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The revising of under the volcano : a study in literary creativity Pottinger, Andrew 1978

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THE REVISING OF UNDER THE VOLCANO: A STUDY IN LITERARY CREATIVITY by ANDREW POTTINGER B. A., University of Keele, 1969 M. A., McMaster University, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (§) Andrew Pottinger, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shal1 not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C ^ & T<+ The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 6 ABSTRACT Between 19 36 and 1946 Maleolm Lowry produced a succession of versions or revisions of Under the Volcano. He began t h i s lengthy undertaking i n Cuernavaca, Mexico, and continued i t i n Los Angeles—where he moved i n 1938—and Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia to which he moved just p r i o r to the outbreak of war i n 1939. In 1940 he submitted what he considered at the time to be the f i n a l version to a number of major and minor publishers, a l l of whom had rejected i t by 1941. During the same year, having moved out of the c i t y of Vancouver to the nearby squatter's settlement at Dollarton, Lowry re-commenced to revise the novel. By Christmas of 1944, a f t e r thousands of pages of r e v i s i o n s , he had more-or-less completed another " f i n a l " version, and a retyped copy of t h i s was accepted i n 1945 for publication early i n 1947. In general, the many successive post-1940 versions of the noveirshow only^minor alterations to the basic story or plot of the rejected version. But Lowry re-presented t h i s fundamental story i n such a way that the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the novel published i n 1947 was extremely d i f f e r e n t from that of the rejected 1940 version. i i i i i I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p o s t - l ^ l r e v i s i n g o f t h e n o v e l , Lowry made a g r e a t many m a r g i n a l a n n o t a t i o n s . As a r u l e t h e y r e c o r d e d h i s immediate f e e l i n g s o r t h o u g h t s about some a s p e c t o f t h e d r a f t v e r s i o n he was c o n s i d e r i n g a t t h e t i m e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e n o t e s r e v e a l s a p a t t e r n o f m o t i v a t i o n l y i n g b e h i n d Lowry's g r a d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l ' s b a s i c s t o r y . On t h e one hand, h i s c r i t i c a l n o t e s u l t i m a t e l y e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a m e l o d r a m a t i c and a l l e g o r i c a l view o f t h e w o r l d i m p l i c i t l y h e l d by t h e n a r r a t o r o f t h e p r e - 1 9 H l v e r s i o n s o f t h e n o v e l ; on t h e o t h e r , h i s s t r a t e g i c n o t e s complemented t h i s c r i t i c i s m by r e c o r d i n g h i s l o c a l a t t e m p t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e n o v e l ' s b a s i c s t o r y from a p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y more complex p o i n t - o f - v i e w . I t a l s o becomes c l e a r d u r i n g e x a m i n a t i o n o f Lowry*s m a r g i n a l i a t h a t t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s i m p l i e d view o f t h e w o r l d was p r o f o u n d l y n e u r o t i c . And t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s n e u r o s i s p r e c i s e l y p a r a l l e l e d a n e u r o s i s e v i d e n t i n Lowry's own view o f t h e p e o p l e around him p r i o r t o 1941 and h i s move t o D o l l a r t o n . Regarded i n t h i s l i g h t , Lowry's m a r g i n a l n o t e s appear t o r e c o r d n o t o n l y a c r e a t i v e a e s t h e t i c development but a l s o a c r e a t i v e r e - v i s i o n o f h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y — a movement away from h i s own n e u r o s i s t h a t he a c h i e v e d by means o f h i s l i t e r a r y engagement. iv In the f i n a l analysis the personal and l i t e r a r y undertakings must be understood as a single integrated process; the record of Lowry's r e v i s i o n of Under the  Volcano i s thus an extremely detailed example of precisely how l i t e r a r y c r e a t i v i t y can be understood as therapy. V TABLE OF CONTENTS P a g e Abstract Acknowledgments v i i INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter 1 TOPOGRAPHY 16 History 17 Procedure 29 Annotations 35 Notes 44 Chapter 2 CRITICISM 48 Drama 50 Journalism 56 Synopsis 60 Weaknesses of Tone . 66 Lack of Characters 1 Independence 72 Extratextual Borrowing and Reference . . . . 74 Inconsistency 93 Problems of Personal Style 100 Conclusions 102 Notes 104 v i Chapter Page 3 STRATEGY 106 Personal History . 113 Psychological Development 120 Philosophico-Religious Background . . . . 129 The Cumulative E f f e c t of Revisions-I . . . 134 The Cumulative E f f e c t of Revisions-II . . 143 Discovery 154 Conclusions 167 Notes 168 Chapter 4 TEXT AND MAN 171 Different Visions 173 Neurosis of the E a r l i e r Versions 175 The Movement Away from Neurosis 187 Revision as Therapy 194 The Consul's Vision 196 Notes 201 APPENDIX A 204 APPENDIX B 223 BIBLIOGRAPHY 276 i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS For permission to quote from the Malcolm Lowry Papers I am grateful to Mrs. Margerie Bonner Lowry. I must also thank Mrs. Lowry f o r pat i e n t l y answering hundreds of my questions, both by mail and i n person. Maurice Carey also consented, although i l l , to speak to me at length about . Malcolm Lowry. For f i n a n c i a l assistance, I am indebted to the Canada Council. Help and encouragement came from the f i r s t from Tony K i l g a l l i n , always w i l l i n g to share his encyclopaedic knowledge of Lowry's Vancouver years—and Ann Yandle, head of the U.B.C. Library's Special;Collections d i v i s i o n . The s t a f f of the Humanities Research Centre at Austin were extremely cooperative i n allowing me to examine the Lowry ^papers i n t h e i r possession. My supervisor, P a t r i c i a Merivale, constantly provided c r i t i c a l guidance, giving f a r more of her time and energy than duty required. My parents, many friends and teachers also supported and encouraged me at one time or another and to a l l of them I express my profound appreciation. J i l l i a n MeGuinriess s a c r i f i c e d a great deal of her l e i s u r e to type my f i n a l manuscript. v i i INTRODUCTION At what point does a novel begin to be written? Dis-counting the straightforward and naive answer, "When t h e writer f i r s t inscribes a word of the f i c t i o n , " t h i s question i s a d i f f i c u l t one, es p e c i a l l y i n the case of Malcolm Lowry and Under the Volcano. As soon as he arrived i n Mexico with his f i r s t wife, Jan Gabrial, i n 1936,^" and as soon as he recorded i n his notebook a scene i n a dingy Cuernavaean bar, Lowry might be said to have begun Under the Volcano. But of which Under the Volcano was i t a beginning? Of the novel he read aloud to Arthur Calder Marshall and his wife i n 19 37, 2 when they v i s i t e d the Lowrys i n Cuernavaca? Or of the novel, possibly the same version, which Conrad Aiken saw and read 3 on a s i m i l a r v i s i t ? Or was i t a beginning to the manuscript u rejected by upwards of ten New York publishers i n 1941? Or, f i n a l l y , was i t perhaps the beginning of the novel we know, the novel brought to publication i n 1947 by Lowry's 5 editor, Albert Erskine? In a sense, every time Lowry made a change or rewrote the novel, he created a new en t i t y . But at the same time few would deny that once he had begun to write the s t o r y of a dissolute a l c o h o l i c B r i t i s h ConsM's l a s t day a l i v e i n a 1 f i c t i o n a l counterpart of Cuernavaca, he had begun, i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t sense, to write the novel published some ten years l a t e r . . •.. Something remained the same, and his work from the point i n 1936 when he began to describe a bus journey interrupted by the discovery of an Indian dying by the road' side was not a series of new beginnings but a process of re-presenting the same underlying pattern of relationships and events. But to re-present such a pattern requires an author to perceive i t from, what i s f o r him, a new perspec-t i v e ; the history of the writer's re-presentations i s also, therefore, a history of his re-perceptions. According to a l l accounts including his own, Lowry perceived his world and the people around him i n 19 36 quite d i f f e r e n t l y from 7 the way i n which he perceived them i n 1945, when he concluded the long r e v i s i o n process with a "publishable" manuscript of Under the .'Volcano. By focusing attention on a hitherto unexplored set of data—Lowry's marginal commentary i n the various successive drafts of Under the  Vo l c a n o — t h i s thesis charts Lowry fs changing perceptions of his text and of his world during those eight years of re v i s i o n . In so doing i t reveals the existence of a progressive " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " process involving both the man and his story, a process that involved a s i g n i f i c a n t two-way exchange. Partly through his eight year struggle 3 with his f i c t i o n a l text, Lowry remade himself. And p a r t l y through his struggle with himself, he remade his novel. Although the s p e c i f i c material analysed i n d e t a i l i n t h i s thesis—Lowry's m a r g i n a l i a — has not been previously discussed or c o l l e c t e d , a number of scholars have written u s e f u l l y on the general subject of Lowry's c r e a t i v i t y as r e v i s o r of Under the Volcano. Three names stand out:. Richard Costa, o Victor Doyen, and Brian O ' K i l l . Working from a thematic point of view, Costa has shown how, once Lowry had decided to develop a p a r t i c u l a r theme, he would move large relevant blocks of narrative and imagery from one point i n the novel to another. For Costa the r e v i s i o n process was one of i n t e n s i f y i n g and more sharply a r t i c u l a t i n g the great themes of the published novel. C l e a r l y , t h i s work touches on the examination of the creative'process presented here. It i s valuable because i t begins to indicate how Lowry developed the meaning of Under the Volcano by moving large quantities of material without a f f e c t i n g the basic story. This i s the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of Lowry's r e v i s i o n . But Costa does not r e l a t e the work oi* r e v i s i o n to Lowry's l i f e i n any rigorous or extended sense, and he never f u l l y develops many of the insights attendant on his pioneering account 4 of Under the Volcano's r e v i s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y thosei'.insights into the role of l i t e r a r y form and s t y l e . 'Ffrom his a r t i c l e s i t i s cl e a r that Victor Doyen i s as knowledgeable concerning the known facts of Lowry's l i f e as any other scholar, and he probably knows more i n a b i b l i o -graphical sense about the manuscripts of Under the Volcano than anyone else. His Ph.D. thesis"""**1 i s unfor- . tunately not yet available i n Vancouver, but Brian O ' K i l l points out i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n that Doyen i s p a r t i c u l a r l y strong i n working out the precise sequence of drafts behind the published novel.^Doyen's a r t i c l e i n Les i e t t r e s nouvelles presents a broad but meticulous account of the facts i n Lowry's Mexican and Vancouver experience that he drew on f o r i n d i v i d u a l images and themes i n Under the /Volcano. He i s also extremely h e l p f u l , even i n t h i s a r t i c l e , i n showing the sequence i n which these images and themes began and developed. Although I f i n d t h i s work i n general of great value, Doyen's image of the creative process i s , f o r me, unsatisfactory. For him Lowry's work seems very much to be the a r t i c u l a t i o n and ordering of discrete items--a process which undoubtedly occurred but which was only an aspect of the transformations involved between the text of l i f e and the text of the book. s Brian 0 * K i l l ' s thesis focuses f a r more d i r e c t l y on these other and, to my mind, more important aspects of the creat-i v i t y involved i n Lowry's compositions. The analysis that O ' K i l l presents i s not r e s t r i c t e d to Under the Volcano; he i n fact places Under the Volcano within a larger framework of Lowry's " s t y l e " as i t developed throughout his creative l i f e . The revisions of Under the iVblcano are dealt with only b r i e f l y , therefore, but the " t y p i c a l " passages he analyses are treated from a standpoint very close to°that" . which l i e s behind my".argument.. For O ' K i l l the writer's personal, v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y found not i n the themes and images he chooses but i n the way r e a l i t y i s described and perceived i n terms of language structures. I am f u l l y i n sympathy with 0 ' K i l l ' s conclusions regarding the kind of change Lowry made by means of formal reworking, but I extend the d e t a i l e d analysis further and concentrate more s p e c i f i -c a l l y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n the s p e c i f i c and single case of the Volcano, between the developing v i s i o n embodied i n the novel's order and that evident i n the writer's non-l i t e r a r y l i f e . In his award-winning biography of Lowry, Douglas Day p r e s e n t s , f i r s t , an excellent account of the differences between the f i r s t rejected version of the novel and the published work and points out the basic and most pronounced features of the change involved. At the same time, however, 6 he offers an extended Freudian pigeonholing of Lowry's personality which, while i t brings cert a i n facets of Lowry's creative behaviour to the fore, tends to be some-what unconvincing i n the r i g i d i t y of i t s interpretation of the rel a t i o n s h i p between the man and his text. Despite t h i s weakness or drawback, Day's presentation of the biographical data remains the foundation f o r the kind of detailed research on p a r t i c u l a r periods of Lowry's work that I!have undertaken here;, o /Day's work on Lowry's l i f e between 19 35 and 1945 has been of the utmost assistance at a l l stages of my argu-ment. 12 Tony K i l g a l l i n ' s work has been most useful to t h i s thesis i n i t s divergence from Douglas/Day's account of Lowry*s Vancouver years. The discrepancies between t h e i r respective sources' views of the "same" events drew my attention towards the l i f e of the a r t i s t outside his work i n order to f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer to my own questions concerning the work's creation. The b r i e f introductory books on Lowry's l i f e and work by William New and Daniel Dodson are not p a r t i c u l a r l y 13 relevant to t h i s examination of Lowry's c r e a t i v i t y . But Perle Epstein's book on the mystical aspects of Lowry's revisi o n s has been useful occasionally i n providing "readings" of passages or sentences which helped me understand what Lowry f e l t about a piece of his writing. Dale Edmondsls a r t i c l e , i n which he interprets the published novel as a v i s i o n of r e a l people attempting to come to terms with a r e a l environment—Mexico i n 1938—helped me f i n d i n the novel an a r t i c u l a t e d v i s i o n of r e a l i t y rather than a cabin-trunk f u l l of mythological allus i o n s and 15 symbols. Only through such a view of the novel oould I have seen as I did how the work expressed a changing personal v i s i o n and conception of the s e l f . My attitude towards the manuscripts of Under the Volcano has been to some extent determined by the kind of contact I have had with them, contact out of which t h i s thesis grew. In 1971 I participated i n a graduate seminar taught by Tony K i l g a l l i n i n which f i v e students and K i l l g a l l i n himself completed a j o i n t study of the changes involved chapter by chapter i n the r e v i s i o n of the novel. At that time I concentrated on chapters I and XII, the f i r s t and l a s t , and noticed how extremely d i f f i c u l t i t was to separate a formal from a substantive change. Alterations which seemed s o l e l y a matter of changing the order i n which Lowryrpresented-the same material c l e a r l y had profound cumulative e f f e c t s on the novel's meaning. After considerable subsequent study of Lowry's works, 8 and of the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n as a whole, the marginalia jotted here and there throughout the drafts of Volcano and elsewhere began to s t r i k e me as an e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t and illu m i n a t i n g record of what Lowry had f e l t about his own work while he was actually writing i t . Furthermore, the marginalia were apparently£muehEgr€a'te"r iin«"ext"gntt^Han * any student of Lowry had previously noted. I began to c o l l e c t t h i s commentary with some rigour. Limiting the c o l l e c t i n g to the manuscripts of Volcano alone, I set out with the straightforward idea of codifying and cataloguing Lowry's annotations f o r my own and other students' future use. During the Christmas holiday, 1975, I interviewed Mrs. Lowry with two objectives i n mind, f i r s t to c l a r i f y the meaning of a large number of the more in t e r e s t i n g marginal notes I had c o l l e c t e d and, second, to hear from somebody present when they were written how they would ac t u a l l y a r i s e i n a day-to-day sense. At more or less the same time I interviewed Maurice Carey, Lowry's landlord during his f i r s t winter i n Vancouver. I was struck by a number of inconsistencies between Carey's account of that winter and the story as presented by Douglas Day of the same period. (Day r e l i e d mainly on Mrs. Margerie Bonner Lowry and Lowry's own testimony f o r his information.! 6) My 9 conclusion regarding these inconsistencies involved a perception of Lowry as a man i n the midst of a pronounced psychological change at the time of the early years i n Vancouver. And t h i s change on the personal or psycholo-g i c a l l e v e l p a r a l l e l e d i n several peculiar ways some of the changes i n the novel which I had noted i n passing i n my a r t i c l e "The Consul *s 1 Murder 1: Ambiguous Narration i n Under the Volcano. " I ? It was then that I turned to reevaluate the marginalia I had co l l e c t e d as possible clues to the d e t a i l s of t h i s change and i t s place i n the most powerfully creative undertakings of Lowry's l i f e - - t h e r e v i s i n g , not the composing, of.. Under ° the Volcano. A In _one way or^another ^ my analysis charts a l l of these changes. In my f i r s t chapter I-outline the extent of the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n d i r e c t l y relevant to Under the Volcano and describe the place of each version of the novel i n Lowry*s personal history between 19 35 and 1945. In the same chapter I describe Lowry's r e v i s i o n procedure, the way he would develop one version of the novel from another. The body of the thesis consists of two chapters (II and. I l l ) devoted to close"analysis of representative examples of the marginalia. The aim of these chapters i s to show the terms i n which Lowry perceived, reassessed, and rewrote his basic 1 0 story. These chapters thus represent an extended attempt to imagine Lowry faced with successive unsatisfactory texts and his need to create new ones which would resolve the problems of the moment. Repeated analysis reveals a pattern of formal textual r e v i s i o n which expressed Lowry's develop-ing personal v i s i o n of himself and those around him. These two chapters lead to a concluding chapter (IV) r e l a t i n g the pattern of textual d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e v i s i o n to the way Lowry perceived himself during the period 5 according to what we know of him through biographical data. It i s at t h i s point that I argue f o r the existence of the d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between text and psyche described i n the opening remarks of t h i s introduction. When examining Lowry's notes, I have had to l i m i t , discussion to a sequence of selected annotations chosen i n order to demonstrate the existence and form of a r e v i s i o n pattern. There i s simply not space to present detailed analysis of more than a f r a c t i o n of the substantive marginal comments av a i l a b l e . I have examined a l l the commentary involved and believe that those annotations I have chosen genuinely represent those omitted. I have, however, also provided i n an appendix a l i s t of the most substantive marginal commentary not discussed i n d e t a i l i n the body of the t h e s i s . While I rbelieve that 0 any marginal comment i s i n " p r i n c i p l e i n t e l l i g i b l e , ,ther# i s oft-e.n simply not enough evidence to be certa i n of an inter p r e t a t i o n . I f we had a l l the sheets of paper Lowry used, and i f we knew i n what order everything he wrote occurred, then we might begin 18 to make the practice approach the p r i n c i p l e . Similar and p a r a l l e l l i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t i n the area of Lowry's l i f e . Biographical data are both l i m i t e d and suspect. There i s no opportunity here f o r the pseudo-empiricism of the anthropological participant observer. Even where data do e x i s t , i n the form of l e t t e r s and reminiscences, f o r example, my in t e r e s t i s not i n the public person of which those data are d i r e c t evidence, but i n the private psyche behind the actions. Inevitably interpre-t a t i o n must play a major r o l e . In attempting to make such interpretations of Lowry's state of mind and his c r i t i c a l and creative p r i n c i p l e s or values, I have been influenced by Frederick Crews's general approach to the same subject i n his c o l l e c t i o n Psychoanalysis  and the Lit e r a r y Process.^ Crews provides me with the 12 framework and vocabulary f o r discussing the rejected novel versions i n terms of t h e i r author's neurosis and f o r some-thing of the o v e r a l l way i n which I perceive f i c t i o n to express personality. My ultimate interpretation of the re l a t i o n s h i p between man and text, however, i s not primarily owing to Crews but to the work of Raymond Williams i n his book The Long 20 Revolution. His notion of "work" (whether i t be carpentry or writing) as the forge of personality i n society while s t i l l the expression of the i n d i v i d u a l i s f o r me the key to understanding the nature of the exchange between mind and text that I found evidenced by Lowry's marginalia and related r e v i s i o n s . Even given the assistance of Williams's t h e o r e t i c a l framework, one further l i m i t a t i o n e x i s t s : the very i n t r a c t -a b i l i t y of language i n the face of d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n -ships. It i s enormously d i f f i c u l t to f i n d words accurately to explain the s i t u a t i o n I found myself studying, a s i t u a t i o n involving not a sequence of r a t i o n a l decision and execution on the part of the writer as a kind of professional, but the a c t i v i t y and expression of the whole man i n almost any comment or r e v i s i o n he made. Notes Douglas Day, Malcolm Lowry; A Biography (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973), p. 214. Day, p. 219. 3 Day, p. 219. 4 Harvey Breit and Margerie Bonner Lowry, eds., Selected Letters of Malcolm Lowry (Londori :Cape, 1967), p. 419. 5 Malcolm Lowry, Under the Volcano (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947). 6 Day, p. 216. 7 Day, p. 30 3. g Richard Hauer Costa, Malcolm Lowry (New York: Twayne, 1972) and "Pieta, Pelado, and 'the R a t i f i c a t i o n of Death'. The Ten-Year Evolvement of Malcolm Lowry's Volcano," Journal of Modern Literature 2 (Sept. 1971): 3-18; V i c t o r Doyen, "La Genese d'Au-dessous du Volcan," Les l e t t r e s houvelles 2-3 (1974): 37-122; Brian Lawrence O ' K i l l , "A S t y l i s t i c Study of the F i c t i o n of Malcolm Lowry," Diss. Cambridge 19 74 14 9 "Elements Toward a Spatial Reading of Malcolm Lowry's Under the Volcano," English Studies 50 (1968):65-74; "La genese d'Au-dessous du Volcan," Les l e t t r e s nouvelles 2-3 (May-June 1974):87-122. ^ Doyen, "Fighting the Albatross of Se l f : A Genetic Study of the L i t e r a r y Work of Malcolm Lowry," Diss. Louvain 1973. (Subsequent to my completing work on my t h e s i s , a copy of Dr. Doyen's d i s s e r t a t i o n was received by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library.) 1 1 O ' K i l l , "A S t y l i s t i c Study," p.iv. 12 K i l g a l l i n , "Faust and Under the Volcano," Canadian  Literature 26(Autumn 1965): 43-54; Lowry ( E r i n , Ontario: Press Porcepic, 1973). 13 New, Malcolm Lowry (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971); Dodson, Malcolm Lowry (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1970). 14 Epstein, The Private Labyrinth of Malcolm Lowry: Under the Volcano and the Cabbala (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969). ^ Edmonds, "Under the Volcano: A Reading of the 'Immediate Level'," Tulane Studies i n English 16 (1968): 63-105. 1 6 Day, p. 251n. Canadian Literature 67 (Winter 1976):53-63. 18 For an extended discussion of the physical materials involved, see chapter I below. 19 Crews, ed., Psychoanalysis 6 Li t e r a r y Process (Cambridge, Mass: Winthrop, 1970). 20 Williams, The Long Revolution (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965) Chapter One TOPOGRAPHY The great majority of the extant manuscript material r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the writing and rewriting of Under the  Volcano i s housed i n the Special Collections D i v i s i o n of the Library, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the case of the one major exception, the UBC c o l l e c t i o n holds a microfilm. Insofar as the UBC l i b r a r y ' s system of cataloguing the manuscripts has become, f o r better or worse, the accepted means of i d e n t i f y i n g them, the page of the l i b r a r y catalogue l i s t i n g a l l the Volcano material i s reproduced below exactly as i t appears,and the b r i e f account of the novel's creative h i s t o r y which follows includes introductory descriptions f o r the various materials l i s t e d therein. 16 17 MANUSCRIPTS: PROSE Under the Volcano 7-1 Short story version (A)* 25p. 7-C2-13) F i r s t novel version (b) 365p. 7- (14-25) Unmarked carbon (C) 404p. 8- (l-12) Annotated carbon (d) (Base of 366p. t h i s version i s copy C) [See microfilm of intermediate version here] 8- (13-24) Second novel version (E) 494p. 9- ( l - l 2 ) F i n a l t s . (xerox) (F) 547p. 9- U3-24) Galley proofs (G) 126p. Notes 10- 1 "-General 17p. 10-(2-5) Chapter I ( l a s t folder i n 106p. each chapter i s i d e n t i f i e d as Lowry's "throwaways" by Vi c t o r Doyen) 10-(6-ll) Chapter II 107p. 10-(12-16) Chapter III 91p. 10-Q7-20) Chapter IV 131p. 10-(21-24) Chapter V 87p. 10-(25-28) Chapter VI 98p. 10-(29-30)/ Chapter VII 149p. 11-(102) l l - ( 3 - 5 ) Chapter VIII 85p. l l - ( 6 - l l ) Chapter IX 96p. 11-(12-16) Chapter X 117p. 11-(17-19) Chapter XI 61p. ll-(20-21) Chapter XII 66p. *N.B. Letters assigned to versions do not See "Victor Doyen's forthcoming book. 1 History The r e v i s i o n process l y i n g behind Under the Volcano can u s e f u l l y be described from two points of view. The 18 f i r s t deals with the "history" of the novel's r e v i s i o n — what happened i n general terms from year to year—and here the r e v i s i o n process takes i t s part alongside other biographical experience i n the a r t i s t ' s l i f e . Malcolm Lowry arrived i n Mexico i n 19 36 with his f i r s t wife. He had spent the previous three years i n Spain, France, and New York. In New York, h i s addiction to alcohol had led him to the Bellevue ho s p i t a l for d e t o x i f i c a t i o n , but he was s t i l l drinking extremely heavily during his f i r s t months i n Cuernavaca, where he established himself on the Calle de Humboldt. Throughout his ,>&1?ay^ hi~s drinking continued, but he was apparently also able to write. By the summer of 19 37 both a short story (according to Lowry) and a. substantial version of a novel (seen by Aiken and Calder-Marshall) had been written, the l a t t e r growing 2 out of the former (again, according to Lowry). Neither of these any longer e x i s t s . (The "Short story version" l i s t e d as 7/1 i n the UBC c o l l e c t i o n i s an intermediate v e r s i o n — written between 1940 and 1945— of chapter VIII of the novel which Lowry extracted and doctored s l i g h t l y i n order to s e l l as a short story p r i o r to publication of the f u l l book.) 3 A f t e r a d i f f i c u l t two years i n Mexico during which he and his f i r s t wife separated, and during which Lowry on at least one occasion found himself imprisoned his father arranged f o r him to move to and stay i n Los Angeles under the guardianship of a l o c a l lawyer, a Mr. Parks. While i n Los Angeles, Lowry was deprived of the wherewithal to lose himself i n drink, and his l e t t e r s show him extremely resen t f u l but apparently working on one writing project or 5 another. I t seems l i k e l y that he was able to take the version of Volcano he had written i n Mexico to Los Angeles with nim, because Mrs. Margerie Lowry reports that he was working on i t when she f i r s t met him and that he was having i t typed when he l e f t Los Angeles very hurriedly f o r Vancouver i n mid-1939.6 The version of the novel l e f t behind i n Los Angeles eventually reached Vancouver only a f t e r Mrs. Lowry had arrived, and i t no longer exists as a complete version. It would appear, however, that the version l i s t e d i n the UBC c o l l e c t i o n as " F i r s t novel version" (7/2-13) was composed on the basis of the Los Angeles version and actu a l l y includes pages which have been extracted from that 20 e a r l i e r version (See Appendix A, 7/7/p.l7). Whether t h i s was the case or not, t h i s version as a whole was composed or arranged i n Vancouver between October 1939 and mid-1940, 7 not i n Mexico. This version was transcribed (7/11-25) and 8 submitted f o r publication i n June 1940. As the thesis develops, the detailed character of t h i s 1940 "rejected" version (so-called because of i t s r e j e c t i o n by publishers) should become progressively more c l e a r ; but, as the focus i n the body of the thesis i s on d e t a i l s , a more general description i s apposite here. Douglas Day's outline i s both concise and objective, and my description which follows d i f f e r s from h i s only i n being considerably b r i e f e r . ^ Chapter one opens on the Day of the Dead 1939 with a conversation between a French f i l m producer and a Spanish doctor centred on t h e i r f r i e n d the Consul who had died "two, three"'years!''earlier. Larue l i e returns to the town, enters a bar to avoid the thunderstorm--, and discovers a book of Elizabethan plays belonging to the Gonsul. He begins to dream f i t f u l l y of an afternoon bus journey i n the company of the Consul, William Ames, h i s daughter, Yvonne, and a young American Hugh Fernhead^; Chapter two has Yvonne a r r i v i n g i n Acapulco one day before the Consul dies. She runs into Hugh, an acquaintance she had met i n Spain p r i o r to the C i v i l War, and the two of them t r a v e l together by small plane to Quauhnahuac. A f t e r a r r i v i n g , they set out, i n chapter three on the morning of the Day of the Dead, to search f o r Yvonne's father and f i n d him, drunk, i n the bar of the Hotel B e l l a V i s t a . They accompany him to his home. In chapter four, Hugh and Yvonne rent horses and go for a r i d e into the countryside. Chapter f i v e begins while they are s t i l l away. The Consul walks i n his garden and exchanges words over the fence with h i s neighbour and the Dr. V i g i l of the f i r s t chapter. Hugh and Yvonne return and agree with the Consul to take an afternoon t r i p to the nearby town to see a bullthrowing. Lying on a bed on the verandah, Hugh spends the f i r s t part of chapter s i x thinking of his wasted youth. Before leaving f o r the b u l l -throwing the Consul must shave and recover from his drinking. Since he shakes too much to shave himself, Hugh assists, him. In chapter seven, they set o f f f o r the bus s t a t i o n , but have not gone f a r before they meet the French f i l m producer— one of the men with whom the Consul's estranged wife, P r i s c i l l a (who does not appear i n t h i s version of the novel) had s l e p t . Following an argument at Laruelle's house the 22 journey continues. At the town centre, where they must catch the bus, the Consul, Laru e l l e , Hugh, and Yvonne f i n d a f a i r i n f u l l swing. The Consul takes a ride on a circus device c a l l e d La Machine Infernale. Reunited, Hugh, Yvonne, and the Consul i n chapter eight catch the bus to the bullthrowing and encounter the pelado and the dying Indian. Chapter nine i s set at the b u l l r i n g where Hugh engages i n a mock-heroic contest with the b u l l . The action of chapter ten takes place at the Salon O f e l i a . Hugh and the Consul argue b i t t e r l y about p o l i t i c a l ideology before the Consul disappears. In chapter eleven, Yvonne and Hugh begin to search f o r him, but conclude the chapter by making love. We f i n d the Consul i n the f i n a l chapter a r r i v i n g at the F a r o l i t o i n Parian. There, the i s given his absent wife's l e t t e r s , he goes to bed with a p r o s t i t u t e , and st a r t s to f i g h t with the f a s c i s t policemen. They shoot him. "Anyone who knows the published Under the Volcano at a l l well," as Day puts i t , would recognize t h i s story as fundamentally the same as that t o l d i n the f i n a l version. But, as I hope to show when I turn to d e t a i l s i n the body of the t h e s i s , and as Brian O ' K i l l also claims, "the st y l e and narrative technique of the novel were r a d i c a l l y changed a f t e r 1940; so r a d i c a l l y that the two major versions of Volcano are l i k e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t novels written by e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t men." O ' K i l l has also l i s t e d and analysed a number of the l i n g u i s t i c features that characterise the rejected 1940 version and di s t i n g u i s h i t from the published and well-known version. These features, he says, make the early version "a d u l l moment-to-moment narration and notation of impressions without any of the orchestration (the whole of consciousness accompanying each moment) which distinguishes the f i n a l - text. I f one had to select a single adjective to describe the e a r l i e r version, one might choose the term "monotonous". The version i s obsessively single-visioned, presenting i t s f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y as lacking i n i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional var i e t y , and the central story dominates the f i c t i o n a l world as though mechanically (See Appendix A. 7/10/p.23). Four b r i e f and t y p i c a l passages are adequate to convey, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the pervasive " l i t e r a r y " tone of t h i s version, and the way i n which the narrator seemed so frequently to s t r a i n f o r the outre metaphor or the elegant period. These four examples also i l l u s t r a t e the lack of d i s t i n c t i o n between narrative and dialogue i n the e a r l i e r v e rsion—each character tended to sound very much l i k e the others, and very much l i k e the narrator himself. 24 "The trimmers are the individuals who are not good enough for heaven, not bad enough f o r h e l l , " said the Consul. " P o l i t i c a l l y speaking they have a kinship with that celebrated English Vicar, l a t e l y domiciled at Bray." "That's me a l l r i g h t , " said Hugh. Looking up at the ship again Hugh found the i n t r i c a c i e s of the camouflage fascinating!!....] ( 8 / 6 / p . l 9 1 ) 1 1 Ah, thought the Consul, that s i n i s t e r Scorpion of his had much to answer f o r . Besides imagining i t had s l a i n the mighty hunter, had i t not, also, stung the horses Phaeton drove on his disastrous ride i n the chariot of the sun? Scorpio, sign of the death god, Scorpio of the t r i b e of Dan, who would be a serpent by the way, an adder i n the path. Presage of the reign of Typon, of the death of O s i r i s , beloved of alchemists, accursed c o n s t e l l a t i o n ! An admirable evasion of the whoremaster man, he quoted to himself, to lay his goatish d i s p o s i t i o n to the stars! Nevertheless, i t was an evasion to be glad of. And, not to be forgotten also, were the S c o r p i i , ' C i l l e g . ] and C i l l e g . ] of the Tree of L i f e , phase of the cherubim set i n the Garden of Eden! And su l l e n Antares, eternal mnemonic i n the brain of God of the persistence of death.(8/12/p.364) Was there not i n that picture, despite i t s unintentional humor, another 'hieroglyphic' of things as they were? Had i t not turned out that the further down he sank, the more the features of l i f e had seemed to dissemble, to take upon themselves his own aspect, or the caricature of that aspect, or the caricature, i n various forms, of his own struggle? But on the other hand, when he had striv e n upwards, as at the beginning with P r i s c i l l a , had not the features of existence tended to become more animated, i n the manner of pictures coming to l i f e , to become separate and i d e n t i f i a b l e from himself as adversaries or fr i e n d s , even scenes, with t h e i r own s p e c i a l , s p e c i f i c problems? Yes, had he wanted i t to be so, the very material world i t s e l f would have become a confederate, pointing the wise way: and here would have been no slow devolving through f a i l i n g unreal voices and forms of d i s s o l u t i o n 25 that became more and more like one voice, one form, to a death more dead than death i t s e l f , but an i n f i n i t e widening, an i n f i n i t e evolving and extension of boundaries, in which souls really lived as entities, perfect and deliberate. A l l this was true too, he realized with anguish, of the chance given man by love. "We could become like that," P r i s c i l l a had said. Life had no time to waste, he reflected, even now that good thought you had is another spiral winding i t s way upward.(8/12/p.387) Yet he was held to the spot. He might have been waiting for something momentous to happen in this place, which was sometimes so terrible at night, and which was so often then, as he remembered Sir Thomas Browne having said of tavern music, a hieroglypical and shadowed lesson of the whole world. He stooped down and brushed the dirt off his trousers. He examined his hands. They were not so dirty. He had suffered l i t t l e damage. (8/12/p.372) By the time Lowry learned that his 1940 version "had been soundly rejected—the letter from his <agent -Harold Matson 12 arrived,around Christmas 1940 —he was .already living outside Vancouver in Dollarton, and i t was there that he eventually returned to work on the novel. Mrs. Lowry describes herself f i r s t gradually interesting Lowry in her writing, which led to him reexamining the rejected Volcano. Out of this reexamination came one of the most interesting and illuminating manuscripts in the UBC collection—the so-called Annotated carbon (8/1-12). The top copy of this version was the novel the New York A H publishers had unanimously rejected as "too cerebral," but i t was the most f u l l y worked expression of the way he had seen the world through the decade of the 30's. It was the version that sprang d i r e c t l y from h i s apparently extremely p a i n f u l experiences i n Mexico, Los Angeles, and the c i t y of Vancouver, and the carbon becomes es p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g because the annotations i t car r i e s e f f e c t i v e l y record Lowry beginning to read the rejected version and the v i s i o n i t expressed from a d i f f e r e n t and new point of view: the viewpoint that would eventually be developed into the far-from-monotonous published novel. (See Appendix A, 8/9, p.276 and the example passages quoted above.) Between 1941 and 1945 Lowry produced an enormous quantity of revisions of which i t seems l i k e l y only a f r a c t i o n remains As i t i s , the UBC catalogue l i s t s over 1000 pages of manuscript, quite apart from complete versions which belong to t h i s period. They are misleadingly c l a s s i f i e d under the heading of "Notes" (10/1 to 11/21) (See Appendix A f o r example pages). Arrangement by chapter i n the UBC c o l l e c t i o n r e f l e c t s the fact that Lowry's procedure (discussed i n d e t a i l below) was usually to work chapter by chapter, responding to a change i n one chapter Miat affected a second by immediately turning to the second and adjusting i t , which would give r i s e to a problem with a t h i r d , and so on. I t i s possible that the l i b r a r y arrangement has contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the sense that there was a long intermediate stage of re v i s i o n during which no complete versions emerged, but the working pattern described above provides some evidence that t h i s was so. A balance obtains throughout t h i s intermediate material between holograph and typescript manuscript, r e f l e c t i n g Lowry's writing procedure of producing with his wife's assistance alternate and successive longhand and type-s c r i p t drafts of complete chapters. (This procedure i s also described i n more d e t a i l below.) During these years Lowry was l i v i n g predominantly at Dollar-ton ;some winters were spent i n the c i t y of Vancouver; and when t h e i r second and best cabin burned down, the couple stayed i n Niagara-on-the Lake with Malcolm's f r i e n d from his Cambridge days, Gerald Noxon. By a l l accounts, i n Dollar-ton and Niagara-on-the-Lake, Lowry became more at ease with his environment and with those around him than he had ever been i n Mexico, Los Angeles, or Vancouver. His drinking apparently also became moderate by his standards, and i t was i n Dollarton that he met Charles Stansfeld-Jones (Frater Achad). 1 5 I n N i a g a r a - o n - t h e - L a k e a t t h e house o f t h e Noxons, Lowry completed a d r a f t o f Under t h e Volcano t h a t began t o c l o s e l y a pproximate the f i n a l n o v e l . And M a l c o l m must have r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s was n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n by t h i s p o i n t , because he p r e s e n t e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t t o G e r a l d and 1 fi B e t t y as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t (TM o r Texas m i c r o f i l m ) . ° (See Appendix A f o r d e d i c a t i o n and o t h e r samples from t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . ) I t was c l e a r l y s t i l l a work i n p r o g e s s — m u c h i s i n h o l o g r a p h form, and t h e r e a r e a f a i r number o f anno-t a t i o n s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h i t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t by t h e time i t was g i v e n t o t h e Noxons i t had a l r e a d y , i n a s e n s e , been 17 superseded o r used as t h e b a s i s f o r a subsequent r e v i s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s m a n u s c r i p t i s t h e f i r s t c l e a r l y i n t e g r a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Volcano t o emerge s i n c e Lowry s e t o u t t o r e v i s e t h e r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n i n 1941. A p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s had passed between h i s i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s t o comprehend t h e weaknesses o f t h e r e j e c t e d n o v e l and h i s e v e n t u a l c o m p l e t i o n o f a c o h e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e v e r s i o n . Once t h e d r a f t v e r s i o n he gave t h e Noxons was f i n i s h e d , i t o n l y t o o k Lowry a m a t t e r o f months t o p r e p a r e two more complete d r a f t s . The f i r s t was a v e r s i o n t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e many t e c h n i c a l and s m a l l - s c a l e problems n o t e d i n t h e margins o f t h e v e r s i o n g i v e n t o t h e Noxons ( 8 / 1 3 - 2 4 ) , and the second a s t i l l n e a t e r m a n u s c r i p t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ( 9 / 1 - 1 2 ) . This l a t t e r was sent to his agent i n June 1945 and accepted i n England and the United States early i n 1946, when Lowry had 18 returned to Mexico f o r a "holiday." Procedure A writer's "procedure," as I use the term, i s his or her working pattern. As the two following chapters consist i n the .main of a>analysis^and_discussion^of concrete detailed, r e v i s i o n a c t i v i t y , i t i s important to have some idea of the o v e r a l l context i n which revisions took place. There i s l i t t l e or no evidence regarding Lowry's procedure when he l i v e d i n Mexico, apart from his prefer-19 ence f o r a bar as locat i o n . S l i g h t l y more i s known about his procedure while he was l i v i n g i n Los Angeles., He, would work on more than one project at the same time, and 20 Under the Volcano was one of these. Precisely how he would work on Under the Volcano at t h i s stage of i t s composition, however, i s no clea r e r than the Mexican pattern of work. He had at least one version of the novel profession-21 a l l y transcribed i n Los Angeles — t h e version that Mrs. Lowry reports eventually a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver sometime a f t e r she did--but he may have had such a t r a n s c r i p t i o n done more than once, even at that stage of composition. In Vancouver and Dollarton the picture i s s l i g h t l y clearer. Margerie Banner Lowry was Malcolm's constant working companion, and she has provided a f a i r l y detailed description of hi s normal procedure at that time. This i s the way we worked. He wrote everything i n longhand. Then I typed i t . Then I would read i t over c a r e f u l l y and type out my suggestions-whether there should be cuts or t h i s should be developed or t h i s wouldn't gibe with something else . . . . Af t e r I'd read i t and made my suggestions, then he would read i t i n typescript and make his suggestions . . . and then we'd get together and discuss i t . . . . Then he'd write another longhand version. We'd go through the whole thing a l l over again u n t i l we got i t to s u i t . ?2 The pattern was c i r c u l a r . Although new versions were created at some stage i n each cycl e , Lowry put each version through the same kind of rigorous investigation. And on th i s point, Mrs. Lowry's account i s not quite complete. Not only did each version pass both Malcolm's and her close analysis and c r i t i c i s m , but sometimes passages or chapters were read aloud--one marginal note r e f e r s to a passage of 23 conversation and reads "Act out with Margie." According to other notes, Margerie talso edited drafts f o r Lowry's approval "In fu'll^agreement with^your eutsihere, ;6 I might make even 24 more [ ..... •' Such extra c r i t i c i s m and analysis, however, were infrequent, departures^from the basic pattern described by Mrs. Lowry. Malcolm usually wrote a version of a passage or a complete chapter (here, according to Margerie, there was no rule)25in longhand and passed i t to her f o r typing. This longhand version occasionally c a r r i e d marginal comments that Lowry had j o t t e d down so as not to forget them when the time came to discuss the typed version, but t h i s too was not the norm. I f a c r i t i c i s m of what he had written i n longhand occurred to him while i t was s t i l l at that stage", he was more l i k e l y to t ry and deal with i t immediately by throwing away the offending longhand version and redoing i t on the spot. In other words, he would attempt to make the longhand versions he handed to his wife as genuinely " f i n a l " as he could. Mrs. Lowry describes the way he worked on thes longhand versions: He'd have about six or eight p i l e s of manuscript, [on his desk] and sometimes he had p i l e s a l l over the bed, and he'd go from one to the other. . . . And sometimes he'd work back and f o r t h i n the book; sometimes he'd be doing something on chapter VII and suddenly he'd think "Wait a minute that doesn't gibe with something i n chapter IV," and he'd go back to rewrite chapter IV to make i t gibe with chapter VII. 26 This account begins to explain the apparent lack of complete versions of the novel between 1941 and 1944. As Lowry continued to develop i n d i v i d u a l chapters he e f f e c t i v e l y created new weaknesses and shortcomings i n other chapters, and i n resolving a problem created there, he created yet a further problem. When one takes into account the fact that t h i s procedure was occurring i n a h i s t o r i c a l context over a number of years, i t becomes easy to understand that drawing such a process to a conclusion was extremely d i f f i c u l t : as the man's l i f e developed, he brought a new point of view to bear on what he had e a r l i e r written and adjusted i t accordingly, so creating new d i f f i c u l t i e s . The addition of a l l the material dealing with Canada, of course, i s the most obvious large-scale example of t h i s . (See Appendix A, 7/5/p.l, 8/19, p. 248, 11/5/item 3j^for samples showing evidence of Lowry's procedure.) „, Over the short term, t h i s kind of creative development may be very subtle and d i f f i c u l t to delineate p r e c i s e l y . But i t i s not always so. Sometimes the s h i f t s i n the way Lowry perceived his own e a r l i e r written texts could be quite dramatic. Mrs. Lowry, f o r example, has often described her husband's coming out of his working room to her one day and saying "I've just r e a l i z e d that the Consul's a black magician." He continued by asking Margerie to f i n d whatever books she could about black magic and the occult 27 on her next v i s i t to the Vancouver Public Library. No doubt there were other equally dramatic "discoveries" during the r e v i s i o n process, but s h i f t s were more usually minor and cumulative i n t h e i r e f f e c t s , perhaps the r e s u l t of Lowry's continual reading as much as of any developments i n h i s nonliterary experience at Dollarton. Mrs. Lowry continually provided him with new reading material to add to his constant bedside companions, the complete Shakes-peare, the King James Bible, and Varieties of Religious  Experience, among others. These l a s t have frequently been noted as the works with most pervasive influence on his s t y l e , and, according to Mrs. Lowry, he dipped i n t o one or 2 8 other of them every day. Lowry's procedure, then, was one i n which revisions arose from a f a i r l y elaborate c r i t i c a l examination. New versions were generated i n a sense "between" typescripts and any further writing of f i c t i o n . Brian O ' K i l l has schematized the procedure i n a diagram which he feels applies i n general to much of Lowry's writing, apart from but including Volcano. It i s unclear whether he claims that the model applies to the rejected 1940 version of Under the Volcano as a f i n i s h e d work or whether he regards that version as simply an intermediate version or draft of the published novel. At any rate, the diagram i s valuable f o r i t s c l a r i t y and f o r the way i n which i t displays the extreme r e g u l a r i t y of Lowry's creative procedure. He writes, "The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c evolution of a long piece by Lowry (this i s a synthetic, not an actual example) may be shown thus: Notes short d r a f t MS 1 Ts 2 plus MS annotations ( i n s e r t i o n s , deletions, revisions) long draft MS 3 TS 4 plus annotations longest draft MS 5 TS 6 plus annotations penultimate d r a f t TS plus annotations' FINAL VERSION TS 8 This ignores the many reworkings of i n d i v i d u a l passages within each d r a f t . " 2 9 As long as t h i s f i n a l reservation i s taken i n a strong sense, and the diagram i s understood as only the framework of an enormous amount of passage r e v i s i o n and throwaway, discussion of i n d i v i d u a l images, passages, and chapters, and research to expand and c l a r i f y certain aspects of the novel discovered i n the process i t s e l f , t h i s diagram accurately describes Lowry*s long-term working pattern of Under the Volcano, at least as f a r as the years at Dollarton are concerned. 