UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of John Ford’s dramatic art Bose, Tirthankar 1978

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A STUDY OF JOHN FORD'S DRAMATIC ART by TIRTHANKAR BOSE B.A., University of Calcutta M.A., University of Calcutta B . L i t t , University of Oxford THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1978 0 Tirthankar Bose, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my^  Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT John Ford examines i n h i s p l a y s extreme s t a t e s o f p a s s i o n , and c r e a t e s t h e a t r i c a l images o f ..the p r e dicaments i n which p a s s i o n p l a c e s h i s d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r s . V i o l e n t p a s s i o n s d r i v e h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s t o forms o f b e h a v i o u r which go a g a i n s t the code of conduct prevalent,..in t h e i r w o r l d , a f a c t which e x p l a i n s t h e ^ c r i t i c a l p r eoccupation..with Ford's p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l views. The p r e s e n t s t u d y attempts r a t h e r t o examine how Ford d r a m a t i z e s the c o n f l i c t and event-u a l c l e a v a g e between the w o r l d and the i n d i v i d u a l . Ford makes the o p p o s i t i o n c l e a r not o n l y by a n a l y s i n g the psycho-l o g y c o f the i n d i v i d u a l , but by p r e s e n t i n g the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g the e t h i c a l system) o f the p l a y w o r l d i n which the i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s . The c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s by d i r e c t c o n f e s s i o n s ; the dominant e t h i c a l values o f t h e i r w o r l d s are s t a t e d or s u g g ested i n each p l a y by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the s o c i a l w i l l , such as the r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n ' T i s  P i t y She's a Whore,and The Broken H e a r t , the r o y a l c o u r t i n P e r k i n Warbeck, or the groups of e l d e r l y c o u r t i e r s i n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y or The Queen. In h i s t r a g e d i e s and comedies a l i k e , the o p p o s i t i o n between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c n e c e s s i t i e s seems to l e a d the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s to d i s a s t e r , and t o do so i n e x o r a b l y , i i a l t h o u g h a c t u a l c a l a m i t i e s a r e a v e r t e d i n t h e c o m e d i e s . F o r d c r e a t e s t h i s i n e x o r a b i l i t y i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e shown t o be i n c a p a b l e o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r p a s s i o n s and o f r e i n t e g r a t i n g w i t h t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e ; s e c o n d l y , a f t e r t h e t i n i t i a l s u r r e n d e r t o p a s s i o n , s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s a r e made t o f o l l o w i h - ' - s t r i c t c a u s a l s u c c e s s i o n . Human a c t i o n i s t h u s s e e n t o be i r r e v e r s i b l e , and i t s d r a m a t i c e q u i v a l e n t , t h e p l o t , t h e r e f o r e c o n v e y s a s e n s e o f i n e v i t -a b i l i t y as i t p r o g r e s s e s . N e c e s s a r i l y , t h e p a s s i o n s t h a t d r i v e t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s i s o l a t e , them f r o m t h e i r p e e r s . I n t h e t r a g e d i e s , as t h e a c t i o n d e v e l o p s , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s a p p e a r more and more i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e i r w o r l d , w i t h e v e r d e c r e a s i n g f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n . P e r k i n Warbeck b e s t e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s c o n s t r i c t i o n o f a c t i o n . The comedies move i n an o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y show t h a t t h e p r o . t a g o n i s t s a r e g r a d u a l l y f r e e d f r o m t h e g r i p o f o v e r m a s t e r i n g p a s s i o n s , and t a u g h t t o l i v e i n harmony w i t h t h e i r w o r l d s . But t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f F o r d ' s t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t s i s more c o m p l e t e b e c a u s e t h e y commit t h e m s e l v e s so u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y t o t h e i r p a s s i o n s . t h a t t h e y r e j e c t t h e m o r a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e i r w o r l d . The d r a m a t i c d e v i c e used t o i n d i c a t e t h i s a b s o l u t e commitment i s t h e i n v i o l a b l e c o n t r a c t by w h i c h a c h a r a c t e r b i n d s h i m s e l f t o a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . Even though t h e c h a r a c t e r l o s e s t h e o b j e c t o f h i s p a s s i o n , he r e m a i n s t r u e t o t h e p a s s i o n i t s e l f . H i s c o n s t a n c y t o a human b e i n g i s t h u s r e p l a c e d by a c o n s t a n c y t o an i d e a l , a c o n s t a n c y t h a t p r o v e s h i s w o r t h t o h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n . H i s i n t e g r i t y i s a d m i r e d by h i s w o r l d b u t h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n e n s u r e s h i s r e j e c -t i o n f r o m i t . P o w e r l e s s a g a i n s t t h a t r e j e c t i o n , t h e t r a g i c c h a r a c t e r t r i e s t o g a i n permanence i n men's memories by a s s e r t i n g h i s i n t e g r i t y and c o u r a g e , c e l e b r a t i n g t h o s e v i r t u e s t h r o u g h some b r a v e o r v i o l e n t a c t . T h a t a c t , as a s t a t e m e n t o f f a i t h , d e f i n e s h i s i d e n t i t y b o t h f o r h i s w o r l d and f o r t h e a u d i e n c e . F o r d t h u s u s e s v i o l e n c e i n h i s p l a y s n o t t o c r e a t e a s e n s a t i o n a l i s t e f f e c t as some o f h i s c r i t i c s have assumed, b u t t o d e f i n e h i s a l i e n a t e d p r o t a g o n i s t s . F o r d g i v e s v i s u a l l i f e t o t h a t d e f i n i t i o n t h r o u g h t h e s p a t i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s on t h e s t a g e . The s t a g e - i m a g e o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s t a n d i n g a l o n e , s e p a r a t e d f r o m o t h e r s on t h e s t a g e , becomes a metaphor f o r t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s p r e d i c a m e n t . F o r d ' s d r a m a t i c a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e n , l i e s i n c r e a t i n g h i s own l a n g u a g e o f t h e t h e a t r e , a c o m p o s i t e s t r u c t u r e o f a c t i o n , c h a r a c t e r , and s p e c t a c l e ^to e x p r e s s an i n d i v i d u a l view o f e x i s t e n c e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i EDITIONS USED v i i Chapter I . THE PROBLEM OF FORD 1 I I . THE PLAYWORLD OF FORD 14 I I I . 'TIS PITY SHE'S A WHORE 50 IV. THE BROKEN HEART 86 V. PERKIN WARBECK 1 2 1 V I . "STRAINS OF A LIGHTER MIXTURE": FORD'S COMEDIES 156 THE LOVERS MELANCHOLY 156 THE QUEEN 184 V I I . FORD'S ACHIEVEMENT 202. NOTES 220 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . 230 vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT It Is a pleasure to record my debt to these whose help and encouragement have made this study possible. Dr. Joel H. Kaplan has not only directed my work with a sure and sensi-tiv e scholarship but has seen me through frequent periods of doubt and gloom with the sympathy of a fri e n d . To him I owe my deepest gratitude. Dr. Anthony B. Dawson has been a major source of strength. Most generous with his time, he has suffered cheerfully through f r a n t i c phone c a l l s and midnight alarums. Professor Paul Stanwood has helped me with i n c i s i v e c r i t i c a l comments that have saved me from many blunders. Professor S.K. Heninger, J r . , has s i m i l a r l y d i s c i p l i n e d my thinking i n several ways. I am most grateful to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for f i n a n c i a l support, and to the Graduate Committee of i t s Department of English for encouragement of every kind. To Professor Heninger, the present chairman of the Graduate Committee, and Professor William E. Predeman, the previous chairman, I am indebted i n many more ways than I can count. Mrs. Fran Outram worked through whole days and nights to type this d i s s e r t a t i o n . I thank her sincerely. I take t h i s opportunity also to thank', my friend Mr. V i t t o r i o Garbarino, whose v i v i i knowledge of Greek was of great help to me. My debt to my wife i s l i m i t l e s s and must be recorded, but my gratitude must be expressed more f u l l y than through words. EDITIONS USED 'Tis Pity She's a Whore, ed. Derek Roper, London: Methuen, 1 9 7 5 . Revels Plays. The Broken Heart, ed. Donald KV Anderson, J r . , Lincoln: U. of Nebraska, X963•:• • Kep;ents• • Renaissance Drama^Series . Perkin Warbeck, ed. Peter Ure, London: Methuen, 1 9 6 8 . Revels Plays. The Lover's Melancholy, Love's S a c r i f i c e , The Lady's T r i a l , and The Fancies, Chaste and Noble, ed. W. Bang, John' For des  Dramatische Werke, Louvain: Uystpruyst, 1 9 0 8 . Materialen zur Kunde des alteren Englischen Dramas. The Queen, ed. W. Bang, Louvain: Uystpruyst, 1 9 0 6 . Materialen. Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM OF FORD John Ford i s often regarded as one of those success-ors of Shakespeare .and;-"Jonson in whose hands the larger s p i r i t of Elizabethan drama, tragic drama in p a r t i c u l a r , became a contradictory mixture of contemplation and sensa-tionalism. Many c r i t i c s have found i t d i f f i c u l t to decide whether the writings of these dramatists s i g n i f y the decline of drama or experiments towards the creation of a new drama. Like other Jacobean and Caroline dramatists, Ford seems to revel in violence and passion, portraying minds lacerated by anguish and presenting to the spectator memorable images of love and courage. In his moiral and psychological interests Ford shows an obvious kinship with his contemporaries, while in constructing his plots he freely u t i l i z e s the situations common to his t r a d i t i o n . Though Ford has earned a special fame for his depiction of incest in 'Tis Pity She's a Whore, he i s no innovator as far as this sensational theme goes; i t i s explored by Beaumont and Fletcher in A King and No King, and by Massinger i n The Unnatural Combat which presents a father's incestuous passion for his daughter. Yet, the violent eruptions of passion in Ford's plays are counter-1 2 balanced by the r i g i d s e l f - c o n t r o l of his characters, which on occasion lends to the plays an austerity of style and purpose beyond the mere c u l t i v a t i o n of violence. Giovanni and Annabella's love i s seen in 'Tis Pity as s i n f u l but th e i r unquestioned i n t e g r i t y in love proves that i t i s not a base passion. Set against the vehement energy of Orgilus in The  Broken Heart we find Calantha's refusal to y i e l d to g r i e f . Warbeck gains c r e d i b i l i t y as a prince among men precisely when he f a i l s , through his action, to l i v e up to-the image of the prince as a leader. In The Lovers' Melancholy Meleander's desperate ravings at the loss of his daughter Eroclea are contrasted with the muted g r i e f of Palador for the same loss. This union of contrasts serves to i d e n t i f y Ford as a dramatist of extremes. When he examines the theme of rash love he embodies i t through the extreme example of incest. Courage takes the form of suicide, as witness the end chosen by Penthea, Orgilus and Calantha in The Broken Heart, Giovanni in 'Tis Pity, Fernando in Love's S a c r i f i c e and Warbeck i n Perkin Warbeck. In choosing the settings for his plays Ford s i m i l a r l y reveals this interest in extremes. Guilty love and revenge in 'Tis Pity and Love's S a c r i f i c e are set in the dark and close world of the renaissance Italy of popular imagination. Conspicuous fortitude and resolution on the other hand are dis-covered, i n The Broken Heart, in a f i t t i n g l y Spartan setting. This interest i n extremes suggests that Ford speci a l i z e s i n terminal situations. In such situations he portrays noble individuals who have reached the end of the road. By what means Ford places them there, what dramatic effects he achieves 3 thereby and how he achieves them, are enquiries that consti-tute the subject of the present study. There has been much c r i t i c a l uncertainty regarding Ford's achievement and this has been due i n part to the lack of information available about his l i f e and his writings. The most thorough biographical account to date i s given in M. Joan Sargeaunt's 1935 book on Ford, which remains d e f i n i t i v e as no additional facts have since come to l i g h t . Ford was born at Ilsington, Devonshire, i n early A p r i l , 1586. We know nothing about his youth but i t i s possible tha.t'j.he--went to Exeter College, Oxford, for a year in 1601. He entered the Middle Temple i n London i n November, 1602, to which he belonged at least u n t i l 1617. He may have practised law but seems to have r e t i r e d early i n l i f e . He wrote occasional poetry from 1606 on, and began his dramatic career from about 1612, engaging sometimes i n collaborative work with Dekker, William Rowley, and Webster, but also writing on his own. He dropped out of sight a f t e r 1638 and the date of his death i s unknown. We know that he wrote seven plays independently, and scholars agree that an eighth, The Queen, published anonymously, i s also by him. The sequence of the plays has not been estab-lished with entire certainty although attempts to construct a chronology have been made on d i f f e r e n t grounds, including the 2 doubtful one of metrical evidence. The rough chronology established by Sargeaunt and accepted with minor reservations by G.E. Bentley i n The Jacobean and Caroline Stage, i s given below: 1606 Fame's Memorial (poem) Honour Triumphant (prose pamphlet) 1613 The Golden Mean (prose pamphlet) Christ's Bloody Sweat (poem) 1620 A Line of L i f e (prose pamphlet) 1621 The Witch of Edmonton (with Dekker and William Rowley) 1623-4 The Sun's Darling (with Dekker) The Welsh Embassador (with Dekker) 1628 The Lover's Melancholy 1633 'Tis Pity She's a Whore The Broken Heart Love's S a c r i f i c e 1634 Perkin Warbeck 1638 The Fancies, Chaste and Noble The Lady's T r i a l 1653 The Queen These are mainly dates of publication, but The Witch of  Edmonton i s dated by i t s f i r s t performance and The Sun's  Darling and The Lover's Melancholy by dates of l i c e n s i n g . Ford's hand has been conjectured i n several other plays, of which an account i s given by Bentley. In the absence of hard external evidence pertaining to the sequence of Ford's writings, c r i t i c a l enquiry cannot rest upon any unchallengeable view of Ford's "development." The present study i s therefore concerned with a composite under-5 s t a n d i n g o f F o r d ' s drama r a t h e r t h a n w i t h v i e w i n g h i s p l a y s as s t a g e s i n a p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . F o r d ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a p l a y w r i g h t has been acknow-l e d g e d by c r i t i c s f r o m t h e t i m e o f C h a r l e s Lamb who p l a c e d him i n " t h e f i r s t o r d e r o f poets.'.' T h i s remark f r o m so e a r l y and so i n f l u e n t i a l a c r i t i c h e l p e d i n t e r e s t i n F o r d t o grow, an e a r l y s i g n o f t h a t i n t e r e s t b e i n g Henry Weber's e n t h u s i a s t i c b u t l e s s t h a n competent e d i t i o n o f F o r d i n 1811 . T a k i n g an o p p o s i t e view, W i l l i a m H a z l i t t d e f i n e d F o r d ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a r e p r e h e n s i b l e t a s t e f o r o v e r s t a t e m e n t and c r i t i c i z e d t h e l a s t s c e n e s o f The B r o k e n H e a r t as e x t r a v a g a n t d i s p l a y s o f p o i n t l e s s s t o i c i s m . S e n s a t i o n a l i s m and m o r a l d e c a d e n c e have been f r e q u e n t i n d i c t m e n t s a g a i n s t F o r d . C r i t i c i s m o f h i s p l a y s has been e x c l u s i v e l y m o r a l i s t i c i n t h e p a s t , c r i t i c s h a v i n g been m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h i s a l l e g e d a p p r o v a l o f i l l i c i t l o v e and h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s e n s a t i o n a l e v e n t s . The f o c u s began t o s h i f t , t o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i t h c r i t i c s s u c h as H a v e l o c k E l l i s and Swinburne c l a i m i n g t h a t F o r d was n o t an i mmoral but an a m o r a l p l a y w r i g h t who s o u g h t t o e x p l a i n human c o n d u c t i n t h e l i g h t o f man's p a t h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n m o r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . B o t h t h e s e c r i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , t h e e t h i c a l and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , have d e f l e c t e d a t t e n t i o n away from p r o b l e m s o f t e c h n i q u e . But o v e r e m p h a t i c t h o u g h t h e y a r e , t h e s e s t u d i e s h e l p t o d e f i n e F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t s and themes, and a r e t h e r e f o r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e use t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n i t s a t t e m p t t o examine the themes and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f F o r d ' s p l a y s . 6 F o r d ' s s u p p o s e d l y n o n c o n f o r m i s t a t t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t i n p s y c h o l o g y prompted s e v e r a l c r i t i c s t o i d e n t i f y him as a t h i n k e r f a r ahead o f h i s t i m e . H a v e l o c k E l l i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , c a l l e d him t h e "most modern" o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and a w r i t e r c l o s e r t o S t e n d h a l and F l a u b e r t t h a n t o S h a k e s p e a r e . E l l i s saw F o r d as a d r a m a t i s t who had " m e d i t a t e d d e e p l y on t h e 5 s p r i n g s o f human a c t i o n " . The s e n s e o f F o r d ' s m o d e r n i t y i s s h a r e d by c r i t i c s who f o l l o w , most n o t a b l y G. F. Sensabaugh who i d e n t i f i e s " s c i e n t i f i c d e t e r m i n i s m " and " u n b r i d l e d i n d i v i d -u a l i s m " as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s on F o r d , t u r n i n g him i n t o a C a r o l i n e Marlowe. By t r a c i n g a t t h e same time t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c o t e r i e c u l t o f N e o - P l a t o n l s m f o s t e r e d by Queen H e n r i e t t a M a r i a , Sensabaugh a l s o a t t e m p t s t o m o d i f y t h e view o f F o r d ' s s t o i c a f f i l i a t i o n s , a f f i l i a t i o n s t h a t have formed a commonplace o f F o r d c r i t i c i s m f r o m H a z l i t t ' s days 7 t o o u r own.. F o r d ' s m o d e r n i t y i s a c k n o w l e d g e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y by S a r g e a u n t , whose s t u d y ( c i t e d above) i s one o f t h e two most c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f F o r d made so f a r , t h e o t h e r b e i n g R o b e r t D a v r i l ' s Le Drame de John F o r d , w h i c h a t t i m e s r e l i e s e x t e n s i v e l y on S a r g e a u n t ' s work. D a v r i l and Sensabaugh have made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f F o r d ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e s o c i a l , e t h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t shape a man's e x i s t e n c e as an i n d i v i d u a l . These and o t h e r c r i t i c s have t a k e n s p e c i a l n o t e o f F o r d ' s r e l i a ' n c e on R o b e r t B u r t o n ' s Anatomy o f M e l a n c h o l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w h i c h has been e v a l u a t e d i n c l o s e d e t a i l by S. B. Ewing. 7 , F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n t e r m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s and a b n o r m a l s t a t e s o f mindgi has k e p t F o r d c r i t i c i s m c l o s e t o e t h i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . H a z l i t t l s d i s a p p r o v a l i s s h a r e d by -o t h e r c r i t i c s , s u c h a s , George S a i n t s b u r y who p l a c e s F o r d o n l y , i n t h e " s e c o n d o r d e r " o f g e n i u s , F e l i x S c h e l l i n g who d i s t r u s t s F o r d ' s " u n n a t u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y " b e c a u s e i t i s " l i k e a g o r g e o u s and s c e n t e d b u t p o i s o n o u s e x o t i c o f the j u n g l e , " and A s h l e y T h o n n d i k e who r e c o i l s f r o m F o r d ' s " a b s o r p t i o n w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f s e x . " A more s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f F o r d ' s e t h i c a l p o s i t i o n was made i n 1908 by S.P. Sherman who came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t F o r d had a d e f i n i t e and c o n s i s t e n t sympathy f o r h i s s i n f u l h e r o e s and h e r o i n e s , w h i c h marks him as a r e b e l 10 a g a i n s t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d m o r a l o r d e r o f h i s t i m e . Some y e a r s l a t e r , J.A. B a s t i a e n e n more e x p l i c i t l y a c c u s e d F o r d o f c o n d o n i n g c r i m e , s a y i n g t h a t "so f a r f r o m a c t i n g as a s t e r n c e n s o r o f s u c h c r i m i n a l a b e r r a t i o n s as o c c u r i n .this p l a y [ ' T i s P i t y ] , 1 1 F o r d l o o k s upon them w i t h a l e n i e n t , s y m p a t h e t i c e y e . " I n a l o w e r key, T.S. E l i o t d e p l o r e s F o r d ' s " a b s e n c e o f p u r p o s e " w h i c h , he s a y s , ends i n "mere . . s e n s a t i o n a l i s m " i n a l l p l a y s 12 e x c e p t P e r k i n Warbeck. These a c c u s a t i o n s a r e now i n f r e q u e n t , a l t h o u g h a r e c e n t h i s t o r i a n o f drama, T . B . T T o m l i n s o n , i d e n t i f i e s F o r d as t h e " r e a l v i l l a i n o f t h e p i e c e " i n what he c o n s i d e r s t h e 13 e t h i c a l debasement o f t r a g e d y i n t h e J a c o b e a n age. These o p i n i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e v i e w o f F o r d as a s u b v e r s i v e f i g u r e has l o s t f o r c e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . A more b a l a n c e d e s t i m a t e o f h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s has been made by R o b e r t O r n s t e i n and Mark S t a v i g who p l a c e him i n t h e ^ m a i n s t r e a m o f 8 s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y e t h i c a l t h o u g h t and c h a l l e n g e t h e o l d e r view o f F o r d as an a d v o c a t e o f i m m o r a l i t y o r a c r i t i c o f c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . O r n s t e i n c o n n e c t s F o r d w i t h t h e e l i t i s t E l i z a b e t h a n N e o - P l a t o n i s m and f i n d s i n h i s p l a y s a s e n s i t i v e 1 4 a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y h o n o u r as a g u i d e t o t h e c o n d u c t o f l i f e . S t a v i g ' s s t u d y , t h e most s e a r c h i n g e x a m i n a t i o n y e t o f F o r d ' s c u l t u r a l r o o t s , a r g u e s t h a t F o r d was n e i t h e r a d e c a d e n t n o r a 15 r e b e l b u t an u p h o l d e r o f t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l b e l i e f . C y r u s Hoy makes t h e same p o i n t b r i e f l y i n an e s s a y c o m p a r i n g F o r d ' s G i o v a n n i w i t h Marlowe's F a u s t u s , d i s c o v e r i n g i n ' T i s P i t y t h e 16 h o m i l e t i c t h r u s t o f m e d i e v a l drama. The c o n c e r n w i t h F o r d ' s e t h i c a l p u r p o s e and p s y c h o l o -g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n s has been much more s u s t a i n e d t h a n a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t h e t r a g i c e l e m e n t i n h i s p l a y s o r h i s d r a m a t i c method. F o r some time p a s t , however, more a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o t h e a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s o f F o r d . A major e f f o r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n a p p e a r s i n C l i f f o r d L e e c h ' s book on F o r d , one o f t h e 17 few f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d i e s o f t h e d r a m a t i s t . L e e c h r e l a t e s t h e f o r m o f t h e p l a y s w i t h t h e i r e t h i c a l meaning and a r g u e s t h a t t h e p l a y s t e n d t o move towards moments o f s t i l l n e s s , a t w h i c h t h e c l i m a x ,o.f • t h e m a t i c e v o l u t i o n , i s h e l d s u s p e n d e d f o r t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s c o n t e m p l a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f F o r d ' s d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e has been s l o w t o d e v e l o p , a l t h o u g h b o t h S a r g e a u n t and D a v r i l i n c l u d e i n t h e i r books d i s c u s s i o n s o f p l o t - c o n s t r u c t i o n , v e r s i f i c a t i o n and d r a m a t i c c o n v e n t i o n s . D e s p i t e L e e c h ' s i n t e r e s t i n d r a m a t i c form, he r e m a i n s c l o s e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n o f e t h i c a l c r i t i c i s m , t h e c o n t i n u i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f w h i c h i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e number 18 o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . S t u d i e s w h o l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e o f F o r d ' s p l a y s a r e few. But t h e s e few s t u d i e s have opened t h e way t o a c l o s e r p e r c e p t i o n o f F o r d ' s d r a m a t i c a c h i e v e m e n t . H. J . O l i v e r ' s book on F o r d makes an i m p o r t a n t v e n t u r e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n by a r g u i n g t h a t F o r d c o n s t a n t l y e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h f o r m i n o r d e r t o f i n d e q u i v a -19 l e n t s f o r u n u s u a l s t a t e s o f mind i n p h y s i c a l a c t i o n . C r i t i c s have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o show how F o r d u s e s t h e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t as a t e c h n i q u e o f p r o j e c t i n g a view o f l i f e . One o f t h e s e c r i t i c s , G. H. B l a y n e y , has c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o F o r d ' s use o f t h e theme o f m i s a l l i a n c e as a d e v i c e t o s h a r p e n o u r p e r c e p t i o n 20 o f F o r d ' s i d e a o f t r a g e d y . R. J . Kaufimann i n t e r p r e t s m i s a l l i -ance as a d e e p e r and more t r a g i c c l e a v a g e between man's a c t u a l 2 1 powers and t h e h e r o i c p u r p o s e s he t r i e s t o e n s h r i n e i n a c t i o n . Kaufmann's more r e c e n t a r t i c l e on The B r o k e n H e a r t examines t h e n a t u r e o f F o r d ' s t r a g e d y by a n a l y s i n g how F o r d u s e s e v e n t , 22 c h a r a c t e r and s e t t i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t o d e f i n e t r a g i c w a s t e . F o r d ' s s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n has been examined by J u l i e t McMaster who s e e s t h e p l a y s ^ a s t h r e e - l e v e l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e e l e v a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f l o v e , o f the a n i m a l i n s t i n c t o f l u s t , and o f a p r e t e n c e a t c o n f o r m i t y t h a t l e a d s t o e v e n t u a l c a t a s t r o p h e , 23 d r i v i n g home th e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between l o v e and l u s t . By moving away from t h e narrow d e b a t e w h e t h e r F o r d was d e c a d e n t o r n o t , F o r d s t u d i e s have g a i n e d t o d a y c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y i n c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n t e r e s t i n F o r d i s on t h e i n c r e a s e . He i s n o t y e t p o p u l a r i n t h e t h e a t r e 10 but ' T i s P i t y , The B r o k e n H e a r t , and P e r k i n Warbeck have been s t a g e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , ' T i s P i t y more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e 24 o t h e r s . There i s a g e n e r a l agreement t h a t F o r d s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d p r i m a r i l y as a t r a g i c d r a m a t i s t , f o r even h i s c o m e d i e s a r e t o u c h e d by a s e n s e o f doom. How he c r e a t e s t h i s i m p r e s s i o n forms t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f F o r d s t u d i e s t o d a y . But, d e s p i t e the g r o w i n g v a r i e t y o f c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s some b a s i c t a s k s r e m a i n t o be u n d e r t a k e n . I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r s t u d e n t s o f d r a m a t i c method t o know p r e c i s e l y what k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l s a d r a m a t i s t c h o o s e s and how he m a n i p u l a t e s them w i t h some p a r t i -c u l a r end i n view. Of t h e m a t e r i a l F o r d u s e s , c o n c e p t s o f c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v e have r e c e i v e d s t e a d y a t t e n t i o n b u t h i s a s s u m p t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h he s e t s c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v e have n o t been c l o s e l y examined. Among r e c e n t c r i t i c s , Kaufmann comments on t h e v a l u e o f t h e S p a r t a n s e t t i n g o f The B r o k e n H e a r t i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e theme o f f o r t i t u d e i n t h a t 25 p l a y . But no g e n e r a l a c c o u n t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f F o r d ' s p l a y s i s a v a i l a b l e . S a r g e a u n t has d e a l t w i t h t h e s e t t i n g o f th e p l a y s i n a b r o a d way, b u t as h e r t r e a t m e n t i s l i m i t e d i n s c o p e , a more c o m p l e t e e x a m i n a t i o n has been a t t e m p t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . By e n v i r o n m e n t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y u n d e r s t a n d s t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e m o r a l c l i m a t e o f t h e s o c i e t i e s p r e s e n t e d , r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y t h e l o c a l e u s e d , o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f p e o p l e i n a p l a y . These l a t t e r a r e t h e 11 2 6 e l e m e n t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e r e s t S a r g e a u n t . Her a c c o u n t s u f f e r s f r o m two s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , she i s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h F o r d ' s use o f n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s u p p o s e d e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f I t a l i a n s i n ' T i s P i t y and L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e , and t h e c e l e b r a t e d f o r t i t u d e o f S p a r t a n s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t . S a r g e a u n t a p p a r e n t l y assumes t h a t F o r d t r a c e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r t o n a t i o n a l t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r , o r a t l e a s t p r o v i d e d t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h means t o do s o . I n t h i s S a r g e a u n t f o l l o w s t h e l e a d o f G i f f o r d who d e c l a r e d t h a t o n l y I t a l y o r S p a i n had " t h e s o i l f o r t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f s u c h f e r v i d and f r a n t i c d i s p l a y s o f u n h a l l o w e d d e s i r e " 27 as we see i n ' T i s P i t y . D o u b t l e s s , t h e atmosphere e s t a b l i s h e d by l o c a l i t y and what S a r g e a u n t c a l l s r a c e , s e t s o f f t h e p l a y o f p a s s i o n s , b u t t o n o t e m e r e l y t h e atmosphere can t e l l us l i t t l e a b out t h e human e n v i r o n m e n t . How, f o r i n s t a n c e , does F o r d d e f i n e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i s c h a r a c t e r s ? T h i s q u e s t i o n must be answered i f we a r e f u l l y t o measure t h e p r e s s u r e s and c o n -s t r a i n t s t h a t m o d u l a t e a c t i o n and i m p i n g e on t h e autonomy o f the s e l f , b r i n g i n g F o r d ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s t o t h e i r l o n e l y doom, o r , l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , t o r e a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w - m e n . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t must t a k e a s o c i o l o g i c a l t u r n i f we are t o be s u r e o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e d r a m a t i c i m p a c t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g what happens i n a p l a y . The p r e s e n t e n q u i r y hopes t o f i l l t h i s gap i n F o r d s t u d i e s by u n d e r t a k i n g an a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s f o u n d 12 i n F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d , o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and a u t h o r i t y i n t h e s o c i a l g r o u p , and o f t h e g r o u p ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a l l t h e s e b e i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i a l l i f e t h a t d e t e r m i n e human a c t i o n . The s e c o n d r e a s o n why S a r g e a u n t ' s view o f t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e p l a y s needs q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t she assumes t h a t u n l e s s F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n n a t i o n a l t y p e s i s r e c o g n i z e d , t h e p l a y s c a n n o t be r i g h t l y i n t e r p r e t e d . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s method-o l o g i c a l c l a i m she c i t e s F e r n a n d o ' s summing up o f t h e S p a n i s h , the F r e n c h and t h e E n g l i s h i n t h e o p e n i n g s c e n e o f L o v e ' s p Q S a c r i f i c e , c l a i m i n g t h e s p e e c h t o be o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . What t h a t s i g n i f i c a n c e m ight be, she does n o t t e l l us. I t seems as though t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o s s and d e p r i v a t i o n i n t h e p l a y c a n n o t be p e r c e i v e d u n l e s s s e e n i n terms o f n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . A d m i t t e d l y , th e f a m i l i a r i t y o f E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n a u d i e n c e s w i t h n o t i o n s o f I t a l i a n v i l l a i n y o r S p a r t a n a u s t e r i t y p r o b a b l y h e l p e d them r e a d i l y t o a c c e p t the v i o l e n c e o f p a s s i o n o r s u f f e r i n g i n t h e p l a y s . But t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c r i t i c a l method a t i s s u e i s w h e t h e r , as S a r g e a u n t i m p l i e s , t h e t a s t e o r t r a i n i n g o f t h e a u d i e n c e i s t o be t r e a t e d as a component o f t h e d r a m a t i c e f f e c t o f t h e p l a y s . The f a c t t h a t i n ' T i s P i t y " t h e d e a t h s a r e a l l b r o u g h t a b o u t by means w h i c h f i t i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n t h e a t r e " no doubt marks 29 the.p'ia'y as one o f a numerous k i n d ; b u t how does i t enhance F o r d ' s p a r t i c u l a r a c h i e v e m e n t i n s h o w i n g t h e e x t r e m i t y o f s u f f e r i n g ? Does i t n o t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , e m p h a s i z e t h a t F o r d 13 had much In common with his contemporaries? Again, noting this s i m i l a r i t y may be essential for keeping the h i s t o r i c a l perspec-tive clear, but i t does not reveal much about Ford's i n d i v i d u a l method. The present study i s therefore directed at a f u l l understanding of the nature of Ford's playworld, examining the so c i a l structure found i n the plays and investigating whether there i s any consistent p r i n c i p l e according to which events take place. It i s hoped that on the basis of these enquiries we s h a l l be able to understand the process by which Ford dramatizes man's entanglement, usually calamitous, i n the network of forces within and without himself. As we examine how the plays are constructed we s h a l l find that Ford's correlation of character and action, his method of leading the action to climactic points charged with passion, and his technique of v i s u a l l y i s o l a t i n g those moments on the stage, reveal a considered and s p e c i f i c view of existence. C h a p t e r I I THE PLAYWORLD OF FORD G r a n t e d t h e s e n s e i n w h i c h t h e t e r m " p l a y w o r l d " has been u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , we may e x p l o r e t h a t w o r l d a l o n g two b r o a d l i n e s . One would c o n c e r n how e v e n t s t a k e p l a c e i n t h a t w o r l d , w h e t h e r t h e y a r i s e f o r t u i t o u s l y o r a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t by d i s c e r n i b l e c a u s e s . The o t h e r l i n e o f e n q u i r y w o u l d be t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the p l a y w o r l d . The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i l l p r o c e e d a l o n g b o t h t h e s e l i n e s , s e t t i n g o ut t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a y w o r l d but r e s e r v i n g d e t a i l s f o r c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i n c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e w o r l d o f drama w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d i s a s p e c i a l w o r l d . We have t o c o n s i d e r n o t the w o r l d o f a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e b u t o f r e n a i s s a n c e a r t , w h i c h may be e i t h e r an A r i s t o t e l i a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d o f a c t u a l -i t y o r a S i d n e y - l i k e i d e a l i z a t i o n o f i t , b u t has a t any r a t e a 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , as M a d e l e i n e Doran has s a i d . As the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c t u a l i t y , t h e w o r l d o f a p l a y must have a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e p e c u l i a r t o i t s e l f . F u r t h e r m o r e , as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h i s p l a y w o r l d must have e v e n t s f o r i t s b a s i c s t u f f , t h e s e e v e n t s c o h e r i n g t h r o u g h some u n i f y i n g 14 15 p r i n c i p l e . One o f t h e t a s k s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t o d i s c o v e r i n what the u n i t y o f t h e p l a y w o r l d c o n s i s t s . We may a l s o n o t e t h a t the p r i m a r y e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e t h e a t r e i s one o f e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n t h e a c t i n g s p a c e , t o w h i c h the s p e c t a t o r g r a n t s t h e s t a t u s o f an autonomous w o r l d f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e p l a y . T h e r e i s a t a c i t c o n t r a c t between d r a m a t i s t and s p e c t a t o r t h a t what happens i n t h a t w o r l d happens by i t s own laws w h i c h may o r may n o t be m o d e l l e d on t h o s e o f t h e a c t u a l w o r l d . I t i s t h i s k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g .to w h i c h Ben J o n s o n makes i r o n i c r e f e r e n c e i n t h e " I n d u c t i o n on t h e S t a g e " p r e c e d i n g Bartholomew F a i r , where he w r i t e s , " I t i s f u r t h e r c o v e n a n t e d , c o n c l u d e d , and a g r e e d t h a t how g r e a t s o e v e r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n . b e , no p e r s o n h e r e i s t o e x p e c t more t h a n he knows, o r b e t t e r ware t h a n a F a i r w i l l a f f o r d . . . b u t c o n t e n t h i m s e l f 2 w i t h t h e p r e s e n t . " I f we a c c e p t t h e p l a y w o r l d , as we must, as one t h a t has i t s own l a w s , and i f a t t h e same t i m e we remember t h a t t h e e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e s t a g e a f f o r d t h e p r i m a r y - - n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e most v a l u a b l e — t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n we must g i v e p r i o r i t y t o t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n , how do e v e n t s i n F o r d ' s p l a y s o c c u r ? O b v i o u s l y , we do n o t see i n t h e p l a y s a h a p h a z a r d c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f u n r e l a t e d e v e n t s , b u t some d e v e l -opment i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . What b i n d s t h e e v e n t s t o g e t h e r i n an o r d e r , i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . I n F o r d , the c o h e s i v e p r i n c i p l e i s c a u s a t i o n . The h e a v y dependence on f a t e and chance t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s so much o f r e n a i s s a n c e drama i s 16 absent in Ford. Instead, the progression of the plot i s causal. The chain of events that we see i s not merely an assortment held together i n time, but a sequence of cause and e f f e c t . Events i n Ford's plays are never the handiwork of fate, and almost never the result of accidents. As a r e s u l t , Ford's plays convey a sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y . The achievement of this effect i s an important aspect of his plays, p a r t i c u l a r l y of his tragedies, where the logic of cause and e f f e c t makes the catastrophe ineluctable. As a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e causality i s surprisingly rare in renaissance drama. In her study of Elizabethan tragedy M. C. Bradbrook says that the " f i r s t and most essential thing to be r e a l i s e d i s that consecutive or causal succession of events i s not of the f i r s t importance," and that "at the end of a tragedy, i n p a r t i c u l a r , there was no need to discriminate the causes of slaughter."^ She i l l u s t r a t e s the point by quoting the physician Abraham in the early play, the anonymous Selimus, who drinks the poison he has given to the king, declaring, Faith: I am old as well as Bajazet And have not many months to l i v e on earth: I care not much to end my l i f e with him (lines 1829-31) She further c i t e s a similar example from the late A l l ' s Lost  by Lust by William Rowley, in which one of Antonio's two wives k i l l s herself, saying, "I must die sometime/And as good die this day as another." The use of accidents i n shaping the succession of events i s only marginally less arbitrary a method of construc-tion than Bradbrook's examples suggest. That accidents were not 17 m e r e l y a s i g n o f c a r e l e s s c r a f t s m a n s h i p b u t p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t ' s w o r l d - v i e w , i s a t h e s i s a d v a n c e d i n H a r d i n C r a i g ' s w e l l - k n o w n e s s a y , "The S h a c k l i n g o f Accidents'..'•' s ' He r e m i n d s us t h a t the A r i s t o t e l i a n , S e necan and C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s o f m e t a p h y s i c a l and m o r a l b e l i e f combined t o p e r s u a d e r e n a i s s a n c e man o f t h e e s s e n t i a l b a d n e s s o f h i s l o t . T r a g e d y was p e r c e i v e d as man's s u b j e c t i o n t o t h e a c c i d e n t s o f f o r t u n e . C r a i g b e l i e v e s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t g a i n e d i n t h a t age was t h a t t h e t a s k o f t r a g e d y was n o t o n l y t o show man s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t a c r u e l f a t e b u t t o e l e v a t e t h e s t o i c d o c t r i n e o f n o b l e e n d u r a n c e i n t o so p o w e r f u l an i d e a l t h a t i t c o u l d " s u b o r d i n a t e change and a c c i d e n t t o f o r t i t u d e and .5. self-command." Such s u b o r d i n a t i o n o r s h a c k l i n g o f a c c i d e n t s assumes t h a t a c c i d e n t s f o r m ' t h e m a t e r i a l o f E l i z a b e t h a n t r a g e d y . C r a i g does n o t c i t e i n s t a n c e s o f t h e a c c i d e n t s i n s p e c i f i c p l a y s t h a t he may have i n mind b u t he e v i d e n t l y f i n d s i n S h a k espeare's t r a g e d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Hamlet, a t r a g i c v i s i o n o f t h e k i n d d e s c r i b e d . Whether we a c c e p t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r n o t , C r a i g ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e -work a f f o r d s a c o g e n t argument f o r v i e w i n g t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f a c c i d e n t s i n E l i z a b e t h a n t r a g e d y as one o f i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f r e q u e n c y o f a c c i d e n t s i n t h a t drama i s a d e m o n s t r a b l e f a c t , as we s h a l l s h o r t l y s e e . I f t h i s i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c E l i z a b e t h a n phenomenon,.and i f t h e t e r m " E l i z a b e t h a n " i n c l u d e s d r a m a t i s t s f r o m Marlowe and Kyd t o F o r d and S h i r l e y , as i t does i n B r a d b r o o k ' s s t u d y , t h e n F o r d must s u r e l y s t a n d o u t as an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e . 18 It i s not that in the work of Ford's predecessors or contemp-oraries we never find any cause-and-effect relationship between events. Obviously, the perception of causal connections between events i s hardly unique. As Kenneth Burke puts i t , " s y l l o g i s t i c progression" i s one of the common forms of l i t e r a t u r e . The points to be made are that Ford i s consistent i n creating i n each play a world where events arise in causal sequences, and that the cumulative evidence of his plays makes this practice c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Ford. Our argument goes thus: whereas the drama of his time frequently admits the r i s e of events through accident, Ford makes i t his business to ensure the progression of events in causal sequences. Of the importance and frequence of accidents in that drama examples are only too numerous; Desdemona's handkerchief i s perhaps the best known. Another persuasive example, again from Shakespeare, i s Hamlet's capture by pirates and convenient return to Elsinore i n time to leap into Ophelia's grave with Laertes, which leads to the f a t a l fencing match. Even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the accidental exchange of the poisoned cup, which neatly disposes of the queen. Exactly the same accident--the exchange of wine cups--is used by Dekker in The  Noble Spanish Soldier to bring about the death of the treacher-ous king (V.iv). It i s d i f f i c u l t not to compare this switch with a sim i l a r event in Act IV, scene i of 'Tis Pity, where Vasques gives Hippolita the poisoned cup she has prepared for Soranzo. Here the switch i s deliberate and comes as the l o g i c a l 19 consequence of the w e l l l a i d p l a n s o f Vasques. We might a l s o c o n s i d e r The Two Noble Kinsmen, i n which Palamon i s saved w h i l e on the s c a f f o l d , by the sudden and u n f o r e s e e n death o f A r c i t e , who i s k i l l e d by b e i n g thrown from h i s h o r s e . I n The Maid's Tragedy by Beaumont and F l e t c h e r , the r e s o l u t i o n o f the p l o t i s brought about by the e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y appearance o f A s p a t i a i n Act V d i s g u i s e d as her s o l d i e r b r o t h e r , s u p p o s e d l y s e e k i n g revenge f o r h i s s i s t e r ' s h u m i l i a t i o n . For t h i s n e i t h e r p r e c e d i n g events nor the p r e v i o u s appearances o f A s p a t i a have prepar e d us. About Beaumont and F l e t c h e r i t has been s a i d t h a t "the events i n the t r a g i c o m i c p l o t do not u n f o l d i n a c a u s a l sequence, but are arranged i n a s e r i e s o f s t r i k i n g t h e a t r i c a l moments, c o n s t i t u t e d c h i e f l y by i m p a s s i o n e d r h e t o -g r i c a l e n c o u n t e r s . " By c o n t r a s t , t h e r e i s no l a p s e i n the c a u s a l sequence i n Ford. One o f the most s t r i k i n g examples o f the o p e r a t i o n o f chance i s found i n Tourneur's A t h e i s t ' s Tragedy. In Act I I o f the p l a y the ghost o f the murdered M o n t f e r r e r s appears t o h i s son Charlemont i n camp, i n f o r m s him o f events and i n s t r u c t s him t o r e t u r n to France. T h e r e a f t e r chance ta k e s over the course o f the a c t i o n . I n Act IV B o r a c h i o ' s p i s t o l misses f i r e and Charlemont i s saved. He then k i l l s B o r a c h i o , and w h i l e f l e e i n g from the c h u r c h y a r d where the encounter had taken p l a c e , he a c c i d e n t a l l y comes upon Languebeau S n u f f e and h i s m i s t r e s s S o q u e t t e , who happen to be t h e r e to c a r r y on t h e i r amours. They run away, l u c k i l y l e a v i n g behind a f a l s e w i g and a beard which Charlemont a p p r o p r i a t e s . The v i l l a i n D ' A m v i l l e , 20 who p l a n s to r a v i s h C a s t a b e l l a l u c k i l y b r i n g s her t o t h i s same c h u r c h y a r d and t h i s g i v e s Charlemont the chance to save h e r , the f a l s e w i g and beard he had so f o r t u n a t e l y a c q u i r e d f r i g h t e n i n g away the v i l l a i n . The a c c i d e n t s t h a t thus p i l e up i n the p l a y are capped by the f i n a l one i n Act V i n which D'Amville s e c u r e s f o r h i m s e l f the t a s k o f beheading Charlemont. But as he r a i s e s the axe, i t s t r i k e s h i s own head and he i s k i l l e d . These examples o f t h i s r u l e o f chance throw i n t o r e l i e f F ord's q u i t e d i f f e r e n t method of c o n s i s t e n t l y b u i l d i n g h i s p l a y w o r l d on the p r i n c i p l e o f c a u s a t i o n . The l o g i c o f cause and e f f e c t r a t h e r than the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f chance i s what c h a r a c t e r i s e s the p r o g r e s s i o n o f events i n h i s p l a y s . Given the. c i r c u m s t a n c e s l a i d out i n the f i r s t scene or so o f a p l a y , what happens next f o l l o w s as the p r e c i s e e f f e c t o f p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s . To take Ford's b e s t known p l a y , ' T i s " P i t y , the F r i a r ' s a d v i c e i n the o p ening scene t o G i o v a n n i t o r e t u r n t o h i s f a t h e r ' s house throws G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a t o g e t h e r , a l l o w i n g them t o embark on t h e i r i n c e s t u o u s a d v e n t u r e . T h i s i n t u r n r e s u l t s i n A n n a b e l l a ' s pregnancy which l e a d s t o her prudent m a r r i a g e . The c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between events at t h i s p o i n t , the t h i r d a c t o f the p l a y , i s i n t e r e s t i n g . So f a r A n n a b e l l a has been c o n s i s t -e n t l y r e j e c t i n g Soranzo, g o i n g to the l e n g t h o f mocking h i s l o v e i n Act I I I , scene i i i . By Act I I I , scene i v , however, she agrees t o marry him, a d e c i s i o n t h a t owes more to prudence than to any repentance aroused by the F r i a r . In f a c t , the F r i a r h i m s e l f a d v i s e s h e r , 21 ' T i s t h u s a g r e e d , F i r s t , f o r y o u r h o n o u r ' s s a f e t y , t h a t you marry The L o r d S o r a n z o ; n e x t , t o s a v e y o u r s o u l , Leave o f f t h i s l i f e , and h e n c e f o r t h l i v e t o him. ;. ( I I I . v i . 