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Classification and detailed mapping of soil and terrain features in two mountainous watersheds of southeastern… Utzig, Gregory 1978

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CLASSIFICATION AND DETAILED MAPPING OF SOIL AND TERRAIN FEATURES IN TWO MOUNTAINOUS WATERSHEDS OF SOUTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA by GREGORY FRANK UTZIG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f S o i l  Science)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1978  Gregory Frank Utzig, 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  for  It  financial  i s understood that gain s h a l l  permission.  ^c/vnCZ.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  T ^ O A J -  ff7%  not  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  Department of  Date  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to investigate detailed land classification in forested mountainous terrain.  Two small watersheds in south-eastern  British Columbia, each of approximately 3500 ha in area, were selected for classification and mapping of terrain and soil features (a simultaneous study completed vegetation classification and mapping). The results of the study include maps of terrain and soil features presented on photo-maps at scales of approximately 1:8,000 and planimetric maps at scales of 1:15,840; written descriptions of the terrain and soil features; cross-sectional diagrams depicting the relationships between various landscape features; and soil interpretations for erosion and forest capability.  The terrain features are classified primarily on the basis of  genesis and secondary characteristics of surface expression, texture, slope, and modifying processes.  The soils were classified as phases of soil families  according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification. The Templeton River study area, located in the Purcell Mountains and the adjacent Rocky Mountain Trench, has a complex array of terrain features derived from sedimentary rocks.  These include a variety of morainal materials  ranging from rubbly materials associated with presently active ice to compact fine textured non-calcareous and moderately textured calcareous materials. Steep slopes have created abundant colluvial features including aprons and fans which grade to shallow colluvial veneers over bedrock or morainal materials.  The valley mouth has abundant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine  features, with minor areas of fluvial materials adjacent to Templeton River. The soils of the area are highly variable, reflecting complex variation in  i ii  parent materials, climate, and vegetation.  At the lower elevations the soils  are dominantly Luvisols, which grade to Brunisols and Podzols in the cooler and moi ster environments.  '  The Grassy Creek study area, located in the Selkirk Mountains, is dominated by morainal materials of relatively uniform composition.  These  materials are moderately coarse textured and derived from granitic bedrock. There are fluvial and glaciofluvial materials in the valley bottom and limited colluvial materials at the upper elevations, primarily on southern aspects.  The soils are acidic Podzols, with Ferro-Humic Podzols in the poorly  drained areas, Humo-Ferric Podzols in better drained areas, and some Brunisols on rapidly drained sites. A systematic sampling study in the Templeton River study area demonstrated that mapping r e l i a b i l i t y for the terrain units was about 80%, and for the soil units about 65%.  Morainal mapping units were more homogeneous and  had higher mapping r e l i a b i l i t y than glaciofluvial mapping units. A comparison between the more detailed mapping completed in this study and reconnaissance terrain and soil mapping completed previously in the study areas identified a number of problems inherent in inventories which rely on interpretation of aerial photographs with limited ground checking.  The  complex interactions between terrain types, r e l i e f , and vegetation patterns of Templeton River limited the u t i l i t y of reconnaissance aerial photographic interpretation.  In contrast, Grassy Creek, with subdued and more uniform  terrain features showed good agreement between detailed and reconnaissance mapping.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 1. 1.1 1.2  1.3 1.4 CHAPTER 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3  INTRODUCTION  1  The need for land classification Concepts of land classification  1 3  1.2.1 1.2.2  4  Landscape individuals Structure and organization of land classification systems Recent applications of land classification in British Columbia. Study description and objectives  10 12  METHODS....  15  Terrain and soil mapping Soil sampling and laboratory analyses Systematic sampling study  15 16 17  8  CHAPTER 3.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTIONS..  18  3.1  Templeton River study area  18  3.2  3.1.1 Location and physiography 3.1.2 Bedrock geology 3.1.3 Regional Pleistocene history 3.1.4 Climate 3.1.5 Vegetation Grassy Creek study area  18 18 21 22 27 30  3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5  30 30 33 34 37  CHAPTER 4. 4.1 4.2  CHAPTER 5. 5.1 5.2  Location and physiography Bedrock geology Regional Pleistocene history Climate Vegetation  RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR TEMPLETON RIVER STUDY .AREA.  41  Terrain features Soi1 features  41 48  4.2.1 4..2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4  52 56 66 73  Rocky Mountain Trench Southern Aspect Northern Aspect Valley Head  RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR GRASSY CREEK STUDY AREA  77  Terrain features Soil features  77 82  5.2.1 5.2.2  84 93  Interior Western Hemlock Zone Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir Zone  V  Page CHAPTER 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4  MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS  .  105  Introduction Mass wasting potential ' Surface erosion potential Land capability for forestry  106 106 109' 113  RECONNAISSANCE MAPPING COMPARISON  118  Objectives Procedures Results and discussion  118 118 121  SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STUDY  129  Study description Methods Results and discussion  129 129 131  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  138  9.2  Mapping procedures and the interpretation of aerial photographs Land Classification  138 140  9.3  9.2.1 Terrain classification 9.2.2 Soil classification Data presentation  CHAPTER 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 CHAPTER 8. 8.1 8.2. 8.3 CHAPTER 9. 9.1  9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3  Soil Reports Map unit symbology Map presentation  '  140 140 141 141 142 143  CHAPTER 10. CONCLUSIONS  146  BIBLIOGRAPHY  150  APPENDIX 1  154  APPENDIX 2  157  APPENDIX 3  '  159  vi LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.1  A comparison of the nomenclature used to describe various landscape individuals —  3.1  Predicted 24-ho"ur storm intensities for the Templeton River study area  26  3.2  Predicted 24-hour storm intensities for the Grassy Creek study area  37  4.1  Physical properties of selected surficial materials in the Templeton River study area  45  4.2  Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Rocky Mountain Trench within the Templeton River study area.;.  55  4.3  Nutritional properties of selected soils from the southern aspects within the Templeton River study area ..  58  4.4  Nutritional properties of selected soils from the northern aspects within the Templeton River study area  69  4.5  Characteristics and management interpretations for mapping units in the Templeton River study area  5.1  Physical properties of selected surficial materials in the Grassy Creek study area  81  5.2  Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Interior Western Hemlock Zone of the Grassy Creek study area . . .  88  5.3  Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir Zone of the Grassy Creek study area  5.4  7  75-76  100  Characteristics and management interpretations for mapping units in the Grassy Creek study area  104  6.1  Evaluation table for mass wasting potential  107  6.2  Evaluation table.for surface erosion potential  112  7.1  Mapping unit comparisons for Templeton River study area . . . .  122  7.2  Mapping unit comparisons for Grassy Creek study area  123  8.1  A comparison between the systematic sampling results and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid I south aspect) A comparison between the systematic sampling results and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid II north aspect)  132  8.2  133  -  vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.1  Study area l o c a t i o n s  13  2.1  Templeton River sample l o c a t i o n s and f i e l d transects . . . . ( i n pocket-)  2.2  Grassy Creek sample l o c a t i o n s and f i e l d transects  3.1  The headwaters o f Templeton River *  3.2  Lower Templeton River v a l l e y and the Rocky Mountain  ( i n -pocke-fr)w^h^a-t 19  Trench  19  3.3  Topographic s e t t i n g o f the Templeton River area  3.4  Mean monthly temperature a t f o u r elevations - Templeton River Total mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t f i v e e l e v a t i o n s Templeton River Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (snow and r a i n ) - Templeton  3.5 3.6  20 24 24  River  24  3.7  Vegetation zonation f o r the Templeton River study area  28  3.8  Grassy Creek with Grassy Mountain i n the background  31  3.9 3.10  The southern p o r t i o n o f Grassy Creek area Topographic s e t t i n g o f the Grassy Creek study area  31 32  3.11  Mean monthly temperature a t three e l e v a t i o n s - Grassy Creek  36  3.12  Total mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t three elevations Grassy Creek  36  3.13  Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n (snow and rain) - Grassy Creek ..  36  3.14  Vegetation zonation f o r the Grassy Creek study area  38  ""4.1 4.2  °  Terrain map f o r the Templeton River study area Generalized t e r r a i n map o f the Templeton River study area  (in " ^ ^ " ^ ^ ^ ^ 42  4.3  Grain s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n curves f o r materials f i n e r than 76 mm - Templeton River  43  4.4  Northerly ridge which was covered by i c e flowing south i n the Rocky Mountain Trench  45  4.5  The mouth o f Templeton River v a l l e y , with g l a c i o f l u v i a l Terraces and meltwater channels i n the foreground . . . .  47  4.6  D i s t o r t e d bedding and " c u t and f i l l " sorted g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials  47  4.7  S o i l map f o r Templeton River study area (photo-map)  features i n poorly  ( i n pocke-t-)HoJ$ y  VI11  Figure 4.8  Page S o i l map for Templeton River study area (planimetric  "^P  map)  (in p o c k e t ) M  4.9  Legend and transect locations f o r cross-section figures  4.10  Cross-section Qi-C2» eastern end of Templeton River study area Bisequa Gray Luvisol (BIGL) developed from e o l i a n c o l l u v i a l veneer (g$ECv) and gravelly morainal blanket (gMb) .  59  Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol (OEB) developed from a c o l l u v i a l veneer over dolomitic bedrock  61  Complex s o i l forming environment on a southern aspect in the Templeton River study area  63  Cross-section B]-B2» north and south aspects, o f Templeton River study area  64  4.11  4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16  4.17  4.18  ...  50 53  mid-valley  Cross-section A1-A2, north and south aspects, upper valley of Templeton River study area  65  Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzol (BIHFP) developed from e o l i a n c o l l u v i a l veneer (g$ECv) over morainal materials (gMb) '..  67  Gleyed Orthic Ferno-Humic Podzol (GLOFHP) developed from an eolian veneer ($Ev) over morainal materials (gsMb)  70  Orthic Regosol (OR) developed from c o l l u v i a l materials subject to perennial snow avalanching (rCb-A) •• • • -  7,2 ^pee.Cot't  5.1  Terrain map f o r the Grassy Creek study area  5.2  Generalized t e r r a i n map of the Grassy Creek study area . . . .  78  5.3  Grain s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n curves f o r materials f i n e r than 76 mm - Grassy Creek  79  5.4  Glaciofluvial  /  (in pocket-)Hpf  .  ^ ^ i ^  terraces at the mouth of Grassy Creek  (looking south down Eire Creek)  81  S o i l map f o r Grassy Creek study area (photo-map)  5.6 5.7  Soil map f o r Grassy Creek study area (planimetric map)., (in . p o c k e t ) J e ^ - ^ ^ j Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse textured g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials (gFGt) 85  5.8  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse textured g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials with a lacustrine lense ($Lv/gFGt)  86  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb)  89  5.9  (in  £©€ke-t)7 ^ r ' ^ -  5.5  C o  ix Figure 5.10  5.11  5.12 5.13  '•  Page  Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb)  91  Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzol (GLMFHP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb)  92  Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzol (SMHFP) developed from shallow c o l l u v i a l materials (gCv)..  94  P l a c i c Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (PLMHFP) developed from c o l l u v i a l materials over morainal materials (gCv/gsMb)  95  5.14  Legend and transect locations  5.15  Cross-section Ai-A2» north and south aspects, western portion of Grassy Creek study area  97  Cross-section B-J-B2, north and south aspects, eastern portion of Grassy Creek study area  98  5.16 5.17 5.18 6.1 6.2  for cross-section  figures  96  Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from morainal materials (gsMb)  101  Southern aspects at high elevations near Grassy Mountain ..•  102  Swept trees resulting from s o i l creep on a steep c o l l u v i a l slope  110  Severe gully erosion in kame materials from poor road construction  110  resulting  7.1 .  Reconnaissance s o i l and landform mapping units Templeton River study area  for  7.2  Reconnaissance s o i l and landform mapping units Grassy Creek study area  for  8.1  ...  Locations of systematic sampling points  119 120 130  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express appreciation to Dr. L. M. Lavkulich of the Department of Soil Science f o r assistance and encouragement throughout the study.  Appreciation is also expressed to the Research  Division of the B.C. Forest Service f o r f i n a n c i a l support, the Inventory Division f o r l o g i s t i c a l  support during the f i e l d work and assistance with  map preparation, and the Resource Analysis Branch of the Ministry of the Environment f o r c l i m a t i c information and use of the s o i l data f i l e .  Special thanks are due to R. Keith Jones for his contribution to the vegetation portion of the study, f o r stimulating discussions  during  the f i e l d work, and valuable c r i t i c i s m s during preparation of the report. Thanks are also due to a number of people who assisted during various phases of the work, in p a r t i c u l a r :  Brian McBride and Mary  utziq  f i e l d work, Joe Chan and Bev Herman f o r laboratory analyses, B i l l  for Dyck  and Diane Ailman f o r map preparation, and e s p e c i a l l y Donna Macdonald f o r preparation of maps, tables and f i g u r e s .  1  CHAPTER 1  1.1  INTRODUCTION  The need for land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The basic requirements o f food and s h e l t e r make man completely  dependent on the ultimate resource: ' l a n d ' .  As c i v i l i z a t i o n evolved over  the centuries, c u l t u r a l and technological changes have necessitated more s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , causing most humans to lose t h e i r intimate with the land.  associations  Urbanization and mechanization have put many people into  environments where human dependence on the natural environment i s obscured by man-made structures and human i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Concurrently, tremendous  growth in human population combined with changes in l i f e s t y l e s have brought ever increasing demands f o r the earth's natural resources including energy, water, food, and b u i l d i n g materials.  It has become evident, however, that  the supply of these resources is l i m i t e d .  Even the "renewable resources"  can only be supplied in quantities determined by the sustainable productive capacity of the land-base.  If  the y i e l d s of these resources are to be  maximized and/or sustained, there has to be more consideration given to determining the productive potential of land for various uses, and developing land management plans which optimize land use over the long-term. This  process can be broken into four related steps; inventory, preparation  of c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s , management plans  s u i t a b i l i t y determinations, and formulation of  (followed by implementation).  The f i r s t step in. formulating any long-term management plan is an inventory of what resources e x i s t in an area: d i s t r i b u t i o n , and ecological r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  their quantity, spatial This can be accomplished through  2  the application of a land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system which divides the landscape into recognizable segments, having a defined level of homogeneity with respect to selected morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and displaying s i m i l a r responses to selected management p r a c t i c e s .  These morphological  properties can include topography, climate, hydrologic features, geology, s o i l , vegetation,animal  l i f e , and h i s t o r y .  Once the primary inventory data  has been c o l l e c t e d , further i n t e r p r e t i v e work can determine the c a p a b i l i t y of the area for various uses (e.g. a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, r e c r e a t i o n , etc.).  C a p a b i l i t i e s are based on l i m i t a t i o n s for s p e c i f i c uses which are  i d e n t i f i e d by, or i n f e r r e d from, the landscape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described by the inventory.  By combining the c a p a b i l i t y information with the needs  and r e s t r a i n t s determined by society, the s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y of areas for p a r t i c u l a r uses can be determined.  From t h i s , a range of management  options emerges, and the p o l i t i c a l process determines the preferred course of a c t i o n .  The i n i t i a l step of inventory i s extremely crucial in land management, as i t provides the information base for a l l the subsequent steps.  The  information c o l l e c t e d must be comprehensive enough to answer questions on the c a p a b i l i t y of the land for a wide spectrum of prospective uses, and in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to provide accurate information for the level of management being planned.  The level of d e t a i l selected for an inventory  (i.e.  the categorical level of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and cartographic level of mapping) depends on several f a c t o r s :  the level o f intended management; complexity  of the t e r r a i n under consideration; and p r a c t i c a l constraints such as costs, a v a i l a b i l i t y of personnel and access.  3  In addition to knowing the distribution, quantity, and quality of particular resources, management decisions also require information on the potential impacts of specific uses on the area as a whole. It is essential that inventory information be presented in a form which indicates the  interrelationships between the various components of the area (i.e..  water-soil-vegetation, etc.).  Some of the most difficult resource problems  to solve are those which involve conflicts between different resource users within a common area.  Part of this problem stems from the artificial  division of the environment into discrete components for consideration (e.g. soil, vegetation, geology, etc.).  These partitions are reflected in  our inventory procedures and the array of management agencies now in existence.  Proper land management decisions depend on a thorough know-  ledge of the natural landscape as a whole, including the potential interactions between all the components, even those which are not in direct use at the time.  In order for an inventory to satisfy these needs, i t  must utilize a land classification system which is capable of integrating the various segments of the landscape. 1.2  Concepts of land classification The primary goal of any classification system is to organize the  present knowledge about a population of objects or individuals. Ideally, this organization should facilitate communication, and promote further understanding of the relationships between these individuals (Cline 1949 & Kellogg 1963). Before discussing the structural organization of land classification systems, i t is important to begin with a firm understanding of what land classification deals with, i.e. what constitutes a landscape individual.  4  1.2.1  Landscape Individuals Because the landscape consists of a variety of i n t e r r e l a t e d com-  ponents (e.g. a i r , water, geologic substrata, b i o t a ) , i t is necessary to consider numerous attributes in defining a landscape i n d i v i d u a l .  In the  past s o i l and vegetation have been recognized as integrators of the environment as a whole (Jenny 1941 & Major 1951), and therefore single component inventories of s o i l or vegetation have been used to approximate landscape c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  However, as our need for information on i n t e r -  relationships and processes has increased, more h o l i s t i c systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have a r i s e n , which include numerous landscape components together in t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s .  S o i l , vegetation, and  h o l i s t i c types of landscape individuals w i l l be discussed below.  S o i l s are recognized as independent natural bodies, where the s o i l individual or polypedon shows a unique morphology, r e s u l t i n g from a unique combination of climate, l i v i n g matter, parent rock materials, r e l i e f , and time (U.S.D.A. S o i l Survey Manual 1951, a group of s o i l  p.  3 ).  A polypedon is  simply  sample units or pedons which are the smallest three-dimen-  sional objects recognizable as s o i l .  The polypedon is a unique individual  existing in nature, with a defined range in s o i l properties r e s u l t i n g from the pedons comprising i t . defined for the Soil  The ranges of properties are consistent with those  S e r i e s , the corresponding basic taxanomic unit.  Polypedons are i n d i v i d u a l s which describe one segment of the landscape, but not the landscape as a whole.  Vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n probably shows more v a r i a t i o n than s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n throughout the world; however, as the demand for information,  5  and hence communication, increases, standardization w i l l evolve.  In  vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l , e x i s t i n g in nature, i s generally recognized as the  plant community, with the plant associa-  tion as a corresponding c l a s s i f i c a t i o n unit.  However, as  Muller-Dombois  and Ellenberg (1974, p. 27) point out in t h e i r review of vegetation ecology: At best, the community can be described as a ' s p a t i a l and temporal organization of organisms' with d i f f e r i n g degrees of i n t e g r a t i o n , and c l e a r l y , the community occupies a higher level of organization than the organism i t s e l f . Therefore, a plant community can be understood as a combination of plants that are dependent on t h e i r environment and influence one another and modify t h e i r own environment. They form, together with t h e i r common habitat and other associated organisms, an ecosystem (sensu TANSLEY 1935), which is also related to the neighbouring ecosystems and to the macroclimate of the region. However, in spite of t h e i r close i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s the individual members retain t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , because each species can e x i s t also outside the community. Therefore, the ultimate unit of vegetation is not the plant community but the individual plant type. By t h i s , we mean geneticaliy related populations of any taxonomic rank (such as species, subspecies, v a r i e t y , races, or ecotypes), whose representatives show a s i m i l a r ecological behaviour.  In the P a c i f i c northwest, the main a p p l i c a t i o n of vegetation  classifica-  tion and mapping to land management has been that of Daubenmire (1943, 1952, 1968) and the U.S.  Forest Service ( P f i s t e r et a l . 1977).  At the  upper caterogical level Daubenmire has grouped plant communities on the basis of s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g , or dominant climax tree species.  Subsequent  divisions are then based on the occurrence of p a r t i c u l a r dominant understory  6  species.  Although his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system is based completely on the  use of climax plant associations  as i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s , he  distinguishes...  between vegetation and the area i t occupies. The c o l l e c t i v e area which an association occupies, or w i l l come to occupy, is c a l l e d a habitat type. Considerable variation of i n t r i n s i c factors may be encompassed but the ecologic sums of the d i f f e r e n t sets of conditions are e s s e n t i a l l y equivalent with respect to the nature of the climax Although (Daubenmire s) main concern i s the plant association he considers plants and animals, plus climate and edaphic f a c t o r s , as inseperable constituents of an i n t e r r e l a t e d u n i t , the ecosystem (sensu TANSLEY 1935). Vegetation is simply the most evident component of such an e n t i t y (Daubenmire 1952, p. 303). 1  The vegetation i n d i v i d u a l , the plant community, also describes only one component o f the landscape as a whole.  As Daubenmire has stated,  other components of the landscape are related to the climax plant communities, but they are not part of those communities. Ecological  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes include a variety of environmental  factors in defining the landscape i n d i v i d u a l .  One of the two systems  widely used in B r i t i s h Columbia, the Bio-physical Jurdant et a l . 1974), designates  system (Lacate 1969 and  the "Land Type" as t h e i r basic u n i t ,  defined as: An area of land having a f a i r l y homogeneous combination of s o i l (at a level corresponding to the S o i l Series) and chronosequence of vegetation. It is the basic ecological c e l l of the bio-physical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the one upon which most of the b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and other i n t e r p r e t i v e ratings can be made. They can be delineated at scales ranging from 1:10,000 to 1:60,000 (Jurdant e t a l . 1974). The Resource Analysis Branch of the Provincial Ministry of the Environment (R.A.B.) in t h e i r application of the biophysical concepts i n B.C. has termed this individual as the "Biophysical  Type" (Walmsley 1976).  7  Krajina working in B.C.,  is primarily responsible for introducing  the concept of the biogeocoenose as a basic ecosystematic unit. defined by Sukachev and Dylis (1964) as:  This was  •' '  A combination on a s p e c i f i c area of the earth's surface of homogeneous natural phenomena (atmosphere, mineral s t r a t a , vegetable, animal, and microbial l i f e , s o i l and water conditions), possessing i t s own s p e c i f i c type of interaction of these components and a d e f i n i t e type of interchange of t h e i r matter and energy amoung themselves and with other natural phenomena, and representing an i n t e r n a l l y - c o n t r a d i c t o r y d i a l e c t i c a l unity, being in constant movement and development. Klinka (1976), in this work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest, has defined the biogeocoenosis  or basic ecosystem as the  individual e x i s t i n g in nature, and the type of biogeocoenosis type) as the corresponding basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  LANDSCAPE INDIVIDUALS /NATURAL ENTITY BASIC TAXONOMIC UNIT Table 1.1  SOILS  Polypedon  Series  (or ecosystem  unit.  ECOSYSTEM UNITS  VEGETATION  BIOPHYSICAL  SYNECOLOGICAL  Plant Community  Polypedon and Plant Community  Biogeocoenosis (Basic Ecosystem)  Plant Association (Habitat Type)  Land Type or Biophysical Type  Ecosystem Type  A comparison of the nomenclature used to describe various landscape individuals..  A comparison of the basic landscape units described here is shown in Table 1.1.  The ecosystem units presented w i l l be a s l i g h t l y  finer division  of the landscape than the s o i l or vegetation units alone, as they account f o r any variation in the s o i l or vegetation. e s t a b l i s h plant associations with defined successional  The plant communities used to  are generally accepted to be climax communities,  sequences.  8  The recognition and understanding of what constitutes a landscape /individual is extremely important to anyone using land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems.  The user must understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the abstract  .  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n units and the real landscape individuals as they e x i s t in nature.  In actual practice the landscape individuals are seldom used as  mapping units.  The inventory objectives may not necessitate t h i s  of d e t a i l , or economic constraints may make i t unfeasible. cases the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n units presented w i l l  be groups of  at higher categorical l e v e l s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system.  level  In these individuals The land manager  must evaluate these groupings to decide i f the c r i t e r i a used to the groups are relevant to the land management decisions he i s  establish making.  1.2.2. Structure and organization of landscape c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems ' A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system groups individuals or subdivides the o r i g i n a l population, based on a number of a t t r i b u t e s defined according to the objectives of the c l a s s i f i e r .  The number of a t t r i b u t e s used to define a  class may vary, depending on the level of generalization desired.  In  hierarchical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems there are a number of categorical l e v e l s established.  These range from numerous c l o s e l y defined classes  at the lower categorical  l e v e l s , which require the d e f i n i t i o n of many  a t t r i b u t e s , to a few broadly defined classes at the upper l e v e l s . the lower categorical  At  level the classes are more homogeneous, and  numerous s p e c i f i c statements can be made about a class as a whole. However, going from the more s p e c i f i c to the more general l e v e l s , the classes become less d i s t i n c t i v e , and the number of s p e c i f i c  statements  9  which can be made decreases fe.g. Pinus contorta i s a species of trees with needles in clumps of two, while the genus Pinus can only be described as a population of trees with needles in clumps).  