35 Annotations As Brian 0 1 K i l l ' s diagram and Mrs. Lowry's accounts of her husband's working pattern both make clea r , the annotations of suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s regarding his f i c t i o n a l texts are s i g n i f i c a n t - f e a t u r e s of "the r e v i s i o n process. This i s true i n both quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e terms. During the research f o r t h i s thesis I l i s t e d approximately 800 instances i n which one or more annotations appeared on 30 a page, and such a c o l l e c t i o n very l i k e l y does not include a great many other notes which have simply been l o s t . Most of the pages i n question contain only one or two notes, but some may have six or more. Total number of notes I estimate to be around 1500. I t should also be noted here that t h i s l i s t was compiled under the following f a i r l y s t r i c t r u l e s. F i r s t , marginalia are frequently not c r i t i c i s m or comment but straightforward f i c t i o n a l - r e v i s i o n s . - In my-list-,-only marginalia that were c l e a r l y - n o n f i e t i o n were as a r u l e included. The exceptions were the rare occasions on which a sequence of notes showed an in t e r e s t i n g progression from a nonfiction comment through an intermediate stage of present tense wr i t i n g , where Lowry would, as i t were, take notes on his imaginary scene, to a marginal attempt couched properly i n the past tense to place the newly imagined impressions firmly i n the reported world of the novel (See Appendix A, example TM verso I I , p. 26 f o r an example of the in-between, neither-comment-nor-pure-fiction, kind of marginal note). S t i l l other marginal material was excluded from the l i s t despite i t s f a l l i n g into the nonfiction category. In the main such exclusions consisted of purely routine notes without p a r t i c u l a r substance or character. The most common of these notes are the two single words "cut" and "no," which occur hundreds of times throughout the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s I also excluded marginal debate over punctuation, again, not because i t i s inherently uninteresting, but because i t i s i l luminating at a l e v e l of d e t a i l with which t h i s thesis i s not concerned. iFurther excluded types of marginalia were those saying simply "shorten," "Rewrite," "No paragraph," "Query paragraph," other instructions regarding c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , i t a l i c i z a t i o n , typography, and punctuation generally. One other excluded form, not extremely frequent, was the single word "or" followed by an alternative version of a sentence or pas'sage of f i c t i o n . (Appendix A includes samples of some of these.) 37 Pages which " q u a l i f i e d " f o r l i s t i n g are d i s t r i b u t e d through-out the manuscripts as follows: T.'M, Text £ Versos 7/2-13 10/1-11/21 8/13-24 8/1-12 Approximately 30 Approx. 94 Approx. 28 Approx. 5 00 Approx. 166 Total 818 Before beginning, to describe the i n d i v i d u a l comments on these pages which formed the basic research data f o r t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s possible to draw d i s t i n c t i o n s within the broad category of l i s t e d marginalia, based on the location of each comment. Here there are three main groups of commentary : true marginalia, chapter s t a r t annotations, and point-by-point c r i t i q u e s . The f i r s t , and by f a r the largest, body of nonfiction notes i s made up of those which ac t u a l l y occur i n the margin of a typescript or holograph. Usually these notes r e f e r d i r e c t l y to the passage or image they adjoin. The second group consists, i n turn, of groups of n o t e s — r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t e d n o t e s — clustered at the beginning of a version of a chapter. (See Appendix A, 11/4, part 2, p. 1, for an example of a chapter-s t a r t page). Due to t h e i r p o s i t i o n within such a c l u s t e r at the chapter's opening, these notes, even though they may 38 i n d i v i d u a l l y r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s w i t h i n t h e c h a p t e r , o f t e n seem t o r e f e r t o t h e c h a p t e r as a whole o r s e r v e as memoranda t o be borne i n mind as t h e c h a p t e r as a whole i s r e v i s e d . An i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n o c c a s i o n a l l y a r i s e s when one f i n d s v i r t u a l l y t h e same p o i n t b e i n g made i n two a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l n o t e s , one i n t h e margin o f t h e t e x t a t t h e p o i n t i n t h e c h a p t e r where t h e problem o r i s s u e a d d r e s s e d a r i s e s , and t h e o t h e r a t t h e c h a p t e r ' s s t a r t . The q u e s t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s Which was w r i t t e n f i r s t ? Both a l t e r n a t i v e answers can be p l a u s i b l y defended, but t h e v e r y d u a l i t y i s f i n a l l y more u s e f u l t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Lowry's w r i t i n g p a t t e r n t h a n knowing wh i c h comment preceded t h e o t h e r . Perhaps he n o t i c e d a p a r t i c u l a r weakness as he r e r e a d t h e c h a p t e r , n o t e d i t i n t h e margin a t t h a t p o i n t , and t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d i t t o t h e c h a p t e r s t a r t l a t e r , because the i s s u e had a b e a r i n g on o t h e r m a t e r i a l i n t h e c h a p t e r . Or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e problem f i r s t o c c u r r e d t o him as he c o n s i d e r e d t h e c h a p t e r as a whole, and o n l y a f t e r making an i n i t i a l n o t e a t t h e c h a p t e r ' s s t a r t d i d he make a n o t h e r note a t t h e r e l e v a n t p o i n t i n t h e c h a p t e r . The d i f f e r e n c e i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t Lowry h a r d l y e v e r , i n p r a c t i c e , worked s o l e l y i n u n i d i m e n s i o n a l t e r m s — h e a l w a y s , i t seems, bore i n mind t h e whole when he came t o 39 adjust a part, and he always recognized the effects on the parts of a change i n the whole. Occasional duplication of comments at chapter starts and within the chapter, i n f a c t , bears out Mrs. Lowry's description of her husband's endlessly responding to his own changes and thus moving from chapter to chapter, backwards and forwards through the novel (See Appendix A, 7/5, p . l and l l / l , p . l O f o r examples of Lowry, f i r s t , discovering a point i n one chapter of relevance to another and, second, remembering a point from another version of the novel of relevance to the passage he i s a c t u a l l y working on). The t h i r d l o cation f o r Lowry's nonfiction commentary i s on the separate sheets of paper also mentioned by Mrs. Lowry above. As she points out, i t was common for both her and Lowry to compile l i s t s of c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions concerning a typed version of a passage or chapter as the basis f o r discussion. Of t h i s material, of course, there must at one time have been a f a r greater quantity than exists at present. Once i t had been used fo r discussion and acted upon i n the form of r e v i s i o n s , i t was often thrown away or i t s verso was used as scrap paper. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , there was more of t h i s form of commentary than of the other, which has f o r t u i t o u s l y survived only because i t happens to be d i r e c t l y on manuscripts which had a more l a s t i n g use. There i s nothing p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f e r e n t about the commentary found i n the point-by-point c r i t i q u e s as f a r as t h e i r content i s concerned. In the vast majority of cases they might just as well have appeared i n the margins of typescripts or at chapter s t a r t s , l i k e the other annotations considered here. Many deal with minor issues of punctuation i n just the same way as so many of the marginal notes excluded from my l i s t . Occasionally, however, as with the marginalia found elsewhere, a note w i l l be found which i s profoundly illum i n a t i n g , capturing, as i t were, Lowry*s creative mind i n action. Unfortunately, of course, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to understand what many of these comments imply, because the texts to which they r e f e r are not c l e a r l y indicated. Nevertheless, the comments whose meaning i s c l e a r from the point-by-point c r i t i q u e s I naturally c o l l e c t e d and r e f e r to i n the following chapters. (See Appendix A, 11/15, verso page 1 f o r simply one page of these point-by-point l i s t s . ) To summarize, Lowry's marginalia can be c l a s s i f i e d i n i t i a l l y according to i t s status i n r e l a t i o n to the f i c t i o n a l t e x t — a s f i c t i o n i t s e l f , as a form intermediate between f i c t i o n and nonfiction, and as genuinely nonfictional c r i t i c i s m and commentary. In the main, the former two groups receive no detailed consideration i n t h i s t h e s i s . Marginalia can also be c l a s s i f i e d according to .their l ocation within the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s — w i t h i n a chapter, at a chapter s t a r t , or i n a point-by-point c r i t i q u e . Beyond these general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , however, any further attempt to categorize Lowry's marginalia tends to break down i n the face of the enormous range and variety of the material i t s e l f . This f a c t w i l l become evident i n subsequent chapter's, but a b r i e f introduction to the variety found among the marginalia i s not out of place here. To begin with, comments are often long, dealing with more than one point at a time or running from one to another within the same thought process or sentence. Or they are short. But a short note i s often as comprehensive i n scope as a long one, because i t refers to a major theme or to/a character regarded as a whole. Equally, long comments focus on small d e t a i l s as frequently as short ones do. Apart from the scope and form of the annotations, t h e i r tone and attitude vary enormously. Notes are sometimes c r i t i c a l i n a constructive way, when they suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , but many are purely analytical--they diagnose weakness accurately but f a i l to s p e l l out any concrete solution or r e v i s i o n . In mood, comments vary from the pensive to the exasperated, from e l a t i o n to depression; others are meticulous or obsessive, while s t i l l others are vague, c r y p t i c , or ambiguous. Occasionally, annotations are so c r y p t i c , and so ambiguous that i t i s genuinely d i f f i c u l t to make out what Lowry meant by them. Running through a l l the materials are the comments described b r i e f l y above, those which are purely routine or s e l f -explanatory, correcting, f o r example, a grammatical error or confusion. (The balance of Appendix A includes a number of examples of marginalia displaying these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ) Over and above t h i s variety, of course, and compounding the problem of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the fact that many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and q u a l i t i e s l i s t e d above are not, i n i n d i v i d u a l instances, a l t e r n a t i v e s ; they may apply j o i n t l y to the same comment. One note may be pensive, de t a i l e d , and witty; another may be long enough f o r i t to change from one attitude to another and deal with d i f f e r e n t issues within the space of a l i n e or two, as though Lowry*s attitude towards and evaluation of the s i t u a t i o n changed during the writing of the memorandum. Some comments may be p a r t l y routine and p a r t l y i l l u m i n a t i n g , others p a r t l y ambiguous, partly a n a l y t i c a l and clear. The f a c t i s that the marginalia run through and express a gamut of personal reactions which are not as a rule primitive or discrete but muddled and highly complex, no matter how long or short they are. Each note seems, i n other words, to be the d i r e c t expression of the writer's whole c o l l e c t i o n of f a c u l t i e s , b e l i e f s , values, emotions, and experience as these are brought to bear on a piece of writing at a p a r t i c u l a r time and place—between 19 38 and 1945 i n Vancouver, Dollarton, and Niagara-on-the-Lake. It i s i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s context that Lowry's marginalia can be meaningfully understood, rather than i n terms of any purely l i t e r a r y or l i n g u i s t i c categories. The only further categories of value are based on the structure of Lowry's writing procedure as he v a c i l l a t e d from c r i t i c i s m of his own text to creative adjustment of i t . Although fundamentally inseparable from each other, these two categories form the basis of the major d i v i s i o n between the material discussed i n the two following chapter's. They are " c r i t i c i s m " and "strategy." 44 Notes 1 Judith 0. Combs, Malcolm Lowry 1909 - 1957; An Inventory of His Papers i n the Library of the University  of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Univ. of B. C. Library, 1973), pp.17-18. 2 Selected Letters, pp. 63, 79. 3 Selected Letters, p. 63. Day, pp. 237-49 ^ Selected Letters, pp. 15-16. g Personal interview with Margerie Bonner Lowry, Iecember 19 74. 7 O ' K i l l , p. 82nll. 8 Selected Letters, pp.31-34. 9 ' Day, pp.258-70. 1 0 O ' K i l l , p. 77. 1"L Quotations from manuscripts throughout t h i s thesis are not reproduced l i n e - f o r - l i n e . A l l e d i t o r i a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n or omission, however, i s indicated by [ ]; where material i s i l l e g i b l e i t i s indicated by [ i l l e g . ] ; where a s p e l l i n g i s not clear i t i s indicated by [?] following the questionable word; and where Lowry himself has inserted material, i t i s indicated by (( ) ) . His deletions are marked by /. The i d e n t i f y i n g reference numbers run as follows: the number of the box i n the UBC Library manuscript c o l l e c t i o n i s given f i r s t ; i t i s seperated by / from the folder number in that box. A f t e r the folder number i s another / which separates i t from a description—normally a f o l i o number—that uniquely i d e n t i f i e s the item on which the quotation appears. 1 2 Day, p. 2 86. 13 Personal interview with Margerie Bonner Lowry, December, 19 74. 14 Day, p. 286. 1 5 Day, p. 294. 16 The-Texas manuscript i s housed i n the Humanities Research Centre, at the University of Texas, Austin. Throughout t h i s t h e s i s , t h i s manuscript i s i d e n t i f i e d as TM. Recto pages carry the text of the novel and are referred to as TM text. Versos.scarry mainly fragments of r e v i s i o n and I r e f e r to them as TM versos. The second i d e n t i f y i n g number, i n Roman numerals, i s the chapter, and the t h i r d i d e n t i f i e s the page. 46 1 7 O ' K i l l , p. 82nll . 18 Selected Letters, pp. 45-57, 424 19 v Doyen, "La genese", p. 92. 20 Selected Letters, p. 16. 2 1 Day, p. 253. 22 Personal interview with Margerie Lowry, December, 1974. 23 See Appendix B, Revision Procedure TM verso/ chap III/p. 16. 24 See Appendxx B, Revision Procedure 11/15/p.H (recto). 25 Personal interview with Margerie Lowry, December, 1974. 26 Personal interview with Margerie Lowry, December, 1974. 2 7 Day, pp. 293-94. 2 8 For example, see Day, p. 294. And i n a personal interview with Mrs. Lowry, December 1974, she t o l d me that Lowry "had c e r t a i n books that were always on the table beside his bed: the Bible, Shakespeare, Va r i e t i e s  of Religious Experience." "i3 O ' K i l l , p. 197. His diagram i s based on consider-able first-hand study of the complete Lowry manuscript c o l l e c t i o n , not simply the papers relevant to Under the  Volcano. As such, his example i s of necessity a broad generalization formulated for the sole purpose of ind i c a t i n g the structure of Lowry's habitual procedure. 30 See Appendix B. Unless otherwise expressly indicated, a l l marginal notes quoted, l i s t e d , and discussed were made by Malcolm Lowry. While i t i s impossible f o r me to prove who wrote every note, Malcolm's wri t i n g , as i t appears i n holograph l e t t e r s , postcards, notebooks, and manuscript i s d i s t i n c t and e a s i l y recog-nizable. A very small number of notes made by Margerie Lowry survives, interspersed here and there throughout the Lowry Papers, but her writing could only be confused with Malcolm's under the most extreme circumstances. These notes I neither c o l l e c t e d nor studied. Chapter Two CRITICISM A substantial and i n t e r e s t i n g group of marginalia scattered through the draft versions of Under the Volcano emphasize c r i t i c i s m of the texts they accompany. These c r i t i c a l notes played an important part i n Lowry's o v e r a l l r e v i s i o n procedure: they marked and served as memoranda of the weaknesses and strengths he discovered when rereading his successive drafts of the novel. Detailed analysis of t h i s group of notes makes i t c l e a r that Lowry's textual c r i t i c i s m i n any p a r t i c u l a r instance expressed a broad i n t u i t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , an i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional discomfort that stemmed from a r a d i c a l difference between his perception of people and events and the a l l e g o r i c a l and melodramatic tone i n which they were perceived and described by the narrator of the c r i t i c i z e d versions. As a r e s u l t , the c r i t i c a l commentary discussed here amounted, cumulatively, to an i n d i r e c t but rigorous attack on the perception-guiding values and attitudes of t h i s e a r l i e r narrative personality. 48 Marginal c r i t i c i s m s discussed i n d e t a i l below thus have two aspects. Each one uniquely expressed one of Lowry1 p a r t i c u l a r discoveries of l i t e r a r y weakness or strength i n a passage; but at the same time, each also gave voice to. an underlying drive away from the e a r l i e r narrator' general values and attitudes. Individual examples show Lowry dealing with a wide variety of issues ranging from the r e l a t i v e merits of drama and narrative to the weaknesses of j o u r n a l i s t i c writing and synopses, the need to follow a character's thoughts with "honesty," rather than impose a stereotyped pattern on them, control and the lack of i t i n the area of i n t e r t e x t u a l reference and a l l u s i o n , s u p e r f l u i t y of image and metaphor, i n t e r n a l consistency, and personal s t y l e . These c o n f l i c t e d issues, cumulatively, go a long way towards defining the major differences"between the rejected and published novel. And i t i s a subordinate objective of t h i s chapter to present examples of text as well as marginalia that help to i l l u s t r a t e these differences As analysis proceeds, from one form of marginal c r i t i c i s m to another,therefore, a composite picture of the e a r l i e r novel' shortcomings emerges as Lowry saw them. The f i r s t group of c r i t i c a l comments examined here contains examples that Lowry couched i n terms associated with general l i t e r a r y discussion. They d i r e c t l y address the technique of writing. 50 Drama On occasion, Lowry expressed his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with an e a r l i e r text through d i r e c t objections to the narrative mode i t s e l f . Two examples are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . In the rejected 1940 version of Volcano, events proceeded i n the f i r s t chapter much as they do i n the published novel: Laruelle f i r s t spent some time drinking and t a l k i n g with Dr. V i g i l on the verandah of the Hotel de l a Selva; he then set o f f on a circuitous s t r o l l to his house i n the town below. He was lucky enough to be near a bar next to the cinema when a storm broke, and he dodged inside i t out of the r a i n . Before long, when the e l e c t r i c i t y supply f a i l e d , he found himself i n conversation with the manager of the cinema, Sr. Bustamente. They talked about the current state of the country and i t s effects on the cinema business. Last week, he said, they [the l i g h t s ] had l e t him down at a spe c i a l stage Not show, a troupe from Panama t r y i n g out dramatised a revue from Mexico Cit y . Something was wrong with the wiring and with everything else i n the country too. C8/l/p(pencil 12)) As Lowry read t h i s reported conversation i n the rejected version of his novel, he recognized how la c k l u s t r e the narrator's presentation of t h i s s i t u a t i o n was and how completely the passage f a i l e d to convey any sense of human in t e r a c t i o n . Because i t i s so vague and unfocused, the second sentence i s c r u c i a l to t h i s e f f e c t ; the narrator "reports" that these were Bustamente's words, but i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to imagine anyone a c t u a l l y complaining about such a f r u s t r a t i n g personal s i t u a t i o n i n such vague and inexpressive terms. When used i n t h i s fashion, t h i r d person narration, with i t s inherent "impersonal" r h e t o r i c a l values, e f f e c t i v e l y reduces what could e a s i l y be imagined as a dramatic s i t u a t i o n , f u l l of complexities and a c t i v i t y on both mental and physical planes, to a monotonous f i r e s i d e t a l e about "foreigners." Any int e r e s t i n the c r i t i c i z e d passage focuses s o l e l y on the narrator's own set of pseudo-impersonal perceptions and memories of Mexico. This introductory example of Lowry's marginal c r i t i c i s m i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g .'because" the pre-1940 versions of the novel so consistently committed these very sins. And much of Lowry's c r i t i c a l attention involved him, just as i t did here, i n recognizing l i f e l e s s , narrator-centred prose and se t t i n g out to convert i t into dramatic and unmediated description. Hardly ever, however, did t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l approach involve Lowry i n objecting to the content of the text he c r i t i c i z e d ; h is objection was 52 s o l e l y to the manner i n which the narrator mediated the f i c t i o n a l world. The kind of revisions he eventually made to the reported conversation between Laruelle and Bustamente help both to i l l u s t r a t e and confirm these points':: "Chingar," the manager sa i d , under his breath, preoc-cupied, a l e r t , and gazing around him. They took t h e i r places standing at the end of the short bar where there was room f o r two. "I am very sorry the function must be suspended. But the wires have decomposed. Chingado. Every blessed week something goes wrong with the l i g h t s . Last week i t was much worse, r e a l l y t e r r i b l e . You know we had a troupe from Panama City here t r y i n g out a show f o r Mexico." 1 Here the self-centred narrator has withdrawn, and the scene i s v i v i d l y r e a l i z e d . Two curt sentences set the scene while two phrases i n p a r t i c u l a r present Bustamente i n action--"under his breath," and "gazing around him." These scene-setting sentences are almost interrupted by the opening of conversation. The sense of an impersonal report has vanished because Lowry has incorporated the phrase "he said" from the e a r l i e r version into the dramatic presentation of Bustamente's behaviour, and the dialogue i t s e l f supports t h i s mode of approach. I t i s f i l l e d with personal, f e l t expression of concern and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , punctuated by expletives. But the content of the exchange remains untouched i n i t s ess e n t i a l s . Although the clumsy and vague "observation" from the e a r l i e r version—"and with everything else i n the country too"—has disappeared, 53 the conversation i s s t i l l about the repeated Mexican power f a i l u r e s and es p e c i a l l y about the troupe from Panama. This structure or pattern i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of nearly a l l Lowry's in d i v i d u a l revisions and of his r e v i s i o n process as a whole. In an analogous example found i n the margin of the 1940 version of chapter XII of Volcano, the narrator that Lowry c r i t i c i z e d mediated not the spoken word but a character's thoughts. Like the f i r s t chapter of the 1940 Volcano, the f i n a l one remained b a s i c a l l y unchanged i n i t s " f a c t s " from rejected to published version. Differences lay i n presentation. Having arrived at the F a r o l i t o i n Parian, the Consul continued to drink mescal and, a f t e r leaving the mingitorio, went with the prostitute Maria to her room. As he struggled to reach a "climax," he studied a calendar on the wall. It showed the saints' days f o r the month: He read over the saints again, ,even •rpraying' {to:":each- ih* turnv-^'withoxit'ssucei cess.- Yet he had arrived at his feeble This c r i s i s , a c r i s i s without passion, a l - could be most without pleasure. As with a shamed better grimace, he gave Maria, who was laughing dramatised at him, her few pesos, a knowledge of what h e l l r e a l l y was blazed on his soul. (8/12/p.382—corresponds to p.352) Vagueness and monotony pervaded the passage. The saints were "read over . . . again," and the passion i n the Consul's act of prayer was diminished, f i r s t , by the grudging adverbial "even" and, then by the idea of r e p e t i t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the phrase "to each i n turn." S i m i l a r l y , the t h i r d sentence t r i v i a l i z e d Maria's laughter by reporting i t parenthetically, i n a subordinate clause. And the general sense of vagueness was reinforced further with the inexact "few pesos." But the most noteworthy feature of th i s passage was i t s f i n a l clause; here, melodrama emerged to dominate the other aspects of the passage and force the reader into a primarily a l l e g o r i c a l i nterpretation of the incident presented. By t a l k i n g i n such terms—of " h e l l " and "his s o u l " — the narrator also revealed a set of personal attitudes and values, a personal way of perceiving the novel's world. In a sense, he thus appropriated what were i n dramatic terms the Consul's physical and psychological experiences and substituted his own metaphysical perception of them. While such appropriation might serve to develop the narrator as a strongly r e a l i z e d character, i t completely destroyed any i l l u s i o n of the Consul's human independence, or freedom. Lacking the concrete, complex, and multi-dimensional experience associated with a human personality, Geoffrey appeared purely as a stereotype i n the narrator's pseudoreligious allegory. As i n the preceding example discussed* Lowry's c r i t i c i s m — " T h i s could be better dramatised"—ultimately attacked t h i s whole complex of l i t e r a r y e f f e c t s (which was act u a l l y 55 t y p i c a l of and fundamental to the e a r l i e r narrative as a whole). When he f i n a l l y rewrote the passage, he converted the Consul's mind from a reported entity i n the mind of the narrator into a psychic stage on which the reader seems to perceive the action d i r e c t l y , the narrative domination inevitably vanished, and the Consul's portrayal as an independent personality strengthened immensely: The Consul's eyes focused a calendar behind the bed. He had reached h i s c r i s i s at l a s t , a c r i s i s without possession, almost without pleasure f i n a l l y , and what he saw might have been, no, he was sure i t was, a picture of Canada. Under a b r i l l i a n t f u l l moon a stag stood by a r i v e r down which a man and a woman were paddling a birch-bark canoe. This calendar was set to the future, f o r next month, December: where would he be then? In the dim blue l i g h t he even made out the names of the Saints f o r each December day, printed by the numerals: Santa Natalia, Santa Bibiana, S. Francisco Xavier, Santa Sabos, S. Nicolas de Bar i , S. Ambrosio: thunder blew the door open, the face of M. Laruelle faded i n the door. Even the rhythm of t h i s version of the passage contributes to a sense of the variety of simultaneous perceptions involved here. Interrogation i s juxtaposed with uncertainty—together with a mixture of present and imagined images and ideas--to create the i l l u s i o n s that no mediator at a l l i s involved and that we perceive the multidimension-a l i t y t y p i c a l of human experience. 56 Journalism It may seem at times from these b r i e f introductory examples and remarks that Lowry was bent on a general or wholesale r e j e c t i o n of narrative per se, or that he set out to r e j e c t mediation of any kind. He was not. He was, however, consistently concerned to r e j e c t p a r t i c u l a r and i n t e r r e l a t e d features c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his own e a r l i e r narrative. Some combination or c l u s t e r of them he c r i t i c i z e d f o r lack of dramatic force; another he castigated as " j o u r n a l i s t i c . " In neither case was Lowry using these terms i n any precise technical sense. They were simply the words that came to mind to sum up a general d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n . He used the " j o u r n a l i s t i c " l a b e l when c r i t i c i z i n g a d i f f e r e n t passage i n the same version of Chapter I's conversation between Sr. Bustamente and M. Laruelle discussed above that he also c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s lack of drama. In t h i s part of the conversation a p a r t i c u l a r l y hackneyed image opened the passage. They talked, drinking coffee by candle-l i g h t , of Hollywood, of the success of The s t y l e various films about Maxirnillian and Carl-of t h i s l o t t a , r e s u l t i n g i n the shelving of the i s some-iFjrench f i l m on the same subject f o r what -... which Laruelle had o r i g i n a l l y been hired, spurious of a current f i l m , Los Manos de Orlac, journal-of which Laruelle had seen a s i l e n t i s t i c German version seventeen years before, 57 and whose bloodthirsty theme was so popular with the Mexican audiences the manager had been obliged to put i t on at l e a s t h a l f a dozen times at t h i s very cinema i n the l a s t few years. (8/1/p. pe n c i l 12—corresponds to pp. 31-32) Here again, the writing i s too j o u r n a l i s t i c ? When Lowry's comments here are regarded s o l e l y i n t h e i r own terms, t h e i r meaning i s not immediately clear. There i s nothing i n the paragraph that i n s t a n t l y stands out as either j o u r n a l i s t i c or spurious. The term "spurious" i s of some help, however, because i t suggests a p a r t i c u l a r set of connotations that Lowry apparently associated with the concept of journalism. It suggests, i n f a c t , that Lowry thought of j o u r n a l i s t i c writing as " i l l e g i t i m a t e " and "perverse", and that he shared, to some extent, the view of j o u r n a l i s t s which he placed i n the mouth of his character, Hugh, himself a regenerate j o u r n a l i s t . In chapter IV of the published novel, Hugh speaks to Yvonne while the two of them regard the ravine, or barranca, below them. He refers to i t as Dante's Malebolge and continues, '. . . i t ' s chock f u l l of defunct newspapermen, s t i l l spying through keyholes and persuading themselves they're acting i n the best interests of democracy. But I'd forgotten you didn't read the papers, Eh?' Hugh laughed. 'Journalism equals i n t e l l e c t u a l male p r o s t i t u t i o n of speech and writing, Yvonne. ' (p. 104) 58 As one commentator e x p l a i n s , t h e M a l e b o l g e i s t h e c i r c l e o f h e l l r e s e r v e d f o r t h o s e who p e r v e r t t h e i n t e l l e c t t o d e c e i v e o t h e r s . Malbowges i s . . . t h e image o f t h e c i t y i n c o r r u p t i o n " : t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f e v e r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c . S e x u a l i t y , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and c i v i l o f f i c e , l a n g u a g e , o w n e r s h i p , c o u n s e l , a u t h o r i t y , p s y c h i c i n f l u e n c e , and m a t e r i a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e — a l l t h e media o f t h e community's exchange a r e p e r v e r t e d and f a l s i f i e d , t i l l n o t h i n g remains but t h e d e s c e n t i n t o t h e f i n a l abyss where f a i t h and t r u s t a r e w h o l l y and f o r e v e r e x t i n g u i s h e d . "v,2 One s e t o f t h e Malbowges' i n h a b i t a n t s c o n s i s t s o f t h e f l a t t e r e r s : These, t o o e x p l o i t o t h e r s . . . ; t h e i r e s p e c i a l weapon i s t h a t abuse and c o r r u p t i o n o f language w h i c h d e s t r o y s communication between mind and mind . . . . Dante d i d n o t l i v e t o see t h e f u l l d e v e l o p ment o f p o l i t i c a l propaganda, commercial a d v e r t i s e -ment, and s e n s a t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m , b u t he p r e p a r e d a p l a c e f o r them. " 3 These a r e t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t seem t o l i e b e h i n d Lowry's l a b e l i n g h i s own e a r l i e r w r i t i n g " j o u r n a l i s t i c . " He was c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r p e r v e r t e d o r b e t r a y e d language and communication. I n t h e c r i t i c i z e d p a s s a g e , p e r v e r s i o n and b e t r a y a l r e s u l t e d because t h e n a r r a t o r s i m p l i f i e d and s t e r e o t y p e d t h e p e r s o n s and e v e n t s t h a t he p r e t e n d e d t o p r e s e n t . I n f o r m a t i o n about L a r u e l l e ' s c a r e e r was "packaged," t o g e t h e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e r e p e t i t i o n of the Orlac f i l m , into a neat "report," beginning with the formulaic and conventional phrase "coffee by candlelight." Following the i n i t i a l formula, the narrator presented what amounted to a l i s t of topics. And a l i s t i s formed f o r stereotyping and simplifying. It has a tendency to imply that each one of i t s items has more or less the same importance as any other: "Hollywood", for example, had the same importance as the vague "series of films about Maximilian and Carlotta" and "a current f i l m . " This l e v e l i n g e f f e c t betrayed any i l l u s i o n of authentic conversation taking place, and the pervasive vagueness, which continued i n phrases l i k e "on the same subject," "from which," "of which," "the Mexican audiences," "at least h a l f a dozen times," and " l a s t few years," only added to the same problem. By forcing Laruelle's and Bustamente's experience into t h i s conventional and' monotonous image, the narrator e f f e c t i v e l y removed from t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n any sense of uniqueness i t might have. Laruelle and Bustamente were reduced to items l i k e the items i n t h e i r own l i s t of topics. Only the narrator, again, had presence i n t h i s version of t h e i r exchange. And again he e f f e c t i v e l y appropriated the characters' experience and used i t to present an image of his own 60 memories, vaguely r e c a l l e d , but ordered i n a neat and acceptable manner. In the published version of the conversation, however, Lowry suppresses the narrative personality e n t i r e l y , and the narrator's mind seems to follow and be subordinate to the experiences of those he reports. 'Do you mind my .. ' 'No, hombre,' laughed the other - - M. Laruelle had asked Sr. Bustamente, who'd now succeeded i n a t t r a c t i n g the barman's attention, hadn't he seen the Orlac picture here before and i f so had he reviewed i t as a h i t . ' — u n o — ? ' M. Laruelle hesitated: 'Tequila,' then corrected himself: 'No,anis,por favor, senor.' *Y una--ah—gaseosa, 1 Sr. Bustamente t o l d the barman. 'No, senor, he was fingering appraisingly, s t i l l preoccupied, the s t u f f of M. Laruelle's scarcely wet tweed jacket. 1Companero, we have not revived i t . I t has only returned . . . .' Here there i s no simplifying or stereotyping formula f o r the two men's i n t e r a c t i o n ; they 0 a t t r a c t , " " h e s i t a t e , " " c o r r e c t , " " t e l l , " and "finger" while they t a l k ; t h e i r conversation i s part of t h e i r l i v e s , l i v e s which the narrative seems to respect. Synopsis Unlike the private minds of Laruelle and Bustamente, t h e mind o f t h e C o n s u l i n t h e e a r l i e s t v e r s i o n s o f Volcano was f r e q u e n t l y t h e o b j e c t o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n . In one i n s t a n c e , Lowry c r i t i c i z e d a ..passage f o r weaknesses v e r y l i k e t h o s e he e l s e w h e r e l a b e l e d " j o u r n a l i s t i c . " The passage o c c u r r e d i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e v e r s i o n o f c h a p t e r I I I . By the time Lowry wrote t h i s d r a f t he had begun th e c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s o f c o n v e r t i n g Yvonne from r e t u r n e d d a u g h t e r t o r e t u r n e d w i f e . In t h i s c h a p t e r , husband and w i f e c o n f r o n t e d each o t h e r i n t h e i r o l d house f o r t h e f i r s t t i me i n more t h a n a y e a r . A f t e r e x c h a n g i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and t r y i n g t o come t o terms w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , t h e y s e p a r a t e d b r i e f l y , and t h e C o n s u l began t o r e c a l l images o f t h e i r l i f e b e f o r e t h e i r a r r i v a l i n M e x i c o . I n a f a s h i o n c o m p l e t e l y t y p i c a l o f the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s , t h e n a r r a t o r p a t t e r n e d t h e m a t e r i a l he p r e s e n t e d as i f i t were a neat arid s i m p l e s e t o f causes and e f f e c t s . Lowry's comment echoed h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e j o u r n a l i s t i c passage. t h e g u i l t , i f any, was a l l h i s , he thought a g a i n , u n c o n s c i o u s l y bowing h i s head, he'd h a r d l y seen h i s w i f e T^I*, «,~^™<, xr i -i , ,. , , l n i s seems f o r weeks, when he d i d i t was o n l y ^ t o have a f e r o c i o u s q u a r r e l , l i k e t h e ^.xke a t i m e he had passed out and t h e n made s v n o p s i s t h e row a t t h e American Ambassador's y p r e c e p t i o n , w h i c h he s e i z e d upon as an excuse t o r u s h out t o the n e a r e s t pub. 62 He'd been vastly rel i e v e d when Hugh arrived from New Guinea - or was i t F i j i ? - broke, i n a jam over his pass-port, which he had l o s t , and generally at a loose end. He had pulled himself together s u f f i c i e n t l y to straighten out the passport d i f f i c u l t i e s and then, quite l i t e r a l l y , had tossed Yvonne into Hugh's lap and t o l d him to show her Paris. (10/ 12/p.4—corresponds to pp.82-84) As the narrator abstracted his general view or pattern from the ongoing drama of the Consul's memories, the d e t a i l s c r u c i a l to an impression of v i t a l i t y disappeared. Like a consciously prepared lecture, the passage proceeded from the general to the p a r t i c u l a r . It began with the vague "he'd hardly seen h i s wife f o r weeks," then moved through a generalization about ferocious quarrels to the p a r t i c u l a r instance of the Ambassador's reception. The background was thus summarily prepared f o r Hugh's entrance. Certain d e t a i l s of his a r r i v a l served to explain his i n i t i a l contact with the Consul, and the synopsis as a whole concluded with a neat sequence of simply connected and vaguely described events. Like the " j o u r n a l i s t i c " passage, t h i s form of writing t r i v i a l i z e d experience. Despite i t s obvious humorous component, the phrase "tossed Yvonne into Hugh's lap," sounded l i k e a brutal and i n s e n s i t i v e summary of a complex set of i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional processes. In general terms, the effects of passages l i k e these were twofold. F i r s t , the reader gained the impression that the narrator had l i t t l e but t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n his characters' p a s t — t h e account sounded l i k e a case study. And, second, because the narrator presented, f o r example, the Consul experiencing his own past i n these synoptic ordered terms, i t also appeared that human mental processes were themselves simple, mechanical, and r a t i o n a l . How Lowry re-presented t h i s passage confirms t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of his objection to the e a r l i e r narrator's way of perceiving and describing human experience here. In place of a b r i e f , bland pattern of memory, he created the extended i n t e r i o r monologue that occurs while the Consul lays face down i n the Calle Nicaragua (pp 82-84). As revised, the passage thus presents the material about the Consul's f a i l e d marriage i n the form of a hallucinatory conversation with a phantom Hugh. Nothing could be less l i k e the e a r l i e r synopsis than such a dramatized s e l f -examination: 1; "Why do I say this? - Is i t i n part that you should see that I also recognize how close Yvonne and I had already been brought to disaster before your meeting: Are you l i s t e n i n g , Hugh - do I make myself clear? Clear that I forgive you, as somehow I have never wholly been able to forgive Yvonne, . . ." Interrogation and explanation vary the mood and add a sense of immediacy and i n t e n s i t y to the f e l t experience Lowry presents. A narrator's vague and general overview has been replaced by a passage f u l l of odd but s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s ( l i k e the number of Hugh's passport) that appear as though they were spontaneous and quite independent of any governing narrative personality. Also, because i t i s thus rewritten, the revised passage recognizes the importance of the past i n the character's l i f e and the complicated ways i n which that past makes i t s influence f e l t . Discussion has u n t i l t h i s point begged two major questions. F i r s t , what was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e a r l i e r narrator's way of perceiving the f i c t i o n a l world and the manner i n which he presented i t ? And second, what was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Lowry's own way of perceiving the f i c t i o n a l world and the c r i t i c a l comments he made regarding the way the e a r l i e r narrator had presented i t ? In writing the pre-1940 version of his novel, Lowry created a narrative personality who presented the people and events of the f i c t i o n a l world i n his own unique and i d i o s y n c r a t i c fashion. Some negative aspects and effects of t h i s presentation have already been noted and discussed. As we have also seen, people and events i n Lowry's f i c t i o n a l world existed only as the narrator presented them, while at the same time, the narrator himself existed only as a r e f l e c t i o n of the way he presented others. Any single description communicated images of both the describer and the people and events described. Consequently, any c r i t i c i s m of one side of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p had concomitant effects fo r the other. I f Lowry c r i t i c i z e d the way Laruelle, f o r example, was described, he ine v i t a b l y c r i t i c i z e d at the same time the way the e a r l i e r narrator as a hypothetical thinking i n d i v i d u a l perceived Laruelle and the values and attitudes which governed that perception. The answer to the f i r s t question, then, i s that the narrator's ways of perceiving and describing his world are, i n a sense, i d e n t i c a l . He and his world are equally and simultaneously created by the same verbal description. A preliminary answer to the second question--the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Lowry's own perception and his e r i t i c a l comments about the e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r — t a k e s the following form: An underlying c o n f l i c t between Lowry's and his e a r l i e r narrator's ways of perceiving people and events was what usually led Lowry to f e e l d i s s a t i s f i e d with an image, passage, or even chapter. But where an ordinary reader i s free to discard a book that f a i l s to s a t i s f y him i n some way, Lowry had to bring his i n t e l l e c t and l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g to bear on the c o n f l i c t and discover what was wrong with h i s text. When his c r i t i c a l comments were couched i n terms of the techniques of writing (drama, journalism, synopses), they were e s s e n t i a l l y translations of the underlying cause of his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . In t r y i n g to discover p r e c i s e l y what i t was about the written text that led him to d i s l i k e i t , he arrived at " l i t e r a r y " answers. But the e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t was no more l i t e r a r y i n these instances than i t was when he expressed i t i n more d i r e c t terms, as i n the example which follows. Weaknesses of Tone Part of the e a r l i e r narrator's attitude towards the world of the novel was s a t i r i c . He described a set of figures representing various forms of shortsightedness and selfishness prevalent i n the society of the 19 30s and set them around the persecuted and heroic Consul, who personified the dying values of the bourgeois gentleman. Hugh was one of these figures; cast from the f i r s t as the "type" f o r the callow "indoor Marxman" of the day, he was o r i g i n a l l y drawn as a young American, red-blooded and f u l l of grand i d e a l i s t i c gestures, which were based on theory and enthusiasm rather than p r a c t i c a l experience or knowledge of the prole-t a r i a t . 5 The e a r l i e r narrator's prosecution of a s a t i r i c i n t e r -pretation of the novel's world was not r e s t r i c t e d , of course, to "guying" and converting Hugh alone into a stereotype. 