3 5 - 8 ) S a f e t y comes f i r s t and t h e compromise i s e n f o r c e d by A n n a b e l l a ' s c o n d i t i o n w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f h e r s e c r e t l i f e w i t h G i o v a n n i . P r e g n a n c y b e i n g a c o n d i t i o n i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e a l , i t i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o S o r a n z o ' s d i s c o v e r y o f i t and so t o h i s scheme o f r e v e n g e w h i c h ends i n t h e b l o o d y f i n a l e . C a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s go beyond t h e s e major e v e n t s t o t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p l o t , p r o v i d i n g l i n k s between t h e e v e n t s o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e a c t i o n and b i n d i n g them t o t h e c e n t r a l a c t i o n . The f i g h t between Vasques and G r i m a l d i i s c a u s e d by t h e r i v a l r y o f S o r a n z o and G r i m a l d i w h i c h l e a d s t o G r i m a l d i ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o be r e v e n g e d upon S o r a n z o . S o r a n z o ' s s e d u c t i o n o f H i p p o l i t a c a u s e s R i c h a r d e t t o ' s encouragement o f G r i m a l d i ' s p l a n s and t h i s i n t u r n c a u s e s B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h . B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h , one o f t h e e x t r e m e l y r a r e a c c i d e n t s i n F o r d ' s p l a y s , seems p r e d e t e r m i n e d r a t h e r t h a n f o r t u i t o u s b e c a u s e F o r d c r e a t e s an i m p r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s coming t o g e t h e r u n a v o i d a b l y . Once we admit as p a r t s o f t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n t h e f a c t s o f S o r a n z o ' s s e d u c t i o n o f H i p p o l i t a , and Donado's a t t e m p t s t o see h i s nephew B e r g e t t o s u i t a b l y w i v e d , we may see t h e a c t i o n s o f R i c h a r d e t t o and B e r g e t t o as c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r e a r l i e r a c t i o n s . In The B r o k e n H e a r t , t h e o t h e r t r a g e d y on w h i c h F o r d ' s r e p u t a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s t e d , we a g a i n d i s c o v e r a p l a y -w o r l d o r d e r e d by t h e law o f c a u s a t i o n . The v e n g e f u l a c t i o n s o f O r g i l u s f o l l o w upon t h e i n j u r y done him by I t h o c h e s and l e a d t o 22 h i s murder o f I t h o c l e s . The h e r o i c e x p l o i t s o f I t a o e l e s r e s u l t i n C a l a n t h a ' s • l o v e f o r him, w h i c h , c l a s h i n g w i t h O r g i l u s ' s r e v e n g e , l e a d s t o a c l i m a x o f c e r e m o n i o u s d e a t h . P e n t h e a ' s madness s p r i n g s f r o m h e r f o r c e d m a r r i a g e w h i l e h e r husband's j e a l o u s y i s an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e knowledge t h a t P e n t h e a had been f o r c e d i n t o g i v i n g up O r g i l u s . To go f r o m t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n t o t h e f i n a l , t h a t i s , f r o m t h e de s p o n d e n c y o f O r g i l u s t o C a l a n t h a ' s d e a t h , i s t o move from one l i n e o f a c t i o n t o a n o t h e r . But when we t r a c e t h e r o o t s o f a c t i o n back from C a l a n t h a ' s d e a t h we f i n d i t a c o n c l u s i o n p l a u s i b l y f o l l o w -i n g upon t h e a n g r y r e s o l u t i o n o f O r g i l u s t o r e d r e s s p a s t wrongs ( A c t I , s c e n e i i i , 175 - 8 3 ) . I n P e n t h e a ' s d e a t h a g a i n we see the w o r k i n g o u t o f t h e m i s a l l i a n c e w h i c h d e v i t a l i z e s h e r . The d e c i m a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p l a y a p p e a r s , as i t does i n ' T i s P i t y , e n t i r e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e components o f t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p l a y . D i f f e r e n t as i t i s from ' T i s P i t y , The  B r o k e n H e a r t e n d o r s e s t h e view we have i n t h a t p l a y o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between e v e n t s . In c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p l a y w o r l d o f - P e r k i n Warbeck, F o r d had o f c o u r s e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f h i s t o r i c a l h i n d s i g h t w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y imposed upon t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s t h e r i g i d i t y o f a c a u s a l s e q u e n c e . Armed w i t h s u c h h i n d s i g h t he p e r c e i v e d i n th e s e q u e n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s a c h a i n o f ca u s e and e f f e c t , •q as o t h e r w r i t e r s o f h i s t o r i c a l drama have done. I n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s , h i s t o r y p l a y s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o r c e s o f d y n a s t i c a l i g n m e n t s and p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n s combine t o g r i n d i n e x o r a b l y f r o m e v e n t t o h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t , c r e a t i n g a s e q u e n c e o f ca u s e and e f f e c t 23 s t r e t c h i n g ;aver a whole s e r i e s o f p l a y s . Marlowe's Edward I I does n o t have the wide sweep o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s h i s t o r i e s , b u t i t s i n t r i c a t e network o f i n t r i g u e i s woven t o t h e l o g i c o f c a u s e and e f f e c t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n o u r own days B e r t o l t B r e c h t has a d a p t e d Marlowe's p l a y i n a way t h a t c o n s t a n t l y d i s c o v e r s t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l c a u s e s b e h i n d h i s t o r i c e v e n t s . The t r u t h i s t h a t b e c a u s e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y i s t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f c a u s e s and e f f e c t s , t h e h i s t o r y p l a y by i t s v e r y n a t u r e l e n d s i t s e l f t o c a u s a l o r d e r . T h a t we f i n d c a u s a l p r o g r e s s i o n i n P e r k i n Warbeck i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y t o be e x p e c t e d . We may f u r t h e r n o t e t h a t i t m ight have been the g e n e r i c c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f the h i s t o r y p l a y , i t s c a u s a l n a t u r e , t h a t a t t r a c t e d F o r d t o t h i s f o r m a t a t i m e when t h e t y p e was v i r t u a l l y e x t i n c t . The c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o r m might have been p a r t i c u -l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o F o r d ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r a d u a l , l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d e n c i r c l e m e n t and a l i e n a t i o n o f a n o b l e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h would g a i n i n i n t e n s i t y f r o m b e i n g s e t i n t h e s p e c i a l c o n t e x t o f t h e c o m p e l l i n g c a u s a l i t y o f h i s t o r y . The u n f o l d i n g o f the a c t i o n o f P e r k i n Warbeck i s s e e n as h i s t o r i c n e c e s s i t y . At i t s end we f i n d t h r e e i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c o c c u r r e n c e s : K i n g Henry s u c c e e d s i n p r o t e c t i n g h i s throne/; a m i t y i s r e a c h e d between E n g l a n d and S c o t l a n d ; Warbeck i s e x e c u t e d . A l l o f t h e s e can be t r a c e d back t h r o u g h an i n t e r l o c k i n g c h a i n o f e v e n t s t o t h o s e w i t h w h i c h t h e p l a y began, t h a t i s , w i t h Warbeck's a r r i v a l i n S c o t l a n d and H e n r y ' s m o b i l i s a t i o n o f f o r c e s t o f o i l him. Warbeck embarks on h i s v e n t u r e b e c a u s e K i n g James 2 4 o f S c o t l a n d l e n d s h i m a i d . He i s d e f e a t e d and c a p t u r e d b e c a u s e James abandons him, James's d e c i s i o n h a v i n g been b r o u g h t about by the c r a f t y d i p l o m a c y o f K i n g H e n r y ' s m i n i s t e r s who o f c o u r s e a c t as t h e y do un d e r H e n r y ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s . G r a n t e d t h e f a c t s , i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d , o f H e n r y ' s a t t e m p t t o make h i s t h r o n e s a f e , o f Warbeck's a m b i t i o n , and o f James's a t t e m p t s t o match h i m s e l f a g a i n s t t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d , t h e whole c o u r s e o f e v e n t s a p p e a r s u n a v o i d a b l e , i t s c o n c l u s i o n l o g i c a l . T u r n i n g f r o m F o r d ' s t r a g e d i e s t o h i s most s u c c e s s f u l comedy, The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y , we f i n d the same i n s i s t e n c e upon e s t a b l i s h i n g c a u s a l l i n k s between e v e n t s . E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n t o C y p r u s , an e v e n t o c c u r r i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y , d i r e c t l y l e a d s t o t h e c u r e o f P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r , b o t h o f whom have been d i s t r a c t e d by h a v i n g l o s t h e r . Th a t the ca u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e e v e n t s i s d e l i b e r -a t e l y p r o j e c t e d i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d by t h e c o n n e c t i o n made between E r o c l e a ' s a b s e n c e and t h e m a l a d i e s o f P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r , and between h e r r e t u r n and t h e i r r e c o v e r y . Her a r r i v a l i n C y p r u s a l s o c u r e s t h e p r o u d p r i n c e s s Thamasta, though i n a d i f f e r e n t way, o f h e r s c o r n f u l n e g l e c t o f Menaphon by i n d u c i n g h e r t o f a l l i n l o v e w i t h E r o c l e a who p r e s e n t s h e r s e l f d i s g u i s e d as a young man. Once Thamasta's h e a r t i s s o f t e n e d by an e m o t i o n she had a p p a r e n t l y n e v e r f e l t b e f o r e , Menaphon's f o r t u n e i s made as soon as E r o c l e a ' s t r u e i d e n t i t y i s r e v e a l e d . Her a p p e a r a n c e a t c o u r t i s t h e r e f o r e the k e y . e v e n t w h i c h , by r e m o v i n g t h e c a u s e s o f n e u r o s e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f t h e p l a y w o r l d , becomes t h e d i r e c t c a u s e o f the happy c o n c l u -s i o n . 2 5 S i n c e i t i s t h e law o f c a u s a t i o n t h a t d e t e r m i n e s e v e n t s i n F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d , t h e a c t i o n a l w a y s seems t o p r o g r e s s o u t o f l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y and what b e f a l l s the c h a r a c t e r s seems u n a v o i d -a b l e . The e v e n t s f i r s t s e e n i n a p l a y l e a d t o o t h e r s , t h e s e i n t u r n l e a d t o y e t o t h e r s u n t i l t h e f i n a l e v e n t s a r e r e a c h e d , t h e s e r i e s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the i n i t i a l e v e n t s d e t e r m i n e t h e outcome o f t h e a c t i o n , w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f e x t r i n s i c e l e m e n t s s u c h as a c c i d e n t s o r s u p e r n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e s . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f F o r d ' s p l a y s . B e c a u se o f the ca u s e and e f f e c t s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n t s t h e s p e c t a t o r f i n d s t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p l a y w o r l d a r e t h e m s e l v e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what happens t o them, and t h i s a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s h a r p e n s t h e c r i s e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . The c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e o f human a c t i o n i n F o r d ' s p l a y s l e a d s the s p e c t a t o r t o q u e s t i o n how and why the c h a r a c t e r s a c t as t h e y do. The p l a y s p r o v i d e e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t a r e i n t h e main p s y c h o l o g i c a l b u t a l s o s o c i o l o g i c a l i n p a r t . The prime cause o f a c t i o n i s d i s c o v e r e d i n c h a r a c t e r b u t t h e p r e s s u r e o f th e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e p l a y i s s e t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . I n d e a l i n g w i t h F o r d ' s p l a y s , t h e n , we must see p s y c h o -l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s as p a r t o f the d a t a w i t h w h i c h a p l a y b e g i n s , and a g r e e t h a t " c a u s e " and " e f f e c t " c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m p s c y h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i and r e s p o n s e s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s a common f e a t u r e o f a l l n a r r a t i o n , d r a m a t i c o r o t h e r w i s e , b u t d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l m e n t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f F o r d ' s p l a y s b e c a u s e o f h i s i n s i s t e n c e on p r e s e n t i n g a c t i o n as t h e i n d e x o f c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h a l l o w s h i m t o s u g g e s t t h a t u n u s u a l c h a r a c t e r can be u n d e r -s t o o d o n l y t h r o u g h u n u s u a l a c t i o n . G i o v a n n i ' s l o v e f o r h i s 26 s i s t e r a s s e r t s h i s e s s e n t i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y w i t h o t h e r s i n h i s w o r l d . In p l a y a f t e r p l a y F o r d i d e n t i f i e s s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r as t h e u l t i m a t e a c t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n t h e p l a y w o r l d . P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r i n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y a r e f o u n d i n t r a u m a t i c s t a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e shown t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n c a p a b l e o f a c c e p t i n g l o s s . I n The B r o k e n H e a r t O r g i l u s b r i n g s a b o u t h i s own d e a t h and t h o s e o f I t h o c l e s and C a l a n t h a b e c a u s e he i s i n c a p a b l e o f l o o k i n g beyond h i s i n j u r y , a t r a i t o f c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i b e d by h i s f a t h e r as an " i n f e c t i o n " o f h i s mind ( I I I . i v . 4 4 ) . These a r e s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m o b j e c t i v e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h a t t h e s e s h o u l d be p a r t o f t h e donnee o f t h e p l a y i s o f c o u r s e no e x c l u s i v e f e a t u r e o f F o r d ' s p l a y s . The c o n c e p t o f c h a r a c t e r i s s u i n g i n a c t i o n i s s u c h a commonplace o f d r a m a t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n and i s so f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d i n p l a y s o f a l l t i m e s and c u l t u r e s , n o t a b l y S h a k e s p e a r e ' s , t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c t i o n o f a p l a y i s b e s t r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e d r a m a t i c f o r m i t s e l f , as i n d e e d p o i n t e d o u t by A r i s t o t l e ? ® F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d i s c l e a r l y n o t u n i q u e i n s h o w i n g t h a t c h a r a c t e r c o n t r i b u t e s t o a c t i o n . However, we f i n d t h e r e t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r f o r a c t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the emphasis on some p a r t i c u l a r i z e d p a s s i o n h o l d -i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o one c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and b l o t t i n g out a l l e l s e . T h i s p o r t r a y a l o f c o n d u c t may be c o n c e i v a b l y b a s e d on t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e f o u r humours, as Sensabaugh a t t e m p t s t o 11 prove., but F o r d makes no e x p l i c i t p a t h o l o g i c a l o r even •12. m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s as J o n s o n makes. The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n 27 o f t h e p a s s i o n t h a t moulds c o n d u c t a l i g n s F o r d ' s p r a c t i c e o f d e p i c t i n g c h a r a c t e r a s h a d e — t h o u g h no more t h a n a s h a d e - -c l o s e r t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s method o f c o n c e i v i n g c h a r a c t e r , 13 e s p e c i a l l y i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s t r a g e d i e s , as s l a v e s t o p a s s i o n , t h a n t o J o n s o n ' s model o f c h a r a c t e r as t y p e . The mass o f f e e l i n g s s e n s e d b e h i n d S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c h a r a c t e r s i m p l i e s many p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e a c t u a l l y r e v e a l e d , and much p o t e n t i a l f o r a d d i t i o n a l v a r i e t i e s o f a c t i o n . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l h i n t e r l a n d b e h i n d Hamlet, O t h e l l o o r Anthony i s n o t the l e s s r e a l f o r b e i n g unmapped. What we know o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r a l l o w s , p e r h a p s even e n c o u r a g e s us t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t what we do n o t know. T h i s s u g g e s t i v e n e s s l e n d s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e q u a l i t y t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n F o r d . F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e s e v e r e l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y move. But F o r d i n t e n s i f i e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o a p o i n t a t w h i c h each c h a r a c t e r becomes u n i q u e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n h i s c h a r a c t e r s , u n l i k e J o n s o n ' s , a r e not d i v i s i b l e i n t o t y p e s . At t h e same t i m e , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n d e r s t o o d e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms o f t h e e v e n t s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r w o r l d s , t h e y l a c k t h e f u l l e r d i m e n s i o n s o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s c h a r a c t e r s . S i n c e human a c t i o n i s so i n e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d by F o r d t o c h a r a c t e r , p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s e r v e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c a u s a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s i n h i s p l a y s by c o n s t a n t l y e x p l a i n -i n g e v e n t s as p r o d u c t s o f t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r . ' T i s P i t y a f f o r d s a good example o f how e v e n t s a r i s e i n t h i s way. When 28 i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A c t V t h e F r i a r b r i n g s t o G i o v a n n i A n n a b e l l a ' s l e t t e r t o him w r i t t e n i n h e r own b l o o d , t h e l e t t e r a c h i e v e s an e f f e c t p r e c i s e l y o p p o s i t e t o what i t i s s u p p o s e d by t h e F r i a r and by A n n a b e l l a t o a c c o m p l i s h , f o r i t i m p e l s G i o v a n n i t o h i s s u i c i d a l a c c e p t a n c e o f S o r a n z o ' s i n v i t a t i o n . H i s a c c e p t a n c e i s an e v e n t t h a t e n s u r e s d i s a s t e r . T h i s e v e n t o c c u r s o n l y b e c a u s e G i o v a n n i i s so r u l e d by h i s l o v e t h a t he r e g a r d s l i f e as n o t w o r t h th e l i v i n g w i t h o u t A n n a b e l l a and wants t o d e s t r o y a w o r l d t h a t w i l l n o t b r i n g them t o g e t h e r . H i s f a t a l b r a v a d o seems n a t u r a l enough o n l y b e c a u s e we r e s t o u r e x p e c t a t i o n o f s u c h a r e a c t i o n on o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p l a y , what goes on i n h i s mind i s as r e a l as what happens on t h e o b j e c t i v e p l a n e . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f what happens w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e as s p r i n g s o f what happens w i t h o u t , s u g g e s t s t h a t e v e n t s must be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e s e p l a y s t o be i n t e r n a l as w e l l as e x t e r n a l o c c u r r e n c e s . As an i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e F o r d had t h a t p o w e r f u l c o n v e n t i o n o f r e n a i s s a n c e drama a t hand, namely, t h e s o l i l o q u y . H i s p r o t a g o n i s t s r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h d i r e c t and d e s c r i p -t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e i r dilemmas, d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . O r d i n a r i l y t h e y use s o l i l o q u i e s f o r t h e l i m i t e d p u r p o s e o f r e v e a l i n g t h e i r i mmediate a t t i t u d e s , as we f i n d i n t h e s o l i l o -q u i e s o f G i o v a n n i i n ' T i s P i t y o r t h o s e o f F e r n a n d o i n L o v e ' s  S a c r i f i c e . But o c c a s i o n a l l y F o r d has h i s c h a r a c t e r s r e a c h o u t t o some e x t e n t t o w a r d s g e n e r a l i z e d s p e c u l a t i o n s on l i f e . I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y , R h e t i a s r e l a t e s h i s a p p e a r a n c e as a 29 malcontent with r e f l e c t i o n s upon the general "madness of the times" ( I . i i . 1 ) . In The Broken Heart Ithocles moralizes on ambition ( I I , i i , 1-15)• These moralizings are always linked to the speaker's mental state and afford explanations of their conduct. The need for appreciating the p r i n c i p l e of psychological causation i s perhaps the most pressing i n Love's S a c r i f i c e , where one of the most important events i s Bianca's nocturnal v i s i t to Fernando's bedroom ( I I . i v ) . Her offer of submitting to Fernando's w i l l , a seeming contradiction of her e a r l i e r scornful rejection of his love, appears a forced and arbitrary device to impel the play towards a tr a g i c denouement by se t t i n g up a compact between Bianca and Fernando which leads to their undoing. But to consider Bianca's action by i t s e l f , as an external, material event, i s to miss the i n t e r n a l unfolding of the action. Her insistence on her b r i d a l vows and on forming a platonic relationship with Fernando i s p l a i n l y an extension of her e a r l i e r demand for the recognition of her uncompromising chastity: Look on our face: What see you there that may persuade a hope Of lawless love? (II.iii.1205-7) In the bedchamber scene she further strengthens her claim by revealing that her midnight excursion i s r e a l l y a test of her virtue. It i s necessary for her to impose such a test upon herself in order that she may assure herself of an unequivocal victory over temptation. Why i t i s necessary, i s revealed i n her speech: 30 W i t h shame and p a s s i o n now I must c o n f e s s , S i n c e f i r s t mine eyes b e h e l d y o u , i n my h e a r t You have been o n l y k i n g ; i f t h e r e can be A v i o l e n c e I n l o v e , t h e n I have f e l t T h a t t y r a n n y . . . ...how e ' r e my tongue D i d o f t e n c h i d e t h y l o v e , each word t h o u s p a k ' s t Was music.-to my e a r ; ( I I . i v . 1 2 9 5 - 1 3 0 3 ) In t h e p r e v i o u s s c e n e she had a c c o m p l i s h e d p a r t o f h e r v i c t o r y o v e r p a s s i o n by d i s c i p l i n i n g t h e t e m p t e r a s s a i l i n g h e r . I n t h e p r e s e n t s c e n e she c o m p l e t e s h e r t r i u m p h by s u b d u i n g t h e enemy w i t h i n , h e r own d e s i r e . The two c o n s e c u t i v e s c e n e s must t h e r e -f o r e . b e t a k e n as complementary p a r t s o f t h e same e v e n t . Her s a l l y i n t o F e r n a n d o ' s room i s n e i t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o : t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s , n o r i s i t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h e r c h a r a c t e r . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f h e r a c t i o n c a n n o t be p e r c e i v e d by p l a c i n g i t a g a i n s t p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s b u t must be s o u g h t i n h e r c h a r a c t e r . I t i s t o t h i s p u r p o s e t h a t F o r d a r r a n g e s h e r l o n g s e l f - e x p l a n a t i o n . Once more, we f i n d t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o v e r r i d i n g t h e s u r f a c e l o g i c o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s as s e e n i n e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . The a p p a r e n t a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f B i a n c a ' s a c t i o n has a p a r a l l e l i n The Queen. I n i t s o p e n i n g s c e n e we f i r s t l e a r n t h a t A l p h o n s o , t h e l e a d e r o f a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t - t h e queen, i s a b o u t v t o be e x e c u t e d , b u t l a t e r on i n t h e s c e n e we s e e him p a r d o n e d . In t h e n e x t s c e n e we f i n d him t h e b e n e f i c i a r y o f a change o f f o r t u n e w h i c h would have been a s t o n i s h i n g had we n o t been g i v e n as a p r e c o n d i t i o n i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e t h e queen's g e n t l e n e s s and o b v i o u s a d m i r a t i o n f o r A l p h o n s o ' s s p i r i t w h i c h " f l i e s o u t i n h i s 31 d a r i n g l a n g u a g e " ( I . i . 3 9 5 ) . She f o l l o w s up h e r p a r d o n by-m a r r y i n g A l p h o n s o and a c t u a l l y c r o w n i n g him k i n g o f A r a g o n . However sudden t h i s may seem i t i s n o t p r e s e n t e d as an a r b i t r a r y e v e n t b e c a u s e i t i s s e e n as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e queen's t e n d e r -n ess and mercy i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e . T h a t she heaps s u c h f a v o u r s on A l p h o n s o i s o n l y p r o o f o f t h e c o m p e l l i n g n a t u r e o f h e r l o v e w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d t o us by t h e d r a m a t i s t as one o f t h e two b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i t h e human w o r l d we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g , t h e o t h e r b e i n g A l p h o n s o ' s i n s a n e m i s o g y n y . G i v e n t h e s e as c o n d i t i o n s o f t h a t w o r l d , t h e r e s t o f t h e p l a y can be s e e n as a s u r e p r o g r e s s f r o m c a u s e t o e f f e c t . The i n f l u e n c e o f c h a r a c t e r on t h e c a u s a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f F o r d ' s p l a y s i s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e , b u t s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s a c t w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l fram.ewo.r.k,, we must a l s o examine t h a t framework i n e ach p l a y and s e e t o what e x t e n t i t s p r e s s u r e on c h a r a c t e r m o d i f i e s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y . Beyond t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y , t h e r e i s , however, no f o r c e i n F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d t h a t a c t s as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f a c t i o n . We have n o t e d t h a t c h a n c e as a p r i n c i p l e i s v i r t u -a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t h e r e ; t o t h i s we may add, n o r i s any i m p o r t -ance c o n c e d e d t o f a t e o r s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n c i e s . I n ' T i s P i t y , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s t h e o b s e s s i o n o f G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a w i t h each o t h e r t h a t s t a r t s t h e t r a i n o f e v e n t s and i t i s t h e s o c i a l i n t e r d i c t i o n on i n c e s t t h a t compounds t h e i r t r a g e d y . G i o v a n n i may a t t i m e s a t t r i b u t e h i s p r e d i c a m e n t t o f a t e b u t u l t i m a t e l y a s s e r t s h i s c o n t r o l o v e r h i s own l i f e . T r u e , he l a m e n t s i n t h e 32 f i r s t act, "my fates have doomed my death" and " ' t i s my fate that leads me on" ( I . i i . 144,159). Yet, at the end of the play he categorically denies the rule of fate, declaring, Why, I hold fate Clasp'd in my f i s t , and could command the course Of time's eternal motion (V. v. 11 - .1 3) and, Fate or a l l the powers That guide the motions of immortal souls Could not prevent me. . . . i n my f i s t s I bear the twists of l i f e . (V. v i . 12- 14 , 7 1) It i s doubtful how seriously Ford means us to take Giovanni's i n i t i a l fatalism. Giovanni's only friend, the F r i a r , c l e a r l y lays the whole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Giovanni's problem on his " w i l f u l flames" and his "leprosy of l u s t " (I.i.66,74). To blame i t a l l on fate seems to be one of the excuses Giovanni invents to j u s t i f y his decision i n Act I, scene i i to approach Annabella, and of the same doubtful v a l i d i t y as his frequent references to nearness of blood. His desperation i n looking for • excuses i s best i l l u s t r a t e d towards the end of his appeal to Annabella when he actually l i e s to her, saying, I have asked counsel of the Holy Church, Who t e l l s me I may love you (I,ii.241-2) Considered'; comprehensively, Giovanni's statements about his mo.tives suggest that his invocation of fate i s an indicat i o n not of sincere b e l i e f i n fate but of an attempt to j u s t i f y the peculiar bent of his nature which, rather than f ate,, i s what leads him on. 33 The B r o k e n H e a r t i s a n o t h e r p l a y t h a t e n d o r s e s t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r i n s h a p i n g t h e d e t a i l e d c o n f i g u r a -t i o n s o f the a c t i o n . P e n t h e a i s g o v e r n e d h e r e by a s t r o n g d e a t h - w i s h . She e x c l a i m s , "Our home i s i n t h e g r a v e " ( I I . i i i . 148) and l a t e r begs I t h o c l e s , " P r a y k i l l m e , / . . . K i l l me, p r a y . Nay, w i l l 'ee?" ( I l l . i i . b 4 , 6 6 ) . So i n t e n s e i s h e r s e n s e o f d e f i l e m e n t t h a t she r e s o l v e s t o d i e . Her d e a t h i s an e v e n t c a u s e d by h e r t r a u m a t i c s t a t e and i t i s h e r f a t a l w i t h d r a w a l from l i f e t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e a c t u a l o c c a s i o n f o r O r g i l u s ' s r e v e n g e and g i v e s f r e s h i m p e t u s t o h i s ve n g e a n c e . He acknow-l e d g e s t h i s when he s a y s , I foreknew The l a s t a c t o f h e r l i f e , and t r a i n ' d t h e e h i t h e r To s a c r i f i c e a t y r a n t t o a t u r t l e . ( I V . i v . 2 7 - 2 9 ) T h a t P e n t h e a ' s d e a t h i s an a c t o f d e l i b e r a t e w i l l i s a t t e s t e d by h e r companions who d e s c r i b e how she s t a r v e d h e r s e l f t o d e a t h and ...begg'd some g e n t l e v o i c e t o tune a f a r e w e l l To l i f e and g r i e f s . So down she drew h e r v e i l , so d i e d . ( I V . i v . 5 - 6 , 1 0 ) P e n t h e a h e r s e l f makes h e r i n t e n t i o n c l e a r i n t h e s c e n e w i t h C a l a n t h a ( I l l . y ) w h i c h she t u r n s i n t o a f o r m a l ceremony o f d e a t h - b e d b e q u e s t s and r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , c o n c l u d i n g the m e e t i n g w i t h t h e r e s o l u t i o n , My r e c k o n i n g s a r e made eve n . Death o r f a t e Can now n o r s t r i k e t o o s o o n , n o r f o r c e t o o l a t e . ( I I I . v . 1 1 1 - 1 2 ) S i n c e h e r b e q u e s t o f h e r b r o t h e r I t h o c l e s t o C a l a n t h a a p p r i s e s 34 Calantha of Ithocles's love for her, we see i n this scene further proof of the shaping force of Penthea's wish to die. The fundamental importance of psychological motivation cannot be surprising i n plays so concerned primarily with conduct and states of mind. We have already seen that i n Ford's playworld character i s the ultimate cause of action. The resultant inte r e s t i n character i s heightened by Ford's attempt to explain not only the general trend of the action of a play but every event i n that play by designating some psychological factor as i t s cause'., Psychological causation is kept before the spectators as the st r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e at every turn of the action. As instances of the action resting on character i n a general sense we have cited the connection between Giovanni's character and his decision to pursue his love, on that between Calantha's courage and her self-chosen death. But the plays also show how smaller units of action are tied to character. The disclosure of Panthenophil's identi t y as Eroclea i n The Lover's Melancholy i s one, for i t i s brought about-by Thamasta's haughty and e g o t i s t i c a l passion; another example i s the murder of Ferentes i n Love's S a c r i f i c e which i s linked with his character by Ferentes himself i n his dying speech: "My f o r f e i t was i n my blood" (III.iv.1893) • Ford's echoing of Webster here (The White. Devil, V.vi-.-2'40 ) emphasizes Ford's a t t r i b u t i o n of events to character, although he anchors the confession to the s p e c i f i c act of a bloody death rather than using i t , as Webster does, to reach for moral abstractions such 35 as sin and the dissolution of the soul. Correspondences in Ford's plays between event and character are keys to the understanding of the structure of the playworld, for they reveal character as the primary cause behind the chain of events, i d e n t i f y i n g as the prime mover i n the playworld neither chance, nor the spite of time, but the quirks of the in d i v i d u a l mind. Ford's assumptions regarding character are therefore basic ingredients of his playworld. The assumption most in evidence i s that human reason i s not proof against passion. Bianca,. whose virtue r e s i s t s Fernando's entreaties in the f i r s t two acts of Love's S a c r i f i c e , eventually f a l l s victim to her own passion, casting aside not only her pr i n c i p l e s of propriety but even ordinary caution, besieging Fernando publicly with her importunities: "Speak, s h a l l I s t e a l a kiss? believe me, my Lord, I long." ( I H . i l . 1604-5). Fernando acknowledges the power of passion most sincerely when he says, Traitor to friendship, whither s h a l l I run, That l o s t to reason cannot sway the f l o a t Of the unruly faction i n my blood? (I.ii.449-51) The most celebrated case of such v u l n e r a b i l i t y of reason i s of course that of Giovanni, "that miracle of wit" ('Tis Pity, I.i.47) 1U whose f a l l has been compared to that of Marlowe's Faustus. Although Giovanni t r i e s to j u s t i f y himself by blaming fate (I.i.84, I.ii.139, I.ii.154), the F r i a r sees his perverse l o g i c as proof of the subjugation of reason by passion ( I . i , II.v). 36 T h a t o v e r w h e l m i n g p a s s i o n i s the key t o c h a r a c t e r i s s u i n g i n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n , i s c o n s t a n t l y r e i t e r a t e d i n F o r d ' s p l a y s . The c a t a s t r o p h i c i n f l u e n c e o f s u c h p a s s i o n i s no doubt b e s t s e e n i n F o r d ' s t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t s , s u c h as G i o v a n n i o r F e r n a n d o , b u t i t s shadow e n v e l o p s t h e comedies as e x t e n s i v e l y . I f i n t h e comedies the shadow l i f t s a t a l l , i t i s due t o t h e e v e n t u a l c u r e o f the s t r i c k e n c h a r a c t e r s , s u c h as P a l a d o r and A l p h o n s o , w h i c h p r o v i d e s p r o o f t h a t man's f e l i c i t y i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o h i s c o n t r o l o v e r h i s own p a s s i o n s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the two major p l a y s t h a t end h a p p i l y , The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y and The Queen, a r e b o t h c o n s t r u c t e d as d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d e x e r c i s e s i n t h e c u r e o f p s y c h o t i c s t a t e s . In t h e t r a g e d i e s , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y aware o f t h e i r s u b j e c t i o n t o p a s s i o n . G i o v a n n i and F e r n a n d o b e w a i l t h e i r h e l p l e s s n e s s . I t h o c l e s c a r e f u l l y r e m i n d s h i m s e l f o f the f o l l y o f r e a c h i n g up f o r C a l a n t h a . When s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n o t a c t u a l l y shown t o be r e s i s t i n g t h e i r p a s s i o n s , a t l e a s t t h e i r a wareness o f t h e i r p r o b l e m s i s marked. Even O r g i l u s , who seems n e v e r t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f v e n g e a n c e , r e c o g n i z e s v engeance as a t r a g i c n e c e s s i t y . P e r k i n Warbeck c a n n o t y i e l d h i s c l a i m s b u t he knows c l e a r l y enough t h a t h i s doom i s c e r t a i n . These c h a r a c t e r s a r e d r i v e n by s t r o n g e m o t i o n s b u t t h e y a r e n o t d r i v e n b l i n d l y . T h e i r awareness o f what t h e i r m o t i v e s a r e c o n v e y s the s e n s e t h a t t h e y go where t h e y do as a m a t t e r o f 15 r e c o g n i s i n g a n e c e s s i t y and t h e n d e l i b e r a t e l y c h o o s i n g i t . T h i s d e g r e e o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e s F o r d ' s 37 c h a r a c t e r s f r o m t h e "humorous" c h a r a c t e r s o f Ben J o n s o n . I t i s t h i s q u a l i t y t h a t marks t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a B a s s a n e s and a C o r v i n o . The d i s - t l n c t i o n i s s u b t l e b u t w o r t h n o t i n g . U n d o u b t e d -l y , b o t h J o n s o n ' s and F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e d r i v e n by o b s e s s i v e d e s i r e s . But J o n s o n ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e d r i v e n b l i n d l y and r e m a i n unaware o f t h e a b s u r d c o u r s e s t h a t t h e i r d e s i r e s make them r u n . F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e d r i v e n j u s t as r e l e n t l e s s l y but t h e y know t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g d r i v e n and t h e y a l s o know what d r i v e s them. M o r e o v e r , t h e y have some i d e a o f what a w a i t s them a t t h e end o f t h e c o u r s e b e c a u s e t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e d a n g e r s i n h e r e n t i n n u r s i n g o b s e s s i o n s . S i n c e t h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s e m p h a s i z e s t h e i r h e l p -l e s s n e s s , i t adds a t r a g i c meaning t o t h e i r a c t i o n s and engages a measure o f t h e a u d i e n c e ' s sympathy r a t h e r t h a n provoking^ laughter. T h a t i s why, even B a s s a n e s has some d i g n i t y and i s u l t i m a t e l y l e s s r i d i c u l o u s t h a n C o r v i n o . The t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d by F o r d t h a t p a s s i o n r u l e s a c t i o n h e l p s him t o e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y r a d i c a l s h i f t s o f a t t i t u d e and c o n d u c t . What might o t h e r w i s e seem t o be w h o l e s a l e changes i n c h a r a c t e r a r e made c r e d i b l e as c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . The Queen d i s p l a y s a d r a m a t i c change i n t h e l a s t -m i n u t e c o n v e r s i o n o f A l p h o n s o , and b o t h P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r i n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y a r e i n s t a n c e s o f p r o f o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h i f t s . A n n a b e l l a i n ' T i s P i t y i s a n o t h e r example, f o r f r o m a b r a z e n f l a u n t i n g o f h e r i l l i c i t a f f a i r b e f o r e h e r husband i n A c t I V, s c e n e i i i , she goes t o t h e o t h e r extreme o f c o m p l e t e r e p e n t a n c e i n t h e n e x t s c e n e ( V . i ) . Y e t , r a d i c a l as t h e y a r e , 38 16 t h e s e changes a r e n o t a r b i t r a r y . We know t h a t P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r a r e s u b j e c t s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y and hence t h e i r a c c e s s o f s a n i t y a p p e a r s as the e f f e c t o f t h e r a p y . A l p h o n s o ' s c o n -v e r s i o n t o o i s shown t o be the r e s u l t o f p r i o r p l a n n i n g . A n n a b e l l a ' s p e n i t e n c e i n A c t V, s c e n e i , seems a v i o l e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o n l y b e c a u s e i t comes so soon a f t e r h e r d e f i a n c e o f h e r h u s band. But we can h a r d l y d i s r e g a r d , f i r s t , h e r p r e v i o u s c o n f e s s i o n o f g u i l t t o t h e F r i a r i n A c t I I I , s c e n e v i . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e s c e n e i n w h i c h she d e f i e s h e r h u s b a n d , A c t IV, s c e n e i i i , ends w i t h h e r acknowledgement o f g u i l t ("These words wound d e e p e r t h a n y o u r sword c o u l d d o " - - l i n e 130) , w i t h A n n a b e l l a k n e e l i n g b e f o r e S o r a n z o . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t an a f f i n i t y w i t h v i r t u e i s a b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t o f h e r c h a r a c t e r and t h a t h e r r e p e n t a n c e i s t h e r e s u l t o f an i r r e d u c i b l e v i r t u e t h a t s a v e s h e r f r o m b e i n g a mere "whore." F o r d a l w a y s t a k e s g r e a t c a r e t o e x p l a i n s u d d en changes o f a t t i t u d e o r c o n d u c t by r e v e a l -i n g t h e i r c a u s e s . Even the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f A d u r n i i n The  L a d y ' s T r i a l f r o m S p i n e l l a ' s would-be s e d u c e r t o a p e n i t e n t w o r s h i p p e r i s marked by s t a g e s o f g r o w i n g r e m o r s e ( I I . i i . 1 1 3 4 - 6 , I I I . i i . 1 3 6 0 - 2 , 1371-2, I V . i i . 2 0 8 5 ) . I n F o r d ' s p l a y s we do n o t see t h e c o m p l e t e and i m p l a u s i b l e a b o u t f a c e o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t we s e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n P h i l a s t e r where the t y r a n n i c a l k i n g has a g e n u i n e change o f h e a r t f o r w h i c h no p r i o r e v i d e n c e has been p r o v i d e d . F o r d , on t h e o t h e r hand, u n i f o r m l y p r e p a r e s t h e g r o u n d f o r s h i f t s o f f e e l i n g and c o n d u c t . T h i s d e l i b e r a t e n e s s has one i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e . W h i l e i t r e i n f o r c e s t h e c a u s a l 39 i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e a c t i o n i t a l s o e l i m i n a t e s t h e e l e m e n t o f s u r p r i s e . The c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between .events i s so s t r o n g , t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f e v e n t s b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d by what p r e c e d e s them i s so p o w e r f u l t h a t r e a d y e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e f o r c h a r a c t e r and s i t u a t i o n . I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r i s as d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n -t r o l l e d as a p s y c h i a t r i c r e g i m e n can be. I n ' T i s P i t y G i o v a n n i ' s murder o f A n n a b e l l a and h i s own d e a t h - - h i s s u i c i d e , one might say — a r e c a u s e d by t h e a b s o l u t e commitment o f b r o t h e r and s i s t e r t o e a c h o t h e r , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f any a l t e r n a t i v e way o f l i f e ; what i s more, F o r d draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s i n v i o l a b l e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i r l o v e and t h e i r l i v e s by a r r a n g i n g a d e l i b e r a t e l y r i t u a l i s t i c t r o t h - p l i g h t i n g i n A c t I , s c e n e i i i : A n n a b e l l a On my knees , [ s h e k n e e l s B r o t h e r , even by o u r mother's dust, I c h a r g e you Do n o t b e t r a y me t o y o u r m i r t h or h a t e , Love me o r k i l l me, b r o t h e r . G i o v a n n i On my:knees, [he k n e e l s S i s t e r , e v e n by my mother's d u s t , I c h a r g e you Do n o t b e t r a y me t o y o u r m i r t h or h a t e , Love me o r k i l l me, s i s t e r . ( I . i i i . 2 4 9 - 5 5 ) I n The B r o k e n H e a r t t h e murder o f I t h o c l e s by O r g i l u s comes as no s u r p r i s e t o us b e c a u s e o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t emerges f r o m th e c o n t e x t o f t h e s u s p i c i o n s v o i c e d e a r l i e r by T e c n i c u s . T e c n i c u s had s a i d t h a t ".much m y s t e r y o f f a t e / L i e s h i d i n t h a t man's f o r t u n e s ; c u r i o s i t y / M a y l e a d h i s a c t i o n s i n t o r a r e a t t e m p t s . " ( I I I . i . . . 5 4 - 6 ) . A few l i n e s e a r l i e r T e c n i c u s had warned O r g i l u s , "Take heed t h o u h a s t n o t , under o u r i n t e g r i t y , / 40 shrouded unlawful plots " (III.i.9-10). Crotolon too had charged Orgilus with an " i n f e c t i o n " which, he says, "Threatens the desolation of our family " (III.iv.43-5). S i m i l a r l y , Calantha's "marriage" to the dead Ithocles in the l a s t scene ( V . i i i ) i s anticipated i n Act I I I , scene i i i , when she avoids Nearchus by c a l l i n g upon Ithocles: Thine arm I prithee, Ithocles. --Nay, good My lord, keep on your way, I am provided. ( I I I . i i i . 7 5 - 6 ) Her contract with Ithocles when she places her mother's wedding-ring on the dead man's finger i n Act V, scene i i i , l i n e 64, r e c a l l s the business with the ring i n Act IV, scene i , where Nearchus's attempt to take i t from her f a i l s when she tosses i t down before Ithocles, saying l e t him take i t who dares stoop f o r ' t , And give i t at next meeting to a mistress. (IV.i.27-8) Ithocles makes the implied contract overt by o f f e r i n g i t back to her upon his knees. Calantha's eventual revelation of her love does not therefore come as a surprise. The events in the play run courses so obviously determined by the data given i n i t i a l l y , data in the form of material or psychological conditions, that there i s no impression of an arbitrary i n t r u -sion into the l i v e s of the characters of forces from outside the composite structure of character and event. The deterministic nature of the playworld i s further strengthened by the demonstrable influence of past events, not, as one might expect, i n Perkin Warbeck alone but also i n The  Lover's Melancholy, The Broken Heart and The Queen. Like many of his predecessors and contemporaries, Ford he.Re places1, segments 41 of human action i n the larger framework of the process of time. Shakespeare's history plays are the most fam i l i a r examples. But on aliless ambitious scale and in much narrower contexts other playwrights, such as Marston i n Antonio's Revenge and Chapman in The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois, draw upon the past to provide motivation for present events. Closer to Ford's time, Massinger and F i e l d lay stress, i n The Fatal Dowry, on past con-f l i c t s to show that the action of the play arises to a great extent out of Novall Senior's attempts to s e t t l e an old grudge. In those plays by Ford mentioned above, the past l i e s heavily on the present, enforcing a pervasive but muted h i s t o r i c a l determinism upon the structure of events. In The Lover's  Melancholy the reason for Eroclea's disappearance, Meleander's insanity and Palador's melancholia i s found i n the tyranny of the dead king, Palador's father. The revenge motive i n The  Broken Heart, which runs through the plot as the uniifyxng.thread,". i s repeatedly traced back by Orgilus and Penthea to the past actions of Ithocles which, we are t o l d , sprang from the dissensions' between his father Thrasus and Orgilus' father, Crotolon ( I . i . 17-46). As one might expect, history appears more cl e a r l y i n Perkin Warbeck'. as the sum t o t a l of forces, s o c i a l and personal, acting upon one another. Since i t i s placed against the background of a nation's evolution, Warbeck's in d i v i d u a l fate seems largely determined by the dynastic c o n f l i c t s of times past. Although history i s not consciously invoked as a deter-mining force i n The Queen-,- the f i r s t scene of the play implies 42 t h a t A l p h o n s o ' s b i t t e r n e s s has r o o t s i n h i s f o r m e r b i d f o r power and h i s c o n s e q u e n t d e f e a t . As h i s l a t e r g l o a t i n g o v e r V e l a s c o ' s h u m i l i a t i o n shows ( I I I . i ) , t h i s memory g i v e s edge t o h i s n e u r o s i s . I t w ould seem, t h e n , t h a t t h e major s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e i n F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d i s one o f m e c h a n i s t i c d e t e r m i n i s m . We have n o t e d t h a t e v e n t s a r e l i n k e d s t r i c t l y by the law o f c a u s a t i o n w h i c h r u l e s out t h e p l a y o f c h a n c e . These l i n k s w i t h t h e p a s t t h a t F o r d s o o f t e n f o r g e s a r e p a r t s o f t h e c a u s a l s e q u e n c e w h i c h a c c e n t u a t e the d e t e r m i n i s t i c growth o f t h e a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e d e t e r m i n i s m r e s t s on t h e law o f c a u s a t i o n and t h e supremacy o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n , i t h e l p s t h e s p e c t a t o r t o r e c o g n i z e one more law o f F o r d ' s p l a y -w o r l d . I t i s f o u n d t h a t w h a t e v e r happens has a r a t i o n a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , as opposed t o s u p e r n a t u r a l , e x p l a n a t i o n . D e s p i t e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e f a t e s , t h e p l a y s a r e e n t i r e l y f r e e f r o m s u p e r -n a t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . L i k e most o f h i s i m m e d i a t e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , F o r d a v o i d s the use o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l as an i n s t r u m e n t o f p l o t - d e v e l o p m e n t . But F o r d ' s e x c l u s i o n o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i s t o t a l , w h i l e o t h e r d r a m a t i s t s o f h i s t i m e use i t a t l e a s t f o r t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t . A l t h o u g h the s u p e r n a t u r a l i n t h e drama o f W e b s t e r o r F l e t c h e r has none o f ^ t h e s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e t h a t i t has i n D o c t o r F a u s t u s o r Macbeth, i t i s an i m p o r t a n t i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e shadowy atmosphere o f The Duchess o f M a l f i , and i n The  F a i t h f u l S h e p h e r d e s s i t i s u s e d as t h e y a r d s t i c k f o r m e a s u r i n g v i r t u e and w i c k e d n e s s . Marlowe's o r S h a k e s p e a r e ' s m e t a p h y s i c s 43 may n o t have i n t e r e s t e d t h e s e l a t e r d r a m a t i s t s b u t t h e y were no t above e x p l o i t i n g t h e t h e a t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f magic o r o f the s p i r i t - w o r l d . F o r d , who p l a y e d no l e s s d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r s e n s a t i o n a l e f f e c t s , does n o t however p e r m i t t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l any e n t r y a t a l l i n h i s p l a y s , w h e t h e r as s p e c t a c l e o r m o r a l symbol. F o r d ' s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i s c o m p l e t e and no acknowledgement o f unseen f o r c e s d i l u t e s t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f h i s r a t i o n a l i s t i c a c c o u n t o f men and t h e i r a c t i o n s . The p e o p l e o f h i s p l a y w o r l d n e i t h e r see any need t o r u l e t h e i r l i v e s by omens n o r d i s c o v e r s t r a n g e meanings i n t r i v i a l i n c i d e n t s . The o r a c l e i n t e r p r e t e d by T e c n i c u s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t c o n t a i n s more p o l i t i c a l acumen t h a n m a g i c a l v i s i o n and i t i s t a k e n by the c o u r t i e r s as wisdom r a t h e r t h a n w i z a r d r y . In t h i s r e g a r d F o r d ' s w o r l d d i f f e r s m a r k e d l y from t h o s e o f most o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and p r e d e c e s s o r s . The s u p e r n a t u r a l n e v e r i n t e r v e n e s c o n v e n i e n t -l y t o s o l v e u n r e s o l v a b l e p r o b l e m s i n F o r d as i t d o e s , .'for i n s t a n c e , i n M a s s i n g e r ' s U n n a t u r a l Combat where M a l e f o r t , who has r e s o l v e d t o r a v i s h h i s own d a u g h t e r , i s s t r u c k by l i g h t n i n g . M o r e o v e r , th e s y m p a t h e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t u r e and t h e human w o r l d t h a t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s t o r m s and e a r t h q u a k e s i n J u l i u s C a e s a r , o r Duncan's h o r s e s d e v o u r i n g e a c h o t h e r i n Macbeth, does n o t e x i s t i n F o r d ' s p l a y w o r l d . Nor do we see h e r e t h e r e a d i n e s s t o b e l i e v e i n s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n c i e s t h a t W e b s t e r p o r t r a y s t h r o u g h A n t o n i o ' s t e r r i f i e d c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f h i s monogramed h a n d k e r c h i e f smeared w i t h h i s b l o o d , i n t h e s e c o n d a c t o f The Duchess o f M a l f i . 44 F o r d ' s by c o n t r a s t i s a m a t e r i a l i s t i c w o r l d . The s e t t i n g s o f The B r o k e n H e a r t and, t o some e x t e n t , The Queen may be e x o t i c b u t t h i s does n o t c o n c e a l t h e o b j e c t i v e f a c t s o f t h e w o r l d p r e s e n t e d t h e r e . E v e n t s a r e c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d by and f i r m l y r e l a t e d t o m a t e r i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s , and t h e r e m o t e n e s s o f l o c a t i o n does n o t a l l o w m a r v e l l o u s h a p p e n i n g s by s u s p e n d i n g n a t u r e ' s laws as i t does on the e n c h a n t e d i s l a n d o f The Tempest. I n F o r d ' s p l a y s e v e n t s a r e what t h e y seem t o be. They have no s u p e r n a t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n or s i g n i f i c a n c e , r e v e a l no a s p e c t o f an e x i s t e n c e beyond what i s i m m e d i a t e l y v i s i b l e , and s u g g e s t no s y m b o l i c c o s m ology as the sto r m y h e a t h does i n K i n g L e a r . T h i s i s e m p h a t i c a l l y t h e w o r l d of. man; even n a t u r e , i n t h e e c o l o g i c a l s e n s e , i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t f r o m t h e p l a y s . They a r e r a t h e r s e t a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n an a r t i f i c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The o n l y p l a y i n wh i c h c h a r a c t e r s a t a l l a p p e a r i n a s e t t i n g o f n a t u r e i s P e r k i n Warbeck b u t even t h e r e t h e S c o t t i s h b o r d e r l a n d o r t h e C o r n i s h c o a s t a r e m e r e l y t r a n s i t p o i n t s i n t h e j o u r n e y f r o m r o y a l c o u r t t o c o u r t . T h i s i s s t r i c t l y a human w o r l d where n a t u r e ' s p r e s e n c e i s n o t f e l t , n o r t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . We see a man-made w o r l d , s e p a r a t e d b o t h f r o m t h e n a t u r a l and t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l e v e l s o f e x i s t e n c e , o f w h i c h t h e c e n t r e i s the p r i n c e ' s c o u r t o r the g r e a t man's home. The s o c i o l o g y o f F o r d ' s w o r l d i s t h e r e f o r e t o be worked out i n terms o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men and women who a r e s e e n as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r l i v e s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g g u i d e d by f o r c e s o u t s i d e the w o r l d o f men. 45 L o o k i n g a t t h e human community i n t h i s w o r l d , we p e r c e i v e some e s t a b l i s h e d and r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . We see a s t r o n g l y p a t r i a r c h i a l s o c i e t y i n w h i c h a u t h o r i t y i s v e s t e d i n t h e e l d e r s and where t h e f a t h e r f i g u r e i s an u b i q u i t o u s symbol o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The h i e r a r c h y o f age i s a c c e p t e d as i n v i o l a b l e and d i s r e g a r d o f i t i s a s i g n o f t h e c a t a s t r o p h i c s u b j e c t i o n o f r e a s o n t o p a s s i o n t h a t r u i n s t h e l i v e s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . We have t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e C a r d i n a l i n ' T i s P i t y t h a t G i o v a n n i ' s c r i m e i s n o t o n l y a g a i n s t h i s s i s t e r b u t a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r as w e l l : " M o n s t e r o f chiTdr.en;, see what t h o u h a s t d one,/Broke t h y f a t h e r ' s h e a r t ! " ( V . v i . 6 3 - 4 ) . I n The B r o k e n H e a r t I t h o c l e s s e t s i n m o t i o n O r g i l u s ' s r e v e n g e p l o t when i n t h e p r i d e o f h i s y o u t h he b r e a k s the match made by h i s f a t h e r between O r g i l u s and P e n t h e a . I t h o c l e s h i m s e l f a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e harm t h a t can be done by " t h e h e a t / O f an u n s t e a d y y o u t h , a g i d d y b r a i n , / G r e e n i n d i s c r e t i o n " ( I I . i i . 4 4 - 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e kingdom owes much t o I t h o c l e s , he does not b e l o n g t o the. i n n e r c i r c l e o f t h e r u l e r s . . E f f e c t i v e power r e m a i n s i n the hands o f t h e k i n g and i.his two e l d e r l y c o u n s e l l o r s , A rmostes and C r o t o l o n . W i t h t h i s e q u a t i o n o f age w i t h power and wisdom goes the i d e a o f u n q u e s t i o n e d male d o m i n a t i o n . The f a i l i n g h e a l t h o f the k i n g g i v e s u r g e n c y t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u c c e s s i o n b e c a u s e he has no s o n , and when h i s c o n c e r n i s i n c r e a s e d by t h e o r a c l e ' s d a r k h i n t t h a t h i s d e a t h w i l l " c a u s e t o q u a i l t h e b u d d i n g grape',' ( I V . i i i . 2 6 ) , t h a t i s , C a l a n t h a ' s d e a t h , he i s a s s u r e d by Ar m o s t e s t h a t a l l w i l l be w e l l when "Her m a r r i a g e 46 w i t h some n e i g h b o u r i n g p r i n c e " s t r e n g t h e n s t h e n a t i o n " w i t h a s o v e r e i g n t y o f power" ( I V . i i i . 3 2 - 4 ) . The p r i n c i p l e o f male s u p e r i o r i t y i s s e e n i n an extreme form i n The Queen where the queen s u b m i t s meekly t o h e r husband's t y r a n n y . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , r e l a t e s F o r d ' s p l a y s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s u b s e r v i e n c e o f women. The p a t i e n t G r i s e l d a s o r f a i t h f u l E u p h r a s i a s a r e t o o commonly f o u n d f o r us t o make f e m a l e s u b m i s s i o n a m a j o r i s s u e h e r e . But we may n o t e t h a t t h e k i n d o f s e c o n d l o o k a t woman's s t a t u s h i n t e d a t by S h a k e s p e a r e when he g r a n t s P o r t i a n o t o n l y i n d e p e n d e n c e b u t s u p e r i o r i t y o f judgement, o r when he r a i s e s V o l u m n i a i n C o r i o l a n u s t o t h e s t a t u s o f t h e head o f t h e f a m i l y , i s n e v e r t a k e n by F o r d . T h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t makes the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i s p l a y w o r l d r i g i d and i n c a p a b l e o f change. The p a t r i a r c h a l n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l p o w e r - s t r u c t u r e i s more p r o n o u n c e d i n P e r k i n Warbeck t h a n anywhere e l s e i n F o r d . In t h a t p l a y t h a t s t r u c t u r e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t s t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s . The e l d e r l y K i n g Henry p r o v e s h i s p o l i t i c a l acumen and h i s w o r t h as t h e h e a l e r o f t h e " b l e e d i n g wounds" o f t h e s t a t e . I n d e e d , i t i s e a s y t o see P e r k i n Warbeck's r e b e l l i o n as a metaphor f o r the o p p o s i t i o n between w i s e age and r a s h y o u t h , a theme s u p p o r t e d by t h e n e a r l y d i s a s t r o u s i m p e t u o s i t y o f young James t h e F o u r t h the S c o t t i s h k i n g whose p o l i t i c a l s a l v a t i o n comes t h r o u g h h i s s u b m i s s i o n t o K i n g Henry who s a y s a p p r o v i n g l y , "A' s t u d i e s t o be w i s e b e t i m e s " ( V . i i . 