o seduce the p r e t t y Nasten'ka, has a r r i v a l s in h i s s t o u t uncle Kobelev, a charactonym meaning a He-dog. s i g h s , heads c a r r i e d w i t h a s l i g h t t i l t  t o the shoulder,  costumes, a l l r e f l e c t . t h e grace i n Regnier's Somov's p a i n t i n g s .  Bows,  s t o r i e s or i n  T o l s t o i , however, adds t o t h i s  exterior  s i m i l a r i t y some elements which simply r u i n t h a t elegant atmosphere.  A f t e r an embrace, f o r example, a guest  out h i s h a n d k e r c h i e f t o dry h i s cheek; Kobelev  takes  twists h i s  moustache and croaks; t o demonstrate h i s a g i l i t y the uncle r o l l s up h i s s l e e v e s t o wave a sword a t h i s N a r c i s s u s ; then he lumbers on h i s horse, b u t i n s t e a d o f l e a p i n g over a fence, he manages only- t o knock i t down.  Then t o show h i s marksman-  s h i p , the pudgy man shoots a t a c a t s i t t i n g on a gatepost, and f i n a l l y , being at a l o s s how e l s e t o e n t e r t a i n h i s guests,  53  Kobelev f i r e s a s m a l l brass cannon.  But Kobelev l o s e s  Nas ten'ka to N a r c i s s u s anyway-. In "Iashmovai-a^jteitar^ history.  Instead, there i s a p o i n t e d c o n t r a s t between the  s t r a i n e d and a r t i f i c i a l m e l a n c h o l i a  of the nobleman s t r o l l i n g  about his. well-groomed lawn, and the peasants n a t u r a l l y i n the hay  across the pond.  frolicking  In the comical meeting  between the saddened gentleman and the.simple,  gay  baba,  T o l s t o i c r e a t e s an e x c e l l e n t parody.of. the p a s t o r a l love which was —-  so o f t e n d e p i c t e d i n a r t and Bepio  H  B  literature:  3 a r p o 6 H y K ) HCH3HB? —r- BooflynieBHCb  3ai30BOpHJl flBOpHHHH , AX, HHKTO He HaMH C T a H e T nocjie .ne^aJibHoii K H S H H . riOKHHyB HH3Koe Kpec.no, OH 3axoflHJi r o B o p H J i r o p j r a o H M H o r o , KaK H H K o r n a , c j i y i u a j i a . .m.  3HaeT,  Ea6a  ;  B c n n e c H y j i a e B .H  )KaJIOeTHblft' TBI cHpoT.Ka  OH>  HaKOHeu,  C  no n a p K e T y a 6a6a  flaBaft-.yMpeM, yMpeM B M e e T e , cjiyyaKHan n o f l p y r a , — . BOCKJiMKHyji nJie^H xojieHbie p y K H .  ^TO  H  MOH  H. noxtOKHJi Ha  ee  3aroxiocHJia:  MOft, COKOJIHK, HTOflKa  MaJlHHOBaH,  6ecTajiaHHaH.  BpOBH e e nOOTPBIEHBaJIH, .JTHE.O paCCTpOHJIOCB , OflHH HOC He y^acTBOBaJi. B odmeft C K O P S H , B 3 H e p H y B u m c B KaK SyflTO erne B e c e j i e e . —  YMpeM,  acHMO n o T H H y j i o  yMpeM! ero  j i e n e T a n  Ha  yqacTJiHByio:  XIBOPHHHH,., H  Hey^ep-  rpyflBW5  T o l s t o i ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with the Russian peasants' which l a t e r became one  language,  of h i s much-lauded a r t i s t i c  t i o n s , i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h i s e a r l y anecdote.  distincNot  only  i s there humour i n the c o n t r a s t between . the nobleman's artificiality  and the baba's n a t u r a l n e s s , but t h e i r  dialogue  i s the c h i e f instrument  of t h a t c o n t r a s t .  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s  dialogue c h a r a c t e r i z e s the two f i g u r e s p e r f e c t l y . second anecdote "about the same t h i n g " concludes peasant woman seducing  This  with the  the nobleman, and t h i s too becomes a  parody o f the works by R^gnier  and Somov.  " Z l o s c h a s t n y i " was a l s o w r i t t e n i n 1909, but was p u b l i s h e d i n 1910 i n a l i t e r a r y Kopeika.  supplement t o the paper  This anecdote i s r e l a t e d to the preceding  t h a t i t too parodies  R^gnier's  c o n t r a s t i n g them with  anyone e l s e .  sad heroes, but without The n a r r a t i v e device i n  " Z l o s c h a s t n y i " i s s i m i l a r t o Gogol's "Nos." dabbles i n poetry — "Poet z l o s c h a s t n y i " —  two i n  thus suggesting  An o f f i c e r , who  the o r i g i n a l  dozes o f f i n t o a dream.  title,  On waking he  i s r e l i e v e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t what has happened was only a dream.  A t the end, the reader  i s l e d t o understand t h a t the  o f f i c e r only saw a h a l l u c i n a t i o n and t h a t was because the poor f e l l o w had not eaten  f o r three days.  The exaggerated  f e e l i n g o f a sad and f u t i l e love i s a b r u p t l y dashed i n the c o n c l u d i n g sentence with the o f f i c e r ' s p e t i t i o n t o h i s f a t h e r asking f o r t h i r t y - f i v e  roubles.  "Katen'ka," w r i t t e n i n 1910, i s another love s t o r y and  i n t h i s r e s p e c t may be c o n s i d e r e d  to the preceding  anecdotes.  thematically related  I t was conceived  about the same  time as the o t h e r s , t h a t i s , i n the summer o f 1909. In Voloshin's  l i b r a r y T o l s t o i d i s c o v e r e d the memoirs o f a P. S.  55  Runich e n t i t l e d  "Pugachevskii bunt"  (The Pugachev R e v o l t ) ,  p u b l i s h e d i n an 1870 copy o f Russkaia s t a r i n a . borrowed  Tolstoi  from the account Runich's journey t o a s m a l l and  d i s t a n t f o r t somewhere i n the steppe and h i s encounter w i t h the f o r t ' s commandant.  H i s i n t e r e s t . i n t h i s account l e d  T o l s t o i t o borrow a l s o from K a p i t a n s k a i a Oochka.  Somewhat  l i k e G r i n e v i n Pushkin's n o v e l , T o l s t o i ' s hero d r i v e s  into  the open f o r t t o f i n d an o l d v e t e r a n s o l d i e r k n i t t i n g a sock; i n . G r i n e v ' s case, the o l d s o l d i e r was sewing a patch on h i s jacket.  There i s a f u r t h e r s i m i l a r i t y with Pushkin i n t h a t  the s u b t i t l e "From an o f f i c e r ' s n o t e s , " enabled T o l s t o i t o n a r r a t e h i s s t o r y i n the f i r s t person. suggest t h a t A l e k s e i T o l s t o i wrote  But t h i s i s not t o  l i k e Alexander Pushkin.  These are merely e x t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , but they mark a s h i f t away from parodying Regnier t o emulating Russian master n a r r a t o r s such as Pushkin.  The s a t i r i c humour o f the  .previouseaneedotesaisoalsoe mention  'ahdiwhen  i s made o f the j o y f u l anguish of the h e a r t , i t i s  not a comical e x c l a m a t i o n , but r a t h e r an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the,narrator's character. Although i t has been s a i d above t h a t "Katen'ka" i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the p r e c e d i n g anecdotes, t h i s must be l i m i t e d t o t h e i r themes. anecdotes, "Katen'ka,"  judgment  In c o n t r a s t t o the t h r e e  as a s h o r t s t o r y , has a broader scope  and i s not c o n f i n e d t o a s i n g l e i n c i d e n t or t o one episode.  Moreover, s i n c e i t i s w r i t t e n the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  as a memoir composed by one  a c t i o n of the s t o r y ,  marks a f u r t h e r s t e p i n T o l s t o i ' s d e v e l o p i n g technique i n h i s t o r i c a l As  how  "Katen'ka" narrative  fiction.  an excerpt from a memoir, the n a r r a t i v e  w i t h the date May  18,  1781.  But  begins  as an adventurous s t o r y  the o f f i c e r found a f a i t h f u l w i f e ,  "Katen'ka" has  i n d i c a t i o n s of the h i s t o r i c a l past save r e f e r e n c e s  s m a l l e x c e r p t from the  of  few  to  costumes and manners contemporary to the n a r r a t o r . one  of  Here i s  story:  Ha cjieflyiomee yTpo, BoxtHyncB, H T i n a T e x i B H o 3anjiexi K o c H a y , n e p e B e 3 a B ee JieHTOH, BBI6PHJTCH H, oxopaiiMBan MyHflHp, H a f l y i i r a j i y c b i . B C T o n o B o B y caMOBapa cnp,ejia MO» B^epauiHHH BO3JII06JieHHaH , B TOM 5Ke P03 0 B O M n J i a T B e , CKPOMHO onycTHB rjia3a. BHCOKO n o r j x B a ^ e H H b i e ee BOJIOCBI 6HIJIH H a n y n p e H H , y r j i u noHBeHeHHoroTpTapnpKnOfiH'HTfai^ HaHa jieBoK mene y Heft SHJIO' MaJieHBKoe poflHMoe IIHTHO.  There f o l l o w s  an i n t r i g u e a g a i n s t  c l a s h of swords, and  the winning of the  a c c o r d i n g to the n a r r a t o r , The  material  the poor commandant, a lady's  they l i v e d h a p p i l y  for "Portret"  hand.  ever a f t e r . '  (The P o r t r a i t ) , x  i n 1912,  i s once more a borrowing from Gogol'.  here the  f i r s t - p e r s o n s t y l e of n a r r a t i o n , T o l s t i o i ,  adds a new how,  twist.  F i r s t , the  author e x p l a i n s  And  published  Employing however, •  to the  reader  w h i l e browsing i n the p r i v a t e l i b r a r y of the once w e l l -  to-do Count Ostaf *ev, discovered,  he  found a s e r f ' s d i a r y 'containing,  he  an i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r y of the Count's p o r t r a i t .  57 ;  :  A f t e r t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , T o l s t o i proceeds t o read d i r e c t l y from the d i a r y , and i n t h i s way the reader has now a s t o r y within a story.  Such a d e v i c e , s i m i l a r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n  to Pushkin's "Tales o f B e l k i n , " encourages the reader t o t h i n k t h a t the d i a r y i s an a u t h e n t i c h i s t o r i c a l document. There i s dramatic i r o n y i n the s e r f ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s t r a n g e r , i n whom the reader r e c o g n i z e s Gogol'. adds t o the atmosphere  This too  of authenticity.  UnMke the memoir "Katen'ka," where a happy p a s t i s r e c a l l e d , the a r t i s t ' s d i a r y r e v e a l s h i s anguish which s p r i n g s from the knowledge t h a t upon completion o f h i s work i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g he must r e t u r n t o h i s p r e v i o u s bondage. In t h i s way T o l s t o i has g i v e n a new dimension t o h i s s t o r y by u n v e i l i n g , even though b r i e f l y , the i n n e r world o f h i s artist-serf: H 3acHyji TOJIOBOH Ha TeTpaflH. C B e ^ a HaropeJia TPH6OM. . . B nonHo^b H npocHyjicH, CHHJI CO C B e i H , 3anyji ee K J i e r , 3Han, ^ T O HO yxpa 6yflyT MV^IHTB CHH. BeflB CKOJIBKO y r o f l H o H M o r y BHfleTi ce6n BO c H e CBo6oflHbiM, BHfleTL ce6H cJiaBHbiM npyroM caMoro  HBaHOBa...  TeM xysce 6yneT npo6y»fleHHe . . . ^  On the o t h e r hand, a sense of r e a l h i s t o r y i s c r e a t e d w i t h t h e appearance  o f Gogol'  A f t e r he becomes acquainted  w i t h the a r t i s t ' s s i t u a t i o n , he promises t o come a g a i n , as he does.  E a r l i e r , the reader might have thought t h a t  T o l s t o i ' s s t r a n g e r was r a t h e r l i k e Gogol', b u t a f t e r h i s second v i s i t t h i s becomes p e r f e c t l y c l e a r .  The d i a r i s t  "5.'8  con ti nu es : H n o c n e n m j i B b i p a 3 H T B xHBeftinyio n p H x o n y , HO rocTB nepeSHJi MeHH:  paflocTL ero  — Bbi nocJiyinaflTe nepByio ^ a c T B n o B e c T H , oHa eine nepenejiaeTCH MHoro p a 3 . . . — HacynHBiuHCB, OH n o r j i H f l e j i H a M e H H , noflOflBHHyjr n o f l C B e i H H K , KanuiHHyji H npo^eji r j i y x H M TOJIOCOM: — „IIopTpeT"... „IIopTpeT", — noBTopHJi'OH , ^yflHo y c M e x a n c B . ..HHrne CTOJIBKO H e ocTaHaBJiHBajiocB Hapo,n;a, KaK nepen KapTHHHoio jiaBKOw Ha HJyKHHOM flBope. flnn MeHH  AO  nop  CHX  3 a r a f l K a  —  KTO  nocTaBJineT  cwfla  CBOH  npoH3BefleHHH, K a K H e mop,n, KaKoio u e H o i o . . .  By  reproducing  the f i r s t  l i n e s of the o r i g i n a l " P o r t r e t , "  T o l s t o i i d e n t i f i e s the s t r a n g e r as N i k o l a i V a s i l t e m c h without  having  irony.does his to  to a c t u a l l y name him.  not continue  visitor's identity. the diary,- and  But  this  B.  The  f o r l o n g , and the s e r f soon d i s c o v e r s By means of a c l e v e r i n t r o d u c t i o n  such a seemingly a c c i d e n t a l r e v e l a t i o n of  h i s t o r y of how  Revolution  and Peter the  T o l s t o i ' s w r i t i n g was  Great.  and n o v e l s .  to be h i s own  theme, T o l s t o i began  on the Zavolzh'e s t o r i e s , and  similar  plays  These are m e r c i l e s s p o r t r a y a l s of contemporary  samodur (petty t y r a n t ) types who provinces.  f i c t i o n as a p a r t of  put aside t e m p o r a r i l y , f o r having  found what he considered concentrate  an  Gogol' came t o w r i t e h i s " P o r t r e t . "  After "Portret," h i s t o r i c a l  to  1  dramatic  a h i s t o r i c a l personage, T o l s t o i o f f e r s h i s readers imaginary  Gogol  s t i l l populated  the  By the time T o l s t o i began to exhaust h i s  Zavolzh'e theme, the f i r s t world war  broke out.  Russian /„v  Tolstoi  saw  b a t t l e as a newspaper correspondent,  and t h i s  o f f e r e d him a temporary t o p i c f o r h i s l i t e r a r y These s h o r t p i e c e s r e v e a l a man sympathized  who  w i t h the f r o n t - l i n e s o l d i e r s .  experience sketches.  admired  and  Moreover, he.  hoped t h a t the s u f f e r i n g of the war would regenerate  Russian  s o c i e t y and t h a t t h i s i n t u r n would allow R u s s i a t o at l a s t i t s S l a v o p h i l e m i s s i o n .  The  fulfill  i n e p t t s a r i s t regime  d i s a p p o i n t e d T o l s t o i i n t h i s r e s p e c t and t h a t i s why  he  welcomed the c o l l a p s e of the monarchy and h a i l e d the  Provi-  s i o n a l Government.  But the ensuing  anarchy and r e v o l u t i o n  drew T o l s t o i to h i s t o r y , and s p e c i f i c a l l y P e t e r the Great.  He e x p l a i n e d t h a t he was  to the t o p i c of attracted to  Peter i n s t i n c t i v e l y r a t h e r than c o n s c i o u s l y because he s e e k i n g at the time  "an answer to the p u z z l e of the  was  Russian  9  people, and Russian  statehood."  On d i f f e r e n t occasions T o l s t o i gave d i f f e r e n t f o r the b i r t h of h i s i n t e r e s t i n Tsar P e t e r .  dates  For example,  i n h i s l a s t a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h , w r i t t e n i n 1943,  he  informed  the reader t h a t "In the f i r s t months f o l l o w i n g the  February  r e v o l u t i o n I turned to the theme of P e t e r  Great.""^  In 1929,  however, he gave a d i f f e r e n t time.  the end of 1916," he wrote i n an a r t i c l e , "Kak (How  we  the  my  "At  pishem"  write)>  the l a t e h i s t o r i a n V. V. K a l l a s h , having l e a r n e d of my plans to w r i t e about Peter I , p r o v i d e d me w i t h a book. This was P r o f e s s o r Novombergskii's c o m p i l a t i o n s  •60 ' of notes taken d u r i n g t o r t u r e s i n the century, the s o - c a l l e d "Slova i d e l a .  seventeenth  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t T o l s t o i s a i d i n t h i s that i n 1916  he planned  to w r i t e a n o v e l about P e t e r , whereas  what he s t a r t e d to w r i t e i n 1929 novella.  article  was  i n f a c t a povest'  or  With r e s p e c t t o Novombergskii s book, however> i t 1  i s d i f f i c u l t to underestimate  i t s value to T o l s t o i .  In  r e c o r d i n g the exact, or n e a r l y exact, u t t e r a n c e s of a poor wretch suspended from a rack, the s c r i b e s performed, i n a manner of speaking, a major l i t e r a r y  task:  In the t r a n s c r i p t s of t r i a l s ( t o r t u r e s ) , the language was p r e c i s e ; there they d i d not shy away from "lowly" speech. There the popular Rus' t o l d i t s s t o r i e s , groaned, l i e d , howled from p a i n and fear. The language was c l e a r , simple, exact, p i c t u r e s q u e , supple, as i f purposely c r e a t e d f o r g r e a t a r t . I was e x c i t e d by the d i s c o v e r y of t h i s t r e a s u r e , and so I decided to t r y an experiment, and I wrote the s t o r y "Navazhdenie" (Delusion) . -*- • 2  Unfortunately, A l e k s e i T o l s t o i frequently neglected t o d a t e . h i s manuscripts  and t h i s has  r e s u l t e d i n a measure  of u n c e r t a i n t y as to the exact time of t h e i r w r i t i n g .  While-  both l u . A. K r e s t i n s k i i and A. V. A l p a t o v agree on the  order  i n which the f i r s t s t o r i e s on the P e t r i n e theme were w r i t t e n , they cannot g i v e any  s p e c i f i c dates.  The  accepted order i n  which the s t o r i e s are supposed to have been w r i t t e n has been e s t a b l i s h e d as "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y , "  "Navazhdenie," and  Petra."  by the p r o g r e s s i v e com-  T h i s sequence i s suggested  "Den'  p l e x i t y of each s t o r y , "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y " being d e s c r i b e d  by A l p a t o v  as almost a raw document, and."Den  example of the s u b t l e s t l i t e r a r y treatment.  1  P e t r a " as an  Then, judging  from the i n f o r m a t i o n given i n N. V. Krandievskaia's  memoirs,  T o l s t o i probably wrote "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y " e i t h e r i n t h e summer o r i n the f a l l o f 1917.  The time of w r i t i n g o f  "Navazhdenie" and "Den' P e t r a , " however, i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o determine. From what has been e s t a b l i s h e d , one must conclude t h a t T o l s t o i was i n e r r o r when he claimed  t h a t "Navazhdenie"  was h i s f i r s t s t o r y s i n c e h i s reading of Novombergskii's book of t r a n s c r i p t s .  This conclusion i s f u r t h e r  by the account he o f f e r e d concerning  supported  the h i s t o r y o f  "Navazhdenie": This s t o r y I read a t p u b l i c l e c t u r e s d u r i n g my t r a v e l s about c i t i e s i n the f a l l of 1918. But the manuscript was l o s t and two months l a t e r , when p r e p a r i n g a book of s t o r i e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n Odessa, I r e c a l l e d the s t o r y completely ( l e a v i n g out j u s t one p a r t of a few l i n e s ) . ! 3  I t may very w e l l be t h a t ' T o l s t o i f o r g o t a l l about h i s f i r s t "experiment," "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y " s i n c e i t was p u b l i s h e d only once d u r i n g the w r i t e r ' s l i f e t i m e . t i o n occurred  only i n 1957 i n a book d e d i c a t e d  of A. N. T o l s t o i . ^ 1  in  I t s second p u b l i c a t o the works  "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y " was f i r s t  published  the,Moscow paper V e c h e r n i a i a z h i z n ' on A p r i l 16, 1918.  "Navazhdenie," say the e d i t o r s o f the book A. N. T o l s t o i : s e m i n a r i i , was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n theamagazine  Vozrozhdenie, No.  6, on June 8, 1918.  For some reason,  though, o t h e r Russian s c h o l a r s i g n o r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t e t h a t the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of "Navazhdenie" was in  the Odessa book of T o l s t o i ' s s t o r i e s whose t i t l e  i n c i d e n t a l l y , Navazhdenie: P e t r a " was  rasskazy 1917-1918 gg.  indeed, was,  "Den'  o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n the,Petrograd almanac  S k r i z h a l ' , No.  1, i n J u l y 1918,  i n t t h e book, Navazhdenie:  although i t too was  rasskazy 1917-1918gg.  "Pervye t e r r o r i s t y " c a r r i e s the s u b t i t l e i z d e l Preobrazhenskogo  included  prikaza"  "Izvlecheniia  (Excerpts from cases of the  Preobrazhensk O f f i c e ) , which r e v e a l s at once t h a t the source for  t h i s s t o r y was  gosudarevy. to  Novombergskii's book, Siovo 1 d e l o  Although the content of t h i s s t o r y i s s i m i l a r  a case found i n Slo.vo 1 d e l o i t shows, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  T o l s t o i ' s j u d i c i o u s use o f the language.  Taking examples of  i d i o m a t i c speech from a few case h i s t o r i e s , he was modify the language i n such a way  that i t echoes the  h i s t o r i c a l p a s t , but a t the same time remains to  the contemporary  reader.  able t o  comprehensible  Further, T o l s t o i retained to a  h i g h degree t h a t impersonal, o f f i c i a l s t y l e and tone t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t r a n s c r i p t s of the Tsar's s e c r e t chancellery: K npnKa3HOMy flBHKy ®OKHHy B npeo6pa>KeHCKHH npHKa3, 1 T O Ha JlK)6HHCKOfi, HBHJICH CaflOBHHK T a H K a PH6HUIHH, KpHKHyji 3a CO6OH CJIOBO H HeJio rocynapeBO, H noflaJi n H C b M O , cepoB SyMarn, noflMo^eHHoe H noMHToe.^  63  The  l e t t e r , which was  i n s t r u c t e d how  c i r c u l a t e d by a wandering  priest,  to r i d the country of the T s a r and h i s  Tsarevich, explaining:  HbiHe HyacHo rocyflapH H 3 B e c T H , a TO Bee 6yfleM ero xoJionaMH, H BOJIBHUX jnoflefi He S y n e i , a BOJiBHbie jaojxa 6yffi/T HeMeuKHe H ro'JinaHflCKHe, H Bee MH nponafleM.^^ A f t e r the possessors of the l e t t e r were brought  t o the  c h a n c e l l e r y , and a f t e r the proper t o r t u r e s were a p p l i e d t o the accused,  as w e l l as to the i n f o r m e r , the case was  closed:  EpaTBeB TeJIBHblX Ka3HHTB CMepTBB OTpySHTB a HMeHbe HX H ECHBOTBI B 3 H T B B K a 3 H y . OeflOCBK) 6HTB KHVTOM HeiHaflHO H COCJiaTB B XCeHCKHH MOHacTbipb H a rofl. H3BeT^HKa, TaHKy PH6HiiiHHa, H a r p a f l H T B H BbmaTb eMy na^nopT H a Bee ^ e T b i p e roJiOBbi,  CTOPOHBI .  BbimeynoMHHyToro yme 6 p o f l H ^ : e r o nona AxieKceH H, H a i i f l f l a a K O B a T b B KaHflajibi H Becra e BeJiHKHM 6epe)KeHHeM B ripeobpaaceHCKHH n p H K a 3 , Ha KoeK po3bicK BbinaHo Ka3eHHbix neHer nHTB pySxieB H TPH pa3bicKaTB,  rpHBHbi  I t i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the author's keen sense of language t h a t "Pervye document.  t e r r o r i s t y " reads  l i k e an a u t h e n t i c  The dated syntax, f r e q u e n t c o n j u n c t i o n s which  lengthen sentences, and e x p r e s s i o n s such as, K a 3 H H T B C M e p T b i o , WHBOTH B 3 H T B nainopT  Ha  B  Ka3Hy,  B e e *ieTbipe  H3BeTiHKa  . . . HarpaflHTB  CTOPOHH, n H T B  py6JieB  H  TPH  H  BbiflaTB  eMy  TPHBHH,  c r e a t e , by t h e i r obsolescence, an atmosphere of a d i s t a n t past.  But i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s was  simply copying from Novombergskii,  not achieved by  but r a t h e r by  b l e n d i n g contemporary Russian w i t h the o f f i c i a l  carefully s t y l e of the  64 eighteenth-century In  N o v o m b e r g s k i i s book, the case headed Sevskogo  Monastyrskogo  gosudareva d e l a "  from the S e v s k i i monastery  Ereoba?azhensk o f f i c e concerning story  Terrorists," thus  this  allowing  style. to  period,  The  Tolstoi  t o employ style  use the language c o n t a i n e d  that not  official, only  information  i n the f i r s t  also  i n the t r a n s c r i p t , In t h i s  a story, but also  second "The  First  person,  conversational  of narration  impersonal tone.  relates  brought t o the  But u n l i k e  an e a s y ,  ob'iav-  o f ther;mdnk  the source f o r T o l s t o i ' s  i s narrated  first-person  was  some  "Navazhdenie."  story  (The C a s e  who  b e c a u s e he h a d  t h e T s a r ) was  of this  ob  monastyria Nikadore, prislannom i z  v Preobrazhenskii Prikaz, vsledstvie  im z a s o b o i u  Nikador  "Delo  1  ieromonakhe  leniia  chancellery.  allows  but without  manner, t h e  reveals  him  something  narrator of  himself: BbiJi H  B  Ty  nopy  nocjiyniHHKOM B  C n a c c K O M MOHacTbipe,  neji Ha Kjrapoce TOHKHM TOJIOCOM. 3HMy nponoeniB — H H ^ e r o , a nocjie BeraiKoro n o c T a — MaeTa: OT nJioTH  .  Kosca o c T a H e T C H H a KOCTHX. CTOHHIB, CTOHIIIB BCIO H O I B H a KJiHpoce, — H n o n j i b i B e T nyuia nap, C B e ^ a M H , K a K KJiy6 J i a ^ a H a . . . H cnaflKo H 3Hato,. r p e x . A 3 a OKH3MH 6epe3bi Ha6yxjiH, HOMB 3 B e 3 f l H a H , — B e c H a K caMOMy x p a M y noflCTynnjia. MOIH H e T ! ^ "  The n a r r a t o r , had met his  a n o v i c e monk, r e l a t e s how  once by  K o c h u b e i , and h a d become m o m e n t a r i l y  daughter, Matrena.  appear such h i s t o r i c a l  chance  infatuated with  But a l t h o u g h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e personages  he  there  as hetman Mazepa, K o c h u b e i ,  65  h i s w i f e and h i s daughter, and although they may reader of Pushkin's  remind  " P o l t a v a , " the h i s t o r i c a l events  ated w i t h these people are moved t o the background Tolstoi's story.  the  associ-  in  By p i v o t i n g the p l o t around the young  monk's a t t r a c t i o n t o Matrena,  T o l s t o i s h i f t s the emphasis i n  the document and g i v e s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t treatment t o the h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l a t h i s d i s p o s a l . e x t r a c t s w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e how t i o n enhances the "raw  document."  The  following  the w r i t e r ' s  imagina-  The f i r s t i s taken from  the a c t u a l testimony of the monk i n Slovo i d e l o  gosudarevy:  . . . H npHiueE B E a T y p H H , ceitH Ha 6a3ape, Ha nxtoinaflH, 3a ropoflOM, B03Jie 3eMJisHoro BaJiy, Ha  KOTOpHe 6blJIH B TOprOBOe BpeMH B LUHHKaXJ ^cepKauieHHH 6 a T y p H H C K H H Ka3aK, a HMeHH H npo3BHiua He 3 H a e T , a y 3 H a e T B nnu,o, H npHinen K CKdMBHX,  yBH^H  H  HX  HHM cnpocHJi: KTO OHH TaKOBBi H O T K y f l a ? H OHH eMy CKa3aJIHCB H3 CeBcna C n a c c K o r o MOHacTbipn, 6BIJIH B K n e B e .  H TOT fle Ka3aK no3Baji HX K HaKa3HOMy reTMaHy K BacHJTBio KynySeio, a TOBOPHJI HM, I T O OH reTMaH K y y y 6 e H , K  CTpaHHbIM  npOXOHCHM  H  JlIOflKM  nOflaeT cjioBaM npHiueB  MHJIOCTHB H  noflanHHe MHJIOCTHIHIO. H OHH, no TeM BacHJibeBy flOMy Ky^ySen, . . .  K  2 0  T o l s t o i takes t h i s m a t e r i a l , t h i s simple testimony, and through d i a l o g u e converts i t i n t o v i v i d drama: .  .  .  qero  npocHfleji Ha noflxoflHT  TOJIBKO H e T JiaBKe. K  HaM  B  Ka3aK  BaTypHHe!  BeK 6bi  HeSojiBiuoro p o c T a ,  TSK xynoinaBHH:  pHflOM Ha JiaBKy, TJIKHHT, yc Ha^iaJi aceBaTB. A BHHa y Hac B CKJiHHKe eiqe n o n o B H H a ocTajiacB. —Bbi, c n p a u i H B a e T KasaK, He 3fleuiHHe, MocKajiH? H eMy OTBe^aw TOHKHM TOJIOCOM, BexniHBo: cexi  —  —  CoBepmeHHO B e p H o ; MH H3 CTpaHHbie JiiOflH, HfleM B n e m e p b i ,  —  BeJiHKOH P O C C H H , K CBHTHTCJTHM.  —  A BHHO,  uiHHKapn  —  cnpauttiBaeT  Ka3aK,  —  BH  noieM  y  6pajiH?  TyT eMy HHKanop OTBe^aeT erne o n a m e : — Ha OTKymaft  KoneftKy  SpaJiH,  CHHOK.  A T H He  TOMHCB,  c HaMH.  H nonaeT eMy BHHO H pbi6bio roJiOBy no>KeBaTb. Ka3aK B  TpaBy,  P,0  flOHBIUJK a CKJIHHKy BblTHHyjI,  CTpHXHyjI  KartJIH  pbi6bio roJiOBy nosceBaji H nonceji dJiuxe:  —' Bnyny y Bac  flonofljraHHO BBI JTK>,OH H y x o B H b i e , He BopoBCKoii, He TH^cejibiH. Ha^o 6H BaM K HauieMy a T a M a H y 3 a H T H . OH no C T p a H H U x xaoflen MHJIOCTHB H nOflaeT MHJIOCTfcJHK) . H,—  o6bi^aH  ^TQ 3Ke , eCJTH MHJIOCTHB, MO)KHO H 33HTH K a T a M a H y , — TOBOPHT HHKaflop. — C o 6 H p a H , Py6aHKa, KPOIIIKH B MemoK . 2 J-  "Navazhdenie" writing.  The t i t l e  was h a r d l y a l t e r e d s i n c e i t s f i r s t Tolstoi  used o r i g i n a l l y was "Lunnyi s v e t  (Moonlight), a s u g g e s t i o n perhaps atmosphere.  o f the s t o r y ^ s  romantic  But i n 1918 the author c r o s s e d out "Lunnyi s v e t  and gave the s t o r y i t s p r e s e n t t i t l e . two monks d e l i v e r e d Kochubei's  In Slovo i delo, the  d e n u n c i a t i o n of Mazepa t o  Moscow, and from Moscow they were t r a n s f e r r e d - f o r i n t e r r o g a t i o n t o Smolensk.  further  In h i s manuscript, however,  T o l s t o i has the monks taken from Moscow t o S t . P e t e r s b u r g . Choosing S t . Petersburg may mean t h a t T o l s t o i was a l r e a d y p l a n n i n g h i s next s t o r y , which was s e t i n the new c a p i t a l . In  any event, when i t came t o p u b l i c a t i o n , he again changed  the l o c a l e f o r t h e i i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f the monks t o Smolensk. I t has been noted t h a t T o l s t o i to  s a i d t h a t he was drawn  the P e t r i n e p e r i o d because he saw i n i t a key t o under-  s t a n d i n g the p r e s e n t , t o understanding the Russian people  and Russian statehood.  The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s : What can  be d i s c e r n e d from these two as " F i r s t t e r r o r i s t s "  and  l i t t l e , because the two  stories:  The answer i s , as f a r  "Delusion" are concerned,  very  s t o r i e s represent T o l s t o i ' s  interest  i n the language of the p e r i o d r a t h e r than i t s h i s t o r y i n a broader sense.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the reader can f i n d s i g n s i n  the s t o r i e s t h a t p o i n t t o the author's a n t i p a t h y to the Bolsheviks.  F i r s t of a l l ,  a paper i n A p r i l 1918,  the very appearance of a s t o r y i n  w i t h a h e a d l i n e reading  "First  t e r r o r i s t s " must have seemed t o many as an obvious t o the contemporary s i t u a t i o n .  There was  allusion  a further  suggested by the r e f e r e n c e t o the disappearance  parallel  of freedom  f o r Russians while German and Dutch i n t r u d e r s would become masters. t o r y was  In the s p r i n g of 1918,  when so much Russian  under German o c c u p a t i o n , "Pervye  have seemed l i k e a c l o s e p a r a l l e l  terri-  t e r r o r i s t y " must  indeed.  In "Navazhdenie" the narrator&spp.e'rs'onalsexperiences r e v e a l the dangers and hardships i n the time of Peter I. though he was  pressed i n t o the army and c r u e l l y beaten f o r  d e s e r t i o n , he s t i l l managed to gain l i t e r a c y . MO)KHO  6bl.no H3  noJiy^HJi B  But  npOCTblX  B  6aTajiHH, Korna  JIMflH M H  BblXOflHTB ,  H H  6HJIH r e H e p a j i a  "B TO BpeMH  nepBVK)  HaiUHBKy  JleBeHraynTa,"  he  22 adds.  T h i s l a s t admission r e f l e c t s i n a s m a l l way  e g a l i t a r i a n element t h a t was well.  the  p r e s e n t i n P e t e r ' s r e i g n as  In the next s t o r y , "Den'  P e t r a , " T o l s t o i p a i n t s on a  6 8  broader h i s t o r i c a l canvas w i t h a more c l e a r l y  expressed  p a r a l l e l w i t h c u r r e n t events. In an i n t e r v i e w g i v e n i n 1933, h i s f i r s t s t o r y about Tsar Peter was Merezhkovskii s 1  h i s audience  book, - A n t i k h r i s t  t h a t there was  T o l s t o i explained that p a t t e r n e d a f t e r D.  (Petr i A l e k s e i ) ,  i n "Peter's Day"  t r a t i o n on the Tsar's n e g a t i v e t r a i t s .  S.  reminding  a heavy concen-  I t should be p o i n t e d  out, however, t h a t w h i l e Merezhkovskii drew a t t a n t i o n to P e t e r ' s bad q u a l i t i e s , he d i d not r e a l l y deny P e t e r h i s a t t r i b u t e s as a h i s t o r i c a l personage.  For T o l s t o i , though,  Merezhkovskii's  more important,  t h a t was  concept  of h i s t o r y was  t h a t h i s t o r y moved i n c y c l e s and repeated  T h i s n o t i o n of h i s t o r y r e p e a t i n g i t s e l f s u i t e d literary  and  itself.  Tolstoi's  purpose.  To accomplish  t h i s purpose T o l s t o i c o u l d not  limit  h i m s e l f t o the d e p i c t i o n of the T s a r as, f o r example, B o r i s P i l n i a k d i d i n h h i s s t o r y "Ego Komondor" which was  v e l i c h e s t v o , Kneeb P i t e r  p u b l i s h e d i n 1919.  In h i s s t o r y , T o l s t o i  broadened the background by r a i s i n g the pro and c o n t r a of the polemic - surrounding P e t e r the Great. i n the d u a l i t y of the c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t .  T h i s may  On the one hand,  P e t e r i s d e p i c t e d as a c r u e l and coarse man,  but on the  hand, t h e r e i s a d i s c e r n i b l e sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y a f e e l i n g of h i s t o r i c a l progress brought to R u s s i a the e f f o r t s of t h i s same P e t e r .  be seen  and  other even  through  69 "Den  1  P e t r a , " as the t i t l e  suggests, d e s c r i b e s a  s i n g l e day i n the l i f e of the T s a r , but the g e n e r a l impress i o n c r e a t e d by T o l s t o i i s not so much one of a working monarch, but r a t h e r one of a s e l f i s h and s o l i t a r y Tolstoi  frequently i n t e r j e c t s into his narrative  commentaries which image of P e t e r .  tyrant. historical  g e n e r a l l y tend to support the n e g a t i v e  And y e t t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l  between T o l s t o i ' s P e t e r and P i l n i a k ' s .  difference  That d i f f e r e n c e i s  found i n the f a c t t h a t P i l n i a k r e f u s e d t o concede anything to  h i s c e n t r a l f i g u r e , s t r e s s i n g e x c l u s i v e l y the T s a r ' s  extremes: HMnepaTop,  SoJiBine B c e r o  XOO6HBUIHH n e 6 o n i ,  MceHHBiunHCH  Ha npocTHTyKe, HaJioscHHu,e MeHBuiHKOBa, — •yejiOBeK c HfleajiaMH K a s a p M . Tejio 6 b i n o orpoMHbiM, He^HCTbiM,  O ^ e H B nOTJXHBblM, H e C K J i a f l H b l M , KOCOJianHM, TOHKOHOrHM, npoefleHHHM axiKoroJieM, T a 6 a K O M H CH$HJIHCOM. C roflaMH Ha K p y r j i o M , K p a c H O M , 6 a 6 B e M JiHije O6BHCJIH taeKH, OBPH6JIH KpacHbie r y 6 b i , CBHCJIH KpacHbie — B CH$HJlHCe SB e K H , H e 3 aKpblBaJlHCB n J I O T H O , H H 3 ~ 3 a HHX rjiHflejiH 6 e 3 y M H H e , nBHHbie, flHoe, aeTCKHe r . n a 3 a ,  TaKHe-ace, KSKHMH r n n f l H T peSeHOK Ha KoniKy, BKaJibiBaH  B  Hee  Hrjiy  .  .  .  T o l s t o i , on the o t h e r hand, never goes t o the reached by  limits  Pilniak:  B T e M H o f i H HH3KOH K O M H a T e 6HJI cjibiuieH x p a n , r y C T O H , TpVflHblH, C n p H C B H C T a M H , C K J l O K O T a H H e M .  Ilaxjio T a 6 a K O M , jreHHOH  •  BHHHBIM  neperapoM H acapKo H a T o n -  ne^BK).  B H e 3 a n H o xpaneBiiiHH CTaJi 3 a 6 n p a T B HHace, xpHrrae H o 6 o p B a j i ; 3a^MOKaji r y S a M H , 3 a 6 o p M a T a j i , H Ha^ajicH KanieJiB, T a 6 a ^ i H b i H , nepenoftHbifl. OTKanuiHBiiiHCB, "ipnoHyji: K.VH:-Ha :aacfcpHn.eBiaea: K P O B a T H ceji ^ejioBeK. B  eflBa 3a6pe3>KHBiueM CBeTe,  CKBO3B  flJiHHHoe  H  y 3 K o e OKOIUKO c v a c T b i M n e p e n J i e T O M , MOXCHO 6HTIO p a c C M O T p e T b o6pK>3raiee, 6oJibinoe JIHUO B KOJinaK-e, npHflH  TeMHHx canbHbix BOJIOC H MHTyw p y S a x y , paccTer-HyTyio Ha p p y f l H . 2 4  This  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  behaviour  of  impression  his  of  Peter,  ministers,  the  Tsar.  personal  qualities  Tolstoi  proceeds  to  tasks  variety the  that  of  single  Thus,  tasks  driving  life,  to  his  "playing  at  to  unsympathetic  and  which  unattractive, by  listing  reader  that  Peter of  is  Russia.  c r i t i c i s m on t h e  Europe,"  the  The  transformation  his  in  personally.  the  the  concentrates  an  impression  attend  behind  obsequious  a beginning  coarse  that  to  the  evoke  such  appear  suggests  force  while Pilniak  senseless  had  to  from  mitigate  Peter  these  tends  But  Peter's  many  f o l l o w e d by  Tsar's  Tolstoi's  criticism  reforming  Russia  25 is  much  less Tolstoi  questionable, monarchs at  the  subjective. found and  whom h e  Peter's  claimed had  historical  motives  that  visited.  necessity  for  for  h e was  jealous  However, the  of  Tolstoi  changes  that  the also  European hints  Peter  introduced: [,fla noJiHo 6biTb B HaBOJKfleHHH — x o T e j i JIH .ijodpa POCCHH u a p b n e r p ? ] I T O Sbina P O C C H H e M y , u a p i o , x o 3 H H H y , 3 a r o p e B i u e M y c H HOcaflOH H p e B H O C T b i o : KaK S T O — flBop e r o n C K O T , SaT-paKH H B e e X O 3 H H C T B O xyxce, rjiynee coceflCKoro? [0 n o 6 p e JIH n y M a j i XO3HHH, K o r f l a ] c nepeKoiueHHbiM OT r-HeBa H H e T e p n e H H H JIHUOM n p H C K a K a j i XO3HHH H3 r o j i n a H f l H H B M o c K B y , B c T a p b i f t , JieHHBHH, npaBOCJiaBHHH T O p O f l , C KOJIOKOJIbHblM THXHM 3BOHOM, C nOBaJIHBIUHMHCH 3 a 6 o p a M H , C K a JIH H aMH H , IteBKaMH y B O P O T , C KHTaHGKHMH , HHflHHCKHMH, nepCHfl-  CKHMH KynUaMH y KpeMJieBCKOH CTeHbl,  ApaHHMH nonaMH  Ha nJioinaflHx,  c  C KOpOBaMH H  npeMynpHMH  6onpaMH,  CO  CTpe.JIbU.OBCK OH , BOJTHHUeH .  [ P a 3 B e MHJIOH 6bijia e M y , poflHoft — POCCHH? C J1106OBB10 H CK. op 6 BIO npHineJi OH?] HajieTeji flocaflHHH, [ K a K H C T p e 6 ] — Hiiib y r o f l b e K a K o e n o c T a J i o c b B yp,en, He T O , ^ T O y K y p $ i o p c T a S p a H n e H b y p r c K o r o , y TOJIjiaHncKoro nrraTraJiBTepa; 2 6  The pdtcifeutrp . t h a t ' T ^ t e t b i ;e©njures up i s s u c h t h a t the reader  feels  some  sympathy  f o r Peter's d e s i r e  o l d , Orthodox, r a g g e d R u s s i a i n t o a n e a t , c i v i l i z e d HSlland.  did  the not  country  the  whose  l o t i t was  tended  Peter  into  his  t o make P e t e r appear i n a grimmer l i g h t .  affecting  i s s u e : d i d P e t e r ' s r e v o l u t i o n accomplish answers  cut  that  of the p h r a s e s  q u e s t i o n of whether o r n o t Peter loved t h e  the  questions  Russia to  to f a l l  several  deleted  r u l e d i s made l e s s poignant without  of  and  master?" T o l s t o i a l s o s u g g e s t s  the  passage q u o t e d a b o v e h a s  which the  love  "What was  and  his  I t i s w o r t h y o f note t h a t the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f  hands.  the  tsar,  clean,  But b y posing s u c h r h e t o r i c a l  as, "Did P e t e r wish R u s s i a w e l l ? " him,  to' c o n v e r t  i n the n e g a t i v e . tsar  "through  cut  a window  the v e r y  bones  Europe,"  and  flesh  the  he  he  central  a n y good?  Using Pushkin's onto  country  Thus  Tolstoi  metaphor,  "The a x e  adds  i t was  of t h e  that  people,"  thus 2 7  sacrificing But  their  welfare  Peter's e f f o r t s  to t h e  resulted  in  interests  of t h e  state.  failure:"  Ho Bee «e cjiyMKJiocb He T O , i e r o xoTeji ropjJBiH I l e T p j P O C C H H He BoniJia, HapHflHan H c H J i b H a n , H H a n n p p B B e . H H K H X flepacaB,. A noflTHHyTan HM 3 a BOJIOCBI, oKpoBaBJieHHan  H o 6 e 3 y M e B u i a H OT y a c a c a H o T ^ a n H H H , n p e f l C T a j i a HOBBIM pOflCTBeHHHKSM B 5KaJlKOM H HepaBHOM BHfle paSOHTs.  72  H C K O J i B K p 6ta H e r p e M e j r a  rpo3Ho p y c c K H e nyuiKH, n o B e j r o c B , ^ T O p a 6 c K O H H y H H a c e H H O H 6buia n e p e f l B c e M MHPOM BeJIHKaH C T p a H a , paCKHHyBIIiaHCH OT BHCJIBI flO KHTaHCKOH CTeHbl. [BO T J i a B y HMnepHH JierjIH H e H a B H C T B , KPOBB, H pa6CTBO.]28  I t was a noble e f f o r t , concludes  T o l s t o i , but i t was doomed  to f a i l u r e because P e t e r had assumed "a superhuman task: one for a l l . "  The Tsar's o p p o s i t i o n t o the people  i s highlighted  by the scene o f Varlaam's i n t e r r o g a t i o n i n the S e c r e t Chancellery.  The o l d - b e l i e v e r , who was t e l l i n g the people  P e t e r was an impostor  that  and the A n t i c h r i s t , when asked by the  Tsar t o name h i s f r i e n d s , could only r e p l y , " A l l R u s s i a i s my  friend." Here a g a i n , language i s an important  c r e a t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t . particularly  means f o r r e -  By m a n i p u l a t i n g  language,  the d i r e c t speech o f peasant l a b o u r e r s , T o l s t o i  i s able t o demonstrate the h o s t i l i t y  o f the people  toward  Peter: BpeuiB! r o c y n a p n H a m e r o y HeMueB noflMeHHJiH, a S T O T He r o c y ^ a p B , a a B e ^ a c a M BHflejr, — y H e r o JiHua H e T , a JIHUO y H e r o H e ^ e j r o B e ^ e c K o e , H OH r o J i O B y flepraeT H rjia3aMH B e p i H T , H e r o 3eMJiH He flepacHT, r H e i c n . Befla, 6eua Bceft 3 e M J i e pyccKofi! 