67 According to the e a r l i e r narrator's presentation, a l l of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , saving only Geoffrey Firmin, was corrupt and decadent, and Mexican society exposed these e v i l features i n an e s p e c i a l l y obvious manner. At times the e a r l i e r narrator could become embarrassingly clumsy i n prosecuting t h i s view, and s a t i r e could become ponderous sarcasm. In chapter IX of the rejected novel, the chapter i n which the Consul, Hugh, and Yvonne v i s i t e d the Arena Tomalin and watched the ragged b u l l f i g h t , the narrator described the scene i n the b u l l r i n g using an elaborate r h e t o r i c a l figure (absurdly attributed to Yvonne) to pass a high-handed judgment on the ordinary people of Mexico. Yvonne focussed her attention on the areaa where s i x cowboys were attempting to p u l l a b u l l to i t s feet. The b u l l was i n a coma. Drunks, also i n a coma, d r i f t e d i n and out of the r i n g , g r i p -ping by t h e i r necks bottles of t e q u i l a or mescal. A f t e r a while a boy b i t the less t a i l of the b u l l which climbed cumberr-f s o c i a l somely to i t s feet. This was as convul- c r i t i c i s m sive as an act of creation. It was an of a experiment no deity could have been very half-baked pfcoud of, Yvonne thought, nor did the sort b u l l , a c t u a l l y t o t t e r i n g with slumber, boredom, and panic, apparently see much reason f o r being created. (8/9/p.276— corresponds to p. 259) Lowry's comment r e f l e c t s a f e e l i n g that Mexico i n the l a t e 1930s,.Geoffrey, Yvonne, Hugh, Laruelle, and the others 68 were too obviously perceived and described here i n terms of s u p e r f i c i a l deterministic and m o r a l i s t i c patterns. By the time he made t h i s marginal comment, Lowry f e l t that - -the world should be presented as shaped i n a more subtle fashion, that the kind of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m s he described as "half-baked" r e l i e d on o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and was shallow or t r i v i a l f o r that reason. His revisions at t h i s point confirm these conclusions. In the published novel, the events at the Arena Tomalin are removed completely from the influence of the narrator and presented as an independent Yvonne might have perceived them. Any symbolic i n t e r -pretation of the b u l l ' s predicament i s l e f t to the reader. Yvonne sighed; i t was a tiresome and odious spectacle, r e a l l y . The only people happy were the drunks. Gripping t e q u i l a or mescal bottles they tottered into the r i n g , approached the recumbent Nandi, and s l i d i n g and t r i p p i n g over each other were chased out again by several charros, who now attempted to drag the miserable b u l l to i t s feet. But the b u l l would not be dragged. At l a s t a small boy no one had seen before appeared to nip i t s t a i l with his teeth, and as the boy ran away, the animal clambered up convulsively. Instantly i t was lassoed by a cowboy mounted on a malicious-looking horse. The b u l l soon kicked i t s e l f free: i t had been roped only around one foot, and walked from the scene shaking i t s head, then catching sight of the dog once more, wheeled, and pursued i t a short distance... Another perspective from which to view the development °^ Volcano concentrates on the novel's reliance from f i r s t to l a s t drafts on the heroic l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . In the 1940 rejected version and e a r l i e r d r a f t s , Lowry's use of t h i s t r a d i t i o n was, however, far from subtle. His narrator presented the Consul as a Faustian hero, seeking knowledge while surrounded by caricatures who were bound to persecute him. To maintain and emphasize t h i s form of connection with the heroic t r a d i t i o n , the e a r l i e r narrative character-i s t i c a l l y r e l i e d on a clumsy use of heroic l i t e r a r y language l i k e that found at the end of the passage discussed above— "a v i s i o n of what h e l l r e a l l y was blazed on his [the Consul's soul (8/12/p.382)." Apart from the major problem inherent i n using t h i s kind of language—dominance of dramatic experience by narrative a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — i t frequently seemed superfluous; where an experience had been adequately described i n i t s own terms, the narrator of the e a r l i e r version t y p i c a l l y added just such a gestural heroic phrase or sentence. Because these phrases so often added nothing to the reader's knowledge of the experiences described, they tended rather to r e f l e c t again on the narrative personality that used them: the reader learns more about the narrator, f o r example, when the narrator t e l l s him about the Consul's 70 feelings i n terms of " h e l l . " To some readers, who f i n d even the published version of the novel o v e r f u l l of l i t e r a r y heroic language, i t may seem strange that Lowry ever c r i t i c i z e d i t s use. But Lowry's marginalia show that he was severely c r i t i c a l when he found i t , i n h i s terms, clumsy and super-fluous. His growing r e v i s i o n p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s area was that heroic l i t e r a r y language had to inform the text by playing an i n t e g r a l role i n describing experience rather than develop s o l e l y the narrative personality. Connections with the heroic t r a d i t i o n were to be made obliquely, through the Consul's own v i s i o n of his world and through the structure of events on his l a s t day a l i v e . A t y p i c a l instance of Lowry pointing to his e a r l i e r version's clumsy and superfluous use of the heroic mode occurredi: i n an intermediate version of Chapter I. Here some of the writing techniques c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the rejected novel had survived u n t i l Lowry noticed them during a l a t e r stage of r e v i s i o n . In chapter I Laruelle found himself overtaken i n his meditation about the Consul by an e r o t i c daydream focused on Yvonne. In his mind's eye too he saw Yvonne again, not i n the Consul's garden, but i n his own house, turning her head and too moaning, beating her f i s t s on her head, l i t e r a r y and he f e l t again the emotions evoked by her presence, s t i r r i n g by her love the sick giant of the l o i n s , the t i r e d cheat of the brainL". . ". TT (10/3/ second p. 15—corresponds to pp.18-19) 71 Lowry underlined the l a s t two phrases i n the quoted passage, and his comment obviously r e f e r r e d to them. As the narrator added the offending phrases, the reader l o s t sight of Laruelle*s experience only to be given a "poetic" abstract statement of the narrator's perception of sexuality and i t s r o l e i n the human condition. ,The offending phrases are not included i n the equivalent passage i n the published novel, which as a whole i s f a r less melodramatic and f a r more w i s t f u l . His passion f o r Yvonne (whether or not she'd ever been much good as an actress was beside the point, he'd t o l d her the truth when he said she would have been more than good i n any f i l m he made) had brought back to his heart, i n a way he could not have explained, the f i r s t time that alone, walking over the meadows from Saint Pres, the sleepy French v i l l a g e of backwaters and locks and grey disused watermills where he was lodging, he had seen, r i s i n g slowly and wonderfully and with boundless beauty above the stubble f i e l d s blowing with wildflowers, slowly r i s i n g into the sunlight, as centuries before the pilgrims straying over those same f i e l d s had watched them r i s e , the twin spires of Chartres Cathedral* His love had brought a peace, for a l l too short a while, that was strangely l i k e the enchantment, the s p e l l , of Chartres i t s e l f , long ago, whose every side-street he had come to love and cafe where he could gaze at the Cathedral eternally s a i l i n g against the clouds, the s p e l l not even the fact he was scandalously i n debt there could break. What one sees i n such marginal comments i s Lowry engaging i n a struggle f o r control with the e a r l i e r narrator. In the pre-1941 version generally, the "narrator" exercised r " altogether too much owert control over the world he presented, and i n beginning through c r i t i c i s m to weaken that control, Lowry attempted to assert his own. Lack of Characters' Independence As more examples are examined, i t becomes progressively cl e a r that the rejected version of Volcano—summarized' i n the preceding chapter—emphasized a deterministic a l l e g o r -i c a l description of the novel's world at the expense, primarily, of the reader's sense that the characters had any complexity i n t h e i r inner or outer l i v e s . A major e f f e c t of t h i s lack of complexity was to prevent i t appearing that characters were independent of t h e i r narrator. But the i l l u s i o n of independence i s not s o l e l y a function of complexity. I t i s also a function of consistency and l o g i c . On the one hand, Lowry came to recognize, during r e v i s i o n that a character must behave unpredictably, must, not simply confirm i n thought, word, and deed;the narrator's deterministic conception of the Consul's world, and his development of character complexity was important i n avoiding t h i s r e s u l t . On the other hand, Lowry also recognized that complexity does not involve the random. Laruelle or V i g i l , for example, ought to appear unpredict-able, but once they act, think, or speak there should be a personal l o g i c to t h e i r behaviour. It seems paradoxical, but the r i g i d . construction of the e a r l i e r version of the novel on the a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l occasionally led to an element of the random attaching to the characters, t h i s e f f e c t could be most unfortunate when i t weakened a character's personal l o g i c or integration. '.As the summary of the rejected novel offered i n the preceding chapter makes cle a r , chapter I of the rejected Volcano opened with the same se t t i n g and dramatis personae as the published one. Laruelle and V i g i l conversed wearily on the balcony at the Hotel de l a Selva. In the e a r l i e r version, t h e i r conversation formed a pattern of language which was picturesque, evocative, and consistent with the large-scale a l l e g o r i c a l i nterests of the novel as a whole. But i t was not a pattern that conveyed any sense that the i n t e r a c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s had any r a t i o n a l existence independent of the allegory. Sometimes t h e i r exchange became p o s i t i v e l y s u r r e a l , and Lowry responded marginally with an exasperated exclamation. "Y tiempo con a gustarnos," V i g i l s a id, "Throw away your mind." (8/l/p.2-- phoney corresponds to pp.11-12) 74 There i s no logical or reasonable connection between the two remarks quoted. While both are picturesque and have significance within the larger story that the narrator wishes to t e l l , they do not, when thus juxtaposed, suggest the presence of individuals. That i t was the logic of this sequence to which Lowry objected (rather than i t s language) i s attested to by the changes he made. When he came to revise, he rearranged the way the two phrases occurred; he did not do away with either of them. The second phrase—"throw away your mind"--he moved within the same passage but away from the f i r s t to become part of Vigil's studied response to Laruelle's "No se puede v i v i r sin amar (p.12 ) , " where i t can be under-stood as a reasonable or common-sense response to Laruelle's brooding. In this way, i t loses i t s random quality, the quality which originally sapped any i l l u s i o n that V i g i l was independent of the storyteller's own preoccupations. Extratextual Borrowing and Reference From a slightly different point of view, Lowry's revisions were less a struggle for control between himself and his e a r l i e r narrator than a perpetual hunt for balance. On one l e v e l t h i s balance was of the kind examined above, a balance between the narrative and dramatic modes; on another l e v e l i t was a balance between a complete surrender to many of his own habitual writing i n c l i n a t i o n s and a complete denial of them. Thousands of pages of Volcano revisions provide evidence that during these years Lowry hab i t u a l l y wrote both profusely and d i f f u s e l y . He was almost incapable of completing even a sentence, l e t alone a paragraph, i n the way he had planned when he began i t . He would perceive some connotation of an element and begin to digress i n s t a n t l y by s t a r t i n g to in s e r t a qu a l i f y i n g or modifying subordinate phrase or clause. Once t h i s phrase had been invented and begun, some aspect of i t would t r i g g e r a further t r a i n of thought. Then he would attempt to expand the q u a l i f i c a t i o n with a q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and so on, u n t i l a l l momentum was l o s t and communication 6 had collapsed. This p a r t i c u l a r p r o c l i v i t y was matched i n Lowry by a semiphotographic memory fo r whatever he read. And often he absorbed what he read so thoroughly that he would reproduce material verbatim from other texts without 7 r e a l i z i n g that he was doing so. When Lowry was not p a r t i c u l a r l y v i g i l a n t or c r i t i c a l of his own work these two tendencies often combined to produce writing which was both unreadably digressive and at the same time unreadably " l i t e r a r y " or bookish. The combination might best be described as digressive i n t e r -textual self-indulgence. Without quoting at great length from the e a r l i e r versions of Under the "Volcano, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make t h i s point convincingly, but photographic reproductions i n Appendix A of sample pages i n holograph give a good in d i c a t i o n of Lowry's problem, and Douglas .Day recognized the same pattern of thought i n writing i n the e a r l i e r version of the novel. The e a r l i e r versions of the novel, i n f a c t , were ri d d l e d with digressive i n t e r t e x t u a l reference of one kind or another; t h e i r tone was highly mannered; and they read f o r much of the time as a s t y l i z e d compilation of motifs, images, and stereotypes drawn from academic l i t e r a t u r e . To those readers of the published Under the .Volcano who f i n d i t r i d d l e d with i n t e r t e x t u a l reference, i t may seem su r p r i s i n g , f i r s t that the e a r l i e r version was twice as g u i l t y of t h i s s i n , and, second, that Lowry s p e c i f i c a l l y attempted to control t h i s practice. The evidence i s , however, that what remains i n the novel remains because Lowry permitted i t to, not because he overlooked i t or could not control i t . 77 The examples presented below to support t h i s conclusion represent the range of Lowry's i n t e r t e x t u a l reference and include instances of quotation, naming of other writers, and the general use of other writers' ideas. They show that Lowry's c r i t e r i o n f o r objecting to an instance of int e r t e x t u a l reference was whether or not the reference was successfully integrated with major threads of significance embodied i n the Consul's story. Lowry objected to his own use of i n t e r t e x t u a l reference, i n f a c t , only at points where he also noticed his other p r o c l i v i t i e s towards sup e r f l u i t y and digression and the domination of h i s basic story by an interpreting mind with which he could no longer sympathize. In the rejected version of chapter V, f o r example, as the Consul set about r e t r i e v i n g and drinking from his bottle hidden i n the garden, he saw a s t i c k on the path before him. The suspicion that the s t i c k had been a snake, and the r e a l i z a t i o n of that suspicion, put him i n mind of his em-otion just before, and just a f t e r , the l a s t war had been declared. The sole difference was that now the period of suspense was stretched out i n the man- This i s ner of an accordion, to i t s utmost cap- a pinch a c i t y . How long would i t be before from a t h i s l i t t l e twig of suspicion, f a s c i n - pome i n ating his eyes and the eyes of the world Poetry, f o r such a maddening length of time, would reveal i t s e l f too as a r e a l snake, to move o f f once more l i k e a r i v e r of 78 molten metal or lava, on i t s noisome journey? (8/5/p.l34) (corresponds to Penguin p. 131) Though Lowry appeared to c r i t i c i z e his having "stolen" the image of the snake, his r e a l objection was to i t s heavy-handedness. Lowry admired the Chicago Poetry magazine, and the simile he c r i t i c i z e d i n t h i s context, had very much the manner of Lowry's own t y p i c a l writing during his years of composing the e a r l i e r version of 9 Under the Volcano. It i s a neat image, but at the same time, i t lacks subtlety, and i t s correlations with the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n are laboured and more akin to those of allegory than those of symbolism. To reduce such overbearing a l l e g o r i c a l material, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t correlated the events of the novel with the world p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was one of Lowry's frequent r e v i s i o n practices, whether in t e r t e x t u a l reference was involved or not. In t h i s instance, his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the image--expressed partly by the s l i g h t l y derogatory term "pome"—triggered a recognition of i t s ori g i n s and the subsequent c r i t i c i s m . There i s hardly any evidence, throughout the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n , of Lowry c r i t i c i z i n g a phrase or passage i n his own work sol e l y because i t was borrowed. 79 I n a l a t e , v e r s i o n o f c h a p t e r I , f o r example, Lowry noted a b o r r o w i n g but c o n t i n u e d t o use i t i n t h e p u b l i s h e d n o v e l . A t t h e p o i n t i n t h i s v e r s i o n where L a r u e l l e r e a d G e o f f r e y ' s unsent l e t t e r t o h i s w i f e , Lowry made an i n i t i a l s a r c a s t i c assessment o f one o f t h e images: He r e c o g n i z e d t h e two mannered p h r a s e s , " f o r my s e c r e t s a r e o f t h e g r a v e , my s t o r y o f t h e de a t h o f t h e s o u l , " as q u o t a t i o n s , but he found on c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n t h a t t h e y d i d not r a i s e g r e a t p r o b l e m s , because t h e y o c c u r r e d i n t h e mannered l e t t e r o f a "man o f l e t t e r s . " G i v e n t h a t c o n t e x t , t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e o v e r a l l image o f t h e C o n s u l , h e l p i n g t o d e l i n e a t e h i s -background e d u c a t i o n and h i s t e n d e n c y , l i k e Lowry's own on o c c a s i o n , t o p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f and t h o s e around him i n terms o f g o t h i c l i t e r a r y s t e r e o t y p e s . As a consequence, when Lowry came t o r e c a s t the passage , he b o t h r e t a i n e d one [...] d r i v i n g me out i n t o t h e s t r e e t , i n t o p l a c e s I know, £ how one n i g h t t h e r e was a v u l t u r e i n my washbasin? 2 No, I cannot t e l l y o u ; f o r my s e c r e t s a r e o f t h e g r a v e , my s t o r y o f t h e de a t h o f t h e s o u l . Y e t t h i s i s some- fl t i m e s how I t h i n k o f m y s e l f , as a g r e a t ^ e x p l o r e r who has d i s c o v e r e d some e x t r a -o r d i n a r y l a n d [. . . .] (TM Verso / I / p.37—corresponds'*to*.pp.41-42) o f unnumber-a b l e p l a g -i a r i s m s I n t o t h e c h a p t e r of the offending phrases and added imagery to the passage to i n t e n s i f y the highly " l i t e r a r y " quality of Geoffrey's perception: [. . •] drove me out into the glare of the str e e t , and l a t e r , that night, there was a vulture s i t t i n g i n the washbasin? Horrors portioned to a giant nerve! No, my secrets are of the grave and must be kept. And t h i s i s how I sometimes think of myself [ , . . . ] Lowry's removal of only the second of the two phrases that had i n i t i a l l y caught h i s c r i t i c a l attention served to s a t i s f y him that the reader would not i n t h i s case be disturbed by the borrowing, that the reader would not thus lose a sense of the Consul as an independent character. In another case, where the borrowed image seemed at f i r s t to work well and not be p a r t i c u l a r l y t y p i c a l of the e a r l i e r narrator's digressive self-indulgent references to other texts, Lowry was not even sure whether the phrase was stolen or not. An old woman with a face l i k e a battered, f r i e n d l y , teakettle, carry- I think t h i s ing a mop over her shoulder, shuffled i s a plag-up, scraping her feet. (10/12/p.l— iarism corresponding to p.71) He seems to have decided that the borrowed image here, coming as i t did from the narrator rather than a character, tended to communicate too d i s t i n c t l y c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y aspects of the narrator's background and personality He consequently substituted the less witty and unusual description of Concepta as a "kindly, i n t e l l e c t u a l orangutang Plagiarism per se, i n none of these cases, was a problem f o r Lowry; he found borrowed material d i f f i c u l t when i t worked to define eith e r characters or narrative personality i n ways that had become fundamentally inconsistent with the r e l a t i v e weightings these had been given during the process o f - r e v i s i n g . L i t e r a r y name-dropping was ascmuch a writing habit for Lowry as was l i t e r a r y borrowing. Perhaps to a more pronounced extent than i s usual, Lowry found the names of writers f u l l of si g n i f i c a n c e , and he would use them with great frequency i n e a r l i e r versions. They would often appear therein i n superfluous digressions that s a t i s f i e d only Lowry's personal fondness f o r following up every vague connotation that occurred to him. Lowry's f i g h t with his own i n c l i n a t i o n s i n t h i s area thus p a r a l l e l e d the c o n f l i c t he experienced i n the areas of l i t e r a r y borrowing and expansiveness for i t s own sake. As he revised, he had to struggle to f i n d a balance that would preserve the richness given the text by c i t i n g other writers' names but which would not permit the text to become a l i t e r a r y exercise r e f l e c t i n g s o l e l y his own tastes and l i t e r a r y experience. One can actually see how Lowry faced 82 t h i s quandary on a single page'of an i n t e r m e d i a t e 'version of chapter VIII. Leaving the fairground at Cuernavaca, Hugh, his brother, and Yvonne caught the bus for Tomalin. After they encountered the injured peasant by the side of the road, each one of them i n d i v i d u a l l y t r i e d to come to terms with the fact that they had not helped him. As they pondered the s i t u a t i o n , the bus traveled on. Lowry's comments and insertions here show him t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h control by deciding whether a d i r e c t reference to another writer at t h i s point genuinely contributed to the i n t e l l i g i -b i l i t y of the novel's central concerns, or whether i t detracted from i t . He dodged around the outside of the bus with unusual s k i l l , taking the fares through the open window. Once, when they were breasting a steep i n c l i n e he even dropped o f f to the road on the l e f t , swerved round to the back of the camion at a run to appear again on the Cut Kafka r i g h t , peeping (Hooking)) i n through here [3] the windows with a clownish expression. Then a f r i e n d of his sprang on the bus. They crouched ((rather l i k e No Kafka? [2] the Czech with Kafka's . . . . ) ) [ l b ] as i f they one on either side of the bonnet by the had sprung two front mudguards, ((16tZi.lt/tM/tfdtld out of the llM/t46/M&*A6t&*i/6*t76f/MfKA)) [ l a ] pages of every now and then j o i n i n g hands over Franz Kafka,[1] the radiator cap, while the f i r s t man, leaning dangerously outward, looked back to see i f one of the t i r e s , that had acquired a slow puncture, was hold-ing. (11/4/part 2/p.23—corresponds to pp.252-53) It appears that as Lowry read his i n i t i a l text, the image of the two men on the bonnet of the bus reminded him of an incident or image i n Kafka's work. (He had possibly even based his description on t h i s image i n the f i r s t place.) In order to increase the force of the connection with Kafka's work, to b u i l d up a Kafkaesque atmosphere of a c t i v i t y proceeding without cl e a r reasons, Lowry then attempted the direct-reference phrase (1) i n the margin before actually i n s e r t i n g a variant of i t (la) i n the text. This he deleted as he found the way he had phrased i t overly mannered ("for a l l the world"), and he consequently t r i e d the other i n s e r t i o n , "rather l i k e the Czech with Kafka's . . . . " ( l b ) . At some l a t e r point he recognized that the whole exercise arose out of his own tendency to digress and follow any and a l l l i t e r a r y connotations as i f they were equally relevant. In the published version (pp.252-53), no overt reference to Kafka appears at t h i s point; the two men are l e f t to assume t h e i r p o sition on e i t h e r side of the bonnet with no l i t e r a r y characterization from the narrator. This version r e f l e c t s the marginal comments (3) "Cut Kafka here" and (2) "No Kafka?" The question and answer r e l a t i o n s h i p of these two comments emphasized Lowry's equivocation over t h i s kind of problem. Without quoting at length from the rejected and other early versions of Under the Volcano, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to convey the extent to which t h e i r narrator's 84 a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o b t r u s i v e l y pervaded and c o n t r o l l e d t h e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . S i m i l a r l y , w i t h o u t p r e s e n t i n g e v e r y m a r g i n a l a n n o t a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o convey t h e f a c t t h a t Lowry's n o t e s were not i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s o f l i t e r a r y c o r r e c t i o n s but formed a d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e whole o f a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . Each p i e c e o f c r i t i c i s m may t h u s appear a t f i r s t t o be h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r i n i t s t e r m i n o l o g y . But c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f example a f t e r example l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a l m o s t e v e r y a n n o t a t i o n marked the l o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f a whole man w i t h h i s whole t e x t . I n an i n t e r m e d i a t e v e r s i o n o f c h a p t e r I , f o r example, n e a r th e o p ening o f the n o v e l , Lowry's e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e d Bustamente s p e a k i n g t o L a r u e l l e about G e o f f r e y . "He d i c e t h a t f o r so l o n g as he i s i n e v i l s he d e s i r e them. And as man c an-not be shunning th e e v i l s i n h i s own s t r e n g t h he must be l o o k i n g t o God. But Cut most as y o u r f r i e n d have no s t r e n g t h t o be o r s h o r t -l o o k i n g t o God he l o o k t o h e l l i n s t e a d . en t h i s So t h a t he was always i n t h e e v i l s , Sweden-He maked so un p r o g r e s i o n a l r a t o s . I n b org t h e end he d i c e he l i k e t h e r a t o s . The st-uff a l a e r a n e s t o o , t h e s p i d e r s tambien. I t i s t r i s t - e . Your amigo d i c e i t i s sad when you t h i n k how poor your f r i e n d might have f l o u r i s h e d l i k e a t r e e i n t h e s p r i n g t i m e . " (10/3/second p. 1 2 — c o r r e s p o n d s t o p. 34) Two of the e a r l i e r versions' most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c weaknesses were evident to Lowry i n t h i s passage. The f i r s t was the lack of any sense that the characters were independent persons, and the second was the foregrounding of the narrator's own melodramatic metaphysical scenario fo r the novel. Lowry's comment sp e l l s neither of them out but i n d i r e c t l y implies correction of both. The f i r s t of these weaknesses was what lay behind the cinema manager's absurd language. He sounded l i k e a comic stereotype, the cartoon or burlesque "foreigner," whose r e l a t i v e l y normal English was simply varied by one or two uses of the wrong tense, wrong prepositions, and occasional words from his native language. It was impossible to "read" Bustamente as an independent i n d i v i d u a l speaking with personal concern f o r an acquaintance who had died. This way of presenting Bustamente r e f l e c t e d the e a r l i e r narrator's previously noted lack of i n t e r e s t i n him as an independent character. The e a r l i e r narrator's concern here, as elsewhere, was to present both Bustamente and the subject of his conversation—Geoffrey F i r m i n — a s a l l e g o r i c a l figures i n a t r a g i c morality play; to t h i s end, not only Bustamente but also the Consul, was stereotyped here, the l a t t e r , ' i h d i r e c t l y ^ E i n terms ©fi> Swedenborgiansphilosophy. Lowry was not d i s t u r b e d about t h e Swedenborgian images as d i g r e s s i v e , because t h e y g e n u i n e l y d e v e l o p e d some a s p e c t s o f t h e C o n s u l ' s r o l e i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r l d s o f t h e o c c u l t and t h e c a b a l a . But they appeared i n t h i s passage i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t o o sudde n l y and t o o h e a v i l y , and so " o v e r e x p l a i n e d " t h e n o v e l ' s s t o r y i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l terms. Lowry's fundamental q u a r r e l was a g a i n , t h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l ' s w o r l d ; and h i s b a s i c o b j e c t i o n was t o any compromise o f t h e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d ' s apparent independence o f t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . H i s r e v i s i o n s r e f l e c t t h e s e c o n c e r n s . The p u b l i s h e d passage i s reduced t o two s h o r t ones s e p a r a t e d by an a c t i v e and d r a m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e chan g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the b a r around t h e two s p e a k e r s . •Your amigo, t h e b i c h o - ' S e n s i t i v e a p p a r e n t l y t o M. L a r u e l l e ' s s m i l e he i n t e r r u p t e d h i m s e l f q u i e t l y . ' I d i d not mean b i t c h ; I mean b i c h o , t h e one w i t h t h e b l u e eyes.' Then, as i f t h e r e were any l o n g e r doubt o f whom he spoke, he p i n c h e d h i s c h i n and drew downward from i t an i m a g i n a r y b e a r d . 'Your amigo,- ah - Senor F i r m i n . E l C o n s u l . The Americano.' 'But was i t t r u e , t h e n , he was a Cons u l ? F o r I remember him many ti m e s i t t i n g h e r e d r i n k i n g : and o f t e n , t h e poor guy, he have no s o c k s . ' "Borrowing" from other writing does not stop with the appropriation of phrases and images. The most subtle i n t e r t e x t u a l relationships are those found i n the tone, rhythm, phrasing, and vocabulary of writing. In t h i s area there may be no d i r e c t quotation of named reference, but nonetheless, the manner of writing i s c l e a r l y borrowed. This form of borrowing was as much a problem f o r Lowry as the other forms. His capacity f o r "absorbing" the styles of writers he admired has made the published Volcano a treasure trove f o r any c r i t i c interested i n the influence i n the twentieth century of the King James Bible, Shakes-peare, Burton's Anatomy, Marlowe, the English Romantics, M e l v i l l e , Dostoyevski, Baudelaire, Swinburne, and Wilde, among many others. 1^ Like the effects of d i r e c t references to named writers and p l a g i a r i z e d material, the influences of t h i s more subtle kind became problematic f o r Lowry only when he found them f a i l i n g to integrate with his developing view of the novel, and usually because they r e f l e c t e d the e a r l i e r narrator's personal schematic perception/account of the f i c t i o n a l world. In chapter I of the novel, for example, as Laruelle walked back into the town, he encountered a careering horse and r i d e r . Lowry's comment on an intermediate version of t h i s confrontation shows him r e j e c t i n g a Faulknerian manner 88 together with the attitudes towards the world that i t tended to connote. [. . .] holding them i n one hand now, the sti r r u p s s t i l l unrecovered as he furious-l y beat the horses flanks with the machete he had withdrawn from a long curved scab- get bard. Women drew t h e i r children into Faulkner the side of the road as he f l e d on, men out of stood back against the ditches. But the the sight of him, the sight of thi s man gallop- machinery ing so c r a z i l y into the darkness beyond the careening headlights that now approached Laruelle, transfixed him: the l i g h t s which dazzled him and passed had revealed the man's eyes as wild as those soon to be f a m i l i a r with death, but t h i s too, he thought, t h i s maniacal v i s i o n of senseless frenzy, but . controlled, not quite uncontrolled, somehow obscurely splendid, t h i s top was the Consul,; [. . . .] (10/3/second p. 5—corresponds to p. 28) c The unbroken rhythmic flow of the passage combined with the equally Faulknerian repeated rhyme of "sight"/ "lights"/"headlights" to produce an image of an experience that "consumed" or overwhelmed i t s observer, Laruelle. The description of the event was also Faulknerian i n being larger than l i f e , otherworldly, dealing i n a no-man's-^land between the r e a l and the supernatural, and i n being melodramatic. As such, the passage was perf e c t l y appropriate to the e a r l i e r narrator's a l l e g o r i c a l and t r a g i c scenario; Laruelle was to be confronted by a l i v i n g symbol of the Consul * s l i f e , a d i r e c t manifestation of dark forces larger than his human mind could comprehand. In Lowry's developing view of the novel, however, t h i s account of Laruelle as consumed by a v i s i o n of the supernatural forces at work was unsatisfactory and crude. Lowry was coming to perceive Laruelle as an objective voyeur, a stance connoted by his profession of filmmaker. In his f i n a l view of Laruelle, the Frenchman i s less l i k e l y than anyone else to be caught up by an experience; unlike Hugh, Yvonne, and Geoffrey, he i s the survivor because he refuses to be moved by events. In accord with his developing view of Laruelle, Lowry revised t h i s passage for publication to deal with these s p e c i f i c problems. He removed the Faulknerian r e p e t i t i o n and, more fundamentally, broke the passage i n two, introducing an intermediate passage i n which Laruelle turns his attention to other objects and to independent personal r e c o l l e c t i o n s , a perfect example of the kind of change i n character d e f i n i t i o n that was central to the whole r e v i s i o n process. In the preceding case, the experience presented to the reader was Laruelle's. When the character i n question was not Laruelle, Hugh, Yvonne, or the other minor characters, but was the e a r l i e r narrator's hero, the Consul, the p a r t i r cular problem of the character being dominated by the narrator did not assume precisely the same form. It took a d i f f e r e n t shape because i n the e a r l i e r versions the narrator and the Consul had a special r e l a t i o n s h i p r e l a t i v e 90 to the other characters. In the published version of the novel, while the Consul i s the centre of attention, his experience i s i n no sense "pri v i l e g e d " over that of Hugh, Yvonne, Laruelle, or any of the other figures. Throughout the melodramatic and allegor-i c a l rejected version of the novel, however, only the Consul had a s i g n i f i c a n t inner l i f e ; the other characters were presented as a set of stereotypes representing supernatural forces surrounding the Consul and constantly threatening his s o l i t a r y humanity. And Geoffrey himself very much shared t h i s view of the characters around him. In other words, both the narrator of the e a r l i e r versions of Volcano and the central character tended to perceive/describe the world of Quauhnalmac i n the late 19 30s i n terms of the same stereotypes. One of the side effects of t h e i r sharing the same vi s i o n was that the Consul, r e l a t i v e to the characters surrounding him, was i n the rejected version a developed i n d i v i d u a l with a personal h i s t o r y , a character who was complex both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally. As a conse-quence, when Lowry began to discover the weaknesses of the e a r l i e r narrative, he did not have quite the same d i f f i c u l t i e s with the character of the Consul that he had with the other figures. One example of his marginal c r i t i c i s m s of extra-91 textual influence is especially interesting in this respect because i t shows that Lowry reacted differently to the subtle influence of another writer's manner in his own work when weak character development was not at issue. In a very late version of chapter VI, Hugh, Yvonne, and the Consul strolled together through the streets of Quauhnahuac. Suddenly Laruelle appeared before the three of them. In the margin of the passage, Lowry marked his recognition of the Proustian manner. [Laruelle] was confronting them, though smiling, i t appeared, at Yvonne alone, his blue, bold protruberant eyes expres-sing an incredulous dismay, his black eyebrows frozen in a comedian's arch: he hesitated : then this man, who wore his coat open and trousers very high over a stomach they had probably been designed to conceal but merely succeeded in giv-ing the character of an independent turn- ~ s e n s e escence of the lower part of his body, ehost of came forward with eyes flashing and P , Proust mouth under i t s small moustache curved . ., '. , . . . , , . at tne end in a smile at once false and engaging, Q ^ t ^ i s . . yet somehow protective—and somehow, . -t^ere also, increasingly grave—came forward anvthine as i f impelled by clockwork, hand out, to be done automatically ingratiating;[. . .] about i t (TMText/VI/p.52—corresponds to pp. , I J O W O V l 7 ' 19 3/9*0 noweverr The minute and subtle description, f i l l e d with qual-i f i c a t i o n , restatement, and speculative interpretation, while following the eye and mind of the partial and emotionally involved observer was t y p i c a l of one of Marcel's i n i t i a l encounters. It was an e s p e c i a l l y appropriate manner here because Geoffrey, the observer, was i n a t y p i c a l l y Proustian s i t u a t i o n ; he had an intense, complicated, and equivocal relationship with the man he confronted, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p actually revolved around Yvonne, who was also present. After due consideration, Lowry allowed the pasaage to stand because he could not improve on i t . This annotation and negative response to i t thus point to another major feature of the r e v i s i o n process, the separation of the narrative perception from that of the central character. In the e a r l i e r versions of the novel, t h i s description of Laruelle as a caricature of the aging roue represented the narrator's own view as well as the Consul's. But by the time Lowry made his c r i t i c a l annotation, he had e f f e c t i v e l y removed the narrator as a judging voice i n the novel and revised i n d i v i d u a l chapters so that they presented the world as perceived by only one of the characters. Since the Consul was, i n t h i s passage, a f u l l y developed i n d i v i d u a l there wasc_simply no. reason f o r the account of his perception of Laruelle to change from one version of the novel to another. Lowry was i n fact concerned during r e v i s i o n to dissociate the narrative personality from any such biased and caricaturing view of the characters surrounding the Consul; but Geoffrey himself continued to perceive his companions i n si m i l a r terms throughout the r e v i s i o n process. And i n t h i s he was the exception. Inconsistency It might appear from much of the foregoing analysis and discussion that Lowry's c r i t i c i s m of his own e a r l i e r texts sprang out of a c l e a r l y defined c o n f l i c t , as though he brought a coherent and schematic set of l i t e r a r y and other values to bear methodically on his texts as he revised them. While his c r i t i c i s m s were usually consistent and sound i n terms of his basic struggle with the e a r l i e r narrative, and he consequently made adjustments i n response to most of them, the process of c r i t i c i s m was always one of discovery. Cases l i k e that involving the Proustian passage, where he eventually made no change, demonstrate t h i s f a c t . In other words, his i n i t i a l c r i t i c a l comments frequently recorded a primary response which he l a t e r considered i n d e t a i l . At t h i s l a t e r stage, he discovered which aspects of the c r i t i c i z e d passage had upset him i n the f i r s t place. Sometimes, as above, but not often, he discovered that no change was necessary. These 9H cases are extremely i n t e r e s t i n g because they emphasize the d i s t i n c t i o n i n Lowry's creative practice between i n i t i a l i n t u i t i o n and the analysis that leads to discovery. Two annotations illuminate t h i s very important point from d i f f e r e n t angles. The f i r s t again shows Lowry f i r s t i n t u i t i n g a problem but discovering l a t e r on analysis that the c r i t i c i z e d material functioned well within his developing concept of the novel as a whole. The second i s an example in which Lowry noted his a n a l y t i c a l discovery that an e a r l i e r i n t u i t i o n was j u s t i f i e d . Chapter X of the published Volcano i s the chapter i n which the Consul precipitates the f i n a l catastrophic break with Hugh and Yvonne. I t begins with the Consul c a l l i n g absentmindedly f o r "Mescal," the drink which the reader and he both know he cannot survive. A f t e r his mind has been flooded by memories of f a i l u r e , waste, and loss <f><Sr some minutes, he turns his glance outward from the Salon O f e l i a to the swimming pool where Hugh and Yvonne appear "grotes-quely costumed." Cervantes, the proprietor, f i r s t appears with his f i g h t i n g cock from behind the bar, then disappears. U n t i l t h i s point the chapter i s almost overpoweringly cerebral and introspective. It i s a dense stream of consciousness that, l i k e a t r a i n , gathers speed while running downhill almost out of control. In an e a r l i e r version, as the Consul contronted his second glass of mescal, 95 Lowry used an image to describe his dreadful state which, on review, he questioned i n the margin. to drink or not to drink . . . But without mescal—he imagined—he had Comparison forgotten e t e r n i t y , forgotten t h e i r of the ear-world's voyage, that the earth was a th to a ship, lashed by the Horn's t a i l , doomed ship doomed never to make its' her Valparaiso undoes the [.. . . ] ( l l / l t / p . 8 — c o r r e s p o n d s to foundering p. 295) f r e i g h t e r image The "foundering f r e i g h t e r image" to which Lowry referred i s found i n a passage describing theConsul's developing hangover: " I t was a hangover l i k e a greak dark ocean swell f i n a l l y r o l l e d up against a foundering steamer, by countless gales to windward that have long since blown themselves out." In the l i g h t of t h i s l a t e r image, i t i s impossible to be quite c e r t a i n of what Lowry meant to warn himself i n his c r i t i c a l annotation. But one can speculate that as he read through t h i s version of the chapter, he remembered that the foundering-freighter image was to follow and that i t was to r e f e r , t o the Consul rather than to the world. His reaction was possibly to a vague f e e l i n g that some form of r e p e t i t i o n or confusion might be involved. As a matter of f a c t , however, the two images tended, to reinforce each other, obscurely associating the Consul's future with that of the world, which i s precisely one of the well-established aspects of the novel's o v e r a l l s i g n i f -icance : the tQonsul i s the world's woes i n microcosm. The fact that Lowry f i r s t made the c r i t i c i s m but then made no change reinforces the conclusion above that the r e v i s i o n process i n general was decidedly one of discovering new significance i n a pre-text through c r i t i c i s m . To put t h i s i n the perspective of Lowry's underlying struggle with the e a r l i e r narrative, discoveries of strength i n his text were as important to him as discoveries of weakness i n gaining control over i t . He needed as he revised to c a p i t a l i z e on the strengths he discovered as much as to contain or cure weaknesses. Quite n a t u r a l l y , of course, the vast majority of comments record Lowry discovering a l o c a l weakness through c r i t i c a l awareness of the text as a whole. Throughout Under the  Volcano, f o r example, there i s a controlled development of the Consul's doom. He moves i n steps through the course of the day from one "s t a t i o n " to another i n such a way that the f i n a l chapter of the novel seems the inevitable outcome of the forces i n t e r a c t i n g through him and those around him: forces from h i s and his friends' pasts, forces from the Mexican past and present, and, by extension, forces from the past of humanity. 97 This movement can be traced not only on the l e v e l of the novel's action but also on a metaphoric l e v e l , type-i c a l l y involving some version of the pathetic f a l l a c y . On another metaphoric l e v e l , the passing of time i t s e l f charts the same movement while the hands of the clock move towards a Faustian midnight. And on yet another l e v e l , the Consul moves throughout the novel i n r e l a t i o n to Popocatepetl, c i r c l i n g i t , approaching gradually nearer and then, seemingly, a r r i v i n g almost beneath i t i n the f i n a l chapter at the F a r o l i t o . In the e a r l i e r version of the novel, these metaphoric threads tended to be less subtly handled. Background portents and changes i n the weather were less e f f e c t i v e l y incorporated into the novel's flow of action; they were, rather, grafted onto i t . In t h i s respect they resembled the passage discussed above that Lowry c r i t i c i z e d f o r making allusions to Swedenborg too blatant. While he wished to preserve the connections between the story of the Consul and the account of the human condition presented by Swedenborg, he did not wish them to obtrude or dominate. Lowry made much the same c r i t i c i s m , but spelled out f a r more c l e a r l y the novel-wide scope of the context involved, i n an annotation to an intermediate version of chapter VIII. The passage he c r i t i c i z e d was i n the same version 98 and only a page following the passage discussed above i n which he attempted to i n s e r t a d i r e c t reference to Kafka. Here he simply noted a f a i l u r e to observe a balanced presentation of subordinate motifs. Then they were at Chapultepec. The dri v e r kept his hand on the screaming I f i t i s too emergency brake as they c i r c l e d down close i t into the square. Popocatepetl now detracts seemed impossibly close to them, from the crouching, enormous, swept by clouds, e f f e c t s of slashed by h a i l and snow, with i t s massive splendid thickness of sloping v a l l e y s , interests over the forest that lay beyond the moving up i n town. (11/4/part 2/p.24--corresponds the back-to pp.254-55) ground Lowry*s point was that the appearance of Popocatepetl was clumsily handled r e l a t i v e to the ongoing action of the novel. I t was, f i r s t , out of step with the measured progression towards Geoffrey's doom, and i t was at the same time obtrusive because i t was overwritten. As such i t attracted attention to i t s e l f almost as i f i t were a comment on the novel's action, a comment expressing, of course, the e a r l i e r narrator's melodramatic, a l l e g o r i c a l perception of the novel's world. The minor adjustments Lowry made to thi s passage by the time i t was published help c l a r i f y the nature of the discovery his i n i t i a l annotation led to. 99 Ixtaccuhautl had slipped out of sight but as, descending, they c i r c l e d round and round, Popocatepetl s l i d i n and out of view continually, never appearing the same twice, now f a r away, then vastly near at hand, in c a l c u l a b l y distant at one moment, at the next looming round the corner with i t s splendid thickness of sloping f i e l d s , v a l l e y s , timber, i t s summit swept by clouds, slashed by h a i l and snow. . . Popocatepetl i s presented here with f a r less of the melodrama associated with i t i n the e a r l i e r version through terms l i k e "crouching, enormous", and "impossibly close." The whole paragraph i s also rhythmically less v i o l e n t , more l i k e an interlude than an episode. And these changes together r e f l e c t Lowry's discovery i n himself, through close c r i t i c i s m and analysis, of a more subtle perception of his f i c t i o n a l world. Neither of these two stages could exi s t without the other—Lowry had to be able to perceive more subtly before he could c r i t i c i z e h i s e a r l i e r text, but he had to discover that a b i l i t y i n himself through the c r i t i c a l process. Regarded i n the l i g h t of the many preceding examples discussed, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r resequence of annotation and r e v i s i o n shows very c l e a r l y that Lowry's c r i t i c a l notes tended to record only a moment or two of crude attention. Both preceding and following each note chronologically, there may have been extended psychological developments. 100 Problems of Personal Style When discussing Lowry's special personal problems of digressive i n t e r t e x t u a l self-indulgence, the e a r l i e r author entered the arena of analysis beside the e a r l i e r narrative  personality of Under the Volcano. What precisely was the relati o n s h i p between the e a r l i e r narrator and the e a r l i e r author? To answer t h i s question i n any d e t a i l requires a great deal of information outside the scope of a chapter confined to analysis of purely c r i t i c a l comments. Never-theless, among Lowry's marginal c r i t i c i s m there are occasional i n d i v i d u a l comments which cast some l i g h t on the question. In one of these Lowry t a c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d his own e a r l i e r s e l f with the narrative voice whose manner of perceiving and describing the world had become so objectionable to him. The comment i n question occurred i n the margin of the rejected version of chapter I. In a passage t y p i c a l of those to which Lowry frequently objected because they lacked drama or because they read l i k e a synopsis, Laruelle and V i g i l discussed the Consul. The doctor spoke f i r s t : "We had been drinking a l l night l i k e madmen. I had gone to see Quincey and <, , . the Consul was i n his garden. Then stoaginess I went back to his house with him and e r e we went on drinking a l l morning. Noth^ 101 ing he said made much sense but he was a damned amusing fellow i n spite of everything I must say . . . " "Did you know that they passed a peon ly i n g on the road that afternoon, who had been t e r r i b l y beaten up and robbed and l e f t for dead. And that, according Avoid any to Hugh, they didn't or couldn't do Malcolm a thing.? stodginess V i g i l nodded. "The police were on one l i k e the of t h e i r habitual rampages about that plague. time." (8/1/p.8--corresponds to pp.10-11) Although placed i n the mouths of these two characters, t h i s c r i t i c i z e d dialogue was couched i n t h e . e a r l i e r -narrator's own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y vague tone, d i c t i o n , and general manner—"nothing he said made much sense...in spite of everything ...couldn't do a thing.". Laruelle and V i g i l both sounded precisely l i k e both the narrator and the Consul. As indicated e a r l i e r , the personality and v i s i o n of the Consul were strongly i d e n t i f i e d with those of the narrator of t h i s version. Given that the terms "Malcolm stodginess" r e f e r i to himself i n t h i s marginal note, Lowry diagnosed certain weak features of the e a r l i e r narrator's vague perception and consequent weak characterization as weaknesses inherent i n his own e a r l i e r psychology and personality. Without evidence i beyond Lowry's own comment here i t i s impossible to make t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the personalities of the writer and the e a r l i e r narrator, but i t i s worth noting that no comment examined thus f a r 102 precludes such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; that Lowry himself overtly made i t i s i t s e l f a powerful i n d i c a t i o n of i t s v a l i d i t y . Conclusions The c r i t i c a l annotations examined i n t h i s chapter e s s e n t i a l l y show how Lowry consistently marked ce r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of his e a r l i e r texts that he found generally unsatisfactory. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be summarized as an overt domination of the persons and a c t i v i t y of the novel,by the narrative personality and v i s i o n , a domination expressed most consistently through the stereotyping of characters and events. Ways of describing (e.g. stereotyping) are equivalent to ways of perceiving, so Lowry's attack was ultimately upon his e a r l i e r narrator's way of perceiving the novel's basic underlying story. At the same time, too, when Lowry c r i t i c i z e d his pre-texts because he did not agree with the terms i n which the novel's story was described, he i m p l i c i t l y expressed his own new and developing way of perceiving his novel's characters and events. Some of the ways of describing that he c r i t i c i z e d may be i d e n t i f i e d as his personal writing habits. And on one occasion he e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d himself with the e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r . A l t h o u g h t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s f a r from c o n c l u s i v e , i t a t l e a s t s u g g e s t s t h a t , t o some e x t e n t , Lowry's g e n e r a l a t t a c k on t h e terms i n w h i c h t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r p e r c e i v e d may have been an a t t a c k on th e terms i n wh i c h he had h i m s e l f p e r c e i v e d the same u n d e r l y i n g s t o r y o f t h e C o n s u l ' s l a s t day a l i v e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p r o c e s s marked by the a n n o t a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r may be c o n c e i v e d o f as one o f s t r u g g l e between Lowry and h i s e a r l i e r s e l f c a r r i e d out t h r o u g h a c r i t i c a l hunt f o r h i s e a r l i e r s e l f ' s p e r c e p t u a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. But d i s c o v e r y o f weakness and s t r e n g t h was o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y t o t h e i r development t h r o u g h s t r a t e g i c r e v i s i o n , t he s u b j e c t o f the c h a p t e r which f o l l o w s . 104 Notes ^ Under the Volcano (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1963), p. 31. Subsequent c i t a t i o n s by page number alone' within the text are to t h i s r e a d i l y available e d i t i o n . Although i t has a small number of minor typographical errors, t h i s e dition reproduces very f a i t h f u l l y the text approved by Lowry and published i n 1947. Within every c i t a t i o n of a manuscript item quoted I have included, at the end, the page number of t h i s e d i t i o n to which the quoted material corresponds. 2 Dorothy L. Sayers, trans., The Comedy of Dante A l i g h i e r i , Cant l e a 1 ulHell (Harmondsworth!: Penguin, 1949), p. 185. 3 Sayers, pp.185-86. i i See Benjamin W i l l i s Howard, "Malcolm Lowry: The ordeal of Bourgeois Humanism," PH. D. d i s s . , Syracuse Univ. 1971. This thesis, to some extent, interprets the published novel along these s a t i r i c l i n e s . But t h i s reading i s i n many ways more appropriate to the rejected novel. By the time Lowry had completed his revisions he had become f a r more ambivalent about the virtue of the Consul's bourgeois values than the e a r l i e r narrator had been. See Costa, Lowry, p. 93; Day, pp. 261-63. g See Day, pp. 273-74, f o r a succinct account of the i n t e l l e c t u a l predispositions that such writing habits r e f l e c t e d . 7 William McConnell, "Recollections of Malcolm Lowry," i n Malcolm Lowry:, The Man and His Work, ed. George Woodcock (Vancouver: Univ. of B. C. Press, 1971), p. 155. 8 Day, p. 267. 9* See Volcano p. 131 for a genuine expression of Lowry's respect f o r Poetry, a l b e i t i n the Consul's month. See Day, pp. 282-85 and Earle Birney, "Some Poems by Malcolm Lowry," i n Malcolm Lowry, ed. Woodcock, pp.91-93, for general commentary on Lowry's verse. ^ See K i l g a l l i n , Lowry, pp.147-210 f o r an extended analysis of Volcano that moves from one extratextual a l l u s i o n or reference to another. Chapter Three STRATEGY Lowry's c r i t i c a l annotations usually pointed to what he saw as wrong with his e a r l i e r texts. His strategic notes, i n contrast, recorded what he decided to do with his e a r l i e r text i n the way of r e v i s i n g i t . Where his c r i t i c a l annota-tions formed a pattern that was defined by the d e t a i l s of his c o n f l i c t with the e a r l i e r narrator's ways of perceiving and^ A. describing people and t h e i r world, his st r a t e g i c notes formed a corresponding pattern, defined by d e t a i l s of the way Lowry re-perceived the people and events of the novel. On the one hand, c r i t i c a l notes recorded Lowry spontaneously formulating his d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . They tended, therefore, to imply removal and cont r o l . Strategic notes, on the other hand, gave expression to Lowry's search i n his pre-texts f o r areas that could be or had to be developed to f i l l voids or absences that he perceived. They tended, therefore, to imply growth and increasing complexity. Regarded cumulatively, they recorded Lowry's struggle to discover and develop i n his novel a coherent and humane alte r n a t i v e interpretation of what happened on the Consul's f i n a l day a l i v e . Each str a t e g i c note thus 106 107 uniquely expressed a l o c a l discovery and development of a judgement which was both l i t e r a r y and personal. But at the same time, each note made a contribution to a larger develop-ing pattern of meaning which was eventually expressed by the published novel as a whole. The f i r s t set of i n d i v i d u a l notes discussed i n d e t a i l here shows Lowry deciding to strengthen his characterization and define a new v i s i o n of personal a l i e n a t i o n . He achieved both objectives through development of these characters' inner l i v e s and personal h i s t o r i e s — t h e i r memories, thoughts, and feel i n g s . The second set shows Lowry reimagining the f i c t i o n a l situations i n which these developing characters found themselves. A t h i r d set represents Lowry's explorations of and decisions about the o v e r a l l way i n which persons and things related to each other within his f i c t i o n a l world. A l l of these notes, however, must be viewed i n r e l a t i o n to one very important str a t e g i c decision. At some point soon a f t e r his 1940 novel version had been soundly rejected and he had set about reexamining i t , Lowry made a technical decision to avoid the narrative technique he had used i n the e a r l i e r version. The alternative-mode*hei®ch'©"s».'warsP£ v a r i a t i o n of l i m i t e d omniscience* similar, to that used^Sy^Henry James, inc^-IherfAmbassador!sv , ^ The ,nove 1 ^ antinued fo be narrated i n the t h i r d person, but the scope of the narrator's awareness became limited i n a l l but one chapter to the perceptions and other experiences of a single i n d i v i d u a l acting within the novel's world. 