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Classification and detailed mapping of soil and terrain features in two mountainous watersheds of southeastern… Utzig, Gregory 1978

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CLASSIFICATION AND DETAILED MAPPING OF SOIL AND TERRAIN FEATURES IN TWO MOUNTAINOUS WATERSHEDS OF SOUTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA by GREGORY FRANK UTZIG B.A., Univ e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of S o i l Science) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MASTER OF SCIENCE March, 1978 Gregory Frank Utzig, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^c/vnCZ. The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date T ^ O A J - ff7% i i ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to investigate detailed land classification in forested mountainous terrain. Two small watersheds in south-eastern British Columbia, each of approximately 3500 ha in area, were selected for classification and mapping of terrain and soil features (a simultaneous study completed vegetation classification and mapping). The results of the study include maps of terrain and soil features presented on photo-maps at scales of approximately 1:8,000 and planimetric maps at scales of 1:15,840; written descriptions of the terrain and soil features; cross-sectional diagrams depicting the relationships between various landscape features; and soil interpretations for erosion and forest capability. The terrain features are classified primarily on the basis of genesis and secondary characteristics of surface expression, texture, slope, and modifying processes. The soils were classified as phases of soil families according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification. The Templeton River study area, located in the Purcell Mountains and the adjacent Rocky Mountain Trench, has a complex array of terrain features derived from sedimentary rocks. These include a variety of morainal materials ranging from rubbly materials associated with presently active ice to compact fine textured non-calcareous and moderately textured calcareous materials. Steep slopes have created abundant colluvial features including aprons and fans which grade to shallow colluvial veneers over bedrock or morainal materials. The valley mouth has abundant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine features, with minor areas of fluvial materials adjacent to Templeton River. The soils of the area are highly variable, reflecting complex variation in i i i parent materials, climate, and vegetation. At the lower elevations the soils are dominantly Luvisols, which grade to Brunisols and Podzols in the cooler and moi ster environments. ' The Grassy Creek study area, located in the Selkirk Mountains, is dominated by morainal materials of relatively uniform composition. These materials are moderately coarse textured and derived from granitic bedrock. There are fluvial and glaciofluvial materials in the valley bottom and limited colluvial materials at the upper elevations, primarily on southern aspects. The soils are acidic Podzols, with Ferro-Humic Podzols in the poorly drained areas, Humo-Ferric Podzols in better drained areas, and some Brunisols on rapidly drained sites. A systematic sampling study in the Templeton River study area demonst-rated that mapping reliabil ity for the terrain units was about 80%, and for the soil units about 65%. Morainal mapping units were more homogeneous and had higher mapping reliabil ity than glaciofluvial mapping units. A comparison between the more detailed mapping completed in this study and reconnaissance terrain and soil mapping completed previously in the study areas identified a number of problems inherent in inventories which rely on interpretation of aerial photographs with limited ground checking. The complex interactions between terrain types, relief, and vegetation patterns of Templeton River limited the util ity of reconnaissance aerial photographic interpretation. In contrast, Grassy Creek, with subdued and more uniform terrain features showed good agreement between detailed and reconnaissance mapping. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The need for land classification 1 1.2 Concepts of land classification 3 1.2.1 Landscape individuals 4 1.2.2 Structure and organization of land classification systems 8 1.3 Recent applications of land classification in British Columbia. 10 1.4 Study description and objectives 12 CHAPTER 2. METHODS.... 15 2.1 Terrain and soil mapping 15 2.2 Soil sampling and laboratory analyses 16 2.3 Systematic sampling study 17 CHAPTER 3. STUDY AREA DESCRIPTIONS.. 18 3.1 Templeton River study area 18 3.1.1 Location and physiography 18 3.1.2 Bedrock geology 18 3.1.3 Regional Pleistocene history 21 3.1.4 Climate 22 3.1.5 Vegetation 27 3.2 Grassy Creek study area 30 3.2.1 Location and physiography 30 3.2.2 Bedrock geology 30 3.2.3 Regional Pleistocene history 33 3.2.4 Climate 34 3.2.5 Vegetation 37 CHAPTER 4. RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR TEMPLETON RIVER STUDY .AREA. 41 4.1 Terrain features 41 4.2 Soi1 features 48 4.2.1 Rocky Mountain Trench 52 4..2.2 Southern Aspect 56 4.2.3 Northern Aspect 66 4.2.4 Valley Head 73 CHAPTER 5. RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR GRASSY CREEK STUDY AREA 77 5.1 Terrain features 77 5.2 Soil features 82 5.2.1 Interior Western Hemlock Zone 84 5.2.2 Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir Zone 93 V Page CHAPTER 6. MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS . 105 6.1 Introduction 106 6.2 Mass wasting potential ' 106 6.3 Surface erosion potential 109' 6.4 Land capability for forestry 113 CHAPTER 7. RECONNAISSANCE MAPPING COMPARISON 118 7.1 Objectives 118 7.2 Procedures 118 7.3 Results and discussion 121 CHAPTER 8. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STUDY 129 8.1 Study description 129 8.2. Methods 129 8.3 Results and discussion 131 CHAPTER 9. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 138 9.1 Mapping procedures and the interpretation of aerial photographs 138 9.2 Land Classification 140 9.2.1 Terrain classification 140 9.2.2 Soil classification ' 140 9.3 Data presentation 141 9.3.1 Soil Reports 141 9.3.2 Map unit symbology 142 9.3.3 Map presentation 143 CHAPTER 10. CONCLUSIONS 146 BIBLIOGRAPHY 150 APPENDIX 1 154 APPENDIX 2 157 APPENDIX 3 ' 159 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.1 A comparison of the nomenclature used to describe various landscape individuals — 7 3.1 Predicted 24-ho"ur storm intensities for the Templeton River study area 26 3.2 Predicted 24-hour storm intensities for the Grassy Creek study area 37 4.1 Physical properties of selected surficial materials in the Templeton River study area 45 4.2 Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Rocky Mountain Trench within the Templeton River study area.;. 55 4.3 Nutritional properties of selected soils from the southern aspects within the Templeton River study area .. 58 4.4 Nutritional properties of selected soils from the northern aspects within the Templeton River study area 69 4.5 Characteristics and management interpretations for mapping units in the Templeton River study area 75-76 5.1 Physical properties of selected surficial materials in the Grassy Creek study area 81 5.2 Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Interior Western Hemlock Zone of the Grassy Creek study area . . . 88 5.3 Nutritional properties of selected soils from the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir Zone of the Grassy Creek - -study area 100 5.4 Characteristics and management interpretations for mapping units in the Grassy Creek study area 104 6.1 Evaluation table for mass wasting potential 107 6.2 Evaluation table.for surface erosion potential 112 7.1 Mapping unit comparisons for Templeton River study area . . . . 122 7.2 Mapping unit comparisons for Grassy Creek study area 123 8.1 A comparison between the systematic sampling results and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid I south aspect) 132 8.2 A comparison between the systematic sampling results and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid II north aspect) 133 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1.1 Study area locations 13 2.1 Templeton River sample locat ions and f i e l d transects . . . . ( i n pocket-) 2.2 Grassy Creek sample locations and f i e l d transects ( in -pocke-fr)w^h^a-t 3.1 The headwaters of Templeton River * 19 ° 3.2 Lower Templeton River va l ley and the Rocky Mountain Trench 19 3.3 Topographic se t t ing of the Templeton River area 20 3.4 Mean monthly temperature at four elevations - Templeton River 24 3.5 Total mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i on at f i ve elevations -Templeton River 24 3.6 Mean annual p rec i p i t a t i on (snow and rain) - Templeton River 24 3.7 Vegetation zonation f o r the Templeton River study area 28 3.8 Grassy Creek with Grassy Mountain in the background 31 3.9 The southern port ion of Grassy Creek area 31 3.10 Topographic se t t i ng of the Grassy Creek study area 32 3.11 Mean monthly temperature at three elevations - Grassy Creek 36 3.12 Total mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n at three elevations -Grassy Creek 36 3.13 Mean annual p rec ip i t a t i on (snow and rain) - Grassy Creek .. 36 3.14 Vegetation zonation f o r the Grassy Creek study area 38 ""4.1 Terrain map for the Templeton River study area ( in " ^ ^ " ^ ^ ^ ^ 4.2 Generalized te r ra in map of the Templeton River study area 42 4.3 Grain s ize d i s t r i bu t i on curves for materials f i ne r than 76 mm - Templeton River 43 4.4 Northerly ridge which was covered by ice flowing south in the Rocky Mountain Trench 45 4.5 The mouth of Templeton River v a l l e y , with g l a c i o f l u v i a l Terraces and meltwater channels i n the foreground . . . . 47 4.6 Distorted bedding and "cut and f i l l " features in poorly sorted g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials 47 4.7 So i l map fo r Templeton River study area (photo-map) ( in pocke-t-)HoJ$ y V I 1 1 Figure Page 4.8 Soil map for Templeton River study area (planimetric "^P map) (in p o c k e t ) M / 4.9 Legend and transect locations for cross-section figures . . . 50 4.10 Cross-section Qi-C2» eastern end of Templeton River study area 53 4.11 Bisequa Gray Luvisol (BIGL) developed from eolian-col luv ia l veneer (g$ECv) and gravelly morainal blanket (gMb) . 59 4.12 Orthic Eutric Brunisol (OEB) developed from a col luvia l veneer over dolomitic bedrock 61 4.13 Complex so i l forming environment on a southern aspect in the Templeton River study area 63 4.14 Cross-section B]-B2» north and south aspects, mid-valley of Templeton River study area 64 4.15 Cross-section A1-A2, north and south aspects, upper valley of Templeton River study area 65 4.16 Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzol (BIHFP) developed from eol ian-col luvial veneer (g$ECv) over morainal materials (gMb) '.. 67 4.17 Gleyed Orthic Ferno-Humic Podzol (GLOFHP) developed from an eolian veneer ($Ev) over morainal materials (gsMb) 70 4.18 Orthic Regosol (OR) developed from col luvial materials subject to perennial snow avalanching (rCb-A) 7,2 •  • • - ^ p e e . C o t ' t 5.1 Terrain map for the Grassy Creek study area (in pocket-)Hpf . 5.2 Generalized terrain map of the Grassy Creek study area . . . . 78 ^ ^ i ^ 5.3 Grain size distribution curves for materials f iner than 76 mm - Grassy Creek 79 5.4 Glaciof luvial terraces at the mouth of Grassy Creek (looking south down Eire Creek) 81 5.5 Soil map for Grassy Creek study area (photo-map) (in £©€ke-t)7 ^ r ' C o ^ -5.6 Soil map for Grassy Creek study area (planimetric map)., (in .pocket)Je^-^^j 5.7 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse textured g lac iof luvia l materials (gFGt) 85 5.8 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse textured glaciof luvial materials with a lacustrine lense ($Lv/gFGt) 86 5.9 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb) 89 ix Figure '• Page 5.10 Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb) 91 5.11 Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzol (GLMFHP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials ($Ev/gsMb) 92 5.12 Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzol (SMHFP) developed from shallow col luvial materials (gCv).. 94 5.13 Placic Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (PLMHFP) developed from col luvia l materials over morainal materials (gCv/gsMb) 95 5.14 Legend and transect locations for cross-section figures . . . 96 5.15 Cross-section Ai-A2» north and south aspects, western portion of Grassy Creek study area 97 5.16 Cross-section B-J-B2, north and south aspects, eastern portion of Grassy Creek study area 98 5.17 Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from morainal materials (gsMb) 101 5.18 Southern aspects at high elevations near Grassy Mountain ..• 102 6.1 Swept trees resulting from so i l creep on a steep col luvia l slope 110 6.2 Severe gully erosion in kame materials resulting from poor road construction 110 7.1 Reconnaissance soi l and landform mapping units for . Templeton River study area 119 7.2 Reconnaissance so i l and landform mapping units for Grassy Creek study area 120 8.1 Locations of systematic sampling points 130 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express appreciation to Dr. L. M. Lavkulich of the Department of Soil Science for assistance and encouragement throughout the study. Appreciation is also expressed to the Research Division of the B.C. Forest Service for financial support, the Inventory Division for log i s t ica l support during the f i e l d work and assistance with map preparation, and the Resource Analysis Branch of the Ministry of the Environment for cl imatic information and use of the soi l data f i l e . Special thanks are due to R. Keith Jones for his contribution to the vegetation portion of the study, for stimulating discussions during the f i e ld work, and valuable crit ic isms during preparation of the report. Thanks are also due to a number of people who assisted during various phases of the work, in part icular: Brian McBride and Mary utziq for f i e l d work, Joe Chan and Bev Herman for laboratory analyses, B i l l Dyck and Diane Ailman for map preparation, and especially Donna Macdonald for preparation of maps, tables and figures. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The need for land c lass i f i cat ion The basic requirements of food and shelter make man completely dependent on the ultimate resource: ' l and ' . As c i v i l i za t i on evolved over the centuries, cultural and technological changes have necessitated more special izat ion, causing most humans to lose their intimate associations with the land. Urbanization and mechanization have put many people into environments where human dependence on the natural environment is obscured by man-made structures and human inst i tut ions. Concurrently, tremendous growth in human population combined with changes in l i fes ty les have brought ever increasing demands for the earth's natural resources including energy, water, food, and building materials. It has become evident, however, that the supply of these resources is l imited. Even the "renewable resources" can only be supplied in quantities determined by the sustainable productive capacity of the land-base. If the yields of these resources are to be maximized and/or sustained, there has to be more consideration given to determining the productive potential of land for various uses, and develop-ing land management plans which optimize land use over the long-term. This process can be broken into four related steps; inventory, preparation of capability ratings, su i tab i l i ty determinations, and formulation of management plans (followed by implementation). The f i r s t step in. formulating any long-term management plan is an inventory of what resources exist in an area: their quantity, spatial distr ibution, and ecological relationships. This can be accomplished through 2 the application of a land c lass i f i cat ion system which divides the land-scape into recognizable segments, having a defined level of homogeneity with respect to selected morphological characteristics and displaying similar responses to selected management practices. These morphological properties can include topography, climate, hydrologic features, geology, s o i l , vegetation,animal l i f e , and history. Once the primary inventory data has been col lected, further interpretive work can determine the capabil ity of the area for various uses (e.g. agriculture, forestry, mining, recreation, etc . ) . Capabil it ies are based on l imitations for specif ic uses which are ident i f ied by, or inferred from, the landscape characteristics described by the inventory. By combining the capabil ity information with the needs and restraints determined by society, the su i tab i l i ty and feas ib i l i t y of areas for particular uses can be determined. From this , a range of management options emerges, and the po l i t i ca l process determines the preferred course of action. The i n i t i a l step of inventory is extremely crucial in land management, as i t provides the information base for a l l the subsequent steps. The information col lected must be comprehensive enough to answer questions on the capabil ity of the land for a wide spectrum of prospective uses, and in suff ic ient detail to provide accurate information for the level of manage-ment being planned. The level of detail selected for an inventory ( i .e. the categorical level of c lass i f icat ion and cartographic level of mapping) depends on several factors: the level of intended management; complexity of the terrain under consideration; and practical constraints such as costs, ava i l ab i l i t y of personnel and access. 3 In addition to knowing the distribution, quantity, and quality of particular resources, management decisions also require information on the potential impacts of specific uses on the area as a whole. It is essential that inventory information be presented in a form which indicates the interrelationships between the various components of the area (i.e.. water-soil-vegetation, etc.). Some of the most difficult resource problems to solve are those which involve conflicts between different resource users within a common area. Part of this problem stems from the artificial division of the environment into discrete components for consideration (e.g. soil, vegetation, geology, etc.). These partitions are reflected in our inventory procedures and the array of management agencies now in existence. Proper land management decisions depend on a thorough know-ledge of the natural landscape as a whole, including the potential inter-actions between all the components, even those which are not in direct use at the time. In order for an inventory to satisfy these needs, i t must utilize a land classification system which is capable of integrating the various segments of the landscape. 1.2 Concepts of land classification The primary goal of any classification system is to organize the present knowledge about a population of objects or individuals. Ideally, this organization should facilitate communication, and promote further understanding of the relationships between these individuals (Cline 1949 & Kellogg 1963). Before discussing the structural organization of land classification systems, it is important to begin with a firm understanding of what land classification deals with, i.e. what constitutes a landscape individual. 4 1.2.1 Landscape Individuals Because the landscape consists of a variety of interrelated com-ponents (e.g. a i r , water, geologic substrata, biota), i t is necessary to consider numerous attributes in defining a landscape individual. In the past soi l and vegetation have been recognized as integrators of the environment as a whole (Jenny 1941 & Major 1951), and therefore single component inventories of soi l or vegetation have been used to approximate landscape c lass i f icat ions. However, as our need for information on inter-relationships and processes has increased, more ho l i s t i c systems of c lass i f icat ion have arisen, which include numerous landscape components together in their definitions of individuals. So i l , vegetation, and ho l i s t ic types of landscape individuals wi l l be discussed below. Soils are recognized as independent natural bodies, where the soi l individual or polypedon shows a unique morphology, resulting from a unique combination of climate, l iv ing matter, parent rock materials, r e l i e f , and time (U.S.D.A. Soil Survey Manual 1951, p. 3 ). A polypedon is simply a group of soi l sample units or pedons which are the smallest three-dimen-sional objects recognizable as s o i l . The polypedon is a unique individual existing in nature, with a defined range in soi l properties resulting from the pedons comprising i t . The ranges of properties are consistent with those defined for the Soil Series, the corresponding basic taxanomic unit. Polypedons are individuals which describe one segment of the landscape, but not the landscape as a whole. Vegetation c lass i f icat ion probably shows more variation than soi l c lass i f icat ion throughout the world; however, as the demand for information, 5 and hence communication, increases, standardization wi l l evolve. In vegetation c la s s i f i ca t ion, the individual, existing in nature, is generally recognized as the plant community, with the plant associa-tion as a corresponding c lass i f i cat ion unit. However, as Muller-Dombois and Ellenberg (1974, p. 27) point out in their review of vegetation ecology: At best, the community can be described as a 'spatial and temporal organization of organisms' with d i f fer ing degrees of integration, and c lear ly , the community occupies a higher level of organization than the organism i t s e l f . Therefore, a plant community can be understood as a combination of plants that are dependent on their environment and influence one another and modify their own environment. They form, together with their common habitat and other associated organisms, an ecosystem (sensu TANSLEY 1935), which is also related to the neighbouring ecosystems and to the macroclimate of the region. However, in spite of their close interrelationships the individual members retain their indiv idual i ty, because each species can exist also outside the community. Therefore, the ultimate unit of vegetation is not the plant community but the individual plant type. By this, we mean geneticaliy related populations of any taxonomic rank (such as species, subspecies, variety, races, or ecotypes), whose represen-tatives show a similar ecological behaviour. In the Pacif ic northwest, the main application of vegetation c l a s s i f i ca -tion and mapping to land management has been that of Daubenmire (1943, 1952, 1968) and the U.S. Forest Service (Pfister et a l . 1977). At the upper caterogical level Daubenmire has grouped plant communities on the basis of self-perpetuating, or dominant climax tree species. Subsequent divisions are then based on the occurrence of particular dominant understory 6 species. Although his c lass i f icat ion system is based completely on the use of climax plant associations as individual units, he distinguishes... between vegetation and the area i t occupies. The col lect ive area which an association occupies, or wi l l come to occupy, is cal led a habitat type. Considerable variation of in t r in s i c factors may be encompassed but the ecologic sums of the different sets of conditions are essential ly equivalent with respect to the nature of the climax Although (Daubenmire1 s) main concern is the plant association he considers plants and animals, plus climate and edaphic factors, as inseperable constituents of an interrelated unit, the ecosystem (sensu TANSLEY 1935). Vegetation is simply the most evident component of such an entity (Daubenmire 1952, p. 303). The vegetation indiv idual, the plant community, also describes only one component of the landscape as a whole. As Daubenmire has stated, other components of the landscape are related to the climax plant communities, but they are not part of those communities. Ecological c lass i f icat ion schemes include a variety of environmental factors in defining the landscape individual. One of the two systems widely used in Br i t i sh Columbia, the Bio-physical system (Lacate 1969 and Jurdant et a l . 1974), designates the "Land Type" as their basic unit, defined as: An area of land having a f a i r l y homogeneous com-bination of so i l (at a level corresponding to the Soil Series) and chronosequence of vegetation. It is the basic ecological ce l l of the bio-physical c l a s s i f i ca t ion , the one upon which most of the biological productivity and other interpretive ratings can be made. They can be delineated at scales ranging from 1:10,000 to 1:60,000 (Jurdant et a l . 1974). The Resource Analysis Branch of the Provincial Ministry of the Environment (R.A.B.) in their application of the biophysical concepts in B.C. has termed this individual as the "Biophysical Type" (Walmsley 1976). 7 Krajina working in B.C., is primarily responsible for introducing the concept of the biogeocoenose as a basic ecosystematic unit. This was defined by Sukachev and Dylis (1964) as: •' ' A combination on a speci f ic area of the earth's surface of homogeneous natural phenomena (atmosphere, mineral strata, vegetable, animal, and microbial l i f e , so i l and water conditions), possessing i ts own speci f ic type of interaction of these components and a definite type of interchange of their matter and energy amoung themselves and with other natural phenomena, and representing an internally-contradictory d ia lect ica l unity, being in constant movement and development. Klinka (1976), in this work at the University of Br it ish Columbia Research Forest, has defined the biogeocoenosis or basic ecosystem as the individual existing in nature, and the type of biogeocoenosis (or ecosystem type) as the corresponding basic c lass i f icat ion unit. LANDSCAPE INDIVIDUALS SOILS VEGETATION ECOSYSTEM BIOPHYSICAL UNITS SYNECOLOGICAL /NATURAL ENTITY Polypedon Plant Community Polypedon and Plant Community Biogeocoenosis (Basic Ecosystem) BASIC TAXONOMIC UNIT Series Plant Association (Habitat Type) Land Type or Biophysical Type Ecosystem Type Table 1.1 A comparison of the nomenclature used to describe various landscape individuals.. A comparison of the basic landscape units described here is shown in Table 1.1. The ecosystem units presented wi l l be a s l ight ly f iner division of the landscape than the soi l or vegetation units alone, as they account for any variation in the so i l or vegetation. The plant communities used to establish plant associations are generally accepted to be climax communities, with defined successional sequences. 8 The recognition and understanding of what constitutes a landscape /individual is extremely important to anyone using land c lass i f i cat ion systems. The user must understand the relationship between the abstract . c lass i f icat ion units and the real landscape individuals as they exist in nature. In actual practice the landscape individuals are seldom used as mapping units. The inventory objectives may not necessitate this level of deta i l , or economic constraints may make i t unfeasible. In these cases the c lass i f icat ion units presented wi l l be groups of individuals at higher categorical levels of the c lass i f icat ion system. The land manager must evaluate these groupings to decide i f the c r i te r i a used to establish the groups are relevant to the land management decisions he is making. 