06MaHyjiH H a c , npaBocjiaBHHe 1 . . . ^ 2  T o l s t o i provides  another  sample o f l i n g u i s t i c  history  by i n s e r t i n g a couple of Peter's own p r o c l a m a t i o n s : BblTB B C e M , C K a K a T B n o n My3BIKy BOJIBHO, n H T B , T a S a K , a 6yflH, K T O He H B H T C H — n.apcKHH r H e B  KypHTB JHOTBIH.  HHIJ; n e p e f l r o c y f l a p e M , HAH n o e r o r o c y f l a p e B O H H a n o 6 H O C T H , H e n a f l a T B , a CHHTB iummy, H, C T O H , r ^ e  OCTaHOBHJICH ,  6bITB B npHCTOHHOM B H f l e ,  IIOKyna O H ,  rocynapB, npoHTH He HBBOJIHT.^O T h i s i n v i t a t i o n t o a b a l l and an ordinance concerning 1 J . behaviour  i n the presence  of the s o v e r e i g n may be at once  r e c o g n i z e d as w r i t t e n i n the o f f i c i a l , b u r e a u c r a t i c language of  the P e t r i n e p e r i o d . Although  T o l s t o i p r e s e n t s Peter's s t r e n g t h o f w i l l  and tremendous energy  as commendable q u a l i t i e s , h i s f i n a l  judgment i n "Peter's Day" remains c r i t i c a l Peter's sweeping reforms  and a c c u s a t o r y .  appear i n the s t o r y as i c o n o c l a s t i c  p o l i c i e s with a n t i - n a t i o n a l features.  The people, as they  are presented i n T o l s t o i ' s i n t e r j e c t i o n s , appear p r a c t i c a l l y as guardians of those n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t the Tsar wishes t o d e s t r o y . In  t h i s s t o r y T o l s t o i d i d much more than  simply  r e l a t e a day's a c t i v i t y i n the l i f e of Tsar P e t e r .  By  choosing S t . P e t e r s b u r g a t the time of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n , he succeeded  i n emphasizing  the extreme hardships t h a t had  become the l o t o f the Russian people.  In t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n  the background and the cause o f these hardships and s u f f e r ings , T o l s t o i attempted  a broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of l i f e  d u r i n g the r e i g n o f P e t e r the Great.  He addressed the  reader d i r e c t l y by means of a s e r i e s of r h e t o r i c a l ^ c o f t e n e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d questionswwihichcco.uEdjtjiustaaseeas'ily be a p p l i e d t o what was happening i n R u s s i a i n 1918.  In t h i s  f a s h i o n , T o l s t o i drew a p a r a l l e l between P e t e r ' s d e s t r u c t i o n of Muscovite Rus' and the B o l s h e v i k d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e state.  Russian  C.  S t o r i e s o f Fantasy: "Sinitsa"  (The Titmouse)  i s another s t o r y t h a t was  w r i t t e n about the same time as the p r e c e d i n g one. to h i s w i f e , " G r a f i n e N. V. T o l s t o i " b i r t h t o a son, N i k i t a ) ,  (she had r e c e n t l y g i v e n  "The Titmouse"  is a story  mother's love and s a c r i f i c e f o r her beloved son. p u b l i s h e d f o r the f i r s t  Dedicated  of a I t was  time i n 1918, i n book one of the  magazine Epokha. T h i s i s unusual as a p i e c e of h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n f o r two reasons.  I t i s the only one T o l s t o i wrote  i n which the  s t o r y takes p l a c e i n Kievan Rus', and i t i s t o l d  i n a style  r e m i n i s c e n t of an o r a l f o l k t a l e , or skazka, as i t i s c a l l e d i n Russian: HH^iero He acajieJi HJIH H a T a J i B H , HJIH MHJIOH C B o e n X O T H , KHH3B ^[ypHJi: BbicTpoHJi T e p e M n o c p e f l H r o p o f l H i n a , Ha 6yrpe Me^ny C T a p u x KJieHOB; n o c T a B H J i H a BHTBIX CTOJi6ax BfaicoKoe KPHUIBIJO, rjj;e c n f l e T t . 6HJIO He c K y i H O ,  ynpacHJi e r o 30JIOTOH OHa,  KaK  MaKOBKofi,  ^ T O 6 H H3flaJieKa  3Be3Jj;a, nap. KHHTHHHHOH  ropejia  CBeTJiHuen.  B TepeMe 3a*iajia HaTaJiBH H poflHJia xo3HHHy CHHS EMJIO eMy HbiHe T P H 3HMbi H T P H jiyHHbix MecHna. JIKI6HJI KHH3B aceHy H CHHS H uiyMHoro cJiOBa, HM He CKa3aJi BO BOO 6HTHOCTB.31 3apncJiaBa.  The  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n , w i t h words such as "terem."  " s v e t l i t s a , " the names o f the p r i n c e and the boy, and the  75 manner i n which h i s age i s g i v e n , period. and  a l l suggest the Kievan  But as i n a f a i r y t a l e , h i s t o r i c a l elements recede  elements of the Skazka dominate i n " S i n i t s a . "  The  n a r r a t i o n i s t e r s e , interspersed with b i t s of dialogue. T o l s t o i a l s o weaves elements of the supernaturaiLiinto the realistic  f a b r i c of the s t o r y .  As a l o v i n g mother,  Princess  N a t a l ' i a s u f f e r s three deaths f o r t h e sake of her son. First  she d i e s i n an a t t a c k on t h e town by the Chud'.  Then,  i n order t o b r i n g P r i n c e C h u r i l back from the hunt q u i c k l y so that he may rescue t h e i r son, t h e P r i n c e s s '  spirit is  transformed i n t o a deer, and the animal s a c r i f i c e s i t s e l f t o Prince C h u r i l . enters  F i n a l l y , t o be near her son,  the s p i r i t  a titmouse, but the b i r d too i s a c c i d e n t a l l y  and by her own Z a r i a s l a v , much t o h i s  killed,  grief.  In Odessa, where he had f l e d i n t h e summer of 1918, Tolstoi returned to -  the theme of r e v o l u t i o n only  Smert' Dantona (The Death of Danton).  i n the p l a y  He a l s o wrote the  p l a y Liubov'—— k n i g a z o l o t a i a (Love Is a Golden Book), the p l o t otfr which i s based on an anecdote taken from the time of C a t h e r i n e the Great.  During the same p e r i o d , T o l s t o i made a  s t a r t on another.play which was t o be t i t l e d  "Graf K a l i o s t r o "  (Count C a g l i o s t r o ) , b u t i t was completed as a s n o r t s t o r y i n P a r i s , i n ly21.  Initially  titled  Dampness), i t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d  "Lunnaia s y r o s t ' " i n B e r l i n . i n 1922.  (Moonlit Like  the play L i u b o v ' — • k n i g a z o l o t a i a , t h i s s t o r y i s b u i l t upon  an anecdote  taken from the l a t t e r h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h  century, and r e f l e c t s once more the s o c i a l and costume h i s t o r y of t h a t p e r i o d .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the source f o r  t h i s s t o r y was again the magazine Russkaia s t a r i n a , which had a l r e a d y been used by T o l s t o i f o r "Katen'ka."  In t h i s  case, the account of the I t a l i a n c h a r l a t a n ' s success among the a r i s t o c r a c y o f S t . P e t e r s b u r g was r e l a t e d i n i s s u e No. 12 f o r 1875. anecdotes  The s a t i r i c humour found i n T o l s t o i ' s  re-emerges i n t h i s s t o r y .  dotes, i t has an i d y l l i c  first  L i k e the e a r l i e r  anec-  s e t t i n g : the e s t a t e of the young  A l e k s e i A l e k s e e v i c h Fediashev, which has a park, a pond with i s l a n d s , f o u n t a i n s , and peasant g i r l s dancing. deliberately  i n e p t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the e s t a t e r e v e a l a  mocking a t t i t u d e towards such un-Russian Toro,  But the  B pa3Jin*iHbix  yroJTKax  napna  M O T H O  32 KaMeHHyw HceHiquHy co CTpeJiofi.  surroundings'; KpoMe  6bino H a T K H y T B C H  •  Ha  •  Tolstoi deliberately  uses  such u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x p r e s s i o n s t o r e f l e c t the p r o v i n c i a l , or  stock Russian's incomprehension  ments.  o f these f o r e i g n  S i m i l a r l y , the mansion appears  able and s t a t e l y Fediashev l o o k s  adorn-  every b i t as comfort-  as anything e x i s t i n g i n France, but when out the window of h i s l i b r a r y he sees a  t y p i c a l l y domestic  scene:  3a OKHOM, Kyrta OH n o p o c m e M KyjjpHBOft H c o c a j i y flpyroro  c M O T p e j i co C K y x o H , Ha H B o p e , TpaBoft, CTOHJI PBDKHH TejieHOK  TejieHKa y x o .  3 3  The c o n t r a s t s / the g e n e r a l tone; and. the c h o i c e o f  words  a l l suggest  simplicity  over  Fediashev's  aunt  even though  she  the  affected  — —  speaks  to  him  pretensions. by  h i s French  no F r e n c h .  at f i r s t  who  example,  name  For t h i s their  For  Russian  "Aleksis,"  reason, too,  guest  is.  she  Fediashev  explain:  B TOM-TO H  caM  Gallic  addresses  does n o t u n d e r s t a n d then proceeds  author's preference f o r n a t i v e  KajiHocTpo.  jxe.no,  He  ^TO  OeHHH,  a rpa$  $eHHKC,  OeflOCBH H B a H O B H a UIHPOKO p a c K p b i n a r j i a 3 a H B c n j i e c H y j i a nyxjibiMH pyKaMH. Ho O e n o c B H HBaHOBHa Sbina p y c c K a a aceHmHHa, H n o s T O M y H 3 B e c T H e , ^ITO B flOMe HX — 3HaMeHHTbiH KOJiflyH, nopa3H.no ee c HHOH CTOPOHBI: TeTyniKa Bflpyr nJiioHyjia. — BycypMaH, HexpncTB, npocTH r o c n o f l H , — CKa3axra oHa c 0Mep3eHHeM, — BCIO n o c y n y T e n e p b CBHTOH BOHOH M b l T B n p H f l e T C H H KOMHaTfal CBHTHTB 3 a H O B O . . . BOT , He  SbUTO 3a6oTBi...34  "Graf K a l i o s t r o , " excerpt,  is full  The  however, i s l i m i t e d a few  though  scope  D.  contemporary  himself a real  relegates  "Povest' In  observed  smutnogo  Berlin)  i n 1922,  tions.  Originally  which  of h i s t o r i c a l  historical  figures.  historical  personage,  history  the next  from add  this  mixture  to the  the  above  greatly  to  descriptions,  t o c o s t u m e s and m a n n e r s , and  s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s , and further  be  of dramatic elements  characterization.  of  as may  the  mention  Cagliostro, i s endowed w i t h  of r e a l i t y  and  fantasy  Gelikon  (Moscow  background.  vremeni"  story,  Tolstoi titled  first  p u b l i s h e d by  returned to broad . "Kratkoe  historical  zhizneopisaniei  depic-  blazhennog  78 Nifonta" renamed  ( Brief  Biography  of the  Blessed  " P o v e s t ' smutnogo v r e m e n i  k n i a z i a Tureneva)"  (A S t o r y  the Notebook of P r i n c e  i n a p p r o p r i a t e because the  (Iz r u k o p i s n o i  o f the  Turenev).  Nifont), i t knigi  Time o f T r o u b l e s : The  first  From  t i t l e was  zhitie,  the  greater  portion  is  devoted to Turenev's d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  Time o f  Troubles,  or  the  smuta.  Tolstoi the  "Blessed  By  using  r e v e r t s t o the  proximity  of the  Nifont," while  Prince  partially  deemed  a  o r vita(? o f the  story i s only  was  Turenev i n t h i s  first-person  n a r r a t o r to the  style  manner,  of n a r r a t i o n ,  events d e s c r i b e d  and  helps 35  to  c r e a t e what G o r k i i c a l l e d  "the  In h i s s e v e n t i e s , P r i n c e in  w r i t i n g a l l t h a t he  boy.  As  the  personal  had  beginning  of the  name b e f o r e  e v e n t s o f the, p e r i o d :  the  appearance of the  the  d e a t h o f B o r i s . Godunov, t h e  Dimitrii,  the  P o l i s h occupation  of the  smuta and  that h i s t o r y unfolds gives  concise  occurred.  and  the  but  enthronement of the  Dimitrii,  end  nobleman,  perimeter,  became a monk), and  i n the  dramatic  by  I n a d d i t i o n , s u c h summaries g i v e  the  Naum  well-known FalseFalse-  finally  o f T.sar M i k h a i l . Prince  summaries o f e v e n t s  the  from  by  second  background, but  a  first  first  o f Moscow, and  election  down  smuta as  i s frequently penetrated  he  epoch."  to put  seen of the  a fictitious  a restricted  Romanov, t h a t p e r i m e t e r (Nifont's  h e a r d and  smuta t o t h e  of the  Turenev r e s o l v e d  account of  " P o v e s t ' " moves w i t h i n  psychology  as  the  Much  of  Turenev they  had  a sense of  the  7.5 passing  o f time:  Eme MHHyjio 6oJiee r o f l y . Bcex 6efl H He 3anoMHHiiib. U,apb Eopnc yMep: ceji yacHHaTb, H JionHyjia y H e r o y T p o 6 a , H 3 0 p T a noTeKJia r p H 3 b . BoeBOfla EacMaHOB c o BceM BOSCKOM nepeflajifa Ha CTopoHy u,apeBH^a AHMHTPHH . B M o c K B e H a BoJiOTe uapeBH^eBbi TaftHbie nocJibi, HnemeeB H IlyniKHH, ^iHTajiH n e p e f l H a p o n o M r p a M O T y , . — cyjiHJiH BeJiHKHe MHJIOCTH . Hapofl B3HJI i e x n o c J i O B , noBeji H a KpacHyio nJioiuaflb, H T S M OHH ^HTaJiH r p a M O T y BO BTOPOH p a 3 . H SOHpHH-KHH3b BaCHJIHH HBaHOBHI UlyHCKHH KpH^aJT c JIoSHoro MecTa, *ITO y 6HT B yjiH^ie nonoBCKHii CHH . Hapofl 3aKpH^aJi: „CBITH MH roflyHpBHMH!" y,rtapHJTH B Ha6aT . KHHyjlHCb B KpeMJlb, noSHJIH KOJIbHMH CTpeJIbltOB y K p a c H o r o KpbiJibua, B o p B a n n c b B n a j i a T b i , cxBaTHJiH u,apH O e f l o p a c u a p n u e H H noBOJioKJiH ^ e p e 3 Kpbuibua H n e p e x o n b i B CTapbiH roflyHOBCKHH HOM. CKHHyjiH u a p n . 3 6 Although t h e r e vocabulary definite  used  i s no d i f f i c u l t y  i n the narrative,  feeling  that  t h e narrator  S h o r t s e n t e n c e s , uncommon s y n t a x , obsolete  expressions  expressions  Ha6aT, phere  like  phrases  as  together w i t h  nepeflancH,  dated  as w e l l as  cyjiHJiH BeJiHKHe MHJIOCTH, ynapHJiH B to create  a convincing  atmos-  a r e , however, c o n f i n e d  to the  from t h e p a s t .  background  because  personages they  are riot i n t h e s o c i a l  would have been a c c e s s i b l e commentary, narrator  circle  t o t h e b o y Turenev.  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s o f f e r e d and i s i n t e r e s t i n g  because  the f i r s t  which  Historical  a s h i n d s i g h t by  i t reveals the  s p i r i t u a l despondency a n d subsequent r e g e n e r a t i o n in  past.  grammatically  uapeBHieBHi TafiHbie nocJibi,  and CKHHyjiH uapn h e l p  Historical  the  i snonetheless a  i s from t h e d i s t a n t  as c o BceM BOHCKOM  such  such v e r n a c u l a r  there  i n understanding the  decade o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h century:  o f Russia  80  norH6ajra pyccKan  3 e M n n . . . . . CTajiH MBI BCHTB B HMSM, O6POCJIH K O P O C T O H . TenepB pyKSMH  norpe6ax, no  KaK Ha ceMH-To ocTaJiocB pyccKoro Hapona. Ho, BHflHMo, HacTynan npeneji MyKH ^ejioBe^iecKOH.  pa3BOJJ[Hiiib, —  ;  noMoiuiH acflaTB 6BIJIO HeoTKyrta. He B Koro BepHTB, He H a *ITO HafleHTbCH. OHecTo^HJiHCB BepjJHa. H pyccKHe  B3HJIH, HaKOHeu, MocKBy H BouiTiH B onoraHeHHHH, KpeivuiB. H caM BH/aeJi, KaK co CTeHBi CKHABIBaim B MocKBy-peKy 6OHKH C ^ejioBe^Beft COJIOHHHOH. A Korna B xpaMbi BomnH TOJIBKO MaxHyjiH, 3anJiaKajiH. CMyTa KOH^HJiacB. Ho partocTH 6BIJTO Majio: KpyroM, Kyna He noe3»caH, HH ceji, HH roponoB —- kycTBiHH, norocT. ^ JHOHH  —  3  —  What i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g about t h i s e x c e r p t i s t h a t i t seems to be r e i t e r a t i n g the smena vekh b e l i e f t h a t d e s p i t e c a t a s trophes R u s s i a can s u r v i v e . between "Povest  1  There i s , too, a d i r e c t  link  smutnogo vremeni" and the ending of the  f i r s t volume of Khozhdenie po mukam.  There T e l e g i n opens at  random S. M. Solov'ev's h i s t o r y o f R u s s i a and reads a passage t h a t c o i n c i d e s w i t h the events d e s c r i b e d by P r i n c e Turenev.  I t i s worthynoting here t h a t T o l s t o i ' s f r i e n d , the  h i s t o r i a n V. V. K a l l a s h , who  had r e c e n t l y e d i t e d a six-volume  h i s t o r y of R u s s i a from the Time of Troubles t o the t w e n t i e t h century, a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t the smuta was d i v i d i n g o l d " A s i a t i c " Rus' from the new T h i s was  a k i n d o f watershed "European"  very much the view of T o l s t o i too, who  t h a t time — t h a t  i s , when he was  Russia.  b e l i e v e d at  living in Berlin —  that  the r e v o l u t i o n marked the end of o l d t s a r i s t R u s s i a and the b e g i n n i n g of a new  one.  T o l s t o i ' s source m a t e r i a l s were not only h i s t o r i e s of Russia.  He a l s o drew from the . f o l k - l o r e r e p e r t o i r e of t h e .  81' skomorokhi ,or ditty  is  peasant  taken  from  tsarei>(Domestic displays  the  historical gives  the  Life  of  Naum  the  as  lists  the  i f  rendition  Domashnii  Russian  ability  colouring.  view  Tolstoi's  Zabelin's of  writer's  Speaking  skomorokh  I.  to  use  byt  language  for  added  T,sar  Mikhail  a  what  were  an  remains  russkikh rendition  joined  he  a  The  who h a d  devastation  of  Tsars).  Naum,  newly-elected  commoner's years.  minstrels.  the  skomorokhi,  summation,  a  wrought  in.the  preceding  eligible  bride,  the  of  his  dowry:4  3 a MHOH n p H f l a H O r O : B O C e M B ffBOpOB K p e C T B H H C K H X , npoMeac J l e 6 e f l H H H , H a C T a p o f i K a 3 a H H , n a B o c e M B ABOPOB 6 o 6 b u i B H X , B HHX n o j i T o p a ^ e j i o B e K a c * i e T B e p T B i o , u e T B e p o B 6 e r a x n a flBoe B S e ^ a x . . A x o p o M H o r o CTpoeHHH flBa CTOJl6a B6HTO B 3eMJII0, TpeTBHM ) npHKpbiTo. fla c T e x ABOPOB CXOHHTCH H a BCHKHH rofl H a c H n H o r o x j i e S a B o c e M B a M S a p o B 6e3 3aflHnx c T e H pa ^ e T b i p e nyfla KaMeHHoro Macjia. fla B Tex flBopax c ^ e J i a H a KOHIOIUHH, a B H e n ^ e T b i p e s c y p a B J i n C T O H J i b i x , OHHH KOHB r H e f l , a uiepcTH Ha HeM H e T . fla c T e x ace B B o p o B CXOHHTCH Ha BCHKHH ron. 3 a n a c y — n o c o p o K a n i e c T O B co6a^iBHx X B O C T O B na n o copoKa KanynieK coJieHux J i H r y n i e K " . Rhyme  and  musical the  the  repetition  quality  late  turbulent about  first  Naum g i v e s  beginning  of  his  words  reminiscent.of  M i d d l e -Ages  Although  of  by  Tolstoi decade the  the  the  narrative  notes,  sounds  poems  creates  often  sung  picture  of  a during  skomorokhi.  draws of  the  and  Prince  a  general  seventeenth unity  and  Turenev  the  century,  the  cohesion.  At  explains:  IIoJioacHJi H B e e ace H a ^ a T b T p y n rpeuiHbiH H H a ^ H H a w H e T O p o n J I H B b l M p a C C K a 3 0 M O H e o 6 b I K H O B e H H O M 5KHTHH 6JiaaceHHoro Hnc^oHTa.^^  story the  82 In  the body o f the n a r r a t i v e  v a r i e t y of r o l e s . wandering  priest  Naum s u r f a c e s  A t f i r s t he appears from  periodically  t o the reader as a  Kolomna, then as an a g i t a t o r  the F a l s e - D i m i t r i i , and l a t e r  in a  supporting  as a cossack opposing h i m .  When the Time o f Troubles passes, Naum j o i n s the skomorokhi. "Povest " 1  where  concludes w i t h Naum being sent t o a monastery  his s p i r i t  village  i s completely t r a n s f o r m e d ,  and the f o r m e r  p r i e s t , the r a b b l e - r o u s e r , the p a t r i o t i c  cossack,  the p e a s a n t buffoon becomes a monk, the b l e s s e d N i f o n t , i  whose t r a n q u i l , t a l l ,  t h i n and i c o n - l i k e i m a g e  very much the p i c t u r e o f Russian s p i r i t u a l i t y in  the p a i n t i n g s  resembles as p o r t r a y e d  o f M. V. Nesterov:  M e c T O M y n e c H o e : nycTbiHb — Ha p e i H O M Sepe.ry, B 6 e p e 3 0BOM J i e c y , 3 a BHCOKOH 6ejioH cTeHofi, noKoft H THIIMHa. . . . EJiasceHHbiH ineji H3 6epe30Bofi POIHH , 6HJI xyH, BHCOK H npHM, B *iepHOH no 3eMJiH p a c e , B K J i o S y K e c 6eJibiM K p e c T O M . Uleji J i e r K o . H3-nofl K J i o S y K a rjiHJjeJi Ha Hac cBeTJibiMH, K a K C B e T , yace He S T O H 3eMJiH HCHJiBua, 6Jia»ceHHbiMH r j i a 3 a M H . IIOHOHHH B H a M , o c T a H o BHJICH, noKJioHHJicH HH3KO H n p o u i e j i , 6yflTO TpaBbI He Kacaacb HoraMH.^ In  192 7,  "Povest  1  smutnogo  v r e m e n i " was m e n t i o n e d  again i n G o r k i i ' s correspondence. in  May o f t h a t y e a r ,  contrasting emigres  Gorkii p r a i s e d  W r i t i n g t o A. P. Chapygin T o l s t o i ' s s t o r y by  i t w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n w r i t t e n by such  as M. A. Aldanov,  D. S. M e r e z h k o v s k i i , and S. R.  Mintslov: But the l i t t l e t h i n g by A l e k s e i T o l s t o i , "The L i f e of the B l e s s e d N i f o n t " c o n t a i n s more a r t i s t r y and  more h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h than i n those by a l l t h r e e n o v e l i s t s mentioned a b o v e . ^ G o r k i i d i d not remember the c o r r e c t t i t l e of T o l s t o i ' s  story,  but he d i d r e t a i n , i t appears, a g e n e r a l impression t h a t could not be matched by the w r i t i n g s of the emigres.  He  a l s o noted i n the same l e t t e r t h a t i n Merezhkovskii's book about a n c i e n t Egypt and the pharaoft Tutankhamon the charact e r s speak as i f they had j u s t stepped out of the Arbat q u a r t e r of Moscow.  In c o n t r a s t , T o l s t o i ' s s t o r y maintains  h i s t o r i c a l atmosphere through a u n i t y between h i s t o r i c a l background and.the language  of the p a s t .  The  descriptions  and comments, as they are presented by T o l s t o i ' s n a r r a t o r , P r i n c e Turenev,  r e v e a l the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t i n a p h y s i c a l as  w e l l as a s p i r i t u a l c o n t e x t .  T h i s i s accomplished  of an i m p a r t i a l n a r r a t o r whose viewpoint remains  by means throughout  the s t o r y t h a t of an observer r a t h e r than a p a r t i c i p a n t . "Povest' smutnogo vreminti" remains  a good example of the  proper balance between content and language which makes i t , as G o r k i i suggested, E.  an exemplary h i s t o r i c a l s h o r t s t o r y .  Stories Written i n Soviet Russia. I t i s a l l the more s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n the  next two  s t o r i e s t h i s d e l i c a t e balance i s upset.  1927  1928,  and  especially  " D r e v n i i put*"  (The A n c i e n t Route),  "Gobelen M a r i i Antuanetty"  Written i n and  (The Tapestry of Marie  A n t o i n e t t e ) , s t r i v e t o express a M a r x i s t view of the  84 h i s t o r i c a l process.„•_'., "Dreynii put "  3.  i s based i n p a r t on T o l s t o i ' s r e c o l l e c -  1  t i o n s of h i s s a i l i n g from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e story describes  v i s i o n s from a n c i e n t h i s t o r y seen by  French o f f i c e r , P a u l T a u r a i n , Marseilles..  Wounded and  French f o r c e s sent Taurain  as he  The  a  s a i l e d from Odessa to  gravelyaii'M a f t e r s e r v i n g w i t h  to i n t e r v e n e  i n the Russian C i v i l  begins to ponder on the. f u t i l i t y  wars which, i t seems to him, man  to M a r s e i l l e s .  and  the  War,  foolishness  of  have been the scourge of western  ever s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  h i s thoughts, T o l s t o i i s able t o switch  By  following  e a s i l y from scenes  aboard the Carcovado to scenes i n P a u l Taurain's mind without d i s r u p t i n g the n a t u r a l flow of the s h i p g l i d e s p a s t A s i a Minor, T a u r a i n 7  and !gazes at the  low  story.  gets up  As  from h i s couch  shore, the mountains of P h r y g i a ,  mounds where Hector and  Patroclos  perhaps l i e b u r i e d ,  the shore where once the Achaean s h i p s drew up. p l a i n , thinks Taurain,  stood  Troy.  landscape t h a t the Frenchman saw,  the  On  Having p o i n t e d  the and  that out  the  T o l s t o i then proceeds to  c o n s t r u c t the v i s i o n t h a t appeared i n the o f f i c e r ' s mind: B T o p r o B b i e flHH- Ha 6 a 3 a p — nepen BBICOKHMH c T e H a M H . . ropona e x a n H C K p H n y w e ap6bi c x j i e 6 o M H roionaMH; —  BepoJioMHbie o n a B H H e c rpaHHU, OpaKHH BeJiH SeuieHHbix K O H e H , . . . n p H e 3 » a J i H Ha 6 o r a T b i x K O J i e c H H u a x x e T T b i H3 B o r a 3 K e n c . T O B a p a M H , cflejiaHHbiMH no .ny^iuHM e r n n e i CKHM 0 6 p a 3 U a M J OpHrHHUH H JIHflHHU,bI B KOHCaHblX K O J i n a K a x THaJiH c T a n o K p y T o p y H H b i x S a p a H O B ; $HHHKHficKHe Kynubi C HaKJiaflHfalMH 6 o p O J i a M H , B , C H H H X BOHJIO^HBIX OfleMCflaX nonroHHJiH 6H*iaMH tiepHbix pa6oB c TioKaMH H rJIHHHHBIMH :  85 aM$opaMHj  no^TeHHbie  MopcKHe  pa3 6oftHHKH, BOopyaceHHHe  O6OI0HOCTpblMH C H K H p a M K , npHBOflHJIH KpaCHBEJX pa6bIHb H c o 6 j i a 3 H H T e j i b H H x Majib^HKOB; acpeu,H pacKHj^biBanH noJiaTKH  H CTaBHJIH aJITapH, BblKPHKHBaH HMGHa 6 o r O B , . . . CTeH Ha cyeTy 6a3apa rjiHflejiH BOHHH, oxpaHHBuiHe  BopoTa. . .  CO  4 2  Here T o l s t o i draws a l i v e l y  c o l o u r f u l scene f u l l of  sounds,  the scene of a market o u t s i d e the w a l l s of a n c i e n t Troy.  The  f e e l i n g of the p a s t i s suggested by the many names of people and p l a c e s from the a n c i e n t w o r l d : the S c l a v s , P h r a c i a , H i t t i t e s , Byzacium/  Phrygians, Lydians, Phoenicians.  These  names and such o b j e c t s as c h a r i o t s and s l a v e s do not, however, convey  a deep f e e l i n g of the p a s t because  the c e n t r a l  f i g u r e of the s t o r y proceeds to g i v e the h i s t o r y of Troy an i d e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than a Homeric i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  The  impoverished Greeks were envious of the wealth t h a t went t o Troy and so f o r economic reasons they d e c i d e d to raze the city.  As everyone knows, t h i n k s T a u r a i n , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g  e a s i e r than t o f i n d  a p r e t e x t f o r war,  dragged i n , A c h i l l e s was  and so Helen  was  promised h a l f of the booty, and  thus began the c h r o n i c l e i n hexameters of three thousand years of European h i s t o r y .  There i s a note of c y n i c i s m as  w e l l i n the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the a n c i e n t s a t l e a s t were not hampered by the h y p o c r i s y found i n contemporary  books about  humanism. T o l s t o i aimed some c y n i c a l remarks at the  emigre  passengers as w e l l , among whom were s i n g l e d out p r o s t i t u t e s ,  86  White Guard c r i m i n a l s , a P o l i s h card shark, the f a m i l y of a former sugar magnate, and a man who was p r e v i o u s l y in public BbinOJI3  involved  affairs: H3  aHrjio<|)HJi  :  TpiOMa p y c C K H H  B neHCHe,  OSlHeCTBeHHblH  fleHTeJTB,  c p a c i p e n a H H O H . SoponoH, r,n.e  3 a c e j i a . c o j i o M a , — - H C T a j i HaBOflHTb n a H H K y , flOKa3biBafl, ^ T O c p e f l H 3 y a B b B . — n e p e o n e T b i e . a r e H T b i l e K a H He MHHOBaib. n o r p o M a . H H T e x u i H r e H T i i H H Ha. n K a p K O B a n o " . 4 3  The  man who " c r e p t " out o f the h o l d could,be a t once known  as an a n g l o p h i l e , T o l s t o i suggests, by the mere f a c t t h a t he had  a place i n p u b l i c l i f e ,  d e f i n i t i o n , as i t were. repeatedly  and was thus an a n g l o p h i l e by  The straw i n h i s beard, which i s  used as an i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e , a l s o r e v e a l s the  author's contemptuous a t t i t u d e toward such  superfluous  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h apparent narodnik, or p o p u l i s t , The  presence of these emigres on board i s used by  T o l s t o i t o l i n k the present w i t h the recent p a s t . to mind h i s own experiences i n R u s s i a d u r i n g t i o n , Paul. Taurain along has  leanings.  Calling  the i n t e r v e n -  comes around t o the view t h a t somewhere  the way h i s t o r y made a wrong t u r n and from there i t  continued  t o f o l l o w a path which leads t o an abyss; and  he has been an u n w i t t i n g Europe t o d e s t r u c t i o n .  servant  t o those who are l e a d i n g  Paul remembers being  asked b y a  Bolshevik: r  — 3 a i e M . ace T H H a H X c i o p o H e . . . ? OHH oTpaBHJiH T e 6 n raaoM, 3apa3HJiH ;fi.Hxopaja;KOH, npoH3HJiH TBOIO rpyflB. . . . OHH pacTJiHJiH B e e C B H T H H H . . . . IIppBeflH p y n o H no" r j i a 3 a M , CHHMH nayTHHy' BCKOB . . . . npOCHHCB.... IIpOCHHCB, I l O J l B . . . 4 4  87 The  new s o c i a l order  i n t r o d u c e d i n R u s s i a w i l l break the  v i c i o u s c i r c l e i n which European h i s t o r y has been  confined;  such d s the moral of t h i s s t o r y where•the dark past and the promise of a b r i g h t f u t u r e are juxtaposed. "Gobelen M a r i i Antuanetty',*" w r i t t e n i n 1928, f o l l o w s the s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n o f the preceding beginning  story; that i s , i t s  and i t s end are s e t - i n t h e present while the  c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e i s s e t i n the p a s t .  This  c e n t r a l p a r t concerns the h i s t o r y o f the t a p e s t r y , which o r i g i n a t e s i n France on t h e eve of the r e v o l u t i o n i n 17 89.. and e v e n t u a l l y came t o a museum i n Detskoe S e l o .  Once more  the s t o r y i s t o l d i n the f i r s t person, but t h i s time T o l s t o i chooses t o make the n a r r a t o r an inanimate o b j e c t , the tapestry  itself.  Though the t a p e s t r y i s decorated Marie A n t o i n e t t e , i t does n o t speak with nor i n the s t y l e o f any past age. been l o o k i n g upon people dressed  with  a p o r t r a i t of  the queen's v o i c e ,  Perhaps because i t has  i n sheepskin  coats,  felt  boots, and k a f t a n s , the n a r r a t o r ' s account sounds very much l i k e a pamphlet prepared f o r p r o l e t a r i a n v i s i t o r s t o the museum.  The d i s c r e p a n c y  between t h e speaker and i t s  language forms the major flaw i n t h i s s t o r y . The  t a p e s t r y r e c a l l s how o n the eve o f the French  r e v o l u t i o n Marie A n t o i n e t t e was " n o f ymifcLB ^xJionOT^ax&^iri p l a y i n g a milkmaid on her toy farm i n V e r s a i l l e s .  L o u i s XVI  88  prayed  that  an "y'na^-HaH - B O ^  ciBa."  The n a r r a t o r  pierre,  and  the  a l s o remembers t h e  Reign o f  revolution,  T e r r o r but, a d d s t h e  Robes-  speaker w o v e n  i n t o the t a p e s t r y , "Byp»c"yaaya?oMHJiHCB,, xyke -peflEKH HM Ha'floejiH : peBOJiibiJiHH'i  ".'.'  A century l a t e r , when p r e s e n t i n g the  t a p e s t r y t o t h e Empress Alexandra, the French p r e s i d e n t s h u f f l e d about, "nopK.p'HHMB.aH^.6yj]^ From the w a l l i n t h e A l e k s a n d r o v s k i i p a l a c e , the n a r r a t o r c o u l d observe the d u l l their o c c a s i o n a l  life  o f the Tsar and h i s  family  and  visitors:.  Kpoivie KaK no nejiy, y HHX MaJio K T O 6biBaJi: npnneT cfpeHJiHHa, noiiejiyeT p y i K y ; HJIH IIO3BOHHT n o Tejie$oHy, nonpocHTCH n p a e x a T B OAHH d p o n n r a H3  jiio6HMaH  6bIBWHX KOHOKpaflOB ,  nyxoBHbiH MyacH^OK: HBHTCJI —  B  noflfleBKe, B jiaKOBbix c a n o r a x , noiteJiyeTcn: c o meKH Ha meKy, caneT H BpeT, ^ T O B r o j i o B y BJie3eT, mypn npoflyBHbie 3 e H K H , a u a p B H u a p H u a MOJiHTBeHHO. rjiHflHT —  eMy  Ha M a c j i e H y w 6oporj;y,  By u s i n g the that  such a t o n e ,  skaz t e c h n i q u e , the  portrait  He CMewT  portrait  which  Tolstoi wishes  had  MoprHyTB.45  reminds  us  to convey the  sentence, i s ,  much  of  history  w i t n e s s e d , but the l i n k b e t w e e n  of Marie A n t o i n e t t e a n d i t s m e s s a g e  unconvincing.  very  the  remains  The m o r a l o f the s t o r y , c o n t a i n e d i n t h e l a s t according  to  present-day Soviet c r i t i c s ,  show a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n t i n u i t y  to  i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s .  In the words of a m u s e u m guide as she leads a group t o tapestry: „A 3 T O o6pa3eu, nponyKTa KpenocTHoro n p o H 3 B O f l C T B a ,  the  89 oTHOcnmHHCH  K  Ha^ajiy  caMOMy  6opB6fcJ Mexgry 3 e M J i e a e J i B -  ^ecKHM KanHTaJioM H KanHTaJioM TOPTOBO—npoMBmineHHbiM."46 T o l s t o i ' s narrator i s i n e x p l i c a b l y class-conscious  But  omniscient,  a fact that creates, i n addition t o  g r u i t y between the  language and  imbalance between r e a l i s m and  the  and  incon-  the speaker, a f u r t h e r  fantasy.  In aiilater?stor.yyyTo Istoi'-retur.ned'-ioncesmore.-to  the  ,  theme o f  P e t e r the Great.  w r i t i n g N a dybe of  In the summer o f  (On the Rack), which was  three v a r i a n t s o f  the p l a y about P e t e r .  from the p l a y was  reproduced as  published  i n a volume o f  i n 1931  to  h e began  1928  become the One  scene taken  a separate work and T o l s t o i ' s short  But t h i s s t o r y , "Marta Rabbe," was  probably  first  was  stories.  written  before  T o l s t o i began w r i t i n g the novel P e t r P e r v y i i n February The  author's f a n t a s y coupled  language c r e a t e s a sense o f with  a p l a u s i b l e account o f  Rabbe, became the f i r s t  with h i s s k i l l f u l  the past and p r o v i d e s how  the  of  reader  Menshikov's m i s t r e s s , Marta  empress o f  Russia, Catherine  Although the s t o r y i s f r e e o f '"Deni'i P e t r a , " the d e s c r i p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n attempted i n  use  1929.  I.  the r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e  the Tsar reminds one  of  1918:  IfeTp  nonejioBaji MeHbniHKOBa B ry6Bi Kpenno, H KaK 6bui B HaroJiBHOM pacTerHyTOM KoscaHe noBepx Ka$TaHa, B $HHCKOH MOPCKOH n i a n K e , c e j i K c T O J i y . CBeTJibie * i y j i K H H SaiuMaKH ero B r p H 3 H , p y K H — B CMOJie. Kpyrjioe JIHUO, C MaJieHBKHM TBepflblM HOCOM, C O^ieHB MaJieHBKHM PTOM H BBIflaiOmHMHCH xcejiBaKaMH c 6OKOB pTa, OSBeTpeHHO H niepiiiaBo. O H c e f i ^ a c ace H a j i H j i cTaKaH BHHa, H e pa36Hpan KaKoro, BbinKJi, K p H K H y j i H o6epHyjicH. 47  of the  9 0  As  i n the e a r l i e r s t o r y , here t o o the Tsar i s p o r t r a y e d a s  dirty  and coarse man.  But T o l s t o i  a  i s i n t e r e s t e d not so much  i n P e t e r o r h i s r e i g n a s i n d e s c r i b i n g one i n c i d e n t i n h i s S i n c e t h i s s t o r y was l i f t e d d i r e c t l y from a  private l i f e .  play, a large portion o f i t becomes an important  i s given i n d i a l o g u e , which  means o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  F o r example,  j u s t b e f o r e P e t e r makes h i s appearance, Menshikov, h i s unscrupulous the  confidant, instructs h i s mistress t o f l i r t  with  Tsar: —  LJapio x o T H T e n o f l c y H y T B ? A XOTH  6bl T d K . . .  ^ T O B 3TOM XyflOrO?  y Mapfbi p y K H BbineTejiH H3-non nepe.n.HH'qKa. y n e p j i a c B B K p y T o e 6enpo. — r o c n o f l H H r p a $ , 6BITB BaiueH poace S H T O H . . . KaKHHKaK, a yac 3 T o r o C T e p n e T B H e B 0 3 M o r a o : Mapniajia 6 H T B no poace, no6e.nHTe.nH uiBenoB H JinOJiHHflueB, n e p B o r o  poccHHCKoro  rpa$a!  — BBITB Moeft poace 6 H T O H ? :,Io.~.X"IIofloiuejioBHJioTB9P3aopaJi.) — iienB!  —  Heiero  V>K He TO6OH JIH? B nonnoJTBe nocaacy  H acnaTb He^cero, — H OT T O T O , K T O n u p o r a M H T o p r o B a j i . .  Hnoro OT B a c  Marta's p r o v o c a t i v e stance and the coarse both  acxiaTB  language used by  r e v e a l t h e i r c a l l o u s and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  M e n s h i k o v s machinations 1  succeed  Peter becomes a t t r a c t e d t o Marta. bedroom where she has l e f t  t o a l a r g e extent, f o r Returning  turns r e d w i t h r a g e  r  from the  the T s a r , Marta walks up t o  Menshikov and s l a p s him hard across the f a c e . first  He  Menshikov a t  but q u i c k l y understands;  bowing  91 low he takes Marta's hand and k i s s e s i t , KaK S y f l T o EKaTepHHa  n e p e n HHM CTOHJia yxce He M a p T a Pa6e, a A j i e K c e e B H a , HMrcepaTpHua B c e p o c c H f i C K a H . ^9  The e n t i r e s t o r y i s b u i l t around t h i s one  incident;  i.t^conc'1'udesbw.ith thecab6ve t a b l e a u r y , A3i.though : t h e r e s a r e no h i s t o r i c a l ^probiemsep.esed i n "Marta Rabbe" as there are i n "Den  1  P e t r a , " t h i s s t o r y has value as an etude which stands  as a b r i d g e j o i n i n g the theme of P e t e r I i n drama to P e t e r I i n the n o v e l . *  *  *  *  *  *  *  T o l s t o i began w r i t i n g h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n at a time when he was making a t r a n s i t i o n from p o e t r y to prose.  He  was  who  encouraged i n t h i s move by h i s f r i e n d M. V o l o s h i n ,  o f f e r e d him H e n r i de Regnier as a w r i t e r to emulate. Regnier's s t o r i e s r e v e a l e d t o T o l s t o i a form which l e d him to  use language i n such a way  s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r . the  t h a t i t r e f l e c t e d the p e r i o d ,  He a l s o used language t o c o n t r a s t  s t i l t e d speech o f the p r o v i n c i a l gentry of the e i g h t e e n t h  century w i t h the n a t u r a l s i m p l i c i t y of the speech of peasants. In  t h i s way  of  the d e p i c t i o n by Regnier and K. A . Somov of the p a s t o r a l  life  T o l s t o i ' s f i r s t anecdotes were i n f a c t p a r o d i e s  of the n o b i l i t y .  T o l s t o i was  outward appearance of t h a t i d y l l i c  able t o reproduce the l i f e , but by c o n t r a s t i n g  i t w i t h the s i m p l i c i t y o f the s t o c k Russian c h a r a c t e r , he made a parody of Regnier's and Somov's p o r t r a y a l s .  92 The use o f f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n i n "Katen'ka" and " P o r t r e t " allowed T o l s t o i t o r e f l e c t the viewpoint narrators.  o f the  W r i t i n g as i f he were reproducing e x t r a c t s from  memoirs and d i a r i e s , he was able t o add, t o the e x t e r n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e p a s t , elements which a l s o r e v e a l e d the mental s t a t e o f the n a r r a t o r s . The events  o f 1917 with which the Russian  Empire  ended made T o l s t o i seek i n the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t analogous s i t u a t i o n s which c o u l d t e l l himssomething about t h e people and  the Russian s t a t e .  In t h e enormous changes,, indeed, i n  the r e v o l u t i o n forged by P e t e r t h e Great, he saw a p a r a l l e l t o the contemporary r e v o l u t i o n .  A t the time of h i s w r i t i n g s  on P e t e r , T o l s t o i r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon the records o f the S e c r e t C h a n c e l l e r y which were compiled  by P r o f e s s o r Novom-  b e r g s k i i i n h i s book Slovo i d e l o gosudarevy. circumstances  t h a t motivated  Thus, the  him t o w r i t e , p l u s h i s c h i e f  source of m a t e r i a l , combined t o leave a n e g a t i v e of P e t e r .  impression  On the o t h e r hand, Slovo i d e l o gosudarevy  f u r t h e r aided T o l s t o i i n h i s use of the Russian an instrument  f o r conveying  language as  a sense of the p a s t .  In "Den' P e t r a , " T o l s t o i expanded the h i s t o r i c a l scope by i n t e r j e c t i n g r h e t o r i c a l questions throughout t h e narrative.  Together w i t h the p o r t r a y a l , these  served t o strengthen t h e negative impressions and o f h i s r e i g n .  