1 According to the pattern that Lowry devised, chapter I was recast from the point of view of Laruelle, chapter II from that of Yvonne, chapter III from the Consul's view-point, IV from Hugh's, V from the Consul's, again, VI from Hugh's, VII from Geoffrey's, VIII from Hugh's again, IX from Yvonne's, and X from Geoffrey's. Chapter XI i s the exception and looks back, formally, to the e a r l i e r version's omniscient narrative.^ At the same time, however, i t i s also f a r more objective, f a r more l i k e the view of a "camera-eye" than the e a r l i e r narrative's manifestly personal mediation of the story. The f i n a l chapter was rewritten from the Consul's point of view. Two i n t e r e s t i n g marginal notes recorded t h i s major strategic decision on the l o c a l and mechanical l e v e l . Both occurred i n the margins of passages from the rejected novel version. The f i r s t i s found i n chapter I I I , a f t e r Geoffrey and Yvonne returned to t h e i r home. At f i r s t they talked on the porch outside the house and sparred verbally with each other. The Consul's nerves were completely stretched taut by his need f o r a drink when the phone rang. 109 After some juggling he found which end was which and Yvonne ((he)) heard him m £ n o t » ( ( s e l f ) ) say((ing automatically i n reply aecordinff to what he was not concentrating on)) ' s "What? From where? Oh, I see, ha, . . . r o ° r A l l r i g h t . Goodbye. Good. Oh, say c„?4-Ah + n B i l l , what was the o r i g i n of that Yvonne's s i l v e r rumour that appeared i n the papers 0 r t n Q n i r t l l < s yesterday[. . . .](8/3/p.86—corresponds to p. 81) n e s s ' Beyond the fact that they show Lowry consciously implementing his major formal s t r a t e g i c decision, t h i s text and comment are of no great i n t e r e s t . They do not show Lowry doing any more than simply transposing the mode of the text quite automatically. He noted the switch to Yvonne's point of view conveyed by the phrase "and Yvonne heard," and made an attempt to convert the text by insertions alone. A f t e r further polishing, the published passage read as f o l -lows: ". . .he started to speak into the receiver, then, sweating, into the mouthpiece, t a l k i n g r a p i d l y — f o r i t was a trunk c a l l - n o t knowing what he was saying, hearing Tom's muted voice quite p l a i n l y . . . . " Between here and the point at which he made the mechanical conversion from Yvonne's to the Consul's point of view, of course, f a r more than a mechanical change took place i n the passage. The Consul's experience has been dramatically reimagined and represented i n such a way that i t comes to l i f e with painf u l personal d e t a i l . Dramatic reimagining of t h i s kind was of great importance to the 110 r e v i s i o n process as a whole, but t h i s example makes i t esp e c i a l l y c l e a r how the fundamental technical decision to r e s t r i c t the narrator's range or knowledge lay as the foundation beneath many of these re v i s i o n s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance, t h i s process of dramatic reimagining was not forced on Lowry by the formal conversion his plan dictated. He only had to change a pronoun or two. In other circumstances, however, he was v i r t u a l l y compelled '. by his own i n i t i a l decision to rethink complete f i c t i o n a l experiences. An example of t h i s compulsion at work on a small scale i s recorded i n a marginal note to chapter IX of the rejected version of the novel. Geoffrey, Yvonne, and Hugh arrived at the Arena Tomalin a f t e r t h e i r disturbing encounter with a dying Indian during a journey from Quauhnahuac. After some time had passed during which the b u l l i n the r i n g had been aimlessly and unsuccessfully goaded, Hugh suddenly jumped into the r i n g . In character^ i s t i c fashion, the omniscient narrator interpreted Hugh's action f o r the reader i n an extremely programmatic and r i g i d fashion. Lowry's comment showed him setting out to remove the experience from the e a r l i e r narrator's i n t e r -pretive grasp and present i t as Yvonne herself perceived i t . His [Hugh's] pent up fury and impotence of the afternoon had burst out and was now directed against a d e f i n i t e object. A l l I l l h i s thought was bringing that b u l l to i t s knees. That i s the way you l i k e But a l l to play? You don't l i k e the b u l l ? Wery through [?] well, I don't l i k e the b u l l e ither. Yvonne's ((She saw)) These thoughts ((smiting)) mind his mind, r i g i d with concentration upon subduing the b u l l . (8/9/p.301 (pencil 25)—corresponds to p. 277) Again, within the text, Lowry began to make a purely mechanical correction. He inserted "She saw" and adjusted the tense of the verb to formally transfer the perception of the event to Yvonne. But t h i s automatic conversion was only the beginning of the reimagining process. In the published version, the experience i s actually described i n terms p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to Yvonne. 'I don't think he means to show o f f , ' Yvonne smiled. No, he was simply submitting to that absurd necessity he f e l t f o r action, so wildly exacerbated by the dawdling inhuman day. A l l his thoughts now were bringing the miserable b u l l to i t s knees. 'This i s the way you l i k e to play? This i s the way I l i k e to play. You don't l i k e the b u l l f o r some reason? Very well, I don't l i k e the b u l l e i t h e r . ' She f e l t these sentiments helping to smite Hugh's mind r i g i d with concentration upon the defeat of the b u l l . In place of the e a r l i e r narrator's stereotyping "explanation" of Hugh's behaviour imposed from outside the novel, Lowry developed an imagined opinion or i n t u i t i o n which was manifestly coloured by Yvonne's own experience of the day within the novel as "dawdling "^iand inhuman. " 112 T h i s sequence o f r e v i s i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b a s i c t h r u s t o f a l l Lowry's s t r a t e g i c r e s p o n s e s t o h i s c r i t i c a l a n n o t a t i o n s . An u n d e r l y i n g s t r a t e g i c d e c i s i o n t o c o n v e r t t h e mode o f a l l but one c h a p t e r from o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t i o n t o l i m i t e d o m n i s c i e n c e was Lowry's p r i m a r y l o g i c a l r e s p o nse on t h e f o r m a l o r t e c h n i c a l l e v e l t o h i s d i s s a t i s r f a c t i o n s w i t h t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s p o i n t o f view. By means o f t h i s b a s i c adjustment o f forms, t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s m e l o d r a m a t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y and h i s s t e r e o t y p e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s would t h e o r e t i c a l l y b e g i n t o be e l i m i n a t e d . To put t h i s t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e , however, was no s i m p l e o r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d o p e r a t i o n . I t , o f t e n " i n v o l v e d Lowry i n p a i n s t a k i n g l y r e i m a g i n i n g complete c h a p t e r s and p l a c i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f secondary c h a r a c t e r s t h a t h i s e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r had been happy t o p r e s e n t as a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . Many s t r a t e g i c m a r g i n a l n o t e s r e c o r d e d Lowry s t r u g g l i n g t o " u n d e r s t a n d " h i s p r e v i o u s l y s t e r e o t y p e d c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s way. But t h e m a j o r i t y o f such n o t e s f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . They showed him c r e a t i n g c o n s i s t e n t p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y f o r h i s c h a r a c t e r s and d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a l sense o f t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l independence and a l i e n a t i o n from each o t h e r . 113 Personal history M. Laruelle, as the reader learns i n the f i r s t chapter of the published Under the Volcano, i s a f i l m d i r e c t o r manque. He l i v e s i n Quauhnahuac i n the late 1930s, and u n t i l the death of Geoffrey Firmin and his wife, he was a close or intimate f r i e n d of both. This general description could apply equally well to the rejected version of the novel. However, as a number of passages already c i t e d show, the e a r l i e r narrator perceived and presented Laruelle i n an extremely s t y l i z e d fashion. The Frenchman lacked a complex inner l i f e , and his behaviour had no autonomous coherence. Given Lowry's decision to l i m i t the perceptual range i n most chapters of the novel to that of a single i n d i -v i dual, Laruelle was the obvious candidate f o r perceiver of chapter I. Since he had been the focus of narrative attention even i n the rejected novel, mechanical conversion of the chapter from an omniscient narrative to l i m i t e d omniscience governed by Laruelle's perceptual range was not a d i f f i c u l t undertaking i n i t s own r i g h t . But i f only these simple changes were made, L a r u e l l e 1 s e s s e n t i a l personality would remain v i r t u a l l y unaffected. He would s t i l l be the same stereotyped character. Since, as we have seen, i t was just such stereotyping that Lowry found d i s s a t i s f y i n g i n the e a r l i e r versions, he had very l i t t l e choice but to reexamine the incidents of the chapter from Laruelle's point of view. Given that the f i l m \ d i r e c t o r of the e a r l i e r version had no coherent and autonomous point of view, Lowry also found himself engaged i n a search fo r the very terms i n which Laruelle would experience Quauhnahuac a year a f t e r the Consul's and Yvonne's deaths and on the eve of World War I I . Peter Lorre i n Los Manos de Orlac 6 a 8.30. Laruelle produced the inevitable Alas. Seventeen years ago he had seen a German version of i t and had wanted ever since to use the same theme himself : the great p i a n i s t injured i n a railway accident, who loses his hands and ever afterwards i s seized by an uncontrollable desire to commit murder. (10/3/second p.7 — corresponds to pp.30-31) Ponderous and monotonous, t h i s passage stated Laruelle's desire to remake the picture so boldly that Laruelle appeared as simply a name to which t h i s piece of data mech-a n i c a l l y pertained. Lowry*s response was to develop i n his own mind an image of Laruelle's personal h i s t o r y , because the character's past experience was to determine to some extent Ihe form his desire would take. When Lowry began to achieve t h i s goal by creating the memory of This should be honest, should bring back the UFA days, . . . S at the same time give him a renewed sense of examin ation to pursue his own work . 1 1 5 UFA, he immediately began to perceive Laruelle's emotions and associated thoughts i n a f a r more complex fashion than the e a r l i e r narrator had: "S at the same time give him a renewed sense of examination to pursue his own work." Lowry here saw Laruelle's memory and desire fused i n the o v e r a l l notion of renewed intentions f o r the future. This marginal note i l l u s t r a t e s not only the general d i r e c t i o n r e v i s i o n had to take at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r point, but also the kind of give-and-take process that Lowry engaged i n with his pre-texts to produce the published version of such passages. In the published version . of t h i s passage the vividness of Laruelle's seeing the advertisement f o r the Peter Lorre f i l m has been immensely heightened by successive developments along the general l i n e s indicated i n the i n i t i a l marginal note : How, i n a f l a s h , that had brought back the old days of the cinema, he thought, indeed his own delayed student days, the days of the Student of  Prague, and Wiene and Werner Krauss, and Karl Garune, the UFA days when a defeated Germany was winning the respect of the cultured world by the i' pictures she was making. In t h i s version Lowry's basic idea of Laruelle's memories associated with the Orlac f i l m becomes dramatized within Laruelle's personal history. At the same time, through having to reimagine the s i t u a t i o n from Laruelle's p o s i t i o n Lowry also found a new rhythm of presentation. His language now moves as i f following the private workings of Laruelle's mind. The use of "indeed" seems es p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s regard; i t conveys quite unobtrusively a sense of the way an association follows suddenly on the heel of a memory. As the sentence proceeds, the memories ramify, and they do so i n a coherent yet personal manner, the great names of the German directors arranged i n an order that perhaps only Laruelle would give them. There i s one further i n t e r e s t i n g aspect to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sequence of pre-text, comment, and ultimate r e v i s i o n . When the o r i g i n a l ( l o s t ) version was written, the European war had not begun; Germany was not a named enemy. But byjl9H0, when the novel was rejected, Germany was the mortal enemy of both B r i t a i n and France. Soon a f t e r that date, when he made the annotation, Lowry was s t i l l i n the early stages of developing Laruelle's thoughts during the evening i n November 1939 , on the eve of his departure to j o i n the c o n f l i c t i n Europe. It was under these tense circumstances that Lowry began to reexamine Jacques's personal mental s i t u a t i o n when faced with the Orlac f i l m . Confronted with the prospect of being k i l l e d by 117 Germany, Laruelle might not be expected to think i n glowing terms of German culture. But Lowry f e l t that the metaphor of Orlac as a cultured Germany ( p i a n i s t ) , whose hands were covered with blood, was s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g and powerful to have Laruelle recognize Germany's culture as well as that country's " g u i l t . " For Lowry, the memorandum "this should be honest" meant that Laruelle would paradoxically f e e l a s p e c i a l admiration and respect f o r a nation he was on the verge of f i g h t i n g to the death. Although, i n contrast to a character l i k e Laruelle, the Consul had an inner l i f e even i n the e a r l i e r version of the novel, Lowry by no means ignored Geoffrey's personal history during r e v i s i o n . Additions included a more detailed childhood and adolescence shared partly with Laruelle and Hugh, a more complex set of wartime experiences, and a fa r more extensive and detailed marriage history shared, of course, i n the revised versions with Yvonne. One of the effects of these personal-history additions was to make the Consul, l i k e the other characters who were also acquiring personal h i s t o r i e s , less a stereotyped actor i n an a l l e g o r i c a l s e t t i n g and more convincingly an authentic, independent i n d i v i d u a l . This process was spaced over a number of years and involved many detailed revisions and creative developments on both the large and small scale. 118 Despite the time span of the process, and despite the variety of forms the new personal-history data might take, the process of creating i t was generally constant. It i s also important to note that the additional material was not necessarily introduced v i a memory, as i n the case of the preceding example. Data could be dropped i n conversations, or i t could be introduced obliquely i n s t i l l other ways. A comment made i n the margin of chapter VI — a very late version -- i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n both these regards. ON HIGH SHELVES AROUND THE WALLS: Dogme et Rituel de l a Haut Magie, n , Serpent and Siva worship i n Central y u e r y i N o t America, there were two long shelves ^ n o ! J g h m ° d e ™ of t h i s , together with the rusty °t h leather bindings and frayed edges of c u . e5 > e ~ ,. , , , ° , . . what about?: the numerous c a b b a l i s t i c and alchemical ... . . books, though some of them looked f a i r - - t h 1 6 l y new, l i k e the Goetia of the Lemegaton MQ SI & of Solomon the King, probably they were F r o n t ^ t h treasures, but the rest were a hetero- p , . , e f geneous collection" : Gogol, the •  r ? Mahabharata, Blake, Tolstoy, Pontoppidan, perhaDS the Upanishads, a Mermaid Marston, mnrL -Hian Bishop Berkeley, Duns Scotus, Spinosa, !} m o r e ^ J * . the Rig Veda, -God knows, Peter Rabbit; ^ a comolete "Everything i s to be found i n Peter ° n® * complete Rabbit," the Consul had once said . . . lasjcerson. (TM text/VI/p.32—corresponds to pp.178-79) The l i s t of books that Lowry came across here communicated an image of the Consul's personal hi s t o r y f a r more approp-r i a t e to the e a r l i e r version of the novel than it-was to the developing version. Cabbalistic arcana, philosophy, r e l i g i o n , and Romanticism combined to support the image of the Consul as the t r a g i c hero of a metaphysical allegory, an image which had become inconsistent with the new version as a r e s u l t of changes made by t h i s stage of r e v i s i o n throughout the novel to a l l of the characters'personal history, including the Consul's. These revisions that developed the Consul's personal history also of course defined the nature of what Lowry had to supply i n the way of additional material. He had to choose books which represented the Consul's new contemporary roots, his status as a h i s t o r i c a l i n d i v i d u a l rather than stereotyped t r a g i c hero. Within these l i m i t s , however, Lowry was free to name whatever books he wished. He therefore had to engage at that stage i n a process of searching f i r s t his memory of the Consul's personal history and then his own l i t e r a r y experience i n an attempt to f i n d p r e c i s e l y those t i t l e s that would both r e f l e c t and emphasize Geoffrey's new personality and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . His c r i t i c i s m — " N o t enough modern books"—implied his strategy, and Lowry immediately noted one or two books that might enhance the l i s t by r e i n f o r c i n g the new image of the Consul. The complete Taskerson echoes the new images of his childhood and adolescence spent under the d i r e c t i o n of the aloof poet. 120 A l l Quiet on the Western Front supports the new stronger images of the Consul's involvement i n the horrors of World War I on the Q-ship Samaritan. The C l i c k i n g of Cuth-bert evokes associations with his university experiences at Cambridge. The r e v i s i o n process i n such situations was c l e a r l y , therefore, both a technical and a personal one; the text forced Lowry to discover i n his own experience the d e t a i l s of h i s developing f i c t i o n a l figure's personal history. Psychological Development • I t would appear that i n some senses the very process of r e v i s i o n that Lowry engaged i n led him to discover cert a i n forms of personal al i e n a t i o n i n his characters. The process worked as follows. Lowry's general strategy required from the f i r s t that he reimagine each chapter from a single point of view; as a r e s u l t , he found himself under pressure to develop a personal hi s t o r y i n order to create a more "three-dimensional", less stereotyped set of characters. In other words, Lowry developed his characters * personal hi s t o r y to provide a meaningful background to t h e i r present actions, to explain those actions i n nonalle-g o r i c a l terms. In the case of the preceding example, s u f f i c i e n t personal history had already been invented f o r the Consul to enable Lowry to define the extra "modern" books that the Consul would have i n his l i b r a r y . But i n contrast to that s i t u a t i o n , cases arose i n which he had not discovered enough of a character's personal history to give him such d e f i n i t e answers. At some point i n the re v i s i o n process f o r example, Lowry faced the necessity of re-expressing the events of chapter II through the mind of Yvonne. He had no escape from th i s task because his major technical s t r a t e g i c decision had to be implemented. During the process of reimagining the chapter, Lowry discovered situations i n which he did not have s u f f i c i e n t information about Yvonne's past to provdlde him with a posit i v e "explanation" of the way she would think or f e e l about her circumstances. He found himself l e f t with uncertainty, even i n Yvonne's own s i t u a t i o n . At the beginning of the chapter he made a note to himself: "She should f e e l : I shouldn't have come. I should have given him warning. Why did I come? or why didn't I come before?" (8/2/p.43) Through reading the chapter as a whole, Lowry had e f f e c t i v e l y discovered that not only he but also Yvonne could be uncertain of her motives. And i t was by means of such recognitions that he discovered a profound new psychological truth throughout the novel. Not only are Yvonne, Hugh, Laruelle, and the Consul incapable of knowing what other people want and need, but they are also incapable of knowing themselves; they can be deceived about t h e i r own needs, wishes, and feeli n g s . The conclusion here i s that i n the process of creating personal history f o r his characters and thereby transforming them from a l l e g o r i c a l "types" to independent and complex in d i v i d u a l s , Lowry also discovered a psychological d i s t i n c t i o n i n h is characters between conscious and unconscious motivation. This d i s t i n c t i o n became of paramount importance i n the published novel, and i t represented a view of human personality which was exponentially d i f f e r e n t from the view 3 of indiv i d u a l s that the e a r l i e r narrator held and presented. Once he had discovered t h i s dimension of self-deception and the s p l i t between the conscious and the unconscious, Lowry was capable of drawing upon i t f o r further character r e v i s i o n . In stra t e g i c notes to an intermediate version of the same chapter, he began to develop the d i s t i n c t i o n d i r e c t l y . The idea had become an authentic part of his own way of perceiving and describing his f i c t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 123 I n t h e r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n , the c h a p t e r was p r e s e n t e d by an o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r . E a r l y i n t h e r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s Lowry had f i r m l y removed the n a r r a t o r from t h e scene. E q u a l l y e a r l y i n t h e r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s Lowry had a l s o made the d e c i s i o n t o c o n v e r t Yvonne from the C o n s u l ' s d a u g h t e r t o h i s w i f e . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e e a r l y t w i n d e c i s i o n s he had had d u r i n g subsequent r e v i s i o n t o r e i m a g i n e the c h a p t e r as a whole from a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . By t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e s o f r e v i s i o n , when Yvonne's p e r s o n a l i t y had a l r e a d y been expanded t o some e x t e n t e l s e w h e r e i n t h e n o v e l , t h e c h a p t e r had become i n h e r e n t l y f r a u g h t w i t h massive e m o t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t had s i m p l y n o t e x i s t e d i n t h e e a r l i e r r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n . G e o f f r e y and h i s r e t u r n e d w i f e began t h e c h a p t e r w i t h t h e i r e n c o u n t e r i n t h e h o t e l b a r . F o l l o w i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l a t t e m p t s a t c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e two o f them s e t o f f t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e town f o r t h e i r o l d home. As Lowry d e v e l o p e d h i s r e v i s i o n s t o t h i s c h a p t e r , however, nowhere d i d he f i n d such a w e a l t h o f l a t e n t e m o t i o n a l u ndertones t h a n a t t h e p o i n t where Yvonne c o n f r o n t e d t h e scene o f h e r i n f i d e l i t y w i t h Jacques L a r u e l l e . 124 Yet i t was s t i l l t h e i r s t r e e t , she t o l d h e r s e l f a g a i n ( ( d e l i b e r a t e l y t o l d h e r s e l f , t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g about -about - t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g about i t . D e l i b e r a t e l y t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g about i t she t r i e d t o l o s e h e r s e l f ) ) , whose n i g h t s o f t o r m e n t i n g l o v e l i n e s s and s t o n e s and r i c h c o l o u r s and d u s t were s t i l l t h e i r s f o r e v e r , somewhere, and she remembered ( ( s h e c o u l d not h e l p t h i s ) ) h e r l a s t p o i g n a n t g l i m p s e o f i t , l o o k i n g b ack, a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h a t f a t e f u l j o u r n e y t o M exico c i t y , ( ( l o o k i n g b a c k ) ) from t h e now l o s t Plymouth as t h e y t u r n e d the c o r n e r , c r a s h i n g , c r u n c h i n g down on . ' i t s s p r i n g s i n t o t h e p o t h o l e s , s t o p p i n g dead, t h e n c r a w l i n g , l e a p i n g on a g a i n , k e e p i n g i n , i t d i d n ' t m a t t e r w h i c h s i d e , . t o C t h e w a l l s . They were h i g h e r t h a n she;remembered and c o v e r e d w i t h b o u g a i n v i l l e a - massive s m o u l d e r i n g banks o f bloom. Over them she c o u l d see t h e t o p s o f t h e t r e e s w i t h t h e names she c o u l d n e v e r r e c a l l any b e t t e r t h a n Jacques [. . . .] ( 1 0 / 9 ( s e c t i o n 2) / p . 1 7 — c o r r e s p o n d s t o p.62) L o w r y f s note and i n s e r t i o n s show him b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p th e i d e a o f Yvonne's s u b c o n c i o u s mind a c t i n g t o c e n s o r h e r p e r c e p t i o n s as t h e y became t o o p a i n f u l , t o o heavy w i t h g u i l t . When he f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e d r e v i s i n g t h i s p assage, on which he spent an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f time and e f f o r t , t h e i d e a o f s u b c o n s c i o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h c o n s c i o u s p e r c e p t i o n had become a major f e a t u r e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r r e a l i z a t i o n : Yvonne r e l a p s e d i n t o s i l e n c e a g a i n . A c t u a l l y she was making a tremendous e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l h e r s e l f . What she c o u l d not have e x p l a i n e d was t h a t r e c e n t l y i n h e r p i c t u r e o f Quauhnahuac t h i s house hadn't been here a t a l l ! On t h e o c c a s i o n s i m a g i n a t i o n had l e d h e r w i t h G e o f f r e y down t h e C a l l e N i c a r a g u a l a t e l y , n e v e r o n c e , p o o r , phantoms, had they been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h make c l e a r t h a t she's t h i n k i n g about t h i s d e l i b e r -a t e l y t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g t h a t h e r two ex-l o v e r s a r e h e r e . . . She was p r e -p a red f o r t i r a d e s h u m i l i a -t i o n : c h a r t [ i l l e g i b l e ] S [ i l l e g i b l e ] d e s p a i r i n g frame o f mind. 125 Jacques's z a c u a l i . I t had v a n i s h e d sometime b e f o r e , l e a v i n g not a t r a c e , i t was as i f t h e house had n e v e r e x i s t e d , j u s t as i n t h e mind o f a murderer, i t may happen, some prominent landmark i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f h i s c r i m e becomes o b l i t e r a t e d , so t h a t on r e t u r n i n g t o t h e n e i g h -bourhood, one so f a m i l i a r , he s c a r c e l y knows where t o t u r n . But t h e C a l l e N i c a r a g u a d i d n ' t r e a l l y l o o k d i f f e r e n t . Here i t was, s t i l l c l u t t e r e d up w i t h l a r g e g r e y l o o s e s t o n e s , f u l l o f t h e same l u n a r p o t h o l e s , and i n t h a t well-known s t a t e o f f r o z e n e r u p t i o n t h a t r esembled r e p a i r b u t w h i c h i n f a c t o n l y t e s t i f i e d f a c e t i o u s l y t o t h e c o n t i n u e d d e a d l o c k between t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and the p r o p e r t y owners h e r e o v e r i t s "maintenance. Changes o f d e t a i l i n the n o v e l ' s b a s i c s t o r y As t h e c r e v i s i o n s - d i s c u s s e d C t h u s r f a r indicate-,- .the development o f Under t h e V o l c a n o , d i d not i n v o l v e w h o l e s a l e r e o r d e r i n g t h e n o v e l ' s u n d e r l y i n g s t o r y . Even when t h e " f a c t s " o f t h e n o v e l were changed i n some way, t h e y were as a r u l e , t r a n s f o r m e d r a t h e r t h a n e l i m i n a t e d o r r e p l a c e d . And even t h e most major o f t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , was e s s e n t i a l l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e r e l a t e d changes i n t h e k i n d s o f c h a r a c t e r s Lowry was p r e s e n t i n g , t h e changes d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A case i n p o i n t was t h e a p p a r e n t l y major c o n v e r s i o n o f Yvonne from daughter t o w i f e o f t h e C o n s u l . T h i s change c l e a r l y opened t h e n o v e l t o new ranges o f e m o t i o n a l o v e r t o n e s . But i f Yvonne, f o r example, had n o t , t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f f a r more minor a d j u s t m e n t s , a c q u i r e d a p e r s o n a l 126 h i s t o r y and a complex i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , t h e s e o v e r t o n e s would have remained f o r t h e most p a r t undeveloped. Nowhere i s t h i s p a t t e r n o f c h a r a c t e r development — e s p e c i a l l y o f Y v o n n e — b e t t e r demonstrated t h a n i n a c h a p t e r w h i c h i n t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l i s n a r r a t e d n o t t h r o u g h Yvonne's p e r c e p t i o n but t h r o u g h t h e mind o f a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r e a d e r f i n d s c a r r i e d o v e r t h e d e t a i l s o f Yvonne's p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t he has l e a r n e d i n c h a p t e r s where he has c o n t a c t w i t h h e r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . I n c h a p t e r I I I , Lowry had t h e t a s k o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s range was l i m i t e d t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e C o n s u l w h i l e G e o f f r e y and Yvonne f a c e d each o t h e r i n t h e C o n s u l ' s house. The change from d a u g h t e r t o w i f e was so u n i m p o r t a n t r e g a r d e d i n i s o l a t i o n t h a t Lowry c o u l d s i m p l y i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e v i s i o n s he thought n e c e s s a r y i n t h e margin o f a page t h a t he had composed-.while s t i l l p e r c e i v i n g Yvonne as t h e T C o n s u l ' s l a d u l t daughter.* The s e c t i o n o f t h i s e a r l i e r v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f an exchange between t h e C o n s u l and t h e r e t u r n e d young woman; t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e bedroom r e s e r v e d f o r h e r , where she was r e s t i n g a f t e r h e r j o u r n e y . I t i s t o o l o n g t o quote i n f u l l , but i t i s v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t u r e from t h e exchange i n t h e p u b l i s h e d n o v e l . G r a d u a l l y , a f t e r t h e two c h a r a c t e r s r e m i n i s c e d f o r a moment o r two, communication between them broke down, G e o f f r e y ' s mind wandered away from t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e room t o a m ental image o f a warm and undemanding c a n t i n a . As t h i s image expanded t o t a k e o v e r h i s mind c o m p l e t e l y Lowry no t e d i n t h e margin o f t h e page: " I t h i n k t h e r e he s h o u l d be, as i t were, p l a y i n g a p r e p a r a t o r y tune on h e r senses b e f o r e t h e a c t , S a l l t h i s t i m e t h e image o f Yvonne l y i n g on t h e bed b e i n g p o s s e s s e d by him i s f a d i n g , S b e i n g superseded by t h e v i s i o n o f t h e t a v e r n s . " (8/3/ p.9 4-^corresponds t o p.95) On t h e l e v e l o f t h e n o v e l ' s " f a c t s " , t h e changes Lowry e n v i s i o n e d were i n d i c a t e d i n t h e n o t e . They e s s e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e d t r a n s f o r m i n g a breakdown i n communication between G e o f f r e y and h i s d a u g h t e r i n t o terms more a p p r o p r i a t e t o husband and w i f e , i n t o s e x u a l terms. The C o n s u l ' s i m p o t e n c e — u l t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e p u b l i s h e d n o v e l w i t h t h e d r i f t o f h i s mind to' t h e c a n t i n a - ^ c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as s i m p l y a p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f h i s " t u r n i n g o f f " h i s d a u g h t e r i n t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n . The p r e l u d e p l a y e d on h i s w i f e ' s senses i s s i m p l y t h e p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e o f t h e t e n t a t i v e v e r b a l exchanges he had w i t h h i s d a u g h t e r i n t h e a n n o t a t e d v e r s i o n . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e developments o r "changes i n t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s t o r y " has a major e f f e c t on t h e o v e r a l l i m p o r t o f t h e exchange. The fundamental 128 breakdown i n communication remains u n a l t e r e d . But t h e changes wrought i n t h e image o f Yvonne as an i n d i v i d u a l , h e r development i n c h a p t e r I I as a s y m p a t h e t i c f i g u r e , c a r r i e s o v e r t o t h i s passage and combines w i t h t h e f a c t u a l change from d a u g h t e r t o w i f e t o e f f e c t i m p o r t a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e exchange. I n t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n , t h e C o n s u l ' s t u r n i n g o f f t h e communication between h i m s e l f and h i s companion had been p r e s e n t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f a v i c t i m i z e d C o n s u l t o a s e l f i s h and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t b r a t d e t e r m i n e d t o " c u r e " him out o f c l e a r m o t i v e s o f revenge. I n t h e v e r s i o n t h a t Lowry c o n t e m p l a t e d i n h i s n o t e , because Yvonne had been r e p e r e e i v e d as she had i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r o f t h e n o v e l , t h e breakdown between t h e two c h a r a c t e r s becomes a s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The Co n s u l h i m s e l f c o n t i n u e s i n t h e p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n t o e x p e r i e n c e Yvonne as p u r s u i n g h i s c u r e f o r s e l f i s h ends o f atonement ( t h e view s h a r e d , o f c o u r s e , by t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ) . But Yvonne has become a t r o u b l e d and c o n f u s e d i n d i v i d u a l a u t h e n t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e Co n s u l ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s and w i l l i n g t o t r y and h e l p a man f o r whom she f u n d a m e n t a l l y c a r e s d e e p l y . As such t h e breakdown i n communication has become a break-down between e q u a l s , b o t h o f whom a r e p r o f o u n d l y a l i e n a t e d from each o t h e r , t h e C o n s u l by h i s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o p e r c e i v e Yvonne as a s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e u n f a i t h f u l w i f e , and Yvonne by a p a i n f u l m i x t u r e o f d e s i r e and g u i l t . These 129 k i n d s o f changes were f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e changes wrought s o l e l y by t h e " f a c t u a l " c o n v e r s i o n o f Yvonne i n t o r e t u r n e d w i f e . P h i l o s o p h i c o - R e l i g i o u s background The g r a d u a l b u t r a d i c a l changes t h a t Lowry made i n the k i n d o f c h a r a c t e r s he p r e s e n t e d t o h i s r e a d e r s were p a r a l l e l e d , s u p p o r t e d , and even r e i n f o r c e d by r e v i s i o n s he made i n a r e a s o f t h e n o v e l n o t d i r e c t l y c oncerned w i t h c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n . These changes t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e r o l e o f i n t e r t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s and a l l u s i o n s . A p a r t from t h e p r o b l e m a t i c e f f e c t s " d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ' o f n t h i s t h e s i s , such i n t e r t e x t u a l : : m a t e r i a l i n t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e n o v e l f r e q u e n t l y a c t e d as a form o f "emblem" i n an e s s e n t i a l l y a l l e g o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e . The passage d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r f i l l e d w i t h a l l u s i o n s t o Swedenborg's work was a t y p i c a l example. As emblems, t h e s e a l l u s i o n s o r q u o t a t i o n s a c t e d as i n t e r p r e t i v e "keys" t o t h e meaning o f t h e a l l e g o r i c a l f i c t i o n . Regarded from a n o t h e r p o i n t o f view t h e y e f f e c t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s o v e r t a l l e g o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n / p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e way t h e C o n s u l r e l a t e d t o t h o s e around him and o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r h i s d e a t h . With the novel's ceasing through r e v i s i o n to express such a clear-cut a l l e g o r i c a l perception of the Consul's world, cert a i n of these emblematic i n t e r t e x t u a l references and allus i o n s began to seem obtrusive. I f they were not superfluous or digressive, and i f he s t i l l wished to evoke in the developing novel the worlds of these other texts, Lowry was faced with the task of transforming the reference from externally imposed interpretations into straight-forward elements within the world of the novel. Once in t e r n a l i z e d and apparently independent of any external narrative personality, they could function as a form of ef f e c t i v e metaphysical background to the subtler human relationships that he was developing within the context of a firmly h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n a l world. This process of creative i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r cases can be extremely i n t e r e s t i n g to trace, e s p e c i a l l y when the in t e r t e x t u a l reference i n question i s one of the more s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l versions of the novel. In chapter I of an early version of Under the Volcano, Laruelle was engaged i n reading Geoffrey.Firmin's unsent l e t t e r to his wife when he found the Consul r e f e r r i n g to an emblem that marked the wall of Jacques's own house. Lowry's comment shows him beginning to notice how obtrusively bookish the 131 emblem was at this point and beginning to think of ways to incorporate i t more e f f e c t i v e l y within the world of the novel. What i s going to happen to our Give Somerset hearts? We cannot l i v e without Maugham some love. No es puede v i v i r s i n amar. c r e d i t here, I sometimes think that phrase or cut the so suitably inscribed on phrase out. Laruelle's Zacuali ((--though I Suggest: have always wondered i f the person 'Yvonne and I who put i t there had merely been f i r s t came reading Somerset Maugham)) i s the on the phrase only truth we know, that love i s i n a book by, the only thing which gives meaning I think, to our poor ways on earth. (8/1/p. Somerset (pencil 18)—corresponds to p.45) Maugham.' Cut No se puede v i v i r s i n amar In the e a r l i e r a l l e g o r i c a l version of the novel, t h i s kind of;-moral key was not innappropriate. - The Consul could d i r e c t l y imply that i t referred i n i t s negative aspects to Laruelle ("so suitably i n s c r i b e d " ) , because i n that version Laruelle was the kind of character type that could 132 legitimately be summed up i n a phrase. He i l l u s t r a t e d i n fact a complete lack of conviction and was presented only as a declining, suave d i l e t t a n t e — a man who had no r e a l love and therefore no r e a l l i f e . But through his revisions Lowry's characters l i k e Laruelle were becoming le s s sufeject to such stereotyped summing up. Laruelle was i n the process of becoming a f e e l i n g i n d i v i d u a l who had shared much of Geoffrey's own history and many of his hopes and values. In t h i s context the phrase gained new, more complex, but less categorical s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t gained a general application to a l l of the major characters. Not only Laruelle but a l l of the major figures, including the Consul, found i t impossible to make human contact with each other. Lowry's immediate reaction, therefore, was eithe r to cut out the reference or to introduce the phrase f a r more casually and l i g h t l y by overtly associating i t with the popular contemporary novelist (where Lowry had, according to K i l g a l l i n , ^ found i t i n the f i r s t place): "Give Somerset Maugham some c r e d i t here." This kind of adjustment would go some way towards " i n t e r n a l i z i n g " the phrase and building i t into the f a b r i c of the more complex developing novel. But the change would remain a patchwork one, since i t would allow the phrase to remain uniquely directed at Laruelle. Lowry's alt e r n a t i v e of removing the phrase e n t i r e l y would avoid the pretentious a r t i f i c a l i t y , but at the cost of l o s i n g the value of the phrase as p o t e n t i a l l y powerful philosophico-religious background. In the end, a f t e r making one or two attempts at incorporating i t less obtrusively, he decided to "Cut No se puede v i v i r s i n amar" at t h i s point, but to use i t i n a more appropriate fashion elsewhere i n the novel. In the published novel he introduces the phrase i n Laruelle's own conversation with V i g i l e a r l i e r i n chapter I. The context i s one i n which a Spanish phrase i s immediately f a r less obtrusive because one of the speakers i s Mexican and the passage i s already sprinkled with other Spanish phrases: "perfectamente borracho, Salud y pesetas, Y  tiempo para gastarlas (p. 1 1 ) . " As Lowry introduces the phrase here, Laruelle mentions i t casually as i f i n reverie. It seems to r i s e to the surface of his mind because he has thought about i t frequently and because i t i s apposite at t h i s moment (he i s commenting on his fr i e n d the Consul's death a year e a r l i e r . ) The phrase i s also more successfully integrated into the world of the novel here because Laruelle seems to react emotionally as i f there r e a l l y were something phy s i c a l l y inscribed on a wall, "as that estupido inscribed on my house." And at other points i n the published 134 novel, when the Consul and Yvonne separately notice the i n s c r i p t i o n , t h e i r subconsious refuses to l e t them read i t , so cl o s e l y does i t bear on a l l t h e i r l i v e s once r e v i s i o n has f u l l y developed i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . In sum, the phrase became in t e r n a l i z e d as part of both the novel's physical landscape and philosophical background instead of acting s o l e l y as a signpost or emblem. The cumulative e f f e c t of revisions - I Strategic developments of the kind discussed had a cumulative e f f e c t because they interacted with each other. As perception of the novel's world bame to be mediated v i a a quartet of complex alienated s u b j e c t i v i t i e s . i n . a h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , and as the background to the characters and t h e i r story came to be handled more subtly, so a new kind of world began to emerge. In place of the e a r l i e r narrator's wooden, l i n e a r , and gestural melodrama, the reader began to come into contact with an ambiguous world in which each perceiver's history and personal needs conditioned what he or she saw or experienced. At times, when Lowry discovered the perceptual ordering mechanism of these characters collapsing, a world appeared, that, i n contrast to the world of the e a r l i e r version, was over-whelmingly multidimensional and ultimately chaotic. Two sets of marginal notes and revisions to a widely dispersed group of passages running through several drafts show how t h i s process of cumulative i n t e r a c t i o n occurred. In chapter VII of the published novel, and i n many e a r l i e r versions, a f t e r the four protagonists'..le^vje$J'a)isc^|De»; house, they walk through Quauhnahuac to the f a i r . Hugh and Yvonne become separated from Laruelle and the Consul, who f i n d themselves i n a bar (pp.220-21). They t a l k as they drink. At f i r s t , the Consul—through whose consciousness the chapter's incident i s mediated—perceives Laruelle normally. But, " a f t e r h a l f the second t e q u i l a , " his concentration begins to break down, and he hears only "every now and then, f a m i l i a r well-meaning phrases. 'It's hard to say t h i s . As man to man, I don't care who she i s . Even i f the miracle has occurred. Unless you cut i t out altogether.'" A f t e r an exchange or two more, the Consul becomes absorbed i n discussing his own condition with Laruelle and launches into a description of his "deliriums." Laruelle's answer i s 'IFacilis est descensus Averno. . . I t ' too easy." The Consul then makes another point, to which Laruelle again seems to reply, "Je cr o i s que l e vautour est doux a Promethee et que les Ixion se plaisent en Enfers . 136 Laruelle's apparent attack on the Consul then mounts to a crescendo, but we learn that "M. Laruelle wasn't there at a l l ; he [the Consul] had been t a l k i n g to himself."(222) Laruelle's dialogue as perceived by Geoffrey progresses through t h i s passage from normal conversation to broken, fragmentary speech, and ultimately to complete h a l l u c i n a t i o n . In both the broken and hallucinatory phases, esp e c i a l l y the l a t t e r , the dialogue might be described as free verse; i t has the rhythm of verse but lacks a consistent rhyme scheme. "Because of Yvonne and me. But Yvonne knows. And so do I. And so do you. That Yvonne wouldn't have been aware. If you hand't been so drunk a l l the time. To know what she was doing. Or care. And what's more. The same thing i s bound to happen again you f o o l i t w i l l happen again i f you don't p u l l youself together." (222) This kind of progress i n the perceiver's mind, a progress charted by the formal s h i f t into a form of free verse, r e f l e c t s a complete collapse of the d i s t i n c t i o n between inner and outer worlds. And such a collapse became f a r more extensive as the many revisions exerted t h e i r cumulative e f f e c t throughout the novel. When Lowry turned his attention during r e v i s i o n to an intermediate version of chapter X, he found there what remained of the rejected novel's pseudopolitical discussion serving as a background to a jealous confrontation between the Consul and Hugh and, further, an ongoing exploration 137 of the personal g u i l t involved i n the death of the Indian whom the protagonists had passed on t h e i r way to Tomalin. A discussion between Hugh and Yvonne concerning the Indian's i d e n t i t y and job, and the i d e n t i t y and motives of whoever had attacked him, was overheard by the Consul who was becoming progressively more drunk. At one point during t h i s scene, Lowry made a marginal note that referred away from i t and to the hallucinatory exchange between Geoffrey and Laruelle i n chapter VII. "...Well, from something Geoff said, and something they were saying, put- Break up t i n g two and two together...I thought as M. Laru-the poor man might have been a Bank e l l e ' s d ia-Messenger f o r them. I have a pal i n logue i s Oaxaca who i s . I t o l d you I was going broken up there but I see there's not going to in;VII be time a f t e r a l l . . . However, i t ' s a E f f e c t w i l l bank that advances money to finance be got i f c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t i n the v i l l a g e s . dialogue The c o l l e c t i v e has to pay i t back i s rewritten i n d i v i d u a l l y , though the v i l l a g e r s i n as free contract c o l l e c t i v e l y f o r the loan. verse These messengers have a dangerous job, sometimes they t r a v e l disguised as, well, peons, f o r that reason, though mostly they don't t r a v e l alone, but i n twos and threes... But he was the same chap we saw t h i s morning - at any rate i t was the same horse - do you remember i f the horse had any saddlebags on i t , when we saw i t , outside the pulqueria i t was, La Sepultura?" ( l l / 1 4 / p . 2 0 — corresponds to p.299) The passage as Lowry found i t here was l i n e a r and one dimensional; i n some respects i t was l i k e a schoolboy's; lecture i n i t s use of the term "pal," and i n others i t was 138 l i k e a t u r g i d a c c o u n t o f some c o l o n i a l custom r e p e a t e d o v e r p o r t around t h e f i r e p l a c e a thousand t i m e s b e f o r e . I n a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h Hugh i s o s t e n s i b l y t h e s p e a k e r , t h e tone o f t h e passage, i t s d i c t i o n , and g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e d i r e c t l y echo t h o s e o f t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r , so t h a t t h e passage q u i t e f a i l s t o convey any sense t h a t Hugh i s an independent s p e a k e r a c t u a l l y o v e r h e a r d i n a d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t . These were t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e passage t h a t l e d Lowry t o r e c o r d an immediate d e s i r e t o i n t r o d u c e b o t h a sense o f d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t and a sense o f t h e i n t e r s u b j e c t -i v i t y o f t h i n g s i n t o t h e t e x t . Weaknesses s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h i s f i r s t passage were e q u a l l y e v i d e n t i n some a s p e c t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g one,,' i n w h i c h t h e C o n s u l speaks t o Hugh and Yvonne. •['... 