1.2.2. Structure and organization of landscape c lass i f icat ion systems ' A c lass i f icat ion system groups individuals or subdivides the original population, based on a number of attributes defined according to the objectives of the c l a s s i f i e r . The number of attributes used to define a class may vary, depending on the level of generalization desired. In hierarchical c lass i f i cat ion systems there are a number of categorical levels established. These range from numerous closely defined classes at the lower categorical levels, which require the def init ion of many attributes, to a few broadly defined classes at the upper levels. At the lower categorical level the classes are more homogeneous, and numerous specif ic statements can be made about a class as a whole. However, going from the more specif ic to the more general levels, the classes become less d i s t inct ive, and the number of specif ic statements 9 which can be made decreases fe.g. Pinus contorta is a species of trees with needles in clumps of two, while the genus Pinus can only be described as a population of trees with needles in clumps). In the case of land c l a s s i f i ca t ion , i t is usually impl ic it that once the c lass i f i cat ion is established, i t wi l l be applied in delineating similar individuals or classes of individuals as they occur on the landscape. This procedure, mapping, requires that the c r i te r i a used to define the classes have geographic connotation, and be useful in establishing the geographic distribution of the population. When a hierarchical land c las s i f i ca t ion is tied to a mapping system, i t is ideal i f there is a direct relationship between the cartographic level of generalization fe.g.map scale) and the categorical level of general-ization. However, variation in the complexity of the terrain can modify this relationship, by necessitating the use of a more detailed map scale in some areas to define the same level of categorical generalization. The scope of any land c las s i f i ca t ion system depends on the objective in mind. If the objectives are narrow, such as evaluating the capabi l i ty of the landscape for a single use, simple systems of c lass i f icat ion may be emphasized, using only those properties which are f e l t to be signif icant to that use (e.g. c lass i fy ing so i l s on their capabil ity for recreation beaches using three c r i t e r i a : sandiness, slope, and proximity to water). These systems are designated as interpretive or technical c lass i f icat ion systems. In contrast, i f objectives include a broader evaluation of several resource capabi l i t ies or information on interrelationships of various landscape components, a taxonomic or "natural" c lass i f i cat ion scheme is preferred. 10 The class l imits are selected to include a wide range of observed and . / measurable properities of landscape units which ref lect presently accepted theories of landscape evolution ( i .e . c lass i f icat ion systems wi l l continually evolve as our understanding increases). Because a taxonomic c lass i f i cat ion system c lass i f ies landscape individuals based on their natural relationships and genesis, i t can provide substantial information on the interrelationships between various components of the landscape fc.g. parent material (landform)-soil development (edaphic) - plant community interactions). After the de-f in i t ion of various classes by a taxonomic c lass i f icat ion has been completed, interpretations can be developed for a variety of uses, and applied to the appropriate categorical level of the taxonomic system. 1.3 Recent applications of land c las s i f i ca t ion in Br i t i sh Columbia. At present, the most extensive land inventory program in B.C. is the Biophysical Surveys conducted by the R.A.B. Because B.C. has extensive areas of mountainous terra in , which creates complex landscape patterns and severe access problems, there has been a strong reliance on remote sensing with l i t t l e supportive ground truth. Most of the information published at present has been at a reconnaissance l eve l , and intended primarily for regional planning. At present and in the recent past, land inventories in B.C. (including Canada Land Inventory, B.C.L.I., Canada Department of Agriculture, B.C.D.A., and Resource Analysis Branch - Ministry of the Environment, B.C.) rely heavily on black and white aerial photographs to aid in land c la s s i f i ca t ion. Landforms or terrain units (defined on the basis of genesis, form and com-position) are the basic unit of recognition on the aerial photographs, and n hence have become the basic mapping unit. A map area is f i r s t pretyped into terrain units on aerial photographs (usually a scale of 1:63,360), and then these types are defined and the boundaries refined through ground checks and sampling. The most recent reports by the B.C.D.A. have used the soil associa-tion concept in conjunction with basic landform mapping. Soils on similar parent material, under similar cl imatic conditions and of about the same age comprise a soil associa-t ion. Every soil association is given a local name, (e.g. Barrett, Nechako, etc. ) . It has a range in drainage, texture, structure, colour, thickness of layers and depth. The association was subdivided into members by development and drainage to a single subgroup or two and three subgroup com-binations. Superimposed on delineated landforms, these association members thus become the basic mapping units. In this manner and according to the parent materials the soi l subgroups are often identical to soi l series. (Co t i ce t a l . 1974). Differences in parent material were defined as d ist inct ive landforms or changes in composition due to variation in bedrock. Climatic differences were defined on the basis of vegetative zones (Runka .1972 &" Cotic et a l . 1974) The Canada Department of Agriculture report on the Tulameen Area has been prduced by a similar procedure. The basic unit has been defined as the soil series; however, most map units are catenary sequences of series. These are similar to the soil associations; however, individual members and their interrelationships are more closely defined. Comparing the C.D.A. report to the B.C.D.A. report indicates the information from Tulameen is presented at a more detailed categorical level (the soi l series) than the Smithers-Hazelton and the Nechako-Francois Lake, even though a l l three are presented at the same cartographic level of 1:125,000. This 12 ref lects the more extensive f i e l d work in parts of the Tulameen, and .. / possibly less complex terrain. The E.L.U.C. Secretariat has also published a report on the Okanagan Valley which closely follows the Bio-physical System. The basic map unit is the land system, which is defined as "recurring patterns of landforms with associated vegetation and so i l s " (Hawes et. a l , 1974). These are one step above the land type, and are roughly equivalent to the soi l associations used by the B.C.D.A. 1.4 Study description and objectives. The preceding discussion has considered a variety of concepts related to land c lass i f i cat ion and mapping. Two main ideas have emerqed which are pertinent to this study. The f i r s t is the need for a mult idiscipl inary approach to land c lass i f icat ion to answer complex land management questions. The second is the fact that maximum information about a landscape unit is given at the lowest level of a c las s i f i ca t ion system, and that most land c lass i f icat ion to date in B.C. has been at the higher levels of the c l a s s i -f icat ion systems, with only 1imited evaluation of landscape individuals. With these thoughts in mind, two areas were selected for detailed mapping of terrain and soil features (See figure 1.1). The study was in i t iated in conjunction with a plant ecologist, who simultaneously mapped the natural vegetation of the study areas** This report,however, wil l only include the terrain and soil aspects, with emphasis on their relationships to the other landscape components. The vegetation portion of the study was completed by R.K. Jones, and the results are reported in his Masters Thesis at the Faculty of Forestry, University of Br i t i sh Columbia. 13 Fig. I I S t u d y A r e a L o c a t i o n s 14 The broad objective of the study was to complete a detailed inventory of soi l and terrain features in forested mountainous terra in, and to evaluate that process by answering the following questions: a) What level of the Canadian System of Soil C lass i f icat ion is suitable for detailed mapping of forested mountainous terrain? b) Can the Terrain Class i f icat ion System be applied at a detailed level in forested mountainous terrain? c) How do differences in landscape complexity * and topography affect inventory results? d) What is the r e l i a b i l i t y and relat ive homogeneity of the mapping units presented? e) How does the detailed mapping completed in this study compare with reconnaissance s o i l -landform mapping in the same areas? f) What types of data presentation are useful in reporting the results o f detailed mapping in forested landscapes? g) What management interpretations should accompany such an inventory? 15 CHAPTER 2 METHODS 2.1 Terrain and soil mapping The mapping program"was carried out using black and white aerial photo-graphs at scales of 1:63,360 and 1:15,840. The f inal maps are presented on enlarged small scale aerial photographs at a scale of 1:8,000 and p lan i -metric maps at a scale o f 1:15,840. Mapping units were transferred from the 1:15,840 working copy aerial photographs to the 1:8,000 photo-maps by hand, and to the planimetric maps with a rad ia l - l ine stereoscopic plotter (Kail p lotter). Pretyping of major terrain units was completed on the small scale aerial photographs prior to the f i e l d season. The f i e l d work was in i t iated with a quick ground reconnaissance along the driveable roads and aerial reconnaissance by helicopter. Subsequently, the large scale (1:15,840) aerial photographs were pretyped according to the Terrain Class i f icat ion System (E.L.U.C. Secretariat 1976), using the following observable photo-patterns: a) topography (slope, slope length, slope configuration, aspect, exposure, microtopography) b) vegetative cover (physiognomy and structure, species, density, tone) c) terrain (drainage patterns, gu l l ies , snow avalanche tracks, slope fa i lures , rock, talus, moraines, ice) d) cultural features (roads, cut banks, sidecasts) Pretyped terrain units were then ground checked along roads and foot transects. Transect locations were pre-selected to cross the maximum number of units within the constraints of time and access (road and helicopter). 1 6 Concurrently soi l development was tentatively ident i f ied on each terrain unit, and the various soi ls were related to observable . aerial photo-graphic features (see above) for extrapolation of the soil information to inaccessible areas. Modal sites representing each major soi l type were selected for detailed prof i le descriptions and sampling. Prof i le descriptions were completed as outlined by the Canadian System of Soil C lass i f icat ion (1974) and the U.S.D.A. Soil Survey Manual (1951). These were recorded using standard forms provided by the B.C. Soil Data F i l e (see Appendix 1). 2.2 Soil sampling and laboratory analysis Soil samples for pedological laboratory analysis were collected by horizon at each modal s i te . Laboratory analyses were performed at the Soil Science Department, University of Br i t i sh Columbia. The methods used are described in Methods of Soil Analysis—Pedology Laboratory, U.B.C. (1974). Engineering samples weighing approximately 40 kg t were collected from selected modal sites to characterize the physical properties of the major terrain types. These samples were a ir -dr ied and sieved into size fractions less 'than 7.6 cm in diameter. Size fractions less than 2 mm in diameter were determined by the hydrometer method. Visual estimates were also used to determine the percentages of particles larger than 7.6 cm in diameter, as a 40 kg sample is not adequate to characterize materials which contain stones larger than 5 kg each. Bulk densities were determined in - s i tu where the engineering samples were collected by a modified volume-measure technique (Utzig and Herring 1975). Sample and f i e l d transect locations are shown on figures 2.1 and 2.2. 17 2.3 Systematic sampling study Two areas which include a variety of terrain and soi l features on both north and south aspects were selected for application of a systematic sampling program. A rectangular grid system of 31 sampling points at 200 m intervals was layed out on a planimetric map at a scale of 1:15,840. The compass bearings of the grid system were determined from the map, and a B. C. Forest Service Inventory crew flagged out the grid system on the ground. A two man f i e l d crew then excavated a one meter deep soi l pit at each sampling point. Data col lection at each sampling point included: a vegetation releve; age, height, and diameter at breast height of major tree species; a soi l prof i le description (see above); and soil samples for laboratory analyses (see above). 18 CHAPTER 3 STUDY AREA DESCRIPTIONS 3.1 Templeton River Study.Area 3.1.1 Location and Physiography The Templeton River study area is located in the Purcell Mountains of southeastern Br i t i sh Columbia (116° 26'-36' W; 50° 46'-49' N). The valley . originates in the Septet Range, an easterly shoulder of the main Purcell Mountains, bordering on the Rocky Mountain Trench, (see figure 1.1). The upper end of the valley is dominated by Mt. Ethelbert, r is ing to 3,000 m in elevation, and a series of recently active cirque basins occurring between 2,400-2,500 m. A lower cirque basin at 1,950 m contains a tarn from which Templeton River cascades to the valley f loor. From that level (1,880 m), the r iver travels through a deeply incised, U-shaped valley (see figure 3.1). The gradient is f a i r l y uniform until.the r iver enters the main Columbia Valley at 1,350 m, and begins a sinuous path across the drumlin f ields to the Columbia River (see figure 3.2). There are no main tr ibutar ies, with the exception of small streams entering from two cirque basins on the southern side of the valley. The valley is approximately 10 km long (E-W to the trench), 4 km wide, with a total area of 3,650 ha (see figure 3.3). 3.1.2 Bedrock Geology The bedrock of the Templeton River area consists of primarily a r g i l l i t e and associated dolomite, limestone, quartzite, and s late. The rocks are part of the Dutch Creek and Mt. Nelson Formations of the Purcell System (Reesor 1973). They are late Precambrian in age and generally dip to the east; however, minor folds and a north-striking normal fault (west side down) just below Templeton Lake complicate the regional trend. Quartzites and dolomites are found primarily in the upper elevations, slates and minor dolomite on the north ridge near the mouth of the val ley, and a rg i l l i t e s throughout. 19 Figure 3.1 The headwaters of Templeton River (looking to the west on June 17). Note the l a te snow retent ion , morainal terrace on the r i g h t , c o l l u v i a l apron on the l e f t , snow avalanche t racks, and g lac ie r in the upper l e f t . Figure 3.2 Lower Templeton River va l l ey and the Rocky Mountain Trench (looking to the east) . Note the rounded ridge in the l e f t foreground, the southward turn at the va l ley mouth, drum!ins in the trench, and logging in the r ight foreground. 21 3.1.3 Regional Pleistocene history The sur f i c ia l geology of the Templeton River area is dominated by deposits resulting from extensive glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. During the major glacial advances, the adjacent Rocky Mountain Trench acted as an outlet valley for the Cordil leran Ice Sheet (Clague 1975). The main trench glacier was also fed by numerous valley glaciers along i t s length, including one from the Templeton River val ley. The last major Pleistocene g lac iat ion, termed the Pinedale in the Rocky Mountains of the United States, has l e f t the most obvious deposits. This glaciation is roughly equivalent in time to the Fraser Glaciation on the west coast of North America and the Wisconsinan in eastern North America. A radiocarbon date of 26,800 ± 1,000 y B.P. sets a maximum date for the Pinedale advance near Jaffray in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench (49° 30'N, Clague 1975). The Templeton Valley, located further north (50° 45'N) and at a higher elevation than the radiocarbon dated s i te would most l ike ly have commenced glacial act iv i ty ear l ier than 27,000 y B.P. During the Pinedale Glaciation there were three dist inct stades recorded in the southern trench region (Clague 1975). A total withdrawal of the trench ice did not occur between each stade, but rather a retreat of the southern tributary glaciers only. This resulted in the formation of temporary lakes in the valley mouths dammed by trench ice, and the accompanying deposi-tion of lacustrine and g lac io- f luvia l sediments. The main trench ice had withdrawn northward beyond Templeton River to at least Donald Station (51° 29' N) by 10,000 ± 140 y B.P. (Fulton 1971). Because the Templeton Valley was a southerly ice source, and was independent 22 of the main inter ior ice accumulation area, i t was probably ice free well before the radiocarbon date given for Donald Station. 3.1.4 Climate Regional climate information provides an overall framework of expected temperatures, precipitat ion, winds, and season patterns, however in moun-tainous terrain the variation due to local conditions can be highly s igni f icant. For any given position, local valley climate varies with aspect, elevation, relat ive topographic posit ion, and the influence of adjacent landscape features such as mountain masses (shading a f fec t ) , glacier ice, or water bodies. The climatic information presented for Templeton River is based on data obtained from elevational transects in adjacent larger valley systems. The original transect used was Golden-Glacier Park, w i^ch was then recalcu-lated using Brisco as a base. The lack of instrumentation within the study area makes i t impossible to accurately describe spatial differences within the watershed, part icu lar i ly on contrasting aspects or contrasting topo-graphic positions (e.g. midslope vs. val ley bottom positions). Sites on southerly aspects are s igni f icant ly warmer than sites of equivalent elevation on northerly aspects because of increased inputs of direct solar radiation. Valley bottom positions are l i ke ly to be s l ight ly warmer during the day and d i s t inct ly colder at night than equivalent elevations in a midslope position because of restricted a i r movement along the valley f loor ( i .e . cold a i r pooling and inversion conditions). *Climatic information is summarized from a report prepared by Rodney R. Chilton, Climate and Data Services, Br i t i sh Columbia E.L.U.C. Secretariat. 23 Being located adjacent to the Rocky Mountain Trench, Templeton River is influenced by both maritime and continental a i r masses. The area is dominated by eastwardly moving a i r masses which originate of f the coast. By the time they reach the trench area, however, they are d i s t inct ly dr ier, having deposited most of their moisture on the intervening mountain ranges. The annual precipitation values for the Rocky Mountain Trench are at a minimum just south of Templeton River (at Windermere), and show an increase to the north and south. To the north, moist a i r enters the trench around Golden and through the Spillamacheen Valley. There is minor influence from the south near the U.S. border. Templeton River i t s e l f is not only east of the main Purcell rain shadow, but also the Septet Group, making i t even drier than the main Purcell r iver systems. In the winter season the trench is occasionally inundated by polar a i r masses which originate in the Yukon and flow south through the Columbia Valley or enter through passes in the Rocky Mountains from Alberta. Summer temperatures are sometimes affected by warm a ir moving northward from the inter ior plateau in Washington. Within Templeton River valley i t s e l f , the lower elevations near the mouth have a similar climate to the Rocky Mountain Trench. Upstream of here, however increasing elevation causes an increase in mean annual prec i -pitat ion, and a decrease in mean annual temperature. The seasonal pattern of minimum temperatures demonstrates d is t inct winter and summer regimes. In the winter months the minimum temperatures are generally coldest in the valley bottom, showing a rapid increase over the next hundred meter increase in elevation, and then remaining essential ly 24 2CH F i q u r e 3 . 4 Mean M o n t h l y T e m p e r a t u r e a t F o u r E l e v a t i o n s - - T e m p l e t o n R i v e r 25 constant into the upper elevations. This results from stable inversion conditions, where cold a i r (derived from radiation cooling or incoming arct ic air) is trapped under warmer a i r above. With the onset of spring, the prof i le reverses, and minimum temperatures cool with elevation in response to longer snow duration at the higher elevations. During the summer months minimum temperatures are quite variable due to unstable con-dit ions; however, clear summer nights often result in radiation cooling and coldest minimums at the valley bottom (see figure 3.4). Maximum winter temperatures show l i t t l e change with elevation, ref lect ing stable conditions and increased cloud cover. In spring and summer, maximum temperatures decrease with elevation due to snow cover. Autumn is less con-sistent showing a general trend toward the winter inversion conditions. Diurnal fluctuations are at a maximum in the summer, at the lower e le -vations, primarily ref lect ing increases in maximum temperatures. Cloud cover and stable conditions l imit the diurnal range in the winter. The seasonal pattern of precipitation is re lat ive ly even, with a s l ight decrease in the spring. Topographically, the pattern is one of increase with elevation and distance from the trench. This is due to a number of factors, one being a d r i f t of rain beyond the crest of a rain shadow, associated with eastwardly trending downdrafts. As the a i r in the trench is naturally quite dry, especially in summer, the rain f a l l i ng from higher elevations may evaporate before reaching the lower elevations (observed during f i e l d work). In addition, most summer precipitat ion originates from convective storms which are more l i ke ly to form over the ridges. During the winter, however, 26 most of the precipitation results from frontal systems, which generally have lower level clouds, making the winter precipitation maximum at about,1,500 m, with v i r tua l ly no increase above this elevation (see figure 3.5). Extreme twenty-four hour ra infa l l intensit ies have been estimated on 25 and 50 year recurrances (see table 3.1). These are most l ike ly to occur in conjunction with summer thunderstorms, and increase in frequency and intensity at the upper elevations. At the lower elevations June showed the greatest frequency of high intensity storms, while they are more l i ke ly to occur later in the summer at higher elevations. The values presented are based on precipitation events occurring when the temperature exceeds 1° C, to avoid snow storms; however, rain-on-snow events are probably the most c r i t i ca l in terms of runoff production. Regionally, the values are minimal, especially compared to the Pac i f ic Coast. The snowpack, and percentage of total precipitation fa l l ing as snow increases with elevation, due to concommitant increases in precipitation as well as cooler temperatures. The seasonal pattern of snowpack shows the lower elevations reach a maximum in January or February, while at the higher elevations snow continues to accumulate into late March. The LOCATION ELEVATION (m) MEAN ANNUAL (cm) 25 YEAR (cm). 50 YEAR (cm) Brisco 840 2.92 5.06 5.59 Glacier 1,250 4.14 6.43 7.04 Templeton River 915 - 1,980 4.14 6.43 7.04 Table 3.1 Predicted 24-hour storm intensit ies for the Templeton River area. 27 redistribution of snow due to dr i f t ing and avalanching makes the snowpack estimates for the upper elevations hypothetical at best for any particular site (see figure 3.6). . 3.1.5 Vegetation * According to Krajina's Biogeoclimatic Zonation (Krajina 1969), Templeton River is dominated by the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zones (ESSF), with an ESSF-Interior Douglas F i r transition zone which forms a narrow belt on the south aspect and valley mouth. The Alpine Tundra Zone occurs in a complex mosaic.with the subalpine parkland of the ESSF at the higher elevations (see figure 3.7). The major vegetation types found were: alpine grassland, Krumholtz subalpine forest and heath, subalpine Larix lyallii, Picea engelrnannii -Abies Lasiocarpa (Pinus albicaulis) forest, Pseudotsuga menziesii forest, Alnus sinuata avalanche tracks, Prunus emarginata - Acer glabrum dry avalanche tracks and immature Larix lyallii - Picea engelrnannii - Abies lasiocarpa - Pinus albicaulis avalanche tracks. The Alpine, Krumholtz and Larix lyallii communities occurred upwards from 2,100 m in elevation. Alpine grassland types were restr icted more to areas with southern aspects on Dystrie, Alpine Dystric and Sombric Brunisols, Fol isols and l i t h i c associates. They often formed a mosaic-with Krumholtz communities of Picea engelrnannii, Pinus albicaulis and Abies lasiocarpa. In two of the cirque basins closer to the trench influence, wetter alpine meadow types occurred congruently with Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelrnannii forests on Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzols. Sparse Larix lyallii stands tended to favour extreme environments, commonly rooting in Regosols developed on coarse colluvium, L i th ic Regosols, or L i th i c Fol i so ls . * Prepared in consultation with R.K. Jones BIOGEOCLIMATIC SUBZONES ESSFxJ? (parkland subzone) ESSFXK (forest subzone) Douglas fir not usually a swat species ESSFxK(df) (forest subzone) Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature forests. A V A L A N C H E ZONE ( E S S F x -D i S C l i m a x ) Vegetation subiect to recurring avalanche activity. Figure 3 . 7 Vegetation zonation for the Templeton River study area (Jones 1 9 7 8 ) . oo 29 The Picea engelmannii - Abies lariocarpa forests, part icular i ty extensive toward the upper reaches of the watershed, enjoyed cooler northern aspects as one moves toward the modifying influence of the trench climate. They were primarily associated, wi th Humo-Ferric Podzols; however, the drier areas graded to Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols. Productivity was at i t s best on Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzols, where the water table was perched by compacted t i l l . Pinus albicaulis3 although occasionally present at Tower elevations, increased in i t s frequency at the upper l imits to the subalpine forest. This was especially true on drier sites where L i th i c Humo-Ferric Podzols and Dystric Brunisols were associated with Humo-Ferric Podzols. On predominantly southern exposures near the valley mouth, and within the Rock Mountain Trench there is a gradation to climax Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca and serai Pinus contorta communities occurring on Brunisolic Gray Luvisols. Snow avalanche tracks are located intermittently throughout, flowing from upper cirque basins and rock bluffs to the river below. As expected, the frequency of snow avalanching and co l luv ia l act iv i ty play a major role in determining the vegetation cover and so i l development - those with persistant act iv i ty supporting shrub communities, while those with only periodic disturbance permitting immature subalpine forest-shrub mixes. Forested avalanche tracks were usually well developed Humo-Ferric Podzols, while the shrub communities were associated with Dystric Brunisols or Regosols where col luvial act iv i ty was persistant. Shrub communities consisted of two major types, although gradation did occur. Southern aspects at lower elevations show predominantly dry communities of mainly Prunus emarginata3 Juniperus Scopulorum and Acer glabrum. Moist, cool conditions found at higher elevations and northern aspects display dense Alnus sinuata types, often reaching over 2 m in height with a variety of herbaceous understories. 