In "Povest'  questions o f the Tsar  smutnogo vremeni" he r e v e r t e d  t o the f i r s t - p e r s o n s t y l e of n a r r a t i o n .  As a witness t o the  events d e s c r i b e d , the n a r r a t o r makes the reader see and  feel  a l l h i s h a r d s h i p s and s u f f e r i n g s w i t h o u t d i r e c t commentary by the author. man who  As an e x c e r p t from a notebook w r i t t e n by a  had l i v e d through the Time of T r o u b l e s , the s t o r y i s  presented i n a language which evokes t h a t p e r i o d .  Descrip-  t i o n s of crowds and i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l as the n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l remarks are a l l expressed i n a manner t h a t  reflects  the c o n f u s i o n and chaos and, as G o r k i i so a p t l y put i t , psychology of the  "the  epoch."  T o l s t o i a l s o i n t r o d u c e d elements i n t o some h i s t o r i c a l s t o r i e s .  Styling  of the f a n t a s t i c " S i n i t s a " as an o r a l  f o l k t a l e , the events of which take p l a c e i n the Kievan  Rus'  p e r i o d , he s u c c e s s f u l l y reproduced a skazka w i t h a mixture of r e a l i s m and s u p e r n a t u r a l .  A.mother's s p i r i t which enters  a titmouse i n order t o be c l o s e t o her son i s p e r f e c t l y acceptable i n thiscjgenre. "Graf K a l i o s t r o , " l i k e the e a r l i e s t s t o r i e s , i s b u i l t around  an e l a b o r a t e anecdote.  Though the Count was  person, t h i s s t o r y too c o n t a i n s an element natural.  a real  of the super-  Nonetheless, the n a r r a t i v e remains w i t h i n the  framework of the p e r i o d , thus c r e a t i n g an impression of R u s s i a i n the time of C a t h e r i n e the Great. M a r i i Antuanetty," T o l s t o i , perhaps  In  "Gobelen  to appease h i s RAPP"  c r i t i c s , abandoned a l l r e s t r a i n t s of h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n ,  and  made an inanimate o b j e c t c r e a t e d i n the past speak i n the d i r e c t , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l manner of an omniscient the twentieth  century.  n a r r a t i o n seems wholly  n a r r a t o r of  Moreover, the skaz technique  of  i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the French queen's  p o r t r a i t , thus only adding to the i n c o n g r u i t y of the t i o n i n the s t o r y .  Far more s u c c e s s f u l i s " D r e v n i i put'"  which T o l s t o i t r i e d to c r e a t e a p o l i t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d tude.  Using  in  atti-  a d i s i l l u s i o n e d French o f f i c e r as h i s c e n t r a l  f i g u r e , T o l s t o i f o l l o w e d h i s stream of consciousness i l l u s t r a t e the view t h a t economic greed t i o n was  situa-  to  i n western  civiliza-  b r i n g i n g Europe ever c l o s e r t o the b r i n k of d i s a s t e r .  I t c o u l d be a v e r t e d , on the other hand, by f o l l o w i n g the example s e t by the B o l s h e v i k s  i n Russia.  T o l s t o i ' s h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n shows a d i s c e r n i b l e progression  from simple  anecdotes to more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  n a r r a t i v e s such as "Povest f e l t t h a t he had  gained  1  smutnogo vremeni."  s u f f i c i e n t experience  c o n v i n c i n g f e e l i n g of the p a s t and a h i s t o r i c a l novel. Regnier's  As M a k s i m i l i a n  genre.  1928,  a  t h a t he c o u l d embark upon V o l o s h i n had  described  s t o r i e s by A. N. T o l s t o i may  as an o v e r t u r e t o what was  he  i n conveying  La-Canne jaspe as a m u s i c a l o v e r t u r e t o the  t h a t f o l l o w e d , so these regarded  By  novels be a l s o  t o appear i n a major  CHAPTER I I I THE  NOVEL PETR PERVYI PoMaH AneKceH T o j i c T o r o „neTp nepBbiH'." 6eccnopHo HBjineTCH He TOJIbKO OflHHM H3 KpynHeHIUHX jiHTepaTypHo-xynoxcecTBeHHbix jj;ocTH»ceHHH c o B e T C K o r o n e p n o f l a , HO H OflHHM H3 3aMe^aTeJlbHHtX co3flaHHH Bceft p y c c K O H xynoscecTBeHHo-HGTopH^ecKOH JiHTepaTypbi BOo6ine.  —  A.  The  Hero i n a H i s t o r i c a l In t h i s chapter  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  Novel.  some q u a l i t i e s  P e t r P e r v y i an o u t s t a n d i n g The  R. fl. Ejiaroft.  t h a t make the  novel  p i e c e of S o v i e t h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n  general  f e a t u r e s of a h i s t o r i c a l  n o v e l have been mentioned e a r l i e r , but s i n c e h i s t o r i c a l novels  also involve h i s t o r i c a l personalities,  a few words about t h e i r r o l e i n the As Georg Lukacs has  we  need to say  novel.  observed, b e f o r e S i r Walter S c o t t  there e x i s t e d l i t e r a t u r e which cannot be c o n s i d e r e d  truly  h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n but r a t h e r a l i t e r a t u r e of romantic hero worship i n which h i s t o r y and d r e s s .  served  only as an e x t e r n a l theme  The manners, psychology of the c h a r a c t e r s ,  the  g e n e r a l atmosphere r e f l e c t e d  more the w r i t e r ' s p e r i o d than  anything  standards  from the past.,  The  f o r a modern h i s t o r i -  c a l n o v e l have been e s t a b l i s h e d by S c o t t , i n whose works the  c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r has been assigned a s p e c i a l  role.  H i s t o r y i s comprised of a s e r i e s of c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s t h a t f i n d t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n i n compromise o r a middle  way,  e x p l a i n s Lukacs, and S c o t t uses these s e l e c t p e r i o d s i n h i s t o r y to demonstrate is  t h a t compromise.  Ivanhoe, f o r example,  a d e v i c e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the Saxon and Norman  elements t h a t populated England i n the Middle Ages. cal  atmosphere  sympathies  Histori-  i s achieved through a d e s c r i p t i o n of  as they f l u c t u a t e between one and.then  a n t a g o n i s t i c elementKi„  Ivanhoe s 1  another  Thus, i n the p a t t e r n f o r a h i s t o r i c a l  n o v e l t h a t S c o t t had e s t a b l i s h e d , the middle way i l l u s t r a t e d by a f i c t i o n a l hero.  can be b e s t  The f l u c t u a t i o n s must end,  however, and produce a g e n e r a l movement which i s c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y which p l a y s the r o l e of standard b e a r e r .  For t h i s reason S i r Walter S c o t t reduces a  h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y t o a secondary c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l . Lukacs e x p l a i n s i t i n t h i s  way:  The broad and many-sided p i c t u r e of an epoch, i t s very essence can only be e x t r a c t e d from the depths of l i f e , and i t s e x p e r n a l appearance may be drawn only through p o r t r a y a l s of everyday l i f e of a people, through the joy and g r i e f , the f l u c t u a t i o n and stormy, experience of "average" people. An o u t s t a n d i n g and h i s t o r i c a l l y l e a d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y who expresses the mainstream of s o c i a l t h i n k i n g , of n e c e s s i t y must be expressed as an a b s t r a c t i o n . 2  Another obvious reason why fictitious  a n o v e l i s t would  choose a  c h a r a c t e r f o r h i s hero i s t h a t the reader i s  u s u a l l y acquainted w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l events d e s c r i b e d i n  the book.  Therefore,  t o make the p l o t more absorbing  the reader, the w r i t e r makes the c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t  for  an  unknown e n t i t y whose f a t e depends e n t i r e l y upon the  author's  imagination. In c o n t r a s t to such a scheme, A l e k s e i T o l s t o i ' s P e t r P e r v y i i s a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i n which the main c h a r a c t e r i s the monumental f i g u r e of Peter the Great.  And  whereas I'-,'••  S c o t t ' s formula p r e s c r i b e s t h a t a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y p l a y a p a s s i v e r o l e , T o l s t o i gives Tsar Peter an a c t i v e p a r t to p l a y i n the u n f o l d i n g h i s t o r i c a l events. course,  T o l s t o i was  In p a r t , of  i n agreement w i t h S c o t t ' s p r i n c i p l e when  he expressed the view t h a t a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y a c t s an instrument of an epoch.  3  The  .  .  as  .  Russian n o v e l i s t b e l i e v e d  t h a t c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of a person appear i n response t o s p e c i a l demands posed by  a p a r t i c u l a r period i n history.  However, and here l i e s the c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e from the  general  h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l , A l e k s e i T o l s t o i dares to assume "A tremendous venture to w r i t e of the i n t i m a t e thoughts and ences of the great  experi-  . . . t o guess at the motives of t h e i r  4  actions."  This i s accomplished i n P e t r P e r v y i by b u i l d i n g  on a s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e of f a c t s d e t a i l e d but f a b r i c a t e d episodes t h a t a c t u a l l y complement the h i s t o r i c a l "Can  one  facts.  'invent' a biography f o r a h i s t o r i c a l person?"  asked T o l s t o i .  "Absolutely;^, he proceeded t o r e p l y .  "But i t  must be done c r e d i b l y so t h a t i f i n f a c t i t d i d not happen,  then i t s h o u l d have happened."  For t h i s reason, i n P e t r  P e r v y i T o l s t o i pays much more a t t e n t i o n t o the Tsar as an i n d i v i d u a l than as a statesman.  In a d d i t i o n , the  reforms  which most a t t r a c t T o l s t o i ' s n o t i c e are f a r more important for  t h e i r dramatic e f f e c t than f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l  cance.  signifi-  Thus, decrees governing changes i n the f a s h i o n of  d r e s s , c i v i l manners, and shaving beards become more .'  :  important  than any o t h e r reforms.  In t h i s r e s p e c t P e t r  P e r v y i must stand out.as a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l because the Tsar occupies the .central p o s i t i o n i n the n a r r a t i v e . of  course, another  There i s ,  famous n o v e l where Peter a l s o occupies a  l e a d i n g r o l e and t h a t i s D. S. Merezhkovskii's  Antikhrist  (Petr i A l e k s e i ) about which more w i l l be s a i d  shortly.  B. • P e t e r the G r e a t , i n R u s s i a n . L i t e r a t u r e . Peter the Great occupies such an important p l a c e i n Russian h i s t o r y because he played so d e c i s i v e a r o l e i n t r a n s f o r m i n g mediaeval Muscovy i n t o R u s s i a , a modern s t a t e t h a t has the f i r s t  continued, ever s i n c e h i s time, t o p l a y a p a r t of consequence i n world a f f a i r s .  "Certainly  no  h i s t o r i c a l theme i s f o r us more s i g n i f i c a n t , " wrote B.  H.  Sumner i n P e t e r the Great and the Emergence of R u s s i a , f  than the double t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t has taken p l a c e — of Muscovy i n t o R u s s i a and of R u s s i a i n t o the S o v i e t Union, a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n l i n k e d i n d i s s o l u b l y both by contemporaries and by p o s t e r i t y w i t h the names of P e t e r the Great and L e n i n . ^  Indeed, Peter's reforms were so r a d i c a l , they brought about such i r r e v e r s i b l e changes to R u s s i a and Russian g e n e r a l , t h a t they may from above.  be j u s t l y considered a r e v o l u t i o n  T h i s p e r i o d of enormous change, some t h r e e  decades of P e t e r ' s r e i g n , has from Peter's time t o our own.  a t t r a c t e d men  of  literature  However, i n the t h r e e  t u r i e s t h a t separate us from P e t e r , only two Merezhkovskii  life in  cen-  authors, D.  S.  and A; N. T o l s t o i , have made the Tsar the  c e n t r a l f i g u r e of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n o v e l s .  Other n o v e l i s t s  i n t r o d u c e P e t e r i n t o t h e i r works only as a  secondary  c h a r a c t e r , a l b e i t an important  one.  Furthermore, l i t e r a r y a t t i t u d e s towards Peter the Great f l u c t u a t e between monarchist  i d e a l i z a t i o n s and  revolutionary class-conscious r i d i c u l e . Pushkin's two of  I s t o r i a P e t r a I stands  Only  post-  Aleksandr  as an e x c e p t i o n t o these  extreme views of P e t e r , and the w r i t e r whose p o r t r a y a l P e t e r I i s c l o s e s t to Pushkin's  i s Aleksei Tolstoi  himself. Peter's contemporary, Feofan Prokopovich, was f i r s t man  of l e t t e r s to support the Tsar i n h i s e f f o r t s t o  b r i n g change t o R u s s i a . seemed t o suggest who  In h i s drama V l a d i m i r ,  Prokopovich  a p a r a l l e l between Kiev's P r i n c e V l a d i m i r ,  by introducing* Byzantine C h r i s t i a n i t y to Russia  brought progress who  the  and  l e a r n i n g to h i s realm,  had  and Tsar P e t e r ,  by i n t r o d u c i n g European i n d u s t r y and s c i e n c e t o R u s s i a  100 brought the country i n t o the mainstream of European l i f e . In the.same v e i n , the w r i t e r of the h e r o i c e p i c of "Petr V e l i k i i , " M. V. Lomonosov, enhanced the c e n t r a l f i g u r e by giving Peter t i t a n i c features, p o s i t i v e personal q u a l i t i e s such as l o v e of work, modest t a s t e s and needs, and wisdom to i n t r o d u c e f a r - s i g h t e d reforms  the  t h a t brought western  r  c u l t u r e t o a dark and savage l a n d . In c o n t r a s t to these admirers  of P e t e r ,  Aleksandr  N i k o l a e v i c h Radishchev, the f a t h e r of the Russian g e n t s i a as a c l a s s , was  the f i r s t man  who  dared t o  some c a u t i o u s c r i t i c i s m of P e t e r the Great. " L e t t e r to a f r i e n d r e s i d i n g i n Tobolsk" the u n v e i l i n g of F a l c o n e t ' s monument "The Radishchev observed  intellioffer  Writing i n his  on the day f o l l o w i n g Bronze Horseman,"  t h a t w h i l e there were j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r  the a p p e l l a t i o n "the Great," P e t e r deserved  to be rebuked f o r  m e r c i l e s s l y i n t e n s i f y i n g the bondage of the s e r f s . were only g e n e r a l comments t h a t were a m p l i f i e d a few l a t e r i n h i s Journey  from Petersburg to Moscow; the  s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m aoimed at Peter the Great was  these  years first  mdde i n  by N i k o l a i M i k h a i l o v i c h . Karamzin i n the work t i t l e d p.drevnei i novo! R o s s i i  But  1811  Zapiska  (Memoir on A n c i e n t and Modern  Russia). (i)  N. M.  Karamzin  Karamzin's h i s t o r i c a l t r a c t , which he submitted Alexander  I , inaugurated  to  the c o n s e r v a t i v e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t  1.01  the l i b e r a l i z i n g —  and seemingly  which the country was  heading.  un-Russian —  And  d i r e c t i o n , Karamzin b e l i e v e d , was  direction in  the t u r n i n the wrong  f o r c e d on R u s s i a by  ?V-  P e t e r I. Karamzin's e v a l u a t i o n of P e t e r the Great and of h i s r e i g n formed the b a s i s f o r the S l a v o p h i l e view of Russia t h a t was  to make i t s appearance some years l a t e r .  Since the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of Romanov r u l e i n R u s s i a , a gradual i n t r o d u c t i o n to a European l i f e - s t y l e . h a d been i n p r o g r e s s . the Great, charged  Karamzin, became determined  R u s s i a o v e r n i g h t i n t o another H o l l a n d . was  completely  Peter  to t r a n s f o r m  Moreover, the Tsar  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i n choosing the aspects of  E u r o p e a n i z a t i b n to be adopted i n R u s s i a .  "The  Russian  food, and beards d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the founding s c h o o l s , " o b j e c t e d Karamzin.  And he  dress,  of  continued,  Two s t a t e s may stand on the same l e v e l of c i v i l enlightenment although t h e i r customs d i f f e r . One s t a t e may borrow from another u s e f u l knowledge without borrowing i t s manners. These manners may change n a t u r a l l y , but to p r e s c r i b e s t a t u t e s f o r them i s an a c t of v i o l e n c e , which i s i l l e g a l a l s o f o r an a u t o c r a t i c monarch. . . . In t h i s realm, the s o v e r e i g n may e q u i t a b l y a c t only by example, not by decree.^ In a d d i t i o n , the g r e a t e s t d i s s e r v i c e t h a t Peter' d i d f o r R u s s i a , Karamzin suggested, unity. and  was  the s p l i t t i n g of n a t i o n a l  The Tsar's wicked campaign r i d i c u l i n g a n c i e n t customs  t r a d i t i o n s , and o b l i g a t o r y adoption of western ones made  the upper c r u s t of Russian  s o c i e t y f e e l ashamed of  their  10,2  un-European manners.  As they s t r o v e t o a c q u i r e European  p o l i t e s s e and t o absorb western c u l t u r e , they d i s c a r d e d t h e i r own c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , l e a v i n g i t t o the common people. Furthermore, Karamzin  d e t e c t e d a moral d e c l i n e i n the onrush  of Russian s o c i e t y toward w e s t e r n i z a t i o n .  He wrote:  Russian women ceased t o b l u s h at the i n d i s c r e e t glances o f men, and European freedom supplanted A s i a t i c c o n s t r a i n t . . . . As we progressed i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s o c i a l v i r t u e s and g r a c e s , our f a m i l i e s moved i n t o the background; f o r when we have many acquaintances we f e e l l e s s need o f f r i e n d s , and s a c r i f i c e f a m i l y t i e s t o s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s . . . . I t must be admitted t h a t what we gained i n s o c i a l v i r t u e s we l o s t i n c i v i c virtues. . Our. a n c e s t o r s , w h i l e a s s i m i l a t i n g many advantages which were t o be found i n f o r e i g n customs, never l o s t the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t an Orthodox Russian was the most p e r f e c t c i t i z e n and Holy Rus' the foremost s t a t e i n the world. L e t t h i s be c a l l e d a d e l u s i o n . Y e t how much i t d i d t o s t r e n g t h e n p a t r i o t i s m and the moral f i b r e of the country! Would we .have today the a u d a c i t y , a f t e r having spent over a century i n the s c h o o l o f f o r e i g n e r s , t o boast of our c i v i c p r i d e ? Once upon a time we used t o c a l l a l l o t h e r Europeans i n f i d e l s ; now we c a l l them b r o t h e r s . 9 Peter's c e l e b r a t e d reforms, concluded Karamzin, were very o f t e n harmful t o n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , but they because  succeeded  o f t h e i r r u t h l e s s e x e c u t i o n and the p i t i l e s s  c h a r a c t e r o f the T s a r .  S t . P e t e r s b u r g , Karamzin  reminded  Alexander I , was l i t e r a l l y b u i l t on the bodies and bones of s e r f s who were d r i v e n t h e r e i n c h a i n s .  The c h i e f i s s u e o f  P e t e r ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Russia^was t h a t "Autocracy became more e s s e n t i a l than ever f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o r d e r . ® n±  T h e r e a f t e r , the theme o f P e t e r the Great a c q u i r e d  103  p o l e m i c a l q u a l i t i e s which soon l e d t o the formation of opposing camps, the S l a v o p h i l e s and the Westerners. former f o l l o w e d the l i n e of c r i t i c i s m i n i t i a t e d by  two  The Karamzin,  w h i l e the l a t t e r defended P e t e r ' s i n n o v a t i o n s and even wished R u s s i a t o f o l l o w the European model s t i l l more c l o s e l y . U l t i m a t e l y , i t began to be f e l t  t h a t a l l major q u e s t i o n s i n  n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a c o u l d be reduced t o t h e i r to  relation  P e t e r I and h i s impact on Russian l i f e .  (ii)  AwsP.ias.hkin Pushkin's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P e t e r the Great, as he  appears i n the poet's l i t e r a r y works, d i f f e r s  considerably  from the image of the T s a r t h a t emerges from h i s p r e p a r a t o r y notes f o r a h i s t o r y of P e t e r ' s r e i g n , I s t o r i i a E B e t E a I T . his  l i t e r a r y treatment of P e t e r , Pushkin speaks mainly of  the  T s a r ' s noble ambitions as the r u l e r of a c o u n t r y , and  his  successes as a m i l i t a r y commander.  of  But i n the H i s t o r y  P e t e r I , Pushkin added t o these p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which was  In  not so complimentary.  another  Concerning  P e t e r ' s p l a c e i n Russian h i s t o r y , Pushkin found t h a t he must be regarded on two  l e v e l s , and the poet wrote  i n h i s notebook:  I t i s worth wondering at the d i f f e r e n c e between the s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f P e t e r the Great and h i s s h o r t term decrees. The f i r s t are f r u i t s of a broad mind, f i l l e d w i t h good w i l l and i n t e l l i g e n c e , the second are c r u e l , c a p r i c i o u s and w r i t t e n , i t seems, w i t h a knout. The f i r s t were w r i t t e n f o r e t e r n i t y , or at l e a s t f o r the f u t u r e , the second s p i l l e d out from an i m p a t i e n t and s e l f - w i l l e d l a n d l o r d . i l  10.4  Pushkin c o n s i d e r e d such a d u a l i t y i n Peter t o be comparable t o personages  i n v o l v e d i n the French  namely Robespierre and Napoleon.  revolution,  By d i v i d i n g the r e i g n o f  P e t e r the Great i n t o two p e r i o d s , Pushkin e x p l a i n e d how the need f o r reforms became e v i d e n t , and how the reforms were then secured.  The i n i t i a l  p a r t of P e t e r ' s r e i g n was indeed  bloody and c r u e l and c o u l d be compared t o the Reign of T e r r o r under Robespierred  With regard t o the p e r i o d t h a t  f o l l o w e d , however, the Tsar might be compared t o Napoleon, who i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a l l t h e b e n e f i t s gained i n the preceding period.  Thus, Pushkin developed the view i n h i s  I s t o r i a t h a t the people s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y d u r i n g P e t e r ' s " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " p e r i o d and t o many o f them he was t r u l y the Antichrist.  However, w i t h the f i r s t  f r u i t s of the new  reforms, e x p l a i n e d Pushkin, the people r e c o n c i l e d to  Peter and the new R u s s i a .  themselves,  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,  Pushkin  concluded, the c r e a t i o n of a new Russian empire was a necessary and b e n e f i c i a l development. But the c r i t i c i s m expressed i n Pushkin's h i s t o r y was unacceptable t o N i c h o l a s I , and the H i s t o r y o f Peter I was w i t h h e l d from p u b l i c a t i o n . poet t r i e d t o expurgate  A f t e r h i s death, f r i e n d s of the  the o f f e n s i v e passages  from the  manuscript, but somehow the work was l o s t , and was p u b l i s h e d for  t h e . f i r s t time only i n 193 8.  wicked  The p o r t r a y a l o f Peter as  i n a p e r s o n a l sense and wise i n matters o f s t a t e was  105 to re-emerge n e a r l y a century  a f t e r Pushkin, i n A l e k s e i  12 Tolstoi's  novel.  The new, terization —  and —  i n comparison with the e a r l i e r  charac-  improved image of Peter i n T o l s t o i ' s novel  be a p p r e c i a t e d only from an o v e r a l l view of the work. i s because the author now  d e s c r i b e s an e v o l v i n g  can  This  character.  In some e i g h t hundred pages T o l s t o i f o l l o w s h i s main hero o n l y from the year 1682  to 1704,  youth and e a r l y adulthood. T o l s t o i ' s untimely i n h i s "Napoleonic"  or the years o f  And w h i l e  death prevented  him  i t i s true that from p o r t r a y i n g Peter  p e r i o d , he succeeded nonetheless  showing the Tsar i n c o n s i d e r a b l y more h i s t o r i c a l t h a t i s , T o l s t o i d e s c r i b e d the h i s t o r i c a l  f a c t alone put the Tsar i n a more f a v o u r a b l e  own  in  detail;  circumstances  which demanded the appearance of a r e s o l u t e man,  ohee t h a t man  Peter's  and  light.  this Then,  emerged from the h i s t o r i c a l background, h i s  s t r e n g t h of w i l l , h i s own  f o r c e of c h a r a c t e r began t o  a f f e c t the development of f u t u r e events.  T h i s matter of  an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n f l u e n c e on h i s t o r i c a l events was s u c c e s s f u l l y resolved i n Petr P e r v y i .  When he was  asked to e x p l a i n  Tsar Peter c o u l d have succeeded i f he was  a c t i n g alone,  Aleksei Tolstoi replied: P e t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y was e x t r a o r d i n a r y and i t began to i n f l u e n c e the epoch, . . . The epoch r e q u i r e d a man, he was sought, and the man i n h i s t u r n was seeking an o u t l e t f o r h i s e n e r g i e s ; there was an interdependence between the two.13  how  106  (iii)  L. T o l s t o i At t h i s p o i n t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o c o n t r a s t A l e k s e i  T o l s t o i ' s views on the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s t o r y w i t h those h e l d by Lev N i k o l a e v i c h T o l s t o i .  The l a t t e r made  over twenty s t a r t s on a n o v e l about P e t e r the Great, but an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a l t e r h i s concepts abandon the p r o j e c t completely.  of h i s t o r y f o r c e d him t o  In h i s e x t e n s i v e essay on  Lev T o l s t o i ' s views.of h i s t o r y , I. B e r l i n e x p l a i n e d how T o l s t o i denied the i n d i v i d u a l any d e c i s i v e r o l e i n t h e u n f u r l i n g of h i s t o r y .  " T o l s t o y ' s c e n t r a l t h e s i s , " wrote  B e r l i n i n The Hedgehog and the Fox, i s t h a t there i s a n a t u r a l law whereby the l i v e s of human beings no l e s s than those of nature areddetermined; but t h a t men, unable t o face t h i s i n e x o r a b l e p r o c e s s , seek t o r e p r e s e n t i t as a s u c c e s s i o n of f r e e c h o i c e s , t o f i x r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what occurs upon persons endowed by them w i t h h e r o i c v i r t u e s or h e r o i c v i c e s , a l l c a l l e d by-them "great men." What are g r e a t men? they are o r d i n a r y human b e i n g s , who are i g n o r a n t and vain^renough t o accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l i f e o f . s o c i e t y , i n d i v i d u a l s who would r a t h e r take the blame f o r a l l the c r u e l t i e s , i n j u s t i c e s , d i s a s t e r s j u s t i f i e d i n t h e i r name, than r e c o g n i z e t h e i r own i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and impotence i n the cosmiic flow which pursues i t s course i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r w i l l s and i d e a l s . ^ 4  Thus, when such a concept o f the h i s t o r i c a l  process  was a p p l i e d t o P e t e r I , a c o n t r a d i c t i o n arose which Lev T o l s t o i was not able t o r e s o l v e .  L. M. P o l i a k wrote, f o r  example: The a c t i v e and v o l i t i o n a l work o f the t s a r - r e f o r m e r entered i n t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h L. T o l s t o i ' s i d e a  107 of h i s t o r i c a l f a t a l i s m , w i t h h i s understanding of the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s t o r y , w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts. I n e v i t a b i l i t y , the predest i n a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l events simply d i d not t i e w i t h the image of P e t e r , the mover.of h i s t o r y , the man who a c t i v e l y i n t e r f e r e d i n l i f e . - ' 5  I n i t i a l l y , however, Lev T o l s t o i , who w r i t e about P e t e r - i n 1872, in  began t r y i n g to  had been tremendously  interested  the p e r i o d and very f a v o u r a b l y disposed toward the T s a r .  In h i s notebooks, f o r example, one may  find  expressions  which p o i n t u n e q u i v o c a l l y to h i s p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of P e t e r I,: He was the instrument of the time, . . . he was s e l e c t e d by f a t e to draw Russia i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the European world. ... . In P e t e r ' s time power and t r u t h were on the s i d e of the reformers, and the defenders of a n c i e n t customs were f r o t h , they were a mirage.-^ Then l a t e r , i n December 1872,  though s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g  an  i n t e r e s t i n P e t e r , he began t o express h i s i n a b i l i t y to make a proper s t a r t on the n o v e l . P e t e r I , " he wrote t o N. I.  "I am surrounded  by books on  Strakhov,  i  I read, I take notes, I want to w r i t e , but I cannot. But what an epoch f o r an a r t i s t ! Wherever you look, there i s a problem, a p u z z l e , the s o l u t i o n f o r which may be gained only through p o e t r y . The whole s e c r e t of Russian l i f e i s s i t t i n g r i g h t t h e r e . ^ x  But very soon Lev T o l s t o i began to grow more and more h o s t i l e toward P e t e r .  The  author of War  and Peace came t o  b e l i e v e t h a t the Tsar's c e l e b r a t e d reforms were not  motivated  by a d e s i r e to improve c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a , but r a t h e r by a  10 8 g e n e r a l a t t r a c t i o n to western decadence. Tsar who  literally  At the same time a  imposed h i s ^ p l e a s u r e on matters p e r t a i n i n g  to s o c i a l behaviour,  state i n s t i t u t i o n s , national r e l i g i o n ,  simply c o u l d not be made to f i t T o l s t o i ' s concept historical And  of  fatalism. f i n a l l y , Lev T o l s t o i ' s change i n a t t i t u d e toward  Peter the Great may  be e x p l a i n e d , at l e a s t i n p a r t , by h i s  growing i d e a l i z a t i o n of the peasantry;  and s i n c e they  had  borne most of the weight of Peter's reforms, T o l s t o i ' s b i a s n a t u r a l l y turned a g a i n s t the T s a r .  T h i s new  p a r t of the famous w r i t e r , as A. V. A l p a t o v  a t t i t u d e on  the  suggests,  s t e e r e d the p r o j e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l on Peter I more i n the d i r e c t i o n o f moral and e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s and  consequently  18 f o r c e d h i s t o r y i n t o the background. Very  soon, Lev T o l s t o i abandoned a l l e f f o r t s to w r i t e  about P e t e r , and i n s t e a d b u s i e d h i m s e l f with the w r i t i n g of Anna Karenina.  However, h i s l a s t impression of P e t e r the  Great never mellowed. Antikhrist  When D. S. Merezhkovskii's  (Petr i Aleksei). appeared i n 1905,  d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h Lev T o l s t o i who, t h a t Merezhkovskii  responding  book  N. N. Gusev to the comment  had p o r t r a y e d P e t e r i n a l l h i s c r u e l t y ,  r e t o r t e d , "In my o p i n i o n , he was not only c r u e l , but he was a drunken f o o l as w e l l . He v i s i t e d the Germans and he l i k e d 19 how they d r i n k t h e r e . "  109 (iv)  D.  Merezhkovskii  D. S. Merezhkovskii's n o v e l A n t i k h r i s t A l e k s e i ) has  (Petr i  already been mentioned i n connection w i t h  Aleksei T o l s t o i ' s story k o v s k i i deserves  "Den'  Petra."  The n o v e l by Merezh-  some a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y so because i t s  i n f l u e n c e on T o l s t o i s t i l l B r i e f l y , i t may i l l u s t r a t e h i s own  continued i n t o the 1 9 2 0 ' s .  be s a i d t h a t M e r e z h k o v s k i i t r i e s  p e c u l i a r view of the world  examples of c e r t a i n p e r i o d s i n h i s t o r y .  to  through  He b e l i e v e s not  only t h a t h i s t o r y repeats i t s e l f , but t h a t at the same time i t progresses toward a p e r i o d which he c a l l s the t h i r d k i n g dom,  t h a t i s , a kingdom of the Moly S p i r i t .  The  preceding  two kingdoms were, M e r e z h k o v s k i i b e l i e v e s , the kingdom of paganism, and the kingdom of C h r i s t i a n i t y . M e r e z h k o v s k i i d i v i d e s mankind i n t o two  Furthermore,  categories: flesh  s p i r i t , or good and e v i l , C h r i s t and A n t i c h r i s t . the t r i l o g y C h r i s t and A n t i c h r i s t , which comprises  and  Thus, i n Death of  the Gods ( J u l i a n the A p o s t a t e ) , 1 8 9 5 , The Resurrected Gods (Leonardo  da V i n c i ) , 1 9 0 1 , and A n t i c h r i s t  (Peter and  1 9 0 5 , M e r e z h k o v s k i i wishes t o demonstrate the  Aleksei),  conflict  20  between these two  opposites.  As f a r as Peter the Great i s  ,concerned, M e r e z h k o v s k i i very simply b e l i e v e s t h a t the Tsar was  the A n t i c h r i s t who  deformed the s p i r i t of the Russian  people and i n the end would b r i n g r u i n t o R u s s i a . the c l a s h between the o l d and the new,  However,  between Holy Rus'  and  lip R u s s i a , between P e t e r and A l e k s e i , i s not posed as a h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n , but r a t h e r as a m y s t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n meant t o i l l u s t r a t e the w r i t e r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept. e x c e r p t may  serve t o show how  n o v e l about.the  The f o l l o w i n g  Merezhkovskii.envelops  Tsar i n m y s t i c a l and symbolic  his  language:  Suddenly, at the very edge of the sky, the sun f l a s h e d through the clouds as i f blood had spurted from a wound. And the s t e e l c l o u d s , the s t e e l waves became s t a i n e d w i t h b l o o d , and t h a t bloody sea became both wondrous and f r i g h t e n i n g . "Blood! Blood!" thought h i s son's prophecy.  P e t e r , and he remembered  "The b l o o d of a son, the b l o o d of Russian t s a r s w i l l be s p i l l e d upon the b l o c k by you f i r s t . That . b l o o d s h a l l pass from head t o head, t o the l a s t of the t s a r s , and our f a m i l y w i l l p e r i s h i n b l o o d . And because of you, God w i l l punish R u s s i a . " "No, Lord!" prayed P e t e r again as he d i d then when he prayed b e f o r e the o l d i c o n w i t h a darkened f a c e , when P e t e r prayed p a s t the Son, a d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f to the Father who was s a c r i f i c i n g His Son. "Do not l e t t h a t be! His b l o o d i s on me, on me alone! Punish me, God, but spare R u s s i a ! " " T h e r e ' l l be a storm!" the o l d s k i p p e r repeated, t h i n k i n g t h a t the Tsar had not heard him. "I t o l d Your Highness some time ago. I t ' s b e t t e r to turn back." "Fear not," responded P e t e r w i t h a s m i l e . s h i p i s new and s t r o n g : i t w i l l r i d e out the God i s w i t h u s . "  "Our storm.  2 1  In h i s attempt  to make h i s t o r y f i t h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d  n o t i o n s , M e r e z h k o v s k i i uses a method which has been d e s c r i b e d 22  as "metaphysical h i n d s i g h t . "  The c e n t r e of the  author's  a t t e n t i o n i s occupied by the s t r u g g l e between the f a t h e r and the son, or as M e r e z h k o v s k i i would have the reader b e l i e v e ,  Ill  between s e c u l a r and s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s , or between C h r i s t Antichrist.  and  As the A n t i c h r i s t , Peter i s weighed down w i t h  n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : , f o r example, he s a d i s t i c a l l y whips A l e k s e i t o death; but h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n matters of s t a t e receive l i t t l e C.  a t t e n t i o n from M e r e z h k o v s k i i .  The S o v i e t H i s t o r i c a l Novel. The h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l took on new  Bolshevik revolution.  As i t was  importance  f e l t that  a f t e r the  historical  f i c t i o n w r i t t e n i n p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a expressed the i d e o l o g y of the r u l i n g c l a s s , novels w r i t t e n i n the S o v i e t p e r i o d were supposed t o r e v e a l the suppressed h i s t o r y of the downtrodden, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the c l a s s In t h i s ,way,  the October R e v o l u t i o n was  t o be  struggle.  justified  through a p r e s e n t a t i o n of Russian h i s t o r y as a s e r i e s of r e b e l l i o n s and u p r i s i n g s which f i n a l l y culminated i n a Socialist victory in  1917.  In such a schematic l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s who  had  '  l e d i n the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the t s a r s c l e a r l y had t o  appear as c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s .  One  of the e a r l i e s t and very  s u c c e s s f u l h i s t o r i c a l novels of t h i s s o r t was Chapygin's  Razin Stepan  (1927).  Aleksei  R a z i n , a seventeenth-century  h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e c e l e b r a t e d i n Russian f o l k l o r e , i n the treatment of Chapygin  illogically  embraces r e p u b l i c a n i s m ,  atheism, and t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r e v o l u t i o n a r y ness.  class-conscious-  T h i s k i n d of m o d e r n i z a t i o n of a seventeenth-century  112 cossack, t o g e t h e r w i t h a burdensome number of a r c h a i c words and r e f e r e n c e s to a n c i e n t u n f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s , makes f o r s e r i o u s flaws i n Razin  Stepan.  I u r i i Tynianov's historical  Kiukhlia  (1925) i s another type of  f i c t i o n t h a t appeared  i n the e a r l y years of the  S o v i e t regime.  However, i n this- s o r t of n o v e l , the fr->- •..  author f o l l o w s h i s t o r i c a l documents so clcbsely t h a t the SifeorybofsthepDeeembrist u p r i s i n g of 1825 resembles  i n Tynianov's  a montage of memoirs and h i s t o r i c a l  w r i t e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n has  little  records.  a re-telling  to be  of h i s t o r y .  