In the case of land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t is usually i m p l i c i t that once the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s established, i t w i l l be applied in delineating  similar  individuals or classes of individuals as they occur on the landscape.  This  procedure, mapping, requires that the c r i t e r i a used to define the classes have geographic connotation, and be useful in establishing the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population.  When a hierarchical land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is t i e d to a mapping system, i t is ideal i f there is a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the cartographic level of generalization fe.g.map scale) and the categorical level of generalization.  However, variation in the complexity of the t e r r a i n can modify t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p , by necessitating the use of a more detailed map scale in some areas to define the same level of categorical generalization.  The scope of any land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system depends on the objective in mind.  If the objectives are narrow, such as evaluating the c a p a b i l i t y  of the landscape for a single use, simple systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be emphasized, using only those properties which are f e l t to be s i g n i f i c a n t that use (e.g. c l a s s i f y i n g using three c r i t e r i a :  to  s o i l s on t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y for recreation beaches  sandiness, slope, and proximity to water).  systems are designated as i n t e r p r e t i v e or technical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  These systems.  In contrast, i f objectives include a broader evaluation of several resource c a p a b i l i t i e s or information on i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of various  landscape  components, a taxonomic or " n a t u r a l " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme is preferred.  10  The class l i m i t s are selected to include a wide range of observed and .  /  measurable p r o p e r i t i e s of landscape units which r e f l e c t presently accepted theories of landscape evolution ( i . e . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems w i l l evolve as our understanding increases). system c l a s s i f i e s  Because a taxonomic  classification  landscape individuals based on t h e i r natural  and genesis, i t can provide substantial  continually  relationships  information on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between various components of the landscape fc.g. parent material s o i l development (edaphic) - plant community i n t e r a c t i o n s ) .  (landform)-  After the de-  f i n i t i o n of various classes by a taxonomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been completed, interpretations can be developed f o r a v a r i e t y of uses, and applied to the appropriate categorical level of the taxonomic system. 1.3  Recent applications of land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia. At present, the most extensive land inventory program in B.C. is the  Biophysical Surveys conducted by the R.A.B.  Because B.C. has extensive areas  of mountainous t e r r a i n , which creates complex landscape patterns and severe access problems, there has been a strong reliance on remote sensing with l i t t l e supportive ground truth.  Most of the information published at  present has been at a reconnaissance l e v e l , and intended primarily f o r regional  planning.  At present and in the recent past, land inventories in B.C. Canada Land Inventory, and Resource Analysis  (including  B.C.L.I., Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , B.C.D.A., Branch - Ministry of the Environment, B.C.)  rely  heavily on black and white a e r i a l photographs to aid in land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Landforms or t e r r a i n units  (defined on the basis of genesis, form and com-  position) are the basic unit of recognition on the a e r i a l photographs, and  n  hence have become the basic mapping u n i t . into t e r r a i n units on a e r i a l photographs  A map area is f i r s t pretyped (usually a scale of 1:63,360),  and then these types are defined and the boundaries refined through ground checks and sampling. The most recent reports by the B.C.D.A. have used the s o i l  associa-  tion concept in conjunction with basic landform mapping. S o i l s on s i m i l a r parent m a t e r i a l , under similar c l i m a t i c conditions and of about the same age comprise a s o i l association. Every s o i l association is given a local name, (e.g. Barrett, Nechako, e t c . ) . It has a range in drainage, texture, s t r u c t u r e , colour, thickness of layers and depth. The association was subdivided into members by development and drainage to a single subgroup or two and three subgroup combinations. Superimposed on delineated landforms, these association members thus become the basic mapping units. In t h i s manner and according to the parent materials the s o i l subgroups are often i d e n t i c a l to s o i l s e r i e s . ( C o t i c e t a l . 1974).  Differences in parent material were defined as d i s t i n c t i v e landforms or changes in composition due to v a r i a t i o n in bedrock.  Climatic differences  were defined on the basis of vegetative zones (Runka .1972 &" Cotic et a l . 1974)  The Canada Department of Agriculture report on the Tulameen Area has been prduced by a s i m i l a r procedure. the s o i l  The basic unit has been defined as  s e r i e s ; however, most map units are catenary sequences of s e r i e s .  These are s i m i l a r to the s o i l associations;  however, individual members  and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are more c l o s e l y defined.  Comparing the  C.D.A. report to the B.C.D.A. report indicates the information from Tulameen i s presented at a more detailed categorical level  (the s o i l  series)  than the Smithers-Hazelton and the Nechako-Francois Lake, even though a l l three are presented at the same cartographic level of 1:125,000.  This  12  r e f l e c t s the more extensive f i e l d work in parts of the Tulameen, and ..  /  possibly less complex t e r r a i n .  The E.L.U.C. Secretariat has also published a report on the Okanagan Valley which c l o s e l y follows the Bio-physical System.  The basic map unit  is the land system, which is defined as "recurring patterns of landforms with associated vegetation and s o i l s "  (Hawes et. a l , 1974).  These are  one step above the land type, and are roughly equivalent to the s o i l associations used by the B.C.D.A.  1.4  Study description and o b j e c t i v e s . The preceding discussion has considered a variety of concepts related  to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping. pertinent to t h i s study.  Two main ideas have emerqed which are  The f i r s t is the need f o r a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y  approach to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to answer complex land management questions. The second is the fact that maximum information about a landscape unit is given at the lowest level of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, and that most land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to date in B.C. has been at the higher levels of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems, with only 1imited evaluation of landscape i n d i v i d u a l s . With these thoughts in mind, two areas were selected f o r detailed mapping of t e r r a i n and s o i l features (See figure 1.1).  The study was i n i t i a t e d  in conjunction with a plant e c o l o g i s t , who simultaneously mapped the natural vegetation of the study areas**  This report,however, w i l l only  include the t e r r a i n and s o i l aspects, with emphasis on t h e i r relationships to the other landscape components. The vegetation portion of the study was completed by R.K. Jones, and the results are reported in his Masters Thesis at the Faculty of Forestry, University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  13  Fig.II  Study  Area  Locations  14  The broad objective of the study was to complete a detailed inventory of s o i l and t e r r a i n features in forested mountainous t e r r a i n , and to evaluate that process by answering the following questions: a)  What level of the Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n is s u i t a b l e for detailed mapping of forested mountainous terrain?  b)  Can the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System be applied at a detailed level in forested mountainous terrain?  c)  How do differences in landscape complexity and topography a f f e c t inventory results?  d)  What i s the r e l i a b i l i t y and r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the mapping units presented?  e)  How does the detailed mapping completed in this study compare with reconnaissance s o i l landform mapping in the same areas?  f)  What types of data presentation are useful in reporting the results o f detailed mapping in forested landscapes?  g)  What management interpretations should accompany such an inventory?  *  15  CHAPTER 2 2.1  Terrain and s o i l  METHODS  mapping  The mapping program"was c a r r i e d out using black and white a e r i a l photographs at scales of 1:63,360 and 1:15,840.  The f i n a l maps are presented on  enlarged small scale a e r i a l photographs at a scale of 1:8,000 and p l a n i metric maps at a scale o f 1:15,840.  Mapping units were transferred from the  1:15,840 working copy a e r i a l photographs to the 1:8,000 photo-maps by hand, and to the planimetric maps with a r a d i a l - l i n e stereoscopic p l o t t e r (Kail plotter). Pretyping of major t e r r a i n units was completed on the small scale a e r i a l photographs p r i o r to the f i e l d season.  The f i e l d work was i n i t i a t e d with a  quick ground reconnaissance along the driveable roads and a e r i a l by helicopter.  Subsequently, the large scale (1:15,840) a e r i a l  reconnaissance photographs  were pretyped according to the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (E.L.U.C. Secretariat 1976), using the following observable photo-patterns: a) topography (slope, slope length, slope configuration, aspect, exposure, microtopography) b) vegetative cover (physiognomy and structure, species, density, tone) c) t e r r a i n (drainage patterns, g u l l i e s , snow avalanche tracks, slope f a i l u r e s , rock, t a l u s , moraines, ice) d) c u l t u r a l features (roads, cut banks,  sidecasts)  Pretyped t e r r a i n units were then ground checked along roads and foot transects.  Transect locations were pre-selected to cross the maximum number  of units within the constraints of time and access (road and h e l i c o p t e r ) .  16  Concurrently s o i l development was t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d on each t e r r a i n unit, and the various s o i l s were r e l a t e d to observable . aerial photographic features (see above) f o r extrapolation of the s o i l to inaccessible areas.  information  Modal s i t e s representing each major s o i l  type were  selected f o r detailed p r o f i l e descriptions and sampling.  P r o f i l e descriptions  were completed as outlined by the Canadian System of Soil  Classification  (1974) and the U.S.D.A. Soil Survey Manual standard forms provided by the B.C. Soil  2.2  Soil  (1951).  These were recorded using  Data F i l e (see Appendix 1).  sampling and laboratory analysis  Soil samples for pedological laboratory analysis were c o l l e c t e d by horizon at each modal s i t e .  Laboratory analyses were performed at the Soil  Science Department, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. described in Methods of Soil Analysis—Pedology  The methods used are  Laboratory, U.B.C.  Engineering samples weighing approximately 40 kg  t  (1974).  were c o l l e c t e d from  selected modal s i t e s to characterize the physical properties of the major terrain types.  These samples were a i r - d r i e d and sieved into size f r a c t i o n s  less 'than 7.6 cm in diameter.  Size f r a c t i o n s less than 2 mm in diameter  were determined by the hydrometer method.  Visual estimates were also used  to determine the percentages of p a r t i c l e s larger than 7.6 cm in diameter, as a 40 kg sample is not adequate to characterize materials which contain stones larger than 5 kg each.  Bulk densities were determined i n - s i t u where  the engineering samples were c o l l e c t e d by a modified volume-measure technique (Utzig and Herring 1975). are shown on figures 2.1 and 2.2.  Sample and f i e l d transect  locations  17  2.3  Systematic sampling study Two areas which include a variety of t e r r a i n and s o i l features on  both north and south aspects were selected f o r application of a systematic sampling program.  A rectangular g r i d system of 31 sampling points at  200 m i n t e r v a l s was layed out on a planimetric map at a scale of  1:15,840.  The compass bearings of the grid system were determined from the map, and a B. C. Forest Service Inventory crew flagged out the g r i d system on the ground.  A two man f i e l d crew then excavated a one meter deep s o i l p i t at  each sampling point.  Data c o l l e c t i o n at each sampling point included:  a vegetation r e l e v e ; age, height, and diameter at breast height of major tree species; a s o i l  p r o f i l e description (see above); and s o i l  f o r laboratory analyses  (see above).  samples  18  CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.1.1  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTIONS  Templeton River Study.Area Location and Physiography The Templeton River study area i s located in the Purcell  Mountains  of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia (116° 26'-36' W; 50° 46'-49' N). originates  The valley .  in the Septet Range, an easterly shoulder of the main P u r c e l l  Mountains, bordering on the Rocky Mountain Trench, (see figure 1.1).  The  upper end o f the valley i s dominated by Mt. E t h e l b e r t , r i s i n g to 3,000 m in e l e v a t i o n , and a series of recently active cirque basins occurring between 2,400-2,500 m.  A lower cirque basin at 1,950 m contains a tarn from which  Templeton River cascades to the valley f l o o r .  From that level  (1,880 m),  the r i v e r travels through a deeply i n c i s e d , U-shaped v a l l e y (see figure 3.1). The gradient is f a i r l y uniform u n t i l . t h e r i v e r enters the main Columbia Valley at 1,350 m, and begins a sinuous path across the drumlin f i e l d s to the Columbia River (see figure 3.2).  There are no main t r i b u t a r i e s , with the  exception of small streams entering from two cirque basins on the southern side of the valley.  The valley i s approximately 10 km long (E-W to the trench),  4 km wide, with a t o t a l area of 3,650 ha (see figure 3.3). 3.1.2  Bedrock Geology The bedrock o f the Templeton River area consists o f primarily  and associated dolomite, limestone, q u a r t z i t e , and s l a t e .  argillite  The rocks are part  of the Dutch Creek and Mt. Nelson Formations o f the Purcell System (Reesor  1973).  They are late Precambrian in age and generally dip to the east; however, minor folds and a n o r t h - s t r i k i n g normal f a u l t (west side down) j u s t below Templeton Lake complicate the regional trend.  Quartzites and dolomites are found  p r i m a r i l y in the upper elevations, slates and minor dolomite on the north ridge near the mouth o f the v a l l e y , and a r g i l l i t e s  throughout.  19  Figure 3.1  The headwaters of Templeton River (looking to the west on June 17). Note the l a t e snow r e t e n t i o n , morainal terrace on the r i g h t , c o l l u v i a l apron on the l e f t , snow avalanche t r a c k s , and g l a c i e r i n the upper l e f t .  Figure 3.2  Lower Templeton River v a l l e y and the Rocky Mountain Trench (looking to the e a s t ) . Note the rounded ridge in the l e f t foreground, the southward turn at the v a l l e y mouth, drum!ins in the trench, and logging i n the r i g h t foreground.  21  3.1.3  Regional  Pleistocene history  The s u r f i c i a l geology of the Templeton River area i s dominated by deposits r e s u l t i n g from extensive g l a c i a t i o n s During the major g l a c i a l  of the Pleistocene Epoch.  advances, the adjacent Rocky Mountain Trench acted  as an o u t l e t v a l l e y f o r the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet (Clague 1975).  The main  trench g l a c i e r was also fed by numerous v a l l e y g l a c i e r s along i t s  length,  including one from the Templeton River v a l l e y . The l a s t major Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n , termed the Pinedale in the Rocky Mountains of the United States, has l e f t the most obvious deposits.  This  g l a c i a t i o n is roughly equivalent in time to the Fraser Glaciation on the west coast of North America and the Wisconsinan in eastern North America. A radiocarbon date of 26,800 ± 1,000 y B.P.  sets a maximum date f o r the  Pinedale advance near J a f f r a y in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench (49° 30'N, Clague 1975).  The Templeton V a l l e y , located further north (50° 45'N) and  at a higher elevation than the radiocarbon dated s i t e would most l i k e l y have commenced g l a c i a l  a c t i v i t y e a r l i e r than 27,000 y B.P.  During the Pinedale Glaciation there were three d i s t i n c t stades recorded in the southern trench region (Clague 1975).  A total withdrawal of the  trench ice did not occur between each stade, but rather a retreat of the southern t r i b u t a r y g l a c i e r s only.  This resulted in the formation of temporary  lakes in the valley mouths dammed by trench i c e , and the accompanying deposition of l a c u s t r i n e and g l a c i o - f l u v i a l  sediments.  The main trench ice had withdrawn northward beyond Templeton River to at least Donald Station (51° 29' N) by 10,000 ± 140 y B.P.  (Fulton 1971).  Because the Templeton Valley was a southerly ice source, and was independent  22  of the main i n t e r i o r ice accumulation area, i t was probably ice free well before the radiocarbon date given f o r Donald Station. 3.1.4 Climate Regional  climate information provides an overall framework of expected  temperatures, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , winds, and season patterns, however in mountainous t e r r a i n the variation due to local conditions can be highly  significant.  For any given p o s i t i o n , local v a l l e y climate varies with aspect, e l e v a t i o n , r e l a t i v e topographic p o s i t i o n , and the influence of adjacent landscape features such as mountain masses (shading a f f e c t ) , g l a c i e r i c e , or water bodies. The c l i m a t i c information presented for Templeton River is based on data obtained from elevational transects in adjacent larger valley The o r i g i n a l  transect used was Golden-Glacier Park, w^ich was then r e c a l c u -  lated using Brisco as a base.  The lack of instrumentation within the study  area makes i t impossible to accurately describe spatial the  systems.  differences within  watershed, p a r t i c u l a r i l y on contrasting aspects or contrasting topo-  graphic positions  (e.g. midslope vs. v a l l e y bottom p o s i t i o n s ) .  Sites on  southerly aspects are s i g n i f i c a n t l y warmer than s i t e s of equivalent elevation on northerly aspects because of increased inputs of d i r e c t solar r a d i a t i o n . Valley bottom positions are l i k e l y to be s l i g h t l y warmer during the day and d i s t i n c t l y colder at night than equivalent elevations in a midslope position because of r e s t r i c t e d a i r movement along the valley f l o o r ( i . e . cold a i r pooling and inversion conditions).  *Climatic information is summarized from a report prepared by Rodney R. C h i l t o n , Climate and Data Services, B r i t i s h Columbia E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t .  23  Being located adjacent to the Rocky Mountain Trench, Templeton River is influenced by both maritime and continental a i r masses.  The area is  dominated by eastwardly moving a i r masses which originate o f f the coast. By the time they reach the trench area, however, they are d i s t i n c t l y d r i e r , having deposited most of t h e i r moisture on the intervening mountain ranges. The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n values f o r the Rocky Mountain Trench are at a minimum j u s t south of Templeton River (at Windermere), and show an increase to the north and south.  To the north, moist a i r enters the trench around  Golden and through the Spillamacheen V a l l e y . the south near the U.S.  border.  There is minor influence from  Templeton River i t s e l f is not only east of  the main Purcell r a i n shadow, but also the Septet Group, making i t even d r i e r than the main Purcell r i v e r systems.  In the winter season the trench  i s occasionally inundated by polar a i r masses which originate in the Yukon and flow south through the Columbia Valley or enter through passes in the Rocky Mountains from A l b e r t a .  Summer temperatures are sometimes affected by  warm a i r moving northward from the i n t e r i o r plateau in Washington.  Within Templeton River valley i t s e l f , the lower elevations near the mouth have a s i m i l a r climate to the Rocky Mountain Trench.  Upstream of  here, however increasing elevation causes an increase in mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and a decrease in mean annual temperature.  The seasonal  pattern of minimum temperatures demonstrates  winter and summer regimes.  distinct  In the winter months the minimum temperatures  are generally coldest in the valley bottom, showing a rapid increase over the next hundred meter increase in e l e v a t i o n , and then remaining  essentially  24  2CH  Fiqure  3.4  Mean M o n t h l y T e m p e r a t u r e  at  Four E l e v a t i o n s  --  Templeton  River  25  constant into the upper elevations.  This results from stable  inversion  conditions, where cold a i r (derived from r a d i a t i o n cooling or incoming arctic air)  i s trapped under warmer a i r above.  With the onset of spring,  the p r o f i l e reverses, and minimum temperatures cool with elevation in response to longer snow duration at the higher elevations.  During the  summer months minimum temperatures are quite variable due to unstable cond i t i o n s ; however, c l e a r summer nights often r e s u l t in radiation cooling and coldest minimums at the v a l l e y bottom (see figure 3.4). Maximum winter temperatures show l i t t l e change with elevation, r e f l e c t i n g stable conditions and increased cloud cover.  In spring and summer, maximum  temperatures decrease with elevation due to snow cover.  Autumn is less con-  s i s t e n t showing a general trend toward the winter inversion conditions. Diurnal fluctuations are at a maximum in the summer, at the lower e l e vations, primarily r e f l e c t i n g increases in maximum temperatures.  Cloud  cover and stable conditions l i m i t the diurnal range in the winter. The seasonal  pattern of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y even, with a s l i g h t  decrease in the spring.  Topographically, the pattern is one of increase with  elevation and distance from the trench.  This is due to a number of f a c t o r s ,  one being a d r i f t of rain beyond the crest of a rain shadow, eastwardly trending downdrafts.  associated with  As the a i r in the trench is naturally quite  dry, e s p e c i a l l y in summer, the rain f a l l i n g from higher elevations may evaporate before reaching the lower elevations (observed during f i e l d work). In a d d i t i o n , most summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n originates from convective storms which are more l i k e l y to form over the ridges.  During the winter, however,  26  most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n results from frontal systems, which generally have lower level clouds, making the winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n maximum at about,1,500 m, with v i r t u a l l y no increase above this elevation (see  figure  3.5). Extreme twenty-four hour r a i n f a l l i n t e n s i t i e s have been estimated on 25 and 50 year recurrances (see table 3.1).  These are most l i k e l y to occur  i n conjunction with summer thunderstorms, and increase in frequency and intensity at the upper e l e v a t i o n s .  At the lower elevations June showed  the greatest frequency of high i n t e n s i t y storms, while they are more l i k e l y to occur l a t e r in the summer at higher elevations.  The values presented are  based on p r e c i p i t a t i o n events occurring when the temperature exceeds 1° C, to avoid snow storms; however, rain-on-snow events are probably the most critical  in terms of runoff production.  Regionally,  the values are minimal,  e s p e c i a l l y compared to the P a c i f i c Coast. The snowpack, and percentage of total p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l ing as snow increases with e l e v a t i o n , due to concommitant increases in p r e c i p i t a t i o n as well as cooler temperatures.  The seasonal pattern of snowpack shows the  lower elevations reach a maximum i n January or February, while at the higher elevations snow continues to accumulate into late March.  LOCATION  Brisco Glacier Templeton River Table 3.1  ELEVATION (m)  MEAN ANNUAL (cm)  The  25 YEAR (cm).  50 YEAR (cm)  840  2.92  5.06  5.59  1,250  4.14  6.43  7.04  4.14  6.43  7.04  915 -  1,980  Predicted 24-hour storm i n t e n s i t i e s for the Templeton River area.  27  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of snow due to d r i f t i n g and avalanching makes the snowpack estimates f o r the upper elevations hypothetical at best f o r any p a r t i c u l a r s i t e (see figure 3.6). . 3.1.5  Vegetation * According to K r a j i n a ' s Biogeoclimatic Zonation (Krajina 1969),  Templeton River is dominated by the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zones (ESSF), with an ESSF-Interior  Douglas F i r t r a n s i t i o n zone which forms a  narrow b e l t on the south aspect and valley mouth.  The Alpine Tundra Zone  occurs in a complex mosaic.with the subalpine parkland of the ESSF at the higher elevations (see figure  3.7).  The major vegetation types found were: subalpine f o r e s t and heath, subalpine Larix Abies Lasiocarpa  (Pinus  - Pinus albicaulis  Picea  f o r e s t , Pseudotsuga  albicaulis)  avalanche tracks and immature Larix  Larix  lyallii,  avalanche tracks, Prunus emarginata  Alnus sinuata  lasiocarpa  alpine grassland, Krumholtz  lyallii  menziesii  forest,  engelrnannii  - Abies  The A l p i n e , Krumholtz and  communities occurred upwards from 2,100 m in e l e v a t i o n .  lyallii  -  - Acer glabrum dry  - Picea  avalanche tracks.  engelrnannii  Alpine  grassland types were r e s t r i c t e d more to areas with southern aspects on Dystrie, Alpine Dystric and Sombric Brunisols, F o l i s o l s and l i t h i c associates. They often formed a mosaic-with Krumholtz communities of Picea Pinus albicaulis  and Abies  lasiocarpa.  engelrnannii,  In two o f the cirque basins c l o s e r  to the trench i n f l u e n c e , wetter alpine meadow types occurred congruently with Abies  lasiocarpa  Sparse Larix  - Picea  lyallii  engelrnannii  forests on Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzols.  stands tended to favour extreme environments, commonly  rooting i n Regosols developed on coarse colluvium, L i t h i c Regosols, or L i t h i c Folisols.  * Prepared i n consultation with R.K. Jones  BIOGEOCLIMATIC SUBZONES  ESSFxJ? (parkland subzone)  ESSFXK (forest subzone) Douglas fir not usually a swat species  ESSFxK(df) (forest subzone) Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature forests. A V A L A N C H E ZONE ( E S S F x D i S C l i m a x ) Vegetation subiect to recurring avalanche activity.  Figure  3.7  Vegetation zonation f o r the Templeton River study area (Jones  1978).  oo  29  The Picea engelmannii  - Abies  f o r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r i t y extensive  lariocarpa  toward the upper reaches of the watershed, enjoyed cooler northern aspects as one moves toward the modifying influence of the trench climate.  They  were primarily associated, wi th Humo-Ferric Podzols; however, the d r i e r areas graded to Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols.  Productivity was at i t s best on  Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzols, where the water table was perched by compacted till.  Pinus albicaulis  3  although occasionally present at Tower elevations,  increased i n i t s frequency at the upper l i m i t s to the subalpine f o r e s t .  This  was e s p e c i a l l y true on d r i e r s i t e s where L i t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols and Dystric Brunisols were associated with Humo-Ferric Podzols.  On predominantly  southern exposures near the valley mouth, and within the Rock Mountain Trench there i s a gradation to climax Pseudotsuga and serai Pinus  contorta  var.  menziesii  glauca  communities occurring on B r u n i s o l i c Gray Luvisols.  Snow avalanche tracks are located i n t e r m i t t e n t l y throughout, from upper cirque basins and rock b l u f f s  to the r i v e r below.  flowing  As expected,  the frequency of snow avalanching and c o l l u v i a l a c t i v i t y play a major role in determining the vegetation cover and s o i l  development - those with  persistant a c t i v i t y supporting shrub communities, while those with only p e r i o d i c disturbance permitting immature subalpine forest-shrub mixes. Forested avalanche tracks were usually well developed Humo-Ferric Podzols, while the shrub communities were associated with Dystric Brunisols or Regosols where c o l l u v i a l a c t i v i t y was p e r s i s t a n t .  Shrub communities consisted of  two major types, although gradation did occur.  Southern aspects at lower  elevations show predominantly dry communities of mainly Prunus Juniperus  Scopulorum  and Acer glabrum.  emarginata  3  Moist, cool conditions found at  higher elevations and northern aspects display dense Alnus  sinuata  types,  often reaching over 2 m in height with a variety of herbaceous understories.  30  3.2  3.2.1  Grassy Creek Study, Area  Location and Physiography The Grassy Creek study area is located i n t h e Selkirk :  Mountains  of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia (117° 23'-30' W; 49° 15'-19' N).  The  topography is dominated by r o l l i n g uplands, r i s i n g to 2,180 m at Grassy «>Y & ^Mountain in the northeastern^ corner of the watershed (see figure  3.8).  The valley has two main branches, both with moderate to gentle slopes, ; and a narrow valley mouth where Grassy Creek enters into Erie Creek at an elevation of 910 m.  The watershed divides are low (1,500-1,700 m) and  rounded, typical of continentally glaciated terrain (see figure  3.9).  The watershed is 8 km long (E-W), has an average width of about 4.5 km (N-S) and has an area of 3,240 ha (see figure 3.10).  3.2.2  Bedrock Geology This study area is dominated by plutonic rocks o f the Nelson batho-  lith.  These include p o r p h y r i t i c and non-porphyritic granites on the northern  ridge, grading to granodiorite on the southern ridge.  The age of these  intrusions i s unclear; however, lower Cretaceous is tentatively given by L i t t l e (1960).  