31s i t n e c e s s a r y t o remind you t h a t 'whe'h t h e S p a n i a r d s , t h e e x p l o i t i n g element a r r i v e d , how many o f t h e I n d i a n s , t h e o p p r e s s e e s - e x p l o i t e r s , E l a b o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s , f o r i n s t a n c e -"he was from f o l d e r p o i n t i n g t o an a d v e r t i s e m e n t on t h e w a l l w h i c h s a i d i n E n g l i s h 5 : T o u r i s t s ! Come t o b e a u t i f u l T l a x c a l a ! No t e r r i b l e and dangerous m a l a r i a l s i c k n e s s , and see photo-i n S p a n i s h : V i s i t e Vd. T l a x c a l a , sus graphs a t monumentos, s i t i o s , h i s t o r i c o s y de b e g i n n i n g B e l l e z a s n a t u r a l e s , l u g a r de descanso, e l mSjor c l i m a , e l a i r e mas p u r o , e l c x e l o mas a z u l , T l a x c a l a se de l a h i s t o r i a de l a c o n q u i s t a ! - The T l a x c a l a n s were t i c k l e d t o de a t h a t the rumours w h i c h f r e e l y c i r c u l a t e d 139 to the eff e c t that they'd soon be free of Moctezuma, the exploiter, and so on. Or i s i t Montezuma?" (11/13, part 2/p.ln—corresponds to p.301) Here, however, the a l l u s i o n to the poster—"he was pointing to an advertisement on the wall"—provides considerable dramatic and comic r e l i e f from the Consul's heavy sense of humour and s t i f f sense of j u s t i c e . Overall transformation of t h i s section of the chapter had several aspects, but a l l of them stemmed from these two i n i t i a l sets of c r i t i c a l and str a t e g i c notes, whose cumulative i n t e r a c t i o n i s ultimately of the greatest i n t e r e s t . Lowry's f i r s t step was to set the Consul securely apart i n his "Stone Retreat" and to imagine t h i s part of the chapter e n t i r e l y from his "voyeuristic" viewpoint. Dialogue i n the second of the two passages, f o r example, was o r i g i n a l l y i n the Consul's mouth, but Lowry eventually placed a new and broken form of i t i n the mouths of both Hugh and Yvonne as the Consul overhears them. Yvonne speaks f i r s t . ' - I don't agree with you, Hugh. We go back a few years - ' ' - forgetting, of course, the Miztecs, the Toltecs, Quetzelcoatl - ' ' - not necessarily - * ' - oh yes you do! And you say f i r s t , Spaniard exploits Indian, then, when he had children, he exploited the halfbreed, then the pure-blooded Mexican Spaniard, the c r i o l l o , then the mestizo m o exploits everybody, foreigners, Indians, and a l l . Then the Germans and Americans exploited him : now the f i n a l chapter, the exploitation of everybody by everybody else - ' Breaking t h i s dialogue as Laruelle's was broken i n chapter VII, Lowry mixed t h i s p o l i t i c a l material from the second of the e a r l i e r two passages i n a single conversation with the material from the f i r s t that dealt with the Indian's death and i t s possible explanation. This l a t t e r discussion came to precede and lead into the discussion of e x p l o i t a t i o n . And again, by the time of the published novel, i t i s a l l perceived by the Consul from his Stone Retreat: '...What i s the E j i d a l , Hugh?' ' - a bank that advances money to finance c o l l -ective e f f o r t i n the villages...These messengers have a dangerous job. I have that f r i e n d i n Oaxaca...Sometimes they t r a v e l disguised as, well, peons...From something Geoff said... Putting two and two together...I thought the poor man might have been a bank messenger....' (299) Abbreviated from i t s e a r l i e r form, t h i s material i s now presented f a r more disconnectedly, f a r more as i f i t were being overheard by a clouded consciousness. And as he developed these changes to the dialogue, Lowry added one further refinement that was also reminiscent of the key passage from chapter VII: the Consul himself occasionally i n t e r j e c t s a remark or two into Hugh's and Yvonne's c o n v e r s a t i o n o v e r h e a r d from h i s p o s i t i o n i n t h e Stone R e t r e a t , a l t h o u g h t h e y , o f c o u r s e cannot h e a r them. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t , Hugh speaks f i r s t : 'A N a z i may not be a F a s c i s t , but t h e r e ' r e c e r t a i n l y p l e n t y o f them around, Yvonne. Bee-k e e p e r s , m i n e r s , c h e m i s t s . And k e e p e r s o f pubs. The pubs the m s e l v e s o f c o u r s e make i d e a l head-q u a r t e r s . I n t h e P i l s e n e r K i n d l , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Mexico C i t y — ! , 'Not t o mention i n P a r i a n , Hugh," s a i d t h e C o n s u l , s i p p i n g m e s c a l , though nobody seemed t o have h e a r d him [. . . .3(300) R e v i s i o n s t o t h e d i a l o g u e s t r u c t u r e were, however, o n l y h a l f t h e s t o r y h e r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o b r e a k i n g t h e d i a l o g u e by r e c a s t i n g i t and removing th e t r a c e s o f t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r ' s tone and a t t i t u d e , Lowry a l s o f o l l o w e d a f a s c i n a t i n g c o u r s e o f r e v i s i o n i n r e sponse t o h i s m a r g i n a l comment t h a t he s h o u l d " e l a b o r a t e from f o l d e r . " H a ving found t h a t t h e q u o t a t i o n from t h e t r a v e l p o s t e r p r o v i d e d p r e c i s e l y t h e r i g h t k i n d o f background h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e , comic r e l i e f , and d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l exchange c o n c e r n i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n , Lowry t u r n e d t o t h e t r a v e l f o l d e r he had managed t o s a l v a g e from h i s y e a r s i n Mexico. Here he found v i r t u a l l y no end o f m a t e r i a l t h a t he c o u l d use t o i n s e r t i n the c h a p t e r and m u l t i p l y t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e p o s t e r q u o t a t i o n a hundred t i m e s o v e r . H i s o n l y problem was a minor one; he had t o f i n d some c o n v i n c i n g manner o f i n t r o d u c i n g a t r a v e l 142 brochure over and above the poster into the s i t u a t i o n at Cervantes's restaurant. Given that the material would also have to be perceived by the Consul, unless i t were to be read aloud so that he could overhear i t , the solution was obvious. He would have to introduce the t r a v e l brochure not i n the restaurant, as the poster was, but i n the Stone Retreat i t s e l f , which i s , indeed, where we f i n d i t i n the published novel. Lowry extended i t s introduction back from the point at which the poster had been used to the very beginning of Hugh's and Yvonne's conversation about the Indian: ' — and then there was t h i s Indian--' SEAT OF THE HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST VISIT TLAXCALA! read the Consul. (And how was i t that, beside him, was standing a lemonade bottle h a l f f u l l of mescal, how had he obtained i t so quickly, or Cervantes, repenting, thank God, of the stone, together with the t o u r i s t folder, to which was a f f i x e d a railway and bus time-table, brought i t — or had purchased i t before, and i f so, when?) The r e s u l t of t h i s series of interconnected revisions was a section of the novel i n which Mexican and world history, p o l i t i c a l ideology, r e l i g i o n , human g u i l t , and sexual jealousy become jumbled together i n the Consul's collapsing mind. The sheer number of dimensions possessed by the world with which the reader i s brought into contact through 143 these i n t e r a c t i n g revisions i s incomparably greater than i t was in the e a r l i e r version of the novel, and t h i s kind of cumulative e f f e c t occurred throughout Under the Volcano during r e v i s i o n ; the story did not change, but the world did. The cumulative e f f e c t of revisions - II E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter the point was made that Lowry's conversion of Yvonne from returned daughter to returned wife was i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e to the eff e c t s on the novel of the changes Lowry made to the kind of personality that he had developed f o r Yvonne i n the course of r e v i s i o n . This point needs q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Yvonne's conversion, as i n chapter I I , created i n the pre-texts innumerable situations of latent p o s s i b i l i t i e s that Lowry inev i t a b l y discovered given his imperative to reimagine the f i c t i o n a l world from the points of view of his characters. One such s i t u a t i o n arose when Lowry came to confront the e a r l i e r version of the Consul 1s unsent l e t t e r to h i s wife that Laruelle read at the close of chapter I. In annotating t h i s passage, Lowry had i n mind not only the switch of Yvonne from daughter to returned wife but also a change i n the novel's chronology which provided a new context f o r the switch. He had shi f t e d the main body of the novel some* two years forward i n 144 time, to November 1938, and Laruelle consequently came to be reading a l e t t e r composed two years later';.than he had i n the e a r l i e r version. The l e t t e r i t s e l f i s too long to quote i n f u l l , but the annotation reads as follows. Query When should the Consul write the l e t t e r ? I f i n say ®6t6Y>4£ July 19 38, i t would be more powerful. But then she w i l l have had her divorce f o r longer S there w i l l seem less excuse for mentioning her l e t t e r s . What i f he says: I_ have just heard about the divorce i n July 19 38 (1) The nights S the horror of the n i g h t s — how he cannot stand i t and so gets up i n the night to go to some bar, preferably distant, that i s open a l l night 8 where he may drink in peace. I write them at night, not i n the Bel l a V i s t a , which i s only open on holidays, but i n E l Bosque the F a r o l i t o i n Parian . . . . I get a t a x i r i g h t out there i n the middle of the night (2) I have just heard about the divorce; the immedicable r e s u l t has been I dream about a new l i f e : the smoke of the t r a i n , the lightning i n the white clouds. (3) very much abbreviated: how he cannot read her l e t t e r s etc. etc. Why did you send them to Wells Fargo. Can i t be you don't know I am s t i l l here . . . That i s very peculiar. It would be so easy to f i n d out too. (4) Memories of t h e i r l i f e (5) But we can't leave things l i k e t h i s . For For Christs's sake come back etc. ( i n f i v e paragraphs: cut to two pages i n toto) he's heard these two things (1) that she's got the divorce (2) Mexico i s breaking diplomatic r e l a t i o n s (TM verso/II/pp.12-13) The new chronology of events according to which Lowry had to reimagine the l e t t e r began with the Consul's wife 145 leaving him i n mid-19 37. Soon thereafter she wrote him the l e t t e r s that he l o s t at the l a r o l i t o , l e t t e r s of hope fo r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . These l e t t e r s were followed by a speedy divorce. A l l t h i s a c t i v i t y took place some considerable time before the day on which Yvonne returned and the two of them died i n November 1938. (Lowry recognized that Yvonne would not, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , return to her husband very soon a f t e r divorcing him.) This chronology presented Lowry with a c o n f l i c t . The closer the date was on which the Consul wrote his unsent l e t t e r to the day on which the novel's main action took place, the more "powerful" the l e t t e r ' s bearing was on the events on that day and on our understanding of the pers o n a l i t i e s involved i n them. I f the l e t t e r was written r e l a t i v e l y close i n time to November 1938, i t could e f f e c t i v e l y serve as a very strong "introduction" to the mind and feelings of the Geoffrey Firmin whom the reader w i l l f i r s t encounter i n person i n chapter II of the novel. But the l e t t e r as i t stood i n the e a r l i e r version was fundamentally an impassioned response from the Consul to the fact of his wife's divorcing him. It was also an accusation that his wife's divorce proved her l e t t e r s h y p o c r i t i c a l i n t h e i r apparent a f f e c t i o n f o r him. These 1 146 f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d Lowry i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ; t h e y argued f o r t h e l e t t e r b e i n g d a t e d towards t h e end o f 19 37 o r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 19 38. Lowry*s s o l u t i o n was i n g e n i o u s : a communications breakdown. He t h u s w r o t e , "What i f he s a y s : " I have j u s t h e a r d about t h e d i v o r c e i n J u l y 1938." T h i s c r e a t i v e compromise would have been p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y had not Lowry a l s o w i s h e d by t h i s s t a g e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e v i s i n g - t o have G e o f f r e y m e n t i o n i t h e p o l i t i c a l and p e r s o n a l echoes o f h i s d i v o r c e from Yvonne: t h e d i v o r c e between B r i t a i n and Mexico i n terms o f t h e i r d i p l o m a t i c . r e l a t i o n s and t h e C o n s u l ' s consequent d i v o r c e from h i s j o b . W h i l e i t was p l a u s i b l e t h a t a B r i t i s h C o n s u l would not l e a r n o f h i s own.divorce f o r s i x months o r s o , i t was e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t he would not know by J u l y 19 38 t h a t c o n n e c t i o n s had been s e v e r e d between t h e two c o u n t r i e s i n A p r i l o f t h a t y e a r . Lowry had t o s e t t l e f o r d a t i n g t h e l e t t e r w i t h t h e vague phrase " s p r i n g o f 1938V (pp.42-42). Lowry's c o n c e r n w i t h c h r o n o l o g y i n t h i s d e t a i l i n i t s e l f showed h i s growing awareness o f the n o v e l ' s h i s t o r i c a l d i m e n s i o n . Chronology had s i m p l y not been an i s s u e o f g r e a t importance i n t h e e a r l i e r a l l e g o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e j but as Lowry's view o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s changed and t h e y g a i n e d p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s t h a t bore on t h e i r p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r , problems o f c h r o n o l o g y a k i n t o t h i s one i n e v i t a b l y s u r f a c e d . 147 The second p a r t o f Lowry's note c o n s i s t e d o f a s t r a t e g i c o u t l i n e o f t h e r e v i s i o n s he i n t e n d e d t o make t o t h e l e t t e r i t s e l f , a p a r t from i t s d a t i n g . I t was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o approximate d i v i s i o n s i n t h e o r i g i n a l l e t t e r . The f i r s t o f t h e s e a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o the l e t t e r ' s o p e n i n g , which Lowry found a b s t r a c t l y p h i l o -s o p h i c a l and s e l f - i n d u l g e n t . J u s t as i t had no c l e a r f u n c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n t h e n o v e l ' s new c h r o n o l o g y , n e i t h e r d i d i t have any apparent s e t t i n g i n t h e c o n c r e t e l i f e o f i t s p u r p o r t e d w r i t e r , t h e C o n s u l . Dear P r i s c i l l a i t r a n , s i n c e September I have been s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t my l o v e f o r you, and s i n c e t o have s u b m i t t e d t o i t i n t h e f a c e o f y o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s would have meant d i s a s t e r , I suppose t h a t t h i s s t r u g g l e has k e p t me sane. T h i s i s no c r i t i c i s m o f you: i t was i n e v i t a b l e . I have grasped a t e v e r y r o o t and b r a n c h , as a m a t t e r o f f a c t , w hich would h e l p me a c r o s s t h i s abyss i n my l i f e :but I can f o o l m y s e l f no l o n g e r . I c a n ' t make i t . Sooner o r l a t e r , d r i v e n t o d e s p e r a t i o n , as t h e y say i n t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s , by t h e Eumenides o f u n f u l f i l l e d p urpose. I s h a l l f a l l . I have f o r t i f i e d m y s e l f a g a i n s t t h e memory o f o u r l o v e by t r y i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e on what I d i s l i k e d about you, upon y o u r h a r d n e s s , upon what I s t i l l f e e l s o b e r l y ( ! ) t o have been an u n j u s t i f i a b l e revenge on y o u r p a r t , and I have been b u t t r e s s e d by v a r i o u s memories 6f y^»Sr f>A6t ( ( t h i s ) ) , and p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t you, u n c o n s c i o u s l y I a d m i t , by L a r u e l l e , who d i d n ' t , a l t h o u g h I t h i n k not p u r p o s e l y - h e s i t a t e t o t a k e advantage o f my weakened c o n d i t i o n , w i t h c o n f i r m a t i o n s , merely c i r c u m s t a n t i a l o f c o u r s e , y e s , I know, and not me r e l y v e r b a l c o n f i r m a t i o n s e i t h e r C . . .] ( 7 / 2 / p . l 6 — c o r r e s p o n d s t o pp.41-42) 148 As a r e s u l t , when Lowry placed himself i n Geoffrey's shoes i n an attempt to understand the Consul 1s rel a t i o n s h i p with his wife when he wrote the l e t t e r , he found himself creating a dramatic context f o r the l e t t e r by thinking of the lonely alcoholic's leaving his home i n the middle of the night and t r a v e l l i n g to the a l l - n i g h t tavern, the F a r o l i t o i n Parian, i n order to f i n d r e l i e f from his g u i l t . So, at midnight, I drove i n the Plymouth to Tomalin to see my Tlaxcaltecan fr i e n d Cervantes the cockfighter at the Salon O f e l i a . And thence I came to the F a r o l i t o i n Parian where I s i t now in a l i t t l e room o f f the bar at f o u r - t h i r t y i n the morning drinking ochas and then mescal and writing t h i s on some Be l l a V i s t a notepaper I f i l c h e d the other night, perhaps because the writing paper at the Consulate, which i s a tomb, hurts me to look at i t . That he chose the F a r o l i t o i n his note was i t s e l f dictated to some extent : i t was the bar at which, we were to learn l a t e r , he had read and l o s t the l e t t e r s to which t h i s one was the reply. Since he had read them there, he should write from there. Subsection (2) of Lowry's note showed him turning i n imagination from the external circumstances i n which the l e t t e r was written to the Consul's inner world. It was i n t h i s section of the note and i t s consequences that the str a t e g i c decision to have Geoffrey's wife return to him 149 had most effect. This return opened a wholly new set of ironic possibilities or potentialities in the pre-text that Lowry was studying. Again, however, i t was not solely Yvonne's return as wife that determined the train of Lowry's imagination at this point. This factual change was intimately tied up with the personal history that Lowry had developed for her during his revision of the rest of the novel, particularly her dream of saving the Consul from his alcoholism by taking him away with her to some northern paradise. This fragment of Yvonne's new personality directed Lowry to explore to the f u l l the ironic potential in the Consul's hopes for his wife's return. As his note showed, Lowry set about making the Consul share Yvonne's dream of "a new l i f e : the smoke of the train, the lightning in the white clouds." By this means Lowry simultaneously both compounded the novel's irony and developed the letter as an expression of a complex individual. In response to his i n i t i a l probing note, Lowry eventually expanded the letter greatly along the same lines. Because Yvonne was now established as the Consul's returned wife in the body of the novel, she shared not .only this single dream of the future but also a host of mutual memories. And i t was t h e s e memories, i n h i s u l t i m a t e r e v i s i o n o f t h e l e t t e r , t h a t Lowry used t o e x p l o i t t h e i r o n i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n : Do you remember t h e S t r a u s s song we used t o s i n g ? Once a y e a r t h e dead l i v e f o r one day. Oh come t o me a g a i n as once i n May. The G e n e r a l i f e Gardens and t h e Alhambra Gardens. And : shadows o f o ur f a t e a t o u r meeting i n S p a i n . The Hollywood Bar i n Granada 1 Why Hollywood? And t h e nunnery t h e r e : why Los A n g e l e s ? And i n Malaga, t h e P e n s i o n Mexico. And y e t n o t h i n g can e v e r t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e u n i t y we once knew and whi c h C h r i s t a l o n e knows must s t i l l e x i s t somewhere. A p a r t from t h e m u l t i p l e i r o n i e s i n t h e words o f t h e S t r a u s s song, t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o Granada presage and e x p l a i n some o f G e o f f r e y ' s memories i n t h e F a r o l i t o on t h e day o f h i s d e a t h , memories t h a t l e a d him t o draw a map o f A n d a l u s i a on t h e b a r and e x c i t e t h e i n t e r e s t o f f a s c i s t m i l i t i a m e n who e v e n t u a l l y shoot him. And i n a somewhat extreme f l i g h t o f i r o n y i n a passage a l i t t l e f u r t h e r on i n t h e l e t t e r , Lowry has t h e C o n s u l w r i t e t h a t h i s h o p e l e s s l o n g i n g s f o r h i s w i f e ' s r e t u r n a r e s t i m u l a t e d e v e r y day by t h e r o a r o f the v e r y p l a n e on which she e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e s — i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . He c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e most d i r e c t l y i r o n i c p l e a o f a l l : "come back, come back. .. . ., I am d y i n g w i t h o u t you. F o r C h r i s t J e s u s ' sake Yvonne come babk t o me, he a r me, i t i s a c r y , come back t o me, Yvonne, i f o n l y f o r a day. . . (p. 46—my emp h a s i s ) . 1 5 1 The t h i r d subsection of Lowry's str a t e g i c note f e l l into two parts. One dealt with the elimination of e a r l i e r narrative weakness and simply read "very much abbreviated." The second part showed Lowry beginning to b u i l d into his outline of the Consul's l e t t e r more of the ideas that arose in connection with his chronology problems: "Why did you send them to Wells Fargo . . . ." There i s l i t t l e to explain about eith e r of these points, but i t i s perhaps valuable to quote here the part of the e a r l i e r l e t t e r that Lowry v i r t u a l l y eliminated en bloc i n response to his f e e l i n g that i t should be "very much abbreviated." And yet i t seems i n another way, from the condition of the world and from our own private l i v e s which mirror that condition, that, i f we cannot l i v e without i t , we cannot, or do not deserve to l i v e with i t either. Is i t that we do not love enough? Do not give ourselves f r e e l y enough? We know that i t i s . We know that while we are t a l k i n g , t e l l i n g l i e s to ourselves, that houses are burning, people are dying. We know that, every day, we have passed by upon the other side. Alas, I think only these things when I forget that you are not with me! Without you I cannot say that I entertain the idea of correcting these shortcomings very seriously. Everything i s smash - smash - smash! I would l i k e to break a l l the glass i n the house! I do not, i f truth be known, even consider them shortcomings. I don't even consider that i n t e l l i g e n c e confused which denies; l i k e Hawthorne's Ethan Brand, the knowledge of the kinship of man for man, and the euthumism of i t s application. Smooth smiling parasites and meek bears. I f i n d myself saying, with Timon. I f l i f e i s h a t e f u l , the people fate has ordained to t r y and change i t are more so, these people with ideas! To h e l l with them. Yet I f e e l at the same time as knowing that everything i s hopeless that we cannot allow 152 what we created to sink down to o b l i v i o n i n t h i s dingy fashion. It i s a l l the more hopeless, possibly, because of what you would c e r t a i n l y not admit, that strange truths are discovered by those who hide themselves i n b o t t l e s , and we are reluctant to lose sight of those too, for any length of time. I know that I myself would submit to no exhortation to bring us together which implied the s a c r i f i c e s you would demand. It would not only mean a denial of drink but a denial of the romantic passion of my own remorse i n which I am often absorbed to the exclusion of a l l else and i n the preexistance of which I l i v e d even while loving and having you. Just as others must die bravely i n war, so I must suf f e r . Part of the trouble i s perhaps, simply my n a t i o n a l i t y . Perhaps i f I had given i n and become a naturalized .American, i t might have been our salvation. Yet I would never have been able to forget that I am an Englishman. I would not have l i k e d to be t o l d that now I was a red-blooded American. Although I have the very deepest respect for America, f o r i t s l i t e r a t u r e and i t s way, possibly the very best of a l l ways, of l i f e , I do not, I may say, altogether l i k e these 'red blooded Americans' I am drawn to them, yet I am drawn away from them That they are the hope of the world I am sure, but that I have a need of any such hope whatsoever i n my l i f e i s questionable. And just as the sea has divided me i n n a t i o n a l i t y , just as my l i f e has been broken i n h a l f , so the A t l a n t i c of my soul, crashing on widely separated coasts of thought, storms i n me day and night. Yet, storms i n me between the severed halves of what I am, artd what I would be, and I no longer know which i s which. Which i s ego, which i s super ego. The communication has long ago been broken between these two, between which, as has been said, there i s the only conversation. So I do not see, i f you continued to i n s u l t that soul, as you must, how i n any event, i f we made a 1 5 3 r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , i n spite of the divorce, that we could avoid reaching once more the point where we became unbearable to each other. And yet I cannot help thinking, on the other hand, i n t h i s Sargasso Sea of my own despair, cannot help hoping against hope that somehow, in some way, the future might change the - (7/2/pp.18-19— corresponds approximately to pp.45-46) This i s the prose of egomania and paranoia. The writer i s at the centre of the universe and persecuted by the whole cosmos. It also presents an overt interpretation of the novel's a l l e g o r i c a l world that was shared by both the Consul himself and the e a r l i e r narrator and, as such, acted i n the same way as an emblem : "these people with ideas! To h e l l with them [. . . .] Strange truths are discovered by those who hide themselves i n bottles [. . . .] Just as others must die bravely i n war, so I must suffe r [ . . . . ] " In eliminating i t e n t i r e l y Lowry cleared the way f o r the other changes discussed to make the l e t t e r ambiguous, i r o n i c , and open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; instead of presenting a view of the roovel's world clearly sanctioned by the e a r l i e r narrator, the l e t t e r became transformed into an important background element within that world, a major device -for setting.the scene i n a world of Individual interacting"minds that Lowry was developing around i t through h i s other r e v i s i o n s . 15H Discovery The preceding examples show how d i f f e r e n t forces at the heart of Lowry's r e v i s i o n of Volcano interacted to produce developmental change. They also begin to show the extent to which developments i n the novel involved Lowry i n a process of involuntary discovery. This l a t t e r aspect of the r e v i s i o n process i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n great d e t a i l by an interconnected series of notes and changes encompassing two d i f f e r e n t chapters. Part of the set of personal-history developments that Lowry b u i l t for his characters included a c o l l e c t i o n of personal memories given to Laruelle i n chapter I of the novel. These memories are introduced i n the published novel through a series of associations i n Laruelle's mind beginning with the barranca, or ravine, that runs through Quauhnahuac. By association, Laruelle then remembers the " h e l l bunker" on the golf course behind Geoffrey's childhood home at Leasowe. Here, Laruelle r e c a l l s , he had once discovered Geoffrey involved i n a bizarre sexual episode, a f t e r which the two of them had v i s i t e d a pub with the u n l i k e l y name of "The Case i s Altered." In Laruelle's mind, t h i s episode i s linked, i n turn, with another encounter he had with the Consul, when he found Geoffrey embracing Yvonne i n the ruins of Maximilian's 155 p a l a c e i n Quauhnahuac. D u r i n g t h e same sequence o f L a r u e l l e ' s memories o f h i s y o u t h , t h e r e a d e r l e a r n s t h a t the C o n s u l was a c h i l d p r o d i g y on t h e g o l f c o u r s e . As a group, t h i s complex o f a s s o c i a t i o n s f i r m l y , a l t h o u g h v a g u e l y , l i n k s t h e youths o f t h e two men f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e n o v e l . I n c h a p t e r V I I o f t h e n o v e l s e t a t Ja c q u e s ' s house, the p e r c e i v i n g mind a f t e r i n i t i a l s t r a t e g i c r e v i s i o n was c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e C o n s u l ' s . Reading t h r o u g h an i n t e r m e d i a t e v e r s i o n o f the c h a p t e r , t r y i n g t o imagine the terms i n whi c h the C o n s u l would e x p e r i e n c e i t , Lowry found a complex o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t p o w e r f u l l y evoked the s e t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t he had c r e a t e d i n L a r u e l l e ' s mind i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r . As t h e C o n s u l s t o o d on Jacques's b a l c o n y a t t h e r e a r o f t h e house, he o v e r l o o k e d t h e same r a v i n e t h a t had t r i g g e r e d L a r u e l l e ' s t r a i n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s , and on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e r a v i n e l a y t h e g o l f c o u r s e . Lowry r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e C o n s u l ' s s i t u a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i n J a c q u e s ' s house and i n the company o f Yvonne--was one h i g h l y charged w i t h s e x u a l o v e r t o n e s ; t h i s background t o t h e C o n s u l ' s t h o u g h t s as he l o o k e d a c r o s s t h e b a r r a n c a f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t Lowry r e c o g n i z e d between t h e two complexes o f a s s o c i a t i o n s . Reminded by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f images i n t h i s c h a p t e r o f t h e m a t e r i a l from L a r u e l l e ' s and t h e C o n s u l ' s y o u t h , Lowry d i s c o v e r e d t h a t from t h e C o n s u l ' s p o i n t o f 156 view as a champion gol f e r the landscape as a whole might be experienced i n terms of a golf course. In response to this idea, he made a s i g n i f i c a n t note at the top of page r&;. of his; draSt^for' the c h a p t e r V -Use gol f i n g terminology throughout occasionally such as: about a f u l l mashie shot, a chip shot. The whole f a i r might have been carried by a ((good)) f u l l brass[?] shot. Cortes Palace lay about a s l i g h t l y s l i c e d spoon shot down the road. Jacques tower would have made a good tee." ( 1 1 / 1/p.2(typescript)) After Geoffrey l e f t the balcony he experienced a f i t of sexual jealousy centred on his betrayal by Yvonne and Laruelle. He then joined the others on the roof f o r co c k t a i l s , where Laruelle referred' to'the misquotation from Alastor that the Consul was fond of repeating: "Oh, that the dream of the dark magician i n his cave were the true end of t h i s so lousy world." In accord with his e a r l i e r jotted memorandum, Lowry began to discover here a point at which his general s t r a t e g i c decision could take e f f e c t . "I was just thinking about that favourite quotation of yours, The mirador "Laruelle was saying; he handed would make Yvonne her drink, who also took a good tee a canape, and gave a l i t t l e box fo r a skip for some obscure reason, be a u t i f u l 157 possibly r e b e l l i o u s . "What i s i t hole with from and why," -aid Hugh, laying the barranca down the binoculars. "I've often as a hazard, wondered." "From? Alastor," Laruelle answered, giving the Consul his drink. "Once - " "No," said the Consul, drinking, "Not to-day. Don't t e l l us about i t now. I couldn't bear i t . " " T e l l us about what? This i s a very fi n e drink by the way, s i r , " said Hugh. (11/1/p.lO—corresponds to p.206) The Consul would, Lowry discovered, perceive the distance to the other side of the barranca as a golf shot from Jacques's house over a hazard l i k e the " h e l l bunker." This perception of Lowry's, situated i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r emotional context, led him to probe more deeply into the Consul's experience here. He began to experiment on a separate sheet of paper, attempting to explore the complex of sexual and other personal memories that might be associated i n the Consul's mind with the image of the barranca. .An^-Englishman'.s heaven* f i l l e d with, racing . - yachts arid long r o l l i n g green f a i r w a y s ^ b o v e which hovers i n [ i l l e g i b l e ] , l i k e the Holy G r a i l , an eternal challenge cup. Solid s i l v e r . Laruelle's zacuali seems, to the Consul, l i k e a high tee. But how one's l i f e had once seemed those r o l l i n g green fairways. A conversation between Laruelle £ the Consul on the zac u a l i , the l i t t l e figures above fhem on the golf course,- crawling, riign£matfi£n— Golfing scorpions . . . 158 I might have been a sort of Donne of the fairways. Who holds the f l a g when I hole out i n three? Who hunts my s i l v e r , k i n g along the shore? And who, upon that l a s t S f i n a l green? though I hole out i n four. Accepting ten S three score . . . Memo: Laruelle S he might talk about golf S old times I I always remember what you said about that g i r l , that she smelled so nice.' Laruelle remarked: Gouffre ( l l / l ( s e c t i o n 2)/ pencil page a f t e r 10 i n typescript) Lowry eventually developed t h i s material and inserted i t i n the form of two passage, the f i r s t of which occurs precisely at the point he had annotated where the Shelley quotation appears. 'God, that the dream of dark magician i n his visioned cave, even while his hand shakes i n i t s l a s t decay - that's the b i t I l i k e - were the true end of t h i s so lousy world . . . You shouldn't have gone to a l l t h i s trouble, Jacques.' He took the binoculars from Hugh., and now, his drink upon a vacant merlon between the marzipan objects, he gazed ste a d i l y over the country. But oddly he had not touched t h i s drink. And the calm mysteriously persisted. It was as i f they were standing on a l o f t y golf-tee somewhere. What a be a u t i f u l hole t h i s would make, from here to a green out into those trees on the other side of the barranca, that natural hazard which some hundred and f i f t y yards away could be carried by a good f u l l spoon shot, soaring ... Plock. The golgotha hole. High up, an eagle drove down-wind i n one. I t had shown lack of imagination to b u i l d the l o c a l course back up there, remote from the barranca• Golf = gouffre = gulf. Prometheus would r e t r i e v e l o s t b a l l s . And on that other side what strange fairways could be contrived, crossed by lone railway l i n e s , humming with the telegraph poles, glistening,with crazy l i e s on embankments, over the h i l l s and f a r away, l i k e youth, l i k e l i f e i t s e l f , the course plotted a l l over these planes, extending f a r beyond Tomalin, through the jungle, to the -Farolito, ;. the nineteenth hole... The Case i s Altered. 159 'No, Hugh, 'he s a i d , a d j u s t i n g t h e l e n s e s but w i t h o u t t u r n i n g round.... The second i n s e r t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l m a t e r i a l was made on t h e f o l l o w i n g page: But what on e a r t h was he, t h e C o n s u l , t h e C o n s u l wondered, c o n t i n u i n g t o l o o k out f o r t h e r e on t h o s e p l a i n s , i n t h a t tumulose l a n d s c a p e , t h r o u g h Hugh's b i n o c u l a r s ? Was i t f o r some f i g m e n t o f h i m s e l f , who had once e n j o y e d such a s i m p l e h e a l t h y s t u p i d good t h i n g as g o l f , as b l i n d h o l e s , f o r example, d r i v i n g up i n t o a h i g h w i l d e r n e s s o f sand-dunes, y e s , once w i t h Jacques h i m s e l f ? To c l i m b , and t h e n t o s e e , f rom an eminence, t h e ocean w i t h the smoke on t h e h o r i z o n , t h e n , f a r below, r e s t i n g n e a r t h e p i n on t h e g r e e n , h i s new S i l v e r K i n g , t w i n k l i n g . Ozonei -The C o n s u l c o u l d no l o n g e r p l a y g o l f : h i s few e f f o r t s o f r e c e n t y e a r s had p r o v e d d i s a s t r o u s ... I s h o u l d have become a s o r t o f Donne o f t h e f a i r w a y s a t J l e a s t . Poet o f t h e u n r e p l a c e d t u r f . - Who h o l d s t h e f l a g w h i l e I h o l e out i n t h r e e ? Who hunts my Z o d i a c Zone a l o n g t h e shore? And who, upon t h a t l a s t and f i n a l g r e e n , though I h o l e out i n f o u r , a c c e p t s my t e n and t h r e e s c o r e . . . Though I have more. The C o n s u l dropped the g l a s s e s a t l a s t and t u r n e d round. And s t i l l he had not touched h i s d r i n k . The whole p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l was c l e a r l y one i n which Lowry made accumulated d i s c o v e r i e s t h r o u g h c r i t i c i s m and a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e g r e s s i v e l y r e v e a l e d as he f o l l o w e d h i s r e v i s i o n programme o f r e i m a g i n i n g t h e n o v e l ' s w o r l d from h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' p o i n t s o f view. Seldom were new developments found p u r e l y o u t s i d e the n o v e l and t h e n i n c o r p o r a t e d ; Lowry 160 d i s c o v e r e d them w i t h i n the s t o r y once he r e c o g n i z e d 8 weakness and s e t o u t t o s e a r c h f o r a d i f f e r e n t t r u t h . A f u r t h e r n a t u r a l d i s c o v e r y t h a t f r e q u e n t l y a r o s e as a consequence o f h i s d e c i s i o n t o c o n v e r t t h e o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t i v e mode i n t o one o f i n t e r a c t i n g s u b j e c t i v e minds was t h a t o f a m b i g u i t y . One o f t h e i n s t a n c e s i n which he d i s c o v e r e d a form o f a m b i g u i t y was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r - -t h e s i t u a t i o n i n which Yvonne found t h a t she c o u l d not be c e r t a i n o f h e r own m o t i v e s f o r r e t u r n i n g t o t h e C o n s u l . But Lowry d i s c o v e r e d a p a r a l l e l , more g e n e r a l a m b i g u i t y t h r o u g h o u t h i s p r e - t e x t s as he s e a r c h e d f o r a " b e t t e r " l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h e n o v e l : t h e C o n s u l ' s d e a t h . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h e r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n o f the n o v e l , t h e whole i n c i d e n t o f t h e C o n s u l ' s b e i n g s h o t seemed e x t r e m e l y a r b i t r a r y . Having c l a i m e d t h a t h i s name was W i l l i a m B l a c k s t o n e , w h i l e t h e p a s s p o r t c o n f i s c a t e d from 9 him, h i s own, d e s c r i b e d him as W i l l i a m Ames, t h e C o n s u l s i m p l y l o s t h i s temper and t o o k a s y m b o l i c s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e f a s c i s t s whom he saw as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e dea t h o f t h e I n d i a n he had passed by on the r o a d e a r l i e r i n t h e day. H i s l o s s o f temper o c c u r r e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y u n j u s t i f i e d b u l l y i n g and t e a s i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e f a s c i s t s f o r w h i c h t h e r e was no p a r t i c u l a r p r e c e d e n t o r e x p l a n a t i o n beyond t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were f a s c i s t s and t h u s e x p e c t e d t o behave i n a s t e r e o t y p e d u g l y and v i o l e n t f a s h i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s g e n e r a l a r b i t r a r -i n e s s , t h e C o n s u l ' s death had c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e body o f t h e n o v e l i n o n l y t h e most tenuous manner, and what c o n n e c t i o n s t h e r e were tended t o be s o l e l y s y m b o l i c o r a l l e g o r i c a l . I n t h e l i g h t o f a l l t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e C o n s u l ' s s h o o t i n g t o o k i t s p l a c e as t h e c o n c l u s i o n t o a n o v e l about a t r a g i c hero who passed h i s day b e i n g f o r c e d from one d r i n k t o a n o t h e r by t h e i n t o l e r a b l e w o r l d around him, a w o r l d o f s t e r e o t y p e s w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , sympathy, o r s e n s i t i v i t y . And h i s d e a t h a c q u i r e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a t r a g e d y as t h e outcome o f a s t a n d f o r c e d upon him by t h i s i n t o l e r a b l e w o r l d , a s t a n d f o r which he had been, as i t were, wound up by t h e f o r c e s o f e v i l a c t i n g t h r o u g h t h o s e around him. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s death was t h e w o r l d ' s , not h i s . As he s e t out t o r e i m a g i n e t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e way i n which t h e n o v e l was g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g , Lowry was i n e v i t a b l y concerned w i t h t h e f a c t s d i r e c t l y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C o n s u l ' s d e a t h and w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and m o t i v e s o f t h o s e d i r e c t l y concerned i n t h e shooting.10 P l a c i n g h i m s e l f i n i t h e C o n s u l ' s shoes ; h e ' f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t G e o f f r e y would p r o b a b l y be so t i e d up w i t h h i s own i n e b r i a t i o n and s e l f - p i t y t h a t he would omit p a y i n g 162 p r o p e r l y f o r h i s d r i n k s and f o r h i s b r i e f i n t e r l u d e i n t h e company o f M a r i a , t h e young p r o s t i t u t e . He would a l s o , Lowry i m a g i n e d , be s u f f i c i e n t l y m a u d l i n and s e n t i m e n t a l by t h i s s t a g e o f t h e day t o m i n d l e s s l y s c r a w l a map o f s o u t h e r n S p a i n on t h e b a r t o p and g e n e r a l l y behave i n an e x t r e m e l y t r u c u l e n t and a n t i - s o c i a l manner. But even t h e s e d e t a i l s , once he had d i s c o v e r e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d them i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g t e x t o f t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , seemed in a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e m i l i t i a i n s h o o t i n g t h e C o n s u l . He had, a f t e r a l l , p r o p e r l e g a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and was m a n i f e s t l y a drunk, r a t h e r t h a n any t h r e a t t o them. The k i n d o f p e r s o n t h e y might s h o o t , Lowry ..decided, would be H u g h — a young l e f t - w i n g a c t i v i s t who might w e l l cause r e a l t r o u b l e f o r them o r even endanger them p h y s i c a l l y . I f t h e f a s c i s t m i l i t i a m e n were t o m i s t a k e t h e C o n s u l i n some way f o r h i s b r o t h e r , t h e i r k i l l i n g him would seem much more l i k e l y . Some e v i d e n c e , however, would be r e q u i r e d , even i f o n l y c i r c u m s t a n t i a l . The C o n s u l ' s p o s s e s s i n g Hugh's t e l e g r a m , w r i t t e n as i t was i n E n g l i s h and f i l l e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l l y c harged t e r m s , would c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e something a l o n g t h o s e l i n e s . I t was a t t h e v e r y p o i n t where Lowry had t h e C o n s u l i n t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n produce h i s l e g i t i m a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t he made avnote t o use Hugh's t e l e g r a m i n some way. 163 He took the e l a s t i c o f f the Consul's passport and glanced sideways at i t , then up at the Consul. He examined i t . "Chingarn! Cabron!" he seemed to be having some d i f f i c u l t y deciphering the name. "William Ames," he spelled out Telegram aloud. "Occupation, r e t i r e d . " He was scratching himself. "What fo r you want to t e l l l i e s ? " (8/12/p.396—corresponds to pp.369-70) This note e f f e c t i v e l y referred Lowry back to chapter IV of the novel and forced him to revise his description of Hugh's dress so that i t was cl e a r Hugh had borrowed the Consul's jacket,and f a i l e d to remove the telegram from i t s pocket. Lowry's invented excuse f o r t h i s loan was that Hugh's clothes had been "impounded at the border." (p.99) From having Hugh borrow the jacket, Lowry had to ensure that i t was returned to the Consul. In chapter VI t h i s exchange was accomplished, and i n the published version, fo r example, the ^Consul sets out for Tomalin wearing "a freshly pressed s h i r t and a p a i r of tweed trousers with the jacket to them Hugh had borrowed and now brought i n from the porch." (p.187) Against t h i s background, Lowry came upon the episode in which the Consul took a ride on the machina infernale at the Quauhnahuac f a i r . In the e a r l i e r version of t h i s incident, Geoffrey simply wore his own jacket and there was no complex antecedent exchange with Hugh. When he 164 rode t h e machina h i s p a s s p o r t f e l l from h i s p o c k e t a l o n g w i t h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , but i t was r e t u r n e d t o him t o r e a p p e a r , as seen i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n from p. 396 o f t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n as p r o p e r l e g a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I n a l a t e r p e n c i l d r a f t o f t h e machina passage, however, Lowry made a note r e c o r d i n g h i s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t was a c r u c i a l scene w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why t h e C o n s u l was s h o t . ' Pf? [. . J e v e r y t h i n g was f a l l i n g out o f What does '•' h i s p o c k e t s , a f r e s h a r t i c l e a t each f a l l out c i r c u i t , h i s p a s s p o r t now, h i s s m a l l o f h i s pock-change , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t gave him a e t , some-c h a r a c t e r , a meaning [ . . . . ] t h i n g new, ( 1 0 / 3 0 / p . l 8 — c o r r e s p o n d s t o pp.225-26) a t e l e g r a m . not e v e r y -t h i n g , he s t i l l had something i n h i s pock-e t , p o s s i b l y o f Hugh's What about Hugh's t e l e g r a m When t h e passage h a d been t y p e d , Lowry examined i t a g a i n . The t e l e g r a m , was f i r m l y f i x e d as c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Co n s u l was t o po s s e s s i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s . But Lowry now began t o f o c u s even more i n t e n t l y on t h e Con s u l ' s p a s s p o r t . A f t e r a w h i l e t h e C o n s u l r e a l i z e d c o n f u s e d l y t h a t e v e r y t h i n g was f a l l i n g out o f h i s p o c k e t s a f r e s h a r t i c l e a t each c i r c u i t ; b ut what had been i n h i s p o c k e t s t o b e g i n w i t h ? There went h i s s m a l l change, h i s n o t e c a s e - he d i d n ' t know 165 i f he'd brought his passport with him. ((Then he remembered he had brought i t . ) ) The c h i l d who returned his notecase withdrew i t from him p l a y f u l l y , hiding i t behind her, before handing i t back, a f t e r which she retreated a few steps, dubious whether the Consul should ac t u a l l y have i t a f t e r a l l , No, she had something i n her other hand, a crumpled telegram of Hugh's l e f t i n the jacket. TH4/t6MAl/1kM/iM'6/A6*/M/lM4/Mt think out )6r<£iAgM*/n£sVp i^5B^0'tf,£Z no passport — well, perhaps he had not brought i t a f t e r a l l . No, he remembered he had brought i t . (ll/l/p.32—corresponds to pp.225-26) By t h i s stage, Lowry had begun to v a c i l l a t e and become confused about whether the Consul had brought his passport with him and whether, i f he had, i t would be returned to him along with his other possessions. He could not make up h i s mind whether i t would be possible for a diplomatic representative l i k e the Consul to forget his passport e n t i r e l y or whether i t could f a i l to be returned to him when the l i t t l e g i r l had to return the telegram. The deletion i n the second part of the passage shows that his inse c u r i t y over these issues was increasing rather than decreasing. Eventually, t h i s uncertainty about how the passport should come to be missing i n the f i n a l chapter, and so f a i l to provide the Consul with l e g a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to d i s t i n g u i s h him from Hugh, the dangerous young l e f t i s t , 166 entered..the t e x t i n p r e c i s e l y t h e way t h a t Lowry had b u i l t h i s own u n c e r t a i n t y about Yvonne's m o t i v e s i n t o h i s account o f h e r view o f h e r s e l f . God! E v e r y t h i n g was f a l l i n g o u t o f h i s p o c k e t s , was b e i n g w r e s t e d from him, t o r n away, a f r e s h a r t i c l e a t each w h i r l i n g , s i c k e n i n g , p l u n g i n g , r e t r e a t i n g , unspeakable c i r c u i t , h i s n o t e c a s e , p i p e , k e y s , h i s dark g l a s s e s he had t a k e n o f f , h i s s m a l l change he d i d not have time t o imagine b e i n g pounced on by t h e c h i l d r e n a f t e r a l l , he was b e i n g emptied o u t , r e t u r n e d empty, h i s s t i c k , h i s p a s s p o r t - had t h a t been h i s p a s s p o r t ? he d i d n ' t know i f he'd brought i t w i t h him. Then he remembered he had brought i t . Or hadn't brought i t . The c h i l d who had h i s n o t e c a s e withdrew i t from him p l a y f u l l y b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g i t . No: she s t i l l had something i n h e r o t h e r hand, a crumpled paper . . . . Some t e l e g r a m o f Hugh's. H i s s t i c k , h i s g l a s s e s , h i s p i p e , unbroken; y e t not h i s f a v o u r i t e p i p e ; and no p a s s p o r t . W e l l , d e f i n t e l y he c o u l d not have brought i t . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p r o b a b i l i t i e s t h a t Lowry d i s c o v e r e d i n c o n f l i c t here was not s u s c e p t i b l e o f any c l e a r s o l u t i o n . The C o n s u l had t o f a i l t o have l e g a l i d e n t i t y i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r f o r h i s d e a t h t o have o c c u r r e d as i t d i d , but i t was as u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e C o n s u l would f o r g e t h i s p a s s p o r t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e as i t was t h a t i t a l o n e would be l o s t on t h e machina i n f e r n a l e . The s o u r c e o f t h e t e x t ' s a m b i g u i t y a t t h i s p o i n t thus l a y i n t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f , and i t was an i r o n i c a m b i g u i t y t h a t Lowry c l e a r l y d i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n the e a r l i e r l i n e a r and a l l e g o r i c a l a ccount o f t h e Co n s u l ' s "murder." C o n c l u s i o n s The s t r a t e g i c m a r g i n a l i a examined i n t h i s c h a p t e r show how Lowry s e t out t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s he posed h i m s e l f i n h i s c r i t i c a l a n n o t a t i o n s . They show him r e i m a g i n i n g and d i s c o v e r i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s as independent i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h d e t a i l e d p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , h i s t o r i e s t h a t t h e y p a r t i a l l y s h are w i t h one a n o t h e r . These n o t e s a l s o show how Lowry d i s c o v e r e d t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f h i s by now n o n s t e r e o t y p e d c h a r a c t e r s from each o t h e r , how t h e i r u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n towards s e l f i s h n e s s c o u l d be as s t r o n g as t h e i r c o n s c i o u s w i l l t o sy m p a t h i z e . T h i s new c o n c e p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s was encouraged and s u p p o r t e d by changes t h a t c o n v e r t e d g r a t u i t o u s emblematic m a t e r i a l i n t o p o w e r f u l p h i l o s o p h i c o r r e l i g i o u s background t o a h i s t o r i c a l s t o r y . When t h e s e changes combined w i t h t h e o t h e r s mentioned, an e s s e n t i a l l y l i n e a r and a l l e g o r i c a l w o r l d o f s t e r e o t y p e s became a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l w o r l d o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y p e r c e i v i n g s u b j e c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e p u b l i s h e d n o v e l we know " e x p l a i n s " t h e C o n s u l ' s d e a t h i n terms o f mutual and i r o n i c a l i e n a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n terms o f a r i g i d l y s t r u c t u r e d a l l e g o r y . Notes x Margerie Lowry remembers the way i n which Lowry and she conceived of t h i s r e v i s i o n p r i n c i p l e :"We shouldn't have a God consciousness...we shouldn't s h i f t back and forth i n one chapter, from one person's conscious-ness to another...