1 9 ) . Warbeck, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s " T h i s cub" ( I . i . 1 0 4 ) , 47 " t h i s young P h a e t h o n " ( I I . i i i . 1 6 ) , who i n ''A f r e n z y o f a s p i r i n g y o u t h h a t h d a n c e d " ( V . i i . 5 1 ) . A u t h o r i t y and age go t o g e t h e r a g a i n i n L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e . The e l d e r l y Duke i s b r o u g h t t o r u i n by t h e r a s h l o v e o f B i a n c a and F e r n a n d o whose y o u t h i s r e p e a t e d l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e Duke's age. E q u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Duke's d o w n f a l l i s h i s s i s t e r , F i o r m o n d a , " t h a t g l o r i o u s widow" ( I . i . 9 2 ) , who a s s e r t s , "My b l o o d i s n o t y e t f r e e z ' d . . . / . . . m y l i p s a r e warm" ( I . ' i i . 5 2 9 - 3 1 ) • T h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r y c o r r e l a t i o n between y o u t h and w i c k e d n e s s , f o r n e i t h e r F e r n a n d o n o r B i a n c a , n o r even F i o r m o n d a c o u l d be c a l l e d e v i l d o e r s as D ' A v o l o s and F e r e n t e s u n d o u b t e d l y c o u l d . But i t i s p l a i n l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a r d o u r o f u n d i s c i p l i n e d y o u t h r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t ' t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r r e s u l t s i n d i s a s t e r . T h i s message o f t h e main a c t i o n o f t h i s p l a y i s r e p e a t e d i n a c o a r s e r way by t h e s u b p l o t where t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f y o u t h i s g i v e n an e p i t a p h , i r o n i c a l l y enough by F e r e n t e s i n h i s d y i n g moment: "My f o r f e i t was i n my b l o o d , and my l i f e h a t h a n s w e r ! d i t " ( I I I . i v . 1 8 9 3 ) . The h i e r a r c h y o f age and s e x i s p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r h i e r a r c h y o f power i n t h e s t a t e . I t i s headed by t h e monarch i n The B r o k e n H e a r t , L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e , The Queen and i n P e r k i n  Warbeck. I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y power i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the hands o f a s m a l l g r o u p o f t h e k i n g ' s c o u n s e l l o r s who, however, e x e r t t h e m s e l v e s o n l y on h i s b e h a l f . ' T i s P i t y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m the o t h e r p l a y s i n h a v i n g a d o m e s t i c r a t h e r t h a n a c o u r t l y s e t t i n g . However, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s no 48 l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l h e r e , t h e u l t i m a t e power b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e hands o f t h e C a r d i n a l . H i s u n q u e s t i o n e d s t a t u s as t h e f i n a l a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e a l i n g o u t j u s t i c e p r o v e s how f i r m l y t h e i d e a l s o f d u t y and o b e d i e n c e a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e s o c i a l framework. Though d e m o n s t r a b l y c o r r u p t , he i s a c c e p t e d as t h e head o f t h e commonwealth b e c a u s e he i s a p r i n c e o f t h e C h u r c h . T h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m i s n o t o f c o u r s e an e x c l u s i v e f e a t u r e o f F o r d ' s p l a y s b u t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e drama o f h i s t i m e , o f w h i c h the most extreme example a p p e a r s i n Beaumont and F l e t c h e r ' s The Maid's T r a g e d y . I n F o r d t h e r e i s n e i t h e r the a b s o l u t e r o y a l i s m n o r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a t h e s i s on d e g r e e as i n t h e s p e e c h of. U l y s s e s " i n , T r o i l u s • and C r e s s i d a ('I. i i i ) . . . What we f i n d , however, has a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e s h a p i n g o f a c t i o n . The b i n d i n g n a t u r e o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r makes s u b m i s s i o n t o a u t h o r i t y an e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t i n F o r d ' s p l a y s . T h i s i s the g i s t , i n ' T i s P i t y , b o t h o f t h e F r i a r ' s a d v i c e t o G i o v a n n i and t h e C a r d i n a l ' s a s s u m p t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h e c i t i z e n s o f Parma. T h e i r c l a i m s p r o v i d e t h e p l a y w i t h a framework o f s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t c a n n o t accommodate.Giovanni's a s s e r t i o n o f p e r s o n a l judgment. T h i s i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y l i e s a t t h e r o o t o f h i s f e e l i n g o f e s t r a n g e m e n t . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y we s h a l l n o t e th e p r e s e n c e o f s i m i -l a r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n o t h e r p l a y s as w e l l . A c l o s e l o o k a t t h e s o c i a l framework o f F o r d ' s p l a y s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s i n f l u e n c e on c h a r a c t e r i s n o t t o be i g n o r e d . 49 That i n f l u e n c e g a i n s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t b e c a u s e F o r d ' s p r o t a g o n -i s t s a r e d r i v e n by p a s s i o n t o u n u s u a l forms o f a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e y a r e a l s o aware t h a t t h e y d e v i a t e f r o m n o r m a l c o n d u c t , as i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e i r w o r l d , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r a c t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n F o r d ' s p l a y s b r i n g s i n t o s h a r p e r f o c u s a c t i o n s t h a t d e f i n e c h a r a c t e r . In d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s i n t h e c h a p t e r s t h a t f o l l o w , we must t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h t h e group t o d i s c o v e r t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t w h i c h must be s e t t h e e l e m e n t s o f c h a r a c t e r s h a p i n g t h e a c t i o n . These c o n s t r a i n t s n e v e r g i v e r i s e t o t h e c o n f l i c t s between s o c i a l d u t y and i n d i v i d u a l w i l l t h a t we l a t e r f i n d i n the n e o - c l a s s i c a l drama o f Otway and Dryde n , and p e r h a p s more 17 memorably in:-Corneille and Racine,. But f e e b l e as t h e y a r e as f i n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r s i n m o d i f y i n g t h e p l a y o f p a s s i o n i n F o r d ' s p l a y s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n the p r o g r e s s o f F o r d ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s t o t h e i r d e s t i n y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as i n d e p e n d e n t e v e n t s b u t must be j u d g e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e i n t h e p l a y w o r l d . C h a p t e r I I I 1 T I S PITY SHE'S A WHORE The p r e s s u r e o f t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t upon t h e i n d i v i d -u a l i s nowhere more a p p a r e n t i n F o r d ' s p l a y s t h a n i n ' T i s P i t y  She's a Whore. The theme o f i n c e s t on w h i c h t h e p l a y i s b a s e d b r i n g s f o r w a r d the c o n f l i c t o f two c o n t r a r y m o r a l c o d e s , one c o l l e c t i v e and t h e o t h e r p e r s o n a l . The p l a y ' s s o c i a l w o r l d has a r i g i d s t r u c t u r e o f a u t h o r i t y and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i n f l e x i b l e code o f m o r a l b e h a v i o u r b a c k e d by d e f i n i t e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . I t has e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s and e x p e c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s h a r e them and t o a c c e p t t h e code o f c o n d u c t a u t h o r i z e d by t h o s e v a l u e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s r e q u i r e d t o f i t h i s p r i v a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s t o the demands o f t h e s o c i a l c o de. ' T i s P i t y makes i t c l e a r f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t h a t G i o v a n n i i s i n l o v e w i t h h i s s i s t e r A n n a b e l l a and so i n c a p a b l e o f s u c h a d j u s t m e n t s . The c o n f l i c t between s o c i a l and p r i v a t e n e c e s s -i t i e s i s s h a r p l y drawn t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y w h i c h opens w i t h F r i a r B o n a v e n t u r a ' s i n j u n c t i o n t o G i o v a n n i : " D i s p u t e no more i n t h i s , f o r know, young man,/These a r e no s c h o o l - p o i n t s " ( I . i . 1 - 2 ) . The p h r a s e o l o g y s u g g e s t s t h a t the F r i a r s e e s th e s i t u a t i o n as a d e b a t e between h i m s e l f as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d m o r a l c o d e , and G i o v a n n i as t h e c h a l l e n g e r o f 50 51 t h a t code. The F r i a r e x p l a i n s G i o v a n n i ' s o b l i g a t i o n s t o s o c i e t y i n p l a i n l a n g u a g e . W h i l e d o i n g s o , he a l s o makes c l e a r t h e d i v i n e s o u r c e o f h i s own a u t h o r i t y : "Heaven a d m i t s no j e s t " (4). The " M a j e s t y above" (67-8) e n j o i n s upon G i o v a n n i an i m m e d i a t e r e c a n t a t i o n o f h i s " u n r a n g e d a l m o s t b l a s p h e m y " ( l i n e 45). The F r i a r h i m s e l f i s f o r b i d d e n by h i s r e l i g i o n f r o m i n d u l g i n g i n e t h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e l i m i t s s e t by e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s . G i o v a n n i ' s r e a s o n i n g c a n n o t move t h e F r i a r who "may n o t h e a r i t " ( I . i . 1 2 ) . He v i e w s G i o v a n n i ' s r e a s o n i n g as " n i c e p h i l o s o p h y " ( J . i . 2 ) w h i c h r a t i o n a l i z e s i m m o r a l i t y and a t t e m p t s t o c r e a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e r e l i g i o n c e l e b r a t i n g " t h i s i d o l t h o u a d o r ' s t " ( I . i . 6 1 ) . In terms o f t h e m o r a l code s t a t e d by t h e F r i a r , r i g h t and wrong a r e r a n g e d i n an a b s o l u t e d i c h o t o m y t h a t a l l o w s no s u c h a n t i n o m i e s as t h o s e t h a t a t t e n d upon O r e s t e s o r Hamlet. G i o v a n n i i s commanded t o "Beg Heaven t o c l e a n s e t h e l e p r o s y o f l u s t " ( l i n e 74) and he h i m s e l f s e e s t h i s as h i s d u t y , f a i l u r e i n w h i c h can o n l y l e a d t o d i s a s t e r . He knows t h a t h i s d e s i r e s w i l l c a l l down upon him " t h e r o d / O f v e n g e a n c e " Cline 83--84). ' T h i s awareness o f v i o l a t i n g an u n b e n d i n g code i s made t h e p l a i n e r by G i o v a n n i ' s l a m e n t a t h i s n e x t a p p e a r a n c e , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e , when he r e c o u n t s h i s e f f o r t s a t c o n t r o l l i n g h i s p a s s i o n w i t h p r a y e r s , t e a r s and d a i l y f a s t s ( I . i i . 1 3 9 - 5 0 ) . F i n d i n g h i m s e l f c a u g h t between h i s p a s s i o n and a s t r i c t m o r a l o r d e r he c r i e s o u t , 52 0 that i t were not in r e l i g i o n a sin To make our love a god and worship i t ! (I.ii.145-6) The s o c i a l ramifications of the moral system, against which Giovanni's love shows so darkly, are clear. The world of '-Tis Pity i s h i e r a r c h i c a l and the rules of duty and obedience are authorized by r e l i g i o n . The function of r e l i g i o n i n formu-l a t i n g the moral code i s f i r s t seen i n the opening scene. Later in the play, a f t e r Grimaldi's assassination of Bergetto the Cardinal's speeches in Act I I I , scene i x , show that r e l i g i o n not only controls moral conduct, i t even assumes temporal power. Both the h i e r a r c h i c a l order of society and the paramount authority of organized r e l i g i o n are manifest i n the play because the Cardinal holds the position of the rul e r of this p a r t i c u l a r world; he appears only twice in the play, in Act I I I , scene i x , and i n Act V, scene v i , but on both occasions exercises his power with absolute authority. He does ..this i n his capacity as "nuncio from the Pope" (III.ix.54). The Pope i s nominally the supreme authority i n the playworld but the actual power i s wielded by the Cardinal. In Act III, scene i x , he not only receives into his protection his nephew Grimaldi, the unrepentent murderer of Bergetto, but even condones the crime with a sneer at the ins i g n i f i c a n c e of mere c i t i z e n s . The cit i z e n s accept his r u l i n g even though they are affronted by his perversion of j u s t i c e . They are not quite the common herd as the Cardinal's treatment of th e i r p e t i t i o n might suggest, or he would not have addressed them with the respect i m p l i c i t in 53 " m a s t e r s o f t h e commonwealth" ( I I I . i x . 3 6 ) . H i s contempt f o r them, w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e murdered man, s h o c k s t h e c i t i z e n s and c a l l s f o r t h Donado's b i t t e r q u e s t i o n , " I s t h i s a churchman's v o i c e ? D w e l l s J u s t i c e h e r e ? " ( I I I . i x . 6 3 ) . F l o r i o c o n c u r s : " J u s t i c e i s f l e d t o Heaven and comes no n e a r e r . " ( I I I . i x . 6 4 ) . Y e t t h e h o l d o f d u t y r e m a i n s u n b r o k e n . In t h e same s p e e c h F l o r i o c a l l s h i s companions back t o s o c i a l r e a l i t y : " G r e a t men may do t h e i r w i l l s , we must obey" ( I I I . i x . 6 9 ) . The t i m i d i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t b r i e f l y a g i t a t e s t h e two e l d e r s o f t h i s community i s q u i c k l y s u p p r e s s e d by t h e t h o u g h t o f t h e d u t y t h a t goes w i t h t h e i r s t a t i o n i n l i f e . T h a t d u t y t h e y . p l a c e above f a m i l y t i e s a l t h o u g h t h o s e t i e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e s t r o n g , as we see i n F l o r i o ^ ' S c o n c e r n f o r h i s c h i l d r e n and h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m them. Donado on h i s p a r t f e e l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s f o o l i s h nephew and t r i e s t o g e t him e s t a b l i s h e d i n l i f e t h r o u g h a good m a r r i a g e , but h i s a f f e c t i o n c a n n o t r i s e above h i s s u b m i s s i o n to a u t h o r i t y . F l o r i o ' s o r Donado's s t a t u s as l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s m e r e l y marks t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y w h i c h i s headed, f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , by the C a r d i n a l . H i s c o r r u p t n a t u r e r e v e a l s i t s e l f on h i s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e as w e l l as i n the l a s t s c e n e o f t h e p l a y where he metes o u t a r b i t r a r y and u n e q u a l j u s t i c e , o r d e r i n g P u t a n a t o be b u r n t on V a s q u e s ' a c c u s a t i o n , ' d i s p e n s i n g w i t h " g r o u n d s o f r e a s o n " i n p a r d o n i n g Vasques and q u i c k l y a p p r o p r i a t i n g " a l l t h e g o l d and j e w e l s , o r w h a t s o e v e r " ( V . v i . 1 4 8 ) f o r the c h u r c h . G r e e d and p e r v e r s i o n o f j u s t i c e a r e nowhere more a p p a r e n t t h a n i n t h e C a r d i n a l ' s a c t i o n s , and y e t Donado, who has r e a s o n t o q u e s t i o n the C a r d i n a l ' s i d e a s . o f j u s t i c e , a p p l a u d s h i s a c t i o n as "most j u s t " ( i b i d . , 135) and 54 r e a d i l y agrees to carry out the sentence on Putana. Corrupt or not, a u t h o r i t y i s expected to be obeyed i n the world of the play. Hierarchy and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m hold together the s o c i e p i c t u r e d here. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of master and subject i s seen not only i n the Cardinal's arrogance but also i n the three separate sets of family t i e s . Equally evident i s the unques-tioned acceptance of i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the family and church the interestsco'fwhich are expected to preempt the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . I l l F l o r i o i s the unquestioned master of h i s f a m i l y , as Donado i s of h i s . By c o n t r a s t , Richardetto's p o s i t i o n as master has been t o t a l l y eroded by h i s wife's and Soranzo's j o i n t b e t r a y a l of the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage. This n e c e s s i t a t e s h i s disguise and e x p l a i n s h i s i n a b i l i t y to r e t u r n to h i s world i n h i s own shape u n t i l the usurpers have departed. The h i e r a r c h i c a l pattern of s o c i e t y i s w e l l r e f l e c t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t sets of master-subject r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F l o r i o , Donado and Richardetto are s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r to the C a r d i n a l and subject to h i s w i l l but they themselves r u l e over t h e i r f a m i l i e s with complete a u t h o r i t y or expect to do so. One cause of t h e i r misfortune i s that t h e i r power i s not as r e a l as the C a r d i n a l ' s , for those over whom they have a u t h o r i t y by s o c i a l sanction c o n s i s t e n t l y defy them. The b e t r a y a l of Richardetto i s a matter of "common voice" ( I I . i i i . 1 3 ) , known to a l l , as Putana t e l l s Annabella ( I . i i . 9 2 - 4 ) , but the v i o l a t i o n of the f a m i l i a l a u t h o r i t y turns out to be u n i v e r s a l . Thls',:is,Jmost shockingly found i n the case of Giovanni and 55 A n n a b e l l a but e s s a y e d even by t h e g o o d - n a t u r e d B e r g e t t o who d e m o l i s h e s Donado's hopes o f a good match f o r him and a t t a c h e s h i m s e l f t o P h i l o t i s . At t h e l o w e s t l e v e l i n t h e p l a y ' s s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y we f i n d t h e s e r v a n t s , P o g g i o , P u t a n a and V a s q u e s . Vasques i s i n c o m p a r a b l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r two i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and f o r c e o f c h a r a c t e r , and by h i s shrewd h a n d l i n g o f H i p p o l i t a and P u t a n a shows h i m s e l f t o be one o f t h e c h i e f m a n i p u l a t o r s o f t h e a c t i o n o f the p l a y . H i s i n f l u e n c e on h i s m a s t e r , S o r a n z o , i s g r e a t . When S o r a n z o d i s c o v e r s A n n a b e l l a ' s i n f i d e l i t y and i n h i s r a g e comes n e a r k i l l i n g h e r , i t i s Vasques who p e r s u a d e s him t o p u l l back i n f a v o u r o f a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v e n g e . In f a s h i o n i n g t h a t vengeance t o o i t i s Vasques who p l a y s t h e l e a d i n g r o l e r a t h e r t h a n S o r a n z o . Y e t F o r d t a k e s c a r e t o keep b e f o r e us t h e i d e n t i t y o f Vasques as S o r a n z o ' s s e r v a n t . The b a r b i n S o r a n z o ' s r e b u k e t o G r i m a l d i i n A c t I , s c e n e i i , i s t h a t G r i m a l d i d e s e r v e s no b e t t e r a t t e n t i o n t h an c h a s t i s e m e n t by S o r a n z o ' s s e r v a n t Cl.ii.43-40. Vasques h i m s e l f t a k e s p r i d e i n b e i n g a t o t a l l y l o y a l and r e s o u r c e f u l s e r v a n t when he j u s t i f i e s h i s c o n d u c t a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y : "What I have done was my d u t y , and I r e p e n t n o t h i n g but t h a t t h e l o s s o f my l i f e had n o t ransomed h i s " (V.vi.119-21). In t h e i r humble and f o o l i s h ways P u t a n a and P o g g i o show s i m i l a r a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e i r m a s t e r s , A n n a b e l l a and B e r g e t t o . Even P u t a n a ' s b e t r a y a l o f h e r m i s t r e s s ' s s e c r e t t o Vasques o n l y p r o v e s h e r e a g e r n e s s t o h e l p A n n a b e l l a . P o g g i o on 56 h i s p a r t i s n o t o n l y B e r g e t t o ' s f a i t h f u l s e r v a n t and c o n s t a n t companion but i s t h e o n l y p e r s o n i n t h e p l a y t o show r e a l g r i e f a t B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h ( I I I . v i i i . 2 1 ,.and 3 8 ) . S u b m i s s i o n t o a u t h o r i t y and a c c e p t a n c e o f h i e r a r c h y a r e s i g n s b o t h o f t h e s t r u c t u r e d n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d o f ' T i s P i t y and o f t h e i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h a t s t r u c t u r e . But ' T i s  P i t y a l s o r e c o r d s the c o n s t a n t e n d e a v o u r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e t o p r e s e r v e i t s autonomy. Seen a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , human a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o be t h e p r o d u c t o f two f o r c e s , one o f s o c i a l r u l e s and t h e o t h e r o f p r i v a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . S i n c e t h e s e a r e c o n t r a r y f o r c e s , t h e a c t i o n s o f r e b e l s , s u c h as G i o v a n n i and H i p p o l i t a , r a i s e a b a r r i e r between s o c i e t y and t h e m s e l v e s . G i o v a n n i i n p a r t i c u l a r a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d a p r i v a t e ^ w o r l d w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c and i t i s h i s f a i l u r e t o c r e a t e a s e c u r e p r i v a t e domain no l e s s t h a n h i s e s t r a n g e m e n t from t h e p u b l i c w o r l d t h a t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e u n f o l d i n g o f t h e p l o t . G i o v a n n i and H i p p o l i t a , and by a s s o c i a t i o n A n n a b e l l a , a r e p r e s e n t e d t o us as examples o f e g o c e n t r i c r e b e l l i o n and a r e r e j e c t e d by s o c i e t y b e c a u s e t h e y r e j e c t i t s l a w s . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o show w h e t h e r F o r d h i m s e l f a p p r o v e s of; t h e s e laws o r a d m i r e s r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t them. Whether he w i s h e s t h e a u d i e n c e t o a c c e p t or' r e j e c t r e b e l l i o n i s a l s o u n c e r t a i n , f o r t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f u n l a w f u l l o v e i s tempered t h r o u g h o u t by c o n s t a n t acknowledgements o f t h e n o b l e n a t u r e o f G i o v a n n i . A n n a b e l l a i s more an o b j e c t o f p i t y t h a n r e p u g n a n c e and t h e p l a y , as i t s t i t l e i n d i c a t e s , e n d s on a n o t e o f p i t y r a t h e r t h a n 57 i n d i g n a t i o n . The f i n a l judgment p a s s e d upon A n n a b e l l a , by no l e s s i m p o r t a n t a p e r s o n a g e t h a n t h e C a r d i n a l , i s s i n g u l a r l y m i l d : "Who c o u l d n o t s a y , ' t i s p i t y s h e ' s a whore?" (V.vi.160). I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t F o r d a l l o w s h i s a u d i e n c e t o see t h a t extreme p e r s o n a l freedom and a r i g i d s o c i a l code a r e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , and he l e a v e s t h e a u d i e n c e f r e e t o c h o o s e e i t h e r as an i d e a l . C y r u s Hoy draws a p a r a l l e l between Marlowe's F a u s t u s and F o r d ' s G i o v a n n i , as i n t e l l e c t u a l s who employ/ a f a l s e l o g i c t o s u p p o r t p an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s y s t e m o f e t h i c s . T h i s p a r a l l e l s h o u l d p e r h a p s be e x t e n d e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e assumed by Marlowe and F o r d as r e g a r d s m o r a l r e b e l l i o n . F o r d r e m a i n s c o n t e n t t o p r o v i d e t h e a u d i e n c e w i t h c l e a r p o r t r a y a l s o f t h e o p p o s i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e m o r a l p r o b l e m . On t h e one hand he p r e s e n t s i n d i v i d u a l s s u c h as G i o v a n n i , A n n a b e l l a and H i p p o l i t a who i n v a r i o u s d e g r e e s p r e s s c l a i m s o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m . On the'.djther hand he p r e s e n t s a s t r u c t u r e d s o c i e t y w i t h a d e f i n e d s y s t e m o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i t s members, and shows how t h i s s y s t e m i s s u p p o r t e d by a code o f s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h a t code a r e , as we have s e e n , s t a t e d u n a m b i g u o u s l y a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g by^ t h e F r i a r . The p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e F r i a r c h i e f l y i m p r e s s e s upon G i o v a n n i i s t h a t o f ' s u b m i s s i o n t o a h i g h e r power, one t h a t i s "above the s u n " ( I . i . 1 1 ) . The t h e o l o g y o f t h i s s o c i e t y t h u s u p h o l d s a s p e c i f i c code o f c o n d u c t and f o r t i f i e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e g r o u p a g a i n s t i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. G i o v a n n i ' s d e c i s i o n t o d e f y s o c i e t y and t o r e v e a l h i s l o v e t o A n n a b e l l a i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . On 58 t r a c i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s i t i s f o u n d t h a t G i o v a n n i ' s s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n s e t s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e play-i n m o t i o n . But e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f a c t t h a t ..it a l s o s e t s G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a a p a r t f r o m t h e i r f e l l o w - m e n . T h e i r a l i e n a t i o n i s d e l i b e r a t e l y u n d e r s c o r e d i n t h e p l a y by t h e i r r i t u a l o f t r o t h - p l i g h t i n g . The p o t e n c y o f t h e i r b e t r o t h a l , s t r o n g enough t o w i t h s t a n d A n n a b e l l a ' s m a r r i a g e t o S o r a n z o , 3 does n o t r e s t upon l u s t b u t upon an i n t a n g i b l e i d e n t i t y o f s p i r i t w h i c h G i o v a n n i t r i e s t o e x p l a i n as p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n o f n a t u r e . I n h i s d i s p u t a t i o n w i t h t h e F r i a r i n A c t I , s c e n e i , G i o v a n n i a r g u e s , Say t h a t we had one f a t h e r , s a y one womb ( C u r s e t o my j o y s ) gave b o t h us l i f e and b i r t h ; Are we n o t t h e r e f o r e each t o t h e o t h e r bound So much the more by n a t u r e , by t h e l i n k s Of b l o o d , o f r e a s o n - - n a y i f y o u w i l l " h a v e ' t , Even o f r e l i g i o n - - t o be e v e r one, One s o u l , one f l e s h , one l o v e , one h e a r t , one a l l ? ( I . i . 2 8 - 3 4 ) The f i n a l t o u c h t o h i s p e r s u a d i n g o f A n n a b e l l a i s , You My s i s t e r A n n a b e l l a ; I know t h i s : And c o u l d a f f o r d you i n s t a n c e why t o l o v e So much the more f o r t h i s ; t o w h i c h i n t e n t Wise n a t u r e f i r s t i n y o u r c r e a t i o n meant To make you..,mine; e l s e ' t had been s i n and f o u l To s h a r e one b e a u t y t o a d o u b l e s o u l . ( I . i i . 2 2 8 - 3 4 ) U n d o u b t e d l y , t h i s i s f a l s e r e a s o n i n g i n t h e g i v e n c o n t e x t o f e t h i c a l p r e m i s e s and t y p i c a l o f the " i g n o r a n c e i n k nowledge" ( I I . v . 2 7 ) t h a t so h o r r i f i e s the F r i a r . The l a t t e r ' s dismay i s j u s t i f i e d , f o r he p e r c e i v e s G i o v a n n i s u b s t i t u t i n g a p e r s o n a l e t h i c a l s y s t e m f o r the one a c c e p t e d by s o c i e t y . 59 What makes such an anarchical position especially disturbing i s that i t should involve not only the odd i n t e l l e c t -ual such as Giovanni but a common earthy creature such as Hippolita. The thematic p a r a l l e l between the main plot and the Hippolita sub-plot reveals what seems to be a universal malady because Hippolita, unlike Giovanni, i s driven merely by common animal i n s t i n c t s u n d i s t i l l e d by thought into an aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t y . Ford uses the contraposition of mutually exclusive e t h i c a l systems as a s t r u c t u r a l bond between the separate layers of action. Like Giovanni, Hippolita explains her passion as a force of nature. It i s Soranzo's "sensual rage of blood" (II . i i . 2 8 ) and the " d e v i l in my blood" ( l i n e 72) that made her abandon the "honor of my chaster bosom" ( l i n e 34) and s a c r i f i c e her "modest fame" ( l i n e 31)- Here, as in Giovanni's s e l f -j u s t i f i c a t i o n , the dictates of nature are pitt e d against those of human society. As the F r i a r puts i t , i f we were sure there were no deity, Nor Heaven nor h e l l , then to be led alone By nature's l i g h t , as were philosophers Of elder times, might instance some defense. But ' t i s not so; then, madman, thou w i l t find That nature i s i n Heaven's positions blind. (II.v.29 -34) Presented as a formal sentence in the concluding couplet of the passage above, the F r i a r ' s r e j e c t i o n of nature's undisciplined l i b e r t y appears as part of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d dogma. Hippolita and Soranzo are victims of the natural sexual drive as much as Giovanni and Annabella, although the fi n e r 60 n a t u r e o f t h e s i b l i n g s makes t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p one o f l o v e r a t h e r t han o f l u s t . One c a n n o t miss t h e i r o n y h e r e t h a t , o f t h e s e two p a i r s o f l o v e r s * t h o s e g u i l t y o f ,the g r a v e r t r a n s -g r e s s i o n s h o u l d be the p u r e r a t h e a r t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e n o t e o f F o r d ' s a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a a r e s i n c e r e i n t h e i r l o v e and a r e n o t drawn m e r e l y by s e x u a l a p p e t i t e . B e c a u s e o f F o r d ' s e m p h a s i s , t h e i r t o t a l commitment t o each o t h e r seems t o b e a r a m o r a l meaning as an a l t e r n a t i v e e t h i c a l i d e a l . The a t t e m p t t o e n l i s t the s p e c t a t o r ' s sympathy f o r G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a seems d e l i b e r a t e , f o r t h e i r c o u r t s h i p i s p r e s e n t e d as a s e t - p i e c e b e l o n g i n g t o t h e l i t e r a r y 4 c o n v e n t i o n o f r o m a n t i c l o v e . G i o v a n n i ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f l o v e w i t h b a r e d b r e a s t (--"Rip up my bosom," I . i . 2 1 0 - - ) and h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n t h a t he may l i v e o n l y i f A n n a b e l l a y i e l d s t o him, a r e components o f a f o r m a l i z e d s i t u a t i o n . The exchange e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p s i n t o a f o r m a l b e t r o t h a l p e r v e r b a p r a e s e n t i , as i n The W i t c h o f Edmonton, The M i s e r i e s o f E n f o r c e d M a r r i a g e and The Duchess o f M a l f i . But t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t;rue l o v e between G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a i s n o t t h e s o l e f u n c t i o n o f t h e e p i s o d e ; t h e s i b l i n g s ' a s s u m p t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s p r o p e r t o l e g i t i m a t e l o v e h e i g h t e n s o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h a t l o v e and t h e i r s . T h e i r i n t e g r i t y e n l i s t s o u r sympathy b u t a p p e a r s a t t h e same t i m e t o be a q u e s t i o n a b l e v i r t u e b e c a u s e i t i s p l a c e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i n c e s t . As a r e s u l t , the l o v e o f G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a , i r o n i c a l l y the o n l y i n s t a n c e i n t h e p l a y o f t r u e and u n c o n d i t i o n a l l o v e , d e s i g n a t e s them as a l i e n s a t war w i t h the w o r l d o f the p l a y . 61 The defiance of society i s the measure of passion's hold over Giovanni, Annabella and Hippolita. Their surrender to passion i s the more disturbing because they are capable of making reasoned choices. Their actions reveal a great deal of self-consciousness and proceed from deliberate decisions. Giovanni considers pros and cons and then decides, " I ' l l t e l l her that I love her, though my heart/Were rated at the price of that attempt" ( I . i i i . 156-7). Annabella's surrender i s not a response to .his r h e t o r i c , nor an impulsive act but a step over which "My captive heart had long ago resolved" (I.ii.161-2). On Hippolita's part, however powerful her passion might have been, she never says that she yielded to Soranzo without knowing what she was doing. On the contrary, she seems to have weighed Soranzo's position and his protestations of f a i t h c a r e f u l l y before deliberately sending her husband on a hazardous journey (II.ii.67-8 1). Here as i n the story of Giovanni and Annabella, a p a r t i c u l a r course of l i f e i s embarked upon, not bl i n d l y but with deliberate thought and understanding of the probable penalties involved. Both the main and the sub-plot make the point that the destiny of the characters i s self-chosen. Further, given the unbreakable authority of the rules of conduct, the decisions that launch the characters into t h e i r i n d ividual courses are i r r e v e r s i b l e and exclude a l l others. Once Hippolita forsakes her "lawful bed," she i s committed to dependence upon Soranzo and to the loss of her reputation. When Giovanni and Annabella opt for the i r "stolen contents;'/ the 62 p r e s s i n g n e c e s s i t y f o r s e c r e c y b a r s them from h o n e s t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s . I t i s t h e i l l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p a g a i n w h i c h f o r c e s on them t h e c o n t i n g e n c y o f A n n a b e l l a ' s m a r r i a g e w i t h S o r a n z o . The c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i r i n i t i a l a c t i o n and t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o u r s e o f t h e i r l i v e s i s p e r f e c t l y c l e a r , b e c a u s e t h e two s t a g e s o f a c t i o n a r e r e l a t e d as cause and e f f e c t . T r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t t h e s o c i a l c o d e , w h e t h e r i t i s i n c e s t o r i n f i d e l i t y , a t once t r a n s f o r m s the t r a n s g r e s s o r s i n t o o u t c a s t s . They have no o p t i o n but t o pay the p e n a l t y f o r d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e s o c i a l norm. The l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s as h o n o r a b l e members o f s o c i e t y i s s e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r l y i n t h e l i v e s o f A n n a b e l l a and H i p p o l i t a . B e i n g women t h e y a r e more v u l n e r a b l e b e c a u s e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e i r s e c r e t s i s e a s i e r , and t h e y a r e f o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e more f r a n t i c t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s . I n the c a s e o f A n n a b e l l a , h e r p r o b l e m i s n o t s i m p l y t h a t t h e o n l y o p t i o n she has i s t o f i n d a husband t o glv,.e_.a_;name t o h e r c h i l d b u t a l s o t h a t she does n o t have a c h o i c e o f s u i t o r s as she had had a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the p l a y . G r i m a l d i i s d e b a r r e d by h i s c o n d u c t f r o m t h e t i m e he f i r s t a p p e a r s , and B e r g e t t o , whojwould have been t h e p e r f e c t dupe, r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s c l a i m i n A c t I I , s c e n e v i , b e f o r e A n n a b e l l a ' s p r o b l e m s b e g i n . G i o v a n n i t o o i s f o r c e d by A n n a b e l l a ' s p r e g n a n c y and t h e i r i l l e g i t i m a t e l o v e i n t o a c c e p t i n g A n n a b e l l a ' s m a r r i a g e . As t h e a c t i o n u n f o l d s , we o b s e r v e t h e p r o g r e s s i v e c u r t a i l m e n t o f f r e e c h o i c e f o r t h o s e who s e t up t h e i r own frame o f v a l u e s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h a t o f s o c i e t y . The i r o n y o f t h e 63 s i t u a t i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e t h e m s e l v e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g t h e i r p r i s o n s . Once t h e y a d m i t t h e supremacy o f t h e i r d e s i r e s , the shape o f t h e i r l i v e s i s d e t e r -mined. A f t e r H i p p o l i t a i s r e j e c t e d by S o r a n z o i n A c t I I , s c e n e i i , and a f t e r G i o v a n n i d i s c o v e r s A n n a b e l l a ' s p r e g n a n c y i n A c t I I I , s c e n e i i i , i t seems t h a t G i o v a n n i and H i p p o l i t a have no o p t i o n b u t t o s u b m i t t o t h e r e t r i b u t i o n meted o u t by s o c i e t y , as A n n a b e l l a , t h e weaker c h a r a c t e r i s r e a d y t o do. However, i t i s p r e c i s e l y a t t h e s e c r i t i c a l p o i n t s o f t h e i r l i v e s t h a t G i o v a n n i and H i p p o l i t a r e f u s e t o s u b m i t . They p e r s u a d e t h e m s e l v e s t h a t t h o u g h a l l i s l o s t , t h e y may y e t t r a n s c e n d the web o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s and a s s e r t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l w i l l t h r o u g h t h e o n l y c o u r s e open t o them. That c o u r s e , f o r b o t h , i s t o l a u n c h i n t o some v i o l e n t a c t t h a t embodies t h e i r d e f i a n c e . In t h e c a s e o f t h e l e s s s e n s i t i v e H i p p o l i t a d e f i a n c e i s e q u a t e d w i t h r e v e n g e . F o r G i o v a n n i , however, t h e f i n a l g r a n d g e s t u r e c o m p r i s e s n o t o n l y r e v e n g e b u t a l s o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n , f o r i t . i s h i s r e s o l u t e w e l c o m i n g o f c a l a m i t y t h a t p r o v e s t o h i m h i s s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h e common r u n o f p e o p l e a r o u n d him by whose judgment he i s r o b b e d o f h i s j o y . H i p p o l i t a t h i n k s t h a t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n e n t i t l e s h e r t o r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n . She has "a s p i r i t d o t h as much d i s t a s t e / T h e s l a v e r y o f f e a r i n g t h e e , as t h o u / D o s t l o a t h e t h e memory o f what h a t h p a s s ' d " ( I I . i i . 4 2 - 4 ) . S o r a n z o ' s t r e a c h e r y can no l o n g e r weaken h e r , f o r "I'm arm'd i n my r e s o l v e s " ( I I I . v i i i . 1 4 ) . In moments o f t o t a l d e f e a t f o r t i t u d e emerges as t h e r e s i d u a l i n s t r u m e n t o f s e l f -64 a f f i r m a t i o n . Even t i m i d , g e n t l e A n n a b e l l a , when t h r e a t e n e d by S o r a n z o , d e f i e s h i m by r e f u s i n g t o be i n t i m i d a t e d : " I d a r e t h e e t o the w o r s t : s t r i k e , and s t r i k e home " ( I V . i i i . 7 0 ) . She can l a u g h a t S o r a n z o and s i n g even when he a c t u a l l y d r a g s h e r by h e r h a i r ( I V . i i i . 6 0 - 6 1 ) b e c a u s e she s e t s no v a l u e on h e r l i f e as o r d i n a r y p e o p l e do: " I p r i z e my l i f e / A s n o t h i n g " ( I V . i i i . 9 4 - 5 ) . She t r a n s c e n d s p h y s i c a l weakness by t h e i n t e g r i t y o f h e r f o r t i t u d e . Her b r a v e d e f i a n c e l e n d s i r o n y t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f S o r a n z o d r a g g i n g h e r by the h a i r , f o r t h e . s t a g e - i m a g e becomes a symbol o f t h e w i l l c o n q u e r i n g b r u t e f o r c e . The same k i n d o f u n s w e r v i n g r e s o l u t i o n marks G i o v a n n i ' s r e a c t i o n t o d i s a s t e r b u t , as b e f i t s h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n c l i n a -t i o n s , i t i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n . When the F r i a r b r i n g s h i m t h e l e t t e r f r o m A n n a b e l l a w r i t t e n i n h e r b l o o d , h i s r e s p o n s e t o i t i s t h a t even i f i t i s g e n u i n e i t s w a r n i n g can change n e i t h e r h i s l o v e , n o r h i s l i f e : D eath? I ' l l n o t f e a r An armed t h u n d e r b o l t aim'd a t my h e a r t . She w r i t e s , we a r e d i s c o v e r e d - - p o x on dreams Of low f a i n t - h e a r t e d c o w a r d i c e ! ( V . i i i . 3 3 - 6 ) H i s c o u r a g e a r i s e s o u t o f h i s n a t u r e , n o t o u t o f h i s s u s p i c i o n t h a t the l e t t e r might be f o r g e d , as he l e a r n s i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t i t i s g e n u i n e enough. H i s d e c i s i o n t o p e r s i s t i n h i s ways i s b a s e d on a c l e a r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f a c t s , n o t on f o o l i s h b r a v a d o as i n t h e c a s e o f Bussy d'Ambois, f o r example, who r e f u s e s t o a c c e p t t h e w a r n i n g s o f the s p i r i t s , o f t h e l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n Tamyra's b l o o d , and h e r own v e r b a l w a r n i n g . The s c e n e i n 65 ' T i s P i t y ( V . i i i ) i s c a r e f u l l y b u i l t up t o u n d e r l i n e G i o v a n n i f o r t i t u d e and h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s p l a c e i n h i s w o r l d . As the s c e n e opens we f i n d G i o v a n n i c o n g r a t u l a t i n g h i m s e l f on w i n n i n g " t h e g l o r y / O f two u n i t e d h e a r t s l i k e h e r s and mine!" ( V . i i i . 1 1 - 1 2 ) . He has c r e a t e d a w o r l d f o r h i m s e l f w h i c h he wou l d not. change " f o r t h e b e s t t o come:/A l i f e o f p l e a s u r e i s E l y s i u m " ( V . i i i . 15- 16). On t h i s cue the F r i a r e n t e r s w i t h A n n a b e l l a ' s l e t t e r and t h e n e x t moment G i o v a n n i ' s w o r l d "and a l l o f h a p p i n e s s " ( V . i i i . 1 4 ) l i e i n p i e c e s . R e v e r s a l o f f o r t u n e c o u l d h a r d l y be more sudden and s h a t t e r i n g . G i o v a n n i r e s p o n d s n e i t h e r w i t h f e a r n o r w i t h g r i e f b u t w i t h s c o r n . A s e c o n d t e s t o f h i s s p i r i t f o l l o w s a t once i n t h e form o f S o r a n z o ' s i n v i t a t i o n b r o u g h t by V a s q u e s . G i o v a n n i ' s r e p l y t o t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t : "Yes, t e l l h i m I d a r e come'.' ( V . i i i . 4 7 ) . T h a t t h i s r e p l y i s d e s i g n e d as a moment o f t h e a t r i c a l c l i m a x i s i n d i c a t e d by F o r d who makes Vasques s e i z e upon G i o v a n n i ' s p h r a s e i n p o i n t e d s u r p r i s e : "Dare come?" G i o v a n n i i n t e r p r e t t h i s as an immediate c h a l l e n g e and the s u b s e q u e n t exchange o f s h o r t , s t a c c a t o l i n e s s h a r p e n s o u r s e n s e o f c h a l l e n g e and r e s p o n s e . The s i t u a t i o n c a n be d e s c r i b e d as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e w o r l d . The a t t i t u d e t h a t s u c h r e s o l u t e c o u r a g e s u g g e s t s i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e m a r t i a l i m a g e r y o f t h e c o n c l u d i n g p a r t o f t h e s c e n e : S t o o d d e a t h T h r e a t ' n i n g h i s a r m i e s o f c o n f o u n d i n g p l a g u e s , W i t h h o s t s o f d a n g e r s h o t as b l a z i n g s t a r s , I w ould be t h e r e . Not go? Yes, and r e s o l v e To s t r i k e as deep i n s l a u g h t e r as t h e y a l l . ( V . i i i . 5 8 - 6 2 ) 66 G i o v a n n i ' s p o s i t i o n i s s i g n i f i e d by t h e image: " I have s e t up my r e s t " ( V . i i i . 7 2 ) and h i s m o t i v e s and v a l u e s by t h i s : I f I must t o t t e r l i k e a w e l l - g r o w n oak, Some u n d e r - s h r u b s s h a l l i n my m i g h t y f a l l Be c r u s h e d t o s p l i t s ; w i t h me t h e y a l l s h a l l p e r i s h : ( V . i i i . 7 7 - 9 ) "Some u n d e r - s h r u b s " has a w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n G i o v a n n i s u s p e c t s ; i n t h e e v e n t e v e r y o n e c l o s e t o h im p e r i s h e s , i n c l u d i n g h i s i n n o c e n t f a t h e r . G i o v a n n i l o s e s s i g h t o f e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t h i s need t o p r o v e h i m s e l f s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h d e n i e s h i m f r e e d o m as he u n d e r s t a n d s i t . S i n c e t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f s e l f - e s t e e m i s so i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d with'.the.idea o,f/.rsleriM-.ess b a t t l e and d e s t r u c t i o n , v i o l e n c e becomes i n ' T i s P i t y s o m e t h i n g more t h a n the e r u p t i o n o f p a s s i o n s . I t becomes t h e o b j e c t o f c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g so t h a t by i t s p e r f e c t i o n i t s e x e c u t o r may p r o v e h i m s e l f Cor h e r s e l f ) s u p e r i o r t o h i s p e e r s . As an a c t i v i t y d e s i g n e d a t once t o be p e r f e c t and t o s e c u r e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , and a l s o t o communicate a message o f s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n , v i o l e n c e assumes t h e r o l e o f a r t . I n a t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g e s s a y M a u r i c e Charney examines t h e a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n o f v i o l e n c e i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama b ut f a i l s t o n o t e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as an a c t i v i t y t h a t , l i k e a r t , 5 s e p a r a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m t h e g r o u p . The v e r y e x c e s s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s s u p e r - v i l l a i n s s u c h as B a r a b a s o r F e r d i n a n d , or d e s p e r a t e r e v e n g e r s s u c h as H i e r o n i m o o r V i n d i c e , and p l a c e s them beyond n o r m a l f e e l i n g s o f p i t y and h o r r o r , a l s o r a i s e s t h e i r a c t i o n s t o the l e v e l o f a r t . Charney o b s e r v e s t h a t i n 67 e p i s o d e s o f v i o l e n c e t h e " w i l l and b e i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e b o t h displayed and put t o t h e p r o o f . W e may add t h a t v i o l e n c e a l s o a c h i e v e s an e f f e c t o f a l i e n a t i o n i n t h e B r e c h t i a n s e n s e . I t j o l t s the a u d i e n c e o u t o f empathy w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s and f o r c e s t h e a u d i e n c e t o r e c o g n i z e them as s t r a n g e r s i n t h e i r own w o r l d . The r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s f r o m t h e p l a y w o r l d i s t h e r e b y made t o seem i n e v i t a b l e . We may a l s o n o t e t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t s went d e e p e r t h a n a h o r r i f i e d f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h v i o -l e n c e . The k i l l e r ' s p r i d e i n a f i n e l y t u n e d p i e c e o f mayhem i s i n t r u t h p a r t o f the l a r g e r n e u r o s i s o f t h e c o m p u l s i o n t o p r o v e o n e s e l f s u p e r i o r t o a l l r i v a l s . T h a t E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t s were d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s n e u r o s i s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a m b i t i o n as a m o r a l p r o b l e m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s c o m p u l s i o n t o r i s e above o t h e r s a p p e a r e d t o them as a malady f r e q u e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d i n comic as w e l l as t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i n c o m i c s i t u a t i o n s the n e u r o s i s i s l e s s i n t e n s e . I n d e e d , s u c h s i t u a t i o n s a r e comic p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e malady i s c o n t r o l l a b l e and t h e r e f o r e does n o t s e t i t s v i c t i m s i r r e t r i e v a b l y a p a r t from t h e s p e c t a t o r . T h a t i s why i n comedy i t does n o t a l i e n a t e t h e a u d i e n c e f r o m t h e p r o t a g o -n i s t as i t does i n t r a g e d y . E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a t i s t s had a deep i n t e r e s t i n t h e i m p a c t on s o c i e t y o f r a p a c i o u s , p r e d a t o r y i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h i s i n t e r e s t r e s u l t e d i n com e d i e s a b o u t c h e a t s and r o g u e s and t r a g e d i e s c e n t r e d a r o u n d o v e r r e a c h e r s . V o l p o n e , A New Way t o Pay O l d D e b t s , and M i c h a e l m a s Term make 68 t e l l i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t s b e c a u s e t h e y examine t h e c o m p u l s i v e need o f a c e r t a i n t y p e o f men who t r a m p l e o t h e r s u n d e r f o o t i n an e f f o r t t o r e a c h t h e t o p . Seen i n t h i s c o n t e x t o f f u n d a m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y , G i o v a n n i , V i n d i c e and B o s o l a a r e n o t u n r e l a t e d t o V o l p o n e , Mosca, S i r G i l e s O v e r r e a c h and E p h e s t i a n Quomodo. The v i o l e n c e i m p l i c i t i n t h e c h e a t ' s k n a v e r y o r t h e u s u r e r ' s m a c h i n a t i o n s i s n o t t h e l e s s d e s t r u c t i v e f o r b e i n g b l o o d l e s s . The edge t o t h e r o g u e r y o f V o l p o n e and Mosca i s put on by t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e i r a i m i s n o t m e r e l y t o a c c u m u l a t e w e a l t h b u t t o do so by o u t -w i t t i n g the w o r l d and thu s p r o v i n g t h e m s e l v e s b e t t e r t h a n t h e r i c h e s t and the most p o w e r f u l members, o f t h e community. Mosca's a n a l y s i s o f t h e kn a v e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s mpst i l l u m i n a t i n g : 0! y o u r p a r a s i t e I s a most p r e c i o u s t h i n g , d r o p t f r o m above Not b r e d 'mongst c l o d s and c l o d p o l e s , h e r e on e a r t h . But y o u r f i n e e l e g a n t r a s c a l , t h a t c a n r i s e , And s t o o p , a l m o s t t o g e t h e r , l i k e an a r r o w ; 7 ( V o l p o n e , I I I . i . 7 - 1 1 ) The a e s t h e t i c o f v i l l a i n y i s s u c c i n c t l y s e t o u t e a r l i e r i n t h e p l a y by V o l p o n e who s a y s : Y e t I g l o r y More i n t h e c u n n i n g p u r c h a s e o f my w e a l t h , Than i n the g l a d p o s s e s s i o n , s i n c e I g a i n No common way; ( I . i . 3 0 - 3 3 ) Quomodo's c h i e f s a t i s f a c t i o n l i e s i n c a l l i n g h i m s e l f " l a n d e d M a s t e r Quomodo" and i m a g i n i n g t h e s p l a s h he w i l l make i n s o c i e t y . S i r G i l e s O v e r r e a c h " w i l l c u t h i s n e i g h b o u r ' s t h r o a t " t o g a i n h i s ends. A New Way t o Pay O l d Debts comes c l o s e t o th e a c t u a l v i o l e n c e s e e n i n t r a g e d y i n i t s p r o t r a y a l o f t h e mind 69 o f a p r e d a t o r f e e d i n g upon s o c i e t y , when i n t h e l a s t s c e n e o f t h e p l a y O v e r r e a c h r u n s a t h i s d a u g h t e r w i t h drawn sword and r a v e s and f o a m s . a t t h e mouth as he i s b e i n g d r a g g e d o f f t o Bedlam. From the p o i n t o f view o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , we may c o n s i d e r c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as t h e s e e s s e n t i a l l y as d i s t u r b e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s who, i n comedy as w e l l as i n t r a g e d y , have t h e i d e n t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n o f r e v e r s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c l a s s o r s t a t u s . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y between t r a g e d y and comedy may n o t be a p p a r e n t a t f i r s t g l a n c e b e c a u s e i n comedy a g g r e s s i o n does n o t assume the t h r e a t e n i n g p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t i t does i n t r a g e d y where v i o l e n c e i s e x p l i c i t i n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e and we s e e t h e murders and maimings d i r e c t l y b e f o r e o u r own e y e s . Though v i t a l , t h i s i s a d i s t i n c t i o n o f d e g r e e , n o t o f q u a l i t y , and c a n n o t c o n c e a l t h e i d e n t i t y o f i n t e r e s t between comedy and t r a g e d y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f v i o l e n c e . I n The  Relvenger's T r a g e d y V i n d i c e has s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e he i s weaker t h a n t h e l e c h e r o u s duke and u n a b l e t o p r o t e c t h i s l a d y - l o v e . T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t the t h i r d a c t o f t h e p l a y r e v e r s e s t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p d e f i n i t i v e l y . I n V o l p o n e , Mosca, a mere p a r a s i t e , has no s o c i a l s t a t u s and y e t he has t h e p i l l a r s o f V e n e t i a n s o c i e t y f a w n i n g upon him. B o s o l a ' s i s a more complex but s i m i l a r c a s e . H i s i n i t i a l d i s c o n t e n t i s w i t h t h e c o o l r e c e p t i o n h i s s e r v i c e s g e t . S i n c e he f i n d s h i m s e l f p o w e r l e s s t o r i g h t h i s wrongs, he blames i t a l l on t h e n a t u r e o f mankind and i n t h e r o l e o f a m a l c o n t e n t he f i n d s a b i t t e r j o y i n d i s c o v e r i n g c o r r u p t i o n e v e r y w h e r e and i n c l u d e s i n h i s g e n e r a l 70 c e n s u r e t h e p r i v a t e l i f e o f t h e Duchess. H i s hate i n c a p a c i t a t e s h i m t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the m o r a l i d e n t i t i e s o f t h e Duchess and h e r b r o t h e r s . The s h o c k o f h e r d e a t h - - t h e g r e a t e r b e c a u s e he p a r t i c i p a t e s i n h e r m u r d e r — a w a k e n s h i m t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t once a g a i n he has been used as a t o o l . H i s t u r n a b o u t a t the end o f t h e f o u r t h a c t o f t h e p l a y i s t h e r e f o r e m o t i v a t e d as much by a d e s i r e t o avenge t h e Duchess as t o avenge h i m s e l f on h e r b r o t h e r s f o r h a v i n g e n s l a v e d him. Such s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e a l e r s i n d e a t h as B o s o l a or G i o v a n n i a r e o f c o u r s e n o t t o be e q u a t e d w i t h f i e n d i s h v i l l a i n s l i k e D ' A m v i l l e o r D e f l o r e s who k i l l f o r s p e c i f i c ends. The p o i n t a t i s s u e h e r e i s not v i o l e n c e i t s e l f b u t a t t i t u d e s t o v i o l e n c e . However u n r e a s o n a b l e i t may seem t h a t G i o v a n n i or B o s o l a s h o u l d see t h e m s e l v e s as wronged by t h e w o r l d and p u n i s h i t f o r t h e i r own w r o n g d o i n g s , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e y e v e n t u a l l y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s r e j e c t e d by t h e w o r l d and f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e l e f t w i t h no o p t i o n b u t t o f i g h t . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n o f i n c u r a b l e a n t a g o n i s m , v i o l e n c e becomes t h e o n l y way t o p r o v e one's w o r t h . V i o l e n c e , l i k e a r t , i m m o r t a l i z e s . T h a t s u c h a c h a r a c t e r as G i o v a n n i f i n d s h i m s e l f i n an u t t e r l y i r r e d u c i b l e s i t u a t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y h i s own d o i n g . H i s f a t e i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f h i s own n a t u r e and t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s u f f e r e r f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g i s a b a s i c e l e m e n t o f t r a g e d y i n ' T i s P i t y . One s e n s e s h e r e an A r i s t o t e l i a n p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t r a g i c i n human l i f e and t h i s s e n s e i s augmented by t h e sympathy s e c u r e d f o r G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a , o f w h i c h we have t a k e n n o t e e a r l i e r . 71 At the same time, 'Tis Pity i s unrelenting i n i t s emphasis on human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Early i n the play the major characters make decisions that irrevocably shape th e i r actions. Subsequently, they have opportunities to reverse or a l t e r their way of l i f e but th e i r i n i t i a l decisions do not allow them to take up these options. After Annabella's marriage Giovanni might have, had he so wanted, kept away from her but his decision to enjoy his s i s t e r remains firm and when he realizes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of f u l f i l l i n g his desire, the only option he accepts i s that of death. A similar either-or attitude characterizes Hippolita. Her rejection at Soranzo's hands might have turned her to a fresh d i r e c t i o n i n l i f e had she not been so thoroughly ruled by her o r i g i n a l purpose of possessing him that she must needs claim him for her own, permanently, by k i l l i n g him. Annabella, the one central figure who wants to re-order her l i f e , i s not allowed a second chance as she i s betrayed by her "too f r u i t f u l womb" (V.vi.48) which i s of course a consequence of what her "captive heart had long ago resolved" ( I . i i . 2 4 6 ) . At every stage of the action the protagonists choose what turns out to be the worst of a l l possible courses for themselves. Clearly, they do so under the influence of intense passion. The portrayal of i t s intensity i s not, as some c r i t i c s have f e l t , the product of a sensationalist purpose but a strategy to create an ambivalence in the response of the spectator, for the very extremity of passion proves at once i t s i n t e g r i t y and destructive influence over judgment. 72 Human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r trag e d y i s d e f i n e d i n ' T i s P i t y f i r s t as s u r r e n d e r to p a s s i o n , and s e c o n d l y as f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n . The s u r r e n d e r o f G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a t o d e s i r e i s r e f l e c t e d , as we have seen, i n a c o a r s e r way i n the l i f e o f H i p p o l i t a and i n G r i m a l d i ' s d e s p e r a t e eagerness to murder a r i v a l , which l e a d s t o B e r g e t t o ' s death. G r i m a l d i acknowledges t h a t a s s a s s i n -a t i o n i s "an unnoble a c t , and not becomes/A s o l d i e r ' s v a l o r " ( I I I . v . 3 - 4 ) but h i s s o - c a l l e d l o v e compels him t o f o l l o w "some angry j u s t i c e " ( I I I . v i i . 6 ) . His murder o f B e r g e t t o and H i p p o l i t a ' s p l o t a g a i n s t Soranzo demonstrate the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f p a s s i o n and c o n f i r m the t h e s i s u n d e r l y i n g the l o v e o f G i o v a n n i and A n n a b e l l a t h a t u n c o n t r o l l e d p a s s i o n s l i e a t the r o o t s o f t r a g e d y . T h i s g e n e r a l n o t i o n i s h a r d l y unique to Ford. But F o r d , i n s t e a d o f merely r e i t e r a t i n g the i d e a o f man's enslavement to p a s s i o n , r e f i n e s t h a t idea., i n t o a s p e c i f i c concept o f the p e r v e r s i o n o f judgment. He shows t h a t p a s s i o n erodes judgment not o n l y by swamping the mind w i t h d e s i r e but by a c t u a l l y i n d u c i n g a f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n o f the s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the o u t s i d e w o r l d . G i o v a n n i and H i p p o l i t a a re s t r i k i n g examples o f the s u b j e c t i v e t a k i n g f u l l c o n t r o l o f the o b j e c t i v e s e l f . S e v e r a l c r i t i c s have commented upon G i o v a n n i ' s c a s u i s t r y / but i t i s not o n l y t o h i s f a l s e l o g i c and p s e u d o - P l a t o n i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f i n c e s t t h a t a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the problem o f f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n , a l t h o u g h the two are r e l a t e d . To h i s s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n we must add h i s r e a d i -ness t o c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f b e t r a y e d and i n j u r e d as he f a i l s t o 73 have his own way. When Annabella i s persuaded by the F r i a r to accept Soranzo, Giovanni phrases his reaction thus: "I fear this f r i a r ' s falsehood" ( I I I . v i . 4 9 ) . In the l a s t act again he reproaches Annabella with faithlessness. He becomes incapable of recognizing his c u l p a b i l i t y , for the perversion of his understanding takes the form of a conviction that his i s a sp e c i a l kind of incest, investing i t with the highest morality. His and Annabella's i s a "sacred love" (V.v.57), Annabella i s worthy "to f i l l a throne/Of innocence and sanctity i n Heaven" (V.v.64-5) and although they are being penalized by the world, i t i s only because the world i s blind. He i s confident that in "after times", When they but know Our loves, that love w i l l wipe away that rigor, Which would i n other incests be abhorr'd. (V.v.71-3) This i n v i n c i b l e conviction of worth i s what transforms the gory k i l l i n g of Annabella into a s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g to the s p i r i t . Death i s by no means an expediency but a statement of s e l f -approbation. It i s therefore not a mark of defeat but a prologue to augmented honour, and by arranging his death in a spectacularly public setting Giovanni expects to establish his superiority over those "under-shrubs" around him. The theme of a unifying love r i t u a l l y affirmed in the f i r s t act comes to perfection in the f i f t h . The contract between brother and s i s t e r at the beginning of the play--"Love me or k i l l me" (I.ii.252 ,255)--is f u l f i l l e d i n the e x p l i c i t equation of love and k i l l i n g at the conclusion. 74 I n H i p p o l i t a ' s s t o r y t h e e l e m e n t o f f a l s e p e r c e p t i o n i s o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . A d m i t t e d l y , she has c a u s e t o p l o t v e ngeance a g a i n s t S o r a n z o whose d o u b l e - d e a l i n g i s t o o much even f o r V a s q u es. But h e r own i n t e g r i t y becomes s u s p e c t when i n t h e c o u r s e o f s t o r m i n g a t S o r a n z o she d e n i e s h e r own p a r t i n h e r d o w n f a l l , even w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t she had d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o s p e c t o f a permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S o r a n z o . She s e e s h e r s e l f as a wronged woman but we know, on h e r own e v i d e n c e t h a t she had p l o t t e d the d e a t h o f h e r h u s b a n d , t h a t "Unhappy man, t o buy h i s d e a t h so d e a r / W i t h my a d v i c e ! " ( I I . i i . 7 9 - 8 0 ) . M o r e o v e r , one i m m o r a l a c t l e a d s t o a n o t h e r , 9 murder f o l l o w i n g upon l u s t , and t h e h o l l o w n e s s o f H i p p o l i t a ' s l a r g e c l a i m s o f h o n o u r i s soon e v i d e n t i n h e r a t t e m p t t o s u b o r n Vasques by p r o s t i t u t i n g h e r s e l f : "wert t h o u mine, and w o u l d ' s t be p r i v a t e t o me and my d e s i g n s , I n h e r e p r o t e s t , m y s e l f , and a l l what I can e l s e c a l l mine, s h o u l d be a t t h y d i s p o s e " ( I I . i i . 1 3 7 - 9 ) . H i p p o l i t a ' s f u r i o u s a p p e a r a n c e i n t h i s s c e n e p r o v i d e s v i s u a l p r o o f t h a t p a s s i o n has made h e r f r a n t i c . V a s q u e s ' r e p r o a c h , " F i e , m i s t r e s s , you a r e n o t n e a r t h e l i m i t s o f r e a s o n " ( I I . i i . 6 1 ) , i s a l i t e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r s t a t e i n w h i c h she c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e h e r own c u l p a b i l i t y . T h rough t h e s e r e v e l a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r t h e f a i l u r e o f r e a s o n i s shown t o be a r e s u l t o f o v e r w h e l m i n g p a s s i o n . T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e e r r o r s o f judgment by w h i c h H i p p o l i t a and G i o v a n n i s e e t h e m s e l v e s as v i c t i m s . H i p p o l i t a ' s c o a r s e r n a t u r e i s i n c a p a b l e o f l o o k i n g beyond h e r i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t and h e r 75 attempt to assert her rights involves Soranzo alone. But the fin e r mind, the trained i n t e l l e c t of Giovanni, "that miracle of wit...wonder of thine age" (I.i.47-9) seizes upon his fundamental i s o l a t i o n from society at large. Unlike Annabella, who confesses, "My conscience now stands up against my l u s t " (V.i.9), Giovanni feels no urge to be accepted by the group whose taboos he has violated. Through repentance, Annabella regains her sense of i d e n t i t y with her fellow-men .and finds a kind of l i s t l e s s peace; for Giovanni and Hippolita i t i s war to the l a s t . They die l i k e rebels, crying defiance against society and r e i t e r a t i n g t i l l the end their f a i t h i n the courses they had chosen. Annabella, on the other hand, turns her eyes towards heaven. She dies a sinner but recognizes the play's framework of established values. S i g n i f i c a n t l y enough, Richardetto's comments on the death of Giovanni and Hippolita are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l ; he sees in their death "the end/Of lust and pride" (IV.i.101-2) and the "effect of lust and pride" (V.vi.153). Calamity i s seen here to be brought about by unruly passion as well as an arrogant assertion of the s e l f . The comparative v a l i d i t y of public or private morality i s of course immaterial in 'Tis Pity, for what the tragedy implies i s the i r r e c o n c i l a b i l i t y of the two. Whether incest i s right or wrong i s not the question, nor marital f i d e l i t y as such. The re a l issue i s that Giovanni, Annabella and Hippolita choose to reject the laws of their group and to l i v e by t h e i r own laws. These ane mutually exclusive sets of laws. Moreover, the very 76 concept of personal e t h i c a l systems operating p a r a l l e l to the corporate system contradicts the concept of the group. By the necessities of i t s existence society must always reject the rebel. The greater the p o l a r i t y of the two sets of laws, the greater must be the distance between the rebel and his parent group. Besides the physical decimation therefore, 'Tis Pity also presents a process of progressive alienation which i s the more f e a r f u l for not being engineered by fate or accident but proceeding out of man's own nature. The s t r i c t causal frame-work of the play, which has been noted i n the previous chapter, both enforces the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of disaster and i n t e n s i f i e s the spectator's awareness of the growing loneliness of the p r i n c i p a l characters by l i n k i n g i t with their tragedy. From the very beginning of the play Giovanni focuses our attention on his spe c i a l kind of character, one that suffers from hopeless love as from "incurable and restless wounds" (I . i i . 1 4 3 ) . His decision to declare his love i s , as he well knows, one that sets him upon a lonely path, for before he treads i t he deliberately consigns "fear and low faint-hearted shame with slaves" (I.ii.155) and abandons "smooth-cheek'd virtue" (I.ii .223) . When he and Annabella exchange vows they create a special world of t h e i r own closed to a l l else. This sense of e x i s t i n g i n a private and self-supporting world i s strengthened by Giovanni's assertion, reminiscent of Donne, that he holds himself, " i n being king of thee/More great than were I King of a l l the world" ( I I . i . 19-20). In terms of p r a c t i c a l necessity 77 too, t h e i r love must be secret and this again raises a b a r r i e r of complicity and fear. Annabella t e l l s Putana, "I would not have i t known for a l l the world" (II.i.50), and the d u p l i c i t y she learns i n her "paradise of joy" ( I I . i . 4 3 ) i s at once demon-strated dramatically in the act she puts on for her father i n this scene, s i t t i n g demurely with her needle-work. She has become a stranger to her father. Later, she repulses with equal determination the attempts at friendship made by P h i l o t i s . The progress of Giovanni's estrangement seems less marked i f we remember that Ford presents him as one who had never been too close to anyone other than his tutor. As a scholar he i s evidently acknowledged by his family to be somewhat diff e r e n t from ordinary people. He i s "so devoted to his book," says F l o r i o , "I doubt his health" ( I . i i i . 5 - 6 ) . Giovanni already belongs to a d i f f e r e n t climate, from which he draws sustenance i n the form of a certain s k i l l in l o g i c . This s k i l l he uses to construct an e t h i c a l framework that holds together his private world. We see his alienation i n the form of a shallow i n t e l -lectualism, with which he cuts himself off from ordinary people. The F r i a r t e l l s us how the university applauded him; yet i t i s the university that Giovanni rejects f i r s t , choosing to be a "castaway/By the re l i g i o u s number" (II.v.5-6) of the F r i a r ' s order. He i s f i n a l l y abandoned even by the F r i a r (in V . i v ) , Giovanni's only link with the world around him. In his . out-ward behaviour too, Giovanni seems closed to his fellow men. He seldom speaks to anybody but Annabella or the F r i a r and muses 78 c o n t i n u a l l y , r e c a p i t u l a t i n g h i s l o v e and r e i t e r a t i n g h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f i t , t h u s b u i l d i n g up f o r h i m s e l f an a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t e n c e . T h i s c r e a t i n g o f a p r i v a t e p a r a d i s e becomes so o v e r w h e l m i n g an a c t o f w i l l t h a t he e v e n t u a l l y f o r m u l a t e s i t as t h e r e j e c t i o n o f one w o r l d f o r a n o t h e r : L e t p o r i n g ' book-men dream o f o t h e r w o r l d s , My w o r l d , and a l l o f h a p p i n e s s i s h e r e , And I ' d n o t change i t f o r t h e b e s t t o come: A l i f e o f p l e a s u r e i s E l y s i u m . ( V . i i i . 1 3 - 1 6 ) F o r t h e s p e c t a t o r t h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e s h a r p e s t moment o f t r a g i c p e r c e p t i o n , f o r he knows, but G i o v a n n i does n o t , t h a t t h i s " E l y s i u m " i s a p a r a d i s e a l r e a d y i n v a d e d by d e a t h . What G i o v a n n i d e c l a r e s t o be a l i f e o f p l e a s u r e i s i n r e a l i t y t h e most t e r r i f y i n g agony o f a l l , f o r i t p l a c e s on him t h e t a s k o f k i l l i n g what he l o v e s most. We might a l m o s t s a y t h a t w i t h Marlowe's F a u s t u s G i o v a n n i c o n f o u n d s h e l l i n E l y s i u m . Whether F o r d uses t h e word " E l y s i u m " as a d e l i b e r a t e echo o f D o c t o r  F a u s t u s can be no more t h a n a s p e c u l a t i o n , b u t he does c r e a t e h e r e , as Marlowe does i n h i s p l a y , a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a man, e m i n e n t l y f i t t o a v o i d e r r o r s o f r e a s o n i n g , c o n f u s e s f e l i c i t y w i t h r u i n , l i f e w i t h d e a t h . T h i s i s i n d e e d a s i t u a t i o n c e n t r a l t o a l o n g l i n e o f dramas t h a t l o c a t e t h e causae o f t r a g e d y i n man's a s s u m p t i o n o f f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i m s e l f . The s t a g e - i m a g e o f a man c o n f i d e n t i n h i s powers p r o c l a i m i n g t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f h i s j o y s and w h o l l y unaware o f t h e imminent blow t h a t s h a t t e r s h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s , e x p r e s s e s the f e a r f u l i r o n i e s i n h e r e n t i n s u c h a c h o i c e as G i o v a n n i ' s . The moment a f t e r he 79 p r o c l a i m s t h e p e r p e t u a l j o y s o f h i s l o v e we see h i m s t a n d i n g w i t h A n n a b e l l a ' s l e t t e r , c h a n g i n g c o l o u r ( V . i i i . 2 7 ) a t h i s sudden m i s f o r t u n e . The v i s u a l moment has i n f a c t t h e d o u b l e f u n c t i o n o f p r e s e n t i n g a model o f b l i n d c o n f i d e n c e and o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e l f - c h o s e n e x i l e o f G i o v a n n i f r o m t h e w o r l d o f h i s p e e r s . F o r d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o v i s u a l terms o f the t r a g e d y o f the e s t r a n g e d b u t n o b l e s o u l i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g F o r d ' s c o n c e p t o f t r a g e d y , and i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e o c c u r i n each o f h i s p l a y s a t c r i t i c a l moments. The most s t r i k i n g o f s u c h v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n ' T i s P i t y i s o f c o u r s e G i o v a n n i ' s l a s t e n t r y w i t h A n n a b e l l a ' s h e a r t upon h i s d a g g e r . F o r d s e t s t h e s t a g e c a r e f u l l y by h a v i n g a l l t h e main c h a r a c t e r s s e a t e d a t t h e ba n q u e t when G i o v a n n i e n t e r s . As he s t a n d s f a c i n g t h e s e a t e d b a n q u e t e r s , he d o m i n a t e s t h e s t a g e , "trimmed i n r e e k i n g b l o o d " ( V . v i . 1 0 ) and h o l d i n g up t h e i m p a l e d h e a r t . F o r d i s o l a t e s him v i s u a l l y f r o m t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s on the s t a g e and t h r o u g h t h i s i s o l a t i o n s u p p l e m e n t s ou r i m p r e s s i o n o f G i o v a n n i ' s e s t r a n g e m e n t from h i s f e l l o w ^ m e n , an e s t r a n g e m e n t t h a t i s so o n p r o v e d by h i s p r o u d n a r r a t i o n o f h i s t e r r i b l e a c t . I n e f f e c t , what F o r d a c h i e v e s h e r e by h i s s t a g e c r a f t i s a c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e t r a g i c s e n s e o f G i o v a n n i ' s a l i e n a t i o n i n t o t h e immediate e x p e r i e n c e o f a v i s u a l image. I n F o r d ' s o t h e r c e l e b r a t e d t r a g e d y o f p a s s i o n , The B r o k e n H e a r t , O r g i l u s t h e r e v e n g e r s t a n d s i n m i d - s t a g e , b l e e d i n g t o d e a t h and s u r r o u n d e d by s h o c k e d c o u r t i e r s . A g a i n , i n P e r k i n Warbeck, Warbeck s t a n d s i n K i n g H e n r y ' s s t o c k s , mocked by t h e k i n g ' s 80 m i n i s t e r s b u t w i n n i n g f o r h i m s e l f t h e a d m i r a t i o n even o f Henry by h i s u n d a u n t e d i n t e g r i t y t o h i s r o y a l c l a i m s . Such v i s u a l c o m p o s i t i o n s , s i g n a l l i n g t h e c l i m a x o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a l i e n a t i o n as t h e y do, e p i t o m i z e the a l i e n a t i o n o f F o r d ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f a l i e n a t i o n . . s e e m s i n e x o r a b l e b e c a u s e i t depends on a c h a i n o f cause and e f f e c t . By making one e v e n t l e a d t o a n o t h e r , F o r d i l l u s t r a t e s how, once t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a -t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s made, n o t h i n g can d e f l e c t the c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . Even B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h i s made t o seem l e s s o f an a c c i d e n t t h a n i t i s , b e c a u s e o u r a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e v a r i e t y o f c o n f l i c t i n g schemes s e t a f o o t by d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s , i n c l u d i n g B e r g e t t o h i m s e l f . B e r g e t t o i s a n x i o u s t o h a s t e n h i s m a r r i a g e w i t h P h i l o t i s , v 'for he f e a r s / H i s u n c l e e l s e , i f he s h o u l d know t h e d r i f t " ( I I I . v . 3 0 - 3 1 ) • Meanwhile, R i c h a r d e t t o a r r a n g e s t h e ambush o f S o r a n z o by G r i m a l d o . B e h i n d t h e s e immediate p r e c e d e n t s o f B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h t h e r e a r e o f c o u r s e p a s t e v e n t s t o e x p l a i n them. The moment i t s e l f a t w h i c h the a c c i d e n t o c c u r s r e p r e s e n t s the c o n v e r g e n c e o f s e v e r a l s e q u e n c e s o f ca u s e and e f f e c t . The revenge-schemes o f R i c h a r d e t t o and G r i m a l d i , and B e r g e t t o ' s own a t t e m p t s t o g e t m a r r i e d combine t o p l a c e B e r g e t t o a t t h e one p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d , t h e s t r e e t b e f o r e t h e F r i a r ' s c e l l , where G r i m a l d i i s w a i t i n g w i t h drawn r a p i e r ( I I I . v i i ) . The i n c i d e n t i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d as a c a s e o f t h e r e v e n g e r c a u g h t i n h i s own t r a p i n s o f a r as R i c h a r d e t t o hopes t o combine h i s vengeance w i t h h i s " o t h e r b u s i n e s s " ( I I I . v . 2 5 ) o f c a t c h i n g a husband f o r 81 P h i l o t i s . H i s o v e r i n g e n i o u s m a c h i n a t i o n s a r e t h u s d i r e c t l y -r e s p o n s i b l e f o r B e r g e t t o ' s d e a t h . A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h F o r d f i t s the a c c i d e n t i n t o t h e c a u s a l scheme o f t h e p l a y i s by p r e s e n t i n g i t , t h r o u g h G r i m a l d i ' s c o n f e s s i o n i n A c t I I I , s c e n e i x and S o r a n z o ' s t e s t i m o n y i n A c t IV, s c e n e i , as one o f t h e two h a z a r d s t h r o u g h w h i c h S o r a n z o p a s s e s b e f o r e he m a r r i e s A n n a b e l l a , t h e o t h e r b e i n g H i p p o l i t a ' s p l o t , t h e c l i m a x o f w h i c h comes i n A c t IV, sc e n e i , f a s t upon t h e h e e l s o f G r i m a l d i ' s ambush. To t u r n f o r a moment t o i s s u e s f a r t h e r a f i e l d , i t i s t e m p t i n g t o see h e r e a u s e , u n c o n s c i o u s no d o u b t , o f t h e f o l k a r c h e t y p e o f t h e b r a v e man p a s s i n g t h r o u g h d a n g e r s b e f o r e b e i n g u n i t e d w i t h a b e a u t i f u l woman. I n t h e p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e t h e i r o n y o f S o r a n z o e s c a p i n g p a l p a b l e d a n g e r s o n l y t o be c a u g h t i n t h e u n s u s p e c t e d t r a p o f a mo n s t r o u s m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n h e i g h t e n s t h e s e n s e o f d i s a s t e r . T h i s p a t t e r n o f p l o t - d e v e l o p m e n t i s a w e l l - k n o w n p r o d u c t o f f o l k - i m a g i n a t i o n , as e x p r e s s e d i n t a l e s o f some b r a v e man w i n n i n g a t g r e a t r i s k a b e a u t i f u l woman who t u r n s 10 out t o be a demon. As i n t h a t a r c h e t y p a l p e r c e p t i o n o f mis -f o r t u n e , i n ' T i s P i t y t o o t h e s e n s e o f an i n e s c a p a b l e d a n g e r i s s t r e n g t h e n e d , as we s e e S o r a n z o s a v e d f r o m one k i n d o f danger o n l y t o f a l l a s u r e v i c t i m t o a g r e a t e r c a l a m i t y . The p r o g r e s s o f t h e a c t i o n f r o m c a u s e t o e f f e c t l e n d s i n e v i t a b i l i t y t o t h e t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t ' s a l i e n a t i o n f r o m h i s w o r l d . The c a u s a l s e q u e n c e i s the s t r o n g e r b e c a u s e t h e c h a n a c t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e p r e s s u r e o f s o c i e t y — b o t h u n a v o i d a b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f human l i f e — f u n c t i o n as p o w e r f u l c a u s e s . Undoubt-82 edly, i t i s Giovanni's passion-driven nature that shapes his decisions and hence the destiny of everyone involved with him. But i t i s the r i g i d i t y of s o c i a l ordinances against incest that makes the world of the play i n i m i c a l to Giovanni and ensures his estrangement from his fellow men. In this s o c i a l s e t t i n g everyone i s assumed to occupy a d e f i n i t e niche and play a.defined role. Should an i n d i v i d u a l attempt to break out of the role determined for him by his s o c i a l and f a m i l i a l position, he must necessarily go against s o c i a l ordinances, placing himself out-side the framework of conduct and expectations that holds society together. In 'Tis Pity, Giovanni's public role i s clear enough. He i s a scholar devoted to other-worldly matters but he i s also expected to be a d u t i f u l son and loving brother, and to accept the task, as far as his scholarly pursuits may allow him, of tending to his family's honour and fortunes. Annabella's role i s that of the virtuous daughter who submits to the decisions made on her behalf by.her father.. This role she plays quite consciously as we find i n Act I I , scene i . Hippolita on her part apprises us of the role she played happily and well u n t i l the " d e v i l i n her blood" led her to break out of i t . There i s in these people some element that sets them apart from t h e i r world, a fact established from the beginning of the play and one that i s a constituent of the i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n . This essential alienness remains under the surface i n the beginning but grows harder to conceal as the action unfolds. None of these characters i s blind to what he 83 or she i s d o i n g but r e c o g n i z e s the f o r c e o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s j u s t as c l e a r l y as they r e c o g n i z e the s o c i a l i n t e r d i c t i o n they have t o r i s k . S i n c e they do a c c e p t t h a t r i s k , t h e i r d e c i s i o n s can be t a k e n as o b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e i r a l i e n a t e d psyche. I n s t a t i n g t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i n d r a m a t i c terms, however, Ford d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between h i s t h r e e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s . A n n a b e l l a cannot f i n a l l y bear to be c a s t out and r e p e n t s . She cannot r a i s e her v o i c e i n s u p p o r t o f G i o v a n n i ' s f e v e r e d denun-c i a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and d i e s s e e k i n g heaven's f o r g i v e n e s s and mercy. Her estrangement i s e v i d e n t l y a temporary s t a t e out o f which she f i n d s her way back to the f o l d , e a r n i n g the F r i a r ' s b l e s s i n g : " l i v e , t o d i e more b l e s s e d ! " ( V . i . 5 7 ) . But H i p p o l i t a and G i o v a n n i are u n w i l l i n g to mend the break between t h e i r w o r l d and t h e m s e l v e s . Here a g a i n Ford draws a d i s t i n c t i o n , as much of q u a l i t y as o f degree, between these f i e r c e s p i r i t s . H i p p o l i t a sees h e r s e l f as an o u t c a s t , "a s c o r n to,.,men and a n g e l s " ( I I . i . 2 9 ) , but cannot go beyond h e r h u m i l i a t i o n t o q u e s t i o n the s o c i a l v a l u e s t h a t she t r a n s g r e s s e s . Her d y i n g r a v i n g s are i m p r e c a t i o n s a g a i n s t one man i n p a r t i c u l a r , not a g a i n s t the w o r l d t h a t r a t e s h e r as "so v i l e a c r e a t u r e " ( I V . i . 1 0 1) t h a t i t can see o n l y the "Wonderful j u s t i c e " ( I V . i . 8 8 ) o f a r i g h t e o u s Heaven i n her t r a g i c end as i t would at the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a s t r a n g e monster. G i o v a n n i , on the o t h e r hand, withdraws ever f a r t h e r from h i s f e l l o w men, and as h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n s i n d i c a t e , he does t h i s as a matter o f d e l i b e r a t e c h o i c e and w i t h every s i g n of s e l f - a p p r o v a l . U l t i m a t e l y , h i s sense o f h i s own a l i e n a -t i o n becomes to him the p r o o f o f h i s freedom. What begi n s as 84 b r e a k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t a b o o ends as a g e n e r a l i z e d r e j e c t i o n o f the b a s i c c o n c e p t o f human o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e c o n c e p t o f a c c e p t i n g r e s t r a i n t s on p r i v a t e r i g h t s . At t h i s p o i n t h i s a l i e n a t i o n i s t o t a l . A l l e x c e p t h i s l o v e i s m e a n i n g l e s s . He s t a n d s a l o n e w i t h A n n a b e l l a ' s h e a r t upon h i s d a g g e r as h i s p r i z e dug o u t o f a "much r i c h e r mine t h a n g o l d o r s t o n e / O f any v a l u e b a l a n c ' d " ( V . v i . 2 6 - 7 ) . T h a t p i e c e o f dead f l e s h i s h i s " f o o d " ( V . v i . 2 5 ) , y e t a t t h e same t i m e i t i s h i s l a s t r e f u g e i n w h i c h h i s h e a r t l i e s "entomb'd" ( V . v i . 2 b ) . T h a t l a s t word e p i t o m i z e s t h e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f h i s r e t r e a t . P r e d i c t a b l y , the w o r l d r e s p o n d s by r e j e c t i n g G i o v a n n i e q u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y . P a r t o f G i o v a n n i ' s t r a g e d y i s t h e promptness w i t h w h i c h o b l i v i o n o v e r -t a k e s him. A f t e r h i s d e a t h n o t one word i s s a i d f o r , a g a i n s t , or a b o u t him. The C a r d i n a l ' s c o n c l u d i n g s p e e c h has no p l a c e f o r G i o v a n n i , t h e c h i e f mover o f the ceremony o f h o r r o r s t h a t has j u s t been w i t n e s s e d , b u t p l a c e s t h e emphasis on A n n a b e l l a i n a s u r p r i s i n g v e r b a l s h i f t i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c o u p l e t . The C a r d i n a l s p e a k s o f i n c e s t and murder m e e t i n g t o g e t h e r , and t h i s ought t o r e f e r t o G i o v a n n i ' s a c t i o n s ; however, we f i n d t h a t "one so young, s o r i c h i n n a t u r e ' s s t o r e " i n t h e n e x t l i n e ( V . v i . 1 5 8 ) does n o t r e f e r t o him as one might e x p e c t , b u t t o t h e p a s s i v e A n n a b e l l a . The i m p l i c a t i o n seems t o be t h a t A n n a b e l l a , s i n n e r t h a t she i s , i s a c c e p t e d as a member o f t h e community b u t G i o v a n n i i s n o t , f o r he c h o o s e s t o t h e end t o be an o u t c a s t . I t i s the i n e v i t a b i l i t y and f i n a l i t y o f t h a t ^ e s t r a n g e -ment t h a t f o r m t h e t r a g i c i m p a c t o f ' T i s P i t y . G i o v a n n i i s so f a r a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e l i f e o f h i s s o c i a l w o r l d t h a t i t has no 85 v a l u e f o r him. In a w o r l d d r a i n e d o f meaning f o r him, a s e l f -chosen death becomes the s o l e i n s t r u m e n t o f p r o v i n g the i n t e g r i t y o f h i s p a s s i o n and g i v i n g meaning t o i t . The p r o g r e s s i o n o f the p l a y ' s a c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g a l i e n a t i o n t h a t c u l m i n a t e s i n the c h o i c e o f death as a f e l i c i t y . G i o v a n n i ' s t r a g e d y , s i m p l y p u t , i s t h a t he comes to p r e f e r death over l i f e . As we have argued i n Chapter I I , and demonstrated h e r e , both the r i g i d s t r u c t u r e o f G i o v a n n i ' s w o r l d and h i s own n a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o c e s s of h i s w i t h -drawal from l i f e , w h i l e the i n e x o r a b i l i t y l e n t to t h a t p r o c e s s by the c a u s a l development of the a c t i o n sharpens our sense of h i s p redicament. The p a t t e r n o f p a s s i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , c h o i c e , and a c t i o n t h a t marks h i s j o u r n e y from l i f e t o death i n s e a r c h of some permanent v a l u e can be thus seen as the p a t t e r n o f t r a g e d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p l a y . That t h i s p a t t e r n i s not a p r o d u c t o f the u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f ' T i s P i t y but a d i s t i n c t a t t r i b u t e o f Ford's t r a g e d i e s i n g e n e r a l , becomes e v i d e n t when we examine what might seem a t f i r s t g l a n c e to be the r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t w o r l d o f The Broken H e a r t . Chapter IV THE BROKEN HEART Many of Ford's readers have f e l t The Broken Heart to be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from 'Tis P i t y She's a Whore; the reasons for t h i s are understandable. The Spartan s e t t i n g of The Broken  Heart, with i t s princes and c o u r t i e r s forms a sharp contrast to the I t a l i a n a t e world of 'Tis P i t y , peopled by common c i t i z e n s who, despite t h e i r a f f l u e n c e , a r e not a r i s t o c r a t s . The occupa-t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s of the characters of 'Tis P i t y are domestic and p r i v a t e rather than p u b l i c , while characters i n The Broken  Heart constantly show an urgent awareness of the fortunes of the kingdom. Ford's choice of Sparta as the s e t t i n g of the play i s important. The a s s o c i a t i o n of Sparta with myth and legend lends i t a remoteness that obscures the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of i t s s o c i e t y which, we s h a l l see l a t e r i n t h i s study, bears .a strong resemblance to the s o c i a l world of 'Tis P i t y . By l o c a t i n g h i s play i n Sparta Ford has associated i t with a p a r t i c u l a r m i l i e u . His aim cannot be simply that of u t i l i s i n g the charm of the e x o t i c , as S. P. Sherman i m p l i e s 1 while f i n d i n g a source f o r the play i n Sidney's Arcadia. The world of The Broken Heart i s n e i t h e r the b u c o l i c world of Fle t c h e r ' s F a i t h f u l Shepherdess, nor the Arcadian world of .TJi.e  Two Noble Kinsmen. In M. J. Sargeaunt's view the Spartan 86 87 2 s e t t i n g i s t h e m a t i c a l l y t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e , and R. J . Kaufmann e x p l a i n s how t h a t s e t t i n g assumes the f u n c t i o n o f h i g h l i g h t i n g c o u r a g e and s e l f - c o n t r o l as man's p r i m a r y v i r t u e s . These views show how e f f e c t i v e l y t h e s e t t i n g e m p h a s i z e s m o r a l q u a l i t i e s w h i l e d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n ( a s n o t e d above) f r o m t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The mere s e t t i n g seems t o c o n f e r n o b i l i t y upon t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s p l a y w h i l e t h o s e i n ' T i s P i t y seem by c o m p a r i s o n t o b e l o n g t o t h e common h e r d . S p a r t a n f o r t i t u d e i s u s u a l l y t a k e n t o be an e l i t i s t v i r t u e - - a n a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i c i t i n t h e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s i n F o r d c r i t i c i s m t o the a r i s t o c r a t i c q u a l i t y o f The B r o k e n H e a r t . A c t u a l l y , however, the r e s e m b l a n c e between the w o r l d s o f ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t i s b o t h s t r o n g and o b v i o u s . Even though ' T i s P i t y p o r t r a y s a m i d d l e - c l a s s community and The B r o k e n H e a r t an a r i s t o c r a t i c one, t h i s i n d i c a t e s , r a t h e r t h a n any f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , a d i s t i n c t i o n o f manner. The c h a r a c t e r s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t s t r i v e t o h o l d back e m o t i o n s and t o p r e s e n t a c a l m , c o n t r o l l e d f r o n t t o the w o r l d . C o n c e a l m e n t o f f e e l i n g seems t o be t h e b e h a v i o r a l model i n t h e w o r l d o f The B r o k e n H e a r t , b e s t a p p r o x i m a t e d by C a l a n t h a b u t a s p i r e d t o even by B a s s a n e s i n t h e l a s t a c t o f t h e p l a y . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e dominant p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r i n ' T i s P i t y , as s e e n i n t h e c o n d u c t o f G i o v a n n i , H i p p o l i t a , S o r a n z o and G r i m a l d i , i s one o f u n r e s t r a i n e d s e l f - d e c l a r a t i o n . But even th e d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f manner may be more i m a g i n e d t h a n r e a l , b e i n g a p r o d u c t o f o u r c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e t o t r a d i -t i o n a l views o f h e r o i c S p a r t a and i n t r i g u e - r i d d e n I t a l y . At 88 c r i t i c a l moments O r g i l u s o r I t h o c l e s a r e no l e s s vehement i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r p r e d i c a m e n t s t h a n G i o v a n n i o r H i p p o l i t a , n o r i s O r g i l u s ' p l o t a g a i n s t I t h o c l e s any more h o n o u r a b l e t h a n R i c h a r d e t t o ' s a g a i n s t S o r a n z o . The c e n t r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m , t h a t o f t h e c l e a v a g e between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n e c e s s i t i e s , i s i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h p l a y s b e c a u s e t h e I t a l i a n and th e Greek s o c i e t i e s p r e s e n t e d by F o r d have t h e same k i n d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s t on t h e same b e l i e f i n a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y , a r i s i n g as i t does f r o m a r e s e m b l a n c e o f s t r u c t u r e , s u g g e s t s an u n d e r l y i n g u n i f o r m i t y o f d r a m a t i c method. The b a s i c r e s e m b l a n c e between t h e w o r l d s o f ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t may be s t a t e d s i m p l y . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s h i e r a r c h i c a l and s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y i s c e n t r a l i z e d i n b o t h p l a y s , w i t h t h e e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s s e t i n each by r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p r i m a r y u n i t o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , i n b o t h p l a y s , i s the f a m i l y . The p a t r i a r c h a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y i s t h a t o f s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and power r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e community r e f l e c t t h o s e w i t h i n the f a m i l y . As t h e l e a d e r o f h i s f l o c k the C a r d i n a l i n ' T i s P i t y i s a f a t h e r s u r r o g a t e and has t h e p a t r i a r c h ' s f u n c t i o n o f d i s p o s i n g o f p r o p e r t y , m e t i n g out a r b i t r a r y j u s t i c e and o r d e r i n g l a s t r i t e s . The c o n c e p t o f f a m i l y i s s i m i l a r , though s t r o n g e r , i n The B r o k e n H e a r t i n w h i c h t h e r o y a l f a m i l y s t a n d s as t h e symbol o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e kingdom and i s f o r m a l l y r e c o g -n i z e d as s u c h i n t h e pronouncement o f t h e o r a c l e . The p a t r i -a r c h a l f o r m r u l e s p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; t h e k i n g ' s i m p e n d i n g 89 d e a t h s p e l l s d i s a s t e r f o r t h e kingdom as the d e a t h o f a f a t h e r does f o r h i s f a m i l y , and t h i s d i s a s t e r c a n n o t be a v e r t e d by t h e o l d k i n g ' s d a u g h t e r u n t i l she m a r r i e s o r u n t i l some s u i t a b l e (that, i s , male!) a l t e r n a t i v e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e t a k e s up t h e r e i n s . T h a t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f N e a r c h u s , P r i n c e o f . A r g o s and s u i t o r f o r C a l a n t h a ' s hand, the " n e i g h b o u r i n g elm" o f the p r o p h e c y . The emphasis i n b o t h p l a y s on t h e f a m i l y as a model o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n h e l p s t o show t h a t t h e f o r c e s t h a t h o l d t h e w o r l d s o f t h e s e p l a y s t o g e t h e r a r e n o t f o r c e s o f e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t b u t o f d u t y o r o b e d i e n c e . Here a g a i n we may n o t e t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s p l a y w i t h ' T i s P i t y . P e r s o n a l and p u b l i c c o n d u c t a r e s e t i n b o t h p l a y s w i t h i n s i m i l a r frameworks o f i d e a l s , i d e a l s o f d u t y and o b e d i e n c e . These i d e a l s a r e p r o v i d e d i n b o t h p l a y s by r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r s who r e p r e s e n t the wisdom o f t h e r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T e c n i c u s i s O r g i l u s ' r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t o r j u s t as F r i a r B o n a v e n t u r a i s G i o v a n n i ' s and b o t h t h e s e t e a c h e r s t a k e p a i n s t o p r e s s upon t h e i r p u p i l s the m o r a l v a l u e s h e l d by t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s . T h e r e may seem t o be a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between the Greek s y s t e m o f a m e d i a t i n g p r i e s t h o o d , as f o u n d i n The B r o k e n  H e a r t , and the more complex C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h o f ' T i s P i t y . T h e o l o g i c a l l y , t h a t d i f f e r e n c e i s r e a l and b a s i c b u t t h e two s y s t e m s , i n s o f a r as t h e y p r e s e n t i d e a l s o f c o n d u c t , f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y i n b o t h p l a y s . T e c n i c u s and F r i a r B o n a v e n t u r a have s p e c i a l knowledge and wisdom t h a t e n a b l e them t o h o l d up the m i r r o r o f v i r t u e b e f o r e t h e i r e r r i n g c h a r g e s , O r g i l u s and 90 G i o v a n n i , a l t h o u g h t h e s e h o l y men do n o t have any c o m p e l l i n g a u t h o r i t y , nor. a p l a c e i n t h e power s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . They may a d v i s e b u t c a n n o t compel. Those whom t h e y a d v i s e a r e f r e e t o c h oose and t h i s f r e e d o m i s a n o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b o t h ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t . The s o c i o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y between ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t e x t e n d s f a r t h e r . Kaufmann's o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t i n The B r o k e n H e a r t t h e r e i s "a deep f i s s u r e between p u b l i c 5 s t a n d a r d s and i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s " i s j u s t as t r u e o f ' T i s P i t y , as we f i n d d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s t r u g g l e i n G i o v a n n i ' s mind between h i s s e n s e o f d u t y and h i s l o v e i n t h e f i r s t a c t o f ' T i s P i t y . The i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between a p e r s o n a l and a p u b l i c code o f c o n d u c t i s s h a r p l y p r e s e n t e d i n b o t h p l a y s , so much so t h a t i n b o t h p l a y s the p u r s u i t o f p r i v a t e g o a l s b r i n g s a b o u t d i s a s t e r . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r i v a t e needs as o p p o s e d t o p u b l i c s t a n d a r d s a t once b r i n g s home t o us t h e f a c t t h a t i n The B r o k e n  H e a r t , as i n ' T i s P i t y , t h e a c t i o n a r i s e s o ut o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s . The a c t i o n o f The B r o k e n H e a r t p r o g r e s s e s f r o m c a u s e t o e f f e c t b u t t h e p r i m a r y c a u s e i s f o u n d t o be e l e m e n t s o f c h a r a c t e r . The c a u s a l c h a i n i s s t r o n g , c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and c l e a r l y p o i n t e d o u t . I n t h e v e r y f i r s t s c e n e , when O r g i l u s g i v e s h i s f a t h e r h i s r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g S p a r t a , he l i n k s p a s t and p r e s e n t as c a u s e and e f f e c t . He i s unhappy b e c a u s e he has been d e p r i v e d by I t h o c l e s o f h i s t r o t h - p l i g h t e d w i f e , P e n t h e a . I t h o c l e s d i d so b e c a u s e h i s f a t h e r and O r g i l u s ' were a t one time b i t t e r e n e m i e s . O r g i l u s ' own s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n s a r e c a u s e d by 91 his hate for Ithocles engendered by Ithocles' tyrannical action. The ultimate cause of a l l this l i e s quite c l e a r l y i n character. We are t o l d , f i r s t by Orgilus i n Act I, scene i i , lines 39-42 and by Ithocles himself i n Act II,. scene i i , lines 45-9, that Ithocles' enmity arose from an arrogant assumption of superior-i t y . Ithocles further confesses i n Act II, scene i i , lines 1-15 that i t i s his taste for s o c i a l pre-eminence that makes him set his sight on the ambition of marrying the princess of Sparta. Equally, Orgilus' unrelenting hatred for Ithocles arises from his consuming anger. These are the q u a l i t i e s of character that determine the course of the action. It i s evident that Ford wishes to emphasize the import-ance of the psychology of the i n d i v i d u a l , for he deliberately gives his characters in The Broken Heart suggestive names as keys to the i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . ^ The association between the names of these characters and their d i s t i n c t i v e psychological q u a l i -t i e s i s brought out by the prefatory l i s t of "The speakers' names f i t t e d to their q u a l i t i e s . " The l i s t i s so palpable an attempt to draw our attention to the connotation of the names that i t i s worth examining at some length. It i s of course possible that i t was not Ford who made up the l i s t but Hugh Beeston, the publisher. In the f i r s t place, as a pr a c t i s i n g playwright Ford cannot have helped knowing the d i f f i c u l t y of presenting a l i s t such as this to his audience (even though the audience at Bl a c k f r i a r s was presumably l i t e r a t e and orderly). On the other hand, the l i s t would be appreciated by the reader 92 o f t h e p r i n t e d drama. A p u b l i s h e r , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d be i t s l i k e l i e r a u t h o r . I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , t h e g l o s s i s a t t i m e s somewhat i n e x a c t . A l s o , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e d r a m a t i s t h i m s e l f w o u l d i n c l u d e i n t h e l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r s T h r a s u s and A p l o t e s . T h r a s u s , t h e dead f a t h e r o f I t h o c l e s and P e n t h e a , i s known t o have d i e d l o n g b e f o r e t h e p l a y b e g i n s , and A p l o t e s i s O r g i l u s i n d i s g u i s e . These two a r e n o t a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r s , but t o someone o t h e r t h a n the d r a m a t i s t who u n d e r t o o k t o a n n o t a t e t h e names, t h e names " T h r a s u s " and " A p l o t e s " might w e l l have seemed t o f i t i n w i t h t h e e m b l e m a t i c p u r p o s e u n d e r -l y i n g t h e naming o f t h e major c h a r a c t e r s . Whoever was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l i s t - d i d s u c c e e d i n c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o F o r d ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y as embodiments o f m o r a l q u a l i t i e s . G i f f o r d was l e s s t h a n j u s t when he s a i d t h a t F o r d "has n o t been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l 7 i n h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n " o f some o f t h e names. W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t i n a few i n s t a n c e s F o r d ' s e t y m o l o g y i s r o u n d a b o u t o r even d o u b t f u l , most o f t h e names a r e d e r i v e d f r o m Greek words s u g g e s t i n g t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r , as D o n a l d K. A n d e r s o n has g e x p l a i n e d i n h i s e d i t i o n o f t h e p l a y . " O r g i l u s " i s f r o m " O r g i l o s 1 . 1 , meaning " p r o u d and q u i c k tempered", t h e s e n s e i n w h i c h Shakespeare uses t h e word i n t h e P r o l o g u e t o T r o i l u s and  C r e s s i d a . " B a s s a n e s " , d e r i v e d f r o m " b a s a n o s " , means "a t r i a l o r t e s t " , " A r m o s t e s " i s f r o m " h a r m o s t e s " , meaning "one who a r r a n g e s o r g o v e r n s " , " C r o t o l o n " f r o m " k r o t o s " , meaning "a r a t t l i n g n o i s e " , and t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s l o q u a c i o u s c h a r a c t e r , " P r o p h i l u s " i s c o n s t i t u t e d by c o m b i n i n g " p h i l o s " , 93 meaning "dear", and "pro", meaning "before", the whole designating one who i s cherished before a l l . "Nearchus" i s a s i m i l a r compound of "archos", meaning "leader, c h i e f " and the p r e f i x "ne" , meaning " f r e s h , young". "Tecnicus", from "teknikos", i s an obvious choice f o r a wise man. "Hemophil" i s a compound of "haima", meaning "blood", and " p h i l o s " , the name i n d i c a t i n g one who i s fond of blood. Hemophil i s w e l l named, fo r he i s the braggart s o l d i e r of the play. The name does not, however, have the meaning of " g l u t t o n " as given i n 9 the l i s t . The a r b i t r a r y gloss on the name may be one of the signs of the pu b l i s h e r ' s rather than the playwright's hand. "Groneas" i s from "gronos1.! , meaning "cavernous, hollow, eaten out", or from "grone", "hole, or hollow v e s s e l " , both roots suggesting one given to drink and therefore a "tavern-haunter". Phulas i s from "phylasso" , meaning "to keep watch and ward, s p e c i a l l y at n i g h t " , an exact d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s character's f u n c t i o n . "Calantha" i s derived by combining " k a l l o s " , meaning "beauty", and "anthe", meaning " f u l l bloom of a flower or pl a n t " . "Penthea" i s from "pentheo", meaning "to mourn, lament"; "Euphranea" from "euphrantes", meaning "one who cheers, gladdens", "Philema" means "a k i s s " , and "Grausis" i s from "graus", which means " o l d woman". Donald K. Anderson's remark that there are no c l e a r Greek roots f o r the names Amyclas, I t h o c l e s and Amelus, i s not quite true as f a r as the name I t h o c l e s i s concerned. I t i s derived from " i t h y s " , meaning " s t r a i g h t , u p r i g h t " , and from " c l e o s " , meaning "fame". The name therefore s i g n i f i e s a man 94 u p r i g h t i n n a t u r e , o f u n s w e r v i n g p u r p o s e , and o f r i s i n g fame. "A m y c l a s " i s n o t a m e a n i n g f u l word as s u c h noi? does t h e g l o s s c l a i m i t t o be s o . The l i s t does n o t f i t t h i s name t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e man b u t s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t i t i s "common t o 10 t h e k i n g s o f L a c o n i a " . The name "Amelus" i s i n e x p l i c a b l e . A p o s s i b l e Greek r o o t would be " a m e l e s " , b u t t h a t means " c a r e l e s s " , n o t " t r u s t y " as t h e l i s t has i t . An u n l i k e l y r o o t might be " melos", w h i c h means b o t h " s o n g " and " l i m b " ; as N e a r c h u s ' c l o s e companion Amelus might be r e g a r d e d as a l i m b 11 o f t h e p r i n c e b u t t h i s seems f a r - f e t c h e d . By t a k i n g s u c h c a r e i n c o n t r i v i n g t h e s e names F o r d i n v i t e s h i s a u d i e n c e t o l o o k f o r t h e r o o t s o f a c t i o n i n t h e . p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s . But an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e e t y m o l o g y o f the names r a i s e s i s , what c l a s s o f s p e c t a t o r s ( o r even r e a d e r s ) does F o r d have i n mind? He must be t h i n k i n g o f someone who would be c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g out t h e d i s t a n t Greek r o o t s ; i n s h o r t , an e d u c a t e d and c u l t i v a t e d s p e c t a t o r o r r e a d e r . T h i s i s a l e g i t i m a t e c o n j e c t u r e b e c a u s e t h i s aim t i e s i n w i t h t h e s c o r n f o r " v u l g a r a d m i r a t i o n " e x p r e s s e d by F o r d i n t h e P r o l o g u e and w i t h t h e c l a i m made i n t h e E p i l o g u e , t h a t Our w r i t e r ' s aim was i n t h e whole a d d r e s s ' d W e l l t o d e s e r v e o f a l l , b u t p l e a s e t h e b e s t : These e l i t i s t v i ews i m p l y an a d m i r a t i o n f o r the t h o u g h t f u l few, an a t t i t u d e o f w h i c h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e i n F o r d ' s e a r l i e r work, t h e p r o s e p a m p h l e t , A L i n e o f L i f e ( 1 6 2 0 ) . I n t h i s m o r a l and d i d a c t i c work, one t h a t i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by S t o i c t h o u g h t , F o r d s a y s , " I t i s t r u e , t h e o l d Greek p r o v e r b c o n c l u d e d t h a t one 95 man was no man; yet with t h e i r most approved authors, by the very word many were the worst s o r t of people understood, and by few the best" ( l i n e 396 ) . I t i s an audience of such men, of "noble judgments and c l e a r eyes" (Epilogue, The Broken Heart), that Ford wishes f o r , i n the b e l i e f that only to them can " t r u t h " appear. Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , the " t r u t h " with which Ford i s so concerned appears to be the moral concepts 12 i m p l i c i t i n the play r a t h e r than a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l event. This explains the c r y p t i c statement i n the Prologue, What may be here thought a f i c t i o n , when time's [youth Wanted some r i p e r years was known a t r u t h ; Ford i s not, as might be assumed, c l a i m i n g h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i -c i t y f o r h i s p l o t . He i s t e l l i n g us that h i s play examines the meaning of man's moral nature, a meaning that i n an e a r l i e r age was apparent to a l l as t r u t h . I t i s t h i s i n t e r e s t i n man's moral i d e n t i t y that makes the suggestive naming of the charac-t e r s purposeful rather than whimsical. The emphasis on the d i s t i n c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s of the protagonists makes i t easy for Ford to i d e n t i f y powerful passions as the source of human a c t i o n . Ford b u i l d s up the c o n f l i c t i n the play by p i t t i n g these passions against the r i g i d code of behaviour that defines s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the world of The Broken Heart. That world i t s e l f i s so p r e c i s e l y s t r u c -tured that every i n d i v i d u a l has a s p e c i f i e d place i n i t and a d e f i n i t e r o l e to play. We see here a kingdom r u l e d by a wise and j u s t k i n g who i s helped and counselled by an a r i s t o c r a c y 96 w h o l l y c o mmitted t o t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e i r s o v e r e i g n and t h e i r c o u n t r y . The kingdom i s p h y s i c a l l y p o w e r f u l , h a v i n g d e f e a t e d M e s s e n i a so d e c i s i v e l y t h a t , i n t h e K i n g ' s words, " L a c o n i a i s a monarchy a t l e n g t h " ( . I . i i . 1 3 ) . I t s s e c u r i t y i s f u r t h e r g u a r a n -t e e d by t h e p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e between P r i n c e s s C a l a n t h a and N e a r c h u s , who i s n o t o n l y a p o w e r f u l n e i g h b o u r b u t a c t u a l l y an i n s i d e r , " I n t i t l e n e x t , b e i n g g r a n d c h i l d t o o u r a u n t " (.III. i i i . 