The work of A l e k s e i T o l s t o i , examples of S o v i e t h i s t o r i c a l in  The  scope amid the overwhelming  amount of documentation, so t h a t the novel appears merely  book  i n c o n t r a s t t o such  n o v e l s , shows a proper  a l l the e s s e n t i a l s of the h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l .  monarch i s o f f e r e d as a hero, and one who  balance  Although  is fairly  a  guarded  a g a i n s t e x p r e s s i n g modern sentiments, the language i s at. once both contemporary and a p p r o p r i a t e t o the c h a r a c t e r s , and f i n a l l y , T o l s t o i to the bare minimum.  i s very c a r e f u l to keep a c t u a l documents Unencumbered by d e t a i l e d accounts  p u b l i c events, the w r i t e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n i s f r e e t o s o a r ,  of and  T o l s t o i ' s P e t e r i s presented most o f t e n with h i s p r i v a t e thoughts  and p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s .  And y e t P e t r P e r v y i o f f e r s \  the reader a panoramic view of l i f e the seventeenth  i n R u s s i a at the end of  and the b e g i n n i n g of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ,  113'  a view t h a t spans the s o c i a l and s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e s between the Kremlin p a l a c e s i n Moscow and the d e c r e p i t i z b a s i n remote corners of the country.  Such breadth .of d e s c r i p t i o n ,  as w e l l as d e p i c t i o n s o f a whole -gallery o f c h a r a c t e r s , helps t o e x p l a i n those  circumstances  the E u r o p e a n i z a t i o n o f R u s s i a .  t h a t were p r e s s i n g f o r  But a t the same time, the  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f P e t e r i s c a l c u l a t e d t o demonstrate how the s t r e n g t h of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y was able t o i n f l u e n c e events to such a degree t h a t the epoch now bears h i s name. D.  P e t r P e r v y i and Contemporary C r i t i c i s m . On many occasions T o l s t o i expressed  q u e s t i o n o f how t o w r i t e .  h i s views -on the  To begin w i t h , he never  a d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r any p r o j e c t e d l i t e r a r y work.  prepared The most  t h a t he would j o t down b e f o r e a c t u a l w r i t i n g began would be a g e n e r a l statement o f purpose.  The c h a r a c t e r s t h a t he  would i n t r o d u c e came t o l i f e and acted almost  independently  of the author's wishes.  accomplished  through experiences  C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was  gained as a p l a y w r i g h t ,  T o l s t o i i n an i n t e r v i e w with Smena.  explained  Of course, i n a d d i t i o n  to d i a l o g u e , what he was r e f e r r i n g t o here was the language of gesture which, as he e x p l a i n e d i t , l i n k between thought and a r t i c u l a t i o n .  acted as a p h y s i c a l Such a language of  gesture becomes more the language o f the c h a r a c t e r than o f the w r i t e r ; by t h i s means T o l s t o i draws the reader i n t o the n a r r a t i v e and r e l i e s on h i s i m a g i n a t i o n t o complete the  114 picture.  "My  task i s to c r e a t e - a^worclid"wwr-dfeelTols t o i ,  and l e t the reader i n t o i t . There he w i l l assoc i a t e w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s on h i s own, not through my words, but through those unwritten, i n a u d i b l e words which he w i l l understand through the language of g e s t u r e s . ^ 2  To the P e t r i n e theme T o l s t o i r e t u r n e d Na dybe, the f i r s t of three plays followed was  i n 1928  about Peter  I, which  immediatecliy.yby the s t o r y "Marta Rabbe."  s t i l l w r i t i n g Na dybe i n the f a l l of 1928,  with was  While  he  he wrote a  l e t t e r to V. P. P o l o n s k i i , the e d i t o r of Novyl M i r , s t a t i n g t h a t he expected t o f i n i s h the p l a y by December, and  that  soon a f t e r he wanted to s t a r t on a novel about Tsar  Peter  which he would l i k e to o f f e r the magazine f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The  n o v e l t h a t was  February 1929,  t o become P e t r P e r v y i was  but  started in  i n subsequent l e t t e r s t o P o l o n s k i i ,  T o l s t o i r e f e r r e d to h i s work not as a n o v e l , but or s t o r y . in  When the f i r s t  the J u l y 1929  povest'.  subtitle  he expected t o w r i t e s e v e r a l independent  f i n i s h e d s t o r i e s f o r each i s s u e of the magazine.  t o a l t e r h i s plans  novel. i n May  appeared  Judging fr<om T o l s t o i ' s l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n the  however, the q u a n t i t y him  i n s t a l l m e n t of P e t r P e r v y i  i s s u e of Novyl M i r i t c a r r i e d the  e a r l y p a r t of 1929, and  as a povest',  of m a t e r i a l t h a t he had and  concentrate  Soon,  amassed f o r c e d  on w r i t i n g a  full  " A l l June and h a l f of J u l y , " he wrote to P o l o n s k i i of  1929,  I s h a l l be working on P e t e r ,  and  in a l l probability  115 I s h a l l send you the end of the f i r s t volume (the t h i r d c h a p t e r ) , t h a t i s "Peter's Youth." In i t (the t h i r d chapter) t h e r e w i l l be Holland,tithe e x e c u t i o n of the s t r e l ' t s y , the s t o r y w i t h Mons, the b e g i n n i n g of the Northern War, and the founding of S t . P e t e r s b u r g . 2 4  But T o l s t o i was would comprise entire trilogy. when P e t e r was  very much mistaken,  f o r what he  thought  only the f i r s t book occupied i n f a c t The n o v e l P e t r P e r v y i extends t e n , t o 1704,  of S t . P e t e r s b u r g .  from  the year f o l l o w i n g the  Book I , completed  i n May  1930,  the 1682, founding concludes  w i t h the s u p p r e s s i o n and e x e c u t i o n of the s t r e l ' t s y ; Book I I , s t a r t e d a t the end of November 1932, 1934  was  completed  and i t concludes w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  wharfs at the mouth of the Neva R i v e r . which T o l s t o i d i d not f i n i s h , was  The  in April first  l a s t volume,  begun on December 31,  1943  and i t ends w i t h the capture of the Swedish f o r t r e s s Narva in  1704. Such i s the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the n o v e l ,in i t s  completed  version.  The reason why  events  i n the- n o v e l  progressed i n such slow c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence i s t h a t Tolstoi  always underestimated  the amount of d e t a i l t h a t he  would i n c o r p o r a t e i n h i s n a r r a t i v e .  In 1933,  when he  was  w r i t i n g the second book, f o r example, he a n t i c i p a t e d b r i n g i n g the s t o r y forward to the year 1718,  and c o n c l u d i n g the  t r i l o g y w i t h the l i f e of M. V. Lomonosov. he planned  In other words,  at one time t o extend P e t r P e r v y i w e l l i n t o  the  116 middle  of the e i g h t e e n t h century.  But, when he was w r i t i n g  the t h i r d book, he r e v e a l e d i n an i n t e r v i e w g i v e n i n February 1944  t h a t he wanted t o d w e l l on P e t e r ' s l e g i s l a t i v e  ties  (his "Napoleonic"  activi-_  p e r i o d , as Pushkin had c a l l e d  h i s i n n o v a t i o n s i n Russian  l i f e - s t y l e , and h i s other  it), visits  25  to western Europe.  L a t e r , i n November 1944, when he was T o l s t o i wrote to V. B. S h k l o v s k i i about  already g r a v e l y i l l ,  his greatly modified plans: I s h a l l take the n o v e l only as f a r as P o l t a v a , maybe t o the P r u t campaign, I do n o t know y e t . I do n o t wish the c h a r a c t e r s t o age. What am I to do w i t h the o l d p e o p l e ? ^ 2  But even t h i s was n o t f u l f i l l e d , i n ever-growing  pain.  f o r every page was w r i t t e n  As i t happened, P e t r P e r v y i ends with  the year 1704, some f o u r years b e f o r e the B u l a v i n uprising.  cossack  The c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the T s a r , awhomoTolstpi'.  hadebui'lfesupsasea p r o g r e s s i v e and n a t i o n a l hero, and the l e a d e r o f a popular r e v o l t a g a i n s t the b o i a r s and upper c l a s s e s presented T o l s t o i w i t h a problem which he was not prepared  to resolve.  For reasons  27  not e n t i r e l y c l e a r , e x p l a i n e d A. V. 28  A l p a t o v i n another  c o n v e r s a t i o n , T o l s t o i had many enemies.  Some were simply envious comfort  t h a t he had achieved.  they would complain, Others  o f h i s success and the m a t e r i a l Look, an emigr£ r e t u r n e d ,  and now he i s l i v i n g b e t t e r than we a r e .  a t t a c k e d him f o r h i s s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of n a t i o n a l i s m .  117  In every country, continued A l p a t o v , there are people who are i n d i f f e r e n t t o the p a s t , or even hate i t . were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l  of any sympathetic  These elements w r i t i n g about  the p a s t , and by making Peter a n a t i o n a l hero T o l s t o i was moving a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t i d e o l o g y .  At f i r s t ,  political  and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s formed a l a r g e p a r t of the c r i t i c i s m o f P e t r P e r v y i , and G o r k i i was among the very few who p r a i s e d the novel from the date of i t s f i r s t In the f i r s t reviews  publication.  and d i s c u s s i o n s o f Petr. P e r v y i ,  T o l s t o i was taken t o task most o f t e n f o r h i s un-Marxian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Russian h i s t o r y , f o r h i s  unfavourable  comparison o f R u s s i a v i s - a - v i s Europe, and f o r h i s h e r o i c d e p i c t i o n of the T s a r , . a d e p i c t i o n t h a t was c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r t o t h a t made by the h i s t o r i a n o f the o l d regime, V. 0. K l i u c h e v s k i i .  One RAPP s a t i r i s t , f o r example, composed  a d i t t y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e novel was l i k e the p l a y Na dybe, but i n s t e a d of M e r e z h k o v s k i i , T o l s t o i was now under the influence of K l i u c h e v s k i i :  • • •  npouuiH rofla.  IIOKa3aH  CTapajicH  Bo Bcefi Kpace  BHOBB BJiaCTHTeJIb  HeBCKHH.  T O T xte AneKcefi,  Ho KpacKaMH cHa6xcaJi Krao^ieBCKHH.  29  Another c r i t i c , w r i t i n g i n RAPP's Na l i t e r a t u r n o m postu, r e c a l l e d how the academician  S. F. Platonov had complained  about T o l s t o i ' s e a r l i e r d e p i c t i o n o f the Tsar i n "Den' Petra."  I t now appeared t h a t the author..iof&Pefc*rrPervyi--" had 1  118  heeded Platonov's  remarks and had changed the image of the  Tsar a c c o r d i n g l y . the b o u r g e o i s i e ^  As i f f u l f i l l i n g  the s o c i a l command o f  T o l s t o i was f o l l o w i n g the teachings  of the  i d e a l i s t i c , p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r i a n s i n s t e a d o f the correct Marxist historiography. the a r t i c l e  N. I e s u i t o v , the author o f  "Peter, the Europeanizer  o f Rus ," noted t h a t 1  the whole concept in; P e t r P e r v y i was erroneous, t h a t i t was r e a c t i o n a r y , and t h a t the- r o l e of a p e r s o n a l i t y i n the h i s t o r i c a l process  was d e p i c t e d as i f T o l s t o i had never  heard o f the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , or h i s t o r i c a l and d i a l e c t i c a l .  . ,.  30  materialism. K o r n e l i i Z e l e n s k i i , w r i t i n g i n K r a s n a i a Nov', c r i t i c i z e d T o l s t o i f o r s i m i l a r shortcomings.  He added, however,  t h a t T o l s t o i ' s p o r t r a y a l o f Peter and h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Tsar's  c r u e l t y r e v e a l e d the p e r s i s t e n t Smena vekh  a t t i t u d e of r e s i g n a t i o n t o the r e v o l u t i o n . continued  Z e l e n s k i i , reduced Peter's  anization of Russia, f i l l e d with hatred  Tolstoi,  reforms t o the Europe-  and i n d e p i c t i n g the Tsar as a man  f o r h i s backward and u n c u l t u r e d  country,  the author of P e t r P e r v y i was merely exposing h i s bourgeois 31 o r i g i n s and h i s own d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the new S o v i e t G. Gorbachev i n h i s review of P e t r P e r v y i a l s o Tolstoi and  Russia.  criticized  f o r h i s i n c o r r e c t d e p i c t i o n o f the P e t r i n e epoch,  i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r h i s d i s r e g a r d o f M. N. P o k r o v s k i i ' s 32  teachings.  (  119 A f t e r 1932, when RAPP and other l i t e r a r y  groupings  were disbanded, i d e o l o g i c a l a t t a c k s a g a i n s t T o l s t o i have been expected t o cease. reason why  might  Yet t h i s d i d not happen.  such a t t a c k s p e r s i s t e d f o r some time was  The  t h a t the  s o - c a l l e d " P o k r o v s k i i s c h o o l " continued t o advance the only acceptable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y , whose maxim was. t h a t " h i s t o r y i s p o l i t i c s immersed i n the p a s t . "  Arid although  P o k r o v s k i i ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were a t t a c k e d even d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , they were not o f f i c i a l l y p r o s c r i b e d u n t i l  January  33 1936. T o l s t o i ' s notes f o r the second book of P e t r P e r v y i r e v e a l t h a t h i s understanding of the economic and background  social  emerged out of an e f f o r t t o r e f l e c t ©okrovskii's  views, but t h i s made T o l s t o i v u l n e r a b l e to more c r i t i c i s m a f t e r the h i s t o r i a n was  found to be i n e r r o r .  "Feudal  R u s s i a of the seventeenth century," wrote T o l s t o i i n 1932, was a p a t h e t i c s i g h t : backward a g r a r i a n economy, and a near t o t a l absence of manufacture, : i : T h i s was l i t e r a l l y a country of paupers, where o l d , sleepy b o i a r s s a t s a f e behing s t r o n g fences among l o a f e r s and h o l y f o o l s , where church b e l l s rang g l o o m i l y i n the g l o r y of poverty and p a s s i v i t y . But R u s s i a was tremendously r i c h i n r e s o u r c e s . The growing power of European c a p i t a l i n the seventeenth century was seeking resources and markets. Russia was both the one and the o t h e r . European c a p i t a l aimed at the conquest of the second I n d i a , as they c a l l e d R u s s i a i n the West. . . . In R u s s i a there appeared c r e a t i v e but c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s . Thesewas w.eiBe the young Russian b o u r g e o i s i e , Russian commerc i a l c a p i t a l , manufacturers of a l l k i n d s , and a ^ group of t a l e n t e d , e n e r g e t i c people who r a l l i e d around Peter.34  120 Alpatov's c r i t i c i s m s , however, served to minimize Tolstoi's alleged errors.  In a review of the.two volumes of  P e t r e P e r v y i p u b l i s h e d i n a 193 4 i s s u e of Khudozhestvennaia L i t e r a t u r a , A l p a t o v conceded t h a t i n the f i r s t was  book t h e r e  "a s l i g h t overemphasis of the r o l e of commercial c a p i t a l 35  which stemmed from P o k r o v s k i i . " a conscious  But t h i s was  not so much  f o l l o w i n g of P o k r o v s k i i , he suggested,  as i t was  a tendency to o v e r s t r e s s the c o n t r a s t between a backward R u s s i a and a developed  West.  In another  article  Alpatov  commended T o l s t o i ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Peter because i t 36 r e f l e c t e d S t a l i n ' s conception of the Tsar. was  r e f e r r i n g to i n t h i s i n s t a n c e was  the i n t e r v i e w t h a t  S t a l i n gave to Emile Ludwig i n December 1931. to  What A l p a t o v  In  response  a q u e s t i o n put to him by the German i n t e r v i e w e r , S t a l i n  denied t h a t there was  any p a r a l l e l between Peter and h i m s e l f .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e p l y was suggested  g i v e n i n such a manner t h a t the  p a r a l l e l between the two p e r s i s t e d .  "Yes,  of  course," s a i d S t a l i n , P e t e r the Great d i d much to r a i s e the c l a s s of l a n d l o r d s and the emerging merchant c l a s s . . . . The problem t o which I am d e d i c a t i n g my l i f e i s the r a i s i n g of another c l a s s , and t h a t i s the working c l a s s , . . . You see then, your p a r a l l e l does not fit. 3 7  A f t e r 19 34 T o l s t o i was  still  criticized  for his  a l l e g e d l y i n c o r r e c t h i s t o r i c a l conceptions even though he was  no longer accused  of i g n o r i n g P o k r o v s k i i .  Instead,  he  was e i t h e r accused of f o l l o w i n g P o k r o v s k i i , or e l s e censured f o r w r i t i n g what was taken t o be a h i s t o r y of the P e t r i n e epoch.  In a r e p o r t by Iak. Eidel'man i n L i t e r a t u r n y i K r i t i k ,  i t was observed t h a t the h i s t o r i a n s F r i d l i a n d and Z e l ' t s e r had  found t h a t A l e k s e i T o l s t o i had f a i l e d t o d e p i c t the  peasant r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement, t h a t he had n e g l e c t e d the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of t h a t p e r i o d , t h a t he had not e x p l a i n e d what circumstances had l e d t o Peter's  appearance, and f i n a l l y  t h a t h i s d e p i c t i o n of the Tsar was a mere r e p r o d u c t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l image as presented by K l i u c h e v s k i i , Solov'ev 38 and  Platonov. In the seventh i s s u e of O k t i a b r '  an e x t e n s i v e  f o r 193 4, there was  r e p o r t on a group which met t o d i s c u s s h i s t o r -  i c a l f i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l , w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of a t t e n t i o n focused books of P e t r P e r v y i .  on A. T o l s t o i and the two  C r i t i c s were quick  t o upbraid  Tolstoi  f o r adhering t o the o l d h i s t o r i a n s i n the f i r s t book, and f o r adhering t o P o k r o v s k i i i n the second. ignored  Only D. S. Mirsky  the t r e n d and c r i t i c i z e d him f o r not f o l l o w i n g the  h i s t o r i c a l concepts .of P o k r o v s k i i . Ts. F r i d l i a n d , who acted  as chairman of the group,  opened the d i s c u s s i o n by reminding the audience t h a t h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n must serve  as an instrument i n the c l a s s  s t r u g g l e and, t h e r e f o r e , i t . p l a c e s great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the w r i t e r .  He must use the h i s t o r i c a l novel  to c a s t o f f  ( 122  the dead weight of t r a d i t i o n and r e v e a l t o the reader perspectives for a bright future. P e r v y i , F r i d l i a n d expressed  When he came t o P e t r  h i s d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h the l a r g e  number o f pages devoted t o the monarch and the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l number devoted t o the masses; the p l e b e i a n s remain anonymous f i g u r e s who make only c a s u a l appearances and  i n g e n e r a l serve only as p e d e s t a l s  f o r Peter.  he added, T o l s t o i was i d e a l i z i n g Russian or statehood,  Moreover,  gosudarstvennost',  and t h i s was c o n t r a r y t o M a r x i s t  ideology.  S i m i l a r comments and c r i t i c i s m s were repeated  by E.  Veisman, E. Lann, I . Tatarov, V. Vaganian, and o t h e r s . Vaganian, f o r example, began w i t h nine-tenths  a statement c l a i m i n g t h a t  o f the blame f o r i n c o r r e c t h i s t o r i c a l d e p i c t i o n s  i n l i t e r a t u r e must.be p l a c e d w i t h h i s t o r i a n s and n o t w r i t e r s . He then proceeded t o a t t a c k P o k r o v s k i i f o r c o r r u p t i n g Marx and L e n i n , and f o r the "commercial c a p i t a l " t h a t had found i t s way i n t o T o l s t o i ' s P e t r P e r v y i .  He then  criticized  T o l s t o i f o r something n o t mentioned by any o f the preceding speakers, novel.  and t h a t was the contemporaneity achieved by the  Vaganian o b j e c t e d t o any p a r a l l e l w i t h the p a s t , on  the grounds t h a t the s a c r i f i c e s made d u r i n g the B e t r i n e p e r i o d r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a " b o u r g e o i s - a b s o l u t i s t monarchy," whereas those made d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n and the' years  of the f i r s t  lishment  f i v e - y e a r p l a n were made f o r the estab-  of socialism.  Moreover, i f P e t r P e r v y i i s intended  123 to be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the c u r r e n t i n d u s t r i a l development o f the country, then there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between i t and Gladkov's E n e r g i i a , a n o v e l about the b u i l d i n g o f the dam a t Dnepropetrovsk.  In other words, he concluded,  n o v e l does not e x i s t through  a historical  "unless we wish t o view the world  the prism.of n a t i o n a l i s t i d e a s , or u n l e s s the n a t i o n 39  a l i s t past i s an o b j e c t o f our i d e a l i z a t i o n . "  Thus,  concluded Vaganian, T o l s t o i makes an improper p a r a l l e l w i t h contemporary c o n d i t i o n s , a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y appears t o be founded on an outdated n a t i o n a l i s m . In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , D. S. Mirsky  argued, u s i n g S i r  Walter S c o t t t o support h i s p o s i t i o n , t h a t contemporary i s s u e s and problems may be l e g i t i m a t e l y m i r r o r e d i n h i s t o r i c c a l n o v e l s . But the former P r i n c e added t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n : For a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l t o be t r u l y h i s t o r i c a l i n the M a r x i s t sense of the word " h i s t o r i c a l , " the n o v e l i s t must be not only an a r t i s t , but a l s o a h i s t o r i a n , and I would even say t h a t he must f i r s t be a h i s t o r i a n and only then an a r t i s t . 4 0  T h e r e f o r e , he argued, the novel P e t r P e r v y i i s not a good n o v e l because T o l s t o i i s s t i l l wavering between K l i u c h e v s k i i and P o k r o v s k i i .  F i n a l l y , the attempted p a r a l l e l between  P e t e r ' s time and the p r e s e n t , concluded M i r s k y , i s nothing 41 l e s s than  "an e x p e c t o r a t i o n o f his.Smena vekh p e r i o d . "  But T o l s t o i d i d not mean t o suggest  a direct  parallel.  In 1932 he wrote i n a notebook about h i s plans f o r the n o v e l :  12.4 The f i r s t decades of the e i g h t e e n t h century presented an amazing p i c t u r e of e x p l o d i n g , c r e a t i v e f o r c e s , o f energy and e n t e r p r i s e . The o l d w o r l d was c r e a k i n g and crumbling. Europe, which was e x p e c t i n g something completely different*?-gazed upon the emerging R u s s i a w i t h s u r p r i s e and f e a r . . . . D e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e i n aims, the P e t r i n e p e r i o d and our own have a s i m i l a r i t y i n t u r b u l e n c e , o u t b u r s t of human energy and purpose d i r e c t e d toward freedom from dependence on f o r e i g n e r s . 4 2  This p a r a l l e l should not be taken too f a r .  In 1933  Tolstoi  wrote t h a t P e t r P e r v y i i s not a novel about the present w i t h c h a r a c t e r s dressed i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y costumes; r a t h e r i s it  about an epoch ..which can be understood  now,  that i s , 43  a f t e r the experience of " s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . " C r i t i c i s m of P e t r P e r v y i , based  as i t was  on i d e o -  l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , ceased i n the h a l f of the 1930's.  T h e r e a f t e r T o l s t o i was  latter  praised for  p r o p e r l y d e p i c t i n g P e t e r as a p r o g r e s s i v e reformer expanded and strengthened the Russian s t a t e .  who  Most r e c e n t  monographs on A l e k s e i T o l s t o i , those w r i t t e n i n the past decades, have extended  two  h i s a d r o i t n e s s to i n c l u d e a near-  l i n e a r development toward s o c i a l i s t r e a l i s m , and  correct  h i s t o r i c a l conceptions of the P e t r i n e p e r i o d . E.  The Novel P e t r P e r v y i . T o l s t o i ' s n o v e l i s indeed a whole world taken  seventeenth  and e i g h t e e n t h s c e n t u r y R u s s i a .  And  from  although  on  t h i s broad canvas P e t e r always occupies the c e n t r e , the a c t u a l n a r r a t i v e proceeds  from a v a r i e t y of v i e w p o i n t s .  The  125 reader becomes acquainted w i t h the t h i n k i n g of b o i a r s , s o l d i e r s , f o r e i g n e r s and, and  peasants,  of course, Peter h i m s e l f ,  a l t o g e t h e r they produce a f e e l i n g of h i s t o r i c a l movement.  These d i v e r s e sources  of n a r r a t i o n a l s o combine t o c r e a t e  t h a t sense of atmosphere from the p a s t , but d e s p i t e the many sources t h e r e i s i n P e t r P e r v y i a d i s c e r n i b l e u n i t y , f o r the e n t i r e n a r r a t i v e i s s t y l i z e d t o maintain  a sense of the p a s t .  T h i s s i n g u l a r f e e l i n g of the p a s t which maintains  through  of experience  the f u l l  Tolstoi  l e n g t h of the novel was  a result  gained p r e v i o u s l y i n w r i t i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s i n  h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n , and  the r e v e l a t i o n found  i n the  language  t h a t he d i s c o v e r e d i n Novombergskii' s S&ovo •£ldel'oigdsudarevy. T o l s t o i ' s r e a d i n g of t h i s book convinced  him  t h a t there i s  no s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the spoken language of the P e t r i n e p e r i o d and the v e r n a c u l a r , the narodnyi  i a z y k , of  44  the t w e n t i e t h century.  This o b s e r v a t i o n i s d u l y  by the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n taken  confirmed  from T o l s t o i ' s address  to  young w r i t e r s d e l i v e r e d i n December 193 8: I began t o study the v e r n a c u l a r [narodnyi] Russian language through f a i r y t a l e s , songs, Slovo i d e l o , t h a t i s , t r a n s c r i p t s of t r i a l s from the seventeenth century, and the w r i t i n g s of Avvakum. 45  Thus, even though i n P e t r P e r v y i the language i s contemporary Russian,  T o l s t o i employs s e v e r a l d e v i c e s t o g i v e i t a s p i r i t  of the p a s t .  For example, semantic d i f f e r e n c e s make c e r t a i n  contemporary words assume t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning, and  syntax  126 which  i s uncommon i n t h e l i t e r a r y  utes  to t h e  uses  only  documents  feeling of  the  a few a r c h a i s m s whose  language.  style  Diffuse,  and  of t o d a y  these a p p e a r mostly considerably  containing  from  absent  excerpts  taken.from  of  these  from  the  of  tion,  which  spoken these  of l a n g u a g e  serve  The  to i l l u s t r a t e  combine  the n o v e l w i t h a s e r i e s  some  to  produce  the  one  of perspectives,  message,  backwardness a n d i s o l a t i o n m u s t be e n d e d . of  are  in ascending  arranged  serfs  the  devices.  descriptions  of  i n some  vernacular Russian.  the n o v e l w i l l  Tolstoi begins all  spoken,  Tolstoi  some S l a v o n i c i s m s ,  documents were m e a n t t o r e f l e c t a s t a t e l i n e s s t h a t was  contrib-  On the o t h e r h a n d ,  past.  differed  and  standard  to  life  in  the seat  o f power  from  the h u t  in Sofia's  of  stagna-  These  Peter's  Russia on t h e e v e o f order,  that  the  reign lowest  Kremlin:  HBauiKa H H u r a H C T O H B c y M e p K a x H a . f l B o p e , HyjviaJiH. CneuiHTb H e K y n a . Xopomero xcnaTb . H e o T K y n a . KoHe^HO, C T a p H K H paccKa3biBaioT, npeacfle ..Jier^e.. 6 H J I O : He n o H p a B H J i o c b , yiueji K Hpyrowiy noMeujHKy. HbiHe S T O 3 a K a 3 a H o , • — rfle BexieHo, T a M H X C H B H . BejieHo . K O P M H T B BoJiKOBa, — - KaK x o ^ e u i b , T a K H K O P M H . Bee c T a j i H x o J i o n a M H . H xcflaTb H a f l o : eme T p y f l H e e 6yjj;eT...46 In  these  draws  Tolstoi syntax value  they  short,  laconic  a picture  re-creates of s u c h  are  the  phrases  clearly  expressions of t h e i r  "nyne  understood  together,.they h e l p  by  the  gloomy  vernacular; as  of  eto  and  peasants'  life  in  though  zakazano"  contemporary  16 82.  The  the  semantic  has  changed,  readers.  t o produce a . s t r o n g s e n s e  thoughts,  of t h e  Taken past.  129 But d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e i s a l s o v o i c e d by master  of the two peasants, the m i d d l i n g b o i a r  Volkov.  He  the  Vasilii  complains:  —  Bee Hapoflbi xcHByT B 6oraTCTBe, B flOBOJiBCTBe, O A H H HHinHe. EbiJi HeaaBHo B M o c K B e , HCKaji o p y s c e f i H H K a , nocjiaJiH MeHH Ha KyKyK-CJio6orj;y, K HeMnaM... Hy, ^ T O 7K, O H H He npaBoejiaBHbie, — H X 6or paccyflHT... A MM  KaK  Boiueji H  3a  orparty,  —  yjiHUBi noflMeTeHbi,  H36bi  ^JHCTbie, BeeeJiHe, B oroponax U B e T H . . . JIion.H npHBeT— jiHBue H B e s B TyT xce, PHHOM C HaMH 5KHBVT. H 6oraTCTBo! ORHH KyKyn 6 o r a i e . B e e n M O C K B H C npnropoflaMH... [14] While the d o c i l e peasants reason s i m p l y . — - "ne tvoego i ne moego uma  delo" —  Volkov, who  has seen how  the Europeans i n  the f o r e i g n q u a r t e r of Moscow l i v e , i s s t r u c k by the difference in l i f e - s t y l e s suburb."  and by the wealth i n the "German  The only t h i n g t h a t Volkov could say a g a i n s t the  "Germans," i t would seem, i s t h a t they are not But T o l s t o i i n t h i s way  e x p l a i n s how  Orthodox.  some members of the o l d  n o b i l i t y came t o support P e t e r and the r a d i c a l reforms he was  that  to introduce. L i k e w i s e , c o n t r a s t s were observed by the f o r e i g n e r s ,  who  wondered a t the Russian custom of a t t e n d i n g church t h r e e  times a day, of e a t i n g f o u r meals a day,and, f o r the sake of d i g n i t y and h e a l t h , o f s l e e p i n g i n the a f t e r n o o n s . they l i v e d The  Truly  l i k e bears. f a c t t h a t R u s s i a was  and under-developed  e c o n o m i c a l l y impoverished  i s revealed i n d i r e c t l y .  the p l a i n t i v e t a l k of tradesmen,  Tolstoi  uses  merchants and b o i a r s t o  12 8 suggest  the  illustrated western with  country's by  contrasting  nobleman,  w h a t was  dilapidated  a boiar's  and what  expected  direct address to the  condition.  had  now.  life  sufficed  The  This i s  with  of  a  generations  two  following  that  further  excerpt  is  ago a  reader:  M V X C H K c nopoTofi a a f l H H u e K K O B H P H J I K o e - K a K nocTbuiyio 3eMJno. n o c a f l C K H f i ^ e j i o B e K O T HecTepnHMbix n a H e H H no6opoB B H J I Ha X O J I O A H O M H B o p e . CTOHaJio B e e M e j i n o e Kyne^ecTBO. Xyxjen. MeJiKonoMecTHbifi A B O P H H H H . HCTOiqajiacb 3eivuiH; ypoacafi c a M - T p n — CJiaBa Te6e rocnoflH. K p n x T e j i H flaxce 6 o H p e H HMeHHTHe Kyjiubi. EonpHHy B nenoBCKHe BpeMeHa M H o r o J I H S H J I O HyxcHo? — my6a H a C O 6 O J I H X na m a n n a r o p j i a T H a n — - B O T H qecTb. A flOMa xjie6an T e see I H H C C O J I O H H H O H , cnaJi Ra M O J I H J I C H 6ory. HbiH^e r j i a 3 a CTaJiH r o J i o f l H e e : 3 a x o T e j i o c & J K H T B He xyxce n o j i b C K H x naHOB, H J I H JiH^JiHHjjHeB, H J I H HeMueB: HaanbimaJiHCb, noBHnaJiH MHoroe. Ceprme p a 3 r o p e j i o c b acanHOCTBB. CT.aJIH 6 0 H p e 3 a B O f l H l L HBOP flBOpHK) n O C O T H e jjyia. A H X o S y T b , o j j e T b B rep6oBue Ka<l>TaHbi, npoKopM H T b H e H a c b i T H y f o o p a B y , — HyacHbi He n p e x c H n e n e H B r a . B nepeBHHHbix H36ax xcHTb C T a J i o HenpHJiH^Ho. npexene  6OHPHH HJIH 60HPHHH Bbie3)KaJIH C O ffBOpa B C a H H X n a oflHOH jiomaflH, x o j i o n cHrteji BepxoM, no3aflH flyrH, Ha xoMyT, Ha y3fle*iKy, H a uijieio HaBeiiHBaJiH j i n c b H x X B O C T O B , V T O 6 H I JUORK 3aBHjj;oBaJiH . Tenepb — BBinnCHBan H3 BaHunra 30Jio^eHyio KapeTy, 3 a n p n r a n e e ^ e T B e p H e n , — HHaie HeT ^ e c r a . A me / J t e H b r n ? Tyro, B e c b M a pro. [57] "Tugo, v e s ' m a  tugo"  this p a r a g r a p h . expressions slava  tebe  commerce  Muscovy. a  certain  boiar  as  emphasizes  The v e r n a c u l a r "porotaia  gospodi."  or  history,  One s e n s e s cohesive  slurped  the  Tolstoi that  quality  cabbage  quality  zadnitsa"  In t h i s  conversational  and  draws  conveyed  "urozhai  paragraph,  as  soup w i t h s a l t  by - s u c h  of  pork  feudal  times; just  —  discussing  Karamzin f i r s t  pre-Petrine  of  sam-tri  without  a picture  there w a s , in  is  tone  at  like  noted,  home the  the  129  wretched peasant with  t h e whipped b e h i n d .  t h o u g h , i t i s t h e b o i a r s who European counterparts west  express  jealousy  and no ledger l i s t h e w i s h  a j e a l o u s whim o f t h e T s a r ,  1918 s t o r y , the  now  Significantly  "Den' P e t r a . "  as i t was  Instead,  e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y , who  this  of  to follow the  suggested  The of  western  i n the  p a s s a g e shows  i n the past  peers.  decline i n their  ToproBJiHiiiKa nJioxan.  —  because  trade:  C B o e M y MHor.o He npoflauiB,  roji. 3 a r p a H H u y He Mopn ^yxtfie. Bee T o p r a  to  t o envy  k u p t s y , o r m e r c h a n t s , were a l s o g r u m b l i n g  the steady  that  were c o n t e n t  g u a r d . t h e i r h o n o u r and t o p r a y , were now b e g i n n i n g the wealth o f t h e i r  their  noBe3euiB, —  CBOH  H a *ieM. c 3arpaHHiJ,eH n p H 6 p a J i H K p y K a M HH03eMUBi. A nocJiymaeuiB, K a K TopryioT B H H H X 3eMJiHx, rojioBy 6 H p a 3 6 H J i c flocaflfai. ^ I T O 3a P O C C H H , 3aKJiHTan C T p a H a , — K o r a a ace T b i c M e c T a he  CHBHHeiUBCH? With for  this  rhetorical  the c e n t r a l  there  [58] question  figure  of the novel.  existed a near-universal  s t a t u s q u o , and i t i s a t t h i s v i e w t h a t a l l t h a t was the in  common w i s h this  f o r a change.  a man w i t h  a prepared  point  the r e a l i t i e s which  the  of great  satisfy  a man intellect,  revolutionary  completely this  the  the background  to portray  for literally  reduce  with  could  Having prepared  c h a n g e s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e a man cope w i t h  a man who  task  that  t h a t he i n t r o d u c e s  power, a man  treatise  t h e main  He h a s shown  next proceeds  enormous p o l i t i c a l  prepares  dissatisfaction  r e q u i r e d was  manner, T o l s t o i  wielding  Tolstoi  man,  unable t o Prince  Vasilii  i3G V a s i l e v i c h G o l i t s y n , t o impotency. l a c e , breeches,  Dressed  i n fine  French  and buckle shoes, G o l i t s y n , speaking i n  L a t i n , e x p l a i n s t o a f o r e i g n v i s i t o r how he would f r e e the s e r f s , g i v e them l a n d , w h i l e w i t h the gentry he would government posts and c r e a t e a r e g u l a r army. send the youth  from the n o b i l i t y  abroad  fill  He would a l s o  t o study, he would  e s t a b l i s h an academy o f s c i e n c e s , and i n g e n e r a l work f o r the enrichment  and enlightenment  of both t h e people and the  country. But P r i n c e G o l i t s y n , a h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r , i s most g r a p h i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d by T o l s t o i i n an imaginary  private  conference w i t h the regent S o f i a , P e t e r ' s e l d e r " . h a l f - s i s t e r . G o l i t s y n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s not equal t o the c h a l l e n g e posed by the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a , and though he i s i n many r e s p e c t s f a r more p r o g r e s s i v e i n h i s schemes than P e t e r , he l a c k s Peter's s i m p l i c i t y his  ruthlessness.  and s t r e n g t h o f w i l l ,  and e s p e c i a l l y  G o l i t s y n ' s weakness i s b e s t conveyed t o  the reader through the eyes o f h i s m i s t r e s s , S o f i a :  Co  BacHJiHfj BacHJibeBH^: noTporaJi najibueM ycbi, . . . CocpbH^noKocKJiacB-HaDHepo: ox^.CKpacHB, ox, "MyKa M O H . . . fla — BbipHflHJICH . . .  —  TaK-TO,  CJia6,  SCHJIH —  sceHCKHe...  6aTK>niKa M O H . . . ropa3H, M H C J I H  ropa3,n. H n n c a T b  KHHTH  B KpyaceBa  TBI qHTaTb  cBeTJMe, — 3Haio caMa. . . A B ^ i e p a n o c j i e Be^epHH flHHKMKa H aH M n x a f i J I O B H M npo Te6n roBopnn: „qHTaJi, M O J I , MHe BacHjiHH BacHJiBeBH'y H3 TeTpaflH npo CMepflOB, npo M y a c H K O B , — nOflHBHJICH H : y»C 3flOpOB J I H TOJIOBKOH KHH3K)UIKa-TO?" H 6onpe CMenJiHCB... B  KaK  fleByniKa,  BcnbixHyji BacHJiHH B a c H J i B e B H M ,  .  .  .  131 —  fljiH  He  H X yMa  nHcaHo!  — fla ym K a K n e H H Ha e e T b , — yMHee e j i y r H S M He jj;ajj;eHo.. . CaMa Tepruno: MHe 6bi B O T o x o T a n J i n c a T B , KaK n o J i b C K a H K o p o J i e B a njiniueT, . . . HHMero He M o r y , — - cKaacyT: e p e T H ^ K a . . . . — 5KHBeM c p e n H BacHJibeBH^:.  M O H C T P O B ,  BacHJiHH  nponienTaJi  —  — B O T }iio T e 6 e CKascy, 6aTK>iiiKa. . . C H H M H — Ka T H K p y x c e B a , ^ y j i o ^ K H , rta H a n e H b enaH^iy n o x o H H y w , BO3BMH B pyKH c a 6 e j i b K y . . . noKaacH BeJiHKHe n e j i a . . . [ 8 2 ]  The  dialogue reveals Golitsyn's passive nature  use  o f d i m i n u t i v e s and  as  rather effeminate  inability  the  Turks  superstitious  historical  i n the  of a commission  country's  along  and  P e t e r , and  finally  Kremlin  nearby v i l l a g e  would warrant,  boys  and  denied  Peter, with  Nikita  strong-willed and  during  the  his  in his  j u s t swept a s i d e  p a l a c e s , the banished  court affairs  drunkard  campaign  being  by  circumstances.  manhood i n t h e from  matters,  finally  M e a n w h i l e , i n c o n t r a s t .to t h e M u s c o v i t e Sofia's  him  condition.  a futile  in predestination result and  regards  in practical to lead  The  Prince's  i n the Crimea, h i s . i n d e c i s i o n  belief  dragged  that S o f i a  a l l t h e more t h e  c o n f r o n t a t i o n between S o f i a  merely  fact  G o l i t s y n ' s incompetence  meeK a c c e p t a n c e  against  stress  t o change a n y t h i n g  Furthermore, his  the very  as w e l l .  Zotov,  youth.  o f h i s own  T s a r P e t e r grows  of Preobrazhensk. the  attention  into  an  that his  independent  P l a y i n g a t war, w i t h Peter  first  into  station the. and  the v i l l a g e  u s e s wooden  of  Excluded  o n l y meagre t u t e l a g e f r o m  develops  age,  splendour  muzhiks  cannons  132 f i r i n g only steamed vegetables  and apples..  