[Hugh'sD mind wouldn't work i n certa i n ways. The Consul's mind would work i n certain ways and Hugh's would work i n a d i f f e r e n t way." Personal interview with Margerie„Lowry, December, 19 74. 2 It i s perhaps misleading to describe chapter XI as not f i l t e r e d through the mind of a single character. In the main, Yvonne i s the perceiver throughout the chapter, but on a number of occasions, the narrator reports Hugh's experience as well: "they made out, frozen, the minute black and white fi g u r e s " (24); "the r i g h t that met t h e i r eyes" (324) (my emphasis). At t h i s point, and on other occasions, i t i s possible to witness the process whereby Lowry's writing sometimes became " s e l f - r e f l e x i v e . " The ambivalence involved i n the l i t e r a r y process of searching for a form here comes to be incorporated as the substance of the f i c t i o n . In no sense, however, was thi s a general strategy of Lowry's, and even i n thi s instance, there i s no evidence that the r e f l e x i v i t y of the f i n a l expression was of in t e r e s t to Lowry i n i t s own r i g h t . What interested him was the psychological discovery that he made about himself and others through such revisions. 4 On the verso pages of the Texas manuscript alone there are a 'large number of drafts of th i s passage. Lowry c a l l e d i t his "murderer passage." ^ K i l g a l l i n , Lowry, p. 151. g During a personal interview with Margerie Lowry, December 1974, she said "Yes, he had those folders of Tlaxcala [ i n Dollarton], he had those." O ' K i l l , p. 68,also notes the development of the novel away from such overt se l f - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : " t h e novel i t s e l f does not i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e or interpret i t s material, does not provide a single conclusive i n t e r -pretation of any sign." ° This process of discovery through r e v i s i o n , c l e a r l y documented i n thi s example, extends O' K i l l ' s conclusion, p. 2 04, that " i t might be more accurate to say that the writer finds a thought or fe e l i n g by the use of language." Lowry found more than thoughts or feelings through his search f o r a better language— he found the very substance of the published novel. 9 In the f i r s t versions of the novel, the Consul was named William Ames. ^ I have explored the development during r e v i s i o n of circumstantial evidence not d i r e c t l y connected with marginal annotation i n my a r t i c l e "The Consul's 'Murder' Ambiguous Narration i n Malcolm Lowry's Under the Volcano, Canadian Literature 67 (Winter 1976):53-63. Here, again, therefore, we f i n d an instance of Lowry's novel actually i n the process of becoming s e l f -r e f l e x i v e . Lowry's creative ambivalence comes to be incorporated as the substance of the novel's action at th i s point. Again, however, nothing suggests that Lowry had any intere s t i n t h i s feature of his r e v i s i o n process as an issue i n i t s own r i g h t . 171 Chapter Four TEXT AND MAN Is i t possible to extend understanding of Lowry's creative r e v i s i n g of Volcano by considering what i s known of the author's l i f e during t h i s period? As i t happens, there i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence about the way Lowry perceived and acted between 19 35 and to draw a set of extremely convincing and fascinating p a r a l l e l s between the general trends v i s i b l e i n Lowry's revisions and apparent changes i n his personal outlook. In f a c t , so s t r i k i n g are the p a r a l l e l s involved, that i t i s reasonable to speak of Lowry's r e v i s i o n as c l e a r l y a "therapeutic" undertaking, i n the f u l l sense of that word. Lowry appears to have reorganized his perception of himself and others by means of h i s struggle with h i s novel. Before entering t h i s phase of analysis, however, i t i s important to summarize precisely what were the "general trends v i s i b l e i n Lowry's r e v i s i o n , " the trends exposed through the detailed examination of the preceding two chapters. 172 D i f f e r e n t v i s i o n s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g two c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s , Lowry's m a r g i n a l i a and r e v i s i o n s t r a c e d h i s r e w r i t i n g o f a s t o r y t h a t remained i n i t s b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s i d e n t i c a l from 1939 t o 1945. N e a r l y a l l o f h i s commentary a r o s e from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e way t h i s b a s i c s t o r y was d e s c r i b e d and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r e a d e r . And as we have s e e n , t h i s f undamental d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n — o f whose s t r u c t u r e Lowry h i m s e l f was p r o b a b l y u n a w a r e — h a d i t s l o c a l e x p r e s s i o n i n many f o r m s ; h i s c r i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a n n o t a t i o n s r a n g i n g from d i s c u s s i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m t o p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h whether t h e o r d i n a r y r e a d e r would be e n t e r t a i n e d by a passage. C u m u l a t i v e l y , Lowry's c r i t i c i s m was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a n a r r a t i v e v o i c e which dominated th e r e j e c t e d n o v e l ' s a c t i o n w i t h i t s own a t t i t u d e s , judgements, and e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s v o i c e tended t o a b s t r a c t n e s s and e x p o s i t i o n , o f t e n i n a " j o u r n a l i s t i c " f a s h i o n o r by means o f synopses. P a r t l y as a consequence o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s , c h a r a c t e r s tended t o be s t e r e o t y p e d c a r i c a t u r e s . Except f o r the f i g u r e o f t h e C o n s u l , t h e y tended t o l a c k any semblance o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y o r autonomy. They appeared t o be i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s g r a s p , t o b e l o n g t o h i s mind a l o n e . The r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l was s i m i l a r l y crude i n i t s use o f a l l u s i o n . The n a r r a t i v e v o i c e , so c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t , tended t o r e l y not o n l y on d i r e c t mention o f o t h e r t e x t s w i t h monotonous r e g u l a r i t y ( i m p a r t i n g an a i r o f b o o k i s h Cambridge l i t e r a r y 173 c o n v e r s a t i o n t o t h e whole u n d e r t a k i n g ) b u t a l s o on a p e r v a s i v e l i t e r a r y t o n e . A l l t o o o f t e n t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t o r o r h i s c h a r a c t e r s s t r a i n e d f o r t h e o u t r e metaphor and t h e e l e g a n t p e r i o d . These f e a t u r e s c u m u l a t i v e l y d i s t r a c t e d the f o c u s o f t h e n o v e l ' s a t t e n t i o n away from th e b a s i c a c t i o n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f . D i a l o g u e was o f a p i e c e w i t h t h e n a r r a t i v e . The c h a r a c t e r s f r e q u e n t l y sounded p r e c i s e l y l i k e each o t h e r and l i k e t h e n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f . They d e l i v e r e d l o n g unbroken speeches f i l l e d w i t h c o n s i d e r e d judgments t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s i n an a l l e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each o t h e r . When the d i a l o g u e was not couched i n t h e u p p e r - c l a s s , g e s t u r a l r h e t o r i c o f t h e n a r r a t o r , i t o f t e n took t h e g u i s e o f a j e j e u n e , p r e j u d i c e d v e r s i o n o f American o r Mexican. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l combined t o p r e s e n t a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and l i n e a r w o r l d . Events and i n t e r a c t i o n s seemed t o t a k e p l a c e s e q u e n t i a l l y , f o l l o w i n g each o t h e r onto t h e s t a g e o f t h e o m n i s c i e n t and e v e r - p r e s e n t n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n p l a c e o f t h i s a b s t r a c t i o n , e x p o s i t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n , and o m n i s c i e n c e , Lowry s t r a t e g i c a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d c o n c r e t e n e s s , and withdrew as n a r r a t o r from judgment, e v a l u a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n . He r e s t r i c t e d t h e n a r r a t i v e v i s i o n a t n e a r l y a l l t i m e s t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y unmediated p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v e n t s t h r o u g h one c h a r a c t e r ' s mind a t a t i m e . H i s c h a r a c t e r s were g i v e n p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s and 174 autonomous p s y c h o l o g i e s . They thus came t o p o s s e s s a degree o f c o m p l e x i t i y p a r a l l e l i n g t h a t w h i c h Lowry had o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n o n l y t h e C o n s u l . As p a r t o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s w i t h d r a w a l from prominence, b o t h t h e d i r e c t l i t e r a r y a l l u s i o n s and t h e g e n e r a l l i t e r a r y and d e r i v a t i v e manner became f a r more c o n t r o l l e d . D i a l o g u e w h i c h had been l i n e a r and e x t r e m e l y s i m i l a r t o n a r r a t i v e became d r a m a t i z e d ; Lowry b u i l t i t i n t o t h e a c t i o n and s e t t i n g o f t h e n o v e l by b r e a k i n g i t up and r e w r i t i n g i t as i n t h e "Stone R e t r e a t " p a s s a g e , w i t h t h e rhythm and tempo o f a u t h e n t i c v e r b a l exchanges between autonomous i n d i v i d u a l s . He made t h e imagery p a s s i n g t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l minds r e f l e c t h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' : p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s and e m o t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . The v e r s i o n ' s , c o n t r o l l e d a n d - r i g i d f i c t i o n a l w o r l d was t h u s r e p l a c e d by a w o r l d a p p a r e n t l y f a r more independent o f any c o n t r o l l i n g n a r r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . I n p l a c e o f t h e s h a l l o w t r a g i c s t e r e o t y p e s t h a t Lowry's n a r r a t o r had p r e s e n t e d t o t h e r e a d e r i n t h e pre-194 0 v e r s i o n s o f t h e n o v e l , he c r e a t e d a w o r l d o f i n t e r a c t i n g a l i e n a t e d s u b j e c t -i v i t i e s . N e u r o s i s o f t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n I n t h e most crude and g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e n a r r a t o r o f 175 the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n p r e s e n t e d o r d e s c r i b e d t h e C o n s u l as the t r a g i c h e r o o f an a l l e g o r y , p e r s e c u t e d by and s u f f e r i n g on b e h a l f o f humanity a t t h e hands o f a s e t o f s t e r e o t y p e d f i g u r e s . These c h a r a c t e r s a c t e d as t h e u n f r e e agents o f a machine o r g a n i z e d by s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s f o r the h e r o ' s d e s t r u c t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s framework, G e o f f r e y F i r m i n appeared as a l i t e r a r y a r c h e t y p e — a Prometheus, an Oed i p u s , a Faust, a L e a r — u n d e r s t o o d i n post-Romantic terms. T h i s e a r l i e r a c c o u n t o f t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l f i g u r e v i s - a - v i s t h e c h a r a c t e r s around him c o r r e s p o n d e d i n many r e s p e c t s t o Lowry's own view o f h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h he c r e a t e d t h e r e j e c t e d n o v e l . He spent t h e s e y e a r s b e f o r e h i s move t o D o l l a r t o n i n M e x i c o , Los A n g e l e s , and Vancouver, and t h e y were y e a r s marked i n h i s l e t t e r s t o v i r t u a l l y everyone by a p e r p e t u a l sense o f d e s p a i r and p e r s e c u t i o n . He e x p r e s s e d h i s unhappiness i n terms o f l i t e r a r y s t e r e o t y p e s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o th o s e c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e C o n s u l ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e e a r l i e r V o l c a n o . T h i s i s t h e p e r f e c t K a f k a s i t u a t i o n b u t you w i l l p ardon me i f I do not c o n s i d e r i t any l o n g e r funny . . . . A t any r a t e an a b s o l u t e l y f a n t a s t i c t r a g e d y i s i n v o l v e d — s o t r a g i c and so f a n t a s t i c t h a t I c o u l d a l m o s t w i s h you t o have a l o o k a t i t . One o f the most amusing f e a t u r e s o f t h e t h i n g i s t h a t even an at t e m p t t o p l a y S i d n e y C a r t o n has r e s u l t e d i n a f a r c e . T h i s i s not t h e c r y o f the boy who c r i e d w o l f . I t i s t h e w o l f i t s e l f who c r i e s f o r h e l p . 9 176 I am here because there because there i s much h o s t i l i t y i n my hotel I am t r y i n g to do some,work here but my.. l i f e i s so circumscribed by your detectives who walk up and down the street and stand at the street corner as though there was nothing better to do than to spy on a man who i s unable to do anything anyway and never had intentions of doing anything anyway and never had intentions of doing anything but be good and love and help where help was necessary that I am rapi d l y losing my mind. It i s not drink that does th i s but Oaxaca. The English are s u f f i c i e n t l y stupid" but the s t u p i d i t y and hypocrisy of your detectives and the motives which are behind t h e i r l i t t l e eternal spying - t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s - completely transcend any c r i m i n a l i t y and stu p i d i t y I have ever encoun-tered anywhere i n the world. People even camp outside my bloody door to see i f I am drinking,inside, and of course I probably am because i t i s so d i f f i c u l t or becoming so d i f f i c u l t to drink outside. I f I do not drink now a cer t a i n amount there seems no possible doubt that I s h a l l f i n d myself i n that Goddamn j a i l to which I seem to be progressing almost geome-t r i c a l l y , and as you know, when one goes there sober, one comes out drunk. It seems almost that I have a kind of f i x a t i o n on the place because, l i k e the novelist Dostoievsky, I have p r a c t i c a l l y a pathological sympathy for those who do wrong (what others are there?) and get into the s h i t . Nor - for that matter - has any man a r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e upon a person (who has paid through the nose as I have, who has his house robbed, his wife taken away, i n short everything taken away, simply to be i n Mexico) f o r his own Goddamned p o l i t i c a l reactionary reasons when anyhow i t i s only a country that he himself - I mean the 3 l e g i s l a t o r - has c r i m i n a l l y stolen . . . . 177 My only, f r i e n d here i s a t e r t i a r y who ^pinst-.a medal of.the Virgin.of Guadalupe on my coat; follows me i n the street (when I am not i n prison,aarid he followed me there too several times); and who thinks I am Jesus Christ, which, as you know, I am not yet, though I may be progressing towards  I am myself. I have been imprisbned. as a spy i n a dungeon compared with which the Chateau d ' l f — i n the f i l m — i s a l i t t l e cottage i n the country overlooking the sea.j^ I did not write because I f e l t myself too deeply l o s t i n a dark purgatory b l i n d . I f you would write me a l e t t e r i t would cheer me up more than I can say—wish me God speed at l e a s t — e l s e , l i k e Herman Bang, I s h a l l die of g r i e f , s i t t i n g bolt upright i n a Pullman car, i n Utah, without a country.,-I have emphasized the points i n these quotations at which elements i n Lowry's pattern of l i t e r a r y tragedy make themselves evident. But t h i s pattern can be seen i n f u l l i n the very long l e t t e r to Conrad Aiken written i n Vancouver i n 19 39. It opens with a fascinating paragraph that, i n a sense, summarizes the whole system of rules according to which Lowry organized his perception/ description of himself and others throughout t h i s period. Since my l a s t bagful of news the s i t u a t i o n has become so bloody complicado that i f we do not receive some help, and at that immediately, I s h a l l lose what remains of my reason, not to say l i f e . It i s a l l ( l i k e everything else) such a complexity of melancholy opposites that, although I expect you to understand i t a l l , I'm not going to attempt to explain i t . I s h a l l just hang the 178 s u c c u l e n t - l o o k i n g hams o f m i s f o r t u n e i n t h e window h o p i n g t o e n t i c e you i n t o where t h e whole p i g ; , t h a t would be c u t down, i s hanging. g The p a t t e r n g o v e r n i n g t h i s s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y one o f the unwarranted v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a h e l p l e s s ("hanging") i n n o c e n t ("dumb a n i m a l " ) by s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s ( " m i s f o r t u n e " ) . Such a s e t o f r u l e s a t i t s most fundamental and impor-t a n t l e v e l e n a b l e s Lowry t o p r e s e n t h i m s e l f as not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own i n a c t i o n . More p r e c i s e l y , he d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as t r a p p e d by e x t e r n a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s - -n e would a c t , i f o n l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h o s e around him, a l l -owed. L a t e r i n t h e l e t t e r , t h e l i t e r a r y a r c h e t y p e s emerge a g a i n : "When I r e t u r n e d t o Los A n g e l e s . . . 1 p r a c t i e a l l y went t o p i e c e s , t h i s b e i n g due t o i l l n e s s , p a r t l y t o J a n [ G a b r i a l j , who went p r o m p t l y t o Sant a B a r b a r a , l e a v i n g me, a s o r t o f L e a r o f t h e S i e r r a s , d y i n g by t h e g l a s s i n t h e 7 Brown Derby, i n Hollywood . . . " "M a r g e r i e . . . has s t u c k by me th r o u g h t h i c k and t h i n , m o s t l y t h i n , s h a r i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h me wh i c h make G o r k i ' s Lower Depths l o o k l i k e g a drawing-room comedy"; " i f something doesn't happen p r e t t y damn q u i c k t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l become l i k e t he p o s t u l a t e d end o f K a f k a ' s The C a s t l e , i n w h i c h he was t o o worn out t o w r i t e " . 3 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r o l e s they are a s s i g n e d w i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e o f l i t e r a r y , a r c h e t y p e s t h e i n d i v i -d u a l s around Lowry came t o be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o u n f r e e agents o r components o f a n • i n o r d i n a t e l y c o m p l i c a t e d and f a t a l machine d e s i g n e d , l i k e Cocteau's La Machine I n f e r n a l e (an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t image i n Under t h e V o l c a n o , o f c o u r s e ) , f o r t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e m o r t a l , b u t e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e , h e r o . The e x t r e m e l y a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y o f t h i s t r a g i c h e r o ' s (Lowry's) s i t u a t i o n i s expanded upon e l s e w h e r e i n t h e l e t t e r i t i s not t h e p a r t i c u l a r " h o r r o r s " o f h i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t " a p p a l l " him, but Lowry w r i t e s , "the a b s o l u t e i n j u s t i c e o f a l l t h i s ,. . . t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . . the h o p e l e s s n e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n " . ^ The f r e e h e r o , who p e r c e i v e s h i s u n j u s t entrapment i n t h e i n f e r n a l machine, cannot communicate m e a n i n g f u l l y w i t h t h o s e around him because t h e y a r e merely t h e u n f r e e i n s t r u m e n t s o f f a t e , components o f h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The h e r o (Lowry) i s thus a b s o l v e d o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r even t r y i n g t o communi-c a t e , n o t o n l y i n t h e l i t e r a l sense o f t a l k i n g t o o r p e r s u a d i n g t h o s e around him, but a l s o i n t h e more i m p o r t a n t sense o f i n t e r a c t i n g d e c i s i v e l y w i t h them. And t h i s i s s i m p l y a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l and fundamental c l a i m t h a t t h e h e r o ' s c i r c u m s t a n c e s cannot be changed by an e x e r c i s e o f h i s w i l l . The c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s which c o n s t i t u t e d Lowry's b l i n d and u n j u s t c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t t h i s time i n c l u d e d h i s f a t h e r A. 0. Lowry; A. B. C a r e y , t h e man e n t r u s t e d w i t h Lowry's income i n Vancouver; and M a u r i c e Carey, who was Lowry's l a n d l o r d when t h e l e t t e r t o A i k e n was w r i t t e n . I t i s w o r t h e x a m i n i n g b r i e f l y t h e way Lowry p r e s e n t s each o f them: f i r s t , h i s f a t h e r : " I t i s queer, when a l l I w i s h i s t o be i n d e p e n d e n t , t h a t I s h o u l d now be p l a c e d f o r c i b l y i n a p o s i t i o n where i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , a l t h o u g h a l l t h i s i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f my f a t h e r ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e " 1 1 ; " I f e e l t h a t my f a t h e r i s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n (which i s i n t o l -e r a b l e and h o p e l e s s ) b u t . . . as my word i s o b v i o u s l y d i s c r e d i t e d , I f e e l i t u s e l e s s t o make any statement o f my own s i d e o f t h e case [ t o him] . . . .'^ I n f a c t , t h e p a t t e r n o f Lowry's own " g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e " i s f a r c l e a r e r t h a n t h a t o f h i s f a t h e r , who appears h e r e , i n a manner " q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t " w i t h Lowry's t r a g i c s c e n a r i o , as an e s s e n t i a l l y m e c h a n i c a l f i g u r e , h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i s son p r e c o n c e i v e d and c o n d i t i o n e d by d i s t o r t e d , second-hand i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , because t h e n o t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i m p l i e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e f f e c t i v e s e l f -w i l l e d a c t i o n ( t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Lowry^s s c e n a r i o o p e r a t e d t o e x c l u d e ) , t h e r e i s no sense whatsoever h e r e that Lowry himself played any part i n creating his strained relations with his father. The same ref u s a l to present himself as responsible i n any way f o r the circumstances i n which he found himself extends to his treatment of the man entrusted with his remittance i n Vancouver, A.B. Carey. A.B. Carey does not play a large part i n the published version of t h i s l e t t e r , but i n the manuscript version he appears, l i k e Lowry's father, as another agent of the system determined to prevent Lowry acting f r e e l y : [Parks] placed my money i n the hands of two men whom he scarcely knew, one of whom, Maclean, I believe to be honest enough, but who, being constantly away on secret service, was 8 i s unapproachable: the other, A.B. Carey [. . .] who was 8 i s [. . .] the most upright c i t i z e n of the town Vancouver, 8 a member of the Oxford Group. For him, no more dancing on h e l l ' s bright sabbath green, the uprightness having departed to his soul [. . . .] After two months "of going quietly insane care of the Oxford Group, war was declared. A l l might have been well had not t h i s Oxford Grouper discovered that I was i n love with Margerie [. . . .] When A.B. Carey discovered that I was married [to Jan Gabrial], as a matter of fact my interlocutory decree had just been granted, 8 proposed to return to another g i r l , he sat on my money, abused my confidence, said that I was committing a mortal s i n i n loving another woman than my wife, read my l e t t e r s , 8 a c t u a l l y interfered with my mail [. . . .] Now I had the visa to get back [to the United States], but A.B. Carey would give me no money. So I wired Margerie for enough money to make the t r i p back to Los Angeles, which she did [ s i c ] , 8 [I] was turned back at the border, A.B. Carey having already presumably informed the authorities that I would be unable to support myself on the other side.! 0 L e a v i n g a s i d e , o f c o u r s e , t h e g r a t u i t o u s i n v e c t i v e , much o f t h i s a c c o u n t may be s u p e r f i c i a l l y a c c u r a t e as f a r as eve n t s went; b u t t h e t r a g i c s c e n a r i o o f f a t a l i s t i c p e r s e c u t i o n c o u l d o n l y be p r e s e r v e d by Lowry's c o n s i s t e n t l y i g n o r i n g t h e i n i t i a l cause o f A.B. C a r e y ' s , and h i s f a t h e r ' s , b e h a v i o u r — h i s own r e p e a t e d l y d i s p l a y e d "incompetence" t o manage h i s r e m i t t a n c e w i t h o u t g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e . Douglas Day makes two p o i n t s o f r e l e v a n c e h e r e : t h e f i r s t , a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o , i s t h e f a c t t h a t Lowry's l e t t e r s from M e x i c o , where he had management o f h i s r e m i t t a n c e , show o n l y a more extreme v e r s i o n , a t t i m e s , o f t h e same s c e n a r i o ; o n l y t h e d e t a i l s were d i f f e r e n t , 14 and j a i l p r o v i d e d t h e e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . I n t h e f a c e o f such r e p e t i t i o u s b e h a v i o u r one i s j u s t i f i e d i n a t l e a s t s p e c u l a t i n g t h a t when he was a c t u a l l y f r e e t o a c t as he chose , Lowry had hunted t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f p r i s o n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h a t freedom. A t any r a t e , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few months o f h i s l i f e i n Vancouver, t h e c o n s t r a i n t Lowry may have needed i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e h i s unfreedom was p r o v i d e d f i n a n c i a l l y r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l l y by A.B. Carey, who emerges i n Lowry's a c c o u n t , i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e Mexican p o l i c e , as t h e agent o f e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s q u i t e o u t s i d e Lowry's e f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e . 183 Douglas Day's second p o i n t o f some.relevance t o Lowry's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A.B. Care y , i s t h a t Lowry was c e r t a i n l y J _ not t u r n e d back a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r s o l e l y , i f a t a l l , because A.B. Carey had a r r a n g e d i t . Day s t a t e s t h a t Lowry "was i n t e r c e p t e d a t B l a i n e , Washington, r e e l i n g and 15 i n c o h e r e n t , and was r e f u s e d e n t r a n c e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ! " I f Day i s r i g h t , t h e n Lowry, i n t h i s d r a f t o f t h e l e t t e r t o A i k e n , was s t r e t c h i n g t h e t r u t h c o n s i d e r a b l y i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e h i s s e l f - i m a g e as t h e p e r s e c u t e d h e r o . He c o u l d n o t admit t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r not b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , as t h i s would d e s t r o y t h e s a v i n g n o t i o n o f t o t a l c o n s t r a i n t by f a t e f u l c i r c u m s t a n c e . Some agent o f t h e "system" had t o be r e s p o n s i b l e , ao A.B. Carey was e l e c t e d . The l e t t e r " t o A i k e n was w r i t t e n from t h e home o f Ma u r i c e C a r e y , where Lowry d e s c r i b e d h i s l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s l i k e t h o s e o f a Mexican j a i l — s o bad t h a t "we cannot 16 remain here much l o n g e r o r God knows what w i l l happen." A l t h o u g h p r e s e n t e d so as t o complete t h e p a t t e r n o f t r a g e d y , t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e argument p r e s e n t e d here because, f i r s t , even i f th e y were as Lowry d e s c r i b e d them, t h e y were o n l y t h e r e s u l t s o f , o r t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f , t h e i m p o r t a n t u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and d e c i s i o n s . Second, and t h i s b e a r s o u t t h e f i r s t p o i n t , Lowry h i m s e l f d i s m i s s e d t h e d e t a i l s as o f secondary importance t o t h e o v e r r i d i n g 184 t r a g i c pattern, to "the absolute i n j u s t i c e of a l l t h i s . . . the misunderstanding . . the hopelessness of 17 communication . . . ." Maurice Carey's place i n the t r a g i c pattern derived not so much from his control over Lowry's income as from the need to keep Margerie Bonner's presence with Lowry i n Vancouver a secret from A.B. Carey, who did control Lowry's money. As Margerie's v i s i t o r ' s permit (she was a U.S. c i t i z e n ) had been allowed to lapse, Maurice Carey could be seen as a double threat: .. . . perhaps i t i s best to know that my relat i o n s h i p with M. Carey i s further complicated by the fact that he has written to my father asking to be made trustee for my money here, with the understanding that he would then turn i t over to me for a certain cut each month. Being so desperate to be with Margerie I agreed to t h i s as at the time he seemed sympathetic—to do him j u s t i c e , he i s sort o f , — b u t what with the twins 8 the Hindoo 8 a l l 8 we a l l have our bloody troubles 8 have to use cert a i n methods to solve them not sometimes the r e a l r i g h t thing,--but he has since proved d i f f i c u l t , f o r instance he pawned my typewriter one day without my knowledge, which I didn't exactly l i k e , — t h i s one i s borrowed—8 should he get control of the money, we might not get enough to l i v e on, 8. anyhow there i s always the t e r r i b l e fear that Margie,' may be deported. 1 8 Maurice Carey denies ever having written to Lowry's father; he even denies ever having known Lowry's father's address, and the l e t t e r s from Lowry's father around t h i s period show nothing to contradict his denial. It seems p o s s i b l e t h a t Lowry and M a u r i c e Carey d i s c u s s e d such a 19 p l a n , but i f , as Douglas Day says, M a u r i c e Carey were a l r e a d y r e c e i v i n g a l l Lowry's r e m i t t a n c e from A.B. Carey i n payment f o r Lowry's b o a r d and s u p e r v i s i o n , such a p l a n c o u l d o n l y , a p p a r e n t l y , have b e n e f i t t e d Lowry, not Carey. M a u r i c e Carey not o n l y d e n i e s e v e r h a v i n g pawned Lowry's t y p e w r i t e r , he c l a i m s t h a t Lowry's account i s a complete i n v e r s i o n o f t h e f a c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o C a r e y , Lowry h i m s e l f 20 pawned th e t y p e w r i t e r and Carey redeemed i t f o r him. Wherever t h e t r u t h r e s i d e s i n t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t o r y a c c o u n t s , Lowry's f i n a l p o i n t h e r e , t h a t M a u r i c e C a r e y had not o n l y the power but a l s o t h e motive t o have M a r g e r i e d e p o r t e d , seems t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e e a r l i e r i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t Carey wanted and needed t o c o n t r o l Lowry's income. As C a r e y ' s major s e r v i c e t o Lowry was p r o v i d i n g s e c r e c y from A.B. Carey r e g a r d i n g M a r g e r i e , i f she were d e p o r t e d Carey would l o s e any p o s s i b l e " h o l d " he had on Lowry w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s money. The c o n f l i c t c a n , however, be under-s t o o d i n terms o f t h e p a t t e r n a c c o r d i n g t o which Lowry o r g a n i z e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t he was i n d e e d t r a p p e d , but t h e t r a p can b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d as an i n t e r n a l dependency on o t h e r s such as M a u r i c e Carey and A.B. Carey f o r t h e e n t r a p -ment he needed t o a v o i d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f - w i l l e d a c t i o n . Once Lowry had a c h i e v e d a s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d i n g 186 some semblance of external constraint, whether being watched by Mexican p o l i c e , depending f o r finances on A.B. Carey or his father, or for secrecy on Maurice Carey, he was free, p s y c h i c a l l y , to interpret his position as that of the authentically free hero prevented from meaningful interaction (communication) with other people by t h e i r conditioning. Turning from th i s conclusion back to the version of Under the Volcano completed i n 1940, i t i s now possible to see-, that the image of man-in-the-world presented therein was a neurotic one designed to s a t i s f y the author's overpowering need to protect-his ego. The hovel might, i n certain senses, be regarded as a symptom of that fear and need. The e a r l i e r version's presentation of the story e f f e c t i v e l y j u s t i f i e d the Consul's evasion of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his predicament i n precisely the same way that Lowry j u s t i f i e d his own f a i l u r e to choose and act. The patterns i n which the f i c t i o n a l and r e a l worlds were distorted matched each other item f o r item. The movement away from neurosis Around Christmas 1940 Lowry and Margerie were married and they learned soon a f t e r that Under the Volcano had 187 been rejected by four publishers ( i t was eventually to be 21 rejected by twelve). But by t h i s time Lowry had already been l i v i n g away from the c i t y f o r four or f i v e months, and since mid-April of 1940, although he was s t i l l , -apparently subject to the supervision of a proxy guardian, he had not had to depend d i r e c t l y on any guardian's favour fo r his allowance. He had i n other words begun to ree s t a b l i s h reasonably good relations with his father, who was prepared to have him handle his own allowance whenever Treasury r e s t r i c t i o n s would allow i t to get through to Canada. This, at l e a s t , suggests that even before the rejected 22 version of the novel was mailed to New York i n July 1940 , Lowry may have begun to overcome, to some extent at l e a s t , his previously constant i n a b i l i t y to act d e c i s i v e l y or responsibly. In any event, even i f Lowry had begun, with Margerie's support, to change psychically i n Vancouver, the environment at Dollarton provided him with f a r more scope f o r such change. In Dollarton he had a privacy to attempt new kinds of work where f a i l u r e would only be witnessed by Margerie, whom he had evidently already come to trust a great deal. At the same time, insofar as the kind of work involved i n getting t h e i r cabin i n good repair would not be of the kind i n which he claimed any expertise, no \ 188 ego-threat would be involved i n f a i l u r e . The s i g n i f i c a n t example quoted by Day from Margerie i s of Lowry learning to chop wood and prepare k i n d l i n g ; once he had learned how to do t h i s , i t was apparently very d i f f i c u l t to bring him 23 to a h a l t . Personal successes of thi s kind (and i n a completely new kind of s i t u a t i o n , there must have been many) away from the gaze of anyone Lowry might not wish to have witness him f a i l i n g at something he had chosen to do, would be of great psychic value to a man with the p a r t i c u l a r ego needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s by which, as we have seen, he had been dominated since at least the time that his wife l e f t him i n Mexico. Lowry's l e t t e r s from 1941 onwards show a development away from the distorted patterns c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his Mexican and Vancouver l e t t e r s . He began, while s t i l l upset by the e a r l i e r novel's r e j e c t i o n , with a l e t t e r to his agent. ,Reportedly Margerie wrote i t because Malcolm was s t i l l too dejected to put pen to paper. Nevertheless, he cosigned i t . Although excuses are s t i l l offered for the novel i n terms of constraining external circumstances, and although the revisions envisaged bear l i t t l e r e lationship to those that Lowry had yet to discover were necessary, the weakness of the e a r l i e r version i s c l e a r l y admitted, something quite inconsistent with his e a r l i e r interpretation of r e a l i t y : 189 . . . t h e f a c t t h a t we have not succeeded i s c e r t a i n l y n o t y o u r f a u l t . Perhaps i t i s p a r t l y due . . ... l e t us be humble, t o o u r own l a c k o f p r o p e r m a t e r i a l a new v e r s i o n has been growing . . . . which w i l l e l i m i n a t e most o f [ t h e n o v e l ' s ] o b v i o u s d e f e c t s , c l a r i f y and s t r e n g t h e n t h e n a r r a t i v e , e t c . I n t h i n k i n g t h e book was so good when we s e n t i t t o you, perhaps we c o n f u s e d a s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y w i t h an a e s t h e t i c one, s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o convey t o you t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s under w h i c h i t was c o m p l e t e d — w h i c h i s , o f c o u r s e , no s u b s t i t u t e f o r a c t u a l m e r i t ' . . .->u In March 194.1, Lowry wrote i n d i v i d u a l l y t o Matson, e n c l o s i n g t h e v e r s i o n o f c h a p t e r '.VIII t h a t has sometimes been m i s t a k e n f o r the i n i t i a l s h o r t - s t o r y v e r s i o n o f t h e 25 n o v e l . He r e f e r s a g a i n t o h i s reassessment o f t h e n o v e l as a whole, but s i n c e t h i s s h o r t s t o r y i s so e a s i l y m i s t a k e n f o r a v e r s i o n w r i t t e n p r i o r t o t h e r e j e c t e d n o v e l , h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n ' s weaknesses had c l e a r l y n o t p r o g r e s s e d v e r y f a r . A l s o , he s t i l l excuses h i s weakness i n terms o f e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . . "I'm s o r r y I've o n l y g i v e n you, f u r t h e r ; d i s a p p o i n t -ments w i t h U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o , so f a r , and i t may be t h a t t h e ad v e r s e ^ c o n d i t i o n s ' under which t h e book was f i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n f l u e n c e d me t o t h i n k i t was an a r t i s t i c t r i u m p h when i t was o n l y a s o r t o f p e r s o n a l one. I t h i n k , on r e r e a d i n g t h a t M a r t h a . F o l e y ' s judgement i s maybe a j u s t one i n p a r t ; t h e r e i s t o o much p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t i m e , and t h e p a t t e r n does n ot emerge p r o p e r l y . 26 By June 1942, however, t h e change i n Lowry's o u t l o o k had become f a r more marked, and i t was i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t p a r a l l e l e d t h e i n c r e a s i n g s e n s i t i v i t y o f h i s r e v i s i o n s 190 t o t h e n o v e l . I n t h i s l e t t e r , a g a i n t o Matson, h i s excuse f o r h i s e a r l i e r work's weaknesses has become an i n t e r n a l one. W h i l e he i s s t i l l not q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o admit t h a t he was f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e weakness o f t h e r e j e c t e d n o v e l , he no l o n g e r l a y s t h e blame on t h e p e o p l e around him. H i s d i s t o r t i o n o f h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s seems t o have d i m i n i s h e d r a d i c a l l y . I have been down t h e s e l a s t few months w i t h a somewhat r a r e and comic a f f l i c t i o n known as "the Bends". D u r i n g t r e a t m e n t f o r t h i s i t was d i s -c o v e r e d t h a t I had had a s t r e p t o c o c c i c g l a n d u l a r i n f e c t i o n f o r about a dozen y e a r s . T h i s l o o k s l i k e u n p l e a s i n g news but I see i t good because, s i n c e t r e a t m e n t f o r t h i s , e a g l e s and mountains have dropped away from my mind. I am now n e a r l y b e t t e r . . That t h e t o x i c i t y t h u s , i n d i s p u t a b l y o f t e n a t i t s maximum d u r i n g y o ur g r e a t and s t r a i n e d p a t i e n c e w i t h me, m i g h t , . e x p l a i n i n d e e d some t o o apparent oddnesses and u n r a t i f i e d i r r e l i a b i l i t i e s on my p a r t i n t h e p a s t , as w e l l as t h e a l m o s t t o t a l , f o g i n t h e •Volcano as was, we have t h e d o c t o r ' s word. I promise you t h i s ; something r e a l l y good i s on t h e wing t h i s t i m e , sans s e l f - d e c e p t i o n s , from t h i s side.,,.. The change e v i d e n t i n t h i s l e t t e r , where Lowry c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between h i s b e h a v i o u r and t h i n k i n g p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r e j e c t e d v e r s i o n o f Volcano and h i s b e h a v i o u r and t h i n k i n g a t t h i s p o i n t , i s seen a g a i n 191 in another l e t t e r to Conrad Aiken, written at about the time the f i n a l version of the novel was completed. The contrast with the e a r l i e r l e t t e r to Aiken discussed at length above i s astonishing. Here we f i n d Lowry complimenting those around him for putting up with him; he recognizes, with extraordinary mildness, the law of the land; and he seems to regard his misfortunes with a good deal of equanimity. I was i n shocking bad form and worse company so a l l i n a l l , though I was very disappointed not to see y o u — a l b e i t I heard y o u — i t was perhaps just as well that I didn't. How the Noxons bore with m e — i f they r e a l l y did--I don't know. Actually the business of the f i r e seemed to drive us both s l i g h t l y cuckoo. Its traumatic e f f e c t alone was shattering. We had to l i v e through the bloody f i r e a l l over again every night. When we arrived back here too i t was to f i n d that someone, strangers, and vultures, had disregarded our burned stakes and notices and b u i l t smack on top of our old s i t e , blocking our southerly view, a great t a l l ugly creation to be f u l l i n the summer of rackety ri c k e t y children and h y s t e r i c a l f at women who meantime had pulled down the flags we l e f t — p e r h a p s too d r a m a t i c a l l y — f l y i n g on our poor o l d r u i n , thrown dead mice down our well, and shat--even on the w a l l s — a l l over out t o i l e t . This of course i s a crime, according to the l o c a l folkways, the mores, or whatever, though we had no l e g a l toehold i n the matter, pioneer's and squatter's r i g h t s having been abolished . . . . 192 To be frank, i t i s ourselves who have had most of a share i n t h i s misfortune. Margie ran a n a i l through her foot the f i r s t day we got the lumber i n - - c e l l u l i t i s set i n , then blood poisoning, shortage of doctors, and f i n a l l y h o s p i t a l , and probings, and a h o r r i b l e awful anxious time that was. 2-g Although not; showing'nearly such obvious s t r u c t u r a l p a r a l l e l s to the f i c t i o n of the same date as do the pre-1941 l e t t e r s to the f i c t i o n corresponding i n date with them, these post-1940 l e t t e r s both present, i n the quotations above, a f a r greater degree of i r o n i c distance and subtlety, and an evident capacity to detach himself and his sympathies as narrator from himself as character. The tone, too, shows a greater range, i s less obsessively l i n e a r ; there i s an o v e r a l l increase i n variety of experience, ambiguity, and complexity i n the kind of world these l e t t e r s seem to describe, e s p e c i a l l y i n the l e t t e r to Aiken. This i s i n spite of the fact that Lowry s t i l l regards Aiken, c l e a r l y , as a correspondent es p e c i a l l y sympathetic to receiving tales of woe. Although these l e t t e r s are less dramatic i n t h e i r resemblances to Lowry's f i c t i o n than were the l e t t e r s he wrote from Oaxaca and Maurice Carey's house, they c l e a r l y evidence the beginnings of the very kind of compassion and s e n s i t i v i t y expressed by the marginalia and revisions discussed i n the body of t h i s t h e s i s . There was i n both cases, then,—before and a f t e r 1940--a d i s t i n c t p a r a l l e l between Lowry's interpretation of his f i c t i o n a l world and of his d a i l y l i f e . 193 Revision aa therapy It i s personally importait to every man to 'describe' his experience because t h i s i s l i t e r a l l y a remaking of himself, a creative change i n his personal organization, to include and control'the experience. The a r t i s t ' s way of remaking himself i s , as i n man generally, by work,. which i s remaking the environment and, i n learning to work, remaking himself. . . . an object i s worked on, i n what seems a whole process of modelling experience and yet discovering the experience by the act of modelling. The a r t i s t works on the material u n t i l i t i s 'right', but when the material i s r i g h t he also i s r i g h t : the art-work has been made and the a r t i s t has remade himself, i n a continuous process. In abstraction we can say that he has worked on the material u n t i l i t retransmits, to himself, his experience; or that he has discovered, by working on the material, a new kind of experience, which he has i n e f f e c t learned from i t . But d i f f i c u l t though i t may be to hold i n the mind, the actual process i s neither of these. It i s neither subject working on object, nor object on subject: i t i s , rather, a dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n , which i n fact i s a whole and continuous process. The man makes the shape, and the shape remakes the man, but these are merely alternative descriptions of one process, well known by a r t i s t s and i n fact c e n t r al to man himself. The excitement and pain of e f f o r t are followed by delight and rest of contemplation—for a r t i s t s and a l l men—over and over.29 Raymond Williams here offers an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y cogent and perceptive generalization concerning the nature of c r e a t i v i t y and the creative process. The account and analysis offered i n t h i s thesis enable us to apply the generalization to a p a r t i c u l a r case, a case which i s a d d i t i o n a l l y , because of the time-span involved, and the author's personal development from neurosis to "normality," an es p e c i a l l y dramatic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the man-text relationship that Williams outlines. The marginalia examined throughout the body of the thesis, while concerned always with the e s s e n t i a l l y formal questions of how to present the unchanging basic action of the f i c t i o n a l world, stand at the very centre of a process that involves the whole man i n a search for a new and less painful personal order. Rereading, c r i t i c i z i n g , reimagining, developing strategy and implementing i t was as responsible for Lowry's personal psychic development as i t was f o r development of the novel i t s e l f . Faced with his pre-text Lowry found i t s presentation of the world at p a r t i c u l a r points and i n p a r t i c u l a r ways inadequate or unsatisfactory. The comments that arose subsequently were not the d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s d i s s a t i s -faction but sprang from a drive to understand that d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n , to name i t and so give i t form and meaning. And t h i s required that Lowry turn back to his text and discover there how i t was that the novel's basic action was mispresented, i n what way i t s presentation c o n f l i c t e d with h i s understanding of the way things and people were i n h i s day-to-day world. In discovering the formal reason why the basic action was mispresented i n his pre-text Lowry also discovered that an aspect of his own world view was no longer s a t i s f a c t o r y to him. And these discoveries, we have seen, led to the creation of both the new text and the new and psychologically more rewarding personal world view. Every formal c r i t i c i s m and strategy was thus the record of a man discovering and creating both a new text and a new s e l f . The Consul's v i s i o n r A f i c t i o n a l character w i l l seem stereotypical as long as he or she shows no evidence of psychological-and behavioural complexity and autonomy. Such characters w i l l seem a l l the more stereotyped i f they behave sol e l y and completely within t h e i r f i c t i o n a l world as though they confirmed the narrator's own i m p l i c i t or overt judgments and expectations concerning them. In the 1940 version of the novel, Laruelle, Hugh, and Yvonne were stereotyped i n precisely t h i s sense. However, i n no version of the novel did the Consul seem to lack psychological or behavioural complexity and autonomy. The reader's sense of the Consul's complexity and autonomy derived i n the early version of the novel from the fact that he did possess a complex inner l i f e of thoughts, emotions, memories, judgments and impulses. Furthermore, he, perceived the other major characters as stereotypes i n p recisely the same fashion as did the narrator of this version. The c o r o l l a r y of the Consul's apparent autonomy was that the narrator did not appear to control his actions i n the way that he did the actions of the other major characters. But, i n sharing the narrator's interpretation of the world around him, the Consul e f f e c t i v e l y cast  himself as the central and sole autonomous figure i n a li n e a r stereotyped melodrama. He perceived himself as a t r a g i c hero, persecuted by and suffering on behalf of humanity at the hands of a set of stereotyped figures who acted as the unfree agents of or cogs i n a machine organized l i k e Cocteau*s play, f o r the hero's destruction. He saw himself i n e s s e n t i a l l y the same l i t e r a r y terms as the narrator--as an Oedipus, a Faust, a Lear, a Prometheus, understood i n post-Romantic terms. Desiring to be great and good, he saw himself as entrapped by forces greater than himself, forces which worked t h e i r w i l l through c o n t r o l l i n g the actions of the unfree stereotyped figures surrounding him. 197 I t i s of the utmost importance to recognize here that th i s view of man-in-the-world remained dominant i n the  Consul from the f i r s t version of the novel to the l a s t . Despite the changes Lowry worked on a l l of the characters during r e v i s i o n , the Consul's view of them never, i n i t s fundamentals, changed. He s t i l l perceives himself as t r a g i c victim to supernatural forces i n the published novel. As Lowry made his piece-by-piece discoveries about the world of his novel and about himself, he found no need to change the image he had o r i g i n a l l y presented of the Consul. He had, of course, to make the Consul's dialogue more natural and unstylized and make his thought processes more apparently related to an extensive personal history. But he found no need to develop the fundamental ways i n which the Consul had always been presented as perceiving the world i n which he l i v e d on the day of his death. In the l i g h t of the analyses and conclusions offered in t h i s t h e s i s , t h i s omission was inevitable and natural, because the Consul's way of perceiving the world around him i n the e a r l i e r versions was precisely the way a r e a l i n d i v i d u a l had indeed done so, and the r e a l i n d i v i d u a l i n question was Lowry himself, as he had been p r i o r to 1941. The marginalia studied here are thus a further record; they are a record not only of a process i n which a man revised 198 his text and himself but also of a process i n which the e a r l i e r s e l f or v i s i o n became, piece-by-piece, an object within the novel rather than being i d e n t i f i e d with the narrative personality. And here we f i n d a further dimension to the nature of the " c r i t i c i s m " involved i n Lowry's c r e a t i v i t y . The creative process evidenced i n the marginalia was one i n which a c o r o l l a r y of the formal textual c r i t i c i s m was a c r i t i c i s m of the novelist's former s e l f . The s i t u a t i o n , i n f a c t , was remarkablyllike that diagnosed by Rene Girard i n two of Camus's novels, L'Etrariger and La Chute, and we can quote what Girard says on that r e l a t i o n s h i p and f i n d i t p e r f e c t l y appropriate to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e a r l i e r and l a t e r texts of Under  the Volcano:-Meursalt Clike both the Consul and the Lowry who wrote the rejected novel! viewed e v i l as something outside himself, a^problem that concerned the judged [those around the Consul working to bring about his doom] alone, whereas Clamence [.like the Lowry who wrote the published novel] knows that he, himself i s [was] involved. 