Near the eastern end of the study area the intrusions  are  in contact with mixed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Lower Jurassic Sinemurian Beds and the Rossland Formation. stones, graywackes,  These include a r g i l l i t e s ,  t u f f s and a n d e s i t i c to b a s a l t i c lava flows.  silt-  Increased,  a l t e r a t i o n and minor pockets of mineralization occur at the contacts with the intrusions.  Prospecting was carried out extensively in the area, and  continues even today.  31  it  Figure 3.8  Grassy Creek with Grassy Mountain in the background (looking to the northwest). Note the r o l l i n g topography with cedarhemlock stands i n the foreground and Engelmann sprucesubalpine f i r stands i n the background.  Figure 3.9  The southern portion of Grassy Creek sti area (looking to the southeast). Note the subalpine par kland i n the foreground, logging i n the l e f t v a l l e y bottom, and r o l l i n g ridges i n the distance.  Figure 3.10 .Topographic setting of the Grassy Creek area.  33  3.2.3 Regional Pleistocene history The s u r f i c i a l geology of the Grassy Creek area i s dominated by deposits r e s u l t i n g from the l a s t major Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n (termed the Pinedale in the Rocky Mountains of the United States or the Fraser at Coastal Columbia).  British  During the Pinedale G l a c i a t i o n coalescing ice sheets from the  Coast and Columbia Mountains formed an ice dome over the i n t e r i o r plateau of central B r i t i s h Columbia.  From this accumulation area ice flowed south over  the Grassy Creek area into the Columbia Plateau of Washington state (Fulton 1971, L i t t l e 1960, Prest et , a l . 1967).  The Pinedale Glaciation of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia has not been p r e c i s e l y dated, however a maximum radiocarbon date f o r i t s onset north of Kootenay Lake in the Purcell Trench i s 25,840 + 320 y B.P.  (Fulton 1971).  Upland areas s i m i l a r to Grassy Creek were over-ridden at a l a t e r date, probably closer to 20,000 y B.P.  Regional  deglaciation in the i n t e r i o r is not  well documented, however radiocarbon dates in the v i c i n i t y of Grassy Creek show the ice to have retreated by 10,000 y B.P.  (Fulton 1971).  In areas of moderate r e l i e f such as Grassy Creek, deglaction was accomplished primarily through down wasting.  Uplands and mountainous areas appeared  f i r s t , dissecting the ice sheet into large stagnant blocks in the v a l l e y bottoms.  The stagnant ice severely r e s t r i c t e d the re-establishment of regional  drainage, creating temporary g l a c i a l  lakes and deranged drainage patterns  (Fulton 1967 & 1971, Nasmith 1962).  Most v a l l e y bottoms in the area have  extensive deposits of g l a c i o f l u v i a l and g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e materials terraced by r i v e r systems with successively lower base l e v e l s .  34  3.2.4 Climate * Regional climate information provides, an overall framework of expected temperatures, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , winds, and season patterns, however in mountainous t e r r a i n the v a r i a t i o n due to local conditions can be highly  significant.  For any given p o s i t i o n , l o c a l valley climate varies with aspect, e l e v a t i o n , r e l a t i v e topographic p o s i t i o n , and the influence of adjacent landscape features such as mountain masses (shading a f f e c t ) , g l a c i e r i c e , or water bodies.  The c l i m a t i c information presented for Grassy Creek is based on data obtained from elevational transects in adjacent larger v a l l e y systems ( T r a i l Rossland-Old Glory Mountain).  The lack of instrumentation within the study  area makes i t impossible to accurately describe spatial differences within, the watershed, p a r t i c u l a r l y on contrasting aspects or contrasting graphic positions  (e.g. midslope vs. v a l l e y bottom p o s i t i o n s ) .  topo-  Sites on  southerly aspects are s i g n i f i c a n t l y warmer than s i t e s of equivalent elevation on northerly aspects because of increased inputs of d i r e c t solar r a d i a t i o n . Valley bottom positions  are l i k e l y to be s l i g h t l y warmer during the day and  d i s t i n c t l y colder at night than equivalent elevations in a midslope position because of r e s t r i c t e d a i r movement along the valley f l o o r (i.e. cold a i r pooling and inversion conditions).  The Grassy Creek study area is located in the southern portion of the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t .  Seasonally,  the climate i s dominated by easterly moving  P a c i f i c - c o a s t a l a i r masses, which lose the l a s t major portion of t h e i r  •Climatic information i s summarized from a report prepared by Rodney R. C h i l t o n , Climate and Data Services, B r i t i s h Columbia E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t .  35  moisture in this area p r i o r to crossing the Columbia Mountains.  During  the winter polar a i r moving south through the Kootenay and Columbia v a l l e y systems inundates the area f o r short periods.  During the summer, hot dry  a i r occasionally moves into the area from the Columbia plateau in the United States.  The general patterns of temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n are t y p i c a l f o r mountainous t e r r a i n , with increases in mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n and decreases in mean annual temperature coincident with increasing elevation. Minimum temperatures generally show a decrease with increasing e l e vation; however, an area j u s t above the v a l l e y bottom may be s l i g h t l y warmer than below, as a r e s u l t of cold a i r drainage.  The winter lapse rate for  minimum and maximum temperatures is low, r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i v e l y stable conditions.  During the summer months the lapse rate for maximum temperatures  increases dramatically, r e f l e c t i n g unstable conditions due to snow retention at the upper elevations (see figure 3.11). The diurnal temperature fluctuations are at a maximum during the summer months (at lower e l e v a t i o n s ) , and decrease to a minimum in December.  In the  winter months increased cloud cover both decreases maximums and increases minimums, while sunlight in the summer tends to increase maximums and r a d i a tion cooling on c l e a r nights decreases minimums.  P r e c i p i t a t i o n patterns are generally a r e f l e c t i o n of frontal cloud patterns, which are most active below 1,400 m in elevation.  Precipitation  increases with elevation to that l e v e l , above which i t decreases  slightly.  During the summer months the maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n belt w i l l be s l i g h t l y  36 20.  Fiqure 3.11 Mean Monthly Temperature at Three Elevations — Grassy Creek  37  higher in response to convection storms.  The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i s t r i -  bution i s somewhat seasonal with a maximum during the e a r l y winter (OctoberJanuary), and a minimum in late summer (July-September). These temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n patterns r e s u l t in rapidly increasing snowpack with e l e v a t i o n .  At the lower elevation the winter maximum i s reached  i n January, while a t the higher elevation i t continues to c o l l e c t into A p r i l (see figures 3.12 and 3.13). Expected twenty-four hour r a i n f a l l i n t e n s i t i e s are moderate f o r this area (see table 3.2).  The most intense storms are most l i k e l y to occur at  the mid-elevations due to a longer rainy season than the upper elevations, and a higher r a i n f a l l i n general than the lower elevations.  It should be  noted, however, that rain-on-snow events are probably the most c r i t i c a l  in  terms of runoff production.  LOCATION  ELEVATION (m)  Trai 1  25 YEAR (cm)  50 YEAR (cm)  604  2.95  5.23  5.84  Ross land  1,007  3.71  6.66  7.42  Old Glory  2,350  2.92  4.98  5.49  3.71  6.66  7.42  Grassy Ck. Table 3.2  3.2.5  MEAN ANNUAL (cm)  760 -  1,370  Predicted 24-hour storm i n t e n s i t i e s f o r the Grassy Creek area.  Vegetation Grassy Creek contains two Biogeoclimatic zones:  the I n t e r i o r Western  Hemlock Zone (dry subzone) and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r Zone (see figure 3.14 and Krajina 1969).  Due to the extensive f i r e history in this  IWHa (dry subzone) ESSFx< (forest subzone) ESSFxp (parkland subzone) pft^^ D ° O °  ESSFx-Disclimax (grassland disclimax) ESSFx<-IWHa (transition zone) ESSFx-Disclimax $ ESSFxp complex  Fiqure 3.14 Vegetation zonation f o r the Grassy Creek study area (Jones  1978).  39  region, there i s a complex mosaic of plant communities ranging from early serai shrub communities to old-growth stands dating back numerous centuries. Nine major climax and serai vegetative types were recognized in the Grassy Creek watershed:  subalpine disclimax grassland, subalpine ESSF park-  land, subalpine forests o f Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa, stands of Thuja plicata  and Tsuga heterophylla;  mannii - Abies lasiocarpa,  old-growth  serai forests of Picea engel-  serai forests of Larix occidentalis  - Pinus monticola -  Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca - Abies grandis, Populus tremuloides - Larix occidentalis  -Pinus  contorta;  and shrub dominant communities o f Alnus sinuata  and Acer glabrum - Ceonothus velutinus. Subalpine grasslands were associated with Orthic and Alpine Dystric Brunisols  (often L i t h i c ) , and were limi ted to southern aspects ranging from  1,500 m to over 2,000 m i n e l e v a t i o n .  The grasslands occur over large areas,  with small patches of subalpine forest inhabiting the minor depressional receiving areas. Podzols.  The s o i l s in the depressional areas are Mini Humo-Ferric  Areas o f Krumholtz f o r e s t occur sporadically along ridge tops and  are characterized by a procumbent cover of Abies lasiocarpa, and Pinus  Picea engelmannii  albicaulis.  Subalpine forests of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii occur at the upper elevations o f the watershed.  The plant communities within these forests  varied primarily as a function of t h e i r slope position and moisture regime. P a r a l l e l catenary sequences i n the s o i l went from Humo-Ferric Podzols i n the shedding positions  to Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzols through Gleyed Ferro-Humic  Podzols in the receiving s i t e s . Tsuga heterophylla  The few remaining mature Thuja plicata  -  stands occurred in the lower elevations of the watershed  and attained t h e i r greatest productivity in the seepage zones and receiving areas.  -  40  Moist cool slopes immediately below the subalpine forest are characterized by Podzols, and a serai f o r e s t canopy of Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelrnannii and Pinus monticola and a succeeding understory of Thuja plicata heterophylla.  Mesic s i t e s with Humo-Ferric Podzols, support a mixed serai  forest of predominantly Pseudotsuga menziesii dentalis.  and Tsuga  var. glauca, and Larix occi-  Xeric s i t e s are characterized by Dystric Brunisols and a mixed open  serai forest of Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca  3  occidentalis,  Pinus contorta,  and occasional Abies grandis.  Larix  A r i d south-facing  slopes near the valley entrance have been repeatedly burned and support serai shrub communities o f Coeno-thus velutinus sols and L i t h i c Sombric  Brunisols.  and Acer glabrum with Dystric B r u n i -  41  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR TEMPLETON RIVER STUDY AREA 4.1  T e r r a i n * features The t e r r a i n features of the study area were c l a s s i f i e d and mapped  according to the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System developed by the Resource Analysis Branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of the Environment (ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t 1976). 1  As discussed in Chapter 1, the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  System separates the landscape into d i s c r e e t units primarily on the basis of their dominant genetic process, and secondly on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of texture, surface expression, slope, and modifying processes.  The results  of the t e r r a i n analysis of the area are p r i m a r i l y presented in map form on an enlarged a e r i a l photograph (see figure 4.1), however, the s t r a t i g r a p h i c relations and other terrain features are discussed in the following sections. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the terrain features are summarized in figure 4.2; s t r a t i g r a p h i c relationships are demonstrated on the cross-sections  given  in figures 4.9, 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15; textural properties are shown in figure 4.3; bulk density and engineering properties are given in table 4.1. The t e r r a i n features of the Templeton River study area primarily r e s u l t from g l a c i a l a c t i v i t y during the Pleistocene, and subsequent c o l l u v i a l and f l u v i a l processes continuing at present.  Throughout the major Pleistocene  advances the Templeton Valley ice originated from the cirque basin now occupied by Templeton Lake ( l i p elevation 1,935 m).  The i c e would then have  flowed east, coalesced with the Bugaboo and Rocky Mountain Trench ice and abruptly turned south.  This flow pattern is demonstrated by the southerly  * The term " t e r r a i n " as used here is e s s e n t i a l l y synonomous with s u r f i c i a l geology, except that in addition to unconsolidated materials, i t also includes some bedrock, organic, i c e , and anthropogenic features.  F i q u r e 4.2 Generalized Terrain Map of Templeton River.  Figure 4.3  Grain Size Distribution Curves for Material Finer than 76 millimetres — Templeton River  44  turning configuration in the mouth of the Templeton Valley (see figures and 3.3).  The presence of transverse ridges,  3.2  truncated spurs, and g l a c i a l  e r r a t i c s within the valley demonstrate that trench i c e covered the eastern end of the northerly ridge at the mouth to an elevation of at least 2,130 m.(see figure 4.4).  This is s l i g h t l y  less than the minimum ice surface elevation  of 2,260 m given by Clague (1975) for the eastern side of the trench at 48° 30' N. The spacial  d i s t r i b u t i o n , topographic expression, s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n -  ships, and textural v a r i a b i l i t y observed for the morainal materials would indicate a sequence of successively reduced g l a c i a l  advances.  These would  l i k e l y correlate with the various Pinedale stades recorded in the Cranbrook area by Clague  (1975).  The earl T e s t advance deposited compact morainal materials to an elevation of at least 2,200 m midway up the valley.  This is the s t r a t i graphically  lowest deposit with a gravelly s i l t loam to s i l t y clay loam texture and l i g h t gray color (2.5y 7/2 dry).  It is exposed along the valley bottom, and in  morainal terraces at midslope on the valley walls (see gcMb in figures 4.2 and 3.1).  This morainal material has well rounded coarse fragments  4.1, and  the highest content of s i l t and clay of the morainal materials present (see figure 4.3 and table 4.1). S t r a t i graphically overlying the compact morainal material is a non-compact morainal material which is very gravelly sandy loam to very gravelly sand i n texture and pale yellow in color (5y 7/3 dry).  loamy  This highly permeable  material occurs primarily at mid to lower elevations below the terraces of the e a r l i e r morainal material (see gMb in figures 4.1 and 4.2).  The subangular  nature of the coarse fragments and reduced fine f r a c t i o n (see table 4.1 and figure 4.3)  characterize an ablation moraine derived from reworked, c o l l u v i a l  45  Figure 4.4  Northerly ridge which was covered by i c e flowing south i n the Rocky Mountain Trench. Note the rounded c r e s t and transverse ridges which grade to a truncated spur above; also sedimentary bedding and c o l l u v i a l slopes on the l e f t .  TERRAIN TYPE  Ft gsF t G  Lv gsMb(calc.)  Table 4.1  UNIFIED CLASSIFICATION (U.S.A.C.E. 1953)  SOIL TEXTURE  BULK DENSITY (gm/cm3)  GW-GM  vgs-gsl  1.83  SW-SM  vgs-vgsl  1.91  sil-sicl  1.42  vgls-vgsl  1.74  vgl-gscl  1.59  ML GP-GM  gcMb  SM  g*Mb  SC-SM  vgsl-gl  1.58  gMb  GW-GM  vgls-vgsl  2.01  Cb  GP-GM  cos-vgsil  2.04  Physical properties of s e l e c t e d s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s i n the Templeton River study area.  46 materials.  .  It may not represent a complete readvance, but a temporary stag-  nation, and renewed g l a c i a l  a c t i v i t y cutting the morainal terraces ( e s s e n t i a l l y  trim l i n e s at 1,800 - 2,100 m). The t h i r d major morainal material i s gravelly loam to s i l t and l i g h t brownish gray in color (10YR 6/2 dry).  It  loam in texture  is r e s t r i c t e d to the valley  bottom west of a terminal moraine (see g$Mb in figures 4.1 and 4.2), and l o c a l l y o v e r l i e s water-worked sands.  This represents the l a s t of the Pleistocene  advances and may not have reached the Rocky Mountain trench.  This m a t e r i a l ' i s  compact in places, however, near the terminal moraine i t intergrades with g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials.  In the presently active cirques there are also more  recent morainal materials i n d i c a t i n g post Pleistocene g l a c i a l  advances.  These were r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d in extent, and the morainal materials  essentially  have the textural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o l l u v i a l materials, with surface expression i n d i c a t i n g ice transport. active g l a c i a l  Only one cirque is presently occupied with  i c e , however, there are a number of active rock glaciers which  are continuously supplying sediment to Templeton River. At the eastern extreme of the study area are examples of typical Rocky Mountain trench morainal materials (see gsMb (calc) 4.1).  in figure 4.2 and table  These are highly compacted and cemented calcareous materials,  varying  in texture from very gravelly sandy loams to loamy sand (color 2.5y 6/2 dry, l i g h t brownish gray).  Surface expressions include morainal ridges  (drumlins),  morainal blanket, and morainal terraces cut by f l u v i a l action during deglaciation. During the deglaciation of the Templeton Study area, streams confined between the mountain slope and the trench ice in combination with streams fed by ice melting in the Templeton Valley i t s e l f deposited g l a c i o f l u v i a l sands, gravels, and minor s i l t y g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e at the v a l l e y mouth (see  .  47  Figure 4.5  Figure 4.6  The mouth of Templeton River v a l l e y , with g l a c i o f l u v i a l terraces and meltwater channels in the foreground. Note the lodgepole pine - Douglas f i r stands in the foreground and Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r stands in the background.  Distorted bedding and "cut and f i l l " features in poorly sorted g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials.  48 gsF^t in figure 4.2 and table 4.1).  As base levels changed and sediment  loads decreased, the streams downcut through the g l a c i o f l u v i a l  materials,  sometimes into morainal materials, leaving terraces and abandoned meltwater channels (see figure 4.5).  Some of these deposits collapsed as the supporting  ice melted, r e s u l t i n g in kettles and d i s t o r t e d bedding with i n t r i c a t e cut and fill  structures (see figure  4.6).  The c o l l u v i a l t e r r a i n features in the study area are the dominant ones at present.  C o l l u v i a l aprons and fans are a c t i v e l y forming throughout the  v a l l e y , often in conjunction with snow avalanching (see figure 3.1 and 4.1). The texture and composition of the colluviurns are dependent on t h e i r bedrock source, however, in general they are rubbly at the base of the fans and grade to f i n e r textures near the apex.  The s k e l e t a l nature of the deposits has  allowed f o r l o c a l i z e d inwashing of eolian and slope wash materials (see figure 4.2 and table 4.1). s l a t e , and dolomite.  Compositions vary from dominantly a r g i l l i t e  to q u a r t z i t e ,  C o l l u v i a l materials often o v e r l i e morainal features, and  the morainal terrace features themselves are undergoing continual mass wasting. Fluvial  features are of minimal extent in the Templeton Study area, r e s t -  r i c t e d to minor floodplain deposits and a single fan. dominantly very gravelly sands ranging table  The materials are  to bouldery s i l t s  (see figure 4.2 and  4.1). The majority of the terrain features have a capping of eolian materials.  These materials vary in thickness depending on the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n due to c o l l u v i a l and f l u v i a l processes.  They are predominantly s i l t to s i l t loam in  texture and include volcanic ash (probably Mazama, 6600y B.P.,  according to  d i s t r i b u t i o n maps prepared by Sneddon, 1973). 4.2  Soil  features  The s o i l s which have been i d e n t i f i e d and mapped within the Templeton River study area are summarized with selected properties and interpretations  49 in table 4.5.  The mapping results are presented in figures 4.7 and 4.8.  The  relationships between the s o i l s and the environmental features of topography, t e r r a i n , and vegetation are demonstrated i n the cross-section figures 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15 (see figure 4.9 for legend). The following section w i l l  discuss the s o i l s and how p a r t i c u l a r s o i l  properties are related to the various s o i l - f o r m i n g environments.  This section  is organized into subsections, each of which discuss the s o i l s of four contrasting environments within the study area (see figure 3.3 and table 4.5). Physical properties of the s o i l parent materials were discussed in the previous s e c t i o n .  Soil  interpretations are discussed in Chapter 6.  The variation of s o i l properties within the Templeton River study area is primarily a r e s u l t of contrasting parent materials and c l i m a t i c regimes throughout the study area.  The parent materials  textured lacusterine materials morainal materials.  range from calcareous fine  to moderately a c i d i c s k e l e t a l c o l l u v i a l and  The Rocky Mountain Trench area at the eastern end of the  study area has a r e l a t i v e l y dry continentally influenced cliimate, while the western edge of the study area is dominated by a cool and r e l a t i v e l y moist subalpine climate. south aspect  Within the valley i t s e l f ,  the lower elevations of the  are an extension of the warmer conditions of the trench, while  the north aspect i s more s i m i l a r to the cooler and moister conditions at the higher elevations. Variation in s p e c i f i c s o i l properties closely r e f l e c t these two factors of the s o i l forming environment.  Soil structure is very weakly developed  in the gravelly morainal, c o l l u v i a l , and f l u v i a l materials and moderate to strong in the f i n e r textured morainal and lacusterine materials.  The Bt horizons  are poorly developed in the gravelly morainal materials, with only moderate structure and thin clay films on a gravelly s k e l e t a l matrix.  The calcareous  Figure 4.9 Legend and transect locations for crossESSFXK!  ESSFxK-IWHa -)•  BIOGEOCUMATIC SUBZONE  MAP UNIT SYMBOL FOR VEGETATION TYPE  •"-REPRESENTATIVE VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION •  SURFICIAL MATERIALS  AND BEDROCK  TERRAIN UNIT SOIL CLASSIFICATION SOIL DRAINAGE SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION HORIZON p H I N WATER HORIZON TEXTURE HORIZON BOUNDARY SOIL DEPTH (IN 20 cm INCREMENTS) HORIZON DESIGNATION  1 see Appendix 3 for vegetation types, V E G E T A T I O N STRUCTURE A N D COMPOSITION  2% ABIES LASIOCARPA  LARIX LYALII  LARIX OCCIDENTALS  PICEA ENGELMANNII  POPULUS TREMULOIOES  section figures 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15.  51 lacusterine and morainal materials in the trench area have well developed Bt horizons with moderate to strong s o i l structure and abundant clay films. Organic matter content is very low in the s o i l s in the dryer areas and increases to a maximum in the poorly drained areas at the upper elevations. Organic accumulations on the surface and within the mineral s o i l are consistently higher f o r s o i l s on the north aspect than for s o i l s at corresponding elevations on the south aspect.  The humus forms within the study area are  dominantly imperfect mors or fibrimors which grade to raw moder on the poorly drained s i t e s  ( a f t e r Bernier 1968).  The s o i l s surface horizons are moderately to strongly a c i d throughout the study area, however, in the trench area and at the lower elevations on the south aspect the lower s o i l horizons are neutral to moderately a l k a l i n e . Cation exchange capacities  (CEC) are highly variable, depending on s o i l  texture and organic matter content.  Coarse textured g l a c i o f l u v i a l  are extremely low (less than 2 meq/100 gm), while s i l t y f l u v i a l  materials  materials  with high organic matter contents are moderately high (greater than 80 meq/ 100 gm).  Base saturation  ranges from excessive (greater than 100%) in the  calcareous materials to extremely low (less than 5%) in the acid s o i l s at the upper elevations.  The exchangeable cations are dominantly calcium, followed  by lesser amounts of magnesium or potassium (usually more magnesium than potassium) and sodium.  Nitrogen content is generally correlated with organic  matter content, and is highest on the cool moist s i t e s .  The C/N r a t i o s  for  the f o r e s t floors are moderately high, generally between 30 and 40, except on s i t e s with dense herbaceous vegetation where they are between 20 and 25. Within the s o i l p r o f i l e , C/N ratios generally decrease to 20-30.  Available  phosphorus values within the mineral s o i l were consistently low throughout the study area, probably due to f i x a t i o n by calcium i n the a l k a l i n e s o i l s or iron and aluminum in the a c i d i c poorly drained s o i l s .  However, total  52 phosphorus values f o r the forest floors were moderate.  Extractable iron  and aluminum values of the eolian surface horizons were moderately high on the north aspect and at the upper elevations, however, they are lower in the trench area and in other parent materials, (high values of extractable iron and e s p e c i a l l y aluminum are generally associated with the presence of volcanic ash). 4.2.1  Rocky Mountain Trench The eastern end of the study area is locateld in the Rocky Mountain  Trench in contrast to the remainder which i s in the P u r c e l l Mountains.  The  s o i l s here r e f l e c t calcareous parent materials occurring in a d r i e r more continental climate.  Within this part of the study area the Engelmann Spruce  Subalpine F i r Zone is giving way to the lower elevation I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone.  The f o r e s t stands of Engelmann spruce, Douglas f i r , lodgepole pine  and aspen r e f l e c t a complex mos ai c of terrain features and f i r e history.  The  major s o i l s occurring in this area are presented schematically on cross-section C1-C2 (see figure  4.10).  Fluvial - Coarse gravelly floodplain deposits along Templeton River show l i m i t e d s o i l development, and.are c l a s s i f i e d as Gleyed Orthic Regosols.  These  s o i l s are poorly drained and have a s u f f i c i e n t moisture supply for e x c e l l e n t tree growth.  However, the high water table creates windthrow and road cons-  truction problems.  The smaller t r i b u t a r i e s to Templeton River generally have  more s t a b l e , f i n e r textured f l u v i a l deposits, with poorly drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. G l a c i o f l u v i a l - Kame deposits and g l a c i o f l u v i a l  terraces in the trench area  are well to rapidly drained, coarse textured, and less calcareous than the associated morainal materials (see figure 4.6).  The s o i l s present on these  materials are p r i m a r i l y Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols with associated Brunisols.  Dystric  Where lenses of lacustrine or morainal materials with increased  ESSFXK(Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature stands)  FEMPEITON RIVER  -f I ?P ' " ' '  BRGL-MW LFH  Ae 51 Bm  5.2 5~4  GLOR-P LlBf  J.5 GL  VGL  Bm GSiL  LF  HBt VGLS  Bm! GSiL HBtj VGLS  7.1  •40  IBm2 VGSiL  nc_ VGLS  LF  S:9  Ae  6.1  •40  7.0  S~9  IIBm- .VGLS  5.8  8.3  VGLS  A^  5.9  LF  F  Bm SiL  5.9  HBmi VGSL  mc C VGLS  (dolomite)  4.7  SDH ID  Bf GSiL Bm VGSL  R  TEMPLETON RIVER  LF  6.6  60  IIBC VGLS  4  5.2  (argillite) 5.4  !L  5.4  6.3  •40  nek  4.3  6.1  20  nBt GL  L ,  nBt  6.3  |VGSL, 5.6  Ae Bm SjL.  5.8  nBtr •SiL  . 5.3  DBt2 40  HBk  nc  VGLS  VGSL T  7.3  l  mate SiCL  6.7  E C g GSL  T7  L F  4.7  Ah VGLS  6.4  Cg VGLS  6.7  •SOUTH ASPECT  5.3  Figure 4.10 Cross-section C ~ C (see f i g . 4.9 f o r location and legend). 1  2  54  clay content are encountered within the control s e c t i o n , the s o i l s can develop Bt horizons, and become Bisequa Gray Luvisols.  The B r u n i s o l i c  Bm and Podzolic Bf horizons are moderately to very strongly a c i d , and develop mainly from the s i l t y surface cappings which occur on the terrace tops.  Their cation exchange capacities (CEC) are s u f f i c i e n t that with  only moderate base saturation, they contain more available nutrients than the underlying horizons (see table 4.2).  Because of t h e i r fine texture,  the surface horizons are also the primary source of available water storage capacity for these s o i l s .  The g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials are a good source  of gravel, but have only a moderate c a p a b i l i t y f o r forest growth. Glaciolacustrine - Occurring in depressions within the ridged morainal and channelled g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials are abandoned lake basins.  The  increased clay content and imperfect to poor drainage of these areas r e s u l t i n Gleyed B r u n i s o l i c Gray Luvisols at lower elevations and Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols at higher elevations.  These s o i l s have a larger total  nutrient capital and increased CEC compared to the associated s o i l s , and the nutrients are more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the s o i l p r o f i l e (see table 4.2).  The surface horizons are strongly acid with moderate base  s a t u r a t i o n , while the lower horizons are neutral with over 100% base saturation.  The f i n e r texture and improved moisture holding capacity make  these s o i l s good forest growing s i t e s , but quite poor road location areas. Morainal - The s o i l s occurring on the calcareous ridged and terraced morainal materials are B r u n i s o l i c Gray L u v i s o l s , with the B r u n i s o l i c Bm horizon developed from a s i l t y eolian capping.  The surfaces of these s o i l s are  moderately acid with good cation exchange c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, the lower horizons are moderately a l k a l i n e , with calcium and magnesium dominating a greatly reduced number of exchange s i t e s .  Over 50% of the available  Terrain & Soi 1  FS  t  ODYB #127  •  Depth  Horizons  Texture  cm 3- 0 0- 25 25- 50 50- 75 75- 100  5 ° 3gm/cm J  Bm II II II  LF IIBm Bm Bm Bm C  gis vgsl vgsl gs-  0.12 1.5 1.9 1.9 1.5  FF -  pH  %  60 • 30 30 60  5.1 5.9 5.6 5.6 6.6  CEC meq/lOOgm  BS %  C '.  ...  Wt GLBRGL #1  LF AeBmUBt IIIBt IIIBtg IIIBtg I H C g IV eg  si 1 sicl gsl gsi  0.10 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.6  100 80 60 50 •  4.3 5.4 6.3 6.7 6.7  9.6 9.2 8.2 6.2  Totals  Ev Mr BRGL #2  45.9 44 0.79 192 0.39 16.4 0. 32 105 • , 0.22  .  LF Bm I I B t IIBt IIBk IIBk IIC IIC  gsil vgsl vgls vgsl  0.10 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.8  60 30 20 20  5.2 5.9 •6.3 7.6 8.1  10.6 7.6 6.8 4.3  P  Ca  51 •80 264 462  42.7 '0.97 0.52 0.45 0.47  Totals  Mq  Na  K  28 :• 30 3 3 4.  21 1225 454 454 1682  9 216 130 130 • 314  1 13 . 3 3 5  3 123 11 11 9  68  3836  799  25,  157  !; 37 .•' 52 , 36 16 v 140 • 68 13 ' 90 7 16 . ••. 47 4 .22 20; .3  22 2035 2866 2223 1756  6 293 4276 2076 J 494  1 10 9 7 5  4 254 287 173 94  7145  32  812  1 4 3 2 4  5 229 44 20 0  14  298  349 • • 118 ' 8902  .  4- 0 0- 25 25- 50 50- 75 75- 100  44 40 14 14 • 112  •  5- 0 0- 25 25- 50 50- 75 75- 100  N  kg/ha  '32 • 38.7 38 V 0.63 32 107 0.28 28 . 107 . 0.28 28 . 231 .... 0.14  • 9.6 2.2 ... .. 2.2 1.9  Totals  Ev Lv  C/N  %  '40 '.43 . 32 58 26 22 22 ' 17 16 27  37 25 3 1 <1  55 1520 1134 2514 4442  6 280 124 542 1395  167  66  9665  2347 •  Texture r e f e r s to the dominant h o r i z o n ; bulk d e n s i t i e s f o r the LFH's were c a l c u l a t e d using e s t i m a t e d values (L 0.06 gm/cm3, F 0.15 qm/cm3, H 0.18 gm/cmJ); bulk d e n s i t i e s f o r the mineral s o i l s were e x t r a p o l a t e d from measured v a l u e s (see t a b l e s 4.1 and 5 . 1 ) ; pH f o r the LFH's a r e 1:4 water and 1:1 water f o r the mineral s o i l s ; N i s t o t a l K j e l d a h l ; P, Ca, Mg, Na and K a r e t o t a l values f o r the L F H ' s ; P i s e x t r a c t a b l e i n the mineral s o i l s ; Ca, Mg, Na and K a r e exchangeable i n the mineral s o i l s .  Table 4.2 Nutritional properties, of selected s o i l s from the Rocky Mountain Trench within the Templeton River study area. cn tn  56  nitrogen and 90% of the phosphorus in these s o i l s is located in the LF and upper 25 cm of the mineral s o i l .  The loss of surface horizons through  erosion or scalping would reduce the productivity of these s o i l s by depleting them of available n u t r i t i o n and allowing the Bt horizon to form calcareous clay clods on the surface. 4.2.2  Southern Aspect Within the Templeton River valley i t s e l f there is a d i s t i n c t  increase in t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n over the Rocky Mountain Trench area, however, because of increased s o l a r i n s o l a t i o n the southern aspect remains within the d r i e r Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r (Douglas f i r ) subzone.  The  area is presently covered by mixed stands of Douglas f i r , lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, with subalpine f i r and whitebark pine at the higher elevations.  The parent materials are mixed calcareous and non-calcareous  near the trench grading to non-calcareous near the upper v a l l e y . of s o i l s present in the area are shown on cross-sections Ci-C2  Examples  Ai-A2, B-|-B2 and  (see figures 4.9, 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15).  Fluvial - The f l o o d p l a i n deposits within the valley include gravelly mater i a l s with Regosolic development as described for the trench area, as well as bouldery lag deposits which have been i n f i l l e d with s i l t and fine sands. These s o i l s have large accumulations o f organic matter within the s o i l p r o f i l e and on the surface (10-50 cm) r e s u l t i n g from poor drainage and low s o i l Podzols.  temperatures.  They are c l a s s i f i e d as Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic  Because of t h e i r high organic matter content, these s o i l s have  a high nutrient c a p i t a l and a moderately acid p r o f i l e (see table 4.3). These s o i l s have a good forest c a p a b i l i t y but are very poor road locations because of t h e i r fine texture, poor drainage and proximity to Templeton River.  57  G l a c i o f l u v i a l - The coarse textured g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials found in this area are a d i r e c t extension of those described in the trench area (see table 4.2).  However, on steep southerly aspects, where these materials  are sparsely vegetated and undergoing s o i l rapidly drained Orthic Dystric Brunisols  creep, they are predominantly  and calcareous at depth (see  figure 4.10). Glaciolacustrine - The s o i l s developed on lacustrine materials are Brunis o l i c Gray Luvisols with properties s i m i l a r to the lacustrine s o i l s in the trench area (see table 4.2).  These s o i l s are well to moderately well  drained and associated with terraced g l a c i o f l u v i a l and s i l t y morainal materials. Morainal - In the valley bottom, upstream from the terminal moraines, there are moderately fine textured ( g s i l materials (g$Mb).  to vgsl) non-calcareous morainal  The s o i l s which develop on these materials are well  drained Dystric Brunisols near the v a l l e y mouth and moderately well drained Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols at higher elevations.  These s o i l s are compact  at depth and have good water retention c a p a b i l i t i e s .  They have a moderate  CEC which decreases with depth, high base saturation, and s l i g h t l y to mildly alkaline reactions (see table 4.3).  acid  Forest capability is moderate  to good, however, the s o i l s have a moderately high s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to surface erosion, even on gentle slopes. morainal material (gMb) variable thickness.  The v a l l e y slope is dominantly gravelly  capped with c o l l u v i a l and eolian materials of  At lower elevations near the valley mouth the s o i l s  which develop are well drained Bisequa Gray Luvisols, with poorly developed Bt horizons in the gravelly morainal materials (see figure 4.11).  At the  higher elevations where temperatures are cooler and p r e c i p i t a t i o n increases, the Luvisols grade to Orthic and Degraded Dystric Brunisols, Mini HumoF e r r i c Podzols, and Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols.  An important feature of  Terrain Soil  Depth cm  Horizons  ECv Mb  3-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LF Bfh Bf IIBt IIB+C IIB+C IIB+C IIC  BIGL #9  Texture gm/crrr  gsil vgsl vgsl vgl's  0.09 1.1 2.0 2.0 2.0  FF  pH  50 17 17 17  4.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8  CEC r,ieq/100gm  20.5 4.9 6.4 5.4  BS  22 62 57 61  C/N  44.4 1.63 0.22 0.22 0.18  Ca  44 23 11 22 18  Totals Fv Mb GLMFHP #29  8-0' 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LFH Bhf Bfh Bfh IIBfg II Bfg  col cosil vgsil vgsil  0.16 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7  30 30 40 40  5.1 5.4 6.1 6.5 6.6  82.9 48.3 . 25.1 19.3.  36 43 51 56  32.8 13.6 5.66 2.21 1.35  22 .17 15 22 45  Cb 0MB #20  7-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LF Ah Bm Bm Bm Bm Btj  cosil cosil cosil cos  0.09 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0  10 10 10 10  .5.7 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.3  44.5 35.4 25.7 19.2  119 74 79 85  35.6 5.18 4.80 3.22 1.30  3  Table 4 . 3 N u t r i t i o n a l  properties  of  9  ' "*  selected s o i l s  aspects w i t h i n . t h e Templeton River.study  "»  t  0  a  1  area.  2 , 114 , '112 • • .133 120  '<1 6 3 4 3  2 163 21 23 21  146  54  1974 •  481 •'.  ,16  230  125 5214 3751 3270 2787 .  43  n 06  707 634 543' •;•  2 17 ' 14 12 8  14 56 38 53 53  15147  3033  . 53  214  98 155 255 125 25  58 12 7 6 3  116 2505 1952 1525 744  28 1693 392 299 142  2 1 1 1 1  10 16 47 31 14  658  86  6842  2554  6  118  V a 1 U 6 S  from the  11 894, 326 390 353  190  23 17 9• 13 26  t  23 25 2 2 . 2  1844  Totals  theminera! soils; Ca, Mg, Na andTare I S h l n ^ b ' e T t t ^ n ^ i l soil. ; "  Na  27 92 14 8 5  195 169 972 7 456 8 170 4 51 . 2  Totals  Mg kg/ha  f  °  rt  h  e LFH  southern  ' > S  P  i  s  extractable in  59  60  these s o i l s is the d i s t i n c t contrast between the properties of the gravelly s i l t y e o l i a n - c o l l u v i a l surface capping and the underlying gravelly morainal materials.  Because of t h e i r f i n e r texture ( g s i l  vs.  v g l s ) , the inclusion of volcanic ash, and increased organic matter content, the surface cappings have a much higher CEC and nutrient capital than the underlying materials  (see table 4.3).  The surface materials  have better water retention c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and contain most of the rooting. Successful management of these areas for f o r e s t production depends on maintaining the surface s o i l i n t a c t .  Because of t h e i r coarse texture and  well drained nature, these s o i l s have moderate to low forest c a p a b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i v e l y good engineering properties. At the mid-slope positions  in the upper v a l l e y , f i n e r textured morainal  materials (gcMt) occur as terraces (see f i g u r e 3.1).  The compactness of  the C horizons and the receiving positions o f the terrace tops r e s u l t in imperfectly drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. inicroclimate on these s i t e s  The cool moist  increases leaching and organic matter accu-  mulation, causing low base saturation and strongly  acid s o i l  profiles.  The f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y is l i m i t e d due to a short growing season. Colluviaii - Where bedrock outcrops break the continuity of morainal there are associated c o l l u v i a l materials of variable thickness.  deposits  On the  ridge near the valley mouth the colluviums are predominantly veneers, r e s u l t i n g in rapidly drained l i t h i c s o i l s which closely r e f l e c t local bedrock types.  Dolomitic areas have L i t h i c and Orthic E u t r i c Brunisols with  neutral to mildly alkaline reactions (see f i g u r e 4.12), while the noncalcareous fine grained sedimentaries have L i t h i c and Orthic Dystric Brunisols with strongly acid reactions.  These areas have limited forest  c a p a b i l i t i e s because they are droughty with r e s t r i c t e d rooting medium. Where rock types are well consolidated, road costs can be substantially  61  Figure 4.12  Orthic Eutric Brunisol (OEB) developed from a c o l l u v i a l veneer over dolomitic bedrock.  62  increased. Below the rock faces midway up the valley are extensive c o l l u v i a l aprons and c o l l u v i a l blankets over morainal materials. coarse textured and dominantly rapidly drained.  The colluvium is  In the d r i e r easterly  areas on stable s i t e s where open forest stands occur the s o i l s are Orthic Dystric Brunisols on non-calcareous materials and Orthic E u t r i c Brunisols or Orthic Melanic Brunisols on calcareous materials. tions these grade to Degraded Dystric Brunisols Podzols.  At the upper e l e v a -  and Orthic Humo-Ferric  In areas with concentrated runoff from rocky areas above or  where underlying bedrock perches the water table, well to moderately well drained Orthic Humic or Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols can form (see figure 4.13).  The forested c o l l u v i a l s o i l s have a very l i m i t e d fine f r a c t i o n and  therefore, a generally poor nutrient c a p i t a l and very poor water retention properties (see table 4.3). are undergoing s o i l  These areas have a low forest c a p a b i l i t y and  creep on the steeper slopes (see figure 6.1)  The  s  materials are generally too coarse textured for road surfacing and prone to r a v e l l i n g in cutbanks. In the d r i e r easterly areas where snow avalanching prohibits  forest  establishment, s o i l development is l i m i t e d to rapidly drained Orthic Regosols.  With increasing elevation the snow avalanche areas grade from  open shrub and grassland communities, to krumholtz and alpine heather communities r e f l e c t i n g  a cooler and moister climate.  characterized by Orthic Dystric Brunisols In the highest elevations L i t h i c Brunisols crops and L i t h i c F o l i s o l s . f o r e s t growth.  These areas are  and Alpine Dystric  Brunisols.  are associated with rock out-  These avalanche s o i l s have no value for  Figure 4.13  Complex s o i l forming environment on a southern aspect in the Templeton River study area. Rock and c o l l u v i a l veneers near the ridge crest grade to c o l l u v i a l aprons and c o l l u v i a l veneers below, and f i n a l l y become c o l l u v i a l blankets and veneers over morainal materials at the botton. Vegetation types range from closed forests to open avalanche tracks dominated by shrubs and herbs.  Rock, Snow & Glaciers'  ESSFirJ!  ESSFnt (Douglas fir not usually a serai species)  Mt GLOFHP-I LFH Ae Bhf UBC V G S T ? O nCgJyGsT" 4.51  DGDYB-R  nBmlVGSL 5.1 40  OClvGLS 5.7|  OHFP-W LF Ahe DBm VGSL 4.6 IUBfhb- TffiSn3T4 QZBCb VGSL 5.1 iyGSLT3  IZX9|  Ae ICoSiL 4.1 •20  Bhf SSEHzj UBfg GL  nc  ESSFxK(df)'  BIHFP-MW L F Aei GSiL 4.1 Bf GSiL_j5.0 Ae2 VGLS 5.3  4.9  'GL" "4~4!  Mb DGDYB-W Ae VGLS 4.1 IIBmi. VGS 4.7  L F Z Z I 5 Bm GL  Bt VGL 5.3  Figure 4.14 Cross-section Bj-L^  TEMPLETON RIVER  •100  40  OR-R  LF B-.7 Ah CoSiL 7.0  4.8  nZBrri2 VGSL 5.0 SBrri3 GSL__5.3 Bm ' GS 4  c _ c  7.4  OMB-R  6.3  c  7.5  :S2. VGSiL 7.9  Bm CoSiL 7.2  I  4,4  20.:  ,  Bhf VGLS 5.6| CjvGS"  •40  BC a  OHP-MW VGLS 5.2|  •20  TUBtj .V a  •40  AB VGSL 5.4  ODYB-W  80  (see f i g . 4.9 f o r location and legend).  Rock & Snow  Mb  GLOFHP-I LFH  j  Ah C<XSiL)69  •SO Btj. .CoS  c  CoS  too  coisT"  VGL 6.2 •(Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature forests)  Rock & Snow  Rock & snow  AVALANCHE  2900  2600  _ E  < > 2300 < X  o S. H 2000  1700  OR-MW L F H  Fl  4.7!  |Ahe|VGSiL  5.5i  20 Ah CoS  Mb ODYB-W  IvTt  L  GLOFHP-P |LFH  4.9  Ahe S i T Bhf SiL  4.6 Bhf VGSiL  6.3  VGL  "5*8  LFH  I  Bhf CoL  M 6.4  6.1 5.9  Bfh+CoSiL  !».4  Ahe VGSiL  VGSiL  5.9. 6.8  R (argillite)  4.9  BfhivGsiT'To PBmg|vGSL  5.3|  ncJyGSL  6.1  Bm|CoSiL  LFO-MW L F H  5.2  .20  ICoSiL  7.3  5.0  6.1 40  VGSL  60  HBfgfysiL  6.4  6.0  6.6  Fiqure 4.15 Cross-section D C g VSiL  TEMPLETON RIVER  Bm |VGL  •60  C CoS  n  LFHT  ALDYB-W LFH  nc VGSiL  6.7  EC VGSL  (see f i q . 4.9 for location and legend).  66  4.2.3  Northern Aspect The northern aspects of the study area are within the cooler and  moister subzone of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone, which i s characterized by the lack of Douglas f i r and the presence of whitebark pine.  The present f o r e s t cover i s p r i m a r i l y Engelmann spruce and subalpine  f i r , with minor whitebark pine at the lower elevations.  At the upper  elevations where the growing season is severely c u r t a i l e d and the snowpack increased, the closed f o r e s t stands are replaced by Engelmann spruce subalpine f i r parkland with increased occurrence of whitebark pine and alpine larch. sections A-J-A2  The major s o i l s present in this area are shown in crossand B]-B2  (see figures  4.9, 4.14 and 4.15).  F l u v i a l - A f l u v i a l fan located a t the junction between a main t r i b u t a r y and Templeton River provides coarse textured materials Degraded Dystric Brunisols have developed.  (vgls) on which  These are well drained, with  the exception of those adjacent to the creek.  The coarse texture and low  moisture holding capacity of these s o i l s reduces t h e i r forest c a p a b i l i t y however, they are an e x c e l l e n t gravel source. c t e r i s t i c s are s i m i l a r to the g l a c i o f l u v i a l Southern Aspect (see table  Their n u t r i t i o n a l chara-  materials described on the  4.2).  Morainal - The lower slopes east of Mt. Ethelbert are predominantly gravelly morainal materials with a gravelly s i l t y eolian - c o l l u v i a l  capping.  Well drained Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols are found at the lower elevations, and well drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols are found at the upper e l e v a tions (see figure 4.16).  In receiving s i t e s  moister environment r e s u l t s  along tributary streams a  in moderately well to imperfectly drained  Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols.  The s i l t y surface horizons of these  s o i l s have superior water retention c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n u t r i t i o n a l status  68  compared to the lower horizons, which is consistent with the s o i l s of s i m i l a r parent material on the southern aspect.  However, the cooler  environment and increased leaching of the north aspect makes these s o i l s more strongly a c i d i c and higher in organic matter than those on the southern aspect.  These s o i l s have higher CEC due to increased organic  matter, but increased a c i d i t y makes t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l status about equivalent with the s o i l s on the south aspect (see table 4.4).  The s o i l s have  a moderate to low forest c a p a b i l i t y , but o f f e r few problems f o r road construction, except i n moister areas. Finer textured (gl)  morainal material occurs as a discontinuous  terrace i n mid-slope and valley bottom positions.  These materials are  compact below approximately 60 cm, r e s u l t i n g in r e s t r i c t e d drainage and imperfectly to poorly drained Gleyed O r t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols and Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols.  These grade to moderately well drained Bisequa  Gray Luvisols near the Rocky Mountain Trench.  These f i n e r textured morainal  s o i l s have good moisture retention properties and increased CEC throughout the s o i l p r o f i l e (see table 4.4).  These s o i l s in general have greater  amounts of N, P, Na and K than the other morainal s o i l s ,  however, the fine  textured Podzols have reduced Ca and Mg because of t h e i r strong a c i d i t y . Forest c a p a b i l i t i e s on these s o i l s are moderate to good, with the main l i m i t a t i o n of a short growing season. however,  Their poor drainage and fine texture  make them susceptible to mass wasting and surface erosion.  Medium textured (vgsl) morainal materials capped with a s i l t y  eolian  veneer occur within a cirque basin approximately 2,200 m in elevation. S o i l s developed on these materials are shallow, imperfectly drained Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols (see figure 4.17).  The organic matter accumu-  l a t i o n , shallow development, and strong a c i d i t y are the r e s u l t of a severely  Terrain & Soil  Depth cm  Horizons  ECv Mb  9-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LF Ae Bf IIAe IIAB IIAB IIBt IIBt  BIOHFP #13  Texture  gsil vgls vgsl vgl  BD gm/cnr 0.11 1.1 2.0 2.0 2.0  FF %  50 20 20 20  PH •  4.6 4.7 5.3 5.4 5.3  CEC meq/lOOgm  14.9 6.3 6.1 6.2  12 21. 18 11  Totals ECv Mt GLOFHP #25  C/N  BS %  38.7 no 35 1.29 ' 22 80 0.43 22 ' • :• 20 0.32 16 20 0.24 '•' .30 8  260 8-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LFH Ae Bhf II Bfg IIBfg IIC IIC  cosil gl gi gi  0.12 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6  30 3040 40  4.9 4.1 5.0 4.5 4.4  16.7 29.0 12.1 10.3  10 1 2 , 2.  44.0 1.54 2.87 1.01 0.83  Totals  Mb GLOFHP #17  Ca kg/ha  3-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LFH Ae Bhf IIBC II Cg II Cg II Cg  gsil vgsl vgsl vgsl  0.13 1.2' 1.6 1.6 1.6  60 40 40 40.  • 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.5  21.1 3.4 3.4 3.4  3 4. 4' 4  Na  131 4 3 2 1 •-.  36 341 192 125 76  8 49 34 • 37 22  4 10 2 2 2  11 22 35 57 43  141  770  150  20  168  32 . 132 . 142 21 7 19 120 10 ; .331 • 64 32 135 ., 2 6 18 20 . , 86 13 , .: • 14 . 18 . 17 . 80 14 16 ,19  27.2 . 32 3.21 23 0.30 150.30 15 0.30 15  Totals  m  ;  :  ;  553  181 .  34 252 32 32 32  38 5 3 3 3  382  52  388 ;  414 6 4 4  .9 94 43 42 44  126  32  232  ' 1 141 26 26 26  8 21 21 21 21  1 17 4 4 4  4 75 19 19 19  220  92  30  136  Texture refers to the dominant horizon; bulk densities for.the LFH's were calculated using estimated values (L 0.06 gm/c 3, F 0.15 qm/cm3 H 0.18 gm/cm3); bulk densities-for the mineral soils were extrapolated from measured values (see tables 4.1 and 5.1); Ph for the LFH s are 1:4 water and :1 water for the mineral soils; N is total Kjeldahl; P, Ca, Mg, Na and K are total values for the LFH's; P is extractable in the mineral soils; Ca, Mg, Na and K are exchangeable in the mineral soils. i-m r " i r a c i a o i e in m  Table 4.4 Nutritional properties.of selected s o i l s from.the northern, aspects within the Templeton River study area.-  70  71  r e s t r i c t e d growing season and high snowpack (see table 4.4).  These  conditions make the forest c a p a b i l i t i e s quite low. C o l l u v i a l - Remaining areas on the north aspect are dominated by coarse c o l l u v i a l deposits of varying thickness.  At the western end of the v a l l e y ,  adjacent to Mount Ethelbert, constant c o l l u v i a l action is maintaining open talus slopes, precluding s o i l  development and vegetation establishment.  In less active areas, perennial snow avalanching has r e s t r i c t e d plant establishment to alder and herbaceous vegetation.  The s o i l s  associated  with the alder avalanche tracks are very coarse textured (rubble,  cols)  and moderately well to imperfectly drained, supplied with moisture from late season snowmelt.  The Regosolic s o i l development is r e s t r i c t e d to accumu-  l a t i o n of organic material i n a skeleton of rock fragments.  The organic  material is very strongly a c i d i c and high in nitrogen, r e f l e c t i n g the alder l i t t e r (see figure 4.18). Where the s o i l s are well to r a p i d l y drained, the c o l l u v i a l  materials  are more s t a b l e , and the plant communities are dominated by subalpine herbs and shrubs other than alder, the s o i l s are t y p i c a l l y Orthic and Degraded Dystric Brunisols.  Where snow avalanche frequency is limited to every  20 years or more, these sites are occupied by young forest stands, and the s o i l s grade to Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols.  Snow avalanche track s o i l s have  a generally low n u t r i t i o n a l status, and are undergoing s u f f i c i e n t c o l l u v i a l action to retard s o i l development.  Their forest c a p a b i l i t i e s are n e g l i g i b l e  due to the snow avalanche hazard, and they often r e s u l t in increased road costs because of coarse  material, steepness, and cutbank  instability  (ravelling). Forested areas of colluvium provide a more stable environment for s o i l development  where Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols occur.  These s o i l s  are t y p i c a l l y coarse textured ( v g s l , c o l s , or v g s i l where eolian materials  72  Figure 4.18  Orthic Regosol (OR) developed from c o l l u v i a l materials to perennial snow avalanching (rCb-A).  subject  73  are interbedded) and well to rapidly drained.  The forested c o l l u v i a l s o i l s  have moderate organic matter accumulations, and associated increases in CEC.  However, they are strongly a c i d i c and have only low to moderate  n u t r i t i o n a l status.  These s o i l s have a moderate to low forest c a p a b i l i t y  and are often unstable i f the forest cover i s removed. The sioils formed in shallow colluvium over bedrock grade from L i t h i c Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols in forested areas to L i t h i c Orthic Dystric Brunisols areas.  in avalanche areas, and L i t h i c F o l i s o l s in alpine meadow and heather  The shallow c o l l u v i a l s o i l s have very low water holding c a p a c i t i e s ,  r e s t r i c t e d r o o t i n g , and l i m i t e d nutrient c a p i t a l . or no value for f o r e s t production.  These s o i l s have l i t t l e  The L i t h i c F o l i s o l s are limiited to a very  shallow accumulation of organic material over bedrock, and are highly suscept i b l e to damage from any disturbance. 4.2.4  Valley Head The headwaters of Templeton River are dominated by bedrock and  recently deposited morainal and c o l l u v i a l materials.  Because of the  r e l a t i v e l y short time span since the deposition of the parent materials and the short growing season, much of the area is sparsely vegetated and shows no recognizable s o i l development at present. mapped as rock, moraine, rock g l a c i e r , g l a c i a l  These areas have been  ice or talus.  F l u v i a l - The f l u v i a l fan-delta area above Templeton Lake i s a complex of rapidly drained Degraded Dystric Brunisols and poorly drained Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols.  The rapidly drained areas are coarse textured  (rubbly to v g l s ) , strongly a c i d , and of poor n u t r i t i o n a l status. poorly drained s o i l s are f i n e r textured ( c o s i l large organic accumulations.  to g s l ) ,  The  strongly a c i d , with  These s o i l s have less n u t r i e n t capital  than  s i m i l a r f l u v i a l s o i l s at lower elevations because of increased leaching and more acid conditions.  Forest c a p a b i l i t i e s are low primarily as a  74  result of a short growing season.  Road location in these areas is a problem  because of poor drainage and continually changing stream channels. Morainal  - At the lower elevations  coarse textured morainal-materials drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. results  (1800 m.) near Templeton Lake, older with forest cover develop well to rapidly In areas where late snow retention  in a more continuous moisture supply, moderately well to imperfectly  drained Orthic Humo-Ferric and Ferro-Humic Podzols occur.  These s o i l s  are strongly a c i d i c with moderate CEC and low n u t r i t i o n a l status.  Because  of the limited growing season forest c a p a b i l i t i e s are very low. Colluvial  - Forested c o l l u v i a l areas have well drained, coarse textured  ( c o s i l ) Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols.  In areas dominated by shallow  colluvium  these grade to L i t h i c Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols which are rapidly drained. Because of t h e i r coarse texture and strongly acid p r o f i l e these s o i l s have a limited nutrient c a p i t a l .  Where snow avalanching and increased c o l l u v i a l  a c t i v i t y l i m i t s forest establishment, the s o i l s are Degraded Brunisols.  Dystric  These s o i l s are moderately acid and display a less well  developed s o i l p r o f i l e than the forested areas.  Forest productivity  is  very limited by the severe climate and coarse texture of the c o l l u v i a l materials.  The s o i l s o f f e r l i t t l e erosion hazard but can be a problem for  roadbuilding because of the excessively coarse texture.  LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS  Valley Area and Biogeoclimatic Zone  Terrain Unit  Rocky Mountain Trench  SEv gsM(b,r,t) (calc.)  ESSF and 'ESSF-IDF transition  F't F t A  Fv gsMt  Snil Suhnmnns  MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS  Soil Familv Criteria  Surface Erosion Mass Wasting  *  Forest Capability  Slope Class  esse 3213  (1974) BRGL  **  Particle-Size  Reaction  Moisture  1-3  4  5  6  eoarse-silty over  neitral  subhumid  2C  3D  4E  5E  Recorrr.ended Species  3A0  D. IP  sandy skeletal 431  OKFP  4318  GLOHFP  6118  GLOR  3214  BIGL  sandy skeletal sandy skeletal  neural neitral  semiarid  1A  3B  4C  50  3MA  eS, D  subaquic  2B  3C  40  5E  2S  eS, D  aquic  2B  3C  4D  5E  2S  subhumid  1A  3B  40  5E  3AM  D. eS  G  .cold and cool • soil temperature classes  gfk  f i n e - s i l t y over  GLMHFP  sandy skeletal  OHFP  sandy skeletal  GLOHFP  ECv gcMt  4318  gSMb SMv F"t/SLb  cold and cool soil temperature classes  GLSRGL  4328 431  South Aspects  ESSF and m'nor ESSF-IDF transition  32138  gsMv  ECv gMb  Cb (Ca, Cv. rr.r)  Cv  R  F t" F*t  neitral  •  D, IP eS, 9  subaquic  IB  3C  4D  5E  2D  aquic  2B  3C  4D  5E  2S/7W  eS, D/-  neitral  subhumid  18  2C  3D  4E  4HR  eS, alF  loaray skeletal  acid  aquic  3C  4D  5E  5E  4H  eS, alF  neutral  3213  BRGL  semiarid  1A  3C  40  5E  3MA  D, IP  3214  BIGL  loamy skeletal  acid to  semiarid  1A  3C  40  5E  3MA  0. IP  431  OHFP  over fragmental  neutral  subhumid  1A  3C  40  5E  5HM  eS. alF  432  MHFP  subhumid  1A  3C  4D  5E  5HM  eS. alF  S42  DGDYB  subhumid  1A  3C  40  5E  5 KM  eS, alF  humi d  2C  3D  4E  5E  2S  eS, D eS, D  .  '  3213  BRGL  432  MHFP  humid  IB  3C  4D  5E  3HD  Oil  Talus  subarid  1A  2B  4C  5C  7MP  431  OKFP  semiarid  1A  • 2B  4C  5C  5HM  eS, IP  521  CE8  semiarid  IB  3C  4C  5D  4MP  D  541  ODYB  semiarid.  1A  2B  4C  5C  7HE/5MP  - / e S . IP  542  DGOYB  semiarid  1A  2B  "C  5C  7HE  543  ALDYB  semiarid  18  38  4C  5D  7HE  611  OP.  subarid  1A  23  4C  5C  7ME  subarid  1A  3B  5D  5E  4MR  IP  subarid  1A  3B  5D  5E  5MR  IP  5219  LOEB  5419  LODYB .  loamy skeletal  fragmental  fragmental  neutral  neutral  neitral  '  '  001  Sed Rock  acid  subarid  1A  3C  5D  5E.  7R  002  Calc Rock  neutral  subarid  1A  3C  5D  5E  7R  LFO  acid  subarid  1A  3C  50  5E  7R  subarid  1A  3B  4C  5D  5 ME  IP  semiarid  1A  33  4C  5D  3M  eS. 0  8411 G  sandy skeletal  541  ODYB  431  OHFP  sandy skeletal  neitral  4228  GLMFHP  loamy skeletal  neitral  subaquic  2B  3C  4D  5E  3HP  eS, 0  6118  GLOR  sandy skeletal  neitral  aquic  2B  3C  4D  5E  2S  eS, D  *Soil climate i s given with the biogeocliiutlc zone and.mineralogies are a l l mixed; * * see Chapter 6.  Table 4.5 Characteristics  and management interpretations  for mapping units in the Templeton River study area.  MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS * *  LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS  Valley Area and Biogeoclimatic 2one  ' Terrain Unit 1  Soil Subgroups CSSC  ECv gcMt  •3213  BRGL  4218  GLOFHP  ECv gsKb  4218  GLOFHP  ECv gMb  4315  431 North Aspects  Cb (Ca, Cv) ESSF cold soil temperature class  Cb-A (Ca-A) Cv  4218  R  4E  5E  3AD  D  4D  5E  5E  3H  eS, alF  3C  40  5E  5E  5H  eS. alF eS, alF  acid  subaquic subhumid  IA  3C  4D  5E  5KM  acid  subhumid  IA  3C  4D  5E  4M  tS,. alF  subaquic  2B  4D  5E  5E  3H  eS, alF  subarid  IA  2B  4C  5C  7MP  semiarid  IA  2B  4C  5C  6HM .  eS, whP lp, D  over fragmental  5MP  542-  DGDYB '  semiarid  IA  2B  3C  4D  7HE  humid  13  3C  4D  ED  7HE  subarid  IA  3B  5D  5E  6HR  whP, eS  subarid  IA  3B  50 . 5E  7HR/6MR  -/1P.D SwhP.aL)  subarid  IA  3C  5D  5E  7R  subarid  IA  3C  5D  5E  7R  subhumid  IA  3B  4C  50  5MH  subarid  IA  3B  4C  50  7HP  subarid  IA  3B  4C  5D  7HP  subari d  IA  3B  4C ' 5D  7HP  subarid  IA  3B  4C  5D  7HP  611  OR  4319  LOHFP  5419  LODYB  fragmental  fragmental fragmental  Sed Rock  Rock gla  031  Moraine  acid  acid acid  acid  LFO  021  fragmental fragmental  fragmental  acid acid  acid  eS, alF  542  DGDYB  subarid  IA  3B  4C  50  6HP  431  OHFP  semiarid  IA  2B  4C  50  6H  whP, eS  542  DGDYB  semiarid  IA  2B  4C  50  6H  ' whP, eS  semiarid  IA  2B  4C  5C  7M? '  semiarid  IA  2B  4C  5C  7HE  subarid  2B  3C  4C  50  6MR  2C  5D  5E  5E  7HD  humid  2C  3D  4E  5E  6H  eS, alF  semiarid  2C  3D  4E  5E  6H  eS, wh?  Oil  Talus  542  DGDYB  4319  LOHFP  •  041  GA  4318-  GLOHFP  542  DGDYB  f  3D  3C  4C -5C  Moraine  F  2C  2B  031  A  6  IA  (I )  I  subaquic  5  semi a rid  Rock gla  Cv  humid  4  ODYB  021  Cb (Cv, Ca)  loamy skeletal  1-3  541  Mr  gMb  loamy-skeletal  acid  Moisture  Talus  DGDY3  rMb (Hr, Hh)  loamy skeletal  Reaction  OHFP  542  A  cold and minor very cold soil temperature classes  GLOFHP.  Parti cle-Size  Recommended Species  431  8411  Ff.  ESSF and AT  OHFP • BIOHFP  Forest Capabili ty  Slope Class  Oil  001  Valley Head  (1974)  Surface Erosion Mass Wasting  Soil Family Criteria *  fragmental  acid  fragmental.  