But g r a d u a l l y he  demands and r e c e i v e s r e a l weapons f o r h i s games.  Such a  p i c t u r e of the young Tsar e a s i l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h the common impression of P e t e r ' s youth i n Preobrazhensk.  What T o l s t o i  does to enhance the p i c t u r e of i s o l a t i o n and t o show how P e t e r has changed s i n c e the reader f i r s t saw him as a f r i g h t e n e d " k i t t e n " with the Hat of Monomakh s l i d i n g over his  e a r , i s to add at t h i s p o i n t a s m a l l h i s t o r i c a l document  which c o n t r i b u t e s to the g e n e r a l . i m p r e s s i o n of the past and which c h a r a c t e r i z e s both P e t e r and h i s mother: H,apHij;a  O T CKYKH  B3HJia  Teipaflb. A p H $ M e . T H K a . nHTHax, HanncaHo — B K  neTpyniHHy yqe6Hyio  nOTHT.aTb  TeipanB  B ^epHHJiBHbix P H B B H B K O C B , Hepa3 6op^HBo: „IlpHMep a f l H U H H . . . . f l o J i r y M H o r o , a fle.Hex y MeHa MeHiue T O B O floxiry, H H a f l o 6 a e T BbraecTB T M H O T O JIH e3^o nJiaTHTB. H T O CTaBHCH T a K : flOJir B b i m e , a nofl H U M nenm, u BbiHeMaioT B C H K o e n c n o f l H e e C J I O B O H C  BepkHeBa.  —  . . . "  H,apHu.a 3esHyjia, —  He T O ecTB  xoieTCH,  He  qero-To...  Adapting  eme [71]  a document found i n a c o l l e c t i o n t i t l e d  bumagi P e t r a V e l i k o g o  T O  Pis'ma i  ( L e t t e r s and Papers of Peter the G r e a t ) ,  T o l s t o i uses i t s b e s p a t t e r e d appearance and crooked w r i t i n g w i t h i t s m i s s p e l l e d words t o complete a p i c t u r e i n the reader's mind o f P e t e r ' s nervous and impetuous nature. a d d i t i o n , the document i l l u s t r a t e s how d i f f e r e d from the spoken Russian.  In  the w r i t t e n language  The d i f f u s e s t y l e i n  which the a r i t h m e t i c f u n c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d r e f l e c t s the p r e s c r i b e d f o r m a l i t y of the w r i t t e n language i n the p a s t .  133 Finally, court  to demonstrate  f u r t h e r the  at Preobrazhensk, the  barren q u a l i t y of  p a s s a g e ends w i t h t h e  the  Tsarina's  yawn. On  the  perception  she  viewed from the  to Prince  a harmless  verstu," that  ;  as  complaining longer  o t h e r hand, . the;.reade'ruiiahofferedia , d i f f e r e n t  she  confesses  G o l i t s y n , notes  The  regent  that  M o r e o v e r , i t has using  to her  not  that  she  has  no  kolomenskuiu  escaped her  r e a l weapons i n h i s war  lover  Sofia,  Peter i s  "kitten": "Vytianulsia v  adds.  P e t e r i s now  Kremlin.  notice  games,  been t h i n k i n g  and about  47 what h a p p e n e d t o D i m i t r & i dwelling  on  t h o u g h he Sofia's  the  had  regency. fear  killed  S o f i s a chief  This and  i s also  hatred  is his the  i n naval  close  drinking ,  0  and  Among t h e  association  s  r  (  rebellious  and  who  ,  lack and  now  to  Peter's  strel'tsy formed  of  a  formal  friendship with  i n Moscow.  with t h e i r vast  m i l i t a r y matters,  and  They c a p t u r e  foreigners,  this  t*.*e T s a r  the  the  early to  i t i s Franz L e f o r t ,  p r o v e s t o be  some  knowledge, espe-  West e n g e n d e r s h i s d e s i r e  companion, who , . c «  of explaining  f o r the  "German" c o l o n y  acquaintance w i t h the Muscovy.  a way  for Peter's  young T s a r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n cially  banished  comes t o p o s e a t h r e a t  his maternal uncle,  What compensates  members o f  Peter,  support.  1  education  Thus, w i t h o u t  m a t t e r , T o l s t o i shows how  i s , grows i n power and  pathological who  at U g l i c h .  most  modernize Peter's  influential  13 4 and  who o f f e r s  the Tsar  the best  counsel:  IleTp HHBHJicH p a 3 y M H o c T H c e p f l e ^ H o r o „IIO $paHLi;y3CKH H a 3 H B a e T C H nOJIHTHK  j j ; p y r a <ppaHua. 3HaTb CBOH  BBiroflu, -— obbHCHHJi JlecfopT.  Listening  to Lefort  perception  with the  i n t h i s way, P e t e r  a l s o r e v e a l s h i s own  o f t h e f o r e i g n e r who i s t e a c h i n g h i m t h e f i n e a r t  of p o l i t i c s history.  [177]  with  examples,  i t s h o u l d be a d d e d , f r o m  I t i s a l s o L e f o r t who t e a c h e s  affairs  of state,  and i t i s L e f o r t  T s a r t o s e e k an o u t l e t  to the B a l t i c  Peter  French  t o be  a g a i n who  concerned advises  S e a , an o u t l e t  w h i c h w o u l d b r i n g commerce and p r o s p e r i t y t o R u s s i a . Tolstoi,  i t s h o u l d be noted  f o r e i g n words s u c h that  i s , a new word  sible  t o Russians  introduced is  as " p o l i t i q u e "  of that period.  i n terms  comprehen-  O t h e r words a r e s i m i l a r l y  f o r e x a m p l e , t h e o l d word  by a new f o r e i g n word w i t h o u t  of the text  introduces  i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l manner;  i s a t once e x p l a i n e d  and e x p l a i n e d ;  supplanted  as w e l l ,  and w i t h o u t  disturbing  diak  interrupting  the  flow  the feeling of  the  p a s t : t h u s , d'jiaki becomes "«©Bbig^ MHfiHCT.pH, - — T a k  Ha^ajiH  Ha3HBatK HXaTbrfla^HH03'eHu;'bi,>;y.. .. . . " . " ,  When a t l a s t confrontation with t i o n who want  Sofia,  emerges v i c t o r i o u s a l l those  changes t h a t w o u l d  Russia p i n t h e i r prepares  Peter  i n the popula-  improve c o n d i t i o n s i n  hopes o n t h e new T s a r .  the reader  i n b r i n g i n g about  elements  from h i s  for the active  role  the transfiguration  I n t h i s way  Tolstoi  t o be p l a y e d by P e t e r  of mediaeval  Muscovy  13 5 , i n t o a modern European s t a t e . draws a p i c t u r e of Russia.as circumstances to  In other words, the author a country  i n which h i s t o r i c a l  have r i p e n e d t o the p o i n t where i t i s e v i d e n t  many t h a t t h i n g s must change.  many formidable  and  And y e t there remain so  fundamental o b s t a c l e s on the road  to  change t h a t r e q u i r e an e x t r a o r d i n a r y p e r s o n a l i t y to surmount them.  Peter i s such a man,  whose r u t h l e s s c h a r a c t e r i s  equal to the c h a l l e n g e posed by c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a .  In a  s h o r t time h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s enab'leIhimehot only to set  i n motion the changes t h a t were a n t i c i p a t e d by some, but  a l s o to i n f l u e n c e futufetdevecllopments One  i n Russian h i s t o r y .  of the f i r s t examples of Peter's s t r e n g t h i s  g i v e n i n the i n t e r v i e w between the Tsar and Ioakim.  The  the P a t r i a r c h  growing presence o f Europeans i s noted by  the  P a t r i a r c h a n d , c i t e d as the cause of moral d e c l i n e among the Russian we  people.  "We  were the T h i r d Rome," says he,  have become the second Sodom arid Gomorrah."  "but  now  Even the  r e c e n t f a i l u r e of G o l i t s y n ' s campaigns a g a i n s t the Crimean T a t a r s Ioakim a t t r i b u t e s to the presence of foreigners:,,. 3 a n p e T H T B , ^ T O S H B nojiKax npoKJiHTbie epeTHKH 6 B I J I H HaMaJiBHHKaMH. . . K a K a n OT H H X npaBocjiaBHOMy B O H H CTBy MoaceT 6 B I T B . n o J i B 3 a ? T O J I B K O 6 O ) K H H r H e B H a B O f l H T Ha^caJiBCTBvioT B O J I K H 3 a n p e T H T B npaBOCJiaBHbiM  Ha  arHeubi!  JJpyxcHTB  c epeTHKaMH ...  [214]  As b e f i t s the head of the church i n R u s s i a , the P a t r i a r c h ' s speech contains B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e s and Old Church S l a v o n i cisms, which h e l p t o c r e a t e the atmosphere and  to i d e n t i f y  the speaker.  The  reference  to the negative  moral i n f l u e n c e  of the westerners upon the Orthodox p o p u l a t i o n mind the c r i t i c i s m What Peter  first  also c a l l s  expressed by Karamzin i n h i s  the proper  conduct of p o l i t i c s serves him w e l l i n h i s f i r s t  encounter  w i t h the determined o p p o s i t i o n of :the church.. As  a conces-  s i o n t o the P a t r i a r c h ' s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l demands, he him  Zapiska.  :  l e a r n s from L e f o r t concerning  permits  to burn at the stake the Dutch h e r e t i c Kuhlman.  But  because he needs the f o r e i g n e r s he c a t e g o r i c a l l y r e f u s e s banish  them or t o c l o s e t h e i r churches.  between P e t e r  and  Ioakim, t h e r e  In t h i s  "Den'  i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that  from a s e l f i s h c a p r i c e —^- as T o l s t o i had Petra" —  but  to  conference  the Tsar i s now^seeking to model Russia on western not  to  countries  implied i n  from a d e s i r e , worthy of a true  leader,  t o r a i s e h i s country t o the economic l e v e l of Europe.  Here  to© he d i s p l a y s an a b i l i t y to f o l l o w h i s own.course,.with s m a l l compromises where n e c e s s a r y , but without l o s i n g slight of h i s main g o a l . The his  Tsar's  o b s t i n a t e c h a r a c t e r enables him  f i r s t m i l i t a r y success.  take the T u r k i s h  to achieve  A f t e r the i n i t i a l f a i l u r e  to  f o r t r e s s at Azov, he appears.to be no more  competent to l e a d an army than the u n f o r t u n a t e G o l i t s y n . And  y e t , u n l i k e the P r i n c e , Peter r e f u s e s  more T o l s t o i d e s c r i b e s i n d i r e c t terms:  to r e t r e a t .  the f u r i o u s s t a t e of the Tsar i n  Once  13 7  :  K  IleTpy S O H J I H C B  H  BKOCB,  noflxoflHTB.  O H caM Hanncaji  (BKPHBB  n p o n y c K a n .6yKBbi, 6pbi3ran ^epHHJiaMH) npHKa3, • ^ T O 6 He n o 3 n . H e e K O H i i a e e r o M e c n i i a 6tJTb oSineMy n p H C T y n y c Bortbi H c y u m . . - .SoHcBdH'GKaMeBe'JIeHdOBe- , H.enoBeflaTBCH H n p n i a c T H T B C H , H Bee T O T O B H J I H C B K cMepTH. [302]  Peter's ink lent  crooked  serve  w r i t i n g , m i s s p e l l e d w o r d s , and s p l a t t e r e d  once more t o r e i n f o r c e  character.  begins  Having  retreated  t o p r e p a r e . f o r another  the d e s c r i p t i o n hardships Tyfla  co  a t t a c k on A z o v .  Been  POCCHH  suffered  Ha*ia.nH  n o OCeHHHM  In t h i s  picture  case  of the  i n "Den* P e t r a " :  CTOHHTB  flOpOraM  of h i s turbu-  up t h e Don t o V o r o n e z h , he  i s reminiscent of Tolstoi's  t h a t the people  Tie'HHHKOB .  the impression  paSo^Hx  H  peMec-  nOTHHyjIHCB 0603bl.  B  j i e c a x n o BopoHeacy H floHy 3 a K a ^ a j i H C b non, T o n o p a M H BeKOBbie flySbi. CTpoHJTHCb B e p $ H , a M 6 a p b i , 6 a p a K H . x t a a r K o p a e J i H , n B a f l i i a T B T P H r a j i e p b i H *jeTbipe S p a H f l e p a 3 a j i o » t H j [ H Ha C T a n e J i H X . 3HMa Bbinajia C T y n e H a n . Bcero He XBaTaJio. Jhopys. TH6J1H C O T H H M H . B O cHe He yBHflaTb  TaKOH  HeBOJiH,  6e»caBiiiHX —  J I O B H J I H , KOBajiH -B » c e j i e 3 0 .  BbK»KHbiH B e T e p p a c K a ^ H B a J i Ha BHcejiHijax Mep3Jibie Tpynbi. OTMaHHHbie mopn noxtstHrajiH x i e c a KpyroM B o p o He)Ka. MyscHKH, Hrtyinne c o 6 o 3 a M H , p e 3 a j i H e o j i r j a T - . KOHBOHPOB; p a 3 r p a 6 H B I T O M O H C H O , yxoflHJiH K y _ n . a r . n a 3 a rJiHHHT.. . B flepeBHHx Kaxte^HJiHCB, p y S H J i n na.nbu.bi, HTo6bi He H H T H nop, BopoHeac. ynnpajiacb B C H P O C C H H , —— BOHCTHHy npHiiuiH aHTHxpHCTOBbi B p e M e H a : Mano Quno npeacHen T H T O T U , KaSaJibi H 6 a p m H H H , T e n e p B B O J I O K J I H Ha HOByw HenoHHTHyw p a 6 o T y . [305-306]  Azov i s taken  i n t h e second  assault.  l e s s n e s s has p a i d o f f , e x p l a i n s T o l s t o i , has  special  But  this  the  same i c o n o c l a s t  Tolstoi  significance,  i s n o t t o suggest  takes  f o r "Kukui  Peter's  and t h i s  ruth-  victory  h a s won o v e r Moscow."  that the Peter  i n the novel i s  as p o r t r a y e d i n t h e s t o r y  care t o demonstrate the Tsar's  o f 1918.  Now  sensitivity to  138 the European view of R u s s i a . the f o r e i g n e r s are not he had  In A r k h a n g e l s k , f o r example, 1  " s v o i , ruchnye" or the tame s o r t t h a t  encountered i n the German q u a r t e r of Moscow.  t h e i r huge ocean-going v e s s e l s these Dutch, German E n g l i s h seamen d i s d a i n f u l l y regarded b e t t e r than  From and  P e t e r as i f he were no  "someone from Madagascar," "a t s a r . o f b a r b a r i a n s . "  G l a n c i n g a t L e f o r t at t h a t moment i t seems t o P e t e r t h a t even he  remains e s s e n t i a l l y a s c o r n f u l European:  Jle<|>opT, HapnxtHbiH, K a K B c e r j j a , n o c T y K H B a j i T P O C T O ^ I KOH, — nop ycuKdMH — CJiaflKan yjibi6o^Ka, B n p u n y x i i i H X BeKax —- yjibi6o*iKa, Ha H a n y n p e H H O H m.eKe — HMo^Ka... HoBOJieH, B e c e J i , c ^ a c T H H B . . . I l e T p 3aeoneJi, — — po xoro B f l p y r 3axoTeJiocB part B M o p j j y cepne^HOMy Bpyry ;  OpaHuy...  The  diminutives.  The  diminutives —  stobhka" —  [244]  "usiki,"  a l l r e v e a l how  "ulybochka," "iamochka,"  P e t e r ' s f e e l i n g s are aroused  the s e l f - s a t i s f i e d d e l i c a c y of posture But  Peter's  "tro-•  of h i s Swiss  by  friend.  i n n a t e i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s " a z i a t s k a i a k h i t r o s t * "  ( A s i a t i c cunning) enables  him  to t u r n the s i t u a t i o n i n h i s  f a v o u r by s u r p r i s i n g the sneering- Europeans.  With exagger-  ated glee he gazes a t t h e i r s h i p s , stamps h i s f e e t i n excitement, s l a p s the f o r e i g n e r s on the back, and proclaims  t h a t he w i l l p e r s o n a l l y b u i l d a s h i p and  b o i a r s w i l l hammer the nails.. apparent s i m p l i c i t y  loudly that his  His djeigned enthusiasm  and  amaze the v i s i t i n g merchants; t r u l y  they  have never b e f o r e met -such a monarch. At t h i s p o i n t i t may  be noted t h a t i n P e t r P e r v y i a l l  1 3 9  Europeans  the  demonstrate same to  time,  their  who come  in  contact  the  need  for  they  also  serve  frequently  criticisms. for  British  merchant  asked  example,  to  for  Peter  has  to  the  Tsar  modernizing Russia. illustrate  unsympathetic  Having  Moscow,  with  and  candid  listens  say,  and  serve  But  Peter's  sometimes  then  what  sensitivity  of  Sidney,  shouts  in  the  coarse  impressions  to  at  to  life  in  the  reply:  TCMEawHJiBTOH(,pnepe.BeflHyeMy. . .•• ( H c r p o M K o , Bi^yxo CHflHew, CTaJi KpHMaTb no-pyccKH.) CaMH Bee B H H H M . . . Mbi H e X B a j i H M C H , * i T o y Hac xop.oiuo. . . . HaM a3, 6 y K H , BextH — B O T c * i e r o H a n o Y ^ I H T B C H . . . Tbi B rjia3a KOJieuib, — H H K H , H H H I H , n y p a K H na 3 B e p n . . . 3Haio, ^ e p T ! Ho noroflH, noroflH... B C T a J i , OTiiiBHpHyji  OH  Further,  Petr  CTyji  Pervyi  no  flopore.  concludes  with  [ 2 0 9 ] then Russian  viicfe'eryaatnNarva „ in l 70_4;--a 'v.ictpry.dachiev.edwin^large measure r  through  the  Ogilvie.  execution  In  arranged  to  explains  it,  considered  of  planning his lay the  to  be  a  a  strategy campaign,  three-month Russian a  real  siege  muzhik i n  devised  by  Field  Marshal  however,  Ogilvie  had  to  because,  as  the  Narva army  cannot  he  be  soldier:  . . . P y c c K H H c o J i s a T 3 T O n o K a eme H e c o J i f l a T , H O MyjKKK c pyxcbeM. y H e r o eme H e T H H MaJieHinero noHHTHH o nopHflKe H flHCUHnJiHHe. HyxcHo eme M H o r o o6JiOMaTb naJioK o e r o c n H H y , *iTo6bi 3acTaBHTb e r o I I O B H H O B a T B C H 6e3 p a c c y a c f l e H H H , KaK H O J D K H O c o J i f l a T y . Torfla H Mory 6 b i T b y B e p e H , * I T O O H , n o MaHOBeHHB M o e r o xce3Jia, B 0 3 b M e T J i e c T H H u y H nop. r p a f l O M n y j i b n o j i e 3 e T H a CTeHy... [ 8 2 4 ] For  all  his  hatred  of  the  Russian  past,  Peter  remains  always  140 sensitive  to t h e  pompous  Europeans.  Incidentally,  excerpt  was  written  Tolstoi  could  the like but  German a  portraits • Russian  of  European,  of  a  of  the  a  fact  likely  soldier  ire  by  some  that  this  conjecture draw  that  attention  to  who b e h a v e s  exactly  .EbUiOrOwing O g i l v i e ' s  lengthy  which serves  Tolstoi  when h i s  displayed  temptation.to  automaton.  disquisition,  Peter  i t is  the  ideal  de-humanized  as a  i n view  1944,  resist  officer's  eloquent  speaker  not  in  superiority  gives  to  one  identify  of  is raised  in  his  the  most  defense  graphic of  the  muzhik: CTHJIBBH  nTHiia,  c  y n o B O J i B C T B u e M anyiuaji  npHKpbiBan r j i a 3 a B e x a M H .  caMoro ce6n, KaK  HIacJ>HpoB nepeBonHj:  Ha pa3yMHyw p y c c K y w p e ^ B e r o M H o r o o n o K H u e flHflaKTHiecKHe nocTpoeHHH. K o r n a y&e O T H J I B B H , O K O H H H B , B3rJiHHyji Ha IleTpa A n e K c e e B H ^ a , T O Hecopa3MepHO c o CBOHM flOCTOHHCTBOM SblCTpO mQff.G&P^S£ni- BOTH nOfl C T y J I , y6paji J K H B O T H onycTHJi p y K y c T P O C T B K ) ? ; JIHUO. neTpa S B I J I O C T p a u i H o e , — - men 6ynTo BflBoe B U T H H y j i a c B , B3flyjiHCB CBHpenbie jscejiB.aKH c 6 O K O B p T a , H3 pacniHpeHHbix r j i a 3 roTOBH- O B I J I H — He flan 6 o « e , He flaB 6 o » e BbipBaTBCH $ y p H H . . . * O H TH^eJIO ' XJBIIIiaJI. EOJIBIIiaH >KHJiHCTaH p y K a c K O P O T K H M p y K a B O M , JiexcaBiuan c p e n n H O X J T H X K a p a M o p , H C K a j r a I T O - T O . . . HamynaJia r y c H H H o e nepo, CJioMajra... BOT K a K , BOT K a K , p y C C K H H COJlflaT My»HK c pyscBeM! — n p o r o B o p n j i O H onaBJieHHHM r o p j i o M . — I L n o x o r o He BH^cy. . . P y C C K H H MyacHK — y M e H , CMbiuuieH, CMejr... A c pyneM cTpauieH B p a r y . . . 3a B e e c n e  naxiKOH ne 6 B K > T § nopHHOK. nJiox. . . TaK 6HTB  nopHnica He 3 H a e T ?  3HaeT O H  A K o r n a H e 3 H a e T — He O H n n o x , ocjmuep A Korna Moero coJiflaTa Hano naxiKOH 6 H T B , e r o 6yrry H , a T H e r o 6 H T B He SyxjeniB. . .  —  [824-825]  The-short the  change  sentences in  in  Ogilvie's  Peter's posture  reply from  reveal one  his  showing  anger.  But  complacency  141 to  one showing t i m i d i t y or even f e a r (dropping h i s hand  which was  r e s t i n g on a cane, drawing h i s f e e t under the  c h a i r , and p u l l i n g i n h i s stomach), p l u s the change i n P e t e r ' s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , and h i s groping hand g i v e an even c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n of h i s b a r e l y - c o n t r o l l e d rage. But though P e t e r takes o f f e n s e at O g i l v i e ' s remarks, the F i e l d Marshal m i l i t a r y advisors.  i s r e t a i n e d as one of the T s a r ' s c h i e f That Peter values what he has  from the Europeans around him i s demonstrated by  learned the  r e s t r a i n t rhe; shows in" the -scene immediately..following, the storming of Narva.  Here he c o n s c i o u s l y s t r i v e s to behave i n  a manner b e f i t t i n g a European monarch. his  m a j e s t i c p o s t u r e , a l l r e v e a l how  about proper behaviour  Peter's  thoughts,  much he has  learned  from such f o r e i g n e r s as L e f o r t  and  O g i l v i e , and a l s o how he has changed from h i s youth when he f r e e l y gave vent to every  impulse.  To l e a r n f i r s t - h a n d about western l i f e , the g r e a t embassy to Europe. d o b r a i a Germaniia"  The  Peter  journey through  joins  "staraia  ( o l d , good Germany) once again p o i n t s to  the backwardness of R u s s i a , not only i n economy, but a l s o i n civil  culture.  By d e s c r i b i n g t h i n g s t h a t s u r p r i s e the  t r a v e l l e r s , T o l s t o i , i n d i r e c t l y but e f f e c t i v e l y , r e v e a l s everyday  life  i n Russia i n greater d e t a i l .  here i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the embassy's f i r s t Europe:  For example, look at western  142 B b e x a n H B K e H H r c S e p r B c y M e p K a x , KOJieea 3arpeMejiH n o 1HCTOH MOCTOBOH. HH 3 a 6 o p O B . , H H ^ a C T O K O J I O B , MTO 3a flHBo! floMa npsMO — JIHU.OM H a y j i n u y , p y K O H n o n a T b O T 3ejvuiH HJiHHHbie o K H a c M O J I K H M H cTeKJiaMH. IIOBCiOfly n p H B e T JIHBblH C B e T . flBepH OTKPUTBI. JlWJJH X O H H T 6e3 o n a c K H . . . X o T e J i o c B c n p o c H T b — n a KaK xce BU r p a b e s c a He 6 o H T e c b ? HeyxcTO H p a 3 6 o H H H K O B y B a c HeT? /  B- K y n e i e e K O M flOMe, rrte C T a J i H , — onHTB — HHiero He cnpHTaHO, x o p o n i n e B e m n JiexcaT O T K P H T O . flypaK He yHece-T. I l e T p , orjiHJjbiBaH T e M H o r o .rryba c T O J i o B y i o , 6oraTo ydpaHHyw K a p T H H a M H , nocynoH, T y p b H M H poraMH, T H X O CKa3aJi AJieKcaniKe: — npHKaacH B c e M H a c T p o r o , e c j i H K T O X O T B n o 3 a p H T C s , — n O B e w y Ha B o p o T a x . . .  Ha M e j i o ^ b  — H n p a B H J i b H o , M H H x e p u , , MHe H T O 6 o H 3 H o c T a . n o . . . n o K y f l a H e n p H B H K H y T , H Bejno KapMaHbi B c e M 3 a u i H T b . . . Hy> He flafi 6 o r c n b H H b i x - T O r j i a 3 . . . [316] The  short  carriage dining not  sentences and what  room.  how  of  the  members  of  the  "durak  uneset"  These  The well-kept, Sailing  are  to  dainty are  homes  noted a  with  canal,  this  i  these  they  it  see  what in  and what  gardens  the  are  appears.  passage  c o n f i r m e d by  turns  security  sights.  to  passing  merchant's  razboinikov u  emphasize  special  Peter  and  of  to  the  the  tone  imperious  and  in  Russia,  by what  his  eye  from  in  further  of  the  see  found  "neuzhto  serves  they  orderliness  react  and M e n s h i k o v ;  example  along  be  party  impressed  Peter  another  to  example,  impressions  between as  are  strikes  conversational  for  Russians  what  streets,  life  parlance, ne  first  Clean  qualities  Moreover,  mirror  suggests Idiomatic  vas  net,"  degree  or  the  Koenigsberg. the  exchange  Tsar  says  serves  character. of  Holland,  interest to  by  lecture  clean  the those  and  Russians. in  his  .143  entourage: Ha H H O M xtBope B M O C K B S y Hac npocTopHHe.. . A B 3 H T B MeTJiy, na noflMecTH A B O P , na o r o p o f l n o c a f l H T B 3 e j i o n p H H T H H H H nOJie3HBIH'—— H B MB1CJ1HX HH y KOPO H e T . . . CTpoeHHe BaJiHTCH, H T O B B I , flbHBOJiu, c ne^H He cn c J i e 3 H T e noflnepeTB, — H B a c 3 H a i o . . . flo BeTpy JieHB C X O A H T B B npHJiH^Hoe MecTO, raflHTe npHMO y nopora. . . OT^ero cne? C H A H M ,Ha B e j i H K K X n p o c T o p a x H — HHiqne. . . H a M S T o B B e j i H K y i o nocafly... rjiHflHTe — 3 f l e c B 3eMjno co flHa M o p c K o r o flocTajin, Kaacfloe flepeBo H a n o n p n Be3TH na nocaflHTB. H y c T p o e n H C T H H B I H ' napaflH3. . . [330]  What i s i m p o r t a n t of  o l d and new  t o note  i n the above p a r a g r a p h a r e examples  words u s e d w i t h v e r n a c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s , a  mixture which represents were, o c c u r r i n g  t h e changes i n t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t  at t h e t i m e .  For e x a m p l e ,  "zelo"  o b s o l e t e a d v e r b meaning "very," w h i l e the word represents the recent borrowing w h i c h e n t e r e d t h e Russian westernization. a purely  i s an  "paradiz"  f r o m European l a n g u a g e s  l a n g u a g e as p a r t of the  "Skhodit*.do  vetru,"  cultural  on.the o t h e r h a n d , i s  Russian v e r n a c u l a r i d i o m o f w h i c h t h e T s a r , i t  seems, ce©u<MnSeWrrMdhhiiffige-ff. E a r l i e r , while v i s i t i n g her  d a u g h t e r , Peter had v o i c e d  Russian  laziness,  statement,- he nature.  "They s a y of me  displays  that I s p i l l  complaint But  against  i n making  this  once more h i s i m p e r i o u s much b l o o d , "  he  dinner.  Bbi 3TOMy He BepBTe... Kopa6jiH. . . ranepa  CTPOHTB  a similar  and o b s t i n a c y .  inadvertently  exclaims during TaK  laxity,  the E l e c t o r o f Hanover and  EoJiBiue B c e r o JTK>6JHO nIIpHH-KHnHyM" O T Ma^Tbi  14  4  P.O KHJIH BOT 3 T H M H p y K a M H n O C T p o e H a .i(<pa3*aJI --HaKOHe.lt • KyjiaKH , n o K a 3 a j i MO30JTH) ... 3Haio ^eTbipHaxtriaTB p e M e c e j i , H O eme raioxo, 3 a S T H M cioxta npnexaJi... A npo T O , 1TO 30JI H K P O B B J H 0 6 J I W , — B p y T . . . H He 30JI... A nOWHTB C HaiUHMH B M O C K B e , Ka>K,UbIH SeilieHBIM cTaHeT. . .  3aHOBO, ,,  B P O C C H H B e e HyscHo J i o M a T B , — B e e JHOHH y H a c ynpHMbi! - — na H H O M  A yac  MHCO  flo K O C T e H non KHyTOM c j i e 3 e T . . . 3anHyjicH, B3rjiHHyji B T J i a 3 a sceHiqHH H yjibiSHyjicH H M B H H O B a T o . . . [327]  Again and  s h o r t and d i s j o i n t e d sentences, punctuated  f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , r e v e a l Peter's excitement  same time c o n t r i b u t e t o h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  by gestures and a t the  His calloused  hands and h i s r e f e r e n c e t o whipping w i t h a knout expose g r a p h i c a l l y t h a t d u a l i t y i n the Tsar's c h a r a c t e r which was mentioned  earlier.  From such passages i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t T o l s t o i attempts i n t h i s n o v e l t o demonstrate both the need f o r r a d i c a l changes i n . a l l  spheres  o f Russian  life,  and the '.-  b e l i e f t h a t a s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l was r e q u i r e d t o accomplish those changes..  Prince Golitsyn's sophisticated solutions  f o r the country's problems are shown t o be i l l - s u i t e d  even  f o r the task o f s t i r r i n g R u s s i a i n the d i r e c t i o n o f change. Moreover, h i s g e n t e e l nature prevents him from doing beyond w r i t i n g a t r e a t i s e aimed a t r a i s i n g Russia's and c u l t u r a l l e v e l . .  anything economic  Peter's s t r o n g , f o r c e f u l and tempestu-  ous p e r s o n a l i t y , e x a c t i n g obedience  s t e r n l y as i t d i d , when  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f the i n e f f e c t u a l Golitsynlf., appears both a p p e a l i n g and the s o r t t h a t c o u l d f o r c e the country t o submit t o change.  But at the same time T o l s t o i does not  145 i g n o r e P e t e r ' s n e g a t i v e t r a i t s , which are b e s t r e v e a l e d through h i s p a s s i o n f o r coarse, Bacchic amusements. drunken r e v e l r i e s appear incomprehensible  and c r u e l .  His His  parades of cows, y e l p i n g dogs, and s q u e a l i n g p i g s drawing wagons and s l e i g h s f i l l e d w i t h drunk and :unronscious b o i a r s who  are f o r c e d t o p l a y the f o o l and  accompany the young T s a r ,  o n l y encourage the b e l i e f among the people t h a t he i s not Orthodox t s a r , but the A n t i c h r i s t .  The wretched host whose  m i s f o r t u n e i t i s t o r e c e i v e Peter prepares if  f o r h i s own  social  an  f o r the event  as  f u n e r a l , f o r many do not s u r v i v e the Tsar's  call:  KHH3H- B e o i o c e J i b C K o r o 3a C T P O I I T H B O C T B pa3HeJTH HarniuoM H T O J I H M ero r y 3 H O M S H J I H KypHHHbie H-ftiia- B JioxaHH. E o 6 o p H K H H a , B cMex Han T V ^ I H O C T B I O ero, npoTacKHBaJiH CKB03B CTyjIBH , TXte HeB03M03KHO H XVflOMy n p O J i e 3 T B . KHH3K) BoJiKOHCKOMy C B e i y 3a6HJiH B npoxon H , 3axcrH, nejiH BOKpyr ero H P M O C B I , n o K y n a Bee He noBajiHJiHCB co  CMexa.  . . . flBopHHHHa HBaHa- AKaKHeBHia M a c H o r o  HaflyBaxiH H noMep.  MexoM B  Then, c i t i n g notes Noeman, who  3aflHHH n p o x o n ,  O T iero  OH  BCKope [242]  from a d i a r y kept by the Dutchman Jacob  recorded P e t e r ' s v i s i t  to Holland, T o l s t o i gives  f u r t h e r examples of the T s a r ' s c h a r a c t e r , showing him t o be not o n l y c r u e l but o f t e n s p i t e f u l : Korna P K J H U I C H H J I npocTbiHio c pa3HHToro ryiH aHaTOMHH flpyroro Tpyna, i i a p B 3aMeTHJi OTBpameHHe Ha JiHiiax. C B O H X CnyTHHKOB H , THeBHO 3aKPH-^iaB Ha H H X , npHKa3aJi H M 3y6aMH S p a T B ' H p a 3 P b i B a T B MycKyjibi T p y n a . . . [339]  By u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents, such as the d i a r y , by d e s c r i b i n g how  Peter caroused  and  about Moscow, T o l s t o i g i v e s  146 ample evidence  of the Tsar's negative q u a l i t i e s .  a l s o important  to note how  the two  But i t i s  f o r e g o i n g excerpts  although both d e a l with the same aspect of Peter's The  first,  differ,  character.  an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the n a r r a t i v e , has '§yntax  which i s uncommon, by today's l i t e r a r y standard.  By  begin-  n i n g most sentencesvvwii.tih the d i r e c t o b j e c t , T o l s t o i reproduces the vernacularttaarae which once more i s used t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n of the p a s t . guznom" and  "on  The words "nagishom" and  "golym . . .  vsfeore i pomer" are w e l l - s u i t e d to the  a c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n the paragraph.  coarse  On the other hand,  whenever T o l s t o i i n c o r p o r a t e s i n h i s n a r r a t i v e a speech or a w r i t t e n account given by a European, the syntax f o l l o w s the common p a t t e r n , t h a t i s the sequence of s u b j e c t , p r e d i cate and o b j e c t , and the vocabulary substandard  i s f r e e of archaisms or  expressions.  From Europe Peter sends to Moscow more and more f o r e i g n e r s , who  appear impudent to the Russians,  s o r t s of j a r s and  and a l l  c r a t e s c o n t a i n i n g freaks of nature, s t u f f e d  b i r d s , c r o c o d i l e s , p i e c e s of s t e e l , wood, marble... Hapofl nepe6HBaeTCH c xjie6a Ha KBac, H H U J H X noxiHa MocKBa, p a 3 6 0 H H H K H H T e c roJiofla n y x H y T , a TyT Be3yTl.. A T y T rjiaflKHe, p,ep3KHe H H 0 3 e M U b i H a c K a K H — B a i o T . . . fla y>K H e 3 a n i e j i J I H y uapn y M 3a pa3yM?  [341]  The mood of popular  p r o t e s t i s expressed  i n simple  language  but with.added f o l k s a y i n g s , " p e r e b i v a t ' s i a s khleba na kvas" and  " z a s h e l urn za razum," the hunger and the doubts about  147 the  T s a r ' s s a n i t y are made t o appear widespread among the  people. When the r e v o l t of the s t r e l ' t s y breaks out, they read aloud some o f t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t P e t e r .  They  blame h i s f r i e n d Franz L e f o r t fsbrst f o r the i n i t i a l  defeat  and then f o r the P y r r h i c v i c t o r y a t Azov.  T o l s t o i employs  t h e i r w r i t t e n p e t i t i o n t o add f u r t h e r t o the h i s t o r i c atmosphere: „Ero »c, O p a H ^ H M K H , VMbiuiJieHHeM B c e M y H a p o n y ^ H H H T C H H a r j i o c T t . , H 6pajj;o6pHTHe, H KypeHne Ta6aKy B O BcecoB e p m e H H o e HHcnpoBepxceHHe . n p e B H e r o 6 J i a r o ^ e c T H H . . . [350] The long sentence, c o n t a i n i n g such a pompous phrase as "vsesovershennoe n i s p r o v e r z h e n i e drevnego the  S l a v o n i c i s m " b r a d o b r i t i e " and the o b s o l e t e verb  "chinit sia," f  the  blagochestiia,"  i s meant t o r e - c r e a t e the l i t e r a r y s t y l e o f  p e r i o d , a s t y l e sharply c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e spoken  language. The Viennese ambassador t o Moscow, Johann Korb, was witness t o p r o t r a c t e d e x e c u t i o n s , and T o l s t o i quotes from Korb's d i a r y f o r two reasons.  passages  F i r s t , as an eye-witness  account o f events viewed through the eyes o f a western d i p l o m a t , i t serves t o emphasize and e x e c u t i o n s .  the h o r r o r o f the t o r t u r e s  Second, u s i n g e x c e r p t s from d i a r i e s i s a  convenient way o f advancing the n a r r a t i v e by condensing e v e n t s , and o f f e r i n g p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s and motives f o r  148  the T s a r ' s a c t i o n s : 27 OKTHSPH... 3 T a Ka3Hb pe3KO OTJiH^aeTCH O T npenbiflymeH. O H a c o B e p m e H a pa3JiH*iHbiMH c n o c o 6 a M H a nOUTH HeB epOHTHblMH . . . T p H C T a T p H f l U a T t ^leJIOBeK 3 a p a 3 o 6 a r p H J i H K P O B B I O K p a c H y i o nJioinaHB. 3 T a rpoMaflHan K a 3 H B Morjia 6 B I T B HcnoJiHeHa T O J I B K O noTOMy, I T O B e e 6onpe, c e H a T o p b i u a p c K O H flyMbi, B B H K H — no n o B e jieHHK) u a p n — H O J I X C H B I 6BIJIH B 3 H T B C H 3 a p a S o T y na.na*ia. MHHTeJiBHocTB e r o o6ocTpeHa'j K a a c e T C H , O H nOJJ|03peBaeT B C e X B C O ^ y B C T B H H K Ka3HHMbIM MHTeXCHHKSM. O H npHflyMaJi C B H 3 a T B KpoBaBofi: n o p y K O H B c e x 6onp. . . Bee 3 T H BBicoKopoflHbie r o c n o f l a H B H J I H C B H a njiomajjB, 3 a p a H e e npoxca O T npeflCToamero H c n b i T a H H H . IlepeR K a x f l b i M H 3 H H X n o c T a B H J i H no n p e c T y n H H K y . KaxcjtbiH jj;oJi»<eH 6BIJI n p o H 3 H e c T H n p H r o B o p CTonnjeMy nepefl H H M H nOCJie HCnOJIHHTB OHblH, COSCTBeHHOpy^HO o6e3rjiaBHB  KpafiHe  ocyxfleHHoro. . . . "  [363]  The above paragraph i s m a d e t o r e f l e c t the non-Russian memoirist. contemporary colouring. for  T h i s i s achieved p r i n c i p a l l y  through t h e use o f  l i t e r a r y language without any v e r n a c u l a r There i s o n l y  a s l i g h t trace of affected  diction,  example, "zaraz o b a g r i l i k r o v ' i u , " o r " m n i t e l ' n o s t ' ego  k r a i n e obostrena," and " s v i a z a t ' r k r o v a v o i porukoir," which may be another method of i d e n t i f y i n g the author o f the d i a r y as a European.  Thus, w h i l e a speech o r a document composed  by aRRus.s'ian i i s ggdven i i n tfefte WeT*naWul>ar¥w-i feh OoeeW4r6nal :  a r c h a i c S l a v o n i c i s m s , the l i t e r a r y  language  o f today i s  r e s e r v e d f o r the non-Russians. The n o v e l c o n t a i n s j u s t one e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s and t h a t e x c e p t i o n i s meant t o i l l u s t r a t e  just  practice,  how European-  i z a t i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o permeate t h e speech o f some h i g h l y p l a c e d Russians.  The author's d i s t a n t a n c e s t o r , P e t r  149 Andreevich  Tolstoi,  much  in  Europe  This  is  exhibited  the  wordy  and  was  a successful  and w h o l e h e a r t e d l y in  his  ornate  Russian  style  of  courtier  embraced speech,  the  who  western  which  member  travelled  of  culture.  now  reflects  a European  court:  — C npHSbiTHeM K BofitCKy r e H e p a J i a KapjiOBHtia BoeHHbie fleiicTBHH, c j i a s a - 6 o r y , noJiy^HJiH Ha^aJio, — paccKa3biBaxt n e T p A H f l p e e B H ^ ; , Mopma 6pHTbie r y S b i , oSJnoSoBbiBan c j i o B a . — Ho B e H y c H E a x y c , y B H , He-pjiHxce H a C B H C T n y j i e K : r e H e p a J i OjieMHHr HineT 6 H T B 6onee acapKHx. B M e c T O n o f l d y n o B K uiBeflaM xpa6po n o f l C T y n a e T K cJjopTeiiHH n p e K p a c H O H n o J i B K H , — yxce y B e 3 e e B flpe3fleH, H T a M C K O P O CBaxt&6a... [547] The  mention  General Polish  lady  have  but  European.  pausing  Venus  Fleming's  Russian, a  of  none  rather  words  conversation.  to  the  and  the  crude  echo  the  gracious  the  P.  speech  A. is  subject a  the  references  fortifications  of  suggest  Thus,  whose  Bacchus,  approach  Moreover/  over  character  and  qualities and  deliberate  of  of  and  the  is  the  only  stylized  to  sound  speech manner  imitation  Tolstoi  the  vernacular  cultured  matter  to  of  of of  salon  Russian  like  that  of  a  foreigner. In early.life his he  the  first  volume  of  Peter  the  character is  depicted  reforms  in  of  I  Book  Russia:  was as  Russia already  the  Great,  moulded. an  of  showing  While  instrument  would hint  be at  novel,  the  the Tsar  by w h i c h  accomplished. the  dawning  Tolstoi  of  traces  the  milieu  in  is  glorified,  the The  not  which  essential last  a new,  sentences  Petrine  1 5 0  CTapoe  3 a 6 H J i o c B no TeMHbiM y r j i a M . KoH^iaJiacB BH3aH— THHCKaH PyCB. B MapTOBCKOM B e T p e ^yxtHJTHCB 3a SaJiaJHHCKHMH noeepexcbHMH n p H 3 p a K H T o p r o B b i x K o p a 6 J i e f i . [ 3 6 5 ]  U n l i k e a h i s t o r i a n , T o l s t o i does not d e a l w i t h many separate reforms remaining  t h a t Peter i n t r o d u c e d .  the  Instead, the  two books of P e t r P e r v y i d e a l more w i t h  the  s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t of P e t e r ' s a c t i o n s on Russian s o c i e t y . a consequence, f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r s occupy.an  As  important  p l a c e i n the n o v e l , but by no means do they i n f r i n g e upon Peter's c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n .  "In my  i s P e t e r I , " wrote T o l s t o i .  "The  novel the c e n t r a l  figure  other f i g u r e s who  accompany  Peter i n the n o v e l , depending on t h e i r . r e l a t i v e  importance,  48  are d e p i c t e d i n l e s s e r - d e t a i l and c l a r i t y . "  The g r e a t e s t  amount of d e t a i l i s devoted  t o two  Brovkins  but even they a c t p r i m a r i l y as a  and the Buinosovs,  fictitious families,  the  f o i l to the T s a r . The peasant  Ivashka B r o v k i n and h i s f a m i l y serve as a  symbol of the merging of the o l d and the new Russia.  His son A l e s h k a , who  as a boy  i n Peter's  s o l d p i r o s h k i i n the  s t r e e t s of Moscow w i t h Menshikov, l a t e r r i s e s i n the of his  the,Preobrazhensk regiment  and  i n t h i s way  e n t i r e f a m i l y i n the s o c i a l s c a l e .  helps t o r a i s e  In a d d i t i o n , P e t e r ,  a c t i n g as a matchmaker, comes to the Brovkin household on b e h a l f of t h e i r former master, V a s i l i i Volkov, his  marriage  t o San'ka B r o v k i n a .  ranks  and  arranges  T h i s i s one of s e v e r a l  examples and  of  Tolstoi's  fictional  characters  such  episodes  vividly  they  also  to  mind  of  add  the  narrative  the  are  skill  by w h i c h  brought  present  the  impression  together.  secondary  of  historical  Peter  Moreover,  figure  while  developing  in  the  reader: 6emeHO K p n ^ a j r a  — OTBOPHH! T p e m a J I H flOCKH .  3a  BopoTaMH,  B P O B K H H opo6eji. CyHyjicH K KaJiHTKe, — pyKH TPHCJIKCB. EflBa- GTBaJIHJl 3 a C O B , B O p O T a paCKHHVJ I H C B , H B t e x a J i H B e p x o K O H H b i e , . G o r a T o opeTbie, c ca6JiHMH H a r o j i o . 3 a H H M H qeTBepHKOM 30JioHeHHH K a p e T a , — H a 3 a n H T K a x apanta •—!KapjiBi. 3 a KapeTOH B OflHOKOJlKe — i i a p b I l e T p c JlecfopTOM,' B TpeyrOJTBHblX imiHnax H B l a n a n a x O T J J O P O X C H O H rpH-3H. . . TonoT, XOXOT, KPHKH... y c  BpOBKHHa n O f l C e K J l H C B  JlecJjopTOM H a K P H U I B I I O ,  — r « e  XOSHHH?  .  HOrH.  3aKpHHaJi  IloxtaBaa  .  .  IleTp,  B30HflH  6acoM:  ciofla M B o r o  HJIH  MepTBoro!  