30 3.2 Grassy Creek Study, Area 3.2.1 Location and Physiography The Grassy Creek study area is located in : the Selkirk Mountains of southeastern Br i t i sh Columbia (117° 23'-30' W; 49° 15'-19' N). The topography is dominated by ro l l ing uplands, r i s ing to 2,180 m at Grassy «>Y & ^ Mountain in the northeastern^ corner of the watershed (see figure 3.8). The valley has two main branches, both with moderate to gentle slopes, ; and a narrow valley mouth where Grassy Creek enters into Erie Creek at an elevation of 910 m. The watershed divides are low (1,500-1,700 m) and rounded, typical of continentally glaciated terrain (see figure 3.9). The watershed is 8 km long (E-W), has an average width of about 4.5 km (N-S) and has an area of 3,240 ha (see figure 3.10). 3.2.2 Bedrock Geology This study area is dominated by plutonic rocks of the Nelson batho-l i t h . These include porphyritic and non-porphyritic granites on the northern ridge, grading to granodiorite on the southern ridge. The age of these intrusions is unclear; however, lower Cretaceous is tentatively given by L i t t l e (1960). Near the eastern end of the study area the intrusions are in contact with mixed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Lower Jurassic Sinemurian Beds and the Rossland Formation. These include a r g i l l i t e s , s i l t -stones, graywackes, tuffs and andesitic to basalt ic lava flows. Increased, alteration and minor pockets of mineralization occur at the contacts with the intrusions. Prospecting was carried out extensively in the area, and continues even today. 31 it Figure 3.8 Grassy Creek with Grassy Mountain in the background (looking to the northwest). Note the r o l l i n g topography with cedar-hemlock stands in the foreground and Engelmann spruce-subalpine f i r stands in the background. Figure 3.9 The southern portion of Grassy Creek sti the southeast). Note the subalpine par logging in the l e f t va l ley bottom, and distance. area (looking to kland i n the foreground, r o l l i n g ridges in the Figure 3.10 .Topographic setting of the Grassy Creek area. 33 3.2.3 Regional Pleistocene history The sur f i c ia l geology of the Grassy Creek area is dominated by deposits resulting from the last major Pleistocene glaciation (termed the Pinedale in the Rocky Mountains of the United States or the Fraser at Coastal Br i t i sh Columbia). During the Pinedale Glaciation coalescing ice sheets from the Coast and Columbia Mountains formed an ice dome over the inter ior plateau of central Br i t i sh Columbia. From this accumulation area ice flowed south over the Grassy Creek area into the Columbia Plateau of Washington state (Fulton 1971, L i t t l e 1960, Prest et , a l . 1967). The Pinedale Glaciation of inter ior Br i t i sh Columbia has not been precisely dated, however a maximum radiocarbon date for i t s onset north of Kootenay Lake in the Purcell Trench is 25,840 + 320 y B.P. (Fulton 1971). Upland areas similar to Grassy Creek were over-ridden at a later date, pro-bably closer to 20,000 y B.P. Regional deglaciation in the interior is not well documented, however radiocarbon dates in the v ic in i ty of Grassy Creek show the ice to have retreated by 10,000 y B.P. (Fulton 1971). In areas of moderate re l i e f such as Grassy Creek, deglaction was accom-plished primarily through down wasting. Uplands and mountainous areas appeared f i r s t , dissecting the ice sheet into large stagnant blocks in the valley bottoms. The stagnant ice severely restr icted the re-establishment of regional drainage, creating temporary glacial lakes and deranged drainage patterns (Fulton 1967 & 1971, Nasmith 1962). Most valley bottoms in the area have extensive deposits of g laciof luvial and glaciolacustrine materials terraced by r iver systems with successively lower base levels. 34 3.2.4 Climate * Regional climate information provides, an overall framework of expected temperatures, precipitat ion, winds, and season patterns, however in moun-tainous terrain the variation due to local conditions can be highly s ignif icant. For any given posit ion, local valley climate varies with aspect, elevation, relative topographic posit ion, and the influence of adjacent landscape features such as mountain masses (shading af fect ) , glacier i ce , or water bodies. The climatic information presented for Grassy Creek is based on data obtained from elevational transects in adjacent larger valley systems (T ra i l -Rossland-Old Glory Mountain). The lack of instrumentation within the study area makes i t impossible to accurately describe spatial differences within, the watershed, part icular ly on contrasting aspects or contrasting topo-graphic positions (e.g. midslope vs. valley bottom positions). Sites on southerly aspects are s igni f icant ly warmer than sites of equivalent elevation on northerly aspects because of increased inputs of direct solar radiation. Valley bottom positions are l i ke l y to be s l ight ly warmer during the day and d i s t inct ly colder at night than equivalent elevations in a midslope position because of restr icted a i r movement along the valley f loor (i.e. cold a i r pooling and inversion conditions). The Grassy Creek study area is located in the southern portion of the inter ior wet belt. Seasonally, the climate is dominated by easterly moving Pacif ic-coastal a i r masses, which lose the last major portion of their •Climatic information is summarized from a report prepared by Rodney R. Chilton, Climate and Data Services, Br i t i sh Columbia E.L.U.C. Secretariat. 35 moisture in this area prior to crossing the Columbia Mountains. During the winter polar a i r moving south through the Kootenay and Columbia valley systems inundates the area for short periods. During the summer, hot dry a i r occasionally moves into the area from the Columbia plateau in the United States. The general patterns of temperature and precipitation are typical for mountainous terra in, with increases in mean annual precipitation and decreases in mean annual temperature coincident with increasing elevation. Minimum temperatures generally show a decrease with increasing e le -vation; however, an area just above the valley bottom may be s l ight ly warmer than below, as a result of cold a i r drainage. The winter lapse rate for minimum and maximum temperatures is low, ref lect ing re lat ively stable con-ditions. During the summer months the lapse rate for maximum temperatures increases dramatically, ref lect ing unstable conditions due to snow retention at the upper elevations (see figure 3.11). The diurnal temperature fluctuations are at a maximum during the summer months (at lower elevations), and decrease to a minimum in December. In the winter months increased cloud cover both decreases maximums and increases minimums, while sunlight in the summer tends to increase maximums and radia-tion cooling on clear nights decreases minimums. Precipitation patterns are generally a ref lect ion of frontal cloud patterns, which are most active below 1,400 m in elevation. Precipitation increases with elevation to that leve l , above which i t decreases s l ight ly. During the summer months the maximum precipitation belt wil l be s l ight ly 36 20. Fiqure 3.11 Mean Monthly Temperature at Three Elevations — Grassy Creek 37 higher in response to convection storms. The annual precipitation d i s t r i -bution is somewhat seasonal with a maximum during the early winter (October-January), and a minimum in late summer (July-September). These temperature and precipitation patterns result in rapidly increasing snowpack with elevation. At the lower elevation the winter maximum is reached in January, while at the higher elevation i t continues to col lect into Apri l (see figures 3.12 and 3.13). Expected twenty-four hour ra infa l l intensit ies are moderate for this area (see table 3.2). The most intense storms are most l ike ly to occur at the mid-elevations due to a longer rainy season than the upper elevations, and a higher ra infa l l in general than the lower elevations. It should be noted, however, that rain-on-snow events are probably the most c r i t i c a l in terms of runoff production. LOCATION ELEVATION (m) MEAN ANNUAL (cm) 25 YEAR (cm) 50 YEAR (cm) Trai 1 604 2.95 5.23 5.84 Ross land 1,007 3.71 6.66 7.42 Old Glory 2,350 2.92 4.98 5.49 Grassy Ck. 760 - 1,370 3.71 6.66 7.42 Table 3.2 Predicted 24-hour Creek area. storm intensit ies for the Grassy 3.2.5 Vegetation Grassy Creek contains two Biogeoclimatic zones: the Interior Western Hemlock Zone (dry subzone) and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r Zone (see figure 3.14 and Krajina 1969). Due to the extensive f i r e history in this IWHa (dry subzone) ESSFx< (forest subzone) ESSFxp (parkland subzone) pft^^ ESSFx-Disclimax (grassland disclimax) ESSFx<-IWHa (transition zone) ESSFx-Disclimax $ ESSFxp complex D ° O ° Fiqure 3.14 Vegetation zonation for the Grassy Creek study area (Jones 1978). 39 region, there is a complex mosaic of plant communities ranging from early serai shrub communities to old-growth stands dating back numerous centuries. Nine major climax and serai vegetative types were recognized in the Grassy Creek watershed: subalpine disclimax grassland, subalpine ESSF park-land, subalpine forests of Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa, old-growth stands of Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla; serai forests of Picea engel-mannii - Abies lasiocarpa, serai forests of Larix occidentalis - Pinus monticola -Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca - Abies grandis, Populus tremuloides - Larix -occidentalis -Pinus contorta; and shrub dominant communities of Alnus sinuata and Acer glabrum - Ceonothus velutinus. Subalpine grasslands were associated with Orthic and Alpine Dystric Brunisols (often L i t h i c ) , and were limi ted to southern aspects ranging from 1,500 m to over 2,000 m in elevation. The grasslands occur over large areas, with small patches of subalpine forest inhabiting the minor depressional receiving areas. The soi l s in the depressional areas are Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. Areas of Krumholtz forest occur sporadically along ridge tops and are characterized by a procumbent cover of Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii and Pinus albicaulis. Subalpine forests of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii occur at the upper elevations of the watershed. The plant communities within these forests varied primarily as a function of their slope position and moisture regime. Paral lel catenary sequences in the so i l went from Humo-Ferric Podzols in the shedding positions to Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzols through Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzols in the receiving s ites. The few remaining mature Thuja plicata -Tsuga heterophylla stands occurred in the lower elevations of the watershed and attained their greatest productivity in the seepage zones and receiving areas. 40 Moist cool slopes immediately below the subalpine forest are characterized by Podzols, and a serai forest canopy of Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelrnannii and Pinus monticola and a succeeding understory of Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla. Mesic sites with Humo-Ferric Podzols, support a mixed serai forest of predominantly Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, and Larix occi-dentalis. Xeric sites are characterized by Dystric Brunisols and a mixed open serai forest of Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca3 Larix occidentalis, Pinus contorta, and occasional Abies grandis. Arid south-facing slopes near the valley entrance have been repeatedly burned and support serai shrub communities of Coeno-thus velutinus and Acer glabrum with Dystric Bruni-sols and L i th ic Sombric Brunisols. 41 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR TEMPLETON RIVER STUDY AREA 4.1 Terrain* features The terrain features of the study area were c lass i f ied and mapped according to the Terrain Class i f icat ion System developed by the Resource Analysis Branch of the Brit ish Columbia Ministry of the Environment (ELUC Secretariat 1976). As discussed in Chapter 1, the Terrain Classif ication 1 System separates the landscape into discreet units primarily on the basis of their dominant genetic process, and secondly on characteristics of texture, surface expression, slope, and modifying processes. The results of the terrain analysis of the area are primarily presented in map form on an enlarged aerial photograph (see figure 4.1), however, the stratigraphic relations and other terrain features are discussed in the following sections. The distribution of the terrain features are summarized in figure 4.2; stratigraphic relationships are demonstrated on the cross-sections given in figures 4.9, 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15; textural properties are shown in figure 4.3; bulk density and engineering properties are given in table 4.1. The terrain features of the Templeton River study area primarily result from glacial act iv i ty during the Pleistocene, and subsequent col luvial and f luv ia l processes continuing at present. Throughout the major Pleistocene advances the Templeton Valley ice originated from the cirque basin now occupied by Templeton Lake ( l ip elevation 1,935 m). The ice would then have flowed east, coalesced with the Bugaboo and Rocky Mountain Trench ice and abruptly turned south. This flow pattern is demonstrated by the southerly * The term "terra in" as used here is essential ly synonomous with sur f i c i a l geology, except that in addition to unconsolidated materials, i t also includes some bedrock, organic, i ce , and anthropogenic features. Fiqure 4.2 Generalized Terrain Map of Templeton River. Figure 4.3 Grain Size Distribution Curves for Material Finer than 76 millimetres — Templeton River 44 turning configuration in the mouth of the Templeton Valley (see figures 3.2 and 3.3). The presence of transverse ridges, truncated spurs, and glacial erratics within the valley demonstrate that trench ice covered the eastern end of the northerly ridge at the mouth to an elevation of at least 2,130 m.(see figure 4.4). This is s l ight ly less than the minimum ice surface elevation of 2,260 m given by Clague (1975) for the eastern side of the trench at 48° 30' N. The spacial distr ibution, topographic expression, stratigraphic relat ion-ships, and textural var iabi l i ty observed for the morainal materials would indicate a sequence of successively reduced glacial advances. These would l ike ly correlate with the various Pinedale stades recorded in the Cranbrook area by Clague (1975). The earl Test advance deposited compact morainal materials to an elevation of at least 2,200 m midway up the valley. This is the strat i graphically lowest deposit with a gravelly s i l t loam to s i l t y clay loam texture and l ight gray color (2.5y 7/2 dry). It is exposed along the valley bottom, and in morainal terraces at midslope on the valley walls (see gcMb in figures 4.1, 4.2 and 3.1). This morainal material has well rounded coarse fragments and the highest content of s i l t and clay of the morainal materials present (see figure 4.3 and table 4.1). Strati graphically overlying the compact morainal material is a non-compact morainal material which is very gravelly sandy loam to very gravelly loamy sand in texture and pale yellow in color (5y 7/3 dry). This highly permeable material occurs primarily at mid to lower elevations below the terraces of the ea r l i e r morainal material (see gMb in figures 4.1 and 4.2). The subangular nature of the coarse fragments and reduced fine fraction (see table 4.1 and figure 4.3) characterize an ablation moraine derived from reworked, col luvia l 45 Figure 4.4 Northerly ridge which was covered by ice flowing south in the Rocky Mountain Trench. Note the rounded crest and transverse ridges which grade to a truncated spur above; also sedimentary bedding and c o l l u v i a l slopes on the l e f t . TERRAIN UNIFIED SOIL BULK TYPE CLASSIFICATION TEXTURE DENSITY (U.S.A.C.E. 1953) (gm/cm3) Ft GW-GM vgs-gsl 1.83 gsF Gt SW-SM vgs-vgsl 1.91 Lv ML s i l - s i c l 1.42 gsMb(calc.) GP-GM vgls-vgsl 1.74 gcMb SM vgl-gscl 1.59 g*Mb SC-SM vgsl-gl 1.58 gMb GW-GM vgls-vgsl 2.01 Cb GP-GM cos-vgsil 2.04 Table 4.1 Physical properties of selected s u r f i c i a l materials in the Templeton River study area. 46 . materials. It may not represent a complete readvance, but a temporary stag-nation, and renewed glacial act iv ity cutting the morainal terraces (essentially . trim lines at 1,800 - 2,100 m). The third major morainal material is gravelly loam to s i l t loam in texture and l ight brownish gray in color (10YR 6/2 dry). It is restr icted to the valley bottom west of a terminal moraine (see g$Mb in figures 4.1 and 4.2), and local ly overlies water-worked sands. This represents the last of the Pleistocene advances and may not have reached the Rocky Mountain trench. This material ' is compact in places, however, near the terminal moraine i t intergrades with g lac iof luv ia l materials. In the presently active cirques there are also more recent morainal materials indicating post Pleistocene glacial advances. These were relat ively limited in extent, and the morainal materials essentially have the textural characteristics of col luvia l materials, with surface expres-sion indicating ice transport. Only one cirque is presently occupied with active glacial ice, however, there are a number of active rock glaciers which are continuously supplying sediment to Templeton River. At the eastern extreme of the study area are examples of typical Rocky Mountain trench morainal materials (see gsMb (calc) in figure 4.2 and table 4.1). These are highly compacted and cemented calcareous materials, varying in texture from very gravelly sandy loams to loamy sand (color 2.5y 6/2 dry, l ight brownish gray). Surface expressions include morainal ridges (drumlins), morainal blanket, and morainal terraces cut by f luv ia l action during degla-c iat ion. During the deglaciation of the Templeton Study area, streams confined between the mountain slope and the trench ice in combination with streams fed by ice melting in the Templeton Valley i t s e l f deposited g laciof luvia l sands, gravels, and minor s i l t y glaciolacustrine at the valley mouth (see 47 Figure 4.5 The mouth of Templeton River val ley, with glaciof luvial terraces and meltwater channels in the foreground. Note the lodgepole pine - Douglas f i r stands in the foreground and Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r stands in the background. Figure 4.6 Distorted bedding and "cut and f i l l " features in poorly sorted g laciof luvia l materials. 48 gsF^t in figure 4.2 and table 4.1). As base levels changed and sediment loads decreased, the streams downcut through the g laciof luvia l materials, sometimes into morainal materials, leaving terraces and abandoned meltwater channels (see figure 4.5). Some of these deposits collapsed as the supporting ice melted, resulting in kettles and distorted bedding with intr icate cut and f i l l structures (see figure 4.6). The col luvia l terrain features in the study area are the dominant ones at present. Colluvial aprons and fans are actively forming throughout the val ley, often in conjunction with snow avalanching (see figure 3.1 and 4.1). The texture and composition of the colluviurns are dependent on their bedrock source, however, in general they are rubbly at the base of the fans and grade to f iner textures near the apex. The skeletal nature of the deposits has allowed for local ized inwashing of eolian and slope wash materials (see figure 4.2 and table 4.1). Compositions vary from dominantly a r g i l l i t e to quartzite, s late, and dolomite. Colluvial materials often overlie morainal features, and the morainal terrace features themselves are undergoing continual mass wasting. Fluvial features are of minimal extent in the Templeton Study area, rest-ricted to minor floodplain deposits and a single fan. The materials are dominantly very gravelly sands ranging to bouldery s i l t s (see figure 4.2 and table 4.1). The majority of the terrain features have a capping of eolian materials. These materials vary in thickness depending on the redistribution due to col luvia l and f luv ia l processes. They are predominantly s i l t to s i l t loam in texture and include volcanic ash (probably Mazama, 6600y B.P., according to distribution maps prepared by Sneddon, 1973). 4.2 Soil features The soi ls which have been ident i f ied and mapped within the Templeton River study area are summarized with selected properties and interpretations 49 in table 4.5. The mapping results are presented in figures 4.7 and 4.8. The relationships between the soi ls and the environmental features of topography, terra in, and vegetation are demonstrated in the cross-section figures 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15 (see figure 4.9 for legend). The following section wi l l discuss the so i l s and how particular so i l properties are related to the various soil-forming environments. This section is organized into subsections, each of which discuss the soi ls of four cont-rasting environments within the study area (see figure 3.3 and table 4.5). Physical properties of the so i l parent materials were discussed in the previous section. Soil interpretations are discussed in Chapter 6. The variation of so i l properties within the Templeton River study area is primarily a result of contrasting parent materials and climatic regimes throughout the study area. The parent materials range from calcareous fine textured lacusterine materials to moderately ac id ic skeletal col luvial and morainal materials. The Rocky Mountain Trench area at the eastern end of the study area has a re lat ive ly dry continentally influenced cliimate, while the western edge of the study area is dominated by a cool and relat ively moist subalpine climate. Within the valley i t s e l f , the lower elevations of the south aspect are an extension of the warmer conditions of the trench, while the north aspect is more s imilar to the cooler and moister conditions at the higher elevations. Variation in spec i f i c so i l properties closely ref lect these two factors of the so i l forming environment. Soil structure is very weakly developed in the gravelly morainal, co l luv ia l , and f luv ia l materials and moderate to strong in the f iner textured morainal and lacusterine materials. The Bt horizons are poorly developed in the gravelly morainal materials, with only moderate structure and thin clay films on a gravelly skeletal matrix. The calcareous ESSFXK! ESSFxK-IWHa -)• BIOGEOCUMATIC SUBZONE MAP UNIT SYMBOL FOR VEGETATION TYPE •"-REPRESENTATIVE VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION • SURFICIAL MATERIALS AND BEDROCK TERRAIN UNIT SOIL CLASSIFICATION SOIL DRAINAGE SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION HORIZON pHIN WATER HORIZON TEXTURE HORIZON BOUNDARY SOIL DEPTH (IN 20 cm INCREMENTS) HORIZON DESIGNATION 1 see Appendix 3 for vegetation types, VEGETATION STRUCTURE A N D COMPOSITION ABIES LASIOCARPA LARIX LYALII 2% LARIX OCCIDENTALS PICEA ENGELMANNII POPULUS TREMULOIOES Figure 4.9 Legend and transect locations for cross-section figures 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15. 51 lacusterine and morainal materials in the trench area have well developed Bt horizons with moderate to strong so i l structure and abundant clay films. Organic matter content is very low in the soi ls in the dryer areas and increases to a maximum in the poorly drained areas at the upper elevations. Organic accumulations on the surface and within the mineral so i l are consi-stently higher for so i l s on the north aspect than for soi ls at corresponding elevations on the south aspect. The humus forms within the study area are dominantly imperfect mors or fibrimors which grade to raw moder on the poorly drained sites (after Bernier 1968). The so i l s surface horizons are moderately to strongly acid throughout the study area, however, in the trench area and at the lower elevations on the south aspect the lower so i l horizons are neutral to moderately alkal ine. Cation exchange capacities (CEC) are highly variable, depending on so i l texture and organic matter content. Coarse textured g lac iof luv ia l materials are extremely low (less than 2 meq/100 gm), while s i l t y f luv ia l materials with high organic matter contents are moderately high (greater than 80 meq/ 100 gm). Base saturation ranges from excessive (greater than 100%) in the calcareous materials to extremely low (less than 5%) in the acid soi ls at the upper elevations. The exchangeable cations are dominantly calcium, followed by lesser amounts of magnesium or potassium (usually more magnesium than potassium) and sodium. Nitrogen content is generally correlated with organic matter content, and is highest on the cool moist s ites. The C/N ratios for the forest floors are moderately high, generally between 30 and 40, except on sites with dense herbaceous vegetation where they are between 20 and 25. Within the so i l p r o f i l e , C/N ratios generally decrease to 20-30. Available phosphorus values within the mineral so i l were consistently low throughout the study area, probably due to f ixation by calcium in the alkaline so i l s or iron and aluminum in the acidic poorly drained soi l s . However, total 52 phosphorus values for the forest floors were moderate. Extractable iron and aluminum values of the eolian surface horizons were moderately high on the north aspect and at the upper elevations, however, they are lower in the trench area and in other parent materials, (high values of extractable iron and especially aluminum are generally associated with the presence of volcanic ash). 4.2.1 Rocky Mountain Trench The eastern end of the study area is locateld in the Rocky Mountain Trench in contrast to the remainder which is in the Purcell Mountains. The soi ls here ref lect calcareous parent materials occurring in a drier more continental climate. Within this part of the study area the Engelmann Spruce Subalpine F i r Zone is giving way to the lower elevation Interior Douglas F i r Zone. The forest stands of Engelmann spruce, Douglas f i r , lodgepole pine and aspen ref lect a complex mos ai c of terrain features and f i re history. The major soi ls occurring in this area are presented schematically on cross-section C1-C2 (see figure 4.10). Fluvial - Coarse gravelly floodplain deposits along Templeton River show limited so i l development, and.are c lass i f ied as Gleyed Orthic Regosols. These soi ls are poorly drained and have a suf f ic ient moisture supply for excellent tree growth. However, the high water table creates windthrow and road cons-truction problems. The smaller tributaries to Templeton River generally have more stable, f iner textured f luv ia l deposits, with poorly drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. Glaciofluvial - Kame deposits and g laciof luvia l terraces in the trench area are well to rapidly drained, coarse textured, and less calcareous than the associated morainal materials (see figure 4.6). The soi ls present on these materials are primarily Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols with associated Dystric Brunisols. Where lenses of lacustrine or morainal materials with increased ESSFXK(Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature stands) FEMPEITON -f I ?P RIVER ' " ' ' BRGL -MW LFH 5.2 Ae 51 5~4 Bm nBt GL 6.3 •40 nek VGL 7.1 TEMPLETON RIVER Ll- J.5 Bf GL 6.1 20 HBt VGLS 5.4 60 IIBC VGLS 5.3 nc_ VGLS GLOR-P L , 4.3 Bm GSiL 5.4 HBtj VGLS 5.2 (argillite) LF !L 4 Bm! GSiL 6.6 •40 IBm2 VGSiL 7.0 R (dolomite) LF S:9 Bm VGSL 6.1 •40 C VGLS 8.3 LF 4.7 Ae SDH ID Bf GSiL 5.9 HBmi VGSL S~9 IIBm- .VGLS 5.8 mc VGLS 5.9 •SOUTH ASPECT A^F Bm n B t HBk nc SiL 6.3 |VGSL, 5.6 VGLS 7.3 VGSL T l LF Ae Bm SjL. 5.8 nBtr •SiL . 