arid  fragmental  a:id  Ice fragmental  a:id  *Soil climate is given with the biogeoclimatic zone and lineralogies are all mixed; * * see Chapter 6  Table 4.5 (continued)  whP, aL  whP, aL  77  CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR GRASSY CREEK STUDY AREA 5.1  T e r r a i n * features The t e r r a i n features of the study area were c l a s s i f i e d and mapped ac-  cording to the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System developed by the Resource Analysis Branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of the Environment (ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t 1976).  As discussed in Chapter 1, the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  System separates the landscape into discreet units primarily on the basis of t h e i r dominant genetic process, and secondly on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of texture, surface expression, slope, and modifying processes.  The results of  the t e r r a i n analysis of the area are primarily presented in map form on an enlarged a e r i a l photograph (see figure 5.1), however the s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s and other t e r r a i n features are discussed in the following The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t e r r a i n features are summarized in figure s t r a t i g r a p h i c relationships are demonstrated on the cross-sections  sections.  5.2; given in  figures 5.14 & 5.15; textural properties are shown in figure 5.3; and bulk density and engineering properties are given in table 5.1. The predominant t e r r a i n feature in the Grassy Creek study area is a morainal blanket, r e f l e c t i n g the most recent advance of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet.  Striations  and flutings on the ridge crests indicate a southerly  flow d i r e c t i o n , with the ice s u f f i c i e n t l y thick to deposit morainal material on the top o f Grassy Mountain (2110 m).  Morainal depths are variable  throughout the area, exceeding 10m on the lower slopes, and thinning to n i l  *  The term " t e r r a i n " as used here i s e s s e n t i a l l y synonomous with s u r f i c i a l geology, except that in addition to unconsolidated materials, i t also includes some bedrock, organic, i c e , and anthropogenic features.  Figure 5.2 Generalized t e r r a i n map of the Grassy Creek study area.  . I CLAY |  SILT  I  Grain Size — Millimetres I 'SANO  '.  I  GRAVEL  Figure 5.3 Grain Size Distribution Curves for Material Finer than 76 millimetres — Grassy Creek U3  80on ridge crests.  Even in the lower slope p o s i t i o n s , i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in the  underlying bedrock can produce bedrock- outcrops or minor pockets of morainal veneer.  These materials are very pale brown (10YR 7/3, dry) gravelly to  very gravelly sandy loams, with minor l o c a l v a r i a t i o n (see table 5.1). Boulder f i e l d s resulting-from stone streams or medial moraines are found on the northern slopes. Within the morainal areas there are inclusions of kame terraces, kames, and r i l l  complexes, formed by ice marginal and subglacial streams  figure 6.2).  (see  Small g l a c i o f l u v i a l terraces ( <20 m wide) are located up to  1700 m in e l e v a t i o n .  Kame deposits ranging in texture from boulders to  s i l t s occur sporadically throughout the v a l l e y .  Moulin kames are found  near the valley mouth and on the northern slope.  In the valley bottom  there are g l a c i o f l u v i a l terraces r e s u l t i n g from proglacial streams.  The  terraces are predominantly bouldery sands, with minor l a c u s t r i n e , and are capped by a loamy surface material (see figure 5.4).  The lack of cirque  basins and the presence of well preserved ice-contact features suggest that deglaciation of the Grassy Creek Valley consisted of downwasting of stagnant ice.  As the ice melted, ice-marginal streams l e f t kame deposits and r i l l  complexes at various l e v e l s . C o l l u v i a l materials (blankets and veneers) occur adjacent to the steeper rock slopes on the southern aspects near the ridge crests and near the v a l l e y mouth.  The materials are generally coarse textured ranging  from gravelly sandy loams to bouldery loamy sands.  The c o l l u v i a l veneers  on the ridge crests are often associated with rock, morainal veneers, and eolian veneers.  Eolian materials are s i l t y to fine sandy loams composed  of slope wash, l o e s s , and volcanic ash.*  *  Deep eolian deposits  (blankets)  D i s t r i b u t i o n maps by Sneddon (1973) indicate that Mazama (6600y B.P.) possibly G l a c i e r Peak (12,000y B.P.) ash f a l l s covered this area.  and  81  TERRAIN TYPE  UNIFIED CLASSIFICATION (U.S.A.C.E. 1953)  SOIL TEXTURE  BULK DENSITY (gm/cm3)  sFAt  SM  vgs-ls  1.11  gsFGt  GM  vgs-ls  2.17  gsMb  SM(GM)  vgls-vgsl  1.55  *Ev  SM  gsl-sil  1.06  Table 5.1  Physical properties of selected s u r f i c i a l materials the Grassy Creek study area.  in  82 commonly situated in receiving positions have resulted from the r e d i s t r i b u tion of eolian materials by f l u v i a l a c t i v i t y .  F l u v i a l t e r r a i n features are  l i m i t e d to a sandy flood plain located along portions of Grassy Creek. The textural composition of most of the materials ranges/from  gravelly  sandy loam to very gravelly loamy sand, with some eolian deposits s i l t loam. Chemical composition r e f l e c t s the dominantly g r a n i t i c bedrock, with the exception of some colluviums near the valley mouth formed from the contact metamophosed volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks.  Presently geomorphic  a c t i v i t y in the valley is minimal, and the parent materials a f f e c t s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y to a l i m i t e d extent. 5.2- Soil  features  The s o i l s which have been i d e n t i f i e d and mapped within the Grassy Creek study area are summarized with selected properties and interpretations in table 5.4.  The mapping results are presented in figures 5.5 and 5.6.  The  relationships between the s o i l s and the environmental features of topography, t e r r a i n , and vegetation are demonstrated in the cross-section figures and 5.16 (see figure 5.14 f o r legend).  The following section w i l l  5.15  discuss  the s o i l s and how p a r t i c u l a r s o i l properties are related to the various forming environments.  soil-  This section is divided into two subsections, each  of which w i l l discuss the s o i l s occuring in one Biogeoclimatic Zone (see figure 3.14).  Physical properties of the s o i l  cussed in the previous s e c t i o n .  Soil  parent materials were d i s -  interpretations are discussed in  Chapter 6. S o i l s occurring within the Grassy Creek study area are dominated by podzolic s o i l  forming processes.  The s o i l s r e f l e c t a seasonal  climate with  warm dry summers and cool snowy winters, a c i d i c bedrock, coarse textured parent materials, and coniferous forest vegetation.  The climax vegetation  of the area is dominated by cedar-hemlock forests at the lower elevations and Englemann spruce-subalpine f i r forests at the upper elevations where  83 p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s increased and temperatures are cooler.  At present the  study area is occupied by a complex mosaic of old growth forests and a wide range of serai  communites.  The parent materials of the study area are f a i r l y uniform with respect to texture and chemical composition.  As a r e s u l t , the v a r i a t i o n in s o i l  properties i s p r i m a r i l y associated with changes in topographic position and climate.  Soil structures are generally weak to moderate, increasing with  depth to the massive pseudo-structure of the compacted morainal  materials.  Organic matter content of these s o i l s i s primarily a function of s o i l drainage and micro-climate.  Seepage areas with imperfect to poor drainge  and a cool micro-climate have large organic matter accumulations, while well drained exposed s i t e s have very l i t t l e .  Alpine s i t e s and high elevation  southern aspects with herbaceous vegetation communities have high organic matter contents in t h e i r surface horizons.  The humus forms found in the study  area are dominantly imperfect mors o r f i b r i m o r s , with the wetter s i t e s  grading  to.raw moder and the herbaceous types to mulls (after Bernier 1968). The s o i l s at the lower elevations range from moderately to strongly a c i d , while at the upper elevations the s o i l s are strongly to very acid.  strongly  Cation exchange capacities (CEC) are generally proportional to  organic matter content.  The values range from less than 5meq/100gm in the  coarse textured g l a c i o f l u v i a l  and morainal materials to 50meq/100gm in the  poorly drained s i l t y materials with high organic matter contents.  Base  saturation i s generally low, r e f l e c t i n g the a c i d i c bedrock and e f f e c t i v e leaching.  Well drained s i t e s at lower elevations reach a maximum of  approximately 30%, while high elevation areas consistantly have values than-5%.  less  The exchangeable cations are dominantly calcium and potassium,  with lesser amounts o f magnesium and sodium.  Nitrogen content is  generally  correlated with organic matter content, and is highest on the cool moist sites.  The C/N r a t i o s of the forest f l o o r s range from 25 to 35 and the  84 areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation have C/N ratios of approximately 20.  Within the mineral s o i l  range from 15 to 25.  p r o f i l e , the C/N ratios generally decrease and  Available phosphorus values range quite widely due  to f i x a t i o n by iron and aluminum in the poorly drained strongly acid s o i l s . Extractable iron and aluminum are minimal in the well to r a p i d l y drained s o i l s on southern aspects, however, they are very high in the imperfectly to poorly drained a c i d i c seepage s i t e s and 5.2.1  at  the upper elevations.  I n t e r i o r Western Hemlock Zone  Fluvial  In the v a l l e y bottom adjacent to Grassy Creek, poorly drained f l o o d -  plain deposits have developed Gleyed Degraded Dystric B r u n i s o l i c  soils.  These are gravelly sandy s o i l s with a water table near the surface most of the year.  These s o i l s have a low CEC and poor s o i l nutrient status because  of t h e i r coarse texture and lack of incorporated organic matter.  However,  seepage water supplies s u f f i c i e n t moisture and nutrients to make these areas highly productive forest s i t e s .  The high water table does r e s u l t in shallow  rooting and makes the area a poor choice f o r road l o c a t i o n . Glaciofluvial  Coarse textured materials  (co, vgs),  located on inactive  terrace levels above the f l o o d p l a i n , have developed rapi'dly drained Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.7).  These s o i l s are strongly acid and low  in s o i l nutrients and available moisture.  The l i m i t e d s o i l n u t r i t i o n and  moisture holding capacity is concentrated in the f i n e r textured (gls) face horizons (see table 5.2).  sur-  These s o i l s have low forest c a p a b i l i t i e s , but  are good gravel sources and excellent road locations on the terrace tops. In areas where lenses of l a c u s t r i n e occur in the g l a c i o f l u v i a l the permeability i s reduced, and moisture is retained in the s o i l longer.  materials,  profile  In some cases the resultant wetting and drying above the l a c u s t r i n e  materials has lead to fragipan development (see figure 5.8). have s l i g h t l y  increased forest c a p a b i l i t i e s , but are s t i l l  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols.  These s o i l s  c l a s s i f i e d as  85  Figure 5.7  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials  (MHFP) developed from coarse textured (gFGt).  Figure 5.8  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials with a lacustrine lense (^Lv/FGt) Note the varved l a c u s t r i n e below the rock hammer and tragi pan development above the hammer.  87 An area of sandy to fine gravelly g l a c i o f l u v i a l  blanket on the south  side of Grassy Creek has developed s o i l s which are well drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and moderately well drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols.  The moderately well drained s o i l s receive seepage water flowing  over underlying impermeable morainal materials.  These g l a c i o f l u v i a l  materials have a moderate forest c a p a b i l i t y and high erosion hazard in the sandy areas, because of increased moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y . Morainal  The morainal materials are moderately coarse textured ( v g s l ) , moder-  ately to rapildly permeable at the surface, and compact with r e s t r i c t e d permeability at depths below 75 to 150 cm.  The compacted morainal material  impedes water movement such that receiving positions  and s o i l s on gentle  slopes often remain moist for long periods of the year.  Most of the morainal  areas have a surface capping of s i l t y to loamy materials which varies  in  thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter (areas where i t exceeds one meter are mapped as Eb).  The v a r i a t i o n in s o i l development which occurs on  the morainal materials i s primarily a r e s u l t of differences in the moisture regimes of various  sites.  On moderately sloping south aspects which receive the maximum i n s o l a t i o n , well drained Orthic Dystric Brunisols  are the t y p i c a l s o i l s .  These  s o i l s are moderately acid with low cation exchange capacity,and low base saturation.  These areas .have moderate to low forest c a p a b i l i t i e s with  limited moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y and low n u t r i t i o n a l  status.  On less exposed well drained s i t e s , the s o i l development grades to Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols on southern aspects and Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols in other areas (see figure 5.9).  These s o i l s are strongly acid with low  organic matter content, low cation exchange capacity and low to moderate base saturation (see table 5.2).  Forest c a p a b i l i t y i s moderate on these  s o i l s , with moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y the major l i m i t a t i o n .  The well drained  morainal materials are generally good road locations areas (slopes permitting),  Terrain Soi1  &  Depth cm  lv FGt MHFP #11  2-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  '  Horizons  Texture  BD gm/cm • . 3  LF • Ah B f Bf Bf IIC IIC  gsl gsl gls vgs'  0.10 1.1 =1.1 . 1.6 2.2  FF %  70 70 40 30  pH  5.2 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1  CEC n.eq/lOOgm  20.2 17.3 5.8 1.5  BS  %  '  3 3 3 5  C  %  31.1 2.71 "• 1.99 , 0.66 0.14  '.'  C/N  '  31 • 21 27 192 25 .154 .19 • 54 14 16  MHFP #13  437 5-0' 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LFH Ae B f B f IIBm I I Bm  IIBm IIBC  gl gsl vgsl vgsl  0.12 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.6  70 50 40 40  4 8 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2  18.6 10.4 5 0 ./ 5.3  9 22 31 40  4 2 . 0 . 36 . 1.56 .20 0.79 20 0.28 18 .. .:' 0.24 .19 ,  Totals  lY_ Mb GLMFHP #3  14-11 11-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  Totals  L F Bhf Bhf Bhf Bfh II Bfg  gsl gsl gsl vgls  0.06 0.151.1 1.1 1.1 1.6  70 70 60 40  4.6. 4l9 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0  46.5 40.-6 37.4 15.1  11 15 10 8  36.0 35.5 9.69 6.02 5.51 1.77  P  Ca  Mg  Na  K  2 98 86 44 19  kg/ha  Totals  Fv. Mb  N  27 35 ' 15 14 16 16  37 28 • 29 34 . 24 :  30 154 113 37 10  4 26 17 .. 3 0  <1 4 4 3 0  152  344  50  11  249  1 . 9 9 11 12  .5 113 65 44 55 282  69 62 154 40 65 34 32 -. 33 26 33  64 1 513 : ' 37 408 43 385 51 616, . 73 :  346  202  1986  205  42  26 167 1213 828 . 578 176  22 135 12 12 8 • 13  14 62 1678 2095 1105 289  3 21 151 117 74 29  <1 3 36 40 32 11  2988  202  5243  395  122  .  .  1 7 99 105 71 88 371  T e x t u r e r e f e r s t o the d o m i n a n t h o r i z o n ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r the L F H ' s ware c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s (L 0.06 gm/cm , F 0.15 gm/cm , H 0 . 1 8 g m / c m ) ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s w e r e e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m m e a s u r e d v a l u e s ( s e e t a b l e s 4.1 and 5 . 1 ) ; pH f o r t h e L F H ' s a r e 1:4 w a t e r a n d 1:1 w a t e r f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; N i s t o t a l K j e l d a h l ; P , C a , Mg, Na a n d K a r e t o t a l v a l u e s f o r t h e L F H ' s ; P i s e x t r a c t a b l e i t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; C a , Mg, Na a n d K a r e e x c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s . 3  J  Table 5.2 Nutritional properties of selected s o i l s from the Interior Western, Hemlock Zone of the Grassy Creek study area. .  3  89  i Figure 5.9  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol over morainal materials  (MHFP) developed from eolian materials (^Ev/gsMb).  90 with low erosion hazards. In minor depressions where the s o i l s drained, the s o i l s  are moderately well to imperfectly  grade to Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Gleyed  Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.10).  Lower s o i l horizons over compact  morainal materials remain moist for long periods in the spring and immediately following p r e c i p i t a t i o n events. climate, these s o i l s  Because of a cooler and moister micro-  have a moderate accumulation of organic matter and r e -  sultant increase in cation exchange capacity in the surface horizons. saturation however, i s very low and the s o i l s  are strongly a c i d .  of increased water a v a i l a b i l i t y and seepage inputs, these s o i l s  Base  Because have moder-  ately high forest c a p a b i l i t i e s . In major depressional areas and other receiving s i t e s and s o i l s  are  predominantly poorly drained Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols (see figure 5.11). These s o i l s  remain moist throughout most of the growing season and have  large accumulations of organic matter on the surface and within the s o i l profiles.  Soil  development is usually deep (1-2 M), with at least the  upper 75 cm composed of inwashed fine textured material These s o i l s  (gsl  -  sil).  are strongly a c i d , but t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y high cation exchange  capacity allows for a good nutrient c a p i t a l with only a moderate base saturation (see table 5.2).  Phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y is minimal however,  because of strong a c i d i t y and very high levels of extractable iron and aluminum.  These s o i l s  have the highest forest c a p a b i l i t i e s in Grassy Creek,  and are also the most erodible because of t h e i r fine surface texture and high moisture content. At ridge crests where morainal materials are l i k e l y to be less  than  a meter in depth, r a p i d l y drained L i t h i c Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols are usually associated with Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols.  The l i t h i c s o i l s  have r e s t r i c t e d  rooting depths, reduced nutrient c a p i t a l and consequently poor forest capabilities.  In the broad saddles on the southern Grassy Creek watershed  91  Figure 5.10  Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal UEv/gsMb).  materials  Figure 5 . 1 1  Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzol (GLMFHP) developed from e o l i a n m a t e r i a l s over morainal materials UEv/gsMb). Note the seepage and abundant organic matter.  93 d i v i d e , the morainal veneers are associated with eolion veneers. develop s i m i l a r s o i l s to the morainal Veneers, but with s l i g h t l y  These improved  nutrient c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Colluvial  The s o i l s which have developed from the c o l l u v i a l materials are  r a p i d l y drained L i t h i c , L i t h i c Sombric, and Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. These s i t e s have a l l been repeatedly burned, and are presently occupied by early serai shrub and grass communities.  These conditions have resulted  in s o i l s with less acid reactions than moister s i t e s with more continuous forest cover.  On southern aspects where grassland.communities  are present,  incorporated organic matter results in Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzols  (see  figure 5.12). The c o l l u v i a l materials within the Hemlock zone are p r i m a r i l y derived from the highly mineralized volcanic-sedimentary rocks, and therefore, contain high amounts of extractable iron and aluminum.  Because these  s o i l s have only moderately acid reactions and are r a p d i l y drained, phosphorus f i x a t i o n does not occur to the extent i t does in the poorly drained s o i l s . Where the i r o n - r i c h colluvium o v e r l i e s compact morainal materials on moderate slopes, p e r i o d i c wetting and drying can cause the formation of sesquioxide cementing agents. The cementation i s discontinuous, and the s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d as P l a c i c Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.13). The shallow c o l l u v i a l s o i l s a l l have r e s t r i c t e d rooting volumes, coarse textures ( v g l s - v g s i l ) , and low moisture holding c a p a c i t i e s .  They  have low forest c a p a b i l i t i e s , and are often associated with bedrock outcrops making them poor s i t e s 5.2.2  for road l o c a t i o n .  Englemann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone  Morainal  The s o i l s occuring on forested morainal materials have s i m i l a r  textural and engineering properties to those described at the lower elevations.  However, the shortened growing season and increased leaching which  occur at the upper elevations results in contrasting s o i l chemical properties.  94  /  i Figure 5.12  Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzol (SMHFP) developed from shallow c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s (gCv). Note the abundant rooting from grasses and herbs and r e s u l t i n g organic matter accumulation.  95  I  Figure 5.13  P l a c i c Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (PLMHFP) developed from c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s over morainal m a t e r i a l s (gCv/gsMb). Note the cementing j u s t below the k n i f e .  TRANSECT LOCATIONS BIOGEOCLIMATIC SUBZONE  ESSFXJX  MAP UNIT SYMBOL FOR VEGETATION TYPE  REPRESENTATIVE VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION SURFICIAL MATERIALS  Mv.Ev-  AND BEDROCK  •TERRAIN UNIT -SOIL CLASSIFICATION  LMHFP-RLr  -SOIL DRAINAGE-  .4.0  -SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION -HORIZON pH IN WATER  •Bfh GSiL 4.8-  " HORIZON TEXTURE  R_  - HORIZON BOUNDARY  SCALE  -SOIL DEPTH (IN 20 cm INCREMENTS) r  HORIZON DESIGNATION  0  V?  1  2  Figure 5.14 Legend and transect locations f o r cro  1 see Appendix 3 vegetation types,  section figures 5.15 and 5.16.  V E G E T A T I O N STRUCTURE A N D COMPOSITION  4* a or s4r  ABIES LASIOCARPA  LARIX LYAi.ll  LARIX OCCIDENTALIS  PICEA ENGELMANNII  POPULUS TREMULOIOES  PINUS AL8ICAULIS  P'NUS CONTORTA (MATURE)  •1 PINUS CONTORTA IMMATURE)  PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (VETERAN)  PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (IMMATURE)  THUJA PLICATA  TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA  ESSFx-Disclimax & ESSFx*B  l>  Lh  Bfh GSiL 4.8 R  L F  JLb 4.9  00.  AS _ _ X 8  Ah"e  L  Bf GSL Bhf GSL 4.7  5.1  Bf GL  62  40  IIBm VGSL 5.2 Bfh GSL  6.0  IIBfg VGLS 5.0 120  •120  GRASSY CREEK  nc VGLSTo  HBC  Va  nc  VGL  —-—9:5  GSiL 5.2  •20  •60  nc ~G"SLT.I  •80  Bmg- GSL 5.1!  1  SB™  33  Bfh GSL 4.8  LF  6^3  A  _ _  Bfh-,. .GSiL 4.6  Ah GSL 4.0  Ah GSiL 4.7 Bhf GSiL 4.8  IIBm VGLS 4.5  Bf, G s i T ~ 2  .40  HBm2'VGSL 5.7  To"  40  LF Bm  >  F  UBC VGSL 4.9  EBfh •VGSL 4.2 2  nc V G S L ~ 9  nc R  VGLS 4.7 •60 •  HBf VGSiL4.9 2  R  •60  HBfg" VGSL 4.7 •120  nc_ V G S L  -  tOsT"5.0j  Figure 5.15 Cross-section A 1 - A 2 (see f i g . 5.14 for location and legend).,  ESSFXK & ESSFx-Disclimax  F  r 2 B  1600  z o < >  -I  1300  < 2 O cc a. a. <  J  L  Bfh 5.2  n  LTJ Bnv, LS  PEC VGSL  5.1  4.5  Brrn GS 7  m Cgj.GLS  4.7]  GSL  5.6  Bf,. GSL  5.5  2  VGLS  5.2  g2jvGS  nc  VGSL  5.6  Bf  VGSiL  5.6  PBqGLS  VGS  5.2  Bfh GSL  5.1 5.1  (sedimentary . -volcanic)  5.3  40  •40  40  IIC |VGS  nsfc  5.2  Bfh  R  60  4.7  z — VGSL  LF  Bf GSL  HBf  1000  n iBrngiGSiL  5.3  (granitic & sedimentary —volcani ' "2i  5.0  •120 .  IBm  GRASSY CREEK  SL  nzc- LS  ..  5.0  Fiqure 5.16 Cross-section 5.0  Bj-B  2  (see f i g . 5.14 f o r location and legend).  99 On well drained positions the s o i l s Podzols.  These s o i l s  of organic matter.  are Orthic and Mini Humo-Ferric  are very strongly a c i d , with moderate accumulations  They have very low base saturation but moderate amounts  of nitrogen and phosphorus (see table 5.3). soils  Forest c a p a b i l i t y on these  is moderate to low-because of the short growing season and limited  a v a i l a b l e moisture. On moderately well to imperfectly drained s i t e s the s o i l s grade to Gleyed Mini or Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.17).  These  s o i l s occur in receiving positions or on north aspects at the highest elevations (above 1900 M), where late snowmelt keeps the s o i l s moist for long periods.  On imperfectly to poorly drained s i t e s along stream channels  and in receiving p o s i t i o n s , the s o i l s show a s u f f i c i e n t increase in organic matter to grade from Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols to Gleyed Mini FerroHumic Podzols.  These moister s o i l s  are very strongly to extremely a c i d ,  with moderately high organic matter contents. s a t u r a t i o n , but s t i l l  They have a low base  contain moderate amounts of cations because of i n -  creased cation exchange capacity.  They have moderately high nitrogen  contents, but low available phosphorus.  Phosphorus f i x a t i o n probably  results  from moist conditions, extreme a c i d i t y and large amounts of iron and aluminum (see table  5.3).  In areas where the morainal materials are excessively coarse textured s o i l development is limited to an accumulation of organic material within a bouldery skeleton.  These s o i l s  have been c l a s s i f i e d as Orthic Regosols.  As in the lower elevation morainal materials, the well drained s o i l s have lower forest c a p a b i l i t i e s , while the moister s i t e s have higher forest c a p a b i l i t i e s and higher erosion hazards. Colluvial  Forested c o l l u v i a l s o i l s are coarser textured (vgls) and more  well drained than topographically corresponding morainal s o i l s , the s o i l  developments and s o i l  chemical properties are s i m i l a r .  however, Most of  Terrain Soi 1 Ev Mb OHFP #10 •  &  Depth  cm  3-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  H o r i zons  LF Ahe B f h Bfh IIBC IIBC IIC IIC  Texture  gi gsi vgsl vgsl  BD  gm/cirr 0.12 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6  FF  CEC meq/lOOgm  PH  %  50 ~ 40 . 40 40  4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9  .  28.6 22.7 11.0 4.5  BS  C/N  GLMHFP • #9  2-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  LF Bfh Bfh IIBfh IIBfh IIBfg  0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100  Ah IIBm I I C IIC R R  gsil gsl vgsl vgsl  0.10 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.5  4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.6  60 60 50 40  30.7 26.9 21.1 17.3  30.8 3.82 2.78 1.05 0.25  . 2 ' 1 2 : 2  .  5 4 3 3  •  24 32 31 24 12  . .  22.8 5.65 4.57 . 2.96 2.44  28 18 . . 18 • 16 17  Totals Cv ALDYB #2 Totals  gsl vgls vgls  1.4 1.4 1.6  50 40 40  '  4.0 4.6 4.7  23.1 9.4 4.6  2 <1 <1  Mg  Na  kg/ha  Totals Ev Mb  Ca  %  9.35 1.29 0.56  18 '. 12 14  47 165 117 62 32  62 12 12 18 41  3 40 10 22 13  3 12 5 3 2  1 7 9 11 4  423  145  88  25  32  116  17 511 "• 429 . 248 210  31. 11 12 11 13  1 370 281 121 132  3 34 26 12 11  1 19 19 13 10  2 71 58 27 .18  1415  78  905  86  62  176  82 68 96  98 47 0  19 2 0  246  145  21  892 518 51  1461  3 56 32 19 6  123 7 0  12  130  T e x t u r e r e f e r s t o t h e d o m i n a n t h o r i z o n ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e L F H ' s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s (L 0 . 0 6 g m / c m 3 , F 0 . 1 5 g m / c m 3 , H 0 . 1 8 g m / c m J ) ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m measured v a l u e s (see t a b l e s 4.1 and 5 . 1 ) ; Ph f o r t h e L F H ' s a r e 1 : 4 w a t e r a n d 1:1 w a t e r f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; N i s t o t a l K j e l d a h l ; P , C a , M g , Na a n d K a r e t o t a l v a l u e s f o r t h e L F H ' s ; P i s e x t r a c t a b l e i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; C a , M g , Na a n d K a r e e x c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s .  Table 5.3 Nutritional properties of selected ..soils from the Engelmann SpruceSubalpine F i r Zone of the Grassy Creek study area. . .;  Figure 5.17  Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from morainal materials (gsMb).  these c o l l u v i a l s o i l s occur'on the north slope of the Grassy Creek area and are c l a s s i f i e d as Mini o r O r t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols.  On southerly aspects-  and c o l l u v i a l veneers these s o i l s grade to r a p d i l y drained O r t h i c and L i t h i c Dystric B r u n i s o l s , and L i t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols.  Forest c a p a b i l i t i e s  on the c o l l u v i a l s o i l s are low due to a r e s t r i c t e d growing season and a lack of a v a i l a b l e moisture. On north aspects above 1900 M i n e l e v a t i o n the closed f o r e s t gives way to subalpine parkland.  The s o i l s associated with the subalpine vegeta-  t i o n communities are well to moderately well drained Sombric Ferro-Humic Podzols.  These s o i l s have developed from morainal and e o l i a n m a t e r i a l s , as  well as c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s .  They are very strongly a c i d with large  accumulations of organic matter.  Their chemical properties include an  extremely low base s a t u r a t i o n and high amounts of e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n and  Figure 5.18  Southern aspects at high elevations near Grassy Mountain. Note the grass and herb dominated vegetation types associated with shallow c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s . The forested areas are mainly morainal m a t e r i a l s .  103 aluminum (mainly aluminum).  Their nitrogen content i s moderate, and  available phosphorus varies inversely with extractable iron and aluminum. Shallow c o l l u v i a l materials occuring on steep high elevation southern aspects without forest cover are dominated ,by herb and grass communities (see disclimax in figure. 3.14 and 5.18).  The s o i l s associated with these  vegetation communities are rapidly drained L i t h i c Alpine Dystric and moderately well drained Alpine Dystric Brunisols.  Brunisols  These s o i l s are  extremely acid with a well developed Ah horizon and very low base saturation.  They have low amounts of extractable iron and aluminum and moderate  amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.(see  table 5.3).  These areas have no  forest c a p a b i l i t i e s and are generally unsuitable for road location because of t h e i r shallow depth to bedrock.  MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS * *  LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS  V a l l e y Area and Biogeoclimatic Zone  CSSC 4228  SEv gsNb  431 4318 611  bMb  ESSF cold soil temperature class  Cb (Cv)  Cv (Ev)  GLK.FHP OHFP OR  Lv F^b FA  t  5  6  40  5E  5E  la  eS, a l F  subhumid  IA  2C.  4D  5E  2S  eS,  alF  subaquic  2B  3C'  40  5E  la  eS,  alF  subarid  IA  2B  3C  4C  6MP  IP  humid  IA  2B  . 3C  4D  3M  eS,  IP  subaquic  . IA  2B  4C  5D  2S  eS,  alF  semiarid  IA  2C  40  5E  5MR  . IP,  L0DY3.  subarid  IA •  2C  40  5E  5MR  IP  subhumid  18  2C  4D  5E  7MR  semiarid  IB  3C  40  5E  7MR  subaquic  3C  40  5E  5E  7HR  IA  2B  40  5E  7R  aquic  3C  40  5E  5E  lb  wP,D,wC,gF,eS  subhumid  IA  2C  40  5E  1  wP,wL,D,3P,gF,wH  GLOHFP  subaquic  28  3C  4D  5E  la  wP,wL,D,gF,(wC,wH)  541  ODYB  semiarid  IA .  2C  4D . 5E  2M  wL.D.lP  4329  LMHFP  semiarid  IA  2C  40  5E  4MR  wL.O.lP  subhumid  IA  2B  3C  40  3MP  wP.wL.D.lP.gF.wH  subaquic  IA  2B  4C  50  2S  wP.D.wCgF.eS*'  MHFP  subhumid  IA  2C  40  5E  3MP  WP.wL.D.lP.gF.wH  4328  GLMHFP  subaquic  3C  40  5E  5E  2R  wP,D wC,gF,eS  4329  LMHFP  semiarid  IA  2C  4D  5E  5MR  wL.D.lP  5439  LALDYB  semiarid  IB  3C  40  5E  7MR  subarid  IA  2C  40  5E  2M  wL.D.lP  semiarid •  IB  3D  4E  5E  1  wL.D.lP  semiarid  IB  2C  3D  5E  1  wL.D.lP  subaquic  2C  3D  4E  5E  • la  sandy  aquic  3C  4D  5E  5E  lb/4W  3C  40  5E  5E  7W  ALDYB  4223  431(2) (M)OHFP 4328 432  loamy s k e l e t a l  GLHFHP.  431(2) (M)OHFP ' 4318  loamy s k e l e t a l  LALDYB Gran Rock  FGt  4  3C  LMHFP  Oil  Cv (Ev.Mv)  1-3  aquic  S419  IA  •  fragmental.  Moisture  4329  SMFKP  Cb (Cv)  fragmental'  Recorr.ended Species  Forest C a p a b i l i ty  Class  GLOHFP  423  gsMv  loamy s k e l e t a l  GLOHFP  Ev  (gs.".v)  Particle-Size  Slope  4318  543  SEv gsKb  cool and c o l d . soil temperature classes  (1974)  431(2) (H)OHFP  5439  IWH and minor IWH-ESSF transition  S o i l Family C r i t e r i a *  S o i l Subgroups  Terrain Unit  Surface E r o s i o n Mass Wasting  GLMHFP  432  MHFP  432  MHFP  431  OHFP  4318  GLOHFP  5428.  C-LOGDYB  loamy s k e l e t a l  loamy s k e l e t a l fragmental  loamy s k e l e t a l  sandy s k e l e t a l sandy s k e l e t a l over coarse loamy sandy  Eb  4228 . GLKFHP  coarse s i l t y  aquic  Hb(EB)  4324  PKHFP  loamy s k e l e t a l  huirid  IA  2C  40  5E  Cv(EB)  4329  LMHFP  fragmental"  subarid  IA  2C  40  5E  3D .  • 5KR  IA  001  Gran Rock  IA  28  40  5E  7R  EB  002  Sed Rock  IA  ' 28  4D  5E  7R  eS  +  +  >  w?,D,wC,gF wP,D,wC,gF  . wP,wL,D,lP,Qr,wH wL.0,1?  * S o i l c l i m a t e i s given w i t h the b i o g e o c l i m a t i c subzones, a l l j i i n e r a l o g i e s are mixed, a l l r e a c t i o n s are a c i d ; •Hear the ESSF boundary above KOOm; * * s e e Chapter 6  Table 5.4 Characteristics'and management interpretations for mapping units in the Grassy Creek study area.  105  CHAPTER 6  6.1  MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS  '  Introduction Soil  interpretations are abstractions of s o i l  information, drawn from the  relationship between a p a r t i c u l a r management p r a c t i c e or land use and a selected l i s t of relevant s o i l properties.  Based on a s o i l ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with r e -  spect to those selected properties, the s o i l can be grouped with other s o i l s predicted to display s i m i l a r responses to a p a r t i c u l a r management p r a c t i c e . For example, the s o i l s described in t h i s study have been placed into seven response groups (classes) based on t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y to grow commercial trees. All  the s o i l s in any one class w i l l produce a s i m i l a r volume of wood/hectare/  year, but are not necessarily s i m i l a r in other respects.  It  is possible to  complete this process for every conceivable management p r a c t i c e , however i t must be an ongoing task as old practices are superseded and new ones evolve. Soil  interpretations are a valuable tool to the land manager, because they  simplify and present relevant s o i l  information necessary f o r developing res-  ponsible land management plans. Rather than rating each s o i l  f o r i t s response to a l l management practices  in use today, i t was decided to rate the s o i l s for forest c a p a b i l i t y and s o i l erosion, leaving the evaluation of s p e c i f i c management practices to the land manager himself, as the need a r i s e s .  These should be completed by someone  f a m i l i a r with the land use in question, in consultation with a s o i l  scientist.  Each management practice w i l l have to be evaluated as to i t s probable a f f e c t s on the s o i l  in general, before responses can be predicted from each s o i l  in the study areas.  found  Many of the potential practices may be evaluated on the  basis of t h e i r e f f e c t s on s o i l erosion (both surface erosion or mass wasting) as this is generally the most serious s o i l management problem, however, .they  106  may also require more d e t a i l e d information on s p e c i f i c s o i l properties which can be found in the p r o f i l e descriptions,and laboratory results found in the B. C. Soil 6.2  Data F i l e .  Mass wasting potential Mass wasting i s the downslope movement of earth materials under the force  of gravity.  Mass wasting includes a variety of phenomena ranging from large  scale landslides involving m i l l i o n s of cubic meters of earth, to the imperceptibly slow downslope movement of s o i l materials c a l l e d s o i l creep (see figure 6.1).  The most common types found in steep mountainous t e r r a i n with  steep slopes are f a i l u r e s c a l l e d debris avalanches and debris flows 1971,.0'Loughlin 1972, Utzig and Herring 1975). shallow permeable s o i l materials on r e l a t i v e l y steep slopes  (Swanston  These often originate  in  (less than 2m deep), under saturated conditions,  (greater than 50%).  Rotational  failures called  slumps can develop in deeper, more homogenous materials  (generally f i n e  textured and saturated), even on slopes as low as 20%.  These failures, r e s u l t  in a loss of productive land base, damage to roads and structures, and severe sedimentation problems.  The interpretations presented here w i l l  indicate  which s o i l s have a greater or lesser potential for mass wasting and what degree of additional planning and/or investment may be necessary to overcome these l i m i t a t i o n s . The potential f o r mass wasting of any p a r t i c u l a r area is determined by the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and gravitational strength and shear s t r e s s .  forces as they a f f e c t shear  Two factors which modify the relationship between  the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the gravitational the presence of ground water.  forces are the slope angle and  The strength c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s o i l are the  r e s u l t of f r i c t i o n a l and cohesive forces acting between the s o i l  particles.  107  F r i c t i o n a l resistance i s a function of p a r t i c l e size and angularity, compaction, and the e f f e c t i v e weight of the s o i l .  soil  Cohesion is primarily the  r e s u l t of the sticky nature of clay p a r t i c l e s (also c e r t a i n chemical cementing agents, e.g. calcium carbonate, or external factors such as root systems). r e l a t i v e l y dry s o i l s ,  In  increased clay content greatly increases shear strength  through cohesion, however when saturated the cohesion is l o s t .  In s o i l s where  f r i c t i o n a l forces are predominant, saturation reduces shear strength by separating the s o i l p a r t i c l e s and reducing the e f f e c t i v e s o i l weiqht throuqh a buoyancy a f f e c t .  Shallow s o i l s over an impermeable layer have r e s t r i c t e d  drainage, and are more susceptible to saturated conditions.  The impermeable  boundary also offers a zone of weakness, or a probable shear plan^ angle controls the proportions of the gravitational to the shear stress and shear strength.  The slope  forces which contribute  As the slope angle increases, shear  stress increases, while the f r i c t i o n a l resistance decreases due to a decrease in the e f f e c t i v e weight ofvthe s o i l .  SOIL RATING CHARACTERISTICS  Soil Properties Slope  Class 1 0  [%)  Increasing Mass Wasting Potential -  Drainage  rapid  Texture (fine f r a c t i o n )  loam - loamy sand  Coarse fragments  . . . abundant  Depth to impermeable layer  deep ( >5m)  Table 6.1  -  30 well  •-  -  -  50  moderately well - sand  angular . u bouldery -  -  Class 5 -  imperfect  -  poor  clay -  silt  -  clay loan  -  rounded n gravelly  -  absent  -  shallow  (<lm)  moderate  Evaluation table for mass wasting potential  -  70+  108  Based on the s o i l  properties necessary to determine the above f a c t o r s ,  the s o i l s of the study area have been placed into f i v e classes of r e l a t i v e potential for mass wasting. Table 6.1.  The s o i l properties considered are shown in  When evaluating the probable response of the s o i l to a management  p r a c t i c e , the p r a c t i c e i t s e l f should be examined as to i t s affects on factors which may enhance the mass wasting p o t e n t i a l .  These include:  disruption of  subsurface or surface drainage, vegetation removal, addition to the s o i l weight, and removal of adjacent support. The classes Class 1:  are described below:  These s o i l s  have none to very s l i g h t potential for mass wasting.  They are well drained, coarse textured s o i l s on slopes less than 10%. Class 2:  These s o i l s o f f e r a s l i g h t potential f o r mass wasting.  They are deep  coarse textured s o i l s of variable drainage and well drained f i n e textured s o i l s , Class 3:  These s o i l s  located on slopes under 30%.  have a moderate potential for mass wasting but w i l l o f f e r  few l i m i t a t i o n s given reasonable planning and care in management. They are predominantly deep, well to rapidly drained s o i l s on slopes of 30 to 50%, but also include some moderately well to imperfectly drained, fine textured s o i l s on 10 to 30% slopes. Class 4:  These s o i l s  have a high potential for mass wasting and i f disturbed  may require special engineering measures to maintain t h e i r natural stability.  They are well to rapidly drained, deep, coarse textured  s o i l s on 50 to 70% slopes, and imperfectly to poorly drained fine textured s o i l s on slopes of 30 to 50%. Class 5:  These s o i l s  have extremely high potential for mass wasting and many  109 of them have exhibited natural i n s t a b i l i t y in the past.  They  are p r i m a r i l y rocky, shallow s o i l s on slopes in excess of 70%, or poorly drained fine textured s o i l s on slopes over 50%. Because of t h e i r severe l i m i t a t i o n s , any planning in such areas should include" consultation with a soils-engineering 6.3  specialist.  Surface erosion potential Surface erosion is the detachment and subsequent transport of s o i l  p a r t i c l e s by running water. or r i l l  It  commonly results in the formation of  gullies  complexes (see figure 6.2), but may be more subtly present as sheet  erosion (the removal of a thin layer of s o i l over an extensive area). Surface erosion can r e s u l t in the loss of the s o i l  resource, a decrease in  s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y , damage to roads and s t r u c t u r e s , and a reduction in water quality or stream q u a l i t y as i t i s important to the f i s h e r i e s resource downstream.  Interpretations  for surface erosion indicate which s o i l s o f f e r the  greatest potential f o r surface erosion, and thus where more planning or investment w i l l be necessary to l i m i t s o i l erosion accompanying any p a r t i cular land use. The potential f o r surface erosion depends on s o i l properties and surface  water  ment transport.  properties as they relate to p a r t i c l e detachment and s e d i I n i t i a l detachment may r e s u l t from raindrop impact alone,  or from the forces associated with water flowing in channels.  Detachment  by raindrops depends primarily on r a i n f a l l i n t e n s i t y , while detachment by channel erosion depends on the volume, v e l o c i t y , flow depth, and turbulence characteristics of the water course.  In both raindrop splash and channel  erosion slope angle plays a major role by increasing the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f p a r t i c l e s to detachment, and increasing the velocity of flow. Regional  climate influences runoff i n d i r e c t l y through various  including:  p r e c i p i t a t i o n as t o t a l amount, seasonal  factors,  distribution,  Figure 6.1  Swept trees r e s u l t i n g from s o i l creep on a steep c o l l u v i a l slope (Templeton R i v e r ) .  Figure 6.2  Severe g u l l y erosion i n kame materials r e s u l t i n g from poor road construction (Grassy Creek).  Ill  and form (snow vs. r a i n ) ; temperature as related to snowmelt and evapotransp i r a t i o n ; and storm i n t e n s i t i e s .  High i n t e n s i t y summer r a i n f a l l events can  be an important f a c t o r , "however spring snowmelt or rain-on-snow phenomena are probably the most c r i t i c a l  c l i m a t i c events (see sections 3.1.4 and 3.2.4).  The resistance of s o i l p a r t i c l e s to detachment w i l l vary with t h e i r texture and cohesive properties.  Generally, f i n e r s o i l p a r t i c l e s have less  resistance to detachment, however s o i l s with moderate amounts of clay and organic matter develop secondary aggregates made up of f i n e r p a r t i c l e s ( i . e . s o i l s t r u c t u r e ) , which r e s i s t detachment similar to coarser p a r t i c l e s . Shallow s o i l s over an impermeable layer w i l l have reduced i n f i l t r a t i o n c a p a c i t i e s , and tend to provide a larger volume of water f o r overland flow. Vegetative cover and forest f l o o r s reduce raindrop impact, and increase cohesion through rooting action.  Sediment transport is inversely proportional  to p a r t i c l e s i z e , and d i r e c t l y proportional to stream v e l o c i t y and volume. Certain management practices may disrupt natural drainage patterns, concentrate flow, or produce long unbroken stream channels which greatly enhance sediment transport. Based on the p r i n c i p l e causes of surface erosion, and the inherent properties of the s o i l s themselves, the s o i l units of the two study areas were placed into f i v e classes of r e l a t i v e surface erosion p o t e n t i a l . evaluating any management practice with regard to surface erosion,  When  its  potential for exposure of mineral s o i l , disturbance of surface drainage patterns, and ground water interception should be considered. factors considered in rating the s o i l classes are described below.  The primary  units are shown in Table 6.2, and the  112  Soil  SOIL RATING CHARACTERISTICS  Properties  Class A  Increa£irj^£^  Slope (35)  0  . 10  Texture  rubbley  -  -  20  gravelly  -  cobbley - coarse sands Structure  strong massive  -  Class E  loam  30  -  -  platy  weak -  Depth to impermeable layer  deep (>5m)  -  moderate  -  Forest f l o o r thickness  deep (>10cm)  -  moderate  -  Class A:  s i l t loam -  silts  granular  rapid  Table 6.2  50+  -  Infiltration  -  -  clay - loamy sand - f i n e sands  moderate blocky,  -  moderate  structureless -  single  grain  -  slow shallow  shallow  (<lm) (<lcm)  Evaluation table f o r surface erosion potential These s o i l s  have none or very s l i g h t potential for surface erosion.  They are coarse textured, well to r a p i d l y drained, and have slopes less than 30%. Class B:  These s o i l s have only s l i g h t surface erosion p o t e n t i a l s .  They may  be coarse textured, well to r a p i d l y drained, and have slopes  less  than 50%, or be f i n e r textured s o i l s with slopes less than 10%. Class C:  These s o i l s  have a moderate surface erosion p o t e n t i a l , requiring  reasonable care and attention to avoid s o i l l o s s through drainage disruption or surface disturbance. soils  They may be coarse textured  on 50 - 70% slopes or f i n e textured s o i l s with moderate to  poor drainage on 10 - 30% slopes.  113  Class D:  S o i l s in t h i s group have a high potential for surface erosion, and will  require well planned drainage structures and minimal disturbance  to maintain the s o i l resource.  These are excessively steep rock  and coarse textured s o i l s , and fine textured s o i l s on 30 - 50% slopes.  Class E:  These s o i l s have an extreme potential f o r surface erosion, and w i l l require special care to prevent serious erosion.problems i f they are disturbed.  Consultation with a soils-engineering s p e c a l i s t  recommended before any. use is i n i t i a t e d .  is  They are fine textured  s o i l s with r e s t r i c t e d drainage on moderately steep to steep slopes (>50%). 6.4  Land c a p a b i l i t y f o r forestry Forest c a p a b i l i t y as defined under the Canada Land Inventory  (C.L.I.)  program, i s an evaluation of the inherent a b i l i t y of an area of land to grow commercial timber (McCormack 1972).  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was determined in  the C.L.I, program by i n i t i a l l y separating the land surface into r e l a t i v e l y homogenous units on the basis of physical parameters recognizable on a e r i a l photgraphs, and then sampling a variety of these units to determined t h e i r a b i l i t y to produce commercial trees.  Mean annual increment (at or near ro-  tation age) of the tree species adapted to the s i t e is used as a measure of productivity.  The range of potential forest productivity is divided into  seven classes, with a number of subclasses to indicate major l i m i t a t i o n s tree growth.  to  "The assignment of each unit to a class is on the basis of a l l  known or i n f e r r e d information about the u n i t , including s u b s o i l , s o i l p r o f i l e ,  114  depth, moisture, f e r t i l i t y , landform, climate and vegetation." 1972, p. 3).  (McCormack  /  Using a l i m i t e d number of measurements of tree productivity and available information from the B.C.D.A. Soil-Landform mapping, the s o i l units of the study area were assigned C.L.I, forest c a p a b i l i t y ratings.  Because of the  l i m i t e d data base, the designated classes provide only a r e l a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of productivity and should be further f i e l d checked before being used as absolute values of p r o d u c t i v i t y . soil ,  1imitation(s)  Capability subclasses,  of each s o i l  i n d i c a t i n g the dominant  u n i t , can a s s i s t the land manager in making  decisions on the merit of various tree growth enhancement practices f e r t i l i z a t i o n , spacing, or thinning)  for p a r t i c u l a r forest  The tree species recommended for each s o i l to achieve the best growth on those s o i l s .  sites.  unit are those species  likely  Those tree species within parentheses  are acceptable, however growth can be expected to be s l i g h t l y others.  (e.g.  less than the  There are undoubtedly other tree species which w i l l inhabit these  areas, but t h e i r growth i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than those l i s t e d in the table. The classes, subclasses, Capability Class 1:  and t r e e abbreviations are summarized below.  classes: Lands having no important l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial forests.  The s o i l s are deep, medium textured, well to poorly drained,,  have good water holding capacity and are naturally high i n f e r t i l i t y . Their topographic position is such that they frequently receive seepage and nutrients from adjacent areas.  They are not subject  to extremes of temperature or evapo-transpiration. is usually greater than 7.8 m /ha per annum.  Productivity  The class has been  115  subdivided on the basis of productivity into Class 1 (7.8 to 9.1 m /ha), Class l a /(9.1 to 10.5 m /ha), and Class lb (10.5 to 11.9 3  3  m /ha).  -  3  Class 2:  Lands having s l i g h t limitations to the growth of commercial  forests.  S o i l s are deep,, well drained to poorly drained, of medium to f i n e texture, and have good water holding capacity. limitations  The most common  ( a l l of a r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t nature) are:  adverse  cli-  mate, s o i l moisture d e f i c i e n c y , somewhat low f e r t i l i t y , and the cumulative e f f e c t s of several minor s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Produc-  3 t i v i t y is usually from 6.3 to 7.8 m /ha per annum. Class 3:  Lands having moderate l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial forests. S o i l s may be deep to somewhat shallow, well drained to imperfectly drained, of coarse to medium texture with moderate to good water holding capacity.  The most common l i m i t a t i o n s are adverse climate,  r e s t r i c t e d rooting depth, moderate deficiency or excess of s o i l moisture, and somewhat low f e r t i l i t y .  Productivity is usually from  3 4.9 to 6.3 m /ha per annum. Class 4:  Lands having moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial forests.  S o i l s may vary from deep to moderately shallow, from rapid  to poor drainge, from coarse through fine texture, from good to poor water holding capacity, and from good to low f e r t i l i t y .  The most  common l i m i t a t i o n s are moisture d e f i c i e n c i e s caused by t h e i r texture, s t r u c t u r e , or rooting depths.  They occur on l e v e l , sloping, or  undulating topography where there is l i t t l e or no influence of seepage water within the rooting zone. 3 . 3.5 to 4.9 m /ha per annum.  Productivity is usually from  116  Class 5:  Lands having severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial  forests.  S o i l s are frequently shallow to bedrock, stoney, excessively or poorly drained, of coarse texture, may have poor water holding c a pacity, and be low in natural f e r t i l i t y . tions  (often in combination) are:  moisture, shallowness  The most common l i m i t a -  deficiency or excess of s o i l  to bedrock, adverse climate, and excessive 3  stoniness.  Productivity is usually from 2.1 to 3.5 m /ha per  annum. Class 6:  Lands having very severe l i m i t a t i o n s to the growth of commercial forests.  The s o i l s  are frequently shallow, stony, excessively  drained, of coarse texture and low in f e r t i l i t y . limitations  (frequently in combination) are:  The most common  shallowness  to bed-  rock, deficiency in s o i l moisture, stoniness, low natural f e r t i l i t y , and a short growing season.  The productivity is usually less  than  3 2.1 m./ha per annum Class 7:  Lands having severe l i m i t a t i o n s which preclude the growth of commercial forests.  S o i l s are extremely shallow or non-existent,  excessively drained or almost continuously saturated, or a c t i v e l y eroding.  The most common l i m i t a t i o n s are shallowness  to bedrock,  low temperatures and short growing season, regular snow avalanching, 3 or active erosion.  Productivity is usually less than 0.7 m /ha  per annum. Capability  Subclasses:  A - drought or a r i d i t y caused by aspect, landform position or exposure, climate, or a combination of these. H - accumulations of deep snow or a short, cool growing season, or both. M - s o i l moisture d e f i c i e n c i e s a t t r i b u t a b l e to s o i l and land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  117  W - an excess of s o i l moisture, other than that caused by inundation. D - physical r e s t r i c t i o n to rooting caused by dense or consolidated l a y e r s , other than bedrock.  -  R - r e s t r i c t i o n of the rooting zone by bedrock. P - stoniness which affects forest density or growth. E - unstable land, areas of active erosion and mass wasting, or snow avalanche tracks. S - a combination of s o i l  f a c t o r s , none of which a f f e c t the class level by  themselves, but which cumulatively lower the c a p a b i l i t y class (used most often with Class 2 ) . Tree species wC  Thuja  D  Pseudotsuga  alF  Abies  plicata menziesii  lasiocarpa  (Western Red Cedar) (Douglas F i r ) (Subalpine  Fir)  gF  . Abies  wH  Tsuga  aL  Larix  lyallii  (Alpine Larch)  wL  Larix  occidentalis  (Western Larch)  IP  Pinus  contorta  (Lodgepole Pine)  wP  Pinus  monticola  (Western White Pine)  whP  Pinus  albicaulis  eS  Picea  engelmanni  grandis heterophylla  (Grand F i r ) (Western Hemlock)  (Whitebark Pine ) (Engelmann  Spruce)  118  CHAPTER 7 RECONNAISSANCE MAPPING COMPARISON 7.1. Objectives There were two primary objectives of t h i s portion of the study:  to  compare the reconnaissance land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n completed by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture (B.C.D.A.) and the -more detailed land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n completed by the author; and an evaluation of the results to determine potential causes f o r disagreement.  The comparison and evaluation  include t e r r a i n features (landforms)  development as designated on  and s o i l  corresponding maps f o r Templeton River and Grassy Creek.  7.2  Procedures The comparison was i n i t i a t e d by expanding the 1:50,000 scale B.C.D.A.  soil-landform maps (see figures 7.1 and 7.2)  to a scale of 1:15,840.  These  maps were then o v e r l a i d with the author's s o i l maps and transferred unto the 1:8,000 photo base maps for a more d e t a i l e d comparison.  The proportions of  the total map area represented by each B.C.D.A. map u n i t were measured with a planimeter on maps of 1:50,000 scale prepared by B.C.D.A., however, the percentages of the author's units within each B.C.D.A. unit were v i s u a l l y estimated on the 1:8,000 scale photo maps onto which B.C.D.A. mapping units had been plotted.  These percentages were determined using grid counts, and  checked by two independant workers.  From the percentage agreement determined  f o r each B.C.D.A. mapping u n i t , a weighted average f o r the total map area was c a l c u l a t e d , based on the r e l a t i v e proportion of the total each map unit represented.  Templeton River, Lardeau Map Sheet 82K (Wittneben 1978).  \120  Figure 7.2  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture preliminary s o i l s and landform mao for Grassy Creek, Nelson Map Area 82F (Jungen et a l . 1978).  121  Where B.C.D.A. mapping units are complexes which extend beyond the map area considered here, they could conceivably be weighted to accommodate adjacent areas.  This occurred in only two units in/each area, and in each case  maximum possible agreement was assigned.  P o s s i b i l i t i e s bf disagreement due to  the use of d i f f e r i n g s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  were also examined (Grassy Creek  B.C.D.A. - 1970 C.S.S.C.; Templeton River, B.C.D.A. - 1973 C.S.S.C. r e v i s i o n ; the author--1974 C . S . S . C ) .  The author's s o i l s were also c l a s s i f i e d according,  by the 1970 C.S.S.C. and 1973 r e v i s i o n , and compared with the 1974 C.S.S.C. The changes r e s u l t i n g were l i m i t e d to a few horizons which did not a f f e c t the assessment of mapping agreement.  Certain differences in landforms and s o i l s  were not considered s i g n i f i c a n t enough to be considered at t h i s l e v e l , and were consequently ignored.  For example, morainal and f l u v i a l landforms with Ev and  ECv were considered equivalent to those without cappings, and minor s o i l deviations such as MHFP vs OHFP, DGDYB vs ODB, BIGL vs BRGL, etc. were ignored. The delineation of B.C.D.A. soil-1andform mapping units for Templeton River and Grassy Creek are shown in figures 7.1 and 7.2, respectively. B.C.D.A. mapping unit designations,  the author's corresponding  The  designations,  and the results of the comparison are presented in tables 7,1 and 7-2.  7.3  Results and  Discussion  The results demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the two study areas with regard to the overall percentage agreement.  In Templeton River the  percentage agreement i s 60% for landforms and 40% for s o i l subgroup  designations.  In Grassy Creek the percentage agreement for landforms is 77%, and for s o i l s 65%. The greater disagreement in Templeton River is emphasized when one considers the map area under 2100m in e l e v a t i o n , where most land use a c t i v i t i e s would take place (units 1.10). 31% for  soils.  The agreement i s reduced to 50% for landforms, and  122  MAPPING UNIT N O . *  % OF MAP AREA  B.C.D.A.  MAPPING UNITS  TERRAIN" "  %  1  80 20  S0IL  AUTHOR'S MAPPING U N I T S 0 + +  1  2  Gt Td  2  1  Tc  OGL(BRGL)  3  1  Ts"  OEB(ODYB)  4  2  Gt  OEB(ODYB)  5  3  C/R Ts  6  5  C/R  60 40  OEB(ODYB) OGL(OEB)  ODYB(OEB) OEB  LODYB(ODYB)  TERRAIN"*"*"  %  S0IL++  %  Ev/Mr FGt FAt  50 30 .• 10  BRGL OHFP GOR GLBRGL  50 20 10 10  FGt Ev/Mr FAt  50 40 10  BRGL OHFP GLOHFP  50 40 10  Ev/Mb FGt  50 50  OHFP BRGL  50 50  50 40 <10  OHFP BIGL BIOHFP ODYB  30 20 20 10  60 30 10  ODYB LODYB BIGL OEB  50 20 10 10  ECv/Mb FGt FAt  ECv/Mb Cv Cb  '  Ca Cb/Mb Cv R  60 20 410 <10  OEB OR ODYB LODYB  40 30 20 <10  ECv/Mb Cb R FGt  60 20 10 OO  RJOHFP OHFP .LOEB BIGL rock  in 20 10 10 10  7  9  Ts  8  6  C/R  ODYB(OHFP)  Cb R Cv  60 20 10  LOEB OHFP LODYB rock DGDYB  30 30 20 10 10  9  16  Cr  OR(ODYB)  Ca ECv/Mb ECb/Mt  60 20 10  OR talus OHFP ODYB  30 20 20 10  10  3  C/R  LODYB(ODYB)  Mb Cb Cb/Mb FGAf  40 30 10 10  OHFP DGDYB rock  50 30 10  52  R Cr C/R  R Cv Mr Ca  40 20 20 10  rock 40 m o r a i n e 20 r o c k g l a.10 talus OO LFO OO ALDYB OO  •11  ;  .  OEB(ODYB)  50 30 20  • rock OR DGMB(0 DYB)  Weighted A v e r a g e s * *  *See F i g u r e 7.1' * * W e i g h t e d by t h e % o f t h e map a r e a +See A p p e n d i x 3 f o r d e f i n i t i o n s ° T o t a l s may be l e s s  AGREEMENT  (%)  TERRAIN  SOIL  100  0  50  40  50  0  50  20  80  60  20  30  60  10  20  40  60  40  10  30  70  50  60  41  ++See F i g u r e s 4 . 1 a n d 4 . 7 f o r l e g e n d s t h a n lOOt due t o s m a l l u n i t s n o t shown  Table 7.1 Mapping unit comparisons f o r Templeton River study area.  123  MAPPING UNIT NO.*  B.C.D.A. MAPPING UNITS  % OF MAP AREA  TERRAIN  C/R  R  9  1  5  2  3  5  4  28  5  +  %  80  20  C/R  C/R  8  Ts  80  C/R  20  Ts  60  C/R  40  Cv R Ev/Mb Cb  %  S0IL  + +  0  %  50, 30' CIO 10  OHFP LALDYB  40 30 30  Cb Mb Cv R  30 30 20 20  LALDYB GLMHFP -OHFP MHFP  rock  20 10 20 10  20  Ev Cv Cb Mv  30 40 10 . . 10  MHFP LMHFP LALDYB  50 30 10  rock  OHFP(OFHP, SMHFP) OHFP(LHFP)  Ev/Mb Eb/Mb Cv  80 10 <10  OHFP GLOHFP GLMFHP MHFP  40 20 20 10  0HFP(0FHP, SMHFP) OHFP(LHFP)  Ev/Mb Cv Cb  70 10 .10  MHFP OHFP GLMFHP GLOHFP  30 30 20 10  LHFP(OHFP)  Cv Cb Ev/Mb.  40 20 30  MHFP LSMHFP LALDYB  60 10 10  j>  in  i.  m  AGREEMENT TERRAIN  (%) SOIL  80  60  .30  30  90  70  90  60  80  70  50  30  70 .30  OHFP OHFP(LHFP)  Ev/Mb Cv Cb  70 20 10  OHFP MHFP LSMHFP  60 30 10  100  100  C/R Ts  60 40  OHFP(LHFP) OHFP  Ev/Mb Mv  90 10  MHFP GLMHFP GLMHFP  60 20 20  40  70  Ev Cv Mv  50 40 10  LMHFP MHFP GLMHFP  50 30 20  100  80  OHFP(LHFP) OHFP(BIHFP)  Cv Ev/Mb  50 50  OHFP LMHFP PMHFP  40 30 20  90  90  OHFP OHFP  Ev/Mb Ev/FGt FGb FAt  50 30 10 10  GLMFHP GLMHFP MHFP OHFP GLDGDYB  20 10 30 30 10  80  60  Ev/FGt  100  MHFP  100  100  TOO  77  65  10  .8  9  9  1  C/R  1.  C/R Ts  70 30  70 30  .  LHFP(OHFP)  rock  ++  Ts C/R  7  10  TERRAIN  LHFP(OHFP)  C/R  •  S0IL  SMHFP(ALDYB)  12  6  AUTHOR'S MAPPING UNITS + +  11  11  Gm Ts  12  1  Gm  . LHFP(OHFP)  OHFP  .  