HB'aH ApTeMHi 3aMO^JHJi n o p T K H . T y T ' . e r o 3aMeTHJiH, nOflCKO^KJIH , MeHBUM KOB H' CblH AJieilia", nOJJHHJIH nort p y K H , nOTamHJiH K K p b i n B i i y . H nepjicaJiH, * I T O 6 Ha KOJieHH H e BCTaBan. B M e c T o S H T B H , H J I H eme q e r o x y a c e , — IleTp C H H J I uiJiHny H H H S K O noKjioHHJicn e M y : 3xipaBCTByHf CBaT-6aTioiiiKa. . . MBI • n p o c J i b i m a J i H — y T e 6 n KpacHbiH TOBap. . . K y r a i a npHB ; e3JiH.. . . 3 a iieHOH He nocTOHM... [278-279] In free  us  Brovkin's of  as  well  bartering  gives  dramatic  association  stratum, of  this  yet  for  with as  his  another  fear  his of  Tolstoi  persons  drawn  adherence  a bride.  wetting  a muzhik's  scene  His  example pants the  of is  Tsar.  illustrates  from  to  the  brusque his also But  every  social  ancient  manner o f  vociferous a  graphic by  the  Peter's  tradition speaking  character. illustration  fact  that  he  is  152  prevented from k n e e l i n g b e f o r e P e t e r , the reader i s informed of  the new  ordinance f o r b i d d i n g the B y z a n t i n e custom o f  prostrating oneself before a sovereign. G r a d u a l l y the peasant B r o v k i n r i s e s , f i r s t s u p p l i e r of hay the at  as a  for.the- Preobrazhensk regiment, and then as  owner of a t e x t i l e m i l l .  A f t e r Peter's i n i t i a l  Narva, B r o v k i n i s found among the wealthy kuptsy  f i n a n c e the f o r m a t i o n of a new  army.  defeat who  His daughter San'ka i s  transformed i n t o A l e k s a n d r a Ivanovna, the b o i a r y n i a Volkova, a nobleman's w i f e who  e a g e r l y accepts the western  life-style.  - Though u l t i m a t e l y she becomes a g r e a t success i n the h i g h e s t European  circles —  so much so t h a t T o l s t o i even planned t o  devote a whole chapter t o her v i s i t e x e m p l i f i e s the amusing adoption of'Western  to Paris —  she  also  e f f e c t produced by the decreed  culture:  3 T O MyXCHK , C KOpOBbHMH HoraMH — - c a T H p . . . Ojibra, HanpacBo KocopoTHTecB: y H e r o — JIHCT  Bbl,  (puroBbiH, — TaK Bcerfla numyT. KynHjj;oH x o ^ e T K O J I O T B ee C T p e j i o a . . . OHa, HeciacTHaa, ruia^eT, — C B e T He MHJI. Cepne^HbiH apyr cnejiaji eft a M y p H ynjiuji — BHnHTe — napyc... Ha3UBaeica — „ApHaflHa 6pomeHHaH" . .. Haflo 6 H BaM S T O B e e 3 a y ^ i H T b . KaBajiepbi n o c T O H H H O T e n e p B C T a n H c n p a u i H B a T B npo r p e i e c K H x - T o  6oroB.  3TO —  He npouuibift r o n .  [467]  The reader can understand from the t o p i c of c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t a l r e a d y some changes have taken e f f e c t . humour i n t h i s scene which  But t h e r e i s  i s achieved through the v e r n a c u l a r  language used i n a gawky way  t o d e s c r i b e such terms  from  c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y as " s a t y r " and " c u p i d , " and t o render  15.3 gentle the  painting  drug a  melancholy  sdelal  e i amur  social  clumsy  movements  San ' k a  mil."  In c o n t r a s t ,  creates  and  the  society  s t i l l  they  feeling  French w o r d  have  appear  lacking  had  a  been  in  been  "serdechnyi  that  this  "amour"  is  is  language. equally  Tolstoi's  the g r a c e f u l  intended  explain  to  the words  o f the speaker's  manners which  upon h i g h e r  that  ne  uplyl"  the q u a l i t y  forced  gentility  i  of a l e s s o n ,  to r a i s e  Similarly,  "svet  "Ariadne F o r s a k e n " w i t h  of  recitation  used  as  brusquely  depiction  ease  as  and  to d e m o n s t r a t e .  Says  t o the boiaryshn'iuB.udnpsovs : —  IIpe3aHTe  MOBO  MJiafluiero ~6paTa A p T a M o m y .  fleBfai JieHHBO noKHB aJiH B H C O K K M H H a n y f l p e H H H M H n p n lecKaMH. ApTaMOH n o Bcefi Hayxe n o n H T H J i c n , n o T o n a j i H O T O H , noMaxaJi pyKOH, 6yflTO n o J i o c K a J i 6 e J i B e . CaHbKa n p e f l C T a B J i H J i a : „KHHacHa A H T O H H H a , KHHacHa O J i B E a , KHHacHa HaTaJTbH" . Kaacflan fleBa, noflHHBiiiHCB, n p u c e j i a , — nepen KaacflOH^ Ap.TaMOH n o n o J i o c K a J i p y K O H . OcTopoacHo c e j i K cTOJiy. 3aaca.n p y K H Meatfly KOJieHHMH'. Ha c n y j i a x 3aropejiHCB n s T H a . C T O C K O H noflHHJi r\na3a Ha c e c T p y . CaH-BKa yrposcarome cflBHHyjia 6 P O B H . — Kan i a c T o C H J I O H HaTaJiBK). 6 O H K O oTBeTHJia:  flextaeTe nJie3Hp? — 3 a n H H a n c B , c n p o OHa-HeBHHTHo npomenTaJia. OjiBra  — T p e T B e r o flHa T a H u e B a J i H y HapbnuKHHHbix, T P H nJiaTBH MeHHJia. T a K O H Q O K c e , T a K a n acapa 6bina. B a c o T i e r o H H K o r f l a He B H H H O ? —  MoJiofl  CaHbKa  pa3a A  eme.  CKa3ajia:  — BaTioniKa 6 O H T C H — 3a6aJiyeTCH. B O T aceHHM, T o r f l a nycKaft.. . Ho TaHueBaTb O H yacacHo J I O B K H H . . . He r j i H f l H T e , * I T O po6eeT... EMy no-<i>paHn,y3CKH 3aroBOPHTB, — He- 3HaeiiiB, K y f l a . r j r a 3 a fleBaTB. [467-468] It  i s evident  accomplished  "po  vsei  from the nauke"  fact that  that  these movements are  they are s t i l l  quite  15.4  d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n s , - l a c k i n g t h e ^ s p o n t a n e i t y of the Europeans. Movements d e s c r i b e d by such words as "potopal nogoi"  and  "pop'oloskal r u k o i " c a l l t o mind movements and a c t i o n s t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d to e l e g a n t g e s t u r e s , and t h i s makes the scene c o m i c a l .  The  awkward mixture  entire  of French w i t h  Russian  i d i o m a t i c speech adds t o the comedy of the s i t u a t i o n , as the grumblings  of the parents who  are l o o k i n g on:  do  "BOJIH  aapetfaH^j*---- inny-Teg..aaaEBpoHbfty a' floop-a;6oJiBnior.o He.xflH TacKetTb- no. s o M a M  fieBOK."  T h i s b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to a t r a n s -  g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t the a n c i e n t Domostroi  (household  order)  s e g r e g a t i o n of the sexes reminds the reader once again of Karamzin's c r i t i c i s m s t h a t have been mentioned e a r l i e r i n the present study i n connection w i t h the changes.in social;-customs as decreed  by P e t e r .  Russian  However, T o l s t o i ' s  comical d e s c r i p t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l customs and manners suggest  a c l e a r v i n d i c a t i o n of the Tsar's s o c i a l  reforms.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y — whom the m a j o r i t y f o l l o w e d P e t e r ' s v a r i o u s decrees reluctantly —  i s the b o i a r Roman Buinosov.  of  only  With h i s  first  appearance, T o l s t o i shows some of the c u l t u r a l changes t h a t have entered a b o i a r ' s l i f e i n Peter's R u s s i a . i s perhaps one  What f o l l o w s  of the f i n e s t passages i n the n o v e l ,  one  which e x e m p l i f i e s T o l s t o i ' s g r a p h i c language, and one which c h a r a c t e r i z e s very w e l l the a t t i t u d e s of the o l d n o b i l i t y toward the new  reforms.  The  excerpt given below can  be  155 divided  into  boiar just edge  of  three  after  his  bed  departs  Tolstoi  s e c t i o n s . . - The..-f i r s t r . d e s c r i b e s  he and  has  into  paragraphyreveals  sitting  the w i n d o w .  The c h o i c e  of  of h i s  disdain  a  are  past,  Buinosov's t h o u g h t s  words" t o o ,  once  to  more  make to  z a t i o n o f Russian s o c i e t y .  and  for  as  they  occur  example,  the  object  the r e a d e r  justify  the  The i n f o r m a l  laugh  at  the  T s a r ' s Europeanit o n e o f t h e language  KHH3B P O M a H , KHHXt E o p H C O B , CfalH ByHHOCOB , a n O ~ HOMaiuHeMy — PoMaH B O P H C O B H ^ , B O J J ; H O M HcnoflHeM cHfleji H a Kpaio . n o c T e j i H , K P H X T H , no^ecHBajicn — H r p y f f b H non MHUiKaMH. no CTapofi npHBbrqKe Jie3 B 6 o p o « y , H O oTflepr-HBaJi p y K y : 6 P H T O , K O J T K O , I I P O T H B H O ... y a - x a - x a - x a - a - . . . — n o 3 e B B i B a J i , T J I H A H Ha He6oJibiuoe 9 K O H u e . CBeTajio, • M Y T H O H cKy^Ho.  B npeacHHe rona B S T O T ^ a c PoMaH B O P H C O B H ^ ysc BfleBaJi 6u B p y n a B a K Y H B I O my6y, c ^ e c r b i o HaflBHrajr H O 6poBeil 6o6poByio u i a n K y , — uiecTBOBaJi 6bi c B H I C O K O H  TpocTbK) n o CKpHny^iHM n e p e x o n a M Ha K P H J I B U O . I1;BOPHH flym n o J T r o p a c T a , K T O y B 0 3 K a — nepacaT K O H e f i , K T O 6eacnT K BopoTaM. BeeeJio pBajiH i u a n K H , K J i a H H J i H C b noHCHbiM M a x o H , a T e K T O C T O H J I no6JiHHce, Jio6bi3anH HoacKH S o n p H H y . . . lion. p y ^ K H , non 6 O * I K H ' noflcaacHBaJiH  Kaacfloe y T p o ,  B O BCHKyio norony, exaJi  PoMaH B o p H c o B H ^ i B O flBopeu, acaaTb, K o r n a r o c y n a peBbi C B e T J i b i e O ^ H (a n o c j i e — uapeBHHHbi O ^ I H n p e c B e T jibie) o 6 p a T H T C H H a H e r o , H He p a 3 T o r o c n y ^ a n  HOMCHBaJICH ... Bee  MHHyjlO?  '  MHHyjio! flHKO  to  the b o i a r ' s  w:  B030K...  day  F i n a l l y , the  c r e a t e s aheatmospher-.e"esuggestive o f t h e p a s t .  B  point  Dutch p a i n t i n g o f a s c a n t i l y - d r e s s e d  calculated and  o n the  From t h i s  the reader i s thus able t o look i n t o  mind.  coarse  he i s  begun i n the p r e - P e t r i n e p e r i o d .  third  woman —  out  as  the p a s t t o d e s c r i b e how Buinosov's  have  and  awakened,  staring  would  him,  the  :  npocHenibCH  H BCIIOMHHTB Z  SaTioiiiKH! HeyacTO 6bIJIH K O r f l a - T O nOKOH H  —  156  ^ecTB... HH^eMy He  B O H B H C H T BHceTB —  Ha  TecoBofi cTeHe — vp,e 6 H pana axucKoro  roJinaHflCKaK.,  co6Jia3Ha nHcaHHan, nacKyjjHan neBKa c 3a,n;paHHbiM noflOJioM. IlapB Bejieji B ono^HBanBHe noBecHTB He T O Ha CMex.,  He  T O B HaKa3aHHe.  TepnH.. .  K H H S B PoMaH B O P H C O B H ^ I .yrpMMO norJiHJjeJi H a n J i a T B e , 6poiueHHoe c Beiepa Ha J i a B K y : inepcTHHbie, 6a6bH, nonepen nojiocaTbie * i y . n K H , KaK H3 xcecTH, Ka$iaH c rajiyHOM. Ha rB03Jj;e — B O P O H O H napHK, H 3 Hero najiKaMH nujiB-To He B H I K O J I O T H I I I B . 3 a i e M Bee S T O ? v  [373-374]  In g e n e r a l i t must be observed Brovkins of  and Buinosovs  t h a t although  r e c e i v e approximately  the  the same amount  a t t e n t i o n from T o l s t o i , they serve d i f f e r e n t purposes i n  Petr Pervyi.  The Brovkins exemplify  s e r v i c e t o the s t a t e and through  the r a p i d r i s e ,  e d u c a t i o n , from the  through lowest  s o c i a l l e v e l t o one  of the most powerful.  other hand, who  a l l the f i n e q u a l i t i e s of an Oblomov,  has  f i n d s t h a t i n the new  Buinosov, on  order hdi.s i n f l u e n c e and  have been g r e a t l y reduced. t i n u e t o r i s e , Buinosov  the  importance  While Brovkin's f o r t u n e s con-  s u f f e r s the h u m i l i a t i o n of p l a y i n g  the T s a r ' s f o o l , and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the new  o r d e r are a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e i r sons.  The c o n t r a s t  between the young men. shows b e s t the modernization  of R u s s i a  where h e r e d i t a r y , unearned power and p r e s t i g e are r e p l a c e d by the achievement of s o c i a l s t a t u s through learning.  The youngest B r o v k i n , Artamosha  N a t a l ' i a Buinosova,  the power of (who  marries  i n c i d e n t a l l y ) , s u r p r i s e s Peter with  many f o r e i g n languages he has e x c l a i m , "I s h a l l grant t i t l e s  the  l e a r n e d , causing the Tsar t o for intelligence."  By c i ;  v  157  c o n t r a s t , the Buinosov"s youngest  son p r e f e r s p l a y i n g the  b a l a l a i k a w i t h the muzhiks i n the s t a b l e s t o s t u d y i n g mathem a t i c s , which h i s mother f e a r s w i l l only h u r t h i s head.  Like  F o n v i z i n ' s M i t r o f a n u s h k a , Mishka Buinosov i s not encouraged t o study.  Growls the o l d P r i n c e Buinosov:  Bee- paBHo MaBo MHiiiKy M a T e M a T H K e He^Hay^iHiiiB, nocTaBJieHa- M o c K B a 6e3 MaTeMaraKH, S C H J I H , cJiaBa 6ory, nflTBCOT J i e T 6e3 MaTeMaraKH Jiy^uie HHHeuiHero. [669]  Buinosov's  appearances  throughout the n o v e l serve t o  mark the p r o g r e s s o f v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l changes.  To supplant  Russian customs, P e t e r i s s u e s decrees governing the most minute d e t a i l s o f everyday  life.  Not only does Buinosov  s u f f e r the d i s c o m f o r t o f western d r e s s , but he i s o b l i g e d t o brush h i s t e e t h i n the mornings,  drink coffee f o r breakfast,  put up w i t h a German major-domo, and f i n a l l y e n t i r e f a m i l y beyond Moscow's c i t y Voronezh,  a f e a t unprecedented  Understandably,  t r a v e l w i t h the  l i m i t s to d i s t a n t  i n the f a m i l y ' s  history.  the e s t a b l i s h e d n o b i l i t y ,  jealously  guarding t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s , bemoan the appearance  i n t h e i r midst of some parvenu i n t r u d e r .  One  such person whose m e t e o r i c r i s e i s the cause o f much envy and f e a r as w e l l —  i s A l e k s a s h k a o r , as he comes t o be  known, A l e k s a n d r D a n i l o v i c h Menshikov.  But although he i s  P e t e r ' s c o n s t a n t companion, he r e c e i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n from T o l s t o i than do e i t h e r the B r o v k i n s or the  —  •158  Buinosovs.  More i s seen of Menshikov i n the f i r s t book  —  where he i s a homeless u r c h i n s e l l i n g p i r o s h k i i n Moscow  —  than i n the r e s t of the n o v e l , where he becomes a mere adjunct to P e t e r .  T h e i r f i r s t meeting, d e s c r i b e d as  i n f o r m a l exchange between two  an  boys, serves t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  the e n t i r e h i s t o r y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Menshikov the T s a r . —  and  Aleksashka b r a s h l y demands: H Hy  CMOTPIO, —  u,apb.  Tbi A  He  Ham  Te6e  J I H iiapB.  A?  u  e  .  I T O ?  — KaK *ITO... A B O T T B I B 3 H J I bbi na H n p H H e c HaM c a x a p H b i x n p H H H K O B . . . . E H 6 o r y , c 6 e r a H , npHHeceiiiB — ojjHy X H T P O C T B T e 6 e n o n a x c y . — AJieKC,aiiiKa C H H J I u i a n K y , H 3 - 3 a nojiKJiaflKH BHTaniHJi n r j i y . TJIHJJH — n r j i a ajiH H e T ? Xo^eiub — nr.ny C K B O B B meKy n p o T a m y c H H T K O H , H H H M e r o He 6yjjeT  Eme 6bi T e 6 e i i a p b ^aJiHBO C K a 3 a J i O H , A — 3a cepe6pHHyiG H H i e r o H e 6yxi;eT.  Seraji 3a- n p H H H K a M H , 3a  jjeH&ry  rteHbrn  nrjiy  T P H pa3a  — BopnpoTamnniB?  npoTamy,  H [63]  Throughout the n o v e l Menshikov continues to use h i s p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s P e t e r f o r p e r s o n a l advantage.  Through g r a f t  p r o f i t a b l e p a r t n e r s h i p s he accumulates wealth  and  and power.  But even though he shares P e t e r ' s d e s i r e f o r reforming  and  w e s t e r n i z i n g R u s s i a , i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s Menshikov i s not above s p y i n g on the T s a r .  The b e g i n n i n g of the Marta  Rabbe a f f a i r can serve to i l l u s t r a t e how  l i t t l e he  changed i n some s i x hundred pages, or twenty years t h e i r f i r s t meeting on the Iauza MeHBiiiHKOB B H n e j i ,  no  M H H  has after  river:  x@gi$  Bec&Ma  HyjKflaeTCH  B  159 xceHCKOH J i a c K e . D,apcKHe xteHinHKH ( B e e y MeHbumKOBa Ha acaJioBaHHH) H O H O C H J I H , * I T O n e T p A J i e x c e e B H ^ rmoxo c n H T no HonaM., o x a e T , C T V M H T B C T e H y K o n e H K a M H . EMy HyxcHa 6buia He n p o c T O 6a6a, -.— floSpan n o f l p y r a . Ceft^iac AJieKcaiiiKa 3anycTHJi npo AHHy M O H C T O J I B K O H J I H npoBepKH. n e T p . — HHKaK.? ? . . — A j i e K c a u i K a B n p y r Ha^aJi CMeH-rfiGH-npov..Ge:6H vv K P Y T H T B T O J I O B O H . 1  :  TTeTp —  eMy — . x o n o f l H o :  yflHBJIHMCb, 3 HaK)  KaK  H  Te6H- B C e - T a K H T e p n j n o ,  —  He  . . .  A H T O H?.. Bo B C H - K O M  fla;:  eft-eft...  nejie Te6e HenpeMe-HHo- Haflo  H ceft^iac KpyTHiiiBCH, —  BHxey. . .  yKpacTB...  [660-661]  That P e t e r has changed, has matured toward the end of the  n o v e l , has developed a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i s  demonstrated through a c o n t r a s t w i t h the same Menshikov, who i s presented as s t i l l v e r y much the happy-go-lucky At  rascal.  the s i e g e o f Narva, f o r example, Menshikov l o s e s the  honour o f l e a d i n g the f i r s t  a t t a c k a g a i n s t the Swedish  f o r t r e s s through h i s f o o l h a r d y behaviour.  Says P e t e r  angrily: — 3 a n o M H H , flaHHJibrq:, HCTHHHbift 6or — yBH)Ky eme T B o e nypauKoe m e r o j i B C T B O . , uiKypy cnymy n n e T K O f t , . . CpaMOTa! Bee eme He MOJKeuiB 3a6biT& 6a3apH M O C K O B CKHe! Bee inyTHTB x o ^ e u i B , KaK y M e H H 3 a C T O J I O M ! A Ha ;T.e6n E B p o n a C M O T P H T , ,n;ypaK! M O J I M H , He oTBe^iaft.  .  1  #73 6-737] The  tendentious d e s c r i p t i o n s o f two other monarchs,  Augustus I I o f Poland and C h a r l e s XII of Sweden, p r o v i d e another c o n t r a s t t o P e t e r .  In t h i s r e s p e c t , T o l s t o i may be,  f a u l t e d f o r drawing these h i s t o r i c a l personages almost as c a r i c a t u r e s , devoid o f any redeeming q u a l i t i e s .  Essentially,  160 he  portrays  the  king  sees  of  more wine,  Sweden. suffers  king  Sweden  Augustus  ance, fine  the  as  as  from  weather,  the  gentry.  In i n  through  his  an  interested than  as  a mindless  obsessed more  in  the  lead  concerned with  attractive  his  discomforts  plain  business  troops of  into  satiric speech  tone,  and  is  The  his  ladies,  war  the  and  he  the  boring of  food  against  Courland,  on t h e v e r g e  Tolstoi  appear-  i n good of  and  reader  own  provincial l i f e ,  p r o v i n c i a l women.and Augustus  popinjay,  war-monger.  i n t h e exhausting  short, a  Poland  a king  Obliged to  Writing  of  dreary  provincial  melancholia.  characterizes  Augustus  mannerisms:  A B r y c T , xcyn cJ>apiu.HpoBaHHoro 3 a H u . a , M Y T H O norjiHJJbiBaJi H a n a M . noTpecKHBajiH jjpoBa. EapoHbi H- 6apoH'eccbi He nieBejiHJiHCB, o ^ e B H f l H o , o n a c a n c b H e n p m u m H b i x 3 B y K O B B BHfle C O n e H H H . MOJPiaHHe C J T H U J K O M 3 a T H H y j l O C b . ABrycT, o6JioKOTHCb, BbiTep r y 6 H , y p o H H J i H a C T O J I caJi(|)eTKy. — MenaM H ' M e c b e , H He y c T a H y noB-TopHTB o T O M B H C O K O M ynoBJieTBopeHHH, K O T o p o e HcnHTbiBaio, Syzty^EH rocTeM Bamero n p e K p a e H o r o r o p o n a . (IIoHTBepnHJi S T O J i e r K H M HBHHCeHHeM K H C T H pyKH . ) Hy»CHO C T a B H T b B npHMep B u c o K H e HpaBCTBeHHbie K a ^ e c T B a KypjiHHflCKoro A B o p H H C T B a : c dJiaropoflHbiM 0 6 p a 3 0 M MHCJiefl O H O caacTJTHBO coeflHHaeT T p e 3 B y i o n p a K r a ^ H o c T b . EapOHbl flOCTOHHO H a K JIOHHJIH n a p H K H H 3 K O H C K O r O B O J i o c a , 6 a p o H e c c b i , noMenjiHB HecKOJibKO ( T a n KaK n J i o x o noHHMaJiH <|)paHuy3KyK) p e ^ b ) , npHnortHHJiH nbmiHbie 3ajJbi, npHceJiH. [550] The  silence  "Slavic speech combine  of  spread" and to  the  barons  of  and the  rise  and  f a l l  of  the  t h e b a r o n e s s e s , cco^-^as^te'd.twd-feh-e.tH'e " e l o q u e n t  gestures  of  create  comical  a  the  king,  i n the best  tableau.  French  The k i n g ' s  fashion,  French  161 speech i s conveyed by an e l e v a t e d contemporary Russian. i s portrayed  and l i t e r a r y tone i n the  In each o f h i s appearances, Augustus  as a man w i t h great s a v o i r - f a i r e which i s ,  n o n e t h e l e s s , somehow out o f p l a c e i n the immediate m i l i e u . He would have been b e t t e r s u i t e d as a patron  o f the a r t s , a  k i n g whose c o u r t c o u l d have been no l e s s c u l t i v a t e d than the c o u r t s a t V e r s a i l l e s o r Vienna, were i t n o t f o r C h a r l e s X I I , whom Augustus contemptuously d e s c r i b e s u r c h i n i n a dusty But  ferocious  frock-coat."  i t i s the f i g u r e o f the Swedish king t h a t i s the  main t a r g e t o f T o l s t o i ' s r a t h e r p o i n t e d himself  as "that  satire.  Believing  t o be a m i l i t a r y genius, an equal of Alexander the  Great and J u l i u s Caesar, C h a r l e s  f o l l o w s an extremely  Spartan r o u t i n e , and any " d e v i a t i o n from t h a t order, insubordination  or any  t o h i s w i l l , d r i v e s him i n t o a rage:  C J I O B O „ B e p c e p K H e p " , — H J I H onepacHMbiH 6eineHCTBOM, — HfleT H 3 r j i y 6 o K O H j j p e B H o c T H , O T o6brqaH c e B e p H b i x JIIOIieH OnBHHHTBCH r p H © O M MVXOMOpOM. BnOCJiertCTBHH , B c p e n H H e B e K a , S e p c e p K H e p a M H y HopMaHOB Ha3biBajiHCB B O H H B I , ojjepxcHMbie 6emeHCTBOM B Sow, — O H H cpaxcajiHCB 6e3 K O J i B ^ y r n , mHTa H uiJieiyta, B O B H H X X O J I I H O B B I X py6axax H 6buiH T a K CTpamHbi, n o , no n p e n a H H i o , H a n p H M e p , H B e H a x m a T B S e p c e p K H e p o B , ChiHOBeH K O H y H r a K a H y T a , — n j i a B a J i H na OTJjeJiBHOM Kopa6Jie, TaK KaK caMH H O P M S H H SOHJIHCB H X . npHna/JOK  SemeHCTBa, CJiy^HBiiiHHCH c KopoJieM KapxiOM,  6bIJIO TOJIBKO H a 3 B a T B . S e p c e p K H e p C T B O M , flO T a K O H C T e n e H H B e e n p H f l B o p H b i e , •SbiBuiHe B S T O BpeMH B ero u i a T p e , 6biJiH H c n y r a H B i H nojjaBJieHbi, a rpacp IlHnep xtaace He ^aHJi o c T a i B c a S C H B B I M . . . [756] M03KHO  Such a lengthy  explanation  of. the word berserk  gested p a r a l l e l between Charles  and the sug-  and some f r e n z i e d Norsemen  162" from the Middle Ages i s to  the k i n g .  Charles t u r n s strategic  h a r d l y d e s i g n e d t o be complimentary  A f t e r h i s v i c t o r y o v e r Peter a t a g a i n s t Augus:tus:i?r.n.^  move, b u t  simply  because  b a t t l i n g a g a i n s t Saxon t r o o p s "flea-bitten"  Narva i n 1700,  than  there  i s more glory  in pursuing  in  Peter's  army.  Whereas Augustus i s r i d i c u l e d ' as a somewhat p r e c i o u s person who s u f f e r e d from uncouth c o m p a n y , the similar d e p r i v a t i o n s satirized  cheap w i n e ,  of a m i l i t a r y c a m p a i g n ,  as a man l i t e r a l l y  and  Charles  enamoured w i t h e v e r y t h i n g  is  that  has t o dotwi'fehrwarTheTKelfO'l'lowingcexperptliaiiustEatesEhis militaristic  nature.  Charles c o n t i n u e s thrilling y  sounds  Awakened b y  the  crowing  of  a  cock,  to l i e on h i s cot l i s t e n i n g to t h e of  a waking  military  camp.  Suddenly,  caMoro maTpa 3aTHBKaJia co6aiOHKa, no roJiocy  —  flPHHb, H3 T e x , n o flaMbi- B O 3 H T c C O S O H B K a p e T e . . . K T O - T O I U H K H V J I H a H e e , co6a*ioHKa xcajio6Ho B 3 B H 3 r H y j i a . K o p o J i b OTMeTHJi: „ y 3 H a T b OTKyjj;a coSa^ioHKa" . H e n o f l a J i e K y y . K O H O B H 3 H 3a6HJiHcb jiouiann,' O H H O HHKO 3aKpH-qaJia. K o p o J i b oTMeTHJii"" M5Kajib, H O B H H H M O , „ H e n T y H a " npHflercH' O X O J I O C T . H T B " . . . . Han naJiaTKOH n p o H e c j i H C b n T H i i a , p a 3 p e 3 a n co C B H C T O M B03n.yx. OTMeTHJi: nEy,n;eT noroxcHH . n e H b " . 3ByKH H roJioca CTaHOBHJiHCb B e e o T ^ i e T J i H B e e . CJiaine B c e x B H O J I , ap$, KJiaBeCHH SHJia 3 T O 60HpaH , MJpKeCTB eHHMH My3bIKa  npo6y»cjj;aiomerocH Jiarepn. KopoJib ^ y B C T B O B a J i ce6n O T J I H ^ H O n o c j i e K o p o T K o r o c H a H a n o x o H H o t i n o c T e J i H , ' nofl inHHeJibio, n a x H y m e n flOpOXCHOH nbUIbK)- H KOHCKHM n O T O M . O fla, 6bIJIO 6bl B TbicH^y p a s npHHTHee n p o c H y T B C H . O T neTyuiHHHoro K p H K a , K o r f l a no T y C T o p o H y noJin C T O H T HenpHHTeJib H B C B I P O M T y M a H e OTTyrta T S H e T H B I M K O M e r o K O C T P O B . . . Toma — OflHHM npbKCKOM C nOCTejIH B 6opT$OPTbI., H Ha KOHH. .. H cnoKOHHbiM: m a r o M , cflepxcHBaH 6JiecK r j i a 3 ,  BbiexaTB  K  n e p e j j 6oeM H  The  CBOHM B O H G K S M ,  KOTOpbie y»Ce  CTOHT,  cypoBbie. . .  ycaTbie,  nOCTpOHJTHCB  [714-715]  t e r s e n o t a t i o n s made by C h a r l e s , the appearance of some  m i s e r a b l e lapdog i n h i s camp, and  f i n a l l y the d e c i s i o n t o  c a s t r a t e Neptune, a l l p o i n t t o the d i s d a i n i n which the Swedish k i n g holds everyone and e v e r y t h i n g which d i s t r a c t s his  men  (or h i s horses)  from m i l i t a r y  affairs.  F i n a l l y , C h a r l e s , as d e s c r i b e d by one of h i s  own  g e n e r a l s , i s p o r t r a y e d as a b s o l u t e l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o the his  way  troops are f e d , and completely unmoved, by the death of  any of h i s men..  But such an extreme p o r t r a y a l i s f a r from  g i v i n g an accurate p i c t u r e of a King who great m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g i s t .  was,  in fact, a  I t i s obvious t h a t T o l s t o i  c h a r a c t e r i z e s Augustus a n d C h a r l e s i n such a d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s t o r t e d manner i n order t o enhance the image of P e t e r as a monarch who  i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n almost every aspect of  c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y  life.  For example, on the eve of the  Swedish v i c t o r y a t Narva i n 1700,  i t appears  knows t h a t he . w i l l l o s e the b a t t l e .  that Peter  He confesses t o  Menshikov: — He c T o r o K O H i r a B 3 H J I H C B . . . HHKyfla S T O ne.no eiqe He r o J X H T C H . ^ T O G 3flecb nyuiKa B U C T p e j i H J i a , ee HaflO B MOCKBe 3apHJj;HTB. . . . —  CKaKaTB  co  uinaroH  —  nocjiejjHee Jjejio...  [599]  F o r e s e e i n g the r o u t at Narva, Peter f l e e s t o Novgorod where a t once he begins t o prepare a new  army.  To r e p l a c e  164  his  lost  cannons, the Tsar b r a z e n l y  be h a u l e d  down and m e l t e d  m a i n enemy f o r c e training  i n t o new  somewhere  i n actual  order t h a t artillery.  i n Poland, h i s new  combat d u r i n g  small  raids  church  bells  Then w i t h t h e army  receives  against  Swedish  positions. How b e g a n may  much t h e t i m e s h a v e c h a n g e d s i n c e P e t e r ' s be observed by comparing  Moscow s t r e e t s end.  The  first  streets  excerpt  i s reminiscent  i n the story  are noisy  quarrelling,  of  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n o v e l and toward  d e s c r i b e d by T o l s t o i The  the d e s c r i p t i o n s  reign  and d i r t y ,  fighting people,  the  o f t h e Moscow  "Povest' smutnogo filled  vremeni."  with pushing,  and f r i g h t e n e d , r e a r i n g  shoving, horses:  u e p e 3 Hygy,/ nfle Ha Kpy.T-.oM eepery COTHH- He60JIBIUHX MeJIBHHII. PblCBK) BCJiejJ 3 a  nepeexaJik M O C T  BepTeJIHCB  caHHMH H o6o3aMH ftpoexaJiH no ixnomairH B J J O J I B 6 e J i o o 6 J i e 3JIOH CTeHbl S. KBaXtpaTHHMH SaUIHHMH nVUIKaMH Mesc 3y6UOB. B MHCHHUKHX HH36HbKHX BopoTax — — KPHK,  p y r a T B , i i a B K a , — KascxjOMy Haflo6Ho • n p o c K O M H T b nepBOMy, 6 B K ) T C H KyjianaMH, j i e T H T manKH, TpetqaT c a H H , jToniartH jie3yT H a J J B I S H . Hart B O P O T S M H T e n j i H T C H  HeyracHMaa  JiaMnajja- nepext TeMHbiM  AJieniKy HCXJiecTaJin K H y r a M H , TOJIBKO X C H B  OCTaJICH !  BfaiTepaH K P O B B  JIHKOM.  noTepHJi n i a n K y , —  KaK  BbiexaJtH H a MHCHHLIKyiO. . .  c H o c a , O H rjiHfleJi no CTopoHaM: ox Tbi!  Hapojj BanoM BanHJi B J J O J I B y 3 K O H HaBosHOK yjiHiiu. JtomaTbix jraB^oHOK neperHgaHCb, KpimajiH K y n ^ H i i i K H , JIOBHJIH 3a nojibi, c npoxoxnx pBaJiH i n a n K H , — 3a3biBaJiH H3 K  ce6e.  3a  BHCOKHMH  3a6opaMH —  KaMeHHbie  H36bi,  KpacHbie, cepeSpHHbie KpyTbie K P H I I I H , n e c T p u e aepKOBHbie M3KOBKH . IJepKBeH ' TblCH^IH . H 60JIbUIHe nHTHrJiaBbie , H MaJieHbKHe — Ha n e p e K p e c T K a x . . . Ty^n raJiOK Hap; u e p K B y n i K a M H . . .  EjjBa npoxipaJiHCB 3 a JIy6HHKy, P e t e r ' s v a r i o u s reforms  . . .  and m i l i t a r y  [17] levies  emptied  165 Moscow the  of  old  of  capital  contrast draws  much  is  is  all  market  which  square  to he  streets  here  there  and  more the  had  where  deserted  and  opposite  evident  absence described  waves  where  the  population,  exactly  the  attention  elements  its  of  only  garbage  the  to  since  of  newcldescription  the  one  Tolstoi  those  noisy  originally.  people  stream  homeless  dogs  strewn  above.  of  The  specifically and  colourful  Instead past,  wander  of  we now  a have  sniffing  about:  C K V ^ H O CTajio B M o c K B e . B o6efleHHyio n o p y — B H K D J I B C K H H 3HOH OflHH 6e3flOMHHe C06aKH 6pOHHJIH n o KPHBHM yJIHD;aM, O n y C T H B X B O C T b l , npHHIOXHBaH B C H K y K ) JjpHHB, KOTOpyK) JOOJJJI BH6P0CHJIH' 3 a HeHaflOfiHOCTbH) 3 a BopoTa. He S B I J I O npexcHeft T O J I K O T H H H K p u K a H a nJiomaflHx, K o r r t a y H H O T O n o ^ T e H H b r o * i e j i o B e K a n o j i u O T o p B y T , 3a3biBaH K n a n a T K a M , H J I H BbiBepHyT KapMaHbi, p a H B U i e q e M O H * I T O — HH6y,n.b K y n H T H a T a K O M B e p T H i e M Mede. npeac-fle y Kascfloro 6 o n p c K o r o flBopa, y BOPOT, 3 y 6 o c K a J i H j i H HarjiBie HBopoBbie-xojionbi B iuanKax, C 6 H T H X Ha y x o , H r p a J i H B C B a f t K y , M e T a J i H .neHBry H J I H npocTO — He naBaJiH npoxofly H H K O H H O M y , H H n e m e M y , — X O X O T , 6 a j i o B C T B O , xBaTaHBe p y K a M H . HbiH*ie B o p o T a 3 a K p u T b i H a r j i y x o , H a U I H P O K O M flBope — T H X O , JiionHiiiKH B3HTBT H a BOHHy, SOHpCKHe CBIHOBBH H 3HTBH J I H 6 0 B nojinax y H T e p - o $ H i J , e p a M H - , J I H 6 O ycjiaHbi 3a Mope, H e f l O p O C J I H OTflaHBI B UIKOJIbl yiHTBCS HaBHraUHH, MaTeMaTHKe H $OpTH<l>HKaL[;HH CaM 1 SOHpHH C H f l H T 6 e 3 xtejia y pacKpuToro OKonie^Ka, pan, * I T O X O T B Ha MaJioe BpeMH- n a p B n e T p , 3 a O T t e 3 f l O M , He H C B O J I H T e r o K y p H T B TaSaK, C K O 6 J I H T B 6opojj;y H J I H B SejiBix ^ y j i K a x no KOJieHO, B napHKe H3 6a6BHX B O J I O C — RO n y n a — BepTeTB H nepraTB H o r a M H . [66 8 - 6 6 9 ] But  while  Moscows, general  there i t is  unity  i s a c o n t r a s t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e two important  of  to  linguistic  draw a t t e n t i o n y e t a g a i n style  i n the novel.  Both  to  the  166 passages c o n t a i n examples o f v e r n a c u l a r rJiHXten no 3a  cropoHaM:  HeHaflo6HocTb»  3a  3 a JIio6HHKy,  BopoTa,  3a  iiapB  IleTp,  OTBe3Jj;oM,  BHSPQCHJIH He  a flavour  6opo,ny) , which maintain  The d e p i c t i o n of the two scenes above a l s o  contains humour.  I t i s c r e a t e d a t t h e expense of the d i s o r -  d e r l y , even c h a o t i c , l i f e excerpt  ( f o r example,  ox T H ! , npoJxpaJiHCB  HeBOJTHT ero. . . , C K O 6 J I H T B of the past.  speech  o f the p a s t , and i n the second  a t the expense of the momentary q u i e t enjoyed by the  b o i a r who dreads t h e establishment  o f a western  In t h i s new R u s s i a , the Brovkins  life-style.  and Menshikov are  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of common f o l k who have been able t o grasp the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by Peter's t h e i r lowly p o s i t i o n s .  reforms and r i s e from  But what of the masses?  How does  T o l s t o i d e a l with them? In the 1920's and 1930's, S o v i e t w r i t e r s o f h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n were expected t o i l l u s t r a t e the l e a d i n g r o l e o f the people i n the h i s t o r i c a l process.  T h i s was t o be i n c o n t r a s t  to p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y w r i t e r s , who were r e f e r r e d t o as "dvorianski-burzhuaznye,"  o r w r i t e r s from the b o u r g e o i s i e -  n o b i l i t y , who, i t was s a i d , reduced h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n t o s t o r i e s about t s a r s , p r i n c e s and m i l i t a r y heroes.  In such  works the r e a l movers of h i s t o r y , t h a t i s the people, were a l l but ignored.  But i n t h i s very m a t t e r i o f I d e p i c t i n g the  peopieeas moverstof_history./ePetr from other h i s t o r i c a l novels  P e r v y i must stand  apart  o f t h a t p e r i o d because t h e  167 mover of h i s t o r y remains the monarch.  Post-war monographs  on A. T o l s t o i concede t o the c r i t i c s of the 1930's t h a t he does not w r i t e much about the oppression at the same time they now  of the people,  add t h a t he does not  but  misrepresent  49 the r e l a t i o n between the people and important  to add  the T s a r .  But i t i s  t h a t i n s t e a d of a h e r o i c s t r u g g l e of the  people a g a i n s t t s a r i s m , T o l s t o i d e s c r i b e s t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to Peter and h i s reforms i n such a way c o m i c a l , and serves backwardness.  t h a t i t o f t e n seems  as y e t another i l l u s t r a t i o n of  I n f f a c t , the two  expressions  Russia's  of massive  r e s i s t a n c e to Peter i n the n o v e l , namely, the r e v o l t of the s t r e l ' t s y and of the s e l f - i m m o l a t i n g Old B e l i e v e r s who Peter the A n t i c h r i s t , are shown to be p o l i t i c a l l y  call  reactionary  actions. How  T o l s t o i would have w r i t t e n about the B u l a v i n  u p r i s i n g , which was  to have appeared i n the u n f i n i s h e d t h i r d  volume, i s d i f f i c u l t t o say.  But  on the b a s i s of an important  d i s c o v e r y by A. V.  In T o l s t o i ' s notebook A l p a t o v author was  p r e p a r i n g to use  t o appear i n t h a t u p r i s i n g .  a c o n j e c t u r e can be made 50 Alpatov.  found a l i s t of names t h a t the  f o r cossack c h a r a c t e r s who Among, the names was  were  a certain  Bludov, which a l s o happens to be the surname of the dragoon who  was,  as Peter d i s c o v e r s i n the l a s t pages, the  who  captured  and  soldier  l a t e r s o l d Marta Rabbe to Sheremet'ev!  Perhaps by introducinggsuchhaapersonal  linkkbetween the  Tsar  168  and  cossack u p r i s i n g ,  the B u l a v i n  political  T o l s t o i meant to b l u n t  significance of t h a t p o p u l a r  the  revolt.against  autocracy.  Be  t h a t as i t . may,-the f a c t  remains t h a t  o f the people t o P e t e r ' s r e f o r m s  tance  i t did  i n some e a r l i e r w o r k s  of.Tolstoi's  plays a b o u t Peter), a n a t i o n a l resistance against Europeanization. general  the  capricious  Instead, T o l s t o i d r a w s a p i c t u r e o f  d i s c o n t e n t b u t s h o w s no d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between  people and the T s a r . to Peter and h i s  tion  resis-  n o t i n d i c a t e , as  does  as the f i r s t  (such  the  examples w h i c h  cannot  Furthermore, the p e o p l e ' s opposi'-1 -  innovations  i sdepicted only  e v o k e the r e a d e r ' s  through  sympathy.  For  i n s t a n c e , t h e Russian merchants c a n n o t understand a n d a r e therefore in  their  suspicious  o f t h e new w a r e s  that  they m u s t  carry  shops:  — fe'TafiaK? B KaKHX K H u r a x M H T S H O — • y e j i o B e K y r j i o T a T b jjbiM? y K o r o J J B I M - T O H3 n a c T H ? laBo? 3a c o p o K 3 a B o c e M b TbicH'q: p y S J i e B B e e r o p o x t a H C H 6 H P B B C H OTjjaHbi H a O T K y n a H r j i H ^ a H H H y K a p M a p T e H O B y — npoiiaBaTb TaSaK. H y K a 3 , H T O 6 H 3 T y ancKyio T p a B y HHKoiiHaHy KypHJiH.. . ^ B H X p y K 3 T O rte.no? A ^afi, a Ko$eH? A K a p T O B b , — T b $ y , ,6,yxtb o H a n p o K J i H T a 1 IlOXOTb a H T H X p H C T O B a , KapTOBb ! Bee 3 T O 3 e j i b e — H 3 - 3 a M o p f l , H T o p r y i o T MM y H a c xuoTepaHe H K a T O J i H K H . . . laa K T O n b e T —- O T ^ a e T c a . . . K T O K O $ e f l nbeT — y T o r o H a rtyiue K O B . . . fla — T b $ y ! — c j j o x H y J i y ^ u i e , ieM B xiaBKy ce6e B03BMy T a K o e . . . [370]  Ukaz fo1lowsuufeaz and the people's grumbling Peter d e c r e e s , brate  for  example,  continues.  t h a t a l l Russians must now  the New Year n o t on the f i r s t  cele-  o f September, b u t as the  169 Europeans do, on January f i r s t .  In. a d d i t i o n ,  to  Christ,  be  counted  since  the  birth  of  and  the years are not  since  the  c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , and t h e r e f o r e , s t a r t i n g w i t h January first  next,  the  year  be-1700.  shall  Moreover, f o l l o w i n g  European custom, each New Year s h a l l making,  the  exchange  of  visits  and  be g r e e t e d w i t h  c5f g i f t s .  changes were not enough, P e t e r d e c r e e s  if  As  the  merrythese  a new f a s h i o n  in  dress: y B O P O T K H T a n H E e J i o r o r o p o j j a npH6HJTH B T O P O H i i a p c K H H y K a 3 : „ E o H p a M , u a p e f l B o p i r a M . , cjiyxcHJibiM J H O J J H M npHKa3HbIM H TOprOBbIM XOJJHTb OTHblHe H 6630TMeHHO B B e H r e p c K O M n j i a r b e , BecHoft ace, K o r j j a C T a H e T O T M O P O 3 0 B xier^e, H O C H T B c a n c o H C K H e K a $ T a H b i " . Ha KpiOKaX BblBeCHJIH 3TH Ka$TaHbI H iLUTHnbl. COJIJjaTH, oxpaHHBiune H X , T O B O P H J I H , M T O C K o p o - j j e npHKaacyT Bcein K y n ^ H x a M , C T p e J i b ^ i H x a M , n o c a j j c K H M x o e H K a M , nonajjBHM H JJ.bHKOHHU.aM XOJJHTb npOCTOBOJIOCblMH , B HeMeilKHX K O P O T K H X io6Kax H non n\naTBeM HaKJiaxJbiBaTB. H-a 6 o K a KHTOBbie pe6pa..~. y BOPOT CTOHJIH TOJinbl B CMyiqeHHH , B CMyTHOM CTpaxe. nepejjOBajiH m e n o T O M , 6 y j j T o HeB-e-jjoMbiH ^ e j i o B e K c TpeMH K o i e p r a M H 3aKHJjaJi KaJiOM T S K O H see B O T Ka$TaH Ha KpwKe. H KpHHaJi:V „ C K O P O He BejiHT n o - p y c c K H p a 3 r o B a p H B a T b , xcjJHTe! n o H a e j j y T pHMCKHe- H JnoTepcKHe nonbi nepeKpeiqHBaTB BecB HapoJj. n o c a j j c K H X oTJjaxryT HeMuaM B B e i H y K Ka6aJiy. MocKBy Ha30ByT no-HOBOMy — - ^ e p T o rpajj. B C T a p H H H H - X KHHrax oTKpbuiocb: iiapb-ne neTp —  3KHJJOBHH H3 KOJieHa flaHOBa" . Ka-K-  OblJIO He B e p H T B TaKHM CJIOBaM  Although i n t h e s e  people's i g n o r a n c e ,  their  b o r d e r i n g on x e n o p h o b i a , the  ancient v i e w s  could  one  quality  not  two e x c e r p t s  he  such  o f this tableau.  Tolstoi  [512]  r e v e a l s the  deep-rooted s u s p i c i o n  and  does so i n a way t h a t  and b e l i e f s .  believe  . . .  The l a s t  words,"  sentence,  emphasizes  the  a fear  satirizes "How satiric  The v e r n a c u l a r language with which  170 European s t a p l e s t h a t P e t e r i n t r o d u c e s to Russia — tea,  c o f f e e , and potatoes —  tobacco,  are cursed adds to the humour  s i n c e they appear t o the Russians  as f r u i t s of c a r n a l  degradation o f f e r e d by the A n t i c h r i s t .  Furthermore, the  d e p i c t i o n of an awe-struck crowd gaping  a t the newly pre-  s c r i b e d f a s h i o n of d r e s s , and even the tone of the  decree,  "kogda s t a n e t o t morozov legche," c r e a t e s a comica-l p i c t u r e . The whispered  rumour passing, .through the crowd, together  w i t h the s o l d i e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n of how  Russian women w i l l  soon have t o wear whale-bones underneath t h e i r  strange  German d r e s s e s , f u r t h e r adds to the comedy of the whole situation. In s l i g h t l y more s e r i o u s v e i n , T o l s t o i w r i t e s about two men,  Andriushka  G o l i k o v and Fed'ka Umoisia G r i a z ' i u ,  who  symbolize  those peasants who  bear the f u l l burden of P e t e r ' s  reforms.  