8 ) . F a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s g u a r a n t e e th e p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e kingdom. As N e a r c h u s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r o y a l f a m i l y , so i s I t h o c l e s , " D e l i g h t o f S p a r t a " ( I . i i . 5 2 ) , r e l a t e d t o the power-f u l m i n i s t e r , A r m o s t e s , w h i l e h i s p r o t e g e , P r o p h i l u s , by s u c c e s s f u l l y c o u r t i n g E u p h r a n e a , b r i n g s t h e h o u s e s o f A r m o s t e s and C r o t o l o n t o g e t h e r . The kingdom i s p o l i t i c a l l y s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t , u n d e r no f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , and f i r m l y bound by t i e s o f d u t y and k i n s h i p . The t i g h t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s w o r l d imposes w e l l -d e f i n e d r o l e s upon a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . As Kaufmann o b s e r v e s i n t h e 1 3 a r t i c l e c i t e d e a r l i e r , t h e w o r l d o f t h e p l a y c a n n o t p o s s i b l y a dmit any o t h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r . I t i s a w o r l d i n w h i c h s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s c a r e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d and matched w i t h t h e a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f power. Government i s c e n t r a l i z e d and t h o u g h t h e m i n i s t e r s seem t o w i e l d c o n s i d e r a b l e power, t h e y a r e r e a l l y i n s t r u m e n t s w h o l l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d i n t h e k i n g . Armostes i s c o n t i n u a l l y r u n n i n g e r r a n d s f o r t h e k i n g and when he has some s u s p i c i o n o f h i s nephew I t h o c l e s ' a m b i t i o n he warns I t h o c l e s a g a i n s t dreams o f s h a r i n g t h e power 97 r e s e r v e d f o r r o y a l t y : C o n t a i n y o u r s e l f , my l o r d . I x i o n , a i m i n g To embrace Juno, bosom'd but a c l o u d And b e g a t c e n t a u r s . ' T i s an u s e f u l m o r a l : A m b i t i o n , h a t c h ' d i n c l o u d s o f mere o p i n i o n , P r o v e s b u t i n b i r t h a p r o d i g y . ( I V . i . 6 9 - 7 3 ) A l t h o u g h I t h o c l e s i s h a i l e d as t h e " D e l i g h t o f S p a r t a " t o whom a temple s h o u l d be r e a r e d ( I . i i ) , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t he has no s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y and has t o w a i t upon h i s m a s t e r the k i n g ' s commands as much as do the M e s s e n i a n p r i s o n e r s he t o o k . A r i c h s t a t e , a d y i n g k i n g , a young p r i n c e s s and a v i c t o r i o u s g e n e r a l make t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e r i p e f o r a p o w e r - s t r u g g l e b u t no s u c h s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f u s i o n i s t o u c h e d upon by t h e D e l p h i c o r a c l e b u t i s a t once c i r c u m -v e n t e d as much by t h e d e a t h o f I t h o c l e s as by t h e e a g e r n e s s o f the L a c o n i a n s t o a c c e p t a r o y a l m a s t e r though he may o n l y be " f r o m t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g elm a dew" ( I V . i i i . 1 5 ) . The monarchy i s n e v e r i n d a n g e r and t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m one r o y a l r u l e r t o a n o t h e r i s e f f e c t e d s w i f t l y , n o t once b u t t w i c e . As soon as t h e k i n g ' s d e a t h i s made p u b l i c , C a l a n t h a a s s e r t s h e r s e l f : "We a r e queen, t h e n " and a l l p r e s e n t a c c l a i m h e r : "Long l i v e t h e queen!" ( V . i i . 3 4 , 3 6 ) . S i m i l a r l y , when C a l a n t h a h e r s e l f d i e s , h e r p l a c e i s p r o m p t l y f i l l e d by N e a r c h u s : N e a r c h u s . I am y o u r k i n g . Omnes. Long l i v e N e a r c h u s , K i n g o f S p a r t a . ( V . i i i . 1 0 1 - 2 ) D e s p i t e the v i o l e n c e o f war, p r i v a t e murder and s u i c i d e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y r e m a i n s u n a l t e r e d , n o r does i t s a u t h o r i t y 9 8 o v e r i t s members d i m i n i s h . The i d e a l i z e d S p a r t a o f t h e play-makes u n c h a l l e n g e d demands upon h e r c i t i z e n s . I t h o c l e s a c c e p t s t h e s e demands w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y : who i s so s l u g g i s h f r o m h i s b i r t h , So l i t t l e w o r t h y o f a name o r c o u n t r y , T h a t owes n o t o u t o f g r a t i t u d e f o r l i f e A d e b t o f s e r v i c e , i n what k i n d s o e v e r S a f e t y o r c o u n s e l o f the commonwealth R e q u i r e s f o r payment? ( I . i i . 7 4 - 9 ) T h a t he i s v o i c i n g a g e n e r a l b e l i e f i s c o n f i r m e d by C a l a n t h a : "'A s p e a k s t r u t h " ( I . i i . 7 9 ) . When I t h o c l e s r e c o g n i z e s the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s o c i e t y and a g r e e s t o f u l f i l them, he commits h i m s e l f t o a d e f i n i t e r o l e . I t i s n o t I t h o c l e s a l o n e who i s t h u s c o n s t r a i n e d by s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , n o r a r e t h e s e e x p e c t a -t i o n s l i m i t e d t o t h e " S a f e t y o r c o u n s e l o f t h e commonwealth" b u t matched r a t h e r w i t h h i s s t a t u s as t h e s c i o n o f a n o b l e l i n e and a p r o f e s s i o n a l w a r r i o r . I t h o c l e s a c c e p t s t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . A s i m i l a r s u b m i s s i o n t o s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by O r g i l u s who a c c e p t s t h e r o l e o f t h e d u t i f u l s o n t o the e x t e n t o f bowing b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r ' s command t h a t he make h i s peace w i t h h i s enemy, I t h o c l e s . To t u r n t o a n o t h e r o f t h e p l a y ' s major f i g u r e s , P e n t h e a , we f i n d t h a t even though she l o o k s upon h e r m a r r i a g e w i t h B a s s a n e s w i t h r e v u l s i o n , she u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y a c c e p t s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e as an e t h i c a l i m p e r a t i v e and p l a y s t h e l o y a l and d u t i f u l w i f e t o p e r f e c t i o n . The most s t r i k i n g example o f r o l e -p l a y i n g i s o f c o u r s e C a l a n t h a ' s s e l f - c o n t r o l i n f a c i n g d i s a s t e r , f o r t h r o u g h h e r m a s t e r y o v e r h e r s e l f she j u s t i f i e s h e r i d e n t i t y 99 as a princess. These instances of role-playing are v i t a l clues to the i d e n t i t y of the human community of The Broken Heart since they show how well s o c i a l relationships are codified, and reveal the pressures that society exerts on the i n d i v i d u a l . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , in the world of The Broken Heart vows and' promises are the primary counters of s o c i a l intercourse. The p r i n c i p a l instrument of s o c i a l interchange and cohesion i s the contract between two individuals or between individuals and society in general. The play has been viewed as a tragedy 1 4 of misalliance and broken contract, but i t can also be seen, perhaps more coherently, as a .tragedy of the i n v i o l a b l e contract. Here again The Broken Heart reminds us of 'Tis Pity, i n which Giovanni draws up a contract of love between himself and his s i s t e r , setting out conditions and penalties. Giovanni's f i n a l acts, those of k i l l i n g his s i s t e r and himself welcoming death, are consequences of his t o t a l commitment to that contract. In The Broken Heart, however, the value of a contract as an e t h i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of human relationships i s claimed more i n s i s t e n t l y and more a r t i c u l a t e l y . The Broken Heart opens with Orgilus' angry condemnation of the v i o l a t i o n of contract that has robbed him of Penthea, his bride-to-be. There i s general agreement that his reproaches are just; even Ithocles, the v i o l a t o r of that contract, admits his c u l p a b i l i t y and rashness. Ithocles concedes that "'Twas a fault,/A c a p i t a l f a u l t " (II.ii.49-50 ) and confesses, "I did the noble Orgilus much Injury,/But griev'd Penthea more. I now 100 r e p e n t i t ; " ( I V.i.9-10). U n d o u b t e d l y , t h i s shadow from t h e p a s t d a r k e n s t h e l i v e s o f O r g i l u s and P e n t h e a , d r i v i n g P e n t h e a t o s u i c i d e and O r g i l u s t o murder. But a t t h e same t i m e , c o n t r a c t s t h a t a r e r i g o r o u s l y o b s e r v e d c o n t r i b u t e no l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h o u g h l e s s o v e r t l y , t o the s h a p i n g o f e v e n t s and t o t h e t r a g i c o v e r t o n e s o f t h e p l a y . One o f t h e p u r p o s e s f o r e -most i n O r g i l u s ' mind i s t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e c o n t r a c t between h i m s e l f and P e n t h e a . A major c o n c e r n o f A c t I I , s c e n e i i i i s t o f o r m u l a t e h i s a s s e r t i o n o f h i s r i g h t s ; he r e p e a t e d l y i m p o r t u n e s P e n t h e a : my i n t e r e s t C o n f i r m s me, t h o u a r t mine s t i l l I would p o s s e s s my w i f e ; t h e e q u i t y Of v e r y r e a s o n b i d s me. P e n t h e a i s t h e w i f e t o O r g i l u s , And e v e r s h a l l be. Come, sweet, t h o u a r t mine. ( I I . i i i . 6 3 - 4 , 71-2, 96-7, 109) I t i s when he r e a l i z e s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e p a i r i n g t h e b r o k e n bond t h a t d e s p e r a t i o n o v e r t a k e s him and he f o r m a l l y b i n d s h i m s e l f o v e r t o r e v e n g e , t a k i n g f i n a l l e a v e o f P e n t h e a w i t h t h e ominous announcement, " A c t i o n , n o t words, s h a l l show . me " ( I I . i i i . 126). Y e t t h i s same O r g i l u s who r a g e s a g a i n s t t h e t y r a n n y o f I t h o c l e s , i s h i m s e l f no l e s s a t y r a n t , no l e s s " p r o u d i n h i s power" o v e r h i s s i s t e r , E u p h r a n e a , whom he b i n d s most a r b i t r a r i -l y i n a p r o m i s e t o h i m s e l f i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e , i n s i s t i n g t h a t she must 101 p r o m i s e To p a s s n e v e r t o any man, however Worthy, y o u r f a i t h , t i l l w i t h o u r f a t h e r ' s l e a v e I g i v e a f r e e c o n s e n t . ( I . i . 9 2 - 5 ) L a t e r , . . a s he w a t c h e s E u p h r a n e a and P r o p h i l u s f r o m a d i s t a n c e , t h e d i s g u i s e d O r g i l u s h e a r s h e r a f f i r m h e r r e s o l u t i o n n o t t o a c c e p t P r o p h i l u s w i t h o u t h e r b r o t h e r ' s c o n s e n t . In s p i t e o f t h i s c l e a r p r o o f o f h e r c o n s t a n c y he becomes f r a n t i c a t t h e v e r y t h o u g h t o f h e r b e i n g i n l o v e w i t h P r o p h i l u s . E u p h r a n e a ' s " c h a s t e vows" ( I . i i i . 8 9 ) o f l o v e e l i c i t f r o m him t h e u n w a r r a n t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , T h e r e i s no f a i t h i n woman. P a s s i o n , 0 be c o n t a i n ' d ! My v e r y h e a r t s t r i n g s Are on t h e t e n t e r s . ( I . i i i . 9 0 - 9 2 ) By o p p o s i n g E u p h r a n e a ' s f r e e c h o i c e he d u p l i c a t e s t h e t y r a n n y o f I t h o c l e s . That he does so i n o r d e r t o t e s t E u p h r a n e a ' s c o n s t a n c y t o h e r vow, p r o v i d e s i r o n i c p r o o f t h a t a vow b l i n d l y k e p t i s as much a c a u s e o f m i s e r y as one b r o k e n ; b o t h a r e a c t s e n g e n d e r e d by an u n c o n t r o l l e d e g o i s m t h a t o v e r r i d e s r e a s o n . The agony o f vows f a i t h f u l l y k e p t i s f e l t more a c u t e l y i n P e n t h e a ' s c a s e w h i c h she summarizes t h u s : she t h a t ' s w i f e t o O r g i l u s and l i v e s I n known a d u l t e r y w i t h B a s s a n e s I s a t t h e b e s t a whore. ( I I I . i i . 7 3 - 5 ) I t i s n o t o n l y t h e b r e a k i n g o f one c o n t r a c t but t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a n o t h e r t h a t compounds h e r t r a g e d y . She warns O r g i l u s a g a i n s t a p p r o a c h i n g h e r , f o r she must now be t r u e t o h e r wedded husband: 102 I p r o f e s s , By a l l t h e laws o f c e r e m o n i o u s w e d l o c k I have n o t g i v e n a d m i t t a n c e t o one t h o u g h t Of f e m a l e change s i n c e c r u e l t y e n f o r c ' d D i v o r c e b e t w i x t my body and my h e a r t . ( I I . i i i . 53-7) Here a g a i n t h e p l a y u n d e r s c o r e s t h e m o r a l t h a t l i k e a b r o k e n p r o m i s e a f o r c e d c o n t r a c t c an o n l y p r o p a g a t e m i s e r y . G. H. B l a y n e y has n o t e d " F o r d ' s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f e n f o r c e -1 5 ment," but t h i s i s not a l l t h a t s h o u l d i n t e r e s t us i n t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o n t r a c t s i n t h e p l a y . B l a y n e y c a l l s The Br o k e n  H e a r t a " p r o b l e m p l a y " , b e c a u s e i t i s a s t u d y o f a f o r c e d m a r r i a g e , t h a t i s , o f an e x t e r n a l l y imposed t y r a n n y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v iew, t h e f o r c e d s e p a r a t i o n o f P e n t h e a from O r g i l u s and th e v e n g e a n c e o f O r g i l u s a r e the c e n t r a l f a c t s o f t h e p l a y , C a l a n t h a ' s d e a t h b e i n g a mere o f f - s h o o t o f t h a t v e n g e a n c e . But s u c h a view m i s s e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f C a l a n t h a ' s c o n s t a n c y t o h e r l o v e b e c a u s e i t o v e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e c o n t r a c t between P e n t h e a and O r g i l u s . C a l a n t h a i s not s i m p l y a p a s s i v e s u b j e c t o f the a c t i o n a r o u n d h e r . F o r d i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t i n d e s i g n a t i n g h e r as t h e m i s t r e s s o f h e r own f a t e . At t h e same t i m e , he d e f i n e s h e r i d e n t i t y as t h e symbol o f a b s o l u t e , u n c o n d i t i o n a l c o n s t a n c y . In h e r d e c i s i o n t o e x p r e s s h e r l o v e t h r o u g h d e a t h we r e c o g n i z e man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own l i f e . But i n a d d i t i o n we p e r c e i v e t h e r e t h e d e a d l y c l a i m s o f t o t a l c o n s t a n c y . C a l a n t h a ' s c h o i c e o f n o b l e s u f f e r a n c e e p i t o m i z e s t h e c o u r a g e and c o n s t a n c y o f O r g i l u s , P e n t h e a and I t h o c l e s , and i n the l i v e s o f t h e s e m ajor c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e p l a y we f i n d p r o o f t h a t man's n o b i l i t y i s j u s t as p o t e n t a c a u s e o f c a l a m i t y as h i s f a l l f r o m v i r t u e . 103 By d r a m a t i z i n g t h i s c o n c e p t o f s u f f e r i n g F o r d a c h i e v e s i n The  B r o k e n H e a r t a s h a r p e r p e r c e p t i o n o f t r a g e d y t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f an e x t e r n a l l y imposed t y r a n n y , o r even v i o l e n c e i t s e l f , can a f f o r d . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t r a c t s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n s t a n c y i s t h e c e n t r a l e t h i c a l c a t e g o r y i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e p l a y . J u s t as t h e kingdom's s e c u r i t y r e s t s upon th e f a i t h -f u l s e r v i c e o f s u b j e c t s — f r o m A r m o s t e s and C r o t o l o n t o H e m o p h i l and G r o n e a s — s o does p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s r e s t upon k e e p i n g f a i t h w i t h a p r o m i s e . Such i s t h e f o r c e o f t h i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e p l a y c h o o s e t o r e m a i n t r u e t o t h e i r vows, however o p p r e s s i v e t h e vows may be. F o r d p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f c o n t r a c t s t h r o u g h w h i c h th e m o r a l f o r c e o f c o n s t a n c y i s p r o -g r e s s i v e l y i n t e n s i f i e d . B e g i n n i n g w i t h E u p h r a n e a ' s vow w h i c h comes t o f r u i t i o n i n t h e j o y o f u n i o n , t h e p l a y goes on t o d i s p l a y t h e honour o f martyrdom won by P e n t h e a t h r o u g h h e r two-f o l d c o n s t a n c y - - t o h e r p r e c o n t r a c t w i t h O r g i l u s and h e r - m a r r i a g e -vows t o B a s s a n e s . But t h e s e a r e mere p r e l u d e s t o t h e l e s s o n i n c o n s t a n c y t o be drawn from C a l a n t h a ' s c e r e m o n i o u s e q u a t i o n o f d e a t h and c o n s t a n c y . Her sad but g l o r i o u s end p r e s e n t s echoes o f themes from t h e l i v e s o f b o t h E u p h r a n e a and P e n t h e a . A l l t h r e e women a r e bound by c o m p e l l i n g vows but E u p h r a n e a ' s vow l e a d s h e r t o j o y and u n i o n w h i l e P e n t h e a ' s l e a d s t o m i s e r y and l o s s . C a l a n t h a ' s vow l e a d s h e r , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t o b o t h k i n d s o f r e s u l t s . She l o s e s I t h o c l e s but " n e w - m a r r i e s " him a t the same t i m e , a n n o u n c i n g C l e o p a t r a - l i k e t h a t a t t h e moment o f h e r 104 apparently i r r e p a r a b l e l o s s she has secured an i n a l i e n a b l e happiness: Thus I new-marry him whose wife I am; Death s h a l l not separate us. (V.iii.66-7) The twin motifs of death and marriage are derived separately from the l i v e s of Penthea and Euphranea and the apparent con-t r a d i c t i o n between l o s s and union i s resolved by Calantha's i n f l e x i b l e f i d e l i t y to the idea of love which, because i t i s an a b s t r a c t i o n , can transcend the conditions of m a t e r i a l existence. The p a t t e r n of events i n The Broken Heart helps us to recognize constancy as a s t r u c t u r a l element i n the play, one that r e l a t e s separate endeavours to a t t a i n to p e r f e c t conduct.. On a n a l y s i n g the progress of the p l o t we f i n d that the constancy required by vows generates c o n f l i c t s which i n f l u e n c e a c t i o n s . Euphranea's love f o r Prophilus i s placed under severe s t r a i n by her promise to obey O r g i l u s , whose wish to t e s t her constancy i s one reason f o r h i s d i s g u i s e . The n e c e s s i t y to "harken a f t e r ... Euphranea's f a i t h " ( I . i i i . 3 4 - 5 ) provides the m a t e r i a l of the long t h i r d scene of the f i r s t act. Euphranea's vow a l s o makes i t necessary f o r the k i n g to send f o r Orgilus and creates the occasion f o r I t h o c l e s to sue f o r O r g i l u s ' f r i e n d s h i p . I t i s i n consequence of these events that Orgilus has the opportunity to search out I t h o c l e s ' s weakness and plan h i s revenge. penthea's constancy too l i e s at the root of much of the a c t i o n . Hers i s an ambitious endeavour to r i s e above circum-105 s t a n c e s . She t r i e s t o be t r u e t o two d i s p a r a t e i d e a l s , t h e f i r s t , h e r p l i g h t e d t r o t h t o O r g i l u s , and t h e s e c o n d , h e r ma r r i a g e - v o w s t o B a s s a n e s . T h i s d u a l t a s k she a c c o m p l i s h e s by r e j e c t i n g b o t h O r g i l u s and B a s s a n e s and by t r a n s f o r m i n g p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o a b s t r a c t i o n s . She knows t h e s a c r i f i c e she has t o make: "Honor,/How much we f i g h t w i t h weakness t o p r e s e r v e t h e e " ( I I . i i i . 1 3 0 - 1 ) . Her c o n s t a n c y t o h e r i d e a l compels h e r w i t h d r a w a l f r o m a c t i o n . But h e r v e r y i n a c t i o n g i v e s h e r a u n i q u e i d e n t i t y by c o n t r a s t i n g h e r w i t h e v e r y o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i n t h e p l a y . E v e r y o n e e x c e p t P e n t h e a has some i n t e r e s t t o f o l l o w , some t a s k t o a c c o m p l i s h ; she a l o n e has no o c c u p a t i o n s a v e t h a t o f mourning. Her i n a c t i o n i s o l a t e s h e r as an e m b l e m a t i c f i g u r e o f r a v i s h e d i n n o c e n c e whose s u f f e r -i n g commands a d o r a t i o n . T h a t a d o r a t i o n i s c o n s c i o u s and i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e u n d e r s t o o d by I t h o c l e s who p r o p h e s i e s : Thou s h a l t s t a n d A d e i t y , my s i s t e r , and be w o r s h i p p ' d F o r t h y r e s o l v e d martyrdom. ( I I I . i i . 8 2 - 4 ) I t h o c l e s i s p e r h a p s a p a r t i s a n but. even an o u t s i d e r s u c h as N e a r c h u s c a n n o t f a i l t o c i t e P e n t h e a as an example. I n s e t t i n g h i s own c o u r s e N e a r c h u s f e e l s i n s t r u c t e d by h e r m i s f o r t u n e : f o r a f f e c t i o n s i n j u r ' d By t y r a n n y o r r i g o r o f c o m p u l s i o n , L i k e t e m p e s t - t h r e a t e n ' d t r e e s u n f i r m l y r o o t e d , Ne'er s p r i n g t o t i m e l y g r o w t h . O b s e r v e , f o r i n s t a n c e , L i f e - s p e n t P e n t h e a , and unhappy O r g i l u s . ( I V . i i . 2 0 5 - 9 ) C a l a n t h a ' s vow o f c o n s t a n c y t o I t h o c l e s i s l e s s o s t e n t a t i o u s . T h e i r l o v e i s n o t p u b l i c l y announced t i l l t h e 106 v e r y end and even t h e c o n t r a c t between them, b r o u g h t a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e e p i s o d e o f the r i n g i n A c t IV, s c e n e i , i s s e a l e d by s e e m i n g m i s d i r e c t i o n , t h o u g h . n o t th e l e s s f i r m l y a r t i c u l a t e d f o r t h a t . C a l a n t h a ' s . i n j u n c t i o n i s s p e c i f i c and h e r words f u l l o f p u r p o s e . She f i r s t s a y s , " l e t him t a k e i t , who d a r e s s t o o p f o r ' t , / A n d g i v e i t , a t n e x t .meeting, t o a m i s t r e s s " ( I V . i . 2 7 - 8 ) . I t i s t h e n t h a t she throws t h e r i n g b e f o r e I t h o c l e s . When he p i c k s i t up and o f f e r s i t back on bended knee she makes s u r e t h a t t h e i m p l i e d c l a i m s h o u l d n o t go u n n o t i c e d : T h i s i s p r e t t y . I am, b e l i k e , a m i s t r e s s ! Wondrous p r e t t y . L e t t h e man keep h i s f o r t u n e , s i n c e he f o u n d i t ; He's w o r t h y o n ' t . ( I V . i . 3 2 - 5 ) I n t h i s s p e e c h t h e words " D a r e s " , " m i s t r e s s " , " f o r t u n e " and " w o r t h y " a r e heavy w i t h i n t e n t . The message a p p e a r s c l e a r l y enough as N e a r c h u s a c k n o w l e d g e s i n h i s s p e e c h t o Amelus: Amelus, I p e r c e i v e C a l a n t h a ' s bosom Is warm'd w i t h o t h e r f i r e s t h a n s u c h as can Take s t r e n g t h f r o m any f u e l o f t h e l o v e I m i g h t a d d r e s s t o h e r . Young I t h o c l e s , Or e v e r I m i s t a k e , i s l o r d a s c e n d a n t Of h e r d e v o t i o n s ; ( I V . i i . 1 9 6 - 2 0 1 ) C a l a n t h a h e r s e l f f i n d s no o c c a s i o n t o d e c l a r e h e r l o v e o p e n l y b u t i t a p p e a r s i n h e r s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t t o have Amyclas " g i v e " 16 h e r I t h o c l e s as " t o a m i s t r e s s " ( I V . i i i . 7 7 , 8 5 ) . C a l a n t h a does n o t do v e r y much i n t h e p l a y u n t i l t h e end b u t w h a t e v e r she does a r i s e s o u t o f h e r commitment t o I t h o c l e s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h e r f i r s t g r e e t i n g t o I t h o c l e s when she crowns h i m w i t h t h e v i c t o r ' s c h a p l e t ( I . i i . 6 5 - 6 ) a p p e a r s t o a n t i c i p a t e h e r f i n a l 107 a c t , t h a t o f h o n o u r i n g t h e dead I t h o c l e s . The h o n o u r she a c c o r d s h i m i s c o n v e n t i o n a l i n i t s e l f b u t i n t h e e v e n t a u g u r s a g r e a t e r c o n q u e s t f o r I t h o c l e s . These e v e n t s i n t h e p l a y show t h a t c o n t r a c t s have t h e s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n o f s u p p l y i n g c a u s e s o u t o f w h i c h t h e a c t i o n a r i s e s . But t h e y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e m o t i o n a l t e x t u r e o f the p l a y by c a r r y i n g o ut t h e a m b i v a l e n t f u n c t i o n o f h i g h l i g h t i n g on t h e one hand t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a g i c human e f f o r t t o c o n q u e r m u t a b i l i t y , and on t h e o t h e r , a r e f u s a l - - e q u a l l y t r a g i c - - t o come to terms w i t h r e a l i t y . These a r e the " t r u t h s " a b o u t man' s n a t u r e t h a t F o r d hopes t o d i s c o v e r by s t u d y i n g how men c r e a t e and c o n d u c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n The B r o k e n H e a r t c o n t r a c t s a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s , o f s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a u t h o r i t y o f vows and c o n t r a c t s adds t o t h e t r a g i c d i m e n s i o n s o f r o l e - p l a y i n g i n The B r o k e n H e a r t . I n t h e s t r u c - . t u r e d s o c i e t y o f F o r d ' s S p a r t a t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s boxed i n by o b l i g a t i o n s , i n t e r d i c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t e v e r y b o d y i s i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n t r a c t e d t o t h e group i n s p e c i f i c ways, t h a t i s , o b l i g e d t o p l a y p a r t i c u l a r r o l e s . These r o l e s a r e c a r e f u l l y o u t l i n e d i n t h e p l a y and a r e us e d as i n s t r u m e n t s t o d e f i n e how the c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e and e v a l u a t e t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e i d e n t i t i e s . The " D e a t h - b r a v i n g " . I t h o c l e s i s i n t r o -d uced as t h e s a v i o u r o f L a c o n i a and s t a n d s , L i k e a s t a r f i x ' d , n o t mov'd w i t h any t h u n d e r Of p o p u l a r a p p l a u s e , or sudden l i g h t n i n g Of s e l f - o p i n i o n . He h a t h s e r v ' d h i s c o u n t r y , And t h i n k s 'twas b u t h i s d u t y . ( I . i i . 4 4 - 7 ) 108 He p l a y s up t o t h i s image o f t h e n o b l e , d i s i n t e r e s t e d p a t r i o t , t o t a l l y l o y a l t o h i s monarch, and goes on p l a y i n g t h i s r o l e t i l l t h e end o f h i s l i f e when he d e f i n e s i t f u r t h e r by o b j e c t i v e l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g j u s t how " D e a t h - b r a v i n g " he can be. C a l a n t h a on h e r p a r t i s the " r o y a l maid", a p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r u l i n g e l i t e . Amyclas d e s c r i b e s h e r a p t l y when he e x c l a i m s , "She i s i n a l l o u r d a u g h t e r " ( I . i i . 6 9 ) . P e n t h e a u n d e r s t a n d s h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s o n l y i n terms o f h e r d u a l r o l e as t h e wronged maid and t h e c o n s t a n t w i f e . Her j e a l o u s husband B a s s a n e s knows, as C o r v i n o i n V o l p o n e does n o t , t h a t he i s f o o l i s h l y and u n r e a s o n a b l y j e a l o u s and y e t he c o n t i n u e s t o p l a y t h e p a r t o f one f r a n t i c w i t h s u s p i c i o n . . But O r g i l u s , t h e most e n e r g e t i c o f a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s , h a s , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , more t h a n one r o l e . P a r t o f t h e t i m e he i s t h e d u t i f u l son,, who c o n s t a n t -l y d e f e r s t o h i s f a t h e r , but he a l s o p l a y s a c o n v i n c i n g r o l e as t h e meek and d e v o t e d p u p i l o f T e c n i c u s . But h i s more s t r i k i n g r o l e i s t h a t o f t h e l o v e r r o b b e d o f h i s l a d y , a r o l e t h a t i m p e l s him t o assume h i s f i n a l i d e n t i t y as a v e n g e r . O b s e r v e d c l o s e l y , t h i s f a c u l t y f o r r o l e - p l a y i n g a p p e a r s t o e v o l v e s i m i l a r l y i n e ach i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e . As we go t h r o u g h the p l a y we r e a l i z e t h a t w h i l e p l a y i n g t h e i r r o l e s t h e c h a r a c t e r s a t t e m p t t o s e t up some model o f c o n d u c t and t h i s . s e a r c h f o r a model i n t e n s i f i e s t o a p o i n t a t w h i c h a c t i o n becomes u n i m p o r t a n t i n i t s e l f b u t i s u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e s a k e o f p e r f e c t i n g t h e r o l e b e i n g p l a y e d . To t h i s i s added the m o t i v e o f d i s p l a y i n g t h a t p e r f e c t i o n t o t h e w o r l d . Each major c h a r a c t e r t h e r e f o r e demands --and s e c u r e s — a n a u d i e n c e whose a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h a t c h a r a c t e r ' s 109 part in the action provides the measure of his s e l f - j u s t i f i c a -tion. A major dramatic device i n the play i s to lead a charac-ter to the point of his most perfect rendition of his role while surrounding him with a c i r c l e of onlookers who accord him the honour of the i r single-minded attention. We begin to notice this technique at work when Ithocles f i r s t enters. The stage i s ca r e f u l l y set by Amyclas, Prophilus and Calantha for his triumphant entry, with a captive audience on the stage d i r e c t l y commanded by the king to i d o l i z e him: "Hark, warning of his coming. A l l attend him" ( I . i i . 5 0 ) . Ithocles plays up to the image drawn of him by Prophilus, a picture composed of modesty, loyalty and valour, which matches Ithocles perfectly as he stands before the admiring court. That picture of honour i s drawn i n even stronger colours i n his courtship of Calantha and confrontation with Nearchus in Act IV, scene i , where he becomes the centre of the action because he i s favoured by Calantha and scorned by Nearchus. That a l l eyes must be fixed upon Ithocles i s guaranteed by the deliberate play with the ring, Amelus' rash r i v a l r y , Armostes' admonition and, most s i g n i f i -cantly, by Ithocles' own long explanation of what he understands to be "felicity'.' (IV. i . 37-54) . The strongest expression of the kind of honour and happiness that he has in mind i s set forth by the f i n a l action of his l i f e . As he s i t s i n Orgilus' chair, trapped but undaunted, he proves by his conquest of the fear of death his irr e d u c i b l e i d e n t i t y as a warrior. He scorns Orgilus' threats, saying, "a courage/As keen as thy revenge s h a l l give 1 10 i t welcome" ( I V . i v . 3 9 - 4 0 ) and "A s t a t e l i e r r e s o l u t i o n arms my c o n f i d e n c e , / T o c o z e n t h e e o f h o n o u r " ( i b i d , l i n e s 4 5 - 6 ) , and a s s e r t i n g t h a t h i s r e s o l u t e c o u r a g e w i l l b r i n g h i m t o h e a v e n "on t h e s a c r e d a l t a r / O f a l o n g - l o o k ' d f o r p e a c e " ( i b i d , l i n e s 6 9 - 7 0 ) . I n t h i s s c e n e I t h o c l e s does n o t c o n t r o l t h e a c t i o n b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s he who o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s t a g e . The s p e c t a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on him w h i l e O r g i l u s , who m a n i p u l a t e s t h e a c t i o n , f u n c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y as t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r o f I t h o c l e s ' " n o b l e s u f f e r a n c e " ( l i n e 72) and as an a d m i r e r o f t h i s " f a i r s p r i n g o f manhood" ( l i n e 7 1 ) . F o r the moment t h i s l a s t and b e s t b a t t l e o f the g r e a t w a r r i o r i s w i t n e s s e d o n l y by O r g i l u s - - a n d p r e s u m a b l y by t h e s p i r i t o f P e n t h e a , whose body has been p l a c e d i n a c h a i r b e s i d e t h e one i n w h i c h I t h o c l e s i s c a u g h t . But I t h o c l e s i s g i v e n h i s a u d i e n c e i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g s c e n e o f t h e p l a y where C a l a n t h a f o r m a l l y i n v i t e s t h e w o r l d t o l o o k a t h i s r e g a l l y r o b e d and crowned body. L i k e h e r "sweet t w i n , " t o use O r g i l u s ' p h r a s e ( I V . i v . 7 4 ) , P e n t h e a does l i t t l e by way o f p h y s i c a l a c t i o n b u t o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t r e - s t a g e a t e v e r y a p p e a r a n c e . When we f i r s t s e e h e r , t h e m i l d p a s s i o n o f B a s s a n e s frames t h e c a l m f o r t i t u d e she d i s p l a y s i n h e r d u a l r o l e s o f i n n o c e n t v i c t i m and s u b m i s s i v e w i f e . She c l a r i f i e s t h e s e r o l e s t o t h e i m p a t i e n t O r g i l u s i n A c t I I , s c e n e i i i , where she a c k n o w l e d g e s b o t h h e r m i s e r y and h e r d u t y . T h i s s c e n e d e v e l o p s h e r image as p e r s e c u t e d i n n o c e n c e so t h o r o u g h l y t h a t t h e image e n v e l o p s t h e woman and e s t r a n g e s h e r f r o m what she h o l d s most d e a r . Her command t o O r g i l u s , "Remove/Your s t e p s some d i s t a n c e f r o m me" ( I I . i i i . 7 3 - 4 ) t r a n s l a t e s i n t o t h e a t r i c a l a c t i o n h e r e s t r a n g e m e n t and h e r awareness o f i t . That awareness 111 i s reiterated through her l i f e . When she appears for the l a s t time, in Act IV, scene i i , she i s distracted and yet she consistently emphasizes her s u f f e r i n g which she feels w i l l immortalize her "to a l l memory" (IV.ii.147). She i s "a k i l l i n g sight" ( I V . i i . 6 0 ) , as Ithocles puts i t , a "sight f u l l of terror", according to Armostes (174), and has therefore a compelling presence that f i l l s the onlookers with pity and fear. Her unhappy l i f e becomes so famous an example of martyrdom that she always has an audience committed to an awed contemplation of her pathetic figure as an icon of misery and constancy. The problem with Penthea's doting tyrant of a husband i s the insecurity of old age. This i s an incurable condition i n which reason i s clouded over, though Bassanes eventually wins the dignity of some b r i e f flashes of sense. He confesses his d e b i l i t y at the end: What can you look for From an old, f o o l i s h , peevish, doting man But craziness of age? (V.iii.35-7) His weakness forces him to i d e n t i f y possible r i v a l s on a l l sides, including among them even Ithocles. However, for a l l his lunacy the man has, as Gifford remarks, "a vigorous under-standing, broken indeed and disjointed, but occasionally 17 exhibiting i n i t s fragments t r a i t s of i t s o r i g i n a l strength." This seems to be Calantha's view as well, for she s o l i c i t s his counsel (V.iii.21) and appoints him marshall of Sparta ( V . i i i . 46). It i s also Bassanes who actually notes that Calantha's instructions to Nearchus i n the f i n a l scene of the play have a 1 12 special import: "This i s a testament;/It sounds not l i k e conditions on a marriage" ( V . i i i , 5 3 - 4 ) . This shrewdness asserts i t s e l f from Act I I I , scene i i onwards as Bassanes sets about the task of curing himself. Having been so long incapable of normal responses to the marital s i t u a t i o n , he deliberately seizes upon a. defined model of conduct, that i s , the role of a penitent, accepting his chastisement as the price of his schooling. From this point on we see a diff e r e n t Bassanes, a man who stands out-side of himself contemplating his ro l e . That he looks upon his future task as an attempt to f i t himself into a preconceived role i s proved by his declaration: I ' l l stand the execution with a constancy. This torture i s unsufferable. ( I I I . i i . 189-90) Some way I must try To outdo art and cry a jealousy. (ITI.ii.205-6) Later i t becomes obvious that his eyes are set upon the honour to be gained by playing his role perfectly; he w i l l put i n practice i n s t a n t l y What you s h a l l s t i l l admire. 'Tis wonderful, 'Tis super-singular, not to be match'd. Yet when I've done't, I've done't; ye s h a l l a l l thank me. (IV.ii.170-•3) Bassanes i s d i r e c t i n g a l l his energies to playing the penitent as thoroughly as possible, meekly submitting to Orgilus' contempt and through his grove l l i n g self-abnegation c a l l i n g attention to his altered i d e n t i t y : "What a fool am I/To bandy passion" (IV.ii.106-7). His role reaches a climax i n Act V, scene i i , when he counsels the assemblage, "Make me the pattern of digest-ing e v i l s " ( l i n e 58),and s o l i c i t s approval i n these words: 113 Mark me, n o b l e s , I do n o t s h e d a t e a r , n o t f o r P e n t h e a . E x c e l l e n t m i s e r y ! ( V . i i . 6 4 - 6 ) The b e g i n n i n g o f h i s e x h o r t a t i o n as w e l l as t h e c o n c l u d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n shows how c o n s c i o u s l y B a s s a n e s p l a y s the p e n i t e n t ' s r o l e , p u t t i n g i t on as one might p u t on a r i t u a l r o b e o f s e l f -m o r t i f i c a t i o n . B a s s a n e s ' s c h o o l i n g o f h i m s e l f i s a f o r m o f t h e s e l f -c o n q u e s t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c i r c l e o f h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e p l a y , a l t h o u g h t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t i s s e t i n a l a r g e r s c a l e . W h i l e B a s s a n e s c o n q u e r s h i s j e a l o u s y and moves on t o a c a l m e r l i f e , P e n t h e a , I t h o c l e s , O r g i l u s and C a l a n t h a c o n q u e r l i f e i t s e l f w i t h a l l i t s c h a n g e a b i l i t y , and a t t a i n t o a f o r m o f 18 immutable e x i s t e n c e i n t h e c h r o n i c l e s o f t h e i r w o r l d . O r g i l u s makes t h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f permanence q u i t e c l e a r as he e x e c u t e s vengeance upon I t h o c l e s . H i s a t t i t u d e t o h i s v i c t i m u n d e r g o e s w h o l e s a l e r e v i s i o n i n the c o u r s e o f t h e s c e n e . The " s t a t e l i e r r e s o l u t i o n " o f I t h o c l e s t u r n s O r g i l u s ' h a t e t o so i n t e n s e an a d m i r a t i o n t h a t he r e s o l v e s t o win fame by e m u l a t i n g h i s v i c t i m ' s " n o b l e s u f f e r a n c e " ; he w i l l " h e n c e f o r t h w e lcome/Best e x p e c t a t i o n o f a n o b l e s u f f e r a n c e , " f o r "No monument l a s t s b u t a happy name" ( I V . i v . 7 1 - 2 , 76 ) . His...thoughts s h i f t f r o m t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e v e n g e t o t h e g l o r y o f p r o v i n g h i m s e l f e q u a l t o P e n t h e a and I t h o c l e s i n s e l f - c o n t r o l . H i s i n i t i a l j u b i l a t i o n o v e r c a p t u r i n g I t h o c l e s i n h i s t r a p and t h e d e s i r e t o " c o n f o u n d " I t h o c l e s ' dream "To-bosom/The d e l i c a c i e s . o f a y o u n g l i n g p r i n c e s s " ( I V . i v . 3 0 - 3 1 ) , g i v e s way t o e s t e e m and homage. H i s announcement, " t o 114 linger/Pain, which I s t r i v e to cure, were to be cruel" (IV.iv. 61-2) i s at marked variance with his former gloating. The position he now takes, that the pain of l i f e can be cured by a glorious e x i t , i s derived from Ithocles' assertions that a l l earthly glories are vain and that honour consists i n fortitude. Murder becomes s a c r i f i c e , for i t cures Orgilus of anger and enables him to assimilate the virtue iof his victim. From being enemies they turn into partners i n celebrating the transmutation of loss into honour and j o i n t l y perfecting death as the symbol of their contract with courage. The value of noble sufferance i s set so high by Orgilus and Ithocles that Penthea's "agonies, her miseries, a f f l i c t i o n s " (IV.iv.35) recede into the past, leaving i n sharp d e f i n i t i o n only her fortitude and brave con-stancy. In that she i s well matched by her brother and so Orgilus salutes them: "Sweet twins, shine stars forever" (IV.iv.74). The s h i f t i n Orgilus' attitude from hatred to reverence indicates an a l t e r a t i o n i n his perception of his i d e n t i t y . In e f f e c t , he transfers his allegiance from Penthea the woman to Penthea the icon of s u f f e r i n g , and f i n a l l y he moves away a l t o -gether from Penthea to an abstract e t h i c a l category. By doing so he exchanges his contract with Penthea for a contract with an i d e a l . This exchange follows a s i m i l a r s h i f t i n the case of Ithocles, who with equal a g i l i t y transforms his pursuit of the princess into the pursuit of honour. Both Ithocles and Orgilus are however anticipated by the distracted Penthea who rejects 115 p a r t i c u l a r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f a v o u r o f a commitment t o honour. To r e i t e r a t e , t h e n , t h e p o i n t made a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f o u r s t u d y o f The Broken Heart, a l t h o u g h t h e v i o l a t i o n o f c o n -t r a c t s i s a f o r c e b e h i n d t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t , t h e t r a g i c outcome o f t h o s e e v e n t s i s u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r -mined by a b s o l u t e and u n c o n d i t i o n a l f i d e l i t y t o i d e a l s . I n o t h e r words, we have h e r e the p a r a d o x t h a t i t i s n o t t h e b r o k e n c o n t r a c t t h a t l e a d s t o t r a g e d y b u t t h e c o n t r a c t t o o f a i t h f u l l y k e p t . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l a m b i t i o n s i n t o i d e a l s i s s i g n a l l e d most v i v i d l y by I t h o c l e s ' q u i c k r e n u n c i a t i o n o f h i s a m b i t i o n s i n the r e v e n g e s c e n e and h i s i n s t a n t d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e i d e a l o f c o u r a g e . • Sbhoo-led by :his example, O r g i l u s l e a r n s t o l o o k beyond t h e i m m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s vengeance and a c c e p t s t h e i d e a l o f f o r t i t u d e t h a t .has been p o i n t e d o ut t o him. But t h e o n l y a c t i o n he i s c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g , i n o r d e r t o f o r m u l a t e t h e i d e a l , i s t h e v i o l e n t a c t i o n o f r e v e n g e . The r e v e n g e r ' s r o l e i s a n e c e s s i t y , f o r i t i s t h e o n l y way f o r O r g i l u s t o f u l -f i l h i s commitment t o the memory o f P e n t h e a who had e x p l i c i t l y '.'.tutor'd" h i m w i t h h e r " p o w e r f u l i n s p i r a t i o n " ( I V . i i . 124-5) . In t h e e v e n t t h i s r o l e t o o l e t s h i m f o l l o w t h e example f o r b r a v e r y s e t by I t h o c l e s . As w i t h P e n t h e a and I t h o c l e s , O r g i l u s i s l e d by h i s a c t i o n s t o a c l i m a x i n A c t V, s c e n e i i where he p e r f e c t s h i s s e l f - d e f i n e d r o l e as t h e n o b l e r e v e n g e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e whole w o r l d , much as O t h e l l o c a l l s the w o r l d t o a t t e n t i o n w h i l e he t a k e s r e v e n g e upon h i m s e l f f o r h i s murder o f 116 Desdemona. O r g i l u s , by making h i s deed p u b l i c , f o r c e s h i s w o r l d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t he s c o r n s t o b e t r a y "fame t o i g n o b l e f l i g h t / And vagabond p u r s u i t o f d r e a d f u l s a f e t y " ( V . i i . 1 1 6 - 7 ) as b e f i t s one who i n a f t e r l i f e w i l l " t u g f o r m a s t e r y " w i t h I t h o c l e s ( I V . i v . 5 6 ) . O r g i l u s t h u s e a r n s t h e s p o n t a n e o u s a d m i r a t i o n o f Ar m o s t e s and N e a r c h u s f o r h i s " D e s p e r a t e c o u r a g e " and " H o n o r a b l e i n f a m y " ( V . i i . 123). The few moments o f . l i f e l e f t him a r e g i v e n t o a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f c o u r a g e t o w h i c h he c a l l s a t t e n t i o n : " l o o k upon my s t e a d i n e s s , and s c o r n n o t / T h e s i c k n e s s o f my f o r t u n e " ( V . i i . 1 1 8 - 9 ) • I f h i s d e s p e r a t e c o u r a g e a l i e n a t e s him f r o m h i s w o r l d , the i n h a b i t a n t s o f w h i c h a d m i r e but r e j e c t him, i t a l s o a l l o w s him t o t r i u m p h o v e r m u t a b i l i t y , f o r h i s v i o l e n t deeds ( h i s murder o f I t h o c l e s and h i s own d e a t h ) a r e t r a n s f o r m e d a t the end i n t o an a e s t h e t i c a c t as B a s s a n e s t e l l s u s : T h i s p a s t i m e A p p e a r s m a j e s t i c a l ; some h i g h - t u n ' d poem H e r e a f t e r s h a l l d e l i v e r t o p o s t e r i t y The w r i t e r ' s g l o r y and h i s s u b j e c t ' s t r i u m p h . ( V . i i . 1 3 1 - 4 ) F o r d r e s e r v e s h i s most a s t o n i s h i n g i n s t a n c e o f r o l e -p l a y i n g f o r t h e end. C a l a n t h a , who i s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r s as t h e " F l o w e r o f Beauty,!' p l a y s t h e p a r t n o t o n l y o f a g r a c i o u s p r i n c e s s b u t t h a t o f a s o v e r e i g n w i t h t o t a l c o n s i s t -ency. When she f i r s t g r e e t s I t h o c l e s she c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e s h e r r e a s o n s f o r h o n o u r i n g him and e m p h a s i z e s h e r p r e r o g a t i v e t o r e w a r d him. In A c t I I I , s c e n e v, when P e n t h e a r e v e a l s I t h o c l e s ' l o v e f o r h e r , C a l a n t h a a t once assumes a r e g a l d i g n i t y , r e m i n d i n g P e n t h e a o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s : 117 What new change A p p e a r s i n my b e h a v i o r t h a t t h o u d a r ' s t Tempt my d i s p l e a s u r e ? (III.v.93-5) The same commanding tone r i n g s out a g a i n i n t h e n e x t s c e n e i n which she p l a y s t h e h a u g h t y p r i n c e s s t o t h e a d o r i n g I t h o c l e s . But by now we b e g i n t o doubt t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f h e r r o l e , f o r h e r a c t i o n i n t h e s c e n e c i t e d above s u g g e s t s t h a t she may n o t be what she i s s u p p o s e d t o be. She a p p e a r s t o a s s e r t h e r r e g a l i d e n t i t y i n A c t IV, s c e n e i i i , when she begs t h e k i n g f o r t h e s e r v i c e s o f I t h o c l e s . At once, however, she d e n i e s t h a t i d e n t -i t y , and h e r words t o I t h o c l e s i d e n t i f y h e r as a woman i n l o v e : "Sweet, be n o t f r o m my sight'.' (IV. i i i . 96). But i n A c t V, s c e n e i i , she i s back i n h e r r o l e a g a i n when t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s c e n e b e g i n s t o b u i l d up, w i t h m e s s e n g e r s o f d e a t h s t a l k i n g i n , t o a c l i m a c t i c p o r t r a y a l o f p r i n c e l y c o u r a g e . Her r e g a l c a l m amazes t h e w a t c h i n g c o u r t i e r s . O r g i l u s c o n f e s s e s , " I am t h u n d e r s t r u c k " ( V . i i . 1 9 ) and A r m o s t e s wonders, " ' T i s s t r a n g e t h e s e t r a g e d i e s s h o u l d n e v e r t o u c h on/Her f e m a l e p i t y , " t o w h i c h B a s s a n e s ' r e p l y sums up t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e : "She has a m a s c u l i n e s p i r i t " ( V . i i . 9 4 - 5 ) . She c a r r i e s on t h i s r o l e t o the l a s t s c e n e u n t i l she has p l a y e d i t out by d e p u t i z i n g o r s u r r e n d e r i n g a l l t h e f u n c t i o n s o f government. As she sheds h e r i d e n t i t y as a s o v e r e i g n we r e - d i s c o v e r h e r i d e n t i t y , b r i e f l y g l i m p s e d i n A c t I I I , s c e n e i , and A c t IV, scene' i i i , o f a b r i d e t o be. She d i s c l o s e s h e r t r u e , i n a l i e n a b l e s e l f , one t h a t i s not c o n s t i t u t e d by s o c i a l r a n k b ut by an i r r e d u c i b l e v i r t u e . Her r o l e does n o t change c o m p l e t e l y but becomes d i s t i l l e d i n t o 118 a t r u e r p i c t u r e o f h e r n a t u r e as she r e j e c t s t h e i d e n t i t y o f a r u l e r o f men i n f a v o u r o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f one who r u l e s h e r -s e l f . T h rough t h a t s e l f - c o n q u e s t , she s e a l s t h e bond between h e r s e l f and t h e c o n c e p t o f a l i m i t l e s s , u n d y i n g l o v e . She a c k n o w l e d g e s i n t h e d i r g e she has f i t t e d f o r h e r end t h a t no s y m b o l i s m can a f t e r a l l r e p l a c e m a t e r i a l s e n s i b i l i t y , t h a t " a r t / C a n f i n d no c o m f o r t f o r a b r o k e n h e a r t " ( V . i i i . 9 3 - 4 ) . But she makes t h e p o i n t t h a t h e r c o n s t a n c y can d e f e a t o b l i v i o n '.; by i t s e x e m p l a r y n a t u r e . T h a t i s why she p u t s h e r t r u s t i n t h e p a r a d o x : "Love o n l y r e i g n s i n d e a t h " ( V . i i i . 9 3 ) . The c o n c l u d i n g s o n g n e a t l y sums up t h e l e s s o n o f l i f e i m p l i e d i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e s e p a r a t e l i v e s o f t h e p r o t a g o n -i s t s . I t a l s o complements t h e D e l p h i c o r a c l e t h a t T e c n i c u s u n r a v e l s . B o t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t h e o r a c l e and C a l a n t h a ' s d i r g e , h a r p on t h e m u t a b i l i t y t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e s a l l human e f f o r t s and a m b i t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e o r a c l e does n o t b e a r t h e b u r d e n o f p e r s o n a l g r i e f t h a t t h e song does. Y e t , by r a t i o n a l i z i n g p r i v a t e p l e a s u r e s and d e s i r e s , the song h i n t s a t a l a r g e r framework o f e x i s t e n c e , o f w h i c h t h e o r a c l e and T e c n i c u s ' wisdom a r e p a r t . I n t h e f a i l u r e o f C a l a n t h a and I t h o c l e s t o a c h i e v e h a p p i n e s s on e a r t h l i e s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o p h e c y o f T e c n i c u s t h a t "The l i f e l e s s t r u n k s h a l l wed t h e b r o k e n h e a r t " ( I V . i . 1 3 4 ) . T e c n i c u s ' s t a t u s as s e e r a l l o w s him t o r e a c h out t o w a r d s a l a r g e r framework o f m e t a p h y s i c a l t r u t h a g a i n s t w h i c h the t r a n s i t o r y f a c t s o f human l i f e can be s e t . The t i t l e o f t h e p l a y t h u s comes from t h e gods t h e m s e l v e s , so t o s a y , u n l i k e t h a t 119 o f ' T i s P i t y w h i c h i s g i v e n by t h e C a r d i n a l , a man--and a p a t e n t l y w o r l d l y man a t t h a t . I t i s t h a t framework o f p h i l o s -ophy t h a t a l l o w s t h e p a r a d o x o f C a l a n t h a ' s l o s s b e i n g t r a n s m u t e d i n t o h e r r i c h e s t a c h i e v e m e n t , and t h i s i t does by s h i f t i n g o u r a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e o b j e c t i v e p l a n e t o the s u b j e c t i v e . One m i g h t see i n t h e use o f t h e p r o p h e c i e s and C a l a n t h a ' s song a p r o t o - e x i s t e n t i a l i s t a t t e m p t t o c o n v e r t n o t h i n g n e s s i n t o b e i n g t h r o u g h t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n v e r s i o n o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . We f i n d t h a t m a t e r i a l h a p p i n e s s , p e r h a p s o b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f , i s t h e most f r a g i l e t h i n g i n l i f e , w h i c h , b e i n g an a g g r e g a t e o f human a c t i o n s g o v e r n e d by p a s s i o n s , i s by n a t u r e u n s t a b l e . These men and women t r y t o a c h i e v e permanence f o r what t h e y most c h e r i s h , by d e v i s i n g i n v i o l a b l e c o v e n a n t s w i t h e ach o t h e r o r w i t h s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . But i n t h e k e e p i n g o f t h o s e c o v e n a n t s t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s t o be p r o t e c t e d a r e l o s t , l e a v i n g o n l y t h e v i r t u e s i m p l i c i t i n them. S e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r m a t e r i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , t h e s e v i r t u e s a r e g i v e n t h e t i m e -l e s s n e s s o f a b s t r a c t i o n s and t h e r e b y g a i n a d e g r e e o f perman-ence. F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r s l e a r n t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e as i t i s l i v e d i n t h e w o r l d o f The B r o k e n H e a r t when t h e y become aware o f t h e i r m o r a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s awareness emerges i n t h e p l a y , as i n ' T i s P i t y , t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l c r i s e s . To t a k e t h e most o b v i o u s examples, O r g i l u s and I t h o c l e s p e r c e i v e o n l y a t a moment o f c r i s i s and i n t h e same way as G i o v a n n i does, t h e f a l s e n e s s o f p a r t i c u l a r a m b i t i o n s and t h e c o n t r a s t i n g i m m u t a b i l i t y o f v i r t u e . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n l i e s a t t h e h e a r t o f 120 t h e s e t r a g e d i e s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e i t i s won a t t h e p r i c e o f c o n c r e t e a c h i e v e m e n t s but a l s o b e c a u s e i t e s t r a n g e s t h e t r a g i c p r o t a g o n i s t s f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e i r w o r l d w h i c h r e m a i n s committed t o m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s . F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r s i n The  B r o k e n H e a r t o p t f o r a b s t r a c t v i r t u e r a t h e r t h a n a c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e b e c a u s e e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e s them the impermanence o f m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s and shows a p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e e t i n g e t e r n i t y i n a b s t r a c t i o n s . I n t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s we see t h e n a p a t t e r n o f p a s s i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and c h o i c e . We see a l s o t h e f a l l o f n o b l e b e i n g s w h i c h e l i c i t s t h e " p i t y , w i t h d e l i g h t " p r o m i s e d by F o r d i n t h e P r o l o g u e , b e c a u s e by s t u d y i n g t h e s e n o b l e s t r a n g e r s F o r d ' s audiences" l e a r n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t them-s e l v e s . C h a p t e r V PERKIN WARBECK P e r k i n Warbeck has p e r p l e x e d F o r d ' s c r i t i c s b e c a u s e i t seems u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f F o r d ; i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t n e i t h e r p r e s e n t s a consuming l o v e n o r a ceremony o f v i o l e n c e as o t h e r t r a g e d i e s by F o r d do, and s e c o n d l y , i t i s a h i s t o r y p l a y , a f o r m o f drama i n w h i c h F o r d ' s immediate c o n t e m p o r a r i e s had l o s t i n t e r e s t . But t h e p l a y has n e v e r l a c k e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a d m i r e r s . An anonymous c r i t i c r e v i e w i n g i n 1812 Henry Weber's e d i t i o n o f F o r d ' s p l a y s a s s e r t e d t h a t o f a l l E n g l i s h p l a y s P e r k i n Warbeck i s t h e o n l y one t h a t can " i n d u c e us t o admit t h e l a w f u l n e s s o f a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h S h a k e s p e a r e . " G i f f o r d a p p r o v e d o f t h i s j u d g -ment, and H a r t l e y C o l e r i d g e i n h i s e d i t i o n o f M a s s i n g e r and F o r d c a l l e d P e r k i n Warbeck t h e " b e s t s p e c i m e n o f t h e h i s t o r i c drama 2 t o be f o u n d o u t s i d e o f S h a k e s p e a r e . " I n our own c e n t u r y , T.S. E l i o t has s t a t e d c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t t h i s p l a y i s " F o r d ' s h i g h e s t a c h i e v e m e n t , " j u s t i f y i n g h i s o p i n i o n by c l a i m i n g t h a t i n t h i s p l a y " t h e r e i s no l a p s e i n t a s t e and judgment. "^ C a s u a l and vague as i t i s , E l i o t ' s s t a t e m e n t i s c l e a r i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t P e r k i n Warbeck i s u n l i k e any o t h e r p l a y by F o r d . I n n o t i n g t h e p l a y ' s d i s t i n c t i v e i d e n t i t y , E l i o t was a n t i c i p a t e d by H a v e l o c k E l l i s who s a i d - - w i t h p e r h a p s a t o u c h o f 121 122 r e g r e t - - t h a t P e r k i n Warbeck was " t h e l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g o f F o r d ' s p l a y s f o r t h o s e who c a r e f o r t h e p e c u l i a r q u a l i t i e s o f F o r d ' s g e n i u s . " A l a t e r c r i t i c , Una E l l i s - F e r m o r , a g r e e s t h a t t h e p l a y l a c k s c e r t a i n " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c marks o f F o r d ' s g e n i u s " and h i s " i n d i v i d u a l f e r v o u r . " " H.J. O l i v e r a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h e u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e p l a y when he a r g u e s t h a t F o r d w r o t e i t as an e x p e r i m e n t i n t e c h n i q u e and t h a t i n d e c i d i n g on t h e s u b j e c t F o r d was t a k i n g on " t h e c h a l l e n g e o f f e r e d by t h e 6 r e s t r i c t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c a l drama." R e v i e w i n g t h e s e c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s P e t e r Ure a d m i t s i n h i s e d i t i o n o f t h e p l a y t h a t he i s "an a d m i r e r o f F o r d ' s p e c u l i a r q u a l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e y a r e d i s p l a y e d i n ' T i s P i t y She's a Whore and The B r o k e n  H e a r t . " He t o o r e g r e t s t h a t P e r k i n Warbeck l a c k s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s b u t t h a t t h e r e can be "no way o f e v a d i n g f a c t s . " But t h e " f a c t s " o f a l i t e r a r y work a r e open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l a r g u e t h a t a l t h o u g h P e r k i n Warbeck i s d i f f e r e n t i n many ways, t h e r e a r e enough " f a c t s " t o show t h a t i n theme and t e c h n i q u e i t f o l l o w s F o r d ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o p l a y w r i t i n g . To t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p l a y ' s l i k e n e s s (.or l a c k o f l i k e n e s s ) t o F o r d ' s o t h e r p l a y s , c r i t i c s have added a n o t h e r , and p e r h a p s a more p r e s s i n g q u e s t i o n : Why d i d F o r d c h o o s e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t o w r i t e a h i s t o r y play-,, t o r e v i v e : . i n t h e 1 6 3 0 ' s what many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s no doubt would have v i e w e d as an o u t -moded f o r m o f drama? A s u p p l e m e n t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s , what was F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , t h a t i s , i n P e r k i n Warbeck's a p p e a r a n c e as a p r e t e n d e r t o t h e 123 throne? No ready answer can be given to either question. But there was enough material to feed Ford's interest in the.subject. He read and used as sources of information, Bacon's History of  the Reign of King Henry VII (1622) and The Time and Wonderful  History of Perkin Warbeck Proclaiming Himself Richard the  Fourth (1618), written by Thomas Gainsford, interest i n whose works was revived after his death in 1b24. Warbeck's insurrec-tion seems to have caught the attention of the public, for Gainsford mentions i n his True History of the Earl of Tyrone g (1619) a play, now lost,.-on Warbeck. I f , as seems l i k e l y from the evidence of the Stationers' Register and the date of the 9 play's f i r s t publication, Perkin Warbeck was written shortly before 1634, that i s , a hundred and forty years after Warbeck's insurrection, then Ford must have found i n the h i s t o r i c event some lesson of contemporary relevance. That Ford's choice was neither accidental nor arbitrary i s suggested by his prologue which shows a conscious and keen interest i n the subject. It i s therefore evident that an examination of Ford's choice of topic and form must be central to our understanding of the play and i t s place i n Ford's work. In order to keep this examination grounded i n the evidence of the text we must scr u t i n i z e the world of the play and note how Ford places event and character in that world. As we have seen before, to many readers Perkin Warbeck has seemed far removed from other plays by Ford. Three main reasons account for that impression. In the f i r s t place, the whole sexual penumbra of frustrated love, jealousy and i l l i c i t 124 p a s s i o n i s m i s s i n g . Then a g a i n , t h e s e t t i n g i s f a m i l i a r r a t h e r t h a n e x o t i c . F i n a l l y , t h e p l a y i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e f o r t u n e s o f an e n t i r e kingdom r a t h e r t h a n a f a m i l y o r a c o t e r i e . These d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f P e r k i n Warbeck o b s c u r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p l a y i s b u i l t on t h e same s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s as F o r d ' s o t h e r p l a y s . The c a u s a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e p l o t and t h e p r i m a c y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n a r e as v i t a l i n t h i s p l a y as anywhere e l s e i n F o r d b u t our i n t e r e s t i s so much .more c l o s e l y engaged by t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o r m t h a t we may o f t e n o v e r -l o o k t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s . Y e t , t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e n o t o n l y as d e e p l y e n s h r i n e d i n P e r k i n Warbeck as i n ' T i s P i t y o r The B r o k e n H e a r t but a r e a c t u a l l y f o l l o w e d more s t r i c t l y , so much so t h a t F o r d ' s c h o i c e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l f orm, c o n s i d e r e d so s u r p r i s i n g , may r e f l e c t an a t t e m p t t o g i v e h i s h a b i t u a l l y r a t i o n a l i s t i c view o f human a c t i o n i t s s e v e r e s t f o r m u l a t i o n . As we may f i n d on a n a l y s i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f Warbeck's f a l l , t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e a c t i o n o f P e r k i n Warbeck i s marked by t h e l o g i c o f c a u s e and e f f e c t . The two i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e p l a y a r e , f i r s t , K i n g H e n r y ' s d e c i s i o n t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a -t i v e i n h u n t i n g down Warbeck ( I . i ) and s e c o n d , K i n g James' a c c e p t a n c e o f Warbeck's c l a i m ( I I . i ) . H e n r y ' s d e c i s i o n l e a d s him p e r s o n a l l y t o i n t e r r o g a t e C l i f f o r d {In I . i i i ) , whose co n -f e s s i o n h e l p s Henry s e c u r e h i s r u l e a g a i n s t i n t e r n a l s u b v e r s i o n and p l a n h i s s t r a t e g y . At t h e o t h e r end o f t h e p o l i t i c a l b a l a n c e , K i n g James, by r e c e i v i n g Warbeck as t h e r i g h t f u l h e i r t o t h e E n g l i s h t h r o n e , n o t o n l y s t a r t s t h e b o r d e r war b u t a l s o 125 thrusts Katherine into an unexpected marriage with Warbeck. Warbeck's fate, both p o l i t i c a l and personal, i s thus largely-decided between the two kings and his eventual downfall i s a result of t h e i r actions. It i s ensured by King James' repudia-tion of his friendship with Warbeck. But this i s a direct result of King Henry's instructions to Pedro Hialas (in I I I . i i i ) to win over the Scottish king by showing him where his most favourable prospects l i e . Henry determines Warbeck's fate more d i r e c t l y by cunningly manipulating his forces--military as well as economic—and cutting him off from his potential supporters. When Warbeck's secretary Frion reports to James that Henry has overthrown Warbeck's supporters " i n open f i e l d " (III.iv.85), James finds the re a l cause of the defeat rather in Henry's "subsidies," that i s , his taxes (III.iv.87). These incidents suggest that Warbeck's helpless i s o l a t i o n i s no accident but an inevitable consequence of Henry's maneuvers. Yet the s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y of Perkin Warbeck with plays bearing the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c marks of Ford's genius," such as 'Tis Pity and The Broken Heart, goes beyond the law of causation. As in...those plays, i n Perkin Warbeck action bears a measured relationship to character. The events of the play can always be traced back to the psychological q u a l i t i e s of one or the other of the three p r i n c i p a l characters. The best example of character shaping action i s of course King Henry, whose function as the manipulator of the action i s throughout connected closely with his p a r t i c u l a r psychological q u a l i t i e s . From beginning to end we mark both his function of c o n t r o l l i n g 126 t h e a c t i o n , and h i s most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r - t r a i t , an a g r e s s i v e s e l f - i n t e r e s t tempered by a p r a g m a t i c s e n s e o f j u s t i c e . He e s t a b l i s h e s h i m s e l f as t h e r u l e r f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l b e c a u s e t h e c o u r a g e o f the l i o n and t h e c u n n i n g o f t h e f o x meet i n him, a l l o w i n g him t o h o l d t h e t h r e a d s o f a c t i o n i n h i s hands. He m a n i p u l a t e s f o l l o w e r s and enemies w i t h e q u a l s k i l l . H i s m i n i s -t e r s , L o r d Daubeney and t h e E a r l o f O x f o r d t e s t i f y t o h i s acumen: O x f o r d The k i n g ! See, a' comes s m i l i n g . Daubeney 0 , t h e game r u n s smooth On h i s s i d e , t h e n , b e l i e v e i t ; c a r d s w e l l s h u f f l e d And d e a l t w i t h c u n n i n g b r i n g some g a m e s t e r s t h r i f t , But o t h e r s must r i s e l o s e r s . ( I V . i v . 2 3 - 7 ) , Henry i s e f f e c t i v e enough as a w a r r i o r , as A c t I I I , s c e n e i , i s d e s i g n e d t o s u g g e s t (and who c o u l d d o u b t t h e b r a v e r y o f t h e v i c t o r o f Bosworth f i e l d ? ) , b u t h i s r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n l i e s i n h i s m a s t e r y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s t h i s a b i l i t y t h a t l e t s him weave and draw a n e t a r o u n d h i s a d v e r s a r i e s , h i s s t r a t e g e m s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e web o f e v e n t s i n t h e p l a y . T h a t web c a t c h e s n o t o n l y Warbeck but K i n g James as s u r e l y , Warbeck b e c a u s e he i s r a s h enough t o c h a l l e n g e a p o w e r f u l k i n g , and James b e c a u s e he i s v u l n e r a b l e i n h i s i m p u l s i v e n e s s . A g a i n we o b s e r v e how t h e i n d i v i d u a l temperaments o f James and Warbeck d e c i d e t h e i r r e s -p e c t i v e d e s t i n i e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n and c a u s a t i o n b e i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f F o r d ' s d r a m a t i c method, t h e y l i n k P e r k i n Warbeck c o n c l u s i v e l y w i t h F o r d ' s o t h e r p l a y s . But t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l 127 s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e e a s i l y o v e r l o o k e d b e c a u s e c a u s a l i t y i n P e r k i n  Warbeck i s p l a c e d i n trie g r a n d s c a l e o f h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n , !. and b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s have t h e f a r - r e a c h i n g i n f l u e n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l c a u s e s . Causes and e f f e c t s a r e u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f b a t t l e s , c o n q u e s t s and t r e a t i e s , w h i l e c h a r a c t e r i n f l u e n c e s t h e l i v e s o f whole n a t i o n s as e a s i l y as t h e l i v e s o f p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s t o t h i s e n l a r g e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e h i s t o r i c p e r s o n a g e t h a t H u n t l e y draws a t t e n t i o n when K i n g James announces h i s s u p p o r t f o r Warbeck and i s s u e s a d e f i a n c e t o Henry; H u n t l e y s a y s , "Some o f t h y s u b j e c t s ' h e a r t s , / K i n g James, w i l l b l e e d f o r t h i s ! " ( I I . i i i . 6 6 - 7 ) • Henr y ' s main c h a r g e a g a i n s t Warbeck, when t h e y f i r s t meet, i s t h a t Warbeck's " f r e n z y o f a s p i r i n g y o u t h " has c a u s e d a "combus-t i o n t h r o u g h o u r kingdom" ( V . i i . 5 0 - 1 ) . The a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y encompasses t h e f a t e o f d y n a s t i e s and E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s i n g e n e r a l , as e v i d e n t i n H i a l a s ' r e m o n s t r a n c e t o K i n g James: F r a n c e , .Spain .and Germany combine- a l e a g u e Of a m i t y w i t h E n g l a n d ; n o t h i n g wants F o r s e t t l i n g peace t h r o u g h C h r i s t e n d o m but l o v e Between t h e B r i t i s h monarchs, James and Henry ( I V . i i i . 1 - 4 ) I t i s t r u e t h a t i n The B r o k e n H e a r t t h e r e a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e f o r t u n e s o f S p a r t a , most d i r e c t l y i n t h e l a m e n t a t i o n o f T e c n i c u s : When kingdoms r e e l (mark w e l l my saw) T h e i r heads must needs be g i d d y . (The B r o k e n H e a r t I V . i . 1 2 6 - 2 7 ) But t h i s c o n c e r n i s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d and i s r a t h e r a r e c o g n i -t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i o n o f a l l human a f f a i r s t o t h e sway o f t i m e , 128 t h a n a v i s i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f a c o u n t r y t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . We s h a l l a l s o see i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r t h a t F o r d ' s c o m e d i e s , The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y and The Queen, i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e a t h a t t h e w e l f a r e o f a c o u n t r y depends upon t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f i t s r u l e r . But i n t h o s e p l a y s a g a i n , as i n F o r d ' s t r a g e d i e s , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes t h e f a t e o f t h e community a s u b j e c t o n l y o f p e r i p h e r a l i n t e r e s t . Compared t o t h e s e , Warbeck e x p l i c i t l y p o r t r a y s t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f c l e a r l y marked p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s and i d e o l o g i e s o f r u l i n g and.. F o r d d i s t i l s , a s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r , a t r a g i c view o f . s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e o u t o f t h i s c o n f l i c t o f d i s p a r a t e i d e a l s . K i n g Henry and Warbeck r e p r e s e n t t h e s e o p p o s e d f o r c e s . Henry b e l i e v e s i n e x p e d i e n c y and t h e power o f m a n i p u l a t i o n i n a M a c h i a v e l l i a n manner. Warbeck on t h e c o n t r a r y h o l d s f i r m l y t o i d e a l s o f c h i v a l r y , e s c h e w i n g m o v e s — s u c h as t h e rampage p r o p o s e d by James ( I I I . i v ) - - t h a t o f f e n d h i s s e n s e o f a k i n g ' s d u t y t o h i s p e o p l e . H i s i s an i m m a c u l a t e l y h o n o u r a b l e though m a n i f e s t l y i m p o l i t i c s t a n d . The s t u d y o f h i s t o r i c e v e n t s and p e r s o n a g e s i n P e r k i n  Warbeck n o t o n l y h i g h l i g h t s t h e f o r c e s b e h i n d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l l i f e , i t a l s o r e v e a l s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h a t l i f e i s l e d . F o r d l o o k s away from r e n a i s s a n c e I t a l y and the m y t h i c p a s t , b r i n g i n g h i s p l a y home t o E n g l a n d and p l a c i n g i t i n a r e c o g n i z a b l e , n o t t o o d i s t a n t h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . He does so c o n s c i o u s l y , f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s h i s t o r y i s 129 most n o b l e , 'cause our own; Not f o r g e d from I t a l y , f r o m F r a n c e , from S p a i n , But c h r o n i c l e d a t home. ( " P r o l o g u e " ) I t i s s t i l l s e t i n t h e w o r l d o f r o y a l c o u r t s , b u t l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d moves w i t h l a r g e r s t r i d e s , o v e r v a s t e r l o c a t i o n s , i n a crowded human s c e n e where t h e r e a r e a g r e a t number o f p a r t i c i -p a n t s i n t h e a c t i o n whose f o r t u n e s a r e thrown i n t h e b a l a n c e . The p e r s o n a l d e s t i n i e s o f S t a n l e y , C l i f f o r d , K a t h e r i n e , D a l y e l l , F r i o n and t h e o t h e r f o l l o w e r s o f Warbeck a r e s e t t l e d w i t h t h o s e o f H enry, Warbeck and James, and t h e r e a r e h i n t s , l e f t vague by Henry, t h a t some g r e a t f o r t u n e i s g o i n g t o b e f a l l t h e B i s h o p o f Durham ( I V . i v . 7 1 - 5 ) and t h a t t h e a b s e n t E a r l o f Warwick i s g o i n g t o l o s e h i s l i f e ( I I I . i i i . 6 0 - 7 ) , t h e h i n t i n t h e l a t t e r ' s c a s e soon b e c o m i n g a r e a l i t y ( V . i i i . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s t r o u b l e d w o r l d o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t i s a b s o l u t i s t r a t h e r t h a n h i e r a r c h i c a l . The two k i n g s , Henry and James, have a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p h e r e s and even Warbeck i s a c c o r d e d a p l a c e o f s o c i a l eminence f o r a w h i l e m e r e l y b e c a u s e he i s t h e p r e t e n d e r t o t h e t h r o n e . But the community p o r t r a y e d i s n o t o r g a n i z e d i n c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l a s s e s . I n b o t h ' T i s P i t y and The  B r o k e n H e a r t we have n o t e d s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f p e r s o n s a t each l e v e l b e i n g matched w i t h s o c i a l powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The s t a t u s o f t h e c o u r t i e r s i n The B r o k e n H e a r t c o n f o r m s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s a s shown by t h e p r e c e d e n c e g i v e n t o A r m o s t e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l m i n i s -t e r , o v e r C r o t o l o n and B a s s a n e s . The h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i s 130 e q u a l l y p r o m i n e n t i n ' T i s P i t y . I n c r e a t i n g t h e w o r l d o f Warbeck, F o r d does n o t l a y t h i s s t r e s s on d e g r e e . I n s t e a d o f a g r a d u a t e d s c a l e o f a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s o n l y one f o c a l p o i n t o f power. F o r d ' s emphasis r e s t s upon t h e a b s o l u t e power w i e l d e d d i r e c t l y by t h e monarch. The g r e a t g u l f between t h e k i n g and h i s s u b j e c t t e n d s t o p l a c e a t t h e same l e v e l a l l s u b j e c t s , g r e a t and s m a l l , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e k i n g . The a b s o l u t e n e s s o f t n e k i n g ' s power d e r i v e s o f c o u r s e f r o m h i s d i v i n e r i g h t t o r u l e , w h i c h , as I r v i n g R i b n e r r e m i n d s us, was t h e p r i n c i p a l p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y o f T u d o r and S t u a r t E n g l a n d and p r o v i d e d a common theme 10 f o r t h e drama o f t h e t i m e . Whether, as some c r i t i c s have s u g g e s t e d f o r .some ..time, F o r d t r i e s t o u n d e r c u t t h a t t h e o r y 1 1 i n t h e p l a y i s a q u e s t i o n t o w h i c h we s h a l l l a t e r a t t e n d . But t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d o f P e r k i n Warbeck i s a n c h o r e d f i r m l y t o a b e l i e f i n t h e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e k i n g . H u n t l e y , who has r e a s o n t o r e s e n t K i n g James' a r b i t r a r i n e s s , n e v e r t h e l e s s p r e a c h e s t h e d o c t r i n e o f d i v i n e r i g h t : But k i n g s a r e e a r t h l y gods, t h e r e i s no m e d d l i n g W i t h t h e i r a n o i n t e d b o d i e s ; f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , They o n l y a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o h e a v e n . ( I I I . i i . 5 7 - 9 ) A b s o l u t i s m i s s u c h a key p o l i t i c a l c o n c e p t i n Warbeck t h a t s u b o r d i n a t e c h a r a c t e r s , s u c h as O x f o r d , Daubeney o r S u r r e y , a r e p e r c e i v e d g e n e r i c a l l y as f o l l o w e r s o f K i n g Henry r a t h e r t h a n as t h e p o l i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a g e s t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e y were. I t i s n o t t h a t t h e y a r e mere p r o p s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d f i l l i n g t h e human s c e n e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y a r e c o n t i n u a l l y 131 on t h e move t o c a r r y o u t H e n r y ' s commands and p e r f o r m a f u n c t i o n no l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h a t o f Armostes i n The B r o k e n H e a r t . But a l l i s done by t h e k i n g ' s d i r e c t i o n s , as F o r d i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t . On t h e o n l y o c c a s i o n when one o f t h e m i n i s t e r s q u e s t i o n s t h e k i n g ' s d e c i s i o n , H e n r y ' s g e n t l e r e b u k e u n d e r s c o r e s h i s s t a t u s as t h e o n l y power i n t h e l a n d . The o c c a s i o n i s h i s command t o Daiibeney and O x f o r d t o s e t o u t f o r S a l i s b u r y . Daubeney i s i n c r e d u l o u s : Daubeney. S a l i s b u r y ? - " S i r , a l l i s a t peace a t S a l i s b u r y . Henry Dear F r i e n d , The c h a r g e must be o u r own. ( I V . i v . 8 3 - 5 ) I n The B r o k e n H e a r t t h e c o u r t i e r s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e s w i t h a measure o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and i n i t i a t i v e on t h e i r own l e v e l . I n ' T i s P i t y t h e domains t o w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s b e l o n g a r e c a r e f u l l y mapped o u t , as i s t h e e x t e n t o f a u t h o r i t y a t each l e v e l . S o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s n o t o f c o u r s e a b s e n t i n P e r k i n  Warbeck, b u t s i n c e no one e x c e p t t h e k i n g has any i n d e p e n d e n t power, we do n o t see t h e g r a d a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t a t u s and power t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r . H i e r a r c h y i s r e p l a c e d by a n u c l e i c s t r u c t u r e , w i t h c o u r t i e r s , s o l d i e r s and m i n i s t e r s c l u s t e r i n g r o u n d t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e s o f a u t h o r i t y . T h r e e n u c l e i c g r o u p s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e p l a y . H e n r y ' s c o u r t i s t h e b e s t o r g a n i z e d as a network o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t James' s m a l l e r c o u r t a l s o c o n f i r m s t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f power. The same n u c l e i c s t r u c t u r e i s f o u n d a g a i n i n Warbeck's e n t o u r a g e , b u t i n t h i s c a s e as a p a r o d y o f an e n t h r o n e d k i n g ' s s p h e r e o f a u t h o r i t y 132 b e c a u s e Warbeck has no power t o w i e l d and h i s f o l l o w e r s a r e mere c l o w n s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n t h e monarch's hand i s so c o m p l e t e i n t h e w o r l d o f P e r k i n Warbeck t h a t t h e r e i s no i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h a t w o r l d o t h e r t h a n t h e monarchy t o d e t e r m i n e c o n d u c t and t o h o l d up i d e a l s o f c o n d u c t . I n marked c o n t r a s t -,v«£>~ w i t h ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t , P e r k i n Warbeck accommodates no r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . No r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t o r s u c h as F r i a r B o n a v e n t u r a o r T e c n i c u s i s p r e s e n t h e r e t o s e t o u t m o r a l s a n c t i o n s o r i n t e r d i c t i o n s . T h e r e i s i n d e e d a p r i e s t , t h e B i s h o p o f Durham, b u t h i s f u n c t i o n i s e n t i r e l y s e c u l a r and he has a p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i t y , much l i k e t h a t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l d i v i n e , R i c h a r d S c r o o p , A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Henry IV p l a y s . The a b s e n c e o f h i e r a r c h y i n P e r k i n Warbeck can a l s o be s e e n i f we l o o k a t F o r d ' s h a n d l i n g o f t h e f a m i l y as a s o c i a l u n i t . B oth ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t d e a l l a r g e l y w i t h c o n f l i c t s between f a m i l i e s o r w i t h i n them, t h e s e c o n f l i c t s f i n d i n g a p a r a l l e l i n t h e t u r m o i l t h a t a f f e c t s t h e community. D i s s o l u t i o n o f f a m i l i e s i s a n o t a b l e p a r t o f t h e t r a g i c p a t t e r n o f t h o s e p l a y s i nasmuch as i t r e f l e c t s t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f s o c i e t y . But on t h e s u r f a c e a t l e a s t , t h e f a m i l y as an i n s t i t u -t i o n has no i m p o r t a n c e i n Warbeck f o r t h e o b v i o u s r e a s o n t h a t t h e p l a y i s n o t c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e f o r t u n e s o f a f a m i l y . We have s e e n i n F o r d ' s o t h e r p l a y s t h a t he u s e s t h e f a m i l y as t h e p r i m a r y model o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . But i n P e r k i n Warbeck, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e f a m i l y as an o r g a n i s m i s n e v e r h i g h l i g h t e d . 133 W h i l e f a m i l y t i e s a r e n o t u s e d i n P e r k i n Warbeck t o i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e -l e s s used t o p r o j e c t t h e t w i n n o t i o n s o f d u t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . We may p e r c e i v e t h i s i n {C a t h e r i n e ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o h e r f a t h e r w h i c h colours h e r r e s p o n s e t o D a l y e l l ' s s u i t i n A c t I , s c e n e i i . Her d e f e r e n c e t o p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y i s an acknowledgement o f f i l i a l d u t y as a b a s i c v i r t u e . Though s o f t - s p o k e n , K a t e i s v e r y p o s i t i v e : a l l my s t u d i e s S h a l l e v e r aim a t t h i s p e r f e c t i o n o n l y , To l i v e and d i e so t h a t y o u may n o t b l u s h I n .any c o u r s e o f mine t o own me y o u r s . ( I . i i . 1 ^ 6 - 9). A l t h o u g h a t t h e end o f t h e s c e n e she has n o t y e t a c t u a l l y g i v e n h e r word t o D a l y e l l , a compact seems t o have been made between K a t e , her. f a t h e r and D a l y e l l . T h i s compact w i t h i t s muted f a m i l i a l o v e r t o n e s i s s e t a s i d e by K i n g James's a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n t o g i v e K a t h e r i n e t o Warbeck i n m a r r i a g e . But t o r e g a r d t h i s as a r e j e c t i o n o f f a m i l y t i e s i s t o miss t h e meaning o f t h e k i n g ' s a c t i o n . By f o r c i n g t h e match James i n f a c t b i n d s Warbeck t o him i n f a m i l y bonds b e c a u s e K a t h e r i n e happens t o be r e l a t e d t o him ( I . i i . 1 0 3 - - 5) and he may b e s t p r o v e h i s i d e n t i t y o f i n t e r e s t w i t h Warbeck by b r i n g i n g Warbeck i n t o h i s f a m i l y c i r c l e . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e v a l u e o f f a m i l y t i e s i s e m p h a s i z e d i n James's r e j e c t i o n o f Warbeck. T h i s p i e c e o f p o l i t i c a l p r u d e n c e seems t o - b e a d e n i a l o f f a m i l i a l commitments on t h e p a r t o f James. But i n r e a l i t y i t a c k n o w l e d g e s much more e f f e c t -i v e l y t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y by r e i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e k i n g ' s commitments, w h i c h l e a d s t o an e n l a r g e d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y 134 t o w h i c h a k i n g s h o u l d r i g h t f u l l y b e l o n g . James's c a p i t u l a t i o n t o Henry s e c u r e s f o r him a s u r e p o s i t i o n i n t h e E u r o p e a n community o f p r i n c e s as K i n g H e n r y ' s e m i s s a r i e s , H i a l a s and Durham p o i n t o u t : H i a l a s F r a n c e , S p a i n and Germany combine a l e a g u e Of, a m i t y w i t h E n g l a n d ; n o t h i n g wants F o r s e t t l i n g , p e a c e t h r o u g h C h r i s t e n d o m but l o v e Between t h e B r i t i s h monarchs, James and Henry What can h i n d e r A q u i e t n e s s i n E n g l a n d ? -Durham But y o u r s u f f r a g e To s u c h a s i l l y c r e a t u r e , m i g h t y s i r , As i s b u t i n e f f e c t an a p p a r i t i o n , A shadow, a mere t r i f l e ? H i a l a s To t h i s u n i o n The good o f b o t h t h e c h u r c h and commonwealth I n v i t e 'ee. ( I V . i i i . 1 - 1 6 ) The s i t u a t i o n h e r e i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t w h i c h a r i s e s when a f a m i l y e x e r t s i t s a u t h o r i t y o v e r an e r r i n g member. F o r James th e i d e a o f t h e f a m i l y has been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h a t o f a community o f p r i n c e s . T h i s change i n d e f i n i t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s a c t u a l e n t r y i n t o H e n r y ' s f a m i l y . Durham makes t h i s p l a i n t o James: K i n g Henry h a t h a d a u g h t e r , The p r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t ; I need n o t u r g e What h o n o u r , what f e l i c i t y c an f o l l o w On s u c h a f f i r m i t y ' t w i x t two C h r i s t i a n k i n g s I n l e a g u e d by t i e s o f b l o o d ; ( I V . i i i . 1 9 - 2 3 ) and James i s q u i c k t o r e a c h out f o r t h e . o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n t e r t h e community o f h i s p e e r s : A l e a g u e w i t h F e r d i n a n d , a m a r r i a g e W i t h E n g l i s h M a r g a r e t , . . . . We c o u l d n o t w i s h i t b e t t e r . ( I V . i i i . b 6 - 6 1 ) 135 P o l i t i c a l c o n c o r d i s t h u s s e c u r e d by f a m i l i a l a l l i a n c e . I n o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h i s b r i g h t f u t u r e f o r h i m s e l f he r a t i o n a l i z e s h i s r e j e c t i o n o f Warbeck as a n e c e s s a r y s a c r i f i c e o f p e r s o n a l t i e s f o r t h e sake o f t h e l a r g e r i n t e r e s t s o f h i s kingdom. H a v i n g d e c l a r e d t h a t Warbeck's " m i x t u r e w i t h o u r b l o o d , / E v e n w i t h our own, s h a l l no way i n t e r r u p t / A g e n e r a l p e a c e " ( I V . i i i . 4 4 - 6 ) , James goes on t o j u s t i f y h i s d e c i s i o n i n t h e s o l e m n a c c e n t s o f d u t y : But now o b e d i e n c e t o t h e mother c h u r c h , A f a t h e r ' s c a r e upon h i s c o u n t r y ' s w e a l , The d i g n i t y o f s t a t e , d i r e c t s o u r wisdom To s e a l an o a t h o f peace t h r o u g h C h r i s t e n d o m . ( I V . i i i . 7 3 - 6 ) The p l a y d e p i c t s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f James i n s t a t e c r a f t , i n t h e c o u r s e o f w h i c h he p r o g r e s s e s f r o m a h e a d s t r o n g s e l f - a s s e r t i o n t o an enhanced u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n government. Th a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n s i s t s as much i n a c c e p t i n g h i s commitment as t h e p r o t e c t o r — o r as he p u t s i t , t h e " f a t h e r " — o f h i s p e o p l e , as i n r e a l i z i n g h i s i d e n t i t y as a member o f a l a r g e r f a m i l y o f n a t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t o f h i s c a r e e r James i n d e e d " s t u d i e s t o be w i s e b e t i m e s " ( v . i i . 1 9 ) and b e g i n s t o model h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o H e n r y ' s p r a g m a t i c p a t e r n a l i s m . Even t h o u g h James does n o t emerge from h i s r e j e c t i o n o f Warbeck w i t h h i s h o n o u r e n t i r e l y u n s p o t t e d , he a t l e a s t a v o i d s t h e g r e a t e r s t a i n o f p e r f i d y . He r e f u s e s t o buy h i s peace by what he c a l l s t h e " b l o o d o f i n n o c e n t s " ( I V . i i i . 3 4 ) and makes s u r e t h a t t h e p r i c e he w i l l pay w i l l o n l y be "Warbeck n o t d e l i v e r e d , b u t d i s m i s s e d " ( I V . i i i . 6 u ) . No doubt t h i s compromises •136 h i s h o n o u r and F o r d i s c a r e f u l n e i t h e r t o e m p h a s i z e no r t o c o n c e a l t h e f a c t . But James' o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t o f i r r e v o c a b l y c o m m i t t i n g h i s kingdom t o war, would c l e a r l y be a b e t r a y a l o f h i s k i n g l y d u t y . I t i s t r u e t h a t h i s compromise b r i n g s him p e r s o n a l a d v a n t a g e but i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t i t s a v e s h i s p e o p l e Immeasurable s u f f e r i n g . H i s d e c i s i o n , t h e r e -f o r e , marks h i s coming o f age as a r u l e r . T h a t k i n g l y d u t y s h o u l d demand t h e d e r e l i c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l h o nour i s a p a r t o f t h e . . p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f P e r k i n Warbeck and l e n d s i t a t r a g i c i r o n y . James' p r o g r e s s shows how p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s assume h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e g i v e n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p l a y w o r l d . James' open and i m p u l s i v e n a t u r e , h i s q u i c k sympathy and r a s h c o u r a g e a r e p i t t e d a g a i n s t H e n r y ' s c a u t i o u s and d e l i b e r a t e o p p o r t u n i s m . The d i f f e r e n t modes o f k i n g s h i p t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t a r e t h u s c o n v i n c i n g l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e i r . d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n becomes h i s t o r i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l b e c a u s e i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e p l a y a u t h o r i t y i s so f i r m l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e monarch t h a t h i s i d e a l o f government becomes an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i s w o r l d . The c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s — o r " t h e s t r e n g t h o f p a s s i o n " as F o r d p u t s i t i n t h e E p i l o g u e - - i s s e e n i n t h i s p l a y , as i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s h i s t o r i e s , as t h e moving f o r c e o f h i s t o r y . We s e e h e r e a w o r l d i n w h i c h the p s y c h o l o -g i c a l f o r c e s t h a t l i e a t t h e r o o t s o f c o n d u c t c o a l e s c e a r o u n d i d e a l s o f k i n g s h i p . At t h e b e g i n n i n g Henry and James r e p r e s e n t ' 137 t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t modes o f r u l i n g . But e v e n t s t e a c h James t o f o l l o w H e n r y ' s example and he r e n o u n c e s h i s d i r e c t i o n l e s s , n a i v e l o v e o f a u t h o r i t y i n f a v o u r o f H e n r y ' s ' r e a l p o l i t i k . On t h e o t h e r hand, Warbeck i s i n c a p a b l e o f e m b r a c i n g " p o l i c y . " James' c a p i t u l a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , n o t o n l y i s o l a t e s Warbeck p o l i t i c a l l y , b u t h i g h l i g h t s h i s r o l e as t h e symbol o f t h e i d e a l o f t r u t h f u l -n e s s and h o n o u r i n government. P o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y Is. c o n t r a s t -ed h e r e w i t h i d e a l i s m . K i n g H e n r y ' s g o a l i s t o make h i m s e l f and hi s . , kingdom s e c u r e . To t h i s end he i s r e a d y t o use c u n n i n g o r f o r c e as need be, e m p l o y i n g i n f o r m e r s , d i p l o m a t s , s o l d i e r s and p r i e s t s w i t h e q u a l r e a d i n e s s . H i s p l a n n i n g i s i m p r e s s i v e b u t more so i s h i s a b i l i t y t o f i t h i s p l a n s t o c o n t i n g e n c i e s . He t e l l s us i n A c t I , s c e n e i , o f h a v i n g been o c c u p i e d w i t h Y o r k i s t u p r i s i n g s m a i n l y i n I r e l a n d and y e t he has s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l p r e s c i e n c e t o be r e a d y f o r a t h r e a t f r o m a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , t h e "smoke o f s t r a w " coming now f r o m F r a n c e . He i s c o n f i d e n t enough t o a s s e r t : "We w i l l h u n t him t h e r e t o o , we w i l l h u n t him" ( I . i . 121J. T h i s i s t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f an o l d c a m p a i g n e r who, d e s p i t e t h e p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t s t h a t make him uneasy a t f i r s t , r e m a i n s s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d and d e v i s e s p l a n s f o r a l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s , as s u g g e s t e d by h i s sudden move t o t h e Tower: My l o r d s , f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h you s h a l l p a r t a k e , I t i s o u r p l e a s u r e t o remove o u r c o u r t From W e s t m i n s t e r t o t h ' Tower. ( I . i . 1 3 5 - 7 ) The S t a n l e y e p i s o d e i l l u s t r a t e s H e n r y ' s a b i l i t y t o w e a t h e r e v e r y s t o r m , i n c l u d i n g t h i s w h i c h so v i o l e n t l y s h a k e s h i s s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t he c r i e s o u t , " l e t me t u r n t r a i t o r / '138 To mine own p e r s o n " ( I . i i i . 110-11). Y e t he does n o t l o s e h i s " c o n s t a n t temper" ( i b i d . , 1 1 3 ) - G r i e v e d as he i s , he y e t r e m a i n s d e c i s i v e , w h o l l y i n c o n t r o l , so much so t h a t Daubeney's a r r i v a l a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h t h e news o f t h e C o r n i s h r e b e l s f a i l s t o t r o u b l e him. T h i s new danger t o o has been a n t i c i p a t e d and p l a n s have been made t o cope w i t h i t : But l e t them come, Our f o r c e s a r e i n r e a d i n e s s ; w e ' l l c a t c h 'em I n t h e i r own t o i l s . ( I I . i i . 1 2 9 - • 3 1 ) The b a t t l e - p l a n s a r e i n o r d e r and t h e r e a r e t w e n t y - s i x t h o u s a n d men on t h e f i e l d . At t h e same t i m e Henry a l s o f o r e s e e s , on t h e s t r e n g t h o f a c a r e f u l l y d e p l o y e d i n t e l l i g e n c e s e r v i c e , t h e !':S.udden s t o r m t o E n g l a n d f r om t h e N o r t h " ( I I . i i . 1 5 3 ) . Nowhere i s h i s c u n n i n g p r a g m a t i s m b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h a n i n A c t I I I , s c e n e i , where he makes t h e p r o f o u n d pronouncement t h a t "Money g i v e s s o u l t o a c t i o n " ( l i n e 2 9 ) , and goes on t o p o i n t t h e m o r a l by d i s p a r a g i n g Warbeck and James who, he s a y s , W i l l p r o v e what c o u r a g e , need, and want can n o u r i s h W i t h o u t t h e f o o d o f f i t s u p p l i e s ( I I I . i . 3 1 - 2 ) Not c o n t e n t , however, t o l e a v e h i s enemies t o t h e i r i m p r o v i d e n t m u d d l i n g , Henry has s t r a t e g e m s o t h e r t h a n m i l i t a r y o r e conomic ones. He has a charm i n s e c r e t t h a t s h a l l l o o s e The w i t c h c r a f t w h e r e w i t h young k i n g James i s bound, And f r e e i t a t my p l e a s u r e w i t h o u t b l o o d s h e d . ( I I I . i . 3 3 - 5 ) The o p e r a t i v e word i s " s e c r e t " , a l l u d i n g t o h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e k i n g o f S p a i n t h r o u g h H i a l a s . He k e e ps h i s t h r o n e , and -139 r i g h t l y s o , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y and m i l i t a r i l y he w i e l d s t h e s u p p l e s t s t i c k , as h i s a c t i o n s show and h i s c o u n s e l l o r s a t t e s t . Daubeney s a y s , Wise Henry D i v i n e s j a f o r e h a n d Qh e v e n t s ; w i t h him A t t e m p t s and e x e c u t i o n a r e one a c t . (IV.iv.66-8) T h a t s u c c e s s l i e s i n f o r e s i g h t and p r a c t i c a l i t y i s c l a i m e d by Henry h i m s e l f : The use o f t i m e I s t h r i v i n g s a f e t y , and a w i s e p r e v e n t i o n Of i l l s e x p e c t e d . ( I V . i v . 9 6 - 8 ) -Such p r a g m a t i s m i m p l i e s a s p i r i t o f r e a l i s m w h i c h i s w h o l l y a b s e n t f r o m t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t d r i v e K i n g James and Warbeck. Warbeck's g r a n d r h e t o r i c i s b a c k e d by no schemes f o r o r g a n i z i n g h i s p a r t y . Romantic i d e a l i s t t h a t he i s , he l e a v e s t h a t t a s k t o t h e j u s t i c e o f h i s c a u s e . H i s p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y i n c o m p e t e n c e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s p a t h e t i c e x p e c t a -t i o n t h a t t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e would s p o n t a n e o u s l y r i s e on h i s b e h a l f . H e n r y ' s s a r c a s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f Warbeck as " t h i s c o l o s s i c : s t a t u e " ( I . i . 1 0 9 ) , t h a t i s , a h e r o i c f o r m o f no s u b -s t a n c e ] ^ a p t l y d e f i n e s t h e i n s u b s t a n t i a l n a t u r e o f Warbeck as a c o n t e n d e r - f o r . , aokingdom.. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t i s h i s demeanour, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r h e t o r i c he u s e s , r a t h e r t h a n h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t w i n him a d m i r e r s i n K i n g Jame's c o u r t . The C o u n t e s s o f C r a w f o r d e x t o l l s h i s " b r a v e a s p e c t " (II.i.116) w h i l e the k i n g h i m s e l f comes t o t h e u n p r o v a b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "He must be more t h a n s u b j e c t who can u t t e r / T h e l a n g u a g e o f a k i n g " ( I I . i . 1 0 3 - 4 ) , and James a s s e r t s t h a t Warbeck's " f a i r demeanour,/ 140 L o v e l y b e h a v i o u r , u n a p p a l l e d s p i r i t , / S p o k e him n o t base i n b l o o d , however c l o u d e d " ( I V . i i i . 3 7 - 9 ) . Warbeck's i s a n o b i l i t y o f manner w h i c h he does n o t h i n g t o s u p p o r t w i t h a d e s i g n f o r c o n c r e t e w o r l d l y s u c c e s s . W i t h n e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l n o r m i l i t a r y s k i l l he f a i l s t o g e t a h a n d h o l d upon the r e a l p r o b l e m s f a c i n g him, t h e p r o b l e m o f a c t u a l l y r o u s i n g t h e p e o p l e a g a i n s t Henry, o f o r g a n i z i n g campaigns, and more i m p o r t a n t , o f g a t h e r i n g u s e f u l f o l l o w e r s . H i s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s r e b u k e d by K i n g James, i n A c t III.,, s c e n e i v , when Warbeck begs t h e k i n g t o p r e v e n t "a kingdom's d e v a s t a t i o n " and t o " s p a r e , s p a r e , my d e a r , d e a r E n g l a n d . " James a n g r i l y r e p l i e s , You f o o l y o u r p i e t y R i d i c u l o u s l y , c a r e f u l o f an i n t e r e s t A n o t h e r man p o s s e s s e t h . (III.iv.67-9) To James' q u e r y "Where's y o u r f a c t i o n " ( I I I . i v . 6 9 ) Warbeck can r e t u r n no answer. As a mere dreamer he s t a n d s no c h a n c e a g a i n s t Henry who i s a man o f p r a c t i c a l wisdom. H i s f a i l u r e as a l e a d e r i s t o t a l b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e s t h a t l e a d e r s h i p r e s t s s o l e l y on h i g h m i n d e d n e s s . E v e n t s show t h a t t h e mode o f k i n g s h i p t o w h i c h he moulds h i m s e l f c a n n o t s t a n d t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e a c t u a l p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s o f h i s w o r l d . I t i s n o t l a c k o f r e s o l u -t i o n but a weak g r a s p o f r e a l i t y t h a t makes him i n e f f e c t u a l . He p r o v e s h i m s e l f i n c a p a b l e o f a c t i o n , w h i c h i s why t h i s e v e n t f u l p l a y a l l o w s him so s m a l l a p a r t o f i t s a c t i o n a l t h o u g h i t i s named a f t e r him. By c o n t r a s t , James comes ou t w e l l as an example o f p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s . At f i r s t . h e t o o i s u n r e a l i s t i c i n h i s 141 c a l c u l a t i o n s and unwise i n d e s i g n i n g a c t i o n , as p r o v e d by t h e i m p u l s i v e c h a l l e n g e t o a d u e l t h a t he sends t h e E n g l i s h g e n e r a l . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g he r e l i e s on n o n - p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s s u c h as c o m p a s s i o n f o r a f u g i t i v e ( I I . i . 3 2 - 3 ) o r p u r s u i t o f h e r o i c fame ( I I I . i i . 4 2 ) and r u s h e s i n t o f r u i t l e s s h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h a p o w e r f u l n e i g h b o u r . When he announces h i s i n t e n t i o n o f i n v a d i n g B r i t a i n H u n t l y warns him: "Some o f t h y s u b j e c t s ' h e a r t s , / K i n g James, w i l l b l e e d f o r t h i s ! " But James has no m i s g i v i n g s w h a t e v e r as to t h e m o r a l w o r t h i n e s s o f h i s d e c i s i o n a.nd a s s e r t s , "Then s h a l l t h e i r b l o o d / B e n o b l y s p e n t " ( I I . i i i . 6 6 - 8 ) . But James e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n s t h e l e s s o n o f e x p e d i e n c y f r o m H e n r y ' s i n d i r e c t t u t e l a g e b e c a u s e , u n l i k e Warbeck, he does n o t e x i s t p r i m a r i l y i n an i n t e r n a l i z e d I d e a l w o r l d o f p e r f e c t t r u t h and j u s t i c e , b u t t r i e s t h r o u g h a c t i o n t o g i v e shape t o h i s n o t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y and k i n g l y d u t y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n i t s f o c u s on t h e i d e a l o f k i n g s h i p t h a t P e r k i n Warbeck c a n be c l a i m e d t o p r o j e c t a view o f h i s t o r y , n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e i t d e a l s w i t h a known h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t . Why i t s h o u l d p r o j e c t any s u c h view a t a l l , t h a t i s , why F o r d s h o u l d c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h h i s t o r y , i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t we may now t a k e up, s i n c e we have b e f o r e us t h e b a s i c f a c t s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n t s and o f s o c i e t y , and t h e p l a c e o f c h a r a c t e r s i n s o c i e t y . D i f f e r e n t answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n have been o f f e r e d , b u t r e c e n t c r i t i c s a r e a g r e e d t h a t F o r d ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n t r a s t e d modes o f k i n g s h i p , s u g g e s t s a p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t on h i s p a r t 142 i n d e f i n i n g t h e i d e a l k i n g . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t F o r d was l e d t o t h i s p r o b l e m by t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e r n w i t h t h e g r o w i n g a b s o l u t i s m o f t h e S t u a r t k i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n c o m p e t e n t a u t o c r a c y o f C h a r l e s I . P o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o such a b s o l u t i s m were t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e s t i n y o f We s t e r n E u r o p e . T h e i r s p e c i f i c i m p a c t on drama has been s t u d i e d by R o b e r t P. Adams who has a r g u e d t h a t even by. t h e end o f E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n many t h o u g h t f u l p e o p l e had begun t o r e a l i z e t h a t p r i n c e s were l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t and t h a t t h e i r c l a i m s o f c r e a t i n g a h a r m o n i z e d s o c i a l framework d i d n o t s t a n d t h e t e s t o f e x p e r i e n c e . ^ A d a m s b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n opened new t r a g i c d i m e n s i o n s f o r many d r a m a t i s t s by d e s t r o y i n g f a i t h i n p r e v i o u s l y c h e r i s h e d b e l i e f s i n t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f s o c i a l e x i s t -ence and making i t u n s t a b l e o r e v e n t h r e a t e n i n g . T h i s , Adams f e e l s , e x p l a i n s t h e p o l i t i c a l b i a s o f many t r a g e d i e s o f t h e l a t e E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d . F o r many p l a y w r i g h t s t r a g e d y became t h e s p e c t a c l e o f h i s t o r y r u l e d by t h e monarch's power t o d e s t r o y . I f we p ut F o r d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s we c a n s e e why t h e c o n d u c t o f k i n g s s h o u l d have i n t e r e s t e d him b o t h as an e t h i c a l p r o b l e m o f i m m e d i a t e r e l e v a n c e , and as a theme f u l l o f t r a g i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s . W h i l e F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n d e f i n i n g t h e i d e a l k i n g i n P e r k i n Warbeck i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d by most r e a d e r s , o p i n i o n d i f f e r s as t o w h i c h o f t h e r o y a l f i g u r e s i n t h e p l a y i s i d e a l . I r v i n g R i b n e r c o n t e n d s t h a t i t i s K i n g Henry who has t h a t s t a t u s . He v i e w s F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y p a r t l y as an 143 i n t e r e s t , l i k e t h a t o f Jonson, i n the t r u t h about the p a s t . But R i b n e r a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t Ford had the a d d i t i o n a l , perhaps g r e a t e r , purpose o f o f f e r i n g a p o l i t i c a l p o i n t o f view about the conduct o f k i n g s which "the e x c e s s e s o f K i n g C h a r l e s I were c a u s i n g many t h i n k i n g men to embrace."'^ R i b n e r argues t h a t Ford d e f i n e s i d e a l k i n g s h i p both through the p o s i t i v e example o f K i n g Henry and the n e g a t i v e ones o f James and Warbeck. James i s a r i s t o c r a t i c w i t h o u t b e i n g j u s t or r e s p o n s i b l e ; Warbeck has o n l y the "appearance o f k i n g s h i p " which crumbles b e f o r e the r e a l i t y o f r u l i n g . L i k e R i b n e r , Donald K. Anderson s t r e s s e s the p o l i t i c a l b i a s o f the p l a y , c a l l i n g i t a " l e s s o n i n kingship.'"''^ He argues t h a t K i n g Henry i s p r e s e n t e d i n i t as an i d e a l i z a t i o n o f the most p e r f e c t k i n d o f r u l e r , one who tempers h i s d i v i n e r i g h t to r u l e by compassion and j u s t i c e . Anderson t a k e s the p o l i t i c a l t h r u s t o f the p l a y t o be i t s c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , but s t r o n g l y doubts t h a t the p l a y i s a c r i t i c i s m o f S t u a r t a b s o l u t i s m . On t h a t i s s u e M i l d r e d C. S t r u b l e i s most p o s i t i v e ; she b e l i e v e s t h a t Ford's i n t e r e s t was aroused p r i n c i p a l l y by the contemporary s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the concept of the k i n g ' s a b s o l u t e and d i v i n e r i g h t t o r u l e . S t r u b l e goes so f a r as t o suggest o t h a t as a young b a r r i s t e r Ford must have been i n f l u e n c e d by the d i s t r u s t i n which the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n h e l d the S t u a r t model o f k i n g s h i p , and t h a t i n the p l a y he must have been t r y i n g t o 16 " i n s i n u a t e a g a i n s t the p e r n i c i o u s dogma" o f a b s o l u t e monarchy. These a s s e r t i o n s are not endorsed by b i o g r a p h i c a l or t e x t u a l 144 e v i d e n c e and have been termed "most i m p r o b a b l e " by G.E. B e n t l e y . ' A n d e r s o n n o t o n l y f i n d s S t r u b l e ' s c o n t e n t i o n d o u b t f u l b u t o f f e r s e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t i t f r o m F o r d ' s p r o s e p a m p h l e t , A L i n e o f L i f e ( 1 6 2 0 ) , an e t h i c a l t r e a t i s e w h i c h c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n on k i n g s h i p . A n d e r s o n shows t h a t t h e i d e a l r u l e r p r e s e n t e d i n t h a t work c o n f o r m s t o M a c h i a v e l l i ' s p r a g m a t i c moxLeilahd I.s. t h e r e -f o r e s i m i l a r t o K i n g Henry i n P e r k i n Warbeck. F o r d ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n model may n o t , however, be as unambiguous as A n d e r s o n ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n m i g h t s u g g e s t . F o r d ' s s y m p a t h e t i c t r e a t m e n t o f Warbeck's n o b i l i t y has led^. J o n a s B a r i s h t o s u g g e s t t h a t F o r d ' s view o:f, t h e p r a g m a t i c model as t h e o n l y w o r k a b l e one . i s d e e p l y t i n g e d w i t h r e g r e t a t t h e i n e f f e c t u a l i t y o f t h e r o m a n t i c i d e a l o f t h e c h i v a l r o u s 18 k i n g . P h i l i p Edwards, who a c c e p t s B a r i s h ' s v i e w o f t h e t r a g i c p o l a r i t y o f two modes, o f k i n g s h i p i n t h e p l a y , a r g u e s t h a t by s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h Warbeck F o r d i s e x p r e s s i n g t h e n o s t a l g i a o f h i s t i m e f o r t h e u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y h o n o u r a b l e , t r u t h f u l and 19 h i g h m i n d e d k i n g o f p a s t t i m e s . Comparing M a s s i n g e r ' s B e l i e v e  As You L i s t w i t h P e r k i n Warbeck, Edwards p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e r o y a l p r e t e n d e r i n e a c h o f t h e s e p l a y s s h o u l d be s e e n as "a l u m i n o u s f i g u r e a p p e a r i n g f r o m t h e m i s t s " who has "a k i n d o f b e a u t y o f b e i n g " and i s t h e " g u a r d i a n o f t h e i d e a l i z e d , a u t h e n -t i c , u n d i v i d e d l i f e , when t r u t h and government were n o t s e p a r -a t e d " ( p. 3 4 ) . Edwards f e e l s , as B a r i s h d o e s , t h a t t h e t r a g i c v i s i o n o f P e r k i n Warbeck i s g r o u n d e d i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t no m a t t e r how a t t r a c t i v e t h e : " c h a r i s m a t i c f i g u r e o f l o s t r o y a l t y " m i g h t seem, the p r e v a i l i n g e t h i c s o f s u c c e s s demand t h e r e j e c -145 t i o n o f such a r u l e r and the acceptance o f the p r a c t i c a l and r e s o u r c e f u l — i f m o r a l l y d u b i o u s — g o v e r n o r . These c r i t i c a l judgments r e s t on the assumption t h a t Warbeck poss e s s e s such n o b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t h i s f a l l c o n s t i t u t e s the m a t e r i a l o f t r a g e d y . The p l a y encourages t h i s assumption by p r e s s i n g t o our a t t e n t i o n the seeming c o n t r a d i c -t i o n t h a t i n i t s w o r l d of e n e r g e t i c p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y Warbeck i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h i s i n c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n . H i s appearances are marked by speeches i n the "language o f a k i n g " but t h e i r o n l y f u n c t i o n i s to emphasize h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i s r e g a l o r i g i n . Beyond a s s e r t i n g h i s r o y a l b i r t h , l a m e n t i n g the l o s s of h i s r i g h t s , Warbeck t a k e s no a c t i o n t h a t might h e l p h i s v e n t u r e i n any p a r t i c u l a r way. Even a p a r t from the p r i m a r y f a c t t h a t Warbeck's whole adventure i s i n i t i a t e d , b e f o r e the a c t u a l p l a y b e g i n s , by Margaret o f Burgundy, i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e v e l a t i o n o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n s are made^f or .him by James and F r i o n . We have r e p e a t e d t e s t i m o n y t h a t i t i s F r i o n who masterminds Warbeck's moves. He i s i n t r o d u c e d i n the c o u r s e of C l i f f o r d ' s c o n f e s s i o n as a " s u b t l e v i l l a i n " who, " c u n n i n g / Above t h e s e d u l l , c a p a c i t i e s , s t i l l prompts" Warbeck and i s a " P e s t i l e n t adder'.' (I. i i i . 