5.3 DBt2 40 mate SiCL 6.7 E C g GSL T 7 L F 4.7 Ah VGLS 6.4 Cg VGLS 6.7 Figure 4.10 Cross-section C 1~C 2 (see f i g . 4.9 for location and legend). 54 clay content are encountered within the control section, the soi ls can develop Bt horizons, and become Bisequa Gray Luvisols. The Brunisolic Bm and Podzolic Bf horizons are moderately to very strongly acid, and develop mainly from the s i l t y surface cappings which occur on the terrace tops. Their cation exchange capacities (CEC) are suf f ic ient that with only moderate base saturation, they contain more available nutrients than the underlying horizons (see table 4.2). Because of their fine texture, the surface horizons are also the primary source of available water storage capacity for these so i l s . The g lac iof luv ia l materials are a good source of gravel, but have only a moderate capabil ity for forest growth. Glaciolacustrine - Occurring in depressions within the ridged morainal and channelled g laciof luvia l materials are abandoned lake basins. The increased clay content and imperfect to poor drainage of these areas result in Gleyed Brunisol ic Gray Luvisols at lower elevations and Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols at higher elevations. These soi ls have a larger total nutrient capital and increased CEC compared to the associated so i l s , and the nutrients are more evenly distributed throughout the soi l prof i le (see table 4.2). The surface horizons are strongly acid with moderate base saturation, while the lower horizons are neutral with over 100% base saturation. The f iner texture and improved moisture holding capacity make these soi ls good forest growing s i tes , but quite poor road location areas. Morainal - The so i l s occurring on the calcareous ridged and terraced morainal materials are Brunisolic Gray Luvisols, with the Brunisolic Bm horizon developed from a s i l t y eolian capping. The surfaces of these soi ls are moderately acid with good cation exchange characterist ics, however, the lower horizons are moderately alkal ine, with calcium and magnesium domina-ting a greatly reduced number of exchange s ites. Over 50% of the available Terra in & Soi 1 Depth Horizons Texture 5° 3-FF - pH CEC BS C C/N N P Ca Mq Na K cm gm/cmJ % meq/lOOgm % '. ... % kg/ha FS t 3- 0 LF 0.12 5.1 • 38.7 ' 3 2 44 28 21 9 1 3 0- 25 Bm IIBm gis 1.5 60 • 5.9 • 9.6 38 V 0.63 32 40 :• 30 1225 216 13 123 ODYB 25- 50 II Bm vgsl 1.9 30 5.6 2.2 ... .. 107 0.28 28 . 14 3 454 130 . 3 11 50- 75 II Bm vgsl 1.9 30 5.6 2.2 107 . 0.28 28 . 14 3 454 130 3 11 #127 • 75- 100 II Bm C gs- 1.5 60 6.6 1.9 231 .... 0.14 4 . 1682 • 314 5 9 Tota ls • • 112 68 3836 799 25, 157 Ev 5- 0 LF 0.10 4.3 45.9 !; 37 .•' 52 , 36 22 6 1 4 Lv W t 0- 25 AeBmUBt s i 1 1.2 100 5.4 9.6 44 - 0.79 16 v 140 • 68 2035 293 10 254 25- 50 IIIBt IIIBtg s i c l 1.4 80 6.3 9.2 . 192 0.39 13 ' 90 7 2866 4276 9 287 GLBRGL 50- 75 IIIBtg IHCg gsl 1.4 60 6.7 8.2 16.4 0. 32 16 . ••. 47 4 2223 2076 J 7 173 #1 75- 100 IV eg gsi 1.6 50 • 6.7 6.2 105 • , 0.22 .22 2 0 ; .3 1756 494 5 94 Tota l s . 349 • • 118 ' 8902 7145 32 812 Ev 4- 0 LF 0.10 5.2 42.7 '40 ' . 4 3 37 55 6 1 5 Mr 0- 25 Bm IIBt g s i l 1.3 60 5.9 10.6 51 '0.97 . 32 58 25 1520 280 4 229 BRGL 25- 50 IIBt IIBk vgsl 1.5 30 •6.3 7.6 •80 0.52 26 22 3 1134 124 3 44 50- 75 IIBk IIC vgls 1.7 20 7.6 6.8 264 0.45 22 ' 17 1 2514 542 2 20 #2 75- 100 IIC vgsl 1.8 20 8.1 4.3 462 0.47 16 27 <1 4442 1395 4 0 Tota ls 167 66 9665 2347 • 14 298 Texture refers to the dominant hor izon; bulk densit ies f o r the LFH's were ca lcu lated using estimated values (L 0.06 gm/cm3, F 0.15 qm/cm3, H 0.18 gm/cmJ); bulk dens i t ies f o r the mineral s o i l s were extrapolated from measured values (see tables 4.1 and 5.1); pH fo r the LFH's are 1:4 water and 1:1 water for the mineral s o i l s ; N i s to ta l K je ldah l ; P, Ca, Mg, Na and K are tota l values f o r the LFH ' s ; P i s ex t rac tab le in the mineral s o i l s ; Ca, Mg, Na and K are exchangeable in the mineral s o i l s . Table 4.2 Nutritional properties, of selected soi ls from the Rocky Mountain Trench within the Templeton River study area. cn t n 56 nitrogen and 90% of the phosphorus in these soi ls is located in the LF and upper 25 cm of the mineral s o i l . The loss of surface horizons through erosion or scalping would reduce the productivity of these so i l s by depleting them of available nutrit ion and allowing the Bt horizon to form calcareous clay clods on the surface. 4.2.2 Southern Aspect Within the Templeton River valley i t s e l f there is a d ist inct increase in total precipitation over the Rocky Mountain Trench area, however, because of increased solar insolation the southern aspect remains within the drier Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r (Douglas f i r ) subzone. The area is presently covered by mixed stands of Douglas f i r , lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, with subalpine f i r and whitebark pine at the higher elevations. The parent materials are mixed calcareous and non-calcareous near the trench grading to non-calcareous near the upper valley. Examples of soi ls present in the area are shown on cross-sections Ai-A2, B-|-B2 and Ci-C2 (see figures 4.9, 4.10, 4.14 and 4.15). Fluvial - The floodplain deposits within the valley include gravelly mate-r ia ls with Regosolic development as described for the trench area, as well as bouldery lag deposits which have been i n f i l l e d with s i l t and fine sands. These soi ls have large accumulations of organic matter within the so i l prof i le and on the surface (10-50 cm) resulting from poor drainage and low soi l temperatures. They are c lass i f ied as Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols. Because of their high organic matter content, these soi ls have a high nutrient capital and a moderately acid prof i le (see table 4.3). These soi ls have a good forest capabil ity but are very poor road locations because of their fine texture, poor drainage and proximity to Templeton River. 57 Glaciofluvial - The coarse textured g laciof luvia l materials found in this area are a direct extension of those described in the trench area (see table 4.2). However, on steep southerly aspects, where these materials are sparsely vegetated and undergoing so i l creep, they are predominantly rapidly drained Orthic Dystric Brunisols and calcareous at depth (see figure 4.10). Glaciolacustrine - The soi ls developed on lacustrine materials are Bruni-so l i c Gray Luvisols with properties similar to the lacustrine soi ls in the trench area (see table 4.2). These soi ls are well to moderately well drained and associated with terraced g lac iof luvia l and s i l t y morainal materials. Morainal - In the valley bottom, upstream from the terminal moraines, there are moderately fine textured (gsi l to vgsl) non-calcareous morainal materials (g$Mb). The soi ls which develop on these materials are well drained Dystric Brunisols near the valley mouth and moderately well drained Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols at higher elevations. These soi ls are compact at depth and have good water retention capabi l i t ies. They have a moderate CEC which decreases with depth, high base saturation, and s l ight ly acid to mildly alkaline reactions (see table 4.3). Forest capability is moderate to good, however, the soils have a moderately high susceptibi l i ty to surface erosion, even on gentle slopes. The valley slope is dominantly gravelly morainal material (gMb) capped with co l luv ia l and eolian materials of variable thickness. At lower elevations near the valley mouth the soi ls which develop are well drained Bisequa Gray Luvisols, with poorly developed Bt horizons in the gravelly morainal materials (see figure 4.11). At the higher elevations where temperatures are cooler and precipitation increases, the Luvisols grade to Orthic and Degraded Dystric Brunisols, Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols, and Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. An important feature of Terrain Soil ECv Mb BIGL #9 Totals Fv Mb GLMFHP #29 Totals Cb 0MB #20 Totals Depth cm Horizons Texture gm/crrr FF 3-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 LF Bfh Bf IIBt IIB+C IIB+C IIB+C IIC gsil vgsl vgsl vgl's 0.09 1.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 50 17 17 17 8-0' 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 LFH Bhf Bfh Bfh IIBfg II Bfg col cosil vgsil vgsil 0.16 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 30 30 40 40 7-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 LF Ah Bm Bm Bm Bm Btj cosil cosil cosil cos 0.09 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 10 10 10 10 pH CEC r,ieq/100gm BS C/N Ca kg/ha Mg 4.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 20.5 4.9 6.4 5.4 22 62 57 61 44.4 1.63 0.22 0.22 0.18 44 23 11 22 18 5.1 5.4 6.1 6.5 6.6 82.9 48.3 . 25.1 19.3. 36 43 51 56 32.8 13.6 5.66 2.21 1.35 22 .17 15 22 45 .5.7 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.3 44.5 35.4 25.7 19.2 119 74 79 85 35.6 5.18 4.80 3.22 1.30 Na 27 23 11 2 '<1 92 25 894, , 114 , 6 14 2 326 '112 • 3 8 2 390 • .133 4 5 . 2 353 120 3 146 54 1974 • 481 •'. ,16 2 163 21 23 21 230 195 169 125 43 2 14 972 7 5214 n 06 17 ' 56 456 8 3751 707 14 38 170 4 3270 634 12 53 51 . 2 2787 . 543' •;• 8 53 1844 190 15147 3033 . 53 214 23 98 58 116 28 2 10 17 155 12 2505 1693 1 16 9 • 255 7 1952 392 1 47 13 125 6 1525 299 1 31 26 25 3 744 142 1 14 658 86 6842 2554 6 118 theminera! soils; Ca, Mg, Na andTare I S h l n ^ b ' e T t t ^ n ^ i l soil.3; " 9 ' " * " » t 0 t a 1 V a 1 U 6 S f ° r t h e L F H ' S> P i s extractable in Table 4.3 Nutritional properties of selected soi ls from the southern aspects within.the Templeton River.study area. 59 60 these soi ls is the dist inct contrast between the properties of the gravelly s i l t y eol ian-col luvial surface capping and the underlying gravelly morainal materials. Because of their f iner texture (gsi l vs. vgls), the inclusion of volcanic ash, and increased organic matter content, the surface cappings have a much higher CEC and nutrient capital than the underlying materials (see table 4.3). The surface materials have better water retention characteristics and contain most of the rooting. Successful management of these areas for forest production depends on maintaining the surface so i l intact. Because of their coarse texture and well drained nature, these so i l s have moderate to low forest capabi l it ies and relat ively good engineering properties. At the mid-slope positions in the upper val ley, f iner textured morainal materials (gcMt) occur as terraces (see figure 3.1). The compactness of the C horizons and the receiving positions of the terrace tops result in imperfectly drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. The cool moist inicroclimate on these sites increases leaching and organic matter accu-mulation, causing low base saturation and strongly acid so i l prof i les . The forest capabil ity is l imited due to a short growing season. Colluviaii - Where bedrock outcrops break the continuity of morainal deposits there are associated col luvia l materials of variable thickness. On the ridge near the valley mouth the colluviums are predominantly veneers, resulting in rapidly drained l i t h i c so i l s which closely ref lect local bed-rock types. Dolomitic areas have L i th ic and Orthic Eutric Brunisols with neutral to mildly alkaline reactions (see figure 4.12), while the non-calcareous fine grained sedimentaries have L i th i c and Orthic Dystric Brunisols with strongly acid reactions. These areas have limited forest capabi l i t ies because they are droughty with restr icted rooting medium. Where rock types are well consolidated, road costs can be substantially 61 Figure 4.12 Orthic Eutric Brunisol (OEB) developed from a col luvial veneer over dolomitic bedrock. 62 increased. Below the rock faces midway up the valley are extensive col luvial aprons and col luvial blankets over morainal materials. The colluvium is coarse textured and dominantly rapidly drained. In the drier easterly areas on stable s ites where open forest stands occur the soi ls are Orthic Dystric Brunisols on non-calcareous materials and Orthic Eutric Brunisols or Orthic Melanic Brunisols on calcareous materials. At the upper eleva-tions these grade to Degraded Dystric Brunisols and Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. In areas with concentrated runoff from rocky areas above or where underlying bedrock perches the water table, well to moderately well drained Orthic Humic or Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols can form (see figure 4.13). The forested col luvial soi ls have a very l imited fine fraction and therefore, a generally poor nutrient capital and very poor water retention properties (see table 4.3). These areas have a low forest capability and are undergoing soi l creep on the steeper slopes (see figure 6.1)s The materials are generally too coarse textured for road surfacing and prone to ravel l ing in cutbanks. In the drier easterly areas where snow avalanching prohibits forest establishment, so i l development is l imited to rapidly drained Orthic Regosols. With increasing elevation the snow avalanche areas grade from open shrub and grassland communities, to krumholtz and alpine heather communities ref lect ing a cooler and moister climate. These areas are characterized by Orthic Dystric Brunisols and Alpine Dystric Brunisols. In the highest elevations L i th ic Brunisols are associated with rock out-crops and L i th ic Fol i so ls . These avalanche soi ls have no value for forest growth. Figure 4.13 Complex soi l forming environment on a southern aspect in the Templeton River study area. Rock and col luvial veneers near the ridge crest grade to col luvial aprons and col luvial veneers below, and f ina l l y become col luvial blankets and veneers over morainal materials at the botton. Vegetation types range from closed forests to open avalanche tracks dominated by shrubs and herbs. Rock, Snow & Glaciers' ESSFirJ! ESSFnt (Douglas fir not usually a serai species) j ESSFxK(df)' Rock & Snow GLOFHP-I DGDYB-R OHFP-W Mt GLOFHP-I Mb BIHFP-MW DGDYB-W ODYB-W Mb OMB-R LFH Ae Bhf UBC VGST?O 4.51 nCgJyGsT" nBmlVGSL 5.1 40 OClvGLS 5.7| LF Ahe DBm VGSL 4.6 IUBfhb- TffiSn3T4 QZBCb VGSL 5.1 i yGSLT3 LFH Ae IZX9| ICoSiL 4.1 UBfg nc •20 Bhf SSEHzj GL 'GL" 4.9 "4~4! Figure 4.14 Cross-section Bj-L^ (see f i g . 4.9 for location and legend). TEMPLETON RIVER L F Aei Bf GSiL 4.1 GSiL_j5.0 Ae IIBmi. VGLS 4.1 VGS 4.7 Ae2 VGLS 5.3 TUBtj . Va 4.8 40 •40 AB VGSL 5.4 nZBrri2 VGSL 5.0 Bt VGL 5.3 SBrri3 80 GSL__5.3 •100 Bm 4' GS 6.3 c _ c VGL 6.2 L F Z Z I 5 Bm GL 7.4 •20 BC a 7.5 :S2. c VGSiL 7.9 LF B-.7 Ah CoSiL 7.0 •40 Bm CoSiL 7.2 •SO Btj. .CoS c CoS OR-R Ah C<XSiL)69 too coisT" OHP-MW I 4,4 VGLS 5.2| 20.: , Bhf VGLS 5.6| CjvGS" •(Douglas fir often a serai species and persistant in mature forests) Rock & Snow AVALANCHE Rock & snow OR-MW L F H Ah CoS 4.6 •60 C CoS 6.4 L Fl 4.7! |Ahe|VGSiL 5.5i 20 TEMPLETON RIVER Bhf nc VGSiL 6.3 VGSiL 6.7 IvTt GLOFHP-P Mb ODYB-W ALDYB-W |LFH Ahe S iT Bhf SiL 4.9 "5*8 6.1 VGL 5.9 LFH Bhf I M CoL 6.4 Bfh+CoSiL 6.1 DCg 60 HBfgfysiL 6.6 VSiL LFHT Bm n |VGL 5.0 40 VGSL 6.0 EC VGSL LFH Ahe !».4 VGSiL 4.9 BfhivGsiT'To PBmg|vGSL 5.3| ncJyGSL 6.1 VGSiL 5.9. Bm|CoSiL 6.8 .20 ICoSiL 7.3 LFO-MW L F H 5.2 R (argillite) 2900 2600 _ E < > 2300 H 2000 1700 < X o S. Fiqure 4.15 Cross-section (see f iq. 4.9 for location and legend). 66 4.2.3 Northern Aspect The northern aspects of the study area are within the cooler and moister subzone of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone, which is characterized by the lack of Douglas f i r and the presence of whitebark pine. The present forest cover is primarily Engelmann spruce and subalpine f i r , with minor whitebark pine at the lower elevations. At the upper elevations where the growing season is severely curtai led and the snowpack increased, the closed forest stands are replaced by Engelmann spruce -subalpine f i r parkland with increased occurrence of whitebark pine and alpine larch. The major so i l s present in this area are shown in cross-sections A-J-A2 and B]-B2 (see figures 4.9, 4.14 and 4.15). Fluvial - A f luv ia l fan located at the junction between a main tributary and Templeton River provides coarse textured materials (vgls) on which Degraded Dystric Brunisols have developed. These are well drained, with the exception of those adjacent to the creek. The coarse texture and low moisture holding capacity of these so i l s reduces their forest capabi l i ty-however, they are an excellent gravel source. Their nutritional chara-cter is t ics are similar to the g laciof luvia l materials described on the Southern Aspect (see table 4.2). Morainal - The lower slopes east of Mt. Ethelbert are predominantly gravelly morainal materials with a gravelly s i l t y eolian - col luvia l capping. Well drained Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols are found at the lower elevations, and well drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols are found at the upper eleva-tions (see figure 4.16). In receiving sites along tributary streams a moister environment results in moderately well to imperfectly drained Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols. The s i l t y surface horizons of these soi ls have superior water retention characteristics and nutrit ional status 68 compared to the lower horizons, which is consistent with the so i l s of similar parent material on the southern aspect. However, the cooler environment and increased leaching of the north aspect makes these soi ls more strongly acidic and higher in organic matter than those on the southern aspect. These so i l s have higher CEC due to increased organic matter, but increased acidity makes their nutrit ional status about equiva-lent with the soi ls on the south aspect (see table 4.4). The soi ls have a moderate to low forest capabi l i ty, but offer few problems for road construction, except in moister areas. Finer textured (gl) morainal material occurs as a discontinuous terrace in mid-slope and valley bottom positions. These materials are compact below approximately 60 cm, resulting in restricted drainage and imperfectly to poorly drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols. These grade to moderately well drained Bisequa Gray Luvisols near the Rocky Mountain Trench. These f iner textured morainal soi ls have good moisture retention properties and increased CEC throughout the so i l prof i le (see table 4.4). These soi ls in general have greater amounts of N, P, Na and K than the other morainal so i l s , however, the fine textured Podzols have reduced Ca and Mg because of their strong acidity. Forest capabil it ies on these soi ls are moderate to good, with the main limitation of a short growing season. Their poor drainage and fine texture however, make them susceptible to mass wasting and surface erosion. Medium textured (vgsl) morainal materials capped with a s i l t y eolian veneer occur within a cirque basin approximately 2,200 m in elevation. Soils developed on these materials are shallow, imperfectly drained Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols (see figure 4.17). The organic matter accumu-lat ion, shallow development, and strong acidity are the result of a severely Terrain & Soil Depth cm Horizons Texture BD gm/cnr FF % • PH CEC meq/lOOgm BS % C/N Ca kg/ha m Na ECv 9-0 LF Mb 0-25 Ae Bf 25-50 IIAe IIAB BIOHFP 50-75 IIAB IIBt #13 75-100 IIBt Totals gsil vgls vgsl vgl 0.11 1.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 50 20 20 20 4.6 4.7 5.3 5.4 5.3 14.9 6.3 6.1 6.2 12 21. 18 11 38.7 35 no 131 36 8 4 11 1.29 ' 22 80 4 341 49 10 22 0.43 22 ' • :• 20 3 192 34 2 35 0.32 16 20 2 125 • 37 2 57 0.24 8 '•' .30 1 •-. 76 22 2 43 260 141 770 150 20 168 44.0 32 . 132 . 142 21 7 4- . 9 1.54 19 ; : 120 10 ; .331 • 64 14 94 2.87 32 135 . , 2 6 18 6 43 1.01 20 . , 86 13 , .: • 14 . 18 4 42 0.83 . 17 . 80 14 ; 16 ,19 4 44 553 181 . 388 ; 126 32 232 ECv Mt GLOFHP #25 Totals Mb GLOFHP #17 Totals 8-0 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 LFH Ae Bhf II Bfg IIBfg IIC IIC cosil gl gi gi 0.12 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6 30 30-40 40 4.9 4.1 5.0 4.5 4.4 16.7 29.0 12.1 10.3 10 1 2 , 2. 3-0 LFH 0.13 • 4.2 0-25 Ae Bhf IIBC gsil 1.2' 60 4.4 21.1 25-50 II Cg vgsl 1.6 40 4.5 3.4 50-75 II Cg vgsl 1.6 40 4.5 3.4 75-100 II Cg vgsl 1.6 40. 4.5 3.4 27.2 . 32 34 38 ' 1 8 1 4 3 3.21 23 252 5 141 21 17 75 4 . 0.30 15- 32 3 26 21 4 19 4 ' 0.30 15 32 3 26 21 4 19 4 0.30 15 32 3 26 21 4 19 382 52 220 92 30 136 Texture refers to the dominant horizon; bulk densities for.the LFH's were calculated using estimated values (L 0.06 gm/cm3, F 0.15 qm/cm3 H 0.18 gm/cm3); bulk densities-for the mineral soils were extrapolated from measured values (see tables 4.1 and 5.1); Ph for the LFH s are 1:4 water and :1 water for the mineral soils; N is total Kjeldahl; P, Ca, Mg, Na and K are total values for the LFH's; P is extractable in the mineral soils; Ca, Mg, Na and K are exchangeable in the mineral soils. i-m r "iraciaoie in Table 4.4 Nutritional properties.of selected soi ls from.the northern, aspects within the Templeton River study area.-70 71 restr icted growing season and high snowpack (see table 4.4). These conditions make the forest capabi l it ies quite low. Col luvial - Remaining areas on the north aspect are dominated by coarse col luv ia l deposits of varying thickness. At the western end of the val ley, adjacent to Mount Ethelbert, constant co l luv ia l action is maintaining open talus slopes, precluding soi l development and vegetation establishment. In less active areas, perennial snow avalanching has restricted plant establishment to alder and herbaceous vegetation. The soi ls associated with the alder avalanche tracks are very coarse textured (rubble, cols) and moderately well to imperfectly drained, supplied with moisture from late season snowmelt. The Regosolic so i l development is restricted to accumu-lation of organic material in a skeleton of rock fragments. The organic material is very strongly acidic and high in nitrogen, ref lect ing the alder l i t t e r (see figure 4.18). Where the soi ls are well to rapidly drained, the col luvial materials are more stable, and the plant communities are dominated by subalpine herbs and shrubs other than alder, the so i l s are typica l ly Orthic and Degraded Dystric Brunisols. Where snow avalanche frequency is limited to every 20 years or more, these sites are occupied by young forest stands, and the soi ls grade to Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. Snow avalanche track soi ls have a generally low nutrit ional status, and are undergoing suf f ic ient col luvia l action to retard so i l development. Their forest capabil it ies are negligible due to the snow avalanche hazard, and they often result in increased road costs because of coarse material, steepness, and cutbank ins tab i l i ty (ravel l ing). Forested areas of colluvium provide a more stable environment for so i l development where Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols occur. These soi ls are typica l ly coarse textured (vgsl, cols, or vgsil where eolian materials 72 Figure 4.18 Orthic Regosol (OR) developed from col luvial materials subject to perennial snow avalanching (rCb-A). 73 are interbedded) and well to rapidly drained. The forested col luvial soi ls have moderate organic matter accumulations, and associated increases in CEC. However, they are strongly acidic and have only low to moderate nutrit ional status. These soi ls have a moderate to low forest capability and are often unstable i f the forest cover is removed. The sioils formed in shallow colluvium over bedrock grade from L i th ic Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols in forested areas to L i th i c Orthic Dystric Brunisols in avalanche areas, and L i th i c Folisols in alpine meadow and heather areas. The shallow col luvial so i l s have very low water holding capacities, restricted rooting, and limited nutrient capital. These soi ls have l i t t l e or no value for forest production. The L i th ic Folisols are limiited to a very shallow accumulation of organic material over bedrock, and are highly suscep-t ib le to damage from any disturbance. 4.2.4 Valley Head The headwaters of Templeton River are dominated by bedrock and recently deposited morainal and col luvia l materials. Because of the relat ively short time span since the deposition of the parent materials and the short growing season, much of the area is sparsely vegetated and shows no recognizable so i l development at present. These areas have been mapped as rock, moraine, rock g lacier, glacial ice or talus. Fluvial - The f luv ia l fan-delta area above Templeton Lake is a complex of rapidly drained Degraded Dystric Brunisols and poorly drained Gleyed Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzols. The rapidly drained areas are coarse textured (rubbly to vgls), strongly acid, and of poor nutrit ional status. The poorly drained so i l s are f iner textured (cosil to gs l ) , strongly acid, with large organic accumulations. These soi ls have less nutrient capital than s imilar f luv ia l soi ls at lower elevations because of increased leaching and more acid conditions. Forest capabi l it ies are low primarily as a 74 result of a short growing season. Road location in these areas is a problem because of poor drainage and continually changing stream channels. Morainal - At the lower elevations (1800 m.) near Templeton Lake, older coarse textured morainal-materials with forest cover develop well to rapidly drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. In areas where late snow retention results in a more continuous moisture supply, moderately well to imperfectly drained Orthic Humo-Ferric and Ferro-Humic Podzols occur. These so i l s are strongly acidic with moderate CEC and low nutritional status. Because of the limited growing season forest capabi l i t ies are very low. Colluvial - Forested col luvia l areas have well drained, coarse textured (cosil) Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. In areas dominated by shallow colluvium these grade to L i th ic Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols which are rapidly drained. Because of their coarse texture and strongly acid prof i le these soi ls have a limited nutrient capi ta l . Where snow avalanching and increased col luvia l act iv i ty l imits forest establishment, the soi ls are Degraded Dystric Brunisols. These so i l s are moderately acid and display a less well developed soi l prof i le than the forested areas. Forest productivity is very limited by the severe climate and coarse texture of the col luvia l materials. The so i l s offer l i t t l e erosion hazard but can be a problem for roadbuilding because of the excessively coarse texture. LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS ** Valley Area and Snil Suhnmnns Soil Familv Criteria * Surface Erosion Mass Wasting Forest Recorrr.ended Terrain Slope Class 1-3 4 5 Capability Species Biogeoclimatic Zone Unit esse (1974) Particle-Size Reaction Moisture 6 Rocky SEv 3213 BRGL eoarse-silty over sandy skeletal neitral subhumid 2C 3D 4E 5E 3A0 D. IP Mountain Trench gsM(b,r,t) (calc.) ESSF F't 431 OKFP sandy skeletal neural semiarid 1A 3B 4C 50 3MA eS, D and 'ESSF-IDF transition .cold and cool • F At 4318 6118 GLOHFP GLOR sandy skeletal neitral subaquic aquic 2B 2B 3C 3C 40 4D 5E 5E 2S 2S eS, D D. eS FGv gsMt 3214 BIGL sandy skeletal neitral subhumid 1A 3B 40 5E 3AM • D, IP soil temperature classes gfk 32138 4328 GLSRGL GLMHFP f ine-si l ty over sandy skeletal neutral subaquic aquic IB 2B 3C 3C 4D 4D 5E 5E 2D 2S/7W eS, 9 eS, D/-gsMv 431 OHFP sandy skeletal neitral subhumid 18 2C 3D 4E 4HR eS, alF ECv gcMt 4318 GLOHFP loaray skeletal acid aquic 3C 4D 5E 5E 4H eS, alF 3213 BRGL . semiarid 1A 3C 40 5E 3MA D, IP ECv 3214 BIGL loamy skeletal acid to semiarid 1A 3C 40 5E 3MA 0. IP gMb 431 OHFP over fragmental neutral subhumid 1A 3C 40 5E ' 5HM eS. alF South Aspects 432 S42 MHFP DGDYB subhumid subhumid 1A 1A 3C 3C 4D 40 5E 5E 5HM 5 KM eS. alF eS, alF gSMb SMv 3213 432 BRGL MHFP loamy skeletal neutral humi d humid 2C IB 3D 3C 4E 4D 5E 5E 2S 3HD eS, D eS, D F"t/SLb Oil Talus subarid 1A 2B 4C 5C 7MP ESSF and m'nor ESSF-IDF transition 431 OKFP semiarid 1A • 2B 4C 5C 5HM eS, IP Cb (Ca, Cv. rr.r) 521 541 542 CE8 ODYB DGOYB fragmental neutral semiarid semiarid. semiarid IB 1A 1A 3C 2B 2B 4C 4C "C 5D 5C 5C 4MP ' 7HE/5MP 7HE D - /eS . IP 543 ALDYB semiarid 18 38 4C 5D 7HE 611 OP. subarid 1A 23 4C 5C 7ME cold and cool soil temperature classes Cv 5219 5419 LOEB LODYB . fragmental neitral subarid subarid 1A 1A 3B 3B 5D 5D 5E 5E 4MR 5MR IP IP ' 001 Sed Rock acid subarid 1A 3C 5D 5E. 7R R 002 8411 Calc Rock LFO neutral acid subarid subarid 1A 1A 3C 3C 5D 50 5E 5E 7R 7R F G t" 541 431 ODYB OHFP sandy skeletal neitral subarid semiarid 1A 1A 3B 33 4C 4C 5D 5D 5 ME 3M IP eS. 0 F*t 4228 GLMFHP loamy skeletal neitral subaquic 2B 3C 4D 5E 3HP eS, 0 6118 GLOR sandy skeletal neitral aquic 2B 3C 4D 5E 2S eS, D *Soil climate is given with the biogeocliiutlc zone and.mineralogies are a l l mixed; * * see Chapter 6. Table 4.5 Characteristics and management interpretations for mapping units in the Templeton River study area. LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS * * Valley Area and Biogeoclimatic 2one ' 1 Terrain Unit Soil Subgroups CSSC (1974) Soil Family Criteria * Surface Erosion Mass Wasting Forest Capabili ty Recommended Species Slope Class 1-3 4 5 6 Parti cle-Size Reaction Moisture North Aspects ESSF cold soil temperature class ECv gcMt •3213 BRGL 4218 GLOFHP loamy skeletal acid humid subaquic 2C 3D 4E 5E 3C 4D 5E 5E 3AD 3H D eS, alF ECv gsKb 4218 GLOFHP loamy-skeletal acid subaquic 3C 40 5E 5E 5H eS. alF ECv gMb 431 OHFP 4315 • BIOHFP 4218 GLOFHP. loamy skeletal over fragmental acid subhumid subhumid subaquic IA 3C 4D 5E IA 3C 4D 5E 2B 4D 5E 5E 5KM 4M 3H eS, alF tS,. alF eS, alF Cb (Ca, Cv) Oil Talus 431 OHFP 541 ODYB fragmental acid subarid semiarid semi a rid IA 2B 4C 5C IA 2B 4C 5C IA 2B 4C -5C 7MP 6HM . 