30 The authorial v i s i o n or r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the novel's world to which each of Lowry's marginal comments, i n a sense, pointed forward i n time, i s one i n which the tragedy derives not from external forces of abstract e v i l but from the human condition of a l i e n a t i o n whereby, under the p r e s s u r e o f time and c i r c u m s t a n c e , each man and woman i n t h e n o v e l must i n t e r a c t w i t h t h o s e around them i n terms o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t h e y must c o n s t r u c t o f each o t h e r and o f t h e m s e l v e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s sense the r e v i s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o can be u n d e r s t o o d as a d o u b l y t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s f o r Lowry. On t h e one hand, r e v i s i o n i n v o l v e d the c l a s s i c psycho-a n a l y t i c h e a l i n g p r o c e s s o f h i s coming t o r e c o g n i z e and "name" i n t h e r e v i s e d view o f t h e c o n s u l t h e p a r t i c u l a r ego-defence mechanisms t h a t had o b l i t e r a t e d h i s own p e r c e p t i v e h e s s as man and a u t h o r a t t h e time he had w r i t t e n t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l . On t h e o t h e r , Lowry's s t r u g g l e between 1941 and 1945 t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s n o v e l was c l e a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h i s remaking h i m s e l f t h r o u g h c o n f r o n t i n g t h e l i t e r a r y weaknesses d f - h i - s - e a r - l i e r - t e x t . 200 Notes 1 Day, p. 262, points out that i n the t h i r d chapter of the rejected version the Consul i s ac t u a l l y described as looking l i k e . "King Lear i n f u l l face, Hamlet i n p r o f i l e . " , pp.11-13 (my emphasis). , pp.13-14 (my emphasis). , pp.15 (my emphasis). , pp.15-16 (my emphasis). , p. 18. , pp.18-19. , p. 19. , p. 25 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters Selected Letters 10 Selected Letters, P- 20. 11 Selected Letters, P- 21. 12 Selected Letters, P- 22. 13 Letter to Conrad Aiken, 1/63, Lowry Papers, Special C o l l e c t i o n s , University of B. C. Library, Vancouver. 201 14 Day, p. 2 36, writes that "the 'Sidney Carton' business i s pure romance on Lowry's part, as i t were by B. Traven out of paranoia." And he adds, p. 2 38, that "the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that Lowry came to the attention of the po l i c e through his conspicuous and continuous drunkenness, and that, a f t e r some d i f f i c u l t i e s over his passport (or lack of i t ) he was put i n j a i l . . . . " 1 5 Day, p. 2 54. 1 6 Selected Letters, p. 20. 1 7 Selected Letters, p. 20. 18 Letter to Conrad Aiken, 1/63, Lowry Papers, UBC. 19 Day, p. 2 55. 2 0 Maurice J. Carey, " L i f e with Malcolm Lowry," i n Malcolm Lowry, ed. Woodcock, pp.167-68. 2 1 Day, p. 2 86; Selected Letters, p. 419. 2 2 Day, p. 276. 2 3 Day, p. 278. 24 Selected Letters, pp.37-38 2 5 7/1, Lowry Papers, U.B.C. Library; O ' K i l l , p. 82nll, writes of t h i s item "the story... f i r s t published i n P r a i r i e Schooner 37:284-300, and i d e n t i f i e d as the o r i g i n a l piece, i s i n fact a portion of a draft of the novel written i n 1941 which Lowry excerpted i n the hope 202 i t would be published independently." 26 Selected Letters, P- 39. 27 Selected Letters, P- 41. 28 Selected Letters, PP .48-50. 2 9 Raymond Williams, The Long Revolution (Harmonds-wortK :Penguin, 1965) pp.42-43. 3 0 Rene Girard, "Camus's Stranger Retried" PMLA 79 (Dec-ember 1964):532. Again, I also> arrived at this, conclusion—but regarding only Lowry's revisions to the f i n a l chapter rather than the novel as a w h o l e — i n my a r t i c l e " The Consul's 'Murder'." 203 APPENDIX A The following example pages from the manuscripts of Under the Volcano are shown to i l l u s t r a t e primarily the range of physical forms i n which annotations are found. They include c o l l e c t i o n s of notes at chapter s t a r t s , straightforward marginalia, and point-by-point c r i t i q u e s . Their locations i n the UBC c o l l e c t i o n and Texas manuscript are c i t e d above each item. They are arranged i n the order i n which they occur i n the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s . Table of Contents Item Page 7/5/p.l 205 7/7/p.l7 206 7/ll/p.23 207 8/l/p(pencil) 12 208 8/9/p.276 209 8/9/p.276(detail) 210 8/12/p.369 211 8/19/p.2H8 212 10/3/p.5 213 10/3/p.l6 214 Item Page 10/9/section 2, p.17 215 11/U/part 2, p . l 216 H M / p a r t 2, p.12 217 11/11/item 8 218 11/15/verso 1(C) 219 ll/18/p.8 220 TM text/dedication 221 TM text/chap I / p.l 222 The b e l l s struck c o l d and clea4 across the blue morning* tfWindf lowers J w Hugh greeted Yvonne, giving them to her. n I don't ow. You can't be sure about them. But I think so.** "How l o v e l y , that's swell of you." Yvonne c r i e d d e l i g h t e d l y , "Just wait here while I go i n and put them i n water. I f we run into Dad we'll only a l l get involved i n some ghastly commotion or other Hugh followed her with h i s eyes - Yvonne was wearing yellow sleeks and from a l i t t l e distance she had; the appearance of being fij^-~ clothed from head to foot i n sunlight - then c a r e f u l l y stubbed his cigarette out on the faded dusty wood of a garden seat and sat down. He looked up at the house then around him slowly. He began to laugh, pleasurably, at himself. Windflowers^ -When the a i r was heavy with the scent of a hundred d i f f e r e n t flowers, a l l raging i n bloom about him, and^none iof whichl\ save the roses, did he know the names', I t was haa-venly, i t was a Paradise I What could go wrong i n such a place? What had gone wrong? No one could have wanted more than th i s surely, than Yvonne's mother, that was, whom he knew well as a charming i f c o l t i s h lady, with a l o v e l y laughing i n t e l l i g e n t face, and who wa3, i n f a c t , which was r a r e r , i n t e l l i g e n t . The Consul was not short of money. However the Mexican government might have dealt with h i s holdings Hagh knew him to be a wealthy man. What had happened? I t could s c ^ a r c e l v ^ ^ have been only drink which had come between them. He had known 5^eel he r s e l f ton occasion to drink l i k e a f i s h . Could i t be that there were d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n t e n s i t y about t h e i r drinking, that the Consul r e a l l y loved drinking and i t s kereta#»d. deliriums more than anything else on earth, flaroii more than he loved Said? That he was, perhaps, the greatest drunkard the world had ever^s^&Ti? Anyhow, i t seemed to Hugh t h i s b l o t t i n g of a sentence that ought to have been f a i r spelt some, deadly e v i l to him as he sat there. I t was not his few memories of the Consul or t h e i r encounter t h i s morning i n which t h i s sense of e v i l 206 / else had to be done to; make as perfect a job t>f this as. possible 0 • "That's just the sea - we used to dodge round taking the.beards o f f each other, t t. he said, feeling" the edge of the razor." "As you prob-ably know. No. I was doing a thesis on comparative t e l i g i o n . My method of obtaining a degree was womewhat roundabout." - -. "And your method of getting a P 0H.D 0 even more so," sputtered the Consul and t r i e d to laugh. "Via Madrid. " Or i s i t Cape Horn?" ; - Hugh smiled, ,/»uryeyed--h4^=h«nd^^ moment, then started • the d e l i c a t e task of shaping the Consul's mustache. . . . " • "But you didn't have to le a r n a l l about peripetela dnd anagnorisis and a l l that sort of t r i p e , d i d you^.the Consul barely-managed to say, "Like Yvonne. Which reminds may of an old professor mf mine who was a l -most as expert on wines as he was on. English L i t e r a t u r e and rare books,. But he was such a souse he got the^^o* mixed up. ' 'Bring.me a b o t t l e of \-the very best John Donne, w i l l you, Smithers?' he would roar. 'You know, some of the genuine old 1611.' Or he would whisper c o n f i d e n t i a l l y : 'I'nre got some f i n 4 o l d Massingei? Burgundy I'd l i k e Jrouto t r y , f r i g h t f u l l y rare e d i t i o n - p i r a t e d I believe, but sshi - with.such an exquisite,'delicate f l a v o u r . ' B - ^ . A / U „ . A ' . , : • c;. ..•..-"*...•'' \ : •'- . , - •'  ' ^Hugh shouted with laughter/and paused,..surveying his handiwork. ; V. "He used to t e l l us too a l l about how you have to go back to A r i s t o t l e for "the r i g h t questions rather than the r i g h t answers 9 n the Consul went on".:"v "I .always thought It excessively funny that Yvonne should have to go back t a A r i s t o t l e for the r i g h t questions." ' Hugh said nothing, d o i c ^ what he was doing. Outside he" could hear "the radio playing a gay tune. "I hope you're not Just running your head into a noose with my - • l i t t l e g a l , " the ^onsul stammered, as Hugh now gradually shook some l i f e into, him, kneading his neck and the small of h i s backo "I can't help being anxious about her," he lowered h i s voice,, "Do you know what I think t 207 I " P a n g XX, a l l , s i r , ; | p r * t e s t e d H u g h ; ' 'No o n e h e d a n ©pporTunixy tc? i n t e r f e r e t i l l a f t e r t h e d e e d w a s g o a d a n d d o n e . None o f u s s aw h i m t a k e t h e m o n e y . ! i T h e C o n s u l u n r e l e n t i n g l y o b s e r v e d . , "vt&ien u e h a v e a b s o l u t e l y :oo u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e 1 c a u s e s o f a n • a c t i o n , w h e t h e r v i c i o u s o r v i r t u o u s o r \ *hex n o t . w e a s c r i f t e a g r e a t e r e l e m e n t o f f r e e w i l l t o i t . " Y e s &v n o . 1 1 -i-<5il " Y e s o r no t o w h a t ? 1 ' Hugh a s k e d . '"«j>c.,. IX* " T o w h a t . " rv.vM- iami t h e C o n s u l , •i£>*=£Z=:z^^^ tA., r-,V 1 n l I L ^ ^ ^ ^ j . a ^ ' M - n t . a ^ i f i t a l k i n g t o h i m s e l f , ' W e l l , a l l r i ^ v c , i t t h a t -seems t o c o n t r a d i c t what . ^ e ' v e j u s t s a i d o u r s e l V e s a b o u t t h e m a n ' s a c t i o n s n o t a p p e a r i n g so f r e e . I s e e t h a t . . . B u t a ( m a t t e r o f f a c t ; vabat na ;ppened vtfas- s o s a g t h i n g - l i t e t h i s , w a s n ' t i t ? F i r s t ^wheix h i s a c t i o n s sesa seemed r e m o t e .and f&Ktastic we c o u l d n ' t c o n c e i v e o f t h e m a s B e i n g f r e e . I s n ' t t h a t r i ^ h t ? I f l s p i t e o f o u r b e h a v i o r , o r s h o u l d I .say, o a r 3ack o f b e h a v i o r - " h e t o u g h e d l o u d l y f o r a moment o r t w o - " w h e r e w a s X ? A h y e s , we t h e r e f o r e w e r e n o t i n c l i n e d t o c o n d e m n iheivN - i s i t n>ox s o ? - the a c -t i o n s t h a t i s c B u t w h e n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d we f a u n d t h a t t h i s \ms a l l , wa s a l l n o n s e n s e , t h a t t h i s -was now a n d Jh<ere a f t e r a l l , t h e n " h e c o n c l u d e d . I s f t s s l y a l t h o u g h w i t h t r e m e n d o u s - fenphasis. ! l i f you. f o l l o w cne., t h e vshole. t h i n g w a s t h a t we d i d n ' t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e causes o f t h e i u s n ' s a e x i o s s o r a t l e a s t n o T c l e a r l y ? n o t , y o u u n d e r s t a n d , n o t " c l e a n l y enough - i t s •qu i t e i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a f t e r a l l , I ' m a f r a i c ] ; *j!UifervL-^€> -vv^^rile^^l^ ^ - ^ ^ " ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "Mo , A© I f o l l o w t h e a r g a n n m t , " Hugh s a i d e f t e r a w h i l e , l o o k i n g ^,1/ A i n t e n s e l y a t t h e C o n s u l , '"We f o u n d o u r - s C l V e d g r a d u a l l y , i n o u r raindg. t W J u ~ a s c r i b i n g g r e a t e r ' f r e e v a i l ' a s y o u c a l l i t , t o vii?at h e h a d d o n e , H e n c e , a s c r i b i n g ra©r>e g u i l t t o t h e d e s d 0 A n d t o , h i m . A n d h e n c e , h a t i n g o u r -s e l v e s f a r n o t h a v i n g d e n e a n y t h i n g a n d f o r c o n t i n u i n g m>t t o d o a n y t h i n g . Just f o r s i t t i n g i n t h e . Inus t h e r e d u m b l y . B u t a p a r t f r o m t h e p e l a d e , w h a t © h o u t t h e P&&H. i n t h e redd d y i n g ' a l l t h i § t i m e ? V J ^ i c h c r i m e a r e P r e f e r -r i n g t o anyhew? 1 1 mgh s m i l e d g e n i a l l y , s e e i n g in t h e s e e x c h a n g e s <rvi duty. Ha aprroachod fch-3 Cinejca Ko^slos. Here thsre was a strange, unnatural excitement in the a i r , a sort of fever* Everyone «?gs standing outside the cinema, listening to a loud speaker mounted on a van blaring an American marching song; La-ruelle soon saw why. There was a rumble of thunder and what lights there were on in the street twitched off* He began to run. In a churchyard near by the candle flames of the mourners wavered incessantly. A troughing wind suddenly engulfed the street, scattering old newspapers and blowing the naptha flares on tho t o r t i l l a stands f l a t . There is as a savage scribble of forked lightning over the Hotel l?orda, followed by a crash of thunder. The wind was meaning and people were running. Laruelle just reached the theatre entrance in time. The rain was f a l l i n g in torrents, "The rainy season dies hard," he remarked to the mana-ger, a friend of his who was standing near him and who began immediately grumbling over the frequent fai l u r e of the lights during stormy weather. Last week, he said, they had let him down at a special stage show, a troupe from Panama trying but a revue from Mexico City. \Something uas wrong ?*lth the wiring and with everything else i n tho country too. They went to the l i t t l e cafe ne.-<t door, the Cerveeoria XX, which was^ Dr. V i g i l ' s *place where you know*, where a peddlar was selling chocolate skulls and a l l was noise and confusion 0 ?hey talked, drinking coffee by candlelight, of Hollywood, of the sue ce a a of various, films about Maximilian and Carlotta, resulting in the shelving of the French fil m on the 3ame subject for which Laruelle had originally been hired, of tho current film, Los Kanoa de Orlac, of which Laruelle had seen a silent German version seventeen years before, 209 It was a sleepy scene, In spite of the energy required to reach I t , and the cheers. Some of the spectators seated on rude r a i l i n g s around the arena, which wa3 grey with dust, nodded with slumber. Others were engaged In purely private pleasures: tearing a sombrero to pieces or t r y i n g to skim a straw hat, l i k e a boomerang, at a f r i e n d , and each of these diversions, apart from that of the main performance, possessed i t s l i t t l e o r b i t of laughter and applause. Yvonne focussed her attention on the arena where SIE cowboys were attempting to p u l l a b u l l to Its f e e t . The b u l l was In a coma. 'Drunks, also i n a coma, d r i f t e d i n and out of the r i n g , gripping by th e i r necks bottl e s of t e q u i l a or mescal. After a while a boy b i t the t a i l of the b u l l which climbed cum-ber some l y to i t s f e e t . This was as convulsive as an act of creati o n . I t was an experiment no d e i t y could have been very proud of, Yvonne thought, nor did the b u l l , a c t u a l l y t o t t e r i n g with slumber, boredom and panic, apparently see much reason for being created. After a while a boy mounted a malicious looking horse and lassoed i t 0 But the b u l l had only been roped about the foot, and a f t e r a few feeble t r i c k s , was f r e e . Then nothing happened. The b u l l just walked away gloomily, shaking i t s head from side to side. Yvonne f e l t h e r s e l f f l u s h i n g h o t l y . The events of the afternoon, h e r s e l f , the b u l l , the present scene, the Mexican scene, the Mexican people - how impatient she was with a l l of themI She clenched her f i s t s , tempted a l l at once to beat them on the bald head of a ^ nan s i t t i n g on the t i e r below. ''The pouncing sarpint," said the Consul. "There's an idea for a book fo r you. A l l about the great pouncing primeval \ 210 — — — ' — — " " i 276, , , It waa a aleepy scene, in spite of the energy required to resoh i t , and the cheers. Son* of the spectators seated on rude railings around the arena, which waa grey with duet, nodded with slumber. Others were engaged in purely private pleasures t tearing a sombrero to pieces or trying to skin a straw hat, like a boomerang, at a friend, and each of theae diversion*, apart from that of the main performance, pot se seed it s l i t t l e orbit of laughter and applause. Yvonne foeuased her attention on the arena where sis cowboys were attempting to pull a bull to i t s feet* The wall vac In a coma. 'Drunks, also in a coma, drifted in and out of the ring, gripping by their necks bottles of tequila or mescal. After a while a boy bit the t a i l of the bull which climbed cum-bereomely to i t s feet* This was as convulsive as an act of creation* It waa an experiment no deity could have been very proud of, Yvonne thought, nor did the b u l l , actually tottering with slumber, boredom and panic, apparently eeo muoh reason for being crested* After a while a boy mounted a malicious looking horse and lassoed i t * But the bull had only been roped about the foot, and after a few feeble tricks, was free. Then nothing happened* The bull just walked away gloomily, shaking i t s head from aide to side* Yvonne f e l t herself flushing hotly. The evente of the afternoon, herself # the b u l l , the present scene, the Mexican seen*), the Mexican people - how impatient she was with a l l of them. She clenched her f i a t s , tempted a l l at once to beat them on the bald head of a man sitting on the tier below. pouncing sarpint," said the Consul. "There's for a book for you* A l l about the great pouncing primeval i n the i ? u r o i i t o , the c.ain barroom of which waa quite empty, the Consul f e l t calmer. His face s i l e n t l y glared a t him from a mirror behind the bar with stern, f a m i l i a r accusa-t i o n . He drank two mescals i n quick succession, then took stock of h i s surroundings. He sucked a lemon r e f l e c t i v e l y 9 The mescal slowed h i s mind up so that each object seemed t o (j\ demand an e t e r n i t y to Impinge on h i s consciousness. In a cor-ner a whito rabbit was s i t t i n g , eating an ear of Indian corn. It nibbled away at the purple stops with an a i r of detachment as though playing a musical instrument. Behind the bar hung a b e a u t i f u l gourd of mescal from Oaxaca, froia which h i s drink had beon poured. There were straws i n a glass on the counter: toothpicks, s a l t , vinegar, crossed long spoons i n a glass tankard. There were b o t t l e s of Berreteagn, Anis doble de K a l l o r c a , a v i o l e t decanter of Henry K a l l o t ' s ' d a l i c i o s o 11-c o r 1 , peppermint c o r d i a l , Tenampa, On the wall by the mlrr&r, was a scorpion. The Consul noted a l l these things c a r e f u l l y , one by one, even counting the toothpicks. This was the place he loved^and he saw i t a l l through the bewitched eyes of a lover . He waa safe: t h i s was sanctuary* I ' — p ^ J w - ] 'w* ic •> • The barman, known"asa Few F l e a s , 1 waa a small, degan-erata-looking c h i l d with horn rimmed spectacles and an owlish look, reading, he saw, E l Iii jo d e l Diablo, i n Ti»to, a boys magazine, and muttering to himself. When he poured out another mescal for the Consul, he slopped some of i t on the bar and wont on reading without wiping i t up. As ha read he was cram-sing himself with sweets, chocolate s k u l l s bought for the Day of the Dead, chocolate skeletons, even chocolate funeral wagons. Behind him hung the advertisement for tho b a l l l a s t night In Quahanuacs Hotel B e l l a V i s t a Gran Baile a Bensficio 212 - M ^ t / V j v -I / l ^ o ' r v _ ^ .da. p a l i n g 6 oorwey dreaming. . . -e s° - v i t a l l no1.'-', the enormous drop on one s i d e of the ca n t i n g , i n t o the b a r r a n c e t h a t s u K s e s t e d K\5bla Khan: t h e p r o p r i e t o r , R a t i o n THosdado, known as the die rho n1 who was r e p u t e d t o h°ve murdered h i s w i f e t o cx^re h e r neurasthen:: the beersars, backed by war and covered w i t h s o r e s , on£ o f whom one nisrht a f t e r f o u r d r i n k s f r o m the Consul, had t a v e n him f o r the C h r i s t y and f a l l c v ^ down on h i s knees b e f o r e him. "I ah give yja«—tire—§a-ifi*-. " had pinned s w i f t l y . under t-tee-H-^ w-rrsTsiJ-s c o a t _ l a p e l two m e d a l l i o n s 3 j o i n e d t c a t i n y "worked . b l e e d i n g h e a r t l i k e a p i n c u s h i o n j chawing ^:he v i r g i n o f Guadelupe.yf He saw a l l t h i s , f e e l i n g t h e atmosphere of the .cantine e n c l o s i n g him a l -ready w i t h i t s c e r t a i n t y o f sorrow and e v i l , and w i t h i t s c e r -t a i n t y of something e l s e t o o , t h ? t escaped him. But he knew: i t was peace. Yes, pe&ce. He saw the dawn a g a i n , v i o l e t o r •"'^fonquil, watched i n l o n e l y a n g u i s h from that open d o o r , a slow , bomb b u r s t i n g o v e r t h e S i e r r a M»dre, the oxen•harnessed t o t h e i r c a r t s w i t h wooden d i s c '.''heels r a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g f o r t h e i r d r i v e r •"'* i n the sharp c h i l l - winged «ir o f heaven. The ^Consul' s l o n g i n g was so g r e a t h i s s o u l ma<= °!T!b-ra^4>ngJ±ta3---ysry^axia?44; o f the p l a c e ghts a k i n tq. y as he stood and he was! b-e-ee-t/by ?^4«4-^ssu^e thous those which hjajg-gy-> gr-rop-n about t o ffle-e-*^i3r-rais£*e«&e a£ter a l o n g Then t h e y returned, t o Yvonne a b r u p t l y . Had he r e a l l y f o r -g o t t e n h e r , he wondered. He 'looked round the room a g a i n . Ah, i n how many rooms, upon how many s t u d i o couches, among how many books, had t h e y found t h e i r own l o v e , t h e i r ' m a r r i a g e , t h e i r l i f e t o g e t h e r , a l i f e w h i c h , i n s p i t e o f i t s many d i s a s t e r s , i t s t o t a calamity indeed - and i n s p i t e t o o of any s l i g h t element of f a l s e h o o d i n i t s i n c e p t i o n on h°r s i d e , her m a r r i a g e " n a r t l y i n t o the p a s t , i n t o h e r A n g l o - S c o t t i s h ancestry, i n t o t he v i s i o n e c h i s pocket when the d o c t o r i n t e r r u p t e d him. ^7 "I never w i l l f o r g e t v t a i y i n g t o your Consul that morning, " he. s a i d , shaking h i s head" a g a i n . !T had only "met him the pre-vious nigh"u, you remember, a t the Gran B a i l e , where''.ve were d r i n k i n g a l l n i g h t l i k e madmen. B u t next'morning when I c a l l e d on my p a t i e n t , Senor Quincey, the Consul was i n ' his'*garden, and then we went Deck to. h i s nbuse, where we went on d r i n k i n g a l l • morning. - That i s . to'say, I went "on d r i n k i n g . I t r e f l e c t s no credit..,. As I remember i t - the Consul was. n o t . d r i n k i n g , or seemea not to.be, or l i t t l e * . because of h i s w i f e and perhaps because" of h i s brother,' and the s t r a i n was so t e r r i b l e i t was enough-to t u r n a man i n t o a permanent drunkard to watch him.<? " \ - once more, l o v e a l l , " came from the ting-pong game..! Doctor Y i g i l sighed. " I meant t o persuade him to go away, and" get dealcoholis'e, he stumbled over the word, ana• continued. -i n English.; I was so s i c k - m y s e l f xnat day a l t e r , tne b a l l t h a t v^v' »>'••*'•- *v .1" ..-v r - •*„ w-. ' • "•' -f' - '•' - • ' > • ' *C' ""~z - t ' - - - :%- • ~-I s u f f e r p h y s i c a l , r e a l l y . That i s v e r y "bad,' f o r ;>ve Idoctorg must comport ourselyes l i k e a p o s t l e s . - You remember, we played -t e n n i s . . tVell, a f t e r I looked him i n h i s garden I sended a boy down to see i f "would come f o r a few minutes and knock my door, I would appreciate i t t o h i m , - i f not, w r i t e me a note, i f . d r i n k i n g have not k i l l e d you a l r e a d y . " ._ . . I 21^  | ; .16. 'V • fc" --. F=. - •—.. •..,„ • ^ - •• • A — ' ' - '** 1^ — ' ',[-.'. *-^f»<' " >• *.*"- - 5- 1- - * * longer. "I can't jnake i f . Sooner or l a t e r , driven to desperatior as they say i n the d i c t i o n a r i e s , 'By the Sumenides of u n f u l f i l l e c purpose, I sha-Xl f a l l . I have f o r t i f i e d myself against the mem-ory of our love by t r y i n g to concentrate on what I d i s l i k e d about you, upon what I s t i l l f e e l soberly ( s i c ) to-have been an unjusti f i a b l e revenge on your part, though I know you* didn't mean i t as such, and I have b^en buttressed by various memories of t h i s and' prejudiced against you, unconsciously I admit, by that f r i g h t f u l fraud l a r u e l l e " who didn't although I think hot purposely - hesite to take advantage of my weakened condition, with confirmations, merely circumstantial of course, yes, I know, and not merely verbal confirmations e i t h e r - though I h ve no- r i g h t to blame yci f o r t h i s one way or the other - of your further i n f i d e l i t y . The worst thing of a l l has been your l e t t e r s since you l e f t me, whic] I admit I have scarcely been even sober "enough to apprehend more than the governing desig:: of any of them. S t i l l , i t has been your -damnable k-indhess, f o r I can smell the kindness i n them ' ,without having to read them properly, your equally damnable desi: to help me to a 'Better Thing' that has formed the backbone, of --" my resistance .to you. \ v ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "iV.I JJU & Fad i sonf-- work to do, I suppose i t would be^uj>cj^_s_gja^>2-!jig_ in^each word of v/hichjwould g r i n some' dreadful prophecy. But oh Yvonne, I am so haunted continuously by the thought of your son~ of your warmth and merriment, of^your simplicity^and comrades':.:.] of yQ}jx^^JA±ties^±n a hundred ways;, of your fundamental sanity', of your clumsinessj^snd of your Squally excessive neatness, w: Lc used to ttpnoy me s 6 , the sweet beginnings of our marrisge -_Bo you'remember the Strauss song we used to sing together?- "unce . year the d e a d l i v e f o r one d a y , Oh come to me a g - i n a s o n c e i n M a y i ' ' Do y o u remember old B a r r i o s f s pub o p p o s i t e the Per . . - i o r . V r > 1' IN V ; * s I p a t h e t i c t h i n g a b o u t w h a t , f o r whoever 's b e n e f i t , w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i s h o n e s t , f o r t h e p r e t e n c e a t s o b e r i n g u p a t a l l w a s j u s t p a r t o f h i s p a s s i o n , s h e s aw n o p o i n t i n t e l l i n g h i i j , t h e e x h o r t a t i o n s a g a i n s t h i s " b a c k s l i d i n g " m e r e l y g a v e h i m s o m e t h i n g c o n c r e t e t o r e b e l a g a i n s t w h e n t h e y b e c a m e i n t o l e r a b l e , a v a l i d e x c u s e i n h i s e y e s t o g e t d r u n k -e r t h a n e v e r f inally.V'' ; ^ ' r ^ ... . A J ^ - ' V ^ ^ - ^ . Y e t i t w a s s t i l l t h e i r s t r e e t , s h e t o l d h e r s e l f a g a i n , who se ' ' U ' , n i g h t s o f . t o r m e n t i n g l o v e l i n e s s a n d s t o n e s a n d r i c h c o l o u r s a n d d u s x ^ w e r e s t i l l t h e i r s ^ . f o r e v e r , s o m e w h e r e , a n d s h e r e m e m b e r e d ^ h e r l a s " b ^ _ ^ p o i g n a n t g l i m p s e o f i t , l o o k i n g b a c k , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h a t f a t e f u l j o u r a e y t o M e x i c o C i t y , ^ f r o m t h e now l o s t P l y m o u t h a s t h e y t u r n e d t h e c o r n e r , c r a s h i n g , c r u n c h i n g down o n i t s s p r i n g s i n t o t h e p o t h o l e s , s t o p p i n g d e a d , t h e n c r a w l i n g , l e a p i n g o n a g a i n , k e e p i n g i n , i t d i d n ' t m a t t e r o n w h i c h s i d e , t o t h e w a l l s . T h e y w e r e h i g h e r t h a n s h e r e m e m -b e r e d a n d c o v e r e d w i t h b o u g a i n v i l l e a - m a s s i v e s m o u l d e r i n g h a n k s e f b l o o m . O v e r t h e m s h e c o u l d s e e t h e t o p s o f t h e t r e e s w i t h t h e names s h e c o u l d n e v e r r e c a l l a n y b e t t e r t h a n J a c q u e s , t h e i r b o u g h s h e a v y m o t i o n l e s s , ^ o c c a s i o n a l l y a w a t c h t o w e r , t h e e t e r n a l ^ m i r a d o r o f M o r e l o s s e t a m o n g ' t h e m , t h e h o u s e s i n v i s i b l e h e r e b e l o w t h e w a l l s a n d f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e w a l l s t o o , s h e ' d o n c e t a k e n t h e t r o u b l e t o f i n d " o u t , a s i f s h r u n k e n down i n s i d e t h e i r p a t i o s , . t h e m i r a d o r s c u t o f f , f l o a t -i n g a b o v e , l i k e l o n e l y r o o f t r e e s o f t h e s o u l . N o r c o u l d y o u d i s t i n -g u i s h t h e h o u s e s much b e t t e r t h r o u g h t h e w r o u g h t - i r o n l a c e w o r k o f t h e h i g h g a t e s , v a g u e l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f New O r l e a n s , l o c k e d i n t h e s e w a l l s 6 b e y o n d w h i c h , i f y o u w e r e a d m i t t e d , y o u w o u l d p r o b a b l y f i n d , n o t - -M e x i c o , b u t a S p a n i a r d ' s d r e a m - a n d how r e a d y - m a d e i t h a d t u r n e d o u t " t h i s c a c t a c e o u s home f r o m home ! - o f S p a i n . The g u t t e r o n t h e r i g h t h a n d was r u n n i n g u n d e r g r o u n d f o r a w h i l e a n d a n o t h e r o f t h o s e l o w s h a n t i e s b u i l t o n t h e s t r e e t f r o w n e d a t h e r w i t h d a r k o p e n b u n k e r s -s h e r e M a r i a u s e d t o f e t c h t h e i r c a r b o n . The r u n n i n g w a t e r t u m b l e d o u i i • — 1 — - r r V . V ' . J ^ * ^ ^ J M • ^ . f i ? - • .v • ftr^P' L°°»kI °*KI" The d r i v e r o f t h e b u s 0 . K ! " The d r i v e r o f t h e "bus i n v i t e d t h e m , p r o -fit" ^ • / ^ ^ M . » •^ V d u c i n g , f r o m b e n e a t h h i s s h i r t w h e r e t h e y ' d b e e n n e s t l i n g , itmnr • J > .' r > :• •' ' . y '] . • L/** • l i t t l e - s e c r e t a m b a s s a d o r s o f p e a c e , o f ^ l b v e , t w o b e a u t i f u l . V * ^ ^JTj w h i t e - t a m e p i g e o n s , i "My - ah", my a e r i a l p i g e o n s , " h e a d d e d . H & T h e y h a d t o s c r a t c h t h e - h e a d s o f t h e b i r d s w h o , a r c h i n g t h e i r b a c k p r o u d l y , s h o n e a s w i t h f r e s h , w h i t e p a i n t . G o u l d he h a v e • . • • ••' v^'r- "'• - : \ . ' • .• \ * k n o w n , a s H u g h / f r o m m e r e l y s m e l l i n g t h e h e a d l i n e s o f t h e /hn-v x <\J • b o u g h t p a p e r s h a d k n o w n , l h o w much n e a r e r e v e n i n t h e s e moment s . t h e G o v e r n m e n t w e r e t o l o s i n g t h e B a t t l e o f \ E b r o , J t h a t i t w o u l d Q > now b e / a m a t t e r s ' o f d a y s b e f o r e M o d e s t o w i t h d r e w a l t o g e t h e r ? ? ; The d r i v e r r e p l a c e d t h e f c - ^ u n d e r h i s b l u e s h i r t . " T o k e e p t hem w a r r r m . Y e s s i r . " he t o l d t h e m . ; " Y a m o n o s . " ..-y^ .v The b u s w a s n ' t f u l l , / e x c e p t f o r G e o f f who s p r e a d h i m s e l f , \ j ? i n a g o o d m o o d , d r u n k - s o b e r - u n i n h i b i t e d : t h e y started" anyhowe . V " " •' '• " " .• . ."^ •;. - • \ ^  -r^ ^ " L e t i n t h e c l u t c h , s t e p o n t h e g a s , " t h e d r i v e r t h r e w a s m i l e " " V&^i V " o v e r h i s s h o u l d e r . | " S u r e m i k e , " he w e n t o n , ; I r i s h - A m e r i c a n f o r Y v A t h e m . The b u s , a 191.8 C h e v r o l e t , j e r k e d along w i t h a n o i s e l i k e s t a r t l e d p o u l t r y . S o o n t h e y were r o l l i n g i n a heavy s e a o f v \ . c h a o t i c s t o n e . T h e y p a s s e d t a l l h e x a g o n a l s t a n d s p a s t e d w i t h . \ ^ - 1 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s f o r t h e c i n e m a , Y v o n n e ' s c i n e m a . ' L o s M a n o s de & \ 0 r l a c « C o n P e t e r - L o r r e . E l s e w h e r e p o s t e r s f o r t h e same f i l m • s howed a m u r d e r e r ' s h a n d s , l a c e d w i t h ~ " b l o o d . i " L i k e P a r i s , " •-' • : ^ • • • • : L • > . . ..' • . \ " A ^ how w e a y y , h o w o l d Y v o n n e appeared suddenly, h e r mouth forming ' K x < ~ / * * / : ' . - " • ' - ' • ;• >• .'. • /" • \ ' i > , - > t h e . words. The standSj r e s e m b l i n g k i o s k s , " m u s t h a v e r e m i n d e d \ ( i h e r , p e r h a p s o f t h e a r r o n d i s s e m e n t q u a t o r z l e m e . 1 ^ C r . . ' . 7 . ' . I - . ' • . ' ; . • -" I t ' s a n i c e q u a r t e r , . " p o o r g r a n d - o l d J a c k h a d s a i d t o h i m •9. A, o f t h a t p a r t o f P a r i s , i n p r e c i s e l y t h e same t o n e he, h a d ap-v'l p r o v e d , w i t h a s m i l e , ; t h e b o t t l e o f A n j o u Y i n R o s e , " I t ' s a". Jr^JJ' n i c e w i n e . " ' A n d i t was p r o b a b l y w i t h t h a t s a m e . ' s m i l e o f . a 217 1 2 . h i g h - p i l e d , b e h i n d i t . The c a m i o n t h u n d e r e d o n , p a s s i n g l i t t l e p i g s t r o t t i n g a l o n g t h e r o a d , a n I n d i a n s c r e e n i n g s and . . ^ A d v e r -t i s e m e n t s o n r u i n e d w a l l s swam b y . A c h i s ! I n s t a n t i a ! R e s f r i a d o s D o l o r e s , C a f i a s p i r i n a . R e c h a c h e S I m i t a c i o n e s . L o s Manos > de O r l a c ; c 6 n P e t e r L o r r e . 9 When t h e r e w a s a b a d p a t c h t h e b u s . r a t t l e d a n d s i d e s l i p p e d o m i n o u s l y , o n c e i t a l t o g e t h e r r a n o f f t h e r o a d , b u t i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o u t w e i g h e d : t h e s e w a v e r i n g s f i n a l l y , o n e _ w a s p l e a s e d t o h a v e t r a n s f e r r e d o n e ' s r e s p o n s i b i M -t i e s t o i t . l u l l e d i n t o a s t a t e f r o m w h i c h i t w o u l d . b e p a i n t o w a k e . ^ A n o t i c e r o s e u p r J D e v i a c i o n . W i t h a y e l p i n g o f t i r e s a n d b r a k e s t h e y made t h e d e t o u r t o o q u i c k l y . A s t h e y s w e r v e d i n t o a l i g n m e n t a g a i n H u g h n o t i c e d a man a p p a r e n t l y l y i n g f a s t a s l e e p u n d e r t h e h e d g e b y t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e r o a d , f N e i t h e r G e o f f r e y n o r Y v o n n e y s t a r i n g g l u m l y o u t o f t h e o p p o s i t e w indow^ - h a d s e e n h i m . N o r d i d a n y o n e e l s e i n t h e b u s y w e r e t h e y a w a r e o f i t ^ seem t o t h i n k i t p e c u l i a r a man s h o u l d c h o o s e t o s l e e p , h o w e v e r d a n g e r o u s h i s p o s i t i o n , i n t h e s u n b y " t h e r o a d s i d e . H u g h l e a n e d f o r w a r d t o c a l l o u t , h e s i t a t e d , t h e n t a p p e d t h e d r i v e r o n t h e s h o u l d e r : a l m o s t at. t h e same moment t h e b u s l e a p e d t o a s t a n d s t i l G u i d i n g t h e w h i n i n g v e h i c l e s w i f t l y , s t e e r i n g a n e r r a t i c c o u r s e w i t h one h a n d , t h e d r i v e r ^ , c r a n i n g r i g h t o u t o f h i s s e a t t o w a t c h t h e c o r n e r s b e h i n d a n d b e f o r e w i t h q u i c k : , h a l f - r e l u c t a n i t u r n s o f t h e h e a d ^ r e v e r s e d t h e c a m i o n a l o n g t h e d u s t y r o a d . J< T h e r e w a s t h e f r i e n d l y h a r s h s m e l l o f e x h a u s t g a s e s t e m p e r e d w i t ! t h e h o t t a r s m e l l f r o m t h e r e p a i r s - t h o u g h n o one was w o r k i n g o] t h e r o a d , e v e r y o n e k n o c k e d o f f f o r t h e d a y p o s s i b l y h o u r s h e f o r e a n d t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g t o b e s e e n t h e r e , j u s t t h e s o f t i n d i g o c a r p e t s p a r k l i n g a n d s w e a t i n g t o i t s e l f . £ B u t a l i t t l e f u r t h e r b a c k y t o one s i d e b y t h e hedgey/ w a s a s t o n e c r o s s , b e n e a t h w h i c h 218 "i c o j t.Ai^Ut 1 /^ V* V ^ '* ' si -Mi JISu 219 7 7 U J f>£~/ t ^T^' / 4 v ^ -r" r / . i (a ^ • 1/ _ i • • • • 220. r/^l^U^T- 'l^Y* J A bU^r^fe ^ ^ r ^ ^ d « 7 J^ >^  "tfC-^ vJ^ . Ir^ Xs^  AX-^VK ^  ' - C - -... L- \.'.X: ,j J , .. . f • ":7^ V'* :^:^:|tX>viRt^'^*^'""'^ . J - r f e i C t^V 1 ^^^ ^ ^ . . ' ^ l ^ ' W h t ^ . . v . « Mr-1 km 4'-:i -' -v nl;r'•• ••{:', 222 THiJ VuLCANO. traverse the republ jtitt > 4-,,,.4« *p 3 . ste and plateau ted "by two Two mountain chains * ! . , j • . r to. south, forming between them a number of Tjfil "I i •..>*•*• ••';•» .« Overloolring one of these valleys, which i s noes, l i e s , s i t thousand feet 4b^>y« «ip Wuauhnahuac. IT . iM • Situated. twif Sputlsr ojt to'be ixact on tint'nine tienth' jNqniilX«tf tudej uS; tne iRpvillasiigftd ) Islands, i6/tftC'|Njfj very jpuch fihriBher west %m•^nov^e^m^^^^ the port o f 1?«ucoxi tooths east on the At] ' ••• : ' J - ,'• t.f&l • ' •-- •/• U'?- • ' ! *' ilfc$F| , near the; border of B r i t t | h Bo.^i^«^.-^.^ji^-j |j the town of •! Jugg ejrna^ • ' I f c e wails of the totoj whioh is'bul .tHe1 streets and" lanes tortuous »n& broken, . ' 'n f . ' • }-'"•• }Jf- -••' -.'l •'" $ i • ; r fe*,, A fine American, stylS highway leads i n f r o a tlrj> lost, i n l t s j narrow streets,and comes ont a gOa!; ppjBsesses eighteen ohurohes and, f i f t y , seven caitinasv. It ft] boosts, a /goif- ijourse and no less than four •^ndredJ^^jfef^^Jl^j^ i^iiof^jiand; W$""at«y..a?ill|ed With the water that down, frokltlie .mountains, The. BWL iCaSino de le t h e H h i l l $ust i vbuilt fa^i|jbbl^fron the • , ' 1 - p. "ii'^f'MM : i . tejrracfcs, whijph [eoHiinand a and *m|any splendid h|)t sis.f-1 M S e l v a stands on a B l i g h t ^ ^ g l l i - c ^ •*»n. near the ra'ilJrji^ fs bfttioXv--, I t ; ! ^ ai^^gn*a^^8^d(' .so t i a l , a o e r t a i ^ a i r / p f diesola*le: splendour;: (jertreies'siy .po| APPENDIX B This c o l l e c t i o n of Lowry's marginalia i s a substantial portion (more than 30 per cent) of the l i s t described i n chapter I of the thesis. The kind of notes included i n the basic research l i s t but omitted from t h i s appendix are not e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the ones included here, but they are less e x p l i c i t and less illuminating. Examples are "Perhaps doesn't come o f f " , "Later", "Get thi s dialogue better", "His hating the world", "Don't understand", "Mem: How long?" Others, while longer, s t i l l contribute nothing to the general understanding of the r e v i s i o n process, gained from the comments l i s t e d here, although they may have a bearing on the history of s p e c i f i c l o c a l develop-ments i n the text. In other words, t h i s appendix includes the clearest and most t e l l i n g examples of Lowry's non-fiction marginal comments, and thi s selection i s genuinely representative of the larger l i s t according to which the argument of the thesis was developed. In a l l , there are four—hundred-and-eighty-four entries l i s t e d below, but t h i s figure includes cases i n which the same note i s entered more than once. Repetition of t h i s kind occurs where a single note f a l l s into more than one of the categories into which I have divided the l i s t as a whole. These categories correspond generally to certain of the d i v i s i o n s within the body of the t h e s i s — t h e d i f f e r e n t categories of Lowry's marginalia that I i d e n t i f y and discuss. The sections of the thesis i n which each of these groups of comments i s discussed i n d e t a i l i s indicated i n brackets following the group's t i t l e . Thus, following the heading "Revision Procedure", the numbers in brackets indicate the pages in the thesis where th i s kind of annotation i s discussed i n d e t a i l . Within each group of notes, entries are l i s t e d according to t h e i r location i n the Lowry manuscript c o l l e c t i o n , beginning with Box 7. The reference 7/11 for example indicates Box 7, folder 11. The t h i r d term i n the l i s t i n g locates an entry within the folder indicated, usually by f o l i o number appearing on the page i n question or by other description. For example, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n "second p. 12," means simply that the item in question i s the second one in the folder to be numbered "12." S i m i l a r l y , where there are two drafts i n a single folder, one i n longhand and one i n typescript, the item i n question i s i d e n t i f i e d as belonging to one or the other, thus "p. 12 ( t y p e s c r i p t ) . " The notation "p. (pencil) 12" refers to the fact that the number "12" has been written i n pe n c i l on a page to supersede a d i f f e r e n t typescript number on the same page. Transcription of the annotations themselves involves the use of a number of s p e c i a l symbols. A l l e d i t o r i a l , e l i s i o n s and comments are enclosed i n square brackets [ ] . D i s t i n c t notes within a single entry are divided by // when punctuation and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n f a i l to make the d i s t i n c t i o n evident. Where material i s i l l e g i b l e , i t i s indicated by " [ i l l e g . ] . " A question mark within square brackets [?] indicates uncertainty about the tr a n s c r i p t i o n of the preceding word. Where possible, following entries are the page numbers of the Penguin e d i t i o n of Under the Volcano to which the entry i s d i r e c t l y relevant. In other words, the note i n question i s found to r e f e r to a prepublication version of something on the pages l i s t e d . The number 123 following an entry, f o r example, indicates that the note(s) l i s t e d r e f e r to a prepublication version of something on page 123 of the Penguin e d i t i o n of the novel. I t i s therefore possible to use t h i s appendix i n three important ways. F i r s t , one can locate f o r further examination i n the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n the page on which, each note of i n t e r e s t occurs. Second, one can turn 226 back from notes t o g e n e r a l a r e a s i n the t h e s i s where d e t a i l e d examples o f t h e same k i n d o f note a r e d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l . T h i r d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o m p i l e a l i s t o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g a n n o t a t i o n s t h a t Lowry made t o s u c c e s s i v e p r e p u b l i c a t i o n d r a f t s o f m a t e r i a l t h a t appears on a s i n g l e page o r sequence o f pages i n t h e p u b l i s h e d n o v e l . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page. R e v i s i o n P r o c e d u r e 227 D r a m a t i z a t i o n 233 N a r r a t o r ' s T o n a l Weaknesses 234 E x t r a t e x t u a l Borrowings and R e f e r e n c e s 2 37 C o n v e r s i o n from O m n i s c i e n t N a r r a t i o n . . . . . . . . 242 C h a r a c t e r s ' P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y 243 C h a r a c t e r s ' P s y c h o l o g y 246 D e t a i l Changes 254 P h i l o s o p h i c o - R e l i g i o u s Background. 261 C o n s i s t e n c y , I n c o n s i s t e n c y , and R e p e t i t i o n . . . . 264 Chro n o l o g y 268 T e c h n i c a l A d j u s t m e n t s 269 Revision Procedure(29-34) 7/8/p.l7 7 / l l / p . l 2 7/13/p.l 7/13/p.l6 7/13/p.l7 8/6/p.l85 8/19/p.248 8/22/p.5A 8/24/verso 16 10/l/(item 2) See o r i g i n a l though god knows i t won't help us [212] Correct by o r i g i n a l [2 96-97] Correct i n o r i g i n a l god knows where [338] [355] Copy from o r i g i n a l [352] Correct by something, god knows what-probably by another note which says correct by t h i s one. [355] Ask Margie where Hugh was at college. S t e t - ^ - t i l l we see other version of Vole... [204] h y d r o e l e c t r i c — s e e o r i g i n a l [287] Get some dope about a hawk out of the Niag l i b r a r y to imagine from... [320-21] But more about t h i s quotation. It i s not quite correct S I haven't yet puzzled out what I'm f i n a l l y going to do about i t £ perhaps you can give me some advice as i t i s important. Whether l a t e r on the Consul should see i t i n i t ' s [ s i c ] correct form i s what perplexes me--it stretches in VII the imagination a b i t that both signs should be wrong. On the other hand, i f i t i s correct the 228 10/3/item 1 10/3/item 2 10/3/p.r 10/3/second p.9 10/5/last page 10/8/section 2/; p. 1. 10/12/p.l5 10/17/p.30 10/18/(typescript) p.18 10/18/ (typescript)) p. 35 10/22/(follow-ing 22)p.l5 second time he sees i t , w i l l he continue to translate i t wrongly to himself? I f e e l i t i s important that he should always apply i t to himself and see his own e v i c t i o n i n i t for obvious reasons. Also, somewhere i n the book possibly i n VIII, Hugh should see i t i n i t ' s [ s i c ] correct form S translate i t c o r r e c t l y . In any event I think the Spanish should be correct at the v end. -etc -See o r i g i n a l [9] See Digest MAP//See fed exercise book//ME SEE DIGEST MAP// [9] See o r i g i n a l [9-13] consult o r i g i n a l [33] 66 Haven't you l e f t something out a f t e r "to be a surprise anyhow" Put back a l l Margie cuts [48-69] N.B. Margie. Please remove a f t e r use to Hugh showing Chapter [87] [310] Type t h i s but brood whether to cut. [126] See o r i g i n a l dialogue. [114] Mem see map. [128] G u i l t re stokers must come i n somewhere here or on next page : get Margie to reread. [140-41] 229 10/2 3/p.l The Quincey Chapter not to be thrown away [12 9-53] 10/25/p.U Does th i s make out Hugh too, taken i n , for a j o u r n a l i s t ; also could he possibly take t h i s Genteel Siberia idea seriously i n his innermost mind? Or i f he takes i t seriously does i t need more subtle q u a l i -f i c a t i o n ? [Margerie r e p l i e s : ] Well, damn i t , whether he believed i n th i s mythical 'saving' of his brother or not the only decent thing for him was to behave as though he did anyhow. [124-26] 10/25/p.l3 Get o r i g i n a l my French i s decaying. [177-87] 10/27/p.20 sentimentality=quality of being or state of being sentimental//Explain f l a i r =instinctive power of discriminating £ discerning taste combined with aptitude, l i k i n g , bent combination of an i n s t i n c t -ive taste f o r the sensational combined with aptitude l i k i n g bent [174] 10/28/p.lQ/8 NB to-morrow To be good of betrayed Jews £ coal trimmers [159-77] 10/29/p.25 In spite of Margie's advice t h i s doesn't follow £ must be redone. [221] 10/30/p.l4 See advertisement for gaseosas i n Box advertise-ment. 230 11/1/p.lO (type-s c r i p t ) 11/3/p.lO 11/4/part 2/p.l2 11/4/part 2/pp. 13-14 11/5/p.l. (pencil draft) 11/11/item 8 think out//NB See o r i g i n a l where the motion i s got better [225-26] N.B. Put t h i s page i n the box f o r reference [240] See o r i g i n a l [243] Only way to calculate t h i s i s to cut from the o r i g i n a l . [245] I would very obliged [ s i c ] i f you type a l l t h i s right down to 'singing' on 324, so we can see where we are. Problems are, working backwards, that perhaps a sound of singing clashes with a sound as of clashing machetes, whether mingled e v i l doesn't include lechery etc. the typography of le gusta esta j a r d i n that p r o v i s i o n a l l y I have horizontal here, the underplaying of the d e v i l , Hugh's lack of reaction to the notices too many doves S goats S of course the grammar. I would be obliged i f you'd c a l l the old sod around 8—[...] Typing w i l l not disturb There are too many 'cames' too,, Good night [234-36] 6[...] Suspect th i s page of being s l i g h t l y overdone-i t i s too near s a t i r e , while i t doesn't seem meant to be: Margie f i x & take another sober look at i t . [259] 231 ll/13/part/2;/;p.l ll/14/p.28 l l / 1 5 / p . l ( r e c t o ) 11/15/verso 8 (numbered B) 11/15/p.D (recto) ll/15/p.E(recto) 11/15/p.H (recto) Mem. B o x — i n dialogue part of the chapter, also Parian [ ? ] Also - the Consul should [ i l l e g . ] his having said he was a Spaniard. Otherwise careful here; except for suggested cuts, change mainly a word [283-316] --See also 30 f o r possible place i n d i a l o g u e — i n the stone retreat passage I'm working on—S mignito.rioEsic] passage i n XII. [295-303] In f u l l agreement with t h i s , where you have done masterly job. [283-316] 16 Chancel steps may not be wtfite r i g h t — s e e dictionary Bergeres...I am not sure. [268] Should be s l i g h t l y more here: the o r i g i n a l being more in t e r e s t i n g than other cuts, do not under-stand f u l l y these two cuts. You cut r i g h t l y here, but i t questionable[sic] whether o r i g i n a l would not be j u s t i f i e d -e s p e c i a l l y to a Marxist. [300] You are j u s t i f i e d i n cut but 6 but of 10 of my readers wld be diverted by o r i g i n a l here, s p l i t t i n g i t seems wrong since I want [ i l l e g . ] S the shops [?] [30'2j I In f u l l agreement with your cuts here, :.6C I might make even more, i n f u l l agreement. [302-3] 232 ll/16/p.2 11/16/14 (verso) ll/18/p.8 ll/19/p.4 verso ll/20/p.7 11/20/item 20 11/20/23 TM verso/chap 1/ p., TM text/chap. IV/ p.15 TM verso/chap III p.16 TM text/chap. VI/ p . l I f e e l that the new changes of para 403-4 04 r e s u l t i n a drag i n tempo. I f e e l a drop i n tempo here anyhow. What do you think? 4 27 Verify elements from dictionary [306] STARS / / QldffllKl Js^ e'yWtfe' A t e r r i f i c passage, yet somehow not too purple, to be made out of Margerie's and the following rough notes [322-24] Commotion i s not i n [ a p p -o s i t i o n to b u t t e r f l i e s but refers back to her conscious-ness being lashed by winds and a i r etc. Your idea though i s very good [48^49] Describe i n d e t a i l : Get Margie to describe she sees th i s [?] [340-41] 4 On a l l sides surrounded ...what picture do you get. Is the f i e s t a on the other side of the ravine too. [340] 19 s p e l l i n g of things i n V i g i l ' s advertisement— discuss, have to see some penci l l e d o r i g i n a l [352] see O r i g i n a l [29]' Confirm from o r i g i n a l [9 8] Act out with Margie [84-86] Page 4 3 missing:—burned— i n l a s t analysis use p.34 of copy.g.cut accordingly [154-97] 233 TM verso/chap. VI p.13 TM text/chap VI/ p.46 TM text/chap VI/ p. 52 TM text/chap VII p. 30A TM text/chap VIII/p.10 Read through, correct Spanish [. . .] Get Margie to read me chapter II Get out o l d version of I I I , clean up desk [9-47] Correct from o r i g i n a l [188-89] :(See original»5 [19 3] See o r i g i n a l [227] See o r i g i n a l [240] Dramatization (50-55) 8/l/p(pencil 12) 8/12/p.382 8/12/p.384 10/12/p.9 See Revision Procedure 11/1/p.lO (typescript) 11/4/part 2/p.l 11/4/part 2/p.l2 11/19/item 7 (numbered 3) Not dramatised [31] This could be better dramatized [352] Dramatize [356] redramatise [87] Henry James/7Cut out every-thing not relevant, short sentences [234-55] More paragraphs to get the dramatic effects [24 3-44] 475 a f t e r the dream was burning,—put 'the house was burning' otherwise the drama l e t s down (. even though you know the house i s on f i r e . [336] ll/20/p.4 Render v i v i d c l a r i f y [340] 234 TM text/ chap 1/ p. 7 TM text/ chap 1/ p. 27 TM verso/chap I I / p. 10 TM text/chap VI/ p. 52 This i s bad, undramatised hence unwritten [14] Make t h i s more d i r e c t , s t i l l [ i l l e g . ] [31-32] Bring the thing up to to-night , make i t a cry, i n the Bella V i s t a , immediate, personal. [41] Leave i n thi s dramatic dialogue before Laruelle's appearance [193] Narrator's Tonal Weaknesses (56-72, 100-102) 7/7/p.22 7/12/p.5 8/1/p.l 8/l/p.2 8/l/p.8 8/l/p.8 8/1/p.(pencil 12) 8/l/p(pencil 18) 8/5/p.l44 does t h i s r i n g true [187-89] Too many gods [328-29] the swimming baths, the sunset, bleeding heart, phoney [10] Phoney [12] Avoid any Malcolm stodginess l i k e the plague. [10—113 Stodginess here?? [10-113 The s t y l e of t h i s i s somewhat spurious, j o u r n a l i s t i c Here again, the writing i s too j o u r n a l i s t i c ? [31-32 3 This i s immature [41-46 3 Cut out everything that - ,~ might be construed as i n s u l t i n g : leave i n only that which i s universal. [144 3 235 8/9/p.276 8/12/p.369 10/3/second p.15 10/12/p.4 10/18/(typescript) p.11 10/25/p.ll 10/30/p.8 10/30/p.9 l l / l / p . 