5 1-67) . That Henry sees t h i s " p r a c t i c -a l . p o l i t i c i a n " (IV.iv.35) as the r e a l s o u r c e o f danger i s demonstrated by h i s r e l i e f when F r i o n i s caught: F r i o n i s caught, the man Of c u n n i n g i s o u t r e a c h e d ; we must be s a f e . (IV.iv.69-70) Warbeck h i m s e l f i s c o n s i d e r e d o f no account and proves h i m s e l f to be so by r e a d i l y a c c e p t i n g the c o u n s e l o f F r i o n and the 146 leadership of James. Act I I I , scene i v shows him at his weak-est, in a confused state of mind, when he submits--"effeminately dolent" (III.iv.76)--to the b i t t e r jeers of James, "An humble-minded man" ( l i n e 8 3 ) . Subsequent scenes reinforce the devaluation of Warbeck as a man of action. In Act IV, scene i i he i s so weak and despondent that though he fl a r e s up at Frion's suggestion of imposture (IV.ii.20 ), i t i s on Frion that .Warbeck depends for counsel and for the r e v i v a l of his s p i r i t ( I V . i i . 40-50). He has courage but no programme. Before the f i r s t engagement with Henry's northern army begins, James i s the one to make plans ('III. i i . 114-25) while Warbeck can only r e i t e r a t e his claim to a royal i d e n t i t y . The core of his speech to Katherine i n this scene i s the promise, then withal Shalt hear how I died worthy of my right By f a l l i n g l i k e a King; (III.ii.152-4) Not only here but i n every one of his longer speeches, from his f i r s t appearance i n Act II, scene i , to his l a s t i n Act V, scene i i i , we hear the same proclamation, that he i s of royal b i r t h and therefore the r i g h t f u l king of England. Neither p o l i t i c a l acumen, nor achievements in the f i e l d , but the "brave aspect" of n o b i l i t y i s a l l that he has to o f f e r . To this n o b i l i t y Warbeck i s wedded permanently. Weak and inept though he i s i n the context of material achievements, he has the t o t a l i n f l e x i b i l i t y of moral certitude. He can adapt neither his strategy—determined for him by others and sk e l e t a l in any case—nor his ambitions to changing circumstances. 147 He s t a r t s w i t h what he cons iders to be f a i r prospects by winning the support of James but when those prospects begin to dim and f i n a l l y fade away he s t i l l holds on to h i s dream of a d i r e c t , c rush ing engagement w i t h Henry. One of the s u b t l e r dramatic devices i n the play for p o r t r a y i n g t h i s i n f l e x i b i l i t y i s tha t at every c r i t i c a l junc ture i n h i s career Warbeck's conduct centres around a statement of h i s b e l i e f i n h i m s e l f . In Act I I , scene i , he i s the "so le h e i r / T o the great throne of o ld P lan tagenets" ( l i n e s 4 7 - 8 ) . In Act I V , scene i i , he a s se r t s that though Henry ' s forces may destroy h i s , "yet can they never/ Toss i n t o a i r the freedom of my b i r t h / O r disavow my blood P l a n t a g e n e t ' s ! " ( l i n e s 1 0 - 1 2 ) . At the p i t i f u l l y exaggerated account of support i n C o r n w a l l , he sees the power of h i s majesty at work and muses, "0 d i v i n i t y / O f r o y a l b i r t h ! " ( I V . v . 5 6-7). Nothing changes him. To the end he c la ims the "sun of majesty" and the "sphere of majesty" ( V . i . 5 6 , 8 4 ) fo r h i s own because of the power of the - royal blood that flows i n h i s ve ins ( V . i i i . 65 -6 ) . This i n s i s t e n t c l a i m of r o y a l t y becomes for him the v e r b a l equ iva l en t of a r o y a l s tandard ; the r e i t e r a t i o n i s so constant that i n the thea t re a pe rcep t ive d i r e c t o r might w e l l want to underscore i t w i th a mus ica l cue. I t i s the re fore not by acc iden t that to f r i ends and enemies a l i k e Warbeck appears p r i n c i p a l l y as a maker of speeches i n the grand s t y l e . King James' commendation of Warbeck's language i s fo l lowed by K a t h e r i n e ' s admiss ion , "h i s words have touched me home/As i f h i s cause concerned me" ( I I . i . 1 1 8 - 1 9 ) . 148 K a t h e r i n e r e - s t a t e s h e r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n i n A c t I I I : "You have a n o b l e l a n g u a g e , s i r " ( I I I . i i . 1 6 3 ) . When he i s b r o u g h t b e f o r e Henry h i s d e f i a n c e s h o c k s t h e c o u r t as much b e c a u s e he c l a i m s t o be H e n r y ' s s u p e r i o r i n t i t l e as b e c a u s e he s p e a k s so g r a n d l y . Daubenay e x c l a i m s , " W h i t h e r s p e e d s h i s b o l d n e s s ? / C h e c k h i s rude t o n g u e , g r e a t s i r ! " ( V . i i . 6 6 - 7 ) . Henry n o t e s t h a t t h e a s s e r t i o n o f r o y a l t y i s a " f a m i l i a r d i a l o g u e " ( V . i i . 7 8 ) o f Warbeck's but "we s h a l l t e a c h t h e l a d a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e " ( V . i i . 1 3 4 ) . I f Warbeck i s s e e n by h i s f e l l o w - m e n c h i e f l y as a s p e a k e r o f f i n e p h r a s e s , what t h e n i s h i s d r a m a t i c s t a t u s ? We have h e r e a c h a r a c t e r who i s c e n t r a l t o t h e a c t i o n and y e t does not c o n t r o l i t . H i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t f r o m G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s i s o b v i o u s . Y e t i t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t Warbeck o c c u p i e s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s t a g e whenever he a p p e a r s , e v e n i f o n l y t o be u p b r a i d e d by James o r r i d i c u l e d by Henry. H i s i n c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n makes him a pawn i n H e n r y ' s hands b u t he n e v e r t h e l e s s commands a t t e n t i o n and by t h e f o r c e o f h i s f a i t h i n h i s c a u s e s e t s o t h e r s i n m o t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o u r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s Henry and Warbeck as movers o f t h e p l a y ' s a c t i o n i s marked by an a m b i v a l e n c e . Henry i s t h e m a n i p u l a t o r and undoubt-e d l y c o n t r o l s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y d e c i s i v e l y . But i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g happens b e c a u s e o f Warbeck, a l l e v e n t s u l t i m a t e l y a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e t h r e a t t h a t he p o s e s t o Henry. Warbeck does n o t a c t and y e t he i m p e l s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y m e r e l y by b e i n g i n i t . 149 This ambivalence brings to l i g h t the e s s e n t i a l contrast that Ford creates between Henry and Warbeck. The only way that we can e x p l a i n how both of them can be the centre-piece of the a c t i o n of the play i s by p u t t i n g them on separate planes a l t o g e t h e r . Henry r u l e s the a c t i o n because he i s the pragmatic king capable of r u l i n g by means of b r i b e s , threats and " p o l i c y " . This plane of p o l i t i c a l existence i s not one on which Warbeck 0 can r i g h t f u l l y move, f o r h i s proper element i s imagination's realm of i d e a l t r u t h and honour. This i s why h i s i d e n t i t y has to be defined i n the play e x c l u s i v e l y through speech and demeanour rather than a c t i o n . His p a s s i v i t y and h i s i n e f f e c t -iveness as a p o l i t i c a l leader are the very q u a l i t i e s that define him as a symbol of a r o y a l t y that cannot, i n the world of the play, be expressed i n a c t i o n . I t i s i n order to make us aware of the two d i f f e r e n t planes on which Warbeck e x i s t s that Ford devises the technique of simultaneously developing c o n t r a d i c t o r y images of the man. We hear him spoken of as a deluded f o o l , and h i s act i o n s seem to prove him one. But we also see him as a man of noble presence and absolute i n t e g r i t y . Peter Ure views t h i s ambi-valence i n the play as an attempt by Ford to r i v e t a t t e n t i o n upon Warbeck by means of s u r p r i s e ; at Warbeck's f i r s t appearance there i s tp be "a v i v i d surge of i n t e r e s t because of the d i f f e r -ence between what we have been t o l d and what we now see and hear." Ure notes the same purpose again i n Warbeck's and Katherine's " p a r t i n g ceremony" ( I I I . i i . 1 4 1) , where Ford "seems 20 to be c o n t r i v i n g an e f f e c t of s u r p r i s e " . There i s no doubt that t h i s s t r a t e g y succeeds t h e a t r i c a l l y , but i f we extend over 150 t h e e n t i r e p l a y o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e d o u b l e image o f Warbeck, we can r e a l i z e t h a t s u r p r i s e i s n o t t h e o n l y , n o r i n d e e d t h e c h i e f , d r a m a t i c e f f e c t a c h i e v e d . F o r d ' s g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t l i e s i n p e r s u a d i n g us t h a t Warbeck i s n o t what he seems t o be. T h i s h e l p s t o s e t Warbeck a p a r t f r o m t h e o t h e r i n h a b i t a n t s o f h i s w o r l d and t o p l a c e him a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m them. As he s t a n d s on t h e s t a g e he i s marked by h i s n o b l e b e a r i n g . At t h e same t i m e , h i s c l a i m s o f p r e e m i n e n c e a r e c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r c u t by a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s , even h i s w i f e . F o r d shows t h a t t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e p l a y t o a c c e p t Warbeck's c l a i m u n q u e s t i o n g l y a r e h i s f o u r c l o w n i s h f o l l o w e r s . F r i o n i s p l a i n l y s k e p t i c a l . As f o r James, even w h i l e he t a k e s Warbeck u n d e r h i s w i n g , he makes t h e r e s e r v a t i o n , "Be w h a t e v e r t h o u a r t . " ( I I . i . 1 0 5 ) . K a t h e r i n e i s a l w a y s c a r e f u l t o draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between h e r l o v e f o r him and h e r b e l i e f i n h i s c a u s e . Her e s s e n t i a l r e j e c t i o n o f h i s p r e t e n s i o n s i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n t h a t she c l a i m s d e f e r e n c e as a S c o t t i s h p r i n c e s s r a t h e r t h a n as queen t o K i n g P e r k i n and e v e n terms t h e m i s f o r -t u n e s t h a t b e f a l l h e r husband and h e r s e l f as t h e " a n g r y j u s t i c e " o f f a t e ( V . i . 2 ) . T i l l t h e l a s t she has r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t h i s c l a i m s , t h o u g h she has none a b o u t t h e i r l o v e : Be what t h e s e p e o p l e t e r m t h e e , I am c e r t a i n Thou a r t my husband ( V . i i . 1 1 6 - 7 ) S i n c e i t i s so s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d t o us t h a t h i s i s n o t a n o b i l i t y a r i s i n g o u t o f a v e r i f i a b l e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , we a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t n o b i l i t y i s e l e m e n t a l t o h i s 151 n a t u r e , i n a l i e n a b l e and permanent, u n l i k e the g l o r i e s bestowed by s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Judged by the s o c i a l v a l u e s of t h i s p l a y w o r l d , Warbeck i s a p i t i a b l e l u n a t i c and t h i s i s how he 2 1 has been seen by p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r i t i c s . Yet t h i s i s a t odds w i t h the e s t i m a t e o f Warbeck a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the p l a y . A p a r t from K a t h e r i n e , whose l o v e i s i n i t s e l f a e u l o g y , the most u p r i g h t c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y , H u n t l e y and D a l y e l l , a c c o r d Warbeck a measure o f a d m i r a t i o n , overcoming t h e i r i n i t i a l d i s -a p p r o v a l and r i s k i n g Henry's i r e . Henry h i m s e l f c o n c l u d e s t h a t Warbeck de s e r v e s t o be honoured ( V . i i i . 2 1 5 ) . We may remember t h a t a s i m i l a r a mbivalence marks ' T i s P i t y and The Broken Heart as w e l l , N e i t h e r G i o v a n n i nor O r g i l u s has any l o g i c a l c l a i m to a d m i r a t i o n , but t h e i r i n t e g r i t y wins a t l e a s t a q u a l i f i e d r e s p e c t f o r them from both the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s and the a u d i e n c e . I n those p l a y s as i n P e r k i n Warbeck, Ford m a n i p u l a t e s our sympathy by s u g g e s t i n g to us t h a t h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s engage themselves to v i r t u e ; but he a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t they do so i n an e t h i c a l framework a l i e n to t h e i r w o r l d s . Warbeck's a u t h e n t i c -i t y as a l e a d e r can be judged o n l y by p l a c i n g him on a p l a n e d i f f e r e n t from the one on which Henry and, l a t e r , James move. That Warbeck's n o b i l i t y was a c c e p t e d by Ford's audience i s s uggested by the commendatory v e r s e s a t t a c h e d t o the T.6.34 Quarto. Even i n S t u a r t England the w r i t e r s o f t h e s e v e r s e s found i t n a t u r a l t o speak o f "The G l o r i o u s P e r k i n " ( R a f l p h J . Eure, "To h i s worthy f r i e n d , master John F o r d , upon h i s P e r k i n Warbeck," l i n e 11) and o f " H i s ' l o f t y S p i r i t " (George Crymes;, "To my F a i t h f u l , no l e s s d e s e r v i n g , f r i e n d , the a u t h o r , t h i s i n d e b t e d 1 5 2 o b l a t i o n , " l i n e 7). At t h e same t i m e , however, t h e commendation i s q u a l i f i e d . B o t h E u r e and Crymes a r e c a r e f u l t o m e n t i o n t h a t Warbeck was n o t t h e r e a l k i n g b u t m e r e l y p l a y e d t h e " K i n g ' s P a r t " ( E u r e ) and h i s t i t l e " d o u b t l e s s p r o v e d u n j u s t " ( C r y m e s ) . The a m b i v a l e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f Warbeck i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e p l a y shows t h a t t h e p r i c e he pays f o r n o b i l i t y i s h i s a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h a t w o r l d . We may t h u s see h e r e an e t h i c a l p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t we have f o u n d i n ' T i s P i t y and The  B r o k e n H e a r t . D i s s i m i l a r i n b e h a v i o u r as t h e y a r e , Warbeck., G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s b e l o n g t o t h e same m i n o r i t y o f men s e t a p a r t f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e w o r l d s by some e s s e n t i a l s t r a n g e n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r . They a r e s i m i l a r i n c h o o s i n g c o u r s e s o f c o n d u c t t h a t t h e i r w o r l d f i n d u n a c c e p t a b l e , and t h e i r commitment t o t h e i r c h o i c e i s e q u a l l y a b s o l u t e . The l e n g t h e n i n g d i s t a n c e between Warbeck and t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m o f h i s w o r l d i m p l i e s t h e same k i n d o f e s t r a n g e m e n t as t h a t o f G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s f r o m t h e i r own c o m m u n i t i e s . What s e t s Warbeck a p a r t i s t h a t h i s a l i e n a t i o n i s a c c o m p a n i e d by u p h e a v a l s i n two e n t i r e k i n g -doms w h i l e t h e e s t r a n g e m e n t o f G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s a f f e c t s p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . But t h e r i g o u r o f Warbeck's f i d e l i t y t o a c o n c e p t i o n o f h i m s e l f a r g u e s h i s k i n s h i p w i t h G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s , b o t h o f whom we have o b s e r v e d s t a k i n g t h e i r l i v e s upon t h e i r commitments t o t h e i r c h o s e n r o l e s . The c o n t r a c t i n t o w h i c h t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r w i t h t h e m s e l v e s d e s t r o y s them by i t s i n v i o l a b i l i t y b e c a u s e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f u l f i l l t h a t c o n t r a c t w i t h i n t h e i r g i v e n s o c i a l f r a m e w o r k s - - e x c e p t t h r o u g h d e a t h . 153 In c o n s e q u e n c e , d e a t h becomes t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f l i f e as much f o r Warbeck as f o r G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s . We n o t e h e r e t t h e same c a l l t o b y s t a n d e r s t o o b s e r v e and a c c l a i m t h e p a s s i n g o f a r e s o l u t e s p i r i t . L i k e G i o v a n n i i n t h e l a s t b a n q u e t i n g s c e n e o f ' T i s P i t y , and O r g i l u s a t C a l a n t h a ' s c o u r t i n The B r o k e n  H e a r t , Warbeck commands t h e a s s e m b l y , t h e " p e e r s o f E n g l a n d " , t o wonder a t h i s " v i c t o r y " o v e r d e a t h ( V . i i i . 1 8 6 - 9 0 ) . A g a i n , as i n ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n H e a r t , F o r d marks t h e moment o f c l i m a x by a v i v i d s t a g e - i m a g e ; he p r e s e n t s Warbeck s t a n d i n g a l o n e and h e l d i m m o b i l e i n K i n g H e n r y ' s s t o c k s , b u t unshaken ( l i k e G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s ) i n h i s b e l i e f i n h i m s e l f . T r u e t o the e l o q u e n c e t h a t has al w a y s t a k e n t h e p l a c e o f a c t i o n w i t h him, Warbeck u s e s a b l a z i n g s t y l e t o c r e a t e a model o f c o u r a g e o u s r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h becomes t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s l i f e ; as U r s w i c k t e s t i f i e s ( V . i i i . 2 0 - 1 ) , Warbeck c h o o s e s h i s d e a t h d e l i b e r a t e l y . I t i s a t t h i s moment as a t no o t h e r that-Warbe.ck's c h o i c e d e f i n e s h i s e x i s t e n c e . Here F o r d a l m o s t a p p r o a c h e s an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p o s i t i o n by making Warbeck c r e a t e an a r t i f a c t out o f h i s manner o f f a c i n g d e a t h . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e w o r l d may come t o a c c e p t h i s i n n a t e n o b i l i t y Warbeck t u r n s h i s d e a t h i n t o a " s p e c t a c l e " f o r o t h e r s t o w i t n e s s and remember. He e x p e c t s t h a t t h e w o r l d w i l l t o t i m e d e l i v e r , And by t r a d i t i o n f i x p o s t e r i t y , W i t h o u t a n o t h e r c h r o n i c l e t h a n t r u t h , How c o n s t a n t l y my r e s o l u t i o n s u f f e r e d A martyrdom o f m a j e s t y . ( V . i i i . 7 1 - 5 ) 154 By c h o o s i n g t o d i e b r a v e l y , Warbeck d e f i n e s h i s i d e n t i t y a b s o l u t e l y , a t l e a s t f o r h i m s e l f , and t h r o u g h h i s s t a t e m e n t o f t h a t d e f i n i t i o n h e . p r e s e r v e s i t f o r p o s t e r i t y , as an a r t i s t p r e s e r v e s a t h i n g o f b e a u t y f r o m o b l i v i o n . Warbeck's c h o i c e a t l a s t a l l o w s him t o f i g h t on h i s own g r o u n d and t u r n s d e f e a t i n t o v i c t o r y . F a c e d w i t h d e a t h , t h e n , Warbeck a c h i e v e s f o r t h e f i r s t t ime a r e a l i d e n t i t y t h a t c a n be d e f i n e d n o t by s p e e c h a l o n e b u t by a c t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f f a i l u r e and a l i e n a t i o n by w h i c h Warbeck r e a c h e s t h i s moment o f s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n i s , i r o n i c a l l y , a p r o c e s s o f enhancement as w e l l . The f a r t h e r Warbeck d r i f t s f r o m v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , t h e c l o s e r he g e t s t o i n d i v i d u a l s . Henry g a i n s e v e r y t h i n g but l o s e s S t a n l e y , t h e o n l y man w i t h whom he had a p e r s o n a l t i e ; Warbeck l o s e s a l l o n l y t o g a i n t h e u ncon-d i t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e o f K a t h e r i n e and so s t a n d s " e n t h r o n e d a monarch" ( V . i i i . 1 2 6 ) . I n t h i s r e v e r s a l a g a i n we s e e t h e k i n d o f a m b i v a l e n c e t h a t we have e a r l i e r n o t e d i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f Warbeck as am.'innef f e c t u a l dreamer.. The ..design o f e v e n t s by w h i c h Henry e n s u r e s h i s p o l i t i c a l supremacy and Warbeck's r u i n a l s o g r a n t s Warbeck a p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t Henry i s d e n i e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e i t e r a t e t h a t Warbeck's g a i n s a r e p e r s o n a l , n o t p o l i t i c a l . He i s e n h a n c e d as a p e r s o n , n o t a u t h e n t i c a t e d as a k i n g . T h e r e b y F o r d makes s u r e o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e a m b i v a l e n c e t o w a r d s t h e s t a t u s o f b o t h Warbeck and Henry. The enhancement o f Warbeck's p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i s a l s o a r e m i n d e r o f h i s f a i l u r e as a l e a d e r . H i s march t o t h e s c a f f o l d 155 r e a f f i r m s H e n r y ' s s u c c e s s as a k i n g and a l s o r e v e a l s t h e de e p e r t r a g e d y o f t h e w o r l d o f p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s r e j e c t i n g a m o r a l b e i n g . The i d e a l i s t - - o r t h e s a i n t , t o use Edwards' t e r m f o r W a r b e c k — d r a w s s u s t e n a n c e f r o m an i d e a l w o r l d o f i m a g i n a t i o n and r e f u s e s t o come t o terms w i t h t h e r e a l w o r l d . T h a t w o r l d t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t s t h e i d e a l i s t and c h o o s e s t h e man who knows r e a l i t y and can c o n s e q u e n t l y mould i t . Y e t t h e i d e a l i s t ' s p r e s e n c e i n an a r e n a where he s t a n d s w e a p o n l e s s , a p r e s e n c e a p p a r e n t l y f u t i l e , has meaning f o r men b e c a u s e i t h e l p s them t o t e s t t h e i r p r a x i s a g a i n s t n o r m a t i v e v a l u e s . F o r d , t h e n , t u r n s t o h i s t o r y f o r " t r u t h " b e c a u s e h i s t o r y a l o n e c a n a f f i r m t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s s u c h a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h e r e a l and t h e i d e a l on a u n i v e r s a l s c o p e . C h a p t e r VI "STRAINS OF A LIGHTER MIXTURE": FORD'S COMEDIES The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y Of F o r d ' s f o u r e x t a n t c o m e d i e s , The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y and The Queen a r e t h e b e t t e r known and t h e more c a r e f u l l y w r i t -t e n . The o t h e r two, The F a n c i e s , C h a s t e and N o b l e and T h e ^ L a d y ' s T r i a l , have, as D o n a l d K. A n d e r s o n r e m a r k s , " t h e s l i g h t e s t i r e p u t a t i o n s " , and a r e d u l l i n t h e r e a d i n g , t h e i r p l o t s l a c k i n g i n d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n , t h e i r main c h a r a c t e r s c o l o u r l e s s and t h e i r themes f e e b l e . Nor a r e t h e y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e g r i p p i n g s p e c t a c l e o f men and women i n e x t r e m i t i e s o f p a s s i o n and s u f f e r -i n g " t h e d i l a c e r a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t " - - a s Lamb p u t s i t ^ - w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f F o r d ' s drama, i n c l u d i n g The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y and The Queen. We s h a l l t h e r e f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s e two c o m e d i e s , t h o u g h we s h a l l n o t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between them and The F a n c i e s and The Lady's T r i a l . F o r d seems t o have had l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e v a l u e o f humour. In t h e P r o l o g u e t o The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y he a p o l o g i s e s f o r t h e " s t r a i n s / O f l i g h t e r m i x t u r e " i n t h e p l a y and begs h i s a u d i e n c e t o c a s t t h e i r e y e s " R a t h e r upon t h e maine, t h e n on t h e b y e . " H i s a t t e m p t s a t humour, i n t r a g e d y as i n comedy, a r e a t b e s t clumsy and a t w o r s t v u l g a r . The comic sub-p l o t s o f ' T i s P i t y She's a Whore and L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e a r e n o t 156 157 o n l y m a l a d r o i t b u t u n i n v e n t i v e , u s i n g r e p e a t e d l y t h e common b a s i c p a t t e r n o f t h e d i s c o m f i t u r e o f the f o o l i n t h e p l a y . F o r d s e e k s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c r u d e humour t h a t i s meant t o pass f o r w i t b u t r e s t s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y upon s c a t o l o g i c a l abuse and s e x u a l i n n u e n d o . The one s i t u a t i o n t h a t seems t o have s t r u c k F o r d as p a r t i c u l a r l y d i v e r t i n g i s t h a t o f a f o o l i s h c h a r a c t e r g i v i n g a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f h i s f o l l y b e f o r e an a p p r e c i a t i v e b u t moc k i n g g a t h e r i n g . When F o r d a t t e m p t s t o r e l i e v e t h e gloom o f ' T i s P i t y he p r e s e n t s t h e a n t i c s o f B e r g e t t o who, a s s i s t e d by h i s s e r v a n t P o g g i o , s e t s a b o u t p r o v i n g h i m s e l f a f o o l . S i m i l a r -l y i n L o v e r s S a c r i f i c e , the " p l e a s a n t humour o f M a u r u c c i o ' s d o t a g e " ( I . i i . 6 1 0 ) i s drawn o u t e l a b o r a t e l y i n t h e s e c o n d a c t , w i t h t h e Duke and h i s c o u r t w a t c h i n g h i m f r o m t h e u p p e r g a l l e r y as t h e y would t h e a n t i c s o f a c l o w n . The l i m i t e d s u c c e s s o f F o r d ' s humour seems more j a r r i n g i n v e n t u r e s i n t o comedy. I n h i s b e s t known comedy, The L o v e r ' s  M e l a n c h o l y , t h e l a u g h t e r i s p r o v i d e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e a n t i c s o f t h e f o o l i s h c o u r t i e r , C u c u l u s . Even t h i s c r u d e l a u g h t e r i s a r o u s e d i n f r e q u e n t l y , a f a c t t h a t r a i s e s t h e d o u b t w h e t h e r l a u g h t e r i s a t a l l a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f comedy as F o r d u n d e r s t a n d s i t . The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y — a n d i n a l e s s c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d way The Q u e e n — s u g g e s t t h a t f o r F o r d comedy d e p i c t s t h e c u r e o f s u f f e r i n g . U n l i k e J o n s o n and D e k k e r , F o r d does n o t see l a u g h t e r as t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f t h a t c u r e ; he u s e s i t r a t h e r as an i n g r e d i e n t o f s u p e r f i c i a l m e r r i m e n t . T h i s i s why l a u g h t e r i n h i s p l a y s a r i s e s n e i t h e r o u t o f s i t u a t i o n s i n t e g r a l t o p l o t -158 d e v e l o p m e n t , n o r f r o m t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t i o n , but f r o m t h e a n t i c s o f t h e o c c a s i o n a l f o o l . In p r o v i d i n g humour t h r o u g h t h e a n t i c s o f a f o o l , F o r d was o f -course n o t f o l l o w i n g , a u n i q u e method b ut c o n t i n u i n g a l o n g t r a d i t i o n . H i s b r a n d o f humour i s n o t f a r removed f r o m t h e r e a d i n e s s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s t o l a u g h a t i d i o t s and madmen, as w i t n e s s t h e s p o r t p r o v i d e d by s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s i n D e k k e r ' s H o n e s t Whore P t . I , M i d d l e t o n ' s C h a n g e l i n g , Beaumont and F l e t c h e r ' s L o v e ' s P i l g r i m a g e , and Brome's N o r t h e r n L a s s . T h i s humour i n v a d e s even The B r o k e n H e a r t , t h e most c h a s t e l y f a s h i o n e d o f F o r d ' s p l a y s , i n w h i c h t h e f r a n t i c j e a l o u s y o f B a s s a n e s becomes a s u b j e c t o f m i r t h f o r h i s s e r v a n t s i n A c t I I , s c e n e i , A c t I I , s c e n e i i i , A c t I I I , s c e n e i i and A c t IV,. s c e n e i i . T hese comic e p i s o d e s f a l l i n t o a common p a t t e r n . The main f i g u r e i n them i s t h a t o f a f o o l whose s t u p i d i t y and s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n s a r e so u t t e r l y l u d i c r o u s t h a t t h e mockery d i r e c t e d a t them seems t o l o s e i t s edge o f c r u e l t y . The i n j u s t i c e i n h e r e n t i n t h e - f o o l ' s p i t i a b l e end i s i n c o n s e q u e n c e g l o s s e d o v e r . The B e r g e t t o ' s and M a u r u c c i o ' s o f F o r d ' s p l a y -w o r l d s u f f e r as much as t h e h e r o i c G i o v a n n i ' s and I t h o c l e s ' s , but w i t h f a r l e s s c a u s e . However, j u s t i c e seems a m i n o r i s s u e i n F o r d ' s p l a y s , a p o i n t s h a r p l y made by P u t a n a ' s m i s e r a b l e end i n ' T i s P i t y and M a u r u c c i o ' s u n d e s e r v e d b a n i s h m e n t i n L o v e ' s  S a c r i f i c e . P u t a n a , we may remember, i s c o n c e i v e d p r i m a r i l y as a comic c h a r a c t e r , a g r o s s c a r i c a t u r e o f t h e n u r s e i n Romeo and J u l i e t . F o r d u s e s h e r a s he u s e s h i s o t h e r comic c h a r a c t e r s , 159 s u c h as B e r g e t t o and P o g g i o i n ' T i s P i t y , C u c u l u s i n The L o v e r ' s  M e l a n c h o l y and t h e f o l l o w e r s o f P e r k i n Warbeck. They p r o v i d e s p o r t f o r t h e i r f e l l o w - m e n i n t h e p l a y w o r l d b u t s u f f e r f o r no g r e a t f a u l t o f t h e i r own. The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r comic.gambols i n c h a s t i s e m e n t i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e humour o f t h e l a t e r m o r a l i t i e s r i n g i n g w i t h l a u g h t e r a t V i c e and F o l l y b e i n g b e l a -b o u r e d o r c a r t e d o f f t o h e l l on t h e D e v i l ' s back, as i n W a p u l l ' s The T i d e T a r r i e t h No Man, F u l w e l l ' s L i k e W i l l t o L i k e , Wager's Enough i s as Good as a F e a s t o r The T r i a l o f T r e a s u r e . We may p e r h a p s t r a c e a l i n e o f d e s c e n t f r o m t h a t k i n d o f l a u g h t e r , t h r o u g h Marlowe's t r e a t m e n t o f R o b i n and R a l p h ( t u r n e d i n t o an ape and a d o g ) , t o t h e humour F o r d d i s c e r n s i n t h e b l u n d e r i n g s o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s . F o r d ' s own f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h humour o f t h i s k i n d goes back t o h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Dekker on The Sun's  D a r l i n g , a m o r a l masque, i n w h i c h F o l l y i s c a r r i e d o f f t o h e l l by V i c e . A more s o p h i s t i c a t e d example comes f r o m a n o t h e r c o l l a b o r a t i v e work, The W i t c h o f Edmonton, i n w h i c h t h e v i l l a g e y o k e l Cuddy Banks i s m e r c i l e s s l y a b u s e d - - w i t h p e r h a p s m a r g i n a l j u s t i c e . Even Ben J o n s o n ' s c o n s c i o u s l y c r u s a d i n g s e n s e o f t h e c o mic i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n t o u c h e d by t h i s low humour, as we see i n t h e c h a s t e n i n g o f t h a t i n o f f e n s i v e c r a n k , S i r P o l i t i c Would-Be i n V o l p o n e . The d a r k e r a s p e c t o f t h i s common s i t u a t i o n seems, p r e d i c t a b l y , t o have been p e r c e i v e d o n l y by S h a k e s p e a r e who f u s e s t h e c omic w i t h t h e t r a g i c i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f F a l s t a f f and M a i v o l i o . The c omic a p p e a l o f t h e c h a s t i s e m e n t o f t h e s e f o o l s i n F o r d ' s p l a y s r e s t s on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a t t e m p t 160 f e a t s t o o g r e a t f o r t h e i r powers. T h e i r l u d i c r o u s c o n d u c t t e n d s t o o b s c u r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s a r e n o t e s s e n t i a l l y so v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what t h e i r b e t t e r s do. But b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f no s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e y a r e n e v e r a l l o w e d th e d i g n i t y t h a t c l o t h e s t h e s u p e r i o r c h a r a c t e r s and can be c a s t a s i d e as s u p e r f l u o u s b a l l a s t w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d as t o t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e i r f a t e . We may remember h e r e t h e c lown i n T i t u s A n d r o n i c u s ( I V . i v ) who i s s u m m a r i l y hanged by S a t u r n i n u s m e r e l y f o r b r i n g i n g him a l e t t e r f r o m T i t u s . I n ' T i s • P i t y , B e r g e t t o ' s a t t e m p t t o marry P h i l o t i s i s n o t much d i f f e r e n t f r o m the p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f G i o v a n n i , S o r a n z o and G r i m a l d i w i t h A n n a b e l l a ' s l o v e . M a u r u c c i o i n L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e and C u c u l u s i n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y become o b j e c t s o f r i d i c u l e b e c a u s e t h e y ape t h e manners o f t h e i r b e t t e r s but a r e u n a b l e t© e m u l a t e t h e i r n o b i l i t y . When P e r k i n Warbeck's r a g - t a g f o l l o w e r s p l a y a t c o u r t i e r s , t h e y a r e r i d i c u l e d n o t b e c a u s e p o l i t i c s as s u c h i s v i e w e d i n t h e p l a y as a c o n t e m p t i b l e p u r s u i t but b e c a u s e t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r p l a y e r s o f t h a t game a r e c a p a b l e o n l y o f p l a y i n g o u t a p a r o d y o f n o b l e a c t i o n s . I t i s t h e i n n e r n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n the e x t e r n a l a c t i o n i t s e l f t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e h e r o f r o m the f o o l . T h i s i s why Warbeck's fame w i t h s t a n d s t h e j i b e s o f t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t i e r s a t h i s f e e b l e i n s u r r e c t i o n and t h e i r a t t e m p t t o e q u a t e him w i t h h i s f o l l o w e r s . W i t h o u t f a i l , the. c o mic e p i s o d e s t h a t we have been d i s c u s s i n g t e r m i n a t e g r i m l y . The l i t t l e humour t h e y have i s m a i n l y o f a c r u d e v e r b a l k i n d , s t r a i n e d i n f o r m u l a t i o n and o b s e s s e d w i t h p h y s i o l o g y . The " a p i s h l a u g h t e r ' f r o m w h i c h F o r d r e c o i l s i n t h e p r o l o g u e t o The B r o k e n H e a r t i n f e c t s n o t o n l y 161 t h e r e l a t i v e l y e a r t h i e r p l a y s s u c h as ' T i s P i t y and L o v e ' s  S a c r i f i c e b ut t h e more r e s t r a i n e d P e r k i n Warbeck and The B r o k e n  H e a r t . The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f r i b a l d r y f o r humour i s f r e q u e n t l y so t h o r o u g h t h a t we e n c o u n t e r i n more t h a n one p l a y s l a n g i n g matches between c h a r a c t e r s . I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y R h e t i a s and C o r a x f o r m a l l y engage i n a d u e l o f words, watched and a p p l a u d e d by C u c u l u s and P e l i a s , . t h e i r m u t u a l v i l i f i c a t i o n b e i n g t a k e n by e v e r y o n e as h i g h w i t , "good morrowes" between f r i e n d s ( I . i i . 4 0 7 ) . A s i m i l a r combat between P y n t o , M u r e t t o and B u f o marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f The Queen. The two b r a g g a r t s i n The  L a d y ' s T r i a l , Guzman and F u l g o s o , engage i n a c o n t i n u a l wordy w r a n g l e and much o f t h e c omic a c t i o n o f The F a n c i e s i s n o t h i n g b u t v e r b a l s p a r r i n g s between S e c c o and Spadone. The emphasis on q u e s t i o n a b l e j e s t s and t h e p u n i t i v e t e r m i n a t i o n - o . f c omic e p i s o d e s i n d i c a t e s an i n a b i l i t y , o r p e r h a p s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p l o r e humorous s i t u a t i o n s . To r e i t e r a t e a p o i n t made e a r l i e r , n o t h i n g b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e s F o r d ' s uneasy a p p r o a c h t o humour t h a n h i s c o m e d i e s , i n w h i c h l a u g h t e r e x i s t s o n l y i n u n i m a g i n a t i v e j e s t s and t h a t o n l y i n d i s j o i n t e d b u r s t s . The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y a l l o w s a t i t s b e g i n n i n g a b r i e f p a s s a g e o f m i l d i r o n y a t t h e S t a n y h u r s t s t r a i n s o f P e l i a s who t a l k s a b o u t The f r o t h y fomes o f Neptunes s u r g i n g waves, When b l u s t r i n g B o r e a s t o s s e t h up t h e deepe, And thumps a t h u n d e r bounce But s o o n — f r o m l i n e 35 o n - - t h e s c e n e moves i n t o t h e s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s o f t h e r e u n i o n o f f r i e n d s , t h e r e - a f f i r m a t i o n o f 162 f r i e n d s h i p and exchange o f news and l o v e r s ' c o m p l a i n t s . The s e c o n d s c e n e o f t h i s a c t and t h e f i r s t o f t h e t h i r d a c t a r e t h e o n l y ones o f t h e t w e l v e s c e n e s i n t h i s p l a y t h a t a r e p r e d o m i n -a n t l y c o m i c . F i v e , i n c l u d i n g t h e o p e n i n g s c e n e , have b r i e f humorous p a s s a g e s and one, A c t I I I , s c e n e i i i , has t h e w e l l -known Masque o f M e l a n c h o l y , w h i c h , t h r o u g h i t s a t t e m p t a t ' l e v i t y , has an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e . The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h a t p u r p o s e i s shown by t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f F o r d ' s i n t e r e s t i n m e l a n c h o l i a from B u r t o n ' s Anatomy o f M e l a n c h o l y , t o w h i c h he r e c o r d s h i s '~ d e b t i n a m a r g i n a l n o t e t o A c t I I I , s c e n e i , l i n e 1255. Of t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e s c e n e s , f o u r ( I . i i i , I l l . i i , I V . i , and I V . i i i ) a r e e n t i r e l y s e r i o u s t o t h e p o i n t o f v e r g i n g on t r a g e d y . The o n l y a t t e m p t a t c r e a t i n g a c o n n e c t e d humorous s e q u e n c e i s t h e g u l l i n g o f C u c u l u s . T h a t b u s i n e s s , however, i s g i v e n c o n s i d e r -a b l y l e s s s p a c e i n A c t I , s c e n e i i , t h a n t h e C o r a x - R h e t i a s b a t t l e o f w i t and s e c u r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l p o s i t i o n o n l y i n A c t : I I I , s c e n e i . B e s i d e s , t h e c h i e f a p p e a l o f t h i s a f f a i r l i e s i n i t s r i b a l d r y , w h i c h i s d e c i d e d l y c l u m s y . C u c u l u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , p r o m i s e s G r i l l a , I shood R a i s e t h y u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( G i r l e ) t o t h e h e i g h t o f a n u r s e , Or a C o u r t - m i d w i f e a t l e a s t , I w i l l make t h e e b i g In t i m e , wench. ( I . i i . ; . 3 l 8 - 2 1 ) To t h i s G r i l l a r e p l i e s , "E'en doe y o u r p l e a s u r e w i t h me, S i r " ( l i n e 3 22). A few l i n e s l a t e r R h e t i a s t e l l s G r i l l a , " suck t h y M a s t e r , and b r i n g f o r t h M o o n e - c a l v e s , Fop, doe" ( l i n e s 347-8). S i n c e he has been t o l d t h a t . G r i l l a i s a boy . d i s g u i s e d as a 163 woman ( I . i i . 2 7 0 - 4 ) , h i s homosexual i n n u e n d o i s d e l i b e r a t e and o b v i o u s . More e x p l i c i t l y bawdy i s t h e exchange between C u c u l u s and G r i l l a when t h e y a c t o u t t h e c o u r t i n g o f P r i n c e s s Thamasta by C u c u l u s . C u c u l u s d e c l a i m s , I am L i k e t o an u g l y f i r e - w o r k s , and c a n mount Above t h e R e g i o n o f t h y sweet A c - - c o u n t . ( I l l . i . 1 1 9 4 - 6 ) The s e x u a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s , w i t h t h e s y l l a b l e s o f t h e l a s t word d e l i b e r a t e l y s p l i t , i s c l a r i f i e d i n t h e l a s t l i n e o f t h e a d d r e s s : " B e h o l d t h e man o r d a i n ' d t o moove w i t h i n t h e e " ( l i n e 1 1 9 8) and r a t i f i e d by G r i l l a ' s r e p l y , " i f t h o u t o u c h me t o u c h me but b e h i n d " ( l i n e 1 2 0 2 ) . Humour t h u s seems t o be t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s i n F o r d ' s c o m e d i e s . The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y and The Queen a r e d e l i b e r a t e s t u d i e s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t r a u m a t i c g r i e f , a n g e r 2 and j e a l o u s y . L i k e t h e s e p l a y s , t h e s l i g h t e r c o m e d i e s , The » F a n c i e s and The L a d y's T r i a l , a r e b u i l t a r o u n d some d a n g e r o u s c r i s e s i n t h e l i v e s o f the major c h a r a c t e r s . I n The F a n c i e s t h e h o nour and h a p p i n e s s o f an i n n o c e n t g i r l , C a s t a m e l l a , i s a p p a r -e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d . The menace o v e r C a s t a m e l l a hangs heavy b e c a u s e we do n o t l e a r n t i l l t h e v e r y end t h a t t h e a f f a i r i s an e l a b o r a t e masquerade a r r a n g e d by an h o n o r a b l e i f o v e r - s u b t l e l o v e r , T r o y l o - S a v e l l i , t o win t h e g i r l by d u p i n g h e r p r e v i o u s s u i t o r , R o m a n e l l o . The L a d y's T r i a l goes c l o s e r t o t r a g e d y w i t h i t s p o r t r a y a l o f a c o n s t a n t w i f e b e s i e g e d by a l i c e n t i o u s n o b l e -man and a c c u s e d o f . i n f i d e l i t y by h e r husband's o v e r - z e a l o u s f r i e n d . A l l t h e s e c o m e d i e s a r e s t u d i e s o f c r i s e s w i t h w h i c h t h e 164 o c c a s i o n a l m i r t h h a s t o n l y t h e most t e n u o u s c o n n e c t i o n . The common p a t t e r n s o f comedy, s u c h a s , t h e r i s e o f t h e h e r o t o fame and f o r t u n e , o r t h e g u l l i n g o f p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n s , do not o c c u r i n F o r d ' s p l a y s . As n o t e d i n s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s o f F o r d , h i s comedies f a l l i n t o t h e t r a g i c o m i c p a t t e r n e s t a b -l i s h e d by s u c h p l a y s as Beaumont and F l e t c h e r ' s A K i n g and No  K i n g . F l e t c h e r ' s F a i t h f u l S h e p h e r d e s s o r M a s s i n g e r ' s Maid o f  Honour. Some o f F o r d ' s c r i t i c s h ave, however, s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f F o r d was f o l l o w i n g any t r a d i t i o n _ . b f t r a g i c o m e d y i i n . p a r t i c u l a r , i t was t h e S h a k e s p e a r e a n r a t h e r t h a n t h e F l e t c ' h e r i a n t r a d i t i o n . T.S. E l i o t b e l i e v e d . t h a t The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y " c o u l d h a r d l y have been w r i t t e n b u t f o r C y m b e l i n e , The W i n t e r ' s T a l e , P e r i c l e s , " 4 and The Tempest. ' H.J. O l i v e r has f o l l o w e d t h i s l e a d by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g F o r d ' s comedies f r o m t h e F l e t c h e r i a n k i n d i n 5 w h i c h many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s e x c e l l e d , n o t a b l y M a s s i n g e r . The S h a k e s p e a r e a n p a r a l l e l was d r i v e n h a r d even e a r l i e r , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i n 1748 t h e a c t o r - m a n a g e r , C h a r l e s M a c k l i n c h a r g e d F o r d w i t h s t e a l i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y from S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p a p e r s and p a s s i n g i t o f f as h i s own. A t t e m p t i n g , p r e s u m a b l y , t o p u b l i c i z e h i s p r o d u c t i o n o f The L o v e r ' s . M e l a n c h o l y — a b e n e f i t p e r f o r m a n c e f o r Mrs. M a c k l i n — M a c k l i n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p l a y was S h a k e s p e a r e ' s . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s c l a i m he c i t e d a pamphlet, l a t e r p r o v e d f i c t i t i o u s , e n t i t l e d " O l d Ben's L i g h t H e a r t made hea v y by Young John ' s M e l a n c h o l y L o v e r , " w h i c h r e l a t e d a s u p p o s e d q u a r r e l between F o r d and J o n s o n . A c c o r d i n g t o M a c k l i n , t h e pamphlet a s s e r t e d F o r d ' s i n f e r i o r i t y t o J o n s o n by c h a r g i n g F o r d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t i n g The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y . 165 Malone showed the whole s t o r y to be an i n v e n t i o n of Macklin's.^ Among recent c r i t i c s C l i f f o r d Leech accepts Ford's c l o s e n e s s to Shakespeare but d i s c o v e r s the frequent use of F l e t c h e r i a n devices of p l o t - c o n s t r u c t i o n i n h i s pl a y . However, Leech's understanding of Ford's debt to Shakespeare:.and F l e t c h e r leaves room f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n . He o v e r s t a t e s the^case, perhaps, when he observes that Ford, l i k e Shakespeare, comes to depend upon Providence to b r i n g about a happy ending. Leech c i t e s the frequent acknowledgment'in The Lover's Melancholy of the benevolence of f a t e i n u n i t i n g E r o c l e a with her f a t h e r Meleander and P r i n c e Palador, and a s s e r t s that E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n i s the work of Providence. In h i s attempt to argue Ford's a f f i n i t y with Shakespeare, Leech seems to have overlooked the a c t u a l f a c t s of the p l o t . The play i n s i s t s t h a t E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n i s the r e s u l t of d e l i b e r a t e and premeditated manipulations by Spphronos and Rhetias. This m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t Leech's a s s e r t i o n that Providence c o n t r o l s the a c t i o n i n Ford's comedies. The c o n t r o l l e r i s r a t h e r a man who by h i s manipulations shapes the a c t i o n . In i t s a t t r i b u t i o n of t h i s c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n to a man r a t h e r than to Providence The Lover's Melancholy i s s i m i l a r to Ford's t r a g e d i e s . The r o l e of the manipulator i s important there as i n The Lover's Melancholy and The Queen. Among the t r a g e d i e s P e r k i n Warbeck has the most s t r i k i n g example of the manipulator i n the f i g u r e of King Henry, but Vasques i n ' T i s P i t y , O r g i l u s i n The Broken Heart, and D'Avolos i n Love's  S a c r i f i c e are conceived, a b o r t i v e l y as i t turns outiinvthis case, as c o n t r o l l e r s of the dramatic a c t i o n . The prominence of the 166 m a n i p u l a t o r i n The Lover,!,s M e l a n c h o l y e n a b l e s us a l s o t o ques-t i o n L e e c h ' s o t h e r c l a i m s t h a t F o r d d i d on o c c a s i o n use t h e a r b i t r a r y s o l u t i o n t y p i c a l o f F l e t c h e r t o t a k e c a r e o f an a p p a r e n t l y i r r e s o l u b l e p r o b l e m o f c o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . By u s i n g S o p h r o n o s F o r d not o n l y a t t r i b u t e s t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f d i s a s t e r s q u a r e l y t o human e n d e a v o u r but a l s o p r o v e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t o be t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a c h a i n o f c a u s e and e f f e c t . I n The  Queen M u r e t t o ' s r e v e l a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l a c t o f t h e p l a y o f h i s t h e r a p e u t i c e f f o r t s may be a s u r p r i s e b u t i t i s n o t an a r b i -t r a r y c o n d i t i o n p u l l e d o u t o f t h e h a t t o f o r c e a happy e n d i n g . A g a i n i n The F a n c i e s , what L e e c h i d e n t i f i e s as a t y p i c a l F l e t c h e r i a n s u r p r i s e e n d i n g i s i n r e a l i t y the w o r k i n g o u t o f t h e m a n i p u l a t o r ' s scheme, b e c a u s e C a s t a m e l l a ' s a p p a r e n t l y c o m p r o m i s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e e l d e r l y Duke t u r n s o u t t o be a p l a n d e v i s e d by T r o y l o - S a v e l l i , t h e Duke's nephew. The s u s p e n s e t o o i s somewhat d i l u t e d i n t h i s p o o r p i e c e ^ o f w r i t i n g , b e c a u s e C a s t a m e l l a i s shown f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g q u i t e c a p a b l e o f d e f e n d i n g h e r s e l f , and a l s o b e c a u s e T r o y l o - S a v e l l i ' s h o n o u r a b l e i n t e n t i o n s a r e h i n t e d a t even b e f o r e t h e c o n c l u s i o n , when he p r a i s e s C a s t a m e l l a f o r h e r v i r t u o u s s p i r i t i n A c t IV, s c e n e i , 1771-82. T h i s h i n t becomes c l e a r e r l a t e r a t t h e m e n t i o n o f h i s " h o n o u r a b l e and s e c u r e c o n t r i v e m e n t s " (V.i.2212). I n c h o o s i n g t h e m a n i p u l a t o r as a b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t o f p l o t - c o n s t r u c t i o n , F o r d m ight have been r e c a l l i n g h i s work w i t h D e k ker on The Welsh Embassador, a p l a y t h a t a f f o r d s one o f t h e _ b e s t examples o f t h e t y p e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f V o l t e m a r . 167 The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a n i p u l a t o r ' s r o l e s u p p o r t s t h e t h e s i s t h a t f o r F o r d i t i s n e i t h e r P r o v i d e n c e nor c h a n c e b ut e n d e a v o u r s o f r e a s o n t h a t must g u i d e man i n p o t e n t i a l l y -d e s t r u c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . The c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f F o r d ' s t r a g e d i e s as o f h i s c o m e d i e s i s w i t h s u c h s i t u a t i o n s . But i n t h e t r a g e d i e s t h e a c t i o n marches i n e v i t a b l y t o d i s a s t e r b e c a u s e p a s s i o n p r o v e s t o o s t r o n g f o r r e a s o n , whereas i n t h e comedies h a p p i n e s s can be a c h i e v e d because'human a f f a i r s t h e r e a r e g u i d e d by r e a s o n . However, t h e s e n s e o f a p p r o a c h i n g c a l a m i t y l i e s as h e a v i l y o v e r t h e com e d i e s as o v e r t h e t r a g e d i e s , f o r n e i t h e r F o r d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human n a t u r e n o r h i s p e ' r c e p t i o n o f man's s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l t e r s f r o m t h e t r a g e d i e s t o t h e c o m e d i e s . The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y shows t h i s c l e a r l y i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the w o r l d i n w h i c h i t i s s e t , as w e l l as i n t h e v i e w i t a r t i c u l a t e s a b o u t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man's p a s s i o n , r e a s o n and d e s t i n y . The w o r l d o f The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y i s s o c i a l l y narrow, t i g h t l y k n i t by t i e s o f p o l i t i c a l and f a m i l i a l - l o y a l t y . I t i s t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c w o r l d o f t h e r o y a l c o u r t p e o p l e d by t h e r u l i n g f a m i l y , c o u r t i e r s , and a s m a l l number o f t h e i r d e p e n d e n t s . Common c i t i z e n s a r e n e v e r s e e n and t h e y a r e m e n t i o n e d o n l y o n c e , and t h a t u n f l a t t e r i n g l y , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n between S o p h r o n o s and A r e t u s i n A c t I I , s c e n e i , r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g o u t o f P r i n c e P a l a d o r ' s m e l a n c h o l i c i n d i f f e r e n c e t o s t a t e a f f a i r s . The p r i n c e ' s s u b j e c t s a r e termed " t h e u n s t e a d y m u l t i t u d e " ( I I . i . 5 6 4 ) and t h e i n f e r i o r i t y o f common s u b j e c t s 168-t h a t t h e t e r m presumes i s e v i d e n t l y g e n e r a l , f o r t h e p r i n c e i s " n e t t l e d " t o h e a r o f t h e i r d i s c o n t e n t and.has t o Uborrow p a t i e n c e / A l i t t l e t i m e t o l i s t e n t o t h e s e wrongs" ( I I . i . 6 4 8 - 5 2 ) . He w i l l " C o n c e i v e t h e g e n e r a l l v o y c e " f r o m " t h e few" ( I I . i . 6 5 0 - 1 ) who a t t e n d upon him. T h i s r e l i a n c e on a r i s t o c r a t i c o p i n i o n l e a v e s no doubt as t o w h i c h s e c t i o n o f Palador;'-s s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s i n h i s w o r l d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e w o r l d o f t h i s p l a y i s a v i r t u a l r e p l i c a o f t h e p l a y w o r l d o f The B r o k e n H e a r t . As i n t h a t p l a y , h e r e t o o t h e p l a y w o r l d i s n a r r o w e d down m a i n l y t o two f a m i l i e s . The a c t i o n i s b u i l t a r o u n d t h e r u l i n g f a m i l y , c o n s i s t i n g o f P a l a d o r , Amethus, and Thamasta, and t h e f a m i l y o f S p p h r o n o s . A l l t h e m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s f a l l i n t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e two s e t s and a r e r e l a t e d by b l o o d . Amethus and Thamasta a r e c o u s i n s t o P a l a d o r . S o p h r o n o s and M e l e a d e r a r e b r o t h e r s , E r o c l e a and C l e o p h i l a a r e Meleahder; ?-s d a u g h t e r s and Menaphon i s S o p h r o n o s ' s o n . The two f a m i l i e s a r e c o n n e c t e d -not o-nly by t h e c o n t r a c t and l o v e between P a l a d o r and E r o c l e a but a l s o by Amethus' l o v e f o r C l e o p h i l a and Menaphon's d e v o t i o n t o Thamasta. S o c i e t y as we s e e i t i n The L o v e r ' s  M e l a n c h o l y i s c o n s t r u c t e d as a network o f d e p e n d e n c i e s a r r a n g e d i n a . . h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y . A l l power i s u l t i m a t e l y v e s t e d i n t h e p r i n c e and i t i s h i s n e g l e c t o f i t — a c c o r d i n g t o t h o s e a r o u n d h i m — t h a t b r i n g s C y p r u s t o t h e b r i n k o f p o l i t i c a l d i s a s t e r . As S o p h r o n o s s a y s , t h e "Common-wealth i s s i c k " ( I I . i . 5 5 3 ) , f o r i t s head " s l e e p e s / I n t h e d u l l L e t h a r g y o f l o s t s e c u r i t y " ( I I . i . 5 5 4 - 5 ) . 1 6 9 Th'e~-prince' s m e l a n c h o l y i s t h e c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n o f the p l a y i n more t h a n one s e n s e . Not o n l y does i t p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y , i t a l s o r e v e a l s t h e p r i n c i p l e by w h i c h F o r d a r r a n g e s t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p l a y . T h a t p r i n c i p l e i s , as we have f o u n d i n o t h e r p l a y s by F o r d , t h e s t r i c t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c a u s e and e f f e c t . T h e r e i s a d e m o n s t r a b l e c a u s e o f e v e r y -t h i n g t h a t happens and e v e r y e v e n t has a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t . G i v e n the i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n , t h a t i s , E r o c l e a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e , a l l s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s c a n be c a u s a l l y t r a c e d back t o i t . The p l a y b e g i n s i n a d e a d l o c k . When Menaphbn r e t u r n s t o Cyprus a f t e r a y e a r ' s f o r e i g n t r a v e l , he f i n d s i t unchanged, w e a r i n g " t h e o l d l o o k e s " ( I . i . 