5MP eS, whP lp, D Cb-A (Ca-A) 542- DGDYB ' 611 OR fragmental acid semiarid humid IA 2B 3C 4D 13 3C 4D ED 7HE 7HE Cv 4319 LOHFP 5419 LODYB fragmental acid subarid subarid IA 3B 5D 5E IA 3B 50 . 5E 6HR 7HR/6MR whP, eS -/1P.D SwhP.aL) R 001 Sed Rock 8411 LFO acid subarid subarid IA 3C 5D 5E IA 3C 5D 5E 7R 7R Ff. 542 DGDY3 fragmental acid subhumid IA 3B 4C 50 5MH eS, alF Mr (IA) 021 Rock gla 031 Moraine fragmental acid subarid subarid IA 3B 4C 50 IA 3B 4C 5D 7HP 7HP Valley Head ESSF and AT cold and minor very cold soil temperature classes rMb (Hr, Hh) 021 Rock gla 031 Moraine 542 DGDYB fragmental acid subari d subarid subarid IA 3B 4C ' 5D IA 3B 4C 5D IA 3B 4C 50 7HP 7HP 6HP whP, aL gMb 431 OHFP 542 DGDYB fragmental acid semiarid semiarid IA 2B 4C 50 IA 2B 4C 50 6H 6H whP, eS ' whP, eS Cb (Cv, Ca) Oil Talus 542 DGDYB fragmental. arid semiarid semiarid IA 2B 4C 5C IA 2B 4C 5C 7M? ' 7HE Cv 4319 LOHFP fragmental a:id subarid 2B 3C 4C 50 6MR whP, aL IA • 041 Ice 2C 5D 5E 5E 7HD FGA f 4318- GLOHFP 542 DGDYB fragmental a:id humid semiarid 2C 3D 4E 5E 2C 3D 4E 5E 6H 6H eS, alF eS, wh? *Soil climate is given with the biogeoclimatic zone and lineralogies are all mixed; * * see Chapter 6 Table 4.5 (continued) 77 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF LAND CLASSIFICATION FOR GRASSY CREEK STUDY AREA 5.1 Terrain* features The terrain features of the study area were c lass i f ied and mapped ac-cording to the Terrain Classif icat ion System developed by the Resource Analysis Branch of the Br i t i sh Columbia Ministry of the Environment (ELUC Secretariat 1976). As discussed in Chapter 1, the Terrain Class i f icat ion System separates the landscape into discreet units primarily on the basis of their dominant genetic process, and secondly on characteristics of tex-ture, surface expression, slope, and modifying processes. The results of the terrain analysis of the area are primarily presented in map form on an enlarged aerial photograph (see figure 5.1), however the stratigraphic relations and other terrain features are discussed in the following sections. The distr ibution of the terrain features are summarized in figure 5.2; stratigraphic relationships are demonstrated on the cross-sections given in figures 5.14 & 5.15; textural properties are shown in figure 5.3; and bulk density and engineering properties are given in table 5.1. The predominant terrain feature in the Grassy Creek study area is a morainal blanket, ref lect ing the most recent advance of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. Striations and flutings on the ridge crests indicate a southerly flow direct ion, with the ice suf f ic ient ly thick to deposit morainal material on the top of Grassy Mountain (2110 m). Morainal depths are variable throughout the area, exceeding 10m on the lower slopes, and thinning to ni l * The term "terra in" as used here is essential ly synonomous with sur f i c ia l geology, except that in addition to unconsolidated materials, i t also includes some bedrock, organic, ice, and anthropogenic features. Figure 5.2 Generalized terrain map of the Grassy Creek study area. . Grain Size — Millimetres I  I CLAY | SILT I 'SANO '. I GRAVEL Figure 5.3 Grain Size Distribution Curves for Material Finer than 76 millimetres — Grassy Creek U3 80-on ridge crests. Even in the lower slope positions, i rregular i t ies in the underlying bedrock can produce bedrock- outcrops or minor pockets of morainal veneer. These materials are very pale brown (10YR 7/3, dry) gravelly to very gravelly sandy loams, with minor local variation (see table 5.1). Boulder f ields resulting-from stone streams or medial moraines are found on the northern slopes. Within the morainal areas there are inclusions of kame terraces, kames, and r i l l complexes, formed by ice marginal and subglacial streams (see figure 6.2). Small g laciof luvial terraces ( <20 m wide) are located up to 1700 m in elevation. Kame deposits ranging in texture from boulders to s i l t s occur sporadically throughout the valley. Moulin kames are found near the valley mouth and on the northern slope. In the valley bottom there are g lac iof luv ia l terraces resulting from proglacial streams. The terraces are predominantly bouldery sands, with minor lacustrine, and are capped by a loamy surface material (see figure 5.4). The lack of cirque basins and the presence of well preserved ice-contact features suggest that deglaciation of the Grassy Creek Valley consisted of downwasting of stagnant ice. As the ice melted, ice-marginal streams le f t kame deposits and r i l l complexes at various levels. Colluvial materials (blankets and veneers) occur adjacent to the steeper rock slopes on the southern aspects near the ridge crests and near the valley mouth. The materials are generally coarse textured ranging from gravelly sandy loams to bouldery loamy sands. The col luvial veneers on the ridge crests are often associated with rock, morainal veneers, and eolian veneers. Eolian materials are s i l t y to fine sandy loams composed of slope wash, loess, and volcanic ash.* Deep eolian deposits (blankets) * Distribution maps by Sneddon (1973) indicate that Mazama (6600y B.P.) and possibly Glacier Peak (12,000y B.P.) ash f a l l s covered this area. 81 TERRAIN TYPE UNIFIED CLASSIFICATION (U.S.A.C.E. 1953) SOIL TEXTURE BULK DENSITY (gm/cm3) sFAt SM vgs-ls 1.11 gsFGt GM vgs-ls 2.17 gsMb SM(GM) vgls-vgsl 1.55 *Ev SM g s l - s i l 1.06 Table 5.1 Physical properties of selected sur f ic ia l materials in the Grassy Creek study area. 82 commonly situated in receiving positions have resulted from the redistr ibu-tion of eolian materials by f luv ia l act iv i ty . Fluvial terrain features are l imited to a sandy flood plain located along portions of Grassy Creek. The textural composition of most of the materials ranges/from gravelly sandy loam to very gravelly loamy sand, with some eolian deposits s i l t loam. Chemical composition reflects the dominantly granit ic bedrock, with the exception of some colluviums near the valley mouth formed from the contact metamophosed volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks. Presently geomorphic act iv i ty in the valley is minimal, and the parent materials affect soi l var iab i l i t y to a limited extent. 5.2- Soil features The so i l s which have been ident i f ied and mapped within the Grassy Creek study area are summarized with selected properties and interpretations in table 5.4. The mapping results are presented in figures 5.5 and 5.6. The relationships between the soi ls and the environmental features of topography, terra in, and vegetation are demonstrated in the cross-section figures 5.15 and 5.16 (see figure 5.14 for legend). The following section wi l l discuss the so i l s and how particular soi l properties are related to the various s o i l -forming environments. This section is divided into two subsections, each of which wi l l discuss the soi ls occuring in one Biogeoclimatic Zone (see figure 3.14). Physical properties of the soi l parent materials were dis-cussed in the previous section. Soil interpretations are discussed in Chapter 6. Soils occurring within the Grassy Creek study area are dominated by podzolic soi l forming processes. The soi ls ref lect a seasonal climate with warm dry summers and cool snowy winters, acidic bedrock, coarse textured parent materials, and coniferous forest vegetation. The climax vegetation of the area is dominated by cedar-hemlock forests at the lower elevations and Englemann spruce-subalpine f i r forests at the upper elevations where 83 precipitation is increased and temperatures are cooler. At present the study area is occupied by a complex mosaic of old growth forests and a wide range of serai communites. The parent materials of the study area are f a i r l y uniform with respect to texture and chemical composition. As a result, the variation in so i l properties is primarily associated with changes in topographic position and climate. Soil structures are generally weak to moderate, increasing with depth to the massive pseudo-structure of the compacted morainal materials. Organic matter content of these soi ls is primarily a function of so i l drainage and micro-climate. Seepage areas with imperfect to poor drainge and a cool micro-climate have large organic matter accumulations, while well drained exposed s ites have very l i t t l e . Alpine s ites and high elevation southern aspects with herbaceous vegetation communities have high organic matter contents in their surface horizons. The humus forms found in the study area are dominantly imperfect mors orfibrimors, with the wetter sites grading to.raw moder and the herbaceous types to mulls (after Bernier 1968). The soi ls at the lower elevations range from moderately to strongly acid, while at the upper elevations the soi ls are strongly to very strongly acid. Cation exchange capacities (CEC) are generally proportional to organic matter content. The values range from less than 5meq/100gm in the coarse textured g lac iof luv ia l and morainal materials to 50meq/100gm in the poorly drained s i l t y materials with high organic matter contents. Base saturation is generally low, ref lect ing the acidic bedrock and effective leaching. Well drained sites at lower elevations reach a maximum of approximately 30%, while high elevation areas consistantly have values less than-5%. The exchangeable cations are dominantly calcium and potassium, with lesser amounts of magnesium and sodium. Nitrogen content is generally correlated with organic matter content, and is highest on the cool moist s ites. The C/N ratios of the forest f loors range from 25 to 35 and the 84 areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation have C/N ratios of approximately 20. Within the mineral soi l p ro f i le , the C/N ratios generally decrease and range from 15 to 25. Available phosphorus values range quite widely due to f ixation by iron and aluminum in the poorly drained strongly acid so i l s . Extractable iron and aluminum are minimal in the well to rapidly drained soi ls on southern aspects, however, they are very high in the imperfectly to poorly drained acidic seepage sites and at the upper elevations. 5.2.1 Interior Western Hemlock Zone Fluvial In the valley bottom adjacent to Grassy Creek, poorly drained f lood-plain deposits have developed Gleyed Degraded Dystric Brunisolic so i l s . These are gravelly sandy soi ls with a water table near the surface most of the year. These so i l s have a low CEC and poor soi l nutrient status because of their coarse texture and lack of incorporated organic matter. However, seepage water supplies suf f ic ient moisture and nutrients to make these areas highly productive forest s i tes. The high water table does result in shallow rooting and makes the area a poor choice for road location. Glaciof luvial Coarse textured materials (co, vgs), located on inactive terrace levels above the f loodplain, have developed rapi'dly drained Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.7). These soi ls are strongly acid and low in soi l nutrients and available moisture. The limited so i l nutrit ion and moisture holding capacity is concentrated in the f iner textured (gls) sur-face horizons (see table 5.2). These so i l s have low forest capabi l i t ies , but are good gravel sources and excellent road locations on the terrace tops. In areas where lenses of lacustrine occur in the g lac iof luvia l materials, the permeability is reduced, and moisture is retained in the soi l prof i le longer. In some cases the resultant wetting and drying above the lacustrine materials has lead to fragipan development (see figure 5.8). These soi ls have s l ight ly increased forest capabi l i t ies , but are s t i l l c lass i f ied as Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. 85 Figure 5.7 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse textured glaciof luvial materials (gFGt). Figure 5.8 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from coarse glaciof luvial materials with a lacustrine lense (^Lv/FGt) Note the varved lacustrine below the rock hammer and tragi pan development above the hammer. 87 An area of sandy to fine gravelly g lac iof luvia l blanket on the south side of Grassy Creek has developed soi ls which are well drained Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and moderately well drained Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. The moderately well drained soi ls receive seepage water flowing over underlying impermeable morainal materials. These g lac iof luv ia l materials have a moderate forest capabil ity and high erosion hazard in the sandy areas, because of increased moisture ava i l ab i l i ty . Morainal The morainal materials are moderately coarse textured (vgsl), moder-ately to rapildly permeable at the surface, and compact with restr icted permeability at depths below 75 to 150 cm. The compacted morainal material impedes water movement such that receiving positions and so i l s on gentle slopes often remain moist for long periods of the year. Most of the morainal areas have a surface capping of s i l t y to loamy materials which varies in thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter (areas where i t exceeds one meter are mapped as Eb). The variation in soi l development which occurs on the morainal materials is primarily a result of differences in the moisture regimes of various s i tes. On moderately sloping south aspects which receive the maximum insola-t ion, well drained Orthic Dystric Brunisols are the typical so i l s . These soi ls are moderately acid with low cation exchange capacity,and low base saturation. These areas .have moderate to low forest capabi l i t ies with limited moisture ava i l ab i l i t y and low nutritional status. On less exposed well drained s i tes , the soi l development grades to Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols on southern aspects and Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols in other areas (see figure 5.9). These soi ls are strongly acid with low organic matter content, low cation exchange capacity and low to moderate base saturation (see table 5.2). Forest capabil ity is moderate on these so i l s , with moisture ava i lab i l i ty the major l imitat ion. The well drained morainal materials are generally good road locations areas (slopes permitting), T e r r a i n & Depth H o r i z o n s T e x t u r e BD FF pH S o i 1 cm gm/cm 3 • . % CEC n.eq/lOOgm BS % C '.' % C/N ' N P Ca Mg Na K kg/ha 31.1 31 • 21 37 30 4 <1 2 20 .2 3 2.71 27 192 28 • 154 26 4 98 17 .3 ' 3 "• 1.99 25 . 1 5 4 29 113 17 4 . 86 5.8 3 - , 0.66 .19 • 54 34 37 .. 3 3 44 1.5 5 0.14 14 - 1 6 . 24 : 10 0 0 19 437 152 344 50 11 249 l v 2 -0 LF 0 .10 5.2 FGt 0-25 • Ah B f g s l 1.1 70 5.2 25 -50 Bf g s l = 1 . 1 70 5.2 MHFP 50-75 Bf I IC g l s . 1.6 40 5.1 #11 ' 75 -100 I IC vgs ' 2 .2 30 5.1 T o t a l s Fv. 5 - 0 ' LFH 0.12 4 8 Mb 0 -25 Ae B f g l 1.1 70 5.2 18 .6 25 -50 B f IIBm g s l 1.3 50 5.2 10 .4 MHFP 50 -75 I I Bm v g s l 1.6 40 5.2 5 0 #13 75 -100 IIBm IIBC v g s l 1.6 40 5.2 ./ 5.3 T o t a l s lY_ 14-11 L 0.06 4 . 6 . Mb 11 -0 F 0 . 1 5 - 4 l 9 0 -25 Bh f g s l 1.1 70 4 .8 46 . 5 GLMFHP 25 -50 Bhf g s l 1.1 70 5.0 40.-6 #3 50 -75 Bh f B f h g s l 1.1 60 5.0 37 .4 75 -100 I I B f g v g l s 1.6 40 5.0 15.1 T o t a l s 4 2 . 0 . 36 69 62 64 1 1 . .5 9 . 1.56 .20 - 154 40 513 : : ' 37 9 113 22 0 .79 20 65 - 34 408 43 9 65 31 0 .28 18 .. .:' 32 -. 33 385 51 11 44 40 0 .24 .19 , 26 33 6 1 6 , . 73 12 55 346 202 1986 205 42 282 36 .0 27 26 22 14 3 <1 1 35.5 35 ' 167 135 62 21 3 . 7 11 9.69 15 1213 12 1678 151 36 99 15 6.02 14 828 12 2095 117 40 105 10 5.51 16 . 578 8 1105 74 32 71 8 1.77 16 176 • 13 289 29 11 88 2988 202 5243 395 122 371 T e x t u r e r e f e r s t o the dominan t h o r i z o n ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r the L F H ' s ware c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s (L 0.06 gm/cm 3 , F 0 .15 gm/cm 3 , H 0 .18 gm/cm J ) ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r the m i n e r a l s o i l s were e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m measured v a l u e s ( see t a b l e s 4.1 and 5 . 1 ) ; pH f o r t h e L F H ' s a r e 1:4 w a t e r and 1:1 w a t e r f o r the m i n e r a l s o i l s ; N i s t o t a l K j e l d a h l ; P , C a , Mg, Na and K a r e t o t a l v a l u e s f o r t he L F H ' s ; P i s e x t r a c t a b l e i t he m i n e r a l s o i l s ; Ca , Mg, Na and K a r e e x c h a n g e a b l e i n t he m i n e r a l s o i l s . Table 5.2 Nutritional properties of selected soi ls from the Interior Western, Hemlock Zone of the Grassy Creek study area. . 89 i Figure 5.9 Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (MHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials (^Ev/gsMb). 90 with low erosion hazards. In minor depressions where the so i l s are moderately well to imperfectly drained, the soi ls grade to Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.10). Lower soi l horizons over compact morainal materials remain moist for long periods in the spring and immediately following precipitation events. Because of a cooler and moister micro-climate, these soi ls have a moderate accumulation of organic matter and re-sultant increase in cation exchange capacity in the surface horizons. Base saturation however, is very low and the soi ls are strongly acid. Because of increased water ava i l ab i l i t y and seepage inputs, these soi ls have moder-ately high forest capabi l i t ies . In major depressional areas and other receiving sites and soi ls are predominantly poorly drained Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols (see figure 5.11). These soi ls remain moist throughout most of the growing season and have large accumulations of organic matter on the surface and within the soi l prof i les. Soil development is usually deep (1-2 M), with at least the upper 75 cm composed of inwashed fine textured material (gsl - s i l ) . These soi ls are strongly acid, but their relat ively high cation exchange capacity allows for a good nutrient capital with only a moderate base saturation (see table 5.2). Phosphorus ava i lab i l i ty is minimal however, because of strong acidity and very high levels of extractable iron and aluminum. These so i l s have the highest forest capabi l i t ies in Grassy Creek, and are also the most erodible because of their fine surface texture and high moisture content. At ridge crests where morainal materials are l i ke ly to be less than a meter in depth, rapidly drained L i th i c Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols are usually associated with Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. The l i t h i c soi ls have restr icted rooting depths, reduced nutrient capital and consequently poor forest capabi l i t ies. In the broad saddles on the southern Grassy Creek watershed 91 Figure 5.10 Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from eolian materials over morainal materials UEv/gsMb). Figure 5 . 1 1 Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzol (GLMFHP) developed from eo l ian materials over morainal materials UEv/gsMb). Note the seepage and abundant organic matter. 93 divide, the morainal veneers are associated with eolion veneers. These develop similar soi ls to the morainal Veneers, but with s l i ght ly improved nutrient characterist ics. Colluvial The so i l s which have developed from the col luv ia l materials are rapidly drained L i t h i c , L i th i c Sombric, and Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. These sites have a l l been repeatedly burned, and are presently occupied by early serai shrub and grass communities. These conditions have resulted in soi ls with less acid reactions than moister sites with more continuous forest cover. On southern aspects where grassland.communities are present, incorporated organic matter results in Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.12). The co l luv ia l materials within the Hemlock zone are primarily derived from the highly mineralized volcanic-sedimentary rocks, and therefore, contain high amounts of extractable iron and aluminum. Because these soi ls have only moderately acid reactions and are rapdily drained, phosphorus f ixation does not occur to the extent i t does in the poorly drained soi l s . Where the i ron-r ich colluvium overlies compact morainal materials on moderate slopes, periodic wetting and drying can cause the formation of sesquioxide cementing agents. The cementation is discontinuous, and the soi ls are c las s i f ied as Placic Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.13). The shallow col luvia l soi ls a l l have restr icted rooting volumes, coarse textures (vg ls -vgs i l ) , and low moisture holding capacities. They have low forest capab i l i t ies , and are often associated with bedrock outcrops making them poor s i tes for road location. 5.2.2 Englemann Spruce - Subalpine F i r Zone Morainal The so i l s occuring on forested morainal materials have similar textural and engineering properties to those described at the lower eleva-tions. However, the shortened growing season and increased leaching which occur at the upper elevations results in contrasting soi l chemical properties. 94 / i Figure 5.12 Sombric Humo-Ferric Podzol (SMHFP) developed from shallow c o l l u v i a l materials (gCv). Note the abundant rooting from grasses and herbs and resu l t ing organic matter accumulation. 95 I Figure 5.13 P lac ic Mini Humo-Ferric Podzol (PLMHFP) developed from c o l l u v i a l materials over morainal materials (gCv/gsMb). Note the cementing just below the kn i fe. ESSFXJX 1 BIOGEOCLIMATIC SUBZONE MAP UNIT SYMBOL FOR VEGETATION TYPE REPRESENTATIVE VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION SURFICIAL MATERIALS AND BEDROCK Mv.Ev- •TERRAIN UNIT LMHFP-R-Lr .4.0 •Bfh R_ GSiL 4.8--SOIL CLASSIFICATION -SOIL DRAINAGE--SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION -HORIZON pH IN WATER " HORIZON TEXTURE - HORIZON BOUNDARY -SOIL DEPTH (IN 20 cm INCREMENTS) rHORIZON DESIGNATION see Appendix 3 vegetation types, VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION ABIES LASIOCARPA 4* LARIX LYAi.ll a or s4r LARIX PICEA OCCIDENTALIS ENGELMANNII POPULUS PINUS TREMULOIOES AL8ICAULIS TRANSECT LOCATIONS SCALE 0 V? 1 2 Figure 5.14 Legend and transect locations for cro section figures 5.15 and 5.16. P'NUS CONTORTA (MATURE) •1 PINUS CONTORTA IMMATURE) PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (VETERAN) PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (IMMATURE) THUJA PLICATA TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA ESSFx-Disclimax & ESSFx*B F A l> Lh Bfh GSiL 4.8 00. R GRASSY CREEK L JLb F 4.9 Bhf GSL 4.7 40 Bfh GSL 6.0 IIBfg VGLS 5.0 •120 nc VGLSTo Ah"e Bf Bmg-GSL 5.1 40 GSL 5.1! 120 tOsT"5.0j LAS _ _ X 8 Bf GL 62 To" IIBm VGSL 5.2 •80 HBC Va 6^ 3 nc VGL LF Bm1 —-—9:5 GSiL 5.2 •20 HBm2' VGSL 5.7 •60 nc ~G"SLT.I > > S B ™ 33 Bfh GSL 4.8 UBC VGSL 4.9 nc V G S L ~ 9 LF _ _ Bfh-,. .GSiL 4.6 .40 EBfh2 •VGSL 4.2 HBfg" VGSL 4.7 •120 nc_ V G S L -Ah GSiL 4.7 Ah GSL 4.0 Bhf GSiL 4.8 IIBm VGLS 4.5 Bf, G s i T~2 nc VGLS 4.7 HBf2 VGSiL4.9 •60 R •60 R • Figure 5.15 Cross-section A 1 - A 2 (see fig. 5.14 for location and legend)., ESSFXK & ESSFx-Disclimax F r B2 PEC nc 5.2 VGSL 5.1 VGSL 5.0 n Brrn GS LTJ 7 Bnv, LS m Cgj.GLS z — g2jvGS 4.5 4.7] 4.7 GRASSY CREEK L Bfh GSL 5.6 Bf,. GSL 5.5 HBf 2 VGLS 5.2 60 n s f c VGS 5.2 •120 . IBm SL .. 5.0 nzc- LS 5.0 Bf GSL 5.2 40 P B q G L S IIC |VGS 5.1 5.1 LF Bfh VGSL 5.6 Bf VGSiL 5.6 •40 R (sedimentary . -vo lcan ic) Bfh GSL 40 n iBrngiGSiL 5.3 5.3 (granitic & ' "2i sedimentary —volcani 1600 z o < > -I 1300 < 2 O cc a. a. < J 1000 Fiqure 5.16 Cross-section Bj-B 2 (see f i g . 5.14 for location and legend). 99 On well drained positions the soi ls are Orthic and Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols. These soi ls are very strongly acid, with moderate accumulations of organic matter. They have very low base saturation but moderate amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus (see table 5.3). Forest capabil ity on these so i l s is moderate to low-because of the short growing season and limited available moisture. On moderately well to imperfectly drained sites the soi ls grade to Gleyed Mini or Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols (see figure 5.17). These soi ls occur in receiving positions or on north aspects at the highest elevations (above 1900 M), where late snowmelt keeps the soi ls moist for long periods. On imperfectly to poorly drained sites along stream channels and in receiving positions, the soi ls show a suf f ic ient increase in organic matter to grade from Gleyed Mini Humo-Ferric Podzols to Gleyed Mini Ferro-Humic Podzols. These moister soi ls are very strongly to extremely acid, with moderately high organic matter contents. They have a low base saturation, but s t i l l contain moderate amounts of cations because of i n -creased cation exchange capacity. They have moderately high nitrogen contents, but low available phosphorus. Phosphorus f ixation probably results from moist conditions, extreme acidity and large amounts of iron and aluminum (see table 5.3). In areas where the morainal materials are excessively coarse textured so i l development is limited to an accumulation of organic material within a bouldery skeleton. These soi ls have been c lass i f ied as Orthic Regosols. As in the lower elevation morainal materials, the well drained soi ls have lower forest capabi l i t ies , while the moister sites have higher forest capabi l i t ies and higher erosion hazards. Colluvial Forested col luvial soi ls are coarser textured (vgls) and more well drained than topographically corresponding morainal so i l s , however, the soi l developments and soi l chemical properties are similar. Most of T e r r a i n & S o i 1 D e p t h cm H o r i z o n s T e x t u r e BD gm/cirr FF % PH CEC meq/lOOgm BS % C/N Ca k g / h a Mg N a Ev 3 - 0 LF Mb 0 - 2 5 Ahe B f h 2 5 - 5 0 B f h I I B C OHFP 5 0 - 7 5 I I B C I I C #10 • 7 5 - 1 0 0 I I C T o t a l s Ev 2 - 0 LF Mb 0 - 2 5 B f h 2 5 - 5 0 B f h I I B f h GLMHFP • 5 0 - 7 5 I I B f h #9 7 5 - 1 0 0 I I B f g T o t a l s Cv 0 - 2 5 Ah 2 5 - 5 0 I I B m I I C ALDYB 5 0 - 7 5 I I C R #2 7 5 - 1 0 0 R T o t a l s g i 0 . 