Weighted A v e r a g e s * *  * S e e - F i g u r e 7.2 **Weighted by the * bf the.map area See Appendix 3 f o r d e f i n i t i o n s T o t a l s , m a y be l e s s  S e e - F i g u r e s 5.1 and 5.7 f o r legends than 100% due to small u n i t s nnt shown + +  Table 7.2 Mapping u n i t comparisons f o r Grassy Creek study area.  124  The differences between Templeton .River and Grassy Creek in overall  agree-  ment are primarily a r e s u l t of the contrasting physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two v a l l e y s .  Templeton River o f f e r s ah extremely heterogeneous environment  with respect to t e r r a i n features and s o i l development.  It  has a complex g l a c i a l  history t y p i c a l of the Purcell Mountains, where each v a l l e y system has experienced a unique sequence of g l a c i a l resulted  advances and r e t r e a t s .  This has  in a unique d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e r r a i n features in each v a l l e y system,  and decreases the r e l i a b i l i t y of extrapolating t e r r a i n information from one area to another. glacial  The presently active c o l l u v i a l processes have also modified ?the  landscape to a point where i t is not  e a s i l y recognizable.  The variety  of sedimentary rock types occurring in the Templeton River Valley and t h e i r d i s t i n c t physical and chemical properties have also contributed to complexity of the resultant t e r r a i n features.  The v a r i a b i l i t y of s o i l development  from a complex interaction of environmental factors including:  results  bedrock,  topography, c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n , vegetation, geomorphic history, and presently a c t i v e slope processes  (e-g. snow avalanching and s o i l  creep).  In contrast, Grassy Creek is located in the Southern Selkirk Mountains which have experienced a more uniform c o n t i n e n t a l - t y p e g l a c i a t i o n .  Rather than  the series of advances and retreats which occurred in alpine glaciated  terrain,  deglaciation in the Grassy Creek areas was dominantly downwasting of stagnant blocks of i c e , with few local source areas. with r e l a t i v e l y uniform regional  This deglaciation pattern, combined  bedrock, and l i m i t e d post-glacial  a c t i o n , has made the Southern Selkirk Mountains quite suitable for  colluvial reconnaissance  mapping and extrapolation of t e r r a i n information from one area to another. Because the Grassy Creek area is dominated by t e r r a i n features of a f a i r l y uniform texture and chemical composition, s o i l development can be r e l i a b l y predicted on the basis of regional climate and topographic p o s i t i o n , once the t e r r a i n features are accurately i d e n t i f i e d .  125  The B.C.D.A. mapping r e l i e s heavily on interpretation of a e r i a l photographs  (1:63,360 scale) f o r delineation of landform mapping units.  During completion of the B.C.D.A. map sheets covering the study areas (N.T.S. map sheets 82K and 82F), f i e l d work was severely limited by poor access and time constraints.  Numerous small v a l l e y systems, including the  study areas received no f i e l d checking at a l l J . Jungen and U. Wittneben 1974).  (personal  communication  An examination of factors s i g n i f i c a n t  to  a e r i a l photographic interpretation revealed added contrasts between the two study areas.  Templeton River i s dominated by slopes in excess of 50% (22°)  with maximum r e l i e f of 1,800m, while Grassy has slopes averaging 25% (11°), and maximum r e l i e f of 800m.  V e r t i c a l exaggeration on 1:63,360 airphotos  is  quite severe in Templeton River, limiting recognition of features in the valley bottom.  Increased r e l i e f also plays a r o l e in determining the significance of  aspect, which is further emphasized by the east-west orientation of Templeton River.  Vegetative cover i s another important tool f o r airphoto interpretation,  assuming i t r e f l e c t s primarily c l i m a t i c and edaphic conditions.  The use of  vegetative cover is l i m i t e d in both areas by f i r e h i s t o r y , and further in Templeton by severe snow avalanching on the south aspects and s e l e c t i v e logging in the v a l l e y bottom. I d e a l l y , a more detailed mapping project should delineate a number of smaller mapping units which would be s i m i l a r to those units described at the reconnaissance l e v e l , d i f f e r i n g only where mapping inclusions were i d e n t i f i e d . Mapping disagreement should be limited to approximately 20%, assuming both mapping projects were accurately describing the landscape (a difference in precision only).  The discrepancies shown in tables 7.1 and 7.2, however, would  seem to indicate that accuracy may be less than optimum.  This comparison  126  technique cannot be considered an absolute measure of mapping accuracy, but rather as a r e l a t i v e comparison of mapping agreement, from which 1imited conclusions about accuracy can be drawn.  Because of the extensive number of  ground checks completed during the.more detailed mapping, i t i s presumed to be a reasonable standard f o r comparison, but i s by no means considered a completely accurate r e f l e c t i o n of the t e r r a i n and s o i l features e x i s t i n g  in  nature (see Chapter 8). The high level of agreement found in Grassy Creek implies that the accuracy of the reconnaissance t e r r a i n and s o i l mapping in that area is well within acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y l i m i t s  ( e s p e c i a l l y when reconnaissance mapping  inherently implies a lower r e l i a b i l i t y ) .  This does not mean that an accurate  reconnaissance map presents the same information that a more detailed one does.  Increased precision of the more d e t a i l e d mapping allows presentation  of more complete d i s t r i b u t i o n information on individual t e r r a i n features and soils.  This is accomplished through increased map scale and the use of a  lower categorical level of landscape c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (e.g. C/R of the B.C.D.A. system includes Cv, Mv, Ev, and parts of Cb, Mb, and Eb of the more d e t a i l e d mapping, each of which could have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t management implications).* The lower values of agreement in the Templeton River area imply a reduced level of accuracy f o r the reconnaissance mapping in that area.  Ideally, i f two  maps have the same level of cartographic generalization (i.e. s i m i l a r scales) and similar l e v e l s of taxonomic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ; increased landscape complexity  *These gains in information can be r e l a t i v e l y c o s t l y , however, as i t i s estimated the more detailed mapping was ten to twenty times more expensive on a per hectare basis. Because the more d e t a i l e d mapping was experimental, costs would probably be reduced for an operational project.  127  in one map area should r e s u l t in a corresponding increase in the number of mapping units or complexed mapping units for that area.  Even though the  Templeton River area is s l i g h t l y larger than the Grassy Creek area, there i s one less mapping u n i t , and only half as many mapping unit complexes. again i l l u s t r a t e s a s a c r i f i c e in accuracy.  This  The inaccuracy of the  reconnaissance mapping has resulted from a number of related mapping problems: a)  landscape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which l i m i t the interpretation of t e r r a i n features on  b)  reconnaissance a e r i a l  photographs  a high level of landscape complexity which increases the p o s s i b i l i t y of mapping e r r o r  c)  heterogeneous regional  pattern of t e r r a i n features which  l i m i t s the extrapolation of f i e l d observations d)  procedural constraints of cartographic and taxonomic levels which l i m i t accurate presentation of observed landscape complexity  If a given taxonomic level i s considered necessary f o r the user, and an acceptable level of accuracy is to be maintained, then the minimum acceptable cartographic level w i l l be determined by the most complex mapping areas.  In  the case of the B.C.D.A. mapping in Templeton River, accuracy may have been s a c r i f i c e d to maintain predetermined cartographic and taxonomic l e v e l s .  The  levels set for the reconnaissance project as a whole were too general to meet the requirements of the. Templeton River area.  In contrast the author's more  detailed cartographic and taxonomic l e v e l s were determined by the Templeton River area.  This has resulted in f a i r l y large units in Grassy Creek, where  the f i n a l scale of map presentation could have been reduced to f i t the less complex landscape.  '  128  This comparison demonstrates the .inherent problems in applying a uniform mapping methodology (with l i m i t e d ground checking) over wide areas with d i f f e r i n g landscape complexities.  I n i t i a t i o n of any mapping program should  always include an evaluation of anticipated complexity through use of e x i s t i n g information (bedrock, s u r f i c i a l geology, vegetation patterns, climate, e t c . ) , and/or ground checking of complex areas.  If map scales cannot be  adjusted to accommodate varying complexity, then concentrated f i e l d work should be used to maintain accuracy at a reasonable l e v e l .  129  CHAPTER 8 - SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STUDY 8.1  Study Description-. The mapping procedures described in the previous sections have become  t r a d i t i o n a l f o r most land inventories.  Landscape units are subjectively  synthesized by the mapper, and are subsequently sampled in areas which typify the mappers concept of the mapping unit.  The basis on which the  mapper subdivides the landscape i s primarily determined by the objectives of the mapping project and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or conceptual framework in which the mapping is c a r r i e d out.  The effectiveness of t h i s  process  depends on the working scale, complexity of the t e r r a i n , time constraints, . presence or absence of recognizable natural landscape breaks, and the mapper's personal a b i l i t y and experience.  In an attempt to evaluate the  effectiveness of the author's mapping, systematic sampling was completed on a portion of the map area.  A comparison of these results, with the land-  scape features described on the maps w i l l give a measure of map r e l i a b i l i t y and homogeneity within selected map u n i t s .  8.2  Methods Following completion of the majority of the mapping, two areas con-  taining a representative range of landscape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within the Templeton River study area were chosen for the sampling comparison figure 8.1).  (see  A grid system was employed to determine the exact position  of the systematic sampling points  (see Chapter 2 for d e t a i l s of layout).  131  At each of the 31 sampling points a two man crew with no p r i o r s o i l s experience dug a 1 metre s o i l p i t .  They were given no instructions on,  choosing the exact sampling point in terms of microtopography or representativeness, only that the holes be as close to the g r i d points as possible.  Subsequent to completing the sampling and airphoto i n t e r p r e -  tation for Templeton River as a whole, the author v i s i t e d each grid point, completing a f u l l for laboratory 8.3  analysis.  p r o f i l e description and sampling each horizon  *  Results and Discussion The r e s u l t s of the s o i l sampling and description at each grid point  are summarized in tables 8.1 and 8.2 under the columns headed "Measured Results".  F u l l p r o f i l e descriptions and results of the laboratory analysis  are stored within the B. C. Soil  Data F i l e , Climate and Data Services,  Ministry of the Environment, Resource Analysis Branch.  In adjacent columns  the author's t e r r a i n and s o i l mapping unit designations  for each grid point  are given, along with the units presented on the B.C.D.A. soil-landform maps. In mapping units which were complexed, the member which most c l o s e l y corresponded to the grid point determination was used.  Because of the  smaller scale and reduced precision on the B.C.D.A. maps, any unit within 100m of a g r i d point was considered as a possible i n d i c a t o r of the s o i l or landform at that point (± .25cm on the 1:50,000 map).  The author's t e r r a i n  mapping units are in agreement with the actual conditions at the grid points in 80% of the cases, while the B.C.D.A. landform mapping was in agreement at about 60% of grid points. * In addition a vegetation plot was completed by R.K. Jones; tree heights, ages, and diameters were c o l l e c t e d by Forest Service Inventory personnel. An examination of the relationship between s o i l , vegetation, and forest p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l be c a r r i e d out in the future.  GRTD POINT  TERRAIN  1.0  gSECv gSKb  1.1 1.2  gSECv  1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  2.7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  SOIL DEVELOPMENT  BRGL  SLOPE CLASS  4 4 '4  SOIL DRAINAGE  KM  SOIL TEXTURE  TERRAIN  SOIL DEVELOPMENT  MW  gi  Ts  OEB  4.  BRGL  3  m  gi  Ts  OEB  4  gsil si cl vgs  $Ev gFGt  OHFP  4  W  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  gsil vgsl  SEv gFGt  OHFP  4  U  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  gsil' vgls  SEv gFGt  OHFP  4  W  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  gsil vgs  SEv gFGt  OHFP  4  W  gsil vgs  Ts  OEB  4  OHFP  4  W  gsil vgs  Gt  ODYB  3  ODYB  6 4  4  w  SEv gFGt  BIGL  4'  w  SE-' gFGt  BIGL  3  . w  SEv gFGt  OHFP  1  u  gsil vgs .  SEv gFGt  gFGt-F  ODYB  R  vgsl  gFGt-F  vgls  qSFCv gMb  gsil vgls  g$ECv gMb  BRGL*  gsil vgls  gSEcv gMb  gsil vgls  R  vgsl  Gt  ODYB  6  W  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  5  4  W  gsi vgls  Ts  OEB  5  BRGL*  4  W  gjil vgTi"  Ts  OEB  4  gSECv gMb  BRGL*  4  w  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  BRGL*  4  w  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  4  MW  sil vgsl  Ts  ODYB  5  gsil vgls  Ts  ODYB  4  gsil vgls  Ts  OEB  4  C/R  ODYB  4  C/R  ODYB  4  Ts  OEB  5  '  BIGL*  gSECv gf-sb  BIGL  gSECv gMb  BRGL  5  w  S$ECv  BRGL  4  w  gSECv gMb  BRGL  4  w  gSECv grt>  BRGL  4  w  gsil vgls  g$ECv gMb  SEv gsMr  BRGL  5  w  vqsi 1 vgls  SEv gsMb  SEv gFGt  ODYB  4  w  gsil vgls  SEv gFGt  OHFP  4  w  gSECv gMb  BIGL  4  w  gSECv gMb  BIGL*  4  w  LODYB  3  g ss li lI vgls  R  gsil Vgls  gSECv  LODYB*  3  R  KHFP  3  R  gsil vgl  gSECv  LODYB  3  R  OEB  5  w  vgsil  gSECv CL  OEB  4  W  gSECv gSECv  SLOPE CLASS  3  BIGL  gSECv  SOIL  BRGL  oSECv gMb  w  TERRAIN  g$Mv gFGt  gSECv SLv gFGt  6 5  SOIL TEXTURE  gsil  GLBRGL  MW  SOIL ' DRAINAGE  g$Mv gFGt  gST5~  MW  SLOPE CLASS  gsil  BRGL  gMb  B.C.O.A. MAPPING UNITS  AUTHORS MAPPING DESIGNATION  MEASURED RESULTS  ,.  BRGL  '  1  vgsil vgsil gsil  *complexed mapping u n i t  Table 8.1 A comparison between the systematic sampling r e s u l t s and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid I south aspect).  AUTHORS MAPPING  MEASURED RESULTS GRID POINT  1  TERRAIN  SOIL DEVELOPMENT  SLOPE CLASS  SOIL DRAINAGE  SOIL TEXTURE  TERRAIN  SOIL DEVELOPMENT  B . C . D.A. MAPPING UNITS  DESIGNATION  SLOPE CLASS  SOIL DRAINAGE  SOIL TEXTURE  TERRAIN  1 1  SOIL  SLOPE CLASS  1.0  9Ff  DGDYB  3  W  vgsl  gFf  DGDYB  vgsl  Ts  OOYB  4  qSECv gSKb  GLBIOHFP  4  MJ  qsil  q$ECv gMb  BIOHFP*  3 4  W  1.1  W  gsil vgsl  Ts  ODYB  4  1.2  qSECv gMb  BIOHFP  5  W  vgsil  gSECv gMb  BIOHFP*  4  W  gsil vgsl  Ts  ODYB  . 5  1.3  qSECv •gMb  BRGL  4  W  gsil vgsl  qSECv gMb  BIOHFP*  4  W  gsil vgsT  C/R  ODYB  4  1.4  qSECv  OHFP  4 '  W  gsil vgsl  g$ECv gMb.  OHFP*  4  U  gsi 1 vgsl  C/R  OH'FP  4  1.5  qSECv gsMb  GLOHFP  4  m  gsi 1 vgsl  g$ECv gsMb  OHFP*  4  MW  gsil vgsl  C/R  ODYB  4  2.0 2.1  bSFt  GLMFHP  bsil  bsr^t  GLMFHP*  GLMHFP  3 5  P  gcMb  VP  _gl ..... gscl  qSECv gMb  OHFP*  2.2  oSECv gMb  BIOFHP  4  u  gsil vgsl  q$ECv gMb  2.3  gs:cv  BIOHFP  4  w  gsil vgsl  2.4  qSECv gMb  5  w  A  2.5  qSECv gMb  1  .  . .DGDYB BIOHFP  4  gv  gsr  m  2 ' 4  P  bsil  Ts  ODYB  4  W  gsil vgsl  Ts  ODYB  5  BIOHFP*  4  u  gsil vgsl  Ts  ODYB  4  gSECv gMb  BIOHFP*  4  w  • gsi 1 vgsl  Ts  ODYB .  A * T  gsil vgsl  q$ECv gMb  OHFP*  4  u  Cr  ODYB  5  q$ECv gMb  BIOHFP*  Cr '  ODYB  vgsl  '  ' c o m p l e x e d mapping  Table 8 , 2 A comparison between: the systematic  w  4  vgsl gsil vgsT  '  unit  sampling results and the  mapping units designated at each grid point  (Grid II'north aspect).  -  4  134  The s o i l development, as indicated by the author's map, was in agreement in 65% of the cases and the s o i l associations map agreed at 20% of the grid points.  indicated by the B.C.D.A.  The additional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  slope, drainage, and texture show a s i m i l a r range of agreement between 65% and 80% for both the author's and the B.C.D.A. map.  Ttiese figures  indicate an overall map r e l i a b i l i t y of approximately 70% f o r the gridded area for the 1:15,840 s c a l e , and 50% or less for the 1:50,000 map scale. The disagreements between mapping designations  and the conditions  a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n g on the ground have arisen primarily from three potent i a l mapping problems discussed below.  The most serious reason for d i s -  agreement" is one of mapping inaccuracy, where the mapper has made an incorrect mapping unit designation.  Unless i t r e s u l t s from a lack of  a b i l i t y , i t i s most commonly the r e s u l t of an attempt to extrapolate ground t r u t h from selected sampling areas into areas with only airphoto interpretation.  These types of errors are most common in reconnaissance  surveys and are the cause of the reduced r e l i a b i l i t y of reconnaissance information.  In order to successfully extrapolate s o i l  information, the  mapper has to develop a conceptual model of how s o i l s r e l a t e to recognizabl airphoto patterns  (e.g. landforms and vegetation).  In the case of the  B.C.D.A. information in the gridded area, the airphoto interpretation of landforms was f a i r l y good (65%), however the conceptual model which attached s o i l developments to the landforms was inadequate (only 20% correct). The second reason for disagreement at any one point can be improper unit boundary l o c a t i o n .  These can r e s u l t from careless mapping, inherent  cartographic l i m i t a t i o n s  (airphoto to map p l o t t i n g e r r o r , small scales, etc  135  or the gradational  q u a l i t y of many natural boundaries.  In this case  the  mapper has c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the landscape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p a r t i c u l a r area, but he has f a i l e d to accurately define i t s geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n . This problem i s i l l u s t r a t e d at grid point .'I boundary should have included t h i s point.  1.3, where the morainal  The C horizon does show some  waterworking, i n d i c a t i n g a t r a n s i t i o n to the adjacent g l a c i o f l u v i a l Grid point I U l  unit  is located in a t r a n s i t i o n a l area between the - 7 ^ F t  unit. and the  G  adjacent terminal moraine (rMr). The remaining g r i d points which do not agree with the mapping designations  are a r e s u l t of i n c l u s i o n s , or areas within a mapping unit  that cannot be defined at the scale of mapping being used.  If the inclusions  are recognized and they represent a sizeable portion of the mapping u n i t , but are too c l o s e l y associated to be separated by a boundary, the mapping unit can be complexed.  In detailed surveys a map unit may include up to 15% of  i n c l u s i o n s , and reconnaissance surveys may include s i i g h t l y more (up to 20%). Inclusions of s o i l s with d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in mountainous t e r r a i n are the r e s u l t of numerous factors including:  windthrow, faunal or anth.ro-  pedoturbation, slope i n s t a b i l i t y , surface erosion, or inherent landscape variability. In a d d i t i o n , the results of the objective sampling suggest that c e r t a i n types of landforms and c l i m a t i c regimes can create more complex s o i l environments than others.  This w i l l decrease mapping unit homogeneity, and  may increase inclusions beyond normally acceptable l i m i t s . morainal landforms in Grid areas I and II  Areas mapped as  had correct t e r r a i n  at 90% of the grid points, and correct s o i l designations points.  forming  designations  at 70% of the  The degree of mapping unit agreement indicates a r e l a t i v e l y uniform  and predictable s o i l forming environment within the morainal mapping u n i t s .  1 3 6  The cases of disagreement were due to minor inclusions of morainal materials with contrasting textures.  These modified s o i l drainage suf-  f i c i e n t l y , to change s o i l development into associated subgroups, rather than those designated on the map (Grid points II  1.1, 2.1, and 2.4).  In contrast, the g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials located in Grid I o f f e r a highly variable complex of textures and slopes.  Within the g l a c i o f l u v i a l  mapping units t e r r a i n designations were correct at 55% of the grid points, and s o i l development at only 45% of the points. fluvial  The complexity of g l a c i o -  landforms demonstrated here is a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of the  t r a n s i t i o n a l environment in which they are formed.  Melting g l a c i a l  ice  and the i n s t a b i l i t y of recently deposited sediments provide constantly fluctuating deposition environments and hydrologic regimes.  Morainal,  f l u v i a l , and l a c u s t r i n e materials can be intimately associated on complicated topographic features of terraces, k e t t l e s , and ridges. In an area of cool dry climate such as Templeton River, with mixed deciduous-coniferous forest and acid to calcareous bedrock, the inherent v a r i a b i l i t y of g l a c i o f l u v i a l development i n c l u d i n g :  t e r r a i n can r e s u l t in a wide range of s o i l  B r u n i s o l i c , Bisequa, and Gleyed Gray L u v i s o l s ;  Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols; Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols; Dystric and Eutric Brunisols; and Regosols.  Grid points I 1.0 and I 1.1 are Brunisolic  Grey Luvisols developed in inclusions of Mb; I 1.2 is Gleyed Brunisolic Grey Luvisol developed in a g l a c i o f l u v i a l  deposit with a lacustrine lense;  I 1.4 and I 1.5 have minor l a c u s t r i n e inclusions  s u f f i c i e n t to develop  Bt horizons and are Bisequa Grey Luvisols; and I 2.7 does not have s u f f i cient extractable Fe and Al to be c l a s s i f i e d as a Podzol.  Mapping  r e l i a b i l i t y could be improved by making the s o i l s on the g l a c i o f l u v i a l  137  deposits a complex of Othic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Bisequa Grey L u v i s o l s , or by separating grid points I 1.3, as  I 1.4, and I 1.5 into a unit designated  , with Bisequa Grey Luvisols. The number of grid points located in f l u v i a l and c o l l u v i a l landforms  are not s u f f i c i e n t to draw any firm conclusions, however, they appear to be s i m i l a r to the morainal material in terms of homogeneity and mapping reliability.  138  CHAPTER 9  DISCUSSION OF RESULTS .•  9.1  '  Mapping Procedures and the Interpretation of Aerial Photographs The mapping methods used in t h i s study have combined limited ground  checking with i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e r r a i n and s o i l photographs (see Chapter 2).  information from a e r i a l  This procedure has become generally accepted  for most land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping projects in Western Canada, where data c o l l e c t i o n i s of a reconnaissance or semi-detailed nature, and on-site mapping is limited by poor access or rugged t e r r a i n (e.g. Hawes 1969, Holland et a l . 1976, Lavkulich 1973, Lord and  Green 1974, e t c . )  Because some t e r r a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are d i r e c t l y observable as photo-patterns, t e r r a i n type recognition on a e r i a l photographs can be f a i r l y reliable.  Where vegetation is poorly developed d i r e c t l y observable charac-  t e r i s t i c s may include:  surface expression, texture (depending on coarseness  and scale of photography), and actual t e r r a i n feature (bedrock, t a l u s , f l o o d plains, etc.).  The close r e l a t i o n s h i p between surface expression and genesis  greatly increases the r e l i a b i l i t y of t e r r a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Other charac-  t e r i s t i c s used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e t e r r a i n types necessitate the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of correlated photo-patterns. Soil c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not d i r e c t l y observable on a e r i a l  photographs,  and therefore, require at least one level of abstraction from the photo-patterns which are d i r e c t l y v i s i b l e .  Because s o i l  properties are often correlated with  other components in the landscape which are discernable as elements of photopattern, i t is possible to predict various s o i l properties by observing other features.  This procedure necessitates the development of a conceptual model  which relates s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to v a r i a t i o n in those components of the landscape which form discernable photo-patterns.  The successful  application of  139  such a model, however, requires not only s u f f i c i e n t ground checking to define the model but also to e s t a b l i s h the l i m i t s of i t s  applicability.  The results of the reconnaissance mapping comparison and the systematic sampling study (see Chapters 7 and 8 ) , both demonstrate lower values of r e l i a b i l i t y for the s o i l mapping compared to the t e r r a i n mapping.  These  .result p a r t i a l l y from the increased d i f f i c u l t y of a e r i a l photographic i n t e r pretation of s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  They are also the result of inadequate  conceptual model for s o i l unit extrapolation and a poor match between the taxonomic level of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the mapping scale. The r e l i a b i l i t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g s o i l  information from a e r i a l  photographs  can vary with degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v i s i b l e photo-patterns.  Areas where vegetation is in a serai stage, v i s i b l e vege-  tation patterns may r e f l e c t recent f i r e history and seed a v a i l a b i l i t y rather than edaphic f a c t o r s .  Obvious patterns, such as snow avalanche t r a c k s , may  obscure fine slope patterns which indicate the actual nature of the s u r f i c i a l materials. Reliable interpretation of s o i l features from a e r i a l photographs requires a knowledge of landscape complexity.  also  The reconnaissance mapping  comparison and the systematic sampling studies have shown that some t e r r a i n types are l i k e l y to be more variable than others.  A mapper must be cognizant  of t h i s , and use t h i s knowledge to set his p r i o r i t i e s for f i e l d checking.  If  r e l i a b i l i t y is to be consistent throughout a mapping area, more complex areas demand more f i e l d work.  In t h i s study approximately 50 percent of the s o i l  units in each area were observed on the ground, and 10 to 20 percent of the boundaries were v e r i f i e d (see figures 2.1 and 2.2).  Fortunately the most  complex areas, the v a l l e y mouths and v a l l e y f l o o r s , had the best access and, therefore, received the most ground checks.  140 9.2  Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  9.2.1  Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  „  This study has shown that the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (ELUC Secretar.  /  i a t 1976) can be applied at d e t a i l e d scales of mapping, p a r t i e u l a r i l y i n areas where terrain complexity is s u f f i c i e n t l y great.  The Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  System is not defined as a hierarchical system, however, the options to use a number of m o d i f i e r s , some at varying levels of generalization (e.g. texture, slope c l a s s , s t r a t i g r a p h i c information), allows the system to be applied at various mapping s c a l e s .  Where t e r r a i n complexity is moderate, such as Grassy  Creek, the maximum applicable scale is about 1:30,000 or 1:50,000.  In areas  where terrain complexity is great, such as Templeton River, the system can be applied at scales up to 1:10,000. 9.2.2  Soil  Classification  The s o i l map units defined within the study areas are not as detailed a taxonomic level as o r i g i n a l l y planned at the outset of the project. are the s o i l map units s o i l individuals as discussed i n Chapter 1.  Rarely  Most often  they consist of c l o s e l y associated groups of i n d i v i d u a l s , equivalent to a phase of a s o i l family, or complexes of s o i l  families.  The s o i l family of the C.S.S.C. (1977) is one level of generalization above the s o i l s e r i e s ( i . e . the taxonomic s o i l cently been developed.  Soil families are subdivisions of s o i l  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the basis of: and s o i l climate.  i n d i v i d u a l ) , and has only r e subgroups,  p a r t i c l e s i z e , mineralogy, r e a c t i o n , depth,  S o i l series are subdivisions of s o i l families with c l o s e l y  defined l i m i t s of numerous s o i l properties (e.g. texture, structure, mottling, consistence, horizon sequence, depth, and concentration of soluble  salts).  Soil phases are functional s o i l units outside of the system of taxonomy, which  141  can be defined at any categorical l e v e l .  These are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the  i  basis of s o i l and landscape properties that are not used as d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i a in the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system or selected d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used at more detailed categorical The s o i l 4.5 and 5.4.  levels.  family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for each map unit are given in tables Phase c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of slope, s o i l texture, s o i l drainage amd  non-soil features *(bedrock, t a l u s , i c e , etc.) are presented on the s o i l maps (see figures 4.7, 4.8, 5.5, and 5.6).  The t e r r a i n complexity of the Templeton  River study area makes mapping of s o i l  series i m p r a c t i c a l , i f not impossible,  at scales smaller than 1:10,000.  In less complex areas such as Grassy Creek,  s o i l families could be mapped at a scale of 1:31,680, and possibly s o i l  series  at 1:10,000; however, the cost of ground checking f o r series could be p r o h i b i t i v e for forest management purposes. Soil f a m i l i e s appear to be a useful level of the C.S.S.C. for mapping in forested mountainous, t e r r a i n . .  Their level of generalization is  sufficient  for most f o r e s t land management, which tends to be less intensive than a g r i c u l tural land management.  