9 4 ) and n o t p r o g r e s s i n g beyond t h e s t a t e i n w h i c h Agenor, P a l a d o r ' s f a t h e r and r u l e r b e f o r e him, had l e f t i t a t h i s d e a t h . Agenor had a r r a n g e d a match between h i s s o n P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r ' s d a u g h t e r E r o c l e a , b u t l a t e r t r i e d t o make h e r "a p r e y t o some l e s s n o b l e d e s i g n e " ( I I . i . 7 4 9 ) . E r o c l e a d i s a p p e a r e d , l e a v i n g P a l a d o r , now t h e r u l e r a'fter A g e n o r ' s d e a t h , p l u n g e d i n t o a d e b i l i t a t i n g g r i e f . I n A g e n o r ' s a c t i o n s , t h e n , l i e t h e s e e d s o f t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f C y p r u s . Here we s e e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p a s t i n e x o r a b l y m o u l d i n g t h e p r e s e n t , as we have s e e n i n The B r o k e n H e a r t i n t h e a c t i o n s o f T h r a s u s , and, f o l l o w i n g him, o f h i s s o n , I t h o c l e s . T h i s d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r o o t s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n t h e p a s t , w h i c h i s a f u n d a m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n t h a t u n d e r l i e s any c a u s a l a n a l y s i s o f e v e n t s , has a more g e n e r a l r e l e v a n c e i n P e r k i n Warbeck where t h e f o r m a t i v e power o f a d y n a s t i c c o n f l i c t begun l o n g ago i s 170 c o n s t a n t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d , b u t The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y shows t h e same r e a d i n e s s on F o r d ' s p a r t t o d i s c o v e r c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s between e v e n t s . When we s t u d y t h e s t a g n a n c y i n w h i c h P a l a d o r ' s c o u r t i s sunk, we f i n d A g e n o r ' s m i s d e e d s u n a m b i g u o u s l y and f r e q u e n t l y named as t h e c a u s e . . S o p h r o n o s a t t r i b u t e s t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f C y p r u s t o s u c h i n j u r i e s , As t h e l a t e P r i n c e , o u r l i v i n g M a s t e r ' s F a t h e r , Committed a g a i n s t Lawes o f t r u t h and h o n o u r . ( I I . i . 5 6 0 - 2 ) R h e t i a s comes c l o s e t o t h e o r i g i n o f P a l a d o r ' s trauma when, a t h i s f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h P a l a d o r , he h i n t s — f o r t h e b e n e f i t t b o t h o f P a l a d o r and t h e a u d i e n c e — t h a t P a l a d o r ' s " m i s e r y " i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s f a t h e r ( I I . i ) . Soon, w i t h t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f p a s t h i s t o r y , t h i n g s b e g i n t o f a l l i n t o p l a c e f o r t h e a u d i e n c e and d o u b t l e s s f o r t h e p r i n c e who seems so f a r n o t t o have known much about h i s f a t h e r e x c e p t t h a t t h e dead r u l e r ' s name was much t r a d u c e d ( I I . i . 7 2 7 - 3 2 ) . Now we a r e t o l d o f A g e n o r ' s i n i t i a t i v e i n c o n t r a c t i n g h i s son w i t h M e l e a n d e r ' s d a u g h t e r , h i s d i s h o n o r a b l e c o u r t i n g o f t h e g i r l h i m s e l f , and t h e s u b s e q u e n t a t t e m p t a t "a Rape, by some bad a g e n t s " ( I I . i . 7 5 3 ) > l e a d i n g t o E r o c l e a ' s d i s a p p e a r a n c e . R h e t i a s ' r e c i t a l p r o v e s i n t h e l i g h t o f l a t e r e v e n t s t o be one o f t h e c e n t r a l s t a t e m e n t s o f c a u s a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e p l a y . The f i r s t p a r t o f i t l a y s t h e b a c k -g r o u n d o f t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by an o b l i q u e b u t c l e a r p o r t r a y a l o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e f u t u r e . T h a t t h i s d i s c o u r s e i s d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n n e d as a t w o - p a r t summing-up o f t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p l a y , i s made c l e a r by R h e t i a s h i m s e l f who r e a s s u r e s P a l a d o r : " T h e r e was, as I s a i d , an o l d T a l e : I have 171 now a new one, w h i c h may p e r h a p s s e a s o n th e f i r s t w i t h a more d e l i g h t f u l r e l i s h " ( I I . i . 7 6 3 - 5 ) . He a l s o makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e d e s p o n d e n c y o f the f i r s t t a l e t o t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e s e c o n d c a n be e f f e c t e d o n l y i f t h e p r i n c e i s t r u e t o E r o c l e a . R e f e r r i n g t o h i s s t o r y o f a wronged woman r e u n i t e d w i t h h e r l o v e r a f t e r many t r i a l s , he a s k s : " i f you d i d l o v e t h e Lady E r o c l e a , why may n o t s u c h s a f e t y and f a t e d i r e c t h e r , as d i r e c t e d t h e o t h e r ? " ( I I . 1 . 7 8 7 - 9 ) . As A g e n o r ' s t r e a c h e r y b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f E r o c l e a and t h e s i c k n e s s o f t h e commonwealth, so may P a l a d o r ' s c o n s t a n c y b r i n g about h e r r e t u r n and e f f e c t t h e c u r e o f t h e s t a t e . The p h i l o s o p h y o f a c h i e v i n g a c u r e t h r o u g h t h e d i a g n o s i s o f c a u s e and e f f e c t assumes a more d i s t i n c t l y t h e r a p e u t i c c o m p l e x i o n when o u t l i n e d by C o r a x . He makes the c o n n e c t i o n between c a u s e and e f f e c t e x p l i c i t when he t e l l s R h e t i a s o f M e l e a n d e r ' s d i s t r a c t i o n : 'twas a P r i n c e s t y r a n n y Caus'd h i s d i s t r a c t i o n , and a P r i n c e s sweetnes Must q u a l i f i e t h a t t e m pest o f h i s mind. ( I V . i i . 1 8 1 9 - 2 1 ) The hope o f c u r e h e l d o u t t o P a l a d o r by R h e t i a s a r i s e s o u t o f h i s p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e c a u s e o f t h e s i c k n e s s , f o r o n l y when t h e c a u s e i s known c a n t h e c u r e be d e v i s e d , w h i c h h i s f o r t h r i g h t a n a l y s i s does by i d e n t i f y i n g E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n and t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f h e r s t a t u s as t h e o n l y c u r e . The l o g i c o f c a u s e and e f f e c t i s s i m p l y but p o w e r f u l l y s t a t e d h e r e . The s e q u e n c e i s p l a i n : A g e n o r ' s v i l l a i n y l e a d s t o E r o c l e a ' s f l i g h t w h i c h r e s u l t s i n h e r f a t h e r ' s madness and P a l a d o r ' s m e l a n c h o l y . 172 M e l e a n d e r ' s c o n d i t i o n p r e v e n t s C l e o p h i l a f r o m r e t u r n i n g Amethus' l o v e and P a l a d o r ' s m e l a n c h o l y l e a d s t o t h e schemes o f S o p h r o n o s , A r e t u s and C o r a x f o r r e s t o r i n g P a l a d o r ' s m e n t a l b a l a n c e , t h e i r s o l u t i o n h a v i n g t h e r e s u l t o f c u r i n g M e l e a n d e r as w e l l . E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n a c t s as a t r u l y u n i v e r s a l remedy b e c a u s e i t b r i n g s h a p p i n e s s even t o t h e m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s . C l e o p h i l a can a t l a s t a c c e p t Amethus b e c a u s e she no l o n g e r has t o l o o k a f t e r h e r f a t h e r . E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n a l s o c o n n e c t s t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f the Thamasta s u b p l o t w i t h t h a t o f t h e main a c t i o n . Thamasta's humour i s p r i d e w h i c h t u r n s h e r away f r o m Menaphon's l o v e . She t a u n t s h e r b r o t h e r w i t h h i s l o v e f o r C l e o p h i l a who i s s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r t o them. Amethus i s "an humble y o u t h , " f o r C l e o p h i l a i s l a c k i n g i n "A p o r t i o n t o m a i n t a i n e a p o r t l y g r e a t n e s s e " ( I . i i i . 4 5 3 , 4 5 7 ) . T h a t p r i d e e n a b l e s h e r on h e r p a r t t o c l a i m immunity f r o m s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f h e r f a m i l y p r e s t i g e : " I am a P r i n c e s s e , / A n d know no law o f s l a v e r y " ( I I I . i i . 1 4 1 1 - 12). Her a r r o g a n c e r e l a t e s h e r n o t o n l y t o P r i n c e s s F i o r m o n d a i n L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e b u t t o t h e Duchess A u r e l i a i n M a s s i n g e r ' s M a i d o f Honour who s i m i l a r l y d e n i e s any dependence upon s o c i a l c u s t o m when she demands t o be p r e f e r r e d t o C a m i o l a by B e r t o l d o . Thamasta's a r r o g a n c e f o r e b o d e s a l o n e l y l i f e f o r h e r , o f t h e s o r t t o w h i c h Fiomonda i s d e s t i n e d , and t h i s i s i m p l i e d i n Amethus' r e p r i m a n d t o h e r : L e t h e r f i r s t p u r g e h e r f o l l i e s p a s t and c l e e r e The wrongs done t o h e r h o n o r , by some s u r e A p p a r e n t t e s t i m o n y o f h e r c o n s t a n c y : Or wee w i l l n o t b e l e e v e t h e s e c h i l d i s h p l o t s ; As you r e s p e c t my f r i e n d s h i p , l e n d no e a r e To a r e p l y . T h i n k e o n ' t . ( I V . i . 1786- ;9D I t i s E r o c l e a ' s r e t u r n t h a t b r i n g s Thamasta t o h e r s e n s e s . 173 At each step i n the development of the action we r e a l i z e that s u f f e r i n g i s understood in terms of Eroclea's absence, and joy i n terms of...her return. The logic of t h i s , i n i t s simplicity, serves to highlight the causal character of the action. I f Eroclea's absence, caused by Agenor's action, i s the malady, then her return must necessarily be the cure, always provided that Agenor's action can be neutralized. That can be done only by the affirmation of Palador's constancy to Eroclea, the wholeness of which must be affirmed before Sophronos and Rhetias can expect any good to come of having Eroclea return as Partheno-phil.. It i s for this reason that Sophronos, suspecting the cause of the prince's melancholy, but not sure of i t , presses Corax for a diagnosis. Finding Corax alone he says to Aretus, " l e t ' s learne^.the cause" (III. i . 1242) . His anxiety i s obvious i n his dejected comment, "as the cause i s doubtfull,/the cure must be impossible" ( I I I . i . 1267-1268). The same b e l i e f that a cure must be preceded by a diagnosis l i e s behind Rhetias' rather d i f f e r e n t and less circuitous approach to the prince. The elaborate apparatus of investigation that Corax builds up appears clumsy and roundabout when viewed, as i t i s 7 generally viewed, as a piece of psychoanalysis. A contrast i s offered by Richard Brome's The Antipodes, another play inspired by Burtonian psychotherapy. The therapeutic regimen i n that play forms most of the action and lends tension to the plot. It i s thus of greater relevance to this play than Corax's scheme i s i n The Loverls Melancholy. Both the investigation 174 and t h e t r e a t m e n t t h a t C o r a x d e r i v e s seem somewhat r e d u n d a n t as f a r as p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s go. I t i s p e r h a p s f a i r e r t o c o n s i d e r i t as a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t a s s e r t i n g t h a t c u r e s must be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e knowledge o f c a u s e s . R h e t i a s c o m p l i m e n t s C o r a x p r e c i s e l y on t h i s g r o u n d b e c a u s e he f i n d s t h e d o c t o r ' s method t o be t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f " c l o s e - s t o o l e E m p r i c k s , t h a t w i l l u n d e r t a k e a l l C u r e s , y e t know not t h e c a u s e s o f any d i s e a s e " ( I V . i i . 1 8 0 7 - 8 ) . A l t h o u g h i t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t t h e t i r e s o m e "Masque o f M e l a n c h o l y " i s a n e e d l e s s d i a g n o s -t i c e x e r c i s e i n view o f R h e t i a s ' e a s y d i s c o v e r y o f t h e p r i n c e ' s s e c r e t , we may remember t h a t P a l a d o r e n j o i n s s i l e n c e upon R h e t i a s . R h e t i a s k e eps h i s word, f o r i n a l a t e r s c e n e , A c t I I I , s c e n e i , S o p h r o n o s and A r e t u s a r e s t i l l i g n o r a n t o f what t r o u b l e s t h e p r i n c e and so i s C o r a x who p r o m i s e s , " e r e many, m i n u t e s u p a s s e , / I w i l l d i s c o v e r whence h i s s a d n e s s e i s " ( I I I . i . 1 2 7 2 - 3 ) • T h i s p r o m i s e he keeps w i t h h i s masque i n A c t I I I , s c e n e i i i w h i c h c o n c l u d e s w i t h P a l a d o r g i v i n g h i m s e l f away b e f o r e t h e whole c o u r t . T h i s j u s t i f i e s C o r a x ' s t r i u m p h a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , " l o v e p e n t n e ' e r so c l o s e y e t w i l l be s e e n e " ( I I I . i i i . 1696). I t may be c o n c e d e d t h a t as e n t e r t a i n m e n t C o r a x ' s i n v e n t i o n f a l l s f l a t . A r e t u s w r y l y o b s e r v e s , "men s i n g u l a r i n A r t , / H a v e a l w a y e s some odde whimsey more t h a n u s u a l l " ( I I I . i i i . 1 5 6 5 - 6 ) . The r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e masque i s o b v i o u s l y n o t i t s main f u n c t i o n , n o r do any o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s p r e s e n t seem t o t a k e i t as e n t e r t a i n m e n t . The masque p r o p e r i s m e r e l y a p r e -l u d e t o t h e r e a l c o r e o f t h e e x e r c i s e , namely, C o r a x ' s p o i n t e d 175 l e c t u r e on L o v e - M e l a n c h o l y w h i c h he f o r c e s on t h e p r i n c e by l e a v i n g a b l a n k i n t h e w r i t t e n " p l o t " o f t h e masque. T h i s l a s t c o n t r i v a n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t C o r a x ' s p u r p o s e i s l e s s t o d i s c o v e r what a i l s P a l a d o r t h a n t o compel him t o r e c o g n i z e h i s c o n d i t i o n as a malady. ''.Considered t h u s , t h e masque may w e l l be s e e n a s j a a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e p l a y - s c e n e i n Hamlet ( I l l . i i ) . Sensabaugh n o t e s t h e p a r a l l e l b u t n o t F o r d ' s g handling, o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . H a m l e t ' s p u r p o s e i s t o c o n f i r m h i s s u s p i c i o n s . I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y t h e masque has a d u a l f u n c t i o n . C o r a x ' s c o n c l u d i n g a d d r e s s t o P a l a d o r a f t e r the masque s t r o n g l y i n t i m a t e s t h a t he had p l a n n e d t h e show as much as a p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c a l p r o b e as a t h e r a p e u t i c s t i m u l u s t o s e l f - c u r e t h r o u g h s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . H a m l e t ' s s t r a t e g e m i s o n l y an a t t e m p t a t d i a g n o s i s ; C o r a x ' s i s d i a g n o s i s and t h e r a p y a t t h e same t i m e . S u p p o r t i s l e n t t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e masque by C o r a x ' s p a r a l l e l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f M e l e a n d e r . I n t h a t o l d nobleman's c a s e t h e r e has n e v e r been any q u e s t i o n t h a t . h i s d i s t r a c t i o n i s c a u s e d by t h e l o s s o f h i s d a u g h t e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , C o r a x f i t s t h e c u r e t t o t h e c a u s e . I n s t e a d o f e x p e n d i n g e f f o r t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c a u s e he p r o c e e d s t o l a n c e M e l e a n d e r ' s wound by p r e t e n d i n g t o mourn h i s own d a u g h t e r , " S n a t c h t f r om me i n h e r y o u t h " , so t h a t M e l e a n d e r ' s " C l o s e g r i p i n g g r i e f e " ( I V . i i . 1 8 1 7 , 1902) may f i n d r e l i e f by b e i n g s h a r e d and p r e v e n t e d f r o m f e s t e r i n g i n w a r d l y . M e l e a n d e r c o n f e s s e s , 176 w h i l s t I am f r a n t i c k e , W h i l s t t h r o n g s o f rude d i v i s i o n s h u d d l e on, And doe d i s r a n k e my b r a i n e s f r o m p e a c e , and s l e e p e ; So l o n g I am i n s e n s i b l e o f c a r e s . So my d i s t e m p e r ' d t h o u g h t s r e s t i n t h e i r r a g e , Not h u r r y e d i n t h e Ayr e o f r e p e t i t i o n , Or memory o f my m i s f o r t u n e s p a s t . Then a r e my g r i e f e s s t r o o k e home, When t h e y a r e r e c l a y m ' d . To t h e i r owne p i t t y o f t h e m s e l v e s ( I V . i i . 1 9 1 0 - 2 1 ) He has been l i v i n g w i t h h i s g r i e f so l o n g t h a t C o r a x ' s a t t e m p t t o b r i n g him o u t o f h i s i s o l a t i o n by t e l l i n g him o f h i s own l o n g l o s t d a u g h t e r has o n l y t h e p a r t i a l s u c c e s s o f making M e l e a n d e r l o o k b r i e f l y beyond h i s g r i e f . He does ask Corax, "What o f y o u r d a u g h t e r now?" ( l i n e 1922) b u t soo n r e t u r n s t o the c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f h i s own a n g u i s h . The g r e a t e r s u c c e s s o f Co r a x i s i n making M e l e a n d e r , as he had made P a l a d o r , more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s t h a n M e l e a n d e r had been b e f o r e . I n D o n a l d K. A n d e r s o n ' s words, C o r a x g u i d e s M e a l a n d e r " f r o m f r e n z y t o 9 c o h e r e n c e . " M e l e a n d e r ' s p r e v i o u s a p p e a r a n c e i n A c t I I , s c e n e i i , i s marked by t h e v i o l e n c e o f h i s b r i e f and w h o l e s a l e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . T h a t mood c o n t i n u e s i n t h e e a r l i e r p a r t o f A c t IV, s c e n e i i , where M e l e a n d e r a g a i n h a r p s on t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f the w o r l d : So P o l i t i c a n s t h r i v e , T h a t w i t h t h e i r c r a b b e d f a c e s , and s l y t r i c k s Legerdemayne, d u c k s , c r i n g e s , f o r m a l l b e a r d s , C r i s p ' d h a i r e s , and p u n c t u a l ! c h e a t s , do w r i g g l e i n T h e i r heads f i r s t , l i k e a Foxe, t o roomes o f S t a t e , Then t h e whole body f o l l o w e s . ( I V . i i . 1 8 7 5 - 8 0 ) But l a t e r i n t h e s c e n e h i s a n g e r g i v e s way t o a g e n t l e r mood o f s e l f - p i t y i n w h i c h he r e c o g n i z e s C o r a x ' s u n d e r t a k i n g as a 177 therapeutic plan although he does not hold i t i n any regard. He says, 'las poore man; canst thou imagine To prosper i n the taske thou tak'st i n hand, By p r a c t i s i n g a cure upon my weaknesse, And yet be no Physician for thy selfe? (IV.ii.1927-9) More important, the helpless a f f l i c t i o n assumed by Corax makes Meleander accept him as a companion i n distress and i n this gentler mood he accedes to Cleophila's adjuration, " l e t not passion overrule you" (IV.ii.1984). His attitude to the world at his e a r l i e r appearance had been one,-; of t o t a l r e j e c t i o n , driving him to suspect, " A l l these are come/To jeere my ripe calamities" and to announce, " l i e out-stare'ee a l l , fooles, desperate fooles" ( I I . i i . 1050-52). Now, by accepting Corax as a friend, Meleander comes out of his lo'neliness, which proves to be his f i r s t step towards a cure. The p a r a l l e l between the progress of Palador and of Meleander points at the fundamental tension of the play. S t r u c t u r a l l y , The Lover's Melancholy i s an unusual play because there seems to be no c o n f l i c t in i t either of personalities or of ideals. The characters are i n sur p r i s i n g l y clear accord, a l l agreeing that Palador and Meleander must be cured, and they lend their energies to that end alone. But i f the characters are united i n t h e i r e f f o r t s , what r e s i s t s them? Two answers are possible. In the f i r s t place, the characters around Palador have to contend against lack of knowledge. This-.is understood by them to be their primary problem,, as ..indicated by Sophronos.' despondency in discussing the prince's melancholy with Corax 178 and Aretus in Act III, scene i . The f i r s t two acts are there-fore directed at overcoming this obstacle, the e f f o r t at that forming the action of this part of the play. In the second place, Sophronos and the others must break down the barrier behind which Palador and Meleander have retreated. There i s a qualita t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n between Palador and Meleander on the one hand, and the rest of the i r world on the other, an emascula-ting neurosis that estranges them from their fellow-men. A l l characters save these two central figures are energetic i n d i v i d -uals, constant and pressing in the i r endeavour. It i s a minor but s i g n i f i c a n t r h e t o r i c a l point that the play begins with the question, "Dangers?" for i t at once suggests a context of exertion and venture. Caught in the grip of a hopeless passion, Menaphon has not been moping at home as Palador has been, but has been t r a v e l l i n g ;abroad "For bettering my. mind with observation" (I.i.14). There i s a contrast here between his i ^ r a c t i v i t y and lethargy, and the contrast cannot be fortuitous A since Menaphon himself points out the s i m i l a r i t y of his s u f f e r -ing with the p r i n c e ' s : ^ Why should such as I am, Groans under the l i g h t burthens of small sorrowes, When as a Prince, so potent, cannot shun Motions of passion? (I.i.106-9) Menaphon not only comments on the prince's subjection to passion but also agrees with what Amethus has said before about Palador's melancholy passivity. It i s this inaction on the part 179 o f t h e p r i n c e t h a t h i s s u b j e c t s have t o c o n t e n d w i t h , and t h e r e s u l t a n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between p a s s i v e s u f f e r i n g and e n e r g e t i c e f f o r t forms t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y . The p r o b l e m t h a t P a l a d o r ' s s u b j e c t s f a c e i s t h a t w h i l e t h e y w i s h t o p r e s s f o r w a r d w i t h t h e i r b u s i n e s s i n l i f e , t h e i r r u l e r , t o whom a l o n e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y b e l o n g s , r e m a i n s i m m o b i l i z e d by h i s g r i e f . These two a p p r o a c h e s t o l i f e a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , f o r one d e n o t e s a c t i v i t y and t h e o t h e r a l a c k o f a c t i v i t y . The c l a s s i c c o n -f r o n t a t i o n between t h e i r r e s i s t a b l e f o r c e and t h e immovable o b j e c t i s g i v e n s h a p e - - a d m i t t e d l y a g e n t l e s h a p e - - i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between P a l a d o r and h i s w o r l d . L i k e t h e p r i n c e ' s m e l a n c h o l y , M e l e a n d e r ' s d i s t r a c t i o n , h i s vehemence n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i s a s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n w h i c h p r e c l u d e s any a c t i o n on h i s p a r t . B e c a u se o f h i s r a v i n g s h i s i n c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n i s n o t as o b v i o u s as P a l a d o r ' s b u t i t i s i n t i m a t e d as s u r e l y by h i s c o n s t a n t h a r p i n g on h i s d e c r e p i t u d e and l o n e l i n e s s . O n e s o f h i s f i r s t s t a t e m e n t s i s , " I am l e a n e / And f a l n e away e x t r e m e l y ; " a few l i n e s l a t e r he s a y s , "we a r e s e c l u d e d / F r o m a l l good p e o p l e " and a g a i n , " I am a weake o l d man" and he c o n c l u d e s p i t i a b l y by a d m i t t i n g , VI am c h i l d i s h . / I t a l k e l i k e on t h a t d o a t e s " ( I I . i i . 1 0 0 3 - 4 , 1014-5, 1050, 1086-7). He r e i t e r a t e s h i s i s o l a t i o n on h i s s e c o n d a p p e a r a n c e : "We a r e a p a i r e o f t h i n g s t h e w o r l d d o t h l a u g h a t " ( I V . i i . 1 9 7 5 ) . F i n a l l y i n A c t V, s c e n e i , he r e m o n s t r a t e s w i t h P a l a d o r , " a l a s , why do you mocke me?/I am a weake o l d man" ( V . i . 2 7 0 4 - 5 ) . The p a r a l l e l 180 11 t o K i n g L e a r has been n o t e d by D a v r i l , L e e c h and A n d e r s o n , and no doubt M e l e a n d e r ' s g r i e f i s i n p a r t c a u s e d by h i s s e n s e o f i m p o t e n c e . But i n a d d i t i o n we must n o t e the l o n e l i n e s s o f s u f f e r i n g t o w h i c h M e l e a n d e r i n s i s t e n t l y draws a t t e n t i o n . B o t h i n h i s l i f e and i n P a l a d o r ' s we s e e t h e same e s t r a n g e m e n t f r o m t h e i r f e l l o w - m e n t h r o u g h s o r r o w and a l t h o u g h he i s v o c i f e r o u s where th e p r i n c e i s s i l e n t , t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o g r i e f a r e i d e n t -i c a l i n s o f a r as t h a t g r i e f a l i e n a t e s them f r o m t h e i r w o r l d . B o t h d e d i c a t e t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e memory o f t h e i r l o s s , t r a n s -f o r m i n g i t i n t o a monument w h i c h by i t s p r i v a c y c u t s them o f f from t h e i r w o r l d and i m p r i s o n s them. When P a l a d o r a p p e a r s f o r th e f i r s t ^ t i m e he i s immersed i n a book and h i s f i r s t s e n t e n c e i s a m i l d l y vexed q u e r y : "Why a l l t h i s Company?" (II.i.610) " i n s t e a d o f f o l l o w i n g h e a l t h , / W h i c h a l l men; c o v e t , you p u r s u e y o u r d i s e a s e " and terms P a l a d o r ' s m e l a n c h o l y a " w i l f u l l d u l n e s s e " (II.i.612-3, 623). T h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f d e l i b e r a t e r e t r e a t i s l a t e r r e p e a t e d by S o p h r o n o s who c h a r g e s , ; " I t h i n k e you t o o i n d u l g e n t t o s u c h m o t i o n s , / A s s p r i n g o u t o f y o u r own a f f e c -t i o n s " (II.1.660-1) . P a l a d o r ' s t u t o r , A r e t u s , i s even more o u t s p o k e n : I t h i n k you d o a t e ( w i t h p a r d o n l e t me speak i t ) Too much upon y o u r p l e a s u r e s , and t h e s e p l e a s u r e s Are so w r a p t up i n s e l f - l o v e , t h a t you c o v e t No o t h e r change o f f o r t u n e : (II.i.666-9) T h a t h i s m e l a n c h o l y i s enhanced by a d e l i b e r a t e c o n s t a n c y t o g r i e f i s an a d m i s s i o n made by P a l a d o r h i m s e l f who c o n f e s s e s t o 1.81i R h e t i a s t h a t h i s tongue was "vow'd t o s i l e n c e " ( I I . i . 7 9 8 ) . He t h e n b i d s R h e t i a s " t o an o a t h o f s e c r e c y " and e n j o i n s t o t a l s i l e n c e upon him: 0 be f a i t h f u l l , And l e t no p o l i t i c k e L o r d worke f r o m t h y bosome My g r i e f e s ( I I . i . 8 . 1 4 - 1 6 ) M e l e a n d e r ' s c o n t r a c t w i t h h i s g r i e f i s v e h e m e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d , b r i n g i n g out t h e m a s o c h i s t i c e l e m e n t i n t h e c o n -s e c r a t i o n o f a n g u i s h . H i s r e a d i n e s s t o s p eak i s as e f f e c t i v e an i m p l e m e n t , and as d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n c e i v e d by him, as P a l a d o r ' s s i l e n c e , t o a l i e n a g e him f r o m t h o s e a r o u n d him. F o r d t a k e s p a i n s t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s . F o r M e l e a n d e r g r i e f becomes a t h i n g t o be n u r t u r e d w i t h c a r e , g r o w i n g i n t o an i d e a l i z e d s t y l e o f l i v i n g as we s e e i n t h e f o u r t h a c t . As he l e a v e s t h e s t a g e a t t h e end o f A c t I I , s c e n e i i , he a n n o u n c e s , " I w i l l b r e a k e my h e a r t a l i t t l e , / A n d t e l l y ee more h e r e a f t e r " ( I I . i i . .109 1 - 2 ) . I n A c t IV, s c e n e i i , h i s programme becomes f a r more e l a b o r a t e : I f t h o u c a n s t wake w i t h me, f o r g e t t o e a t e , Renounce t h e t h o u g h t o f G r e a t n e s s e ; t r e a d on F a t e ; S i g h o u t a l a m e n t a b l e t a l e o f t h i n g s Done l o n g agoe, and i l l done; and when s i g h e s Are w e a r i e d , p i e c e up what r e m a i n e s b e h i n d , W i t h w e e p i n g e y e s , and h e a r t s t h a t b l e e d t o d e a t h : Thou s h a l t be a companion f i t f o r me, And we w i l l s i t t o g e t h e r l i k e t r u e f r i e n d s , And n e v e r be d i v i d e d . ( I V . i i . 1 9 3 6 - 4 4 ) He ends t h i s s p e e c h w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a d m i s s i o n , "With what g r e e d i n e s s e / D o e I hug my a f f l i c t i o n s ? " - ( l i n e s 1 9 4 4 - 5 ) . H i s m o r b i d a t t a c h m e n t t o h i s g r i e f i s a t t e s t e d by C l e o p h i l a who t e l l s E r o c l e a t h a t he has been " S h u n n i n g a l l meanes t h a t m i g h t p r o c u r e him c o m f o r t " ( V . i . 2 5 9 6 ) . I n e f f e c t , M e l e a n d e r n u r s e s 182 and i d e a l i z e s h i s g r i e f as t h e o n l y t h i n g he l i v e s f o r and t h e r e b y t r a n s m u t e s h i s m o u r n i n g v i r t u a l l y i n t o an a r t - f o r m . H i s g r i e f , by i t s c o n s t a n c y , i m m o r t a l i z e s t h e memory o f E r o c l e a and t u r n s t h a t memory i n t o a monument. Of s u c h a r e s p o n s e t o p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n s we have f o u n d i n s t a n c e s i n o t h e r p l a y s by F o r d . I n ' T i s P i t y and The B r o k e n  H e a r t G i o v a n n i and O r g i l u s r e s p e c t i v e l y c r e a t e o u t o f v i o l e n c e models o f t h e i r c o n s t a n c y i n l o v e w h i l e C a l a n t h a , i n t h e l a s t s c e n e o f The B r o k e n H e a r t , t r a n s f o r m s h e r g r i e f i n t o a ceremony, t h e r e b y c l a i m i n g i m m u t a b i l i t y f o r h e r l o v e . I n t h e l e a s t d i s -t i n g u i s h e d o f F o r d ' s t r a g e d i e s , L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e , t h e a l i e n a t e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t e m p t t o i m m o r t a l i z e h i s p a s s i o n i s most v i v i d l y v i s u a l i z e d i n F e r n a n d o ' s a p p e a r a n c e w i t h i n t h e tomb o f B i a n c a , r i s i n g up i n h i s w i n d i n g s h e e t and c l a i m i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e tomb as h i s " i n h e r i t a n c e " where l y e s t h e monument o f a l l my h o p e s " ( L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e , V . i i i . 2 7 7 1 - 2 ) . The i m m o r t a l i t y o f h i s l o v e i s c o n c e d e d by t h e Duke h i m s e l f who h u r r i e s t o s h a r e t h e tomb, r e c o g n i z i n g i t as a "monument" t o l o v e ( l i n e 2 8 !• 8) . I n a l l t h e s e p l a y s we n o t e t h a t r e t r e a t f r o m l i f e i s t h e u l t i m a t e c o n s e q u e n c e o f o v e r w h e l m i n g p a s s i o n s . The e x p r e s s -i o n o f t h a t a l i e n a t i o n becomes t h e more t r a g i c when t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d c l i n g t o i t as t h e o n l y f o r m o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n l e f t open t o them, c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r t o t a l commitment t o some e m o t i o n t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r s . E a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y we have o b s e r v e d how G i o v a n n i i n ' T i s P i t y and O r g i l u s i n The  B r o k e n H e a r t b r i n g t r a g e d y upon t h e m s e l v e s and on e v e r y o n e e l s e a r o u n d them t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t r a c t a b l e c o n s t a n c y t o l o v e . I n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y t o o t h e o b s e s s i v e c o n s t a n c y o f P a l a d o r 183 and M e l e a n d e r b r i n g s them c l o s e t o t r a g e d y , but s i n c e - - A g e n o r b e i n g d e a d - - t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p l a y p r e c l u d e s any v e n g e f u l a c t i o n , t h e o n l y c o u r s e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r c o n -s t a n c y and g r i e f i s t o r e t r e a t i n t o t h e m s e l v e s . As P a l a d o r remarks t o E r o c l e a upon t h e i r r e - u n i o n , he had been " B u r i e d " ( I V . i i i . 2 1 8 7 ) t i l l h e r r e t u r n . T h i s e s t r a n g e m e n t l e a v e s P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r w i t h t h e i n w a r d c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e i r l o s s as t h e i r s o l e o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s , t h e n , i s t h e s o u r c e o f c o n f l i c t i n t h e p l a y : P a l a d o r and M e l e a n d e r l o c k t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e i r g r i e f so c o m p l e t e l y t h a t t h e i r f r i e n d s and f o l l o w e r s must u n c e a s i n g l y c o n t e n d a g a i n s t t h e i r e s t r a n g e m e n t . The t e n s i o n i n t h e d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e a r i s e s o u t o f t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p l a y -w o r l d t o b r e a k down t h e b a r r i e r o f u n e x p l a i n e d m e l a n c h o l y t h a t s e p a r a t e s them f r o m t h e i r l e a d e r . These a r e t h e e f f o r t s t h a t f o r m u l a t e t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e t a s k o f a c t u a l l y b r i n g i n g E r o c l e a back w h i c h demands no e x e r t i o n a t a l l , f o r t h a t has been p r e - p l a n n e d by S o phronos and R h e t i a s . I t s e f f i c a c y . a s a remedy depends on what t h e y l e a r n f r o m C o r a x ' s e x p e r i m e n t s . We have h e r e a measure o f F o r d ' s s t r u c t u r a l s k i l l , f o r t h e l o v e r ' s m e l a n c h o l y i s a t t h e centre.o>/f t h e a c t i o n n o t o n l y as t h e p r o b l e m , but a l s o as t h e s o l u t i o n and hence c a n r i g h t l y be the o n l y p o s s i b l e t i t l e f o r t h e p l a y . E x c e s s i v e l o v e c a u s e s t h e malady; but e q u a l l y , e x c e s s i v e l o v e g u a r a n t e e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c u r e . I t i s f a i r t o c l a i m t h a t F o r d has c r e a t e d i n t h i s p l a y a c a r e f u l l y o r d e r e d t r a g i c o m i c s t r u c t u r e by a t t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m o f t h e p l a y t h e d u a l f u n c t i o n o f c o m p l i c a t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n . I n e s s e n c e t h i s i s a v i s i o n o f 1 84: harmony a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a d i a l e c t i c o f t h e c o n t e n d i n g e m o t i o n s o f g r i e f and j o y , a c o n c e p t i o n o f h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e e p i t o m i z e d by Menaphon's l o n g t a l e o f a m u s i c a l c o n t e s t i n A c t I , s c e n e i , w h i c h ends w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f " C o n c o r d i n d i s c o r d " ( I . i . 1 7 5 ) . The Queen I f The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y i s a comedy p r i m a r i l y by v i r t u e o f i t s m e l i o r i s t c o n c l u s i o n r a t h e r t h a n any c o n s p i c u o u s m e r r i m e n t , The Queen a p p e a r s even l e s s i n c l i n e d to p l e a s a n t r y . As t h e p l a y i s h a r d t o come by, a summary o f t h e p l o t i s g i v e n below, w h i c h w i l l show how h e a v i l y t h e p l a y l e a n s t o w a r d s t r a g e d y . As t h e p l a y opens, A l p h o n s o , a young r e b e l about t o be e x e c u t e d f o r t r e a s o n , i s p a r d o n e d and m a r r i e d by h i s queen. Once h e s i s k i n g , A l p h o n s o d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f a m i s o g y n i s t and b a n i s h e s h i s h a p l e s s queen from h i s p r e s e n c e . M e a n w h i l e , V e l a s c o , t h e queen's g e n e r a l , has f a l l e n u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f t h e widow S a l a s s a , who a s k s him t o p r o v e h i s l o v e by v o wing n o t t o f i g h t f o r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s , no m a t t e r what t h e p r o v o c a -t i o n . The two a c t i o n s c o n v e r g e when A l p h o n s o , p r o v o k e d by h i s c o u n s e l l o r M u r e t t o , a c c u s e s h i s queen o f a d u l t e r y , condemning h e r t o d e a t h u n l e s s a champion w i l l t a k e up h e r c a u s e . The queen's c o u n s e l l o r s o f f e r e a p r i z e f o r a champion and S a l a s s a p r o m i s e s t o g e t V e l a s c o on p a i n o f f o r f e i t i n g h e r l i f e . V e l a s c o r e f u s e s t o b r e a k h i s yow. He g i v e s I n when S a l a s s a i s about t o be e x e c u t e d , b u t as he goes t o f i g h t A l p h o n s o , he s p u r n s S a l a s s a f o r h a v i n g made him b r e a k h i s vow. A l t h o u g h t h e queen f o r b i d s h e r s u b j e c t s t o t a k e up arms a g a i n s t 185 A l p h o n s o , V e l a s c o i s f o l l o w e d by two more champions, P e t r u c h i , who has been f r e e d from p r i s o n by a t r i c k , and M u r e t t o h i m s e l f , t h e man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r A l p h o n s o ' s j e a l o u s s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e queen. M u r e t t o r e v e a l s t h a t i t was a l l a c o n t r i v a n c e on h i s p a r t t o make A l p h o n s o aware o f t h e queen's b e a u t y and g o o d n e s s , and t h r o u g h j e a l o u s y t o b r i n g him t o l o v e h e r . A l p h o n s o d e c l a r e s h i s l o v e f o r t h e queen, and V e l a s c o i s p e r s u a d e d t o f o r g i v e and a c c e p t S a l a s s a . The p l a y c o n t a i n s some f a r c i c a l a c t i o n , s l a c k and c o a r s e , w h i c h c e n t e r s e x c l u s i v e l y a r o u n d A l p h o n s o ' s f o l l o w e r s , P y n t o , Bufer and M u r e t t o , and V e l a s c o ' s s e r v a n t Mopas , h i s f r i e n d L o d o v i c o and t h e a g i n g bawd S h a p a r o o n who i s a l s o L o d o v i c o ' s c o u s i n . What l i t t l e humour t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a c h i e v e s a r i s e s o ut o f t h e c o a r s e n e s s o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s a s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e o f low comedy i n a l l p l a y s by F o r d . S c u r r i l i t y p e r v a d e s t h e s p e e c h e s o f Bufo and Mopas, and t h e i r c r u d i t y i s a b l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e v u l g a r and w i t l e s s c l o w n i n g o f P y n t o and S h a p a r o o n , but n o t a s i n g l e comic s i t u a -t i o n comes t o f r u i t i o n i n t h e p l a y . I t opens w i t h a q u a r r e l between M u r e t t o and P y n t o w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e q u a r r e l between R h e t i a s and Co r a x i n A c t I I , s c e n e i o f The L o v e r ' s  M e l a n c h o l y but somewhat l e s s i n c i s i v e and much l e s s a m i a b l e . P y n t o i s a p p a r e n t l y i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e as t h e c l o w n i n t h e p l a y f o r he c o n t r i b u t e s n o t h i n g t o t h e p l a y e x c e p t g i b b e r i s h o f a d u l n e s s unmatched by a n y t h i n g e l s e i n F o r d ' s p l a y s . The c l o s e s t t h e p l a y comes t o a humorous s i t u a t i o n i s t o w a r d s t h e 186 end o f A c t IV when P y n t o meets and c o u r t s t h e bawd S h a p a r o o n . P y n t o ' s c o u r t s h i p , l i k e B u f o ' s c o a r s e w o o i n g o f H e r o p h i l , comes t o a m a r g i n a l l y humorous end, though F o r d does n o t d e v e l o p t h e s i t u a t i o n , and d i s p o s e s o f i t i n a dozen l i n e s . A f t e r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f A l p h o n s o ' s good s e n s e and l o v e f o r th e queen, B u f o and P y n t o r u s h i n , c l a m o u r i n g f o r j u s t i c e , P y n t o b e c a u s e he has j u s t f o u n d o u t S h a p a r o o n ' s c a l l i n g and Bufo b e c a u s e he has been n e a r l y duped i n t o m a r r y i n g Mopas, V e l a s c o ' s s e r v a n t d i s g u i s e d as a woman. The p a r a l l e l between t h e d u p i n g o f B u f o h e r e and C u c u l u s i n The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y i s a p p a r e n t . However, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a u g h t e r i s q u i c k l y c hoked by t h e more p r e s s i n g b u s i n e s s o f u n i t i n g V e l a s c o and S a l a s s a . Not o n l y i s The Queen s i n g u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n humour, i t s t o p s l i t e r a l l y a h a i r ' s b r e a d t h away f r o m a v i o l e n t l y t r a g i c end. V e l a s c o ' s l a d y - l o v e , S a l a s s a , the widow whose p e r v e r s e i n j u n c t i o n upon him has r o b b e d him o f h i s n a t u r a l v a l o u r , has h e r head on t h e b l o c k w i t h t h e axe a c t u a l l y r a i s e d o v e r h e r when V e l a s c o h a l t s t h e e x e c u t i o n . From the i n c e p t i o n o f i t s a c t i o n , t h e p l a y i s e n v e l o p e d by an a i r o f menace. The o s t e n s i b l e c a u s e o f t h i s i s A l p h o n s o ' s b i t t e r h o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t t h e queen and h e r s u b j e c t s . A g a i n s t P e t r u c h i ' s r e b u k e , "You a r e d i s t r a c t e d ; / S h e i s o u r l a w f u l S o v e r a i g n , we h e r S u b j e c t s . " he r e t o r t s : " S u b j e c t s , P e t r u c h i , ab.jects , and so l i v e " (_I. i . 2 6 2 - 5 ) . T h a t t h e queen s h o u l d n o t m e r e l y p a r d o n t h i s v i o l e n t m a l c o n t e n t , but a c t u a l l y marry him p r e s a g e s a d i s a s t e r b o t h 187, p e r s o n a l and communal, and n o t s i m p l y b e c a u s e she t h e r e b y u n c h a i n s h i s n e u r o s i s . What a r e we t o t h i n k o f a r u l e r who t h u s j e o p a r d i s e s h e r kingdom? I f A l p h o n s o i s u n b a l a n c e d , i s t h e queen any l e s s s u b j e c t t o p a s s i o n ? T h i s q u e s t i o n g a i n s i m p o r t a n c e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i d e a l o f k i n g s h i p t h a t F o r d a d v a n c e s i n P e r k i n Warbeck t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r a s t between K i n g H e n r y ' s p r a g m a t i s m i n r u l i n g h i s kingdom and P e r k i n Warbeck's a d v e n t u r i s m . The queen's a c t i o n i n p a r d o n i n g A l p h o n s o and t h e n m a r r y i n g him s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h a z a r d s f a c i n g t h e kingdom a r e i n h e r e n t . As i r n F o r d ' s o t h e r p l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y Thjev 'Broken H e a r t , L o v e ' s S a c r i f i c e and The L o v e r ' s M e l a n c h o l y , t h e d a n g e r s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e community a r e n o t e x t e r n a l but a r i s e f r o m t h e u n r u l y p a s s i o n s o f i t s members and, e q u a l l y n o t i c e a b l y , f r o m t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n i n g i n t h a t w o r l d . In The Queen d i s a s t e r i s i n v i t e d a l i k e by t h e i n s a n e m i s o g y n y o f A l p h o n s o as by t h e r a s h l o v e o f t h e queen. But s u c h w i l f u l n e s s can t h r i v e o n l y i n a community where t h e s o v e r e i g n has u n c h a l -l e n g e d a u t h o r i t y . The queen e x p e c t s and r e c e i v e s a b s o l u t e l o y a l t y even when h e r commands t h r e a t e n h e r own s a f e t y . Such i s t h e f o r c e o f l o y a l t y t o the crown t h a t C o l u m e l l o , Almada and P e t r u c h i f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o s hake o f f t h e i n a c t i o n e n j o i n e d upon them by t h e queen a l t h o u g h t h e y know t h a t t h e r e b y t h e y a r e a l l o w i n g s o v e r e i g n t y t o change hands. They a r e q u i t e aware o f what i s g o i n g on but c a n n o t move a g a i n s t t h e queen's i n t e r d i c t i o n . A f t e r A l p h o n s o ' s sudden o n s l a u g h t upon t h e queen, the " M o n s t r o u s e n c h a n t r e s s " ( I I . i i . 1 l 8 2 ) whose " l u x u r i o u s b l o o d " 188 and' " r a g i n g p l e u r i s i e o f l u s t " he r e p u d i a t e s , P e t r u c h i f e e l s s t r o n g l y enough t o b u r s t o u t , " L e t t h e K i n g remember/It i s t h e Queen he s p e a k s t o o " ( l i n e s 1212-13)- When a f t e r A l p h o n s o ' s h y s t e r i c a l p a r t i n g s h o t , " I h a t e t h y s e x ; o f a l l t h y s e x , t h e e w o r s t " ( l i n e 1236) t h e queen numbly a s k s , "Where must I g o ? " ( l i n e 124:1) C o l u m e l l o t e l l s h e r , Y ' a r e i n y o u r own Kingdom, ' t i s y o u r b i r t h r i g h t , We a l l y o u r S u b j e c t s ; n o t a man o f u s , But t o t h e utmost o f h i s l i f e , w i l l r i g h t Your wrongs a g a i n s t t h i s u n t h a n k f u l K i n g . ( l i n e s 1242-6) The Queen a t once r e b u k e s him: "Away, ye a r e a l l t r a y t o r s t o p r o f a n e / H i s s a c r e d m e r i t s w i t h y o u r b i t t e r terms"' ( l i n e s 1249-5 0 ) . I n a l a t e r s c e n e t h e f o r t h r i g h t L o d o v i c o s a y s , " A l p h o n s o i s , and w i l l be the s c o u r g e o f A r a g o n " ( I I I . i i . 1974-5).. R e a c t i n g p r e d i c t a b l y , t h e queen d i s m i s s e s t h i s as "Rank t r e a c h e r -ous s e a r c h i n g p o i s o n " ( l i n e 1978). I t t a k e s A l p h o n s o ' s t h r e a t o f e x e c u t i n g t h e queen t o r o u s e th e c o u r t i e r s t o some k i n d o f d e f e n s i v e a c t i o n . But even t h e n t h e y c a n n o t but f o l l o w h e r i n j u n c t i o n "Never t o l e v y arms a g a i n s t t h e k i n g " ( I I I . i i i . 2 2 7 2 ) and a r e f o r c e d t o h i r e a champion t o d e f e n d h e r . G i v e n t h e a b s o l u t i s t c h a r a c t e r o f government, t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p l a y move i n e x o r a b l y t o w a r d s t r a g e d y . Taken i n c o n j u n c -t i o n , A l p h o n s o ' s n e u r o s i s , t h e queen's d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l o v e , and the d e b i l i t a t i n g l o y a l t y o f t h e i r c o u r t i e r s a r e f o u n d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y . Even more t h a n A l p h o n s o ' s m i s o g y n y , t h e queen's l o v e f o r him b r i n g s a b o u t h e r s u f f e r i n g . A l p h o n s o ' s s u b j e c t i o n t o p a s s i o n l e a p s t o t h e eye 189 b e c a u s e o f t h e vehemence o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n . D o u b t l e s s t h i s i s why no c r i t i c seems t o have n o t i c e d t h e queen's s u r r e n d e r t o A l p h o n s o as t h e a c t t h a t i n i t i a t e s t h e c h a i n o f e v e n t s i n t h e p l a y . Not o n l y does t h e queen uncage A l p h o n s o ' s venomous miso g y n y , she f e e d s i t by d e f e r r i n g t o e v e r y new and p r o g r e s s -i v e l y h a r s h e r demand he makes, and so a l l o w s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a ch s t a g e o f t h e p l a y ' s a c t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y p a r t l y t r u e t h a t t h e p l a y i s b u i l t a r o u n d t h e s u c c e s s f u l t r e a t -ment o f A l p h o n s o ' s .malady, as c l a i m e d by s e v e r a l c r i t i c s , 12 n o t a b l y Ewing and D a v r i l . ' Sensabaugh s t a t e s t h e B u r t o n i a n p a t t e r n w i t h c o n f i d e n c e : " A l p h o n s o i s t h e p a t i e n t , M u r e t t o t h e 13 d o c t o r , and t h e Queen the i n s t r u m e n t o f c u r e . " L e e c h and 1 4 A n d e r s o n have t a c i t l y a c c e p t e d t h e same p o i n t o f view. The t r u t h i s r a t h e r t h a t i n i t s a n a l y s i s o f t h e s u b v e r s i o n o f r e a s o n by p a s s i o n t h e p l a y i n c l u d e s t h e queen as d e f i n i t e l y as A l p h o n s o and goes on to", p r e s e n t a p a r a l l e l , o f m e n t a l s t a t e r a t h e r t h a n s i t u a t i o n , i n t h e s u b p l o t o f V e l a s c o and S a l a s s a . T h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' p e r v a s i v e n e u r o s e s c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o F o r d ' s s t r u c t u r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e p l a y ' s theme. S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e r e l e v a n c e o f n e u r o s i s does n o t s t o p w i t h A l p h o n s o ' s misogyny b u t g a t h e r s g r e a t e r f o r c e f r o m t h e queen's s u b m i s s i o n t o l o v e w h i c h i s e choed i n t h e s u b p l o t by V e l a s c o ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o S a l a s s a . I f we t a k e t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y as a w h o l e , c o m p r i s i n g t h e main as w e l l as t h e s u b p l o t , t h e n i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t F o r d has b u i l t i t as a t h r e e p a r t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f man's s u b j e c t i o n t o p a s s i o n . Of t h e t h r e e c a s e s o f m e n t a l i m b a l a n c e i n t h e p l a y , t h e main p l o t d e a l s w i t h two, 190 t h e s u r r e n d e r o f t h e queen and A l p h o n s o t o p a s s i o n , w h i l e t h e s u b p l o t shows V e l a s c o ' s e q u a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y . The t h r e e c a s e s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and d o v e t a i l e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e th e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s c o n c e r n e d a r e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e same w o r l d but more u r g e n t l y b e c a u s e th e s t a b i l i t y o f t h a t w o r l d r e s t s upon t h e h e a l t h o f t h e s e t h r e e p e r s o n a g e s - - t h e k i n g , , t h e queen, and t h e g e n e r a l . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y t h e s t a t e has j u s t been s a v e d from r u i n by t h e v a l o u r o f i t s g e n e r a l . But V e l a s c o ' s m i l i t a r y a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e r e s u l t a n t p eace o f t h e r e a l m a r e n e u t r a l i s e d by t h e queen's u n s e t t l i n g l o v e f o r A l p h o n s o . The queen's l o v e a c c o m p l i s h e s f o r A l p h o n s o what h i s r e b e l l i o n had f a i l e d t o do. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e • p l a y when P y n t o e x u l t s i n t h e a c c u r a c y o f h i s p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f o r A l p h o n s o ' s v e n t u r e . H i s p r e d i c t i o n had been mocked by M u r e t t o e a r l i e r : " P o or g e n t l e m a n , he's s u r e t o l e a v e h i s head i n pawn f o r g i v i n g c r e d i t t o t h y p r o g n o s i t c a t i n g i g n o r a n c e " ( I . i . 1 2 6 - 9 ) . A f t e r t h e queen's s u r p r i s e p a r d o n f o r A l p h o n s o , P y n t o e x c l a i m s , "now, now, now, am I an a s s , now my M a s t e r s , hang y o u r s e l v e s , ' s f o o t , I ' l l s t a n d t o ' t ; t h a t man whoever he be, ( b e t t e r o r w o r s e , a l l ' s one) who i s n o t s t a r w i s e , i s n a t u r e s f o o l " ( I . i . 506- 10). From t h i s p o i n t t h e a c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y t u r n s t o w a r d s t r a g e d y , b e c a u s e th e queen's a b d i c a t i o n , s u p p l e m e n t e d by V e l a s c o ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n o f v a l o u r l e a v e s A l p h o n s o r u l i n g t h e s t a t e o v e r w h i c h h i s c o n t r o l i s r a t i f i e d a t each s u b s e q u e n t 1 on-s t a g e by t h e queen's s u b m i s s i o n t o him. As A l p h o n s o ' s power grows, so does h i s t a s t e f o r i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he b e g i n s t o h a t e V e l a s c o f o r h a v i n g d e f e a t e d him, a l t h o u g h i n t h e f i r s t • v-s c e n e he had seemed t o a c c e p t V e l a s c o ' s s u p e r i o r i t y w i t h d i g n i t y . The d e c l i n e o f t h e queen's f o r t u n e p a r a l l e l s t h e d e c l i n e o f V e l a s c o ' s s t a t u s u n t i l i n t h e t h i r d a c t t h e l o w e s t p o i n t f o r b o t h i s r e a c h e d . V e l a s c o i s r e v i l e d and a c t u a l l y k i c k e d on A l p h o n s o ' s o r d e r s w h i l e t h e queen i s a c c u s e d o f a d u l t e r y and i m p r i s o n e d . A g a i n , i t i s t h e n e u r o s e s o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a c t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t . By t h e t i m e t h i s p o i n t i s r e a c h e d , t h e i n i t i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h e queen, A l p h o n s o , and V e l a s c o has been t o t a l l y i n v e r t e d . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e queen was t h e monarch i n power and A l p h o n s o was one o f h e r s u b j e c t s . V e l a s c o was t h e v i c t o r , A l p h o n s o t h e v a n q u i s h e d . Now A l p h o n s o as t h e monarch r u l e s o v e r t h e s u b m i s s i v e queen and t r i u m p h s o v e r t h e a p p a r e n t l y e m a s c u l a t -ed V e l a s c o . I n A c t I , s c e n e i , t h e c o u r s e o f the p l a y ' s a c t i o n had been d e t e r m i n e d by t h e queen but now i t i s A l p h o n s o who o r i g i n a t e s a c t i o n , t h e queen p l a y i n g o n l y a p a s s i v e r o l e o f s u p p o r t . But a f u r t h e r r e v e r s a l i s t o come. J u s t as i n t h e b e g i n n i n g i t had been V e l a s c o ' s b r a v e r y and m ight t h a t had s a v e d the queen f r o m o v e r t h r o w a t A l p h o n s o ' s hand, so a t t h e end i t i s V e l a s c o ' s sword t h a t once more l e a p s t o t h e queen's d e f e n c e a g a i n s t A l p h o n s o and i n i t i a t e s t h e l a t t e r ' s d i s c i p l i n i n g . A l t h o u g h two o t h e r champions, P e t r u c h i and M u r e t t o a p p e a r , t h e y do so a f t e r V e l a s c o , and a f t e r A l p h o n s o and V e l a s c o have con?.-, t r a c t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a d u e l . A l p h o n s o and V e l a s c o c l e a r l y 192 understand t h e i r relationship as one of essential opposition. They are enemies because Alphonso threatens the queen, and through her, the state, while Velasco defends the queen and her possessions. That Velasco and Alphonso assume these opposed roles consciously throughout the play i s indicated by their frequent allusions to combat with each other. In the opening scene Alphonso admits being "reduc'd/By the best man at arms" (I.i.286), but i n the scene that follows he asks sardonically, Velasco, thou wert he didst conquer me, Didst take me prisoner? wert i n that the means To raise me up thus high. I thank thee f o r ' t ; I thought to honour thee i n a defence Of the Queen's beauty; (I.ii.706-13) His deep enmity surfaces again in Act I I I , scene i : "I hate him mortally. 'Twas he/Slaved me to th'hangman's axe" (III.i.1609-11). Alphonso's ascendancy i s marked by his growing confidence i n his superiority over Velasco. He charges Velasco with "pride and malice" and the "rage of thy malicious heart to us" ( I l l . i . 1832, 1841). When Velasco eventually reasserts himself ( i n Act VO he refers back to his triumph over Alphonso: Past times can t e l l you s i r , I was no coward, And now the jus t i c e of a gallant quarell Shall new revive my dulness. We come not here to chide, my sword s h a l l thunder The right for which I s t r i k e . (V.ii.3444-59)'-The enmity between..them i s a contention between fundamentally opposed characters. They remain so u n t i l Alphonso's character changes l a t e r on i n this scene. His conversion i s as wholesale 193 as h i s misogyny had been. The "monstrous e n c h a n t r e s s " o f A c t I I now becomes an " A n g e l ,