G o l i k o v , an i c o n - p a i n t e r from Palekh, i s a s e n s i -  t i v e seeker a f t e r beauty, t r u t h , and the meaning of He f l e e s to the n o r t h to the Old B e l i e v e r s , but b e a t i n g s , and burnings  life.  fasts,  soon d r i v e him back to P e t r i n e R u s s i a .  There he i s pressed i n t o the army; but a f t e r d e s e r t i n g he i s sentenced  to work on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of S t . P e t e r s b u r g .  F o r t u n a t e l y he i s able t o a t t r a c t the Tsar's a t t e n t i o n to his  a r t i s t i c t a l e n t , and earns h i s freedom and a promise to  be sent abroad How  t o study.  Fed'ka Umoisia  G r i a z ' i u d i f f e r s from h i s f r i e n d  171 may be gathered from the f o l l o w i n g exchange.  Says G o l i k o v :  H T e 6 e cKaacy ORHH p a 3 . . . teBei Hy T a K a n C H J i a — 6ojibiiie ^ e J i O B e ^ i e c K O H . . . Gnyuiaio Beiep C B H C T H T no cTe6ejiHM H — n o H H M a i o , TaK noHHMaio B e e , — - rpy,nb paapbiBaeT. . . rjiHxcy —  —  BO  <peflH, B O T n o  MHe C H J i a ,  3 a p n B e q e p H H H , cyMpaK, H —  pa3JiHJicH no He6y c S T O H  Bee- noHHMaio, T a K 6bi H  3apefl, T a x a H B O MHe ne^ajib  H paflOCTb...  — y Hac B nepeBHe 6bui flypa^OK, rycHHHfi nacTyx, — CKa3aJi OeflbKa, K O B H I P H H CTe6ejieM-B paccbinaiomHXCH yrjinx, — TaKoe me nee, 6biBaJio, noHHTb, HH^ero HeJlb3H . . .  ~  [641]  While G o l i k o v i s a dreamer who by sheer chance has been able to  escape h i s m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n , the sombre Fed'ka,  formerly a monastery s e r f , a muzhik  already whipped and  broken, i s d e s t i n e d f o r an e q u a l l y unhappy f u t u r e .  The l a s t  time he i s mentioned i s on t h e .festive o c c a s i o n o f choosing a name f o r the f u t u r e c a p i t a l .  Fed'ka i s seen s h a c k l e d and  f r e s h l y branded on the forehead, d r i v i n g p i l e s i n t o the soggy banks o f the Neva.  From the way i n which  Tolstoi  f i n i s h e s h i s second volume o f P e t r P e r v y i one may presume t h a t Fed'ka d i d nor s u r v i v e the works at S t . P e t e r s b u r g . However, Fed'ka Umoisia G r i a z ' i u f u l f i l l s function i n Petr Pervyi.  another  T o l s t o i employs elements o f f o l k -  l o r e which are contained i n many s a y i n g s , songs, and customs. For  example, the marriage ceremony which u n i t e s Peter and  his  f i r s t w i f e E v d o k l i a demonstrates how common were such  t r a d i t i o n s at a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s before westernization the  domostroi p r a c t i c e s from the l i f e  removed  o f the upper c l a s s e s .  Thus, the marriage o f a t s a r i n c l u d e d a symbolic custom t h a t  172 was a l s o s h a r e d b y t h e people: HaTaJIbH KHpHJUIOBHa H POMOflaHOBCKHfii, JlapHOH H E B C T H r H e f l nortHHJiH o6pa3a. neTp H E B H O K H H , CTOH pHflOM, K j r a H H J i H C b flo n o n y . EJiarocJiOBHB, JlapnoH J l o n y x H H . o T C T e r H y j i O T n o a c a nxieTb H y n a p H J i H O T B n o  cnHHe T P H pa3a —  Te6n  6ojibHo.  T H , . floiB M O H , 3 H a j i a oTUOBCKyio nJieTb Myacy, H H H S H e , H 3 a ocjrynieHbe — 6HTb  nepeflaio Te6n  6y.neT Myxc' cefi n - n e T b i o . . .  M, n o K J i o H H C b , nepenaji n j i e T b neTpy. But w h a t  is probably  artistry  in  in  the  following  retreating  dragging shelter  poor by  of  the  reproducing t h e  Swedish v i c t o r y the  one  best  feeling  reproduction  [135-136]  examples  of the past  of o r a l  Tolstoi's  of  can  folklore.  be  After  a t Narva, Andriushka a n d Fed'ka d e s e r t Russian a r m y .  a  the from  Being, a w i l y m u z h i k , Fed'ka,  Andriushka a l o n g ,  giving  found  captivating  is  able  account  to secure of  the  food  Russian  defeat: — y T p a c b npHMO anna Ha ycajj;b6y, H a B p e M 6onpHHy C K O J I B K O OH XOMeT , r J I H f l b H nOKOPMHT Ha JHOflCKOH, xpnnHT OeflbKa. Ha 6 o r a T H x H B o p a x O H B c e r n a HS^IHHaji paccKa3H n p o H a p B C K y i o 6erty, — B p a j i , * I T O 6 H J I O H i e r o He 6 H J I O , H B o c o S e H H o c T H H O c J i e 3 H O B O H H J I c j i y m a T e j i e H ( 6 H B a . n o , H c a M noMemHK a a B f l e T O T C K y K H B jiioflCKyK) H . n p u r o p i o H H T C H , n o n n e p e B meKy) — H O c j i e 3 flOBOHHJi p a c c K a s o M n p o T O , KaK KopoJib K a p j i , noSHB HenC^IHcJiHMHe THC3MH n p a B o c j i a B H o r o B O H H C T B a , exaJi no nOJIK) 6HTBH . . . „ . . . J I H I I O M cBeTeji, B JieBofi py^Ke — nepacaBa, B n p a B O H py^iKe — B o c T p a n c a 6 J i H , c a M — B 3 0 J i o T e , s'epeSpe, K O H B noa H H M — C H B H H , T O P H ^ H H , no Spioxo B ^ejioBe^ibeH K P O B H , K O H H non y3flH BenyT H B a MyacecTn BeHHHx r e H e p a n a . . . H Hae3acaeT K O P O J T B Ha M e H H . . . A H Jieacy, K O H e ^ H o , B r p y j p i y MeHH n y j i a . . . O K O J T O MeHH uiBe,nbi KaK MeniKH HaKHnaHH — y S H T H e . HaexaJi H a MeHH K o p o J i b , ocTaHOBHJicH H c n p a u i H B a e T r e H e p a j i o B : H ^ T O 3a :  and  \  173 ^ejic-BeK JieacHT?" r e H e p a n b i eMy oTBe^caioT: „ 3 T O xreacHT xpa6pbiH p y c c K H H c o J i f l a T , cpaxcaJicH s a . n p a B o c n a B H y i o s e p y , y6HJi O J J H H H B e H a n i i a T B Hamnx r p e H a r t e p o B " . K O P O J I B H M oTBe-qaeT : My ace c T B e H H a n CMepT B " . reHepaJibi eMy: „ H e T , O H X C H B O H , y Hero B rpyjjH — n y j i n " . H O H H M e n s nojjHHMaioT, H B C T a i o , 6 e p y M y i i i K e T H jjejiaio H a noJiHHH K a p a y j i , KaK n o j i a r a e T C H n e p e r t K o p o j i e M . HO H r O B O p H T : nMOJIOfleil, BblHHMae T H3 K a p M a H a 30JIOTOH ^ e p B O H e i i : —-'Ha, T O B O P H T , T e 6 e , xpa6pbiH p y c c K H H coJixtaT, HrtH c n o K O H H o B C B o e O T e ^ i e c T B O Jja CKaxcH p y c p y C C K H M : c S o r o M He 6 o p H T e c b , c BoraTBiM He c y j j H T e c B , c o uiBejJOM He j j e p H T e c b . . . " [639-640] M  In features  Fed'ka's' f a b r i c a t i o n , of a folk-tale.  Tolstoi  The k i n g  silver,  a n d i s mounted o n a f i e r y  of  combatants.  dead  for  h i s ©rthodox  since him, not  he has k i l l e d and sends  with  suffered  s o many  him o f f with  God, s u e n o t a r i c h  i sdressed steed  The n a r r a t o r ,  faith,  r e p r o d u c e s some  stepping  Fed'ka,  a wound  o f t h e enemy a typical  i n g o l d and over  has fought  mounds bravely  i nhis breast, but theking  moral  rewards  ending:  "Quarrel  man, a n d w a r n o t a g a i n s t t h e  Swedes." Peter's tion  i n thenovel,  mentioned Menshikov, of  embryonic  industry  and i t s accompanying  by T o l s t o i  only  f o r example,  i n passing.  workers  lery.  are obtained  And, continues  With  because  from prisons  much  cruelty  t h e o l d man B r o v k i n  o n e o f t h e M o s c o w mi'liLs w h e r e ,  men,  receives  help  less  atten-  and e v i l a r e from  becomes  t h e owner  o f the shortage o f  of the Secret  Chancel-  Tolstoi,  P a S o ^ H X p y K He XBaTaJio Hnr.jje. H'3 n p H n n c a H b i x jxepeBeHeK M H o r o H a p o j j a SeacaJio O T H O B O H H O B O J I H H a flHKHe OKpaHHbi. T H M C K O p a 6 o T a T B B jjepeBHe Ha SapiqHHe,  17:4 H H O H JioniaflH J i e r ^ e , ^ e M M y s c H K y . Ho eme 6 y 3 H a j j ; e » c H e H K a 3 a j i a c b H e B O J i n H a S T H X 3 a B o n a x , — x y a c e TiopEMbiHH JJ;JIH KOJioflHHKa H flJiH B O J i B H O H a s M H o r o . KpyroM BbicoKHH T b i H , y B O P O T — CTopoaca 3Jiee c o 6 a K . B TeMHfalX KJieTHX, COrHyBIUHCb 3 a CTy*iaillHMH C T a H a M H , H n e c H H H e 3 a n o e u i B , — oxcaceT T P O C T B I O n o nne^iaM H H O C T p a H e i t - M a c T e p , npHrpo3HT H M O H . B flepeBHe MyxcHK X O T B 3HMOH-TO BbicnHTCH H a n e ^ K e . 3 n e G b H 3HMy H j i e T o , jj;eHB H H O I B M a x a H ^ e J i H O K O M . J K a j i o B a H B e , onescBa — flaBHo n p o n H T B i , — Bnepext. Ka6ajia. Ho c T p a u m e e B c e r o xoflHJiH TeMHbie c j i y x n n p o y p a J i B C K H e 3aBOJJBi H pyflHHKH A K H H O H H fleMHflOBa. H3 npHnHcaHHbix K HeMy y e 3 B O B JiioflH O T o f l H o r o C T p a x a 6 6 ^ » a j i H 6 6 e 3 n f i . a ' M H g ? H . A y)K o T T y r t a M a J i o K T O B 0 3 B p a i q a j r c H . T a M jnorteH n p H K O B B i B aJiH K HaKOBaJiBHHM, K JiHTeHHBiM n e * i a M . CTponTHBBix n e p e c e K a J i H Jio3aMH. BeacaTB H e K y f l a , — KOHHbie K O 3 a K H c apKaHaMH C;o • o 6 e p e r a j i H B e e floporn H jiecHBie T p o n B i . A Tex, K T O nbiTaJicH 6 y H T O B a T B , S p o c a J i H B r j i y S o K H e p y n H H K H , TonHJiH B n p y j j ; a x . [662-663] Tolstoi reforms, upon  but  not  the  same  time  he  that  went  hand  i n hand  at  the.evils  ization  could  without  westernization. brief  these  deliberately  centres  distracted'  by  particular. sive  That  determination  Tolstoi  of  Believers suffer  is  While  On t h e of  by  with  above  by which  people  were  so  upon h i s  the that  be  submitting  to  kept  enforced is  at  for  burned  any  gives  a  life  alive  Peter's  the  work,  cannot  reader  so  sense  the  Tolstoi  to  the  away  Golikov's miserable to  able  much  industrial-  characters  sympathy  contrary,  of  Peter's  too  description  is  a l l  of  early  importance  reader  keeps  side  not dwell  the  who p r e f e r r e d  damnation  this  could  why t h e  activity,  calls  description  ignore  diminishing the  and general.  savage  wholly  from be  character rather among  rather reforms.  i n  exten-  the Old than Indeed,  - 175 Golikov f l e d his  talent  from Peter's opponents  as  an  artist  Moreover, w h e n t h e the  i n t h e n o r t h a n d through  earned freedom a n d the' Tsar's p r a i s e .  Tsar meets w i t h peasants who a r e  building  new c a p i t a l , h e i s shown t o b e p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n h i s  concern f o r t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g , a n d i n h i s i n t e r e s t i n how they are f e d ,  clothed, and treated when i l l !  Thus, the  f i n a l impression of the T s a r i n h i s r e l a t i o n t o t h e people comes c l o s e t o the image o f w h a t may be c o n s i d e r e d a benevolent despot.  Asks o n e muzhik o f the T s a r :  — IlHTaeiiib n p a B J t y ? . . ^ T O X C , n p a B i r y T O B O P H T B He 6 O H M C H , Mbi jioMaHbie. . . K o H e ^ H o , B c T a p o n p e x c H H e roflbi Hapon XCHJI MHoro jrer^e. flaHefi H - n o S o p o B T a K H X He' 6HJIO... A HHHe B e e j j e H b r H xta j j e H B r H flaBaft. . . . . . A nocjiejjHHe r o r t a eine, aorta, B IlHTep6ypr, Te6e C T a B B B JieTO T P H CMeHff, C O P O K T B I C H ^ 3eMCKHx jnojjeH. . . JlerKo S T O ? y H a c c Kaacrtoro j j e c n T o r o flBopa 6epyT ^ e J i o B e K a , — c TonopoM', c J J O J I O T O M H J I H c JionaTOH, c n o n e p e i H O H nHJion. C ocTaJiBHbix rteBHTH J J B O P O B co6HpaK)T eMy KopMOBbie rteHBTH — c Kaxcxtoro flBopa n o T p H H a x o i a T H aJiTHH H flBe- JieHexcKH. . . A H X HaJIO HaHTH CbIHOBeH< MOHX Tbi- B3HJT B J j p a r y H b l , jjoMa — C T a p y x a rta ^ e T b i p e j j e B ^ O H K H — M a n M a n a MeHBUie... K o H e ^ H o , r o c y x t a p B , T e 6 e BHjjHee —- K  ^eMy... — 3 T O B e p H o , n o MHe BHXtHee! — nporoBopHJi neTp AjreKceeBH^.  "Eto  xcecTKO [706-707]  verno, chto mne vidnee," o r as i t may be l o o s e l y  t r a n s l a t e d , "I know b e t t e r , " a d e q u a t e l y position v i s - a - v i s t i o n here t h a t e v e n why  the  people.  though t h e  o r wherefore o f h i s v a r i o u s  working  for  summarizes  There i s  an  obvious  Peter's sugges-  people do n o t u n d e r s t a n d decrees, h e i s  t h e i r g o o d and t h a t of t h e  country.  the  confidently That i s  T o l s t o i does n o t show t h e masses s u f f e r i n g d i r e c t l y  from  why his  176  r u l e , and the t e r r i b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n the t e x t i l e m i l l s f o u n d r i e s and  at the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e of the new  are only b r i e f l y sketched.  and  capital  On the other hand, a l l those  who  come i n t o d i r e c t c o n t a c t with P e t e r : — the B r o v k i n f a m i l y , Andriushka  G o l i k o v , and of course Menshikov —  more a t t e n t i o n .  These are peasants who  r i s i n g to h i g h p o s i t i o n s through  have succeeded i n  s e r v i c e t o the s t a t e , a  s i t u a t i o n t h a t would have been almost Peter's time.  r e c e i v e much  But i t i s important  i m p o s s i b l e before  to keep i n mind t h a t  t h e i r work i s not a conscious e f f o r t to improve R u s s i a .  In  f a c t , T o l s t o i uses a l l h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n P e t r P e r v y i as a f o i l to P e t e r , who  i s always the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind  p o l i c y of reform.  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the reader may  the people  as p l a y i n g a p a s s i v e i o l e , w h i l e the  f i g u r e p l a y s an a c t i v e one.  the  regard  central  That i s , P e t e r assigns  and  d i r e c t s the work performed by these v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s , i n s p e c t s i t and,  as i n the case of Menshikov, p e r s o n a l l y  administersppunishmehtf f>orudishones.ty.  ^Thus ,iintthe.. f i n a l  a n a l y s i s , the mover of h i s t o r y i s Peter the *  *  Great.  *  "I know b e t t e r " can be c o n s i d e r e d the c e n t r a l in Petr Pervyi.  E v e r y t h i n g and everyone i s deployed  the f i g u r e of Peter I who, whose time has  a c c e p t i n g the c h a l l e n g e as  come, works to change a mediaeval  i n t o a European s t a t e .  thesis around one  Muscovy  Theggulf which separated p r e - P e t r i n e  177 Rus  and.Europe was e v i d e n t t o many people b e f o r e P e t e r  1  embarked on h i s p o l i c y o f w e s t e r n i z a t i o n .  But w h i l e changes  were d e s i r e d by many, none could ever turn, the country t o face i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the necessary reforms. c h a r a c t e r , which developed  Peter's  o u t s i d e the c o n s t r a i n i n g Byzantine  pomp and ceremony o f the t s a r i s t c o u r t , proved t o be e x a c t l y the s o r t t h a t c o u l d break the r e s i s t a n c e entrenched  i n long-  e s t a b l i s h e d customs, and f o r c e the country t o submit t o h i s will.  That i s , t o accomplish  by h i s t o r i c a l  the changes which were demanded  circumstances, an e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g person-  a l i t y was r e q u i r e d .  The emphasis here must be on f o r c e o f  c h a r a c t e r , on w i l l - p o w e r , r a t h e r than on g o o d w i l l o r i n t e l ligence. of  The c a r e e r . o f P r i n c e G o l i t s y n i l l u s t r a t e s  the case  a h i g h l y - e d u c a t e d man f u l l o f noble purpose, who recog-  n i z e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s which have beset Muscovy, who has e x c e l l e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r c o r r e c t i n g them, and y e t i s i n e f f e c t i v e and powerless  a g a i n s t the e x i s t i n g order because he has  none of. the s t r e n g t h o f p e r s o n a l i t y , the consuming urge t o bend a l l t o h i s w i l l t h a t forms P e t e r ' s c h i e f t r a i t . succeeded, nical of  as Karamzin had noted, only because of h i s t y r a n -  s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f everyone and e v e r y t h i n g t o the needs  the s t a t e , and h i s dogged r e s o l v e t o transform  Rus'  Peter  Muscovite  assured the success o f what.might w e l l be,termed a  revolution.  In these circumstances, the T s a r ' s p e r s o n a l  f a u l t s , w h i l e n e i t h e r denied nor concealed i n the n o v e l , can  17 8  be t o l e r a t e d • i n view o f the f a c t t h a t he saved R u s s i a from ruin.  Furthermore, the c o n t r a s t between P e t e r ' s l i f e o f  s e r v i c e - o n the one hand, and the dandyism o f Augustus and C h a r l e s ' s e l f i s h p u r s u i t of m i l i t a r y g l o r y on the o t h e r , serves t o m i t i g a t e Karamzin's c r i t i c i s m and t o b r i g h t e n the image o f the Tsar. Moreover, T o l s t o i ' s conception o f Peter does not correspond w i t h the S l a v o p h i l e view t h a t the Tsar stood i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the people's n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s .  Nor  does the Peter i n the n o v e l have much i n common w i t h B o r i s P i l n i a k ' s Tsar,, who i s d e p i c t e d as b l i n d l y and c h a o t i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the west.  And c e r t a i n l y T o l s t o i ' s Peter i s f a r  from resembling D..Merezhkovskii's  Tsar-Antichrist.  In  c o n t r a s t t o such p o r t r a y a l s o f Peter I , T o l s t o i p a i n t s a f i g u r e thrown up by the c u r r e n t s o f h i s t o r y , i n response t o demands o f the p e r i o d , and y e t one whose s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r very soon began t o a f f e c t the course o f h i s t o r y . E s s e n t i a l l y , then, i n T o l s t o i ' s view, P e t e r was not only an agent o f h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s , he was one of those r a r e i n d i v i d u a l s a t whose hands h i s t o r y takes shape. As D. D. B l a g o i wrote, the n o v e l P e t r P e r v y i i s one of the f i n e s t examples o f h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n i n a l l Russian literature.  T h i s p o s i t i o n o f the n o v e l may be a t t r i b u t e d  l a r g e l y t o T o l s t o i ' s g r a p h i c language, which conveys so e a s i l y and so w e l l the f e e l i n g of a p a s t e r a .  Having  learnt  1-79  from Novombergskii s Slovo i . d e l o gosudarevy t o reduce the 1  Russian language t o i t s b a s i c , v e r n a c u l a r f r e e i n g i t from both Church Slavonicisms  l e v e l , that i s , and European borrow-  i n g s ; and by a l t e r i n g the syntax, by f r e q u e n t l y i n s e r t i n g dialogues, the n o v e l .  T o l s t o i keeps a l i v e a sense o f the past With a p p r o p r i a t e  throughout  costumes and f u r n i s h i n g s added  to the language, T o l s t o i prepares the stage f o r the appears, ance o f c h a r a c t e r s .  He i s always c a r e f u l t o c o n t r o l t h e i r  behaviour, t h e i r t h i n k i n g and t h e i r speech so t h a t should  correspond t o the P e t r i n e p e r i o d .  together  create t h a t oftentimes  For t h i s success,  everything  A l l these elements  elusive h i s t o r i c a l  atmosphere.  i t i s ultimately T o l s t o i ' s personal  experi-  ences and h i s s e n s i t i v i t y toward them t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e . Wrote A l e k s e i T o l s t o i : I t h i n k t h a t i f I had been born i n a c i t y and not i n the country, and d i d not know from my c h i l d h o o d a thousand t h i n g s , t h a t w i n t r y b l i z z a r d i n the steppes, i n the d e c r e p i t v i l l a g e s , the y u l e t i d e , the i z b a s , f o r t u n e - t e l l i n g , s k a z k i , the l i g h t e d s p l i n t e r s , the storage sheds w i t h t h e i r s p e c i a l odour, then probably I c o u l d not have d e s c r i b e d o l d Moscow. P i c t u r e s o f o l d Moscow l i v e d i n me w i t h my c h i l d h o o d memories. And from t h i s appeared the s e n s a t i o n o f the epoch, i t s . m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n . 5 1 T h i s i s why the novel  succeeds so notably  i n r e l a t i n g the  image o f the country w i t h the image o f i t s c e n t r a l All  character.  the secondary c h a r a c t e r s , both imaginary and r e a l ,  essentially  t o add t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Peter  same time as they make Peter's -,  e  creation  Russia  serve  a t the  l i v i n g and r e a l .  It  180  is  the c r e a t i o n o f a w o r l d o f f i c t i o n t h a t has f u l l h i s t o r i c  authenticity', i n h a b i t e d  by people among whom towers one of  the most remarkable h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the w o r l d , t h a t makes t h i s n o v e l a g r e a t work of h i s t o r i c a l On the o c c a s i o n of T o l s t o i ' s t w e n t y - f i f t h  fiction.  a n n i v e r s a r y as a  w r i t e r , i n 1933, Maksim G o r k i i s a i d o f the n o v e l , "Petr i s the  first  r e a l h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i n our l i t e r a t u r e . "  52  CHAPTER IV THE PLAYS B C O B e T C K y i o snoxy. ueHxpaJiBHoe M e c T o B npaMa.TyprHH T o j r c T o r o 3aHHJia H C T o p H ^ e c K a f l T e M a . A. JI. C o K O J i b C K a n .  —  3st,djs hatur.alr fehafe a p;roM -fire w r i t e r such a s T'ojrstoi, :  w i t h h i s heightened  T  i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y , should have e x p l o r e d  the dramatic genre as a l i t e r a r y medium.  He had gained a  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n as a p l a y w r i g h t even b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n , but h i s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l drama was i n s p i r e d by his in  original hostility  t o the coup i n October  1917.  Written  Odessa i n 1918, Smert' Dantona (The Death o f Danton) was  T o l s t o i ' s most poignant e x p r e s s i o n o f r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t the d i r e c t i o n taken by the B o l s h e v i k l e a d e r s h i p . t h i s , he wrote a comedy, Liubov' —  Soon a f t e r  kniga z o l o t a i a  (Love i s  i a Golden Book), which, though t h i s too was w r i t t e n i n Odessa, d e a l t n o t w i t h contemporary i s s u e s , but i n s t e a d w i t h t h e gay and c a r e f r e e l i f e o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Russian  gentry.  The theme o f Peter t h e Great occupies perhaps the mag:or s p o r t ion  of T o l s t o i ' s complete works.  A f t e r the f i r s t  s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n a t the time o f the r e v o l u t i o n , almost a whole decade passed b e f o r e he r e t u r n e d t o the P e t r i n e theme, t h i s time d e a l i n g w i t h i t i n a h i s t o r i c a l drama e n t i t l e d Na  182 dybe  (On the Rack).  I and  This was  immediately f o l l o w e d by Volumes  II of the n o v e l P e t r P e r v y i , and  then i n 1935  appeared a second v e r s i o n of Na dybe, now  c a l l e d P e t r I.  reasons p e c u l i a r to t h a t decade i n S o v i e t Russian h i s t o r y , T o l s t o i re-wrote the play again d u r i n g the years  of h i s country  as a p e r s o n a l  This  was  It is a reflection  c l i m a t e t h a t the p l a y s were w r i t t e n  t h a t time. The  t a s k c o n f r o n t i n g a w r i t e r of h i s t o r i c a l  becomes more d i f f i c u l t novel. is  he wrote a p l a y  response t o the s u f f e r i n g s  a two-part drama about Ivan the T e r r i b l e .  at  Finally,  at the hands of the i n v a d i n g N a z i s .  of the changing p o l i t i c a l  For  literary  i n 1938.  of the second w o r l d war,  which he d e s c r i b e d  there  The  i n the dramatic genre than i n the  reason f o r t h i s d i f f i c u l t y ,  t h a t i n a n o v e l or any  as T o l s t o i  f o l l o w i n g the l o g i c of t h e i r own  of time and  charac-  as i t were,  and,  development, t o a c t almost  of the author's wishes.  d i f f i c u l t to achieve  explained,  other major p i e c e of prose,  t e r s have time t o develop, t o come t o l i f e  independently  fiction  T h i s i s an  effect  i n a p l a y , where p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s  space f o r c e the w r i t e r t o compress development,  clima-xaandQrese-!ufei6n---Of In an a r t i c l e ,  "How  between a n o v e l and  : t h e s p i 6 t t i n t 6 o a s s i h g l - e 3 p e r f ormance.  I Write,"  j  T o l s t o i noted the d i f f e r e n c e  a play:  I t i s d i f f e r e n t i n the t h e a t r e . We have here the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of time. The tragedy of l i f e , world events, the broadest canvas must u n f o l d i n one hour  183 and f o r t y - f i v e minutes o f r e a d i n g . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to work your b r a i n s d e c i s i v e l y . F i r s t , the p l a y wright must know i n advance t h e beginning of the f i r s t a c t , and the ending o f the l a s t , the f i n a l e . He must know p r e c i s e l y what i s the p i v o t o f the i n t r i g u e , the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f the c h a r a c t e r s , and the f a t e o f the person (or group of persons) who expresses the author's w i l l , p a s s i o n , and p u r p o s e .  1  We must t h e r e f o r e see how T o l s t o i h i m s e l f "works h i s b r a i n s decisively." A.  Smert' Dantona. As noted i n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , A l e k s e i  Tolstoi  g r e e t e d the February r e v o l u t i o n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y .  But grow-  i n g d i s o r d e r s i n the summer of 1917 aroused i n him a f e e l i n g of apprehension, and i t was a t t h i s time t h a t a p a r a l l e l between the French r e v o l u t i o n and the c u r r e n t events o c c u r r e d t o him.  F o r example, he had attended a meeting  B o l s h o i Theatre at which Kerensky  i n the  had g i v e n a speech  threat-  ening the use o f b r u t e f o r c e t o p r o t e c t the P r o v i s i o n a l 2 Government.  T o l s t o i responded  t o Kerensky's  a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n Russkoe Slovo on August  speech w i t h an 20, 1917, i n  which he wrote: E x a c t l y one hundred and twenty years ago these same words, guarding the r e p u b l i c from the guns of kings and the daggers o f underground a s s a s s i n s , were pronounced i n the T u i l e r i e s t h e a t r e . And then, j u s t as now, the t h r e a t o f t e r r o r came n o t from the person o f the d i c t a t o r , but only through him the people growled, tormented by t r e a s o n , hunger and Blood.3 I t may be s t r e t c h i n g the p a r a l l e l too f a r t o suggest t h a t  184 T o l s t o i thought Kerensky to be the Danton of the revolution. was  But  Russian  i t i s c e r t a i n l y very c l e a r t h a t h i s t h i n k i n g  moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i n g some k i n d of  p a r a l l e l between the two r e v o l u t i o n s . At-the  request of the Korsh Theatre  began to re-work Dantons Tod  (Danton's Death), a p l a y by  German d r a m a t i s t Georg Buchner (1813-1837). Smert' Dantona was  i n Moscow, he  Tolstoi's  play,  completed i n Odessa on September 25,  Though i t remained, i n essence Dantons Tod,  the  the  1918.  Russian  playwright  s h i f t e d the emphasis s l i g h t l y so t h a t the  impression  had  overall  a more d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Moscow  viewer i n 1918.  In the b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n toSSmeiyt' Dantona  he wrote: In the w r i t i n g of t h i s p l a y I used, i n a d d i t i o n to h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , Buchner's p l a y of the same name. From i t I took the plans f o r the f i r s t three scenes and the c o n c l u d i n g words of C a m i l l e ' s w i f e . The stimulus and then the pathos f o r my p l a y was s e e i n g i n the c h a r a c t e r s of the d i s t a n t past our own r e v o l u t i o n , but more bloody and.more t e r r i b l e . 4 Smert' Dantona was  staged b r i e f l y i n October  but i t s a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y tenor was new  a u t h o r i t i e s and  the p l a y was  unsigned a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d  1918,  not t o l e r a t e d by  the  taken o f f the stage.  "K s n i a t i i u  'Smerti Dantona'"  In an (For  the Removel of The Death o f Danton), I z v e s t i i a f o r October 20,  1918  fumed:  E i t h e r s u p p o r t i n g o r . a r o u s i n g among the complacent p o p u l a t i o n a n t i p a t h e t i c f e e l i n g s -toward the p-  185 p r o l e t a r i a t , which i s g a t h e r i n g a l l i t s s t r e n g t h f o r the s t r u g g l e , i s c o n s i d e r e d an a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y act. In t h i s sense, A. T o l s t o i ' s r e n d i t i o n o f the p l a y The Death o f Danton and i t s performance by the Korsh t h e a t r e group i s to.be c o n s i d e r e d an a n t i r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t . . . . An a n n i v e r s a r y date i s approaching. The Russian p r o l e t a r i a t i s p r e p a r i n g to immortalize one o f i t s f o r e b e a r s i n the s t r u g g l e , R o b e s p i e r r e . But ithe Korsh t h e a t r e o f f e r s Moscow workers a Robespierre as found i n The Death o f Danton. T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . a l o n e ought t o be s u f f i c i e n t f o r the t h e a t r e t o remove t h i s p l a y b e f o r e i t i s ordered t o do so. 5  Although  Robespierre i s no longer presented as a hero,  S o v i e t commentary t o the p l a y , some h a l f a century remains fundamentally  unchanged, as can be gleaned from any  monograph on A. N. T o l s t o i . Dantona i s based  later,  The prime o b j e c t i o n t o Smert'  on i d e o l o g i c a l grounds.  I t i s considered  t o l a c k h i s t o r i c a l v e r i s i m i l i t u d e simply because T o l s t o i has t r i e d t o draw i n i t a d i r e c t analogy between the French and the Russian r e v o l u t i o n s . by S o v i e t standards incompatible.  T h i s i s a p o l i t i c a l faux pas s i n c e  the two r e v o l u t i o n s are i d e o l o g i c a l l y  Furthermore,  what T o l s t o i has done w i t h  this  p l a y i s t o reduce the e n t i r e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e v o l u t i o n to a f u t i l e and c h a o t i c w h i r l w i n d .  As he wrote i n 1917:  The r e v o l u t i o n only begins by t o p p l i n g tyranny. I t s f u r t h e r development i s a s e r i e s of popular waves, one sweeping a s i d e a n o t h e r . . . . . From p h i l o s o p h i c a l h e i g h t s , the R e v o l u t i o n drops t o c i t y squares.6 In t h i s r e s p e c t only a cursory acquaintance  with  Georg Buchner and h i s Dantons Tod w i l l s u f f i c e t o e s t a b l i s h the d i f f e r e n c e between the o r i g i n a l and T o l s t o i ' s Smert  1  l8'6 Dantona.  Buchner's p l a y , w r i t t e n i n 1835,  s t r a t e the tragedy of p o l i t i c a l it  too may  drama.  be  seeks to demon-  i d e a l i s m , and  in this  i n t e r p r e t e d as a s t r o n g l y a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y  G. Lukacs, the M a r x i s t  c r i t i c whose view  t h i s play i s echoed i n the USSR, e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y for  concerning explains,  example, t h a t Danton lacked the proper understanding of  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y process and But  sense,  though Dantons Tod  p o l i t i c a l drama, there  t h a t i s why  he was  swept away.^  can be e a s i l y accepted as a s t r a i g h t i s reason to i n t e r p r e t i t as something  more than j u s t t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y i f one were t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n Buchner's concepts of h i s t o r y and fiction.  As he wrote to h i s  historical  parents:  In my eyes the dramatic poet i s more than a w r i t e r of h i s t o r y . But he stands above the l a t t e r i n t h a t he r e c r e a t e s h i s t o r y and i n s t e a d of g i v i n g a, b a l d n a r r a t i o n t r a n s p l a n t s us d i r e c t l y i n t o the l i f e of another age. He g i v e s us c h a r a c t e r s n o t charact e r i s t i c s ; human f i g u r e s , not d e s c r i p t i o n . His h i g h e s t t a s k - i s to get as c l o s e as he can to h i s t o r y as i t a c t u a l l y happened^ In other words, the d r a m a t i s t ,  l i k e the h i s t o r i a n , must be  i m p a r t i a l and must f a i t h f u l l y reproduce those p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  events which comprise h i s p l a y .  f a c t the c o n f l i c t between Danton and on p o l i t i c a l  But w h i l e i n a c t u a l Robespierre was  founded  grounds, Buchner t r i e s t o emphasize a c l a s h of  p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the s t r u g g l e between a moderate who to stop the r e v o l u t i o n a r y process and the r e v o l u t i o n t o advance s t i l l  an e x t r e m i s t  further.  wanted  who  wanted  By.$his,rexpressed  18.7  b e l i e f i n h i s t o r i c a l f a t a l i s m , Buchner f u r t h e r s t r a y s from h i s dictum, thus c a s t i n g s e r i o u s doubt on h i s o b j e c t i v i t y . His f)'ers©nal- concept o f h i s t o r y , which i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t h e l d by L. N. T o l s t o i , Buchner r e v e a l e d i n a p r i v a t e l e t t e r to the woman he loved b u t never l i v e d t o marry: But I f i n d i t impossible t o w r i t e a s i n g l e word. I was s t u d y i n g the h i s t o r y o f the R e v o l u t i o n . I fe&t astthough I had been destroyed by the h o r r i b l e f a t a l i s m o f h i s t o r y . I am f i n d i n g a t e r r i b l e : u n i f o r m i t y i n human nature, an unavoidable power i n human r e l a t i o n s which i s given t o everyone and t o no one. A s i n g l e man i s only the foam upon a wave, greatness i s pure c o i n c i d e n c e , r u l e of genius i s only puppet p l a y , t o f i g h t a g a i n s t t h i s i r o n law i s r i d i c u l o u s , t o acknowledge i t i s the h i g h e s t achievement, t o dominate i t i s i m p o s s i b l e . I t would not occur t o me anyi^©!E4i;t>obb:©w before these parading horses and paragons o f h i s t o r y . My eyes have become accustomed t o b l o o d . But I am n o t the blade of the g u i l l o t i n e . "Must" i s a word o f condemnat i o n , the word w i t h which a man i s b a p t i z e d . With the u t t e r a n c e o f t h a t word, t h e r e has t o come a c a l a m i t y , b u t woe t o the one through whom i t comes. What makes us l i e , murder o r s t e a l ? I do n o t wish these thoughts t o develop f u r t h e r . Oh, i f I c o u l d r e s t my c o l d t o r t u r e d h e a r t upon your b r e a s t . 9  There i s an apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n expressed and  the p r e v i o u s  letter.  On the one hand, Buchner b e l i e v e d  t h a t h i s o b j e c t i v e as a dram a t i s t was absolute h i s t o r y , b u t on the other hand, he expressed complete f u t i l i t y history.  i n this  f i d e l i t y to,  a b e l i e f i n the  o f human e f f o r t s t o d i r e c t the course o f  T h i s l a t t e r s u p p o s i t i o n must o f n e c e s s i t y ,  give a biased tinge t o his re-creation of h i s t o r i c a l To a l a r g e degree, both o f these s i c h t are e v i d e n t i n Dantons Tod.  then, events.  aspects o f Buchner's WeltanF o r example, a l l the  - 188 speeches made by Robespierre and  and Danton b e f o r e the Convention  the T r i b u n a l were taken from h i s t o r i c a l sources.  the p r i v a t e conversations  However,  between the c h i e f p r o t a g o n i s t s  were created s p e c i f i c a l l y to expound Buchner's view of historic fatalism. The n o t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l f a t a l i s m i s easy to d i s c e r n i n Dantons Tod.  "We  d i d n ' t make the r e v o l u t i o n , the r e v o l u -  t i o n made us," muses Danton. presents  him,  Danton resembles an i n t r o s p e c t i v e Hamlet i n  h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o take any Robespierre.  As the German p l a y w r i g h t  "The  man  a c t i o n t o save h i m s e l f  on the Cross  from  took the easy way  ' I t must needs be t h a t o f f e n s e s come, but woe whom the o f f e n s e cometh!'" broods Danton.  And  out:  t o the man he  by  continues:  Who w i l l curse the hand on which the curse of must has f a l l e n ? Who spoke t h a t must? What i s i t i n us t h a t l i e s , whores, s t e a l s , and murders? We are puppets and unknown powers p u l l the s t r i n g s . In o u r s e l v e s , n o t h i n g , the swords w i t h which s p i r i t s fight — only the hands are i n v i s i b l e , as i n f a i r y tales...10 As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , T o l s t o i ' s v e r s i o n s h i f t s  the  emphasis so as t o make a c l o s e r t i e with the r e v o l u t i o n i n Russia.  T h i s s h i f t i s most e v i d e n t i n the encounter between  Danton and Robespierre.  In the o r i g i n a l p l a y , Buchner  s t r e s s e s not so much the p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two  men  ethical  as the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e moral  and  values:  ROBESPIERRE.  The  s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s not y e t  accomplished.  189;  To c a r r y out a r e v o l u t i o n by halves i s t o d i g your own grave* The s o c i e t y of t h e p r i v i l e g e d i s n o t y e t dead. The robust s t r e n g t h o f the people must r e p l a c e t h i s u t t e r l y e f f e t e c l a s s . V i c e must be punished, v i r t u e must r u l e through Terror. DANTON.  I don't understand the word 'punished.' You and your v i r t u e , Robespierre! You've taken no money, you've run up no debts, you've s l e p t w i t h no women, you've always worn a decent coat and never g o t drunk. R o b e s p i e r r e , yourare i n f u r i a t i n g l y r i g h t e o u s . I would be ashamed t o wander between heaven and e a r t h f o r t h i r t y years w i t h such a p r i g g i s h f a c e , f o r t h e m i s e r a b l e p l e a s u r e of f i n d i n g others l e s s v i r t u o u s than myself. Is t h e r e no s m a l l , s e c r e t v o i c e i n you w h i s p e r i n g j u s t o c c a s i o n a l l y : 'You are a fraud'?  ROBESPIERRE.  My conscience i s c l e a r .  DANTON. . . . You aim t o t u r n the g u i l l o t i n e i n t o a washtub f o r other people's s t a i n e d l i n e n , t o use human heads as soap-cakes f o r d i r t y c l o t h e s — now have you any r i g h t t o do t h a t j u s t because your own coat i s brushed and clean? . . . Are you God's policeman? ROBESPIERRE.  You.deny the e x i s t e n c e o f v i r t u e ?  