1 2 4 . 7 3 0 . 8 2 4 47 1 . 1 50 ~ 4 . 7 2 8 . 6 . 2 3 . 8 2 32 165 g s i 1 . 3 40 4 . 8 . 2 2 . 7 ' 1 2 . 7 8 31 117 v g s l 1 . 4 . 40 4 . 9 1 1 . 0 2 1 . 0 5 2 4 62 v g s l 1 . 6 40 4 . 9 4 . 5 : 2 0 . 2 5 12 32 62 12 12 18 41 423 145 3 40 10 22 13 88 3 12 5 3 2 25 1 7 9 11 4 32 3 56 32 19 6 116 g s i l 0 . 1 0 4 . 8 2 2 . 8 2 8 17 31. 1 1 . 1 6 0 4 . 6 3 0 . 7 . 5 5 . 6 5 18 . 511 11 370 g s l 1 . 1 6 0 4 . 4 2 6 . 9 • 4 . 4 . 5 7 . 18 • "• 429 12 281 v g s l 1 . 1 5 0 4 . 2 2 1 . 1 3 . . 2 . 9 6 16 . 2 4 8 11 121 v g s l 1 . 5 40 4 . 6 1 7 . 3 3 2 . 4 4 17 2 1 0 13 132 1415 78 9 0 5 g s l 1 . 4 5 0 ' 4 . 0 2 3 . 1 2 9 . 3 5 1 8 892 82 9 8 v g l s 1 . 4 40 4 . 6 9 . 4 <1 1 . 2 9 '. 12 518 6 8 4 7 v g l s 1 . 6 40 4 . 7 4 . 6 <1 0 . 5 6 14 51 96 0 3 34 2 6 12 11 86 1 19 19 13 10 62 2 71 58 27 . 1 8 176 1461 246 145 19 2 0 21 12 123 7 0 130 T e x t u r e r e f e r s t o t h e d o m i n a n t h o r i z o n ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e L F H ' s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e s t i m a t e d v a l u e s (L 0 . 0 6 g m / c m 3 , F 0 . 1 5 g m / c m 3 , H 0 . 1 8 g m / c m J ) ; b u l k d e n s i t i e s f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s w e r e e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m m e a s u r e d v a l u e s ( s e e t a b l e s 4 . 1 a n d 5 . 1 ) ; P h f o r t h e L F H ' s a r e 1 : 4 w a t e r a n d 1:1 w a t e r f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; N i s t o t a l K j e l d a h l ; P , C a , M g , Na a n d K a r e t o t a l v a l u e s f o r t h e L F H ' s ; P i s e x t r a c t a b l e i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s ; C a , M g , Na a n d K a r e e x c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s . Table 5.3 Nutritional properties of selected ..soils from the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir Zone of the Grassy Creek study area. . .; Figure 5.17 Gleyed Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol (GLOHFP) developed from morainal materials (gsMb). these co l l u v i a l s o i l s occur 'on the north slope of the Grassy Creek area and are c l a s s i f i e d as Mini or Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols. On southerly aspects-and co l l uv i a l veneers these s o i l s grade to rapdi ly drained Orthic and L i t h i c Dystric Brun i so l s , and L i t h i c Humo-Ferric Podzols. Forest capab i l i t i e s on the co l l u v i a l s o i l s are low due to a re s t r i c ted growing season and a lack of ava i lab le moisture. On north aspects above 1900 M in e levat ion the closed forest gives way to subalpine parkland. The s o i l s associated with the subalpine vegeta-t ion communities are well to moderately well drained Sombric Ferro-Humic Podzols. These s o i l s have developed from morainal and eol ian mater ia l s , as well as c o l l u v i a l mater ia l s . They are very strongly acid with large accumulations of organic matter. Their chemical properties include an extremely low base saturat ion and high amounts of extractable i ron and Figure 5.18 Southern aspects at high elevations near Grassy Mountain. Note the grass and herb dominated vegetation types associated with shallow c o l l u v i a l mater ials. The forested areas are mainly morainal mater ia l s . 103 aluminum (mainly aluminum). Their nitrogen content is moderate, and available phosphorus varies inversely with extractable iron and aluminum. Shallow col luvial materials occuring on steep high elevation southern aspects without forest cover are dominated ,by herb and grass communities (see disclimax in figure. 3.14 and 5.18). The soi ls associated with these vegetation communities are rapidly drained L i th ic Alpine Dystric Brunisols and moderately well drained Alpine Dystric Brunisols. These soi ls are extremely acid with a well developed Ah horizon and very low base satura-t ion. They have low amounts of extractable iron and aluminum and moderate amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.(see table 5.3). These areas have no forest capabil it ies and are generally unsuitable for road location because of their shallow depth to bedrock. LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS * * Va l l ey Area and B i ogeoc l imat i c Zone Ter ra in Un i t S o i l Subgroups S o i l Family C r i t e r i a * Surface Eros ion Mass Wasting Forest Capab i l i ty Recorr.ended Species Slope Class 1-3 4 5 6 CSSC (1974) P a r t i c l e - S i z e Moisture ESSF co ld s o i l temperature c las s SEv gsNb 4228 GLK.FHP 431 OHFP 4318 GLOHFP loamy s ke l e ta l aquic subhumid subaquic 3C 40 5E 5E IA 2C. 4D 5E 2B 3C' 40 5E l a 2S l a eS, a l F eS, a l F eS, a l F bMb 611 OR fragmental' subarid IA 2B 3C 4C 6MP IP Cb (Cv) 431(2) (H)OHFP 4318 GLOHFP fragmental. humid subaquic IA 2B . 3C 4D . IA 2B 4C 5D 3M 2S eS, IP eS, a lF Cv (Ev) 4329 LMHFP S419 L0DY3. 543 ALDYB 5439 LALDYB loamy s ke l e ta l semiarid subarid subhumid semiarid IA 2C 40 5E IA • 2C 40 5E 18 2C 4D 5E IB 3C 40 5E 5MR 5MR 7MR 7MR . IP, eS IP Ev 423 SMFKP loamy s ke l e ta l subaquic 3C 40 5E 5E 7HR IA O i l Gran Rock IA 2B 40 5E 7R IWH and minor IWH-ESSF t r a n s i t i o n cool and co ld . s o i l temperature c lasses SEv gsKb (gs.".v) 4223 GLHFHP. 431(2) (M)OHFP ' 4318 GLOHFP 541 ODYB loamy ske le ta l aquic subhumid subaquic semiarid 3C 40 5E 5E IA 2C 40 5E 28 3C 4D 5E IA . 2C 4D . 5E l b 1 l a 2M wP,D,wC,gF,eS + wP,wL,D,3P,gF,wH wP,wL,D,gF,(wC,wH) wL.D.lP gsMv 4329 LMHFP loamy ske le ta l semiarid IA 2C 40 5E 4MR wL.O.lP Cb (Cv) 431(2) (M)OHFP 4328 GLMHFP fragmental subhumid subaquic IA 2B 3C 40 IA 2B 4C 50 3MP 2S wP.wL.D.lP.gF.wH wP.D.wCgF.eS* ' Cv (Ev.Mv) • 432 MHFP 4328 GLMHFP 4329 LMHFP 5439 LALDYB loamy ske le ta l subhumid subaquic semiarid semiarid IA 2C 40 5E 3C 40 5E 5E IA 2C 4D 5E IB 3C 40 5E 3MP 2R 5MR 7MR WP.wL.D.lP.gF.wH wP,D >wC,gF,eS + wL.D.lP FGt 432 MHFP sandy s ke le ta l subarid IA 2C 40 5E 2M wL.D.lP Lv 432 MHFP sandy s ke l e ta l over coarse loamy semiarid • IB 3D 4E 5E 1 wL.D.lP F^b 431 OHFP 4318 GLOHFP sandy semiarid subaquic IB 2C 3D 5E 2C 3D 4E 5E 1 • l a wL.D.lP w?,D,wC,gF FA t 5428. C-LOGDYB sandy aquic 3C 4D 5E 5E lb/4W wP,D,wC,gF Eb 4228 . GLKFHP coarse s i l t y a q u i c 3C 40 5E 5E 7W . Hb(EB) 4324 PKHFP loamy ske le ta l huirid IA 2C 40 5E 3D wP,wL,D,lP,Qr,wH Cv(EB) 4329 LMHFP fragmental" subarid IA 2C 40 5E . • 5KR wL.0,1? IA 001 Gran Rock IA 28 40 5E 7R EB 002 Sed Rock IA ' 28 4D 5E 7R * S o i l c l imate i s given wi th the b iogeocl imat ic subzones, a l l j i inera log ies are mixed, a l l react ions are a c i d ; •Hear the ESSF boundary above KOOm; **see Chapter 6 Table 5.4 Characteristics'and management interpretations for mapping units in the Grassy Creek study area. 105 CHAPTER 6 MANAGEMENT INTERPRETATIONS ' 6.1 Introduction Soil interpretations are abstractions of soi l information, drawn from the relationship between a particular management practice or land use and a selected l i s t of relevant so i l properties. Based on a so i l ' s characteristics with re-spect to those selected properties, the soi l can be grouped with other soi ls predicted to display similar responses to a particular management practice. For example, the soi ls described in this study have been placed into seven response groups (classes) based on the ir capabil ity to grow commercial trees. Al l the soi ls in any one class wi l l produce a similar volume of wood/hectare/ year, but are not necessarily similar in other respects. It is possible to complete this process for every conceivable management practice, however i t must be an ongoing task as old practices are superseded and new ones evolve. Soil interpretations are a valuable tool to the land manager, because they simplify and present relevant so i l information necessary for developing res-ponsible land management plans. Rather than rating each so i l for i t s response to a l l management practices in use today, i t was decided to rate the soi ls for forest capabil ity and so i l erosion, leaving the evaluation of speci f ic management practices to the land manager himself, as the need arises. These should be completed by someone famil iar with the land use in question, in consultation with a soi l sc ient is t . Each management practice wi l l have to be evaluated as to i t s probable affects on the soi l in general, before responses can be predicted from each soil found in the study areas. Many of the potential practices may be evaluated on the basis of their effects on soi l erosion (both surface erosion or mass wasting) as this is generally the most serious so i l management problem, however, .they 106 may also require more detailed information on specif ic soil properties which can be found in the prof i le descriptions,and laboratory results found in the B. C. Soil Data F i l e . 6.2 Mass wasting potential Mass wasting is the downslope movement of earth materials under the force of gravity. Mass wasting includes a variety of phenomena ranging from large scale landslides involving mil l ions of cubic meters of earth, to the imper-ceptibly slow downslope movement of soi l materials called soi l creep (see figure 6.1). The most common types found in steep mountainous terrain with steep slopes are fa i lures cal led debris avalanches and debris flows (Swanston 1971,.0'Loughlin 1972, Utzig and Herring 1975). These often originate in shallow permeable soil materials (less than 2m deep), under saturated conditions, on re lat ive ly steep slopes (greater than 50%). Rotational fa i lures cal led slumps can develop in deeper, more homogenous materials (generally f ine textured and saturated), even on slopes as low as 20%. These failures, result in a loss of productive land base, damage to roads and structures, and severe sedimentation problems. The interpretations presented here wi l l indicate which soi ls have a greater or lesser potential for mass wasting and what degree of additional planning and/or investment may be necessary to overcome these l imitations. The potential for mass wasting of any particular area is determined by the soil characterist ics and gravitational forces as they affect shear strength and shear stress. Two factors which modify the relationship between the soil characterist ics and the gravitational forces are the slope angle and the presence of ground water. The strength characteristics of a soi l are the result of f r ic t iona l and cohesive forces acting between the soi l part ic les. 107 Frictional resistance is a function of part ic le size and angularity, soi l compaction, and the effective weight of the s o i l . Cohesion is primarily the result of the sticky nature of clay particles (also certain chemical cementing agents, e.g. calcium carbonate, or external factors such as root systems). In re lat ively dry so i l s , increased clay content greatly increases shear strength through cohesion, however when saturated the cohesion is lost. In so i l s where fr ict ional forces are predominant, saturation reduces shear strength by separating the soi l part ic les and reducing the effective so i l weiqht throuqh a buoyancy affect. Shallow soi ls over an impermeable layer have restr icted drainage, and are more susceptible to saturated conditions. The impermeable boundary also offers a zone of weakness, or a probable shear plan^ The slope angle controls the proportions of the gravitational forces which contribute to the shear stress and shear strength. As the slope angle increases, shear stress increases, while the f r i c t iona l resistance decreases due to a decrease in the effective weight ofvthe s o i l . Soil Properties SOIL RATING CHARACTERISTICS Class 1 Increasing Mass Wasting Potential Class 5 Slope [%) Drainage Texture (fine fraction) Coarse fragments Depth to imper-meable layer 0 - 30 - 50 - 70+ rapid - well - moderately well - imperfect - poor loam - loamy sand - sand - clay loan - clay - s i l t . . . angular rounded abundant • - . u - n - absent bouldery gravelly deep ( >5m) - moderate - shallow (<lm) Table 6.1 Evaluation table for mass wasting potential 108 Based on the soi l properties necessary to determine the above factors, the soi ls of the study area have been placed into f ive classes of relative potential for mass wasting. The soi l properties considered are shown in Table 6.1. When evaluating the probable response of the soi l to a management practice, the practice i t s e l f should be examined as to its affects on factors which may enhance the mass wasting potential. These include: disruption of subsurface or surface drainage, vegetation removal, addition to the so i l weight, and removal of adjacent support. The classes are described below: Class 1: These soi ls have none to very s l ight potential for mass wasting. They are well drained, coarse textured soi ls on slopes less than 10%. Class 2: These so i l s offer a s l ight potential for mass wasting. They are deep coarse textured soi ls of variable drainage and well drained fine textured so i l s , located on slopes under 30%. Class 3: These so i l s have a moderate potential for mass wasting but wi l l offer few l imitations given reasonable planning and care in management. They are predominantly deep, well to rapidly drained soi ls on slopes of 30 to 50%, but also include some moderately well to imperfectly drained, fine textured soi ls on 10 to 30% slopes. Class 4: These so i l s have a high potential for mass wasting and i f disturbed may require special engineering measures to maintain their natural s tab i l i t y . They are well to rapidly drained, deep, coarse textured soi ls on 50 to 70% slopes, and imperfectly to poorly drained fine textured soi l s on slopes of 30 to 50%. Class 5: These soi ls have extremely high potential for mass wasting and many 109 of them have exhibited natural ins tab i l i ty in the past. They are primarily rocky, shallow soi ls on slopes in excess of 70%, or poorly drained fine textured soi ls on slopes over 50%. Because of their severe l imitations, any planning in such areas should include" consultation with a soils-engineering specia l i s t . 6.3 Surface erosion potential Surface erosion is the detachment and subsequent transport of soi l particles by running water. It commonly results in the formation of gul l ies or r i l l complexes (see figure 6.2), but may be more subtly present as sheet erosion (the removal of a thin layer of so i l over an extensive area). Surface erosion can result in the loss of the soi l resource, a decrease in s i te productivity, damage to roads and structures, and a reduction in water quality or stream quality as i t is important to the f isheries resource down-stream. Interpretations for surface erosion indicate which so i l s offer the greatest potential for surface erosion, and thus where more planning or investment wi l l be necessary to l imit so i l erosion accompanying any par t i -cular land use. The potential for surface erosion depends on so i l properties and surface water properties as they relate to particle detachment and sedi -ment transport. I n i t i a l detachment may result from raindrop impact alone, or from the forces associated with water flowing in channels. Detachment by raindrops depends primarily on ra in fa l l intensity, while detachment by channel erosion depends on the volume, velocity, flow depth, and turbulence characteristics of the water course. In both raindrop splash and channel erosion slope angle plays a major role by increasing the susceptibi l i ty of particles to detachment, and increasing the velocity of flow. Regional climate influences runoff indirect ly through various factors, including: precipitation as total amount, seasonal d istr ibut ion, Figure 6.1 Swept trees resu l t ing from so i l creep on a steep c o l l u v i a l slope (Templeton R iver ) . Figure 6.2 Severe gu l l y erosion in kame materials re su l t ing from poor road construction (Grassy Creek). I l l and form (snow vs. ra in) ; temperature as related to snowmelt and evapotrans-pirat ion; and storm intensit ies. High intensity summer ra in fa l l events can be an important factor, "however spring snowmelt or rain-on-snow phenomena are probably the most c r i t i c a l climatic events (see sections 3.1.4 and 3.2.4). The resistance of soi l part icles to detachment wil l vary with their texture and cohesive properties. Generally, f iner soi l particles have less resistance to detachment, however so i l s with moderate amounts of clay and organic matter develop secondary aggregates made up of f iner part ic les ( i .e. soi l structure), which res i s t detachment similar to coarser part ic les. Shallow soi ls over an impermeable layer wi l l have reduced i n f i l t r a t i on capacities, and tend to provide a larger volume of water for overland flow. Vegetative cover and forest f loors reduce raindrop impact, and increase cohesion through rooting action. Sediment transport is inversely proportional to particle s ize, and direct ly proportional to stream velocity and volume. Certain management practices may disrupt natural drainage patterns, concentrate flow, or produce long unbroken stream channels which greatly enhance sediment transport. Based on the principle causes of surface erosion, and the inherent properties of the soi ls themselves, the soi l units of the two study areas were placed into f ive classes of re lat ive surface erosion potential. When evaluating any management practice with regard to surface erosion, i t s potential for exposure of mineral s o i l , disturbance of surface drainage patterns, and ground water interception should be considered. The primary factors considered in rating the soi l units are shown in Table 6.2, and the classes are described below. 112 Soil Properties SOIL RATING CHARACTERISTICS Class A I n c r e a £ i r j ^ £ ^ Class E Slope (35) Texture Structure Inf i l t rat ion Depth to impermeable layer Forest f loor thickness 0 - . 10 - 20 - 30 - 50+ rubbley - gravelly - loam - s i l t loam - s i l t s cobbley - coarse sands - clay - loamy sand - fine sands strong - moderate - weak - structureless massive - blocky, platy - granular - single grain rapid - moderate - slow deep (>5m) - moderate - shallow (<lm) deep (>10cm) - moderate - shallow (<lcm) Table 6.2 Evaluation table for surface erosion potential Class A: These so i l s have none or very s l ight potential for surface erosion. They are coarse textured, well to rapidly drained, and have slopes less than 30%. Class B: These so i l s have only s l ight surface erosion potentials. They may be coarse textured, well to rapidly drained, and have slopes less than 50%, or be f iner textured soi l s with slopes less than 10%. Class C: These so i l s have a moderate surface erosion potential, requiring reasonable care and attention to avoid so i l loss through drainage disruption or surface disturbance. They may be coarse textured so i l s on 50 - 70% slopes or fine textured soi ls with moderate to poor drainage on 10 - 30% slopes. 113 Class D: Soils in this group have a high potential for surface erosion, and wi l l require well planned drainage structures and minimal disturbance to maintain the soil resource. These are excessively steep rock and coarse textured so i l s , and fine textured soi ls on 30 - 50% slopes. Class E: These so i l s have an extreme potential for surface erosion, and wi l l require special care to prevent serious erosion.problems i f they are disturbed. Consultation with a soils-engineering specalist is recommended before any. use is in i t ia ted. They are fine textured so i l s with restr icted drainage on moderately steep to steep slopes (>50%). 6.4 Land capabil ity for forestry Forest capabi l i ty as defined under the Canada Land Inventory (C.L.I.) program, is an evaluation of the inherent ab i l i t y of an area of land to grow commercial timber (McCormack 1972). This interpretation was determined in the C.L.I, program by i n i t i a l l y separating the land surface into relat ively homogenous units on the basis of physical parameters recognizable on aerial photgraphs, and then sampling a variety of these units to determined their ab i l i ty to produce commercial trees. Mean annual increment (at or near ro-tation age) of the tree species adapted to the s ite is used as a measure of productivity. The range of potential forest productivity is divided into seven classes, with a number of subclasses to indicate major limitations to tree growth. "The assignment of each unit to a class is on the basis of a l l known or inferred information about the unit, including subsoil, soi l p ro f i le , 114 depth, moisture, f e r t i l i t y , landform, climate and vegetation." (McCormack 1972, p. 3). / Using a limited number of measurements of tree productivity and available information from the B.C.D.A. Soil-Landform mapping, the soi l units of the study area were assigned C.L.I, forest capabil ity ratings. Because of the limited data base, the designated classes provide only a relative indication of productivity and should be further f i e l d checked before being used as ab-solute values of productivity. Capability subclasses, indicating the dominant soi l , 1imitation(s) of each soi l unit, can assist the land manager in making decisions on the merit of various tree growth enhancement practices (e.g. f e r t i l i z a t i o n , spacing, or thinning) for particular forest s i tes. The tree species recommended for each soi l unit are those species l ike ly to achieve the best growth on those so i l s . Those tree species within parentheses are acceptable, however growth can be expected to be s l ight ly less than the others. There are undoubtedly other tree species which wi l l inhabit these areas, but their growth is s igni f icant ly less than those l i s ted in the table. The classes, subclasses, and tree abbreviations are summarized below. Capability classes: Class 1: Lands having no important l imitations to the growth of commercial forests. The soi ls are deep, medium textured, well to poorly drained,, have good water holding capacity and are naturally high in f e r t i l i t y . Their topographic position is such that they frequently receive seepage and nutrients from adjacent areas. They are not subject to extremes of temperature or evapo-transpiration. Productivity is usually greater than 7.8 m /ha per annum. The class has been 115 subdivided on the basis of productivity into Class 1 (7.8 to 9.1 m 3/ha), Class la /(9.1 to 10.5 m 3/ha), and Class lb (10.5 to 11.9 m3/ha). -Class 2: Lands having s l ight limitations to the growth of commercial forests. Soils are deep,, well drained to poorly drained, of medium to fine texture, and have good water holding capacity. The most common l imitations (al l of a relat ively s l ight nature) are: adverse c l i -mate, so i l moisture deficiency, somewhat low f e r t i l i t y , and the cumulative effects of several minor soi l characterist ics. Produc-3 t i v i t y is usually from 6.3 to 7.8 m /ha per annum. Class 3: Lands having moderate limitations to the growth of commercial forests. Soils may be deep to somewhat shallow, well drained to imperfectly drained, of coarse to medium texture with moderate to good water holding capacity. The most common limitations are adverse climate, restr icted rooting depth, moderate deficiency or excess of soi l moisture, and somewhat low f e r t i l i t y . Productivity is usually from 3 4.9 to 6.3 m /ha per annum. Class 4: Lands having moderately severe limitations to the growth of commercial forests. Soils may vary from deep to moderately shallow, from rapid to poor drainge, from coarse through fine texture, from good to poor water holding capacity, and from good to low f e r t i l i t y . The most common limitations are moisture deficiencies caused by their texture, structure, or rooting depths. They occur on leve l , sloping, or undulating topography where there is l i t t l e or no influence of seep-age water within the rooting zone. Productivity is usually from 3 . 3.5 to 4.9 m /ha per annum. 116 Class 5: Lands having severe l imitations to the growth of commercial forests. Soils are frequently shallow to bedrock, stoney, excessively or poorly drained, of coarse texture, may have poor water holding ca-pacity, and be low in natural f e r t i l i t y . The most common l imi ta -tions (often in combination) are: deficiency or excess of so i l moisture, shallowness to bedrock, adverse climate, and excessive 3 stoniness. Productivity is usually from 2.1 to 3.5 m /ha per annum. Class 6: Lands having very severe l imitations to the growth of commercial forests. The soi ls are frequently shallow, stony, excessively drained, of coarse texture and low in f e r t i l i t y . The most common limitations (frequently in combination) are: shallowness to bed-rock, deficiency in so i l moisture, stoniness, low natural f e r t i l i t y , and a short growing season. The productivity is usually less than 3 2.1 m./ha per annum Class 7: Lands having severe l imitations which preclude the growth of commercial forests. Soils are extremely shallow or non-existent, excessively drained or almost continuously saturated, or actively eroding. The most common limitations are shallowness to bedrock, low temperatures and short growing season, regular snow avalanching, 3 or active erosion. Productivity is usually less than 0.7 m /ha per annum. Capability Subclasses: A - drought or ar id ity caused by aspect, landform position or exposure, climate, or a combination of these. H - accumulations of deep snow or a short, cool growing season, or both. M - soi l moisture deficiencies attributable to soi l and land characterist ics. 117 W - an excess of soi l moisture, other than that caused by inundation. D - physical restr ict ion to rooting caused by dense or consolidated layers, other than bedrock. -R - restr ict ion of the rooting zone by bedrock. P - stoniness which affects forest density or growth. E - unstable land, areas of active erosion and mass wasting, or snow avalanche tracks. S - a combination of so i l factors, none of which affect the class level by themselves, but which cumulatively lower the capabil ity class (used most often with Class 2). Tree species wC Thuja plicata (Western Red Cedar) D Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) alF Abies lasiocarpa (Subalpine Fir) gF . Abies grandis (Grand Fir) wH Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock) aL Larix lyallii (Alpine Larch) wL Larix occidentalis (Western Larch) IP Pinus contorta (Lodgepole Pine) wP Pinus monticola (Western White Pine) whP Pinus albicaulis (Whitebark Pine ) eS Picea engelmanni (Engelmann Spruce) 118 CHAPTER 7 RECONNAISSANCE MAPPING COMPARISON 7.1. Objectives There were two primary objectives of this portion of the study: to compare the reconnaissance land c las s i f i ca t ion completed by the Br i t i sh Columbia Department of Agriculture (B.C.D.A.) and the -more detailed land c lass i f i cat ion completed by the author; and an evaluation of the results to determine potential causes for disagreement. The comparison and evaluation include terrain features (landforms) and soi l development as designated on corresponding maps for Templeton River and Grassy Creek. 