1 5 (typescript) 11/4/part 2/p.l 11/4/part 2/p.l6 ll/8/p.8 See Revision Procedure 11/11/ item 8 Make i t quicker perhaps not so sleepy: less s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m of a half-baked sort [259] The s t y l e less "rummy" [338] too l i t e r a r y [18] This seems too much l i k e a synopsis [82-84] get t h i s dialogue natural S unstylized [106] Does this smack too much of merely dragging i n the topical? However necessary to the story? [186-87] Rewrite a l l t h i s so that  you can hear" i t [205-10] Rewrite t h i s so that I can hear i t [205-10] Completely unnatural -l e t the conversation go on i n French however [209-]0] th i s chapter i s i n the main too i n s u l t i n g . [234-55] No, t h i s i s a l l f a l s e . They have t h e i r own way of doing things. [245] Cut the inorganic irony [278] 11/14/p.29 Cut ahips S hickets - too obvious [305-6] 11/15/verso 1 18 Death, she thought or (numbered C) a sort of death, doesn't come o f f as 'bone [ s i c ] f i d e ' : r e f l e c t i o n : make i t ( i s important, or do away with the she thought, or something—perhaps don't change the paragraph... or cut she thought £ i f l i f e £ sun into next para ... [270] 11/19/p.2 6 Too much bad poetry top of 6. 11 Cut that the restaurant i s nowhere: we want to f e e l that i t i s damn r e a l . 11 the patio of the pub. to bring i t even more down to earth 12 Dialogue should be more r e a l , less s t y l i z e d . Hugh should speak down to the sky was blue Yvonne should say about the wooly dog -[319-21, 325, 326] 11/1 9/p.5 4 54 That i s our star up there, yours £ mine. -- Gug [?] (No-it belongs to 'He i s your son, yours £ mine) [322] ll/20/p.D10 No. condense. Too cheery. [343] ll/20/p.G18 This does not r i n g true quite Better-no, he did not want to l i g h t i t , just to suck i t [344-45] TM text/chap IV/ too complicated?;, too odd? p.22 - [115] TM text/chap VI/ Doesn't seem quite r i g h t , p.35 or altogether honest or clear: the whole - discuss close examination [180-81] 237 TM text/chap VI/ p.54 Sentence beginning JT6r in ttAtlh seemed ±66 66MIA fU<Ll coming Af *er gerieraZ/ U.AU6A on pYerfions £age/ M66/VU firted it *n©ngrt Z/m ried n£ sligltfZ^ wi*n j^e^/c [ s i c ] . [194-95] TM text/chap X/ p.37 too confused [307-8] TM verso/chap XI/ p. 3 too non sequitur [324] Extratextual Borrowings and-Reference (74-93, 129-34, 138-43) 8/1/p.(pencil 18) 8/4/p.l30 8/5/p.l34 8/9/p.275 8/21/p.l 8/21/p.l 10/3/p.2 10/3/second p.5 Give Somerset Maugham some cre d i t here, or cut the phrase out, Suggest: 'Yvonne and I f i r s t came on the phrase i n a book by, I think, Somerset Maugham.' Cut no se puede v i v i r s i n amar [45] [11] too Gothic [?] [128] This i s a pinch from a pome i n Poetry. [131] Perhaps the boxing advertise-ment [257] Huxley [283] Waldo Frank [283] Look at Oaxaca nuevo [?] for data on the paper [10] Get Faulkner out of the machinery [28] 10/3/second p.10 Far too Faulkner. [33] 238 10/3/second p.12 10/7/p.l9 10/12/p.l 10/12/p.l5 10/21/p.6 10/22/p.21 (typescript) 10/25/p.l l l / l / p . 5 (typescript) l l / l / p . 1 7 (typescript) l l / l / p . 2 3 (typescript) l l / l / p . 2 4 (typescript) ll/3/p.2 11/4/part 2/p.5 11/4/part 2/p.23 11/9/p.l 11/11/item 11<*E>) Cut most or shorten t h i s Swedenborg s t u f f [34] Swinburne £ Theodore Watts-Dunton [66] (I think t h i s i s a plagiar-ism.) [71] See Yeats book, i t i s apparently not t i r e s . [87] [310] Mem Pangloss, V o l t a i r e Mem: write down the Cambridge cabbalists £ pl a t o n i s t s . Henry Moore [?] etc. [145-46] Leave Achad [154] Get the books out of the back of Baudelaire [202] Query: or i n English, the second quote. [212] perhaps Laruelle quotes French poetry [219-22] Work Box thing again [220-22] Cut Moby Dick [236] What features? See L i f e [237] Cut Kafka here No Kafka? as i f they had sprung out of the pages of Franz Kafka. [252-53] Quotation from Dean Swift at the beginning of the book [256] 26 Might use some other curse words here out of Rosenthal: diantre [?] say. [246] 239 See Revision Procedure 11/13/ part 2/p.l 11/13/part 2/p.lO 11/13/part 2/p.l4 11/15/verso 1 (numbered ) 0 32 He s t i l l had his [ i l l e g . ] - other i s plagiarism from western story. No - Claude Houghton [306] Elaborate from fo l d e r see photographs at beginning work up Tlaxcalan [ i l l e g . ] from t h i s [296-303] 21 acquired a sudden in t e r e s t i n horseflesh [?] i s Stephen Crane, [274]// 23 twinkling i s James Joyce ... Cut i t sternly [272] See Revision Procedure 11/15/ p. D(recto) See Revision Procedure 11/15/p.E (recto) ll/16/p.4 (verso ll/18/p.6 429 94i4/fM/Mtt*fitte/lA ihUAl6-6f/lA£6-e6M/6ff/&ft6t alZ///Z/feeZ/Z*/may/]6e/ -a/Z*zzZe/«Wer<derie/ -[310] s h a l l I c a l l the hawk a c o r s a i r , thus getting away both from Yeats S Westcott £ A t l a n t i c monthly, only mentioning at the beginning: i t seemed to be a species of hawk, or something. SEE NUTTALL. pure marauder? Is description of hawk's f l i g h t too o r n i t h o l o g i c a l — see N u t t a l l both f o r t h i s £ above? [321] 240 l l / l 9 / p . 4 ll/19/p.6 ll/20/p.2 11/20/item 22 TM text/chap 1/ p.24 TM text/chap 1/ p. 36 TM verso/chap 1/ p. 37 452 Passage i s by Mr. T e l l i n g s influenced my an m Clark's [?] Hawk[ • • • • ] Damn i t , ( ( i n t h i s country)) we have to take our hawks 6 dogs where i t [ s i c ] f i n d them [321] 471 my hand! my hand! The hand before Parian -NB v. important:[illeg.] absolutely fresh £ straight out of Jude the Obscure. Must be there. 'Essential'. [334] the crag that couldn't make up i t s mind to crumble absolutely, i t clung, so c l e f t , t o l i f e , something l i k e Shelley or Calderon or both [339] 12 Yes,- cut p l a g i a r i s i n g ? but substitute something: as and the Consul - had Yvonne been reading the l e t t e r s of Heloise £ Abelard? -15-16-17 pure choking f r i g h t l i k e Lost Weekend 18 Get sense of Lost Weekend here £ there -go over a l l t h i s [347], [350^52] Joyce [29] or better without mention of Lord Jim. [39] into the chapter of unnumberable [?] plag-iarisms [?] [41] 241 TM verso/chap III p. 3 TM verso/chap III p. 16 TM text/chap III p. 25 TM text/chap VI/ p . l TM verso/chap VI/ p. 13 TM text/chap VI/ p. 32 TM text/chap VII/p.33 TM text/chap VI/p.50 TM text/chap VI/p.52 TM text/chap VI/p.54 TM text/chap X/p.21 But don't forget C a r l Sandberg or Poetry magazine [91] Nigel Bruce [85] Dr. Seuss [90] Correct Dante i s : - - I think. Nel mezzo del cammin d i nostra v i t a mi r i t r o v a i per una selva oscura che d i r i t t a v i a era smarrite [?] [154] Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e his commanding o f f i c e r [9-47] Cut Beethoven 1s ninth, confuses the issue [182]// Query (Not enough modern books: I cut here—what about: A l l Quiet on the Western Front. The C l i c k i n g of Cuthbert...) Perhaps no more than 2 more. Make one a complete Taskeron [178] Cut M e l v i l l e quote i n f i n a l analysis. [179-80] Put Spanish names of boxers i n ? or not. Yes [192] I sense ghost of bad Proust at the end of t h i s ; i s there anything to be done about i t , however? [194] Flaubert. Note. Folder s t u f f , should be indented, £ i n single spacing i n typescript (perhaps i t a l i c i z e d i n print?) [296-302] Conversion from Omniscient Narration(107-112) 8/3/p.86 8/6/p.l89 8/9/p.284 8/9/p.301 10/18/(type-s c r i p t p.32 10/25/p.lO See Revision Procedure 11/1/p.lO (typescript) ll/3/p.7 l l / 3 / p . l 6 11/4/part 2/p.l 11/7/p.6 must not, then, according to our plan, switch to Yvonne's consciousness? [81] Consider how much of this Hugh can think [187-88] Or a l l Yvonne's thoughts [258-76] But a l l through [?] Yvonne's mind [277] or Hugh saw i t a l l i n his mind's eye. [126] Hugh's f i r s t t r a i n of thought here [185] Through Hugh's eye [240-41] Objective Hugh [2»$8] Eye on Hugh. [234-55] Make i t very clear i t i s Yvonne watching the Consul's thoughts [258] 243 Characters 1 Personal History ( 8/2/p.43 10/3/second p.15 10/3/p.l6 10/8/section2/p.2 10/10/p.l 10/18/(type-s c r i p t ) p. 26 10/28/p.l5/G3 10/30/p.4 10/30p.l7 3-20) Yvonne has been born i n a shadow of a volcano, in Hawaii [48-69] Write i t i n such a way that his past consular l i f e becomes cle a r to the reader. [43] And a l l i n here about Kashmir £ Hugh S Everything [41-46] (She remembered th i s bar before, that i t stayed open a l l night sometimes.) [50] NB Born i n Hawaii//a creature she had acquaplaned [ s i c ] through l i f e , she lacked one thing, f a i t h : but she had f a i t h i n l i f e . She had been attracted to the Consul f o r the extra-ordinary reason that he believed i n God. [48-69] What about his secret knowledge? [121] Make more point about the guitar, his guitar defended him [163-72] Must be something about the Consul's sexual l i f e . [202-5] Memo Senora Gregorio i s Half English, but has forgotten her English, was born i n Manchester [229-33] 244 See Revision  Procedure 11/1/ p. 10(typescript) l l / l / p . 1 5 (typescript) 11/15/verso 8 TM text/chap. 1/ p. 17 TM verso/chap 1/ p. 19 TM text/chap II p . l TM verso/chap II/p.12 TM text/chap I I I / p. 9 It should perhaps be disclosed at the end of the conversation he knows Dr. V i g i l : t h i s requires brooding upon:- [209-10] Our l i v e s we do not weep. Then make that poem Ge o f f s one published poem.. L262-63] D i f f i c u l t y re M. Laruelle [23] L The a r r i v a l at Gravesend. The journalist//M. He goes to New Compton Street to discover fame//N Fame £ what has happened to his songs. Description of what happens to songs, the methods//0 Revenge [172-74] N.B. We must make sure the Consul says nothing, as on 23, that might contradict even his shadowy knowledge of Yvonne's movie career: here, as i n subsequent chapters//Perhaps have one note here, the Peter Lorre advertisement changing f o r a moment to Yvonne Constable i n the Demon Riders [48-69] NB. Make clear Yvonne i s in America. Los Angeles. [43-44] But what about Yvonne as a c h i l d f i l m star...? Something, very t i n y , here about Yvonne as a f i l m star// See also P. 10 245 TM v e r s o / c h a p IV / p . l chap. 4 They had m a r r i e d i n 19 35, b u t i n T l a x c a l a c h a p t e r Hugh [ i l l e g . 3 / / C o n s u l has been i n S p a i n i n 1936 but i n I i t i s i m p l i e d L a r u e l l e had found t h e C o n s u l i n Mexico i n 1935 [76-773 (1) He's b i t i n g , b i t i n g a l l t h e time (2) I n t r o -duce i t as Ju a n h i m s e l f who ha s t e n e d t h r o u g h the s l a v e r y o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n (3) Then e v e r y moment weeping f o r t h e p a s t i s one's [ i l l e g . 3 j u s t i c e . Juan a murderer perhaps (4) I n e v e r y man's l i f e , i n e v e r y c o u n t r y , r e v o l u t i o n , o r d e a l e t c . [112 3 See E x t r a t e x t u a l R e f e r e n c e TM v e r s o chap VI p.13 See D e t a i l Changes TM t e x t / c h a p V I / p . 32 TM t e x t / c h a p V I / p. 34 TM t e x t / chap VI p. 45 The whole i r o n y o f t h e J e w i s h b u s i n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o B o l o w s k i i s weakened now by seeming s u b s e r v i e n t £ t o o f a r away from t h a t t o make i t s p o i n t . [180-813 NB Q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : What on e a r t h was t h e C o n s u l on Q b o a t s — I must g e t i t c l e a r — g e t a book o ut o f t h e l i b r a r y i f n e c e s s a r y — w a s he a n a v a l l i e u t e n a n t o r merchant c a p t a i n , o r what. Does i t mat t e r ? I mustn't be t o o f a r from t h e f a c t s £ He wouldn't have spoken l i k e t h i s had he been the s k i p p e r [383 [188] Characters' Psychology (120-29 8/2/p.43 8/3/p.94 8/4/p.l30 8/9/p.271 8/10/p-. 307 8/12/p.364 246 154-60) She should f e e l : I shouldri't have come, I should have given him warning. Why did I come? or why didn't I come before? [48-69] I think there he should be, as i t were, playing a preparatory tune on her senses before the act, S a l l t h i s time the image of Yvonne ly i n g on the bed being possessed by him i s fading, S being superseded by the v i s i o n of the taverns. [94-95] Would not Yvonne say no, not here. Not here of a l l places^-, I can't explain, and burst into tears [128] What are Yvonne's feelings now? what has she decided now, about the Consul, about Hugh? [256-82] ( i ) He feels about the F a r o l i t o — a l s o the boy up the tree [ ] ( i i ) NB Yvonne i s just happy because of the mood, because of the Consul's presence [ s i c ] He anticipates the horrors of the night//see his chapter [343] 247 8/12/p.370-71 8/12/p.372 8/24/verso 10 See D e t a i l Chan-ges 10/3/p.l 10/3/second p.5 10/3/second p.7 10/3/second p.10 10/7/p.l3 10/7/p.l9 10/9/section 2/ p.11 10/9/section 2/ p. 9 10/9/section 2/ p.11 Instead, r e f l e c t i o n s about Hugh £ Yvonne, regret etc., perhaps a few r e f l e c t i o n s about the forest [339-40] Too smart [341] I miss one e s s e n t i a l human point about the f i r e i f I don't convey that everyone i s helping... [336-377 Does i t remind him of Yvonne? [33] This should be honest, should bring back the UFA Days, [ i l l e g . ] of Dreyer, Zithe [ ? ] , S at the same time give him" a renewed sense of examination to pursue his own work. Wasted genius thought [30-31] the remorse was that he'd l o s t i t . [33-34] Reaction of Yvonne to [ i l l e g . ] Laruelle [63] the reason f o r the existence of Hugh [65-66]: Make clear Yvonne has l o t s of sleep. [57] Mem : map of Hawaii on 184 for names that Yvonne evokes i n Hugh. They might play a name game. [98-128] so i f one hand committed a murder might the hotel where etc. etc. disappear. [62] 248 10/9/section 2/p. p.'17 10/9/section 2/ p.17 See Characters 1 Personal History 10/10/p.l 10/12/p.8 10/18/(typescript) p. 35 10/19/p.4 10/22/p.4 (pencil draft) 10/22/p.22 (typescript) See Revision Procedure 10/22/ following p. 22 While i n the back of her mind: 1 Box, 1 make clear that she's thinking about t h i s d e l i b erately i n order to avoid thinking that her two ex-lovers are here... She was prepared for tirades humiliation: chart [ i l l e g . ] 8 [ i l l e g . 3 despairing frame of mind. [67-68] Another conflict--what i f Hugh should come in while a l l t h i s noisome business was proceeding: what if-rx-And the worst thing of a l l was that he, her husband should be a f r a i d of t h i s . [94] Yvonne feels a presage of her own death she wants to look at i t longer [12 8] Wouldn't Hugh have been aware of i t i n the l a s t paragraph? Perhaps f u l l y : or what: fo r the f i r s t time wrong. [102] man, he has been fooling himself about his garden [132] A l l t h i s should be permeated with g u i l t . [147] 249 10/25/p.l Hugh contemplates two things : his loathing of j o u r n a l i s t s £ his f e e l i n g f o r the Jews. They had come about in the following way. [154-81] 10/25/p.3 A paralysis has gripped me as to Hugh's exact psycholo-g i c a l p o s i t ion. N.B. Get sense of conviction [154-58] See Revision Procedure 10/25/ p.4 10/25/p.20 Nor was his depression on his own account r e a l l y . He hated to think of the inevitable loss of the Battle of the Ebro etc. £ what that would e n t a i l [193] 10/28/p.9/(7) Constellate = to shine with united radiance to unite with one l u s t r e as stars [...] Breaks were l i k e leonids shooting across the night sky. [158-59] 10/30/p.2 shame cruelty £ sense of shame [199-200] 10/30/p.3 He thinks but does not say// Did Yvonne think of a l l t h i s [200] 10/30/»p.5 dubious whether he would approve of t h i s necessity [?] [204] 10/30/p.l6 Mem polyneurosis of the soul [217-22] 10/3 0/p.l7 Get sense that a f t e r Laruelle has gone, his l a s t contact with l i f e has gone £ there are only the ghosts awaiting him.... [221-24] 10/30/p.l9 11/1/p.l l l / l / p . 2 (typescript) l l / l / p . 6 ( t . s c r i p t ) 11/1/p.20 (typescript) How ho r r i b l e was the f e e l i n g get fear of the police hear [ s i c ] [227] KEYNOTE: ((transcendental)) (SAZETY I am better than a l l these other fellows. I have something drinking they haven't etc//but i t i s borne i n on him that he wants Yvonne's return i n order to celebrate i t rather than Yvonne her s e l f : //NB Use golfi n g terminology. See 2 [198-233] Use g o l f i n g terminology throughout occasionally such as : about a f u l l mashie shot a chip shot. The whole f a i r might have been carried by a good f u l l brass [?] shot Cortes Palace lay about a s l i g h t l y s l i c e d spoon shot down the road. Jacques tower would have made a good tee. [198-207] What kind of primitive -specify : show the Consul at least knows something about a r t . [202] though best i s probably, a f t e r number seven, i n a bracket (The Consul momentarily thought he saw inside the horse, a kind of machinery, some-thing l i k e the revolving cutting blades of a mowing machine) then a f t e r nextp What i s i t Goethe says e t c . [ . [216] 251 11/3/p.l See Revision Procedure 11/5/p.l (pencil draft) ll/6/p.2 ll/7/p.2 11/7/p.7 11/11/item 8 11/11/item 11(D) 11/13/part 2/p.l He has also h a l f f a l l e n i n love with Yvonne again [234-55] She was ashamed of herself-, S here she remembers the sight of blood etc. [258] Throw back to her feelings i n the bus. [258] Get sense i t i s Yvonne's husband, a f t e r a l l [256-61] 4 yWaf MA YveMrfe J5ee5n g«5irfg t<6 ity t6 MerseZf ari^How? Mt ilMt/ [258] Wld Yvonne think 'beery'? [273-75] A l s o — t h e Consul should doubt[?] his having said he was a Spaniard.//old man of the sea—man carrying Indian at end of l a s t chap i s r elated to remorse, he feels he can't bear//He could not bear to think of the ship's wake, the ship going into,the sunset, the sunset [ i l l e g ; . ] , the. sunset 'freighter with arms raised against the sky. The Consul's point should be that Hugh has absolutely misinterpreted everybody's motives, that only kindness i s to be interpreted i n the business of the Indian, that people were looking a f t e r him r e a l l y , that they had put a wrong construction on i t , because they were a l l people themselves. [281-82] [295] [297] 252 11/15/verso P. 1 ll/19/p.5 11/19/item 7 (numbered 3) 11/20/p.l ll/20/p.2, ll/20/p.5 11/20/item 20 See Characters' Personal History TM text/chap XI , I I / p . l 211 damn Hugh's eternal cigarette package' :must think of something e l s e — wld not Yvonne react at a l l to the Consul fingering the b o t t l e — p o o r darling he'd been so good or something [272] 458 But only Yvonne had seen t h i s . (This r e l i e v e s the reader f o r the moment of the f e e l i n g she has actually seen him) [325] 476 Only an agony went there now (implying utter d i s l o c a t i o n of time i s 100% better.) [337] His own voices had ceased: he had been given up, excommunicated [338] He probably doesn't try to r e c a l l the passage - or does he - anyway Get i t c l e a r [339] The Consul hears his own voice, remembers//some-where, a sense of happiness, the peon, a family [338-43][348] 10 with the s i t u a t i o n - a l i t t l e too psychologico-pathological at bottom? [344-45] 253 TM verso/chap II / p. 26 TM verso/ chap II/p.27 TM text/chap VI/ p . l TM text/chap VII/ p. 6 TM text/chap XI/ p. 6 iSo straight on:- Yvonne makes up her mind to go i n , hesitates, looks around her impatiently, sees, standing f a r away, she thinks on the slope of the c l i f f the men with dark glasses, then she thought she saw also the man with the eyeshade dodging into an a l l e y was i t imagination, or perhaps she was seeing with Geoffrey's eyes S nerves. She hears strange dialogue [....] Go on then to Laruelle's house, --as if;she had committed a murder—on to volcanoes, when something about Manna Loa. Go ahead spontaneously t i l l 1/2 way down Nicaragua [....] [60-693 How could she be certain? [623 remember g u i l t re Yvonne. [154-973 Think through t h i s business of Elizabethan plays:-how mean was man, i t had only occurred to him now, that t h e i r friendship seemed to be at an end, (not because of Yvonne but because of hubris). [201-2] Cut which indeed : say simply they were. But the Mexicans--implying she h a l f thought of going a f t e r him s t i l l . [32l] 254 Detail Changes(125-29, 143-67) 8/1/p.l description of the b o t t l e / / Laruelle has a p i s t o l [10] 8/1/p.(pencil 9) The incident of the horse-man/ /the wheel comes nearer. [21] 8/2/p.43 Explain ambassadors [ s i c ] residences are only summer hide outs. The Consul shows o f f his strength, picks up a stone, picks up Fernando, l e t s her f e e l his bicepsw V i g i l t e l l s him he has Carspn[?] disease. [63] [76] 8/2/p.43 Two people were posted outside, Yvonne sees, a man i n dark glasses, another man a peon [56] 8/2/p.43 The childs lsi<tl funeral outside Laruelle's house? [61-62] 8/2/p.43 The childs [ s i c ] funeral passes them i n the Calle Nicaragua, the people not following slowly, but as i t were loping [61-62] 8/7/p.2 33 NB Have him go to Senora Gregorio - f i n d her dead. Get a much better description [229] 8/12/p.377 The old woman keeps plucking at her sleeve so that he gives her a drink [346-47] 8/12/p.393 Somewhere have some nice Mexican try to help the consul out. [367-68] 10/12/ The g i r l s i t t i n g on the apple a l l was innocence [46]" 255 10/3/p.l 10/3/item 2 10/3/p.5 10/3/psecond p.8 10/3/second p.15 10/5/ 10/9/section2/12 10/12/p.8 10/12/p.ll They don't speak a word, except the doctors—Have you thrown away your mind S the dogs began to shark then Vamanos//Instead a description of Quahnahuac. [ s i c ] They walk back to the doctor's house they have that conversation, but [....]// Mern^ i t i s war-time & Laruelle i s going back to France...Wasted genius, wasted l i f e , sadness [10-22] NB Laruelle i s going back to France [13-15] Just simply this,£ a-few other statements about Yvonne etc. [10-13] His soliloquy i s interrupted by Doctor V i g i l [31] Have Laruelle go to Senora G r e g o r i o — f i n d her dead [18][36][40] Bustamente might ask a f t e r the doctor [30-2 36] Explain: the ambassadors[sic] residences are only summer hide outs. [63] She does her "bird" -s i t t i n g up l i k e a dead " b i r d " they had found i n the yard, the claws downbent: i t was u t t e r l y pathetic [?]//He sees l a t e r one of his best friends going past i n a car. [91-92] The Consul r a t t l e s o f f a few stars, pointing up at the sky [89-93] 256 10/18/(typescript) p . l 10/22/p.4(pencil draft) 10/22/p.21(type-s c r i p t ) 10/24/p.4 (Numbered A) 10/25/p.l 10/25/p.3 10/25/p.9 10/27/p.m S at the end, he should remember he was going to take a t r i p with some Marques [?] into the h i l l s He gets the hiccups. t r i e s to overcome the hiccups The agony i n the garden, struggling with the hiccups [135-40] Somewhere i n l a s t chapter: the Consul pretends to be: 'No, my r e a l name of course i s Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim.1 (Paracelsus) [146] Note Mr. Quincey must go away to f i l l the can at a hydrant. Mr. Quincey dismisses him with an indisputable gesture of contempt [136] His guitar, his songs — the music publisher s i g n i -ficance of the guitar [158-77] His Anarchist card [154-58] Exactly How shakily would he be holding i t ? Must I go i n to this? A conversation between Laruelle 6 Hugh L i t t l e figures above them on the golfcourse, crawling, nightmarish. Golfing scorpion. Tomorrow Put Box! i n chapter X Mem. Laruelle S he might ta l k about gold S old times 'I always remember what you said about t h a t . g i r l , that she smelled so nice! Laruelle remarked:'Gouffre. 1 An English-man's [ i l l e g , ] f i l l e d with racing yachts, and long r o l l i n g fairways [....] [206-7] 10/27/p.45 Perhaps the postman's beard being l i k e the Consul's i s a mistake. Yes. [195-96] 10/29/p.l Description of Laruelle bald head, trousers very long nearly up to his chest, to conceal his stomach, stooped shoulders, handsome but at the same the unmistakable look [ i l l e g . ] certain aspects of a rather b e a u t i f u l r a t , whose [ i l l e g . ] 5 where he went at night was about as mysterious as where rats went to die. [193-94] 10/30/pll Somewhere or other Laruelle must say. 'If ever I s t a r t drinking that s t u f f , mescal or t e q u i l a , y o u ' l l know I'm done' [219] 10/30/p.4 Describe the chevron shaped window from inside// NB also why the babies i n here, not i n the studio [202-3] 10/30/p.5 something about sex [204-5] 10/30/p.l8 What does f a l l out of his pocket, something new, a telegram.//What about Hugh's telegram [226] 10/30p.l9 Postcard [218] 258 11/1/(following white paper break) / p . l 11/1/p.lO (typescript) l l / l / p . 1 7 (typescript)" l l / l / p . 2 0 (typescript) l l / l / p . 2 3 ( (typescript) Put i n description of l i o n £ unicorn, see cutting. E v i l does who e v i l thinks, he should be impressed by the truth of t h i s , the l i o n £ the unicorn f i g h t i n g for the crown, a swarm ((NB)) of attenuate l i o n s , sprang out of the s h i e l d at him, £ an unstrung harp sounded a note. Dieu et mon  d r o i t N.B.//He does lose his passport on the i n f e r n a l machine. [223-224] [226] The mirador would make a good tee box for a b e a u t i f u l hole with the barranca as a hazard. [206] A nightmare with the telephone book, rin g up the pimps. Guzman. [211-12] The man [216] should be poorer the merry go Pancho V i l l a round. [220] round with keeps coming 11/2/B F19 ll/3/p.6 NB Gregorio says think you are going to be very happy [229-32] The incident of the white as enamel [?] [234] pxgeons l l / 4 / p a r t 2 / p . l 11/11/item: 11(D) NB also Geoff £ Yvonne should SLEEP—Geoff only wakes up at roadside scene says 'God I f e e l awful.'// NB. Hugh has a new bag [2 39-44] 27...Not clear i t i s Yvonne £ the Consul who s i t down. [250] 259 11/15/verso 1 (numbered C) 11-20/p.l ll/20/p.8 ll/20/item22 ll/20/p.D10 ll/20/p.F13 ll/20/p.G17 -l/207p.H19 ll/20/p.H21 TM verso/chap.I/ p.47 17 The sophisticated audience laughed, or coughed, or coughed would be good as giving atmosphere of theatre [268-69] Get time element i n both chapters//Fix Hugh saying pelado i n dinner chapter// Peegly weegly, he thought For chapter before//when they f i r s t met i n Granada, the same thing,happening// Later he draws map. [58] [297-98] [317-76] [344] A note about releasing the beast i n hi s l e t t e r s / / NB The corporal s t i l l sat at his table, only now the lamp was a l i g h t [347] 14 Or l i k e a student's room for the book, of a l l things, was a Spanish history etc. [349] He draws the map of Andalusia. [344] or i f not Argentinian: give him a name; don't define him too s p e c i f i c a l l y as Mexican [365] Sometime or other he has drawn a map The Si e r r a Nevadas. [344] The Anarchist card [370] Get time element. [369-7 3] NB. Get that i t much [?] quieter [?] l a t e r on when the dolente dolore [28-29] [47] 260 TN verso/ChapII/ p.13 (1) TM text/ c h a p l l / p. 24 TM verso/chapIII p.22 TM text/chap V/ p. 3 (2) (3) (4) (5) The nights £ the honor of the nights—how he cannot stand i t and so gets up i n the night to go to some bar, preferably distant, that is„open a l l night £ where he may drink i n peace [....] I have just heard about the divorce; the immedicable r e s u l t has been I dream about a new l i f e [....] very much abbreviated : how he cannot read her l e t t e r s etc.etc. C . . . 3 Memories of t h e i r l i f e But we can't leave things l i k e t h i s . For Christ's sake come back etc. (in f i v e paragraphs:, cut to two pages i n toto)//he's heard these two things (1) that she's got the divorce (2) Mexico i s breaking diplomatic relations [41-46] Then we want some sense of his recovery. And we hear no more of his hoarseness [63-65] Make cantina nearer [81-82] Work i n which was of corrugated glass, also love, £ the color of the te q u i l a . [131] See Extratextual Borrowings and Reference TM text/ chap VI p. 32 261 Philosophico-Religious Background (129-34) 8/12/p.364 8/24/verso 7 At the end he says : or as an epigraph E dal martirio venni a questa pace. From pangs of martyrdom I passed to peace [376] Mention the Pleiades i n 1 [?] [9-47] 8/24/verso 10 Rewrite 4 S 5. Get Promethean significance of Vultures on 8 [318] See Extratextual Borrowing and Reference 10/3/ second p.12 10/9/section 2/ p.16 10/12/p.l Remember the elements [305-6] 2nd Flood. The house flooded with f i l t h [71] See D e t a i l Chan-gestl0/22/p.4 (pencil draft) See Extratextual Borrowing and Reference 10/22/ p. 21 (typescript) 10/22/p.24(type-s c r i p t ) 10/24/p.6 (numbered 1) v i l l a g e = man's soul one who was t r u l y a l i v e = the v i l l a g e . [148-49] g i a l l o antico. valuable marble found among I t a l i a n ruins parian = of, or pertaining to Paros [ ? ] , one of the Cyclades; noted for i t s b e a u t i f u l marble [134] 262 10/25/p.l7 See Extratextual Borrowing and Reference 11/3/ p.2 Scorpion should mean i n c i t i n g to action [191] ll/7/p.2 11/8/item 10 11 /15/verso 8(B) 11/20/item 18 hia t a s i s [?] (matasis) [?] (tuatasis)[?] ONLY ONE OF THESE [257-58] I want to work Alexander S [ i l l e g . ] into the book on occult [?] exact [?] knowledge etc. etc. [278-80] 9 Again I rebel at the device of the cigarette., unless something metaphysical i s said about them. i n a bracket-r-(S my god these eternal cigarettes, what had people done with t h e i r hands and fingers and t h e i r noses before they were invented, as i f man's conscience was so bad he had to interpose a continual smokescreen between himself and l i f e — which was perhaps another reason Ke7.d father had invented pipes. [262] For Typhoeus—see dictionary also see type—w di c t i o n a r y , [ Typhoeus. A monster having a hundred heads with f e a r f u l eyes and voices. He was conquered by Zeus 6 buried i n Tartarus, under Mount Etna. Typhon. A monster, o r i g . the son of Typhoeus, but l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d with Typhoeus. .] 263 Typhoean - pert, to or l i k e Typhoeus. Note s p e l l i n g c a r e f u l l y typhoon. A t r o p i c a l cyclone i n the region of the P h i l l i p i n e ( s i c ) or China seas. [340] ll/20/p.H20 Union M i l i t a r , i s the name of the f a s c i s t organization The chief of Gardens—the f a i r man—just standing there, he i s the deus ex  machina [359-60] 11/21/item 12 mercaptan [ s i c ] i s the v i l e s t smelling compound man has ever invented. [352] TM text/chap 1/ Mention the Pleiades p. 1 [9-47] TM text/chap IV —stamped with an p.18 archer: Q.B.L. [ I l l ] TM text/chapVI/ Feel there should be a p.46 cut h e r e — i n d i c a t e d - -though I don't want to denigrate the knowledge by any any means... [188-89] 264 Consistency, Inconsistency, and Repetition < 9 3 - 9 9 ) 7/5/p.pl 7/5/p.9 7/9/p.l 7/13/p.5 8/6/p.l67 8/9/p.304 8/12/p.372 8/12/p.374 8/23/p.9 8/23/p.l4 8/24/verso 7 10/3/p.l 10/3/second p.15 Remember t h i s i s used i n b u l l chapter [102] Mem Subterranean collapse i s elsewhere too//cut out l a t e r [104] I t h i n k Yvonne says something l i k e t h i s i n 3 [234] Same as notice beginning Chap III [49][339] See f r e e w i l l passage p. 15 (Margie) Tolstoy version D»s Chap III [87] [157] used i n l e t t e r i n I see page 10 S see also yellow page 10 £ 36 [341-42] see also yellow page 10 £ 30 [341-42] see Chap I—does thunder speak economically there. [334] Mem X-re Spain [328] Don11 forget the note i n the l e t t e r s toward the end [364-67] Remember, the t e q u i l a must make Jacques f e e l s i c k [32] [219] NOTE HERE: should be. For God's sake come back, come back, I ' l l do anything i f y o u ' l l only come back, the motor journey from Acapulco etc. sip. that II seems l i k e i r o n i c answer to Consul's prayer. [46] [48-49] 265 10/4/pencil 11 Two sheets see i f l e t t e r contradicts t h i s or renders i t unnecessary [40-41] 10/5/ ' on 29 Hugh did not want to l i s t e n to the birds 10/8/section 2/ Query: she had seen the p . l volcanoes from the airplane. -For the l a s t h a l f hour anyhow. [48-50] 10/19/p.l0 Contradiction between quite shady S e a r l i e r i t had been too hot; just enough sun, etc. [110] 10/26/p.lO See Last Chapter re:names [196] [358-60] 10/27/p.33 compare with 'you are a coward' passage on 2, 6 also the one where he i s signing on board the Philoctetes: though i t scarcely c o n f l i c t s [163] l l / l / p . 4 See i f Yvonne did her (typescript) b i r d i n I I I . [91-92] [200] l l / l / p . 1 7 The Calle Nicaragua, (typescript) which suddenly with i t s tossed broken stones seemed to stretch on forever l i k e a l i f e of agony. No, i t i s elsewhere. [213] l l / l / p . 2 0 Anachronism, I think [217] (typescript) ll./4/part 2/p.l Remember to have then pass the cinema, i f the geography of my chapter I stands//Remember have the bus In I not going by normal route. [29] [234] 266 11/4/part 2/p.24 See Revision Procedure 11/5/ p . K p e n c i l draft) 11/11/item 8 11/11/item 11(D) 11/13/part 2/p.l 11/13/part 2/p.l5 11/14/p. 8 11/15/verso 8 (numbered B) ll/16/p.4 (verso) 11/18/p.l ll/19/p.2 If i t i s too close i t detracts from the effects of massive interests moving up i n the background [254-55] f> Make lit ZMitl/.i $if>4 s'mdKe «Sr wZd tftii g»m s£m©Ke [162-63D 28...coal s l i d i n g down a chute see 1 Don't forget Hugh's construction of the Indian's behaviour i n VIII i s now more reasonable [295-300] But t h i s c l e a r l y won't do i f he were a Spaniard [299S300] Comparison of the earth to a doomed ship undoes the foundering f r e i g h t e r image [289] [295] We did not know Hugh had a r o l l i n g swagger before now [262] 4 24 Wasn't Erikson 40. Or 43. See Chap VI [2120 [3037 Accentuate ghosts, vapors? See X for that [317-26] 9 Did thunder speak economically i n I. [324] 267 ll/19/p.5 11/20/item 22 ll/20/p.H19 ll/20/p.H21 TM text/Chap I p.14/ TM verso/chap 1/ p.28A/(19) TM text/chap II/, p . l TM text/chapll/p. p. 6 TM verso/chap I I / page 9 TM text/chap II/ p. 20 TM text/chap I I I / p.10 TM text/chap I I I / p. 33 4 54 careen a word now too often [322] 15 mention secret passage again i n t h i s part somewhere [351] see 396 i f i n trouble [370] The storm has arrived before. [369-73] But there i s no example of. the Consul 'being led astray.' [20] 11 with avid amazement, interes t clashes with character of barman at end. [40] [47] Here he has sat down so she couldn't have been s i t t i n g beside him.... L i t t l e things l i k e that bother the reader. [52] How come they have been speaking about the divorce 5 etc. i f he hasn't got i n touch with her? [41-46] Has he had his pipe before : should he show some evidence of shaking here. [6 3] Synonym : I have a strange calm l a t e r , other calms scattered here and there. [76-77] W i l l the reader be convinced by ' i t ' 8 'they' -considering the f a m i l i a r s , chap see (2):- [9 6] 268 TM text/chap IV/ p.37 TM text/chap VI/ p . l TM tex/chap X/ p. 19 TM text/chap X/p, p. 24 TM text/chap XI/ p. 24 TM text/chap XL/ p. 25 Repetition of elsewhere seems to c o n f l i c t with IV [154-55] He ce r t a i n l y had not succeeded i n sobering up, i s reaction from previous page. [294-9 5] Repetition of SefMlfidra? [299] Consider r e p e t i t i o n of b r i l l i a n t here' : we had, on 10, b r i l l i a n t as day. — v i v i d t h e n — [335] Cut r e p e t i t i o n of dogwood tree [336] Chronology (143-46) 10/9/section 2/p.l Get year c l e a r l y i t had been b u i l t t h i s year, i n 1938 [48] 10/25/p.l Hugh i s t h i r t y Hugh i s 29 1938 NB [154] 10/26/p.5 1896 14 i n 1910 15 i n 1911 ll/20/p.B6 3 years, 1290 1,290 395 195 days. 1095 365 3 195 1,095 1185 290 They were undated i n type-s c r i p t . Or were they dated? [343-45] 269 TM text/chap 1/ p. 21 TM text/chap 1/ P-TM text/chap 1/ P-TM verso/chap II/p.13 But watch M. Laruelle's age. [27] Watch Laruelle's age 15 i n 1911—not a virgin? [14-15] 3 1/2 years//He could not have found him here i n 19 35?? [22] Query When should the Consul write the l e t t e r ? I f i n say 06t6Mt July 1938, i t would be more powerful. But then she w i l l have had her divorce f o r longer 8 there w i l l seem less excuse for mentioning her l e t t e r s . What i f he says : I have  just heard about the  divorce i n July 19 38 [41-46] See Characters' Personal History TM text/chap I I I / p. 9 Technical Adjustments (137-41, 154-57) 7/9/p.7 7/12/p.l8 7/13/p.l2 Put i n f i n a l [?] chapter Cut conjunctions, and, but, etc. where possible Decide whether or not th i s break i s needed. [346-47] 270 7/13/p.21 8/1/p.l 8/1/p.(pencil 12) 8/1/p.(pencil 14) 8/2/p.43 8/2/p.55 8/2/p.59 8/2/p.61 8/2/p.62 8/2/p.85 8/4/p.l30 8/5/p.28 8/9/p.271 8/9/p.271 8/9/p.283 8/9/p.285 8/12/p.364 Is t h i s a l l a b i t muddled? [362] Not as many paragraphs [9] Better word than incessantly: actually i t i s too accurate. Have more dialogue about the Consul right here omitted from f i r s t dialogue with V i g i l . [34] Pertaining to XI. [48-69] Must put i n t h i s creature i n chapter two Put back i n l e t t e r . Put i n somewhere. In the second chapter [61] Put i n at the very beginning. The sea that would cleanse, would save them. Tempo [79] Cut put e a r l i e r [128] Mention just one other street [150] It i s bad, i t should be simpler [257] Shorten by telescoping dialogue, o b l i t e r a t i n g paragraphs Shorten [258] To be returned, to be replaced i n " b u l l throwing chapter." Beginninglof the next chapter writing not clear. Not so many paragraphs shorten [338-390 271 8/12/p.372 8/12/p.375 8/13/p.37 8/18/p.l84 8/22/p.21 8/23/p.l4 10/3/p.l 10/3/second p.11 10/3/second p.14 10/8/section 2/ p.2 10/9/section 2/ p. 9 10/ll/p.l2 10/12/p.l Here the description of the town at the beginning Bugler blowing, puttees leggings flapping loose. [342] Perhaps i n somewhere [342] The bracket i s a weak spot:r as i f the author were apologising for the char-acter. [38] change Bolowski 1s name [155] repeat: a secret passage, and a tower [299] substitute for t h i s passage that marked p. 29, chap IX [327-28] There are things from Chap III should be put back i n — r e exposition, Hugh etc.' I t hurts me too much//I know you can't do i t / / I want to change the world [9-47] t h i s puzzles [34] Bring t h i s i n i n memory—just as a catch phrase [34-40] 1/2 page of journey, sea-etc:-The a r r i v a l etc. [48-49] A creature of sun here: [59] too much of a non sequitur? [61] Perhaps the excised conversation about the bougainvillea here. [70-71] 10/12/p.4 A nuance here [83-84] 10/12/p.9 Movement too slow [86-87] 10/12/p.l5 In the Hugh showing Chapter [87] [310] 10/15/p.7 Try S cut some of the stage directions: s i t t i n g upon parapets etc. [78] 10718/'('type- or technique d i f f e r e n t s c r i p t ) p . l 'Rewrite shorter: [154] 10/18/(type- He had been stalking the script)p.7 dust bowl Or make more 1 interesting//Oratio oblique [102-3] 10/25/p.l Condense where possible [154-97] 10/25/p.3 This seems good i n i t s e l f , but I can't t e l l whether i t runs on 'logically or not from what precedes i t . [155-56] 10/30/p.l the lack of symmetry [198] See Characters' Psychology 11/1/p.2(typescript) l l / l / p . 1 5 What about t h i s a f t e r 1st chapter/ [2 09-10] 273 ll/l/p.22(type-s c r i p t ) 10/3/p.lO 11/4/part 2/ pp 13-14 11/4/part 2/ p.14 11/14/p.20 See Revision Procedure 11/14/ p.28 11/15/p. £ See r evision Procedure ll/16/p.2 ll/19/p.2 ll/19/p.5 Get the eff e c t of awful a gathering thunder of immedicable sorrow. [218] In E a r l i e r or l a t e r chapter supper chapter [343] Too many adverbs l y . [245] Investigate [249-50] technique Break up as M. Laruelle's dialogue i s broken up i n VII E f f e c t w i l l be got i f dialogue i s rewritten i n as free verse. [299] La Sepultura shld be i n juxtaposition.//Stet: query i t a l i c i s e or d e i t a l -i c i s e r e p e t i t i o n s i n Consul's mind.//but rhythm wrong at the end? [298] 12 ... There should be no Hugh saids or Yvonne saids-i d e n t i t y of who i s speaking should be i m p l i c i t by t h e i r addressing the other by name. [326] 4 55 NB only semicolon a f t e r Aquarius set otherwise you don't connect following sentence with the P l e i a d s [ s i c ] [322] 274 ll/19/p.6 11/19/item 7(3) 11/20/p.l 11/20/p.7 11/20/item 20 11/20/Item 25 11/20/p.D9 11/20/p.H22 TM verso/chapl/ p.28A(19) TM verso/chap 1/ p.21 TM text/chap I I / p . l 462 Can anything i n i t a l i c s , after'Faulkner [?] etc., have emotive value? This i s superlatively good technique, though I say i t as ought not,... [327] 472 There i s , sometimes, i n that a — the sometimes should be sooner, otherwise the reader i s thrown o f f . [334] Get very clear i n my, £ the reader's mind. [58-59] Cut or put at beginning 3 The sheer height was t e r r i f y i n g etc. seems a curiously imbalanced sentence. [339] Mem - put pelado i n X// 43/bottom/ In Spanish the consul mysteriously translated etc. seriously weakens tempo-have to get round i t i n another way. [297-98] [371-72] Get the sergeants, the various chaotic v i l l a i n s clear//Put the explanation of what had happened some-where here. [357-61] Chap V - Or i n V i g i l porch chapter. 12 more sense of suspense re the Consul's hand [?] [41] Put stories into f a i r chapter. [62-63] NB Chapter numbers should be written i n large l e t t e r s ONE TWO etc. to give more ef f e c t , discuss' : [48] TM text/chap II p.19 TM verso/chap VI/ p.16 See Characters Personal History See TM text/chap VI/p.34 TM text/chap VI/ p.47 TM text/chap VII/ p. 3OA TM text/chap X/ p. 21 TM text/chap X/ p. 24 TM text/chap X/ p.25 TM text/chap X/ p. 35 Cut she had read somewhere1 leave semi-objective. [62] does i t matter i f I look at Consul as a 'character' — n o t as a human being [39] Perhaps s p i r i t s i s a bad word a f t e r so many e v i l ones: what about humours? //Humours i s not r i g h t , either//moods? [189] Put Escruch a f t e r madman [227] Put Parian state i n here. [297] [300] PROBLEM—Rhythm? [299] m itti&t r*ty*M [296-97] Wrong place for f i r s t thunder. [306] 276 Bibliography (cut-off date: 1976) Primary Sources Manuscripts Lowryv :Malcolm.! Letters »>-boxes::.l->2%.Malcolm -Lovrry Papers. Special collections, University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver. Under the Volcano, boxes 7-11, Malcolm Lowry Papers. Special Collections, University of British Columbia Library, Vancouver. Under the Volcano. Manuscript held by the Humanities Research Centre, University of Texas, Austin. Published Selected Letters of Malcolm Lowry. Eds. Harvey Breit and Margerie Lowry. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1965. Under the Volcano. New York: Reynal £ Hitchcock, 1947. . Under, the Volcano. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 196 3. Under the Volcano. New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1965* 277 Secondary Sources Aiken, Conrad. A Heart for the Gods of Mexico. London: ... Ushant; An Essay. New York: , "Malcolm Lowry." The Times Literary Supplement, 16 February 1967 , pp. 127. Andersen, Gladys Marie. "A Guide to Under the Volcano." Ph.D. D i s s . University of the Pacific (Stockton, Cal.) 1970 ANON. "The Fate of the Consul." The Times Literary  Supplement* 28 October 1960, ? p.693. "The Mythopoetics of Mescal." The Times Literary  Supplement,19 April 1974, pp. 417-18. — . ["Your Reviewer."] "Malcolm Lowry." The Times  Literary Supplement, 10 May 19 74, p. 503. ["Your Reviewer."] "Malcolm Lowry." The Times  Literary Supplement,21 June 1974, p. 671. Binns, Ronald. "Lowry: Volcanic Man Not Dampened by Dollarton Rains." The Ubyssey (Vancouver), Page Friday Supp., 56. No. 9 (27 September 1974) , pp. 4-5. Birney, Earle. "Glimpses into the Life of Malcolm Lowry." The Tamarack Review, 19 (Spring 1961) , 35-41. Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Bradbrook, M. C. "Not in Mexico." New Statesman 87 (5 April 1974), p. 481 • • — " M a l c o l m Lowry." The Times Literary Supplement, 3 May 1974, p. 477. "Malcolm Lowry." The Times Literary  Supplement.17 May 1974 p. 527. —_ . fMalcolm Lowry:^ His Art,and Early Life, A Study in Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974. Brink, Andrew." On the Psychological Sources of Creative Imagination." Queen's Quarterly (Spring 1974), , 1-19. , Buitenhuis, Peter. "Into One Tormented Mind." The Globe and Mail (Toronto), 15 December 1973, p. 33. Calder-Marshall, Arthur. "A Portrait of Malcolm Lowry." The Listener, 78 (12 October 1967), 57-59. --- . et a l . "Books and Writers — Week 34." BBC Home Broadcast (16 September 1974). Carey, Maurice J. "Life with Malcolm Lowry." In George Woodcock, ed. Malcolm Lowry: The Man and  His Work. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1971, pp. 163-70. Clark, Cecil. "Legend grows around Vancouver Author." The Daily Colonist (Victoria), 16 January 1966 , p. 12. Combs, Judith 0. Malcolm Lowry, 1909 - 1957: An Inventory  of His Papers in the Library of the University of  British Columbia. Reference Publication No. 42. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia, 1973. Corrigan, Mathew. "Malcolm Lowry: The Phenomenology of Failure." Boundary 2, 3 No. 2 (Winter 1975), 407-42. 279 Costa, Richard Hauer. "Pieta, Pelado, and 'The Ratification of Death': The Ten-Year Ey.olvement of Malcolm Lowry*s Volcano. Journal of Modern Literature, 2 (September 1971), pp. 3-18. • — — • — . .Malcolm Lowry. Twayne World Authors Series, No. 217. New York: Twayne, 1972. Crews, Frederick, ed. Psychoanalysis and Literary  Process. Cambridge, Mass.: Wmthrop, 1970. Davenport, John. "Malcolm Lowry." Spectator 207 (20 October 1961), 287, 290. "A Tortured Life i s Key to a Masterwork." Life,59 No 24 (10 December 1965), pp. .12,20. Day, Douglas. "Malcolm Lowry: Letters to an Editor." Shenandoah,- 15 no 3 (Spring 1964), 3-15. Dodson, Daniel B. Malcolm Lowry. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1970. . "Manifest Mysteries in Under the Volcano • " Paper read at Modern Language Association Seminar (28 December 1974) in New York. Mimeographed. Doyen, Victor. "Elements Toward a Spatial Reading of Malcolm Lowry's Under the Volcano." English Studies, 50 (1968), 65-74. "An Ergocentered Approach to Under the  Volcano." Diss. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 1968 ' —=.» Fighting the Albatross of Self: A Genetic Study of the Literary Work of Malcolm Lowry." Diss. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 1973. "La genese d' Au -dessous du Volcan." Les lettres nouvelles, 2-3 (May-June 1974), 87-122. Edel, Leon. Literary Biography. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1957. The Modern Psychological Novel. 3rd ed. New York: Grosset, 1964. Edmonds, Dale. "Under the Volcano:A Reading of the Immediate Level." Tulane Studies in English 16 (1968), 63-105. Epstein, Perle S. The Private Labyrinth of Malcolm  Lowry: Under the Volcano and the Cabbala. New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1969. Forster, E. M. Aspects of the Novel. 1927; rpt Harmondsworth: Penguxn, 1962. Fouchet, Max-Pol. "No se Poiede...." Les lettres nouvelles, 5 n.s. (July August 1960), 21-25. Francillon, Clarisse. "Souvenirs sur Malcolm Lowry." Les lettres nouvelles (November 1957), 588-603. "Malcolm, mon ami." Les lettres nouvelles (July/August 1960), 8-20. Gass, William H. "In Terms of the Toenail: Fiction and the Figures of Life." New American Review 10. New York: New American Library, 1970. . "Malcolm Lowry's Inferno" and "Malcolm Lowry's Inferno: II." The New York Review of  Books 20, No. 19 (29 November 1973) pp.26-27, and 20, No. 20 (13 December 1973), pp. 28-30. Ghiselin, Brewster, ed. The Creative Process: A Symposium. 1952; rpt. New York: New American Library, n.d. Girard, Rene. "Camus's Stranger Retried." PMLA,79 (December 1964), pp.519-33. Grace, S h e r r i l l E. "Under the Volcano: Narrative Mode and Technique." Journal of Canadian Fiction, 2. No. (Spring 1973), 57-61. Harding, Rosamond E. M. An Anatomy of Inspiration. 2nd ed. 1942; rpt. New York: Barnes £ Noble, 1967 Heilman, Robert B. "The Possessed Artist and the Ailin g Soul." In Malcolm Lowry: The Man and His Work Ed. George Woodcock-; Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1971. 281 Howard, Benjamin Wi l l i s . "Malcolm Lowry: The Ordeal of Bourgeois Humanism." Ph.D. Diss. Syracuse University, 1971. Johnson, Carrell. "The Making of Under the Volcano: An Examination of Lyrical Structure, with Reference to Textual Revisions." Master's thesis. University of British Columbia, 1969. K i l g a l l i n , Anthony R. "Faust and Under the Volcano." Canadian Literature, 26 (Autumn 1965), 43-54. -—. "'Why Has God Given This to Us?' But What God Gave, the City Took: The Story of Malcolm Lowry in Vancouver," Vancouver Li f e , January 1968, 29-31, 48-52. Lowry. Erin, Ontario: Press Porcepic, 1973. "Malcolm Lowry." The Times Literary  Supplement, 9 August 1974, p. 858. — - ™ — " R e t o r t I " The Vancouver Sun, 22 November 1974, p. 30A. Kim, Suzanne. "Les lettres de Malcolm Lowry." Etudes  anglaises, 22 No. 1 (January-March 1969), 58-61 Kirk, Downie. "More than Music: Glimpses of Malcolm Lowry." in Malcolm Lowry: The Man and His Work. Ed. George Woodcock. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1971. Knickerbocker, Conrad. "The Voyages of Malcolm Lowry." Prairie Schooner, 37 no 4 (Winter 1964), 301-14. "Swinging the Paradies Street Blues: Malcolm Lowry in England", Paris Review 38 (Summer 1966), 13-38. Lorenz, Clarissa. "Call It Misadventure." The Atlantic, 225 No. 6 (June 1970), 106-12. Lowry, Margerie. "Dans notre courrier... de Mme Malcolm Lowry." Les lettres nouvelles, 7 October 1960), 200 282 Luckett, Richard. "On a Dead Volcano." Spectator, 232 (11 May 1974), pp. 574-75. Markson, David. "Malcolm Lowry: A Reminiscence." Nation, 7 February 1966, pp. 164-67. Matson, Norman. "Second Encounter" in Margerie Lowry, ed., Malcolm Lowry: Psalms and Songs. New York: New American Library, Meridian, 19 75. 97-101. McConnell, William. "Recollections of Malcolm Lowry." in Malcolm Lowry: The Man and His Work. Ed. George Woodcock. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1971. McNeill, C. G. "Malcolm Lowry Visits the Doctor" in Margerie Lowry, ed., Malcolm Lowry: Psalms and  Songs. New York: New American Library, Meridian, 1975, 102-5. Nelson, Benjamin, introd. On Creativity and the Uncon-scious: Papers on the Psychology of Art, Literature, Love, Religion. By Sigmund Freud. New York:, Harper S Row, 1958. New, WCilliam] H. "Lowry*s Reading: An Introductory Essay." Canadian Literature, 44 (Spring 1970), 5-12. "Lowry, the Cabbala and Charles Jones." Canadian Literature, 43 (Winter 1970), 83-87 , Malcolm Lowry. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971. . "Lowry by Day." Canadian Literature, 61 (Summer 1974), 100-102. Noxon, Gerald. "Malcolm Lowry: 1930." Prairie Schooner, (Winter 1963/64), 315-20. Nyland, A. C. "Malcolm Lowry: The Writer." in Margerie Lowry, ed. Malcolm Lowry: Psalms and Songs, New York: New American Library, Meridian, 1975. 283 O'Kill, Brian. "Malcolm Lowry." The Times Literary  Supplement, 26 April 1974. p. 447. Ponce, Juan Garcia. "Malcolm Lowry en su obra." Revista de La Universidad de Mexico, 19 No. 3 (November 1954), 10-11. Pottinger, Andrew J. "The Consul's' Murder': Ambiguous Narration in Under the Volcano." Canadian Literature 68 (Winter 1976), 53-63. . "Volcanic Vagueness." Canadian Literature 64 (Spring 1975), 122-24. Raab, Lawrence. "The Two Consuls: Under the Volcano." Thoth, 12 No. 3 (Spring/Summer 1972), 20-29. Read, Michael. "Life's Great Conflagration." Southern Review (Adelaide),11,257-66. Redgrave, Michael. "High Wire to the Crater." The Sunday Times, 29 January 1967,p. 48. Sartre, Jean Paul. "Situation of the Writer in 1947." In What is Literature. Trans. Bernard Frechtman. 1949; Rpt. New York: Harper, 1965. Schorer, Mark. "Technique as Discovery." In Myth and  Method: Modern Theories of Fiction. Ed. James E. Miller, Jr. 1 Nebraska: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1960. Spanos, William V. "Modern Literary Criticism and the Spatialization of Time: An Existential Critique." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 29, No. 1 (Fall 1970), 67-.1G4. . Spender, Stephen. "Introduction" to Malcolm Lowry, Under the Volcano. New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1965. Spriel, Stephen. "Le Cryptogramme Lowry." Les lettres  nouvelles, 5 Nouvelle Serie (July August 1960), 67-81 I 284 Stern, James. "Malcolm Lowry: A First Impression. Encounter, 29 (September 1967), 58-68. Storr, Anthony. The Dynamics of Creation. London: Seeker, 1972. T r i l l i n g , Lionel. "Art and Neurosis." In The Liberal  Imagination: Essays on Literature and Society. London: Seeker S Warburg, 1951. Tuohy, Frank. "Day of a Dead Man." Spectator,207 (25 August 1961), 262 Wellek, Rene, and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. 3rd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1962. Williams, Raymond. The Long Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965 Wilson, Edmund. The Wound and the Bow. Oxford University Press: New York, 1947. Woodcock, George. "Suffering Terminal Genius." Books in Canada, 3 No. 1 (January/February 1974), 2-3. ed. Malcolm Lowry: The Man and His Work. Vancouver: Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1971. Wright, Terence. "Under the Volcano: The Static Art of Malcolm Lowry." Ariel, 1 No. 4 (October 1970), 67-76. 

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