Where more s p e c i f i c information i s necessary  (e.g.  slope, t e x t u r e , f e r t i l i t y , e t c . ) , i t can be included as s o i l phases, without requiring the d e t a i l e d f i e l d work necessary to define s o i l s e r i e s .  The use  of s o i l series could be r e s t r i c t e d to more intensive use areas (townsites,  road  c o r r i d o r s , research s i t e s , e t c . ) where increased costs would be j u s t i f i e d . 9.3  Data Presentation  9.3.1  Soil  Reports  Data presentation is one of the most, i f not the most, important steps of any resource inventory, and often that which is most neglected.  The p r i -  mary f a u l t of most inventories is the lack of coordination with the eventual user of the information.  The f i n a l report of a s o i l  inventory should present  142  information on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s area, the relationships between the s o i l s  present in an  and other landscape components, and  the potential responses of the s o i l s to various management p r a c t i c e s . This report has used maps and legends to display the kinds of s o i l s t e r r a i n types, and t h e i r geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n in each study area. tables, landscape cross-sectional  and  Summary  diagrams, and written discussion have been  used to present information on the environmental relationships between the s o i l s and various landscape components.  Interpretations  for s o i l erosion and  forest c a p a b i l i t y are discussed in Chapter 6, and summarized in tables and 5.4.  Interpretations  for s p e c i f i c management options  4.5  (e.g. skidder logging,  s c a r i f i c a t i o n , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , septic f i e l d s , e t c . ) have not been included, because management techniques are continually evolving as new situations  for  application a r i s e .  spec-  The land manager working in conjunction with a s o i l s  i a l i s t may prepare more s p e c i f i c interpretations as the need a r i s e s , based on an evaluation of the proposed management p r a c t i c e s in l i g h t of s o i l  information  presented here. 9.3.2 Map Unit Symbols The map unit symbols used f o r both the t e r r a i n maps and the s o i l maps are connotative symbols, derived from two land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems:  Terrain  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (ELUC Secretariat 1976) and the Canadian System of Soil Classification  (C.D.A. 1974).  and a series of modifiers.  Both types of symbols employ a primary symbol  The central feature of the t e r r a i n unit symbol  defines the primary genetic process of the t e r r a i n unit.  The unit may then be  further defined by employing modifiers describing texture, surface expression, slope c l a s s , and additional process q u a l i f i e r s .  143  The numerator of the s o i l unit symbol designates the s o i l subgroup and the denominators describe s o i l texture, s o i l drainage, and s l o p e c l a s s . ;  Both of these systems allow f o r complexing map units where the mapping scale does not allow the seperation of individual map units.  The s o i l mapping  symbol allows f o r the complexing of whole map unit symbols, or only that portion of the symbol which is not consistent throughout the mapped polygon where d i s t i n c t slope breaks are the only v a r i a b l e , only the slope class  (e.g. is  complexed; where there is a gradual t r a n s i t i o n between two s o i l subgroups on a r e l a t i v e l y uniform landscape, only the s o i l subgroup symbols are complexed). These types of connotative symbols allow the map user to grasp a large amount of information about a mapping unit without the use of an extended legend or accompanying explanatory tables.  The complexity of the symbols, however,  l i m i t s the map presentation s c a l e , and increases d r a f t i n g costs.  This type  of symbol is best suited to map areas where adjacent map sheets w i l l be completed over a sequence of years or by a number of surveyors.  With the use of  these types of symbols interim maps can be made a v a i l a b l e before completion of the whole survey area, and before the s o i l families or series are a c t u a l l y defined. 9.3.3  Map Presentation Two kinds of base maps have been employed in t h i s study:  a e r i a l photographic (photo-maps).  planimetric and  The photo-maps used in this study are en-  largements of a e r i a l photographs o r i g i n a l l y produced at a scale of 1:63,360. Photography at a scale of 1:15,840 was a v a i l a b l e , however, i t s use required the production of complex mosaics f o r each area (approx. 12 photographs per area).  Use of the smaller scale photography allowed the Templeton River study  144  area to be enlarged from one photograph, and Grassy Creek from a mosaic of two photographs.  Planimetric maps are projections of the earth's surface,  which maintain a constant-horizontal scale throughout the projected area. The planimetric base maps used in the study were supplied by the B.C.  Forest  Service Inventory D i v i s i o n , with 1:15,840 scale a e r i a l photograph center-points preplotted. In contrast to the  planimetric base, the photo-maps provide a d i r e c t  image of landscape v a r i a b i l i t y through observable differences in contrast, tone, and density.  These photographic q u a l i t i e s may be interpreted in terms  of vegetation, landform, bedrock geology, hydrologic phenomena, or cultural features.  This allows the user to e s t a b l i s h his f i e l d position r e l a t i v e to  any of these discernable features (most often vegetative, even individual trees at d e t a i l e d s c a l e s ) , and to v i s u a l l y recognize relationships between these features and the s o i l map units.  The major disadvantage of photo-maps  is t h e i r scale v a r i a b i l i t y caused by radial d i s t o r t i o n i n areas with moderate to high r e l i e f .  Photo-maps which are not corrected f o r scale cannot be used  for accurate distance or area measurements.  A second disadvantage i s the tem-  porary nature of vegetative cover due to events such as f i r e , logging and natural succession.  In forested t e r r a i n , where vegetation is the most readily  observable feature, photo-maps are most useful in areas with r e l a t i v e l y complex and stable vegetation patterns. Planimetric base maps can present a variety of information through the use of mapping symbols and explanatory legends.  Most importantly they can  present r e l i e f through the use of topographic l i n e s , but also hydrologic  145  phenomena, cultural features, and others as desired.  However, on simple black  and white prints these additional features are generally depicted by.line symbols which can i n t e r f e r e , and hence reduce the l e g i b i l i t y of the primary data present a t i o n ( s o i l map units in this case).  The user's a b i l i t y to locate his f i e l d  position w i l l be limited by the contour i n t e r v a l , his a b i l i t y to determine his e l e v a t i o n , and his l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to other features presented on the map base (see figures 2.1 and 2.2 for examples of contour l i n e s ) . It would seem that to maximize the information level and minimize i n t e r ference, a combination of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two base maps is most preferable. A base map suitable f o r s o i l , or other resource inventory information, could consist of:  a low density (70% screen) a e r i a l photographic mosaic with con-  t r o l l e d scale; and white contour l i n e s with the contour interval being the maximum possible to display the topographic patterns.  The s o i l , or other r e -  source information, could then be presented using dense black lines and symbols (100% screen), making the map unit boundaries and symbols c l e a r l y discernable against the gray and white photographic base.  146  CHAPTER 10  CONCLUSIONS  The conclusions drawn from t h i s study are l i s t e d below with reference to the questions raised while setting the objectives f o r the study. a)  What level of the Canadian System of Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (C.S.S.C.) is suitable f o r d e t a i l e d mapping of forested mountainous terrain? The s o i l family (C.S.S.C. 1976) is a useful taxonomic level f o r detailed  mapping in forested mountainous t e r r a i n .  This level of s o i l  classification  is not as homogeneous as the s o i l series ( i . e . the s o i l i n d i v i d u a l ) . i f selected phase c r i t e r i a  (e.g. slope and texture) are used to define the  s o i l mapping u n i t s , the s o i l family level management questions.  However,  is suitable for answering most forest  In areas of forested mountainous t e r r a i n the s o i l  is of limited value f o r mapping at reasonable scales.  series  In areas of moderate  s o i l complexity (e.g. Grassy Creek), s o i l series may be mappable at scales of 1:10,000 or l a r g e r , however, in more complex areas (e.g. Templeton River) s o i l series are not mappable even at scales of 1:10,000.  In forested mountainous  t e r r a i n s o i l f a m i l i e s or phases of s o i l families may be mapped at scales o f 1:10,000 to 1:30,000.  b)  Can the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System be applied at a d e t a i l e d level  in  forested mountainous terrain? The Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System, as employed in t h i s study is applicable at d e t a i l e d mapping scales (approx. 1:20,000) in areas where t e r r a i n complexity is s u f f i c i e n t to warrant i t s use (e.g. Templeton River). In areas of moderate t e r r a i n complexity (e.g. Grassy Creek) the system is better suited to mapping scales of 1:30,000 to 1:50,000.  The mapping units  defined by the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System are useful f o r making engineering  147  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , f o r elaborating geomorphic h i s t o r y , and as a p r e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the landscape f o r s o i l mapping ( i . e . defining s o i l parent m a t e r i a l s ) . c)  How do differences in landscape complexity and topography a f f e c t inventory results? Landscape complexity should be considered in conjunction with the  objectives of a mapping project to determine the proper combination of taxonomic and cartographic l e v e l s of generalization necessary to meet those objectives. Areas of increased complexity require a larger mapping scale than areas of low complexity f o r a given level of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Complex areas w i l l require more  f i e l d checking to maintain an equivalent level of mapping r e l i a b i l i t y . Topography a f f e c t s inventory r e s u l t s primarily through i t s influence on interpretation of a e r i a l photographs.  Topographic expression i s a highly  useful photo pattern, however, excessive r e l i e f can become a severe l i m i t a t i o n on small scale a e r i a l photographs with increased v e r t i c a l exaggeration.  Failure  to consider v a r i a t i o n in landscape complexity i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t in low mapping r e l i a b i l i t y in more complex landscapes.  d)  What is the r e l i a b i l i t y and r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the mapping units presented? Use of a systematic  sampling system on a limited portion of the mapping  areas has shown that r e l i a b i l i t y in that portion in approximately 70% f o r the t e r r a i n mapping and 65% for the s o i l mapping.  G l a c i o f l u v i a l mapping units  are less homogeneous than morainal units (limited sampling indicates that c o l l u v i a l units are s i m i l a r in homogeneity to the morainal u n i t s ) . r e l i a b i l i t y of s o i l mapping than t e r r a i n mapping'results  The lower  from the greater  d i f f i c u l t y i n t e r p r e t i n g s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from aerial photographs.  This  type of information i s useful for determining taxonomic and cartographic for mapping projects and setting p r i o r i t i e s f o r f i e l d checking.  levels  148  e)  How does the d e t a i l e d mapping completed in this study compare with reconnaissance soil-landform mapping in the same areas? A mapping comparison has shown that mapping agreement between the  detailed and reconnaissance mapping projects i s v a r i a b l e , depending on t e r r a i n complexity and topographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mapping areas.  The l i m i t e d  disagreement in the Grassy Creek study area is primarily a r e s u l t of differences in mapping p r e c i s i o n .  The increased disagreement in the Templeton River study  area cannot be accounted for by differences in precision alone. results from the i n a b i l i t y to present accurate t e r r a i n and s o i l  It  also  information  in complex landscapes, at the taxonomic and cartographic l e v e l s chosen for the reconnaissance survey.  Terrain complexity and increased r e l i e f made accurate  interpretation of t e r r a i n and s o i l features from reconnaissance aerial photographs extremely d i f f i c u l t .  Landscape complexity must be considered when  determining taxomonmic and cartographic levels for a mapping project and planning necessary f i e l d checking.  Accuracy evaluation should also be an  integral part of every major survey. f)  What types of data presentation are useful in reporting detailed mapping of forested  landscapes?  Data presentation should emphasize the relationships between various landscape components and t h e i r potential intersections with management practices.  Maps employing controlled aerial photographic base maps with  topographic l i n e s are useful for presenting geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of landscape components.  Cross-sectional  diagrams accompanied by tables and written  descriptions are e f f e c t i v e tools f o r presenting relationships between various landscape components.  149  g)  What management interpretations should accompany such an inventory? This report has not included s o i l  interpretations for s p e c i f i c management  p r a c t i c e s , but rather presented the s o i l s ' production.  potential f o r erosion and forest  As the need arises more s p e c i f i c interpretations may be completed  by the land manager, who is f a m i l i a r with the impacts of the proposed p r a c t i c e s , in conjunction with a s o i l presented here.  s p e c i a l i s t f a m i l i a r with the s o i l  information  150  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bernier, B. 1968. Descriptive outline of f o r e s t humus-form c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Proceedings of the 7th meeting of National S o i l Survey Committee (NSCC) of Canada, p. 139-154, (mimeo). Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1974. The System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. Canada Department of Agriculture Publication #1455. Ottawa, Ontario. 255 p. C h i l t o n , R. 1975. Climate summary f o r three watersheds: Templeton River, McDonald Creek and Grassy Creek. E.L. U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , Climate and Data Services, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Clague, J . J . 1975. Late Quaternary sediments and geomorphic history of the southern Rocky Mountain Trench, B.C. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 12: 595-605. C l i n e , M.G. 1949. 67:81-91.  Basic p r i n c i p l e s of s o i l  classification.  S o i l Science  Cotic, I., J . van Barneveld and P.N. Sprout. 1974. S o i l s of the NechakoFrancois Lake Area. E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Daubenmire, R.F. 1943. Vegetational zonation in the Rocky Botanical Review 1X(6): 325-393.  Mountains.  Daubenmire, R.F. 1952. Forest Vegetation of North Idaho and adjacent Washington, and i t ' s bearing on concepts of vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Ecological Monographs 22(4): 301-330. Daubenmire, R.F. 1968. Forest vegetation of eastern Washington and Northern Idaho. Washington Agriculture Experimental S t a t i o n , College of A g r i c u l t u r e , Washington State U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman, Washington, USA. Department of Soil Science, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1974= Methods of S o i l Analysis - Pedology Laboratory. Department of S o i l Science, U . B . C , Vancouver, B.C. 229 p. E . L . U . C S e c r e t a r i a t . 1976. The t e r r a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. 55 p. Fulton, R.J. 1967. Deglaciation studies in Kamloops Region, an area of moderate r e l i e f , Geological Survey of Canada B u l l e t i n #154. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario. 36 p.  151  Fulton, R.J. 1971. Radiocarbon geochronology of southern B.C., Geological Survey of Canada Paper 71-37. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario. ' Hawes, R.A., D.S. Lacate" and L.M. Lavkulich 1974. A landscape approach to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and planning - Okanagan Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia. ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 200 p. Holland, W.D. and G.M. Coen 1976. S o i l s of Waterton and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , Waterton Lakes National Park, Information Department NOR-X-65. Environment Canada, Nor. For. Res. Centre, Can. For. Serv., Edmonton Alberta. Jenny, H. 1941.  Factors of s o i l formation.  McGraw-Hill, New York.  Jones, R.K. 1978. The numerical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping of vegetation in two mountainous watersheds of southeastern B.C. M.S. Thesis, University o f B.C., Faculty of Forestry. Jungen, J . 1974.  Personal communication.  Jungen, J . and J . van Barneveld. 1978. Preliminary copy of S o i l s and land evaluation of the Nelson area (82F). B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C. Jurdant, M., D.S. Lacate, S.C. Z o l t a i , G.G. Runka, R. Wells. 1975. Biophysical Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Canada, pp 485-495 i n : Forest S o i l s and Forest Land Management. Proc. of Fourth North American Forest S o i l s Conference, B. Bernier and C. Winget (eds.), Les Presses de 1'Uni versite Laval. Kellogg, C E . 1963. Why a new system of s o i l Science 96(1): 1-5.  classification?  Soil  K l i n k a , K. 1976. Ecosystem units, t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , interpretation and mapping in the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Faculty of Forestry. Krajina, V . J . , R.C. Brooke, 1969/70. Department o f Botany, U.B.C.  Ecology of Western North America.  Lacate, D.S. 1969. Guidelines f o r biophysical land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Canadian Forestry Service Publication 1264. Ottawa, Ontario. 61 pp. Lavkulich, L.M. 1973. Soil-vegetation-landforms of the Wrigley area, N.W.T. Environmental-Social Committee Northern P i p e l i n e s , Ottawa, Ontario. 257 p.  152  L i t t l e , H.W. 1960. Nelson map area, west h a l f , B.C. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir #308, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, Ontario. 205 p. Lord, T.M. and A.F. Green. 1974. S o i l s of the Tulameen Area of B.C. CD.A. Report No. 13, Research Branch, Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa, Ontario. 163 p. Major, J . 1951. A f u n c t i o n a l , f a c t o r i a l approach to plant ecology. Ecology 32:392-412. McCormack, R.J. 1972. Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y , C.L.I. Report No. 4. Canada Department of the Environment, Ottawa, Ontario. 72 p. Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.  Aims and Methods of Vegetation 547 p.  Nasmith, H. 1962. Late g l a c i a l history and s u r f i c i a l deposits of the Okanagan V a l l e y . B. C Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, V i c t o r i a , B. C. 54 p. O'Loughlin, C L . 1972. An investigation of the s t a b i l i t y of the steep!and forest s o i l s in the coast mountains, southwest B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia 147 p. P f i s t e r , R.D., B.L. Kovalchik, S.F. Arno and R.C Presby. 1977. Habitat types of Montana. Intermountain Forest and Range Experimental S t a t i o n , U.S.F.S., Ogden, Utah. 174 p. Prest, V.K., D.R. Grant and V.N. Rampton. 1967. Glacial map of Canada. In Geology and economic minerals of Canada, R.J. Douglas, ed. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario. Reesor, J . E . 1973. Geology of the Lardeau map area; e a s t - h a l f , B r i t i s h Columbia, Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 369. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario. 129 pp. Runka, G.G. 1972. Soil Resources of the Smithers-Hazelton Area. B.C.D.A., Soil Survey D i v i s i o n , Kelowna, B.C. 233 p. Sneddon, J . I . 1973. A southwestern B.C. in western Canada Department of Soil  study of two s o i l s derived from volcanic ash in and a review and determination of ash d i s t r i b u t i o n Ph.D. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Science. 149 p.  Sukachev, V. and N. D y l i s . 1964. Fundamentals of forest biogeocenology. Oliver and Boyd Ltd. London, England. 672 pp.  153  Swanston, D.N. 1971. P r i n c i p a l mass movement processes influenced by logging, road b u i l d i n g , and f i r e . In A Symposium - Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment, October 19-21, 1970. Oregon State University, p. 29-42. Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284-307. Tipper, H.W. 1971. Glacial geomorphology and plistocene history of central B.C. Geological Survey of Canada, B u l l e t i n #196. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ontario. 90 p. U.S.  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1951. Soi 1 survey manual, U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 18. U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C. 503 p.  U t z i g , G. F. and L. Herring. 1975. e l e v a t i o n s - f i v e case studies. V i c t o r i a , B.C. 85 p.  Forest harvesting impacts at high Research D i v i s i o n , B.C. Forest Service  Walmsley, M.E. 1976. Biophysical land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia: the philosophy, techniques and application. In Ecological (Biophysical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in Canada, Ecological land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e r i e s , no. 1, Lands Directorate Environment Canada. Ottawa, Ontario p. 3-26. Wittneben, U. 1974.  Personal communication.  Wittneben, U. 1978. Preliminary copy of S o i l s and land evaluation of the Lardeau area (82 K). B.C. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Kelowna, B.C.  PROFITS  DESCRIPTION  SHEET  PAGE 1 OF  3  July,  1973  DATE SOIL  NAME  LOCATION: Profile  #  .  Surveyor  •  Agency Sampling  Purpose  (circle  one)  (indicate  1 2  3 4  Seepage units)  Horizon  I  1 1 » 1 1 | 1  | >  -  present  Depth  Line  1 2 3 4  5.  absent.  used;  Min  Max  Mapping.unit  1  Koist  2  Wet  3  Unsp.  4  Aspect:  in Asp  ped -  Moist  •  .  exped -  2  3  .  crushed  4  !  -a  O »—i x  modifier  Mottles Ab.  Si.  Co.  F  F.  F  C  M C  D P  Structure Primary  Secondary  Grade Colour  Grade Class  ^  Place  Kind  :  ! • ' •  i  1  1 !  !  !  ;  '  !  •|  :  yTinrl I"  !  1  •  !  ;  J  1  ;  ;  ;  ;  | !  ; :  ;  !  ;  i  ;  ;•;  -  !'•::'•  •  j  !  1 '  ..  • i. I.. ••  •  1  !  j  i  I  ]  j  i  j  j  |  :  V  ; .  1  J  !  !•  !  !  i.  !  |  3>  -  i  1 i 1 l  and  i  — < — i i t  5.  Infiltration  M  Dry  (  1 2 3 4  •  Texture  1  i  i  Flood hazard  -.groundwater  '  . matrix -  units)  Phase  Colour pry  1 2 3 4.  Stones  permafrost  Thickness units  .(indicate  Photo  Permeability  indicat i  CLASSIFICATION:  Elevatlon-  Status  rooting  , Runoff  i  5 6.  -  Longitude-  Air  Drainage DEPTHS:  Latitude  i  1  !  !  I I !  —  July, l y / i  SOIL NAME aspect  TOPOGRAPHY: Simple slope at site  (degrees)  Complex slope - Class (circle one) a b c d e f g h  (N 0 (E—90 (S-180  NE — 45)(no slope SE - 1 3 5 ) has aspect SW - 2 2 5 ) of 3 6 0 )  (W-27O  NW  - 315)  Slope length (indicate units) Microtopography  - 1 Site position - crest - 2 upper (circle one) middle - 3 lower - 4 toe - 5 depression - 6  ij j ' Horizon 1 Consist.'cecent.'l 3ound.1  (circle one)  very few or no hummocks) to 1 m. high, over 7 apart) to 1 m. high, 3 to 7 apart) apart) 1:5 to 1 m. high, 1 to 3 to 1 m. high, . 3 - 1 apart) (.3 1 ra. high, over 3>< apart)  level slightly hummocky moderately hummocky strongly hummocky severely hummocky — : mounded hummocks — strongly mounded hummocks ' 7  !• 3  These definitions have been proposed for CanSIS.  (>  ( > 1 m. high, less than 3 n. apart)  co  ;  Horizon  Roots  Pores Clay Films Concretions Ab. Size Ori Dist Kor Cont Type, •reo Thi Loc Kind Ab. Size Loc ShaPf jWJM! Dj PjiAiDlEj!!lD j F 1 V !Size Mi| Ori V |Dist v ; Mil V | | S | J V F j ! ! ')Ab. | N !F ; ; S § e 1 0 r J If g|e !x ii i 1 0 F j V 1 H , IN F j V ; H 1 IN 1 D 1 CO ! I C 1 1 1 F 1M j 1 0 11 i ] y 1 a' e 1 g 11 s |rP F ! 0 lEX P 1 F i-O lEX ! C j DC 1 T ! C C | I I M ; 1 1 s | [ sf n| ;' t '• m A | Me j R ! A Me 1 R j ! ! 1 M ! 1 | cs 1 ! ' :ti itft! ! ' I ! C ! ! c : ! 1 , !  f  j  1  1  1  1  1  1  2  Eff.  Colour  1  1  •  :  i  i  ! ! ! I  j  j  ;  1  ]  !  j! ; ; ! ! 'J J | ': i j ' ! !j • ; i i i i i i !• ! i I i i ! , ii j j S1 !! !j 1' i .i 1 :'i  1  '  1  1, •t  1 1  ; .;!!!' I I I ! ' !  !  ] j  1  1  M ! ! l |I 1 i  ; i  1  1 1 !  1  s >i  ! *  ;  1 ! : !  1 i j «1 ; ; .i i : ! j : i 1! ! ! ! i 1  ! 1 !  i : ; il • j il II!  ' j  ! | ! ! ' ! ! ' 1 ' ! ! i  j  ' i ! ! ~| ! i l l ' ! ! I i i i 1 ! '! I I I ! 1 1  ! . !  .!  I  '  '  !!'!'•' 'i ! I ' !! [i ' 1 ! i !  1.  L_.i  .1  !. ..  1  1  1  j- - •  I  !  !  !  I  i  :•:  !I !  1 | ! I.I I ' l l  ;  '  '<  1  ,. .. — •<  1!  1 !  ! \  !  !  1 I 1 1  ' 1 ', 1  I I I ! 1 ! !  I  i  I.  1  1  1  l  !  ! I  ! < '  1  ;  1  •  I 1  1  •  1  1  1  ! ' 1  1  !  • ••  ci 1  ;  i  cn  PROFILE DESCRIPTION SHEET SOIL NAME  PAGE 3 OF 3  July, 1973  ;  LANDFORM PARENT MATERIAL BEDROCK DEPTH TO BEDROCK (indicate units)  Carbonate Description jCont Ab. Siz Shape Consist. Str. Spo. M D F F V R 0 R C K H 0 I Y M C R I S T  Sail Coarse Fragment Descrip. % Gravel Cobbles Stones W  j by  M 8vol.  T <*  y  . T of. y  T at  y  Notes  157  APPENDIX 2 VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION UNITS *  Templeton River Study Area ESSFxp  (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r parkland subzone).  A  Larix  B  Rhododendron albiflorum,  lyallii,  Picea engelrnannii,  open  Cassiope mertensiana  forest (subxeric to subhygric).  C  Vaccinium scoparium,  Senecio  triangularis,  meadows, and discontinuous forest  Claytonia lanoeolata, to h y g r i c ) .  (subhygric  Larix lyallii, Picea engelrnannii, Pinus albicaulis, Vaccinium scoparium, Saxifraga bvonchialis open forest and low regeneration f o r e s t (Xeric to submesic).  Avalanche Zone  C-1.A  (Disclimax vegetation retained at one serai stage from climax due to recurring snow avalanche a c t i v i t y ) .  Abies lasiocarpa,  Pinus albicaulis,  D-1  Picea, engelrnannii, Hyloecorrmiim mesic).  G  Alnus sinuata,  1-1  Populus  Vaccinium membranaceum,  krumholtz shrub and forest patches  Saxifraga bronchialis ( x e r i c to mesic).  Pinus albicaulis,  splendens  Afherium  Menziesia  ferruginea,  Claytonia  lanoeolata  low regeneration forest (submesic. to  felix-femina,  dense continuous brush (subhygric to hygric).  tremuloides,  Amelanchier  alnifolia,  Fragaria  virginiana  discontinuous brush and herbs (subxeric to mesic).  ESSFXK  (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r forest subzone where Douglas f i r is usually not a serai species).  D Picea engelrnannii, E F  Pinus albicaulis,  Menziesia ferruginea,  corrmium splendens  closed forest (submexic to mesic).  Picea engelrnannii,  Vaccinium scoparium  Picea engelrnannii,  Abies lasiocarpa,  closed f o r e s t (mesic).  pedatus  Rhododendron  albiflorum  Lonicera involucrata,  closed f o r e s t (subhygric to hygric).  Hylo-  Rhubus  ESSFxo<(df)  H-l  Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziessii, Juniperus scopulorum, Epilobivm augustifolium, Amica cordifolia semi-open and closed forests (Xeric to submesic).  *  For further information see Jones 1978. Letter symbols indicate climax, potential climax or disclimax units. Numbers indicate the approximate successional status.  158  ESSFxoc(df) c o n t ' d 1-1 1-2 J J-l  '  Pseudotsuga menziessii, Abies lasiocarpa, Acer glabrum, Smilicina racemosa closed f o r e s t (mesic) Pseudotsuga menziessii, Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus sinuata, Comus canadensis closed f o r e s t (submesic subhygric). Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelrnannii, Ribes lacustre, Goodyera oblongifolia closed f o r e s t (mesic t o subhygric). Pseudotsuga menziessii, Picea engelrnannii, Menziesia feruginea, Comus canadensis closed f o r e s t (mesic to subhygric).  Grassy Creek Study Area ESSFxB  (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r parkland subzone).  A Abies lasiocarpa, Phyllodoce empetriformis, Luzula glabrata open krumholtz f o r e s t (subrexic to submesic). B Abies lasiocarpa, Rhododendron albiflorum, Luzula glabrata low subalpine f o r e s t ( s u b x e r i c ) . C Abies lasiocarpa, Sorbus sitchensis, Luzula gclabrata semi-open f o r e s t i s l a n d s (submesic). (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r f o r e s t subzone).  ESSFXK  D D-1 D-2 E  Abies lasiocarpa, Rhododendron albiflorum, Xerophyllum tenax semi-open f o r e s t (subxeric to submesic). Pinus contorta, Rhododendron albiflorum, Xerophyllum tenax semiopen a n d j d o s e d f o r e s t ( x e r i c t o s u b x e r i c ) . Pinus contorta, Sorbus sitchensis, Aster spp. open and semiopen f o r e s t ( x e r i c to s u b x e r i c ) . Abies lasiocarpa, Vaccinium membranaceum, Tiarella unifoliata closed f o r e s t (subhygric to mesic).  ESSFx Disclimax (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r subzone disclimax). F  grassland  Madia glomerata, Lupinus wyethii, Festuca idahohensis savannah and outcrops ( x e r i c to submesic).  ESSFxK-IWrla ( t r a n s i t i o n zone). G G-l IWHa  Picea engelrnannii, Tsuga heterophylla, Rhododendron albiflorum, Rhubus pedatus closed f o r e s t (mesic). Larix occidentalis, Picea engelrnannii, Sorbus sitchensis, Trillium ovatum semi-open and closed f o r e s t (mesic to subhygric).  ( I n t e r i o r western hemlock dry subzone). H  Tsuga heterophylla, Pachisrtmamyrsinites, closed f o r e s t (mesic)  chimaphila umbellata  159  IWHa  ( I n t e r i o r western hemlock dry subzone). cont'd  H-1  Larix occidentalis, Pedicularis  H-2 Larix occidentalis, I I-l J  Pseudotsuga menziessii, Tsuga heterophylla,  bracteosa semi-open and closed forest  open f o r e s t and brush  Tsuga heterophylla, felix-femina  uniflora  (subxeric).  Thuja plicata,  Taxus brevifolia, Athyri,um  closed forest (mesic to subhygric).  Abies grandis, Taxus brevifolia, forest  (submesic)  Apocynum androsaemifolium, Clintonia  Adenocaulon bicolor closed  (mesic).  Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Ribes lacustre, Oplopanax horridus, Veratrum eschschoizii closed forest (hygric).  APPENDIX  3  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture Landform Symbols  A.  General Origin of Landforms C  colluvium  G  glaciofluvial  R  bedrock  T  g l a c i a l t i l 1 (basal)  C/R  B.  (Jungen 1978)  .1 to 1.5 meters of material overlying bedrock  Surface Form or Pattern of Landforms C  channelled (ridge and swale)  d  drumlin  m  kame  r  talus cone  s  steepland (30%+  t  terrace  (ized)  slopes)  

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