7.2 Procedures The comparison was in i t ia ted by expanding the 1:50,000 scale B.C.D.A. soil-landform maps (see figures 7.1 and 7.2) to a scale of 1:15,840. These maps were then overlaid with the author's soi l maps and transferred unto the 1:8,000 photo base maps for a more detailed comparison. The proportions of the total map area represented by each B.C.D.A. map unit were measured with a planimeter on maps of 1:50,000 scale prepared by B.C.D.A., however, the percentages of the author's units within each B.C.D.A. unit were visual ly estimated on the 1:8,000 scale photo maps onto which B.C.D.A. mapping units had been plotted. These percentages were determined using grid counts, and checked by two independant workers. From the percentage agreement determined for each B.C.D.A. mapping unit, a weighted average for the total map area was calculated, based on the relative proportion of the total each map unit represented. Templeton River, Lardeau Map Sheet 82K (Wittneben 1978). \120 Figure 7.2 Brit ish Columbia Department of Agriculture preliminary so i l s and landform mao for Grassy Creek, Nelson Map Area 82F (Jungen et a l . 1978). 121 Where B.C.D.A. mapping units are complexes which extend beyond the map area considered here, they could conceivably be weighted to accommodate adjacent areas. This occurred in only two units in/each area, and in each case maximum possible agreement was assigned. Poss ib i l i t ies bf disagreement due to the use of d i f fer ing soi l c lass i f icat ions were also examined (Grassy Creek B.C.D.A. - 1970 C.S.S.C.; Templeton River, B.C.D.A. - 1973 C.S.S.C. revis ion; the author--1974 C.S.S.C). The author's so i l s were also c lass i f ied according, by the 1970 C.S.S.C. and 1973 revis ion, and compared with the 1974 C.S.S.C. The changes resulting were limited to a few horizons which did not affect the assessment of mapping agreement. Certain differences in landforms and soi ls were not considered s ignif icant enough to be considered at this l eve l , and were consequently ignored. For example, morainal and f luv ia l landforms with Ev and ECv were considered equivalent to those without cappings, and minor soi l deviations such as MHFP vs OHFP, DGDYB vs ODB, BIGL vs BRGL, etc. were ignored. The delineation of B.C.D.A. soil-1andform mapping units for Templeton River and Grassy Creek are shown in figures 7.1 and 7.2, respectively. The B.C.D.A. mapping unit designations, the author's corresponding designations, and the results of the comparison are presented in tables 7,1 and 7-2. 7.3 Results and Discussion The results demonstrate s ignif icant differences between the two study areas with regard to the overall percentage agreement. In Templeton River the percentage agreement is 60% for landforms and 40% for soi l subgroup designations. In Grassy Creek the percentage agreement for landforms is 77%, and for soi ls 65%. The greater disagreement in Templeton River is emphasized when one considers the map area under 2100m in elevation, where most land use act iv i t ies would take place (units 1.10). The agreement is reduced to 50% for landforms, and 31% for so i l s . 122 MAPPING % OF UNIT N O . * MAP AREA B . C . D . A . MAPPING UNITS TERRAIN"1" % S 0 I L + + AUTHOR'S MAPPING U N I T S 0 TERRAIN"*"*" % S 0 I L + + % AGREEMENT (%) TERRAIN SOIL 1 2 G t 8 0 OEB(ODYB) Td 2 0 OGL(OEB) E v / M r 5 0 BRGL 50 F G t 3 0 OHFP 2 0 F A t .• 10 GOR 10 GLBRGL 1 0 100 0 2 1 T c OGL(BRGL) F G t 5 0 BRGL 50 E v / M r 4 0 OHFP 4 0 F A t 10 GLOHFP 10 5 0 4 0 3 1 Ts" OEB(ODYB) Ev/Mb 50 OHFP 50 FGt 5 0 BRGL 5 0 50 0 4 2 Gt OEB(ODYB) ECv/Mb 5 0 OHFP 3 0 F G t ' 4 0 BIGL 20 F A t < 1 0 BIOHFP 20 ODYB 10 50 2 0 5 3 C/R 60 ODYB(OEB) T s 40 OEB ECv/Mb 6 0 ODYB 5 0 Cv 3 0 LODYB 20 Cb 10 BIGL 10 OEB 10 8 0 6 0 6 5 C/R LODYB(ODYB) Ca 6 0 OEB 4 0 Cb/Mb 2 0 OR 3 0 Cv 4 1 0 ODYB 20 R <10 LODYB <10 2 0 3 0 7 9 T s . OEB(ODYB) ECv/Mb 60 R J O H F P i n Cb 20 OHFP 2 0 R 1 0 .LOEB 10 F G t O O BIGL 10 r o c k 10 6 0 10 8 6 C/R ODYB(OHFP) Cb 6 0 LOEB 3 0 R 20 OHFP 3 0 Cv 10 LODYB 2 0 r o c k 10 DGDYB 10 20 4 0 9 16 C r OR(ODYB) Ca 6 0 OR 3 0 ECv/Mb 2 0 t a l u s 2 0 E C b / M t 10 OHFP 2 0 ODYB 10 6 0 4 0 10 3 C/R LODYB(ODYB) Mb 40 OHFP 5 0 Cb 3 0 DGDYB 3 0 Cb/Mb 10 r o c k 10 FGAf 10 10 3 0 •11 ; 52 R 5 0 • r o c k C r 3 0 OR C/R 20 DGMB(0 DYB) R 4 0 r o c k 4 0 Cv 2 0 m o r a i n e 20 Mr 2 0 r o c k g l a .10 Ca 10 t a l u s O O LFO O O ALDYB O O 70 5 0 W e i g h t e d A v e r a g e s * * 60 41 * S e e F i g u r e 7 . 1 ' * * W e i g h t e d by t h e % o f t h e map a r e a ++See F i g u r e s 4 . 1 a n d 4 . 7 f o r l e g e n d s +See A p p e n d i x 3 f o r d e f i n i t i o n s ° T o t a l s may be l e s s t h a n lOOt due t o s m a l l u n i t s n o t shown Table 7.1 Mapping unit comparisons for Templeton River study area. 123 MAPPING % OF UNIT NO.* MAP AREA B.C.D.A. MAPPING UNITS TERRAIN+ % S 0 I L + + AUTHOR'S MAPPING UNITS 0 TERRAIN + + % S 0 I L + + % AGREEMENT (%) TERRAIN SOIL 1 9 C/R 80 LHFP(OHFP) R 20 rock Cv 50 , OHFP 40 R 3 0 ' LALDYB 30 Ev/Mb CIO rock 30 Cb 10 80 60 2 5 C/R SMHFP(ALDYB) Cb 30 LALDYB 20 Mb 30 GLMHFP 10 Cv 20 -OHFP 20 R 20 MHFP 10 rock 20 .30 30 3 5 C/R LHFP(OHFP) Ev 30 MHFP 50 Cv 40 LMHFP 30 Cb 10 LALDYB 10 Mv . . 10 90 70 4 28 Ts 80 OHFP(OFHP, SMHFP) C/R 20 OHFP(LHFP) Ev/Mb 80 OHFP 40 Eb/Mb 10 GLOHFP 20 Cv <10 GLMFHP 20 MHFP 10 90 60 5 12 Ts 60 0HFP(0FHP, SMHFP) C/R 40 OHFP(LHFP) Ev/Mb 70 MHFP 30 Cv 10 OHFP 30 Cb . 1 0 GLMFHP 20 GLOHFP 10 80 70 6 8 C/R LHFP(OHFP) Cv 40 MHFP 60 Cb 20 LSMHFP 10 Ev/Mb. 30 LALDYB 10 j> i n i. m 50 30 7 10 Ts 70 OHFP C/R .30 OHFP(LHFP) Ev/Mb 70 OHFP 60 Cv 20 MHFP 30 Cb 10 LSMHFP 10 100 100 .8 9 C/R 60 OHFP(LHFP) • Ts 40 OHFP Ev/Mb 90 MHFP 60 Mv 10 GLMHFP 20 GLMHFP 20 40 70 9 1 C/R . LHFP(OHFP) Ev 50 LMHFP 50 Cv 40 MHFP 30 Mv 10 GLMHFP 20 100 80 10 . 1. C/R 70 OHFP(LHFP) Ts 30 OHFP(BIHFP) Cv 50 OHFP 40 Ev/Mb 50 LMHFP 30 PMHFP 20 90 90 11 11 Gm 70 OHFP . Ts 30 OHFP Ev/Mb 50 GLMFHP 20 Ev/FGt 30 GLMHFP 10 FGb 10 MHFP 30 FAt 10 OHFP 30 GLDGDYB 10 80 60 12 1 Gm OHFP Ev/FGt 100 MHFP 100 100 TOO Weighted Averages** 77 65 *See-Figure 7.2 **Weighted by the * bf the.map area + + S e e - F i g u r e s 5.1 and 5.7 fo r legends See Appendix 3 f o r de f i n i t i on s Totals,may be less than 100% due to small units nnt shown Table 7.2 Mapping unit comparisons for Grassy Creek study area. 124 The differences between Templeton .River and Grassy Creek in overall agree-ment are primarily a result of the contrasting physical characteristics of the two valleys. Templeton River offers ah extremely heterogeneous environment with respect to terrain features and soi l development. It has a complex glacial history typical of the Purcell Mountains, where each valley system has experienced a unique sequence of glacial advances and retreats. This has resulted in a unique distr ibution of terrain features in each valley system, and decreases the r e l i a b i l i t y of extrapolating terrain information from one area to another. The presently active col luvia l processes have also modified ?the glacial landscape to a point where i t is not easi ly recognizable. The variety of sedimentary rock types occurring in the Templeton River Valley and their d i s t inct physical and chemical properties have also contributed to complexity of the resultant terrain features. The va r i ab i l i t y of soil development results from a complex interaction of environmental factors including: bedrock, topography, climatic variat ion, vegetation, geomorphic history, and presently active slope processes (e-g. snow avalanching and soil creep). In contrast, Grassy Creek is located in the Southern Selkirk Mountains which have experienced a more uniform cont inental - type glaciation. Rather than the series of advances and retreats which occurred in alpine glaciated terra in, deglaciation in the Grassy Creek areas was dominantly downwasting of stagnant blocks of ice, with few local source areas. This deglaciation pattern, combined with re lat ive ly uniform regional bedrock, and limited post-glacial col luvial action, has made the Southern Selkirk Mountains quite suitable for reconnaissance mapping and extrapolation of terrain information from one area to another. Because the Grassy Creek area is dominated by terrain features of a f a i r l y uniform texture and chemical composition, soi l development can be re l iably predicted on the basis of regional climate and topographic position, once the terrain features are accurately ident i f ied. 125 The B.C.D.A. mapping rel ies heavily on interpretation of aerial photographs (1:63,360 scale) for delineation of landform mapping units. During completion of the B.C.D.A. map sheets covering the study areas (N.T.S. map sheets 82K and 82F), f i e l d work was severely limited by poor access and time constraints. Numerous small val ley systems, including the study areas received no f i e ld checking at a l l (personal communication J . Jungen and U. Wittneben 1974). An examination of factors s ignif icant to aerial photographic interpretation revealed added contrasts between the two study areas. Templeton River is dominated by slopes in excess of 50% (22°) with maximum re l i e f of 1,800m, while Grassy has slopes averaging 25% (11°), and maximum r e l i e f of 800m. Vertical exaggeration on 1:63,360 airphotos is quite severe in Templeton River, limiting recognition of features in the valley bottom. Increased re l i e f also plays a role in determining the significance of aspect, which is further emphasized by the east-west orientation of Templeton River. Vegetative cover is another important tool for airphoto interpretation, assuming i t ref lects primarily cl imatic and edaphic conditions. The use of vegetative cover is l imited in both areas by f i r e history, and further in Templeton by severe snow avalanching on the south aspects and selective logging in the valley bottom. Ideally, a more detailed mapping project should delineate a number of smaller mapping units which would be similar to those units described at the reconnaissance l eve l , d i f fer ing only where mapping inclusions were identif ied. Mapping disagreement should be limited to approximately 20%, assuming both mapping projects were accurately describing the landscape (a difference in precision only). The discrepancies shown in tables 7.1 and 7.2, however, would seem to indicate that accuracy may be less than optimum. This comparison 126 technique cannot be considered an absolute measure of mapping accuracy, but rather as a relat ive comparison of mapping agreement, from which 1imited conclusions about accuracy can be drawn. Because of the extensive number of ground checks completed during the.more detailed mapping, i t is presumed to be a reasonable standard for comparison, but is by no means considered a completely accurate ref lect ion of the terrain and soil features existing in nature (see Chapter 8). The high level of agreement found in Grassy Creek implies that the accuracy of the reconnaissance terrain and soil mapping in that area is well within acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y l imits (especially when reconnaissance mapping inherently implies a lower r e l i a b i l i t y ) . This does not mean that an accurate reconnaissance map presents the same information that a more detailed one does. Increased precision of the more detailed mapping allows presentation of more complete distr ibution information on individual terrain features and so i l s . This is accomplished through increased map scale and the use of a lower categorical level of landscape c lass i f i ca t ion (e.g. C/R of the B.C.D.A. system includes Cv, Mv, Ev, and parts of Cb, Mb, and Eb of the more detailed mapping, each of which could have s igni f icant ly different management implications).* The lower values of agreement in the Templeton River area imply a reduced level of accuracy for the reconnaissance mapping in that area. Ideally, i f two maps have the same level of cartographic generalization (i.e. similar scales) and similar levels of taxonomic generalization; increased landscape complexity *These gains in information can be re la t ive ly costly, however, as i t is estimated the more detailed mapping was ten to twenty times more expensive on a per hectare basis. Because the more detailed mapping was experimental, costs would probably be reduced for an operational project. 127 in one map area should result in a corresponding increase in the number of mapping units or complexed mapping units for that area. Even though the Templeton River area is s l i ght ly larger than the Grassy Creek area, there is one less mapping unit, and only half as many mapping unit complexes. This again i l lus trates a sacr i f i ce in accuracy. The inaccuracy of the reconnaissance mapping has resulted from a number of related mapping problems: a) landscape characterist ics which l imi t the interpretation of terrain features on reconnaissance aerial photographs b) a high level of landscape complexity which increases the poss ib i l i ty of mapping error c) heterogeneous regional pattern of terrain features which l imits the extrapolation of f i e l d observations d) procedural constraints of cartographic and taxonomic levels which l imi t accurate presentation of observed landscape complexity If a given taxonomic level is considered necessary for the user, and an acceptable level of accuracy is to be maintained, then the minimum acceptable cartographic level wi l l be determined by the most complex mapping areas. In the case of the B.C.D.A. mapping in Templeton River, accuracy may have been sacrif iced to maintain predetermined cartographic and taxonomic levels. The levels set for the reconnaissance project as a whole were too general to meet the requirements of the. Templeton River area. In contrast the author's more detailed cartographic and taxonomic levels were determined by the Templeton River area. This has resulted in f a i r l y large units in Grassy Creek, where the f inal scale of map presentation could have been reduced to f i t the less complex landscape. ' 128 This comparison demonstrates the .inherent problems in applying a uniform mapping methodology (with limited ground checking) over wide areas with di f fer ing landscape complexities. Init iat ion of any mapping program should always include an evaluation of anticipated complexity through use of existing information (bedrock, sur f ic ia l geology, vegetation patterns, climate, e tc . ) , and/or ground checking of complex areas. If map scales cannot be adjusted to accommodate varying complexity, then concentrated f i e l d work should be used to maintain accuracy at a reasonable leve l . 129 CHAPTER 8 - SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STUDY 8.1 Study Description-. The mapping procedures described in the previous sections have become traditional for most land inventories. Landscape units are subjectively synthesized by the mapper, and are subsequently sampled in areas which typify the mappers concept of the mapping unit. The basis on which the mapper subdivides the landscape is primarily determined by the objectives of the mapping project and the c lass i f i cat ion or conceptual framework in which the mapping is carried out. The effectiveness of this process depends on the working scale, complexity of the terra in, time constraints, . presence or absence of recognizable natural landscape breaks, and the mapper's personal ab i l i t y and experience. In an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the author's mapping, systematic sampling was completed on a portion of the map area. A comparison of these results, with the land-scape features described on the maps wi l l give a measure of map r e l i a b i l i t y and homogeneity within selected map units. 8.2 Methods Following completion of the majority of the mapping, two areas con-taining a representative range of landscape characteristics within the Templeton River study area were chosen for the sampling comparison (see figure 8.1). A grid system was employed to determine the exact position of the systematic sampling points (see Chapter 2 for detai ls of layout). 131 At each of the 31 sampling points a two man crew with no prior soi ls experience dug a 1 metre soil p i t . They were given no instructions on, choosing the exact sampling point in terms of microtopography or repre-sentativeness, only that the holes be as close to the grid points as possible. Subsequent to completing the sampling and airphoto interpre-tation for Templeton River as a whole, the author v is i ted each grid point, completing a fu l l prof i le description and sampling each horizon * for laboratory analysis. 8.3 Results and Discussion The results of the soil sampling and description at each grid point are summarized in tables 8.1 and 8.2 under the columns headed "Measured Results". Full prof i le descriptions and results of the laboratory analysis are stored within the B. C. Soil Data F i l e , Climate and Data Services, Ministry of the Environment, Resource Analysis Branch. In adjacent columns the author's terrain and soil mapping unit designations for each grid point are given, along with the units presented on the B.C.D.A. soil-landform maps. In mapping units which were complexed, the member which most closely corresponded to the grid point determination was used. Because of the smaller scale and reduced precision on the B.C.D.A. maps, any unit within 100m of a grid point was considered as a possible indicator of the soi l or landform at that point (± .25cm on the 1:50,000 map). The author's terrain mapping units are in agreement with the actual conditions at the grid points in 80% of the cases, while the B.C.D.A. landform mapping was in agreement at about 60% of grid points. * In addition a vegetation plot was completed by R.K. Jones; tree heights, ages, and diameters were collected by Forest Service Inventory personnel. An examination of the relationship between s o i l , vegetation, and forest productivity wi l l be carried out in the future. MEASURED RESULTS GRTD POINT TERRAIN SOIL SLOPE DEVELOPMENT CLASS SOIL DRAINAGE SOIL TEXTURE BRGL 4 KM BRGL 4 MW GLBRGL ' 4 MW BIGL 4 w BIGL 4 ' w BIGL 3 . w OHFP 1 u ODYB 6 R BIGL 5 w BRGL 5 w BRGL 4 w BRGL 4 w BRGL 4 w BRGL 5 w ODYB 4 w BIGL 4 w LODYB 3 R KHFP 3 R OEB 5 w AUTHORS MAPPING DESIGNATION TERRAIN SOIL DEVELOPMENT SLOPE CLASS SOIL ' DRAINAGE SOIL TEXTURE B.C.O.A. MAPPING UNITS TERRAIN SOIL SLOPE CLASS 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 gSECv gSKb gSECv gST5~ gSECv  SLv gFGt oSECv gMb SEv gFGt SE-' gFGt SEv gFGt g F G t - F gSECv gf-sb gSECv gMb S$ECv gMb gSECv gMb gSECv grt> SEv gsMr SEv gFGt gSECv gMb gSECv gSECv gSECv g s i l  g s i l g s i l s i c l vgs g s i l v g s l g s i l ' v g l s g s i l vgs g s i l vgs . v g s l v g l s g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s v q s i 1 v g l s g s i l v g l s s i l g l I v g l s g s i l V g l s g s i l v g l v g s i l g$Mv gFGt BRGL 3 MW g$Mv gFGt BRGL 3 m $Ev gFGt OHFP 4 W SEv gFGt OHFP 4 U SEv gFGt OHFP 4 W SEv gFGt OHFP 4 W SEv gFGt OHFP 4 W g F G t - F ODYB 6 R qSFCv ' gMb B I G L * 4 W g$ECv gMb BRGL* 4 W gSEcv gMb BRGL* 4 W gSECv gMb BRGL* 4 w g$ECv gMb BRGL* 4 w SEv ,. gsMb BRGL ' 4 MW SEv gFGt OHFP 4 w gSECv gMb B I G L * 4 w gSECv LODYB* 3 R gSECv LODYB 3 R gSECv CL OEB 4 W g i g i g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s g s i l vgs g s i l vgs v g s l g s i l v g l s g s i 1 v g l s g j i l vgT i " g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s s i l v g s l g s i l v g l s g s i l v g l s v g s i l v g s i l g s i l * c o m p l e x e d mapping u n i t Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Gt Gt Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts Ts C/R C/R Ts OEB OEB OEB OEB OEB OEB ODYB ODYB OEB OEB OEB OEB OEB ODYB ODYB OEB ODYB ODYB OEB 4. 4 4 4 4 4 3 6 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 5 Table 8.1 A comparison between the mapping units designated systematic sampling results and the at each grid point (Grid I south aspect). GRID POINT MEASURED RESULTS AUTHORS MAPPING DESIGNATION B.C. D.A. MAPPING 1 UNITS 1 TERRAIN SOIL DEVELOPMENT SLOPE CLASS SOIL DRAINAGE SOIL TEXTURE TERRAIN SOIL DEVELOPMENT SLOPE CLASS SOIL DRAINAGE SOIL TEXTURE TERRAIN SOIL SLOPE CLASS 1.0 9 F f DGDYB 3 W v g s l g F f DGDYB 3 W v g s l Ts OOYB 4 1.1 qSECv gSKb GLBIOHFP 4 MJ q s i l gv q$ECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 W g s i l v g s l Ts ODYB 4 1.2 1 qSECv gMb BIOHFP 5 W v g s i l gsr gSECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 W g s i l v g s l Ts ODYB . 5 1.3 qSECv •gMb BRGL 4 W g s i l v g s l qSECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 W g s i l v g s T C/R ODYB 4 1.4 qSECv . OHFP 4 ' W g s i l v g s l g$ECv gMb. OHFP* 4 U g s i 1 v g s l C/R OH'FP 4 1.5 qSECv gsMb GLOHFP 4 m g s i 1 v g s l g$ECv gsMb OHFP* 4 MW g s i l v g s l C/R ODYB 4 2.0 bSFAt GLMFHP 3 P b s i l bsr^ t GLMFHP* 2 P b s i l Ts ODYB 4 2.1 gcMb GLMHFP 5 VP _ g l ..... g s c l qSECv gMb OHFP* ' 4 W g s i l v g s l Ts ODYB 5 2.2 oSECv gMb BIOFHP 4 u g s i l v g s l q$ECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 u g s i l v g s l Ts ODYB 4 2.3 gs:cv BIOHFP 4 w g s i l ' v g s l gSECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 w • g s i 1 v g s l Ts ODYB . A *T 2.4 qSECv gMb . .DGDYB 5 w g s i l v g s l q$ECv gMb OHFP* 4 u v g s l C r ODYB 5 2.5 qSECv gMb 1 BIOHFP 4 m v g s l q$ECv gMb BIOHFP* 4 ' c o m p l e x e d mapping u n i t w g s i l v g s T ' C r ' ODYB - 4 Table 8 , 2 A comparison between: the systematic sampling results and the mapping units designated at each grid point (Grid II'north aspect). 134 The soil development, as indicated by the author's map, was in agreement in 65% of the cases and the soi l associations indicated by the B.C.D.A. map agreed at 20% of the grid points. The additional characteristics of slope, drainage, and texture show a similar range of agreement between 65% and 80% for both the author's and the B.C.D.A. map. Ttiese figures indicate an overall map r e l i a b i l i t y of approximately 70% for the gridded area for the 1:15,840 scale, and 50% or less for the 1:50,000 map scale. The disagreements between mapping designations and the conditions actually existing on the ground have arisen primarily from three poten-t i a l mapping problems discussed below. The most serious reason for d is -agreement" is one of mapping inaccuracy, where the mapper has made an incorrect mapping unit designation. Unless i t results from a lack of ab i l i t y , i t is most commonly the result of an attempt to extrapolate ground truth from selected sampling areas into areas with only airphoto interpretation. These types of errors are most common in reconnaissance surveys and are the cause of the reduced r e l i a b i l i t y of reconnaissance information. In order to successfully extrapolate soil information, the mapper has to develop a conceptual model of how soi ls relate to recognizabl airphoto patterns (e.g. landforms and vegetation). In the case of the B.C.D.A. information in the gridded area, the airphoto interpretation of landforms was f a i r l y good (65%), however the conceptual model which attached soi l developments to the landforms was inadequate (only 20% correct). The second reason for disagreement at any one point can be improper unit boundary location. These can result from careless mapping, inherent cartographic l imitations (airphoto to map plotting error, small scales, etc 135 or the gradational quality of many natural boundaries. In this case the mapper has correct ly identif ied the landscape characterist ics of a particular area, but he has fa i led to accurately define i t s geographic distr ibut ion. This problem is i l lustrated at grid point .'I 1.3, where the morainal unit boundary should have included this point. The C horizon does show some waterworking, indicating a transition to the adjacent g laciof luvial unit. Grid point I U l is located in a transitional area between the -7^- and the F G t adjacent terminal moraine (rMr). The remaining grid points which do not agree with the mapping designations are a result of inclusions, or areas within a mapping unit that cannot be defined at the scale of mapping being used. If the inclusions are recognized and they represent a sizeable portion of the mapping unit, but are too closely associated to be separated by a boundary, the mapping unit can be complexed. In detailed surveys a map unit may include up to 15% of inclusions, and reconnaissance surveys may include s i i ght ly more (up to 20%). Inclusions of soi ls with dif fer ing characteristics in mountainous terrain are the result of numerous factors including: windthrow, faunal or anth.ro-pedoturbation, slope ins tab i l i ty , surface erosion, or inherent landscape var iab i l i ty . In addition, the results of the objective sampling suggest that certain types of landforms and climatic regimes can create more complex soi l forming environments than others. This wi l l decrease mapping unit homogeneity, and may increase inclusions beyond normally acceptable l imits . Areas mapped as morainal landforms in Grid areas I and II had correct terrain designations at 90% of the grid points, and correct soi l designations at 70% of the points. The degree of mapping unit agreement indicates a re lat ive ly uniform and predictable soi l forming environment within the morainal mapping units. 1 3 6 The cases of disagreement were due to minor inclusions of morainal materials with contrasting textures. These modified soi l drainage suf-f i c ient ly , to change soil development into associated subgroups, rather than those designated on the map (Grid points II 1.1, 2.1, and 2.4). In contrast, the glaciof luvial materials located in Grid I offer a highly variable complex of textures and slopes. Within the g laciof luvial mapping units terrain designations were correct at 55% of the grid points, and soil development at only 45% of the points. The complexity of glacio-f luv ia l landforms demonstrated here is a direct ref lect ion of the transit ional environment in which they are formed. Melting glacial ice and the in s tab i l i t y of recently deposited sediments provide constantly fluctuating deposition environments and hydrologic regimes. Morainal, f l u v i a l , and lacustrine materials can be intimately associated on complicated topographic features of terraces, kett les, and ridges. In an area of cool dry climate such as Templeton River, with mixed deciduous-coniferous forest and acid to calcareous bedrock, the inherent var iab i l i t y of g lac iof luvia l terrain can result in a wide range of soi l development including: Brunisolic, Bisequa, and Gleyed Gray Luvisols; Bisequa Humo-Ferric Podzols; Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols; Dystric and Eutric Brunisols; and Regosols. Grid points I 1.0 and I 1.1 are Brunisolic Grey Luvisols developed in inclusions of Mb; I 1.2 is Gleyed Brunisolic Grey Luvisol developed in a g laciof luvial deposit with a lacustrine lense; I 1.4 and I 1.5 have minor lacustrine inclusions suff ic ient to develop Bt horizons and are Bisequa Grey Luvisols; and I 2.7 does not have s u f f i -cient extractable Fe and Al to be c lass i f ied as a Podzol. Mapping r e l i a b i l i t y could be improved by making the soi ls on the g laciof luvia l 137 deposits a complex of Othic Humo-Ferric Podzols and Bisequa Grey Luvisols, or by separating grid points I 1.3, I 1.4, and I 1.5 into a unit designated as , with Bisequa Grey Luvisols. The number of grid points located in f luv ia l and col luvia l landforms are not suff ic ient to draw any firm conclusions, however, they appear to be similar to the morainal material in terms of homogeneity and mapping r e l i a b i l i t y . 138 CHAPTER 9 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS .• ' 9.1 Mapping Procedures and the Interpretation of Aerial Photographs The mapping methods used in this study have combined limited ground checking with interpretation of terrain and soil information from aerial photographs (see Chapter 2). This procedure has become generally accepted for most land c lass i f i cat ion and mapping projects in Western Canada, where data col lection is of a reconnaissance or semi-detailed nature, and on-site mapping is limited by poor access or rugged terrain (e.g. Hawes 1969, Holland et a l . 