DANTON. And o f v i c e . There are only E p i c u r e a n s , coarse ones and f i n e ones. C h r i s t was the f i n e s t . That's the only d i f f e r e n c e between men t h a t I've been able t o d i s c o v e r . Everyone a c t s a c c o r d i n g to h i s own nature... ROBESPIERRE. Danton, there are p e r i o d s when v i c e i s high.treason.il There i s a s t r o n g undercurrent, hidden beneath  political  r e f e r e n c e s t o the r e v o l u t i o n and the Reign of T e r r o r , which suggests t h a t R o b e s p i e r r e , c a l l e d the I n c o r r u p t i b l e , i s perhaps s l i g h t l y envious  and y e t f e e l s p r u d i s h r e v u l s i o n a t  Danton's p u r s u i t o f E p i c u r e a n p l e a s u r e and s e n s u a l  gratifi-  cation. In c o n t r a s t , T o l s t o i ' s d e p i c t i o n o f t h i s very same  scene p r a c t i c a l l y  i g n o r e s Danton's  s e n s u a l i t y , although i t  appears elsewhere i n Smert' Dantona. d i s a g r e e on the n e c e s s i t y  Rather, the two  men  t o c o n t i n u e the T e r r o r :  flAHTOHi. IIoKyrta rajiBOTHHa pa6oTaeT, B p a r n 6yjxyT n\noflHTBCH. 3 T O caMooSMaH, KpoBaBHft.. MHpaac — - B p a r a ! yHH^Toacb-JBce HaeejieHHe -OpaHiiHH. H- nocjienHHii ocTaBIIIHHCH •qejiOBeK noKaaceTCH T e 6 e C S M H I M 'CTpaniHHM BparoM. Teppop HOJiaceH K O H ^ H T B C H , O H He yHH^TOKaeT, a . naonJioxtHT-aBparoB. POBECIIbEP. . . . M H He MoxceM He T O J I B K O npeKpaTHTB. H O flaace na oflHH neHB ocjia6HTB Teppopa ^- PeBOJirouHH eiqe He K O H ^ e H a . -  11AHT0H. JloacB! Korxja naJiH X C H P O H J X H C T H H cJextepaTH peBOJiH>it'H-H5iKOHTiHJiacB..CB',CegHasaHjae,T,eSopB'6a63 a3BJiae T.Bv . • —  i  :  f  . . . . . . . . .  POEECTIbEP. KoH*iH.nacB peBOJUOLiHH noJiHTH^ecKan H Ha^axiacB coiiHaJiBHan peBOJnouHH. T H 3 T o r o H H K o r n a He M o r noHHTB, flaHTOH., T H 6HJI BepumHoa yace jjaBHo O K O H :^FeH3ieHH ©HKH-aCH3aCHTOft-ra • T  ocTaJicH  jjaxteKO  no3arj;H.  Hapoxty Hyacen M H P H ycnoKoeHHe* OH c T O H e T O T T B O H X TeopeTHieCKHX B H K J i a f l O K . POEECIIEEP. Hapony HyacHo H3acHTB:BCK> TOJimy THCH^ieJieTHeft H e c n p a B e f l J i H B O C T H , o c y m e c T B H T B B e e B03nejieHHH JJO KOHiia. Korna i e p e 3 3aJiy KoHB.eHTa npoftJxeT nocJiertHHH acaJio6mHK, H e r p a M O T H B i f i . 6aTpan, H ckaaceT: H flOBOJieH, Torrta peBOJTfori,HH K O H ^ H T C H : . HacTaHeT  flAHTOH.  —  30JIOTOH  BeK  CnpaBeJXJTHBOCTH  H  JJ06pOJjeTeJIH .  (3axoxoTaJi) H T H eme -BepHiiiB B. T O , * I T O B O T pyKaMH JjepaCHIUB. B 0 3 M COIIHaJIBHOH peBOJBOLIHH H HanpaBJiHeiiiB. oiiHy ^eJioBe^ecKyio BOJiHy 3 a jxpyroft ^epea 3ajry KoHBeHTa, rxte 3 T a C B O J I O ^ I B y T O J i n e T C B O H KJiaccoBHH BoacxtejieHHHi T H - n o c i H r HCTopHiecKHe 3aKOHH, BHBoxtHiiiB '(fopMyjiH, nepoM H a 6yMare B H ^ H C JIHeiUB. CPOKH. H CTaBHIUB T O I K H . MaTeMaTHKa, JiorHKa, OHJIOCOCIJHH. JIa i e r o caMOHajjenH• -vejroBe^ecKHfl pa3yM. . . .  flAHTOH.  3THMH  POBECIIBEP. MoaceT 6 H T B H otuHSycB H 3 a n J i a ^ y 3 a B T O rOJIOBOH, HO MHOH pyKOBOflHT- HpaBCTBeHHaH TOCTOTa, cnpaBertJiHBOCTB H pa3yM. . . . H 3 Hemp Hapona nOrtHHMaHDTCH Ba-JTH OflHH 3 a JXpyrHM H pa36HBaK)TCH o TBepnHHK)' rocynapcTBeHHOH BJiacTH. . . . TOJIBKO BHcoKHfi pa3.yM,. nbcTHrHyB, MoaceT:OBJianeTB S T O H  TeMHOH C T H X H e f i . H T d K H e J E O f l H , KaK T b l , scaflHue RO HaGJiaacxteHHH, noHHMaioiuHe peBOJnonHio l y B C T B e H H o — noJie3Hbi B en Ha^aJie H BpeflHbi B KOHue. Mta H O J E K H H 6e3nOIHaflHO 6 0 P 0 T b C H C *iyBCTBeHHOCTbI0, c nopoKOM H  C  yTBepXCflaiOmeH  Ce6H  JIH^HOCTbK).  .  .  .  SbiBaioT BpeMeHa, Korna qyBCTBeHHocTB — C T B e H H S H H3MeHa.l2  JJaHTOH,  rocynap-  T o l s t o i ' s v e r s i o n echoes the g i s t o f the o r i g i n a l , but i n h i s p l a y there i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e l e v a n c e Moscow viewer o f 1918.  f o r the  F o r example, he makes c l e a r e r the  d i s t i n c t i o n between the p o l i t i c a l -revolution and the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , o r , as i t may be e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d , between the February  and the October r e v o l u t i o n s .  l e s s e v i d e n t i n the German p l a y .  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s  And whereas Buchner  attempts t o g i v e the d i a l o g u e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l tone,  Tolstoi  makes i t much more o f a d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n ' between a moderate and a demagogue. makes a p a s s i o n a t e  appeal  p a r t i c u l a r h a t r e d nursed  Tolstoi's  Robespierre  f o r complete s a t i s f a c t i o n of each by the common man t h a t has accumu-  l a t e d i n the thousands of years o f o p p r e s s i o n . the l a s t v i c t i m o f the oppressors  Only when  has been avenged —  then may the r e v o l u t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d  only  completed, he b e l i e v e s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t f o r T o l s t o i t h i s was a r e f e r e n c e t o Lenin's  c a l l t o t u r n the war a g a i n s t the K a i s e r ' s Germany  i n t o a war a g a i n s t the Russian  privileged classes.  both p l a y s , Danton sees i n Robespierre's c r e a t i o n of a golden c r a v i n g f o r power.  But i n  scheme f o r the  age o f t o t a l e q u a l i t y only a demagogue's In both p l a y s t o o , the P a r i s mob, which  19 2  is  l o y a l to Danton at f i r s t ,  e a s i l y by R o b e s p i e r r e , who  i s shown as b e i n g manipulated  equates wealth and E p i c u r e a n  morality with p o l i t i c a l treachery.  However, T o l s t o i  not only the mob's f i c k l e and e r r a t i c c h a r a c t e r , but its  anarchic q u a l i t y .  These elements  stresses also  reflect Tolstoi's  own  view of the path t r a c e d by the p r o g r e s s i o n of events i n a revolution. The a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y element  i n both p l a y s i s  s t r o n g l y emphasized, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c u r t a i n l i n e , l i v e the King."  "Long  T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the c o n c l u s i o n at whi>ch:~  the reader must a r r i v e , and t h a t i s t h a t bloody 1  t e r r o r , and c l a s s antagonisms  revolutions,  cannot b r i n g the people  m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g , t h a t they continue to go c o l d and hungry no matter who  i s executed.  In t h i s r e s p e c t T o l s t o i f o l l o w e d  Buchner very c l o s e l y ; however, the Russian p l a y w r i g h t i n t e n s i f i e d the a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y tone of h i s p l a y by  still  another v a r i a t i o n on the theme. T o l s t o i ' s Smert' Dantona d i f f e r s from Buchner's o r i g i n a l i n r e s p e c t of the c h a r a c t e r sketches attached to the dramatis personae, d e s c r i p t i o n s not found i n Dantons  Tod.  This i s an important d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e , f o r the reader a t l e a s t , i t r e v e a l s the moral b i a s of the p l a y even b e f o r e i t actually begins.  Thus, T o l s t o i i n t r o d u c e s the main p r o t a g -  o n i s t w i t h t h i s accompanying commentary: flAHTO'H KoMHTeTa  BOJKJJB. MOHTaHbHpOB , MHHKCTp. K)CTHIJ,HH , ^JTeH 0 6 m e c T B e H H o r o C n a c e H H H , BfloxHOBHTeJiB  193 <ppaHu,HH, n e p B H H o p r a H H 3 a T o p T e p p o p a — : 6opB;6a c BHyTpeHHHMH BparaMH peBOJTioiiHH H HHn;H<f>OepeHTHbiMH j ceHTH6pBEKaHppe3HH ,nnp:©HEm.e;igmaHnnpHeeEo y ^ a c T H , e c j i H He npHMo H M ycTpoeHHan- ( H C T O P H H He naeT TOMHoro O T B e T a ) c n a c j i a H 3 a i e M n o r y 6 H J i a peBOJnounio, 6bIJia nOCTOHHHOH KPOBOTOHHBOH p a H O H , H a ^ a J I O M pexcHMa Ka3Heft; Bee BeJiHKHe .neHTejiH peBOJnouHH, Bee BeJiHKHe HfleH 3axjrre6HyjiHCB B S T O H K P O B H . 1 3 OSOPOHH  7  T h i s was It  the only  is interesting  return  version  t o n o t e , however, t h a t  to Soviet Russia, T o l s t o i  B u c h n e r *s p l a y citizenry.  Predictably,  whose r o m a n t i c i l l u s i o n s revolution's  the c u r t a i n  anyone. may  saviour.  be  The  some t i m e  after his  r e a d a b l e f o r ithe  of  Soviet  of the French  revolution  a r e condemned by R o b e s p i e r r e , t h e c o n c l u d i n g s c e n e was neither  spoken  altered  n o r even  short excerpt taken  from  so  implied  e x t e n t o f t h e change made i n t h e s e c o n d  gleaned from t h i s  theatre.  i n t h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n he made  The  l i n e was  in a  re-wrote h i s v e r s i o n  t o make i t a t l e a s t  D a n t o n "the u n m i s t a k a b l e v i l l a i n  that  t o be p e r f o r m e d  variant  the  e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n D a n t o n and R o b e s p i e r r e : POBECIIbEP. . . . BOT HMeHHO; -— T a K H e JUOflH , KaK T B I , jKaflHbie no H a c J i a » c j j ; e H H H , JB06KT peBcmouHio, K a K jno6oBHHU,y, H , K o r n a npecbiTHJiHCB, oTiiiBBipHBaiOT ee I1HHKOM. T a K H e , KaK T H , HeHaBHflflT B . p e B O J U O U H H jiorHKy H H p a B C T B e H H y i o ^ H C T O T y . fla, MoxceT 6 H T B , K oniH6ycB VL norH6Hy, HO: H no KOHua. 6yny 6 O P O T B C H 3a cnpaBennHBOCTb, H He n e p e c T a H y B e p n T B B BBICIUHH p a 3 y M peBOJiiouHH. MBI C TO6OK> JIIOHH pa3HBix s n o x . TBI-6BIJI HyaceH B H a ^ a J i e . MnpaSo noHM<er, flaHTOH pa3/j;yji njiaMH peBOjnouHH. Torn.a 6HIJIH HyscHH. r e p o n , 6e3yMUBi H p o M a H T H K H . Ho c e ^ a c r e p o n — Hapofl...^4 As  a.drama t h a t  tries  wrong o f the R e i g n o f T e r r o r ,  t o weigh the r i g h t  and  by  the  S m e r t ' Dantona,was m a k i n g  a  194 s t r o n g a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y comment t o the s m a l l audience say the p l a y i n October o f 1918.  P o l i t i c a l upheavals are  n e e d l e s s l y c r u e l and o f no fundamental masses, T o l s t o i concluded.  that  consequence t o the  He turned away from such  weighty  problems w i t h an u n d i s g u i s e d sense o f r e v u l s i o n and, w h i l e still  i n Odessa, he wrote a merry p l a y about  love i n the  c a r e f r e e s o c i e t y surrounding C a t h e r i n e t h e Great. B.  Liubov' —  kniga  zolotaia.  A t about the same time, g e n t l e and tender-hearted women began t o appear i n T o l s t o i ' s works. in  the s t o r y "Graf K a l i o s t r o "  book o f Khozhdenie po mukam.  T h i s was the case  (1921), and a l s o i n the f i r s t One o f the heroes o f t h a t  n o v e l , Roshchin, addresses these words t o h i s beloved: npoftnyT roxta, y T H X H V T  BOHHH, 1  peBOJnouHH,  OTUTVMHT  HeT JieHHbIM OCTaHeTCH OXtHO TOJTBKO — jno6HMoe ceprme B a m e .  KpoTKoe,  H  HescHoe,  5  S i m i l a r l y , turfii-fjgsaway^'f rc3m-"waf s and- f e v o l u t i o n s , i n 1919 T  ?  r  T o l s t o i wrote the p l a y Liubov' — k n i g a Golden Book).  A  zolotaia  As a f a r c i c a l comedy about  l i t t l e h i s t o r y , save i n the language  l o v e , i t contains  and i n i t s p o r t r a y a l o f  the s o c i a l mores' o f the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century. of  the p l a y , as w e l l as the t i t l e ,  Liubov' —  knizhka z o l o t a i a  (Love Is a  The source  i s a book by Gleb Gromov,  (Love I s a L i t t l e Golden Book) .  P u b l i s h e d i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g i n 179 8, t h i s book comprises a calendar o f s o r t s w i t h homely advice f o r wives and l o v e r s ,  19 5 husbands  and m i s t r e s s e s *  chapter.headings  F o r example, i t c o n t a i n s  such  as t h e f o l l o w i n g :  „CoKpameHHhiH- cynpyjKecKHfi KaJieHflapB", „ H O B B I H JIK>6OBH cynpyMcecKHfi cJiOBapB, no a 3 6 y y H O M y nopnxtKy pa3noJioaceHHbiH", ..floMauiHue c p e n c T B a . O T pa3Hbix H e n p n HHTOH  HTHocTeft  B JDO6BH  Tolstoi point  of h i s  Princess  Dar'ia,  the  reduces  The  Prince  i t the p i v o t a l  from Catherine  naive,  but  they  But f o r the P r i n c e , of t r i b u l a t i o n  to wearing  i f the  Prince  book a n d made  are  a source  o l d man  7  II to  Empress' g o d - c h i l d , ' t h e Golden Book's  success.  becomes the  asks,, t h e  the  x  a gift  As  and.remedies  ultimate book  6 p a K e " .  Gromov's  comedy.  instructions with  took  H  horns.  G o l d e n Book  o p e n s i t at. r a n d o m  and  are  Dar'ia's  which  husband,  finally  Resheto,  i s for  applied  the  spiritual  fool, needs.  reads:  , , H B O H T T a , • KOTopyio T H MHHUIB J H O 6 o B H H i i e H , cnpauiHBaeT T e 6 n , K>HbiH 3 p a c T : n o T a i c o e K a H a n s ? O T B e T : icaHans ^^6Mec.33:Ob]H3np6jieHH©e©^ — flHBaH, T O J I B K O n o y c a f l H c i e e , H xtBoe, B 6 J I H 3 K O M X O T H COnpHKOCHOBeHHH , HO • M O r y T yflOSHO H a HeM S H f l e T B , H M H o r n e B T O M yjjoGHbiH HJIH pa3Hbix m a J i o c T e f i a 3 a 6 a B CJiy^afi H a x o f l H T b ; J i i o 6 o B H H K a M C H H BeiqB n p e n n o ^ T H T e j i B Hee  nocTejiH,  —  KOJIB  CKOPO  nocTejiB  c H e n BCTaiOT, K a H a n s He C M H H a e T C H , B O X p a H H H TafiHH pe3BbIX. JIK)60BHHKOB" . He H y X O B H a H . 1 ^ In  this  easily as the  definition sense  "Erast,"  the  past  and  in addition  the  syntax  audience  could  and  names  of the s e n t i m e n t a l ,  nineteenth  Korna  H O BBinpnMJIHPT<CH-, HeT , 3 T O K H H r a  "canopy"  by t h e b o o k i s h  so r e m i n i s c e n t  eighteenth But  of the word  CMHHaeTCH  such  literature  centuries.  to giving  a  feeling  of the  past  by  of  196  means  the  farce  this as  of  that  the  s h e m u s t have  he  Prince,  the young  accord  explains  there.is  collision.between  to b y  by  complete As  the  adhered  adopted  uncommon syntax,  a  with  ancient  the  a n d the  Thus, w h e n  lover,  reaction'of  what  i s prescribed  to Resheto,  and then  Russian  in  culture,  new* E u r o p e a n , c u l t u r e  Princess. the  represented  also  to  she  announces  the  i n the his  as  Prince  is i n  Domostroi.  wife:  3a aceHy n e p e n EoroM noJisceH OTBenaTb. KOJIB C K O P O s t e H a H e n o B H H y e T C H MyjKy.> — : 6 e p H ace3Ji C B O H H n o c n H H e O H H M ynapHH ee T O M K O H e n p H ^ H H H H coKpyuiHTeJibHoro. ^ J i e H O B p e a c f l e H H H . H  IIpHHeCH BHUIHeByiO. T P O C T B . (UlyT C K p H B a e T C H . ) Ceft T p o c T b i o Rep. MOK 6 a 6 K y y ^ H J i , H MaT.yniKa H e p a 3 , O H O H . y ^ e H a B pa3cyacfleHHH'HO6POTOJIK).6HOH X C H 3 H H . T a K y»c T H H e o c y f l H , K H H r H H y u i K a , ropbKo H O 6 H J J ; H O , H O H O J i r ^ B H n o J i H H T b o6H3aH,: a- T a M — MTO E o r noiuneTSil 9  As the  i n the early  a r t i f i c i a l i t y . o f  Unlike  those  simplicity this is  play  placed  on  in apposition  to  h e r Russian  playing  more c o m i c a l  estate  the  something  inept  the  affectations, simplicity  i n context  Mount  that  European-  to  create  Olympus.  Mikita f o r  appear  with  i n  zolotaia  efforts  muzhik  the satyr, t o her s a t i s f a c t i o n when c o n s i d e r e d  peasants'  pretentious  resembling  against  contrasts.  the  i n Liubov'-r— k n i g a  Dar'ia's  her complaints  where  Russian  wife's  Tolstoiymocks  through  gentry's  native  the  humour  precisely i n Princess  For. e x a m p l e , not  with  husband's  i z a t i o n . . Much o f t h e . lies  however,  writings,  juxtaposed  i t i s the  and s t o r i e s ,  the. R u s s i a n n o b i l i t y  earlier  was  anecdotes  the  a l l  the  response  19.7 made b y KHHrHHH  KHH3B  her  well-intentioned  husband:  (C r H e B O M K H H 3 B K ) ) . 0 6 B H C H H T e , OGBHCHHTe raxtKOMy MaJiB^HiiiKe, KaK O H MeHH o r o p ^ i a e T . MeHfl H CJIOB dOJIBIIie H e T .  (MHKHTe) . Hy-Ka TBI noftflH-Ka, KOHK>UIHK), xta K CKaacH T a M , ^ T O  STOMy A y  6 p a T e i i M O H , Ha 6BI T e 6 H BbinopoJiH. . .  KHHrHHH. OnHTB Bama r p y S o c T B l . H y»ce CKa3axta, * J T O 6 H jiecHHx 6 o r o B , B c e x , o S o e r o n o j i a , O T nopKH O C B 0 6 0 X M T B . 20 "Go  to  the  the  Prince  stable,  brother,  and  says  Mikita.  This  command  of  wishing  recommendation.  extended Mikita, San'ka the  a  to  as by  by  tyranni o i l  well.by  a  French to  name,  their  by  mistress'  from mosquitoes.  but  Princess'  and  The  to  be  hardly  The humour  her.pretentiousness  "nymphs"  flight,  the  master,  ask  whipped"  sounds  rather in  detailed  in  calling  the  a  scene  what the  wellis  instructions her  apparent  caprice  like  like  this  is  and  peasant  to girl  indifference their  of  "unpoetic"  Pri'ncessb^c^eES^lk.i^:-  3 a B T p a , KaK coJiHiie B C T a H e T , y MeHH noxt O K H O M c n p e H H H r p a T B Ha p o m e , pora-cKB03B JIHCTBH  B  K a 3 a T B , H K 0 3 J 1 0 M SJieHTB T p H p a 3 a T H X O , A Korrta O K H O pacKpoK), SeacaTB 3a H H H $ O H , J I O B H T B , c n a n o C T p a c T H o B 3 n p a n Ha npexiecTH oHoft 3 a B T p a HHHCJJOH —-' j j e B K a H a T a u i a . CTynan. ( M H K H T ^ , noKJioHHBiiiHCB, yxoJXHT.) P y K H onycfeaioTCH c S T H M H a p o f l O M . He^iero CKa3 a T B — 60JIBUiaH n p H H T H O C T B J K H T B y H a c Ha JJOMy. Tzte n o 3 3 H H , r n e 3 a 6 B e H H e ? (BbiTHpan r j i a 3 a n J i o T O I K O M . ) JKaHeTTa! ( C a H B K a nojj;6eraeT.) A ITO fi  HHH$BI?  CAHbKA.  HHHcpbi BBiroHHM.  B  6aHK> 3 a 6 H J i H C B , C H J X H T KoMapBi 3aejiH.21  no  ceft  lac,  He  There i s a d d i t i o n a l humour i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the language used by t h e P r i n c e s s D a r ' i a and by the peasant  girl  198 San'ka.  In an e f f o r t  t o acquire  western noblewoman, the P r i n c e s s Thus, "SeacaTb 3 a  language.  B3Hpafl. H a n p e n e c T H  the g r a c e f u l manners o f a t r i e s to use  HHH<J>OH,  refined  onanocTpacTHo  JIOBHTB,  t r i e s t o reproduce a l i t e r a l  OHOH"  but  c u l t u r e d d e p i c t i o n o f a s a t y r f r o l i c k i n g w i t h a nymph. However> t h a t these are p l a i n Russian peasants and mythological  beings i s brought i n t o . s h a r p  curt explanation 3a6HJIHCB  .  The  .  KOMapbl  focus by San'ka's  nymphs: " B 6aHK>  about the P r i n c e s s *  . H e BbirOHHM.  not  3aeJTH."  a r r i v a l o f a handsome young o f f i c e r , who announces  t h a t C a t h e r i n e w i l l a r r i v e s h o r t l y , allows the P r i n c e s s t o commence her  a f f a i r as recommended i n the Golden Book. The  s i t u a t i o n i s made more c o m p l i c a t e d , however, when i t i s discovered  the next day  C a t h e r i n e ' s loverw the P r i n c e s s and  t h a t the o f f i c e r , V a l e r ' i a n , i s a l s o  But when the Empress sees t h a t he and  have f a l l e n  i n l o v e , she  f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e s her  sending the o l d P r i n c e the moral o f t h i s f i n a l speech.  g r a c i o u s l y withdraws  god-child's  love a f f a i r by  o f f to the Crimea.  Omnia.viricit amor,  l i g h t comedy, i s drawn from C a t h e r i n e ' s  Says the Empress t o the young  officer:  A B e e »ce, B a J i e p b H H , B H He H c n o p T H J i H MHe c ^ a c T J i H Boro flHH. ( E e p e T K H H T H H I O 3 a n o f l 6 o p o f l O K . ) MHe jiHUib .yflajiocb c n e j i a T b oTKptaTHe, M T O B O T T a n a n copoKa  OKa3biBaeTCH  nocHJibHee  KOPOHH  POCCHHCKOH  HMnepHH.22  Tolstoi and  actresses  read Liubov' —  k n i g a z o l o t a i a t o the  o f the Moscow A r t Theatre i n 1922  actfors  when the  199 troupe was  visiting Berlin.  A c c o r d i n g to Serafima Birman,  a l e a d i n g a c t r e s s of the company, everyone loved i t from the 23 f i r s t reading.  I t was  decided to admit i t i n t o the  t h e a t r e ' s r e p e r t o i r e , and the p l a y had January at  3, 1924.  i t s premiere  on  Even though i t engoyed immense p o p u l a r i t y  the box o f f i c e and,  a c c o r d i n g to Birman, played t o a f u l l  house f o r s i x t y performances, the o f f i c i a l c r i t i c s  succeeded  i n t h e i r demand t h a t the p l a y be banned f o r i t s i d e o l o g i c a l culpability.  I t was  deemed unacceptable  i d e a l i z a t i o n of the p a s t . in  Because of i t s  As I. T r a i n i n put i t , i n a review  Pravda: T h i s work by A. T o l s t o i from beginning to end simply d r o o l s w i t h s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , and i s so completely without substance t h a t by comparison o t h e r p l a y s which are analogous i n content or theme . . . may be c o n s i d e r e d masterpieces and r e v o l u t i o n a r y creations.24  S p e c i f i c a l l y , what was  resented i n the comedy was  t r a y a l of the peasants'  uncomplicated  life,  the por-  as w e l l as the  i m p l i c a t i o n of t r a n q u i l and harmonious r e l a t i o n s between masters and s e r f s , and the p o r t r a y a l of C a t h e r i n e I I as an amiable  and l o v i n g godmother.  T r a i n i n was  f u r t h e r offended  by the a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n of the p l a y whlehy.'--he f e l t , "drew the -.Theatre "-.down- by i t s . e x c e s s i v e u n a t u r a l i s m . " •-' •"" ;>Thus , i n a d d i t i o n t o i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Liubov' — z o l o t a i a was of  regarded.as  improper behaviour.  b e i n g r a t h e r exceedingly  kniga suggestive  Though the l y r i c a l thread i n the  200  p l a y was dominant, e x p l a i n e d Birman., there was some  "coarse  In the f a l l o f 1936, T o l s t o i r e - w r o t e the comedy  humour."  making s e v e r a l a p p r o p r i a t e adjustments. The complete  a l t e r a t i o n  one o f the r a d i c a l changes version. Tolstoi  that  of  Catherine's  character  was  he i n t r o d u c e d i n the new  Instead o f s u r r e n d e r i n g V a l e r ' i a n t o h e r g o d - c h i l d , has the Empress  now  w i t h her.  command  officer  the  to  remain  She e x p l a i n s t o t h e P r i n c e s s :  Te6e K J I H C T B C B O K ) cyflB6y. yTeumnibCH IleTepSypre, T S M y T e u i H T e j i n H a f t f l y T C H . Pa3peuiaio c^HTaTB MeHH rapaHKOH. Pa3pemaio CKOPO  B  C B e T nOJTOH H H 3 0 C T e f i . JlKiflH H e H 3 M 0 H H H . H JIHU.O aceHIUHHH B n f l T b f l e C H T J i e T OKpyaceHO CHHHHeM He3eMHOH K p a c o T b i , ecJiH o H a — p a c T o ^ H T e J i B H H u a 3eMHbix 6Jiar.  ynepacajia T B o e r o B03Jno6JieHHoro O T rjiynocTen. 0, KaK 6bi O H acajieji B n o c J i e f l C T B H H , I T O 3 a O H H H nouejiyft T B o e r o KyKOJibHoro " p o T H K a oTHaJi BCIO yna^iy » C H 3 H H .  H  OH  rjiyn  TaK  ace,  KaK  3aqeM ry6HTb e r o ? BHine. K H H 3 H - T B o e r o 3a^eM?  CBeTa.  H  3TO&  CMeiOTCH Harj;  3Jioc^:acTHoft  TBOHM  o r i g i n a l ,  CMeji,  —  yyflo=H cnpocHiiiB — '  TaKoe  and  amiable r e l a t i v e  Catherine  is  ycaflB6e..  TaK  a He xHXHKaioT B Heyjj;a^aMH aceHinHHH, BpeMH, npoKJTHToe  KHH3eM,  H o c o B H e n J i a T K H Hap J I I O S O B H H M H HMeiomeH oflHy JIHUIB Hey/j;a^iy — BpeMH 3 a n j i e ^ a M H . . IIpomaH.27  From the k i n d  yace He  6epy B K P H M . , T H H H K o r f l a .He 6yflB C M e n i H o f t , — B O T ,3aKOH *fepe3 Heflejno BecB M O A H B O P 6y,neT 3HaTB O  npHKJno-yeHHHX^ B  nycTB  OH KpacHB,  H TH,.HO BHHHUIB,  transformed  that  she was  into  a  i n  the  c a l c u l a t i n g  woman  who i s conscious o f h e r a u t o c r a t i c power a n d does n o t h e s i t a t e t o use i t t o s a t i s f y her p e r s o n a l a p p e t i t e .  In  t h i s f a s h i o n T o l s t o i s h i f t s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e comedy away from love and c u c k o l d r y , and d i r e c t s i t more toward the  201 revelation  of Catherine's Machiavellian  nature.  Apart from the a l t e r a t i o n t h a t renders C a t h e r i n e u n a t t r a c t i v e , another b a s i c change made i n the p l a y i s to, remove the semblance  of good, p a t r i a r c h a l r e l a t i o n s  the peasants and t h e i r masters. particularly by  his  with.regard  mistress  romance.  to  play  between  T h i s can be observed  t o the peasant Fedor, who.is ordered a role  in t h i s  fatuous  game  of  "The P r i n c e s s had ordered you t o be the g o b l i n , "  San'ka e x p l a i n s  to him.  Fedor's response i s a reminder of  the f e u d a l c o n d i t i o n s under which the peasantry l i v e d i n eighteenth-century CaHH,  Russia:  Hy-KaKofi  H Jienmfi? . .  BOT K p e c T ,  TJIHAH . . .  rocnoflH!.. fla 3 a I T O ? Ha 6apinHHy * i a c y He 3 a n a 3 .nbiBaio... IIopy6Ka B Jiecy ^ H C J I H T C H 3 a MHO&? HeT. K y p e H K a fta rocnoncKyio 3eMJiio He Bbinymy. . . . . . C a H H , H H B JiafloiiiH-TO 6HTB He yMeio, H H xoxoTaTbT O He Mory. . . . . . AAx, 6aTK>uiKH, I T O ace S T O OHH BHflyMaJTH ? 1  2  8  To, put still!', g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e , between the peasants- and . t h e i r mistress, verses,  Tolstoi  introduced.in  the  second,version his  whose r h y t h m i s v e r y m u c h l i k e - R u s s i a n  folk  own  songs  r a t h e r than the Greek hymns t h a t are demanded by the Princess.  Through  such  posing as Europeans. stray  back  songs  Tolstoi s a t i r i z e s  the g e n t r y ' s  The Russian g i r l s cannot h e l p but  t o t h e i r peasant s t y l e of s i n g i n g : "Ha  nepeBeHCKHfi  jiafl c6HBaK>TCH," San'ka e x p l a i n s h a l f - a p o l o g e t i c a l l y , sing:  as t h e y  202 KaK B O r p e ^ e c K O M J i e c y . fla H a n a p H a c e , HHM$a n r o f l y S p a J i a , coSHpaJia...  TPH6U  Ax,  3eBec T H ,  MOH  TJIHHB H a MHJiyio c HHM$a  3eBec,  He6ec.  ^JSJIOTIKOM npejibmeHa,  CJiaflKHH Bjrpyr  oTKyuiaTb  njiofl  caTHp  —  —  ceft...  OSHKHOBSHHO  —  CMeJIO KHHyJICH O H K Heft, fla, K H e f t . . . HHM$a —  ax! —  pe3BH  HO  HOTH  O T C H T H p a He c n a c y T . . . 3 J I O H uiaJiyH c x B a T H J i , o 6 o r H , 0 6 a B .TpaBy yna/ryT. . . . OH — c Hen... 2 9  The' s e n f e i m e n f e a i r fed'nge *thmch-: colou.red:. .the: . f d r s t of  Liubov'  the  kniga  193 6 v e r s i o n .  main  personalities  tices who  o f serfdom.  t h e peasants  i norder Catherine  t o draw  totally  a r eset  absent  apart  i s now p o r t r a y e d  Finally,  love  tions Smert'  does  crushed  n e i t h e r Ljubov'  D a n t o n a was s t a g e d  again.  theversions'written before saw p r o d u c t i o n .  their.ideological dramatic  works  Since  slant,  by T o l s t o i  Only his  b y an e x p o s i t i o n o f  —  Despite kniga  correc-  zolotaia nor  theoriginals,  return t oSoviet  t h ereason  for this  i t i sinstructive i nwhich  sense b u t  n o tconquer a l l  i ni t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y development.  made b y - T o l s t o i ,  from t h e  as an a u t o c r a t  as an i n d i v i d u a l .  comedy-, b u t i s m i s e r a b l y  from  attention t othe injus-  i na p o l i t i c a l  reality  ever  Here  ds. a l m o s t  notonly  this  is,  zolotaia  i s made u n a p p e a l i n g  also in  —  variant  ideology  that Russia,  i s clearly  t o examine i s more  those  obviously  2 03 the c e n t r a l concern, the  Great.  C.  Three V e r s i o n s  namely, the h i s t o r i c a l p l a y s on Peter  of Petr I.  In w r i t i n g about the Tsar> a S o v i e t w r i t e r faces a s e r i o u s quandary: what c o n s t i t u t e s the c o r r e c t M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Peter?  Since K a r l Marx made only a  f l e e t i n g remark about him, which was t h a t Peter the Great conquered Russian  barbarism  w i t h barbarism,  Soviet h i s t o r i a n s  have b u i l t on t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e p r e t a t i o n s , compelling w r i t e r s t o make changes t o the i d e o l o g i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n .  inter-  appropriate  Wrote C. E. B l a c k :  In c o n s i d e r i n g the e v o l u t i o n o f S o v i e t h i s t o r i o g raphy on t h i s s u b j e c t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n the f i e l d o f l i t e r a t u r e t h e p r e s s u r e of the p a r t y l i n e was a l s o conspicuous. The b e s t example of t h i s i s the work o f Alexey T o l s t o y on P e t e r . 3 0  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , T o l s t o i f i r s t wrote about Peter I i n 1918, and then returned play-Na dybe. "Den'  t o . t h i s s u b j e c t i n 1928 w i t h the.  Though a complete decade separates  the s t o r y  P e t r a " from Na dybe, and though the w r i t e r o f the p l a y  no longer espoused the sentiments which prompted him t o w r i t e the s t o r y , the two works r e v e a l e s s e n t i a l l y perceptions  o f the T s a r .  identical  The s i n g l e major d i f f e r e n c e between  the two works i s t h a t the 1918 S l a v o p h i l e n o t i o n of the s u p e r i o r i t y o f p r e - P e t r i n e Rus" i s not r e c r e a t e d i n the p l a y . In other a s p e c t s , T o l s t o i had very l i t t l e  to a l t e r ,  since  20 4 his  o r i g i n a l a v e r s i o n to Peter now  seemed t o c o i n c i d e with  M i k h a i l P o k r o v s k i i ' s stand and the c u r r e n t M a r x i s t view. Pokrovskii's  In  opinion,  The bankruptcy of Peter's system l a y not i n the f a c t t h a t "at t h e . p r i c e of the r u i n of the country Russia.was r a i s e d to the rank of a European power" but i n the f a c t t h a t , 'regardless of the r u i n of the country, t h i s g o a l was not attained.31 This i d e o l o g i c a l c o i n c i d e n c e story  acts as a l i n k j o i n i n g the  the f i r s t p l a y Na dybe.  w i t h  c l a i m , as R.  But  i t i s misleading  to  Ivanov-Razumnik does, t h a t P e t r P e r v y i preceded  the w r i t i n g of the p l a y , and suggest t h a t T o l s t o i f e l l  i t i s d e c e p t i v e l y simple  to  from the a r t i s t r y of the n o v e l  to  32 the m e d i o c r i t y As  of the  i n "Den"  plays.  P e t r a " so i n the f i r s t v e r s i o n of  play about P e t e r , the Tsar i s shown to be impatient Europeanize h i s realm, i s o l a t e d and and-cruelly oppressive.  The  alone  the to  i n h i s endeavours,  twelve tableaux which comprise  Na dybe a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r a l l y bleak p i c t u r e of p e r i o d , and  the dark image o f . P e t e r reminds one  Pokrovskii's characterization.  the  very much of  In her book on T o l s t o i  and  S o v i e t t h e a t r e , P. A. Borozdina s t r i v e s to minimize Pokrov33 skii's  i n f l u e n c e on the p l a y .  the n e g a t i v e  But  the f a c t remains t h a t  p o r t r a y a l of Peter i n t h i s v e r s i o n r e i t e r a t e s  the g i s t of P o k r o v s k i i ' s popular which o f f e r e d only  e d i t i o n of Russian h i s t o r y  "a four-sentence  P e t e r concerned e x c l u s i v e l y with  b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch  l u s t , t o r t u r e and  of  syphilis."  205 Tolstoi appearance of  prepares  on s t a g e  the s t r e l t s y .  even  utter  yjj;apHi,  his  with  Then  a sound,  audience  sounds  the Tsar  he s u f f e r s  and c r i e s enters,  of  first  the  execution  but before  he can  a convulsion:  noHBJiHeTCH neTp.  KPHK.  for Peter's  OH B  npeo6pax<eHCKOM  MVHflHpe, 6e3 iimnnbi H n a p H K a . K o p o T K H e BbwmjiecH TeMHHe B O J I O C H . K p y r j i o e JiHuo c Top^aioHMH - y c H K a M H , c KOPOTKHM TBepjJBIM HOCOM H Hecopa3MepHO MaJieHBKHM PTOM nepeKomeHo c y f l o p o r o H . CHepHyBrryOJjoByKK rarefy, O H npeoflOJieBaeT c y f l o p o r y . O H y3Konjie*i H cyiyji. MeHiMKOB. H PoMon,aHOBCKHii He -cnycKaioT c H e r o rjia3. n e T p oBJiafleji C O 6 O H , tuyMH-o B3HpxHyji..3 5  Peter's his a  appearance  facial  early  stages  Swedish  of  A H T O H .  moment,  on t h e v i e w e r .  which  depicts  that  calculated  Tolstoi  an o p p o s i t e  create  entrance,  Petersburg  shows  the  suffered.  f o r example,  many o f whom a r e w e a r i n g of  an  to  with  illustrated.  St.  the people  on t h e c i t y ,  together  From such  are v a r i o u s l y  f o r the salvation  provokes  that  deliberately  construction,  and c r u e l t y  labourers,  Ky3HEn.  four,  attack  and.die  is  qualities  scene  hardships  the  effect  repulsive In  precisely  contortions,  frightening  his  at  the state.  i n the  unbearable During  Peteraappeals shackles,  to  to fight  But the appeal  reaction:  Uapio JHO6O K p H H a T B : noMHpafiTe 3 a r o c y f l a p c T B o . . . A M M H T a K Ha 3 T o a p a S o T e o 6 o f l p a J i H C b , KHJiy H a f l o PBanH.. . Kr Kl fS . . . . . . Xjie6 c H a B o s o M BbixtaBaTb C T a j i H . . . He QRHM — 6JnoeM. Tejio nyxHeT.  no BCeM  nyCTbipHM  nOKOfiHHKK  BaJIHIOTCH.  a  only  206 BOJIKOB ^ e J I O B e ^ H H O H  KOPMHTe. . .  HapOfl,  3 T O MeCTO  rHSJioe... nJlOTHHK. KY3HEL3;.  IJapB  Pacceto  BCIO  Kanofi  OH uapB,  3arHaJi. . .  B SOJIOTO Bpar,  —  OMOPOK JIKWCKOH . . .  IIJIOTHHK. MHpoejj; O H . . . B e c B M H P n e p e e j i . . . Ha H e r o , K y T H J i K y , nepeBoxta HeT . . . T O J I B K O Hapofl 3pn nepeBOflHT... Jly^iue The  peasant  the  masses  ized the  nofl  niBena nofifleM. . . J  Anton, of  Russia.  people  drove  appearance preaches tion  of  that  turns  to  The  of  the  Peter  is  into  the  as  the  smith  sufferings  bread  fed  to  opposing.the the  Peter  mixed with  being  in  represent  story  Antichrist,  the  European-  manure,  wolves  Usar. "Den*  under-  With  the  complaints,  Petra,"  people's  opposi-  as  with  of  the  boiars,  common p e o p l e , the  is  expressed the  to  contrast  with  enveloped, i n  descendant  representative  what  in  of  his  of that  wife  peasants  an  a  comical  ancient  family,  resistance. S o f i a ,  endured  are  from  the  But comic  Peter:  JlonyXHH. rocyjj;ap:b flHH. H a M e c T e He n o c e f l H T , H MBI 3 a H H M CKaiH... C y j r r a H y jiy^iue cjiyacHTB T y p e u K O M y . . . Tpe H a C B e T e BH,naHO JJ^BOPHHCTBy T a K H e MyKH n p H H H MaTB? CO<l>bH.  He T O M H C B n o c j i e 6 a H H — T O . . . TiomKa, uiTaHbi n p a B o c j i a B H B i e . TeCHO.  JIOIiyXHH.  the  dread.  chief  comparison  the  corpses  V a r l a a m , who,  is  by  of  people  Lopukhin,  his  work,  sight  atmosphere. Tolstoi's  and  t h r o u g h whose  resistance  antagonism  carpenter,  The h a r d  demoralizing  standably  the  b  OIIHTB  —  flypa:  HafleHB T a , 6 a a a a B HeMeuKHX T e 6 e  n p H anoHsceBOM n a p H K e ,  npH  207 cJpaHiiyscKOM K a $ T a H e  COQbfl.. fla Bertb  —  CBHTKH,  —  a : nopTKH  VBHHHT  HafleJi...  CKaxcyT:  —  pHxceHHH...  Tbi;6 B o p o H a , n o H M H : B c e H a T MeHH i i a p B x o ^ e T nocjiaTB, c e H a T o p o M Syjxy, X O T B KaKaa H H Ha e c T B  JlOIiyXHH.  ;  — M e c T B . . . n o c e M y jiOMaiocB B y 3 K O M roiaTbe, — HH c e c T B , H H npHKJioHHTBCH.. . H B O T T e 6 e Moe pacno-  PHsceHHe ,  CO$BH  CTenaHOBHa:  B  Hextemo  BCK>  pyxjiHflB  cJioacHTB H H a nojxBOJJH y B H 3 a T B : B c e M flOMOM e x a T B T e 6 e B . CaHKTnHTepSypx H a B e ^ H o e s c H T e j i B C T B O .  COObH (3aBbiJia) . Jly^ine B. 3eMjno MeHH — - He noeny H a S O J I O T O HCHTB . JlOIiyXHH.  IlaKH H n a K H 3 aMOJi^H .37  The  MocKBe 3aKonaHTe,  B  flypa C T a H O B a a . . .  c o n t r a s t between Lopukhin's  Uap'b n p H K a 3 a n .  European, d r e s s and S o f i a ' s  t r a d i t i o n a l Russian d r e s s , coupled w i t h t h e i r u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d v e r n a c u l a r speech,  symbolizes  the b e g i n n i n g of, t h a t l o s s of  n a t i o n a l u n i t y which Karamzin a t t r i b u t e d t o P e t e r ' s h u r t l i n g w e s t e r n i z a t i o n o f the upper c l a s s e s .  The same i n c o n g r u i t y  between the s t y l i s h dress and the simple speech couple c r e a t e s the humour i n t h i s  scene.  To the T s a r e v i c h A l e k s e i , Lopukhin complain of  about the d i f f i c u l t y  o f the b o i a r  of l i f e  continues t o  since the i n t r o d u c t i o n  European i n d u s t r y , lamenting: fla, X C H J I H , n H J i H . . . A T e n e p B , KaK xojionbi, C J I V E C H M , Pann i i a p c K o r o B O H C K a na $ J i o T a MBI B e e Ha —  KaTopre MaJio eme r o p n — HbiHe xcejie3Hbie 3aBOJJBi C T P O H T , jja n o J i o T H H H b i e , noTauiHbie, C T . e K O J i b Hbie, fla eme myT H X 3 H a e T K a K n e . . .. T O J I B K O Hapofl 3 p n Kajie^iaT, MyxcHKa O T flejia o T p w B a i o T . . . JKpaTB C T a j i o . H e i e r i o , — cTeKJio flyeM... Kopa6flHKH CTPOHM.  From Lopukhin's  TBcpyl38 complaints the audience  l e a r n s o f the estab-  l i s h m e n t o f an army and a navy, and o f the i n t o r d u c t i o n of  208  various  industries.  But though he i s aggrieved  i n n o v a t i o n s , he does not evoke any sympathy.  by Peter's  On the con-  t r a r y , s i n c e i t i s only h i s i s lamKekajH^nf xi'S" tgneec.ifeha^v has been d i s t u r b e d —  "Yes, we used t o l i v e , d r i n k , but now we  work l i k e s l a v e s " —  the b o i a r ' s v e x a t i o n merely adds humour  to the p l a y . With such a l u d i c r o u s , o p p o s i t i o n r a l l y i n g about him, the .Tsarevich A l e k s e i appears i n Na dybe: more as a f r i g h t e n e d son than as a s e r i o u s p o l i t i c a l opponent t o P e t e r . mizing  By m i n i -  the t h r e a t from t h i s q u a r t e r , T o l s t o i makes A l e k s e i ' s  execution  appear a l l the more d a s t a r d l y .  the T s a r e v i c h i s k i l l e d i n which the mystic  The manner i n which  reminds one,of Merezhkovskii*s  novel  n o v e l i s t drew a p a r a l l e l between the  T s a r and the A n t i c h r i s t .  In Na dybe, P e t e r e n t e r s the c e l l  to ask f o r g i v e n e s s , k i s s e s h i s son on the forehead,  and then  walks o u t . Menshikov, P e t r T o l s t o i , and the guard Pospelov lunge at the T s a r e v i c h .  In t h i s manner T o l s t o i makes the  death o f A l e k s e i resemble a common murder r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l execution, image s t i l l The  and t h i s serves  t o blacken  Peter's  further. s e v e r i t y and i m p u l s i v e nature o f the reforms  i n t r o d u c e d by Peter  a l i e n a t e him from both the p l e b e i a n and  the p a t r i c i a n segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  Furthermore,  T o l s t o i suggests t h a t the T s a r i s a l i e n a t e d from a l l the people by h i s t y r a n n i c a l nature.  Accompanied by h i s  209 "All-Drunken Synod," f o r example, Peter v i s i t s homes of nobility  and  plays  c r u e l t r i c k s on  dressed as a p h y s i c i a n , he On  another o c c a s i o n ,  ministers  them.  On  one  to k i s s the bare buttocks of the  Synod's " p r i n c e pope."  By  t o the  I t i s only  too  his  All-Drunken  t h i s e x h i b i t i o n T o l s t o i shows y e t for his  apparent t h a t P e t e r i s i n s e n s i t i v e  f e e l i n g s of h i s s u b j e c t s , who  this irreverent display.  teeth.  forces  another example of the Tsar's b r u t i s h d i s r e g a r d subjects.  occasion,  g l e e f u l l y j y a n k s h i s host's  b e f o r e a Moscow crowd, he  the  see  a mortal i n s u l t i n  A shout r i s e s • f r o m  the  crowd:  CbiHa y 6 H J i ! . . 3a*ieM uiyTHiiiB. . . y r o M O H y Ha T e 6 n Hei, KyTHJiKa. . . E p a T i r b i , c roJioxty yMHpaeM, a y HH