1976, Lavkulich 1973, Lord and Green 1974, etc.) Because some terrain characteristics are direct ly observable as photo-patterns, terrain type recognition on aerial photographs can be f a i r l y rel iable. Where vegetation is poorly developed direct ly observable charac-ter i s t i c s may include: surface expression, texture (depending on coarseness and scale of photography), and actual terrain feature (bedrock, talus, f lood-plains, etc. ) . The close relationship between surface expression and genesis greatly increases the r e l i a b i l i t y of terrain interpretations. Other charac-ter i s t i c s used to di f ferentiate terrain types necessitate the interpretation of correlated photo-patterns. Soil characteristics are not d irect ly observable on aerial photographs, and therefore, require at least one level of abstraction from the photo-patterns which are direct ly v i s ib le . Because soi l properties are often correlated with other components in the landscape which are discernable as elements of photo-pattern, i t is possible to predict various soi l properties by observing other features. This procedure necessitates the development of a conceptual model which relates soil characterist ics to variation in those components of the land-scape which form discernable photo-patterns. The successful application of 139 such a model, however, requires not only suff ic ient ground checking to define the model but also to establish the l imits of i t s appl icabi l i ty . The results of the reconnaissance mapping comparison and the systematic sampling study (see Chapters 7 and 8), both demonstrate lower values of r e l i a b i l i t y for the soi l mapping compared to the terrain mapping. These .result part ia l ly from the increased d i f f i cu l t y of aerial photographic in ter -pretation of soi l characterist ics. They are also the result of inadequate conceptual model for soi l unit extrapolation and a poor match between the taxonomic level of soi l c lass i f i cat ion and the mapping scale. The r e l i a b i l i t y of interpreting soi l information from aerial photographs can vary with degree of correlation between soil characteristics and v i s ib le photo-patterns. Areas where vegetation is in a serai stage, v i s ib le vege-tation patterns may ref lect recent f i r e history and seed ava i lab i l i ty rather than edaphic factors. Obvious patterns, such as snow avalanche tracks, may obscure fine slope patterns which indicate the actual nature of the sur f i c ia l materials. Reliable interpretation of soi l features from aerial photographs also requires a knowledge of landscape complexity. The reconnaissance mapping comparison and the systematic sampling studies have shown that some terrain types are l i ke ly to be more variable than others. A mapper must be cognizant of th is , and use this knowledge to set his pr ior i t ies for f i e l d checking. If r e l i a b i l i t y is to be consistent throughout a mapping area, more complex areas demand more f i e ld work. In this study approximately 50 percent of the soi l units in each area were observed on the ground, and 10 to 20 percent of the boundaries were ver i f ied (see figures 2.1 and 2.2). Fortunately the most complex areas, the valley mouths and valley f loors, had the best access and, therefore, received the most ground checks. 140 9.2 Land C lass i f icat ion 9.2.1 Terrain C lass i f icat ion „ This study has shown that the Terrain Class i f icat ion System (ELUC Secretar-. / i a t 1976) can be applied at detailed scales of mapping, part ieular i ly in areas where terrain complexity is suf f ic ient ly great. The Terrain Class i f icat ion System is not defined as a hierarchical system, however, the options to use a number of modifiers, some at varying levels of generalization (e.g. texture, slope class, stratigraphic information), allows the system to be applied at various mapping scales. Where terrain complexity is moderate, such as Grassy Creek, the maximum applicable scale is about 1:30,000 or 1:50,000. In areas where terrain complexity is great, such as Templeton River, the system can be applied at scales up to 1:10,000. 9.2.2 Soil C lass i f icat ion The soil map units defined within the study areas are not as detailed a taxonomic level as or ig inal ly planned at the outset of the project. Rarely are the soil map units soi l individuals as discussed in Chapter 1. Most often they consist of closely associated groups of individuals, equivalent to a phase of a soi l family, or complexes of soi l families. The soil family of the C.S.S.C. (1977) is one level of generalization above the soil series ( i .e . the taxonomic soi l individual), and has only re-cently been developed. Soil families are subdivisions of soi l subgroups, differentiated on the basis of: part ic le s ize, mineralogy, reaction, depth, and soi l climate. Soil series are subdivisions of so i l families with closely defined limits of numerous soil properties (e.g. texture, structure, mottling, consistence, horizon sequence, depth, and concentration of soluble sa l ts ) . Soil phases are functional soi l units outside of the system of taxonomy, which 141 can be defined at any categorical leve l . These are differentiated on the i basis of soi l and landscape properties that are not used as differentiat ing c r i te r i a in the soi l c lass i f icat ion system or selected dif ferentiat ing characteristics used at more detailed categorical levels. The soi l family characteristics for each map unit are given in tables 4.5 and 5.4. Phase characteristics of slope, soi l texture, soi l drainage amd non-soil features *(bedrock, talus, i ce , etc.) are presented on the soi l maps (see figures 4.7, 4.8, 5.5, and 5.6). The terrain complexity of the Templeton River study area makes mapping of soi l series impractical, i f not impossible, at scales smaller than 1:10,000. In less complex areas such as Grassy Creek, soil families could be mapped at a scale of 1:31,680, and possibly soi l series at 1:10,000; however, the cost of ground checking for series could be prohibi-tive for forest management purposes. Soil families appear to be a useful level of the C.S.S.C. for mapping in forested mountainous, terrain.. Their level of generalization is suff ic ient for most forest land management, which tends to be less intensive than agr icul -tural land management. Where more specif ic information is necessary (e.g. slope, texture, f e r t i l i t y , e tc . ) , i t can be included as soi l phases, without requiring the detailed f ie ld work necessary to define soi l series. The use of soi l series could be restricted to more intensive use areas (townsites, road corridors, research s i tes, etc.) where increased costs would be ju s t i f i ed . 9.3 Data Presentation 9.3.1 Soil Reports Data presentation is one of the most, i f not the most, important steps of any resource inventory, and often that which is most neglected. The p r i -mary fault of most inventories is the lack of coordination with the eventual user of the information. The f inal report of a soi l inventory should present 142 information on the characteristics and distr ibution of soi ls present in an area, the relationships between the soi ls and other landscape components, and the potential responses of the soi ls to various management practices. This report has used maps and legends to display the kinds of soi ls and terrain types, and the ir geographic distribution in each study area. Summary tables, landscape cross-sectional diagrams, and written discussion have been used to present information on the environmental relationships between the soi ls and various landscape components. Interpretations for soi l erosion and forest capability are discussed in Chapter 6, and summarized in tables 4.5 and 5.4. Interpretations for specif ic management options (e.g. skidder logging, scar i f icat ion, f e r t i l i z a t i o n , septic f i e ld s , etc.) have not been included, because management techniques are continually evolving as new situations for application arise. The land manager working in conjunction with a soi ls spec-i a l i s t may prepare more specif ic interpretations as the need arises, based on an evaluation of the proposed management practices in l ight of soi l information presented here. 9.3.2 Map Unit Symbols The map unit symbols used for both the terrain maps and the soi l maps are connotative symbols, derived from two land c lass i f i cat ion systems: Terrain Class i f icat ion System (ELUC Secretariat 1976) and the Canadian System of Soil Class if icat ion (C.D.A. 1974). Both types of symbols employ a primary symbol and a series of modifiers. The central feature of the terrain unit symbol defines the primary genetic process of the terrain unit. The unit may then be further defined by employing modifiers describing texture, surface expression, slope class, and additional process qua l i f iers . 143 The numerator of the soi l unit symbol designates the soi l subgroup and the denominators describe soi l texture, soi l drainage, and s lope ; class. Both of these systems allow for complexing map units where the mapping scale does not allow the seperation of individual map units. The soi l mapping symbol allows for the complexing of whole map unit symbols, or only that por-tion of the symbol which is not consistent throughout the mapped polygon (e.g. where dist inct slope breaks are the only variable, only the slope class is complexed; where there is a gradual transition between two soi l subgroups on a relat ively uniform landscape, only the soi l subgroup symbols are complexed). These types of connotative symbols allow the map user to grasp a large amount of information about a mapping unit without the use of an extended legend or accompanying explanatory tables. The complexity of the symbols, however, l imits the map presentation scale, and increases drafting costs. This type of symbol is best suited to map areas where adjacent map sheets wil l be com-pleted over a sequence of years or by a number of surveyors. With the use of these types of symbols interim maps can be made available before completion of the whole survey area, and before the soi l families or series are actually defined. 9.3.3 Map Presentation Two kinds of base maps have been employed in this study: planimetric and aerial photographic (photo-maps). The photo-maps used in this study are en-largements of aerial photographs or ig inal ly produced at a scale of 1:63,360. Photography at a scale of 1:15,840 was available, however, i ts use required the production of complex mosaics for each area (approx. 12 photographs per area). Use of the smaller scale photography allowed the Templeton River study 144 area to be enlarged from one photograph, and Grassy Creek from a mosaic of two photographs. Planimetric maps are projections of the earth's surface, which maintain a constant-horizontal scale throughout the projected area. The planimetric base maps used in the study were supplied by the B.C. Forest Service Inventory Divis ion, with 1:15,840 scale aerial photograph center-points preplotted. In contrast to the planimetric base, the photo-maps provide a direct image of landscape var iab i l i ty through observable differences in contrast, tone, and density. These photographic qual it ies may be interpreted in terms of vegetation, landform, bedrock geology, hydrologic phenomena, or cultural features. This allows the user to establish his f i e l d position relative to any of these discernable features (most often vegetative, even individual trees at detailed scales), and to visual ly recognize relationships between these features and the soi l map units. The major disadvantage of photo-maps is their scale var iab i l i ty caused by radial distort ion in areas with moderate to high re l i e f . Photo-maps which are not corrected for scale cannot be used for accurate distance or area measurements. A second disadvantage is the tem-porary nature of vegetative cover due to events such as f i r e , logging and natural succession. In forested terrain, where vegetation is the most readily observable feature, photo-maps are most useful in areas with relat ively com-plex and stable vegetation patterns. Planimetric base maps can present a variety of information through the use of mapping symbols and explanatory legends. Most importantly they can present r e l i e f through the use of topographic l ines , but also hydrologic 145 phenomena, cultural features, and others as desired. However, on simple black and white prints these additional features are generally depicted by.line symbols which can interfere, and hence reduce the l e g i b i l i t y of the primary data presen-tation (soil map units in this case). The user's ab i l i t y to locate his f i e ld position wil l be limited by the contour interva l , his ab i l i t y to determine his elevation, and his location relat ive to other features presented on the map base (see figures 2.1 and 2.2 for examples of contour l ines) . It would seem that to maximize the information level and minimize inter-ference, a combination of characteristics of the two base maps is most preferable. A base map suitable for s o i l , or other resource inventory information, could consist of: a low density (70% screen) aerial photographic mosaic with con-t ro l led scale; and white contour lines with the contour interval being the maximum possible to display the topographic patterns. The s o i l , or other re-source information, could then be presented using dense black lines and symbols (100% screen), making the map unit boundaries and symbols c lear ly discernable against the gray and white photographic base. 146 CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS The conclusions drawn from this study are l i s ted below with reference to the questions raised while setting the objectives for the study. a) What level of the Canadian System of Soil C lass i f icat ion (C.S.S.C.) is suitable for detailed mapping of forested mountainous terrain? The soil family (C.S.S.C. 1976) is a useful taxonomic level for detailed mapping in forested mountainous terra in. This level of soi l c lass i f i cat ion is not as homogeneous as the soil series ( i .e. the soil individual). However, i f selected phase c r i t e r i a (e.g. slope and texture) are used to define the soil mapping units, the soil family level is suitable for answering most forest management questions. In areas of forested mountainous terrain the soil series is of limited value for mapping at reasonable scales. In areas of moderate soil complexity (e.g. Grassy Creek), soi l series may be mappable at scales of 1:10,000 or larger, however, in more complex areas (e.g. Templeton River) soi l series are not mappable even at scales of 1:10,000. In forested mountainous terrain soi l families or phases of soi l families may be mapped at scales of 1:10,000 to 1:30,000. b) Can the Terrain Class i f icat ion System be applied at a detailed level in forested mountainous terrain? The Terrain Class i f icat ion System, as employed in this study is applicable at detailed mapping scales (approx. 1:20,000) in areas where terrain complexity is suff ic ient to warrant i t s use (e.g. Templeton River). In areas of moderate terrain complexity (e.g. Grassy Creek) the system is better suited to mapping scales of 1:30,000 to 1:50,000. The mapping units defined by the Terrain Class i f icat ion System are useful for making engineering 147 interpretations, for elaborating geomorphic history, and as a prestrat i f icat ion of the landscape for soi l mapping ( i .e. defining soil parent materials). c) How do differences in landscape complexity and topography affect inventory results? Landscape complexity should be considered in conjunction with the objectives of a mapping project to determine the proper combination of taxonomic and cartographic levels of generalization necessary to meet those objectives. Areas of increased complexity require a larger mapping scale than areas of low complexity for a given level of c lass i f i cat ion. Complex areas wi l l require more f i e l d checking to maintain an equivalent level of mapping r e l i a b i l i t y . Topography affects inventory results primarily through i t s influence on interpretation of aerial photographs. Topographic expression is a highly useful photo pattern, however, excessive r e l i e f can become a severe l imitation on small scale aeria l photographs with increased vert ical exaggeration. Failure to consider variation in landscape complexity is l i ke l y to result in low mapping r e l i a b i l i t y in more complex landscapes. d) What is the r e l i a b i l i t y and relat ive homogeneity of the mapping units presented? Use of a systematic sampling system on a limited portion of the mapping areas has shown that r e l i a b i l i t y in that portion in approximately 70% for the terrain mapping and 65% for the soil mapping. Glaciof luvial mapping units are less homogeneous than morainal units (limited sampling indicates that col luvia l units are similar in homogeneity to the morainal units). The lower r e l i a b i l i t y of so i l mapping than terrain mapping'results from the greater d i f f i cu l t y interpreting soi l characterist ics from aerial photographs. This type of information is useful for determining taxonomic and cartographic levels for mapping projects and setting pr ior i t ie s for f i e l d checking. 148 e) How does the detailed mapping completed in this study compare with reconnaissance soil-landform mapping in the same areas? A mapping comparison has shown that mapping agreement between the detailed and reconnaissance mapping projects is variable, depending on terrain complexity and topographic characteristics of the mapping areas. The limited disagreement in the Grassy Creek study area is primarily a result of differences in mapping precision. The increased disagreement in the Templeton River study area cannot be accounted for by differences in precision alone. It also results from the inab i l i t y to present accurate terrain and soi l information in complex landscapes, at the taxonomic and cartographic levels chosen for the reconnaissance survey. Terrain complexity and increased re l i e f made accurate interpretation of terrain and soi l features from reconnaissance aerial photo-graphs extremely d i f f i c u l t . Landscape complexity must be considered when determining taxomonmic and cartographic levels for a mapping project and planning necessary f i e l d checking. Accuracy evaluation should also be an integral part of every major survey. f) What types of data presentation are useful in reporting detailed mapping of forested landscapes? Data presentation should emphasize the relationships between various landscape components and their potential intersections with management practices. Maps employing controlled aerial photographic base maps with topographic l ines are useful for presenting geographic distr ibution of land-scape components. Cross-sectional diagrams accompanied by tables and written descriptions are effect ive tools for presenting relationships between various landscape components. 149 g) What management interpretations should accompany such an inventory? This report has not included soi l interpretations for specif ic management practices, but rather presented the so i l s ' potential for erosion and forest production. 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( i n d i c a t e u n i t s ) A i r P h o t o L i n e S a m p l i n g P u r p o s e ( c i r c l e o n e ) 1 2 3 4 5 6. S t a t u s 1 2 3 4 5. M a p p i n g . u n i t 1 2 3 4 . F l o o d h a z a r d 1 2 3 4 5. D r a i n a g e S e e p a g e - p r e s e n t a b s e n t . S t o n e s P h a s e DEPTHS: ( i n d i c a t e u n i t s ) r o o t i n g p e r m a f r o s t - . g r o u n d w a t e r • , R u n o f f P e r m e a b i l i t y ' • I n f i l t r a t i o n J u l y , 1 9 7 3 3> -a O »—i x i H o r i z o n Dep th T h i c k n e s s p r y 1 K o i s t 2 Wet 3 Unsp. 4 C o l o u r T e x t u r e a n d m o d i f i e r M o t t l e s S t r u c t u r e I 1 1 » i n d i c a t u s e d ; i u n i t s M in Max A s p e c t : . m a t r i x - 1 . e x p e d - 2 i n p e d - 3 . c r u s h e d 4 Asp M o i s t ( D r y A b . S i . C o . C o l o u r P r i m a r y S e c o n d a r y F F. F C M D M C P G r a d e C l a s s ^ K i n d G r a d e Place y T i n r l 1 1 | i i ; I-" 1 i — < — i ! ' i J : ! ; . | i i ! ! • ' • ! 1 ! > t 1 1 • ! ; 1 1 ; J 1 1 — i 1 ! ! ; ; ; ! j l ! i. | ; ; i I • | i ! : ] j ! : !• ; ;•; - ! ; i j ! ! ' • : : ' • j | I | • j :.. i 1 I ! 1 ' V • ! ! ! i. •• • I.. SOIL NAME TOPOGRAPHY: Simple slope at site aspect (degrees) Complex slope - Class (circle one) a b c d e f g h Slope length (indicate units) Site position - crest -upper -(circle one) middle lower -toe - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 depression - 6 Microtopography (circle one) level slightly hummocky moderately hummocky -strongly hummocky severely hummocky — : mounded hummocks — strongly mounded hummocks ' July, l y / i (N 0 NE — 45)(no slope (E—90 SE - 1 3 5 ) has aspect (S-180 SW - 2 2 5 ) of 3 6 0 ) (W-27O NW - 3 1 5 ) !very few or no hummocks) • 3 1:5 ( . 3 (> to 1 to 1 to 1 to 1 1 ra. m. high, over 7 m. high, 3 to 7 m. high, 1 to 3 m. high, . 3 - 1 high, over 3>< apart) apart) apart) apart) These definitions have been proposed for CanSIS. apart) 7 ( > 1 m. high, less than 3 n. apart) ij j ';Horizon Horizon 1 Consist.'cecent.'l 3ound. 1 Roots Pores Clay Films Concretions c o 2 Eff. ! i !l ')Ab. Size Ori Dist Ab. Size Ori Dist Kor Cont Type, •reo Thi Loc Kind Ab. Size Loc ShaPf jWJM! Dj Pj AiDlEj! D j F § e 1 0 1 r J If g|e !x ii i 1 0 f 11 i ] y 1 a' e 1 g 11 j s | r 1 1 s | [ sf n| 1 ;' t '• m ' : t i i t f t ! ! ' 1 V ! Mi| V | F j V 1 H , IN P 1 F ! 0 lEX A | Me j R ! I ! C ! 1 v ; Mil V | | S | J V F j V ; H 1 IN 1 D 1 CO ! I P 1 F i-O lEX ! C j DC 1 T A 1 Me 1 R 1 j ! ! ! c : ! 1 , ! F j ! C 1 1 M ; 1 c s 1 ! | N ! F ; ; S 1 F 1 M j 1 0 ! C 1 C | I I 1 M ! 1 | Colour • i 1 ! ! ! I j j ; 1 ] ! ! ;.;!!!' 1 1 I ! I i :•: :'i 1 ] j j! ; ; I I I ! ' ! 1 j - - • ! ! ! ! ,. .. — 1 •< ! : ' 1 ! ! 'J J | 1 : j ! j j ' i ! ! ~| ! 1 | 1 I 1! • •• • ; i i i1 i i ' i ' ! ' i l l ' !1 ! 1 ! ! I . I ; i !• ! i I i i ! , ii j j j I i i i 1 ! ! \ I ' l l i S 1 ! ! ! j 1 ' ! I I I ! 1 ' ! • '< 1 M ! ! l | ' i . i 1 ! ! ! ! I ! 1 c i 1 1 1 s I 1 1, 1 1 >i 1 ! ! 1 ! ! . ! .! I ' ' 1 ' I '< 1 ' i •t ! ! * ; : ! i : ! | ! !!'!'•' I 1 1 ; 1 1 1 ; 1 i j « 1 ; ; ; il ! ' ! ! ' ! ' ! [ ' ! 1 ', I I I ! i ; . i i : ! j : i • j il ' 1 ' i I ! i 1 i 1 1 1 ! ! I i i 1 ! ! ! ! i 1 I I ! ! ! i ! 1. L _ . i .1 !. .. I. 1 1 1 • 1 1 l cn PROFILE DESCRIPTION SHEET PAGE 3 OF 3 July, 1973 SOIL NAME ; LANDFORM PARENT MATERIAL BEDROCK DEPTH TO BEDROCK (indicate units) Carbonate Description Sail Coarse Fragment Descrip. Notes jCont Ab. Siz Shape Consist. % Gravel Cobbles Stones Str. Spo. M D W j by T . T T M 8 v o l . <* y of. y at y F F V R 0 R C K H 0 I Y M C R I S T 157 APPENDIX 2 VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION UNITS * Templeton River Study Area ESSFxp (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r parkland subzone). A Larix lyallii, Picea engelrnannii, Cassiope mertensiana open forest (subxeric to subhygric). B Rhododendron albiflorum, Vaccinium scoparium, Senecio triangularis, Claytonia lanoeolata, meadows, and discontinuous forest (subhygric to hygric). C Larix lyallii, Picea engelrnannii, Pinus albicaulis, Vaccinium scoparium, Saxifraga bvonchialis open forest and low regeneration forest (Xeric to submesic). Avalanche Zone (Disclimax vegetation retained at one serai stage from climax due to recurring snow avalanche ac t iv i ty ) . C-1.A Abies lasiocarpa, Pinus albicaulis, Vaccinium membranaceum, Saxifraga bronchialis krumholtz shrub and forest patches (xeric to mesic). D-1 Picea, engelrnannii, Pinus albicaulis, Menziesia ferruginea, Hyloecorrmiim splendens low regeneration forest (submesic. to mesic). G Alnus sinuata, Afherium felix-femina, Claytonia lanoeolata dense continuous brush (subhygric to hygric). 1-1 Populus tremuloides, Amelanchier alnifolia, Fragaria virginiana discontinuous brush and herbs (subxeric to mesic). E S S F X K (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r forest subzone where Douglas f i r is usually not a serai species). D Picea engelrnannii, Pinus albicaulis, Menziesia ferruginea, Hylo-corrmium splendens closed forest (submexic to mesic). E Picea engelrnannii, Vaccinium scoparium Rhododendron albiflorum closed forest (mesic). F Picea engelrnannii, Abies lasiocarpa, Lonicera involucrata, Rhubus pedatus closed forest (subhygric to hygric). ESSFxo<(df) H-l Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziessii, Juniperus scopulorum, Epilobivm augustifolium, Amica cordifolia semi-open and closed forests (Xeric to submesic). * For further information see Jones 1978. Letter symbols indicate climax, potential climax or disclimax units. Numbers indicate the approximate successional status. 158 ESSFxoc(df) cont 'd ' 1-1 Pseudotsuga menziessii, Abies lasiocarpa, Acer glabrum, Smilicina racemosa closed forest (mesic) 1-2 Pseudotsuga menziessii, Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus sinuata, Comus canadensis closed forest (submesic subhygric). J Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelrnannii, Ribes lacustre, Goodyera oblongifolia closed forest (mesic to subhygric). J - l Pseudotsuga menziessii, Picea engelrnannii, Menziesia feruginea, Comus canadensis closed forest (mesic to subhygric). Grassy Creek Study Area ESSFxB (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r parkland subzone). A Abies lasiocarpa, Phyllodoce empetriformis, Luzula glabrata open krumholtz forest (subrexic to submesic). B Abies lasiocarpa, Rhododendron albiflorum, Luzula glabrata low subalpine forest (subxeric). C Abies lasiocarpa, Sorbus sitchensis, Luzula gclabrata semi-open forest is lands (submesic). E S S F X K (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r forest subzone). D Abies lasiocarpa, Rhododendron albiflorum, Xerophyllum tenax semi-open forest (subxeric to submesic). D-1 Pinus contorta, Rhododendron albiflorum, Xerophyllum tenax semi-open andjdosed forest (xer ic to subxer ic) . D-2 Pinus contorta, Sorbus sitchensis, Aster spp. open and semi-open fo res t (xer ic to subxer ic ) . E Abies lasiocarpa, Vaccinium membranaceum, Tiarella unifoliata closed forest (subhygric to mesic). ESSFx Disclimax (Engelmann spruce - subalpine f i r subzone grassland d i sc l imax). F Madia glomerata, Lupinus wyethii, Festuca idahohensis savannah and outcrops (xer i c to submesic). ESSFxK-IWrla ( t r an s i t i o n zone). G Picea engelrnannii, Tsuga heterophylla, Rhododendron albiflorum, Rhubus pedatus closed forest (mesic). G- l Larix occidentalis, Picea engelrnannii, Sorbus sitchensis, Trillium ovatum semi-open and closed forest (mesic to subhygric). IWHa ( I n te r io r western hemlock dry subzone). H Tsuga heterophylla, Pachisrtmamyrsinites, chimaphila umbellata closed forest (mesic) 159 IWHa (Interior western hemlock dry subzone). cont'd H-1 Larix occidentalis, Pseudotsuga menziessii, Tsuga heterophylla, Pedicularis bracteosa semi-open and closed forest (submesic) H-2 Larix occidentalis, Apocynum androsaemifolium, Clintonia uniflora open forest and brush (subxeric). I Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata, Taxus brevifolia, Athyri,um felix-femina closed forest (mesic to subhygric). I-l Abies grandis, Taxus brevifolia, Adenocaulon bicolor closed forest (mesic). J Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Ribes lacustre, Oplopanax horridus, Veratrum eschschoizii closed forest (hygric). APPENDIX 3 Brit ish Columbia Department of Agriculture Landform Symbols (Jungen 1978) A. General Origin of Landforms C colluvium G g lac iof luvia l R bedrock T glacial t i l 1 (basal) C/R .1 to 1.5 meters of material overlying bedrock B. Surface Form or Pattern of Landforms C channelled (ridge and swale) d drumlin (ized) m kame r talus cone s steepland (30%+ slopes) t terrace 

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